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Mother Nature is still more powerful than mankind and all 
the atomic bombs or weapons man can devise, Vernon Brock, 
Territorial director of the division of fish and game, said on 
his recent return from the world’s most famous ocean-dot, 
Bikini Atoll. Mr. Brock, who acted as collaborator for the 
U. S. fish and wildlife service in 
this summer’s expedition to 
probe Bikini “a year after” left 
San Diego on the USS Chilton, 
the re-survey headquarters snip, 

July 1 and spen. six weeks 


on 


collecting fish and marine life 
specimens from the lagoon for a 
study of radioactive after-effects 
on the denizens of the deep. 




* * * 

THREE BASIC “highlights” of 
the survey’s work were listed by 
Mr. Brock as: 

1. No basic changes in any types 
of fish were found. Any radical 
mutation or genealogical after¬ 
maths, Mr. Brock pointed out, 
have apparently been dissapated 
by the past year and the “rule 
of the life in the ocean. . , sur¬ 
vival of the fittest.” However, 
mutations* if any, would proba¬ 
bly not show up until the second 
or third generations of fish life 
(a year from now), Mr. Brock 
observed. 

2 . Some radioactive fish were 
found and many were presuma¬ 
bly present in the lagoon itself as 
the navy strictly prohibited eat¬ 
ing of any fish caught in the vi¬ 
cinity of the lagoon. 

Radioactivity found in fish 
from the area was “not high,’* 
Mr.' Brock said, and most of the 
high concentrations of radioactiv¬ 
ity seemed to be in the bottom 
of the lagoon where the under¬ 
water bomb (Baker test) was 
set off. This explosion looses 
extensive deposits of plutonium 
which settled in seaweed and 
coral on the bottom and which 
is still highly-radioactive. 

3 . An item of interest to local 
fishing sampans which have re¬ 
cently been probing further and 
further into the far Pacific, Mr. 
Brock said, was the great 
schools of live bait almost con¬ 
stantly observed in the Bikini 
area. 


THE PRIMARY purpose of 
Mr. Brock’s observations was to 
study the fish populations to see 
what changes — a decrease in 
numbers or changes in species 
ratios—had occurred. 

A powerful fish poison was 


in the water in this testing, Mr. 
Brock explained, and the dead 
fish were carefully picked up, 
after the poison had worked, to 
be catalogued and studied. Oth¬ 
er studies were made of palegic 
life—open-sea fish, such as tuna, 
swordfish and sharks. 

The group headed by Mr. 
Brock has approximately 6,000 
fish specimens in pickled prep¬ 
arations aboard the Chilton, be¬ 
sides coconut crabs, marine in- 
vertabrates, shells, seaweed, 
coral specimens and insects. 

FOR THE SOFT-SPOKEN Ter¬ 
ritorial official, perhaps the big¬ 
gest thrill of the entire s i x- 
weeks expedition came the day 
that he harpooned a 100-pound 
manta ray — one ol the most 
treacherous and dangerous kill¬ 
ers of the ocean. #‘However, 
mine was nothing compared to 
an 800-pounder, which measured 
10 feet across, taken by other 
members of the Chilton party,” 
he declared. 

About the only “souvenir” Mr. 
Brock brought back is a glum- 
looking, dour-dispositioned 
hawksbill turtle, named A-Bomb. 

“A-Bomb was the only turtle 
taken, as far as I know, during 
either of the two Bikini trips,” 
Mr. Brock said, “and, while he 
may have a mildly-radioactive 
liver or something like that, 
seems to be in good shape to suc¬ 
cessfully make the transition 
from the beach of Bikini to the 
famed sands of Waikiki.” 




‘A-BOMB,’ A REAL ‘SHELLBACK’—Here’s one armor-plated 
“target” which not only survived two atom bombings, but who shut 
out deadly radioactive elements well enough to be able to frisk 
merrily along the shores of Bikini Atoll a year after being bombed 
and exposed to the killing plutonium in the waters of Bikini. 
“A-Bomb,” held here by his owner, Vernon Brock of the terri¬ 
torial fish and game division, was found by Mr. Brock during this 
summer’s re-survey expedition to Bikini. (Advertiser photo.) 


































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STENATHERINA new genus 


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Figures la, 2b, 3b 


Genotype,— At he rina temminckii Sleeker 


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This new genus of Taeniomembrainae is erected to receive the pecular 


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silverside described by Dr, Bleeker as A/ temminckii o f which we have large 

XfijL f 

>ine Islands regi*bn^ It differs from 


series from the Phi 


all other genera 


in this subfamily by having the ascer^fing premaxillary process at front of snout 
long, slender, and extending past fribnt of orbits into the interorbital space 
with a second process or spine like/projection laterally on premaxillary. The 

M 

chief other differences are diagi^Dsed in the key to the genera of this family. 


As far as known this genus is mdnotypic. 


,r 


It was named Stenatherina in/reference to an Atherine fish wi^h a narrow 
premaxillary process. 

A reexamination of the specimens collected by me in the Hhoenix and Samoan 

OmA 

Islands indicate that the fallowing U.S.N.M. Nos. 115112a 115113, are 
Stenatherina temminckii Aas\c\ i/f Uas^Jca , 
















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43 


GLYPHIS Agassiz 


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Glyphis Agassiz, Poissons Fossil4s, vol. 3, p. 243, 1843 (Genotype: 


Glyphis hastalis Agassiz) (r^f. copied). 


GLYPHIS GLijiUCUS Linnaeus 
Great Blue Shark. ^ Tib|r^on Azul 

I 

Squalus glaucus Linnaeus, Syst^ma Naturae, Ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 235, 1758 
(Europe)• 

Prionace glauca Eft hi, Fauna D^scriptiva de Venezuela, p. 364, fig* 176, 
1942 (Coast of Venezuela). 


Genus GAIEOCERDu Muller and Henle 

Galeocerdo Muller and henle,jSitz. Ber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1837, 
p.|115 (Genotype: Squalus (arcticus Faber iri Muller and Kenle) 
(ref. copied). 

GAUEOctRDO jBUVIER (Lesueur) 

Sho<.Y\<* 

Tiger Shark.^ ^ Tintorera- 

n I 

Squalus cuvier (Peron and Lesueur) Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., vol. 2, p. 351, 1322 (Northwest coast of New Holland). 

Galeocerdus maculatus Rohl, llauna Descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 365, 
fig. 177, 1942 (Coast of Venezuela). 

This species is Galeocerqo arcticus of authors. 






























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THE LAFAYETTE 
16 th AND EYE STS 
INTHE SHADOW OF 
THE WH ITE HOUSE 


Jefferson L Ford, Jr 

PRESIDENT 

G. H. Pa r r i s h 

GENERAL MANAGER 




NEW CARROLL ARMS 
FI RST & C STS. N. E 
I N TH E SHA DOW 
OF THE CAPITOL 

J. C.Vansto rv 


L. E. Barnes 


WAS HINGTON, (6) D.C. 


manager 










<S\lso tflCJ Parrot Restaurant 


CONNECTICUT AVENUE AT 20TH STREET, N. W 







































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. Cxfl®®1 f a t*®- €5B ^##3p- -J>£* il§£*T$#tr • -* 0 % %}% ‘ jTO’t • jJVrp'" “t*i'F 

OUT B *d © of Bemn reef tef oce r^ef yigj stall nr m 

vdtlt coral v:: tfe. ccrd 41^®^- P®®!® pool 

: tr». js&d at lew • with 
Jus#! p?lg ac* S*®»ds t algae tide h?.4 

X } B } I I 0 * 

'. silty < ! 


ocean re 

surf* 

Xoc- j I 

all tv 


f,CC~ 

fill ty. 


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fil Ity 


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connected 
XagocR at 
tide* 

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Boke-n*17> 

Airy ; # 4C 5 


dlnlfll%Q22 
Itcntl: *025 

Brifc *347 


i • 

*3 48 ■•: Bokon 


Erik ,336 


Passu * 3.2 3 




dry .136 


Kir u 


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soro 1.377 


r 


t. 


Data on rc 

Serin* no. 
of Station 

8 - 46-r 

8 - 4t-9 
8-46-10 
8—46—14 

S-46-4? 
8-46-46 
8 - 46-49 
S-46-5 1 

S— 46 —5- 

8-46-52 
£—46>—94 
S-46-95 

S-4$-96 

S-46-97 

5— 46—96 

6- 46-99 


\ 


' sties* pertain $ to lad* of dbtmdance \ 


1 hxmo T or rumos 

Locality Habitat Piosorved Discarded’Tot® 1 


of fi« 


V 


Area 


n 


C?v 


Krlk 

Srlk 
Bikini 
Rorn-k 
Hasuk 
Sana 
Kss® 
karat 
Boro 
Bolen 
I&tepn 
dry 

Cherry 


Ocean roof 
Ocean reef 
lagoon pond 
Ocean reef 
Ocean reef 
Lamcffi reef 


849 

601 

362 

504 

340 

456 


i'7 866 

Ep\ 1145 
454W 81.6 

&' V 55s 
m W5 

:/4&. , 5wf 

j 31 \ 31S4 
il85 \ 413 \ 


\ 


L^* - 


2420 

25.000 

16,650 

3400 

561 

3350 


High tidal peels 281 
Lagoon reef 228 

Ocean surf 133 

Ocean reof 440 y 163 623 U650 

0c ©on serf 108 /. Ar*H ■ ‘ 

High, tidal node 1W[ 

Ocean surf 535 

Lagoon reef . 285 

Ocean reef 273 
Iilgh tidal pools 250 

Total 


1*6$ 
! 134 

' «Sf 


> ,133 V 289 


It! %T9 

3344 «25 

453 Ml 


! 'V 




Y 


Index fif 
\bnndance 

W>81 

.3 

*337\ 
.0223 v 
.025 
.148 " ?' : 
.556 
.123 
.460 
.377 

•i/5 

.. io6 

.405 

&S$6 .13 

.247 
1*2 


\ 


A 


1 














\ 






























Introduction - purposes 

Personal, Transportation, U# S. Navy & Army 


Itinerary 

List of collecting stations, location on maps 

Collecting methods 

Poisoning 

Shallow water habitats (blennies) 
Deep water 
Spearing 
Dredging 
Light at night 
Hook and line 


Preservation of fishes, containers, data sheets 


Recording of data 


Eabitats - characteristic fauna 

Zonation 


Physical and chemical, biological factors determining abundance of 
fishes; polution 


Relative abundance of fishes according to type of habitat - errors 
in sampling* 
















NAMES AND ADDRESS OF SCIENTISTS 



id! if*- 






i t,' 


£ Mr* M«A. Antoncich 
526 Pi©r«e St. 

Monteroy, Calif, 

* 

1 f 

2* Mr. C. Arcoleo 
625 Spencer St, 

Monterey, Calif, 

9 9 ** , ;*■ 

3* Mr, T.S. Austin 
Woods Hole Oceanographic 
institution. 

Woods Hole Mass, 

Business Address; 
Oseanographic Division 
Hydrographic Office 
Navy Dept, Washington, D.C. 
(After 15 Sept, 1946) 

4* Mr, D.A, Baldwin 
U.S. Navy Electronics Lab, 
San Diego, Calif,, Zone 25. 





5. Lt, Coradr, C.A, Barnes 
4131 Whitman Ave, 

Seattle 3> Washington 
Business Address: 
Oceanographic Division 
(at Hydrographic Office 
N&vy Dept, Wash,, D.C, 
sifter 1 October 1946) 


3l3. Dr, M.W, Johnson 
Box 109 

La Jolla, Calif. 

Business Address: 

Scripps Institution of 
Oceanography, 

La Jolla Calif, 

14* Dr, D,B. Johnstone 
9 Pockham Ave, 

Newport, Rhode Island 
Business Address: 
Microbiology Dept. 

N.J, Agr, Exp. Sta, 

New Brunswick, New Jersey 

15. Capt, C,B, Kinzek 
114 E, Cypress St, 
Compton, Calif, 

16. Mr* T.F, Kohler 
1944 Alahula Way 
Wahiawa, Oahu, T*H. 

17. Dr, H.S. Ladd 

2627 Adams Mill Road N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 

Business iddress: 

U.S, G-oological Survey 
Washington 25, D.C. 


6, Mr, C.C. Bates 
RR # 1 ' 

Rockton, Ill. 

Business Address: 

Oceanographic' Division 
Hydrographic Office, 

U#S* Naijr Dopt* Waeh* 25, D.C, 

m 

7. Mr. V.E, Brock 
P.0. Box 3319 
Honolulu 1, T.H. 


18, Mr, E.C. LaFond 
Box 109 ’ 

La Jolla, Calif, 
Business Address: 

U.S, Naval Electronics 

Laboratory 

San Diego, Calif, 

19* Mr. J.C, Marr 
P.0. Box 1017 
Carmel, Calif, 


8, Dr, K,0. Emery 
3327 W. 132nd St. 

Hawthorn©, Calif, 

Business Address: 

Dept, of Geology 
University of Southern Calif 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

a 

9. Dr. W.L, Ford 
Woods Hole Mass 
Business Address: 

Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution, 

Woods Hole, Mass, 


2529 E, 55th St. 
ftintington Park, Calif. 

12. Dr, J.E. Hoffmeister 
Burel Rd. 

Scottsville N.Y, 

Business Address: 
University of Rochester 
Rochester, N.Y. 


20, Mr. H.J. Mann 
705 Cordova Drive 
San Diego, 7, Calif. 

21, Dr, J,P.E. Morrison 
609 Poplar Drive 
Falls Church Virginia 
Business Address: 

U.S, National Museum 
Washington 25, D.C, 

22, Mr, G.A, Riley 
Pleasent St, 

Woods Hole, Mass 
Business Address: 

Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution 

Woods Hole, Mass. 

23, Mr, W,H. Miunk 
Box 109 ' 

La Jolla, Calif 
Business Address: 

Scripps Institution 
of Oceanography, 

La Jolla, Calif. 




!•. Mr. E.F, Gurley . p> . 31/ 

-Itoaterey ylCfl^if DM 5 S ^77 v\ >/ 

11* Capt. E.S, Herald 









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NAMES AND ADDRESS OF SCIENTISTS 

(Cont T d) 


• • ?'.i- 


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24. Lt. Comdr. M.C. Sargent 
Box 109 

La Jolla, Calif, 

Business Address: 

Scripp© Institution' 
of OceanograjJay, 

La Jolla # Calif. 

# • # 

25* Dr, L.P. Schultz 
27 Philadelphia Ave. 

Takoma Park 12, Maryland 
Business Address: 

Curator of Fishes 
U.S., .National' Museum 
Washington 25, D.C. 

26. Dr, W.R, Taylor 
2007 Vfeshtenaw Ave. 
i\nn Arbor Mich. 

Business Address: 

Department of Botany 
University of Michigan 
Ann Arbor Michigan 

27. Ens. B,W, Timmer 
932 William St. ' 

Jiiiskegon, Mich. 

28. Mr, J.I. Tracey 
84 McKinley Ave, 

New Haven, Conn. 

29. Capt. M.A. Traylor (USMCR) 

426 Barry Ave, 

Chicago, Ill, 

30. Mr, H.J. Turner Jr, 

Millfield St, 

Woods Hole Mass. 

Business Address: 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
Woods Hole Mass, 

31# Mr, W,S. Von Arx 
Woods Hole Mass, 

Business Address: 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
Woods Hole Mass. 

m 

Iff, W,K. Wilson 
941 Wainwright St, 

Monterey, Calif. 






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NAMES AND ADDRESS OF SCIENTISTS 



1. ' Mr. M.A. Antoncich 
526 Pier«e St. 

Monterey, Calif. 

€ 

2. Mr. C. Arcoleo 
625 Spencer St. 

Monterey, Calif, 

• • 

j ’ • f 

3. Mr, T.S. Austin 
Woods Hole Oceanographic 
institution. 

Woods Hole Mass. 

Btoiness Address: 
Oceanographic Division 
Hydrographic Office 
Navy Dept. Washington, D.C. 
(After 15 Sept, 1946) 


4. Mr, D.A, Baldwin 

U.S. Navy Electronics Lab. 

San Diego, Calif,, Zone 25. 

5. Lt, Comdr, C.A. Barnes 
4131 Whitman Ave, 

Seattle 3> Washington 
Business Address: 

Oceanographic Division 
(at Hydrographic Office 
N&vy Dept, Wash., D.C. 
after 1 October 1946) 

6 . Mr, C.C. Bates 
RR # 1 ' 

Rockton, Ill, 

Business Address: 

Oceaaograjjhic' Division 
Hydrographic Office, 

U # 6. Navy Oapt. Yfaeh* 2i, D.C. 

0 

7. Mr. V.E. Brock 
P.0. Box 3319 

• Honolulu 1, T.H. 

8 . Dr, K.O. Emery 
3327 W. 132nd St. 

Hawthorne, Calif, 

Business Address: 

Dept, of Geology 
University of Southern Calif. 
Los Angeles, Calif, 


9. Dr. W.L. Ford 
Woods Hole Mass 
Business Address: 

Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution, 

Woods Hole, Mass. 


1#, Mr. E.F. Gurley j?> 3 1 / 

-Moatereyy-Cali tV-PH3 5 . ^ r’ p.'J 

OMtkA^/2) Lcx^Ij- 


11, Capt, E.S, Herald 
2529 E. 55th St. 
Huntington Park, Calif, 


12, Dr, J.E. Hoffmeister 
Burel Rd. 

Scottsvilla N.Y. 

Business Address: 
University of Rochester 
Rochester, N.Y. 


13. Dr. M.W, Johnson 
Box 109 

La Jolla, Calif. 

Business Address: 

Scripps Institution of 
Oceanography, 

La Jolla Calif. 

14. Dr. D.B. Johnstone 
9 Pcckham Ave, 

Newport, Rhode Island 
Business Address: 
Microbiology Dept. 

N.J, Agr. Exp, Sta, 

New Brunswick, New Jersey 

15. Capt, C.B, Kinzek 
114 E, Cypress St. 
Compton, Calif, 

16. Mr, T.F, Kohler 
1944 Alahula Way 
Wahiawa, Oahu, T.H. 

17. Dr. H.S. Ladd 

2627 Adams Mill Road N.W, 
’Washington, D.C. 

Business iddress: 

U.S. Geological Survey 
Washington 25, D.C, 

18. Mr. E.C. LaFond 
Box 109 ' 

La Jolla, Calif, 

Business Address: 

U.S, Naval Electronics 

Laboratory 

San Diego, Calif, 

19* Mr, J.C. Marr 
P.0. Box 1017 
Carmel, Calif, 

20. Mr, H.J. Mann 
705 Cordova Drive 
San D iego, 7, Calif. 

21, Dr. J.P.E, Morrison 
609 Poplar Drive 
Falls Church Virginia 
Business Address: 

U.S, National Museum 
Washington 25, D.C, 

22, Mr. G.A, Riley 
Pleasent St. 

Woods Hole, Mass 
Business Address: 

Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution 

Woods Hole, Mass. 

23. Mr. W .H. Monk 
Box 109 ' 

La Jolla, Calif 
Business Address: 

Scripps Institution 
of Oceanography, 

La Jolla, Calif. 







NAMES AND ADDRESS OF SCIENTISTS 

(Cont T d) 


24, Lt. Comdr. M.C. Sargent 
Box 109 

La Jolla, Calif, 

Business Address* 

Scyipps Institution'" 
of Oceanography, 

La Jolla, Calif, 

* • 

25, Dr, L.P. Schultz 
27 Philadelphia Ave, 

Takoma Park 12, Maryland 
Business Address: 

Curator of Fishes 

U.S,.National - Museum 

Washington 25, D.C. 

■ 

26, Dr, W,R. Taylor 
2007 Washtenaw Ave, 

/inn Arbor Mich, 

Business Address: 

Department of Botany 
University of Michigan 
Ann Arbor Michigan 

27, Ens, B,W, Timmer 
932 William St, 

Muskegon, Mich. 

28, Mr, J.I. Tracey 
84 McKinley Ave, 

New Haven, Conn. 

' lr, ' ’ • / t 

29, Capt. M.A, Traylor (USMCR) 

426 Barry Ave, 

Chicago, Ill, 

30, Mr, II.J. Turner Jr, 

Millfield St, 

Woods Hole Mass, 

Business Address: 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
Woods Hole Mass. 

31, Mr, W.S, Von Arx 
Woods Hole Mass, 

Business Address: 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
Woods Hole Hass, 

31. Mr, W,K, Wilson 
941 Wain wright St, 

Monteroy, Calif, 














Summary of flah stations ran by Ur. V. E. Brook end Capt. E. S. Herald 
on isolated coral heads of the lagoon in deep-water by use of 
diving gear after Able and Baker days, July 1 to August 31* 


Station 

Locality 

.Depth 
water 
in feet 

Amount 
poison 
used in 
pounds 

Number 

of 

specimens 

Estimated 
number of 
species seen 
or captured 



Rongelap Atoll 



S» 46-235 

Lagoon side Eieshiechi Id. 

20 

5 

153 

37 

3—46—286 

Bongslap Id. off i’.lY# end 

18 

15 

392 

70 

3-46-300 

Lagoon side Tufa Id. 

28 

15 

406 

56 



Bikini Atoll 


- 

3-46-307 

1/4 mile off Amen Id. in lagoon 

30 

15 

341 

63 

S-46—308 

Lagoon side Airukiijii Id. 

30-45 

25 

060 

96 

3-46-390 

1 mile S.E. of Harau Id. 

30-45 

25 

19 



Size of coral 
head or 
heads 


isolated head 

30'x 30» and 
14* high 
several coral 
heads 


isolated 
corals 
coral heads 







* 


Hasuits obtained by uao of 100 watt light at night suspended below 
or at surface of water. Specimens picked up with dipnets after 
.Able and Baker days. July 1 to August 31, 1946. 


Station 


Locality 


L. v 

•*-> i{»S •' 

; ^ V.: 




Eoku pass 




3-46-249 


Enyu 


3-46-250 lagoon 300 yds. off Yurochi Id. 


9-46-259 lagoon 1/2 mile off Rouge lap Id. 
3-46—239A * M " n " 

3-46-259B " " " * * 

3-46-2590 " " " • " 

• . - • i; _ - * 

3-46-259B w " " " " 


«t 


D 


S—46—259F 

3-46-259G ||| |||j| |H _ 

S-46-259H • • • " 

3-46-2591 * ■ " " 

3-46-301 lagoon off Naen Id. 


it 


S-46-303 
S-46-305 


1/2 mile off Yugui Id. 

» «♦ » Lomuilal Id 


Number of Length time Dipnet- 
dipncts used used in hours hours 


Bikini Atoll 


Number 
of fish 
caught 


Catch par 
dlpnet-hours 



2 

2 

4 

35 

8.75 


2 

1/4 

1/2 

3 

6.00 

Id# 

* 

2 

2 

4 

30 

7.50 


Rougelap Atoll 




Id# 

2 

1 

2 

66 

33.0 

W 

2 

1 

2 

69 

34.5 

« 

8 

1 

1 

79 

39.5 

ft 

8 

1 

1 

175 

87.5 

ft 

8 

1/2 

1 

18 

18.0 

tt 

2 

1 

1 

42 

21.0 

It 

2 

1 

1 

415 

207.5 

ft 

2 

1 

1 

18 

9.0 

ft 

2 

1 

1 

32 

16.0 


2 

2 -1/2 

5 

6097 

1219.0 

i# 

2 

1 —1/2 

3 

778 

289.0 

L Id# 

2 

1 -1/2 

3 

199 

66.33 







. >_N . Ce 1 - . 


Totals 


30-1/2 


8056 










Summary of data used in dote mining the index of relative abundance of 
reef fishes for the Crossroads project after Able and Baker 

days. July 1 to August 31. 


Station 

number 

Locality 
or Island 

Habitat 

fished 

Humber of fishes 
Preserved Discarded 

Total 

Area in 
square yds. 

Index of 
abundance 


Post Able - - - - 



- Bikini Atoll 


3-46-E51 

Yurochl Is. 

ocean reef 

397 

0 

397 

2000 

.198 

3*»4S—£53 

Bikini Is. 

ocean reef 

438 

121 

559 

5000 

.110 


Post Baker - - - - 



- Bikini Atoll 


3-46-33* 

Beer Is. 

lagoon reef 

960 

0 

960 

7500 

.128 

3-46-333 

Suyu is. 

ocean reef 

762 

170 

932 

7000 

.110 

3—46-349 

Bikini Is. 

ocean reef 

418 

149 

561 

£500 

.224 

3-46-388 

Oruk Is. 

ocean reef 

750 

107 

857 

5525 

.155 

3-46-383 

Boby Is. 

ocean reef 

771 

210 

981 

7500 

.130 




Rongelap Atoll 




3-46—267 

3aiaetok Is. 

lagoon reef 

477 

0 

477 

7500 

.063 

3-46-302 

Naan Is. 

lagoon reef 

820 

0 

820 

10,000 

.082 

3-46-304 

Yugul Is. 

channel reef 

879 

0 

879 

7500 

• 116 

3-46-304 

Lomuilal Is. 

ocean reef 

482 

0 

402 

1875 

.257 




Kwajalein Atoll 




3-46-397 

gnnylabegan Is. 

lagoon reef 

534 

0 

534 

7500 

.071 


Totals 


7682 


8439 








t** ***•> 


3*007 Taxonomy and Teratology of Fishes at Bikini 

Studies concerned with the taxonomy, morphology and 
teratology of fishes were conducted by Dr. L.P. SCHULTZ, 
who also furnished an identification of species service 
for the other fisheries groups and for the Radiobiology 
Group. In addition to this taxonomic work, Dr. SCHULTZS 
studies were concentrated upon evidences of reproductory 
changes, or the possible disappearance of species sub¬ 
sequent to OPERATION CROSSROADS. 

Methods of collecting specimens were the same as 
those employed by the other fisheries groups (see Sections 
3*005 and 3*006). However, added photographic gear 
was brought into employment in order to obtain natural 
color photographs of living specimens. This is a necess¬ 
ary procedure in the case of tropical fishes, because 
the brighter colors in particular begin to fade very 
shortly after death. Harpoons also were used in taking 
mfln t.fi rays, which are large, marine elasmobranchs. Speci¬ 
mens were collected inside and outside the lagoon at 
Bikini, at Rongerick, and at Kwajalein. Examinations of 
fish nests found in shallow water were made. 

All fishes and related types were brought back to 
the Fisheries Laboratory in CHILTON (APA-3S), where, 
adequate samples for later studies to be conducted in 
the United States were preserved and packaged. Field 
identifications, and enumerations of species were 
effected. Dissections were carried out for purposes 
of examining reproductory organs, and in general, to 
detect any teratological evidences that might be repre¬ 
sented. Examinations of various post-larval fishes 
were made. 

Findings reported here are complete for the period 
of the resurvey only. Additional work will be carried 
out at the Smithsonian Institution by Dr. L.P. SCHULTZ, 
and by Mr. L.P. WOODS of the Chicago Natural History 
Museum, provided adequate funds for support of the project 
are made available. Two reports are proposed, as follows: 


A. 


A descriptive catalogue of the fishes in the 
Marshalls and Marianas, including about 400 
species. This will be based upon about 15,000 
specimens collected by the Naval Air Medical 
Research Unit in the Marianas, and upon about 
50,000 specimens obtained at Bikini, including 
part of those mentioned in Sections 3.005 and 
3.006. A sample description of a species is 
included as Annex A to this Section. The descrip 





tive catalogue will be as completely illustrated 
as possible, will contain keys for quick iden¬ 
tification, together with color descriptions, 
and will include a statement on the ecology of 
each species. 

B. A general report prepared by Dr. L.P. SCHULTZ 

on reef fish investigations at Bikini, including 
a classification of habitats, the distribution 
of fishes, collecting methods, and species ratios 
For the latter, final data will come from the 
report described in A above. 

The foregoing reports, when completed, will be 
submitted to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
and will be available to the Chief of the Armed Forces 
Special Weapons Project. 

• Mention has already been made of the fact (see Section 
3.005) that a survey of reef and lagoon fishes was conduc¬ 
ted at Bikini Lagoon in 1946, prior to Tests A and B, 
Subsequently, the lagoon waters were subjected to blast 
and radioactivity effects, to contamination by oil from 
target ships, and to general pollution owing to the pre¬ 
sence of ships and men in the area. Whatever the tempo¬ 
rary effect of these factors may have been, no changes 
were observed in the fish fauna in 1947. Table II includes 
a designation of the 1947 collecting stations. 

t 

Of course population pressure from all sides are very 
great in an environment like thatat Bikini, and it is 
axiomatic that if an area becomes depopulated but remains 
habitable it will promptly be repopulated by (a) re¬ 
production of the indigenous fauna accompanied by an in¬ 
creased rate of survival, or (b) migration of individuals 
from contiguous areas. Such considerations may account 
for the fact that the fish population at Bikini appeared 
to be about the same in 1947 as it had been in 1946. For 
not only was this the case, but in addition, the species 
that were most numerous in 1946 still enjoyed the same 
rank in 1947, and no species found in 1946 appeared to be 
missing. As a matter of fact, six species taken in 1947 
were not collected during 1946. 

Larval and post-larval stages of surgeon fishes 
( Acanthurus triostegus ), and the young of round herring 
(Family Dussumieridae) and lizard fishes (Family Synodonti- 
dae) were observed in the lagoon waters. Gobiodon cltrinus 
was nesting among corals of the genus Acropora , and sharks 
exhibited normal embryos when dissectecH Milt (containing 
sperms) was flowing readily from the shark pilot ( Echenels 
nacrautes ), the damsel fish ( Abudefduf sordidus ), the 
surgeon fish, and the ocean skipjack ( Katsuwonus pelamis). 
















These facts are mentioned by way of indicating that re¬ 
productive processes of fishes appeared to be normal. 

No evidences of teratological phenomena were discover¬ 
ed in the course of examining fish specimens, but more 
careful studies will be carried out on specimens shipped 
to the National Museum during the next two or three years. 

In the process of studying the fish population at 
Bikini during 1947 various observations concerning other 
marine types were also made. It was found, for example, 
that the reef between Bikini and Amen Islands above the 
mean low tide level did not appear to be in as healthy a 
condition as it was in 1946. The blue Heliopora coral 
heads on the ocean reef opposite the sand spit at the 
western tip of Bikini Island were largely dead, whereas 
in 1946, the outer edges were formed almost entirely 
of living polyps. In 1947 the dead corals were covered 
by a fine, filamentous algal growth. Various reef 
situations at Namu and Bikini Islands are contaminated 
by tarry substances and oil from target ships; around 
such deposits animal life is scanty if not entirely 
lacking. These tar deposits, however, are not in evidence 
below the mean low tide level. 

For two months after arrival in Bikini lagoon early 
in 1946 it was possible to see objects in the water clearly 
at depths of over 100 ft. After the target ships assembled 
in June, however, the waters became less clear, and objects 
at depths of 35 ft to 40 ft were barely discernable. Dur¬ 
ing July and August of 1947 similar cloudiness of the water 
was observed, especially in the northeastern part of Bikini 
Lagoon. It was believed that disturbance of beach sands 
by wave action could not account fully for this increas¬ 
ed turbidity, and since Rongerick Lagoon is as clear as 
it was in 1946, doubt must be cast upon any theory that 
cloudiness of the water is a seasonal phenomenon. An 
explanation which appears to be more acceptable is that 
an increase in microorganisms in the water has occurred, 
due to the large amounts of sewage that have been dischar¬ 
ged into Bikini Lagoon. Actual concentrations of this sewage 
per unit of water volume may not be excessive, but it 
is well known that a very slight increase in the amount 
of fertilizing substances in water may give rise to a dis¬ 
proportionately great expansion of the microorganism popu¬ 
lation. The expansion begins when a certain threshold is 
passed, and phosphates and other chemical substances in 
the water become available for use by organisms. 

In conclusion, it may be stated that, with the excep- 






TABLE II 


25 

25 

__ 

2 

— 

(invertebrates) 

201 

309 


1 

1,158 

930 

483 

641 

145 

603 

— 

8 


8 

«... 

1 

— 9mm 

10 

9 

1 

mm mm 

1 

29 

3 


Number of fish speci- 
Locality mens: Discarded—Preserved 

Bikini Lagoon, 

Chilton anchorage 
Prayer Island 
Prayer Island 

Prayer Island, channel 
Prayer Island. 

Prayer Island, pond 
Prayer Island, surf 
Bikini-Amen reef 
Chilton anchorage 

Aran Passage 
Enyu Channel 
Bikini reef - ocean side 
Off Prayer-Erik Channel i 
lagoon l| miles 
Chilton anchorage 
Boro Passage 

Bikini reef - ocean side 
Enyu - ocean reef 
Nairn 

Kwajalein 

Bikini Atoll - off West re< 

Naum - lagoon 
Namu - ocean reef 
Enyu - deep water at channi 
Rongerik Atoll, Latoback 
Island - lagoon 
Bikini reef, West end sand 
spit 

Bikini reef, West end sand 
spit, high rock pools left 
low tide 

Bikini - ocean reef 
Namu Island 

List of fish collections preserved during the 1947 
BIKINI SCIENTIFIC RESURVEY for the U.S. National Museum. 

Photography: 188 different fishes were photographed 

in the field in Kodachrome. 


Station 

Number 

Date 

S-46-402 

7/15 

S-46-403 

7/16 

S— 46—404 

7/16- 

S-46-405 

18 

7/17 

S-46-421 

7/17 

S-46-422 

7/18 

S-46-441 

7/19 

S-46-442 

7/21 

S— 46-458 

7/20- 


8/10 

S-46-473 

7/22 

S-46-474 

7/27 

S-46-475 

7/27 

S-46-476 

7/28 

S-46-477 

7/30 

S-46-478 

7/29- 

S-46-482 

30 

7/31 

S-46-483 

8/1 

S-46-505 

8/1 

S-46-506 

8/3 

S-46-507 

8/5 

S-46-508 

8/6 

S-1019 

8/7 

S-1040 

8/7 

S-1041 

8/14 

S-42-533 

8/18 

S-42-564 

8/18 

S-42-565 

8/16 

S-42-566 

8/19 


— — 

50 

640 

96 


1 

20 

37 

90 

100 

227 

495 

383 

397 

t 

'26 

181 

217 

511 

520 

— 

114 


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Through* Dr* $aldo L* Sehaitt 

Head Curator of Biology 






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In 1846 I attempted to measure quantitatively the 
relative abundance of reef fishes at Bikini, two types of 
noasurenents ware made* 1) after poisoning the number of 
fish recovered per square yard of surface searshea was sailed 
the index of relative abujotiersoe* and 2} the number of fish 
piekefup at night attracted to a light suspended over the 
stem of s small ship was recorded as an index of number of 
fish captured per dio-not~hour. 


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*e ran sufficient stations in several localities in 
the northern Marshalls in each type of habitat so that if this 
work is repeated we should hare an indioation of any major 
change in abundance at Bikini for reef fishes. To soasure ths 
effect of the atom bombs* it is urgent that two low tidal series 
bs investigated by the sene set hods at Bikini. It would be 
necessary to make use of five of the extreme low tides on eaeh 
of two series* thus 10 stations on the reef. The period of 
about 7 days between workable tides should be spent running 
light stations at night in the lagoon and off the leeward side 
of the reef* To aeeempllsh this latter* it would be neeeaaary 
to have the uninterrupted use for about three to four seeks of 
a email ship* the eise of a minesweeper* A smaller craft in 
the rough waters st Bikini is not stable enough to use ths 
light stt night effectively. •; 

I would need as help for this work* a young ichthyo¬ 
logical student who oan swim and dive. la addition* at least 
two other young men, preferably not- sailors, who are good divers 
and who could act as laborers. Since X would not preserve many 
of the fish recovered, only those recognised as unfamiliar, ths 
mount of equipment taken along would be small as followst 

859 pounds of derris or oubd root* powdered in sealed 
metal containers) 








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other supplies pmeked in two 8-gellor. copper tanks) 

80 yards of cheesecloth) 

10 yard® of bobhlretting) 

4 pair of robber swist fine to be used on one’s feet) 

4 pair of face mask®. 

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I assurce that food would be available from the ship 

on whloh we would be based. 

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One very essential ite* in any eueh work is the use 
of a OMMrf boat and outboard voter to go from the email ehip in 
the lagoon to the islands shore we would be based in running 
each station. Another very essential item is that we have free 
access , unhindered, to go to the ahere any time of day to run 
our stations and the cooperation and understanding of the 
captain of the ship* I know of no bettor man to plaoe in 
charge of such biological work than Comander Fred Zieaenhenne 
of the 0# b. Savy. Ml 




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Curator of Fishes 


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NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 



PROGRAM 

TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING 

In the Natural History Building of the National Museum, the Departmental Auditorium, 
and the Building of the Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C. 

April 28-30, 1947 
SCHEDULE OF SESSIONS 

Sunday. April 27. 1947 

08h30ni HYDROLOGY--Inspection trip to Safe Harbor, Pennsylvania 
Monday, April 28. 1947 

09*X)0 m SEISMOLOGY—Room 4 OCEANOGRAPHY—Room 2 

HYDROLOGY--Room 6 

14 hoom METEOROLOGY--Room 4 OCEANOGRAPHY—Room 2 

HYDROLOGY--Room 6 

Tuesday,, April 29. 1947 

09h00 m TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AND ELEC TRICITY--Room 2 HYDROLOGY--Room 6 

METEOROLOGY (with American Meterological Society)—Room 4 
14hoo m VOLCANOLOGY--Room 4 HYDROLOGY--Room 6 

TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY—Room 2 

20h00 m Smoker--Auditorium of the Cosmos Club, Madison Place near H Street, Northwest 

Wednesday. April 30, 1947 

09h00m GEODESY--Room 4 HYDROLOGY--Room 6 

TECTONOPHYSICS--Room 2 

14 h 00 m General Assembly and Business Session of the Union--Room 4 

20^00 m Evening Session of the Union--Elihu Root Hall, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 

1530 P Street, Northwest 

(See last page for key to room numbers) 

OFFICERS OF THE UNION 


L. H. Adams, President 

Jo A. Fleming, General Secretary 


Walter H. Bucher, Vice-President 
Waldo E. Smith, Executive Secretary 











OFFICERS OF SECTIONS 


Section 

Geodesy 
Seismology 
Meteorology 
Terrestrial Magnetism 
and Electricity 
Oceanography 
Volcanology 
Hydrology 
Tectonophysics 


President 

W. D. Sutcliffe 
V. C. Stechschulte 
Fo W. Reichelderfer 

H. F. Johnston 
H. U. Sverdrup 
Richard E. Fuller 
J. E. Church 
Ernst Cloos 


Vice-President 

Philip Kissam 
Frank Neumann 

H. R 0 Byers 

I. Roman 

W. L. Schmitt 
Howel Williams 
L. G. Straub 
L. L. Nettleton 


Secretary 

J. A. Duerksen 

L. M. Murphy 
H. D. Harradon 

Do G. Knapp 
L 0 P» Disney 
Francis G 0 Wells 

K. Ho Beij 

M. K 0 Hubbert 


COMMITTEE ON TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING 



J. P. Marble, Chairman 


Merrill Bernard 

G, B. Cressey 



R. A. Hertzler 

W. D. Sutcliffe 


Co L. Garner 


GENERAL MEETINGS OFTHE UNION 

SMOKER 

Tuesday, April 29, 1947, 20h00m to 22h00m, Auditorium of the 
Cosmos Club, Madison I^lace near H Street, Northwest 

This well be an informal get-together. No program has been planned. Refreshments will be 
served. Tickets are fifty cents, and will be sold in advance at the Main Registration Desk in the 
National History Building. 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY AND BUSINESS SESSION 

Wednesday, April 30, 1947, 14^00^, Room 4 (Auditorium, Natural History Building) 

General Assembly 

(1) J. TUZO WILSON: Some aspects of geophysics in the Canadian Shield, with special refer¬ 
ence to structural research 

(2) R. M. FIELD: Interim reports on the work of the Commission on Continental and Oceanic 
Structure, and the Committee on the Social Value of the Earth Sciences, International 
Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (10 minutes) 

Business Meeting 

(1) Reports of officers and of standing and special committees including: 

(a) Consideration of report of Committee on Resolutions [Earl Ingerson, Chairman; 

J. P. Marble, and N. H. Heck] 

(b) Report on plans for the New England Meeting of AGU in September, 1947 [R. M. 
Field, Chairman] 

(2) Unfinished business 

(3) New business 

EVENING SESSION 

Wednesday, April 30, 1947, 20h30m J Elihu Root Hall, Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, 1530 P Street, Northwest 

(1) Address of Retiring President L. H. ADAMS who will speak on some of the great unsolved 

problems of geophysics 

(2) Ninth Award of the William Bowie Medal 

(a) Citation (b) Presentation by L. H. ADAMS (c) Acceptance 

(3) Social hour and refreshments 


- 2 - 


MEETINGS OF THE SECTIONS 


SECTION OF GEODESY 

Wednesday, April 30, 1947, 09h00m y Room 4 (Auditorium, Natural History Building) 

Business Session 

(a) Reports of committees 

(b) Announcement by Section Tellers of the officers elected by the Section for the triennium 

beginning July 1, 1947 

(c) Other business 
Scientific Session 

(1) J. E. SPEERT: Survey net adjustment by electrical analogue 

(2) B. K. MEADE: Earthquake investigation in the vicinity of El Centro, California: Horizontal 

movement 

(3) J. B. SMALL: Vertical movement of bench marks near fault lines in Southern California 

(4) E. J. PARKIN : Vertical movement in the Los Angeles region, 1906-1946 

(5) R. H. MONTGOMERY: Precise leveling on the Alaska highways 

(6) J. A. O'KEEFE: Errors of the doubly equidistant projection 

(7) L. E. SHMIDL: Simultaneous adjustment of multiple arcs of triangulation 

(8) FRED ANDEREGG: Report of preservation and classification of aerial photograph in 

United States of America and in other countries 

(9) IVAN TOLSTOY: Punched card computation of isostatic and topographic reductions 

(10) G. P. WOOLLARD: Recent regional gravitational surveys in eastern North America 

(11) J. H. BRITTAIN: Progress in geodetic surveys by the United States Coast and Geodetic 

Survey since July, 1946 

(12) MANUAL MEDINA: Geodetic work accomplished in Mexico from May, 1946 to February, 1947 

SECTION OF SEISMOLOGY 

Monday, April 28, 1947, 09h00m, Room 4 (Auditorium, Natural History Building) 

Business Session 

(a) Reports of committees 

(b) Announcement by Section Tellers of the officers elected by the Section for the triennium 

beginning July 1, 1947 

(c) Other business 
Scientific Session 

(1) MAURICE EWING and FRANK PRESS: A theory of microseisms, with geologic applications 

(2) ROSS R. HEINRICH: The Ozark earthquake of October 6, 1946 

(3) J. B. HERSEY and MAURICE EWING: Reflection of sound from beneath the ocean floor 

(4) THOMAS C. POULTER: Seismic measurements on the Ross Shelf Ice 

(5) ELLIOTT B. ROBERTS: Some trends in seismology 

(6) FRANK PRESS and MAURICE EWING: Elastic waves in a floating ice sheet 

(7) D. S. HUGHES: Remote recording seismograph 

(8) ANATOL J. SHNEIDEROV: On a pattern in celestial configuration in the years of major 

earthquakes 

(9) JAMES B. MACELWANE: Progress Report for the Jesuit Seismological Association for 

1946 

(10) BENO GUTENBERG and CHARLES F. RICHTER: Earthquake study in Southern California, 

1946 

(11) LEONARD M. MURPHY: Geological effects on microseisms in the Caribbean 


SECTION OF METEOROLOGY 

Monday, April 28, 1947, 14h00 m , Room 4 (Auditorium, Natural History Building) 

Business Session 

(a) Announcement by Section Tellers of the officers elected by the Section for the triennium 

beginning July 11, 1947 

(b) Other business 
Scientific Sessions 

(1) IRVING I, SCHELL: The Sun's spottedness as a possible factor in the polar air outbreaks 

in northwestern North America (10 minutes) 

(2) ARNOLD COURT: Thermal gradient in the Ross Shelf Ice (10 minutes) 


- 3 - 







(3) CHARLES S. GILMAN: Large-scale synoptic aspects of forecasting freezing temperatures 

in Florida (15 minutes) 

(4) ROBERT Do FLETCHER: Computation of thunderstorm rainfall (25 minutes) 

(5) C. F. BROOKS: .The representativeness of a climatological station (15 minutes) 

(6) V. CONRAD: A contribution to the theory of relative homogeneity of climatological series 

(15 minutes) 

(7) LUNA B. LEOPOLD: Status of climatological studies in the Hawaiian Islands (10 minutes) 

Tuesday, April 29, 1947, 09h00m, Room 4 (Auditorium, Natural History Building) 

(8) H. R. BYERS and COLLABORATORS: The possible use of radar in estimating the amount 

of rainfall over a small area (20 minutes) 

(9) N. E. MANOS and W. L. MOLO: A technique for a weather study of an air route ( 15 min¬ 

utes) 

(10) R. TOUSEY, J. D. PURCELL, J. J. OBERLY, F. S. JOHNSON, and E. DURAND: Ozone 

distribution from a V-2 rocket (10 minutes) 

Immediately following the above papers, the American Meteorological Society will begin its 
sessions in the same room. The sessions of the American Meteorological Society will continue 
Tuesday afternoon and all day Wednesdav In the Auditorium of the National Archives, Thursday 
morning, May 1, 1947, the American Meteorological Society will hold a joint session with the 
American Physical Society in the Auditorium of the Building of the Commerce Department, and, 
in the afternoon, its final session in that place. 


SECTION OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY 

Tuesday, April 29, 1947, 09^00®, Room 2 (Conference Room B, Departmental Auditorium) 

Business Session 

(a) Reports of committees 

(b) Announcement by Section Tellers of the officers elected by the Section for the triennium 

beginning July 1, 1947 

(c) Other business 
Scientific Sessions 

(1) E. H, VESTINE: Remarks on the Schroedinger unitary field theory as applied to the Earth's 

and Sun's permanent magnetic field (15 minutes) 

(2) L, Ho RUMBAUGH: The properties of the saturable inductor as a magnetic field measuring 

device (15 minutes) 

(3) E, O, SCHONSTEDT: The orientation problem in continuously recording mobile magne¬ 

tometers (15 minutes) 

(4) L, R. ALLDREDGE: The design of saturable-inductor type magnetometers and gradio- 

meters (20 minutes) 

(5) J, M. KLAASSE: The correlation of magnetometer records with flight paths in aerial 

magnetic mapping (15 minutes) 

(6) FRANK PRESS and MAURICE EWING: Magnetic anomalies over oceanic structures 

(15 minutes) 

(7) ELLIOTT B. ROBERTS: The problem of magnetic mapping (10 minutes) 

(8) ROLAND F. BEERS and HAROLD R, LENSEN: A new station type magnetometer (10 min¬ 

utes) (to be presented by Dr. Lensen) 

(9) O, H. GISH: Atmospheric-electric phenomena at Parfcutin Volcano (15 minutes) 

(10) ELLIOTT B, ROBERTS: Current magnetic work of the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey (by title) 


Tuesday, April 29, 1947, 14^00^1, Room 2 (Conference Room B, Departmental Auditorium) 

(11) JOSEPH KAPLAN: Some fundamental processes of geophysical interest in oxygen and 

nitrogen (15 minutes) 

(12) H, W. WELLS: Polar radio disturbances during magnetic bays (15 minutes) 

(13) M. D. HARRINGTON: Relations of ion density in the D region to the sunspot cycle as in¬ 

ferred from radio-wave absorption and variations in terrestrial magnetism (10 min¬ 
utes) 

(14) A. G. McNISH and J, V, LINCOLN: Statistical study and prediction of annual sunspot num¬ 

bers (15 minutes) 

(15) T. N. GAUTIER: Variability of noon values of F-2 critical frequency at different stations 

(10 minutes) 


- 4 - 


(16) A, G, McNISH: Possible effects of terrestrial magnetic variations on ion density in the 

F-2 layer (10 minutes) 

(17) T, R, BURNIGHT: V-2 ionosphere studies by the Naval Research Laboratory (10 minutes) 

(18) E. DURAND, F. S, JOHNSON, J. J 0 OBERLY and R. TOUSEY: Absorption lines in the solar 

spectrum from 2950 to 2300 angstroms (15 minutes) 

(19) G. R. WAIT: The electrical conductivity of air irradiated by ultraviolet light (20 minutes) 

(20) HARLAN T„ STETSON: A report on recent studies of radio field intensity measurements 

at the Cosmic-Terrestrial Research Laboratory, Needham, Massachusetts (15 min¬ 
utes) 

(21) H. HERBERT HOWE: Magnetic measurements at Little America (10 minutes) 

On Thursday morning, May 1, 1947, the American Physical Society and the American Meteor¬ 
ological Society will have a joint session in the Auditorium of the Building of the Commerce 
Department. A symposium on Physics of the upper atmosphere will be presented., 

SECTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY 

Monday, April 28, 1947, 09h00 m , Room 2 (Conference Room B, Departmental Auditorium) 

Business Session 

(a) Reports of committees 

(b) Announcement by Section Tellers of the officers elected by the Section for the triennium 

beginning July 1, 1947 

(c) Other business 
Scientific Sessions 

Symposium on oceanographic studies in Bikini and surrounding areas 

(1) P. A. HUMPHREY: Meteorological conditions in the northern Marshalls region 

(2) K, O, EMERY, J. I, TRACEY, JR., and H. S. LADD: Submarine geology and hydrography 

in the northern Marshalls 

(3) W. S. VON ARX: The circulation of Bikini and Rongelap Lagoons 

(4) C. A. BARNES, D. F, BUMPUS and J, LYMAN: Ocean circulation in the Marshall Islands 

area 

(5) E. C, LAFOND: The use of bathythermograms to determine currents in low latitudes 

(6) W. L. FORD: Salinity arid temperature relationships in Bikini Lagoon 

(7) W, H. MUNK and M. C, SARGENT: Wave driven currents over shallow reefs 

(8) T. S, AUSTIN, M, C 0 SARGENT and D. B, JOHNSTONE: Basic biological factors determining 

the rate of growth of Bikini Atoll 

Monday, April 28, 1947, 14h00 m , Room 2 (Conference Room B, Departmental Auditorium) 

Symposium on oceanographic studies in Bikini and surrounding areas (concluded) 

(9) M. W. JOHNSON: Zooplankton as an index of water exchange between coral lagoons and 

the open sea 

(10) J. W, JOHNSON, Mo P, O'BRIEN and A 0 B. FOCKE: Model experiments on impulsive 

waves in shallow water 

(11) R, REVELLE, N. J. HOLTER and F. G. MORRIS, JR.: Some characteristics of surface 

gravity waves from explosions 

(12) K. G. SCOTT and G 0 C. EWING: Radioactivity tracer technique applied to measurement of 

large scale diffusion in the sea 

(13) W. H. MUNK, G. C. EWING and R, REVELLE: Diffusion in Bikini Lagoon 
The following papers, not related directly to the Symposium, are to be read by title 

(14) R. O, GLOVER: Oceanographic activities at the United States Navy Hydrographic Office 

(15) J, F 0 FARLEY: Coast Guard plans for oceanographic work 

(16) L. O, COLBERT: Availability of oceanographic data in the United States Coast and 

Geodetic Survey 

(17) H. U, SVERDRUP: Research within physical oceanography and submarine geology at the 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography during April, 1946 to April, 1947 

(18) J. R. SEIWELL: Investigation of underwater pressure records and simultaneous sea sur¬ 

face patterns 

(19) G. H. KEULEGAN and W. C. KRUMBEIN: Stable configuration of the bottom slope in a 

shallow sea and its bearing on geological processes 

- 5 - 


I 





(20) J. A. PUTNAM and J 0 W 0 JOHNSON: The dissipation of wave energy by flow in a permeable 

sea bottom and by bottom friction 

(21) J. W. JOHNSON: The refraction of surface waves by currents 

(22) R. Go FOLSOM: Subsurface pressures due to oscillatory waves 

(23) A. C. VINE and MAURICE EWING: The free-falling bathythermograph 

(24) NELSON STEENLAND: Formation surveying 

(25) J. Lo WORZEL and MAURICE EWING: Improvements in underwater bombs 

(26) M. Wo BUELL, JR. and H. H. HESS: The greatest oceanic deeps 

SECTION OF VOLCANOLOGY 

Tuesday, April 29, 1947, 14 h 00m, Room 4 (Auditorium, Natural History Building) 

Business Session 

(a) Reports of committees 

(b) Announcement by Section Tellers of the officers elected by the Section for the triennium 

beginning July 1, 1947 

(c) Other business 
Scientific Sessions 

(1) To W. F 0 BARTH: Geysers of Iceland (15 minutes) 

(2) E 0 G. ZIES: The halogen contents of the steam condensates from Santa Maria, Guatemala 

(10 minutes) 

(3) GEORGE KENNEDY: Some quenching experiments with basalts (20 minutes) 

(4) JONORE GONZALES: Volcanic geology of the western part of Michoacan, Mexico (15 

minutes) 

(5) ROBERT R 0 COATES: Past volcanic activity in the Aleutian Islands (10 minutes) 

(6) D. Mo HOPKINS: Geology of Okmoh Volcano, Uniak Island, Alaska (15 minutes) 

(7) FRANK M„ BYERS: Geochemical investigations on Uniak Island (15 minutes) 

(8) Eo Go ZIES: A program of volcanological research (20 minutes) 


SECTION OF HYDROLOGY 
Sunday, April 27, 1947, 08^30^, Inspection Trip 

Inspection trip to the plant of the Safe Harbor Water Power Corporation on the Susquehanna 
River by invitation of JOHN A. WALLS, President of the Pennsylvania Water and Power Company 0 
Trip arranged by CARROLL F» MERRIAM 0 For reservations write K. HILDING BEIJ (Secretary, 
Section of Hydrology),3428 Porter St., Washington 16, D. C 0 , before Tuesday, April 22, 1947, en¬ 
closing check for four dollars to cover transportation. 

Monday, April 28, 1947, 09 h 00 m , Room 6 (Auditorium, Commerce Department) 

Scientific Sessions 

Symposium on the ground-water hydrology of limestone terranes 

(1) A. C. SWINNERTON: Terrane conditions controlling limestone solubility--A review 

(2) D. K. HAMILTON: Solutional development in the blue-grass region of Kentucky 

(3) W. O. GEORGE: Development of limestone reservoirs in Comal County, Texas 

(4) D. F. KENT: Geological factors relating to solution development and underground stream 

flow in the East Tennessee zinc district 

(5) B. C. MONEYMAKER: Some broad aspects of limestone solution in the Tennessee Valley 

(6) H. H. COOPER, JR.: A deep limestone aquifer at Fernandino, Florida 

(7) G. D. ROBERTS: Limestone problems of the Bull Shoals Dam 

Monday, April 28, 1947, 14 ^ 0001 , Room 6 (Auditorium, Commerce Department) 

(8) J. TUZO WILSON: Exercise Musk-Ox (An exciting documentary film, with sound, contain¬ 

ing a wealth of technical information, lasting about 50 minutes, to be presented by the 

Deputy Director of the Exercise) 


Tuesday, April 29, 1947, 09^00™, Room 6 (Auditorium, Commerce Department) 
Business Session 

(a) Reports of officers . _ . - 

(b) Report of Tellers on election of officers of the Section for the triennium beginning July l, 

1947 


- 6 ” 


i 

1 


(c) Report of Committee on Resolutions [Resolutions for presentation at the Business Session 

shall be submitted in writing to the Resolutions Committee of the Section (L. G. Straub 
Chairman; K, H. Beij; and Waldo E. Smith) by noon, Monday, April 28 1947] 

(d) Report of Committee on Honors and Awards * J 

Scientific Sessions 

(Rl) So Wo LOHMAN: Report of the Research Committee on Ground-water (by title) 

(R2) Co E. JACOB: Report of the Research Committee on Permeability 

(9) R 0 Go KAZMANN: The induced infiltration of river water to wells 

(10) K. E 0 ANDERSON. Effect of acidizing on transmissibilities calculated by the recovery 

method 

(11) DON KIRKHAM: Theory of flow of ponded water into drains in soil overlying an impervious 

layer (by title) 

(12) CHESTER K 0 WENTWORTH: Growth of the Ghyben Herzhez transition zone under a rin¬ 

sing hypothesis 

(13) Do Jo CEDERSTRON: Ground-water in southern Okinawa 

(R3) MERRILL BERNARD: Report of the Research Committee on Precipitation 

(14) G. Do ABRAMS: On the variability of precipitation in the United States 

(R4) Lo A. RICHARDS: Report of the Research Committee on Physics of Soil Moisture (by title) 
(R5) W 0 Co LOWDERMILK: Report of the Research Committee on Erosion 

(15) Co B. BROWN: Effects of land use on sedimentation in Lake Decatur, Illinois 

(16) R 0 W. BAILEY: Mud-rock flows and watershed conditions in northern Utah 

(17) Wo Do ELLISON: Soil detachment by water in erosion processes 

(R6) P 0 E. CHURCH: Report of the Research Committee on Lakes (by title) 


Tuesday, April 29, 1947, 14 h 00m, Room 6 (Auditorium, Commerce Department) 

A round-table discussion of HYDROLOGIC REGIONS arranged by MERRILL BERNARD Chair 
man of the Research Committee on Hydrologic Regions ’ ^ 


Wednesday, April 30, 1947, 09^00 m , Room 6 (Auditorium, Commerce Department) 

(R7) R. c. FARROW: Report of the Research Committee on Snow 

/!n\ E ° and D * ABRAMS: A statistical approach to the snow-melt problem 

(19) V 0 J, SCHAEFER: Changes in snow on the ground 

(R8) FRANCOIS E 0 MATHES: Report of the Research Committee on Glaciers 
(R9) R. Wo DAVENPORT: Report of the Research Committee on Runoff 
(R10) L. Go STRAUB: Report of the Research Committee on Dynamics of Streams 

(20) W. So EISENLOHR, JR.: Effects of water temperature on flow of a natural stream 
(Rll) Ho G. WILM: Report of the Research Committee on Evaporation and Transpiration 
(R12) G. W. MUSGRAVE: Report of the Research Committee on Infiltration 

(21) LEON LASSEN and E. N. MUNNS: Vegetation and frozen soils 

(22) LEONARD SCHIFF and F. R. DREIBELBIS: Infiltration, soil moisture, and land use re¬ 

lationships with reference to surface runoff 

C ° S# HOWARD: Re P ort of the Research Committee on Chemistry of Natural Waters 
D ‘ HEM: Fluctuations of dissolved solids concentration of some southwestern streams 

(24) W. W. HASTINGS and W 0 O. GEORGE: The occurence of nitrates in ground waters of 
Texas 


a 



SECTION OF TECTONOPHYSICS 

Wednesday, April 30, 1947, 09^0001, Room 2 (Conference Room B, Departmental Auditorium) 

Business Session 

(a) Reports of committees 

(b) Announcement by Section Tellers of the officers elected by the Section for the triennium 

beginning July 1, 1947 

(c) Other business 
Scientific Session 

(1) ERNST CLOOS: Boudinage 

m to a S t TER R# LONGWELL: Development of slaty cleavage in a thrust block 

m pn^r!fMM IR ^ : ?.f U . Stal structure and surface heat flow near the Colorado Front Range 
(4) ROSS GUNN: Quantitative aspects of juxtaposed ocean deeps, mountain chains and volcanic 
ranges 


- 7 - 








Key to room numbers 



Map showing locations of meeting rooms 


Key number 
1 
2 

3 

4 

5 

6 


Designation and building 

Conference Room A, 

Departmental Auditorium 
Conference Room B, 

Departmental Auditorium 
Conference Room C, 

Departmental Auditorium 
Auditorium, Natural History 

Building of National Museum 
Room 43, Natural History 

Building of National Museum 
Auditorium, Building of the 

Commerce Department 


NOTES 


Standard of Time --As the program goes to press, Washington, D. C. is on Eastern Standard 
Time, though there is action pending in Congress to establish Eastern Daylight Saving Time during 
the warmer portion of the year. Should this action be completed to be effective at the time of 
meeting, such time will be used for the schedule of the meetings. 


Room Reservations --A number of important meetings are scheduled for the closing days of 
April that will bring a large number of people to Washington, It is, therefore, essential that hotel 
room reservations be made in advance. Write directly to the hotel where you desire to stay, or, 
desiring information on hotels, write to the Greater National Capital Committee, Star Building, 
Washington, D, C. for a hotel rate schedule sheet. 

Registration --All members and guests attending any session are requested and urged to 
complete cards of registration at the Main Registration Desk at the entrance to the Auditorium of 
the Natural History Building (Room 4) where Receptionists will be available to supply information 
regarding meetings, membership, telephone and mailing facilities; and other local matters. Aux¬ 
iliary Registration Desks will also be maintained in Room 1 (Conference Room A, Departmental 
Auditorium) and at the entrance to Room 6 (Auditorium, Building of the Commerce Department), 

Re solutions --Chairman Earl Ingerson of the Union's Committee on Resolutions, desires to 
have this Committee fully advised by 15h00 m , Tuesday, April 29, 1947, of any resolutions to be 
submitted in order that this Committee may have opportunity to prepare them in final form for 
presentation at the Business Session of the Union on the afternoon of April 30, 1947. Each reso¬ 
lution presented to the Committee should include (a) names of original submitters, (b) whether 
presented to a Section and action taken, and (c) whether action is desired in the Business Session 
or whether the resolution is to be regarded as being only for a particular Section or as one to be 
more effective as a general resolution of the whole Union. 

Lounge --Room 1 (Conference Room A, Departmental Auditorium) and Room 5 (Room 43, 
Natural History Building) will be maintained as lounge rooms for the use of members to meet 
friends, and to hold informal conferences. 

Conference Room —Room 3 (Conference Room C, Departmental Auditorium) is available for 
conferences by arrangement. [See J. P. Marble, Chairman of the Committee on Meetings, for 
assignment.] 

Monday evening program --No program of the Union is planned for Monday evening, April 28, 
1947, inasmuch as the National Academy of Sciences is holding a meeting to which the public is 
invited. This meeting will be held at 20h30na in the Auditorium, Natural History Building (Room 4). 
C. E, K. MEES, Vice-President, Eastman Kodak Company in charge of research work, will deliver 
an address on Modern processes of color photography. 

Discussion--Following the oral presentation of a paper, there will normally be opportunity to 
discuss from the floor. Discussors are urged to prepare their comments for publication in thp 
Transactions. 


- 8 - 


































































PH3UMINJl.PT report oh the reef fishes of the crossroads 

PROJECT BY Dr. Leonard P. Schult z and Capt. Earl 
S. HairaId. 



This is a preliminary report on the field work on the reef 
fishes of the orossroada project as undertaken by Dr. leon&rd P. 

Schulte, curator of fishes. United States National Museum and continued 
by Earl S. Heaald, Capt. U.S. A. Dr. Schultz was in the field from 

i 

February 13 to July 20, returning to his laboratory to begin work on the 

final report. At his reguest Capt. Herald was secured to take over the 

\ 

field work upon his return to ffamhington. Accordingly, Dr. Sohultz and 
Capt. Herald worked to gather from June 17 to July 12 so that the latter 
could Hearn the fish poisoning methods developed by Dr. Sohultz during 
1959. 

jJfi , . „ ; * ( ' ( t f 9 l ’ * -f; ■ * . r * j 4 ■. 

Fish collections . 

Previous to July 1, thirty eight poisoning stations were executed 
that can be treated statistically as to relative abundance of fishes. 

*"W .* - v, , * .' . ; * • •; * . , ’ ' 1 • ■ * , 

From these 58 localities, 19,115 fishes were picked up, one at a time, 

14,653 of which were preserved for further study, and 4460 duplicate 

s peoimens were identified and measured, then discarded or used as bait 

poisoning were 

for hook and line fishing. After July 1, twelve/stations/completed that 
can be compared s tatistioally with the 58 stations before Able Day. 

From these 12 idealities 8,439 fishes were picked up, 7,682 of which were 
preserved for further study, and 757 duplicate/ specimens were identified 
and measured, then discarded or used as bait for additional oatohes. 





w 


- 2 • 

The marine light was used at night with the intention of 
measuring the abundance of fish attracted to it by keeping a record of 
the number of hours that the dip nets were used in pioking up fishes* 

In all IS stations were worked before July 1, totaling 42 l/2 hours* 
resulting in the capture of 5*123 fishes, besides several quarts of 
crustaceans and o invertebrates* After July 1, 15 stations were 
worked* totaling 30 l/2 hours, resulting in the oapture of 8056 fishes 
from Rongelap and Bikini Atolls* It was concluded that the grefct 
variability of the results with the light at night made definite 
oonstlusians in regard to abundance of fishes open to very serious error* 

Summarized in the aooompanying table are 6 stations run by 
Brook and Herald. in the deep water of the lagoon over coral heads* 
resulting in the capture of 2*171 fishes that were preserved. 

In addition before Able Day 564 other fishes collected by 

e 

various means were preserved* with 23 more discarded because of their 
large size* After Able Bay numerous miscellaneous collections were made 
resulting in the capture of 480 fishes* 

All of the fishes mentioned above are being sent to the 0* S* 
Bational Museum where they will be studied by Dr* Leonard P. Sohultz and 
probably by Dr. Bari S. Herald. This makes a grand total of 43,969 
fishes picked up during the progress of the reef fish studies* 5*260 of 
which were discarded as duplicates leaving a total of 38*709 preserved 
fishes 4n which a final repport will be made during the next few yeaes* 



- 5 - 


Discussion of Results » 

In order to determine the lethal effects of the atom bombs on 
the relative abundance of reef fis b/f{ populations in Bikini and adjacent 
atolls it vas planned to ocoupy numerous rotenone poisoning stations on 
Bikini Atoll reefs and in adjacent atolls as controlls. 

In the use of the rotenone poison it was not intended to do so 
much poisoning that measurable damage would result to the fish fauna and 
might be detectable after the bomb blasts* Poisoning stations were thus 
well separated but their location depended largely on accessability of the 
reef and suitable habitats for working* this made it necessary to looate 
the stations close to the islands on which landing was feasable. .The 

I 

broad flat expanses of the reefs, where the water flows over in large 
quantities at high tide ha£ little or no cover for fishes and is unsuitable MR 
measuring fish abundance by the poisoning method developed by Dr• Schultz 

i ffr^ 

during 1939 and applied to this problem during 1946. The stations selected 

^ v 

represent the best habitats that were available in the area visited and 
were selooted after careful reconnaissance. 

The habitats worked have been tentatively classified as follows* 

(1) Outer edge of ocean reef in surf among corals, channels* and with algae# 
This zone is about 50 to 75 feet wide in most localities* (2) Ocean reef 
with corals 1 to 4 feet high, some algae, with narrow to wide channels or 
spaoes between* or soattefted coral heads, and with the water 2 to 5 feet 
deep at low tide. Bottom usually sandy. (S) Imgoon reef with corals, 1 
to 5 feet high, some algae, narrow channels or crevices, or with scattered 
coral heads* with water 1 to 6 feet deep^ oooasionaly deeper* Bottom usually 
s andy* (4) Shallow tidal pools, high up on the reef, usually not over 
1 l/2 feet deep* isolated at low tide, with scanty growth of corals or none* 

(5) Pondlike tidal pool connected with lagoon at high tide* 








4 


In the ocean surf at the outer edge of the reef, comprising mostly 
the Lithothamnion ridge the conditions are similar all the way around the 
atoll and the stations occupied indicate a similar abundance of fishes, 
exoept possibly at the eastern end where fewer fishes were taken. 

The ocean reef is not as luxuriant a habitat for fishes on the 
windward side as on tip leeward side of the atoll* This is indicated in the 
index of atnndanee off Bikini and Rorauk Islands where it is low as compared 
with the leeward side, showing more than ten times more fish per square 
yard. 

Suitable lagoon reefs for poisoning occur only toward the western 
end of the atoll making it impractical to run poisoning stations at the 
eastern end. Such stations, no doubt, would have been of little significance 
anyway because of tip extensive blasting of coral heads and shoals at the 
eastern side of tip lagoon resulting in considerable fish mortality. 

Isolated tidal pools are very scarce on coral atolls. Thvee such 
plaoes were located on Bikini, that at Sokon Island on the eastern side had a 

lower index value as compared with fcht at Hamu and Cherry Irelands. Such 

A 

tidal pools permit a high concentration of fishes during low tides, 
which accounts for the higher values. 

The shallow water reef fish studies indioate and are corroborated 
by other observations that the fish fauna of Bikini Atoll is scanty on the 
windward side but more abundant on the leeward side. Undoubtedly the 

h/ 

larger amount of moving sand on the winderd side over and around the reefs 
inhibits the growth of fish-food organisms, thus not supporting as many 


individual fishes* 





•r.'S ■ ? . • " 


• 5 • 




















In order to be able to compare the relative abundance of fishes in 

CN ) 

s imilar habitats there was established tj. an index which we are calling 
the INDEX OF RELATIVE ABUKDAHCE. This index represents the number of fish 
per square yard recovered in any given area* It is calculated by dividing 
the number of fishes picked up at eaeh station by the approximate number of 
square yards effectively poisoned and searohed. Since the poison kills 
every fish in the area where it was effectively used the chief errors 
involved in the application of poisoning methods relate to 1038 of dead 
fish by waves, currents, and inability of workers to find and recover all 
the dead fishes which sink to the bottom eventually* Those fish that swim 


away or are oarried out into 

% 

the value of the index* 


water too deep for revovery influence 


Since not all of the fishes killed at each station can be 
recovered the values of the index are lower than the actual fauna, but 
since the percentage of non-reoovered fishes probably remains more or 
less the same for all stations, the index is of -some value in comparing 
the relative abundance of fishes between ^stations. 

Sufficient rotetone is used to kill the fishes in the area 
effectively fished* Since the eels are the last affected among all the 
s pecies observed, it is fairly certain that ample rotenone was used if 
the ei-ls are dead after s/d to an hour after the cloud of rotenone*laden 

, mJL 

waster has past an area* At all stations eels were killed* The amount 
of powdered cube root containing the rotenone varied from 5 to 35 pounds 
per station depending on conditions* All stations where the rotenone was 
not effectively used have been excluded from the determination of the 
index of relative abundanoe as recorded in the accompanying table* 


It may be observed from the accompanying table that the average 
index mt for the northern marshall islands for 10 stations is ftstli 0*119 






6 








>, i 


\ > 


\ 








for ocaan reefs and 0*129 for the lagoon reefs before Able bay. After 
Able and Baker Days the index for 6 stations at Bikini was 0.143 for Ooean 
reefs and for 1 lagoon reef 0.128. *rom these data we conclude that up to 
August 31 no detectable reduetion or change occurred in the relative 
abundance of the reef fishes at Bikini Atoll after the atom bomb tests. 

The fluctuations in the value of the index among the various stations is 
about what should be expeoted in the sampling of sgeh fisty/ populations. 

Since there was no tine available for sampling of the ooean surf 
and shallow water tidal pools after Baker Day no comparisons with these 
can be made* 

Although the index of relative abundance s hows no definite 

1 4 % 1 < • *, « 

ohange in the reef fish populations at Bikinis it must not be assumed that 

the reef- fishes have not been affected by the radioactivity resulting from 

. * • ' J *• ' * * t 4 4 ’ , . \ ’ • , V 

the Baker Day test. headings observed with geiger counters at the time 
post Baker collections were made revealed that a number of fishes were 

^ * t Via ■ . ■ . *• • * ■ \ * ; • .• » /*’ *. * *» 

radioactive in the following collections! 

S-46-307 lagoon side Amen Id* Aug. 4. Above 2 UR. 

S-46-308 lagoon side Airukiiji Id* Aug. 7* Not above 2 MR* 
S-46-390 lagoon side Namu Id* Aug* 9* Not above 2 UR* 

3-46—332 lagoon side Roer Id* Aug* 2* Above 2 MR* 

S-46-349 Ocean reef BV? end Bikini Id* Aug* 14. Not above 2 MR* 

5-46-361 Ooean reef Cherry Id. Aug. 16. Above 2 ®. 

S-46-382 Ocean reef SW end Oruk Id* Aug* 16* Above 2 MR* 

S-46-383 Ocean reef K end Boby Id* Aug* 17. Above 2 MR* 




t t 

■ . • "i * - 

* v* 


Ho fish taken between Able Day and Baker Day revealed any 


7 * 


radioactivity* 


Wo have been informed that a number of the fishes after Baker ^ay 
have reoeived a lethal dose of radioaotivity but that they will not suocumb 
until 2 to 4 months after the time of exposure* Consequently it becomes 
imperative, that if the overall effect upon the reef fish// populations is 
to be known* the contaminated areas will have to be reexamined during 


1947* and perhaps again subsequent to t;at date* If such examination is 
made it is probable that it will be discovered that within the most 
heavily contaminated area* Amen to Bikini reef, certain species may have 
dropped out of the population and that only those speoies will remain whJ.ch 
dll not receive either an initial lethal dose or subsequent lethal dose 


through ingestion of contaminated food* 


Perhaps the greatest effect of radioactivity on the reef and 

CZriQ. a/\a / 

lagoon fishes of Bikini Atoll will be to render a tessge percentage of them 
sterile* If such occurs then the relative abundance of the reef fishes may 
decline most in the next few years* showing up notably in 1948 or 1948* 

Radioactive contamination of the reef fishes in the Bikini Area 

siay occur in the following manner* (l) Direct oontact with the radioactive 

rv ’ 

wa ter* (2) Indirectly through ingestion of contaminated food* In the 


latter case herbivorous fishes feeding upon algae and other plants that 

< ' v v * ; ? »!? : ' t&f■'* Y / ‘ t i- , , ' ' \ r % , 

are radio&otive may concentrate the radioactive materials* These fishes 
may in turn be fed upon by the larger carnivorous animals imparting 
their radioactivity to the predators* As soon as any fish shows the 
8 lightest debility it is immediately preyed upon by the oarnivorous fishes 
or other marine animals* Thus radioactive substances oould be concentrated 
in oertain fishes and theoretically the carnivore are the last to be 


affected* 







- 8 - 


, •• 


These considerations suggest that the relative abundance of reef 
fishes xxcfcx may change during 1947 and later and to measure any change 
in abundanoe at Bikini will require further field work by the poisoning 
aethod during 1947 or 1948 at about 2 favorable tidal series* These 
additional investigations are necessary if the damage to the reef fishes 
by the atomic bombs is properly evaluated* 

There remains an enormous amount of work to be done before a 
complete preliminary report on the reef fishes of the crossroads project 
is prepared. 

, ji 

It is our intention to work out a SPECIES IKDEX whittkwiH 
enumerate the number of different kinds of fish or species of fish at 
each station. This work is new delayed because over half of the speoimexs 
colleoted have not been received at the National Museum. Such an index 
should reflect the suitability of the habitat for a varied fish fauna and 
indicate the disappearance of apecies as a result of the atom bomb if 
suoh occurrs* 

• ' - f ■ 0* *■- • 4 . •. 

The desoeifrtive and systematic catalogue of the fishes of the 
crossroads project is now underway by Dr* d ohults and will require 2 or 
3 years for completion. The fishes, excluding the tunas, colleoted by 
all members of the expedition should be sent to the National Museum 
at the earliest possible moment to be inoluded in this descriptive 
catalogue* 







▲ comparison of the index of relative abundance for similar habitats of reef fishes 
for the northern Marshall Islands* 


lame of Atoll Tjr pe of habitat Number 

worked of 

Station 


Total fish Total area Average index of relative abundanoe 

recovered in square for stations* 

yards secached Before Able day After Able and Baker Days 


Bikini 

Ocean reef 

5 

8,891 

Enlwetok 

Rongelap and 

«t 

19 

1 

564 

hongsrik 

W 

It 

4 

8.127 

TToSF" 

Totals 

* 

It 

10 

Bikini 

« 

H 

6 

4,287 

Rongelap 

tt 

n 

2 

lt361 

Bikini 

Lagoon 

reef 

4 

1,628 

Enlwetok 

Ronge lap and 

If 

ft 

4 

2,692 

Rongerik 

If 

tt 

4 

2 f 007 

Totals 

« 

19 

12 

6,824 

Bikini 

If 

n 

1 

960 

Ronge lap 

« 

•t 

2 

*•297 

Kwajalein 

IT 

n 

1 

584 

Bikini 

Ooean surf 

6 

1,524 

Enlwetok 

It 

n 

S 

1,447 

Totals 

ft 

H 

_ 

2,971 

Bikini 

Tidal pools 

8 

677 

Enlwetok 

tt 

19 

1 

178 

Rongelap 

IT 

If 

2 

476 

Totals 

tt 

11 

*ir 

1,82?" 


48,400 

0.70 


2,000 

0/282 


8,828 

0.111 

B m - ~ m 

£ 0,226 

0.119 

. 

80,025 


0.148 

9,875 

- * * - 

0.145 

11,280 

0.144 


28,444 

0.095 


9.572 

0.214 


49,066 

0.129 


7,500 


0/128 

17,500 

• • - - 

0.074 

7,500 

• * * - 

0.071 

8,714 

0.410 


5 ,550 

0.095 


9,264 

0.521 


1,650 

0.866 


160 

1.158 


585 

0.817 


2,588 

0.5 is 




























3ur_raary of data used in determining the Index of relative abundanoe of 
reef fishes for the Crossroads project after Able and Baker 

days. July 1 to August 51. 


Station 

Locality 

Babitat 

R uia.be 

i* of fishes 


Area in 

Index of 

number 

or Island 

fished 

Preserved 

Discarded 

Total 

• square yds. 

abundanoe 


Post Able - - - - 

- - - - 

m — mm m— mm 

- Bikini Atoll 


S-4G-E51 

Yuroohl Is. 

ocean reef 

397 

0 

397 

8000 

•198 

S-46-2S3 

Bikini Is. 

ocean reef 

438 

181 

539 

5000 

•no 


Post Baker - - - - 

- - - * 

~ ~ - 

- Bikini Atoll 


3-46-332 

Rear Is. 

Lagoon reef 

960 

0 

960 

7500 

•188 

a- 46-333 

jSoyu Is. 

ocean reef 

768 

170 

938 

7000 

•no 

S»46«349 

Bikini Is. 

ocean reef 

418 

149 

561 

2S0C 

• 824 

8-45-388 

Oruk Is. 

ocean reef 

7S0 

L07 

837 

3525 

.155 

S-46-383 

Boby Is. 

ocean reef 

771 

810 

931 

7500 

•130 



. V \j ' ‘Vi" . * .*** *_ . i 

Rongelap Atoll 




S-46-267 

Sniaetok Is. 

lagoon reef 

477 

0 

477 

7500 

.083 

3-46-302 

!*a©n Is. 

lagoon reef 

380 

0 

830 

10,000 

•068 

3-46-304 

Yugui Is. 

• 

channel reef 

879 

0 

879 

7500 

• 118 

3-46-304 

Lomuilal Is. 

ocean reef 

488 

0 

402 

1875 

.857 




S^ijaleia Atoll 




3-46—597 

ilrmylaoe^an Is. 

lagoon. reef 

534 

0 

534 

7500 

.071 


• /‘‘I. , ■'>’ ’^'Wr; * 





** , - 1 n* .r. ^ ‘ 



Tot"Is 


7688 


757 


8439 











tion of the areas where tar is deposited on the reefs, 
little evidence of permanent damage to the marine fauna 
was found at Bikini Atoll in 1947, and observable changes 
probably could be assigned to biological rather than 
radioactive origins. 










Summary of flah stations run by Mr. Y. E. Brook and Capt. 2. 3. Herald 
on isolated coral heads of the lagoon in deep-water by u3e of 
diving gear after Able and Baker days, July 1 to August 31. 


Station 

Locality 

Depth 
water 
in feet 

Amount 
poison 
used in 
pounds 

Number 

of 

specimens 

2atlasted 
number of 
speaies seen 
or captured 



Rougelap Atoll 



S-46-285 

Lagoon side Eleshleohi Id. 

20 

5 

153 

37 

3-46-286 

Rongelap Id. off N.W. end 

18 

15 

392 

70 

8—46—300 

Lagoon side Tufa Id. 

* ■ - . ■ 1 J . ' If. y . r , * 'v - ■» t * i' » t 

*,• A S’ . > " , " . *’ >* 

28 

15 

406 

56 



Bikini Atoll 


■ 

3-46-307 

1/4 mile off Amen Id. in lagoon 

30 

15 

341 

63 

3-46-308 

lagoon side Airukiijii Id. 

30-45 

25 

860 

96 

3-46-390 

1 mile 3.2. of Nomu Id. 

30-45 

25 

19 



2171 


3ize of coral 
head or 
heads 


isolated head 

50»x 30* and 
14* high 
several coral 
heads 


isolated 
oorals 
coral heads 





Station 


Results obtained by use of 100 sat* light at night suspended below 
or at aurfaon of eater, opeoitaomi pic’ted up with dipneta after 
.Mia and Baker days. Zfuly 1 to August 31, 1946. 


Locality 


Zlucber of length tixaa Dipnet- Lumber catch per 

dipuota used used in hours hours of fish dipnet-hours 

caught 

Bilcini Atoll 


S-46-245 

Bo'cu pU33 



2 

2 

4 

35 

8.75 

3-4S-249 

Lagoon 3 nil 

• off Enyu Id. 

8 

V* 

1/2 

3 

6.00 

S-46-330 

lagoon 300 yds. off Yuroohi Id. 

8 

n 

4 

30 

7.50 





}■— V . v ‘4r;. {. ■ - ' *\ J - v* _ . 

Rcagolap Atoll 




S-46-259 

lagoon 1/2 oils off Rougolap Id. 

2 

1 

2 

66 

33.0 

S-46-259A 

Jf 

n 

tt It 

tt « 

2 

X 

2 

69 

34.5 

3-46-239B 

ft 

n 

« it 

tt tt 

2 

1 

1 

79 

39.5 

S-46-L59C 

tt 

« 

«t W 

ft It 

2 

1 

1 

175 

67.5 

S-46-259E 

ft 

it 

It tt 

It tt 

2 

1/2 

1 

18 

18.0 

3-46-233? 

It 

» 

tt It 

It W 

a 

1 

1 

42 

21.0 

3-46—2590 

ft 

ft 

It tt 

ft It 

2 

1 

1 

415 

207.5 

3-46-2301 

tt 

?t 

W tt 

tt tt 

2 

1 

1 

IB 

9.0 

3-46-2591 

tt 

99 

If ft 

•t tt 

8 

*» 

1 

32 

16.0 

3-46-301 

lagoon off Nasn Id. 


2 

2-1/2 

3 

6097 

1219.0 

tM6«303 

If 

1/2 mile off 

Yugui Id. 

2 

1 -1/2 

3 

778 

289.0 

S-46-305 

tt 

tt 

II It 

Jjojauilal Id* 

O 

ft 

1-1/2 

3 

199 

66.33 




' 



Totals 

30-2/8 

8056 








U. S. S. Bowditch 
.July 11, 1946 

Lt. Cctadr. C. A. Barnes 
U. S. S. Bowditch 


Dear Comdr• Barnse: 

This is a brief summary of my work on the reef 
fishes of the Crossroads Project includi ng the Able Day results. 

Under ny supervision 38 poisoning stations 
have been executed that can be treated statistically as to the 
relative abundance of fishes. From these 38 localities 19,113 
fishes were picked up, one at a time, 14,633 which were 
preserved for further study, and 4480 duplicate specimens were 
identified and measurdd, ttetfdisc--rded or used as bait for hook 
and line fishing. 

The marine light was used at nig t with ths 
intention of measuring the abundance of fish attracted to it by 
keeping a record of the number of hours that the dip nets were 
used in picking up fishes. In all 13 stations were worked, 
totaling 42i hours, resulting in the capture of 5,123 fishes, 
besides several quarts of crustaceans and other invertebrates. 

The results of this work is too variable for definite conclusions 
as to relative abundance. 

<j 3 In addition 564 other fishes have been preserved 

with,more discarded because of their large size# This gives a 
grand total of 20,320 preserved and 4,503 discarded after 
essential data were recorded. In all 24,823 fishes ' ere tamen. 

The chief conclusions that may be reached after 
Baker Day concerning reef fishes depends on running about a 
minimum of 10 poisoning stations in strategic places supposed! 
subjected to radio-activity. The index of abundanc 9 (number of 
fish picked up per square yard searched)“should be compared before 
and after the atom bomb explosions but for similar habitats only. 
This index of relative abundance should reveal any major reduction 
in the relative abundance of reef fisl.es after Baker Day. 

In addition the number of species obtained at 
each statin will give another measure or index when this is 
worked out from the per served fi shies during the next few years. 







Thefe was no visible damage to the fishes on the reefs, 
nor in the lagoon from the Able Day test, except a few fishes were 
reported as dead on the bottom under the target area by divers* 

No fish were seen floating on the surface waters of the lagoon a 
few hours after ABle Day test nor on -July 3, when I cruised from 
Bikini to Romtik, on to Namu end Boby islnds, thence to Aran, Cherry 
and Bu|i, following the oil slick from the target ships back to 
the target area, across the lagoon, without finding a single dead 
fish. Birds were seen all a round the lagoon fishing in the usual 
numbers on July 3* numerous living fishes in a healthy condition^ 
have occurred in the usual numbers around the ships at night 
since Abl Day. 

Previous experieneeindicates that from earh ouches, 
volcanic errupti ns, and from explosions, where many fish have 
been killed, some float for a while at the surface, whereas, others 
that sink to the bottom soon gas up and rise to the surface after 
one or two days in the tr&ples. Hone were seen on July 3 or since 
that time in the lagccn. 

It may be concluded that little or no damage was done 
to the reef or lagoon fishes from the Able Day explosion. 

In taking leave, non to return to the United States 
National Museum to begin work on the final report cm the Crossroads 
fishes, I believe I am turning the field work over to a capable 
young man, Cspt* Sari S. Herald, who will fit in well with the 
other "fish mongers". 

You have my highest esteem and respect for successfully 
coordinating one of the most difficult and varied oceanographic 
projects undertaken, with inadecute facilities at yoi r disposal. 
Believe me, your endeavors have been, a complete success. I 
congratulate you and wish you the best of fortune. 

Sincerely yours, 

Leonard P. Schultz 

Curator of Fishes 




: 

;"7 l-t £ 


* 


: 

• • >01' * • C ^y.lSSr • .i , r . Ai. *, »*\ > * 


■ • V ... r * i 


. ■ .T. f ■ ; > ' . • V • f V^t 

, ,• ,-u V s i/»-1 W.i • By' ?>Mj f' • 




V 




Hoirultc obtained by oee of 100 watt lipht at night suspended below 
or ettrfaee of water , Specimens pieSnd up with dlpneto. 

Kerch 10 to July 1, 1946 Dr* Leonard P. Schultz 




Station Local it: 


Number Len ih Dip-net- teb'T Catch rer 


_ 


V- 






■ 1 - Vi ra 


/ • * ’ -it ’ • rrv*v| * ' r-> • '• r •. h 




di pnetetla© hoi re 
used need in 
hare 


Bikini Atoll 


S-46-43 l^rcm 1 mile off Bikini 
S-46-46 Lnoon 1 nil© of? Bikini 

S-46-53 Be *o < 1 

Bokoro C annel 

8-46-92 lagoon 1 silo off Bikini 
8-46-111 Li ovn 1 rail© off Bikini 
S-46-112 Lagoon 1 nil© off Bik ni 
S-46-114 Lagoon 1 mile off B' ni 

k ’ * * ’^V *. « * . s • 

i * • * > » » • ■ i • ‘ A • - 

S-46-:il6 L*?. ocn 1 mile off Bikini 


fish 

caught 


1 

1 

3 

2 

4 

64 

2 

2; 


1 1/2 

_ 

182 

1 

• V 

2 

5 

1 1/2 

2 

6 

364 

576 

3/4 

1 1/2 

1/4 

1/4 

221 

1 

2 

161 


dip-not-hot r 


•w 


3*0 
16 * 0 

36«4 

2*5 

121.3 

96.0 

126.3 

03.5 


§ 

I 


Eniwetok Atoll 

8 - 46 - 15 ® Le^o-an 1 mile off Bniwetok 2 3/4 

8-46-182 Ir?fc< cn 1 nil© off Saiir-tok 2 

S—46—L 
8-46 


w-l8f, Coi tlvor t Put nn‘*e 
-183 Soutliwest Passage 




' 

• ■. V • V : ' 










> ’v+h 


Rongerifc Atoll 

8-46-242 Lao o on off Sniwotok by ' .MB 

yard© 2 

1 " i| Totals 

Average 


2 


jjk# 


A r 1 

, * • . •# « J .■ 

%)» » ''I 




* ••• .*•:• • . 

1 

’ • ■*• V ,, ‘' 









ii * '* 

j . , ; ( y . .' 










. t’ - •, 


It • 










*' r 




•..,41 




■' ■ / 1$ ■ ' 

: Xvm.-i'i .-vk': 

‘ • V. y; •*-*.» . /* • • . 4.0 








A’ 




























*4% 


3057 




5.3 
17. 
39.) 
48.7 


764.2 


121.2 














*» 








l\V 




■J, 




™ ; <■ ,vt .t* 


' ■ ' M. 






,'v* •; ».v«4y4 ; •• 






























r 

: ' - ■ 













/ 


•* ■ r 


* 


Classification of the index of abundance according to kind of 

habitat fished. March 10 to July 1, 1946. Dr. Leonard P. Schultz 


Outer edge 
ocean reef 
in surf. 


Ocean reef of Lagoon reef ofShallow isola- Pond-like tidal 
corals and corals and ted tidal pools pools not connec 

algae algae and solution ted with lagoon 

chann Is. at low tide. 


Locality Indent Locality Index Locality IndeLocality Index Locality Index 


Bikini Atoll 


Namu 

• 460 

Bikini 

.022 

Romuk 

•14S Bokon 

Bokon 

.173 

Romuk 

.025 

Namu 

.123 Namu 

Airy 

• 405 

Erik 

.347 

Airy 

.136 Cherry 

Bikini 

1.00 

Enyu 

.481 

Romuk 

.214 


.106 Erik 
.556 - 


336 


Cherry 

Boro 


Eniwetok .241 Aaraan- 

biru 

Mui .309 - 

Giriinien.144 - 


.247 - - - 

.377 - 

Eniwetok Atoll 

.281 Jieroru .170 Giriinienl .153 

- Rigili .128- - 

- Rujoru .048 - - 

- Teiteir- - - 

ipucchi .091 


Arbar •507 
Enybarbar.464 


Rongelap Atoll 
Eniaetaic .150 Arbar 

Mellu .192 - 

Kabelle .604 0- 


5.68 Enybarbar .545 


Bock 
Sniweta 


Rongerik Atoll 
.294 Latoback .243 Bock 
k .332 - - 


.623 - 




r » #-• rv t •» 





















* 


- 


Summary of data r^sed in determining the index of relative 
abundance of (fishes for th8 crossroads project. 

■arch 10 to July L 1946 by Dr, Leonard P* Schultz, 


Station 

number 


Locality Habitat 
or Ielandfished 


4 r , 


1 ' * 

jty *;**'■ , 


Number of fishes 
Preser- Discar- 
ved ded 


Total 


Area in 

square 

yards 


Bikini Atoll 


S-46* 
S-4o* 
S-46* 
S-46* 
S-46 
S-46- 
S—46- 
S—46* 


H&iwetok Atoll 


•159 

174 

186 

187 

■188 

■189 

•195 

197 


S-46-198 


S—46* 
S-46- 
S-46- 
S-46- 
S-46* 
S-46- 
S-46- 


Eniaetok Lagoon reef 
Lnybarbar Ocean reef 
Enybarbar Pond-like pool 


kellu 
Ka be11e 


Lagoon reef 
Lagoon reef 
Totals 


497 

788 

594 

635 


J 


30 - 


33 
1700 

1089 

3300 

561 


S-46-113 Bock 
S— 46 —237 Bock 
S- 46-238 Latoback 
S-46-241 Eniwetak 


Rcngerik Atoll 


Tidal pools 
Ocean reef 
Lagoon reef 
Ocean reef 
Totals 


350 

752 

393 




rand totals 


20X0 

14633 


219 

143 

591 

% 


350 

971. 

536 

1096 

my 


Index of 
abundance 


S-46-8 

Enyu 

Ocean reef 

849 

17 

866 

1800 

•461 

S-46-9 

Erik 

Ocean reef 

601 

544 

1145 

3300 

.347 

S-46-10 

Erik 

Pond-like pool 

362 

454 

816 

2420 

.336 

S-46-15 

Bikini 

Ocean reef 

504 , 

54 

558 

25000 

.022 

s—46* ,r 47 

Raauk 

Ocean reef 

340 

75 

415 

16650 

.025 

&»46~46 

Romuk 

Lagoon reef 

456 

46 

502 

3400 

.148 

S-46-49 

Namu 

Tidal pods 

281 

31 

312 

561 

.556 

S-46-50 

Namu 

Lagoon reef 

228 

185 

413 

3350 

.123 

S-46-51 

Namu 

Ocean surf 

133 

-- 

133 

289 

.460 

S-46-52 

Boro 

Ocean surf 

440 

183 

623 

1650 

.377 

S-46-94 

Bokon 

Ocean surl* 

108 


108 

625 

.173 

S-46-95 

Bokon 

Tidal pools 

115 

— 

115 

1089 

.106 


Airy 

Ocean surf 

334 

— 

334 

825 

.405 

S-46-97 

Airy 

Lagoon reef 

285 

168 

453 

3300 

.136 

S-46-98 

Cherry 

Ocean reef 

273 

134 

407 

1650 

.247 

S- 46-99 

Cherry 

Tidal pools 

250 


250 

200 

I .25 

S-46-120 

Bikini 

Ocean surf 

214 

112 

326 

325 

1.00 

S-46-128 

Rorauk 

Lagoon reef 
Totals i ; 

192 

5W 

65 

266 0 

257 

1200 

..214 


Eniwet ok 

Ocean surf 

189 

114 

303 

1050 

.241 

Jieroru 

Lagoon reef 

369 

392 

761 

44^2 

.170 

Mui 

Ocean surf 

676 

252 

928 

3000 

.309 

Giriinlen 

Ocean surf 

150 

66 

216 

1500 

.144 

Giriinlen Tidal pools 

173 


173 

150 

1.153 

Rigili 

Lag on reef 

374 

194 

568 

4422 

.128 

Rujoru 

Lagoon reef 

4^6 

— 

468 

9800 

.048 

feiteiri- 

Lagoon reef 

7 88 

107 . 

895 

9800 

.091 

piicchl 


406 


564 

WE 



Aaraanbiru Ocean roof 

158 

TSSJ 

2000 

.281 


Totals 





Ron- elap "toll 




Arbar 

Ocean reef 

272 


272 

528 

.507 

Arbar 

Tidal pool 

126 

—— 

126 

22 

5.68 


.150 

.464 

.545 

.192 

•604 


.623 

.294 

.243 

.332 


4480 19113 










PRELIMINARY REPORT ON RESFFISH STUDIES ON BIKINI ATOLL 

4 

V* 

March- April 1946 

The original plan was to occupy several rotenone poisoning 
stations on Bikini Atoll reefs for the purpose of getting a relative 
index of abundance of fish life. In the use of the rotenone it was 
not intended to do so much poisoning that measurable damage would 
result to the fish fauna and might be detectable after the bomb 
blast. Poisoning stations were thus well separated but their 
location depended largely on accessability of the reef and suitable 
habitats for working. This made it necessary to locate the stations 
close to the islands on which landing was feasable at high tide. 

The broad flat expanses of the reefs, where the water flows over in 

V * 

large quantities at high tide has little or no cover for fishes 
and is unsuitable for measuring fish abundance by the poisoning 
method. The stations selected represent the best habitats that 
were available in the area visited and were selected after careful 
reconnaissance. 

These habitats may be classified as follows: (1). Outer edge of 
ocean reef in surf among corals, channels, and algae. This zone 
is about 50 to 75 feet wide in most localities. (2). Ocean reef with 
corals 1 to 4 feet high, some algae, with narrow to wide channels 
between, or scattered coral heads, srnd with the water 2 to 5 feet 
deep at low tide. Bottom usually sandy. (3). Lagoon reef with 
corals, 1 to 4 feet high, smme algae, narrow channels or crevices 
with water up to 6 feet deep, occasionally deeper. (4). Shallow 
tidal pools, high up on reef, usually not over 1 1/2 feet deep, 
isolated at low tide, with scanty growth of corals or none. (5). 
Pond-like tidal nool connected with lagoon at high tide. 






2 


* 


Sixteen stations were occupied in the habitats classified above 
for Bikini Atoll. Numerous other collections of fishes were made in 
this atoll so that about 6fishes or more were preserved, 
representing an estisnated 200 different kinds. The data gatnered 
for the regular stations are summarized in the accompany two tables. 

An index of relative abundance was attempted based on the number 
of fishes picked up at each station divided by the approximate num¬ 
ber of square yards effectively poisoned and searched. 

Since two men with face masks can search an area 200 by 300 feet 
in two to $hree hours and most of the time I had from 3 to 5 helpers 
the number of man hours is unimportant as long as the area was 
carefully covered. Not all of the fishes killed at each station 
can be recovered but this factor, among others, probably remains 
nearly constant for all stations worked. Sufficient rotenone is 
used to kill the fidi es in the area effectively fisheJ. Since the 
eels are least affected among all the species observed, it is 
fairly certain that ample rotenone was used if the eels are dead 

after 3/A to an hour after the cloud of rotenone-laden water has 

\ 

past an area. At all stations eels were killed. The amount of 
powdered Cub$ root used varied from 15 to 35 pounds per station. 

As soon as the preserved specimens are available at the 
National Museum and I am there to work them up to species- an 
additional index will be attempted- this is the number of soecies 
at each staion. This index should reflect the suitability of the 
habitat for a varied fish fauna. 

The following conclusions have been reached concerning the fish 
fauna of Bikini Atoll. In the ocean surf at the outer edge of the 
reef, c mprising mos^%_\y the Lithothamnion Ridge the conditions 







- 3 - 

are similar all the way around the lagoon and the stations occupied 
indicate a similar abundance of fishes, except possibly at the 
eastern end where fewer were taken. 

The ocean reef is not as luxuriant a habitat for fishes on the 

windward side as on the leeward side of the atoll. This is indicated 

in the index of abundance off Bikini and Romuk Islands where it is 

low as compared with the leeward side, showing more than ten times 
more fish per square yard. 

The lagoon reefs occur only toward the western end of the atoll 
making it impossible to run similar stations at the eastern end. 

Such stations, no doubt, would have been of little significance 

anyway because of the extensive blasting of coral heads and shoals 
at the eastern side of the lagoon. 

Isolated tidal pools are very scarce on Bikini Atoll. Three such 
places were located; that at Bokon Island on the eastern side had 
a lower index value as compared with that at Namu and Cherry Islands. 
Such tiflal tools permit a high concentration of fishes during low 
tides, which accounts for the high values. 

The reef fish studies indicate and are corroborated by other 
observations that the fish fauna of Bikini Atoll is scanty on the 
windard side but more abundant on the leeward side* 

It may be safely concluded that any change in the reef fish 
abundance will not be detectable except when a gross change occurs. 

The te a! "° Cn iS S ° biS that the atom bomb ex Plosions may not produce 
a dectable change in the fish pouplations on the reefs swept by 
every high tide. 


• 9 • 


* i r. rt'W 


* ' * */» 





A SUMMARY OF DATA ON ABUNDANCE OF REEF FISHES AT BIKINI ATOL L 

March-April 1946 


Index of relative abundance for classified habitats at stations 
poisoned with rotenone for fishes 


Outer 

edge 

Ocean reef 

Lagoon reef 

Shallow 

Pond-like tidal 

-7 

4 

corals 

- 



not 

©4ean 

reef 

and 

corals and 

Isolated 

poo^connected 

in surf 

algae 


algae 

tidal pools 

with lagoon at 


• 




low tide 

Local¬ 

• Index 

Local¬ 

Index 

Local- Index 

Local- Index 

Locality Index 

ity 


ity 


ity 

ity 


Namu 

.463 

Bikini 

.022 

Rc^JJuk .148 

Bokon .106 

Erik .336 

Bole on 

.173 

Rorn.uk 

.025 

Namu .123 

Namu *556 


Airy 

.405 

Erik 

.347 

Airy .136 

Cherry 1.25 



hat 

Enyu 

. 481 

iRenwh 4 <^7 





• 







Cherry 

.247 



- 



Boro 

.377 



• 


Summary of data used in determining the index oi relabiove aoundance 


Serial no. Local* Habitat 
Station ity 


S-46-8 

S-46-9 

S-46-10 

S-46-15 

S-46-47 

S-46-48 

S-46-49 

S-46-50 

S-46-51 

S-46-52 

S-46-94 

S-46-95 

S-46-96 

S-46-97 

S-46-98 

S-46-99 


Enyu 

Ocean 

reef 

Erik 
Erik . 

MjktkvSt. 

Bikini 

Ocean 

reel 

Romuk 

t» 

tr 

R omuk 

Lagoon reef 

Namu 

Tidal 

uools 

•ik 

Namu 

Lagoon reef 

Namu 

Ocean 

surf 

Boro 

Ocean 

reef' 

Bokon 

Ocean 

surf 

Bokon 

Tidal 

pools 

Airy 

Ocean 

surf 

Air|r 

Lagoon reef 

Cherry 

Ocean 

reef 

Cherry 

Tidal 

pools 


Total 




Number of 

fishes 


Area in 

Index 

Preserved 

Discarded 

Total 

So. yds. 

Abund 

849 

17 • 

866 

iioo 

.481 

601 

544 

1145 

3300 

.347 

362 

454 

816 

2420 

.33fc 

504 

54 

558 

1 25,000 
[ 16,650 

.0223 

340 

75 

415 

.025 

456 

46 

502 

3400 

.148 

281 

31 

312 

561 

.556 

228 

I85 

413 

3350 • 

..123 

133 

— 

133 

289 

.460 

440 

183 

623 

1650 

' .337 

108 

- - 

108 

625 

.173 

115 

— 

115 

1089 

.106 

334 

— 

334 

825 

.405 

285 

168 

453 

3300 

.136 

273 

134 

407 

1650 

.247 

250 

• 

250 

200 

1.25 

5559 

1891 

7450 



5/V 

U2 

/ . 

2 as 

)' CTT> 

sy ?3 
/ 

a 003 

5 

j 5 7 

/ 2 crx> 

■21 f 



















i £/ Wb 


Summary of index of abundance for classified habitats of reef fislB s 

Btfcxgi fcfe wM 


Outer 

Ocean 

s$ff. 

Local¬ 

ity 

Nam# 

Bokon 

Airy 

Bikini 


edge of Ocean reef of Lagoon reef 
reef in corals and of corals 

and algae 

Index Local- Index Local- 
« ity ity 

BIKINI ATOLL 


Index 


algae 
Local¬ 
ity 


Shallow isola- Pond-like tidal 
ted tidal pools pools not connec¬ 
ted with lagoon at 
low tide 
Locality Index 


Index 


*463 Bikini 
.173 R oniuk 
.405 Erik 
1.00 Enyu 

- Cherry 

- Boro 


.022 Romuk 
.025 Namu 
.347 Airy 
.481 Romuk 

.247 - 

.377 - 


•148 Bokon 
.123 Namu 
.136 Cherry 
.214- 


.106 

.556 

1.25 


Erik 


.336 


Eniwetok .241 Aaraan- 

biru 

Mui .309 - 

Giriinien.144 - 


ENIWETOK ATOLL 
.281 Jieroru 


- Rigili 

- Rujoru 

-Teiteir- 

ipucchl 


.170 Giriinien 1.153 - 

• 128- - 

.048 _ _ 

.091 



































- ‘4 f f 

Summary of data used in determining the index of relative abundance. 


Serial no.Local- 
Station ity 


Habitat 


S-46. 

S-46 

S-46- 

S-46 

S-46- 

S-46' 

S-46- 

S-46- 

S-46- 

S-46- 

S-46- 

S-46- 

S-46- 

S-46- 

S-46- 

S-46- 

S-46- 

S-46- 


Enyu 

Erik 

Erik 

Bikini 

Romuk 

Romuk 

Namu 

Namu 

Namu 

Boro- 

Bokon 

Bokon 

Airy 

Airy • 

Cherry 

Cherry 

Bikini 

Romuk 


S-46- 
S-46- 
S-46. 
S-46- 
S—46- 
S—46- 
S-46- 
S-46- 


■159 
•174 
•186 
•187 
•188 
•189 
•195 
•197 


Number of fishes 
Preser- Discar- 
ved ded 

Bikini Atoll 


Ocean reef 

Ocean reef 


t» 


n 


Lagoon reef 
Tidal pools 
Lagoon reef 
Ocean surf 

ft 


ft 


ft 

ft 


Tidal pools 
Ocean surf 
Lagoon reef 
Ocean reef 
Tidal pools 
Ocean surf 
Lagoon reef 
Totals 


Eniwetok Atoll 


Eniwetok 
Jieroru 
..Mui 

Ciriinien 
Giriinien 

Bigili . 

Ruj oru 
Teiteiri^ 
pucchi 
S-46-198 Aaraanbiru 


Ocean surf 
Lagoon reef 
Ocean surf 

. « , w 

Tidal pools 
Lagoon reef 

«t t» 


ft 


ft 


ft 




mi 






Area in 
Square 
Total Yards 


849 

17 

866 

1800 

601 

544 

1145 

3300 

362 

454 

816 

2420 

504. 

54 

558 

25000 

340 

75 

415 

16650 

456. 

46. 

502 

3400 

281 

31 

312 

561 

228 , 

0 

I85 

413 

3350 

133 

— 

133 

289 

440 

183 

623 

1650 

108 

— 

108 

625 

115 

mm mm mm 

115 

1089 

334 

-- 

334 

825 

285 

168 

453 

3300 

273 

134 

407 

1650 

250 

m " m mm mm 

250 

200 

214 

112 

326 

325 

192 

65 

257 

1200 

59^5 

MT 

8033 



Index of 
Abund¬ 
ance 


.481 

.347 

.330, 

.0223 

.025’ 

.148 

.556 

.123 

.460 

.377 

.173 
• 106 
.405 
.136 
.247 
I.25 
1.00 
.214 


•1 


189 

114 

303 

1050 

.241 

369 

392 

“761 

4422 

.170 

676 

252 

928 

3000 

.309 

150 

66 

216 

1500 

.144 

173 

-— 

173 

150 

1.153 

374. 

194 

568 

4422 

.128 

468 

— 

468 

9800 

.048 

7 88 

107 

895 

9800 

.091 

406 

158 

564 

2000 

.281 

3593 

1283 

4876’" 

• 















♦ 


A mm AHT OF DATA CN ABUNDA96S OF REEF FISHES AT BIKINI 

March-April 1946 

Index of relative abundance for classified habitats at stations 
poisoned with rotenons for fishes 


Outer 

•&rc Ocean reef 

Lagoon roof 

Shallow 

Pond-like tidal 





not 

Ocean roof, 'corals and 

corals and 

Isolated 

pccl/connecter 

in surf algae 

al poo 

tidel pools 

with larocn at 


■ Index Local- Index 


low tide 

Local¬ 

Local- Index 

Local- Index 

Locality Index 

ity 

ity ; 

ity 

ity 


Naum 

*463 Bikini *322 

Ro^uk .146 

Bokon *106 

Erik .336 

Bokon 

*173 Rcauk *025 

Nani:. *|23 

N§nu *556 

• 

Airy 

*405 Erik *347 

Airy *136 

Cherry 1*25 



^ -n’ n *41 • 

(fl&iutA 1 




Cherry *247 





Boro *377 





Stannary of data used in 'dotenalnixt;;:: the index of relabitvo abundance 


Serial no* Local4 Habitat 


Station 

S»4^**8 

S-46-9 

S-46-10 

S-46-I5 

S-46-47 

S-46-48 

S-46-49 

S-46-50 

S-46-51 

S-46-52 

S-46-94 
S-46-95 
S-46-96 
3-46*97 

8-46-96 
S— 46 —99 


ity 

Enyu 

Erik 

Erik 

Bikini 

Rorauk 

Rcouk 

Nonu 

lloisu 

Nauru 

Boro 

Bokon 

Bokon 

Airy 

Airy 

Cherry 

Cherry 


Ocean re 

t* * . • tv ft 
** 

Ocean reef 
« « 

Laecon reef 
Tidal pools 

pare on jpoof 

Ocean surf 
Ocean reef 

Ocean surf 
Tidal pools 
Ocean surf 
Lagoon reef 
Ocean reef 
Tidal pools 
Tctul 


SJb'120 

$ ~Y4"/3 % 6Wnudk V 


W.. 


to r of 
served 

fishes 

Discarded Total 

Area in 

Sc,* yds. 

Index 

Abund 

649 

17 

866 

1 V&c 

•481 

601 

544 

1145 

3360 

.347 

362 

454 

816 

21,20 

.334 

504 

54 

558 

25 , XX) 

.0223 

340 

75 

415 

16,650 

•025 

456 

46 

502 

34>1 

.148 

261 

31 

312 

561 

.556 

228 

185 

413 

3350 

..123 

133 

war 

133 

280 

.460 

440 

183 

623 

165) 

.337 

106 


108 / 

625 

•173 

115 


115 

1089 

*106 

334 


334 

825 

.405 

285 

168 

453 

33)0 

.136 

273 

134 

407 

1650 

.247 

250 


250 

7w" 

200 

1.25 

r C t Q 
JJSV 

<2(9 

i^r 

// ^ 

335 

h(TV 

S >73 

nx 

*5 

A57 

1 «2 or? 

,31 y 

y p d 








j-iMM /1) i / 9 y& 


Bam aary of d t used in determining the index of relative abundance 

Habitat 


Serial no*Local 
Statical ity 




S-46-8 

8 - 46-10 
S-46-15 
8*46*47 
S**46 < '4S 
S—46—49 
S— 46—50 

S- 46-51 

8-46-52 
S—46—94 
S-46-95 

S- 46-96 

S-46-97 
S—46 — 1 98 
S-46-99 

S— 46 —120 
S-46-128 


Enyu 

Erik 

Erik 

Bikini 

Ecrauk 

Rcrauk 

Karan 

Harau 

Kama 

Boro 

Bokon 

Rokon 

Airy 

Airy 

Cherry 

Cherry 

Bikini 

Rceouk 


S-46-159 
S— 46 —174 
S— 46 —1£ 6 
8-46-187 
3-46-188 
S-46-189 

S-46-195 

S-46-197 

S— 46—196 




Nmber of fishes 
Prosor- Disser¬ 
ved ded 

,V ’ ;r ' ‘ •. ' . •• 1 • • *, ' 

Bikini Atoll 


Ocean roof 

tf ft 

Lagoon reef 
Ocean reef 

H « 

Lagcon reef 

Tidal pools 

Lap oca roof 

Ocean surf*' 
* « 

n n 

Tidal pools 
Ocean surf 
Lagoon reef 
Ocean roof 
Tidal pools 
Ocean surf 
Lapocn reef 
Totals 


849 

601 

362 

514 

340 

456 

281 

228 

133 

440 

18 

115 

334 

285 

273 

250 

214 

192 


183 


168 

134 


dwotok Atoll 


Eniwetok 

Jieroru 

Mid 

Giriinien 
Girlinion 
ftlglil 

Rujoru 

Teiteiria 

pueehl 

Aarcanbiru 


Oc o<m Gurf 
Lagoon reef 
Ocean surf 

ft ft 

Tidal pools 

Lagoon reef 

If If 

If H 


189 

369 

676 

150 

173 

374 

468 

788 

406 

3% 


114 

392 

25? 


194 



Area in 

Index 


Square 

Abund¬ 

Total 

Yards 

ance 

866 

1800 

.481 

1145 

3300 

.347 

816 

2420 

.3 

55S 

250 ).) 

.3223 

415 

16650 

.025 

502 

3400 

.148 

312 

561 

.556 

413 

3350 

.123 

1; 3 

289 

.460 

623 

1650 

.377 

138 

625 

.173 

115 

1089 

*106 

334 

825 

.435 

453 

3300 

.136 

407 

1650 

.247 

253 

2 0 

i .25 

326 

325 

1*00 

257 

wyr 

1200 . 

.214 

303 

1050 

.241 

761 

4422 

.170 

928 

3 >oo 

.309 

216 

15 0 

.144 

173 

150 

1.153 

568 

4422 

.128 

468 

9800 

*048 

895 

98) 

.091 

564 

2000 

.281 

















cMa\X^ I 


K 




Susamary of index of abundance for class!flea Jrnbitats of reef fIsba s 


|g^|i^t|pr ,A| 


Outer &ctge of 
Ocean reef in 
attff. 

Local¬ 
ity Index 

Koffift .463 

Bokcn .173 
*lry . 

Bikini 1*00 


Ocem reef of Lagoon roof 
corals and of corals 


cl me 
Local¬ 
ity 

bikini 

Rcsauk 

Erik 

Knyu 

Cherry 

Boro 


Sniwetok *241 Aaraan 

biru 

Mui *309 —— 

Giriini©n*144 —— 


and 

Index Local- Index Local- 
« Hy ity 

Birm ATCLL 
*022 Sosauk *148 Bokon 
|v *025 Bemu 
•347 Airy 
#4B1 Rm\).k 

*247 - 

• 377 - 


Shall a* iscla- pond-like tidal 
tod tidal pools pools not connec- 

'ted with la oon at 
low tide 
Locality Index 


Index 


*123 Uaau 
*136 Cherry 
*214 —————— 

— «X..W WMaw 

J 1 ’ 

«*'•«* *•»•«* W *■» — M 


«lo 6 
*556 
1.25 


Srik 


•336 


mtfSTOK ATOLL 


- *281 lisroru .170 Ciriinion 1*153 - 


EigJLli 
—— Rnjoru 

-Teitoir- 

ipucchi 


*128 —**—— 

#048 —— 
*•«•«»«• tm 

.091 




























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