Skip to main content

Full text of "The philosophical magazine. Volume 29, 1807-1808."

See other formats




























> 


\ 







fubUsTtadr Octoberbf^A.TUloch, Carey Street. 


4 


























































"/ 


I 


THE 

PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE: 

I 

COMPREHENDING 

THE VARIOUS BRANCHES OF SCIENCE, 

THE LIBERAL AND FINE ARTS, 
AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES, 

AND 

COMMERCE. 

BY ALEXANDER TILLOCH , 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY, &C. &C. &C. 

^ / • . 

« Nec aranearum sane textus ideo melior quia ex se fila gignunt, nec nostsf 
vilior quia ex aliems libamus ut apes/’ Just. Lips. Monit. Folii . lib. i. cap. I. 



VOL. XXIX. 

For OCTOBER, NOVEMBER, and DECEMBER, 1307; 

and JANUARY, 1808. 


LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR JOHN MURRAY, FLEET STREE^T) AND 

A. CONSTABLE AND CO. EDINBURGH : 

And sold by Richardson; Cadell and Davies; Longman, Hurst, 
Rees, and Qrme; Symonds; Vernor, Hood, and Sharpe; 
Harding; Highley ; London: Bell and Bradfute, 
Edinburgh : Brash & Reid, and D. Niven, Glasgow* 

and Gilbert and Hones s* Dublin. 












\ 




0 


\ 



f 














f 















I 














J 



\ 















\ 



/ 


\ 


\ 






\ 


• . 


I * ■ 


\ 


/- 


CONTENTS 


OF THE 

TWENTY-NINTH VOLUME. 


I. A STATISTICAL Account of Upper Canada. By 

J. B. Galt, Esq .* .3 

II. Summary Considerations upon variegated Colours of 

Bodies when reduced into thin Pellicles ; to which is added 
an Explanation of the Colours of tempered Steel, and of 
those of Peacocks* Feathers. Extracted from a Work on 
Colours-, by C. A. Prieur .. 11 

III. Up on the most sensible Re-agents with respect to the 

Muriatic , the Carbonic, the Sulphuric Acids, and Ammonia,* 
By M. Pfaff, Professor of Chemistry at Kiel .. 17 

IV. Some further Remarks upon the supposed Formation 

of Muriatic Acid in IVater by the Influence of the Gal- 
vanic Pile. By Professor Pfaff .. .. . * .. 

V. Essay upon the Art of the Foundry among the Anti-ents: r 

with some Remarks upon the celebrated Horses of Chio , 
now brought from Venice to Paris. By M. Seitz .. 20 


VI. Facts for a History of the Gallic Acid. By M. Bouil- 

lon-Lagrange .* .. .. 29 

VII. Note upon a fulminating Combination of Silver, of a 

white Colour and a crystalline Appearance. By M. Des- 
costils . .3 6 


VIII. Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D . 38 

IX. Description of a circular Mother-of-Pearl Micrometer. 

By David Brewster, A. M. . * .. 48 

X. Additional Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 

By M. Cuvier . ..52 

XI. On the Phenomena of the Horizontal Moon. By 

Ez. Walker, Esq . .65 

XII. Report of the Senior Chaplain of Fort Si. George to 

the Right Honourable Lord William Bentinck, Go¬ 
vernor of Madras, on the State of the Christians inhabiting 
the Kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore .68 

Vol. 29* No. 116. Jan % 1808. a XIII. Re- 









CONTENTS* 


Nil!. Report of Surgical Cases in the Finsbury Dispensary 
from the Beginning of February to the End of April 1807 | 
with the Appearances, on Dissection, in a Case of Aneu¬ 
rism ; and some Observations on that Disease, by John 
Taunton, Esq. .83 

XIV. Proceedings of Learned Societies . . .. 85 

XV . Intelligence and Miscellaneous Articles .. . . go 

XVI. Proposal for a new System of Building Houses , 

Streets, &'c. By G. Field, Esq. .. ,. .. 97 

XVII. On the (Economy of Bees. In a Letter from Tho¬ 
mas Andrew Knight,. Esq. F. R. S. Jo the Right Ho¬ 
nourable Sir Joseph Banks, Bart., K.B. P.R.S. 104 

XVIII. Note upon a fulminating Combination of Silver, of 
a white Colour and a crystalline Appearance. By M. 

DkSCOSTILS .... HQ 

XIX. Observations and Measurements of the Planet Vesta. 

By John Jerome Schroeter, F.R.S. Translated 
from the German . . . . .. .. 2 ] 5 

XX. A new Eudiometer, accompanied with Experiments 
elucidating its Application. By William Hasledine 


Pepys, Esq. A. .. . . . , .116 

XXL On Public Libraries 9 . .225 


XXII. Memoirs of the late Erasmus Darwin, M. D . 129 

XXI IL Some Account of a Journey to the Frozen Sea, and 
of the Discovery of the Remains of a Mammoth. By 
M. Michael Adams, of St. Petersburgh. Translated 
from the French . . .. # . # # 241 

XXIV. Essay upon the Art of the Foundry among the A11- 
tients. witii some Remarks upon the celebrated Horses of 
Ohio, now brought from Venice to Paris. By M. Seitz 




XXV. On the Making of Starch. By Mr. James Graham, 

of Berwick- upon -Tweed .. .2 60 

XXVI. Report of Surgical Cases in the Finsbury Dispensary 

from the Beginning of May to the End of June 1807~ 
with the Appearances on Dissection in a Case of Hy¬ 
drocephalus. By John Taunton, Esq. .. . . 269 

XXVII. Notices respecting New Books .. .. . , ] j l 

XXVIII. Proceedings of Learned Societies .. .. 2 80 

XXIX. Intelligence and Miscellaneous Articles .. 188 

XXX. Proposal for the Establishment of a National Mu- 

swim, Ey J, S. Duncan, Esq. of Lincoln's Inn .. 193 

XXXI. Pro - 








I 


CONTENTS. 

XXXI. Project for the Establishment of Telegraphs on a 
New Construction. By Captain Pasley, of the Royal 
Engineers . . . .. .. ^05 

XXXII. Some Observations on Dr. Taylor’s Theorem for 
the Development of the Function $ {a + x) .. 211 

XXXIII' On the Quantity of Carbon in Carbonic Acid, and 
on the Nature of the Diamond. By William Allen - , 
Esq. F.L.S. and YV illiam Hasledine Pepys, Esq . 

216 

XXXIV. Account of the Discoveries made by the Rev. Dr. 
Buchanan, in the course of his Investigations undertaken 
by Order of the Supreme Government of Bengal . . 228 

XXXV. On the probable Composition of Sulphur .. 240 

XXXVI. Description of an Improved Galvanic Trough. 
By C. Wilkinson, Esq . 243 

XXXVII. Additional Memoir upon living and fossil Ele¬ 
phants. By M. Cuvier .244 

XXXVIII. Memoirs of the late Erasmus Darwin, M.D. 

2 55 

XXXIX. Life of the Duke de Chaulnes .. .. 262 

XL. Report of Surgical Cases in the City and Finsbury Dis¬ 
pensaries in July 3 807, containing a remarkable Case of 
Cancer in the Breast. By John Taunton, Esq . 267 

XLI. Notices respecting New Books .270 

XLII. Proceedings of Learned Societies . 273 

XLIII. Intelligence and Miscellaneous Articles .. 285 

XLIV. Directions for constructing a cheap Bed and elastic 
Frame , for the easy Conveyance of sick or wounded 
Persons. Invented, and most humbly presented to His 
Royal Highness the Commander in Chief, by Patrick 
Crichton, Lieutenant-colonel of the Second Regiment 
Royal Edinburgh Volunteers . 289 

XLV. Project for the Establishment of Telegraphs on a 
New Construction. By Captain Paslky, of the Royal 
Engineers .. .— .... 292 

XLV I. Proposal for the Establishment of a National Mu¬ 
seum. By J. S. Duncan, Esq. oj Lincoln s Inn 296 
XLVII. On the Quantity of Carbon in Carbonic Acid, and 
on the Nature of the Diamond. By William Allen 
Esq. F.L.S. and William ITasledine Pepys, Esq. 

315 

XLVIIL Memoirs of the late Erasmus Darwin, M.D. 

325 

1 XLIX. On 






CONTENTS. 

A LIX.- On that Power of the Eye, ly which it is adjusted 
to see Objects distinctly at different Distances. By 
Ez. Walker, Esq .* .34(1 

L. On the Stanhope and other Temperaments of the Musical 
Scale. By Mr. John Farey .. .. *. .. 345 

LI. Report of Surgical Cases in the City and Finsbury Dis¬ 
pensaries for August 1807 . By John Taunton, Esq. 

349 

LIE On the Means of gaining Power in Mechanics 351 
LIII. On destroying Insects injurious to Cultivation 353 
LIV. Notices respecting New Books .. .. .. . 9 354 

LV. Proceedings of Learned Societies ... 3 70 

LVL Intelligence and Miscellaneous Articles .. 0 , 372 


( 



\ 


THE 




PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE. 


I. A Statistical Account of Upper Canada. By 
J. B. Galt, Esq .* 

Of a country so little known as America, it is almost im¬ 
possible to receive a description of any part without being 
sensible of an increase of knowledge. Our small stock of 
facts relative to its aboriginal inhabitants, and the frame of 
its permanent features, is still insufficient for correct theo¬ 
retical purposes. We are still unable to conceive how it 
could have happened that a continent so extensive, equal in 
the variety of its productions and climates to the old world, 
should have been found, in the sixteenth century of the 
Christian sera, more savage and illiterate than those king¬ 
doms of Asia and Africa which many ages before had re¬ 
lapsed into barbarism : and still less are we qualified to form 
a just hypothesis of those convulsions and events of nature 
which have given to the American scenery its peculiar mag¬ 
nificence. The French traveller Volney endeavours to prove 
that the southern interior of North America has only re¬ 
cently become dry, and that in time the lakes of Canada 
must also be exhausted, and lay open the bosom of the coun¬ 
try f. But as the object of this paper is chiefly to give an 
arranged view of a few statistical recollections which were 
lately obtained from Mr. Gilkison, of Amherstburgh, in 
Upper Canada, it is perhaps superfluous to introduce re¬ 
flections which more properly belong to the general ques¬ 
tions of natural philosophy. 

Climate .—The climate of Upper Canada is more steady 

* Communicated by Mr. Galt. 

\ VolneyTravels in America. 

Vol. 29 . No. 113. Oct . 1807. A 2 


than 







/ 


4 Statistical Account of Upper Canada . 

than that of England. After winter has set in, which hap¬ 
pens about Christmas, an intense frost usually prevails three 
months, during which the rigour of the season is unremit¬ 
ted. Towards the end of March the cold has relented, but 
vegetation does not effectually commence till the end of 
April; it proceeds then, however, with great power. Pease, 
in the course of six weeks after planting, are generally fit 
for table. Mr. Gilkison describes the summer as hotter than 
he ever felt it either in the south of England or the north 
of France; arid during the dog days more oppressive than 
the heat of Jamaica. 

Winds ,—From the beginning of June to the end of Au¬ 
gust the wind on the lakes continues westerly during the 
day, and in the evening it becomes southerly. From what 
cause this resemblance to the alternate sea and land breezes 
of the West Indies originates Mr. Gilkison has not attempt¬ 
ed to ascertain; but he has observed that on the lakes Huron 
and Superior, which are less oblong than Erie and Ontarion, 
the wind is more variable, and when westerly is accompa¬ 
nied with thick fogs. As the season advances, the regular 
day and night breezes of the lakes subside, and when the 
cold weather begins the course of the wind becomes as pre¬ 
carious as in other high latitudes. 

Diseases ,—The province of Upper Canada is not subject 
to any particular disease. Although the western district has 
in part been settled more than a century, the small-pox has 
never reached it. Vaccination has lately been introduced, 
and all ages have received it. Since the establishment of 
distilleries the people have become much addicted to drink¬ 
ing, which they pretend to say has reduced the frequency 
of the ague, with which they were formerly often afflicted. 
The clearing of the country, however, will probably more 
rationally account for the change. 

Curiosities .—Petrifactions are very common ; indeed the 
whole flat rock in the neighbourhood of Fort Erie ap¬ 
pears to be one petrified mass, for at every step something 
is seen which at one time has been either animal or vege¬ 
table substance. Mr. Gilkison saw in a gentleman's pos¬ 
session, some years ago, a petrified hand entire, except the 

second 


5 


Statistical Account of Upper Canada. 

second joint of the fore finger, which seemed to have been 
accidentally broken off. The traders on the river St. Peter’s, 
Mississippi, report that some of them have seen in the pos¬ 
session of the Indians a petrified child, which they have 
often wished to purchase; but the savages regard it as a 
deitv, and no inducement could bribe them to part with it. 
Besides the natural curiosities there are others of a descrip¬ 
tion more calculated to excite interest and reflection. These 
are the ruins of antient fortresses, which appear to have been 
the work of a race different from the present Indians, who 
possess no tradition concerning their origin, nor seem to 
entertain any opinion respecting their use, or of those by 
whom they were constructed. They are regularly formed, 
and generally built where a ravine or high bank naturally 
strengthens the one side. The walls are ( of earth, and at 
present may be about four or five feet in height. At one 
time they must have been much higher, for trees of the 
verv largest size are now growing on the mounds. A con¬ 
tinued barrier of these works extends from the northern side 
of Lake Ontario towards the river district, and across to the 
vast plains which reach to the Mississippi. It may also be 
mentioned in this place as rather a curious fact, that al¬ 
though Lower Canada is greatly infested with rats, none 
have ever been seen above the falls of Niagara. ca 

Lakes .—The great lakes have been long gradually de¬ 
creasing; and in the course of nine years, the period of 
Mr. Gilkison’s residence at Amherstburgh, the waters have 
fallen nearly two feet perpendicularly. As the discharge at 
Niagara must in consequence be reduced, the allegations of 
those travellers respecting the time requisite for.wearing the 
passage of the river there, cannot be correctly founded. It 
is highly probable that the discharge of the cataract was for¬ 
merly much greater than it is at present, and the force of 
the water in mouldering the rock of course more effectual. 
The long period which in the opinion of those travellers the 
waters must have taken to form the chasm at the falls, is 
therefore at least doubtful. The issue from Lake Superior 
and the upper lakes into Ontario, independent of local 
streams and springs, is much greater than the discharge at 

A 3 Niagara; 


6 Statistical Account of Upper Canada. 

and naturalists have heard with surprise that the plant cassia, 
which grows only on the banks of Lake Ontario, is fre¬ 
quently found floating along the coasts of Norway *. 

Hemp .—The cultivation of hemp in the Canadas has 
lately become a popular concern ; and government, as well 
as public societies, have endeavoured to promote it, both as 
a resource to the navy and as an object of beneficial indus¬ 
try. In Upper Canada the sowing begins on the 10th of 
June, and in a favourable season ten hundred weight is ge¬ 
nerally produced per acre. About the middle of September 
it is pulled, the stalks are tied up in bundles, and steeped a 
few days in the river; they are then dried and stacked, till 
the farmers have leisure to break. It lias been observed 
that steeping hemp in stagnated water is better than in run¬ 
ning, besides being exposed to less hazard; the farmers, in 
consequence, intend to form steeping-pits in their hemp- 
grounds. At one time they used to rot the stalks upon the 
snow during winter; but it was soon ascertained to be de¬ 
structive of the fibre, and has been universally renounced. 
The common hand-break is used in breaking the stalks, 
which are afterwards scotched with a kind of wooden sword. 
The hemp is held in the left hand over a perpendicular board, 
and the sword is used by the right; when this process is 
finished the hemp is bundled for market. It is unnecessary 
to remark how laborious this method of cleaning is! About 
the value of a dollar is allowed for every sixty pounds, or per 
day, to the labourer; a charge that will prevent the Cana¬ 
dian hemp from ever rivalling the Russian, for in Russia the 
price of labour is comparatively nothing. The establish¬ 
ment of machinery in aid of manual labour is probably, 
therefore, the only effectual mode of accomplishing the 
wishes of government, and of those patriotic associations 
who have patronized the cultivation of hemp in the Cana¬ 
das. Government has offered fifty pounds sterling per ton 
for clean marketable hemp, delivered to agents in the county 
towns; but this plan, as well as the offer of bounties for- 
inerly adopted, has been almost entirely abortive, chiefly 

* Darwin’s Botanic Car4en. Notes to the Loves, of the Plants. 

owing 


Statistical Account of Upper Canada, 7 

owing to the price and hard labour of breaking. Indeed, 
the culture of hemp would have been probably disused en¬ 
tirely, but for a ropework established at Amherstburgh by 
Mr. Gilkison in conjunction with a Mr. Mills, where the 
farmers, on allowing a certain deduction of price for the 
additional labour requisite to fit their hemp for use, have 
lately found a steady and regular market. To obviate the 
laborious process of the hand-break and scotching, Mr. 
Gilkison has procured the model of a flax-mill, from which 
he intends to erect, on a large scale, a mill for breaking and 
cleaning hemp at Amherstburgh. The price of cordage at 
the ropework, which can only yet be regarded as an expe¬ 
riment, is still high, about five guineas per cwt.; but this 
is as much owing to the price of tar as to the hemp or la¬ 
bour, for tar from the United States costs about three pounds 
sterling per barrel. In time, however, if the experiment 
succeed, tar will be made from the pines of the country, 
and the necessity of importation obviated. 

Miscellaneous Considerations There are no historical facts 
more valuable than those which relate to the formation of 
communities, and the origin of nations; nor, perhaps, are 
the narratives of conquerors more interesting than the plain 
tales of those who, by the virtue of their designs alone, have 
improved the condition of mankind. The merits of William 
Penn have long been justly venerated ; and the high moral 
character of the Pennsylvanians even at this day, in the United 
States, is the fairest monument that wisdom and enterprise 
can hope to obtain. The earl of Selkirk’s exertions to pro¬ 
vide for <( a gallant and hardy race of men*,” whom a co* 
ercive change of manners and the abolition of antient cus¬ 
toms had deprived of their homes and hereditary importance, 
will also be commemorated with respect, when the derision 
with which they have been treated is forgotten, and the op¬ 
position which distorted his original design is remembered 
only to be contemned. His lordship’s lands in Upper Ca¬ 
nada were granted, like the other townships, on condition 


* Lord Chatham’s description of the Highlander*, 

A4 


that 


8 Statistical Account of Upper Canada . 

that within a limited period they should be settled with 
Inhabitants; a principle calculated to excite that very Spirit 
of emigration in others for which his lordship has been so 
inconsiderately blamed/ and which he only endeavoured to 
regulate for ultimate benefit to the empire. He has built a 
village for the Highlanders, and they are now very com¬ 
fortably established. Soon after their arrival a disorder si¬ 
milar to the jail fever broke out among them, and carried 
off a considerable number; they have since, however, par¬ 
ticipated in the general healthiness of the climate. His 
lordship, by importing Spanish and English rams, has im¬ 
proved the breed of his sheep; and he has already obtained 
wool equal to the best English, in some instances perhaps a 
superior quality. At no very distant period we may there¬ 
fore presume that Canadian wool, as well as hemp, will be¬ 
come a staple article ot commerce. 

The use of tobacco has considerably abated in Europe, 
and perhaps universally; but as in many situations it is 
found a salutary and preventive medicine, it is likely to con¬ 
tinue still a respectable branch of American commerce. It 
grows luxuriantly in the western district, and may therefore 
be regarded as one of those productions which in time will 
constitute the principal exportable commodities of the pro¬ 
vince, It is also probable that Canadian wines will be added 
to the variety of European luxuries; for the vine throughout 
the whole country is surprisingly fruitful, and the grapes 
uncommonly delicious. The mineral riches of Upper Ca¬ 
nada are little known, nor has it ever been supposed that 
the precious metals were to be found there. Accident, how¬ 
ever, has led Mr. Gilkison to believe, that, if judicious in¬ 
vestigations were instituted, gold might be discovered in the 
country beyond the Lakes. One day an Indian brought to 
him a quantity of a very heavy substance resembling the 
filings of a metal, and which he, as well as those to whom 
it was shown, conceived to be gold. Mr. Gilkison brought 
this specimen with him for the purpose of ascertaining its 
value; but it was lost along with luggage in the shipwreck 
of the vessel by which he came to Britain. The Indian as¬ 
sured 


Statistical Account of Upper Canada . 9 

sured him the dust could be obtained in great abundance, 
and that next year he would return to Amherstburgh with, 
a larger quantity. 

A society has been formed for the encouragement of the 
commerce and agriculture of the province ; and the legisla¬ 
ture, last year, voted 400 1 . to procure a philosophical appa¬ 
ratus, to be placed in the most populous and central district; 
a grant of 1200/. was also made for the improvement and 
making of roads. When it is considered that the popula¬ 
tion does not exceed 40,000 souls, so liberal a disposition 
in the provincial legislature is certainly calculated to im¬ 
prove tile character of the people, who may be described, 
at present, as a composition of all nations, kindred, and 
tongues. The Dutch farmers are, eminently distinguished 
for their industrious inclinations, but the settlers from the 
United States are the refuse of their own country ; they are 
nevertheless, however, excellent axe-men, and wonderfully 
active in clearing the forests. The French of Upper Canada 
are an indolent and thoughtless race ; their attention is only 
exerted towards objects of amusement, and they appear but 
slightly affected by that kind of ambition which incites the 

O J 

rest of mankind to improve their condition. The Scotch 
Highlanders can hardly yet be regarded in any respect dif¬ 
ferent from their well known character in Britain. 

Religion .— The established religious discipline of Upper 
Canada is that of the English church. The clergy are go¬ 
verned by the bishop of Quebec. Their salaries, however, 
are paid by the state, as the lands allotted for ecclesiastical 
purposes are still inadequate to support them. By this mode 
of paying the clergy, those parochial feuds, which so often 
disgrace the priesthood elsewhere, are prevented. Exclusive 
of the allowance from government, the Missionary Society 
gives a small stipend, which makes the amount of the sa¬ 
lary to each minister about 200 1 . per annum. It would be 
v improper to dismiss this article without noticing a very ex¬ 
traordinary innovation on the tything system, which has been 
made bv the British government. Instead of the tenth of 
the produce, a tenth part of the land in every allotment is 

reserved 


20 Statistical Account of Upper Canada. 

reserved for the future maintenance of the clergv. But no 
provision is made for a capital to stock or cultivate the 
iy thing . The innovation seems only calculated to perplex 
the future pastors as well as their flocks, unless the legisla¬ 
ture previously examine the validity of tythes in general. 

Schools —Several attempts have been made to establish 
township schools; the want, however, of funds has hitherto 
proved an insuperable objection. Lands, upon the same 
principle as the ecclesiastical, have been reserved for this pur¬ 
pose ; but while the population of the country continues so 
thin, such local provision for the master will not be suffi¬ 
cient. There is reason to hope, however, that district 
schools will soon be instituted, when, besides fees from the 
scholars, it is supposed that salaries will be granted from 
the revenues of the province. 

Missionaries .-The Missionary Society of the United 

States have sent their agents amongst the Indians; but* 
with the exception of the Quakers, few have succeeded in 
producing even a disposition to moral or intellectual im¬ 
provement. In only one village, Mr. Gilkison said, had 
their labours been attended with any visible success. It is 
situated on the river Thames in the western district, and 
the Indians are of the Delaware nation. Several of the in¬ 
habitants read, and also write a little; they attend church 
regularly, where sermons in their own and the English lan¬ 
guage are delivered on Sundays. The women sing the 
psalms and hymns with a respectable degree of skill, and 
drinking is almost universally abandoned; which is the grand 
previous step to furnishing the Indians with the means or 
Ifie matter of knowledge* 


II. Sum - 


[ 11 ] 


II. Summary Considerations upon variegated Colours of 
Bodies when reduced into thin Pellicles ; to which is added 
an Explanation of the Colours of tempered Steel , and of 
those of Peacocks' Feathers . Extracted from a Work on 
Colours ; by C. A. Prieur. 

[Concluded from p. 339.] 

X shall conclude with some observations upon two kinds 
of curious phenomena analogous to my subject, and of 
which I think myself warranted in giving an explanation 
different from that generally admitted. 

The first subject I allude to chiefly concerns the colours 
of tempered steel. 

Newton has ranked them among those dependent upon 
coloured rings, not from any special examination, but by 
a simple consequence of the system he founded, and sup¬ 
posing that the metallic particles must change in their size 
from the action of the fire*. Beyond this he did not look, 
in order to ascertain if there were other causes to take into 
the account. 

Some more recent inquirers, on the contrary, have, with¬ 
out hesitation, attributed these colours to a varied degree of 
oxidation f, because they thought they saw a great simili¬ 
tude between the appearances in question and those of se¬ 
veral metals placed in circumstances in which they were in 
fact oxidated. This subject at least merits a closer exa¬ 
mination, and I adopted the following simple method to 
elucidate it. 

I placed a steel watch-spring in the dame of a candle, and 
heated it for a few minutes in a fixed position. Having 
afterwards taken it out, I found, upon cooling and wiping 
it, that there was to the right and left of the central point, 
where the flame had acted, a series of coloured gradations 
with periodical returns, such as would have been exhibited 

* Optics, book ii. part 3. prop. 7. 

f Independently of several authors who have adopted this prejudice with 
respect to oxidation, we see it exhibited, in a recent publication, full of inter, 
esting views and observations, with the exception of this doctrine alone. See 
in Nicholson’s Journal for June 1800, a report upon fine cutlery, 

1 


by 


12 Upon the variegated Colours of Bodies 

i>y a small ribbon cut precisely in the midst of a circle 
formed of a series of concentric coloured rings. The nature 
of the phenomenon, therefore, was here manifested very 
distinctly; for the exterior ring was nearly three centimetres 
in diameter, and the others decreased interiorly, with inter¬ 
vals of some millimetres. Nothing was wanting to com¬ 
plete the figures but to operate upon a large plate of steel, 
suspended horizontally above the point of the flame; in this 
case, f should certainly have obtained entire circles of rings. 

I did not happen to have such a large plate of steel at 
hand, but f made use of a sheet of tinned iron, which, with 
appearances analogous to the preceding, gave very brilliant 
colours, on account of the natural white of the substance. 
When looked at in a proper direction the colours appear still 
more lively,, viz. chiefly yellow, red and blue, which form 
together a spot in which the blue occupies the centre, sur¬ 
rounded with red, and beyond that again yellow, with in¬ 
termediate gradations of shades. 

Nothing in the faculty possessed by tin of oxidating and 
forming salts, indicates any thing like colours corresponding 
to the above; in addition to this, the periodical streaks upon 
the steel watch-spring evidently belong to a series of rings ; 
we must therefore conclude that this phenomenon belongs 
simply to the class of coloured rin^s. 

Another experiment made upon a gold ring also produced 
repeated traces of rings; and in this case, the idea of oxida¬ 
tion is almost out of the question. 

A copper wire gave me similar appearances, although 
more feebly; but I have remarked them very distinctly upon 
this same metal when made into the flues of stoves. Lead, 
when we melt it, also exhibits these sorts of colours when 
cooled, even upon its inferior surface, not exposed to the 
contact of the air. 

With respect to the action exercised by caloric upon the 
metal in these various examples, I shall not assert that it 
has altered the size of the particles; for how can we con¬ 
ceive that a substance can, without becoming; of another 
nature, vary in the disposition of the constituent elements 
of its molecules } But I can more easily comprehend that 

% there 


when reduced into thin Pellicles . ' 13 

there has been a progressive separation of molecules, in¬ 
creasing, as in the ease of my steel watch-spring, from the 
spot scarcely reached by the heat to that which immediately 
touched the flame. This movement, according to the prin¬ 
ciples I have laid down, must have been sufficient for the 
production of the rings. 

We daily see many other examples of these kinds of co¬ 
lours, the arrangement of the particles of which seems to 
be the sole determining cause. Such are the stains formed 
upon steel knives by the acid of fruits; the black colour as¬ 
sumed by silver plate from sulphurous emanations, or from 
the prolonged contact of certain substances ; and in che¬ 
mical laboratories, the rainbow-coloured pellicles formed at 
the surface of liquors containing some matter which lias 
been first dissolved, and afterwards separated by the progres¬ 
sive evaporation of a volatile principle. The water of dung¬ 
hills is also covered sometimes with similar coloured pelli¬ 
cles. 

Now all these effects, whatever be the nature of the matter 
primitively or secondarily formed, arise wholly from the ar¬ 
rangement of the parts. Nothing is so easy to be ascer¬ 
tained. Scrape the surfaces, rub the pellicles, and all these 
colours are annihilated, and there remains nothing in the 
fragments of each substance, except particles uniformly pos** 
sessing properties essential to their species. 

The following, among others, is a very convenient way 
of observing these effects. I take a small quantity of the 
green of Scheele and dissolve it in an acid ; after having di¬ 
luted this liquid in*a considerable quantity of water, I pre¬ 
cipitate by an alkali, and add ammonia, merely for the pur¬ 
pose of redissolving the precipitate : leaving the whole after¬ 
wards in an uncovered vessel, I find, after a few days, the 
surface of the liquor covered with an iris-coloured pellicle, 
very apparent, and in which we even distinguish a succes¬ 
sion of rings, if the liquid has not been disturbed. I then 
remove this pellicle, by slipping a sheet of paper or a piece 
of glass under it. The colours of the pellicle continue to 
be visible after its removal ; and upon allowing the substance 
to dry slowly, we may thus preserve . them an indefinite 

time 


14 Upon the variegated Colours of Bodies 

time in all their brightness. But when we come to pass 
the finger slightly over this pellicle, nothing but a green 
powder is obtained ; the red, yellow, blue, and purple co¬ 
lours, which were so brilliant, disappear in an instant. 

My second phenomenon is relative to the changeable 
colours of the plumage of the peacock and some other birds, 
Such as the cock, the pigeon, the duck, and the turkey. 
Here, after the most attentive comparative examination and 
the most circumspect reflections, I ended by renouncing the 
idea that these kinds of colours could be referred to rings* 
My conviction is founded on the following grounds: 

I first considered that these colours were not the neces¬ 
sary result of a certain tenuity of the parts 5 for, on the 
one hand, several animals certainly present in their hair, 
their feathers, or in the down which covers them, exam¬ 
ples of tenuities varied to the most imperceptible degree, 
and yet without there being any production of colours. Is 
not the white peacock itself a striking example of this ? 

On the other hand, have not several birds and insects co¬ 
lours immoveable in their position, and in their reflections, 
when viewed under every inclination whatever? The wings 
of some butterflies have very fixed colours, although de¬ 
pending upon a down so very minute that it is hardly per¬ 
ceptible. It is also proper to remark, that all these colours 
indicate opacity, like those of the peacock's feathers ; with 
this difference, that in those of the wings of flies we perceive 
the shades relative to the coloured rings •, but these mem¬ 
branes have a sensible transparency, like scales of mica or 
blown glass. 

I afterwards observed the changes of colours in several 
feathers of the birds mentioned. I 11 those of a peacock's 
tail, we see upon the lateral beards of the stalk, when we 
change their position, the red changing very suddenly to the 
green. The red takes place in consequence of the almost 
perpendicular reflection of the light ; the green, in conse¬ 
quence of a very oblique reflection; and there is no alter-* 
native of reflection and of transmission ; the opacity of which 
I have spoken above does not admit of it. 

Near the eye of the feather an exterior corona exhibits 

yellow 


when reduced into thin Pellicles ; 15 

yellow shades by a perpendicular reflection, and greenish by 
an oblique reflection; while, more interiorly, by the same 
change of obliquity, a space of the most lively green as¬ 
sumes the new shade of the violet. Such are the principal 
mutations of these colours, consisting of two shades only 
for each spot. 

Upon a feather from the neck of a pigeon the disposi¬ 
tion is quite contrary to that of the lateral beards of the pea¬ 
cock’s tail; i . e. in the same circumstances one of these 
feathers gives red, while the other gives green, and vice ' 

versa . 

It is very difficult to reconcile this alternation of colours, 
confined to two principal species, with the variety of shades 
which the coloured rings would seem to give by means of a 
substance of a density so feeble as that which constitutes 
feathers. Should we attempt to draw an inference from the 
more sensible changes which the feather of a pigeon pre¬ 
sents in its shades, this would still afford but a deceitful 
analogy: these changes proceed only from the generally 
bent state of the feather, since they cease when we lay it 
against a flat surface. 

But what forms a total disparity is the appearance of the 
feathers of the wing of a duck. Here the transition takes 
place from green to blackish; and again, this green colour 
is not sensible, except in peculiar positions, where the in¬ 
cidence and reflection of the light take place under very un¬ 
equal angles, as, for example, when we view the feather 
under a certain obliquity, having our back turned to the 

light. Do we never see any thing similar in the succession 
of coloured rings ? 

I thought, lastly, of carefully moistening several places of 
the region of the eye of my peacock’s feather. I then saw, 
not a weakening of the first shades, but new colours emerg¬ 
ing with a good deal of strength. I was anxious to know 
if I could not produce permanent alterations by some sol¬ 
vent : I consequently tried to moisten it successively with 
saliva, with vinegar, weak and strong muriatic acid, with 
ammonia, ether, alcohol, and with a solution of muriate of 
lime 5 and I ascertained that these agents had no other in¬ 
fluence 


/ 


l(y Upon the variegated Colours of Bodies , Cfc. 

fluence than that of any humid matter, all of them nearly 
in an equal degree, the concentrated acid however excepted, 
which gave some difference; but all these effects ceased al¬ 
most in the same manner upon drying. 

When the exterior orbit of the eye was moistened, its yel¬ 
lowish colour became of a lively blood red colour, and the 
reflection, primitively green in consequence of its obliquity, 
was almost extinct. If we moistened the green space within 
the circle, it was the violet reflection which this time disap¬ 
peared. Lastly, by the smoking muriatic acid, this same 
green space gave perpendicularly a yellow colour strongly 
inclining to the red, and the oblique reflection at first a 
green and afterwards a violet colour ; at no time did any of 
these alterations continue. 

Upon also moistening the extremity of the tail feathers 
of a turkey, I obtained some new and very lively colours, 

' which we could not previously see in the same direction, 
but the existence of which was indicated to me by certain 
reflections against the light, analogous to what I have men¬ 
tioned when speaking of the feathers of the duck. 

It was impossible for me, after all these particularities, 
to persist in ranging, under one and the same system, tire 
changeable colours of the feather and those of the coloured 
rings of pellicles. An examination of the latter, several 
times repeated, induced me to think that they might proceed 
from the super-position of several coloured matters, some¬ 
times of two only, or of three or any greater number, nearly 
as if, wishing to paint a body of several colours, we should 
cover it successively with a coat of each of the proposed in¬ 
gredients. 

This supposition, properly adapted to each part of the fea¬ 
thers, accounts very feasibly for all the appearances we ob¬ 
serve in them. 

In short, if, for example, upon a coat of painting, formed 
upon a green substance, we spread in a thin coat a violet 
colour not very abundant, it will be evident that upon look¬ 
ing perpendicularly at the painted surface it will appear al¬ 
most uniformly green, while upon lowering the eye to ren¬ 
der the visual rays more and more strong, the colour will 

become 


On the Re-agents of the Muriatic , &c. Acids, 17 

become progressively predominant, until it be, in its turn, 
the only colour perceived. The intermediate hues will be 
different degrees of green, to which will succeed various de¬ 
grees of blue before arriving at the violet shades : all this 
may be easily conceived. 

If, moreover, the green substance is itself placed above a 
red matter, the latter will not be visible in the intervals of 
the coloured matters of the upper layers; but if these coats 
come to acquire transparency by the imbibition of a liquid, 
in this case the influence of the undermost layer will be sen¬ 
sible, and will necessarily manifest itself in this case bv a 
yellow or even a reddish colour, when viewed perpendicu¬ 
larly, while the oblique reflections will give greenish and 
violet-coloured hues, The drying of the substances will af¬ 
terwards restore things to the first state of which we have 
spoken. 

Such in reality are the variations of shades of certain 
places of the feathers of a peacock. Such, in my opinion, 
is the probable cause of their formation ; applicable also to 
those of the cock, the pigeon, and several other birds and 
insects 5 and in particular to that magnificent butterfly with 
Ianre wings, which through their whole surface present a 
brilliant green, converted gradually, by means of obliquity, 
into a still more beautiful violet colour*. 

/ • • N ’ 

I ' 

, ■ ■:.. .3w=T7T •■■■■•. -■ ■■ - 

III. Upon the most sensible Re-agents with respect to the 
Muriatic , the Carbonic , the Sulphuric Acids , and Am¬ 
monia . By M. Pfaff, Professor cf Chemistry at Kiel f. 

In experiments upon the supposed formation of the mu¬ 
riatic acid in water by the influence of the Galvanic pile, it 
is certainly of great importance to possess a re-agent of 
great sensibility with respect to the above acid, in order to 

* The author might also have drawn inferences illustrative of his subject 
from those silk and worsted stuffs which are woven with their weft and woof 
of different colours. These always exhibit the one or the other colour, ac- 

V ' 9 

cording to the angle under which their surface is viewed.— ILdit, 
f From Avvales de*Chimie, tom. !xii. p 19. 

Vol, 20. No. 1 13. Oct, 1807. & be 





13 ^ On the Re-agents of the Muriatic, &?c. Acids* 

be able to discover its first traces and to follow its successive 
increase. Hitherto nitrate of silver has generally been used. 
1 his re-agent is, without doubt, extremely sensible as to the 
above acid. Kir wan asserts that we may discover by this 
means one part of the acid diluted in 103,333 parts of water. 
But this re-agent is still far surpassed by the solution of 
the mild nitrate of mercury prepared in the cold way. One 
part of muriatic acid, of 1150 in specific gravity, diluted 
with 70,000 parts of water, is scarcely announced even by 
a feeble opalization; when diluted with 80,000 times its 
weight ol water it eludes the action of this test, as it does 
all the others, except the mild nitrate of mercury, which 
last affects very sensibly the water thus feebly acidulated. 
The sensibility of this re-agent is so great, that even 
‘rro'.-o'o o c hh of a grain of muriatic acid at 1150 is indicated 
by a slight dull shade in the water which contains this al¬ 
most inconceivably small quantity. Reflecting upon the 
almost absolute insolubility of the mild muriate of mercury, 

• j * 

I was induced to make some experiments concerning this 
re-agent. 

It is also the most sensible agent for ammonia. One.part 
of this latter substance diluted with 30,000 parts of water 
is announced by a slight blackish yellow shade, upon adding 
solution of nitrate of mercury at the minimum of oxidation. 

Lime water, or water of barytes, are generally regarded as 
the most sensible re-agents for carbonic acid. I discovered, 
however, that the solution of acetate of lead still surpasses 
them. I was accidentally led to this remark :—some distilled 
water, which l had preserved in a deep cellar, where there 
were no fermented liquors, was very sensibly affected upon 
adding this solution. No other agent' changed it. Kirwan 
has asserted that the acetite of lead is a deceitful re-agent, 
its solution, chiefly when a little old, being sometimes affected 
with pure distilled, water. But it is not so fallacious, how¬ 
ever, as he imagines, because distilled water always contains 
a little carbonic acid, is never pure. T prepared distilled 
water exempt from all carbonic acid. It was hot affected 
either by lime water or by the solution of aeetite of lead. 

I poured some drops of carbonic acid into it. The water 


was 



Formation of Muriatic Acid in JVater . ig 

was so feebly acidulated by it that it did not redden turnsole 
paper at all, and did not affect lime water. But the solu¬ 
tion of acetate of lead became sensibly white. The acetate 
ot lead is much less sensible with respect to the other acids. 
A solution of sulphuric acid of 1850 diluted in 1G,000 parts 
of water, which acts also very sensibly upon turnsole paper, 
is not at all affected by the acetite of lead. Water of ba- 

j 

rytes discovers even y^Wo-dth of its weight in water acidu¬ 
lated by the sulphuric acid, and surpasses in sensibility all 
the other re-agents with respect to this acid* 

The mild nitrate of mercury is also a re-a^ent almost 

J CD 

equally sensible for the phosphoric acid as it is for the mu¬ 
riatic ; with this difference, that the precipitate by the former 
is dissolved in an excess of phosphoric acid or nitric acid, 
while the precipitate by the latter is absolutely insoluble by 
an exc6ss of any acid whatever. 


I\ r . Some further Remarks upon the supposed Formation 
of Muriatic Acid in JFater hy the Influence of the Gal¬ 
vanic Fite . By Professor Pfaff *. 

I have continued, since my first communication in the 
Annales de Chimie f, my inquiries upon the supposed for¬ 
mation of the muriatic acid in water by the influence of the 
positive pole of the pile of Volta. I made use of glass tubes 
f)f different diameters from a line to an inch ; the tubes were 
closed below, except a small hole in which the metallic con¬ 
ductor wires were fixed with sealing-wax. The communi¬ 
cation between the two tubes, into one of which was con¬ 
ducted the influence of the positive pole, while the influence 
of the negative pole was communicated to the other, was 
effected at the top, sometimes by moistened paper, some¬ 
times by linen threads, sometimes by nerves, and sometimes 
by animal fibres. I even varied the metallic wires. T em¬ 
ployed successively wires of platina, gold, silver, copper, 
and iron. I never obtained a trace of muriatic acid, al- 

* From Annates de Chimie , tom. Ixii. p. 2S. 
f See Phil. Mag. vol. xxvii. p. 3SS. 

B 2 


though 










20 ' Essay upon the Art of the Foundry 

though my most sensible re-agent for that acid (being the? 
solution of mild nitrate of mercury) would haye announced 
even -rro’irrodth of a grain of that acid. But I obtained by 
turnsole paper some traces of an acid which certainly was 
neither muriatic* sulphuric, carbonic, nor phosphoric acid, 
since the most sensible re-agents for these acids, which far 
surpass turnsole paper, did not announce them: it was 
therefore, in all probability, nitric acid; I always obtained 
traces of an alkali, which, after all my experiments, was 
ammonia. I therefore still adhere to my opinion, that the 
acid and the alkali are formed at the expense of the azote 
inherent to the water, on the one side by oxygen and on 
the other by hydrogen. 


V. Essay upon the Art of the Foundry among the An- 
tients: with some Remarks upon the celebrated Horses of 
Ohio, now brought from Venice to Faris, By M. Seitz* 

[Continued from vol. xxviii. p. 354.] 


History of the Horses of Ohio , and some Observations upon 
the Question of what School they belong to. 

rvj~y 

1 his medal of Nero (Plate I.) was struck upon the oc¬ 
casion of the victory gained by Corbulon over Tiridates, 
king of Armenia. It represents a triumphal arch surmounted 
bv a quadrigae, the horses of which have always been re¬ 
garded as identically the same horses of copper gilt, which 
bur victories have obtained to us, and which now deco¬ 
rate the palace of the Thuilleries. The manner in which 
they lift their feet and carry their heads, and indeed their 
whole attitudes, have greatly contributed to give weight to 
this conjecture, which has been adopted by MafFei and all 
the Italian authors*. They have gone still further in sup- 


as 


» Whe four horses of Venice are about to be placed in the same situation 
those mentioned by the author of this memoir; they will be yoked to a 
quadriga which will hear the figure of the emperor and king Napoleon the 
Great, and is to be placed upon the triumphal arch which decorates the en¬ 
trance of the Thuilleries :—this gate, with the quadriga, are exhibited upon a 
fine medal struck for the purpose, aqd of which there is an engraving in my 
HjcsUirc-MtiaHuiia of the emperor Napoleon.— Vote ly _11 Milliri. 


port 







21 


among the Antienls . 

port of this opinion, upon the authority of historians, who 
inform us that Constantine the Great stripped Rome and 
the cities of Greece of their finest ornaments in order to de¬ 
corate his new capital *. We may conclude that these four 
horses were comprised in the above, if we give credit at the 
same time to an antient tradition, which, however, never 
existed except in the imaginations of some learned men. 
Zanetti, who has added an engraving of them to his collec¬ 
tion of the statues at Venice, even thinks he has discovered 
some defects in their workmanship ; and for this reason he 
concludes them to be of Roman origin. It is, however*Very 
certain, and we may refer to the authority of Codinus as a 
confirmation, that these horses were never at Rome. They 
were found by the Venetians in the great circus of Con¬ 
stantinople. It is among the antiquities of this last city, 
therefore, that we must seek their origin, and not among 
the monuments of Rome. Codinus, who enters into a 
long detail upon the subject of the antiquities of Byzantium, 

* The exorbitant sums of money expended by Constantine in order to 
transform Byzantium into an agreeable residence for the Romans must excite 
our astonishment. Theatres, circuses, public baths, porticoes, temples, pa¬ 
laces, gymnasia, triumphal arches, aqueducts, columns surmounted by sta¬ 
tues, obelisks, cloacas, were all constructed with as much magnificence and 
with more regularity than in antient Rome. In order to induce twelve of his 
friends to reside in Iris new capital, he first sent them with an army against 
Sapor, king of the Persians. In the mean time architects were dispatched to 
take all the dimensions of their houses at Rome; and in order at the same 
time to induce their families to come to Byzantium, the houses at Constan¬ 
tinople were built exactly upon the same plan* and with all the accessaries of 
luxury they possessed at Rome; and when, at the end of 16 months, the pa¬ 
tricians returned from their expedition, the emperor asked them jocularly it 
they intended to return soon to Italy.—“ In ttvo months,” was their answer; 
cc at the beginning of winter we intend to set out.”—“ In the mean time (said, 
the emperor) 1 have prepared lodgings for you.” When they were conducted 
to them, how great was their astonishment upon seeing transported, as it by 
enchantment, their palaces from Rome to the shores of the Propontis; and 
they were much delighted when upon entering them they fouad assembled 
their wives and children, with their slaves and every thing that was dearest to 
them. Codinus, who relates this story, enumerates 22 cities from which Con¬ 
stantine brought away statues. The church cf St. Sophia, which was as yet no 
better than a pagan temple, received 427 of these works of art. Justinian, 
who consecrated this magnificent temple to the Christian worship, took the 
eJtatuos out of it, and distributed them in the different quarters oi the atv. 

B 3 speaks 


*2 Essay upon the Art of the Foundry 

speaks of a car with four horses, which was antiently in the 
place called Milium. These four horses were gilt: they 
seemed to he at full gallop, and as if drawing the statue of 
the Sun. Constantine caused this chariot, accompanied by 
its guards, to be transported into the hippodrome, or grand 
circus*, in order to celebrate the festival of the Fortune of 
Constantinople, which he represented by the statue of the 
Sun. After this solemnity the chariot was carried back with 
the same escort to its antient station. This chariot with 
four horses has nothing in it similar to the four gilt horses 
wh>ch the same author speaks off when he specifies all the 
monuments in the hippodrome or circus; the latter were 
placed upon the barriers, and not yoked to any chariot; and 
Theodosius the younger had them brought from Chio to 
Constantinople. They were the only horses that were in 
the Circus; for had there been other quadrigae, Codinus 

* Codinus, Origlncs Constantinopoli tarns, p. 19. 

f Codinus, lib. c. p. 28. O l oz rzcnrcc^zs xzfcgut<ra)f<znvot oi vrfztySzv tmv kxv- 

xzXXuv oocoy^vot zx ms Xisy '/ixaffjv zvn <dzodo<riau m fAozx^ov. KavxzXXot, are what the 
Romans call car ceres. It means the place where the horses were confined be¬ 
fore they started in the race. A passage of Nicetas Choniates, where these 
same horses are mentioned, deserves to be mentioned here: he informs us 
that one Agaremis proposed to fly from one end of the hippodrome to the 
other: “ Sva Aponte kippodromi turrivi consccndit, sub qua carceres sunt unde 
emittantur equi ; supra ( carceres) vero quatuor eqvi aurati staid, collis incurvis 
obversi sibi invicem, alacritatis ad curium pleni seque stadiuvi transvclalurum 
jactat .” The attitudes are here so distinctly described that they cannot be 
mistaken.— Note by the Author. 

On the contrary, in my opinion, the very attitudes furnish the best reasons 
lor doubting that the four horses now in the Thuilleries were really those of 
Chio. Their step appears composed, and not at full gallop ; they do not throw 
up their heads like fiery steeds: from all which circumstances, although the 
passages of Codinus, Nicetas, and other authors of the lower empire have been 
extremely well known, no person can take upon him to assert in a positive 
manner, as the author has done, that these horses are the same as those 
of Chio. In no view whatever can we suppose that they were yoked to 
a chariot, and we know from the report of Nicetas, that there were several 
figures of horses in the hippodrome. This is the reason why M. Heyne,—in 
his elegant dissertation Prisca Artis Opera qua? Constantinopoli fuisse memo- 
ranlur , Memoirs of the Gottingen Academy, vol. ix. p. 36,—also thought 
that these horses are not those from Chio: this, however, has riot been de- 
fnonstrated any more than the other proposition. The opinion of M. Seitz,, 
the author of this memoir, with respect to it, has a good deal of probability, 
pid it is developed with much interest.—A 7 o^e by M, Milliru 


would 


among the Aniienls, S3 

would not have failed to mention them. I concluded, there¬ 
fore, with good reason, that these were the same gilt horses 
which the Venetians found in that place 800 years after 
Theodosius IT., and saved from destruction by taking them 
to Venice. It is probable that Codinus has drawn this no¬ 
tion from their inscription; for he says that each statue of 
the Circus had its inscription, which mentioned from what 
city it had been carried off. 

The resemblance of these horses with those upon the 
medal of Nero, can be no objection against the authority of 
Codinus. The antient world was so filled with similar works, 
and the chefs d’eeuvres of the great masters were so often 
imitated, that one quadrigae might often resemble another. 

The Isle of Chio', at present called Scio, is situated be¬ 
tween Samos and Lesbos. It produced the best wine in 
Greece ; it had a city of the same name, which was bounded 
by Mount Pellenus on the land side, and on the sea shore 
there was a harbour which contained eighty vessels. All 

j 

these natural advantages induced the inhabitant* to apply 
early to navigation and commerce; they traded with the 
Egyptians in the reign of king Amasis, who permitted Greek 
merchants to settle in Egypt, where they made establish¬ 
ments in common with the Rhodians, the Cnidians, the 
inhabitants of Halicarnassus and Mytilene. 

In the war undertaken by the Greeks of Ionia against 
Darius, the son of Hvstaspes, they furnished ninety ships. 
In the naval engagement with the king’s ships, the Lesbians, 
the Samians, and all the others fled; but the inhabitants of 
Chio preferred perishing; rather than imitating the disgraceful 
conduct of their allies ; at last, after having performed pro¬ 
digies of valour, they gave way to the numerous feet of the 
Persians. - Victims to their zeal for the common cause, they 
were also crushed by the perfidy of their neighbours. His- 
tius, of Lesbos, who had embraced the cause of Darius, in 
company with the Lesbians made a descent upon Chios, 
attacked the people already enfeebled, killed an imipense 
number, and gave the island up to pillage. They were* 
never able to recover from the effects of these disasters ; for 
sye find that in the war agains Xerxes* the son of Darius, 


B 4 


th 




24 


Essay upon the Art of the Foundry 

they were only able to furnish four ships, and they had only 
seven in the battle of Salamis. 

When after that battle Xerxes retired into his own states, 
the Chians once more enjoyed their antient freedom, by 
means of which they recovered themselves so quickly, that 
in the time of the Peloponnesian war they had sixty ships 
at sea, and their capital was regarded as one of the grandest 
and richest cities in Greece*. During this war they were 
always strongly united .with the Athenians ; but when the 
latter were defeated in Sicily, they quitted their cause in 
order to embrace that of the Lacedemonians. This mea¬ 
sure, which Thucydides seems to approve of as being very 
prudent, nevertheless became the cause of new misfortunes. 
The Athenians besieged their city, overcame them in se- 
veral engagements; and their'island, which had become so 
flourishing since their struggle with the Persians, was again 
a prey to all the scourges of war. At last, however, the 
Athenians were conquered, and quitted their country. From 
this tune these islanders lived in tranquillity; but they were 
stripped of their antient ‘splendour. The Lacedemonians, 
their new allies, rendered them tributary in order to con¬ 
tribute to the expense of their numerous expeditions f. 

Commerce had been banished from them, and they were 
too enfeebled to act any part in the affairs of Greece. His¬ 
tory loses sight of them until the 105th Olympiad, when 
they united with the inhabitants of the island of Cos, the 
Rhodians, and the Byzantians, against the Athenians, in 
order to revenge some particular outrages they thought they 
had received from Chares their general. This war lasted 
three years, and it was known bv the name of the social 

• i ’ 

war. 

Under Alexander they became the sport of fortune, and 
they attached themselves, according to the exigency of the 
moment, at one time to the nearest and at another to the 

t . ■ • • • i i " ' > 

1 / ' / 

* Thucydides, lib. vj, 

f Xenophon, lib. ii. It was probably from the Lacedemonians they adopted 
the practice of making young girls wrestle with boys in the Palsestra. Athe- 
naeus says that it was with much pleasure people went to Chio to witness this 
charming spectacle, lib. xiii. 

strongest. 


25 


among the Antients . 

strongest. In the war of the JEtolians with Prusias, king 
of Bithynia, and Philip of Macedon, they were again mal¬ 
treated by these two kings, and their city was taken and 
de\ ^stated. When the Romans acquired preponderance m 
Greece and Macedon, they placed themselves under their 
protection; but being too far off to be always vigorously 
defended, each new war presented them with the sad per¬ 
spective of new misfortunes. The sovereigns Eumencs and 
.Attalus treated them well; but Mithridates made them feel 
the dreadful effects of his anger. At last Sylla, his con¬ 
queror, gave them their liberty and received them among 
the friends of the Roman people. From friends they be¬ 
came subjects, and under the emperors the beautiful women 
of Chios flocked to Rome in order to display their musical 
talents, and at the same time to make a traffic of their 
charms*. After the division of the empire, the destinies 
of this country were united to the empire of Constantinople 
until the year 1207, when this same island,which had formerly 
ruled the ocean, became the property of a single Venetian. 

The history of the prosperity and adversity of a people 
forms at the same time the history of the arts they exercised. 
The Muses delight in tranquillity, and shun the unfortunate. 
The sera of the greatest riches and prosperity of the island of 
Chios, commences with the 30th and ends with the 92 d 
Olympiad. It was at the commencement of this period that 
the arts of Asia Minor were communicated to the islands of 
the Ionian Sea. 

The most antient statuary of Chio was Melas, who must 
have lived between the 30th and 40th Olympiad. His son 
Micciades, and his grandson Anthernus, became celebrated 
in the same art. Anthernus had two sons, Anthernus and 
Bupalus, both of whom attained the greatest celebrity, and 
'were cotemporary with the poet Hipponaxf. The neigh¬ 
bouring 

f Horace, lib. iv. ode 13. 

.. . . Cupidtn cm 

Lcntuin solicitas. llic virenlis, ct 
Doctce psallere Chice, 

Pulchris excubat in gc?ils. 

| Plin.lib. xxxvi. § 5. This Kipponax lived In the CCsJh Olympiad. As he 

■wa^ 



26 


Essay upon the Art of the Foundry 

bouring islands of Chio, Delos, and Lesbos, were full of 
their works ; and in Ohio was to be seen a Diana by Bu- 
palus. All these sculptors made use of the beautiful marble 
of Chio ; but we do not see that they wrought in bronze. 
It would be pushing the mania for antiquities too far to pre¬ 
tend to name the artist who made the horses of Chio; but 
if the examination of a monument which time has spared, 
added to the descriptions of those which antiently existed, 
can still suffice for distinguishing the different schools, such 
an inquiry will not, perhaps, be without interest in the his^- 
tory of the arts. 

We must not imagine we see in these horses a chef 
d’ceuvre of antient art. So early as the time of Cicero all 
that was valuable in the island of Chio had been brought 
to Home in order to decorate the houses of the rich*. The 
emissaries sent by Nero into Greece, in order to carry off all 
the works in bronze they thought worthy of decorating his 
edifices, although they did not neglect to visit the islands 
of Rhodes, Samos, and Chio, yet they did not meddle with 
these horses; nor were they comprised in the general requi¬ 
sition made by Constantine of all the objects of art, which 
might adorn his new residence; it was only under Theo¬ 
dosius II., when the world was already stripped of all the 
chefs d’oeuvres, that they were thought worthy of being 
transported to Constantinople. Would they have remained 
so long in their places; would they have escaped the rapacity 
of the Roman governors, the depredations of Nero, and the 
requisitions of Constantine, if their workmanship had been 
fine enough to charm the eyes of connoisseurs, or to entitle 
them to be compared to a work of Calamis, Lysippus, or 
an artist of the school of this grand master? 

was very plain in his person, these two sculptors amused themselves at his 
expense, by exposing to public view a ridiculous caricature of him. Hippo- 
pax, indignant at seeing himself the object of the insolence of the public, made 
a poem, and satirized them so unmercifully that they repented their temerity 
in ridiculing the son of Apollo. It must be observed that this Bupalus is not 
the same with him who flourished in the 107th Olympiad, and wrought at the 
monument erected by Artemisia to Mausolus, and whose works, brought to 
Rome by order of Augustus, were thought worthy of being compared to those 
pf Praxiteles. The great distance in point of time is a proof of this. 

* heptimius Verripus, cap. 48, , 

Lysippus 


among the Anticnts. 


Lysippus lived in the time of Alexander, a period whem 
the inhabitants of this island had neither enough of riches 
nor tranquillity to decorate their city with works of art. 
Besides, the style of the design and of the sculpture by no 
mea is answers to that of Lysippus ; his-horses were lighter, 
then mant-s heated in long tresses, in order to indicate the 

O J 

swifuiesa of a race. It was here he displayed his talents for 
working tresses of hair, which he expressed so naturally and 


so gracefully as to charm every eye. The horses of Chio 
nre in a heavy style \ their design represents strength rather 
than agility ; their manes appear as if cut, which proves that 
the artist did not know how to design horses ) at least, we 
may see from the ringlets of their tails that he was not very 
expert at this kind of work. Their heads, however,deserve our 
admiration ; their nostrils extended and their foaming mouths 
seem to breathe the fury and impetuositv of the horses of the 
sun ; and, without leaning too much to conjecture, we may- 
say that we find more in them of the style of Polycletes and 
jVliro* than that of Lysippus. The works of these two artists 
were vigorously designed ; we perceive in them starting mus¬ 
cles, and in general more strength than gracefulness. Neither 
the one nor the other knew how to work tresses of hair, 
and both of them lived at a period when the inhabitants of 
Chio were in a state of profound peace, and enjoyed a kind 
of naval superiority. They were enriched by commerce, 
'and had consequently leisure and the means of thinking of 
the embellishments of their capital. This period lasted from 
the 75th to the 92 d Olympiad : it comprehended a space of 
70 years, and was the happiest time this city ever enjoyed. 
If we fix upon this cera as that in which these horses must 
have been founded, they would now be 2248 years old f, 
Thev would thus be more antient* than anv other bronze 

j J 

monument we know of, and they must have existed in the 


This conjecture seem? to us too daring; for -we have no evidence what¬ 
ever in modern times as to the particular style in which the animals of Myro 
pr Lysippus were executed .—Note by JM. MU Ha. 

f It seems impossible to assign so distant an urna to these horses; they rather 
yem to have been moulded at a time when the art had begun 10 decline. — id. 

time 


2S 


Art of the Foundry among the Antients . 

time of- Thucydides, Alcibiades, Herodotus* * * § Pericles* So¬ 
phocles* Euripides, Socrates, Hippocrates, and Plato. 

If in the days of Cicero * a middling-sized bronze statue 
was worth 120,000 sestertii, which is more than 12,000 
francs in French money, what price shall we put upon this 
unique piece of antiquity, which, among the whole of si¬ 
milar works, with which the antient world was filled, alone 
escaped universal destruction? 

The horses of Chio were cast in copper and gilded. We 
know that copper is better adapted than bronze for receiving 
gilding, and it seems they were originally intended to be 
giltf. It is wrong, therefore, to reproach the Romans with 
their decided taste for gildin<r, since the Greeks also gilded 
their quadrigae. It is, however, certain that the fine bronzes 
were not gilt. Their colour was One enough to make this 
ornament to be dispensed with, as wc have seen. Lysippus 
would have been vexed to have seen that by gilding his works, 
the exquisite finishing, which formed his chief merit,was con¬ 
cealed. We see in Pliny J how much Nero was blamed for 
having caused this artist’s statue of Alexander to be gilt, 
and how much the connoisseurs regretted to see a Venus by 
Alcamenus covered with gold. When we read in Pausanias § 
that there was at Delphos a gilt statue of Phrvne, executed 
by Praxiteles, and that the Athenians had dedicated at Del¬ 
phos a gill Minerva on the occasion of a victory they had 
gained, we must he of opinion that this practice of gilding 
proceeded from motives of emulation, and in order to ap¬ 
proach, as much as possible, the magnificence of the other 

* In Verrem, orat. 4. c. 7. 

■f Vitruvius, lib. in. cap. 2, says that it was usual to ornament the fronts of 
temples with statues of copper gilt in the Tuscan faspion, as we see in the 
temple of Ceres and Hercules near the Grand Circus ; this passion of the Ro- 
fnans for gilding was therefore of Etruscan origin. According to Buonaroti, 
Qsservazioni sopra alcuni Medaglioni , p. S70, the gold employed by the an- 
txents in fire-gilding was, in the proportion of gold employed in modern gild¬ 
ing, as 6 to 1 ; and for common gilding their gold leaves were as 22 to 1. All 
the antient gilding found below-ground has still its natural lustre, and wo 
might have been able to say the same of the gilding upon the horses of Chio, 
jf it had not been almost entirely scraped off 

f Lib. xxxiv. 

§ Lib. x. cap. 15. 


statues 


Facts for a History of the Gallic Acid . 29 

statues of massive gold which were in this temple. As to 
the quadrigae, it seems they were always gilded when yoked 
to the chariot of the Sun, in order that the lustre of the gold 
might imitate the splendour of that orb. The four horses 
seen at Constantinople harnessed to the chariot of the Sun, 
were also gilded. The island of Rhodes adored this divinity, 
whose worship naturally extended to the other islands of the 
Ionian Sea; and it is very probable that the four horses 
which now decorate the palace of the Thuilleries were for¬ 
merly yoked to the car and statue of the Sun. 

[To be continued, j 

« 

- . \ -- . - - — 

VI. Facts for a History of ike Gallic Acid. By 
M. Bouillon-Lagrange. 

[Concluded from vol. xxviii. p. 297.] 

Examination of the Action of Caloric and JVater upon 

Gall-nuts. 

Action of Caloric. —M. Deyeux having examined, in a 
particular manner, all the products of distillation of gall- 
nuts in the open fire, I only considered the acid liquor ob¬ 
tained from this substance. 

This operation was conducted in the manner pointed out 
by this chemist: the liquor of the receiver was aromatic, a 
little milky, very acid ; did not precipitate glue, and gave 
with the sulphate of iron a violet blue passing to the dirty 
green. Lime and barytes yielded a colour of pea blossoms. 
The nitrate of mercury formed a blackish precipitate in it; 
it was white with the acetate of lead and the muriate of tin. 

I saturated the acid liquor with potash ; I obtained by 
evaporation a brown empyreumatic. matter, which by the- 
addition of the sulphuric acid exhaled a pungent smell ana¬ 
logous to that of the acetic acid. 

Action of JVater upon Gall-nuts. —I shaked, for four mi¬ 
nutes, gall-nuts in fine powder and in cold water; the li¬ 
quor, after having been filtered, was of a golden yellow co¬ 
lour: one part was distilled in a retort placed in a sand-bath, 
the other was saturated by means of the carbonate of soda. 

The. 





I 


oO Facts for d History of the Gallic Acid, 

The produce from the distillation was a limpid liquor, 
colourless, and slightly acid, neither precipitating glue nor 
sulphate of iron. 

The liquor saturated by the alkaline base was evaporated 
to dryness ; being afterwards dissolved in distilled water, 
sulphuric acid was added until it was slightly in excess, and 
it was distilled in a retort; the produce was successively ex¬ 
amined : a liquid, without taste or smell, first came over; 
soon afterwards the liquor was acid, and contained neither 
sulphuric nor gallic acid. 

I made a similar experiment with boiling instead of cold 
water: the liquor remained always turbid, although filtered ; 
when submitted to distillation and combined with soda, I 
obtained the same results. 

These experiments suggested to me the existence of an 
acid ready formed in galls, and the possibility of obtaining 
it by distillation. 

Accordingly i heated to ebullition in a common alembic 
a kilogramme (2 lb. 3 oz. 6 dr. avoird.) of galls, coarsely 
powdered, with double the weight of water. The distilled 
liquor, as M. Deyeux observed, was a little milky, aroma¬ 
tic, and oil standing deposited a little fiocculent sediment. 
I changed the receiver, when about two-thirds of the liquor 
had come over, and I continued the distillation till it be¬ 
came coloured. 

The first product was acid; reddened tincture of litmus; 
and had no action on lime or barytes water, nitrate of mer¬ 
cury, acetate of lead, sulphate pf iron, or glue. 

i he second product was turbid, coloured, a little empy- 
reumalic ; its acidity was more marked ; and it precipitated 
the metallic solutions above mentioned, but did not act on 
glue. 

Each of these acid liquors was saturated with potash. The 
first yielded a foliated salt, which, on the addition of sul¬ 
phuric acid, gave out a smell of acetic acid. Part of this 
sait was dissolved in distilled water: the excess of its base 
was accurately saturated bv nitric acid, and nitrate of mer¬ 
cury at a minimum was added to the solution; when a pre¬ 
cipitate was formed which had all the characters of acetate 

of 


31 


Facts for a History of the Gallic Acid. 

of mercury. To convince myself still further of the pre¬ 
sence of acetic acid, I treated the neutral acetate of potash 
in the same manner, and it afforded me the same results. 

The second product was saturated with potash in the same 
manner. The liquor became very brown ; a slight pellicle 
formed on the surface, which increased during the evapo¬ 
ration ; the saline matter was highly coloured and empyreu- 
matic. Being subjected to the same trials as the preceding, 
similar appearances were observed. 

These experiments leave no doubt of the presence of acetic 
acid in galls: they prove that it may be obtained by distilla¬ 
tion with water, and that caloric, when it acts more directly 
on this acid, facilitates its combination with a small quan¬ 
tity of empyreumatic oil, and perhaps with a little tannin, 
the presence of which is not demonstrable by glue: but as 
this liquor acts on sulphate of iron in the same manner as 
the sublimed acid, we must presume that there is a kind of 
analogy in their composition; admitting, however, this dif¬ 
ference, that the sublimed acid contains no empyreumatic 
oil, but a particular aromatic volatile oil. 

This oil may be detected by dissolving the acid in very 
pure sulphuric ether, and adding a little water, when a few 
drops of oil will be seen floating on the surface, which dis¬ 
appear on shaking the mixture. 

If a concentrated solution of caustic potash he employed 
instead of water, a white milky substance is separated, which 
requires a large proportion of water to dissolve it, hut the 
liquor still remains turbid. 

This ethereal tincture yields a fine blue colour with sul¬ 
phate of iron. 

Evaporated in the open air it leaves a shining substance, 
very acid, separating in scales, and having the appearance of 
a varnish. 

The same phenomena takes place if galls be digested in 
ether; but the substance contains tannin in addition. 

Examination of some Earthy and Alkaline Gallaies . 

Though it appears to be demonstrated that acetic acid ex¬ 
ists ready formed in galls, we cannot too much multiply 

proofs 


I 


32 Facts for a History of the Gallic Acid,. 

proofs ia confirmation of its presence; and to demonstrate 
that this acid,'combined with other substances, constitutes 
the pal 1 ic acid. 

O «. 

With this view I formed gallates of lime, barytes, potash, 
and soda. These neutral combinations afforded a violet red 
colour with a solution of sulphate of iron, and scarcely pre¬ 
cipitated glue, while the acid employed had the property of 
forming with it a copious precipitate. On these salts, dried,. 
I poured some very weak sulphuric acid ; I distilled them 
with a gentle heat, and I ahvavs obtained acetic acid. 

The retorts contained a very deep brown matter. I cry¬ 
stallized the salts that were perceptible of it, and obtained 
sulphates. 

The supernatant mother-water had the property of slightly 
browning the solution of sulphate of iron;- but this appear¬ 
ance does not prove the presence of gallic acid, for the black 
colour of the mother-water was sufficient to give it this hue* 

If one of the gallates, that of soda for instance, be treated 
with charcoal, the tannin will be entirely destroyed, so that 
the solution will no longer precipitate glue; and after re¬ 
peated boiling with fresh portions of charcoal, it will no 
longer act on sulphate of iron. 

The liquor being afterward evaporated to dryness, and di¬ 
stilled with very weak sulphuric acid, we still obtain acetic 
acid. 

I shall not insist any further on the possibility of obtain¬ 
ing acetic acid by decomposing gallic acid. I might men¬ 
tion the experiments which would tend to snpport the pre¬ 
ceding, but entering too minutely into these particulars 
would add nothing to the facts 1 have already adduced. 

I shall conclude with an experiment which appears to me 
important. The object was, to establish the nature of the 
elastic fluids resulting from the complete decomposition of 
the gallic acid by heat. M. Deyeux has announced that 
he obtained only oxygen gas and carbon. M. Eerthollet,' 
who repeated the experiment, says that he had no oxygen 
gas, but constantly carbonic acid. 

These results, of which no other vegetable acid furnishes 
an example, could not avoid exciting the attention of che¬ 
mists o'. 


I 


33 


Pacts for a History of the Gallic Held. 

mists. In fact, it is difficult not to admit hydrogen in the 
composition of gallic acid ; and M. Fourcroy has expressed 
his doubts on this subject in his System of Chemical Know¬ 
ledge, but the question is not yet decided by experiment. 

In consequence, 1 heated gallic acid in a retort. The fire 
was gradually raised till the retort was red-hot. During 
this action of the fire I obtained several jars full of elastic 
fluid. The first contained only atmospheric air, .the others 
carbonic acid gas : at least, the gas had all the characters of 
this acid; but the phenomena that occurred during the de¬ 
composition or the gallic acid led me to suspect, that, if 
any hydrogen gas had been evolved, it could exist only in a 
very small quantity. I was not satisfied, therefore, with the 
trial by lime water, and the extinction of a taper in the gas* 
Having perceived that hydrogen gas mixed with a great deal 
of carbonic acid gas cannot be burnt, because this acid acts 
too promptly on the flame of the taper, I passed a little 
caustic potash into the last jar of gas; agitated it, in order 
to absorb the carbonic acid gas 5 and then immersed a taper 
in the residual gas, which burnt with flame, and thus afforded 
me a proof of the presence of carbonated hydrogen gas. 

The gallic acid, then, like other, vegetable acids, is com¬ 
posed of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon. If but a small 
quantity of hydrogen can be obtained, it is because water 
is formed during the decomposition of the acid, so that the 
hydrogen passes over only when very little oxygen remains 
to act on the carbon. 

I have attempted to show that the gallic acid is a com¬ 
pound. Its formation by Scheele’s process appears to me 
to favour this opinion. In fact, if the quantity of acid ex¬ 
tracted from the aqueous infusion,exposed to the air, be com¬ 
pared with that afforded by sublimation, I conceive it is not 
difficult to account for the increase. There can be no doubt 
that acetic acid is formed in the liquor, which, acting on a 
portion of tannin and extractive matter, constitutes the gallic 
acid of Scheele : but this^jeombination is rendered more in¬ 
timate, and somewhat different, by the action of caloric; 
of which we have a proof when the acid is obtained by sub¬ 
limation, for nut only is the tannin, decomposed, but the 

Vol. 29 . No. 113* Oct. 1807 . C acid 


I 


34 Facts for a History of Ike Gallic Acid . 

acid remains Combined with a volatile oil which is formed. 
Perhaps this acid contains a small portion of tannin in very 
intimate combination, whence, no doubt, arises its property 
of giving a momentary blue with sulphate of iron, though 
its presence cannot be demonstrated. This acid, then, must 
have different properties from that of Scheele ; and if it were 
possible to assimilate it to other vegetable acids, the ben¬ 
zoic is that to which it would have the greatest analogy. 
May it therefore be considered as a modification of the 
gallic acid ? I think not. It is the same with other vegeta¬ 
ble acids; and it is probable that there exists no modifica¬ 
tion of them. The acetous appears to be the sole vegetable 
acid; it dissolves and retains in various proportions a num¬ 
ber of the immediate products of vegetables, and in the pro¬ 
cesses to which we subject vegetable'substances, we facilitate 
its combination in a more intimate manner, and frequently 
even augment the quantity of this acid. Already several 
chemists have admitted the possibility of the acetic acid’s 
dissolving and remaining combined with fixed and empy¬ 
re u mat ic oils, and animal matters : they have even gone so 
far as to imitate acids of this sort. The formic, pyrolignic, 
tartarous, and mucous, have been classed by Messrs. Four- 
croy and Vauquelin among the compound acids; it is the 
same with the lactic acid, the composition of which was 
pointed out at the same time by those chemists, M. The- 
nard, and myself: lastly, we have proof too, according to 
M. Thenard, of the existence of this acid in urine and 
sweat, as well as in the sebacic and zoonic acids. I might 
further add to these observations (if we were not persuaded 
that the acetic acid is found every where) that it exists in 
vegetable as in animal matters, where it is almost always 
in a state of combination ; and that an equilibrium in the 
proportions being once established, it gives rise to compounds 
hitherto unalterable, and the affinity of which cannot be de¬ 
stroyed but by reducing them to their primary elements—■ 
oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen. 

From the facts announced in this memoir it follows : 

1st, That the gallic acids of Scheele and of Richter differ 
essentially from that obtained by sublimation; and that the 

crystallized 

a 


Facts for a History of the Gallic Acid. 35 

crystallized is preferable as a re-agent, on account of the 
constant uniformity- of the colour it gives with iron. 

2dly, That this acid appears to be composed of acetic acid, 
tannin, and extractive matter; and that it cannot be com¬ 
pletely freed from tannin by crystallization. 

3d!y, That the acid obtained by sublimation contains no 
tannin, at least none that can be ascertained by acting on 
glue; and that it cannot, on any occasion, supply the place 
of the crystallized acid. 

4thly, That the sublimed acid appears likewise to be com¬ 
posed of acetic acid united with a peculiar aromatic volatile 
oil. 

5thly, That by means of water poured into the etherized 
tincture of galls, or ether containing the sublimed acid, an 
oily matter is separated. 

01h 1 y, That there is no process known for purifying 
Scheele’s acid completely; that is to say, we cannot take 
from it the whole of its tannin, without reducing it to the 
state of acetic acid; which proves that the portion of tannin 
it retains is necessary to constitute gallic acid, and that to 
this are owing its excellent properties in the art of dyeing. 

7thly. That the red oxide of mercury, and oxide of tin, 
as well as carbon, decompose this acid. 

Stilly, That by distilling galls with water acetic acid may 
be obtained ; and that it is by the assistance of caloric acting . 
more immediately on galls, that a more intimate union be¬ 
tween the acid and the tannin is effected. 

9thly. That the earthy and alkaline gallates likewise afford 
acetic acid by their decomposition. 

lOthlv, and finally. That gallic acid, like the other vege¬ 
table acids, is composed of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon. 

If these results be accurate, we may conceive it possible 
to accomplish its synthesis. Some trials that I have al¬ 
ready made give me the hope of succeeding in it. I shall 
do myself the honour of imparting the further results of my 
inquiry to the class, if they should be worthy its notice. 


O Q 

V -dJ 


VII. Note 


V 



[ 36 ] 


VII. Note upon a fulminating Comb matron of Silver , of a 
luhite Colour and a crystalline Appearance . By M. Des- 
oostils *. 

*1 here is sold at Paris, as an object of amusement, a de¬ 
tonating powder inclosed in slips of cards cut lengthways* 
This powder is placed at one end of this envelope, and the 
other end is made smaller in order to be more easily distin¬ 
guished. If this last extremity is held with one hand, and 
the other end is put over the flame of a candle, a detonation 
speedily takes place with a sharp noise and a violet-coloured 
flame : the card is torn to pieces and scorched, and the part 
which the composition touched is covered with a slight me¬ 
tallic coating of a grayish white. 

Having been consulted upon the nature of this substance, 
which is sent ready prepared to Paris, I w T as convinced, 
after various experiments, which it is needless to detail, that 
it is a combination of oxide of silver, ammonia, and a ve¬ 
getable substance 3 a combination analogous, as we find, to 
that which constitutes the fulminating mercury of Mr. 
Howard. 

We may obtain this combination, which I shall call de¬ 
ton at i?ig silver to distinguish it from the fulminating silver 
of M. Berthollei, by dissolving silver in pure nitric acid, and 
by pouring into the solution, while it is effecting, a suffi¬ 
cient quantity of rectified alcohol; or by pouring the alcohol 
into a nitric solution of silver, with a considerable excess of 

I / ' r 

acid. 

In the first case we must slightly warm the nitric acid in 
which the silver has been put, until the solution begins to 
/ take place; i. e. until the first bubbles begin to be perceived. 
We must then remove it from the fire and immediately add 
a sufficiency of alcohol, so that no nitrous vapours may be 
liberated. The mixture of the two liquors takes place with a 
disengagement of heat: the effervescence immediately recom- 
niences without disengagement of nitrous gas; it gradually 
increases, and there is liberated at the same time a strong 

* y . * , 

* From Annales de Chimic, tom. lxij. p. 199. 

• smell 


On a fulminating Combination of Silver. 37 

■smell of nitrous ether. The liquor soon becomes turbid, 
and we see deposited a white, crystalline, and opaque pow¬ 
der, which must be separated, when it ceases to fall down, 
and washed several times with small quantities of water. 

When we employ the solution of silver ready made and 
strongly acid, we must heat it slightly and afterwards add 
the alcohol ; the heat produced by the mixture, which is 
performed gradually, soon produces a considerable ebulli¬ 
tion, and the powder is suddenly deposited*. 

7his powder has the following properties: 

It is white and crystalline, but this last appearance is va~' 
riable with respect to the volume and the lustre of the cry¬ 
stals. 

It changes a little in the light. 

It inflames with a sharp detonation by heat, agitation, or 
long continued friction. Simple pressure, provided it be 
not very strong, produces no change. 

It detonates upon being struck by the electrical spark. 

It is slightly soluble in water. It has an extremely strong 
metallic taste. 

Concentrated sulphuric acid determines its inflammation, 
and the acid itself is driven to a great distance $ dilute sul¬ 
phuric acid seems to decompose it slowly. 

Weak or concentrated muriatic acid decomposes it in¬ 
stantly by forming muriate of silver. The quantity of mu¬ 
riate obtained indicates about 71 per cent, of metallic silver 
in the detonating silver; at first there is liberated a very de¬ 
cided smell of prussic acid, but I could* not collect sensible 
traces of it. 

The nitric acid decomposes it with the assistance of ebul¬ 
lition, and we obtain nothing but nitrate of silver and ni¬ 
trate of ammonia, 'if it be long enough continued. 

It is decomposed by means of sulphurized hydrogen ; the 
ammonia and the vegetable matter remain in the liquor. 

Caustic potash decomposes it; black oxide of silver is 
separated, and ammonia is disengaged. 

* It is almost needless to observe that the mixture of alcohol and warm 
ruf-m acid is subject to many accidents, and vve must consequently operate 

jo very small •quantities. 

C 3 


It 


38 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 

It is dissolved in ammonia; but by a slow evaporation it 
is separated from it with its proper colour and other proper- 
ties, and particularly that of detonating by means of heat, 
and not by simple contact. i 

Finally, its property of most importance to consider is, 
the action it has upon the animal oeconomy. M. Pajot-la- 
Foret, who has made a great number of experiments upon 
this subject, is convinced that very small doses are sufficient 
to kill the strongest animals: when tried upon some cats, all 
of them expired in the most horrible convulsions. It is, in 
short, without exception, one of the most violent poisons 
with which the metallic combinations present us. 


VIII. Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D, 

Seldom do we find so great and diversified talents as were 
united in the late Dr. Darwin. Fie shines forth as a meteor, 
even in an age conspicuous for extraordinary talents usefully 
employed for the benefit and instruction of mankind. We 
shall pass over his education at Chesterfield school, where 
the master, the Rev, Mr. Burrow, noticed strong signs, 
even then, of a rising genius; and his being afterwards sent 
by his father Robert Darwin, Esq. of Elston, near Newark, 
to King’s College, Cambridge, where he distinguished him¬ 
self by bis attention to his studies. It is a melancholy fact, 
that our English universities are incompetent to form the 
physician ; but they lay the foundation of general knowledge, 
which in the end may conduce to the formation of the per¬ 
fect physician. With a store of classical and mathematical 
knowledge, young Darwin went from Cambridge to Edin¬ 
burgh, then in its zenith of splendour, and, at the proper 
age to feel the force of instruction, imbibed all the know¬ 
ledge that proceeded from that clear fountain of vast medical 
erudition. Desirous of still deeper knowledge, from Edin¬ 
burgh he went to London to perfect himself in anatomy 
under the celebrated Dr. Hunter, which science, it must be 
confessed, from the easy acquisition of subjects for dissec¬ 
tion, is even better taught in that metropolis than in the 

Scotch 





30 


Memoirs cf Erasmus Darwin , M. D. 

Scotch university. Thus every thing combined to render 
him an adept in his profession, and it might have been ex¬ 
pected that nothing could have retarded his establishment 
in any part of England : but unfortunately for professions 
of every kind, it requires time before superiority is acknow¬ 
ledged, and he struggled in vain to obtain any practice in 
Nottingham, which obliged him to attempt to settle at 
Lichfield in the year 1756, where he believed he had less 
formidable obstacles to encounter. Dr. Wilkes possessed 
at that time the entire confidence and all the practice of that 
quarter, and little expectation could be formed of Dr. Dar¬ 
win’s superior talents having opportunity of getting into 
play, when a fortunate trial of his skill and knowledge oc¬ 
curred, which could not fail of settling him in the estimation 
of the whole country. A young gentleman of family and 
considerable fortune, Mr. Inge, was seized with a putrid 
fever. Dr. Wilkes very unguardedly, or from the candour 
inherent in cultivated minds, which scorns falsehood or eva¬ 
sion, pronounced the case as lost. In the distraction of de¬ 
spair the mother requested a consultation, but the old phy¬ 
sician declined the meeting; and the mother, a woman of 
superior sense, had rather trust a young physician, who 
might have a knowledge according to the advancement of 
science, than an old man who positively pronounced the ex- , 
tinction, in his mind, of every ray of hope. Whether Dr. 
Darwin had a superior practice to Dr. Wilkes or not, the 
public judged of the event, and from that occurrence he 
might be said to be partly settled at Lichfield. 

As unmarried physicians have still much to cope with, 
nothing seemed now wanting but the changing hi* condition 
of life. The young physician had very general invitations 
to families, nor would any father have refused his daughter, 
but he would only yield his heart to one worthy indeed of 
such a man. A young lady of very slender fortune, of in¬ 
finite modesty and worth, of delicate sentiment, and replete 
with grace and accomplishments, caught the admiring eye 
of one who could discern retired excellency ; and, to the 
surprise of many, he yielded up to Miss Howard his heart 

C 4 and 


40 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin , AT. D. 

and hand. The dying and recorded conversation* of Mrs. 
Darwin exhibits an affecting account of his first thirteen 
years residence at Lichfield, and his character as a hus¬ 
band. Do not weep for mv impending fate/’ said this, 
amiable creature in the last stage of a decline, and with a 
smile of unaffected resignation. u In the short term of my 
life a great deal of happiness has been comprised. The ma¬ 
ladies of my frame were peculiar ; the pains m my head and 
stomach, which no medicine could eradicate, were spas¬ 
modic and violent, and required stronger measures to render 
them supportable while they lasted, than my constitution 
could sustain without injury. The periods of exemption 
from those pains were frequently of several day's duration* 
and in my intermissions I felt no indication of malady. 
Pain taught me the value of ease, and I enjoyed it with a 
glow of spirit seldom, perhaps, felt by the habitually healthy. 
While Dr. Darwin combated and assuaged my disease from 
time to time, his indulgence to all my wishes, his active 
desire to see me amused and happy, proved incessant. His 
house, as you know, has ever been the resort of people of 
science and merit. If, from mv husband’s great and exten- 
sive practice, I had much less of his society than I wished* 
yet the conversation of his friends, and of my own, was ever 
ready to enliven the hours of his absence.- As occasional 
malady made me doubly enjoy health, so did those frequent 
absences give a zest, even to delight, when I could be in¬ 
dulged with his company. My three boys have ever been 
docile and affectionate. Children as they are, I could trust 
them with important secrets, so sacred do they hold every 
promise they make. They scorn deceit, and falsehood of 
every sort, and have less selfishness than generally belongs 
to childhood. Married to any other man, I do not suppose 
I could have lived a third part of those years which I have 
passed with Dr. Darwin; he has prolonged my days, and 
he has blessed them.” 

The fruits of this marriage were three sons ; and one of 
these inheriting from their father an impediment of speech* 

% By Miss Anna Seward, in the Life of Dr. Darwin, 

the 


Memoirs of Erasmus Dandy, M. D. 41 

be learned doctor attempted the following expedient as the 
cure. He reasoned thus : that he had acquired this defect 
probably from that strong propensity which all children have 
to imitate those with whom they associate. With that wis¬ 
dom which marked the doctor’s observations on the habits 
of life, and with that decision of conduct which always in¬ 
stantly followed the conviction of his mind, lie sent his 
eldest boy, Charles, to France, in the belief that in the pro¬ 
nunciation of a foreign language hesitation would be less 
likely to recur than in speaking his native language; nor 
was he disappointed in the event: the habit was thus broken, 
and two years afterwards, on his return, he was able to speak 
his mother tongue with ease and fluency. 

Lichfield seemed admirably suited to such a o-emus as was 

o 

Dr. Darv ins. ft appeared to he the favourite spot of the 
Muses, and of men of science; and we would recommend 
our readers who would wish for information respecting the 
literati* settled at Lichfield, to consult Miss Seward's 
“ Memoirs of Dr. Darwin.” 

During his residence at Lichfield Dr. Darwin met with 
w . | 
an accident which had nearly cost him Iris life. Being obli¬ 
gated to travel much, he wished, if possible, to obviate the 
inconvenience of quartering, so distressing to horses; and 
for this purpose, having a mind above ridicule, lie con- 
structed a very singular carriage. It was a platform, with 
a seat fixed upon a very high pair of wheels, and supported 
in the front, upon the back of the horse, by means of a 
kind of proboscis, which, forming an arch, reached over the 
hind quarters of the home, and passed through a ring placed 
on an upright piece of iron, which worked in a socket fixed 
in the saddle. The horse could thus move from one side 
of the road to the other, quartering, as it is called, at the 
will of the driver, whose constant attention was necessarily 
employed to regulate a piece of machinery contrived, but 
not quite adapted, for that purpose From this whimsical 
carriage the doctor was several times thrown, and the last 
time he used it, had the misfortune, from a similar accident, 

* Philosophers—Edgeworth, Watt, Boulton; poets— Day, Sif Brook Booths 
l>y, Anna Seward, &q. 

tt> 


I 


Ky ' 

/ > 

42 Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin } M, D. 

\ 

to break the patella of his right knee, which caused, as it 
always must cause, an incurable weakness in the fractured 
part; and a lameness, not very discernible, indeed, when 
walking; on even ground. 

o o 

One may here mention, that he was also conspicuous by 
having a horse always to follow his carriage like a dog, pro¬ 
perly saddled, and, where the roads were very bad, he would 
mount on horseback, without boots or spurs, often in co¬ 
loured stockings, and thus visit his patient, and return back 
to his carriage which was waiting for him. 

O O 

Having destined two of his sons for physic, he took him¬ 
self uncommon pains with their education ; and his eldest 
and darling son, Charles, was sent to Edinburgh as a pro¬ 
digy of knowledge. He soon acquired great literary fame 
from liis discovery of the distinction of pus and matter, and 
the retrograde motion of the absorbents, explanatory of se¬ 
veral diseases and circumstances in the animal ceconomy, 
when Dr. Darwin received the melancholy tidings of his 
rapid dissolution, though but a few days before in the bloom 
of health and life, from the scratch of the dlssecfmg-knife 
in the too eager dissection of a dead and putrid body. 

His hopes were now concentred on Robert, whom he 
likewise sent to Edinburgh, and who early signalized himself 
by a paper in the Philosophical Transactions ce On the 
Spectra of Colours ,” and whom he settled at Shrewsbury 
in the bloom of scarcely ripened youth, and who even then 
acquired the confidence of all, and continues still to possess 
a very extensive practice and universal esteem. 

His third son, Erasmus, he bred to the law, who, ima« 
gining that his affairs were . perplexed (but which actually 
was not the case when his debts were collected), became 
gloomy, and, in a fit of melancholy and despair, plunged 
into that bourne whence no traveller returns. 

Dr. Darwin is severely reprobated by some as not having 
publicly exhibited those outward marks of sorrow for the 
loss of his twm sons which might have been expected : but 
the reader will remember that his mind was of no ordinary 
stamp, and he probably concealed from the world the real 
sufferings of a father 3 for that he was a man of keen sen- 
I sibility 


43 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin , M. D. 

sibility his writings and whole life declare, and he thus de¬ 
picts himself his true character : 

And now, e’en I, whose verse reluctant sings 
The changeful state of sublunary things. 

Bend o’er mortality with silent sighs. 

And wipe the secret tear-drops from my eyes. 

Hear through the night one universal groan. 

And mourn unseen for evils not my own ; 

With restless limbs and throbbing heart complain. 

Stretch’d on the rack of sentimental pain ! 

Partly with a view for the instruction of his sons, and of 
the world at large, he commenced at Lichfield his Zoono- 
mia, or Laws of Organic Life. 

Pie was much attached to botany, and the wild scenery of 
* " * 

nature. Living; in a romantic country, and viewing; it with 
a poet’s eye, and regretting that there were but few votaries 
to it, probablv owing to the science being concealed in a 
learned garb, he began, with Sir Brook Boothby and Dr. 
Jackson, a Translation of the Genera and Species Plantarum 
of Linnaeus, which goes, by the appellation of being done 
by the Lichfield Botanical Society ; although it consisted 
only of those three persons, no others being found willing to 
enter into that body. That Dr. Darwin was still proud of 
this establishment is proved by bis ordering of Rivington, 
Dr. Thornton’s “ New Illustration of the Sexual System, 
including the Temple of Flora*,” in the name and for the 
Lichfield Botanical Society, although the doctor was now 
settled at Derby. 

If there was any thing yet wanting to establish Dr. Dar¬ 
win’s medical reputation at Lichfield, it was accomplished 
by the recovery of the countess of Northesk. This lady had 
been under several eminent physicians of London and Bath, 
and, finding their endeavours ineffectual, the countess was 
advised to try her native air, and had arrived as far as Lich¬ 
field, on her journey home. There she learnt the great re- 

V 

* Speaking of this work in his Ph>/lologia } Dr. Darwin says, “ I beg 
leave to recommend to the public the coloured picturesque botanical plates 
just published by Dr. Thornton, which I suppose has no equal.” 


putation 


44 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin , M. D. 

putation of the doctor, and the many wonderful cures he 
had performed, and she resolved to consult him. The doctor 
heard the case with patient attention, and with honest in¬ 
tegrity told her ladyship, that if she would confide in 
his judgment he had full hopes of her recovery/’ One in¬ 
junction he made, that the countess would remain at Lich¬ 
field. He condemned the system her ladyship had followed, 
of nutritious food, rich jellies, and wine, and a quantity of 
medicine every three or four hours, with forcible exertions 
of body and mind, and substituted exactly a reverse system; 
and in three weeks the countess was completely restored, and 
able to resume her journey, not for health, but to enjoy the 
society of her elegant circle of friends, who admired greatly 
the sagacity of that physician who had saved her life. 

One may here remark that Dr. Darwin was ever unfriendly 
to the system of too much excitement, and so decidedly mi¬ 
mical to the use of wine and strong spirits, that he insti¬ 
tuted a spirit of sobriety in the inhabitants _ of Lichfield 
which was almost incredible. His cautions he sometimes 
gave even in a poetic dress. 

Address of a Water-Nymph at Belmont to the Owner of 

that Place. 

O friend to peace and virtue, ever flows 
For thee my silent and unsullied stream. 

Pure and untainted as thy blameless life ! 

Let no gay converse lead thy steps astray 
To mix my chaste wave with immodest wine. 

Nor with the poisonous cup, which Chemia’s hand 
Deals, fell enchantress, to the sons of Folly ! 

So shall young Health thy daily walks attend. 

Weave for thy hoary brow the vernal flower 
Of cheerfulness, and with his nervous arm 
Arrest tlf inexorable scythe of Time. 

His sentiments respecting fermented liquor arc very sin¬ 
gular, and worthy of attention, fn the note to his Verses 
on the Vine, where he complains that by chemistry fer¬ 
mentation converts sugar into spirit, and food into poison; 
he adds, that from this process more than half of our chro¬ 
nical 


1 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 45 

mical diseases arise. The antient story of Prometheus, who 
concealed in his bosom the tire he had stolen, and afterwards 
had a vulture perpetually gnawing his side, affords so apt an 
allegory for the effects of drinking spirituous liquors, that 
one is induced to think the art of distillation had been known 
in times of great antiquity : for the swallowing drams can¬ 
not be better represented in hieroglyphic language than by 
taking fire into one’s bosom; and certain it is, that the ge¬ 
neral effect of drinking spirituous or fermented liquors is ail 
inflamed scirrhous, or paralytic liver, with its various cri¬ 
tical or consequential diseases, as leprous eruptions on the 
face, gout, dropsy, epilepsy, insanity. It is remarkable that 
all the diseases from drinking spirituous or fermented liquors 
are liable to become hereditary even to the third generation, 
gradually increasing, if the cause be continued, till the fa¬ 
mily becomes extinct. — Such are Dr. Darwin’s sentiments. 

He now was sought after even from a distance, and co¬ 
lonel and Mrs. Pole, of Radburn, Derbyshire, in 1 778, came 
purposely to Lichfield for the recovery of their children, who 
were suspected of being in a decline after the hooping-cough. 

Mrs. Pole was then in the full bloom of her youth and 
beauty. Agreeable features; the glow of health; a fasci¬ 
nating smile; a fine form, tall and graceful; playful sprigbt- 
liness of manners ; a benevolent heart and maternal affec¬ 
tion, in all its unwearied cares and touching tenderness* 
contributed to inspire Dr. Darwin’s admiration, and to se¬ 
cure his esteem. Soon aftci she left Lichfield with her re¬ 
novated little ones, their restorer sent to his friend Mr, 
Bolton, of Birmingham, the following directions for making 
a tea-vase, designed as a present from the doctor to Mrs. 
Pole. 

Friend Bolton, take these ingots fine 
From rich Potosi’s sparkling mine ; 

With your nice art a tea-vase mould. 

Your art, more valu’d than the gold. 

With orient pearl, in letters white, 

Around it, “ To the Fairest,” write; 

And, where proud Radburn’s turrets rise. 

To bright Eliza send the prize. 


I’ll 


46 Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M, D* 

I’ll have no bending serpents kiss 
The foaming wave, and seem to hiss; 

No sprawling dragons gape with ire. 

And snort out steam, and vomit fire 3 
No Naiads weep3 no sphinxes stare 3 
No tail-hung dolphins swim in air. 

Let leaves of myrtle round the rim. 

With rose-buds twisting, shade the brim; 

Each side let woodbine stalks descend. 

And form the branches as they bend3 

While on the foot a Cupid stands 

And twines the wreath with both his hands. 

Perch’d on the rising lid above, 

O place a lovelorn turtle dove. 

With hanging wing, and ruffled plume. 

With gasping beak, and eye of gloom. 

Last, let the swelling bosses shine 
With silver, white, and burnish’d tine. 

Bright as the fount, whose banks beside 
Narcissus gaz’d, and lov’d, and died. 

Vase, when Eliza deigns to pour. 

With snowy hand, thy boiling shower3 
And sweetly talks, and smiles, and sips 
The fragrant steam with ruby lips. 

More charms thy polish’d orb shall shew 
Than Titian’s glowing pencil drew 3 
More than his chisel soft unfurl’d. 

Whose heav’11 -wrought statue charms the world. 

The reader must call to mind that Dr. Darwin was a gen¬ 
tleman of the highest sense of honour, and Mrs. Pole a Jadv 
of the greatest reserve, yet most fascinating manners3 and 
that their admiration was mutual, and their love platonic. 
The poet thus paints the antiquated colonel, her husband : 

Fly, gentle steeds!—o’er yon unfriendly towers 
Malignant stars with baleful influence reign3 
Cold Beauty’s frown infects the cheerless hours. 

And Avarice dwells in Love’s polluted fane I 

Dim 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 47 

Dim, distant towers! whose ample roof protects 
All that my beating bosom holds so dear. 

Far shining lake! whose silver wave reflects 
Of Nature’s fairest forms, the form most fair; 

• ' * 

Groves, where at noon the sleeping beauty lies; 

Lawns, where at eve her graceful footsteps rove; 

For ye full oft have heard my secret sighs. 

And caught, unseen, the tear of hopeless love $ 

i 

Farewell! a long farewell!—your shades among 
No more these eyes shall drink Eliza’s charms; 

No more these ears the music of her tongue ! 

O ! doom’d for ever to another’s arms! 

i 

Fly, gentle steeds !—my bleeding heart convey 
Where brighter scenes and milder planets shine; 

Where Joy’s white pinion glitters in the ray. 

And Love sits smiling on his crystal shrine! 

i i 

These lines were composed and never sent, hut locked 
up, with others, in a bureau, and afterwards, as will be seen, 
presented to the fair lady. 

Near Lichfield Dr. Darwin purchased a beautiful sylvan 
spot, which he cultivated as his garden, and which was soon 
celebrated by Miss Anna Seward, of Lichfield, a sweet poet, 
and the lines presented to Dr. Darwin. He said u that 
these should be the exordium of a poem which should be 
called The Botanic Garden, or Loves of the Plants;” and 
advised this lady to undertake such a poem. This she de¬ 
clined, but pressed it on the doctor, who had never yet 
composed whole poem, but only fugitive pieces, such as 
we have given a specimen of; and he immediately from that 
instant commenced the execution of The Botanic Garden, 
which astonished an admiring world, and procured for the 
doctor the appellation of the English Lucretius. 

Whilst busied on this poem, the antiquated colonel Pole 
died. The widow, then in the zenith of her beauty, and 
still alive to the world, had scarce laid aside her weeds when 
many suitors came to solicit her hand and fortune. 7"he 
doctor was turned of fifty, rather corpulent, somewhat lame, 

had 


. , \ ' 

4$ Description of a circular 

had a dreadful stammer when eager in utterance* and rathef 
harshly featured; yet sense beamed from his eye, and his 
eye-brow was expressive, and he had restored her three chil-** 
dren, who were amply provided for. He likewise came a- 
courting, and recounted those verses he had formerly made 
on her charms. She was not long indexible, although she 
had ample choice amongst gentlemen fox-hunters, dashing 
young officers, bowing parsons, and a long train of other gentry 
.—for the kind, the benevolent, the heaven-poetic-inspired 
Dr. Darwin had the preference; but whether fearful that ail 
unjust suspicion would exist amongst the prudes and gossips 
of Lichfield from this preference, that they might not have 
mind enough to comprehend the true reason of her choice 
in consenting to give him her hand, she stipulated he would 
immediately remove to Derby. 

[To be continued.] 


IX. Description of a circular Mother-of-Pearl Micrometer* 
By David Brewster, A. M. 

To Mr. Tilloni. 

T SIR? . . 1 

In the Philosophical Transactions for 179H Mr. Tiberius 

*■ 

Cavallo has given an account of an ingenious and simple mi¬ 
crometer, invented by himself, and excellently fitted for mea¬ 
suring small angles with accuracy and expedition. It con¬ 
sists of a slip of mother-of-pearl minutely subdivided, and 
stretched across the diaphragm that is placed in the anterior 
focus of the fourth eye-glass of an achromatic telescope. 
The angle subtended by any number of its divisions is then 
ascertained by experiment, and therefore the value of any 
other number can either be found by simple proportion, or 
from a table computed for the purpose. The method of 
forming this table, and the various purposes to which this 
micrometer ^applicable, have been given at great length 
bv Mr. Cavallo in his paper in the Philosophical Transac¬ 
tions, and in a separate pamphlet descriptive of the instnw 
meat. 


In 





Mother-of-Pearl Micrometer . 49 

In the winter of 1805, when I was employed in deline¬ 
ating the surface of the moon, I wished to measure the dia¬ 
meter of the kinar spots by applying Mr. Cavallo’s micro¬ 
meter to a thirty-inch achromatic telescope made by Bere^e. 
But as the eye-piece was moved by a rack and pinion, and 
consequently could not turn round its axis, the micrometer 
must have remained stationary, and could only measure an¬ 
gles in one direction. This difficulty, indeed, might have 
been surmounted by a mechanical contrivance for turning 

• o 

the diaphragm about its centre, or more simply by giving 
a motion of rotation to the tube which contains the third 
and fourth eye-glasses. Such a change in the eye-piece, 
however, was both inconvenient and difficult to be made. 
Mr. Cavallo’s micrometer, therefore, has this great disad¬ 
vantage, that it cannot be used in reflecting telescopes, or 
in any achromatic tedescope where the adjustment of the 
eye-piece is effected by rack-work, unless the structure of 
these instruments is altered for the purpose. Another dis¬ 
advantage of this micrometer arises from the slip of mother- 
of -pearl pas«ing through the centre of the field. The pic¬ 
ture in the focus of the eye-glass is broken into two parts, 
and the view is rendered still more unpleasant by the in¬ 
equality of the segments into which the field is divided. In 
addition to ihese disadvantages, the different divisions of the 
micrometer are at unequal distances from the eye-glass 
which views them, and therefore can neither appear equally 
distinct nor subtend equal angles at the eye. 

Finding that Mr. Cavallo’s instrument laboured uncter 
these imperfections, I thought of a circular mother-of-pearl 
micrometer which is free from them all, and has likewise 
the advantage of a kind of diagonal scale, increasing in ac¬ 
curacy with the angle to be measured. This micrometer, 
which I got executed by Miller and Adie, optical instru¬ 
ment makers in Edinburgh, and which I have often used, 
both in determining small angles in the heavens and such as 
are subtended bv terrestrial objects, is represented in fig. 1, 
which exhibits its appearances in the focus of the fourth 
eye-glass. The black ring, which forms part of the figure, 

* Vo). 29. No. 113 . Oct. 1807. D is 


50 


Description of a circular 


Is the diaphragm, and the remaining part is a ring of mo¬ 
ther-of-pearl, having its interior circumference divided into 
360 equal parts. The mother-of-pearl ring, which appears 
connected with the diaphragm, is completely separate from 
it, and is fixed at the end of a brass tube which is made 
to move between the third eye-glass and the diaphragm, so 
that the divided circumference may be placed exactly in the 
focus of the glass next the eye. When the micrometer is 
thus fitted into the telescope, the angle subtended by the 
whole field of view, or by the diameter of the innermost 
circle of the micrometer, must be determined either by mea¬ 
suring a base or by the passage of an equatorial star, and 
the angles subtended by any number of divisions or de¬ 
grees will be found by a table constructed in the following 
manner* 

Let AmpritBr, fig. 2. be the interior circumference of the 
micrometer scale, and let inn be the object to be measured. 
Bisect the arch mn in p , and draw Cm, C p, C n. The line 
C p will be at right angles to mn, and therefore mn will be 
twice the sine of half the arch mn ♦ Consequently, AB : nm 
3= rad. sine of \mpn; therefore mn xR = sin. \mpn x AB, 

sin. \mpn x AB sin. \mpn . _ . 

and mpn = --—— x AB a formula 


by which the angle subtended by the chord of any number 
of degrees may be easily found. The first part of the for¬ 


mula, viz. 


sin. \mpn 
K 


is constant, while AB varies with the. 


size of the micrometer and with the magnifying power which 
is applied. We have therefore computed the following 
table, containing the value of the constant part of the for¬ 
mula for every degree or division of the scale- 






51 


Mother-of- Pearl Micrometer. 


*n 

O 

CO 

H 

‘O 

co 

to 

O' 

05 

05 

o 

^-4 

co 

O 

H 

CO 

X 

o 

© 

c . 

rt f 

4-» i-< 

03 

O 

r-H 

05 

co 


lO 

CO 

CO 

r>. 

X 

X 

05 

05 

05 

05 

O 

o 

x 

CO 

05 

05 

C5 

05 

05 

05 

C5 

05 

C5 

C5 

05 

05 

05 

C5 

o 

© 

x cC 

s * 

05 

CO 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 


05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

o 

O 

CJ 

















H 

r-H 


*0 

r r 

tO 

CO 

tx. 

X 

05 

O 


05 

X 

Tf 

>o 

CO 


X 

C5 

© 

•SD3Xo3(J 

1 <° 

r-H 

’O 

CO 

co 

CO 

CO 

N- 


N 


t-4 

b. 

t- 

b^ 

r— 


X 






'—' 

# 1 *5 

r-H 

'—' 

»—< 

—4 


r*H 

r-H 


r-H 

»-H 

r-H 

4i 

fl . 

*-r M 


CO 

00 

CO 

CO 

05 

p-H 

X 

■rf 


X 

r-H 

05 CO 

X 

X 

X 


x 

CO 

o 

f-H 

X 

‘0 

X 

O 

05 


CO 

X 

05 

r-H 

X 


CO 

b-4 

c d, 
o ^ 

»o 

to 

tO 

CO 

CO 

vO 

CO 



O- 


K 


X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

05 

03 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

C5 

05 

05 

05 

05 

C5 

C5 

05 

C5 

O 


















•s^DaSaQ 

l l O 

co 


GO 

05 

o 

^-4 

05 

X 


to 

CO 


X 

05 

O 

r-H 

05 

■* 

H 




tO 

to 

'O 

iO 

to 

to 

to 

tO 

tO 

to 

CO 

CO 

CO 


•—1 

r—( 


r-H 


r—1 



p—5 

r-M 

r—» 

—H 

P-^ 

—« 

r-H 

— 4 

r-H 

-H 

c . 

05 

ao 

co 

CO 

o 

tO 


tO 

05 

05 


co 

t— 

b^ 

rr> 

to 

X 

r-H 

4H *H 

H 

00 

05 

o 

o 

X 


O 

X 


O 

X 

CO 

05 

05 

‘O 

X 

r-H 

C ^ 

05 

CO 

o 

o 




G5 

t*?5 

05 

X 

X 

X 

X 

H 



tO 

o 04 

O 

00 

00 

05 

05 

05 

05 

C5 

05 

05 

05 

05 

C5 

05 

05 

05 

05 

C5 

05 


l^. 

X 

05 o 

_ 

05 

X 


*0 

CO 

t- 

X 

05 

o 

r-H 

05 

CO 

'H 

•saaj^aQ 

05 


05 

CO 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 


H 



rf 



—* 

•—H 



T~-\ 

f—5 

r—• 

f-H 

*—H 


r—4 


r-H 

r-H 

r-H 

^H 

r-H 

3 ., 


C5 


O 

05 

l"- 


O 

co 

05 

CO 

O 

H 

co 

X 

05 © 

O 

♦-* *-* 


C5 


05 CO 

X 

X 

X 

05 



<o 

O 


X 

05 



c 

<—• 

r-H 

05 

05 

X 

X 



to 

tO 

co 

CO 

i-. 


b— 

X 

X 

05 

c ** 

O 

00 

X 

00 

ao 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

•saojS^Q 

05 

o 

— 

05 

X 

Ot 

to 

co 


X 

05 

o 

r-H 

G5 

CO 

H 

m 

CO 

o 




»—4 

>—1 

••H 


“’•H 


r-H 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

— 

•—» 

r-H 


—* 

*-N 



—5 

—< 


—« 



—H 

r-H 

r-H 

r-H 

+-* 

c3 

4-* Ut 

CO 

CO 

H 


X 


O 



eg 

co 


CO 

O 

H 

co 

05 

© 

CO 

05 

to 

r—< 

o- 

X 

05 


O 

•—< 


05 

X 

X 

X 

X 

CO 

C ^ 

.—» 

r-H 

05 

CO 

X 

O' 


tO 

CO 

CO 



X 

X 

05 

05 

© 

O 

o 

b- 

r^. 

t'S. 

5^. 


t— 

t>4 



(>, 

t^. 

b-* 



»> 

t— 

X 

X 


—1 

05 

CO 


to 

CO 


X 

05 

o 


05 

X 

H 

to 

co 

b'. 

X 

•saa-iSaQ 

C5 

C5 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

o 

o 

o 

o 

O 

o 

o 

© 

c 










p~< 


HH 


*—* 

r-H 


'- 4 

r-H 

4mJ 

G . 

00 

00 

00 

b>. 

tO 

X 


X 

Tf< 


CO 

f-H 

CO 

Q 

H 

b- 

C5 

r-H 

4-» i-4 

H 

^H 

00 

tO 

05 

05 CO 

05 

05 CO 

05 

05 

to 

05 

X 


C 


C A . 

05 

C5 

O 


05 

05 

X 

■cf 

Tf 

to 

co 

CO 

t-4 

X 

X 

C5 

o 

© 

o ^ 

O 

«0 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

co 

CO 

CO cO 

co 

CO 

co 

CO 

CO 

CO 

b- 


•sa3X§3Q 

CO 

H 

to 

co 

K 

X 

05 £ 

—i 

05 

X 

H 

ir> 

co 

b- 

X 

05 


t"* 

b^ 

b-4 





X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

05 

*H 

H 

5 ti 

t>4 

tO 

^, 

ao 

■tt 

o 

to 

O 

to 

05 

X 

CO 

05 

05 

Tf< 

to 

b>» 

X 

*-H 

05 


Tt< 

05 

C 


to 

05 

05 




05 CO 

X 

o 

b~ 

Sd! 

CO 

CO 


ao 

05 

o 

C 

—* 

05 

05 

X 

H 

*o 

to 

CO 


X 

X 

5 ~ 


H 

H 


<* 

tO 

to 

to 

tO 

tO 

to 

tO 

to 

tO 

to 

to 

tO 

to 

O 


















•*33jiS3Q 

to 

to 

CO 

to 

*o 

X 

to 

05 

tO 

o 

co 

co 

05 

co 

co 

co 

t! 

CO 

to 

CO 

66 

t-- 

co 

X 

CO 

05 

co 

o 

b^. 

b^ 

05 

b- 

4-> 

a . 

rt £ 

4-1 U 

CO 

co 

GO 

O 

05 


tO 

co 

N 


N 


b- 

CO 

to 

H 

05 

o 


to 

CO 

05 

o 

X 

co 

'Cf 

05 

c 

X 

CO 

H 

05 

o 

X 

cc 

H 

C £v. 

r-H 

05 

CO 

T}< 

to 

to 

CO 

IS 

X 

C5 

C5 O 

r-H 

05 

X 

CO 

H 


o ^ 

O 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

X 

X 

CO 

X 

X 

X 

X 

■H 


■H 



H 

H 

•soa.[i}'3Q 


00 

05 

o 

r—1 

05 

X 

Tf 

to 

co 

l- 

X 

05 

O 

—1 

05 

X 


CO 

CO 

co 

Vfi 

■tt 

rft 

Tf 

Tf 

O' 

rj* 



T4< 

to 

to 

tO 

tO 

>o 

4H 

r“* 

r-« • 

O CO 

05 

X 


05 


o 

O' 

05 

'■f 

X 

05 

co 

© 

X 


© 

n *-* 

«-* Ut 

to 

CO 

05 

O 

05 

5^. 

CO 

*o 

X 

•—« 

o 

X 

r-. 

to 

H 

05 

o 


o> c« 

c Pu 
o ^ 

U 

co 


00 

05 

05 

o 

—- 

05 

CO 


tO 

tO 

co 

b- 

X 

05 

a 

O 

r-H 


r-H 

'— 1 

•“ 1 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

G5 

05 

05 

05 

X 

X 

•S33jS3Q 

C5 

O 

•5-H 

05 

CO 

O' 

*o 

co 

1-4 

X 

05 

>— • 

4— 

05 

X 

■^y 

*o 

CO 

—> 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

05 

oa 

05 

05 

05 

X 

X 

X 

X 

co 

CO, 

CO 

, j • 

= o - 


H 

05 

05 CO 

X 

o 

X 

to 

05 

X 

to 

05 

05 

to 

05 

X 

H 

0) c 

■4-* ±_i r-i 

00 

l ^ 

CO 

r*< 

X 

05 

.—. 

05 

X 

f - 

'O 

H 

X 

r-1 

o 

04 

1^4 

rr* 

2 <- ~ c 

« ^ “ u 

o 


05 

CO 


tO 

co 

CO 

K 

X 

05 

O 

•—« 

05 

co 

X 


>o 

C 

O 

C 

O 

o 

O 

o 

o 

o 

O 

c 


r» 

r-H 


—1 

r—( 

r-H 

O CH 



















•saoaSoQ 

r-H 

05 

CO 


‘O 

CO 


«0 

05 

o 

H 

G5 

X 

r—i 

^r*1 

V 

to 

--H 

co 

b-. 

X 


D 2 


Tii 



























































































* 


52 Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 

In order to find the angle subtended by any number of 
degrees, we have only to multiply the constant part of the 
formula corresponding to that number in the table by AB, 
or the angle subtended by the whole field. Thus if AB is 
30 minutes, as it happens to be in the micrometer which I 
have constructed, the angle subtended by 1 degree of the 
scale will be 30' x *009 = l 6 f seconds, and the angle sub¬ 
tended by 40 degrees will be 30' x *342 = i(/ 15*6"; and 
by making the calculation it will be found that as the angle 
to be measured increases, the accuracy of the scale also in¬ 
creases ; for when the arch is only 1 or 2 degrees, a variation 
of 1 degree produces a variation of about 16 seconds in the 
angle; whereas when the arch is between 170 and 180, the 
variation of a degree does not produce a change much more 
than one second in the angle. This is a most important 
advantage in the circular scale, as in Cavallo’s micrometer 
a limit is necessarily put to the size of the divisions. 

It is obvious, from an inspection of fig. I, that there is no 
occasion for turning the circular micrometer round its axis, 
because the divided circumference lies in every possible di¬ 
rection. In fig. 2., for example, if the object has the direc¬ 
tion ah it will be measured by the arch a oh , and if it lies 
In the line cd it will be measured by the arch crd . 

In the circular micrometer which I have been in the habit 
of using, AB, or the diameter of the field of view, is exactly 
half an inch, the diameter of the brass tube in which it is 
iixed is one inch, the length of the tube half an inch, and 
the degrees of the divided circumference of an inch. 

I am, sir, 

Your obedient humble servant, 

Edinburgh, DAVID BREWSTER. 

September 1, 1807. 


X. Additional Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants „ 

By M. Cuvier. 

[Continued from vol. xxviii. p. 366.] 

X have endeavoured to represent this progress of dentition 
in the figures of my Plates (III and IV) of elephants. 


Plate 






Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 53 

Plate TV. fig. 5. is a cranium of an Indian elephant cut 
vertically. 

a, the entrance of the nostrils. 

I , b , the enormous thickness of the sinuses which sepa¬ 
rate the two partitions of the cranium. 

c, the cavity of the brain. 

d , the occipital hole, and the right rondylus of that name. 

e, the alveolus of the tusk. 

f, the cavity of the tusk opened, in order to show the 
space occupied by its pulpy nucleus. 

Tn the space from f to g , a portion of the maxillary bone 
and all the palatine bone have been removed, in order to show 
the teeth and their germs in their situation throughout their 
whole extent. 

h , is the anterior tooth, reduced almost to nothing by 
detrition, and by the compression as much of the subsequent 
teeth as of its own alveolus. 

7, the tooth at full growth, the roots of which begin to 
be formed in k , and the triturating part of which, l , is al¬ 
ready worn down to a tablet. The posterior laminae, m, are 
as yet untouched. 

?i, the germ of the back tooth, as yet locked up in its 
membranous capsule, and the latter lodged in a cavity of 
the back jaw. 

o, the nerve of the fifth pair, which gives threads to the 
capsules of the teeth and to their pulpy nuclei. 

These two same teeth are represented more at large, 
Plate III. fig. 1 and 2. 

Fig. 1. is the tooth when full grown; a,b, the portion of 
its laminae already worn down to a tablet; b,c, the portion 
as yet untouched; d, c,f its roots, which are sunk among 
the productions of the alveolus g, h, L 

I have removed the whole of the anterior face of the roots 
and of the base of the fast of the tooth, in order to show 
the pulpy nucleus 

As the body of the tooth is almost entirely closed and 
filled, the small transverse walls n,o,p,q,r,s, are almost 
entirely shortened and compressed; but in return for this, 

D 3 the^ 


54 


Memoir upon living and fossil."Elephants . 

the pedicles t , 9 u 3 v } x 3 which serve for the formation of the 
roots, are already much lengthened. 

Fig. 2. is the germ of the back tooth, extracted with its 
capsule from the cavity of the back jaw. 

a 9 b , remains of the periosteum of the alveolus. 
c,d , anterior part of the external membrane of the capsule. 
e,f portion of this external membrane, detached and 
folded down in order to show the internal membrane g, h 9 i, 
k,k,k,k, &c. transversal productions of this internal mem¬ 
brane, which separate the laminae of the tooth and the ge¬ 
latinous walls upon which these laminae are formed. 

I have removed the portions of the membrane which 
united these productions, in order to exhibit the laminae of 
the tooth which they covered. 

. /, l, Z, the body of the pulpy nucleus of the tooth. 

&c. its productions, or the small transverse 
walls which it sends out among the productions of the cap¬ 
sule, and upon which are formed the laminae of the tooth. 

ft,#,??,??, &c. laminae, said to be osseous, transuded by 
these small walls which envelop them, and the whole of 
which forms the tooth. The posterior ones are much 
shorter, and do not envelop so completely their small walls, 
because the transudation begins later behind, 

o, o, o,o, &c. the enamel deposited upon these laminae by 
the internal face of the capsule. There is much less upon 
the posterior laminae for the same reason. 

In the part d 3 g 9 h 9 the cortical has already covered the 
enamel and soldered the laminae together. 

p , p, p, the interruptions of continuity which separate the 
commencements of the pedicles of the roots. 

Fig. 3 . is the middle part of this same germ, seen by jt§ 
posterior face. 

<7, a , its base, seen a good deal shortened, 
b 3 one of the last small transverse walls, 
c, lamina said to be osseous, which as yet only envelopi 
its notches. 

d 3 a notch, the envelop of which is not as yet joined to 
the others f 


Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 53 

r, e y e, e, the enamel which begins to he deposited upon 
this lamina. 

f the rest of the capsule. 

g , g f extremities of the transverse laminae of the capsule. 

h y h, bases of the small transverse walls of the pulpy nu¬ 
cleus. 

i , i y iy laminae of the tooth which envelop them. 

k, k, enamel which begins to be deposited upon these la¬ 
mina*. 

Fig. 4. represents the last small walls of the pulpy nu¬ 
cleus detached from the rest; and separated from each other. 

a, the laminae in the shape of a small horn, which had 
begun to form upon the notches of the most anterior. 

l, those which had only sprung up upon the notches of 
the one before the last. 

c, the last of all, which has not as yet any hard envelop. 

Fig. 5. a lamina of a germ of the tooth of an Indian ele¬ 
phant, viewed on its broad face. 

a , a , its part which is soon to shoot out of the capsule 
and the gum, and on which we already see the cortical 
spread, as if by drops. 

I, h y its middle part, where there is not as yet, upon the 
substance called osseous, any thing else than enamel, like 
threads of velvet. 

Cy Cy its part of the base, or the substance called osseous. 
Is as yet bare, without either enamel or cortical. 

Fig. 6 . a similar lamina of the African elephant. 

a, the ridge, which gives to the section of the lamince of 
this species the figure of a lozenge. 

Article III. 

Upon the Tusks of Elephants ; the Structure , Growth , and 

distinguishing Characters of the Ivory , and its Diseases . 

Conclusion of the general Remarks upon the Teeth . 

We shall not stop to refute the opinion of some among 
the moderns*, that the tusks of elephants are horns. This 

* Ludolpli. iEthiop. lib. i, cap. JO. Pqrrault, Description de l’Elephant de 
Versailles, &c. 

D 4 was 


36 


Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 

was an old idea maintained by Pausanias refuted by Phi- 
lostratus, and which no person adopted any longer. 

On the contrary, the greatest part of the anatomists who 
think that teeth grow like common bones, by a kind of in- 
tus-susception, take their proofs from ivory, its diseases and 
its accidents. ? 

Nevertheless, ivory is formed, like the other teeth, from 
successive layers being transuded by the pulpy nucleus. 

I opened the alveolus and the base of a tusk in a recent 
carcase of an elephant 5 and here I saw evidently a pulpy 
nucleus of enormous size, and entirely deprived of all or- 
ganical union with the tusk, which it had nevertheless se¬ 
creted. Although the carcase was perfectly fresh, I could 
not see the least adherence between the tusk and the nu¬ 
cleus ; not the least fibre, nor the smallest vessel; no cellu^- 
losity tied them together. The nucleus was in the cavitv of 
the tusk, like a sword in its scabbard, and only adhered by 
itself to the bottom of its alveolus. 

The tusk is therefore in its alveolus like a nail driven into 
a plank. Nothing retains it there except the elasticity of 
the parts which enclose it; we may therefore change its di¬ 
rection by gentle pressure. This is an experiment which 
succeeded with our second elephant: its tusks were brought 
so close together as to constrain the motion of its proboscis; 
we separated them by means of a bar of iron, the middle of 
which was in the form of a vice, and we could thus lengthen 
it at pleasure. Every one knows that dentists do the same 
thing, upon a small scale, with wires, with such teeth as 
have only one root. i 

The successive layers of which the ivory is composed 
leave hut few traces upon the section of a fresh tusk ; but 
here the fossil teeth assist us in better ascertaining the struc¬ 
ture of the parts. Those tusks which have been decomposed 
and altered by their being under ground, are split into coni¬ 
cal and thin laminae, all enveloped within each other, and 
thereby show what has been their origin. 

No 


* Vita Apollonii, lib. ii. cap. 13 . 


Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 57 

No bone whatever, properly so called, ever splits in tlvs 
manner. Sloane, as I thinks was the first who made this 
remark. 

Scratches, or any scars whatever, made on the surface of 
a tusk, are never filled up ; they disappear only in propor¬ 
tion as the tusk is worn down bv friction. 

y 

It is true, we sometimes find balls in the heart of the ivory 
without seeing the hole through which they entered. 

. Our museum possesses an example of this, and we find 
several others scattered through various works*. » 

Some have concluded that the track pursued bv the balls 
must, have been filled up even bv the juices of the tusk and 
by its organic ,d force f; or, as Haller expresses it, by a kind 
of stalactite J: but it is easy to see, on the contrary, that 
this hole is not filled up in this manner. '1 he whole of the 
ivorv outside the ball is .-similar to the rest; that part only 
which immediately surrounds it is irieg.ular; the ball must 
have traversed the alveolus and the base, while vet thin of 
the tusk of a young elephant, and must have been lodged 
in the pulpv nucleus, still undeveloped : it has been after¬ 
wards seized by the layers transuded by this nucleus, and 
has there remained fixed. 

Camper has already explained it in this way. ( Descript 
Anat , dCun Elephant , p. 5-i.) 

We cannot, therefore, deduce from this fact any conse¬ 
quence that can justify the nutrition of ivory by mtus-sus- 
ception. 

For the same reason it proves nothing against the opi¬ 
nion of Duhamel upon the formation of the bones by the 
hardening of the successive layers of the periosteum, al¬ 
though Haller has drawn one of his principal arguments 
from this. 

As to the diseases of ivory, those which belong to the 
alteration of its texture proceed merely from a disease in the 

* Bltemenlach, Manuel cTAnat. Comp. p. 43. Gallandat, Memoires de 
l‘Acad. de Harlem, ix. 352. Bonn, Thes. Hovian. p. 146. Camper, Ana£. 
«i’un Eleph. pi. xx. fig*. 11 & 12. Haller, Op. Min. ii. p,554. 

f Haller , Phys. Viij. p. 319. 

| ibid p. 220. 


pulpy 


5 S Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 

pulpy nucleus at the period when it secreted the altered por- 
tion; and what has been called exostosis is always inside, 
and never outside. It is the effect of a secretion for the 
moment, too abundant at a certain point. 

Specimens of diseased ivory have been often given by ex¬ 
hibiting the canine teeth of the morse ( trichecus rosmarus }, 
the texture of which is naturally grained. Daubenton him¬ 
self has fallen into this error. 

The diseases of the teeth are nearly in the same case as 
those pf the ivory. 

What has been called caries , an almost necessary conse¬ 
quence of the removal of the enamel, is the decomposition 
which the internal substance would undergo, when it would 
even be no longer adherent to the body if it remained ex¬ 
posed to the heat of the mouth, and the action of the saliva 
and various food; but it has no reference whatever to the 
caries of the bones. 

The tendency to caries which the teeth of several people 
evince, proceeds from their substance not being of a good 
composition, and may be ascribed to the bad state of the 
pulpy nucleus when it transuded them. 

It is the same with the spots and the more tender layers 
we observe in the thickness of some teeth. All are the ef¬ 
fects of momentary indispositions of the pulpy nucleus. 

Pains and inflammations exist in the pulpy nucleus, and 
not in the hard part of the tooth. It is the pulpy nucleus 
which is sensible to the shocks and the temperature of bo¬ 
dies passing through the envelop which the hard part forms 
around it. 

It may be perhaps surprising to some that so thick and 
hard an envelop does not blunt all sensation * but the pulp 
of the nucleus of the teeth is, next to the retina and the 
pulp of the labyrinth of the ear, the most sensible part of 
the animal frame. Fishes, which have their labyrinth in¬ 
closed in the cranium, without any box or tympanum, and 
without small bones; in a word, without any communica¬ 
tion opening externally, hear sounds in consequence of vi¬ 
brations communicated to the cranium. The teeth, how¬ 
ever. 


Memoir upon living and fossil "Elephants. 59 

ever, evince something much stronger in point of sensi¬ 
bility. 

The exostoses of the teeth (their fungosities) do not grow 
upon the surface of the enamel of a sound tooth, but in the 
bottom of the hollows of the carious ones. These are pro¬ 
ductions of the pulpy nucleus, which have pierced the hard 
matter in the thin bottom of these hollows. 

The continual lengthening of those teeth which have none 
opposite to them to retain them, agrees with all these facts; 
the portion once sent out of the tusk of the elephant length¬ 
ens always, but does not become thicker, and does not har¬ 
den : this is because it is always pushed back by new layers, 
while in itself it cannot undergo any change. We know 
how far this lengthening proceeds in rabbits which have lost 
a tooth, and whose opposite tooth is no longer worn by mas¬ 
tication. Continuing to lengthen backward, it finally hin¬ 
ders the animal from eating. It was from this that Aristotle 
asserted that the teeth grow all our lives, while the other 
bones have determinate limits. 

It must be added, however, that the ordinary teeth have 
a determined limit: this is when the entrance of their ca¬ 
vity is obliterated, and when their pulpy nucleus receives no 
more nourishment; but nature has taken care to leave the 
paths always open in those animals which, from wearing 
their teeth much, require that they should be often repaired 
behind : such are the rabbits with respect to their incisors, 
and the elephants with respect to their tusks : the root never 
being obliterated, its channel can never be closed. 

Article IV. 

Application of the Observations upon the Dentition of the 
Elephant to the Knowledge of Fossils. 

For want of information on the subject of the formation 
and the manner in which teeth grow in general, describes 
of fossils have committed a multitude of errors; but as the 
circumstances relative to the teeth of the elephant are still 
more complicated and more difficult than those which con¬ 
cern the other animals, these have led peqple into much 
greater mistakes. 


Formerly 


60 Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants, 

- Formerly a great number of authors were in possession 
of entire and well formed teeth of fossil elephants without 
knowing it. 

'■ Aldrovandus, Leibnitz, Kundman, and Beuth, were in 
this situation* 

The inverse of this case has often taken place also, and 
teeth of a very different description have been exhibited for 
those of elephants. 

Aldrovandus (De Met all.) describes three teeth of the hip^ 
popotamus as those of an elephant. 

M. de la Metherie (Theory of the Earth, vol. v. p. 200,) 
says that the tooth found near Vienne, in Dauphine, and 
engraved in the Journal de Physique for February 17 73 ^ 
p. 135 , seems to have belonged to the elephant of Africa. 
We have shown that it must have belonged to a species of 
the grand tapir. The same author (at p, 201) asserts, u that 
it is now proved that the teeth from the Ohio, and those 
brought from Peru by Dombey, are those of an elephant 
which is of the same species as that of Africa/" 

Notwithstanding all this, the teeth from Vienne, those 
of Ohio, and those from Peru, do not resemble each other 
at all, and neither of them resemble those of the African 
elephant. 

Other authors have thought of establishing specific dif- 
ferences from the number of teeth existing at one and the 
same time in the jaw. Thus Merck ( Seconde Lcttre sur les 
Os Fossiles de Bhinoceros, Darmst. 1784 , p. 12, et seq.) 
thinks he has established the difference between living and 
fossil elephants from the circumstance of the jaws he ob¬ 
served having only two teeth, while that of the elephant 
described by Daubenton had four. He fills eight pages with 
reasoning on this subject, and finishes by proposing an ex¬ 
planation of this variety in the number of teeth, similar to 
that of Pallas, by referring it to the difference of ages, 
M. Morozzo ( Mem . de la Societe Ital. tom. x. p. J62) even 
informs us that the elephant has only one tooth on each 
-side. 

Some persons having been ignorant how these teeth di¬ 
minish 


Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 61 

minish in every respect before falling, and equally ignorant 
of the great difference between the teeth of young and old 
individuals, have imagined that the small teeth which are 
found isolated proceed from an elephant of a much smaller 
species. 

But by far the most serious errors are those which have 
been occasioned bv the partial laminae of the germs of ele¬ 
phants’ teeth which have been found detached and not at all 
worn. 

I 

The antient naturalists, who generally considered fossils 
as figured stones, found in these lamina; some resemblance 
to a foot or a hand, and gave them the name of chirites . 

Kircher represents some of them under this name in his 
Mundus subterranens, ii. 64. There are also similar ones 
in his museum, and in the Museum metallicum Vaticanum 
of Mercati. 

Aldrovandus describes them by the same name, De Me - 
tall . lib. iv. 481. 

But nothing of this kind approaches what we find in the 
Rariora Natures et Artis of Kundman, PI. III. fig. 2. This 
author describes the object represented bv his figure as the 
petrified skull of some great baboon ; he asserts that the 
skin, the flesh, the nails, and the veins, were to be seen in 
it entirely petrified ; that M. Fischer, professor at Konigs- 
berg, who had seen the greatest part of the cabinets in Eu¬ 
rope, regarded this petrifaction as one of the most singular 
in the world : and, lastly, that the king of Poland, when 
elector of Saxony, had offered him a considerable sum in 
order to place it in the cabinet of Dresden. JValch , in bis 
commentary upon the work of Knorr, tom. ii. § 2. p. 150, 
quotes this rarity among the ostculitkes of the ape, &c. A 
single glance, however, thrown upon the figure will show 
that it is merely a lamina of an elephant’s tooth not vet 
worn at its extremity, nor soldered to the rest of the tooth. 


Article 


62 


Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants • 

Article V. 

Comparison let ween the Grinders of the Indian and the 
African Elephant, and first distinctive Character of these 
two Species . Examination of various fossil Elephant 
Teeth. 

For a long period teeth belonging to the elephants of 
India and those of Africa have been indiscriminately de¬ 
scribed, without comparing them, and without perceiving 
that they did not resemble each other in every particular. 
Thus the Royal Society of London, in 1715, caused to be- 
represented, in order to serve as an object of comparison 
some grinders from Africa, which considerably resemble, as 
we well know, those from India ; and no person insisted 
upon any difference which might have escaped the eye. 

The accurate and judicious Daubenton was equally far 
from remarking the difference, and Buffon and Linnaeus 
never supposed there was any more than one species of ele¬ 
phants. We do not even perceive any traces of this discri¬ 
mination in GmeliiTs edition of the Systems. Natures', and_, 
In fact, all that is found in the antient authors and in tra¬ 
vellers is vague, and can only be referred to simple varieties. 
Such, for instance, are the assertions of the antients re¬ 
specting the different degrees of the aptitude of these ani¬ 
mals for war. 

Diodorus Siculus, lib. ii. asserts that 66 the elephants of 
India far surpass in courage and strength those of Libya.” 

Appian confirms this, ( De Beilis Syriac, ed. Amsterdam.- 
3670, 8 vo. vol. i. p. 173.) According to him, “ Domi- 
tius, who commanded the Romans against Antiochus, judg¬ 
ing the elephants he got from Africa would be of no use to 
him, because they were smaller and because they were afraid 
of the large elephants, he ranged them behind the others/*' 
(i. e. behind the Indian elephants). 

Pliny and Solinus remark generally that the African ele¬ 
phants were smaller than the Indian, and were afraid of 
them. It is extremely probable, however, that the elephants 
in the service of Hannibal and Jugurtha were of the former 
species only. 


There 


03 


Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 

There is something more accurate, and equally true, in what 
is mentioned by a scholiast upon Pindar, cited by Gessner, 
Quadr .* p. 376, that the males only of the Indian elephants 
had tusks, but that both sexes had them among the elephants 
oi Libya and Ethiopia. As to the distinction established 
by Philostratus* between the elephants of mountains, plains, 
and marshes, and as to the differences of their nature and of 
their ivory, it is also probable that if they were real they 
constituted simple varieties only. 

The merit of the first legitimate specific distinction of 
elephants from the internal structure of their teeth is there- 
fore entirely owing to P. Camper: although he has written, 
nothing on the subject, the plates in which he has repre¬ 
sented them, and the testimony of his son and of M. Faujas, 
secure this merit to him. 

M. Blumenbach has also made the observation: he has 
characterized the two species according to this sole diffe¬ 
rence in his Manuel , sixth edition, p. 121, and has exhi¬ 
bited drawings of the two kinds of teeth in his Abhildungen , 

pi. 19. 

This difference consists in the form of the laminae and in 
their number; it is observable even in the germ. 

The germs of the elephant from India are laminae, each 
of which is formed of two surfaces nearly parallel, and sim¬ 
ply furrowed in their length. (See Elephants, Plate III. 
fig. 5.) In the elephant from Africa, one of the surfaces, 
and often both, produces in its middle and upon nearly all 
its length an angular jet; its furrows are also much less nu¬ 
merous. (Fig* (>.) 

It results from this structure of the germs, that the section 
of the laminae, when the tooth has been worn, presents in 
the elephant of India narrow transverse stripes of an equal 
breadth, and the edges of which, formed by the enamel, are 
very much festooned ; and in the elephant, of Africa lozenges 
or stripes broader in the middle than at the two ends, and 
the edges of which are rarely frittered into very perceptible 
festoons. 


To 


# Vita Apcll. Tyan, bb. ii. cap. IS. 


64 


Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants. 

To this difference in form, may be added another in point 
of the number : the laminae of the African elephant being 
broader, it requires less of them to form a similar length of 
tooth; nine or ten of these laminae form a tooth as large as 
13 or 14 of the Indian species would do. 

It seems that these two species preserve the same propor¬ 
tion in teeth,of the same age as in those of the same length. 
Thus, by comparing our skulls from Asia with those from 
Africa at nearly the same age, We find in the back teeth of 
the former 14 or 15 laminae, and in those of the latter 9 or 
10 only. 

Besides, we never saw a tooth of the African species which 
had more than 10 laminae, w'hile those of the Indian species 
have, according to Mr. Coxe, 23, and we have seen fossil 
teeth of this species having 24 and 25. 

These characters, taken from the grinders, being once 
ascertained with respect to living elephants, it was natural 
to examine with this view the fossil elephants, since, with 
the exception of the tusks, the teeth are most frequently 
found and preserved. 

The questions which occurred were the following: 

Which of the two living species of elephants do the fossil 
teeth resemble most ? 

Do they resemble one of them entirely ? 

Are all fossil teeth similar to each other ? 

There is no doubt as to the first question. The greatest 
number of fossil teeth resemble at first sight those of the 
Indian elephant, and are composed, like the latter, of stripes 
nearly equal in breadth and festooned. 

We may be certain of this by consulting PI. VI. (marked 
Elephants) in which we have represented fossil teeth, both 
upper and lower, of different ages, and one half of their na¬ 
tural size. 

Fig. 1. is a lower tooth of an old elephant, much worn, 
found last year in the forest of Bondy, with its next tooth. 

Fig. 2. belongs to a very young elephant; a real young 
tooth from Fouvent, 


Fig. 


On the Phenomena of the Horizontal Moon. 65 

Fig. 3. is an upper tooth, from Siberia, of a middle-aged 
elephant: this is No. MXXII. of Daubenton. 

Fig. 4. is one of the second teeth of the young elephant. 
It comes from the vicinity of Toulouse. 

Fig. 5. a lower tooth of an old elephant, only half worn. 

This general resemblance has induced Pallas, and almost 
all subsequent writers, to think that the fossil elephant is 
the same with that of Asia; 

But is this resemblance complete? I denied it on an¬ 
other occasion [Mem. de VInstit. Classe de Math, et Phys . 
tom. ii. p. 19 ). Since then, however, I have hesitated a 
little in maintaining an assertion which might appear con¬ 
jectural, and as to which the observations of my learned 
friend M. Adrian Camper had inspired me with some 
doubts *. Let us again examine the matter impartially. 

In the first place, it is certain that the number of the la¬ 
minae, considered by itself, camnot, as I thought, yield any 
good characters, since it is subject to vary according to the 
age of the individual and the place in which his tooth is 
situated, from four up to four-and-twenty. 

But is the number always the same in teeth of equal 
length ? This is what I have examined in a great number 
of teeth both of Indian and fossil elephants, and I have al¬ 
most always found the laminae of the latter thinner, and 
consequently more numerous, in the same space. 

[To be continued.] 


XI. On the Phenomena of the Horizontal Moon. By 

Ez. Walker, Esq . 

To Mr. Tillocli . 

n SIR >. 

vn looking over Young’s Lectures on Natural Philosophy, 
lately published, I found in the second volume, p. 313, that 
the doctor has taken notice of my paper on the pheenomenoa 
of the horizontal moon, published in the ninth volume of 
the Philosophical Journal, and has marked it as either 

* Descrip. Anat. d’un Eleph., in fob p. 19; 

Vol. 29 . No. 113. Oct . 1807. E 


erroneous 






66 Oil the Phenomena of the Horizontal Mooit. 

erroneous or unimportantin consequence of which T 
turned to the first volume, hoping to find some new hypo¬ 
thesis advanced by the doctor in his lecture upon this sub¬ 
ject ; but I was disappointed. 

The doctor says, vol. i. p. 454, that u the sun, moon, 
and stars, are much less luminous when they are near the 
horizon than when they are more elevated, on account of 
the greater quantity of their light that is intercepted in its 
longer passage through the atmosphere; we also observe a 
much greater variety of nearer objects almost in the same 
direction : we cannot, therefore, help imagining them to be 
more distant when they rise or set than at any other times; 
and, since they subtend the same angle, they appear to be 
actually larger. For similar reasons, the apparent figure of 
the starry heavens, even when free from clouds, is that of 
a flattened vault, its summit appearing to be much nearer 
to us than its horizontal parts, and any of the constellations 
seems to be considerably larger when it is near the horizon 
than when in the zenith/’ 

This explanation seems to be derived from the hypotheses 
of Des Cartes and Berkeley; but the reader shall judge for 
himself. 

“ Des Cartes*, and from him Dr. Wallis and most other 
authors, account for the appearance of a different distance 
under the same angle, from the long series of objects inter¬ 
posed between the eye and the extremity of the sensible ho¬ 
rizon; which makes us imagine it more remote than when 
in the meridian, where the eye sees nothing in the way be¬ 
tween the object and itself. This idea of a greater distance 
makes us imagine the luminary the larger; for an object 
being seen under any certain angle, and believed at the same 
time very remote, we naturally judge it must be very large to 
appear under such an angle at such a distance.”—Hutton's 
Mathematical Diet. vol. ii. p. 74. 

Mr. Molyneux says (Philos. Trans. Abr. vol. i. p. 221), 
ec that if the hypothesis of Des Cartes be true, we may at 
any time increase the apparent magnitude of the moon even 

* Des Cartes was born in-1596^ 


On the Phenomena of the Horizontal Moon. 67 

m the meridian; for, in order to divide the apace between 
it and the eye, we need only to look at it behind a cluster 
of chimneys, the ridge of a hill, or the top of a house,” &c. 
lie further observes, u that when the height of all the in¬ 
termediate objects is cut off, by looking through a tube the 
imagination is not helped, and yet the moon seems still as 
large as before.” 

Dr. Smith says in his Optics, vol. ii. p. 55, of the Re¬ 
marks, that in Berkeley’s Essay towards a Ncw t Theory of 
Vision * there is the following solution : 

“ Between the eye and the moon, when situated in the 
horizon, there lies a far greater quantity of atmosphere than 
there does when the moon is in the meridian. Whence it 
comes to pass that the appearance of the horizontal moon 
is fainter; and therefore, by sect. 56, it should be thought 
bigger in that situation than in the meridian, or in any other 
elevation above the horizon.” 

C( But,” says Dr. Smith, “ to avoid entering into a par¬ 
ticular consideration of his arguments, I choose to show, 
from experience only, that these various degrees of the 
moon’s faintness make no sensible variation of her apparent 
magnitude; which, I think, will be evident by the following 
observations: 

(e First, that the moon appears much fainter in the day¬ 
time than in the night, and therefore, according to our au-^ 
thor’s principle, should appear larger; which I could never 
perceive, though I have often viewed the moon for this pur¬ 
pose. 

ce Secondly? I observe that the moon when totally eclipsed 
appears much fainter than she does at the same elevation 
when not eclipsed, but does not appear larger than usual, 
as I am fully satisfied by the total eclipse of the moon on 
Nov. 20, 1732. 

u Lastly, I observe that this hypothesis of faintness can 
scarce be thought sufficient, by any means, to account for 
the like variety of the apparent magnitudes of the constella¬ 
tions; that is, of the intervals of the same fixt stars at va- 


* Published in 1709. 

E 2 


nous 


08 On the State of the Christians inhabiting 

rious altitudes; which yet is allowed to be a phenomenon* 
of the same kind and degree as that of the sun and moon, 
and consequently to depend upon the same cause.” 

No attempt, I believe, has yet been made to prove the 
truth of either of these old theories experimentally ; but, on 
the contrary, the experiments and observations of Molyneux 
and Smith show that they are both fallacious. 

From some experiments which I have lately made, it ap¬ 
pears that the apparent magnitudes of all objects vary, as- 
well as those of the sun and moon. 

I am, sir, 

Your most humble servant, 

L y nn > Ez. Walker., 

Oct. 17, 1807. 


XII. Report of the Senior Chaplain of Fort St. George to- 
the Right Honourable Lord William Bentinck, Gg- 
vernor of Madras, on the State of the Christians-inhabit¬ 
ing the Kingdoms of Cochin and- Travancore . 

Public Department. 

To the Rev . Dh Kerr, Senior Chaplain of Fort Si. George 
Reverend Sir, 

JL he right honourable the governor in council being de¬ 
sirous of availing himself of your vicinity to tile Malabar 
coast, to obtain every possible information in regard to the 
establishment, &c. of the Christian religion in that part of 
the peninsula, I am directed by his lordship in council, to 
desire, that so soon as the state of your health and the season 
will permit, you.will proceed to the provinces on that coast; 
and you will forward to me, for the information of govern¬ 
ment, such accounts as you may be able to collect of the 
first introduction of Christianity into India * of the arrival 4 
of the different sects who have been or may be in existence ; 
of tlieir general history, and of| the persecutions to which 
they may have been exposed; of their success in making- 
proselytes ; of their church establishment, and of the source 

from? 





the Kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore. 69 

t 

from which they are maintained, and with all other circum¬ 
stances connected with thrs important subject. 

I have the honour to be, rev. sir. 
Your most obedient humble servant, 
(Signed) G. G. Keble, 

to Government® 


Fort St. Georges, 
June 28, 1806. 


Sec, 


To the Right Honourable Lord William C . Bentinck , 
Governor in Council , &?c, &c. 

My Lord, 

When at Mysore I was honoured by the receipt of Mr* 
Secretary Keble’s letter, dated the 28 th of June last, and, 
finding my general health much improved, I resolved to 
proceed to the Malabar coast in search of the information 
required by your lordship in council, regarding the Chris¬ 
tians inhabiting that part of the peninsula; an investigation 
which I have found as interesting as it is important, whe¬ 
ther it regards humanity at large, or as it is connected, in a 
political view, with the British interests in this country. 

To view the extensive field pointed out for my inquiries 
minutely, would require much more of my time than could 
be well spared from my other public avocations; and as I 
learned that the reverend Dr. Buchanan was nominated by 
the government of Bengal to travel over the same ground 
for purposes somewhat similar, I did not think it incum¬ 
bent on me to take up more than a general view of the sub¬ 
ject, and I directed my attention accordingly, not so much 
to details as to matters of comprehensive import. 

The first object to which the orders of government refer 
is, to an account of the introduction of Christianity into 
this country. 

There can be no doubt whatever that the St. Thomd 
Christians settled on the Malabar coast at a very early pe¬ 
riod of the Christian church ; from whence they, at one 
time, spread in various directions as far even as Mileapoor 
and St. Thomas’s Mount if but to derive authentic informa¬ 
tion as to the time of their arrival, is at present no easy task. 

•From the confusion arising from the imperfection of 

E .3 Jlindoo 


70 On the State of the Christians inhabiting 

Hindoo chronology* from the desire which these Christians 
have to derive their origin from the earliest possible times, 
(which may perhaps have introduced false traditions amongst 
them,) and as all their authentic records are reported to have 
been destroyed during the persecutions of the church of 
Rome; from all these circumstances, whether we refer to. 
the Hindoo accounts, to the St. Thome Christians them¬ 
selves, or to their persecutors the Roman catholics, we are 
not likely to arrive at any certain conclusion as to the exact 
time of their establishment in Malabar. Some circum¬ 
stances, however, may be collected from undoubted autho¬ 
rity, by which it may be inferred that they have been for 
nearly fifteen centuries established in India; for we find in 
Ecclesiastical History, that at the first council at Nice, in 
the year 323, a bishop from India was amongst the number 
composing that memorable synod ; and, in the creeds and 
doctrines of the Christians of Malabar, internal evidence 
exists of their being a primitive church; for the supremacy 
of the pope is denied, and the doctrine of transubstantiation 
never has been held by them; and they regarded, and still 
regard, the worship of images as idolatrous, and the doc¬ 
trine of purgatory to he fabulous ; moreover, they never ad¬ 
mitted as sacraments extreme unction, marriage, or con¬ 
firmation : all which facts may be substantiated on reference 
to the acts of the synod established by don Alexis de Me- 
neses, archbishop of Goa, at Udiamper, in the year 1599. 

The history of this council will be found most ably de¬ 
tailed in a work printed in French, and entitled (( The His¬ 
tory of Christianity in India,” published at the Hague in the 
year 1724 by La Croze, the celebrated librarian to the king 
of Prussia. 

The object of this work was to deduce, from authentic 
materials, the rise, progress, and establishment of Chris¬ 
tianity in the East; and to hold up to disgrace and to me¬ 
rited indignation the bigoted and unworthy conduct of the 
Roman catholic church in the persecution set on foot by 
her emissaries, under her avowed sanction, against the pri¬ 
mitive Christians who were found settled on the coast of 

Malabar; 


71 


the Kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore . 

Malabar; and La Croze seems to have discharged his duty 
to the public in a most faithful, interesting, and able manner. 

When the Portuguese first arrived in this country, in the 
beginning of the 1 6th century, they found a Christian church 
using the Syrio-Chaldaic language established in the neigh¬ 
bourhood of Cranganore ; and, though it was published to 
the world many centuries before that period that such a 
church existed, vet we find their ignorance expressed in 
the wonder which it excited. 

These Christians met the Portuguese as natural friends 
and allies, and rejoiced at their coming; but the Portuguese 
were much disappointed at finding the St. Thome Chris¬ 
tians firmly fixed in the tenets of a primitive church, and 
soon adopted plans for drawing away from their pure faith 
this innocent, ingenuous, and respectable people : however, 
after using, for nearly a century, all the customary arts and 
abominable persecutions of the church of Rome to no pur¬ 
pose, don Alexis de Meneses, the archbishop of Goa, ap¬ 
peared amongst them ; and, by his commanding influence, 
his zeal, and his learning, and on the authority of what he 
called the council of Udiamper, forced the Syrian metropo¬ 
litan, his priests and people, into the Roman pale. The 
archbishop, however, had not long quitted the scene of this 
triumph of bigotry, ere the people sighed for their old reli¬ 
gion, and cherished it in private; baton the 22d of May 
1653 they held a congress at Alingatte, and great numbers, 
headed by their metropolitan, revolted publicly from the 
Romish communion ; nor has all the influence of the Roman 
pontiff, and the kings of Portugal, been able to draw them 
away again from their old faith. . * 

Leaving the history of this interesting people, which is 
affectingly delineated in La Croze’s book, [ shall, in this 
report, confine myself more particularly to the existing state 
of Christianity in Malabar; and, in order that your lordship 
may have the subject clearly before you, I shall consider 
each sect of Christians by itself, under the head of, 1st, St. 
Thome, or Jacobite Christians ; 2dly, The Syrian Catho¬ 
lics, who have been forced from the Jacobite church into 
the Romish pale; and, 3dly, The Latin church. 

E 4 St. 


T2 


On the State of the Christians inhabiting 

St. Thome , or Jacobite Christians . 

These people, who still retain their antient creed and 
usages, consider themselves as the descendants of the flock 
established by St. Thomas, who is generally esteemed the 
apostle of the East. Their ancestors emigrated from Syria, 
and the Syrio-Chaldaie is the language in which their church 
service is still performed. They admit no images within 
their churches, but a figure of the Virgin Mary with the 
child Jesus in her arms, which is considered merely as an 
ornament, and not a subject for idolatrous worship. They 
are generally denominated by the country people Nazaranee 
Mapilles. Nazaranee is obviously derived from Nazareth, 
but the origin of the word mapillah is variously accounted 
for: by some it is ingeniously supposed to refer to the Virgin 
and Child, the only image admitted within their churches; 
as ma implies mother in various languages, derived from 
the Sungscrit; and pillah , child. Others again, construe the 
term to indicate the rank originally conferred on these Chris¬ 
tians by the sovereign of Malabar. Poolah signifies a class , 
in a state synonymous with our secretaries. Ma or maha 
signifies great or superior. The term Mapillah is indiscri¬ 
minately applied to Jews and Musselmen as to these Chris¬ 
tians, distinguishing each by the prefix of the Jew, Syrian^ 
or Nazaranee, or Musselman. 

It is certain that grants of honour and emolument were 
formerly possessed by these Christians, given to them by 
a king of Malabar named Peremaul, engraven on copper, 
five of which engravings are still in existence; a fac-simile 
of which I have seen in the possession of the resident of 
Travancore. 

It has been long believed that these Christians held the 
tenets of the Nestorian heresy, and that they were obliged 
to leave their own country in conseojiience of persecution : 
however, it appears that the creed which they now follow 
denies that heresy, and seems to coincide in several points 
with the creed of St. Athanasius, but without its damnatory 
clauses. 

Baron Von Wrede has written a memoir on the subject 


73 


the Kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore. 

of these Christians, which appeared in the seventh volume 
©I the Asiatic Researches, and which has the merit of call¬ 
ing our attention to these people; though it is no better than 
a lame transcript of information, which may be fully and 
satisfactorily obtained in La Croze’s book, from whence 
every material part of that memoir is obviously taken: in¬ 
deed, wherever the baron departs from his author he be¬ 
comes less interesting, or misleads his reader. That the 
Christians in Malabar were early taught the tenets of Nes- 
torius, is proved by La Croze on the direct authority of 
Cosmas, an Egyptian merchant (himself a Nestorian), 
who published his voyage to India in the year 54 7. It 
seems, however, not improbable that Christians had been 
planted in these shores long before the time of Nestorius; 
and 1 am inclined to regard the tradition of its having spread 
hither in the age of the apostles, as very far from fabulous*. 

With respect to their religious tenets, writers may, and 
will, disagree ; upon such subjects human reason avails no¬ 
thing. The disputes which on these points have agitated the 
world, are in general no better than the perverse offspring of 
verbal differences. 

The following is a version of the present creed of these 
people, being a written communication from the metropo¬ 
litan to the resident at Travancore: 

“ In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, we, 
the Christians, believers in the religion of Jesus Christ, sub¬ 
ject to the jurisdiction of Mar Ignatius, patriarch of An¬ 
tioch, being loyal Jacobians f, hold the following; creed : 

“ We believe ii> the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, Three 

Persons 

* Eusebius informs us that there were Christians in India as early as the 
year 189, who had the Gospel of St. Matthew in Hebrew, which they de¬ 
clared was received from St. Bartholomew. 

f Eastern Christians, who renounce the communion of the Greek church, 
and differ from it both in doctrine and worship, may be comprehended under 
two distinct classes. To the former belong the Monophysites or Jacobites, 
so called from Jacob Aibardai, who declare it as their opinion, that in the 
Saviour of the world there is only one nature; while the latter comprehends 
the followers of Nestorius,frequently called Chaldeans, from the country where 
they principally reside, and who suppose that there are two distinct persons or 
natures in the Son of God. The Monophysites are subdivided into two sects 

Cf 


/ 74 On the State of the Christians inhabiting 

Persons in One God, neither confounding the persons nor 
dividing the substance, One in Three, and Three in One. 

fi< The Father generator; the Son generated; and the 
Holy Ghost proceeding. 

6£ None is before nor after other in majesty, honour, 
might, and power; co-equal, unity in trinity, and trinity in 
unity. 

“ We do not believe, with Arms and Eunonitnus, that 
there are three different and separate substances. 

“ We do not believe, as Sabeliius believes, by confusion 
of substance. 

“ We do not believe, as Macedonians said, that the Holy 
Ghost is less than the Father and Son. 

ic We do not believe, -as Mawney and Marciahus * said, 
that the body of Christ was sent down from heaven . 

“ We do not believe, as Julianas f said, that Christ was 
only man. 

(i We do not hold, as Nestorius, the doctrine of two na¬ 
ture^ and two substances in the Messiah. 

(i We do not believe, as the Chalcedonians said, that 
there are two natures in the Messiah. 

“ But we believe, by the doctrine of the Trinity, that the 
Son is coequal with the Father, without beginning or end; 
that in the appointed time, through the disposition of the 
Father and Holy Ghost, without disjoining from the right 

or parties; the one African, and the other Asiatic. At the head of the Asi¬ 
atics is the patriarch of Antioch, who resides, for the most part, in the mo¬ 
nastery of St. Ananias, which is situated near the city of Merdin, and some¬ 
times at Merdin, his episcopal seat; as also at Amida, Aleppo, and other 
Syrian cities. The government of this prelate is too extensive, and the 
churches over which he presides too numerous, to admit of his performing 
himself all the duties of his high office; and therefore a part of the admini¬ 
stration of the pontificate is given to a kind of colleague, who is called the 
Maphrian, or Primate of the East,and whose doctrines and discipline are said 
to be adopted by the eastern church beyond the Tigris. This primate used 
•formerly to reside at Tauris, a city.on the frontiers of Armenia; but hia 
present habitation is the monastery of St. Matthew, which is in the neigh*, 
bourhood of Mousul, a city of Mesopotamia. It is further observable, that 
all the patriarchs of the Jacobites assume the denomination of Ignafius.—-^ 
Mosheim, vol.-iv. sect. xi. p.257. 

* These, I suppose, might be Manes and Marcion. 

| Perhaps Julian, bishop of HaUicarnassus, 


side 


the Kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore . 75 

side of the Father, he appeared on earth for the salvation of 
mankind: that he was born of the Virgin Mary, through, 
the means of the Holy Ghost ; and v. as incarnate, God and 
man. So that in the union of the divine and human nature 
there was one nature and one substance. —So we believe. ” 

Tiie service in their church is performed very nearly after 
the manner of the church of England : and when the metro- 
politan was told that it was hoped that one day an union 
might take place between the two churches, be seemed 
pleased at the suggestion. 

The present metropolitan, Mar Dionysius, is now old 
and infirm, but a very respectable character, and of the 
most venerable and prepossessing appearance. A person 
has been sent from Mousul, a city in Mesopotamia, to suc¬ 
ceed to his station in the event of his decease; but this 
stranger, ignorant of the language of the country, with the 
character of being violent in his temper, and not averse, as 
it is supposed, to the views of the Romish church, it is to 
be hoped will be prevented from ever taking charge of this 
precious remnant of a pure and valuable people. 

The metropolitan has several archdeacons and deacons 
under him, who act as vicar-generals. They have fifty-five 
churches; and the number of their people, as given in to 
the resident, is estimated at 23,000. 

The residence of tiieir metropolitan is at Candenatte, 
twelve or fourteen miles inland from Cochin. In some of 
their churches divine service is performed in the Syrian and 
Latin ritual alternately, by the priests of the Christians 
of St. Thome, who have adhered to their antient rites, and 
those who have been united to the church of Rome*. When 
the latter have celebrated mass, they carry away the images 
from the church before the others enter. 

The character of these people is marked by a striking su¬ 
periority over the heathens in every moral excellence; and 
they are remarkable for their veracity and plain dealing. 
They are extremely attentive to their religious duties; and 
abide by the decision of their priests and metropolitan in 

* This shows a spirit of toleration anti Christian liberality very different 
from the bigotry of the P.omish church. 

o 4 

all 


f 6 On the State of the Christians inhabiting 

all cases r whether in spiritual, or, as I heard, in temporal 
affairs. They are respected very highly by the Nairs, who 
do not consider themselves defiled by associating with them, 
though it is well known that the Nairs are the most parti¬ 
cular of all the Hindoos in this respect; and the rajahs of 
Travancore and Cochin admit them to rank next to Nairs. 
Their numbers, it is conjectured, are under-rated in the 
statement given to the resident, as it is generally supposed 
that they may he estimated at 70 or 80,000. They are not 
persecuted, but they are not permitted to make converts by 
the governments under whith they reside; and it is sup¬ 
posed that many respectable Hindoos would be happy to 
join their sect, were it not for this circumstance: but at pre¬ 
sent they suffer, as far as I can learn, no other hardship. 

If good men from Syria could be obtained, not as parish 
priests, but to superintend and regulate their concerns, I 
conceive it would be a great blessing to these good peopde. 

The direct protection of the British government has been 
already extended to them : but, as they do not reside within 
the British territories, I am somewhat doubtful how far it 
may be of use to them. 

To unite them to the church of England would, in my 
opinion, be a most noble work ; and it is most devoutly to 
be wished for, that those who have been driven into the 
Homan pale might be recalled to their antient church; a 
measure which it would not, I imagine, be difficult to ac¬ 
complish, as the country governments would, it is supposed, 
second any efforts to that purpose. 

Their occupations are various as those of other Chris¬ 
tians; but they are chiefly cultivators and artisans; and 
some of them possess a comfortable, if not a splendid, in¬ 
dependence. Their clergy marry in the same manner as pro- 
testants. Their residence is entirely inland. 

I ' * * 

Syrian Roman Catholics . 

These people, as stated above, were constrained to join 
the Latin church, after a long struggle for the power of 
maintaining their purity and independence ; and still appear 
a people perfectly distinct from the Latin church, being al¬ 
lowed 


the Kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore . 77 

* . \ 

lowed to chant and perform all the services of the church of 
Rome in the Syrio-Chaldaic language by a dispensation.ironx 
the pope. They live under the authority of the metropolitan 
of Cranganore and the bishop of Verapoli, and dress dif¬ 
ferently from other priests. They wear a white surplice* 


while the priests of the Latin communion wear black gowns 
like the Capuchin friars of Madras. The Roman catholic 
Syrians, it is thought, are much more numerous than the- 
members of the original church. Their clergy are spread 
through the antienf churches, and, by retaining their lan¬ 
guage, and acting under the direction of the church of Rome* 
they leave no means unessayed to drjiw over their primitive 
brethren to the Latin communion. It appears to me that 
they are allowed to use their original language, and to fre¬ 
quent the original church, entirely with this view ; and, as 
far as I can learn, their numbers are gaining ground. There 
are said to be eighty-six parishes of Roman catholic Syrians 
subject to the dioceses of Cranganore and Verapoli. Their 
priests, to the number of 400, are styled Catanars, which is> 
a Syrian appellation; their congregations are reported at 
90,000 (old and young included), agreeably to the last re- 
turns transmitted to Rome. There is an inferior order of 
priests, who are called Chiamas, in number about 120. The 
Hindoos have, as far as I can learn, a much greater respect 
for the Christians of the original church than for the con¬ 
verts of the Latin communion; which may be accounted 
for by their not associating with the lower orders of people. 
Attached to each church is a convent, where the Catanars- 


reside in community, there being three, four, or five, to each 
church. The service is performed weekly, in rotation. There 
is a seminary at the college of Verapoli for the education of 
the Syrio-Roman catholics, and also one for the Latin church*. 
The Syrio-Roman catholics are chiefly engaged, as already 
mentioned, in drawdng their antient brethren within the 
Romish pale; but it appears that some of them have been 
employed formerly in extending the general object of con¬ 
version over the peninsula. I saw one of their churches, 
at a village near Pillimbaddy, about thirty miles on the 
Madras side of Trichinopoly ; and I heard of several others. 

They* 


78 On the Stale of the Christians inhabiting 

They bad at this village adopted the use of a sawmy coach* 
like that of the heathens, with the crucifix and the Virgin 
Mary in it, instead of the Hindoo sawmy. Their church 
was much out of repair; and the ignorance of the few 
Christians remaining in charge of it is striking: the letters 
I,N,R, T, over the figure of our Saviour on the cross, being 
absolutely inverted ; nor did the priest who visits them ever 

- r 

notice the circumstance. They read prayers in Malabar ac¬ 
cording to the ritual of the church of Rome. Their church 

o 

appears to have been once respectable, but is now fallen into 
decay. 

Latin Roman Catholics. 

Within the provinces of Travancore and Cochin there 
are one archbishop and two bishops; the archbishop of 
Cranganore, and the bishops of Cochin and Verapoli. 

The two former have sees, the latter is titular. The arch¬ 
bishops of Cranganore and the bishop of Cochin are nomi¬ 
nated by the queen of Portugal, after the following manner t 
three names are sent (when either of these sees becomes va¬ 
cant) by the sovereign of Portugal to the pope; and the 
Roman pontiff is bound to select the name that stands first, 
and to issue his brevet or patent accordingly. 

They are subject in all spiritual concerns to the primate 
of Goa; who has also the power, during a vacancy, of send¬ 
ing from Goa a locum tenens , who is styled padre governa * 
dor. Roth sees are at this moment filled by such. 

The titular bishop, who resides at the college of Vera¬ 
poli, is appointed directly by the pope, and is subject to no 
jurisdiction but that of bis holiness, or the Propaganda at 
Rome. This mission, being more susceptible of control and 
regulation than the others, has been countenanced by the 
honourable Company, as the following copy of a proclama¬ 
tion issued by the government of Bombay will show. 

Proclamation. 

The honourable the court of directors of the honourable 
English East India company, having been pleased to order 
that the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Roman catholic 

% * ti 

churches under this government shall be withdrawn from 

the 


/ 


the Kingdoms of Cochin and Trava?Jcore. ft) 

the archbishop of Goa, and restored to the Carmelite bishop 
of the apostolic mission, the president in council has accord¬ 
ingly resolved, that the said restitution shall take place on 
the 1st of the ensuing; month; from which time he hereby 
enjoins all the catholic inhabitants in Bombay, as well as 
the several factories and settlements subordinate thereto, to 
pay due obedience in spiritual matters to the said bishops 
on pain of incurring the severe displeasure of government. 

Bv order of the honourable the governor in council, 
Bombay Castle, (Signed) William Page, Secretary. 

Aug-. 2, 1791. , J 


The priests attached to the college of Verapoli are all Car¬ 
melites, united to the apostolic mission at Bombay, but not 
Subject to it. I he jurisdiction of each is not marked by di¬ 
stinct bounds; the parishes and churches being so intermin¬ 
gled, that it is difficult to form a right notion of their ex¬ 
tent. r ] he bishop of Cochin, however, may be said to have 
a control over all the Romish churches situated on the sea- 
coast immediately (with few exceptions) from Cochin to 
Ramnad, and thence round the whole island of Ceylon: the 


churches are numerous ; but as they are in general poor, and 
are obliged to be supplied with priests from Goa, it would 
appear that one vicar holds, upon an average, five or six 
churches. The number of Christians composing these 
churches must he great, as all and every of the fishermen 
are Roman catholics. The bishop of Cochin usually resides ' 
at Ouilon. There are very few European clergy (not above 


seven or eight) under the three jurisdictions, and none of 
them men of education; and it cannot be expected that the 
native priests, who have been educated at Goa, or at the 
seminary at Verapoli, should know much beyond their mis¬ 
sals and rituals. The Latin communicants in the diocese 
of Verapoli are estimated at 35,000. The catechumen suf¬ 
fers no persecution on account of his religion when once 
converted; hut the country governments are excessively jea¬ 
lous upon this point, and do their utmost to discountenance 
any conversion. 

The converts are from various casts, viz. Chegas or Teers, 
Muckwas and Pullers; and there can be no doubt but that 


manv 


3G On the State of the Christians inhabiting 

many of higher easts would be baptized if they did not 
dread the displeasure of their governments. 

It is well known that the Roman religion was introduced 
by the Portuguese at the commencement of the sixteenth' 
century; the number converted in each year, upon an ave¬ 
rage, reach to nearly 300 : the number, of course, naturally 
diminishes. The morality of the converts is very loose ; and 
they are generally ^inferior, in this respect, to the heathens 
of the country. 

General Observations . 

Reflecting on the whole subject, several suggestions pre¬ 
sent themselves to my mind; and I think I shall not be 
considered as deviating from the line of my profession, or 
the intention of your lordship in calling for my report, by 
offering some opinions to government, which, in a moral 
and political view, seem of the highest importance. It ap¬ 
pears from the foregoing statement, that pure Christianity 
is far, very far, from being a religion for which the highest 
cast of Hindoos have any disrespect; and that it is the abuse 
of the Christian name, under the form of the Romish reli¬ 
gion, to which they are averse. We have, my lord, been 
sadly defective in what we owed to God and man since we 
have had a footing in this country, as well by departing 
most shamefully from our Christian profession ourselves, as 
in withholding those sources of moral perfection from the 
natives which true Christianity alone can establish; and at 
the same time we have allowed the Romanists to steal into 
our territories, to occupy the ground we have neglected to 
cultivate, and to bring an odium on our pure and honoura¬ 
ble name as Christians. The evil would be less were it not 
well known that many of the Romish priests, and their 
people, who have thus been allowed, to grow numerous under 
our authority, are supposed to be far from well affected to 
the government under which they reside : indeed, in many 
instances the Roman clergy are the natural subjects of na¬ 
tions at enmity with ourselves, at the same time that they 
are eminently qualified, by their influence in their profes¬ 
sion, to do us the greatest mischief, by spreading disaffection 

throughout 


8! 


the Kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore, 

throughout every part of the extended country. The Roman 
catholic religion, my lord, I believe I may say, without of¬ 
fence to truth or charityyhas almost always been made a po¬ 
litical engine in the hands of its governments ; and we must 
be blinded indeed by our own confidence, if we do not cal¬ 
culate on its being so" used in this great and rich country, 
where it has established a footing amongst an ignorant peo¬ 
ple ; especially when it is so well understood that our eastern 
possessions have been a subject of the greatest jealousy to 
all the rival nations of Europe. In my humble opinion, my 
lord, the error has been in not having long ago established 
free-schools * throughout every part of this country, by 
which the children of the natives might have learned our 
language, and got acquainted with our morality. Such an 
establishment would, ere this, have made the people at large 
fully acquainted with the divine spring, from whence alone 
British virtue must be acknowledged to flow. This would 
have made them better acquainted with the principles by 
which we are governed; they would have learned to respect 
our laws, to honour our feelings, and to follow our maxims; 
whereas they appear to me, generally speaking, at this mo¬ 
ment, as ignorant of their masters as on their first landing 
on these shores. N I speak not of interfering with their re¬ 
ligious prejudices, or endeavouring to convert the natives by 
an extraordinary effort on the part of the British govern¬ 
ment. Conversion, in my opinion, must be the conse¬ 
quence which would naturally flow from our attention to 

* To give English morals to the natives in their purity, we must, I imagine, 
make them read English books. Translations have hitherto been very defec¬ 
tive in the different country languages; besides, they must be extremely cir¬ 
cumscribed in number. I do not think the natives will come to us freely but 
to learn English. This they consider as the key to fortune; and, on the coast, 
the most strict of the bramins will have little hesitation, as far as I can learn, 
in permitting their children to attend a free-sebool for the purpose of learning 
it; for they despise us too much to suppose there is any danger of overturn¬ 
ing the principles of braminism. But their ill-founded, ridiculous principles 
must be shaken to the very foundation by the communication of such liberal 
knowledge as a Christian can instil into the minds of youth, and fix there by 
means of English books; and all this without making any alarming attack 
directly on the religion of the Hindoos. 

Vol. 29 . No. 113. Oct. 1807 . F 


their 


S l 2 State of the Christians of Cochin and Travancore . 

their moral instruction, and their more intimate acquaint¬ 
ance with the English character. 

I do npt mention this as an experiment, the result of 
which might be considered as problematical : the experi¬ 
ment has been already made, and the consequences have 
proved commensurate with the highest expectation which 
reasonable men could entertain. IheOanish mission, united 
with the Society for propagating the Gospel, have sent some 
good men into this country with the laudable view of spread¬ 
ing true Christianity throughout our eastern possessions; 
and the names of Swartz, Gerricke, and others, will ever be 
lememberecl by numbers of our Asiatic subjects, of every 
cast and description, with veneration and affection; and 
there are happily still living some amongst us of the same 
character. 

It is true, that the object they had more particularly in 
view has, in some measure, failed; and few good converts,, 
it is generally imagined, have been made: but let it be re¬ 
mem oored also that they have laboured under every possible 
disadvantage; they have scarcely enjoyed a mere toleration 
under our government, and received no kind of assistance 
whatsoever; that they were few irr number, and perhaps I may 
say, without injustice, that they erred (as the best might err) in 
the means which they adopted; but that they have done much 
good by the purity of their lives, and by their zeal in spread¬ 
ing instruction. This will admit of no denial; and I doubt 
not that 1 may say, without the danger of contradiction, that 
lew and poor as these men have been, without authority o t 
power to support them, a greater and more extended portion 
of heartfelt respect for the European character has been dif¬ 
fused by their means throughout this country than by all the 
other Europeans put together. We have, in my humble opi¬ 
nion, mv lord, kept ourselves too far from the natives; we 
have despised their ignorance, without-attempting to remove 
i we have considered their timidity (the natural result 

of their being trampled upon by one race of conquerors'after 
another) also as an object for our contempt; at the same time 
that we have viewed the cunning of their character (which 


Surgical Cases in the Finsbury Dispensary, 83 


is ever the natural resource of ignorance and weakness) as 
the completion of all. that is vile and deceitful Thus have 

1 / 

we continued a system of neglect towards the interests of 
oiu native subjects in point. *ne most essential to their every 
happiness, throughout the whole of our governments in this 
com try. Fain, mv lord, would I see a change in this par¬ 
ticular; and I seize the opportunity which the present mo¬ 
ment afford:, to press the justice and the policy of the mea¬ 
sure on the attention of your lordship’s government. 


Having the honour to remain, 

With the highest respect, my lord, 

Your lordship’s faithful and obedient humble servant, 

(Signed) R. H. Kerr, 


- Madras, 
Nov. 3, 1806. 


Senior Chaplain of Fort St. George. 


i 


XIII. Report of Surgical Cases in the Finsbury Dispensary 
from the Beginning of February to the End of April 1807 ; 
with the Appearances , on Dissection , in a Case of Aneu¬ 
rism) and some Observations on that Disease , hy John 
Taunton. 

During the above three months there were admitted 259 
patients. 

Cured or relieved - - 227 

Died - 1 

Under cure - - - 31 


259 

In the Philosophical Magazine for December 1806, a case 
ol aneurism is noticed, with the intention of being reported 
on. 

J. J., set. 55, was admitted a patient of the Finsbury Dis¬ 
pensary on the 13th of November last. From his own ac¬ 
count his -health had been declining for about the space of 
three years, and about the beginning of July 1806 he ob¬ 
served a swelling on the left side of his neck, immediately 

F 2 • above 








84 Surgical Cases in the Finsbury Dispensary . 

above the sternum ; which now (Nov. 13th) extended from 
the upper part of that bone to the superior part of the larynx* 
with extremely strong pulsations, corresponding with the 
motions of the heart, which were irregular. The tumour 
readily disappeared on continued pressure, but on that being 
removed it immediately resumed its former size and appear¬ 
ance. He died on the 26th of the same month. 

On raising the sternum the aneurismal sac was in close 
contact with the internal and superior part of that bone, but 
did not contain (c one particle” of coagulated blood : the 
origin of the sac was from the superior part of the curve of 
the aorta, immediately on the right side of the left carotid 
artery: the opening by which it communicated with the 
aorta was about a quarter of an inch in diameter: the ascend¬ 
ing aorta was enlarged and ossified in several points : the 
muscular substance of the left ventricle of the heart was 
much thickened. 

The lungs were healthy, as well as the abdominal vis¬ 
cera. 

The dissection of this, together with similar cases in my 
possession (the preparations of which are preserved), in 
which this disease has proceeded till it terminated the exist¬ 
ence of the individual sufferers, without any coagulum being 
formed in the aneurismal sac , are strongly opposed to an 
opinion advanced in Mr. John Bell’s Surgery, (( It is not 
less imaginary,” says that author, u that the blood can be 
pushed back from the aneurismal bag into the artery; there 
is no such thing, it is a mere delusion ; as the blood coagu¬ 
lates very soon, and does not contain one particle fluid 
enough to be returned into the vessel.” 

It is also considered by many, that in the operation for 
aneurism and wounded arteries, where it is necessary to take 
up the vessel, the passing of two ligatures round the vessel 
and dividing it between the ligatures, is of modern inven¬ 
tion ; but it appears that this mode of operating was known 
to Pare e, Fabricius, and others. 

“ Sometimes, also, the surgeon needs to cut the vessel 
entirely across, by which its ends shrinking both ways 
, among 


French National Institute. 85 

among the flesh the flux stops; but always the surest way 
is to tie the vessel before cutlino- it thus across 


“Deinde partes utrinque, 
vas prescindere f.” 


(3revlllc-street, Hatton-gnrden, 
October 23, 1807. 


o ligare, et transversum totum 
John Taunton, 

Surgeon to the City and Finsbury Dis¬ 
pensaries, Lecturer on Anatomy, 
Surgery, Physiology, &c. 


XIV. Proceedings of Learned Societies . 


FRENCH NATIONAL INSTITUTE. 


[Continued from vol. xxviii. p. 372.] 


^V^hile a noble spirit of rivalship pervades the candi¬ 
dates, the botanists who are members of the class, by con¬ 
tinuing their labours, have shown themselves worthy of being 
the chief judges of this great assembly. 

M. Ventenat is proceeding with his work upon the Garden 
of Malmaison. A new number, being the 20th, has recently 
appeared. 

The first of the species which are there described is a su¬ 
perb original leguminous plant from Botany Bay, and which 
presents in the organs of fructification characters which have 
not been as yet observed in the vegetables of this family. 
M. Ventenat does not hesitate to make a new genus of it, 
to which he has referred a species also cultivated at Mal- 
maison, although it has not as yet flourished ; but it resem¬ 
bles the former so much in its appearance, that it is almost 
certain it must conform to it in the organs of fructifica¬ 
tion. x 

The second of these species is an original malvaceous 
plant from the Canaries, the flowers of which are as large 
as those of the garden ketmia, and are of a fire-red colour, 
which is extremely rare in the plants of this family. This 
tvork of M. Ventenat must occasion the friends of science 


* Par 6e. 


F 3 


| Fabricius. 


to 




French National Institute . 

to regret that, from the state of his health, the author is 
under the necessity of suspending his labours. 

M. de la Billardiere has arrived at the 23d number of his 
Flora of New Holland . Five new genera are there described* 
one of which, in particular, which M. de la Billardiere calls. 
atherosperma , and which seemed to him to belong to the 
family of the ranunculi , is a tree which is likely to become 
useful to France, because its almonds have the taste and fla¬ 
vour of nutmeg, and it is likely to be capable of supporting 
the temperature of our climate. 

One of our most celebrated correspondents, M. de Hum- 
boldt, continues to publish, along with his fellow-traveller 
M. Bonpland, the plants they have discovered m Equinoxial 
America. Two numbers of this have been already published. 
The family of the melastoma alone will be indebted to these 
learned travellers for so great a number of new species, that 
they might form a volume by themselves. 

Messrs. Humboldt and Bonpland have not been less in¬ 
dustrious in the natural history of animals. 

The condor, the bird so famous in the Cordilleras, has 
never been described before their time in an uniform man¬ 
ner, and the size of it has been much exaggerated. 

It is scarcely above one metre in height, nor more 
than three or four metres in thickness. Its colour is rene- 

i s O 

rally of a blackish brown : the lower part of the neck is fur¬ 
nished with a kind of collar of white feathers. The male is 
listinguished by a fleshy crest upon the crown of the head, 
and by a white spot upon the wing; distinctions which the 
females have not. 

The observations of these two travellers upon the elec¬ 
trical eel of Surinam ( Gymnotus electricus) are very cu¬ 
rious. (Fide Phil. Mag. vol. xxiii. p. 356.) 

'M. Tenon has given an important continuation of his 
Memoirs upon the Dentition of the Horse. 

, After briefly recapitulating the results he bad presented 
in former years, he dwells at considerable length upon the 
back teeth, or the three teeth of each jaw. 

The lower teeth have two roots; those above have three. 

The 


) 


French National Institute. 87 

The fusts of the former are thinner, and crooked from front 
to rear; those of the rest are crooked towards the palate: 
this curvature distinguishes them from the front grinders, 
whether they are the milk teeth* or those which succeed 
to them, which are straight. 

The former of these back grinders arc visible in the al¬ 
veolus at the time of birth ; they come out at nine months^ 
and last all the life of the animal : they have also more 
length for wearing down by mastication than all the rest. 
The first and second have behind a small longitudinal ridge, 
which assists them in cutting the alveolus, but which is 
speedily followed by a plane surface destined to support 
the tooth which comes from behind. The third back tooth, 
on the contrary, not being to be followed by any other 
tooth, preserves its ridge throughout its whole length ; but 
it has a small swelling which hinders it from opening the 
alveolus so rapidly as the pthers. All these teeth, in deve¬ 
loping themselves, cause upon the jaw the effect of an ex¬ 
pansive instrument, which dilates it unequally, and varies the 
form of it according to the age of the animal and conform¬ 
ably to the wants of every period of life. 

It is only by thus studying nature, in the minutest details 
of her works, that we are competent to admire them as we 
ought; but how difficult is the study ! The description of 
the horse alone, has occupied the attention of M. Tenon for 
these many years. 

The same respectable anatomist has also recently pub¬ 
lished the first volume of his u Fecherches d?Anatomic e.t 
de ChirurgieA He principally treats of the eyes, their dis- * 
^ases, the exfoliation of the bodes, and he has inserted se¬ 
veral of the memoirs which we have noticed in our former 
reports. This work, destined for men of science, cannot 
be sufficiently analysed in a report of this nature. 

M. Cuvier continues his researches into the origin of those 
animals whose skeletons the revolutions of the earth have 
brought to light. 


"f Those which make their appearance when the animal is suckling. 

F 4 M. de 


French National Institute. 

M. de Beauvois has published the third part of his Insectes 
recueillis en Afrique et en Amerique. 

The history of animals, although placed at the limits of 
the physical and moral sciences., does not employ alone, in, 
its discussions, the theory of the action of bodies ; that of 
the operation of mind also is not foreign to it. 

We know, for example, that the nature and the limits of 
the intelligence of the brute creation have for a long time 
occupied metaphysicians, although these are points that can 
be determined by naturalists only. 

In this last respect such subjects become proper objects of 
inquiry to oiir class ; and it is for this reason we heard with 
much interest a memoir upon instinct, or rather against in¬ 
stinct, which was read to us by M. Dupont de Nemours, 
member of the historical class. 

Considerations foreign to the subject formerly rendered 
this description of subjects complicated, and Descartes fell 
into an opposite extremity by making the brutes to be pure 
machines. 

If we did not know, by so man)/ experiments, how far 
the spirit of system has sometimes led the greatest of men* 
we might be tempted to think that they were not serious. 

Since philosophers, however, have foundcit more ad van-* 
tageous to observe simple nature herself, than to create an 
imaginary one, they have returned to a train of thinking on 
the subject, similar to that of the vulgar. 

No one of common understanding doubts that animals are 
conscious of their sensations, and are determined in their 
actions by the pleasure or pain of the moment: but further, 
every person admits that they have a strong memory; that 
they form, by repeated experiments, general judgments 
founded upon the sentiment of analogy; and that they after^ 
wards conduct themselves according to the pleasure or pain 
these decisions make them feel, and often in spite of the 
actual attraction of a present pleasure or pain : lastly, that 
these methods, well directed, can be employed by mankind 
in their education, and may lead them sometimes to assume 
the habit of performing with admirable precision, actions 

4 not 


French National Institute. 89 

not only extremely difficult in themselves, hut to which 
even this conformation does not seem adapted. 

None of these philosophers doubt that animals have various 
ways of expressing their wants and their passions, and that 
those of a superior order, i. e. those which approach our¬ 
selves in their organization, are capable of learning the sig¬ 
nification of several of our words, which they obey without 
committing any mistakes. 

But, independently of these faculties which resemble ours 
in some respects, and which also vary in a considerable de¬ 
gree in the different classes of animals, naturalists think they 
have discovered in certain species, other faculties which 
seem to be essentially different, and to which they have given 
the name of instinct. 

There are certain actions necessary to the preservation of the 
species, but often entirely foreign to the apparent wants of the 
individuals, often also very complicated, which, were we to 
attribute them to intelligence, would presuppose a foresight 
and knowledge, which none have yet ventured to ascribe to 
these species ; actions which cannot be attributed to imita¬ 
tion, because the individuals who perform them often ap¬ 
pear to be incapable of having been taught them, and yet 
those of the same species exercise them always nearly in the 
same manner : lastly, what is not less remarkable, actions 
which have no reference whatever to the degree of ordinary 
intelligence, and which become more singular, more acute, 
and more disinterested, in proportion as the animals which 
perform them belong to classes less elevated and more stupid. 
It is among the insects, the mollusques, and the worms, that 
we observe the most surprising instincts : it seems that in¬ 
stinct and intelligence arc two faculties given in order to 
compensate the want of each other, as, in other respects, fe¬ 
cundity supplies the place of strength or longevity: it is 
ever by the just proportion of intelligence, instinct, and phy^ 
sical qualities, such as the delicacy of the senses or the 
Strength of the body, that the species are preserved, 

[To be continued.}. 


XV. Ill- 


[ 90 ] 

XV. Intelligence and. Miscellaneous Articles , 

« 

NEW COMET. 

rp 

he appearance of a comet, visible to the naked eye, has 
for about a month past excited much attention. 

It was seen by Mr. Walker on the 2£kh of Sept, (vide 

{subjoined letter). . 

Sept. 28 it was observed by a gentleman at Bath about 
sight in the evening. It was then near the star in Libra., 
with about 5° S. declination, and 218 right ascension. On 
the 30th it was again seen at Bath about the same hour 24°. 
north of the equator, and 216^ R. A. : the tail about 5° 
long, and the nucleus distinct and bright. These obser¬ 
vations are not given as correct. 

On the 30th Sept, it was seen at London, but we have 
got no observation. 

Oct. 2, it was seen in the neighbourhood of the metro¬ 
polis, as bright nearly as a star of the first magnitude, with 
a short bushy tail. 

A gentleman at Hampstead, who observed it with care, 

informs us that its place was about 20° from Arcturus, in a 

line towards Beta Libra.-—In Jones’s new globe the place 

was in the centre of Moris Menelaus. It was seen distinctly 

from 2Q / before seven in the .evening till low down amon z 
. ^ o 

the vapours in the western horizon towards nine o’clock. 

From Mr. Firminger, late assistant to the royal observa¬ 
tory, we received the following observation made on Tuesday 
evening, Oct. 6 :—at 8 h 17 / 22" mean time, right ascension 
15 h 16' 4", declination 7° 23' 28", observed by an excellent 
small equatorial made by the late celebrated Mr. Bird.— 
The length of the tail, as found by the time of its passage 
over the meridian wire, extended 50'’ of a degree, and its 
mean breadth measured about 7 h 

Oct. 11, at 7 h P. M. the comet was one degree to the east 
of the star marked Y on Hercules’s right shoulder, its de¬ 
clination being nearly 20° north, and right ascension 243° 
being l6 !l 12 . Sets about half past nine, at 33° to the 
north of the west; having increased its declination 14°, and 
8 its 


New Cornet. 


9* 

its right ascension 23° degrees, in fifteen days; the sim 
having passed over 15° of right ascension in the same time, 
and made 3° of southern declination. 

Oct. 12, it was seen, notwithstanding the strong moon¬ 
light, in the neck of the Serpent, making nearly an equi¬ 
lateral triangle with Alpha of the Northern Crown and 
Beta liercffis. The nucleus appeared still pretty bright ; 
but the short tail was much weakened by the force of so 
much moon-light. In this last interval, it seems to have 
moved about 10 or 12° more northerly, and towards the 
east. . ' , 

Observations made on the Comet in the Neighbourhood of 
Gosport , Hants: —From different observations and calcula¬ 
tions, it appears evident that the comet passed the equator 
on the 27th of September, about one o’clock P. M., with 
218 ° right ascension 5 since which the following observa¬ 
tions have been made to determine its place and daily mo¬ 
tion : 

Oct. 2d, at 7 P. M. Right Ascen. 224° Dec. 4° N. 

6 th, at 7 P.M. i - - - 228 Dec. 7° 30' N, 

14th, at 7 P.M. - - - 23 7 Dec. 15°00 / N. 

In four days it passed over 3° 40', and in the last eight 
days 10° 30 r in the arc of a great circle. The weather has 
in general been cloudy, with fogs, since its first appearance. 

To Mr. Tillock. 

. ► ■' v 

\ 

SIR The Manor House, Hayes, Middlesex, 

October 24, 1807. 

I send you a few observations on the present comet, which 
may be inserted in your valuable Magazine, if you think 
them worthy a place. / 

I first saw it on Saturday evening, the 26th of September, 
when it nearly equalled Arcturus in brightness. This led 
me to hope I might see it in the day-time with my equatorial 
instrument; and, after some attention, I readily discerned it 
at eleven in the morning, but it was by no means so distinct 
as Arcturus. The nucleus having gradually diminished, I 
cannot now see it till the sun is set. It had passed its peri¬ 
helion 


92 New Comet. 

helion before it was seen in this country; but, had we been 
on the look-out a few months ago, in the morning, before 
the sun rose, we might probably have seen it in its passage 
towards him. It is now receding almost perpendicularly 
from the ecliptic, but may probably be visible for near a 
month longer. By a good observation to-night, comparing 
it with Beta Herculis (which was in the field of a night glass), 
it follows that star 5' 41" in time, and has 3' greater north 
declination. 

I have viewed it with a 7-feet Newtonian reflector of 
inches aperture, with magnifying powers from 90 to 500 
times ; with a Cassegrain telescope of larger size ; with an 
excellent achromatic of Mr. Dollond ; but its effect is best 
by a good night glass magnifying about six or eight times; 
with this the tail is ascertained to be 1° 40' long. To-night 
it passes over a beautiful cluster of small stars, which are 
not at all affected by the transmission. The tail forms an 
angle of about 35 or 40° wide, but in the night glass and to 
the naked eye appears to issue immediately behind the nu¬ 
cleus; but in the above powerful instruments the nucleus 
appears of a hazy ill-defined roundness, nearly as large as 
Jupiter; and the vapour appears to surround the head, and 
then be forced behind, 

I herewith send the sketches I made this evening 
(Plate II.) : the first from the night glass, the second from 
the Newtonian reflector magnifying ninety times. 

, I am, sir, 

Your humble servant, 

W. Walker. 

The following notice respecting the comet appears in the 
Moniteur of the 8th of October:—“ M. Pons, belono-ino- to 
the observatory at Marseilles, was the first astronomer who 
discovered the comet in France, on the 20th of last month ; 
and M. de Thuis, of the same establishment, noticed it on 
the 21st and 22d. From the observations which they com¬ 
municated to the astronomers at Paris, M. Burckhardt de¬ 
termined the following orbit, which he presented to the class 

of 


J^Viscellaneous . 

of mathematical and philosophical sciences of the National 
Institute on the 5th of this month : Passage to the perihe¬ 
lion, 25th September, 3 A.M., distance of the perihelion 
0-6158; perihelion 291° 4 r ; nucleus 267° 47'; inclination. 
48° 4 / : movement direct. These hints, says M. Burckhardl, 
will be sufficient to calculate the route of the comet; but it 
mav be discovered without any trouble, being distinguisha¬ 
ble bv the naked eye, as soon as night has closed. It is now 
(September 25th) to the left of Arcturus, between the stars 
of the Boreal Crown and those of Libra to the west. It3 
motion is one'degree per day towards the north, and rather 
more than a degree towards the east. This comet was also 
sfeen on the 28th at Vezhoul,-and M. Flaugergues perceived 
it on the 20th at Viviers. It seemed to him like a white 
nebulous spot, very brilliant, and similar to a star of the 
second magnitude. It was surrounded by a nebulosity of 
about six minutes in diameter, and had a tail about a degree 
and a half in length. It is the opinion of the Institute that 
this comet is different from any with which we are ac¬ 
quainted,” 

MISCELLANEOUS.* 

The Institution for the Cure of Impediments of Speech 
and the Improvement of English Oratory, No. 40, Bedford- 
place, Russell-square, opened again, after the recess, at the 
latter end of September; and Mr. and Mrs. Thelwall have 
announced their intention of continuing the regular courses 
of instruction in the different departments of elocution, both 
to private and to house pupils, without interruption, till the 
ensuing annual recess, in the month of August. The folr 
lowing are the different descriptions of pupils for whose 
benefit the institution is principally established, (the adults 
being superintended by Mr. and the junior pupils by Mrs. 
Thelwall:) — 1. Ladies and gentlemen afflicted with impedi¬ 
ments, whether from organic defects, or early imitation and 
habit. 2. Foreigners desirous of instruction in the idiom and 
pronunciation of the English language. 3. Persons aspiring 
to the higher accomplishments of elocution, as applicable 
to the senate, the bar, the pulpit, or the stage. 4 . Students 

who 


\ 


Miscellaneous . 

« ' r* « t t ** 

who wish to cultivate the graces and elegancies of Englisfi 
composition, and a taste for poetry, criticism, and polite 
literature • or to improve the talent for conversation, and 
the art of reading with ease and propriety. Classical and 
mathematical tutors attend on those pupils who require their 
assistance, and proper teachers for music, dancing, and every 
other accomplishment; it being the object of the institution, 
in its present enlarged establishment, not only to remedy all 
defects of utterance, arid initiate youth into the principles 
and practice of an impressive and graceful elocution, but 
also to give the last finishing to an accomplished education, 
rind prepare the pupil for the intercourses of polished society 
and the higher departments of active life. Mr. The!wall’s 
public lectures commenced on Monday, the 20tb of Octo¬ 
ber, and will be continued every Monday evening during the 
winter season. 

M. Bet tan court, chief engineer to his majesty the king of 
Spain, has communicated to the Frenc 1 institute a new in¬ 
vention which will render the construction of canals infi¬ 
nitely more easy in future, in-so-far as it provides against 
all useless expenditure of water. M. A. Pictet, the tribune, 
who mentioned it in the report made to the legislative body 
respecting the proposed law for imposing taxes for repairing 
roads and bridges, &c., gives the following idea of the above 
improvement:—Each lock is furnished with an adjoining 
reservoir,communicating with it at bottom: the lock is destined 
to raise and lower the vessels as usual, but the vertical move- 
,ment of the liquid which floats them is produced by the sim¬ 
ple immersion or emersion of a box in the contiguous reser¬ 
voir ; the volume of this box is equal to that of the water to 
he displaced, and it is so happily and ingeniously balanced; 
that one man is sufficient for raising* or lowering; the largest 
Vessel. Oms, in future, the more or less considerable sup¬ 
ply of water, which formed one of the chief difficulties, in 
the construction of canals, will be reduced to the quantity 
necessary for supplying the waste by filtration and evapora¬ 
tion,” ... 


. V 


The 


Miscellaneous. 93 

The Russian company for promoting' discoveries in the 
north-west of America has taken possession of the island 
of Sachin, in the sea of Ochosck. This island, which 
extends from 45 ° to 52 ° of north latitude, has been de¬ 
scribed by La Pcyrouse. M. de Krusenstiern examined 
it, and determined astronomically different points of it, 
upon his return from Japan, so that it is now perfectly well 
laid down. M. de Krusenstiern has made a very minute 
chart of it. He has also verified what was advanced fey 
La Peyrouse, namely, that there was no passage for ship¬ 
ping between this island and the eastern coast of Tartary. 
The northern part of the island is inhabited by Tartars, arid 
the south-east part by Japanese. 

The Spanish government has -presented to the botanists 
who are occupied in the completion of the Flora of Peru, 
eleven drawings, perfectly executed and coloured on the 
spot, of so many new species of Quinquina, which were 
sent to Spain from Peru, in January last, by don. Juan Ta- 
falla and don Juan Mazanilla, both eminent naturalists. 
It is said that the above are in reality new species, and not 
simple varieties of the same £enus ; thus we have now draw¬ 
ings and descriptions of twenty-nine species of Quinquina* 
Thirty additional new species are still expected, which have 

been long known to exist in Peru. 

\ ' ___ 

The Austrian archcjuke John, who is much given to the 
study of natural history, is employed at this time in a grand 
botanical work, in which he gives a description of a great 
number of plants hitherto unknown, of which he has found 
specimens in his travels in the Tyrol, in the country of Saltz- 
bourg, and Lower Austria. Some sheets of this work, which 
is ornamented with a great many prints, have just appeared • 
but booksellers are not permitted to sell them. The arch¬ 
duke destines the whole edition for his particular friends, 
and persons distinguished in the science. The same prince 
has just purchased the beautiful cabinet of minerals which 
belonged to professor Jacquin, of Vienna, for 24,000 florins. 

METiiORQ- 




* 


9S 

M 

METEORC 

Br Mr. Cari 

For C 

Thermometer. 

eteorblogy 

>LQGICAL 

2Y, OF 14 

October 18( 

TABLE, 
IE STR, 

47. 

1 

rT* » 

4Ni?> 

* 

Rays of the 
Month. 

8 o’clock, 
Morning. 

Noon. 

o A 
O trj 

Height of 
tne Batom. 
Inches. 

DegreesofD: 

ness bv Lesli 

Hygrometer 

Weather. 

Sept. 27 

59° 

66° 

54° 

29*45! 

25 

Fair 

28 

54 

60 

47 

*71 j 

51 

Farr 

29 

46 

56 

52 

•6o 

O 

Rain 

30 

56 

60 

45 

•62 

41 

Fair 

Oct. 1 

41 

56 

51 

30* 19 

32 

Cloudy* 

2 

56 

64 

56 

•04 

44 

Fair 

3 

57 

64 

57 

•12 

15 

Fair 

4 

56 

64 

56 

•17 

15 

Fair 

5 

56 

65 

57 

. *03 

16 

Fair 

0 

56 

: 60 

56 

•03 

10 

Cloudy 

7 

; 5 7 

67 

59 

*02 

38 

Fair 

8 

, 58 

59 

50 

29*85 

39 

Cloudy 

9 

' 51 

59 

54 

30*4 5 

32 

Fair 

30 

57 

64 

58 

•13 

18 

Cloudy 

11 

58 

65 

57 

*10 

20 

Cloudy 

12 

5/ 

64 

58 

•02 

17 

Cloudy 

13 

58 

65 

59 

*22 

19 

Cloudy 

14 

59 

66 

59 

•20 

21 

Fair 

15 

59 

65 

55 

*06 

5 

Cloudy 

16 

50 

62 

52 

•13 

22 

Cloudy 

17 

53 

62 

56 

•01 

18 

Cloudy 

18 

59 

59 

48 

*02 

23 

Fair 

19 

42 

58 

52 

*25 

26 

Fair 

20 

51 

64 

55 

29*89 

. 29 

Fair 

21 

55 

63 

54 

*46 

20 

Fair 

22 

52 

56 

50 

•31 

0 

Rain 

23 

46 

51 

41 

•24 

14 

Cloudy 

24 

38 

53 

46 

*36 

10 

Showery 

25 

47 

55 

50 

•65 

17 , 

Fair 

26 

51 

i 

55 

44 

- 

*62 

10 

Cloudy 

N. B. The Barometer’s height is taken atone c 

/clock. 
































f 97 ] 


(i 


XVL Proposal for a new System of Building Houses, 
Streets, &c. By G. Field, Esq. 

To Mr. Tilloc/u 

T sir, 

he analogy between the following essay and an inge¬ 
nious paper which I have lately seen On the Figure in 
which Trees should be disposed in Plantations/' (quoted in 
No. 7 of the Retrospect, from the Farmer's Magazine, 
No. 28 ,) .and their dependance on the same principles, have 
induced me to resume my essay, which is connected with a 
more extensive design, and has lain-by several years, and 
to publish it through your Magazine, with which I consider 
it more compatible than with either of the above. 

The author oi the paper I have mentioned has demon¬ 
strated that the most advantageous distribution of trees in a 
plantation is hexangular, because he has observed in nature 
“ that mature strong trees, which have arisen from the seed 
of any one tree, will he found nearly in the angles of an 
equilateral and equiangular hexagon , with the original tree 
in the centre and because “ the closest order in which it 
is possible to place a number of points upon a plane surface , 
not nearer than a given distance from each other, is the an¬ 
gles of hexagons, with a point in the centre of each hexa¬ 
gon ." (See Euclid, book iv. prop. 15 .) 

In nature it may be observed also that the general form 
of trees is circular, their branches diverging in radii from 
their trunks as centres, and that nature distributes their off¬ 
spring in circles around the parent trees . It may be also 
rationally or mathematically proved that the closest arrange¬ 
ment of circles on a plane is in hexagons ; and these are the 
points of union and coincidence by which an easy transition 
is made from the subject of the above paper to that of the 
present essay; coincidences arrived at, probably, by very 
different routes, and strongly presumptive of the same foun¬ 
dation in nature and truth. 


Vpl. 29 . No. 114, Nov , 1807. 


G 


0,7. 


98 


Proposal for a ntw System 


On the general Application of the circular Form in 

Architecture . 

“ Order is Heav’n’s first law.” 

Pope’s Essay on Man. 

•7 

It is notorious that the rough proportion of the diameter 
to the circumference of a circle is as 7 to 22, rather exceed¬ 
ing 1 to 3. »If, therefore, we draw a line AB (fig. 5* PI. III.) 
three times the length of the diameter of a circle C, 
allowing diameter for deficiency, and divide this- line 
into four equal parts, we have the measure of the four 
sides of a square D, equal to the circumference of the cir¬ 
cle C. 

It is evident, therefore, that the circle circumscribes a 
much greater area than the square , at the same time that its 
extremities lie nearer together ; that therefore the circle is of 
the two the most eligible form for a building in general ; 
and that, whatever be the materials used for erecting the 
walls, less of them will be required for a circular than for a 
square edifice of equal dimensions; consequently, a consi¬ 
derable saving of materials. 

To these may be added the following considerations and 
advantages depending on the general properties of the circle: 

That of all forms of building, the circular is the mo'st 
simple, the most durable, and the strongest. 

That for beauty and sublimity it is far superior to other 
forms, presenting one endless front (whatever is bounded 
being little to the imagination, the power of which is 
infinite) ; and it is susceptible of all the variety of ar¬ 
chitectural decorations in arcades, colonnades, domes, por¬ 
ticos, &c. 

That the view from a circular edifice is much more ex¬ 
tensive than from a square building, no angles intercepting 
the sight from the windows, &c., while the light entering 
laterally at the windows, enlivens the dark piers between 
them. 

That structures of this form may be raised upon the prin¬ 
ciple 


of Building Houses > Streets, d#c. 99 

tipic of the cask, and the materials formed into girders or 
hoops resting on each other, so as to render it impossible 
either to force its walls in or out; and hence the greatest 
strength with the least consumption of materials. 

That as hoops may be formed of the materials to connect 
the parts of a building with firmness, so, to apply the idea 
of the cask further, staves may be framed of wood or other 
materials (fig. 2.), to be connected by hoops or bolts, and 
the openings, except such as may be required for doors and 
windows, may be pannelled, plastered, or bricked up. 

Thus, large structures of great strength, durability, and 
lightness (and portable buildings), maybe framed at the 
least expense, for barns, manufactories, &c., while the face 
of the country would be rendered extremely picturesque and 
beautiful thereby, covered., as it were, with temples. 

That the natural form of covering or roof for a circular 
building is the dome, which may also be constructed on the 
principle of the cask to any extent, or of hoops or rings di¬ 
minishing upwards and resting on each other, extremely 
light, durable, and strong. 

That the dome is the best form of roof for resisting all 
kinds of weather, requiring no other support than it has 
intrinsically ; and hence it is a hollow structure affording 
space for rooms which in other roofs is occupied by timbers, 
and therefore requires less materials, while the dome is ac¬ 
knowledged to be both externally and internally extremely 
beautiful; the only form of roof, perhaps, that is so; whence 
other roofs have been purposely hidden by the walls, giving 
to edifices the appearance of mere inclosures. 

That the distribution of the timbers of the floors according 
to fig. 3. would save timber and give great stiffness and so- 
hditv to the floors, as the shorter timbers would require a 
proportionably less diameter, and the divisions of the house 
into apartments may rest upon and support the timbers. 
Or, if required, the floors may be more strongly and flatly 
vaulted with masonry than in other forms of building, owing 
to the power of supporting lateral pressure in walls built upon 
the principle I have suggested; and the ceilings might be 

G 2 formed 


100 Proposal for a new System 

formed into shells, fans, &c., providing at once safeness 
from fire, durability, strength, and beauty. 

That the stairs may be disposed with great advantage in 
the centre of the building (fig. ]. F), affording the readiest 
communication to all parts of the house, lighted from the 
top of the dome by a lantern of the most simple or beautiful 
form ; while the well, spiral, or circular staircase is con¬ 
fessedly the most beautiful and the strongest. In these latter 
particulars, however, there is the greatest latitude for varia¬ 
tion to which fancy, convenience, or even prejudice, may 
prompt: nor is it necessary in a mere sketch to show how 
the apartments may be laid out, the stairs and passages dis¬ 
posed, the fireplaces and chimneys arranged, ventilation 
carried on, or water conducted, &c. throughout this form 
of building; suffice it that it is susceptible of all the varia¬ 
tion of other buildings in these respects, and with some 
peculiar advantages, as might be shown were I intent upon 
entering minutely into the subject. 

Such are the advantages of this form in individual build¬ 
ings ; such as are unequalled in general by other forms for 
'Strength, beauty, and convenience. 

Nor are the advantages of this form confined to the indi¬ 
vidual structure, but extend to general and even universal 
use; analogous toother cases physical, moral, and political, 
in which that which benefits the individual is also good for 
the many. 

First, then, as to its general use, a circle of circular 
houses (fig. 4 .) has the following advantages : 

That this arrangement of buildings, in common with the 
individual, is stronger than any other. 

That, as there are certain proportions of height to the 
diameter in individual structures which best satisfy the de¬ 
mands of taste, and are called harmonic, and as in towns 
and cities the value of horizontal space is such as to occasion 
houses to be built much higher than those which stand de¬ 
tached in the country, so the diameter of these circles would 
enable us to carry the individual houses to a great height with 
much solidity, agreeably to these demands of taste, in one 

uniform 


of Building Houses , Streets , &'c. 101' 

uniform design susceptible of great variety, beauty, and 
grandeurj the interior forming one magnificent amphithe¬ 
atre. 

That each house of the circle, touching only in a point, 
would require no party walls (Euclid, book iii. prop. 13 ), 
yet would be more secure from lire, as engines, &c. could 
reach a much greater surface of each edifice than in lines or 
streets of square-formed houses. 

That each house would be better lighted and ventilated 
than in any other arrangement, and would have a better and 
more extensive view and front, advantageous to the trading 

J O O 

part of the community, and agreeable to all. 

That as the purpose for which men assemble in towns and 
cities is social intercourse in business and pleasure, so of all 
forms in which dwellings can be arranged for the purposes 
of society , that here pointed out is not only the strongest, 
most commodious, ceconomical, and beautiful, but also the 
least solitary; each house being within sight and commu¬ 
nication with every other of the circle, at the same time that 
privacy and distinctness are sufficiently provided for. 

That a building or buildings around a circular court or 
mews in the centre, may become the offices, stablipg, &c. 
of each house, and one common receptacle and sewer may 
receive and carry off the filth from the drains of each 
house, and these at a point the furthest distance from each, 
the sewer running under the passage by which the court or 
mews communicates with the exterior of the rotundo, so 
to call this circular arrangement of houses; while, on the 
other hand, water may be supplied very ceeonomically either 
this way or externally to each house. 

Without entering minutely into the arrangement of cir¬ 
cular houses in other forms, I shall merely mention, that, 
with many of the foregoing advantages, they may be distribu¬ 
ted in rows, streets, or squares, the angles of which would be 
all rounded off, and the same of gateways, &c., and the 
beauty of which may be easily imagined. 

Finally, this form is capable of universal application in 
the distribution of cities, with the individual and general 

G 3 advantages* 


102 


Proposal for a new System 

advantages already pointed out, together with utilities of a 
more extensive nature, as follows, demonstrable by fig. 5, 
in which these circles of circular houses are arrangeable in 
circles of a higher order to infinity. 

It is, evident, then, by inspecting the diagram, without 
resorting to abstract principles, that from every circle thereof 
there is a straight road to every other circle of this city : 
hence the quickest possible intercourse and uninterrupted 
communication with, its most extreme parts; hence public 
drains and water-courses, lighting and watching, &c. may 
be conducted upon the most efficacious and ceconomical 
plan possible, advantageous to the individual and commu-. 
nity; and hence the freest circulation of air, health, and 
order, there being no place close or obstructed—no lanes, 
courts, and alleys, scenes of filth, disease, and immora¬ 
lity. 

j 

As to public buildings, such as palaces and offices of go¬ 
vernment, colleges, churches, and almshouses, theatres, 
prisons, forts, &c., the first might occupy a grand circle 
in the centre of the city, of a proportion and magnificence 
worthy of the whole; the rest might be distributed in other 
parts of the city, according to their nature and convenience; 
and it might be shown, and may be easily conceived from 
what precedes, in what manner the circular form is best 
of all adapted to their respective purposes: in fine, it were 
an offence to common sense to extend this description to 
the further uses and variations of this plan. 

On the other hand, I am aware of the opposition which 
may be urged against it by long established prejudice to the 
square form ; the adaption of habits, tools, materials, and 
instruments, to this latter form, by which circular work is 
attended with difficulty and expense in nowise natural to it ; 
the outcry for picturesque beauty and variety where mecha¬ 
nical beauty, viz. simplicity and uniformity, only should 
be demanded by true taste; yet the charge of sameness is 
more applicable to the lineal form of streets and squares, 
while this plan is susceptible, without disturbing it, of va¬ 
riations in the dimensions and ornaments of its buildings 

suited 


103 


of Building Houses, Streets, Zsfc. 

suited to the various classes and ranks of society; and the 
beauty, variety, change, and infinite extent of view, either 
standing or moving, in such a city, may easily be imagined: 
but as this plan is general, and all objections that may be 
brought against it are likely to be particular, they cannot 
legitimately oppose it. 

To end, then, at the point of coincidence from which T 
departed, the distribution of this city is into hexagons, ac¬ 
cording with .the natural arrangement of the forest pointed 
out by the author of the ingenious paper 1 have quoted ; to 
which may be added, that the circle is the form indicated 
by nature, and instinctively followed by inferior animals in 
the construction of their habitations, and in the huts of in¬ 
fant societies, as those of the Caffres, who observe this form 
not only in their individual habitations, but also in their 
kralls or villages. 

Thus I have described the individual, species, and genus 
of my plan, advancing from the lowest to the highest; and 
lest some readers should conclude that I am, like certain 
modern politicians, so giddied by turning in a circle and 
disposed to whirl all things together in my vortex, or, in 
other terms, so blinded by a system as to recommend seri¬ 
ously the universal adoption of a perfectly uniform plan, to 
the exclusion of long established customs adapted to the dis¬ 
united and imperfect state of man, I must declare, ere I 
take my leave, that the purpose of this essay is merely to 
sketch a speculative model for the excitement of thought, 
and from which the artist is at liberty to select, to reject al¬ 
together, to recompose, of wiry to his purposes. 

G, 


i 


G 4 


XVII. On 


t 10 * J 


XVIL 0?i the (Economy of Bees. In a Letter from Tho¬ 
mas Andrew Knight, Esq. F. R . S. to the Right Ho - 
nourable Sir Joseph Banks, Bart., K.B. P.R.S.* 

1 MY DEAR SIR, 

n the prosecution of those experiments on trees, accounts 
of which you have so often done me the honour to present 
to the Royal Society, my residence has necessarily been al¬ 
most wholly confined to the same spot, and 1 have thence 
been induced to pay considerable attention to the ceconomy 
of bees amongst other objects ; and as some interesting cir¬ 
cumstances in the habit of these singular insects appear to 
have come under my observation, and to have escaped the 
notice of former writers, I take the liberty to communicate 
my observations to you. 

It is, I believe, generally supposed that each hive, or 
swarm, of these insects remains at all times wholly uncon¬ 
nected with other colonies in the vicinity; and that the bee 
never distinguishes a stranger from an enemy. The circum¬ 
stances which I shall proceed to state, will, however, tend 
to prove that these opinions are not well founded, and that 
a friendly intercourse not unfrequently takes place between 
different colonies, and is productive of very important con¬ 
sequences in their political ceconomy. 

Passing through one of my orchards rather late in the 
evening in the month of August, in the year 1801, I ob¬ 
served that several bees passed me in a direct line from the 
hives in my own garden to those in the garden of a cottager, 
which was about a hundred yards distant from it. As it 
was considerably later in the evening than the time when 
bees usually cease to labour, I concluded that something 
more than ordinary was going forward. Going first to my 
own garden, and then to that of the cottager, I found a very 
considerable degree of bustle and agitation to prevail in one 
' hive in each : every bee, as it arrived, seemed to be stopt and 
questioned at the mouth of each hive; but I could not dis¬ 
cover any thing like actual resistance, or hostility, to take 

* From the Transactions of the Royal Society, part ii, for 1807. 

place; 




On the (Economy of Bees . ! 03 ? 

place; though T was much inclined to believe the inter¬ 
course between the hives to be hostile and predatory. The 
same kind of intercourse continued, in a greater or less de¬ 
gree, during eight succeeding days; and, though I watched 
them very closely, nothing occurred to induce me to sup¬ 
pose that their intercourse was not of an amicable kind. Ou 
the tenth morning, however, their friendship ended, as sud¬ 
den and violent friendships often do, in a quarrel; and they 
fought most furiously; and after this there was no more vi¬ 
siting. 

I wo years subsequent to this period I observed the same 
kind of intercourse to take place between two hives of my 
own bees, which were situated about two hundred yards di¬ 
stant from each other: they passed from each hive to the. 
other just as they did in the preceding instance, and a si¬ 
milar degree of agitation was observable. In this instance, 
however, their friendship appeared to be of much shorter 
duration, for they fought most desperately on the fifth day, 
and then, as in the last mentioned case, all further visiting 
ceased. 

I have some reason to believe that the kind of intercourse 
I have described, which I have often seen, and which is by 
no means uncommon, not unfrequently ends in a junction 
of the two swarms; for one instance came under my ob¬ 
servation, many years ago, in which the labouring becs 9 
under circumstances perfectly similar to those I have de¬ 
scribed, wholly disappeared, leaving the drones in peaceable 
possession of the hive, but withoutany thing to live upon. 
I have also reasons for believing, that whenever a junction 
of two swarms, with their property, is agreed upon, that 
which proposes to remove, immediately, or soon afterwards, 
unites with the other swarm, and returns to the deserted hive 
during the day only to carry off the honey ; for, having exa¬ 
mined at night a hive from which I suspected the bees to be 
migrating, I found it without a single inhabitant. I 
was led to make the examination by information I had re¬ 
ceived, from a very accurate observer, that all the bees would 
then be absent. A very considerable quantity of honey was 
in this instance left in the hive, without any guards to defend 


JO0 On the (Economy of Bees. 

it; bat I conclude that the bees would have returned for it, 
had it remained till the next day. Whenever the bees quit 
their habitation in this way, 1 have always observed some 
fighting to take place ; but I conceived it to be between the 
bees of the adjoining hives and those which were removing, 
the former being attracted by the scent of the honey which 
the. latter were carrying off. 

On the farm which I occupy there were formerly many 
old decayed trees, the cavities of which were frequently oc¬ 
cupied by swarms of bees; and when these were destroyed, 
a board was generally fitted to the aperture which had been 
made to extract the honey ; and the cavity was thus prepared 
for the reception of another swarm in the succeeding-season. 
Whenever a swarm came, I constantly observed that about 
fourteen days previous to their arrival a small number of 
bees, varying from twenty to fifty, were every day employed 
in examining, and apparently keeping possession of, the ca¬ 
vity ; for, if molested, they showed evident signs of displea¬ 
sure, though they never employed their stings in defending 
their proposed habitation. Their examination was not con¬ 
fined to the cavity, but extended to the external parts of the 
tree above; and every dead knot particularly arrested their at¬ 
tention ; as if they had been apprehensive of being injured 
by moisture which this might admit into the cavity below; 
and they apparently did not leave any part of the bark near 
the cavity unexamined* A part of the colony which pur¬ 
posed to emigrate, appeared in this case to have been dele¬ 
gated to search for a proper habitation; and the individual 
who succeeded must have apparently had some means, of 
conveying information of his success to others; for it can¬ 
not be supposed that fifty bees should each accidentally meet 
at, and fix upon, the same cavity, at a mile distant from their 
hive; which I have frequently observed them to do, in a 
wood where several trees were adapted for their reception; 
and indeed 1 observed that thev almost uniformly selected 
that cavity which I thought best adapted to their use. 

It not uhfrequently happened that swarms of my own 
bees took possession of these cavities, and such swarms 
were in several instances followed from my garden to the 

V . 

trees ; 


On the QLconomy of Bees. 107 

trees: and they were observed to deviate very little from the 
direct line between the one point and the other ; which 
seems to indicate that those bees which had formerly acted 
as purveyors, now became guides. 

Two instances came under my own observation, in which 
a swarm was received into a cavity of which another swarm 
had previous possession. In the first instance I arrived with 
the swarm, and I could not discover that the least opposi¬ 
tion was made to their entrance : in the second instance, 
observing the direction that the swarm took, I used all the 
expedition 1 could to arrive first at the tree to which I sup¬ 
posed they were going, whilst a servant followed them ; and 
a descent of ground being in my favour, and the wfind against 
them, I succeeded in arriving at the tree some seconds be¬ 
fore them ; and I am perfectly confident that not the least 
resistance was opposed to their entrance. 

Now it does not appear probable that animals so much 
attached to their properly as bees are, so jealous of all ap¬ 
proach towards it, and so ready to sacrifice their lives in 
defence of it, should suffer a colony of strangers, with whose 
intentions they were unacquainted, to take possession, with¬ 
out making some effort to defend it: nor does it seem much 
more probable that the same animals, which spent so much 
time, in examining theirffuture habitation, in the cases I have 
mentioned, should have attempted in this case to enter with¬ 
out knowing whether there was space.sufficient to contain 
them, and without any examination at all. I must there¬ 
fore infer that some previous intercourse had taken place 
between the two swarms, and that those in the possession 
of the cavities were not unacquainted with the intentions of 
their guests ; though the formation of any thing like an 
agreement between the different parties be scarcely consistent 
with the limitations generally supposed to be fixed by nature 
to the instinctive powers of the brute creation. 

Brutes have evidently language; but it is a language of 
passion only, and not of ideas. They express to each other 
sentiments of love, of fear, and of anger; but they appear 
to be wholly incapable of transmitting to each other any 
jdeas they have received from the impression of external ob¬ 
jects; 


iOS On the t'Economy of Bees 

Jects. They convey to other animals of their species* on 
the approach of an enemy, a sentiment of danger ; but they 
appear wholly incapable of communicating what the enemy 
is, or the kind of danger apprehended. A language of more 
extensive use seems, from the preceding circumstances, to 
have been given to bees; and if it be not, in some degree, 
a language of ideas, it appears to be something very similar. 

When a swarm of bees issue from, the parent hive, they 
generally soon settle on some neighbouring bush or tree y 
and as in this situation they are generally not at all defended 
from rain or cold, it is often inferred that they are less amply 
gifted with those instinctive powers that direct to self-pre¬ 
servation than many other animals. But their object in set¬ 
tling soon after they leave the hive, is apparently nothing 
more than to collect their numbers; and they have gene¬ 
rally, I believe always, another place to which they intend 
subsequently to go; and if the situation they select be not 
perfectly adapted to secure them from injuries, it is probably, 
in almost all instances, the best they can discover. For I 
have very often observed that when one of my hives was 
nearly ready to swarm, one of the hollow trees I have men¬ 
tioned (and generally that best adapted for the accommoda¬ 
tion of a swarm) was every day occupied by a small number 
of bees, but that after the swarm had issued from that hive, 
and had taken possession of another, the tree was wholly 
deserted; whence I inferred that the swarm, which would 
have taken possession of the cavity of that tree, had relin¬ 
quished their intended migration when a hive was offered 
them at home. And I am much disposed to doubt whether 
it be not rather habit, produced by domestication, during 
many successive generations, than any thing inherent in the 
nature of bees, which induces them to accept a hive, when 
offered them, in preference to the situation they have pre¬ 
viously chosen : for I have noticed the disposition to mi¬ 
grate to exist in a much greater degree in some families of 
bees than in others ; and the offspring of domesticated ani¬ 
mals inherit, in a very remarkable manner, the acquired ha¬ 
bits of their parents. In all animals this is observable ; but 
m the dog it exists to a wonderful extent, and the offspring 

appears* 


On the (Economy of Beei. 10$ 

appears to inherit not only the passions and propensities* 
but even the resentments, of the family from which it 
springs. I ascertained, by repeated experiment, that a ter¬ 
rier, whose parents had been in the habit of fighting with 
polecats, will instantly show every mark of anger when he 
first perceives the scent of that animal, though the animal 
itself be wholly concealed from his sight. A young spaniel 
brought up with the terriers showed no marks whatever of 
emotion at the scent of the polecat; but it pursued a wood¬ 
cock, the first time it saw one, with clamour and exultation : 
and a young pointer, which I am certain had never seen a 
partridge, stood trembling with anxiety, its eyes fixed and its 
muscles rigid, when conducted into the midst of a covey of 
those birds. Yet each of these dogs are mere varieties of 
the same species ; and to that species none of these habits 
are given by nature* The peculiarities of character can there¬ 
fore be traced to no other source than the acquired habits of 
the parents, which are inherited by the offspring, and be¬ 
come what I shall call instinctive hereditary propensities. 
These propensities, or modifications of the natural instinc¬ 
tive powers of animals, are capable of endless variation and 
change ; and hence their habits soon become adapted to dif¬ 
ferent countries and different states of domestication, the 
acquired habits of the parents being transferred hereditarily 
to the offspring. Bees, like other animals, are probably 
susceptible of these changes of habit • and thence, when ac¬ 
customed through many generations to the hive, in a coun¬ 
try which does not afford hollow trees, or other habitations 
adapted to their purpose, they may become more dependent 
-on man, and rely on his care wholly for an habitation; hut 
in situations where the cavities of trees present to them 
the means of providing for themselves, I have found that 
they will discover such trees in the closest recesses of the 
woods, and at an extraordinary distance from their hives; 
and that they will keep possession of such cavities in the 
manner I have stated : and I am confident that, under such 
circumstances, a swarm never issues from the parent hive 
without haying previously selected some such place to re¬ 
tire to. 


1 to On the (Economy of Bees. 

It has been remarked by Mr. John Hunter, that the inattef 
■Which bees carry on their thighs is the farina of plants with 
which they feed their young, and not the substance with 
which they make their combs; and his statement is, I be¬ 
lieve, perfectly correct: but I have observed that they will 
also carry other things on their thighs. I frequently co- 
vered the decorticated parts of trees, on which I was making 
experiments, with a cement composed of bees-wax and tur¬ 
pentine; and in the autumn I have frequently observed a 
great number of bees employed in carrying off this sub¬ 
stance. They detached it from the tree with their forceps, 
and the little portion thus obtained was then transferred by 
the first to the second leg, by which it was deposited on the 
vthigh of the third: the farina of plants is collected and trans¬ 
ferred in the same manner. This mixture of wax and tur¬ 
pentine did hot, however, appear to have been employed in 
the formation of combs; but only to attach the hive to the 
board on which it was placed, and probably to exclude other 
insects, and air during winter. Whilst the bees were em¬ 
ployed in the collection of this substance, I had many op¬ 
portunities of observing the peaceful and patient disposition 
of them as individuals, which Mr. Hunter has also, in some 
measure, noticed. When one bee had collected its load, and 
was just prepared to take flight, another often came behind 
it, and despoiled it of all it had collected. A second, and 
even a third load was collected, and lost in the same man¬ 
ner, and still the patient insect pursued its labour without 
betraying any symptoms of impatience or resentment* 
When, however, the hive is approached, the bee appears 
often to be the most irritable of all animals; but a circum¬ 
stance I have observed amongst another species of insects, 
whose habits are in many respec.t9 similar to those of bees, 
induces me to believe that the readiness of the bees to attack 
those who approach their hives, does not in any degree 
spring either from the sense of injury or apprehensions of 
the individual who makes the attack. If a nest of wasps be 
approached without alarming its inhabitants, and all com¬ 
munication be suddenly cut off between those out of the 
iiest, and those within it, no provocation will induce the 

former 


m 


On the (Economy of Bees. 

Former to defend their nest or themselves : but if one escape 
from ..within, it comes with a very different temper, and 
appears commissioned to avenge public wrongs, and pre¬ 
pared to sacrifice its life in the execution of its orders. I 
discovered the circumstance, that wasps thus excluded from 
their nest, would neither defend it, nor themselves, at a very 
early period of my life; and I profited so often by the dis¬ 
covery, as a schoolboy, that 1 am quite certain of the fact 
I state; and I do not entertain any doubt, though I speak 
from experiments less accurately made, that the actions of 
bees, under similar circumstances, would be the same*. 

Mr. H unter conceived bees wax to be an animal substance* 
which exuded between the scales of the belly of the insect : 
but lam strongly disposed to believe that it is collected from 
plants, and merely deposited between the scales of the bdly 
of the bee, for the joint purposes of being carried with con¬ 
venience, and ofivino; the temperature necessary for beinr 
moulded into combs: and I am led to this conclusion, not 
only by the circumstance of wax being found in the vege¬ 
table world, but also by having often observed bees em¬ 
ployed in detaching something from the bases of the leaves 
of plants with their forceps, which they did not deposit on 

* A curious circumstance relative to wasps attracted the notice of some of 
my friends last year, and has not, I believe, been satisfactorily accounted for. 
A greater number of female wasps were observed in different parts of tire 
kingdom, in the spring and early part of tire summer of that year, than at al¬ 
most any former period; yet scarcely any nests, or labouring wasps, were 
seen in the following autum n ; the cause of which I believe I can explain. At¬ 
tending to some peach-trees in my garden, late in the autumn of the year 1605, 
on whichl hadbeenmakingexperiments, 1 noticed, during many successive .days, 
a vast number of female wasps, which appeared to have been attracted there 
by the shelter and warmth of a south wall; but I did not observe auy males. 
At length, during a warm gleam in the middle of one of the days, a single 
male appeared,and selected a female close to me; and this was the only male 
1 saw in that season. The male wasp, which is readily distinguishable from 
the female and labourer, by his long antennas and shining wings, and by a 
blacker and more slender body, is rarely seen out of the nest, except in very 
warm days, like the drone bee ; and the nests of wasps, though very abun¬ 
dant in the year 1805, were not<formed till remarkably late in the season- 
and thence I oonclude that the males had not acquired maturity till the wea¬ 
ther had ceased to he warm, and that the females, in consequence, retired to 
their long winter sleep without having k J any intercourse with them. 


f 


their 


1 1 £ On a fulminating Combination of Silver> 

their thighs, as thpy do (I believe invariably) the farina of 
plants. I have also frequently observed the combs of very 
late swarms to be remarkably thin and white, and brittle; 
which are circumstances very favourable to the conclusion 
that the wax is a vegetable substance, for it would probably 
be less abundant during autumn than in summer ; and that 
portion which had remained on the plants till late in the 
season would hence become more colourless by exposure to 
light, as well as more dry and brittle, than when at first ex¬ 
uded ; but were it an animal substance, there does not ap¬ 
pear any reason why it should be more dry and brittle, of 
less abundant, in the autumn than in the spring and sum¬ 
mer. The conclusions of Mr. Hunter are, however, always 
drawn with so much caution, and he united so much skill 
aud science with the greatest degree of industry, that it is 
not without much hesitation and diffidence that I venture 
to put my opinion in opposition to his authority. 

T. A. Knight. 

Elton, 

May 4, 1807. 


XVIII. Note upon a fulminating Combination of Silver, of a 
tv kite Colour and a crystalline Appearance . By M. Des- 
costils 

There is sold at Paris, as an object of amusement, a de¬ 
tonating powder inclosed in slips of cards cut lengthways.' 
The powder is placed at one end of this carcase, and the 
other end is made smaller in order to be more easily distin¬ 
guished. If this last extremity is seized with one hand, and 
the other end is held over the flame of a candle, a detona¬ 
tion speedily takes place, with a sharp noise and a violet- 
coloured flame; the card is torn to pieces and scorched, and 
the part which the composition touched is covered with i 
slight metallic coating of a grayish white. 

Having been consulted upon the nature of this substance, 
which is sent ready prepared to Paris, I was convinced, after 

* From Annales d^Chimie, tom, teii, p. 199. 


various 










of a white Colour and a crystalline Appearance . 113 

various experiments, which it s needless to detail, that it is 
a combination of oxide of silver, ammonia, and a vegetable 
substance; a combination analogous, as we find, to that 
which constitutes the fulminating mercury of Mr. Howard. 

We mav obtain this combination, which I shall call dc- 

J, ' 

fonating silver , to distinguish it from the fulminating silver 
of M.Bcrthollet, by dissolving silver in pure nitric acid, and 
by pouring into the solution, while it is effecting, a sufficient 
quantity of rectified alcohol, or by pouring the alcohol into 
a nitric solution of silver, with a considerable excess of acid. 

In the first case we must slightly warm the nitric acid in 
which the silver has been put, until the solution begins to 
take place, i. e. until the first bubbles begin to be perceived. 
We must then remove it from the lire and immediately add 
a sufficiency of alcohol, so that no nitrous vapours may be 
liberated, "flic mixture of the two liquors takes place with 
a disengagement of heat; the effervescence immediately re- 
commences, without disengagement of nitrous gas ; it gra¬ 
dually increases, and there is liberated at the same time a 
strong smell of nitrous ether. The liquor soon becomes 
turbid, and wc see deposited a white crystalline and very 
dull powder, which must be separated, when it ceases to 
fall down, and washed several times with small quantities 
of water. 

When we employ the solution of silver ready made and 
strongly acid, we must heat it slightly and afterwards add 
the alcohol; the heat produced by the mixture, which gra¬ 
dually takes place, soon determines a considerable ebulli¬ 
tion, and the powder is suddenly deposited *, 

This powder has the following properties : 

It is white and crystalline; but this last appearance is va¬ 
riable with respect to the volume and the lustre of the cry¬ 
stals. 

It changes a little in the light. It inflames with a sharp 
detonation by heat, agitation, or long continued friction. 

* It is almost needless to observe, that the mixture of alcohol and warm 
nitric acid is subject to many accidents, and we n>ust consequently operate 
upon very small quantities. 

Yol. 29 . No. 114. Jfov. 180 7 . H 


Simple 


114 


On a fulminating Combination of Silver . 

Simple pressure, provided it be not very strong, produced 
no change. 

It detonates upon being struck by the electrical spark. 

It is slightly soluble in water. It has an extremely strong 
metallic taste. 

Concentrated sulphuric acid determines its inflammation, 
and the acid itself is driven to a great distance: dilute sul¬ 
phuric acid seems to decompose it slowly. 

Weak or concentrated muriatic acid decomposes it in¬ 
stantly, by forming muriate of silver. The quantity of mu¬ 
riate obtained indicates about 71 per cent, of metallic silver 
in the detonating silver- at first there is liberated a very 
decided smell of prussic acid, but I could not collect any 
sensible traces of it. 

The nitric acid decomposes it with the assistance of ebul¬ 
lition; and we obtain nothing but nitrate of silver, and ni¬ 
trate of ammonia, if it be Long enough continued. 

It is decomposed by means of sulphuretted hydrogen; the 
ammonia and the vegetable matter remain in the liquor. 

Caustic potash decomposes it; black oxide of silver is se¬ 
parated, and ammonia is disengaged. 

It is dissolved in ammonia; but by a slow evaporation it 
is separated from it with its proper colour and other proper¬ 
ties, and particularly that of detonating by means of heat, 
and not by simple contact. 

Finally, its property of most importance to consider, is 
the action it has upon the animal ceconomy. M. Pajot-la- 
Foret, who has made a great number of experiments upon 
this subject, is convinced that very small doses are sufficient 
to kill the strongest animals: when tried upon some cats, 
all of them expired in the most horrible convulsions. It is 
in short, without exception, one of the most violent poisons 
with which the metallic combinations present us. 



XIX. Ob 


[ 115 ] 


Xix. Observations and J\Teasuremcnts of the Planet Vesta. 
1'y John Jerome Schkoetek, F. R. S. Translated 
from the German *. 

At our very first observations with magnifying powers of 
150 and 300, applied to the excellent new 15-feet reflector, 
we found the planet Vesta without, any appearance of a disc, 
merely as a point like a fixed star, with an intense, radiating 
light, and exactly of the same appearance as that of anv 
fixed star of the sixth magnitude. In the same manner we 
both afterwards saw this planet several times with our naked 
eyes, when the sky was clear, and when it was surrounded 
by smaller invisible stars, which precluded all possibility of 
mistaking it for another. This proves how very like the in¬ 
tense light of this planet is to that of a fixed star. 

As the observations and measurements of Ceres, Pallas, 
and Juno, were made with the same eye-glasses, but with 
the 13-feet reflector, we soon after compared the planet 
Vesta with the same glasses of 136 and 288 times magnify¬ 
ing power in the 13-feet reflector. In both these telescopes 
its image was, without the least difference, that of a fixed 
star of the sixth magnitude, with an intense radial ino- light; 

w y 0 3 z 

so that this new planet may with the greatest propriety be 
called an asteroid. 

April 26 th in the evening, at nine o’clock, true time, I 
succeeded in effecting the measurement of Vesta, with the 
same power of 288, by means of the 13-feet reflector, with 
which that of Ceres, Pallas, and Juno, had been made 5 and 
when viewed by this reflector it also appeared exactly in the 
same manner. Of several illuminated discs, of 2*0 to 0*5 
decimal lines, which I had before made use of for measuring: 

O 

the satellites of Saturn and Jupiter, the smallest disc only qf 
0-5 lines could be used for this purpose; by it the rounded 
nucleus of the planet Vesta, when the disc was at the di¬ 
stance of 611*0 lines from the eye, appeared at most of the 
same size, and I must even estimate its diameter as one- 
sixth smaller. If, therefore, we attend not to the full mag- 


* From Transactions of the Royal Society ,-part ii. for 1807. 

II 2 nitude 


116 


Account of a new Eudiometer . 

nitude of the projection, but the estimation just mentioned, 
H follows, by calculation, that the apparent diameter of the 
planet Vesta is only 0*488 seconds, and consequently only 
half of what I have found to be the apparent diameter of the 
fourth satellite of Saturn. 

This extraordinary smallness, with such an intense, ra¬ 
diant, and unsteady light of a fixed star, is the more re¬ 
markable, as, according to the preliminary calculations of 
Dr. Gauss, there can be no doubt that this planet is found 
in the same region between Mars and Jupiter, in which 
Ceres, Pallas, and Juno, perform their revolutions round the 
sun ; that, in close union with them, it has the same cos¬ 
mological origin ; and that, as a planet of such smallness, 
and of so very intense light, it is comparatively near to the 
earth. This remarkable circumstance will no doubt be pro¬ 
ductive of important cosmological observations, as soon as 
the elements of the new planet have been sufficiently*deter¬ 
mined, and its distance from the earth ascertained by cal¬ 
culation, 

Lilienthal, 

May 12, 1307, 


XX. A new Eudiometer , accompanied :with Experiments 
elucidating its Application. By William Hasledine 
Pefys, Esq.* 

The important part which atmospheric air performs in 
maintaining the principle of life in animals, in combustion 
of every description, the acidification and oxidation of a 
great variety of substances, and in numerous other processes 
both of nature and art, gives a high degree of interest to 
every thing calculated to extend our knowledge of its na¬ 
ture and properties. 

The evidence furnished by modern chemistry of the ex¬ 
istence of many other aeriform substances increases this in¬ 
terest, especially when it is considered that, owing uAheir 
possessing some of the most obvious properties of atmo- 

* Frorti Transactions of the Royal Society, part ii. for 1807. 

spheric 






Account of cl new Eudiometer . 117 

Spheric air, as transparency, elasticity, and a power of great 
expansion on being exposed to an increase of temperature, 
they were, with very few exceptions, till lately, confounded 
either with common air, or not even suspected to exist. 

When to these considerations we add the facility with 
which some products, especially the gaseous, are evolved, in 
circumstances under which, in the present state of our know¬ 
ledge, we should hardly look for them; the power they pos- 
sess of decomposing each other, and by an interchange and 
new arrangement of principles, of producing compounds pos¬ 
sessing properties altogether different from those of the in¬ 
gredients supposed to be present; and the facilities which 
every new detection of unsuspected principles affords towards 
the discovery of others, and consequently the composition 
or analysis of bodies before held to be simple, it will not 
appear a matter of surprise that the subject of eudiometry 
should have obtained a considerable degree of attention from 
modern philosophers. 

This would be an improper place to enumerate all that 
has been done or proposed by different paen of eminence 
towards the production of something like a perfect system 
on this important subject; yet some allusion to their labours 
•appears to be indispensable, and will be the means of pre¬ 
venting some circumlocution in our further progress. 

Hales * appears to be the first who observed absorption to 
take place in common air, on mixing it with air obtained 
from a mixture of Walton pyrites and spirits of nitre; and 
that in this process from being clear they became 4f a reddish 
turbid fume.” 

Dr. Priestley, as he informs us in his (e Observations on 
different Kinds of Air f,” was much struck with this expe¬ 
riment, but never expected to have the satisfaction of seeing 
this remarkable appearance, supposing it to be peculiar to 
the Walton pyrites ; till encouraged by a suggestion of Mr. 
Cavendish, that probably the red appearance of the mixture 
depended upon the spirits of nitre only, he tried solutions 
©f the different metals in that acid, and, catching the air 

Statical Essays, vol. i. p. 224; vol. ii» p. 280. 

4- Phil. Trans, for 1772, p. 210. 

H 3 


which 


y** 


f 18 Account of a new Eudiometer . 

which was generated, obtained what he wished. To the 
air thus produced he gave the name of nitrous air, and* 
from its possessing the properties of absorbing that portion 
of atmospheric air which he calls dephlogisticated , first pro¬ 
posed its being used as a test for ascertaining the purity of 
air. His method of proceeding was ingenious and simple j 
known quantities of the air to be tried, and of nitrous gas, 
being mixed, were admitted, after the diminution of volume 
occasioned by their union, into a graduated tube, which he 
denominated a eudiometer. 

It was with the test of nitrous gas that Mr. Cavendish 5 * 
made his masterly analysis of the air at Kensington and 
London 3 and by many laborious processes and comparative 
trials, obtained results, the accuracy of which has been more 
distinctly perceived the more the science of chemistry has. 
advanced. 


The slow combustion of phosphorus, which unites with 
the oxygen to form an acid, and the decomposition of the 
fluid sulphufet of potash, are certain methods of separating 
combinations consisting of oxygen and azote3 but the de¬ 
composition is effected so slowly by the action of these sub¬ 
stances, that it became a desirable object to discover some 
means for accelerating the process. This was supposed to 
have been effected by Guyton, who proposed heating the 
sulphuret of potash ; in doing this, sulphurated hydrogen 
gas, however, is frequently evolved, which, mixing with 
the residual gas, increases its quantity, and renders the re¬ 
sult fallacious. 


The green sulphate of iron impregnated with nitrous gas, 

O 1 IO O y 

first discovered by Dr. Priestley, and recently used by Mr. 
Davy for eudiometrieal purposes, from its possessing the. 
property of absorbing oxygen gas from the atmosphere, is 
much to be preferred to the method with nitrous gas, as the 
green sulphate of iron does not combine with the other gases 
with which the nitrous gas is commonly found to be con- 
laminated, and more certain results are obtained. 

- Having had occasion to repeat many of the experiments- 


» 


* Phil. Trjyns. for 178'S. 


of 


Account of a new Eudiometer . 1!{J 

of others, and to make some new ones, l soon found what 
fevery one who lias been engaged on the same subject must 
have experienced—that an apparatus more commodious than 
has yet been proposed, and at the same time capable of giving 
correct results, with the greatest minuteness, was still a de¬ 
sideratum in eudiometry. To detail the various ideas that 
presented themselves on the subject, would be an unneces¬ 
sary encroachment on the time of this society; but as 1 at 
last succeeded in contriving an instrument possessing the 
above properties in a very eminent decree, ! flatter myself 
I shall not be thought intrusive m offering a description of it. 

This apparatus, (Plate IV.) which is of easy construction, 
and extremely portable, consists of a glass measure M, fig. 1, 
graduated into hundred parts; a small gum-elastic bottle, B, 
fig. 2, capable of Containing about twice the quantity of the 
measure, and furnished with a perforated glass stopper, S, 
which is well secured in the neck of it by means of waxed 
thread wound tight round it; and a glass tube, T, fig. 3, 
also graduated, but into tenths of the formed divisions, or 
into thousand parts of the measure. 

The glass stopper, made fast in the neck of the gum- 
elastie bottle; as above mentioned, has its exterior end ground 
with emery, exactly to fit the mouth of the measure ; to the 
lower end of the graduated tube T, is cemented a small steel 
cock, which is secured into the neck of a very small gum- 
clastic bottle by means of waxed thread, SB, fig. 4 : the 
other end of the tube is conical, so as to present a very small 
orifice. 

Besides this, the apparatus is furnished with a kind of 
moveable cistern C, in which the tube can be slid easily up 
and down, and yet in such a manner that the water or other 
liquid in the cistern may not pass. This is easily accom¬ 
plished by means of a cork fitted into its mouth with a per¬ 
foration through its axis to receive the tube. The cistern, 
when in use, is to be filled with water or mercury, as the 
experiment may require, and becomes a secondary cistern 
for the measure, as will be more clearly understood by the' 
following description of the method of performing experi¬ 
ments with this instrument. 

IJ 4 ' . Tbfi 


x 


120 


Account of a new Eudiometer . 

The measure is filled with the air or gas, over mercury* 
in the usual manner, and the elastic bottle is charged with 
the solution intended to be employed as the re-agent; the 
orifice of the stopper is then inserted into the mouth of the 
measure in the mercury, and pressed home to its place. 

The bottle and measure being thus united, are to be firmly 
held at the joint. Upon pressing the former, a portion of 
the fluid is injected into the latter, and the gas suffers a de¬ 
gree of compression, by which the action of the affinity be¬ 
tween it and the fluid is accelerated. On taking off the pres¬ 
sure, the bottle, by its elasticity, endeavours to obtain its 
original form, and receives back.the fluid. This process 
should be continued as long as any absorption is observed 
to take place. When absorption ceases, the bottle is to be 
separated from the measure under mercury* and the quick¬ 
silver which remains in the measure being; brought to the 
level of that in the cistern, the quantity of absorption is 
then to be determined, which is done as follows : 

Suppose atmospheric air has been the subject of the ex¬ 
periment, and consequently a large residuum left* first note 
the hundred parts, and then to obtain a knowledge of the 
fractional parts, remove the measure into the small cistern 
in which the graduated tube filled with mercury is placed : 
slide the tube above the surface of the fluid in the measure, 
and, opening the stop-cock, suffer the mercury to descend 
till it has drawn the fluid in the measure to a regular divi- 

k C 1 

sion * then stop the cock, and register the hundred parts on 
the measure, and the thousand parts on the graduated tube* 
the united quantities give the sum of the residual gas. Ob¬ 
serve well in registering the thousand parts, that the fluids 
are exactly on a level on the outside and inside of the mea¬ 
sure; this may be easily effected by pouring out a portion 
of the liquid of the small cistern, or adding thereto. 

If instead of atmospheric air, a gas is tried, which, so far 
as it is uncontaminated, can be nearly wholly absorbed by 
the re-agents employed, the process becomes exceedingly 
simple; for if the residuum is under a hundred part of the 
measure, it may be transferred completely into the graduated 
tube, and its quantity at once ascertained. 


The 


12t 


Account of a new Eudiometer . 

The stopper S would have injected the fluid with greater 
Velocity had it been straight; but it would not then have 
been so convenient in the analysis of compound gases, where 
both mercury and hot solutions are occasionally employed, 
as the mercury would have so compressed the fluid in the 
bottle, in introducing it under that metal, as to have thrown 
out a portion of its contents, and also have robbed the hot 
solutions of the temperature which was necessary for their 
perfect action. 

As to the size of the measure M, I have generally pre¬ 
ferred the cubic inch divided into hundred parts. This is 
easily effected by taking a stout glass tube about half an 
inch calibre, sealing one end, then weighing 3422 grains 
of mercury, equal to 232 grains of distilled water, at tem¬ 
perature 50° Fahrenheit. This is introduced into the tube; 
the extra length is cut off with a sharp-edged file, care being 
taken to leave a sufficient portion to grind the perforated 
stopper S into its mouth. 

The divisions are obtained bv a small measure, made from 
a glass tube sealed at the end, and cut off exactly to. the hun¬ 
dred parts of a cubic inch, equal to 34*2 grains of mercury, 
which being ground flat, is stopped by a piece of plate glass, 
and the divisions marked by the diamond upon the intro¬ 
duction of each hundred part of mercury into the mea¬ 
sure M. 

The tube T is divided into tenths of the measure M, or 
thousand parts of a cubic inch. This is done by measuring 
one hundred part of a cubic inch into the tube, and dividing 
it into ten parts, marking the divisions with fluoric acid or 
black enamel. 

To prove the accuracy of the instrument, I shall proceed 
t-o relate a few experiments made with it. 

The elastic bottle being filled with the solution of sulphate 
of iron impregnated with nitrous gas, and the measure with 
atmospheric air, they were united, and by gentle injection 
tVo'T were absorbed. 

If the experiment is made haslilv, the impregnated solu¬ 
tion loses-a portion of its nitrous gas, which must be again 
absorbed by a solution of green sulphate of iron. 


« 


For 


122 Account of a new Eudiometer. 

For ascertaining the purity of nitrous gas, the bottle may 
be charged with the solution of green sulphate or muriate of 
iron. 

For carbonic acid gas, with lime or barytic water. 

For oxygen gas, with the solution of green sulphate of 
iron impregnated with nitrous gas. 

For sulphurated hydrogen gas, a solution of nitrate of 
Silver was put in the elastic bottle, and sulphurated hvdro- 
gei] gas f into the graduated measure. Upon the first in¬ 
jection, the solution took a black flocculcnt appearance, 
and a considerable portion of the gas was absorbed. After 
repeating the process as before mentioned, the residuum waa 


1 0 0 0 


The instrument may be likewise generally applied to the 
analysis of mixed gases, 

1 have been able completely to separate the carbonic acid 
gas from the sulphurated hydrogen by a solution of the ni¬ 
trate of silver or of mercury, employed hot. The carbonic 
acid gas is expanded in this process, but on standing over 
mercury it returns to its original volume. The sulphurated 
hydrogen, in this instance, is taken up by the metallic ni¬ 
trate. It should be here observed that the acetite of lead 
must not be used, as the carbonic acid gas, even at a high- 
temperature, decomposes it, forming carbonate of lead. 

The propriety of using the solutions hot, will be seen,* 
when we recollect that the carbonic acid gas is soluble in' 
the water of solution at the common temperature of all these' 
compounds. 

Nitrous gas and carbonic acid gas may be separated by 
means of the hot solution of the green sulphate of iron. To 
effect this, heat a solution on a glass capsule, over a spirit 
lamp, until ebullition. Having filled the measure with the 
compound gas, charge the elastic bottle with the hot solu¬ 
tion, and unite them. The nitrous gas, in two or three in¬ 
jections, will be absorbed, changing the colour of the solu- 

* Obtained from oxymuriate of potash by heat. 

f Obtained from sulphuret of potash by diluted muriatic acid, and collected 
and preserved with the greatest care/ 


123 


Account of a new Eudiometer . 

lion, while the carbonic acid gas will be a little rarefied, but 
no absorption of it will take place. 

Previous to these experiments on the compound cases, I 
had tried several on the carbonic acid, sulphurated hydrogen, 
and nitrous gases in their unmixed states. 100 parts of pure 
alcoho at the common temperature will absorb 70 parts in 
volume of carbonic acid, and the same quantity of sulphu¬ 
rated hydrogen. Alcohol impregnated with the latter, pre¬ 
cipitates the solutions of the nitrates of lead, silver, and mer¬ 
cury, of a dark brown colour. Nitric acid of the specific 
gravity 1*4, and also of 1*25, absorbs carbonic acid gas, 
without any apparent change in the nitric acid. Sulphu¬ 
rated hydrogen gas is also absorbed by nitric acid, which 
occasions, a slight milky cloud or precipitate therein. 

The solutions of nitrates of barytes, strontian, and lime, 
absorb carbonic acid gas equal to half their volume, without 
any apparent alteration. 

Solutions of nitrates of barytes, strontian, and lime, also 
absorb sulphurated hydrogen gas, equal to six-tenths of their 
volume, with a slight change of colour; the solutions thus* 
impregnated precipitate solutions of nitrates of mercury and 
of silver, and acetite of lead of a dark brown colour, and 
would be useful as chemical re-agents. 

Carbonic acid gas, as I have before stated, decompose? 
solutions of the acetite of lead, hot or cold, forming a pre¬ 
cipitate of carbonate of lead. 

Carbonic acid gas is absorbed by the solution of the green 
sulphate of iron under the temperature of 100° Fahrenheit: 
but this is only the action of the water of solution. If the 
temperature he near boiling, or above 180° Fahrenheit, the 
solution increases the volume of the e;as without the.slightest 
absorption; after carbonic acid gas has. in this wav been 
treated with the hot solutions, it is still soluble in water at 
the common temperature, or in aqueous solutions of lime 
or alkali. 

Nitrous gas is absorbed by solution of sulpburet of pot¬ 
ash, with a separation or formation of sulphur. Upon in¬ 
jecting the solution the sides of the measure take a milky 

appearance. 


i 


5 24 


Account of a new Eudiometer » 

appearance, which oil the second injection is washed down 
insoluble in the liquor. About SO parts from 100 of gas 
are absorbed. 

Nitrous gas is also absorbed by nitrate of copper in solu¬ 
tion, without any peculiar alteration. 

In these experiments great care must be taken not to in¬ 
crease the temperature of the gas by the hand. To prevent 
this, I use a pair of small circular-mouthed forceps, lined 
with cloth, which firmly grasp the measure, fig. 5 ; and if 
the experiments should in any way be delayed, a corre¬ 
sponding manometer will always be sufficient to correct the 
error occasioned by change of atmospheric temperature and 
pressure. 

To ascertain the quantity of carbonic acid gas contained 
in oxygen gas (of a known purity) after combustion or de¬ 
composition of carbonaceous substances, lime water will be 
found sufficient. 

If it is required to know the purity of the oxygen gas after 
the carbonic acid gas has been absorbed, the best method 
and the least liable to error, is to withdraw the residual oxy¬ 
gen gas by means of the small graduated tube before de¬ 
scribed. 

•» , t 

To do this, remove the measure into the small cistern of 
mercury; press the quicksilver out of the small bottle by 
the fingers and thumb, and let the tube rise a sufficient 
height within the measure, that the bottle, extending itself, 
shall withdraw the whole of the gas from the measure, 
taking care that the cock be stopped as soon as it has com¬ 
pleted it, and also to prevent the solution from entering the 
tube. 

If the opening of the tube is small, it may then be drawn 
down ihto the mercury, without the possibility of any por¬ 
tion of the gas escaping, while the measure is dried or 
cleaned, or a fresh one filled with mercury supplied to re¬ 
ceive it. 

This way of transferring will he found verv advantageous, 
particularly in the separation of gases, liable to be absorbed 
under certain temperatures, and also where a new series of 

re-age-nts 


125 


Account of a new "Eudiometer . 

re-agents are to be employed, as from the depositions of 
former solutions on the glass measure a source of considera¬ 
ble error would arise. 

The residual oxygen gas being thus transferred into a clean 
dry measure, the processes before described for examining 
oxygen gas may be then used ; or the quantity of carbonic 
acid gas (tor examination) being found bv lime water, an¬ 
other measure of the gas may be tried, first with the oreen 
sulphate of iron impregnated with nitrous gas, and then with 
the green sulphate in solution only : these will take up both 
the carbonic acid gas and the oxygen gas, leaving only such 
residual gas as the oxygen might have originally contained. 

Transferring is not here necessary, as the two solutions 
,may be used one after the other, taking care to use the so¬ 
lution of green sulphate last. 

Where it is not requisite to transfer the gas into a dried 
or clean measure previous to the use of another solution, as 
in the instance I have just mentioned, a quantity of the first 
solution may be withdrawn, by simply filling the elastic 
bottle with mercury, then joining it to the measure, and by 
inclining the measure, the mercury by its gravity will dis¬ 
place the former solution. 

If at any time the gas should get drawn into the elastic- 
bottle, it may be very easily returned into the measure, by 
inclining sometimes the bottle, and sometimes the measure. 
The only error that could arise from this is, an increase of 
temperature in the gas, which may be rectified by plunging 
the whole apparatus into mercury or water of the standard 
temperature. 

The advantages of this construction of the eudiometer will 
be readily perceived by all those who are in the habit of 
making chemical experiments. The portion of gas to be 
examined is completely under command : it may be agitated 
without the least fear of the intrusion of any atmospheric 
air, and the process thereby very materially shortened. The 
gum-elastic is a substance so little acted upon by chemical 
agents, that a great variety may be employed; and, above 
all, we can very conveniently use hot solutions, winch will 


126 


On Public Libraries . 

be found an important auxiliary in the examination of some 
compound gases. 

Simple as this instrument may appear, it is calculated to 
extend our knowledge of the different kinds of air, by the 
precision and accuracy which it enables us to obtain, and 
which solely constitutes the value of every experiment. A 
degree of confidence is inspired from knowing that we can 
depend upon our results; and hence much valuable time, 
which would have been wasted in uncertain, if not useless, 
investigations, may be directly applied to the advancement 
of science. 


XXI. On Public Libraries . 

To Mr * Tilloch. 

a sin, 

As you have, in some former Magazines, paid an atten¬ 
tion to the establishment of public subscription libraries; 
that is, such libraries as are supported by the subscription 
of its members, the property whereof remains with them, 
in contradistinction to the common circulating libraries, I 
beg leave to forward you a small communication on that 
subject. I shall give you a plain relation of facts, which 
took place about four years ago, at North Shields, in the 
county of Northumberland, by which the laudable object in 
view was completely attained. And I shall subjoin a plan 
pursued by the members of the same library, by which they 
have now built a very excellent house, and are not only 
rent free, with most comfortable accommodations, but I 
believe their receipts, in part, pay also their worthy librarian. 
About the time mentioned above, three or four gentlemen 
living in North Shields, and who subscribed to an extensive 
library of that kind about seven miles off them, met, and 
were conversing about the expense of threepence per volume 
to them for carriage in addition to their annual subscription 
Qj[ 21 s. One of the gentlemen proposed to print off as many 
hand-bills as would circulate very freely through the town, 
recommending to the inhabitants the establishment of a 
public library, and at the same time proposing a meeting of 
3 " 'the 












On Public Libraries . 127 

ihe friends to such an institution, on the morning of a cer¬ 
tain day, at a very respectable inn, there to consult on the 
practicability of such a scheme. In a few minutes alter the 
time appointed for the meeting, the number became so great 
that they were obliged to adjourn to a larger room in another 
house. A library was carried unanimously, and a subscrip¬ 
tion from each member of a guinea per year was determined 
on. About forty or fifty gentlemen immediately subscribed 
their guineas in advance; a room was obtained; and “ The 
North Shields Subscription Library” established at once 04 
a permanent and respectable basis. 

The second part of the object I have in view in this com¬ 
munication is, to show how to accomplish such purposes at 
the cheapest rate, and at the same time to obtain pleasant 
and convenient accommodations : and this I shall do from 
the same respectable and active association. 

About twelve months ago they received notice to quit the 
rooms they occupied : upon this, the plan of a library being 
endeared to them, as they advanced in the experience of its 
benefits, the committee proposed' to purchase a piece of 
ground in a very advantageous situation in the high part of 
North Shields, and to build a house for their accommoda¬ 
tion ; and that a subscription p3per should be laid upon the 
table. The sum for the purchase and building was esti¬ 
mated at 800/., and the members at that period amounted 
to about 250; and the shares were not to be less than 5 /. 
No member could take more than one for the first four 
weeks; after that, if the list was not filled, as many mitrht 
be taken as the case allowed. Within six weeks 1200 /., or 
near that sum, was subscribed ! The ground was purchased. 
The house is now finished, consisting of three stories: the 
ground floor contains two spacious and elegant counting- 
houses, which are let for 40/. or 501. each, thus doing 
much more than paying the interest of the money; the se¬ 
cond story contains the library room (which would hold with 
ease 7000 or 8000 volumes) and a room for the committee : 
above those is the attic story, which they mean to turn into 
an observatory : the purchasing of a telescope, and other 
astronomical instruments, is already in contemplation : the 

whole 


128 


On Pullic Libraries. 

whole is to be finished by an elegant town clock, by which 
means this liberal institution will be in some degree assimilated 
to the immediate convenience of North Shields. To obtain 
this, the committee divided themselves into parties of two 
or three, and went round the town soliciting subscriptions 
from the inhabitants, whether members of that association 
or not. 

I had forgot, in its proper place, to observe, that the four 
gentlemen who first began this institution agreed, that if 
the distribution of the hand-bills had no permanent effect, 
the expense was to be divided amongst them, which they 
calculated at two or three shillings a-piece, or, in their 
words, 44 about the expense of half a bottle of wine —and 
what was that sacrifice for the probability of so respectable 
an advantage? If it did succeed, the expense was to be 
charged to the general funds. Thus, from the efforts of 
four gentlemen, at a very distant probability of the risk of 
two, three, or even four shillings each, has an establishment 
been formed, which is an ornament to the town of Shields : 
a lasting monument of the activity of these four friends of 
science : an institution from which peculiar benefits are 
already obtained by that town: a perpetual memorial of their 
alacrity in the cause of literature, and whose advantages must 
extend to generations yet unborn. The advantages obtained 
by the present inhabitants must be more rapidly enjoyed than 
in almost any other literary association; for, to their lasting 
honour, it must be observed, that from the beginning, ladies 
were admitted on equal terms, and with equal advantages as 
gentlemen ; and I believe, were the subscription list for the 
new building examined, it would be found that nearly half of 
the sum had been subscribed by the first. To crown the climax 
of advantages, the rents of the offices on the ground-floor, as 
I before observed, do much more than pay the interest of the 
money advanced, and thus the librarv-room, See. is rent 
free. Would not this consideration alone induce even the 
selfish man and the miser to countenance such plaus of im¬ 
mediate advantage ? 

, Pear sir, vours ever. 

John Clennell. 

P. S, 


^Newcastle upon Tvrq. 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M . D . ,2 29 

P. S. Should you think this worthy of insertion in vour 
excellent miscellany, and the subject require further dis¬ 
cussion, I shall be glad to meet the opinions of your cor¬ 
respondents. From the collision of sentiments it may hap¬ 
pen that ideas may be suggested, by which the smallest 
general subscription library may become interesting even to 
a subscriber to the largest. 


XXII. Memoirs of the late Erasmus Darwin, M. D . 

[Continuedfrom p. 48.] 

Wh have to behold Dr. Darwin, for the sake of domestic 
happiness, quitting his old established connections, and a 
circle of the most sincere and attached friends, to settle at 
Derby, where he could be only known by reputation. A mind 
less elevated than his might have trembled'at such a change, 
unless he had aspired to place his residence in London, 
where he was invited by several noble families, and which 
would have been a fit sphere for such extraordinary mental 
endowments. Confidence soon followed him at Derby ; 
and it is certain, wherever he had chosen to settle himself, 
there any opposition would have been vain, and his esta¬ 
blishment certain. His bride had a good jointure of her 
own ; and added to Dr. Darwin’s acquisitions in the prac¬ 
tice of physic, his fortune was princely, and men of the first 
talents were ever at his table: yet he never relaxed the 
least in his medical exertions, and a letter was whimsically 
once addressed “ To Doctor Darwin, on the road.” He 
had such powers of mind, that the carriage became his 
study, and his travelling companions were books for study j 
he also contrived a writing-desk in his chaise; and it is said 
that most part of his performances were composed when 
travelling. His medical work, which occupied his chief at¬ 
tention, and which he calls Zoonomia, or The Laws of Or¬ 
ganic Life, he laboured incessantly at for twenty years, and 
then, not as the poet recommends, 

.nonum prematur in annum— 

Hos. 

Vol. 2Q. No, 114. Nov. 1807 . I but 








130 Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 

but this Work was, after its full completion, kept by the 
author another twenty long years, “ that,” as the Doctor 
expresses himself in the preface, “ by frequent revision, it 
might be made more worthy the acceptance of the public.” 
Every year keeping on amending and altering something, he 
was at last persuaded by his friends, and the alluring offer of 
a thousand pounds from Johnson the bookseller, to present 
it in the year 1794 to the world. “If,” says the learned and 
ingenious author, “ I could expend another forty years in 
the practice of medicine, I make no doubt I could bring this 
work nearer perfection, and render it more worthy the atten¬ 
tion of philosophers .”—-Preface to volume ii. 

It will be found by attentipn to the subject, that medicine, 
as a science, is chiefly indebted to lotanical physicians. 
Only peruse, the labours prior to the exertions of botanical 
physicians, and the whole is a chaos ; and to such the world 
owes that clearness, order, and precision, which appear in 
many medical writings of the present day. 

“ The purport of the following pages,” says Dr. Darwin 
in his preface, “ is an endeavour to reduce the facts belongs 
ing to animal life into classes , orders , genera , and species ; 
and, by comparing them with each other, to unravel the the¬ 
ory of diseases. It happened, perhaps unfortunately for the 
inquirers into the knowledge of diseases, that other sciences 
had received improvement previous to their own ; w'hence, 
instead of comparing the properties belonging to animated 
nature with each other, they, idly ingenious, busied them¬ 
selves in attempting to explain the laws of life by those of 
mechanism and chemistry ; they considered the body as an 
hydraulic machine, and the fluids as passing through a series 
of chemical changes, forgetting that animation was its es¬ 
sential characteristic. 

.. “The great Creator of all things has infinitely diversified 
the works of his hands, but has at the same time stamped a 
certain similitude on the features of nature, that demon¬ 
strates to us, that the whole is one family of one Parent . On 
this similitude is founded all rational analogy ; which, so 
long as it is concerned in comparing the essential properties 
of bodies, leads us to many and important discoveries; but 

when 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin , M. D. 131 

when with licentious activity it links together objects, other¬ 
wise discordant, by some fanciful similitude, it may indeed 
collect ornaments for wit and poetry, but philosophy and 
truth recoil from its combinations. 

“ 1 he want of a theory, deduced from such strict analogy, 
to conduct the practice of medicine, is lamented by its pro¬ 
fessors ; for, as a great number of unconnected facts are dif¬ 
ficult to be acquired, aud to be reasoned from, the art of 
medicine is in many instances less efficacious under the di¬ 
rection of its wisest practitioners; and by that busy crowd, 
who either boldly wade in darkness, or are led into endless 
error by the glare of false theory, it is daily practised to the 
destruction of thousands ; add to this the unceasing injury 
which accrues to the public by the perpetual advertisements 
of pretended nostrums: the minds of the indolent be¬ 
come supersti tiously fearful of diseases which they do not 
lauour under, ai^d thus become the daily prey of some 
crafty empiric. 

“ A theory founded upon nature, that should bind together 
the scattered facts of medical knowledge, and converge into 
one point of view the laws of organic life, would thus on 
many accounts contribute to the interest of society. It 
would capacitate men of moderate abilities to practise the 
art of healing with real advantage to the public ; it would 
enable every one of literary acquirements to distinguish the 
genuine disciples of medicine from those of boastful ef¬ 
frontery, or of wily address ; and would teach mankind in 
some important situations the knowledge of themselves" 

I o estimate truly the great superiority of this work, it 
maY be necessary to say something of the several medical 
Nosologies that have been published. Linnaeus, who had 
established order in the three kingdoms of nature, at- 
tempted a Nosology, or distinction of diseases into classes 
orders, genera, and species. His plan is founded upon the 
same piuicipics introduced into botany, and bis arrangement 
is founded upon artificial distinctions. As no natural orders 
will, like Ariadne’s clue, lead the naturalist through the la¬ 
byrinth of nature, so diseases were by him classed accord¬ 
ing to symptoms, not the frequently obscure causes of them, 

* 2 The 


13*2 Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin , M. D, 

The illustrious Sauvage, the contemporary of Linna&us, 
both inventors of new systems* of botanical arrangement, 
carried the ideas of Linnaeus to a still higher degree of per¬ 
fection, and published in 1762 a very learned Nosology, 
where not only diseases are arranged into their respective' 
classes, orders, genera, and species, and accurately defined, 
but also the causes of each disease is attempted to be pointed 
out, with the method of cure. 

Various attempts were after that made to improve this 
important part of medical knowledge, and hence we possess 
the systems of Vogel, Sagar, Machnde, &c. and lastly the 
more finished labours of the celebrated Dr. Cullen, who for 
a great number of years, with great hor mr to himself, held 
the academic chair in the university of Edinburgh. In his 
t( Synopsis Nosologiae Methodicae, - ’ the learned professor 
has added to his work the republieation of the systems pre¬ 
ceding, of which he ^speaks rather in too contemptuous 
terms: “ Auctores hi aliquid laudis sine dubio merentur; 
quanquam enim eoriirn opera, rem ex toto confecisse mi¬ 
ni me videantur, nec multum utilitatis tyronibus inexpertis 
afferre queant ; in arte tamen versatis, et in dignoscendis 
mprbis aliquatenus exercitatis, nomiihil commodi exinde 
oriri ( possit.’ J 

He goes on to say, greatly complimenting Linnaeus, 
K Norunt eruditi, III. Linn^eum methodum plantarum per- 
fectiorem reddidisse, eo, quod botanices linguam, usurpatis 
ubique vocibus maxime ldoneis et defimtis, magis accuratam 
effecit ; nec quidem dubito quin delineatio morbi, ad instar 
delineationis plantae, a Linn^eo exhibitae, in Nosologia mul- 
tum profutura sit. In Nosologia auteni, ac m botamce, non 
aeque necessarium esse videtur; turn quod tam multae re¬ 
rum circumstantiae, in Nosologia, ac in Eotanice, notandae 
non veniunt; turn quod symptomatologia, in quibuscunque 
fere Pathologiae generalis systematibus exhibita, plurimum 
in hac re jam praestitit. Fatendum quidem, symptomato- 
logias vulgo proiatas, nec adeo plenas esse, nec adeo ex- 

* Linnaeus is the author of a System founded on the Sexes of Plants, and 
Sauvage contrived a Method of finding out Plants by their Leaves. 

8 actas,' 


133 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 

actas, ac optandum esset; et, si pleniores fierent, atque 
ubique voces magis idoneae et accurate definitae ustirpatae 
cssent, ad Nosologiam perficiendam certe plurimum conferre 
posset. In hujusmodi vero tenfamine cavendum est, ne 
distinctioncs nimium subtiles et dubiac adhibeantur, uti ab 
auctore Olservationum Clinic an nn . quae Warsaviae annis 
]J67 et 1 769 prodierant, factum fuisse opinor. Ipse qui- 
dem hujusmodi nihil tentavi, turn quod plus exegisset, quam 
per longtim tempos raihi suppetivil otii, turn quod mihi 
minus necessarium videtur, qui voces apud medicos usitatis- 
simas, et in sensu vulgo reccpto unique fere usurpandas 
cu rave rim. 

“ Quod ad denominationem morborum attinet, in Classi- 
um, Ordinum, et Generuro nominatione, eas, quantum potui, 
regulas observavi, quae in Linn^ei Criticis Botanicis , et in 
cjusdem Philosophia Botanica , ab illo auctore traduntur. 

f Ouando notiones novae sunt pyofierendae, ctiam nova 
nomina imponenda sunt, et ejusmodi aliquando, parcius 
licet, adhibuimus. Cum vero nomenclaturam medicam, 
diuturno usu confirmatam, sine gravi causa mutare non' 
liceat; ne factum esset ubique curavimus ; quod tamen Ill. 
Linn,eum saepe, nulla urgente necessitate, fecisse, et Vo-' 
gelium appellationibus novis, frivolis, ineptisque, Nosolo- 
giam deturpasse, observavimus.” 

Unfortunately for the perfectioning of this branch of sci¬ 
ence, Cullen was no botanist , and hence his definitions will 

not stand the test of careful examination. 

/ 

Not to take up too much of the valuable time of the phi¬ 
losophic reader, we shall only point out a few instances of 
such deficiency. Cullen defines Enteritis (Inflammation 
of the bowels) : 

“ Pyrexia lyphodcs; dolor abdominis pungens, tendens, 
circa umbilicum torquens 5 vomitus ; alvus pertinaciter ad - 
siricta of which he makes two species. 

66 Species sunt, 

“ 1. Enteritis (. phlegmonodaea ) dolore acuto, pyrexia 
vehementi, vomitu et alvo astricta . 

i( 2. Enteritis (ery thematic a) dolore et pyrexia leniori- 
sine vomitu , et cum diarrhoea 

I 3 


Now 


134 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 

Now the generic character should certainly run through 
all the species, and what should be the discriminating charac¬ 
ter is, by Cullen, here brought into the generic character. 

After this specimen, and never corrected, though hi§ 
Nosology went through five editions, the philosophic 
world may form a tolerable opinion of Dr. Cullen’s want of 
judgement, or rather knowledge, in this department of 
science. 

In his definition of Nephritis, he introduces “ testiculi 
ejusdem lateris retractio aut dolor;” which symptom, as 
only applicable to one sex, should not have come into the 
generic character, but only been made as a remark. 

In the class of fevers comes Odontalgj % (the tooth¬ 
ache,) defined as arising from a caries in the tooth, though 
he finishes his work by genus “ CLI. Caries, ossis exulce- 
ratio.” 

In his class Exanthemata, he thus badly defines Va¬ 
riola (small-pox) : 

“ Synocha contagiosa cum vomitu , et ex epigastrio pres - 
so, dolore, 

“ Tertio die incipit, et quinto finitur eruptio papularum 
phlegmonodearum, quae, spatio octo dierum , in suppuratio- 
nem, et in crustas demum abeunt, saepe cicatrices depres- 
sas, sive foveolas in cute, relinquentes. 

6C Species sunt, 

I. Variola ( discrete ) pustulis paucis, discretis, ciroum- 
scriptione circularibus, turgidis; febre, eruptione facta, pro- 
tinus cessante. 

ie IE Variola {confluens) pustulis numerosis, confluenti- 
bus, circumscriptione irregularibus, flaccidis, parum eleva- 
tis ; febre post eruptionem perstante.” 

“ Surely, as the infection,” to use the language of Dr. 
Darwin, “ from the distinct small-pox, produces also the 
confluent kind, and vice versa , it would seem more analogous 
to botanical arrangement, which Nosologists profess to imi¬ 
tate, to call the distinct and confluent small-pox, rather va¬ 
rieties than species.” 

He is still more defective in his definition of Varicella 
(chicken-pox): 

c( Synocha, 


155 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin , M. D. 

€S Synocha. Papulae post brevem febriculam erumpen- 
tes, in pustulas variblae similes , seel via: in suppurationem 
euntes ; post paucos dies in squamulas, nulla cicatrice 
relict a, desinentes.” 

As his definition of the small-pox is too precise*, so that 
of the chicken-pox is too vague ; and that the last never 
leaves an escar behind, is contradicted by daily experience. 

Amongst the order Exanthemata, which is thus defined, 

tc Morbi contagiosi, semel tantum in decursu vitae ali- 
quem afficientes ; cum febre incipientes; definito tempore 
apparent phlogoses, saepe plures, exiguae per cutem spar- 
sae,” appear Erysipelas and Urticaria. 

That these are not contagious is known to all; and to 
confirm it, Dr. Thornton suffered himself to be inoculated 
by Dr. Willan, from a subject who had the Erysipelas in 
tb ‘ highest degree, without any effect. 

Rather w'ith more propriety, Pestis (the Plague) is ar¬ 
ranged under this order, disjointed from Typhus Grayior, 
although it is supposed that persons are liable to the attack 
more than once in their life. 

Speaking of Aphtha (the thrush), Cullen, in a note, very 
properly says, “ An aphtha inter exanthemata recensenda 
sit, dubito.” 

In the class Neuroses, which is thus defined, 

“ Sensus et motus laesi, sine pyrexia idiopathica , et sine 
morlo localif 

Is the order Adynamiae, 

“ Motus involuntarii, sive vitales sive naturales, immi- 
nuti,” under which is classed Gen. XLV. Dyspepsia. 

And in the order of Spasmi (spasms), in the above class, 
appears Pertussis (the hooping-cough), disjointed from 
those other contagious disorders which only appear once 
in the course of life. 

Diarrhoea (a looseness) ip made to figure also among 
the spasms. 

Psora (the itch), and Fractura (a fracture of a bone), 
follow each other under the same class and order. 

Dr. Darwin very justly complains “ that Nosologists are 

* The seven, nine, and eleven day pock is in the mouth of every old woman. 

I 4 not 


136 Me?noirs of Eras?nus Darwin , M. IX 

not only defective in the distribution of their genera, but 
that in many genera the species have also no analogy to each 
ether, either in respect to their proximate cause, or to 
their proximate effect, though they may be somewhat simi¬ 
lar in less essential properties: thus the thin and saline dis¬ 
charge from the nostrils on going into the cold air of a 
frosty morning, which is owing to the deficient action of the 
absorbent vessels in the nostrils, is one species \ whereas 
the viscid mucus discharged from the secerning vessels of 
the same membrane, when inflamed , is another species of 
the same genus, viz. catarrhus, which bears no analogy in 
respect to the cause, or the mode of treatment.” 

Dr. Darwin wished his Nosology to point out at the 
same time the mode of treatment, a plan first happily 
suggested by jthe unfortunate Dr. Brown, which reflects 
on that illustrious genius the highest and eternal honour:—, 
Unfortunate , have 1 said ? Yes :—because his merits did not 
lead to respect and honour, but persecution : and his wife 
is now lodged in London, in a lane, in great distress . 
and Dr. Darwin, aware of this coincidence. Dr. Brown 
havingj'zr^ published*, was obliged to appeal to his friends, 
“ who,” he declares, “ saw his Zoonomia twenty years 
before it appeared in the world.” 

“The uses of the method here offered,” says Dr. Darwin, 
“to the public, of classing diseases according to their proximate 
causes, are, first, more distinctly to understand their nature 
by comparing their essential properties. Secondly, to fa¬ 
cilitate the knowledge of the methods of cure ; since, in 
natural classification of diseases, the species of each genus, 
and indeed the genera of each order, a few perhaps ex¬ 
cepted, require the same general medical treatment. And 
lastly, to discover the nature and the name of any disease 
previously unknown to the physician ; which I am per¬ 
suaded will be more readily and more certainly done by this 
natural system, than by the artificial classifications already 
published. 

* Dr. Darwin, speaking of Dr. Brown’s Elements of Physic, says « that it is, 
with a few exceptions, a work of great, genius .” . The wife and sons of Dr. 
Brown have met with a liberal benefactor in Dr. Thornton. 


“ The 


Memoirs of Erasrs.us Darwin , M. D. 137 

<( The common names of diseases are not well adapted to 
any kind of classification, and least of all to this from their 
proximate causes. Some of their names in common lan¬ 
guage are taken from the remote cause, as worms, stone of 
the bladder; others from the remote effect, as diarrhoea, 
salivation, hydrocephalus ; others from some accidental 
symptom of the disease, as tooth-ache, head-ache, heart¬ 
burn ; in which the pain is only a concomitant circum¬ 
stance of the excess or deficiency of fibrous actions, and 
not the cause of them. Others again are taken from the 
deformity occasioned in consequence of the unnatural 
fibrous motions, which constitute diseases, as tumours, 
eruptions, extenuations: all these therefore improperly 
give names to diseases ; and some difficulty is thus occa¬ 
sioned to the reader in endeavouring to discover to what 
class such disorders belong. 

“ Another difficulty attending the names of diseases is, 
that one name frequently includes more than one disease, 
either existing at the same time or in succession. 
Thus the pain of the bowels from worms is caused by the 
increased action of the membrane from the stimulus of 

those animals: but the convulsions which sometimes sue- 

■ » 

ceed these pains in children, are caused by the consequent 
volition, and belong to another class. 

“ To discover under what class any disease should be ar¬ 
ranged, we must first investigate the proximate cause : thus 
the pain of the tooth-ache is not the cause of any diseased 
motions, hut the effect ; the tooth-ache therefore does not 
belong to the class of Sensation. As the pain is caused by 
increased or decreased action of the membranes of the tooth, 
and these actions are owing to the increase or decrease of 
irritation, the disease is to be placed in the class of Irrita¬ 
tion. 

“ To discover the order, it must be inquired, whether the 
pain he owing to increased or defective motion of the 
pained membrane; which is known by the concomitant 
heat or coldness of the part. In tooth-ache without inflam¬ 
mation there is generally a coldness attends the cheek in its 
vicinity; as may be perceived by the hand of the patient 

himself, 


138 


Memoirs of Erasmtls Darwin , M. D, 

himself, compared with the opposite cheek. Hence odon¬ 
talgia is found to belong to the order of Decreased Irritation. 
The genus and species must be found by inspecting the 
synopsis of the second order of the class of Irritation. See 
Class I. 2. 4. 12. 

ec This may be further elucidated by considering the na¬ 
tural operation of parturition ; the pain is occasioned by the 
increased action or distention of the vessels of the uterus, 
in consequence of the stimulus of the foetus ; and is there¬ 
fore caused by increased irritation ; but the actions of the 
abdominal muscles in its exclusion are caused by the pain, 
ӣnd belong to the class of Increased Sensation. See Class 
II. 1. I. 12. Hence the difficulty of determining, under 
what class of diseases parturition should be arranged, con¬ 
sists in there being two kinds of diseased actions compre¬ 
hended under one word ; which have each their different 
proximate cause. 

6i In Sect. XXXIX. 8. 4., and in Class I I. 1. 1. 1., we 
have endeavoured to give names to four links of animal 
Causation, which conveniently apply to the classification of 
diseases: thus in common nictitation, or winking with the 
eyes without our attention to it, the increased irritation is 
the proximate cause ; the stimulus of the air on the dry 
cornea is the remote cause ; the closing of the eyelid is the 
proximate effect; and the diffusion of tears over the eye¬ 
ball is the remote effect. In some cases two more links of 
causation may be introduced ; one of them may be termed 
the pre-remote cause ; as the warmth or motion of the at¬ 
mosphere, which causes greater exhalation from the cornea. 
And the other the post-remote effect ; as the renewed 
pellucidity of the cornea; and thus six links of causation 
may be expressed in words. 

But if amid these remote links of animal causation any of 
the four powers or faculties of the sensorium be introduced, 
the reasoning is not just according to the method here pro¬ 
posed ; for these powers of the sensorium are always the 
proximate causes of the contractions of animal fibres ; and 
therefore in true language cannot be termed their remote 
causes. From this criterion it may always be determined, 

w he thei* 


139 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 

whether more diseases than one are comprehended under 
one name; a circumstance which has much impeded the 
investigation of the causes and cures of diseases. 

“Thus tiie term fever is generally given to a collection of 
morbid symptoms ; which are indeed so many distinct 
diseases, that sometimes appear together, aud sometimes 
separately : hence it has no determinate meaning, except it 
signifies simply a quick pulse, which continues for some 
hours; in which sense it is here used/’ 

Let us now criticise this new plan of arrangement. The 
first volume, I speak now of the quarto edition, (575 pages) 
js taken up in clearing the way fora perfect understanding of 
the second. It consists of forty sections: “ Section I. Of 
motion. II. Explanations and definitions. Ill. The mo¬ 
tions of the retina demonstrated by experiments. IV. Laws, 
of anpnal causation. V. Of the four faculties or motions 
of the sensorium. VI. Of the four classes of fibrous mo¬ 
tions. VII. Of irritative motions. VIII. Of sensitive 
motions. IX. Of voluntary motions. X. Of associate 
motions. XI. Additional observations on the sensorial 

i .1 

powers. XII. Of stimulus, sensorial exertion, and fibrous 
contraction. XIII. Of vegetable animation. XIV. Of the 
production of ideas. XV. Of the classes of ideas. 
XVI. Of instinct. XVII. The catenation of animal mo¬ 
tions. XVIII. Of sleep. XIX. Of reverie. XX. Of 
vertigo. XXI. Of drunkenness. XXII. Of propensity to 
motion. Repetition. Imitation. XXIII. Of the circulato¬ 
ry system. XXIV. Of the secretion of saliva, and of tears* 
and of the lacrymal sac. XXV. Of the stomach and in¬ 
testines. XXVI. Of the capillary glands, and of the mem¬ 
branes. XXVII. Of haemorrhages. XXVIII. The pa¬ 
ralysis of the lacteals. XXIX. The retrograde motions of 
the absorbent vessels. XXX. The paralysis of the liver. 
XXXI. Of temperaments. XXXII. Diseases of irritation. 
XXXIII. Diseases of sensation. XXXIV. Diseases of vo¬ 
lition. XXXV. Diseases of association. XXXVI. The 

I 

periods of diseases. XXXVII. Of di ge^tion, secretion, nu¬ 
trition. XXXV II I. Of the oxvgenation of the blood in the 

lungs 


140 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 

lungs and placenta. XXXIX. Of generation. XL. Of 
ocular spectra.” 

The second is called Part IT., u containing a Catalogue of 
Diseases distributed into natural classes, according to their 
proximate causes, with their subsequent orders, genera, and 
species, and with their methods of cure.” 

His motto is extremely modest : 


“ Hxc, tit potero, explicabo; nec tamen, quasi Pythias Apollo, certa ut 
amt et flxa, quae dixero ; sed ut Homunculus unus e multis probabiliora con- 
jectura sequens. Cic. Tusc. Disp. I. 1. 9,” 

But having finished his work, he devotes an entire page to 
exultation, which he makes thus : 


ec Lines, to he placed at the end of Zoonomia. By a Friend . 

Ci JAMQUE OPUS EX EOI. Hoy. 

u The work is done !—Nor Folly’s active rage, 

Nor Envy’s self, shall blot the golden page ; 

Time shall admire, his mellowing touch employ, 

And mend the immortal tablet, not destroy.” 

Taking the word Disease in the usual acceptation of the 
word, nothing can astonish so much as our finding a mono- the 
catalogue of Diseases, iC Class L Genus 3, Species 13, Cica¬ 
trix VULNERUM,—Healing of wounds. Class I. Order 3, Ge¬ 
nus 1, Species 1, Ruminatio, —Chewing the chud. Class II. 
Genus 7, Species 7, Rubor a calore,— -Blush from heat. 
Same class, order, and genus, species 10, Distentio mamu- 
barum,— -Distention of the nipples. Class Ilf. Genus 2, 
Species 7, Ira,— Anger. Species 24, Svmpathta, —Pity., 
Class III. Order 2, Genus 1, Species 12, Somnijs,— Sleep. 
Class IV. Genus 4, Vita ovi, —Life of an egg.” 

However these may excite a smile, this is more owing to 
deficiency of language, and a want of acquaintance with the 
sublime notions of the author, than arising; from the things 
themselves : for the ingenious fabricator of this new system 
of Nosology has before acquainted the reader that his work 
treats of “ motion ; for that the whole of nature is composed 
of two parts, one of which might be termed spirit, and the 
other matter. These motions have formed the objects of 
natural philosophy and chemistry ; and the motions depen¬ 
dent „upon life, medicine.” 

Had 


Journey to the Frozen Sea, &tc. 141 

Had Dr. Darwin used the word action instead of diseases, 
he would not have so greatly surprised the world by his 
wonderful catalogue, as he terms his diseases ; nor would the 
splitting all the symptoms, and constituting out of these so 
many diseases, now appearing all novelties, have so greatly 
offended at the onset, the medical reader brought up in the 
old school. Brown, Darwin, and Thornton, have 
each formed a new system of nosology. Upon the whole, 
we cannot approve of the old plan, of artificial arrangement, 
not quite that invented by Linnaeus, Vogel, Sauvage, Cullen, 
See., nor even that of Dr. Brown, who divides his diseases 
into Sthenic and Asthenic, for the facility of comprehension 
and cure, nor even that of Dr. Darwin, but that invented 
by Dr. Thornton % who begins with diseases of the head, 
and so descends to other parts, dividing these into sthenic 
and "sthenic, and reserving a separate class for contagious 
diseases, and fevers, or general affections. 

[To be continued.] 


XXIII. Some Account of a Journey to the Frozen Sea, and 
of the Discovery of the Remains of a Mammoth . By 
M. Michael Adams, of St, Peierslurgh. Translated 
from the French f. 

J should have reason to reproach myself were T to delay any 
longer the publication of a discovery in Zoology, which is 
so much the more interesting to be detailed, as it once more 
presents to our view a species of animal, the existence of 
which has been a subject of dispute among the most cele¬ 
brated naturalists. 

I w as informed at Jakoutsk by M. Popoff, who is at the 
head of the company of merchants of that town, that they 
had discovered upon the shores of the Frozen Sea, near the 
mouth of the river Lena, an animal of an extraordinary size: 
the flesh, skin and hair were in good preservation, and it was 

* This 8;~$C m may be seen in his “ Philosophy of Medicine,” fourth edi¬ 
tion, live volumes, a work which deserves a place in every library. 

f For this communication vve are indebted to the Rivht Hon. Sir Joseph 
Banks, Bart. P. R. S. &c. &c. 

supposed 


t 










14f Journey to the Frozen Sea , and 

supposed that the fossile production, known by the name 
of mammoth horns, must have belonged to some animal 
of this kind. 

Mr. Popoff had, at the same time, the goodness to com¬ 
municate the drawing and description of this animal ; I 
thought proper to send both to the President of the Peters- 
burgh Academy. The intelligence of this interesting disco¬ 
very determined me to hasten my intended journey to the 
banks of the Lena as far as the Frozen Sea, and I was anxious 
to save these precious remains, which might perhaps other¬ 
wise be lost. My stay at Jakoutsk, therefore, only lasted a 
few days. 1 set out on the 7th of June 1806, provided with 
some indispensable letters of recommendation, some of 
which were addressed to the servants of the government, 
and others to merchants, from whom I hoped to derive 
some advantages. On the 16th of June I arrived in the 
small town of Schigarsk, and towards the end of the same 
month I reached Kumak-Surka: from this place I made an 
excursion, the express object of which was to discover the 
mammoth. And i shall now give a sketch of my journey. 

The contrary winds, which lasted during the whole sum¬ 
mer, retarded my departure from Kumak-Surka; this place 
was then inhabited by 40 or 50 Toungouse families of the 
Batouline race. Fishing was their ordinary occupation, and 
the extreme activity of these people filled me with admira¬ 
tion: the women, old men, and even children, laboured 
with indefatigable assiduity in laying up provisions for win¬ 
ter. The strongest went a-fishing, the less robust were oc¬ 
cupied in cleaning and drying the fish. The whole shores 
were covered with scaffolding, and the cabins so filled with 
fish that we could scarcely enter them. An innocent gaiety 
reigned in every countenance, and ail exhibited the utmost 
activity. The fishermen sang while casting their nets, and 
others were dancing the Charya, which is a dance peculiar 
to the country. I cannot sufficiently express the emotions 
of joy which I felt at the sight of these pleasing scenes. 

I was convinced, while upon the spot, that the inhabitants 
of the North enjoy happiness even in the midst of the 
frozen regions, 

Bui 


143 


Discovery of the Remains of a Mammoth . 

But what astonished me still more, was the picturesque 
view of the opposite side of the Lena. This river, which is 
one of the largest in Siberia, majestically rolls its waters 
through the mountainous chain of Verschejansk : it is here, 
near its mouth, entirely devoid of islands, and much nar¬ 
rower, deeper and more rapid than in any place of its course. 
The mountains here appear in a great variety of forms ; they 
are of a brilliant whiteness, and of a savage and horrid 
aspect; sometimes they represent immense columns which 
rise into the clouds, sometimes they resemble the ruins of 
antient forts, and as if they were parts detached from the 
mutilated remains of grotesque and gigantic figures. 

Further off the horizon is terminated by a chain of high 
mountains, where eternal snow and ice dart back the rays of 
the sun. 

These landscapes are of exquisite beauty; an expert 
draughtsman would look in vain for similar views in any 
other place of Siberia ; and I am not astonished that the 
picturesque situation of Kumak-Surka should become the ob¬ 
ject of a national song, known solely on the shores of the 
Frozen Sea. I reserve the communication of this curious 
article until I publish the detailed account of my journey. 

The course of the winds having at last changed, I thought 
of pursuing my route, and I had my rein-deer brought 
across the river. Next day at day-break, I set out accom¬ 
panied by a Toungouse chief, Ossip Shoumaehoff, and by 
Bellkoff, a merchant of Schigansk, and attended by mv 
huntsman, three Cossacs, and ten Toungouses. 

. The Toungouse chief was the first person who discovered 
the mammoth, and he was proprietor of the territory 
through which our route lay. Bellkoff the merchant had 
spent nearly his whole life on the shores of the Frozen Sea. 
His zeal, and the details he procured me, have the strongest 
claims to my gratitude : I am even indebted to him for the 
preservation of my life at a moment of imminent danger. 

At first I found great difficulty in sitting upon a rein¬ 
deer; for, the saddle being attached, by a girth of leather only, 
it was very insecure, and often occasioned me very disagree¬ 
able falls. Besides, my position was very inconvenient for 

want 


i 


144 Journey lo lhe Frozen Sea , and 

want of stirrups., which are never used among the Toun- 
gouses. 

On our route we traversed high and rugged mountains, 
valleys which followed the course of small rivulets, and 
parched and savage plains, where not a shrub was to be 
seen. After two days travelling, we at last approached the 
shores of the Frozen Sea* This place is called by the Toun- 
gouses Angardam, or terra firrna. In order to attain the 
mammoth, it was necessary to traverse another isthmus, 
called Bykoffskoy-Mys or Tutnut. This isthmus, winch 
projects into a spacious gulf, is to the right of the mouth of 
the Lena, and extends, as I was informed, from South-east 
to North-east for about 30 or 35 wersts*. Us name is pro¬ 
bably derived from two points in the form of horns, which 
are at the North extremity of this promontory. The point 
upon the left hand, which the Russians call by way of emi¬ 
nence Bykoffskoy-Mys, on account of its greater extent, 
forms three vast gulfs, where we find some settlements of 
Jakouts: the opposite point, called Maustach on account of 
the great quantitv of floating wood found upon its shores, is 
one half smaller; its shore is lower, and this district is com¬ 
pletely inhabited. The distance from the one point to the 
other is estimated at four leagues and a half, or 45 wersts* 
Small hills form the higher part of the peninsula of Tumut; 
the remainder is occupied by lakes, and all the low grounds 
are marshy. 

The principal lakes are: 1st, Chastirkool, which means 
the lake of geese; 2d, Kourilakool; 3d, Beulgeuniachtach- 
kool, the lake of hillocks; 4th, Omoulachkool; 5th, Mou- 
gourdachkool, where a particular kind of salmon is found, 
called tchir; and 6th, Bachofkool. The lake No. 4 is the 
largest, and No. 5 is the deepest of all. The lake No. 6 
derives its name from two famous adventurers, Bachoff and 
Sehalauroun, who spent a whole winter on its banks. We 
still see the ruins of a cabin in which they resided. The 
history of their unfortunate end is told by M. Sauer in his 
Journal of Billings’s expedition. 

* 10 wersts are equal to 6' English geographical miles. • 

The 


Description of the Remains of a Mammoth . 145 

The isthmus we have mentioned is so narrow at some 
places that the sea may he seen on both sides. The rein¬ 
deer perform a periodical transmigration every year, during 
which they abandon these places, in order to proceed by the 
Frozen Sea towards Borschaya and Uitjansk, and for this 
purpose they collect in large troops about autumn. In order 
to hunt these animals with greater prospect of success, the 
Toungouses have divided the peninsula into cantons, sepa¬ 
rated by palings. They - frighten the deer by loud cries,, 
which they utter all at once, by letting dogs loose at them, 
and bv fans which they attach to the palings, and which are 
agitated by the wind. The terrified rein-deer throw them¬ 
selves into the water in order to reach some neighbouring 
island, where they are pursued and killed by the hunters. 

On the third day of our journey we pitched our tents a 
few hundred paces from the mammoth, upon a hillock called 
Kembisagashaeta, which signifies the stone with the broad 
side. 

Schoumachcff related to me the history of the discovery 
of the mammoth in nearly the following terms :— 

“ The Toungouses, who are a wandering people, seldom 
remain long in one place. Those who live in the forests 
often spend ten years and more in traversing the vast regions 
among the mountains : during this period they never visit 
their homes. Each family lives in an isolated state from 
the rest; the chief takes care of them, and knows no other 
society. If, after several years absence, two friends meet by 
chance, they then mutually communicate their adventures, 
the various success of their hunting, and the quantity of 
peltry they have acquired. After having spent some days 
together, and consumed the little provisions they have, they 
separate cheerfully, charge each other with compliments for 
their respective friends, and leave it to chance to bring 
them together again. Such is the way of life of these 
innocent children of Nature. The Toungouses who in¬ 
habit the coast differ from the rest, in having more regu¬ 
larly built houses, and in assembling at certain seasons for 
fishing and hunting. In winte they inhabit cabins, built 
close to each other, so as to from small villages. 

Vol. 29. No. 114. Nov. 1807. K “It 


UG 


journey to the Frozen Sea, and 

s * It is to one of these annual excursions of the Toungouses 
that we are indebted for the discovery of the mammoth. 
Towards the end of August, when the fishing in the Lena 
is over, Schoumachoff is in the habit of going along with 
his brothers to the peninsula of Tumut, where they employ 
themselves in hunting, and where the fresh fish of the sea 
furnish them with wholesome and agreeable nourishment. 

“ In 1 799, he had caused to be built for his women, some 
cabins upon the shores of the lake Onroul; and he himself 
coasted along the sea shore for the purpose of searching for 
some mammoth horns. One day he perceived in the midst 
of a rock of ice an unformed block, which did not at all 
resemble the floating pieces of wood usually found there. 
Tn order to examine it more closely, he clambered up the 
rock and examined this new object all around ; but he could 
not ascertain what it was. The year following he discovered 
in the same spot, the carcase of a sea-cow (Trichecus Ros - 
mams). He perceived at the same time that the mass he 
had formerly seen was freer from the ice, and by the side of 
it he remarked two similar pieces, which he afterwards found 
were the feet of the mammoth. About the close of the next 
summer, the entire flank of the animal and one of the tusks 
had distinctly come out from under the ice. Upon his re¬ 
turn to the shores of the lake Onroul, he communicated this 
extraordinary discovery to his wife and some of his friends ; 
but their manner of regarding the subject overwhelmed him 
with grief. The old men related on this occasion, that they 
had heard their forefathers,say that a similar monster had 
formerly shown itself in the same peninsula, and that the 
whole family of the person who discovered it had become 
extinct in a very short time. The mammoth, in conse¬ 
quence of this, was unanimously regarded as auguring a fu¬ 
ture calamity, and the Toungouse chief felt so much inquie¬ 
tude from it, that he fell dangerouly ill; but becoming well 
again, bis first ideas suggested to him the profit he might 
gain by selling the tusks of this animal, which were of an 
extraordinary size and beauty. He therefore gave orders to 
conceal carefully the place where the mammoth was, and to 
remove all strangers from it under various pretexts, charging 

at 


Description cf the Remains of a Mammoth, 147 

at the same time some trusty dependents not to suffer any 
part of this treasure to be carried away. 

44 But the summer being colder and more windy than usual, 
kept the mammoth sunk in the ice, which scarcely melted 
at all that season. At last, about the end of the fifth year 
afterwards, the ardent desires of SchoumachofF were happily 
accomplished : the ice which inclosed the mammoth having 
partly melted, the level became sloped, and this enormous 
mass, pushed forward bv its own weight, fell over upon its 
side on a sand-bark. Of this two Toungouses were wit¬ 
nesses who accompanied me in my journey. In the month 
of March 1804 , SchoumachofF came to his mammoth, and 
ha- •dng got his horns cut off', he changed them with Baltou- 
nofF the merchant for merchandise of the value of 50 rou- 
blca. On this occasion a drawing of the animal was made, 
but it was very incorrect ; they described it with pointed 
ears, very small eyes, horses’ hoofs, and a bristly mane 
along the whole of his back ; so that the drawing repre¬ 
sented something between a pig and an elephant/” 

Tuo years afterwards, being the seventh from the disco*- 
very of the mammoth, a fortunate circumstance occasioned 
my visit to these distant and desert regions, and I congra¬ 
tulate myself upon having it in my power to ascertain and 
verify a fact, which would otherwise be thought so im¬ 
probable. 

I found the mammoth still upon the same spot, but com¬ 
pletely mutilated. The prejudices against it having been 
dissipated, because the Touno-ouse chief had recovered his 
health, the carcase of the mammoth might be approached 
without any obstacle: the proprietor was content with the 
profit he had already derived from it, and the Jakouts of'the 
neighbourhood tore off' the flesh, with which they fed their 
dogs. Ferocious animals —white bears of the north pole, 
gluttons, wolves, and foxes —preyed upon it also, and their 
burrows were seen in the neighbourhood. The skeleton, 
almost completely unfleshed, was entire, with the exception 
ot one of the fore feet. The spo.ndyle, from the head to the 
os coccygis, a shoulder-blade, the pelvis, and the remains 
of the three extremities, were still tightly attached by the 

K 2 nerves 


148 


Journey to the Frozen Sea , and 

nerves of the joints, and by strips of skin on the exterior 
side of the carcase. The head was covered with a dry skin ; 
one of the ears, well preserved, was furnished with a tuft of 
bristles. Ail these parts must necessarily have suffered by a 
carriage of 1 1,000 wersts. The eyes, however, are preserved, 
and we can still distinguish the ball of the left eye. The tip 
of the under lip has been eaten away, and the upper part, 
being destroyed, exhibited the teeth. The brain was still 
within the cranium, but it appeared dry. 

The parts least damaged are a fore foot and a hind one ; 
they are covered with skin, and have still the sole attached. 
According to the assertion of the Toungouse chief, the 
animal had been so large and well fed, that its belly hung 
down below the knee joints. This mammoth is a male, 
with a long mane at his neck, but. it has no tail and no trunk. 
The skin, three-fourths of which are in my possession, is of 
a deep gray, and covered with a reddish hair and black bristles. 
The humidity of the soil where the animal has lain so long, 
has made the bristles lose some part of their elasticity. The 
entire carcase, the bones of which I collected upon the spot, 
is 4 archines and a half high by 7 long, from the tip of the 
nose to the coccyx* ; without however comprehending the 
two horns, each of which is a toise and a half long, and 
both together weigh 10 poudsf. The head alone weighs 
eleven pouds and a half. 

The principal object of my care was to separate the bones, 
to arrange them and place them in safety: this was done with 
the most scrupulous nicety, and I had the satisfaction of 
finding the other shoulder-blade, which lay in a hole. I 
afterwards caused the skin to be stripped from the side upon 
which the animal had lain ; it was very well preserved. This 
skin was of such an extraordinary weight, that ten persons 
who were employed to carry it to the sea side, in order to 
stretch it on floating wood, moved it with great difficulty. 
After this operation I caused the ground to be dug in various 
places in order to see if there were any bones around, bat 

* An archine is a little more than two feet English measure, 
f A poud is 40 pounds. 

chiefly 


'Description of the Remains of it Mammoth. 149 

chiefly for the purpose of collecting all the bristles which 
the white bears might have trodden into the wet ground on 
devouring the flesh. This operation was attended with diffi¬ 
culty, as we wanted the necessary instruments for digging the 
ground : 1 succeeded however in procuring in this manner 
more than one poud weight of bristles. In a few days 
our labour was ended, and I found myself in possession of 
a treasure, which amply recompensed me for the fatigues 
and dangers of the journey, and even for the expenses I had 
incurred. 

The place where I found the mammoth is about 60 paces 
distant from the shore ; and from the fracture of the ice 
from which it slid it is about 100 paces distant. This frac¬ 
ture occupies the middle precisely between the two points of 
the isthmus, and is three worsts long, and even in the place 
where the mammoth was, this rock has a perpendicular ele¬ 
vation of 30 or 40 toises. Its substance is a clear ice, but 
of a nauseous taste; it inclines towards the sea; its summit 
is covered with a bed of moss and friable earth half an ar- 
chine in thickness. During the heat of the month of July 
a part of this crust melts, but the other remains frozen. 

Curiosity prompted me to ascend two other hillocks 
equally distant from the sea; they were of the same compo¬ 
sition, and also a little covered with moss. At intervals I 
saw pieces of wood of an enormous size, and of all the spe¬ 
cies produced in Siberia; and also mammoth horns in great 
quantities frozen between the fissures of the rocks. They 
appeared to be of an astonishing freshness. 

It is as curious as it is difficult to explain how all these things 
are to be found collected here. The inhabitants of the coast 
call this kind of wood Adamsohina, and distinguish it from 
the floating wood, which descending the great rivers of Si¬ 
beria falls into the ocean, and is afterwards heaped upon the 
shores of the Frozen Sea. This last kind they call Noahso- 
hina. I have seen in great thaws, large pieces of earth de¬ 
tach themselves from the hillocks, mix with the water, and 
form thick and muddy torrents which rdll slowly towards 
the sea. This earth forms in different places lumps, which 
sink in among the ice. The block of ice where the mam- 

K 3 moth 


150 


Journey to the Frozen Sea.j and 

moth was found, was from 3 5 to 40 toises high; and, accord¬ 
ing to the account of the Toungouses, the animal when 
first discovered was seven toises from the surface of the 
ice. 

The whole shore was as it were covered with the most 
variegated and beautiful plants produced on the shores of the 
Frozen Sea; but they were only two inches high. Around 
the carcase we saw a multitude of other plants, such as the 
Cineraria aquatica and some species of Pedicularis , not yet 
kn own in natural history. 

While waiting for the boats from Terra Firma, for w'hich 
I had sent some Cossacs, we exerted all our endeavours to 
erect a monument to perpetuate the memory of this disco¬ 
very and of my visit. We raised, according to the cus¬ 
tom of these countries, two crosses with analogous inscrip¬ 
tions. The one was upon the rock of ice, 40 paces from the 
shelf from which this mammoth had slid, and the other w ? as 
upon the very spot where we found it. Each of these crosses 
is 6 French toises high, and constructed in a manner solid 
enough to brave the severity of many ages. The Toungouses 
have given to the one the name of the cross of the Am¬ 
bassador, and to the other that of the cross of the Mammoth. 
The eminence itself received the name of Selichaeta or 
Mammoth mountain. This last will perhaps some day or 
other afford some traveller the means of calculating with 
sufficient precision how much the mountains of ice lose 
annually of their primitive height. 

I made two additional excursions for the purpose of 
acquiring some more precise notions upon the nature of this 
peninsula, and my discoveries in zoology and botany per¬ 
fectly answered my expectations. I found a great quantity 
of amber upon the shores ; but in no piece whatever could 
7 discover the least trace of any marine production. I 
should, perhaps, attribute this to the proximity of the river, 
and perhaps also to the depth of the sea, or abruptness of the 
shore. I had occasion to examine more closely the effects of 
the flux and reflux : this has escaped M. Sauer, who saw' no¬ 
thing of it at the mouth of the Colima. 

O * 

Our Cossacs not having arrived in time with the boat, I 

V - i *** • * 7 


151 


Description of the 'Remains of a Mammoth. 

was obliged to return to the continent with my rein-deer, 
without waiting for them. The vessel, in the mean time, 
had cast anchor in the bay of Borchaya, three hundred 
wersts from the isthmus where 1 was. We arrived without 
any accident, after a journey of eight days. A week after¬ 
wards I had the satisfaction to see the mammoth arrive. Our 
first care was to separate, by boiling, the nerves and flesh 
from the bones; the skeleton was then packed, and placed 
at the bottom of the hold. When we arrived at Jakoutsk, 

I had the good fortune to purchase the tusks of the mam¬ 
moth ; and thence I dispatched the whole for St. Peters- 
burgh. 

A question of some magnitude remains to be resolved :— 
Are the mammoth and elephant animals of the same 
species, as asserted by Buflon, Pallas, Isbrand Ides, 
Gmelin, and, above all, Daubenton ? or should we, in 
preference, rely upon the opinion of M. Cuvier, who asserts 
that the mammoth occupies the second place among the 
extinct species of animals ? As I do not intend, in this 
place, to make an exact comparison of the skeletons of a 
mammoth and an elephant, I shall content myself with 
relating here some characteristic marks which distinguish 
the two species : I reserve for a particular memoir some 
more detailed observations upon this subject. I shall here 
recapitulate the motives which induced me to adopt the 
opinion of M. Cuvier. 

1. If the writers whom I have mentioned have actually 
made, as I suppose, zootomical comparisons, they have 
been able to do so very incompletely, and upon detached 
pieces ; for neither the head, nor the whole vertebras, nor 
the feet of the mammoth covered with flesh and hair, and 
furnished with the sole, have ever yet been examined, when 
collected together, by any writer. 

The presence of the coccyx, which finishes the vertebral 
column, convinces me that the animal has had a very short 
and thick tail, like its feet: besides, its being every where co¬ 
vered with bristles induces me to think that they cannot be 

* 

those of an ordinary elephant. 

2. The teeth of the mammoth are harder, heavier, and 

K 4 more 


152 Journey to the Frozen Sea * and 

more twisted in a different direction than the teeth of an 
elephant. Ivory-turners* who have wrought upon these two 
substances* say that the mammoth's horn* by its colour and 
inferior density* differs considerably from ivory. I have 
seen some of them which formed in their curvature three 
fourths of a circle*, and at Jakoutsk* another of the length 
of two toises and a half, and which were an airchine thick 
near the root* and weighed seven pouds. It is to be re¬ 
marked* that the point of the tusks on the exterior side 
is always more or less worn down : this enables the inhabi¬ 
tants of the Frozen Sea to distinguish the right from the left 
tusk. 

The mammoth is covered with a very thick hair through 
the whole body* and has a long mane upon its neck. Even 
admitting that I doubted the stories of my travel lino* com- 
panions* it is nevertheless evident that the bristles of the 
length of an archine* which were also found upon the head* 
the ears* and the neck of the animal, must necessarily have 
belonged either Jto the mane or to the tail. Schoumachoff 
maintains that he never saw any trunk belonging to the ani- 
mal* but it is probable that it was carried off by*wild 
beasts; for it would be inconceivable that the mammoth 
could eat with so small a snout* and with such enormous 
tusks* if we do not allow it to have had a trunk. The 
mammoth* according to these indications* would conse¬ 
quently belong to the elephant species* and M. Blumenbach* 
in his system* actually calls it Elephas primeevus. 

To conclude :—The mammoth in my possession is quite 
different from that found near New York, which, from the 
description given in the Journal called the Museum des 
Wundervollen * had carnivorous teeth*. M. Cuvier has 
proved in a most satisfactory manner, that the mammoth is 
a particular species of antediluvian animals. 

Another question-still remains to be decided. Has the 
mammoth originally inhabited the countries of the pole* or 
those of the tropics ? The thick hair with which this ani¬ 
mal is covered seems to indicate, that it belonged to the 

* See Philosophical Magazine, vol. x\w p. 162. 228. 332. 


northern 


153 


Description of the Remains of a Mammoth . 

northern regions ;—to this it does not seem reasonable to 
start objections, although several writers have done so : but 
What remains inexplicable is, to ascertain, How came the 
mammoth to be buried in the ice ? Perhaps the peninsula 
of Tumut has been slowly formed. In course of time a 
general inundation must have covered all the north part of 
the globe, and caused the death of this animal ; which, after 
having floated for some time among the masses of ice, was 
finally driven by a gust of wind upon the sand-bank not 
far from the shore. The sea, upon afterwards retiring with¬ 
in its limits, must have buried the body of the mammoth. 
But of what use are all these hypotheses, even if they had a 
high degree of probability ?—How can we reconcile facts 
which seem so contrary ? Two years ago similar relics were 
found in the environs of Kircngsk, upon the banks of the 
Lena, at a greater distance from the sea, and they had fallen 
into the bed of the river : others have been found in provinces 
further south from the Wolga ; and they have been discovered 
in Germany and in Spain. These are just so many incontes¬ 
table proofs of a general deluge. We must believe that the 
country of the mammoth was of immense extent : but I 
shall not at present prosecute inquiries which might lead 
us into a labyrinth of hypotheses : I shall merely add, that 
it appears incontestable to me that there has existed a world 
of a verv antient date; and Cuvier, without intending it, ' 
gives evident proofs of this in his system, by the twentv- 
four species of animals, the races of which are extinct. In 
the mean time I beg the indulgence of the curious reader in 
the perusal of this essay. I purpose giving the osteology 
of the mammoth with all that precision which Camper has 
devoted to a similar work. 

Michael Adams*. 

Petersburg!}, 

Aug. 20, 1807. 

* The author of the above essay offers his skeleton for sale, and means to 
employ the money it shall produce to him, in a journey towards the north 
pole, and particularly in visiting the island of Ljachow, or Sichow, which, 
from information received in hi* late journey, he believes to be a part of the 
continent of North America. 


XXIV. Essay 


[ 154 ] 


XXIV. j Essay upon the Art of the Foundry among the An- 
iients: with some Remarks upon the celebrated Horses of 
Ohio, now brought from Venice to Paris . By M. Seitz. 

[Concluded from p. 2D.] 

%- 

'Multiplied Dangers to which the Horses of Ohio were ex - 
posed at Constantinople, and their subsequent Removal by 
the Venetians « 

When they arrived at Constantinople, by order of Theo¬ 
dosius the younger, that city contained all the wonders of 
antient art : there were then to be seen the Olympian Jupi¬ 
ter of Phidias, the Venus of Cnidus and of Praxiteles, the 
figure in honour of Lysippus, and the Juno of Samos, a 
colossus of an enormous size. If the greater part of the 
monuments of Rome perished by the ravages which the 
Goths committed on that city under their generals Alaric, 
Genseric, andTotila*; the chefs d’ceuvre contained in Con¬ 
stantinople were,gradually destroyed by fires a scourge to 
which, by a singular fatality, this city was always exposed. 

tinder the emperor Zeno, who reigned about the year 470 
of the vulgar aera, a fire consumed the library and a great 
number of other buildings : the fire penetrated to the public- 
square, where it destroyed the Juno of Samos, the Minerva 
of Lindus, and the celebrated Venus of Cnidus +. 

In the fifth year of Justinian’s reign, the people, inflamed 
by the extortions practised by this prince, revolted. The 
emperor introduced into the city the Hellurians, a barbarous 
people, in order to quell the insurgents. This was the very 
worst measure he could take, as the war instantly became 
general; the Barbarians massacred the people, while those 

* Wlnckelman, in a dissertation upon the ruins of Rome, has maintained 
that it was not the Barbarians who destroyed the monuments of Rome. Ac¬ 
cording to him, Totila pardoned the inhabitants as soon as he entered the 
city, and endeavoured to conciliate their good will; but it was not until the 
flames had ravaged Rome for thirteen days, and three-fourths of the 
city had been so much destroyed that it could never be restored. It was 
upon ruins, therefore, that he exercised his benevolence, and with the sole 
view of recalling those inhabitants who fled in order to escape his fury. 

f Zonar, Annates Constantinop. lib. xiv. p. 55. 

• k 

who 


155 


Art of the foundry among the Antients . 

who remained shut themselves up in their houses, ascended 
the roofs, and defended themselves with stones and brick¬ 
bats : the Barbarians, enraged, set fire to the houses, which 
were in a short time almost entirely destroyed. A great 
number of statues were melted, and 40,000 of the inhabi- 
tans perished on this occasion*'. 

Lnder the emperor Alexius Comnenus, different quarters 
of the city were devastated by fire and by earthquakes; the 
colossal statue of Constantine, which was placed upon the 
grand column of porphvry 110 feet high, was thrown down, 
by a whirlwind, and killed ten persons in its fallf. 

The four horses of Chio had fortunately escaped all these 
fires; but in the great one of 1203, which was the most 
dreadful that had ever broke out in that city, they were 
much exposed, because the flames on that occasion attacked 
the Hippodrome. 

When, in the year 1202, the French, under count 
Baldwin of Flanders, joined with the Venetians in order to 
undertake the third crusade, and stop the progress of the 
sultan Saladin, who threatened to take Jerusalem, the son 
of the emperor Isaac, whom his brother Alexis had impri¬ 
soned on usurping the crown, implored the assistance of 
the crusaders, in order to save his father from the hands of 
this usurper, and to re-establish him in his lawful rights. 
The crusaders warmly espoused his interests, and laid siege 
to Constantinople. The Venetians had already mounted to 
the assault on the side towards the sea, and had taken pos¬ 
session of five-and-twenty towers, when Alexis marched out 
of the city to give battle to the French; but although 
he had an army infinitely more numerous, a panic seized 
him, and he fled with the greatest part of his treasures. The 
inhabitants of Constantinople, astonished at his precipitate 
flight, proceeded to the prison, where the emperor Isaac 
was detained, and, clothing him in the imperial robes, made 
obeisance to him. They then opened the gates of the city, 
and received their young prince with every demonstration of 
joy. In order to prevent any quarrels between the Greeks 

* Zonar. 1. c. p.70, 
j- Idem, I. c. p, 89, 

and 


156 


Essay upon the Art of the Foundry 

and the allies* the latter were lodged beyond the gate in a 
place called Stenon. The French, however, freely fre¬ 
quented the city, and the two nations lived in peace and 
good understanding. The emperor even invited the allies 
to prolong their stay at Constantinople, as there was a pow¬ 
erful party among the Greeks against him. 

During this period, a quarrel arose between the Greeks 
and the crusaders. The French had forced and pillaged 
the mosque of the Saracens ; the Greeks took part with the 
latter, and assisted them in revenging themselves upon their 
adversaries, who, being enraged upon finding they were the 
weakest, set fire to the city. The flames, increased by the 
wind, gained ground so rapidly that nothing could stop 
them. The fire lasted eight days, and occupied the space of 
a league in circumference. A great number of houses, 
churches, and convents, fell a prey to the devouring ele¬ 
ment ; among others, the loss of a grand double portico was 
much deplored, being that of the square of Constantine and 
the Hippodrome. After this disaster, the good understand¬ 
ing which had subsisted between the Greeks and the French 
entirely ceased : all foreigners established at Constantinople 
were obliged to quit the city, to the number of 15,000; the 
young emperor Alexius became cool towards them, and was 
extremely slow in executing the treaties, so that war soon 
recomtnenced with more fury than before. During the war, 
the young Alexius was imprisoned, and strangled by order of 
Marzuflus, one of his ministers, and old Isaac died of 
grief. The crusaders, when informed of this new cata¬ 
strophe, assembled in council, declared Marzuflus unworthy 
to reign, and formed the resolution of redoubling their ac¬ 
tivity to take the city, and proceed to the election of a new 
emperor. After several attacks, the city was at last taken 
a second time on an Easter Monday, 1204. Marzuflus 
withdrew to the palace Bucoleon, and afterwards fled. The 
city was given up to plunder, while anew fire burst out, 
which, according to Villehardoin*, destroyed more houses 

* Histoire de la Conqvete de Constantinople , par Godefroid dc Filiehardoin, 
Marechal de Champagne et de Romanie, p. 132. 


than 


among the Ahtients : 157 

than the largest cities in France at that time contained. The 
booty, which according to the various conventions was to 
be divided equally, was so great that it filled three churches; 
and although a great part was embezzled, it was shared to the 
value of 400,000 marks silver. After having plundered the 
living, and profaned the altars, the ashes of the dead were 
even molested. All the tombs of the emperors were opened, 
in order to rob them of whatever was precious. At last, 
when the avarice of the crusaders found no more encourage¬ 
ment, their fury was directed against the statues, which they 
demolished, either in order to send them to the mint, or to 
sell them to the founders, who paid the value of the metal 
only*. 

Among these works are enumerated the following: 

A colossal Juno, the head of which alone could scarcely 
be moved bv eicht oxen. 

A Paris presenting the apple to Venus. 

A large square monument of bronze, surmounted by a 
pyramid. In this were represented the labours of the field ; 
lambs frisking to the sound of the shepherd’s pipe, the 
catching of birds, and fishing; Cupids throwing apples, Ac. 

An equestrian statue in heroic costume, which was in the 
bullock market: to all appearance it was that of an em¬ 
peror ; but the inscription was lost : some said it was 
Joshua stretching out his hand to the setting sun, and or¬ 
dering it to stop: according to others, it was Bellerophoaf. 

Among the statues which decorated the Hippodrome, 
they melted down a colossal Hercules in a sitting posture, 
and full of grief for having killed his children so large was 
this figure, that its thumb equalled in size the body of a man. 

* See Nicetje Coniata: Narratio dc Statuis Constantinop. in Fabrieiu$ 
BibHotk . Grczc. tom. vi. p. 405 .—Note by the Author. 

Part of the above work has been translated by Harris, in his Philological 
Enquiries, vol. ii. p. 30!, chap. 5. This work was translated into French by 
M. Boulard, who was pleased to give it the title of Histoire literaire du vioycn 
Age — .Vote by M. Millin. 

f On the subject of the losses to the arts sustained at Constantinople, we 
inay consult M. Heyne’s dissertation De Interilu Operum cum antiques turn re- 
centioris Artis qua: Constantinopo'.ifaisse memorantur, ejusque Causis ac Tempori• 
bus. Memoires de Gottingen, tom. xii. p. 273 . — Note by M. Millin. 

^ Euripidis Hercules furens. f 

1 ‘ The 


i 


158 


Essay upon the Art of the Foundry 

The ass with his driver, erected by Augustus at Nicopolis** 

The wolf which suckled Romulus and Remus. 

A man combating a lion. 

A hippopotamus of bronze. 

An elephant with a moveable trunk. 

Sphinxes, represented in the attitude of birds flapping 
their wings, as if previous to flying upwards. 

A horse, full of ardour, and burning to start into the 
arena. 

A Scylla, or female monster, devouring the companions 
of Ulysses. 

An eagle stretching its wings, in order to carry off 
a serpent which he held in his claws : upon its wings were 
seen lines and cyphers, which served for a sun-dial. 

A Helen: her tunic, wrought with the utmost beauty, 
showed the fine shape of her limbs :—a magnificent diadem 
confined her hair, which fell in ringlets on her shoulders : 
her languishing eyes, the soft smile of which dwelt upon 
her lips, half open; her raised and arched eyelids—every 
feature, in short, conspired to present a degree of perfection 
and beauty of which no description can give any idea. 

Several charioteers, represented in the different attitudes 
peculiar to their occupation. They were placed at the east¬ 
ern goal (meta) of the Circus, which was called that of the 
red faction. 

A combat between an ox, a hippopotamus, and a croco¬ 
dile :—each of the combatants was biting his adversaries; 
the victory seemed to lean to no side, and it was evident 
that the death of all three would finish the combat. 

All these and many other chefs d’oeuvre were thrown into 
the flames. This fact alone evinces the barbarism in which 
the people of the Western Empire were as yet plunged :—the 
horses of Chio, however, escaped the destruction. History 
has not preserved to us the name of him who exerted his in¬ 
fluence to save them ; but it is very probable, that by order 
of Dandolo, the doge and general of the Venetiansf, they 

were 

* Sueton. in Octavio, cap. 96. 

f The Venetians were, for a long period, united with the Greek empire : 
their merchants had oounting-houses at Constantinople, and the doge himself 

had 


among the Antlents . 159 

Were reserved for the republic when the booty was shared, al¬ 
though their removal to Venice did not take place until after 
the death of this enlightened doge. The first vessels which 
set out, only carried the precious vases and ornaments of 
which the church of Saint Sophia had been stripped, with a 
great quantity of relics, among which there was a flask filled 
w ith the blood of Jesus Christ. 

After the death of Dandolo, which happened in 1205, 
Peter Ziani was elected doge of Venice ; and the Venetians 
who were at Constantinople elected as their chief Martin 
Zeno, by the title of Protesta. lie had the charge of the ad¬ 
ministration of all the provinces, which by the new par¬ 
tition had fallen to the republic, and the diplomatic affairs 
were expedited in the joint names of the emperor Henry, 
successor to Baldwin, and Zeno the Protesta. It was the 
latter who sent the four horses of Chio to Venice, with 
several precious works in porphyry and marble. 

Peter Ziani, the successor to Dandolo in his dignity of 
doge, adorned the portal of the church of Saint Mark with 
them, where they remained until 1798, when the emperor 
Napoleon brought them to Paris as an ornament of his 
capital, and the trophy of his victories. 

Upon the alleged Defects in the Casting which have been 
discovered in these Horses—Answer to IVinckelman—and 
Conclusion . 

The repairs made after the casting, which are to be seen 


had a palace there. The inhabitants of Pisa and the Venetians engrossed the 
commerce of the Levant, which gave them the superiority over all the Eu¬ 
ropean nations, as well in riches as in mental acquirements. Henry Dando¬ 
lo joined to the talents of a good general and a sage politician a most exten¬ 
sive knowledge of the world. When Innocent III, excommunicated the crusa¬ 
ders on account of the taking of Zara, the French leaders, who were all spirit¬ 
ed and brave knights, but who could neither read nor write, feared the effects 
of the anathema, and consented to all the conditions which the biohop of- 
Sois&ons, as authorised by the pope, prescribed to them before he gave them 
absolution ; while Dandolo, with his Venetians, constantly refused to acknow¬ 
ledge the authority of the pope in temporal affairs, and braved the anathema. 
Vide Laug:er’s Histoire de la Republique de Venise, tom. ii. 

6 


in 



160 Essay upon the Art of the Foundry 

in the engravings of Zanetti*, are a necessary consequence 
of the manner in which the antients proceeded to cast their 
metals. All the bronze statues from Herculaneum exhibit 
similar repairs. Pliny saysf, that the first statues erected to 
the conquerors in the Olympic games, were modelled upon 
their own persons, and that these statues were called Iconic, 
but they were cast solid. Afterwards the art was improved 
upon, in order to produce the same effect with less metal, 
and they were cast hollow. Thus, by degrees, succeeded 
the sure but-slow and expensive method at present adopted. 

M. Boufferandf says, that the-antients did not take the 
trouble of making the first model of plaster, and then cast 
the mould ; but that, after havine made their model of the 
full size with prepared potters’-clay, they reduced it piece-meal 
to a smaller size, and then dipped it into the melted bronze, 
so that their model thus became a kind of nucleus^. 

Hitherto the observations of M. JBoufferand have been 

Statue d-i Venezia, tom. i. pi. 45. 

f Lib. xxxiv. cap. 4. sect. 9, e.v membris corum similitudiipc expressas. 

r 4* • f- ’ ft 

A Genius, of Etruscan bronze, to be seen in the Florence cabinet, is wrought 
so naturally, that sculptors and painters think the mould must hate been 
made upon the body of a young man. Vide Goal, Mas. Florent. pi. 45 ; et Mu- 
scum Etruscum, pi. 87. 

• ’ • * ' 

*4 Vide Encyc. des Arts et Metiers. ' • . - 

§ According to Philo Byzaritius, De Septem QrHs Miraculis, cap. v. p. 13, the 
antients never made any large statue at a single jet, but they melted the 
parts separately, and joined them afterwards, according to the model they had 
previously made. Simulacra artifices primum jiuguvt , delude membra divisa con- 
Jiant, tandem omnia bene composifa exigunt. But this assertion seems to be denied 
by Pausanias, who, speaking of Rh metis and Theodor us., says, aya.Xpa.Ta hia, 
vtuvTo; z<xi&ruvto zoyaffacQat zcU'/itu ''fjpaiwnrz; : they knew how to 

work entire statues like a dress wrought without a seam : a singular expres¬ 
sion, but which has been mistaken by translators for statues cast at a single 
jot. According to the same Philo, the famous Colossus of Rhodes was also 
cast in parts, but in another way:—they began by casting the legs, then 
placed them on the ground, melted the thighs above them, and proceeded 
upwards in such a manner that the: hot metal, united itself with the cold. This 
method of proceeding perhaps explains what Pausanias means by $%v<petmvTis» 
The antients were afraid, that by melting large masses at a single cast, the flux 
might cool in.flowing along. Recent experiments have taught us, however, 
thatit will run forty feet before becoming fixed. It is therefore probable, that 
if we had the same taste for Colossi that the antients had, we should be able to 
cast them with still more perfection. 


just 


trmong the Ant'ients. 161 

just and gelieral; but when he continues to say that they 
covered the nucleus with wax, and made upon this wax 
putty moulds, and then finished the work like ourselves, 
we can state in opposition to this, that wax never has been 
employed in casting the horses of Venice, nor in any other 
antique bronzes, whffre we see pieces hammered into them 
in order to fill the holes which remained after founding. 
This defect proceeds from the total absence of wax, which is 
now made to occupy the space which should be filled by 
the bronze, and forms the thickness wished to be given to it 
between the nucleus and the hollow mould, a space which 
remains void when the wax is melted, and which is' 
filled by the casting, the continuity of which is not inter¬ 
rupted by any obstacle. 

If the modern process of founding is moT£ perfect, that 
of the antients was more expeditious and much less expen¬ 
sive *. After having finished their model, they formed 
the hollow mould upon it ; and in making;: the mould the 
different pieces were so joined, that each side of the figure 
was covered with its proper parts, so as to make two half 
moulds, adapted throughout their whole length, and the two- 
edges of which joined upon the horses’ backs through their 
whole length, and under the belly in the same manner. At 
least this observation applies with respect to the horses of 
Venice, and the moulds of their feet seem to have been, 
made separately. After having finished this part of the 
process, they diminished the model until they brought it to' 
suit the thickness they wished to give to the metal, and by 
this operation they formed the nucleus. But this diminu¬ 
tion could not be made throughout the whole surface; some 
plugs must have been left interposed, to hinder the moulds 
from falling upon the nucleus, and in order to remove them 


* Alt the French founders assembled together, says Win ckehnan, would not 
be able in ten years to finish the three hundred and sixty statues made at 
Athens for Demetrius Phalereus in S00 days. But, according to their man¬ 
ner of operating, the Athenians had n'o occasion to break the mould in order 
to draw out the statue, and the s^rr.e mould- perhaps served several 
How could Lysippus have executed 610 works, according to Pliny, if he did 
not know how to abridge the labours of the foundry ? 

Vo-1. S9. No. 114, Nov. 1807. 


L 


to 


102 


Essay upon the Art of the Foundry 

to the proper distance wanted for the thickness of the metaf. 
Many of these pings would be necessary as supports, in order 
to keep the mould steady, and binder the nucleus from 
leaving its place. This being done, they added the moulds 
of the feet; when the whole was fired, and the founding pro¬ 
ceeded in. The founding being; finished, these plugs formed 
so many holes in the metal ; but they were made use of in 
digging out the nucleus or core in pieces, by means of sharp- 
pointed irons. Every thing being finished, they filled all the 
holes with plates of copper, hammered and fitted to the 
openings ; and riveted by nails as we see in the horses of 
Ohio, and the bronze statues of Herculaneum. 

- It would he rash, however, to maintain that this custom was 
general in ail antient works of art; with respect to more re- 1 
cent periods, the observation of M. Boufferand may apply. 
The art of founding flourished in the empire of the East. We 
find in Zonarus that they erected to almost all the emperors 
of the East bronze statues at Constantinople : and an epi¬ 
gram * of the poet Juvenal, who was contemporary with 
Theodosius, proves that wax was employed in the statues of 
that time. 

Winckelman f complains much of the manner in which 
the horses of Venice raise their feet. Me says, {C Some peo¬ 
ple assert that horses lift the two feet of one side at one and the 
same time, and such is the gait of the four horses of Venice .” 
It is evident, however, that Winckelman is mistaken; all 
the art of Franconi the equestrian would be incapable of 
making a horse move in this manner. 

A horse, when at the gallop, raises his two fore feet at 
once, and follows by the two hind feet, lifting them one af¬ 
ter another, which produces three distinct motions. 

A horse, when at a walking pace, moves at four different 
times, in a diagonal line, or in a cross; that is to say, after 
having lifted the right fore foot, he lifts the left hind foot 
all which is conformable to the laws of mechanism; and this 
is the gait of the horses of Venice, and of that of Marcus 
Aurelius in the Capitol. 

* Anthol. lib. iv. ; f Liv. v. ch. 5, § ie. 

1 A horse^. 


163 


among the Antients. 

A horse, when trotting, lifts at the same time the right fore 
foot and the left hind foot, which makes a double beating. 

We see these three kinds of movements upon medals and 
bas-reliefs ; but statues which require a support of three feet 
are susceptible only of the second. 

Alter the restoration of letters the art of founding re-ap¬ 
peared in Italy in the time of the Medici. The painter An¬ 
dre \ erroclno was the first who imagined that the antients 
made a hollow mould upon a statue, or even upon a dead or 
living subject, in order to form an exact resemblance. This 
invention naturally inspired him with the idea of using 
a similar mould for melting a bronze statue : he suc¬ 
ceeded. and exercised the art of founding in the manner of 
the antients, i. e. by casting the parts separately and joining 
them afterwards by soldering. He undertook an equestrian 
statue of a Venetian general to be executed in this way. But 
he finished the horse only, having died of a malady con¬ 
tracted from his zeal to execute the work with fidelity. Af¬ 
ter this, John of Boulogne made use of the same method 
for casting the equestrian statue of Cosmo de Medicis at 
Florence. 

About the year 1500, Pomponius Gauricus * printed at 
Naples a treatise upon sculpture, in which he described the 
ingenious method of proceeding made use of at present for 
melting equestrian statues at a single cast. He adds [in 
the conclusion, that this science having perished with those 
who had formerly known and practised it, he thinks he is 
entitled to assume to himself the merit of the invention f. 

Since 

* Po m tonii Gauric: Neapolitani, De SculptUra Liber ad Herculem Ferrarii 
Principem ; in Thcxauro Gronovii , vol. 9. pag. 731. 

f In the time of Gauricus, when few of the Greek authors were as yet 
printed, it was sufficient to be acquainted with the Greek language in order 
to qualify a person for being an inventor, and to pass as such in the eves of the 
vulgar. They even went so far as to destroy the manuscript, that the plagi¬ 
arism might never be discovered. A great number of inventions supposed 
to be modern have been derived from the antients. 

In clock-work, nothing is modern except the pendulum; all the wheelwork 
necessary for putting in motion the indexes of a dial is described in Vitruvius. 

He also speaks of a kind of sounding machine, which threw a certain num- 


i 


164 


Essay upon the Art of the Foundry 

Since this period we have seen similar monuments erected 
at Pisa, Placentia, Leghorn, Ferrara, Milan, Venice, and in 
the Papal states. Several cities of Germany and Holland 
perpetuated in this manner the memory of their benefactors.; 
and in 1622 the city of Rotterdam erected a bronze statue 
to the famous Erasmus, the only modern scholar who ob¬ 
tained such an honour. 

t ' » * . » • . 

ber of stones in order to mark the hours. Water-miffs, organs with all their 
keys*and. interior mechanism, were known in the time of Augustus: it is true 
that water was employed for keeping up a continual wind ; but it would seem 
this method was soon relinquished, and the same effect produced by means of 
several pairs of bellows:—an epigram of the emperor Julian upon organs and 
organists'of hrs time mentions it. 

The system of Copernicus is the system of Pythagoras, ox rather that of 
the antient Chaldees, who, without any other assistance than their eyes, had 
already seen the rotation of the earth around its axis; and all the discoveries 
to which the telescope and the perfection of mathematical instruments have 
given rise, are so many proofs of the truth of the antient system. Lastly, 
the decomposition of light by the prism, upon which the great Newton form¬ 
ed his theory of colours, is to be found in Seneca.-—Questions, book i. ch. 7. 

If we have gunpowder, the antients had their Greek fire, the effects of 
which were terrible, in the reign of Louis XV., an inhabitant of Dauphiny, 
©f the name of Dupre, who had spent his life in chemical experiments, re¬ 
covered the secret. This fire was so rapid and so powerful that no art could 
extinguish it; water only gave it additional activity. Experiments were made 
With it on the canal at Versailles in presence of the king, in the arsenal at 
Pari?,, and at some sea-ports : every where the most intrepid military men 
trembled at its effects. The king, who wished to avert this new scourge from 
humanity, forbid the author to communicate his secret to any one, and re¬ 
warded him liberally.. Dupre is no more, and it is thought his dreadful secret 
died with him. 

Nothing proves the superiority of the antient inventions more powerfully 
than the five orders of architecture. Modern architects hardly venture to 
make the least change in the system : it is well known that the finest buildings 
are those in which these orders reign in their greatest purity. When will a 
second Callimachus appear to invent anew order ? These men of genius, who 
have really extended the circle of human knowledge, are separated by the in¬ 
terval of ages, and there is nothing more humiliating to the human mind than 
the slow progress of its attainments. It is true, we speak at present of new in¬ 
ventions as of new fashions : there is not a single mechanic in Paris who does 
not pretend that he has enriched his trade with some invention : but all these 
inventors resemble die modern grammarian, who announced discoveries in 
the Latin language. 

It must be confessed, however, that these joint efforts may produce some 
good effects, and that they are worthy of recompenses and encouragements 
from government. 

3 


The 


V 


among the Antients . 165 

The first monument of this kind erected in France was 
the statue of Henry IV. ; the horse was cast at Florence by 
John of Boulogne: Cosmo II., the grand duke of Tuscany, 
presented it to Mary of Medicis, queen of France, and at 
that time regent; she destined it to consecrate the memory 
of the king her husband, whose statue was executed by Du¬ 
pre the sculptor by her orders. It was erected in 1C35. 

A short time afterwards cardinal Richelieu erected the 
equestrian statue of Louis XIII. in the Place Royale. The 
horse was executed in Tuscany by Ricciarelli de Volterre, a 
pupil of Michael Angelo, and was regarded by some -as a 
superior work, and bv others as a middling production. The 
Statue of the king was executed by Biard. 

The age of Louis XIV. was so brilliant for the arts, that 
the splendour of the Augustan age, so much boasted of, is 
nearly eclipsed by the comparison. 

The art of founding declined under Augustus.; and the 
reports of Pliny and Vitruvius, both upon the taste then 
reigning in painting, and upon the method of the painters 
in their days, must give us a very unfavourable idea of their 
talents, while the names of Girardon, Desjardins, Eouchardon, 
Lemome, Paget, Lebrun, Lesueur, Bourdon, Milliard, Jou- 
venet, <kc., have been the glory of their age, and the admira¬ 
tion of every country where their works have penetrated. 

The statue of Louis XIV. in the Place des Vic to ires, by 
Des-jardins, and the equestrian statue of the same prince 111 
the Place Vendome, by Girardon, were unique performances, 
with respect to beauty of design and the elegance and 
magnificence of the appendages. The cities of Lyons, 
Rennes, Dijon, Montpelier, Bourdeaux, and Metz, were 
necessarily adorned with statues of this prince, and of his 
successor; but the revolution of the 18th century was 
equally fatal to all these works as was the invasion of 
Attila to the bronzes of Rome, and the fanaticism of the 
crusaders to those of Constantinople. 

France, which produced the talents that decorated the 
other cities of Europe, is, however, stripped of these oliefs- 
(Foeuvre, which formerly formed the ornaments of her 
public places. 

L 3 


It 


Hi6 On the Making of Starch. 

It will not be difficulty however, to replace them. Pari3 
still contains some very distinguished artists in bronze. In 
the recent exhibitions of the objects of French industry, 
bronzes have formed an interesting article. 

The exploits of our warriors, and of our august chief, 
have furnished them with subjects worthy of decorating the 
public places of Paris and the other cities of France, while 
the immense quantity of cannon taken from the enemy will 
supply the materials. 


XXV. On the Making of Starch. By Mr. James Graham, 

of Berwick-upon-Tweed*. 

Starch may be made from a variety of articles :—potatoes, 
in particular, will yield a considerable quantity ; but the 
great labour attending grinding or grating them down has 
hitherto prevented any great quantity of starch being made 
from that vegetable. When the potatoes are grated down, 
they do not require to be laid in steep to ferment after the 
manner of flour, but must be immediately strained through 
a sieve; and if the potatoes are of a good quality, ihe starch 
will settle to the bottom almost instantly: indeed the opera¬ 
tion of straining after the potatoes are grated down cannot 
be performed too quickly. The produce, however, even 
from the best, is far less than most people would imagine ; 
the best potatoes I ever used only produced 4 or 4j stones 
of starch from 40 stones of potatoes. 

Potatoe starch is not saleable in the shops, not having so 
long and firm a grain as starch from floor; but if properly 
made is preferable to all others for blue-makers, as it melts or 
dissolves so easily, and incorporates with the colour with far 
less trouble than any other substance whatever. 

When starch is made from flour, the wheat is not ground 
so small as when intended for sale, but ground with a 
broader flag or bran, as the meal and starch are found to 
separate more readily from the bran. When laid in to steep 
as much water must be used as to wet completely the whole 
meal; in three, four, or five days it will ferment, and in 

* Communicated by Mr. John Clennell. 

a few 








On the Making of Starch. 16/ 

a few days more will settle, and all fermentation cease : after 
this the stuff is fit to he what is called washed out. 

The common time allowed to steep is fourteen or twenty- 
days : as much depends on the temperature of the weather, 
the exact time cannot he ascertained; hut it is much better 
to lie a few days longer than to be washed out one day too 
soon. This operation is performed by the stuff being taken 
from the vats and put into a strong round basket, which is 
•set across a tub below a pump : one or two men keep going 
round the basket stirring up the stuff with strong wooden, 
shovels called stirrers, while another keeps pumping water 
till all the meal is completely washed from the bran, which 
is emptied into some convenient place to feed hogs : this 
operation is continued till the vats are emptied of the whole 
stuff, at the same time that it is strained through the basket 
into the tub underneath. As fast as the tub fills, it is taken 
out and,strained through hair sieves into what are sometimes 
called squares, by others frames. It is then suffered to rest 
twenty-four hours, 1 vhen the water is drawn off the frame 
by plugs fixed at different depths. A thin stuff is then found 
to float above the starch, which is taken off by a tray made 
of a particular form for that purpose : this is called slimes, 
and is put into a cistern to feed hogs, by being mixed with 
the bran or grains : fresh water is then pumped into the 
squares, and the whole is wrought up with the stirrers till 
it is completely incorporated with the water ; it is then 
strained through a fine'silk sieve, and suffered to restand 
settle twenty-four hours, when the water is again drawn off, 
and some more slimes w ill be found floating, or at least in 
a loose and unsettled state, on the top of the starch; which 
.being carefully removed, fresh water is again pumped on the 
starch, and the whole is again wrought up as before; when 
it is atrain put through the silk sieve. It is now suffered to 
rest for some days,—say four or five,—till the starch is a^aiu 
settled in a very firm state at the bottom of the square. It 
is necessary to observe, if the starch is wanted to be what is 
commordv called Poland, that is, with the blue shade: during 
the last time of putting through the silk sieve, a certain quan- 
‘ * L 4 tity 


168 


On the Making of Starch. 

tity of the very best smalts must be mixed with the starch. 
If the smalts are very gpod, 2lb. per cwt. may do, and some? 
times 3lb., according to the depth of blue wanted : if the best 
smalts are not used, however fine the colour may appear 
when in a damp state, it will entirely fiy off in the stove, 
and leave the starch of a dingey hu,e. 

When the starch is found to be completely settled, the 
water is again drawn off; and if any more slimes are still 
on the top they are taken off as before, and the starch is 
now fit for boxing. It .is necessary to observe, that the 
slimes taken off after the starch has been put through the 
?ilk siev t e are not put into the hog-wash, but are either 
mixed with some other operation, or again wrought up with 
water and strained through the silk sieve; when a consiy 
derable part of them will be tolerably good starch. 

The boxes may be made of different sizes; but they are 
commonly about fpur feet long, sjx inches deep, and twelve 
inches broad, and are bored full of holes, so that any re¬ 
in aining water may drain from the starch. Thin canvass is 
cut iu such length and breadth as to line all the inside of 
the box, the intention of which is to bring the starch clean 
from the box after the water is fully drained. 

The boxing is performed bv digging the starch out of the 
square with a spade or shovel, and filling the boxes. The 
length of time for the starch being in the boxes can only be 
ascertained by the starch cotuipg to a hard solid body, which 
is sometimes sooner and sometimes lopger. The starch is 
then taken from the boxes by turning them bottom upper¬ 
most on a table or dresser ; it is then broken info pieces 
about four or five inches square, by laying a ruler or round 
piece of wood underneath the starch, giving the upper 
side a cut across with a knife ; when a small press of the 
hand will break the starch into such pieces as are designed. 

It is then set upon soft bricks, that is, bficks which have 
been only half-burned in the kiln: the intention of this is to 
suck the water out of the starch ; which if not done before 
it is put into the stove, it is apt to dry into various hard 
substances called hamv, which will not melt when, it come§ 

' ' * ' ; - ' to 



Surgical Cases in the Finsbury Dispensary. IG9 

io be used; so that it will not answer for blue-makers, nor 
for the purpose of the laundry. 

When sufficiently dried on the bricks it is put into the 
stove, (which is nearly the same as a sugar-baker’s,) where 
it remains some time : the duration must depend on the 
judgment of the maker, and the degree of heat in the 
stove. It is then taken out and set on a table or dresser, 
when all the sides are carefully scraped or pared with a thin 
knife; after which, it is tied up in paper the same as we see 
it in the shops; when it is again returned into the stove, 
and continued with a regular heat night and day till com¬ 
pletely dry : it requires some days, but the length of time 
can only be ascertained by an experienced maker. 

It may be necessary to observe, that from the first laying 
in the meal to steep, till the last operation of taking from 
the stove to be weighed, the manufacture is constantly un¬ 
der the survey of one or more officers of excise. 


XXVI. Report of Surgical Cases in the Finsbury Dispen¬ 
sary from the Beginning of May to the End of June 1807, 
with the Appearances on Dissection in a Case of Hy¬ 
drocephalus. By John TauntOxV, Esq. 

During the above two months, there were admitted 187 
patients, • - - ** 

Cured or relieved — - J35 

Under cure - - - 52 

. '; -• 

< ' 18/ 

* • • • r t 

Miss M., ret. 5., of a delicate constitution, predisposed 

to scrophula, had a purulent .discharge from the right ear 
for three years preceding her death t it took place sub¬ 
sequent to the Measles, and was generally copious, for 
the most part very offensive, and frequently attended 
with pains in the head and ear, but in other respects she 
was lively and healthy. 

Two days previous to the 21*st of October 1S0G, she com¬ 
plained 









I 


1 TO Surgical Cases in the Finsbury Dispensary . 

plained of a giddiness in her ‘head, which prevented her 
from walking across the floor without danger of falling; 
she was sick and vomited occasionally, had fever, and 
the bowels were costive; her eyes were not directed to 
the same focus. The family physician was now consulted, 
who prescribed a calomel pill and some infus. rosce : the 
symptoms continued with little variation for 7 days, (during 
which time the accustomed discharge from the ear had 
ceased,) when a swelling was observed below the ear, which 
being poulticed soon broke, and all the symptoms gradu¬ 
ally disappeared, so that from the 30th of October to the 
!pth of November no medical attendance was required. She 
was then seized with violent pain in the head, had occasion¬ 
ally startings with rigor, which terminated in convul¬ 
sive fits of short duration : between these paroxysms, which 
were irregular, she was perfectly sensible and quite easy, 
A large blister was applied to the head, fomentations were 
used, and purging clysters were injected: but these did 
not avert the symptoms :—she died on the 23d. 

On removing the upper part of the scull, the mem¬ 
branes of the brain and the cerebrum were perfectly na¬ 
tural and healthy : the lateral ventricles contained about 
four ounces of a serous fluid: the right lobe of the cere¬ 
bellum was more dark than usual, and flabbv; on cutting 
into its substance an abscess was found which contained 
about an ounce of purulent matter; the dura mater was 
ulcerated at the posterior part of the petrous portion of 
the temporal bone, or round the internal auditory fora¬ 
men ; where the bone had become carious, the membrana 
tympani and small bones of the ear were destroyed, and 
a probe could be passed with ease from the internal through 
the external auditory foramen. 

The sutures of the scull being completely closed, the 
brain must have been compressed from the accumulation 
of fluid in the lateral ventricles, which probably took 
place about the 21st of October: it must alsu have suffered 
from the abscess which had destroyed the right lobe of 
the cerebellum, and which there is reason to believe had 
existed for years; yet we find the reasoning faculty was 
- -8 continued 


171 


• ^ r • 

Notices respecting New Books. 

continued and perfect even to the day of her death, ex¬ 
cepting the short periods of pain, rigor, and convulsive fits. 

John Taunton, 

Surgeon to the City and FintJjurjr 
Dispensaries, Lecturer on Ana¬ 
tomy, Surgery > Physiology, 

Grcvillc-strect, Hatton garden, 

November '20, 1807. 


XXVII. Notices respecting New Books. 

Chemical Philosophy , or the established Bases [Basis] of 
Modern Chemistry, intended to serve as cm Elementary 
Work for the Study of that Science , by A. F. Fourcroy, 
Professor of Chemistry , Member of the National Insti¬ 
tute,&c. Third Edition , considerably enlarged and amended. 
Translated from the French by W. Desmond, Esq. 
304 Pages. 8vo. 7s. Symonds, 1807* 

The celebrity of M. Fourcroy, and the general merit of 
his Treatise on Chemical Philosophy, are more than sufficient 
to sanction a translation of it into English. Any work, in¬ 
deed, by the man not altogether undeservedly called VOra - 
teur de Science , must merit attention. But as philosophy 
acknowledges no master, no authority but what exists in the 
nature of things, we may safely venture to examine and 
compare the contents of a small volume, which assumes 
the sounding title of “ Chemical Philosophy.” Respect 
for the science renders us eager to avail ourselves of every 
opportunity of presenting all or any ot its branches in a 
new, more advantageous, or clearer point of view: the same 
motive constitutes it a duty to detect and expose any works 
which, under plausible titles, tend more to embarrass, per¬ 
plex, and retard the progress of chemical science, than to fa¬ 
cilitate the acquirement, extension, or elucidation of its 
principles. Without objecting to M* Fourcroy’s implied 
opinion, that a “ classification of the phenomena of nature 
and art constitutes chemical philosophy,” however vague 
and indefinite it may be, we cannot perceive either the just¬ 


ness 






172 Notices respecting New Books. 

ness or the propriety of entitling a work “ Chemical Philo¬ 
sophy »” in which there is no notice of pneumatic chemistry, 
no classification or description of the qualities and characters 
of gaseous bodies. A number of general results, arranged in 
the form of corollaries, with some regard indeed to their ge¬ 
neral relations, should rather be denominated a concise view 
of practical chemistry, than the philosophy of chemical 
science. This error, however considerable, as it conveys a 
false idea of the nature and object of this treatise, we should 
not particularly notice, were it not followed by several 
others of a similar origin, hut still more injurious to the 
general perspicuity and accuracy of our chemical knowledge. 
Such errors arc the more extraordinary and the more dan¬ 
gerous, that the author boasts of the u numerous corrections 
and important additions” which he has been enabled to 
make in this third edition, which, he presumes, from the 
“ reception it has experienced in all enlightened countries, 
may be ranked with classic books.” He says it has been 
(t translated into German, Swedish, Danish, English, Spa¬ 
nish, Portuguese, Italian, and modern Greek;” but no men¬ 
tion is made of Dutch and Russian. The chief additions 
consist of an introduction, divided into 100 sections, occu¬ 
pying 66 pages of this translation. It presents a view, much 
more extensive than accurate, of the nature and c( general 
means of chemistry, principles of bodies, attraction of ag¬ 
gregation and composition, chemical operations by means 
of fire or liquids, and the classification of bodies.” 

The very first section of this introduction consists of two 
propositions, neither of which is philosophically correct, 
(( The especial object of chemical philosophy,” says M. 
Fourcroy: is, 1st. to apply the general theory of chemistry 

to the phenomena of nature and to the operations of art, the 
cause and effects of which are entirely within the province 
of this science.” This is certainly the inverse object of true 

Chemical Philosophy,” which, since the days of Bacon, 
has been first to unfold the phenomena of nature which 
exist and are cognisable independent of all theory, and next 
to develop the relations of these phenomena, so that the 

observer 


Notices respecting New Books. ] 73 

observer may arrange them in classes, genera, and species*, 
whence results a general theory. On the accuracy of such 
arrangements depends all the merit of the respective theories 
of natural phenomena which have hitherto amused man¬ 
kind. 1 o begin the study of chemistry, which is a science 
of experience and observation, by applying any artificial 
theory or system to explain natural phenomena, is surely to 
contemplate nature under the veil of art. Bv such means, 
it is true, a system may be consolidated, but our knowledge 
of the (Economy of nature wiil never advance one step 
nearer truth. The second proposition is remarkable for a 
copiousness of not the most appropriate terms. “ To show 
the connections existing between these phenomena and their 
reciprocal influence upon each other, we must consider this 
philosophy as comprising the whole of the important disco¬ 
veries made by chemistry.” The “ connections” and “re¬ 
ciprocal influence” of phenomena are not unfrequently 
identical terms, and even the analogies of chemical bodies 
are often discovered or known only by their reciprocal in¬ 
fluence on each other. 

.M. Iourcrov, after taking a poetical view of the pro¬ 
gressive mutaiions of all bodies, reduces the objects of his 
consideration to eight articles, ce which really constitute the 
first principles or elementary basis of chemistry.” They 
are as follow: “ 1st, Definition of chemistry; edly. Exa¬ 
mination of its general means; 3 diy, Chemical nature of 
bodies ; 4 thlv, Attraction of aggregation ; sthly, Attrac¬ 
tion of composition; 6thly, Chemical operations; 7thly, 
Classification of natural bodies; and bthly, Chemical phe¬ 
nomena of nature, and their classification.” These articles 
are again divided and subdivided with tedious minuteness, 
and interlarded with fanciful or erroneous distinctions, which 
nia y ^ew ilder, but certainly cannot assist young students of 
chemical science. For instance, although it is acknow¬ 
ledged that “ analysis is a division very different from that 
performed by mechanical instruments;” the author makes 
«. subsection of i( mechanical analysis (a solecism), spon¬ 
taneous analysis (more properly decomposition), analysis by 
fire, and by re-agents,” Again we have the divi-sion of 

“ immediate 


iM Notices respecting New Books. 

6 • immediate or proximate analysis (another name for what 
be calls mechanical analysts, which consists in expression, 
trituration or wash’ll, preparatory to an analysis), mediate or 
remote analysis, true 01 simple analysis, and false or com¬ 
plex analysis. 0 These, however, are not all ; there are still 
“ mineral analysis, vegetable analysis, animal analysis, 0 
&c. &c. to be discussed. Will it be pretended that such 
futile, not tosav erroneous, distinctions can either be necessary 
or useful to the perspicuity, precision or elucidation of che¬ 
mical philosophy ? In general the briefest is the most clear 
definition, but there is neither brevity nor perspicuity in 
such pedantic distinctions. In the next article, on the u at¬ 
traction of aggregation, 0 we have 44 solid, soft) liquid and 
elastic fluid, aggregates. 0 These are followed by 44 parti - 
culary attraction,” (as Mr. Desmond translates it) and 
44 molecular attraction.” Several sections are occupied in 
announcing the well known fact, that on our acquaintance 
with the operations jf the affinities depends all our know¬ 
ledge of the theory and practice of chemistry. The descrip-* 
tion of the different chemical operations, indeed, such as 
calcination, evaporation, &c., is much more accurate and 
precise. 

But the great merit of this 44 chemical philosophy, 0 in 
the estimation of its author, is the 44 classification of bodies,” 
in which, he tells us, 44 after many long attempts in search-* 
ing for the distinction of bodies, he lias fixed upon a me¬ 
thod which divides all beings into eight grand classes, 
agreeable to their characteristic compositions. 0 These 
classes are: 44 1st, Simple or indecomposable bodies; 
2dly* Binary compound deflagrated bodies (here translated, 
binary burned bodies); 3dly, Salifiable bases ; 4thly, Saline 
substances; Mhiv, Metallic substances; 6thiy, Mineral o* 
fossil compounds; 7thly. Vegetable compounds ; and Stilly* 
Animal compounds. 0 In this arrangement there is nothing 
novel or peculiar. The following is the author's classifica¬ 
tion of the chemical phenomena of nature, which con¬ 
sists of a series of twelve sections : 44 1st, Action of light; 
2dly, Action of caloric; 3dly, Action of air; 4thly, 
Mature and properties of combustible bodies ; 5thly. Nature 

and 


Notices respecting New Books . ] 75 

and action of water; 6thly, formation and classification of 
acids; 7thly, Properties of salifiable bases; Sthly, Union 
01 acids with salifiable bases ; pthfy, Oxydation and dissolu¬ 
tion of metals; JOthly, Nature and formation of vegetable 
compounds; llthly, Passage of vegetable compounds to 
the state of animal compounds; nature of the latter; and 
12thlv, Spontaneous decomposition of vegetable and animal 
compounds.” These twelve sections form the chief divi¬ 
sions of this chemical philosophy, which the author, in a 
tone of self-gratuktion that iias but little affinity with the 
true spirit of philosophy, assures us, “ notwithstanding the 
shortness of the work, really embraces the whole extent of 
the science; makes known all its branches, presents all its 
principles, and conveys, at the same time, the most general 
and most ciccniute notions of it !! ]VI. Fourcroy, in com¬ 
mon with many other authors, here asserts that vegetables 
aie capable of effecting (( a real decombustion” of the air, 
and that their leaves exposed to the ray# of the sun “ shed 
into the atmosphere a torrent of oxygen gas.” Ellis has 
sufficiently confuted these notions. (See Phil. Mag. vol. 
xxviii. p. 273 .) J he following table exhibits the authors 
improved classification of the acids. 


[ 1/6 ] 

TABLE OF AC JDS, 


Classes. 


Genera. 


Species. 


Characters of the Species. 


/ 

Carbonic acid, 


Phosphoric 

acid. 


Phosphorous 

acid. 


1st Class. 
Acids with 
simple and 
known radi¬ 
cals. Twelve 
species. 


Sulfuric acid. 


Sulfureons 

acid. 


Nitric acid. 


Nitrous acid. ^ 


Arsenic acid. 

Arsenious 

acid. 

Tungstic acid. 


Molybdic 

acid. 


Chromic acid 


\ 


Product of the combustion of 
charcoal, gaseous, mephi¬ 
tic, nearly inodorous, the 
most feeble and most inde¬ 
composable of acids. 

Formed by phosphorus ra¬ 
pidly burned, very heavy, 
vitriflable, very sour, not 
caustic, yielding phospho¬ 
rus with red charcoal. 

Less oxygenated, more phos¬ 
phorated than the preced¬ 
ing, yielding a white smoke 
and a phosphoric dame, by 
heat. 

{ Sulphur totally burned, a- 
crid, caustic, inodorous, 
charring organic com¬ 
pounds, very heavy, yield¬ 
ing sulphur with red char¬ 
coal. 

C Odorous, gaseous, irritant, 
) like sulphur, burning blue 
\ discolouring and whitening 
C vegetal and animal colours. 
One of the most decompo* 
sable, and therefore most 
variable in nature; by 
losing some oxygen it 
passes, 1st. to the state of 
nitrohs gas or azotic oxyd, 
insoluble in water, and 
reddening by the contact of 
air; 2d. to the state of 
azotic oxydule gas, soluble 
in water, not reddening in 
air, inflames charcoal, phos¬ 
phorus, sulphur, oils, and 
sortie metals, destroys ani¬ 
mal miasmata, and disin¬ 
fects the most infected 
places. 

, It is nitric acid holding 
V nitrous acid in solution i 
J nearly absorbs its weight 
\ from it; then in a rutilant 
f vapour more volatile than 
nitric acid. 

Solid, fixed, vitrifiable, very 
poisonous, inodorous, arse¬ 
nic completely burned. 

J Solid, volatile, odorous, and 
{ garlic-like when In vapour. 
White, pulverulent, rough* 
growing yellow by nitric 
and muriatic acids. 

Rough, little soluble, in 
white threads, becoming 
blue when deprived of oxy¬ 
gen. 

Yellow, little soluble, form¬ 
ing yellow, red, or orange 
coloured salts. 















[ 177 J 

TABLE OF ACIDS CONTINUED. 



Classes. Genera. Species. Characters of the Species. 


2d Class. 
Acids v/ith 
Unknown ra¬ 
dicals but 
presumed 
simple. Four 
species. 


< 


Muriatic. 


Oxygenated 

muriatic. 


Fluoric. 


Boracic. 


Sd Class, 
Acids with 
binary radi¬ 
cals. Twelve 
species. 


r Succinic* 
l Millitic. 

1st Genus ) citric . 
Pure vegetal n Ma|jc _ 
acids. t Gallic. 




2d Genus. 
Vegetal aci- 
duSes. 

3d Genus. 
Factitious 
acids. 

4th Genus. 
Fermented 
acids. 


4th Class. 
Acids with, 
ternary radi¬ 
cals. Four 
species. 


v - Benzoic. 

TartaroUs. 
Oxalic. 

f Camphoric. 

< Suberic, 
h Mucous. 

Acetic. 

Amnic. 
Sebacic. 

I Uric. 

Prussic. 

.Pyromucous. 

Pyrotartarous. 

Pyroligneous. 

Ciceric- 

Acetous. 


Acids falsely admitted as par- 
r icular acids, but found to be-<^ £^? e[U . U5 
long to acetic acid. Formic. 

Bombic. 

Cruoric- 
Zoonic. 
'“•Lactic. 


‘Gaseous, indecomposable* 
odorous, forming a white 
vapour, depriving many 
bodies of oxygen. 

Greenish-yellow gas, fetid, 
thickening liquids and con¬ 
tracting animal organs, in¬ 
flaming many combustibles, 
destroying almost all co¬ 
lours. 

Gaseous, pungent, dissolving 
glass and silex, of which it 
precipitates a part by water. 

Solid, in crystalline span¬ 
gles, fixed and fusible into 
glass, little soluble, little 
sapid, very feeble in its 
combinations. 


/ 


VoL 29 . No. 114. Nov. 1807. M 


These 















I7& 


Notices respecting New Books . 

I hese 3'2 acids form as many genera of salt's, which cbn*- 
lain about 380 species, each of which should be profoundly 
studied. Every earthy or alkaline salt may be considered 
under*the following aspects ; 

4 ‘ 1st. The form, and the varieties of that form : it must be 
described geometrically; the inclination and degrees of the 
angles- must be stated, as well as the primitive formation of 
the crystals,, their interior form, their dissection, and the laws 
of decrement which determine their varieties. 2d. Its existence 
m nature or in art; the comparison of the natural* with the 
artificial salt. 3d. Its savour. 4th. The action of fire, whether 
null, dissolving, vitrifying, subliming, decomposing, <kc. 
5th. The action of light. 6th. The influence of air, whe¬ 
ther null, giving or taking away water to or from the cry¬ 
stals. 7th. Its union with water, the quantity necessary to 
effect a dissolution at the various temperatures*, the caloric 
absorbed or disengaged ; the crystallization performed by 
refrigeration or evaporation. 8th. The attraction of the 
earths which modify or decompose, or do not chancre the 
salt, or which unite with it in a trisule. 9th. The effect of 
alkalis on it, whether null or decomposing, sometimes unit¬ 
ing in a triple salt. 10th. The comparative action of dif¬ 
ferent acids upon that contained in the salt, decomposing 
it, changing its nature, or producing no effect upon it. 

11th. The influence of other salts upon it; whether reduced 
to nothing, or to an entire action tending to form a triple 
* salt, or to a double decomposition, changing the acids and 
the bases, or into a precipitation in proportion to their at¬ 
traction for water. 12th. The dissolubility or indissolubility 
of the salt in alcohol. 13th. Its alteration or inalterability by 
charcoal, decomposing its acid, or leaving it untouched. 
14th. The influence- of vegetation and of fermentation on 
the salt. 15th. Finally, its action on animal ceconomy.” 

The properties of metallic salts of importance to be known 
are the following: 

(t 1st. Form and varieties. 2d. Savour and causticity, 
greater or less. 3d. Alteration by light. 4th. Fusion, de¬ 
siccation, decomposition more or less distinct by caloric. 
5th. Deliquescence, efflorescence, or more or less complete 

decomposition 


Notices respecting New Books . 1 79 

decomposition by air. 6th. Dissolubility in water hot or 
cold: decomposition more or less advanced by pure water, or 
water aerated. 7th. Decomposition by alkalis and earths; 
nature of precipitated metallic oxyds; complete precipita¬ 
tion, or formation of triple salts or trisules, partly alkaline 
or earthy, and partly metallic, 8th. Alteration of metallic 
oxyds at the moment of their precipitation, whether by air, 
or by the nature of the alkali employed to precipitate them ; 
as it happens with respect to ammoniac. 9th. Reciprocal 
alteration by the Various acids, decomposition or not; at¬ 
traction of acids for metallic oxyds, change of the oxyds 
discoverable by their colour. 10th. Alteration by earthy or 
alkaline salts presenting either an union without decompo¬ 
sition, or a double decomposition. 11th. Reciprocal action 
of mineral salts showing either a simple union, or a simple 
change of bases by the acids, or a displacement of oxygen 
which precipitates the two oxyds, the one because it is 
partly disoxyded , the other because it is hyperoxyded; such 
is, for instance, the useful precipitation of the muriatic so¬ 
lution of gold by the muriatic solution of tin, which yields 
the purple precipitate of Cassius. 12th. Union of sulfurets 
and hydrosulfurets, earthy or alkaline; formation of species 
of sulphureous mines.” 

The appearance of this improved edition of the “ Philo¬ 
sophy of Chemistry,*’ as it has been very improperly called, 
in its English dress, induces us to wish that, like the French 
orator, the English orator of science, Mr. Davy, to whom 
this translation is dedicated, would devote some of his time 
to give an improved edition of his c< Syllabus of Lectures” 
printed in 1802; we might then say that we have an ele¬ 
mentary work on chemistry, worthy to rival the “ Chemical 
Philosophy” of M. Fourcroy, and which might also be 
translated into eight living* languages. The o-reatest defects, 
indeed, of the present work, next to its omission of the 
characters of the gases, and of eudiometrical operations, are 
a multiplicity of divisions without distinctions, and distinc¬ 
tions without differences; a superabundance of terms fre¬ 
quently altogether unnecessary, and a general redundancy 
of words, occasioned by an attempt at excessive perspicuity, 

M 2 which 


ISO 


Royal Society. 

which terminates either in confusion or inanity. The defi¬ 
nitions in general arc either redundant, defective, or other¬ 
wise inadequate to convey precise notions of the things de¬ 
fined. Many things are taken for granted as well established 

» W V. 

facts, on which no* direct and decisive experiments have 
ever been made; and the-observations and definitions of 
vegetable bodies are equally erroneous and defective. Not¬ 
withstanding these glaring defects,, and many more on which 
it is unnecessary to* dwell, the present volume presents such 
general views,, if not of the philosophy of chemistry, at 
least of the modern system of explaining the chemical phre- 
nomena of nature, that every chemist will think i.t deserving 
his attentive perusal.. 


XXVIII. Proceedings of Learned Societies 

ROYAL SOCIETY. 

On Thursday evening, Nov. 5, this Society assembled 
after the long vacation, the Right Honourable Sir Joseph 
Ranks, Bart, president, in the chair. The whole of the 
evening was occupied in receiving, and in returning thanks 
for, the numerous presents of books from the Royal Aca¬ 
demy of Sciences of Lisbon, and other foreign societies. 

Nov. 12.—-The president in the chair. A Rakcrian Lec¬ 
ture on the Decomposition or Analysis of the Fixed Alka¬ 
lis, by H. Davy, Esq. was read. The results of the experi¬ 
ments here modestly detailed in this perspicuous lecture 
are more important, except Galvanism, than any which have 
occurred since the discoveries of Priestley and Cavendish, 
and which have given the Transactions of the Royal Society 
of London a celebrity throughout the civilized world, un¬ 
rivalled in. the annals of philosophy. Mr. Davy, in his last 
Baker!an Lecture of last year, on the Agencies of Electricity, 
(see Phil. Mag. voh xxviii. p.. h) suggested the probabi¬ 
lity that other bodies, not then enumerated, might be de¬ 
composed by electricity. Since that time, by means of 
several very powerful Galvanic troughs, consisting of 100 
pairs of plates of six inches square, and 150 pairs four 

inches* 







Royal Society . 181 

inches square, succeeded in decomposing potash and -oda. 
This was effected bv placing moistened potash or sc a on 
a plate of platina, and exposing it to the Galvanic circle. 
Oxygen was disengaged, and these alkalis were reduced to 
their primitive base, a peculiar aim highly inflammable mat¬ 
ter, which assumes the form and appearance oi small glo¬ 
bules of mercury. 1 hese globules are lighter than any 

J W 

other fluid, as they swim in distilled naphtha. I he base 
of potash is of a specific gravity as six to ten of water. At 
the freezing point these globules aie hard and brittle, and 
when broken and examined with a microscope they present a 
number of facettos with the appearance of crystallization : 
at 40° of Fahrenheit they are soft, and can scarcely be dis¬ 
criminated from globules of quicksilver ; at 60° they are 
fluid, and at 10Q J volatile. When exposed to the atmo¬ 
sphere they rapidly imbibe oxygen, ami re-assume their 
alkaline character. In distilled naphtha they may be kept 
four or five days; but if exposed either to the atmosphere, or 
to oxygen gas, they almost instantly become incrustated 
with a coat of regenerated alkali : this incrustation can be 
removed, and the reduced globule will remain in naphtha, 
or separated from all contact with oxygen, as before ; the 
naptha forming a thin film round the globule,and excluding 
the contact of oxygen. 

Nov. ] p.—The president in the chair. Continuation of 
Mr. Davy’s Bakerian Lecture on the Decomposition of thft 
Alkalis. One part of the base of alkali and two of mercury, 
estimated by bulk, (or about i part of the base to 48 of mer¬ 
cury by weight,) formed an amalgam, which, when ap¬ 
plied in the circle of a Galvanic battery (Ac ah produced an 
intense heat) to iron, silver, gold, or platma, immediately 
dissolved these, and converted them into oxides, in which 
process alkali was regenerated. Glass, as w eh as ah other 
metallic bodies, was also dissolved by the app 1 cation o r this 
substance: the base of the alkaii seizing the oxygen of the 
manganese and of the minium, potash was regenerated. 
One of these globules placed on a piece of ice dissolved it, 
and burnt with a bright flame, giving out an intense heat. 
Potash was found in the product of the dissolved ice. Nearly 


M 3 


the 


Royal Society . 

the same effects followed when a globule was thrown into 
water: in both cases a great quantity of hydrogen gas was 
rapidly liberated. When laid on a piece of moisteued tur¬ 
meric paaper, the globule seemed instantly to acquire an in¬ 
tense heat; but so rapid was its movement inquest of the 
moisture, that no part of the paper was burnt, only an in¬ 
tense deep red stain marked the course it followed, and 
showed a re-production of alkali. The specific gravity of 
the base of soda is as seven to ten of water : it is fixed in a 
temperature of about 150°, and fluid at ISO 0 . Mr. Davy 
next tried its effects on the phosphats, phosphurets, and 
the greater part of the salts of the first and second de¬ 
gree of oxydizement, all of which it decomposed, seizing 
their oxygen, and reassuming its alkaline qualities. The 
specific gravity of this amalgam, after a number of experi¬ 
ments, was found by means of a mixture of oil of sassafras 
with distilled naphtha, in which a globule remained either 
buoyant at top, or quiescent at bottom, in a fluid weighing 
as nine to ten of water. 

The sixth section of this lecture detailed a great variety 
of experiments made to ascertain the difference of the base 
of potash from that of soda ; and from the medium taken 
of numerous analytical, and of nine synthetical, experiments, 
it appeared that 100 parts of potash contain 15 oxygen, and 
85 of inflammable base, and that the same quantity of soda 
contains 20 oxygen, and 80 base. 

m U J 

The seventh section was devoted to an examination of 
volatile alkali, which chemists, led by. systematic theory, 
Lave rather hastily taken for granted that it consists merely 
of hydrogen and nitrogen. Mr. Davy, after a great num¬ 
ber of complex experiments, in which he was assisted by 
Messrs. Pepys and Allen, ascertained that oxygen is also an 
essential ingredient in ammonia, 100 grains of the latter 
yielding 20 of the former : but this result depended too 
much on eudiometrieal calculation to be received as an 
established fact. 

The eighth and last section consisted of general observa¬ 
tions on the series of new facts” here disclosed, in which 
Mr. D. related some miscellaneous experiments on the mu¬ 
riatic 


183 


Society of Antiquaries. 

riafic and fluoric acids, all of which tended to prove that 
oxygen, is one of their constituent principles. The earths 
of barytes and stront’rtes, as 'being most analogous to the al¬ 
kalis, were likewise examined, and both yielded considerable 
quantities of oxygen. Mr. D. concluded by remarking the 
impropriety of limiting the term oxygen to a specific cha¬ 
racter, as opposed to that of alkali, observed the necessity of 
improving the nomenclature in consequence of the new facts 
now discovered, and the influence of this u metallary 
base, as it might be called,’* on other Todies; and suggested 
the importance and extent of the new field these fadts 
opened to geology, as likely to lead to numerous discoveries 
relative to the formation of various stones, strata, and 
mountains. 

A paper by E. Home, Esq. on the Functions of the Spleen, 
was also partly read. Mr. Home, having had some reason to 
believe that the pylorus is not the only organ by which the 
nutriment, taken into the stomach, is appropriated by the 
system, but that the spleen also performs an important part in 
the process of animalizing the food, took a dog, fixed a li¬ 
gature on the pylorus, and injected five ounces of a 
liquid, coloured with indigo, into the stomach : two 
ounces of this fluid were ejected, and, two hours after, the 
dog was killed : when only one ounce was found in his sto- 
mach, while two had been absorbed by the spleen, as th'e 
pylorus was found entirely empty. The liquid was decomposed, 
and the indigo deposited on the cardiac portion of the sto¬ 
mach. 


SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 

This Society assembled, as usual, on the 5th of Novem¬ 
ber, which was occupied with receiving presents, and pro¬ 
posing or balloting for members. On the 12th, Sir H. C. 
Englefield, hart., vice-president, in the chair. Mr. Caiter 
exhibited some exquisite drawings of Waltham Abbey, in the 
true Saxon style of architecture, built before the Conquest, 
and supposed about the year 1062 . Several Roman coins, 
and copper basons, the latter most probably used for divi na¬ 
tion, were also exhibited. Mr. Weston presented to the 

M 4 society 


3 84 French National Institute . 

society a fac simile and translation of the inscription on.the 
piece of ordnance in St. James’s park, brought from Egypt, 
The inscription states the date of its foundry in 920 of the 
Hegira, (1542 of the Christian sera,) and also a description 
of its powers, as, u There is nothing can stand before me 
but I destroy and tear to pieces,—-in my belly is fire, in my 
mouth thunder and death,&c. &c. These expressions, it 
must be confessed, are not less rational than Louis XIV’s 
€: Lex ultima legumf* or Oliver Cromwell's ee Open our 
mouths, O Lord, and we will show forth thv praise ! 5S 
which decorated the cannons of these warriors at a much 
later period. On the 19 th, Dr. Neil exhibited to the 
society the horn of a rhinoceros, found near Cairo. It was 
finely carved with several well-executed figures of animals, 
in bas-relief, about tw-o feet long, and at the base nearly six 
inches in diameter. It is cut into the shape of a Turkey 
slipper, only with a spout like a mouth at the small end. A 
curious cup was likewise exhibited, on which were delineated 
the inebriety and excesses of Noah, Lot, his daughters, &c t 
It is of a cylindrical figure, made of walnut, holding about 
two quarts, lined with tin, and is conjectured to be very 
antient, and to have been the workmanship of our ances¬ 
tors at a time when biblical characters were the chief sub¬ 
jects of art. 

FRENCH NATIONAL INSTITUTE. 

i— • v '— 

[Continued from p. 89 ] 

Naturalists have therefore thought that animals en- 
dowed with instincts exercise these particular actions h\ 
virtue of an interior impulse, independently of experience, 
foresight, education, and external agents; or, in other terms, 
that their organization by itself alone determines them to act 
in this manner. This result has been adopted by almost all 
writers; and, if they have varied, it has been merely in ex¬ 
plaining the manner in which organization can communi¬ 
cate this determination : the following is the hypothesis of 
one author upon this subject: 

The want of, or the desire for, a certain action can only 

be 


French National Institute . 135 

be occasioned by sensations or recollections of sensations ; 
in a word, by images : but it is not necessary that a sensa¬ 
tion should be an outward one; because every external sensa¬ 
tion requires internal movements of the nerves and brain, 
without which it would not have taken place. Now these in¬ 
ternal movements may arise in the organs themselves, with¬ 
out any external excitement; and thus it often happens in 
dreaming, and in different diseases; there is nothing, there¬ 
fore, to prevent certain animals from being organized in such 
a manner that there are constantly in them interior move¬ 
ments proper for producing sensations, images, and so that 

these images determine imperatively then volition to certain 
actions. 

I his hypothesis seems to have nothing in common with 
that of innate ideas, which has for its object merely general 
or abstract ideas ; because those who deny, with reason, that 
the general ideas of mankind are innate, have never asserted 
that man can have sensations in virtue of internal move¬ 
ments of his proper body, and without the intervention of 
external bodies; the experience of every day would have 
given the lie to their assertion. 

Nor does this hypothesis seem to have any thing in com¬ 
mon with that oi materialismi for, whatever idea we form 
of the intimate nature of the thinking principle, we are al¬ 
ways obliged to ahow that it only experiences sensations by 
the intermedium of the brain and the nervous system. 

In the last place, it has nothing which connects it more 
than another with the doctrine of fatalism ; for, every action 
being determined either by an actual sensation or by the 
remembrance of a past sensation, or, lastly, by the fear or 
hope of a future sensation,— let these sensations be internal 
or external, the state of the question is not changed. 

It seems to be, however, from the fear of falling into 
$ny of these labyrinths, that M. Dupont has indiscri¬ 
minately rejected every kind of instinct whatever. 

He begins by showing that the actions of animals of 
superior orders, such as quadrupeds and birds, result from 
'the combination of their experience and their physical fa¬ 
culties : but lie might have saved himself this trouble ; all 

naturalists 


1 So French National Institute. 

naturalists admit it. Afterwards he endeavours to explain 
physically how these animals, and children also, learn to 
suckle : he shows that several species have the power of 
emitting sounds numerous enough to form a very com¬ 
plicated language; and he asserts that he observed they 
employed some of these signs in circumstances so com¬ 
pletely similar, that it cannot be doubted they attach a 
fixed simiification to them. His observations on this 

O 

head are very interesting, and must enrich the natural 
history of such species. 

He also endeavours to prove; that the species may per¬ 
fect their processes in certain circumstances ; but perhaps 
naturalists will here discover that he has sometimes mis¬ 
taken different species for one and the same species in a state 
ef greater perfection. Thus, the architect beaver of Canada 
is not entirely similar to the terrier castor of the Rhone; and 
the gregarious spider of Paraguay is by no means the 
same with our solitary spiders. 

We may conceive, from what we have mentioned above, 
that the greatest difficulty for M. Dupont would be, to ex¬ 
plain how insects have acquired the precautions, so marvel¬ 
lous, with which they prepare for the egg they produce, and 
for the worm it is about to hatch, the requisite security and 
nourishment; although these insects often never saw, or, if 
they did, never will see again, either a similar egg or a si¬ 
milar worm ; and although the wants of the worm have no 
relation with those of the insect, which works for it. 

Among the multitude of examples which we may adduce, 
M. Dupont has chosen one only; but we do not think he 
lias been happy in his choice; it is that of a false solitary 
wasp, the industry of which is as follows -During its ex¬ 
istence as a perfect insect it attaches itself to the flowers; 
when it is ready to lay its eggs it digs a cylindrical hole in 
clayey sand; it deposits an egg at the bottom : it then goes 
among some cabbages and seizes upon a small green cater¬ 
pillar which it had never before made its prey; this cater¬ 
pillar the wasp pricks with its sting, so as to weaken it, in 
order that it may not make any resistance against the worm 
which is about to issue front the egg and devour it: the ca¬ 
terpillar 


French National Institute. 


i 37 

terpiliar.is not injured by the wasp so much gs to kill it, and 
thus make it liable to petrifaction : it then rolls it up into a 
circularform, and places it atth.e bottom of the hole: the wasp 
then proceeds to fetch eleven similar caterpillars successively, 
\vh ch it treats in the same manner-: it then closes up the 
hole and dies. The small worm is now hatched; it devours 
the twelve caterpillars in succession, and then metamorphoses 
itself into a wasp, which leaves its subterraneous apartment 
and flies about among the flowers ; it becomes impregnated 
by the male, and begins again, when it wishes to lay its 
eggs, precisely the same operations as its mother, and upop 
the same speejes of caterpillars. 

M. Dupont de Nemours is not only obliged to suppose, 
and in fact he does suppose in his explanation, that the per¬ 
fect insect preserves the .remembrance of sensations expe¬ 
rienced by it in the state .of a worm, although it lias entirely 
changed its form and its organs ; but be must also think, 
although he does not say so expressly, that the wasp can 
never know by eye-sight the caterpillars and the sand, that 
it had never learnt to know them except by the touch, and 
even by its old touch as a worm ; for when a worm it is 
blind, it lives in a dark cell, and when ihe wasp is hatched 
in this cell the caterpillars are no longer there. Lastly, as 
M. Dupont does not venture to admit that the wasp has the 
foresight that the egg it deposits will become a worm, ancl 
will require all the care it can bestow on it, he must intend 
to insinuate that the wasp does all this solely to amuse itself 
by imitating what it had seen in its infancy. 

Such, in our opinion, are the difficulties which M. Du¬ 
pont combats on the one hand, and such are the difficulties 
into which he plunges himself on the other hand. We have 
endeavoured to be impartial in our statement of them, but 
it does not belong to us to form any judgment as to their 
merits. Our readers who peruse M. Dupont ; s memoir will 
derive all the pleasure which the wit and imagination of this 
ingenious philosopher cannot fail to produce. 


XXIX. Lit 


[ 188 ] 

XXIX. Intelligence and j Miscellaneous Articles. 

W J 

THE COMET. 

M. Bguvard, member of the French Institute and of 
the Board of Longitude, has published the following addi¬ 
tional facts respecting this phenomenon : 

“ The comet discovered at Marseilles on the 20th of Sep¬ 
tember is the most beautiful that has been seen these 30 years. 
Its nucleus appears like a star of the first or second magni¬ 
tude, but its light is paler: its tail is not very extensive, 
being only a few degrees: its light, however, and that ot 
its nucleus are striking enough to enable us to see it every 
evening. 

u On the 30th of September 1 was informed of the ap¬ 
pearance of this new comet, and on the same evening I de¬ 
termined its position with an excellent instrument. From 
this time I observed it regularly when the weather was fa¬ 
vourable. 

44 The elements of its orbit have been determined by my 
observations; and by emplo'. ing the method of M Laplace 
I found it had passed its perihelion on the 19 th of Septem¬ 
ber 1807, at 6h. 50m. in the morning, mean time, at Paris. 

44 Its perihelion distance, that of the Sun being taken 
at unity, is 0 6*749 * • 

44 The longitude of the perihelion upon the orbit—27° 5ff 
53". 

44 The longitude of the ascending node 266° 39" 4(/L 

44 The inclination of the orbit 63° lT l". 

44 Heliocentric motion direct. 

r 

44 This comet from the period of its discovery has been con¬ 
tinually removing from the sun and the earth ; its distance 
from the earth, however, surpasses that of the sun, and it in¬ 
creases every day. This comet will he still visible for some 
time; which will afford an opportunity for multiplying ob¬ 
servations, and will be favourable to astronomers in supply¬ 
ing them with the means of ascertaining with great exactness 
the elements of its orbit, which resembles none of the or¬ 
bits of any comet hitherto observed. 

“ Paris, 2d Nov. 1807.” 

" A Me- 


Vaccination . 


JS£> 

A Medical Gentleman has invented a new mode of secret 
Writing, which cafi never be effaced but by destroying the* 
paper; and winch produces ten or tw elve perfect copies’ 
as soon as one, with no more trouble to the writer. The 
same Gentleman, we understand, wrote the article “ Cipher ” 
for the new Cyclopaedia, which has excited considerable 

i * 

attention in the literary world. 

A New Edition of Mr. Parkes’s Chemical Catechism, which 
has been for some time expected, has just made its appear¬ 
ance. We observe, in it some very considerable additions 
and improvements. The “Essay on the Utility ot Che¬ 
mistry to the Arts and Manufactures, ” by the same author, 
and which makes a part of the above volume, may be had 

bv itself. 

* 

VACCINATION. 

M. Champagnv, the French minister of the interior, has 
presented to the emperor Napoleon a report of the present 
state of vaccination in France. His majesty had directed 
M.Champagnv to obtain authentic materials for this report, 
by inciting the prefects and clergy of all the departments in 
the empire to transmit to Paris official documents on the 
subject. M. Champagny has displayed great zeal for the 
interests of humanity in the performance of the task thus 
imposed upon him; and in the masterly report he has pre¬ 
sented to the emperor on the subject, he records the names 
of such of the French clergy as have been most active in 
the propagation of the vaccine among their parishioners. 
The emperor, on perusing the report, ordered M. Cham¬ 
pagny to intimate to these enlightened ministers of the 
Christian religion, that their names should he remembered in 
the future distribution of church preferments. 

M. Champa ny, in his report, expresses his regret that 
the vaccine should have met with some opposition from 
the ignorant in France, in consequence of the translation of 
some pamphlets from the English language, and suggests 
that his majesty should issue some restriction upon the cir¬ 
culation of works of a tendency hostile to vaccination. 

While 



I0O 


List oj Patents for jSfeiv Inventions. 

While the above encouragement has been given in Franck 
to the vaccine inoculation, the king - of Bavaria has gone a 
falep further in the cause of humanity. Bv a royal or- 
clonnance lately published, his majesty has decreed that every 
child within his dominions who has not attained the age of 

o 

three years shall be vaccinated before the 1 st of July ISOS', 
and that every infant born in future within his dominions 1 
shall undergo the same inoculation within three months 
after its birth. Heavy penalties are inflicted on the neglect 
of this decree, and inoculation for the small-pox is pro- 
hibited under pain of imprisonment* 


M. Lechcnault, one of the naturalists who accompanied 
the French circumnavigator captain Baudin, has arrived at 
Paris. He has brought with him a fine collection in natural 
history, consisting of minerals, mammiferous and oviparous 
quadrupeds, serpents, birds, shells, and insects, with a 
magnificent liortus siccus , and a very rare collection of arms 
and instruments from India, Otaheite, Java, and other 
neighbouring islands. M. Leehenault left captain Baudin 
at Batavia in extreme ill health. 


LIST OF PATENTS FOR NEW INVENTIONS. 

To William Pedder, of Norfolk-Street, Strand, London, 
Esq. for an improvement to cattle-mills, and water-nulls 
for grinding sugar-canes, or any other mill or machine re¬ 
quiring additional velocity and power. October 19. 

To Tebaldo Monzani, of Old Bond-Street and Cheapside, 
London, music-seller, for a new German flute. Oct. IQ. 

To Edward Shorter, of the parish of St. Giles Cripplegate, 
in the city of London, mechanic, for certain improvements 
in the jack for roasting meat. October 19. 

To Louis Caron, of the city of Paris, but now residing in 
the city of London, manufacturer, for new methods of 
weaving or manufacturing hair along with silk, or thread, or 
other materials, and of making the same into perukes or 
wigs, and various other articles, so as to imitate nature $ and 
af taking the measure, or section, or profile, of the head, 

bv 



List of Patents for New Inventions . I'gt 

by an instrument applicable to that and other useful pur¬ 
poses. October 21. 

To Henry Thomson, of Tottenham in the county of 
Middlesex, merchant, for impregnating Cheltenham or 
other natural medicinal waters, or such as are usually de¬ 
nominated fC mineral waters/’ with one or more of the dif¬ 
ferent gases or aeriform fluids, and in adding other sub¬ 
stances to, or combining the same with, such waters. Oc¬ 
tober 30. 

To William Chapman, of the town and county of New¬ 
castle upon Tyne, civil engineer, and Edward Walton 
Chapman, of the same place, rope-maker, for their method 
or methods of making a belt or flat band, for the purpose 
of drawing coals and other minerals up the pits or shafts of 
mines ; and for raising of heavy articles in any situation 
whatever. October 30. 

To George Hawks, of Gateshead in the county of Dur¬ 
ham, iron manufacturer, for a new method of making 1 , and 
likewise of keeping in repair, cast-iron wheels for coal wag¬ 
gons, and other carriages where such wheels are appli¬ 
cable. November b- 

To John Dickinson, of the parish of St. Martin Ludgate, 
in the city of London, stationer, for cannon cartridge paper 
manufactured on an improved principle. November 12. 

To Joseph Jewell, of Stratford in the county of Essex, 
e'hemist, for his method of preparing, or reduciug to an 
impalpable powder for medicinal use, the substance com¬ 
monly called or known by the name of calomel; whereby 
the process usually employed of levigating the same is 
rendered unnecessary. November I 7. 

To William Lester, of Paddington Green in the parish of 
Paddington, in the county of Middlesex, engineer, for va¬ 
rious further improvements on an engine or machine for 
separating corn seeds and pulse from the straw and chaff; 
and for which said engine or machine the said William 
Lester obtained his majesty’s letters patent dated the 16th of 
January, 130.5. November 21. 


METEOKO- 


I g 2 Meteorology • 

METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, 

By Mr. Carey, of the Strand* 
For November 1807. 




Therngornetcr. 


* w 










.Days of the 
Month. 

A. 

o’Clock, 

Corning. 

Noon. 

-4 
o . 

- *_ 

w s/ 

~ c £ 

Heieh’ - of 
the Barom. 

Inches. 

Q « t 

QJ > 

L 

7° £ 

Weather. 

' 


O0 



• . . 

O c 4 . 



Oct. 27 

46° 

50° 

40° 

29*60 

0 

Rain 


28 

37 

42 

40 

•78 

7 

Fair 

y 

20 

40 

52 

46 

*52 

6 

Cloudy 


30 

39 

50 

46 

•48 

0 

Cloudy 


31 

45 

50 

46 

*85 

7 

Fair 

* 

Nov. 1 

46 

52 

4 7 

*62 

15 

Fair 


2 

46 

51 

50 

*68 

18 

Fair 

* 

3 

■ 42 

47 

37 

*23 

25 

Fair, stormy at 






■ 


niaht 

- 

4 

40 

46 

35 

45 

17 

Fair 

C 

5 

o - 

oo 

50 

47 

•45 

10 

Cloudy 


0 

40 

49 

46 

•51 

27 

Fair 


/ 

4 5 

51 

4 4 

•32 

18 

Fair 


8 

44 

45 

40 

• oo 

12 

Fair 


9 

35 

43 

41 

*45 

24 

Fair 

t 

10 

35 

48 

38 

• 0C) 

20 

Fair 

* 

» 

11 

37 

42 

32 

•38 

8 

Fair 


12 

31 

38 

32 

*85 

6 

Fair 


13 

90 

J jU 

38 

35 

*96 

10 

Cloudy 


14 

35 

42 

37 

30-03 

4 

Cloudy 


15 

42 

44 

42 

29*98 

7 

Cloudy 

- 

16 

44 

45 

41 

*89 

10 

Cloudy 

4 

17 

40 

43 

39 

•84 

7 

Cloudy 


18 

39 

40 

32 

*56 

10 

Cloudy 

j 


191 

83 

37 

41 

•16 

0 

Snow 

, r . 

20 

40 

41 

32 

0* 

00 

CM 

12 

Stormy 

A 

21 

31 

36 

31 

29*39 

' 14 

Fair 

* 

cro 

Mi jJ 

30 

39 

47 

♦36 

0 

Rain 


23 

44 

46 

36 

•02 

0 

Stormy 


24 

O 1 

O 1 

38 

34 

•25 

11 

Fair 


o si 

J~ 

3 5 

41 


•42 

10 

Fair 


261 
i 

34 

41 

30 

*44 

9 

Fa.r 

» . •* > 


N. B. The Bar omcter’s height is taken atone o’clock. 









































[ 193 ] 


XXX. Proposal for the Establishment of a National Mu- 
seum. By J. S. Duncan, Esq. of Lincoln’s Inn . 

To the Artist, the Man of Taste, the discerning Politician, the sin¬ 
cere Patriot, the Man of pure Morals, and of rational Religion, 
this Design for a Museum, calculated to unite Instruction with 
Amusement, is, with respect, dedicated by 

J. S. Duncan. 

NATIONAL MUSEUM op NATURAL HISTORY, 

Jt is proposed to establish a grand National Museum to 
exhibit in scientific arrangement the principal objects of 
natural history. By a national museum is meant, not 
merely a collection of rarities, however wonderful, of novel¬ 
ties which may surprise, or of anomalies which may con¬ 
found the learned ; but a methodical display of that instruc¬ 
tive order and harmony which the wise Author of all being 
has been pleased to manifest through all his works : an ex¬ 
hibition of the 

** .. bearings and the ties. 

The strong connections, nice dependencies, 

Gradations just^-” 

which cannot fail to excite even in rude minds emotions of 
delight, and which tend to impress those improved by the 
most moderate culture with salutary awe, and a conviction, 
of the all-disposing, all-prevailing wisdom, power, and 
glory of the omnipresent Deity. 

The writings of Ray and Derham, and the excellently 
methodized Natural Theology of Paley, will be proper intro¬ 
ductions or companions to the National Museum. It is 
obvious that the lecturer, preacher, and writer, have to con¬ 
tend with many impediments of language, while by that me¬ 
dium alone they endeavour to sway the heart and to affect 
the understanding. Eloquence however animating, propo¬ 
sitions however clearly enounced and syllogistically 
proved, do not associate with the impressions of surround¬ 
ing objects so constantly and forcibly as events actually wit¬ 
nessed, and effects with their proximate causes exhibited to 
the senses. The superiority of example to precept is a pro- 

YoL 29 . No. 115. Dec . 1807 . N verb 

» * * 



*94 


Proposalfor the Establishment of 


verb of all schools : this truth is explained in the most sim¬ 
ple manner by the observation of the mental process, which 
associates impressions with ideas, the present with the past, 
giving activity to memory, and strength to habit. A mu¬ 
seum comprehending all objects of natural science, exhibit¬ 
ing in regular arrangement their classes, orders, genera, 
species, and varieties, while it shall preach and lecture to the 
eye and to the touch, will illustrate the discourse of the phi¬ 
losopher and the divine, and store the mind with images 
which will readily associate with the objects of daily and of 
hourly occurrence. 

Perhaps no religious truth has ecjual force to subdue the 
fluctuations of the human soul, to repress in the instant of 
temptation the beginnings of sinful emotion, with that which 
impresses on the mind and heart the universal actual pre¬ 
sence of the all-beholding Deity. It is not a light under¬ 
taking, a project of temporary amusement, which proposes 
to associate every object of nature with this awful idea, to 
cause its continual recurrence, and induce it to predomi¬ 
nate with the energy of habit. 

That the scheme of forming a museum with a moral and 
religious view is rather novel, may perhaps be admitted. 
The curiosity of naturalists has probably impelled them, for 
the most part, to collect, and some vanity may have 
mingled with the philanthropy which has displayed to the 
public their miscellaneous rarities. These principles and 
these collections have however been subservient to the views 
of general science; they have enlarged its scope and ex^ 
tended its career: but science itself is destitute of dignity, 
unless it be derived from its unwearied service, its high 
fealty to morals and religion. These can alone invest with 
proper dignity, and sanction with the broad stamp of utility, 
the charter of a national museum. 

Yet to encourage public amusements in their nature 
wholly innocent is not unworthy of wise legislators. How few 
public diversions are entitled even tathis praise. To diffuse 
joy amongst the subjects of its care is a glorious effort of an 
enlightened government: but to mix instruction with de- 
' light —delectando pariterque monendo —to range the^passion 


a National Museum . 1§5 

for amusement on the side of virtue, is entitled to the higher 
praise of generous and far-sighted policy. 

The games of ancient Greece and Rome were grand po¬ 
litical institutions. They were employed to call forth into 
action a display of various talent, to excite ardent emula¬ 
tion, to sooth the public mind, and divert it from the irri¬ 
tation of calamity, or of ignorance inflamed by faction : but 
they also were tributary to the elegant arts, and gave some of 
their richest stores to painting, poetry, and sculpture. What 
can more surely tend to the refinement of taste, as applied to 
the graces of art, than the habitual contemplation of the 
brilliant varieties, the elegant gradations and harmonies of 
form and colour displayed throughout every department of 
inanimate as well as of animated nature ? 

The advantages of such an establishment to the purposes 
of scientific inquiry are too obvious to need specification. 

A national museum, considered in these points of view, as 
adapted both to the instruction and delight of the nation at 
large, cannot fail, it is ^presumed, to interest all classes in 
its favour. 

We are blest with a sovereign under whose auspices and 
protection every liberal science, and the arts in all their 
branches, have arrived at a degree of perfection exceeding, 
in most respects, the attainments of all other nations. The 
globe has been widely and accurately explored, and our con¬ 
nections with distant regions extended beyond all compari¬ 
son with those of any other people in any period of time. 

It is believed that a scheme of establishing a national mu¬ 
seum has already been contemplated bv his majesty, together 
with some leading members of his late administration ; and 
that the museum collected by Sir Ashton Lever w 7 ould have 
been purchased as the foundation of such an establishment, 
had the specimens been found in a due state of preservation. 
It may not beimproper here to observe, that a museumformed 
on a preconcerted plan of scientific arrangement, is not like¬ 
ly to be attended with the expenses in which a rage for 
rarities frequently involves the emulous collector. 

Our catalogue of scientific men, whose names do honour 

their age and country, is too long to be here inserted. It 

N 2 may 


196 Proposal for the Establishment of 

may suffice to name Sir Joseph Banks, the patron of natural 
science, and the student’s friend ; Dr. Shaw, the classical 
historian of animated nature; Dr. Smith, alter Linnaeus ;—- 
Mineralogy and chemistry boast of their Chenevix, Hat¬ 
chett, Davy, and Thompson ;—Geology of De Luc, or Sir 
James Hall, Lord William Seymour, and of Kirwan ;—Com¬ 
parative anatomy of Horn?, Carlisle, Cowper, &c.. See. 

The wealth of our merchants is equalled by the en¬ 
lightened views which direct their magnificent liberality. 
Their ardour for the advancement of the liberal arts is dis¬ 
played in their establishment of the City Institution, and in 
the Oriental College at Hertford. It is not to be doubted 
that they will extensively support the proposed museum by 
a gratuitous importation of the productions of distant re¬ 
gions, which may be pointed out to them as requisite to the 
advancement of such an institution ; and at the same time 
freely contribute to a fund for its permanent support. 

The spirit of general inquiry awakened by the Royal In¬ 
stitution, will secure powerful and numerous friends to the 
establishment at the court end of the town. 

Contributions of specimens from private collectors, whose 
names should be inscribed and exhibited with honour, wilt 
soon make the difficulty of selection much exceed that of 
collection. 

It is hoped that his majesty’s ministers may be induced 
to allot a sufficient sum for the purchase of a spacious house 
in an airy part of the town, to chartered trustees, empowers 
ed to receive subscriptions to a limited amount, upon a plan 
of tontine, in which the trustees may be survivors, 

It is proposed that a sum of be raised by sub¬ 

scription, or sale or shares, at the rate of 
for each share; and that the holders of such shares 
be entitled to receive interest thereon, not exceeding the rate 
of five per cent.., whensoever such division can be made 
from actual receipts, and to increase such interest by annual 
addition, in proportion to the deaths of the several holders of 
shares, till the original nominees be all dead ; when all pro¬ 
fits arising from the institution shall cease, or be applicable 
wholly to the purposes of the institution. 


la 


a National Museum. 


197 

In order to raise money for the payment of such interest 
on the subscribed capital, it will be requisite that a certain 
sum be collected at the door from each person demanding 
admittance to view the museum. 

It is proposed that such sum should not exceed two shil¬ 
lings for each person. 

That on one day in every week the museum be open to 
any of his majesty’s subjects not paying lor their admittance. 
Not more than fifteen to be admitted at one time, and a cer¬ 
tain portion of time to be fixed for showing the museum on 
such days to each party. ? 

That the trustees and officers of the museum, and mem¬ 
bers of a committee, to be appointed lor conducting the 
affairs of the museum, be allowed to grant tickets for the 
gratuitous admission of well-educated foreigners. 

That a part of the sum collected for the establishment of 
the National Museum be vested in the names of the trustees 
in the government funds, and that the dividends thereon be 
applicable to the payment of certain officers and servants re¬ 
quired for the arrangement and exhibition of the museum. 

Other (economical details may be considered at the first 
meeting of subscribers, when a committee must be ap¬ 
pointed. 

Not to encumber this proposal with the enumeration of 
the several classes, of natural objects, it may suffice 
to observe, that it is fundamentally essential to the great ob¬ 
jects above expressed, that every article he disposed accord¬ 
ing to the most approved method of scientific arrangement. 

With a view of illustrating the important arguments so 
luminously developed in Dr. Paiey’s Natural Theology, it is 
proposed that a considerable part of the exhibition be dedi¬ 
cated to comparative anatomy, illustrated by natural speci¬ 
mens or models, either separately assembled, or displayed in 
rooms dedicated to the several branches of zoology*. 

Adjoining to each press, containing specimens of every 

* But a small part of the British Museum is dedicated to objects of natural 
history. The specimens of zoology are without arrangement, and greatly 
.decayed. There is no fund for replacing those which moulder away, nyr for 
augmenting the collection. 

N 3 


.department 


198 


i 

Proposal for the Establishment of 

department, should be suspended moveable tablets, enume¬ 
rating the several objects, particularising the connecting 
points of different classes, and specifying remarkable analo¬ 
gies and anomalies. 

Such tablets will at once assist the apprehension of the 
spectator, and facilitate the exhibition. 

TO ©E a, 

Tlzv'fspyotT’?], TLavrcurry, II a.rfwpcn’opi. 

What worthier temple can we raise to his glory than one 
which, presenting to the senses an epitome of his works, 
may serve as a pronaon to the temple of his creation, of 
which the heavens are spread out as the vault*, the height 
of the sanctuaryf, wherein, sitting on the circleJ of the 
earth, he calleth all things by their names, and bringeth out 
their hosts by number, and maintaineth them by the great¬ 
ness of his might, 

ARGUMENT 

V 

Introductory to the Collection of Tablets , or Catalogue of 

the National Museum . 

cc It is impossible to know any thing of the cause but what you have ant£» 
cedently, not inferred, but discovered, to the full, in the effect.” Hume, 

All nature presents us with a series of important hiero¬ 
glyphics, a part of which is easy of explanation, a part ap¬ 
pears to lie beyond the reach of human faculties. 

The explicable part involves truths which concern u$ 
above all others : namely, our relations to all other beings, 
and to the Author of all modes of being, of all order, physi¬ 
cal and moral. 

The relations of the different parts of the forms of living 
beings to the continued subsistence of individuals subject to 
thought and voluntary power; the relations of individuals 
to each other, and to the continuance of species, subjected 
to the exertions of thought and voluntary power; and the 

/ ✓ 

* “ Vault.’’ Esdras, xvi. 59. f “ Sanctuary.” Psal. cii. 19. 

^ “ Circle.” Isaiah xl. 22 and 26, 


relations 


■a National Museum . 19 ^ 

•.relations of all objects of sense and reflection to the well¬ 
being of animated individuals, and species subject also to 
thought and voluntary power—are effects in which we fully 
discover a power controlling other powers : such as attrac¬ 
tion, repulsion, or impulse, capable of comprehending all 
such relations; to which power all animated beings are 
consequently related, as effects to a supreme cause. 

1. We perceive changes in the objects of our senses and 
of our consciousness ; motion beginning and ending ; forms 
now distinct, now united ; now dissolved, now restored. 

2. When we move our own limbs, or give motion to, or 
restrain the motion of, another body, we are conscious* of 
exertion preceding the motion. 

The degree of exertion required to move or to restrain the 
motion of any power, is called power. 

3. This exertion is commonly preceded by thought and 
will: of which also we arc conscious. 

Change implies motion of the sense, or of the object: 
hence all perceived or supposed causes of change are inclu¬ 
ded under the common or general name—power. 

4. When objects are perceived to move one towards 
another with velocity, continually increasing as they ap¬ 
proach, we say they are moved by powers of mutual attrac¬ 
tion. 

5. When bodies so moved become fixed in contact, we 
say they cohere by powers of mutual attraction. 

6. Cohesion is broken or dissolved by new, superior, and 
opposite attractions, orby communicated motion frombodies 
moved by power, greater than that which held the cohering 

' bodies together. 

Experience shows that the continuance of an effect may 
be preserved by a less degree of power than that which was 
required to produce it. 

The communication of motion, whether by the exertion 
of living beings, or from any moving body to another body, 
either moving at the same time or at rest, is called impulse. 

7. When bodies are perceived to recede from one another 
in right lines, with velocities decreasing in proportion to 

N 4 their 


200 Proposal for the Establishment of 

their distance, we say they are moved by mutual powers of 
repulsion. 

8 . Our experience of mutual attractions, of mutual re- 
pulsions, or of impulse proceeding from both or from either, 
does not discover any tendency or power, in all or either, 
to produce or restore forms possessing distinct parts, in which 
each part concurs to the continued subsistence of the other, 
and of the whole. 

9. Forms known to have been constituted by the cohe¬ 
sion of others, before known to have been distinct, and 
forms known to have been dissolved, and to have been again 
restored, are never perceived to have mutual relations to tbe 
permanent subsistence of each other. 

10 . When the forms of animated beings are dissolved, 
the particles'are observed not to attract one another general¬ 
ly : but several kinds of particles are distinguished by their 
different attractions: they unite and compose different 
forms, each bearing no relation to the permanent s ubsistence 
of any other. 

11 . The forms therefore of animated beings, and conse¬ 
quently the relations observed in the distinct parts, do not 
appear to proceed from attraction, repulsion, or from im¬ 
pulse derived from these. 

12 . The particles of inanimate forms, united by mutual 
attraction, remain in the same circumstances unchanged for 
ages; but those of animated forms are subject to continual 
change, and in a short time fall asunder. This tendency tq 
separate and dissolve soon follows the cessation or abstrac¬ 
tion of life, thought, and voluntary power. 

13 . When we consider the powers which conduce to any 
mode of being, as attraction, &c., experience leads us to 
conclude that the power which causes the continuance of 
an effect vyas the same, or is analogous to that which pro¬ 
duced the effect. 

14 . But different parts of the forms of animated beings 
bear relation to the continued subsistence of each other, of 
individuals and of species, subject to the exertions of 
thought and voluntary power. 


J 5 . Dif~ 


a National Museum, 'em 

15. Different animated beings bear also relation to the 
continued subsistence of each other, and of their respective 
species, subject to the exeitions of thought and voluntary 
power:—mothers to their offspring; males and females to 
their species. 

]6. Relations of position perceived in things whose con¬ 
tinued mode of beincr is. the effect of mutual tendencies, in- 
fluencies, attractions, or impulses of particles, to concur and 
cohere, are artributable to the same tendencies which have 
produced the concurrence and cohesion. Relations be¬ 
tween forms having no such tendency to cohere, indepen¬ 
dent of life, (v. clauses 8, 9, 10,) and dependent for con¬ 
tinued subsistence on the exertions of thought, and volun¬ 
tary power, are, by analogy, attributable to life, thought, 
and voluntary power. 

17. Either life, thought, and voluntary power, exist inde¬ 
pendent of form, or they are produced by form; or the 
concurrence of particles, not independently possessing 
either, or the cohesion of particles having no mutual tenden¬ 
cies to concur, cohere, and subsist, in such manner inde¬ 
pendent of them. The latter supposition makes life, 
thought, &c., both cause and effect ; which is absurd. 

Our experience is direct, that life, thought, and voluntary 
power are neither jointly or separately the results of form: 
their continuance is not affected by the amputation of great 
part of the form of animated beings. 

18. The duration of the form of animated beings k limit¬ 
ed by laws peculiar to each species of living brings : its re¬ 
lations to life, &c., are therefore limited. 

The limited duration of the forms of living beings is or¬ 
dained by the power which constituted the varieties of 
form. 

19 . The limitation of a mode of being is a prospective 
ordinance ; it is the act therefore of a power, regarding a 
future state of being different from that immediately pro¬ 
duced. 

20. The power which has constituted the forms of living 
beings comprehends all relations to life, thought, and volun¬ 
tary power, limits and controls attraction, repulsion, and 


^02 Proposalfor ike Establishment of 

impulse ; limits and controls the duration of its productions* 
The power comprehending, constituting, limiting, precedes 
and exceeds the constitution, the effect, the production. 

A power then is manifested through all animated nature, 
anterior and superior to all limited modes of being 3 the 
source of all order, or relations to life, thought, and volun¬ 
tary power. 

21 . But beside the relations of the parts of animated 
beings to each other, and of individuals of the same species to 
each other, which conduce to the continued subsistence of 
the individual, and of the species, subject to the exertions 
of thought and voluntary power, relations are perceived 
throughout all nature to the well-being, the utility, welfare, 
and happiness of living creatures, 

22 . We know from consciousness, and from analogy, 
that the exertions of thought and voluntary power are con¬ 
tinually directed to utility and happiness as their ultimate 
objects. 

These exertions, which draw bodies without attraction, 

• • • # * 
sever them without repulsion, impel by communicating, not 

pre-excited, but original self-motion, dispose and adapt 
various parts of nature to their ends—utility and happiness. 
The ends of their exertions are therefore, in some degree, 
similar to those of the power which has constituted the rela¬ 
tions of animated form, and subjected it to their direction. 

23. As we trace mutual attractions from minute particles 
of solids and fluids to the wide extent of the ocean and the 
atmosphere, to mountains and to worlds; so relations to the 
utility and happiness of living beings may be traced from 
objects of the microscope to the profundities of space ; from 
the farina on the anthers of the wheat-blossom, to the re¬ 
volutions of our planet round the sun. 

24. But all natural relations to the well-being of individu¬ 
als and species are * interwoven, and inseparably mingled 
with those which concur tp their continued subsistence. 
All natural relations, then, to the welfare and happiness of 
animated beings proceed from the same source, with all 
other relations to life, thought, and voluntary power. 

23. The relation of an organizing power to the continu¬ 
ance 


a National Museum. 203 

ance of any mode of being may be as that of an artist to a ma¬ 
chine : but the relation of an adequate power to the welfare 
and happiness of intellectual beings is a moral relation; a 
relation either identical with, or analogous to, sympathy, or 
benevolence, or care to produce present good, or a pruden¬ 
tial view to future benefits. Such relation must proceed 
from superior to inferior power and intelligence. 

20. Experience and consciousness, then, demonstrate our 
relations to a power stupendous and immeasurable; the au¬ 
thor of all relations to life, thought, and voluntary power; 
a power that regards our happiness ; that has contemplated 
prospectively our welfare in futurity ; the welfare of the man 
ere the foetus was perfect in the womb ; that has limited the 
relations of our form to life, and thought, and voluntary 
power, and placed there the limits of physical experience. 

The state of life, and thought, and voluntary power, be¬ 
yond these limits must be sought in the page of Revelation, 
which can alone elucidate those hieroglyphics in the book of 
nature, which conjecture, aided by analogy, may partially 
explore, but which appear, for the most part, to lie beyond 
the reach of our unassisted faculties. 

27. We never fail to connect the idea of moral duty with 
that of the moral relation of inferior to superior intelligence. 
The wants of our nature compel 11s to be social beings ; i. e. 
place us in various moral relations one to another. The 
power that has thus placed us, has, by this act, ordained 
every moral duty, imposed every moral obligation. The 
welfare of all human beings is made to depend on the general 
observance of these obligations, the performance of these 
duties. 

28 . We know from experience and consciousness that 
our relations to all objects around us are adapted to the con-< 
tinual excitement of moral emotion. All nature teems with 

t 

objects of delight ; we are organized to receive it, &c. These 
relations are as plain as those of lungs to air, and limbs to 
motion. We are made to depend on others for our happi¬ 
ness : we demand their efforts to effect it, and feel their 
claim on us for similar exertion. Sympathy urges us to 
act before reason can adjust ike measurement of right. 

We- 


204 On tie Establishment of a National Museum . 

*• 

We owe our being and our well-being to a superior power* 
which has ordained that our happiness shall principally de¬ 
pend upon our own exertions. Wisdom to discern and choose 
between good and evil* is, perhaps, sufficiently attainable by 
all ; and gratitude for the various good presented to our 
reach, affords a constant bias to that course of action which 
best suits the state in which we dud ourselves placed by the 
^11-disposing Power. 

29 . But, Why are we compelled to choose between good 
and evil } 

Why is evil permitted to exist ? 

Wffiy are we limited in faculties ? 

Why in duration of form ? 

Why are we in any respect as we are ? 

No objects of sense or consciousness, from which alone 
we derive knowledge, furnish us with answers to these ques¬ 
tions. We must again seek light from revelation. 

30. Let us contemplate with attention the relations of our 
forms to life, thought, and voluntary power, and to the 
limited continuance of our mode of being ; the relations cf 
individuals to each other, and to the continuance of the 
species ; the relations of different parts of nature to anima¬ 
ted beings ; the food adapted to peculiar organs ; the organs 
to peculiar food ; peculiar forms to various elements, or dif¬ 
ferent regions of the earth ; the tendency of various objects 
to excite our emotions; the tendency of our natures to be so 
affected ; the display of wisdom and wonderful contrivance 
in the varieties of creation ; of power in the magnitude of 
worlds, and the extent of their relations :—let us train our 
thought to meditate on our relation to the mighty Author of 
these boundless wonders. Can minds thus habitually exer¬ 
cised be disunited ? Can moral duties be neglected by 
those who reflect on the Author of all moral relations? 
Would not all party-differences be absorbed, all base pro¬ 
pensities be overwhelmed by the magnitude of the one glo¬ 
rious object of our contemplation? Would not wisdom 
result from the constant contemplation of the fountain of 
all wisdom ? Would not benevolence flow throughout all 
beings from the contemplation' of benevolence wide as the 

universe. 


On the Establishment of Telegraphs, &c. 205 

universe, and cnduringAo the end of time? Would not, 
must not, the result be. universal happiness ? • 

To promote such contemplation, and such results from 
it, is the chief object of the National Museum. 

[To be continued.] 


XXXI. Project for the Establishment of Telegraphs on a 

New Construction . By Capt. Pas ley, of the Royal 

Engineers* *. 

1st. A Nocturnal Telegraph . 

Having found, on inquiry made about four years ago 
into the progress of the telegraphic art, that no regular es¬ 
tablishment of night-signals have yet been instituted, simi¬ 
lar to that of the diurnal telegraphs in common use, so that 
all correspondence of this nature is suspended during a 
period when it may often be essentially necessary, I was in¬ 
duced to form the following project for a Nocturnal Tele¬ 
graph, which, together with the second plan that after¬ 
wards occurred to me, my remaining upon foreign service 
has hitherto prevented me from submitting to the atten¬ 
tion of the public. 

Nature and Construction. 

the proposed telegraph consists of six fixed lights, dis¬ 
posed in two rows of three lights each, one row placed ex¬ 
actly over the otherf . 

* Communicated by the author. 

f There have been several nocturnal telegraphs already proposed, some 
with more, some with fewer lights, some with one or more coloured lights; 
any ’discussion upon which, or comparison of those schemes with my own,would 
be improper, unless I were writing an essay on telegraphs: but it isright for me 
to acknowledge that there is one in the Naval Chronicle, proposed by Mr 
M'Arthur, consisting of the same number of lights as mine, to which gentle¬ 
man I must therefore resign the merit of first proposing a night telegraph 
with six lights ; but as the disposition of his lights, the object of his tele¬ 
graph, (which is meant for ships,) its principle, its key, and, in short, every¬ 
thing else are quite dilTerent, there appeared to me, after I saw his plan, suHi- 
cient originality in my own, not to withhold it from publication on account 
of this particular coincidence. If partial similarity were in all case 3 an objec¬ 
tion, there would be an end to improvement in the arts. 

3 


-These 




S0& On the Establishment of Telegraph# * 

These are supposed to be kept constantly burning whilst 
the telegraph is worked ; and being hid or shown at pleasure 
by means of blinds, they form forty-one distinct combina¬ 
tions or signals; the combinations of six bodies, which should 
properly be sixty-three, being reduced to this number by 
the ambiguity arising from its being impossible to ascertain 
the relative places of objects by night as by day. 

The construction of the telegraph will be understood by 
conceiving six large Ianthorns attached to a strong frame of 
timber, placed in the upper room, or on the roof or terrace 
of a building ; in which latter case it may be protected by 
a shed from the injuries of the weather. Each of these 
Ianthorns will contain a lamp, the intenseness of whose 
light must be proportioned to the distance between the tele¬ 
graphic stations, upon which the distance of the several 
Ianthorns on the frame from each other will also depend. 

Every Ian thorn must have two blinds, one on each side 
of it; to which will be fastened strings passing through the 
ceiling of the signal-room, and guided by pulleys to a con¬ 
venient place below, where they can be worked by a single 
man. The blinds are so hung, that in their natural state, 
when the telegraph is at rest, all the lights are hid except 
the middle one of the lower row, which serves to tmide the 
eye of the observers, and is therefore called the standing 
light, being always exhibited during the intervals between 
successive signals. 

The Key . 

In the table of combinations, or key of the telegraph an¬ 
nexed, it will be observed,that after leaving one for the stand- 
Ing light, and assigning thirty combinations to denote the let ¬ 
ters ofthealphabet, numerical cyphers, &c., the remainingten 
places are left blank. It is needless to explain the use of the first 
thirty signals, which are capable of communicating every 
kind of intelligence alphabetically, in a manner which must 
be evident on inspection*. I have only therefore to point out 

* The list of numbers appropriated to the several signals is not to be con¬ 
sidered a part of the key, although I have found it convenient to insert them 
there. They are of use only in the mechanical operation of working the te¬ 
legraph, when every string being numbered, they serve to show which of 
them must be pulled, in order to make the respective signals. 


how-* 


on a Neiv Construction . 207 

Bow the blanks may be filled to the best advantage, and 
how, by means of these, an extensive code of signals may 
be formed to suit the proposed telegraph, and considerably 
to abbreviate its operations. But I shall not pretend to give 
an example of such a code at large, for its contents must 
necessarily vary according to the circumstances of the 
country where such establishments may be made, and the 
arrangement of it must be left to the judgment of the per¬ 
sons who direct them. 

Different Modes of forming a Code of Signals . 

Let any number of words and sentences that are most 
likely to occur in practice, be written in regular order to the 
extent judged necessary, and if these do not exceed 300 , ki 
them be divided into sections according to a method ex¬ 
plained in the following table. 


Number of sections made 
use of. 

Number of places in each 
section. 

Total number of words 
andsentences forming' 
the code of signals. J 

1 

.39 

.......... 3'Q 

2 

.38 

. 

3 

.37 

.. lift 

4 

.30 

. 144 1 

5 

.35 

. 175 

6 

.. 34 

.. 204 i 

7 

.33 

.. 231 f 

8 

.32 

. 250 T 

Q 

. 31 

. 27 Q 1 

10 

_ 




Then let one of the blanks denote that << The ensuing 
signal will be read in the frst section —Let a second blank 
denote that “ The ensuing signal will be read in the second 
signalf and so on ; and thus may any list of words and 
sentences, under three hundred, be represented bv two 
changes on the telegraph, exclusive of all unusual or unex¬ 
pected intelligence, which may be communicated alphabeti¬ 
cally by the ordinary key. 

But when the number of words and sentences required 
exceeds 300 , the signal-book must be divided into two parts, 

the 





































SOS On the 'Establishment of Telegraphs 

the first of which will contain a certain number of sections* 

' / r 

composed of thirty places each, whilst the second will con-* 
tain a number of sections, consisting of nine hundred places 
each, observing only, that the number of sections in both 
parts added together must not exceed ten : then, instead of 
filling up the blanks in the manner before proposed, a cer¬ 
tain number of them must denote, that “ The ensiling sig¬ 
nal must he read in such a section of part first whilst the 
remaining blanks will signify, that “ The two ensiling sig¬ 
nals must he read in such a section of part second f specify ing 
the particular sections of each \ and according to the man¬ 
ner in which the two parts are divided, will be had a code of 
signals more or less extensive, as is shown in the following 
table, by which it will appear, that if the method used in the 
second part is carried to its utmost extent, by filling up all 
the blanks in that manner, a signal-book may be formed 
containing QOGO words and sentences, that may be repre* 
sented by three changes on the telegraph, retaining still the 
power of using the alphabetical mode when necessary, as 
before : and that number is more than can ever he either* 
useful or necessary in practice, but it might be increased on 
the same principle to an almost unlimited extent. 


Number of sections in 
part 1st. 

Number of places in 
each. 

Number of words and 
sentences in the first 
part, represented by 
two changes on the 
telegraph. 

Number of sections in 
part 2d. 

Number of places in 
each. 

Number of words and 
sentences in the second 
part, represented by- 
three changes on the 

J3 

o. 

c*4 

bo 

Qj 

<D 

4 -* 

Total No. 
of words 
and sen¬ 
tences that 
may be 

written in 
the signal- 
book. 

9 

30 


2/0 

1 

900 

900 


1170 

8 

30 


240 

O 

do. 

1800 


2040 

7 

do. 


210 

3 

do. 

2700 


2910 

6 

do. 


180 

4 

do. 

3600 


37 80 

5 

do. 


150 

5 

do. 

4500 


4650 

4 

do. 


120 

6 

do. 

5400 


5520 

3 



90 

7 

do. 

6300 


6390 

-2 

do. 


60 

8 

do. 

7200 


7260 

1 


s < 

30 

9 

do. 

8100 


SI 30 

0 



— 

10 

do. 

9000 


9000 


For 
























on a New Construction. 209 

For supposing that onlv nine of the blanks are used to 
refer to sections of words and sentences arranged according 
to the foregoing method, then the tenth blank may de¬ 
note that “ The three ensuing signals are to he read in a 
third part/’ which may be added to the signal-book, and 
may contain 27000 places of words and sentences, each of 
which will be represented by four changes 'on the telegraph. 

So that supposing we have six sections in part the first, 
three sections in part the second, and one only in part the 
third, we mi^lit form, if necessary, a code of signals consist- 

ing of 

Part 1 st. 

.Ox ,30 = ISO words and sentences that may be ex¬ 
pressed by two changes on the tele- 
graph. 

Part 2d. 

3 x 900 = 2700 words and sentences that may be ex¬ 

pressed by three changes on the tele¬ 
graph. 

Part 3d. 

1 x 27000 = 27000 words and sentences to be expressed 
Total 29680 by four changes on the telegraph. 

The manner of arranging the signals in this system by 
sections is, strictly speaking, numerical ; but as we carry 
our combinations as far as 30, not stopping, as usually prac¬ 
tised, at the number 10/it may in some respects be more apt¬ 
ly compared to the disposition of words in a dictionary. 

In the first part, the places in each column are regularly 
numbered from 1 to 30. 

In the second part, (containing what may be called the 
double signals,) the first place of each section is numbered 
1, 1, the second 1, 2, the third 1, 3, and so on up to 1, 30 : 
after which begins, 2,1, 2,2, 2,3, &c., &c., up to 

30, 30; which is the QOOth, and last place of the section. 

In the third part, if necessary, containing the triple sig¬ 
nals, the first place is numbered 1, 1, 1, the second place 
1 ; 1 , 2 , &c., 8cc., up to 1, 1, 30; after which commences 
1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1, 2, 3, &c. ; and if this were carried to 
its utmost extent, the last place, numbered 30, 30, 30, would 
be the 27000 th in regular order. 

Yol. 29. No. 113. Dec. 180/. 


O 





KEY . OF THE 

TELEGRAPH. 



« umucrs 
jppropria- 
ted ro the 
several 
signals. 

Combination 
of LIGHTS 
forming. 

Signal No. 

SIGNIFICATION. 

N umbers 

appropria¬ 
ted to the 
several 
siguals. 

Combination 
of LIGHTS 
forming. 

d 

5 

CJ 

bfl 

c73 

SIGNIFICATION. 

1 

O 0 

1 

A 


O O 

o o 

21 

3 

2 

O 

O 

2 

B 


o o c 

o o 

22 

4 

S 

o 

o 

3 

C hard,K, 0 


o o 

o o o 

23 

5 

4 

o 

o 

4 

D 


O O 

O O o 

24 

o 

1 9 

J. 5 W 

o 

o o 

5 

E 


o o 

o o o 

25 

7 

<1 

1,3 

o 

o o 

6 

F 


O O 0 

o o 

26 

8 

1,4 

o 

o o 

7 

G 


o o 

o 

27 

9 

. 1.5 

o o o 

8 

H 


o 

o o 

28 

10 initial O 

2,3 

o o 

o 

9 

I, J, Y 


o o 

o 

29 

End of a word 
or number. 

2,4 

o o 

o 

10 

L 


o o o 

o o o 

30 

Attention, 

Finish. 

2,5 

o 

o o 

11 

M 


o 

o o 

31 


3,4 

o o 

o 

12 

N 


o 

o o 

32 


1,2,3 

o o 

o o 

13 

O 


o o 

o 

33 


1,2,4 

o o 

o o 

14 

P 


o o 

o 

34 


1,2,5 

o 

o o o 

15 

R 

i 


o o o 

o 

35 


1,3,4 

o o 

o o 

16 

S, Z, C soft 


O 0 

o o 

36 


1,3,5 

o 

o o o 

17 

T 


o o 

o o 

37 


1,4,5 

o 

o o o 

18 

U, V, w 


o o 

o o 

38 


2,3,4 

o o o 

o 

19 

1 


o o o 

o 

39 


23 5 

O o 

o o 

20 

2 


o o o 

o o 

40 

* 


N. B Blinding the standing Standing been mistaken by the men at 

* •*» K f ^ K a i A r-\ I r\ a i 1 * * 1 'll 


11 


light during the interval be- 
t een twt signals will denote 


hat the signal last made has Light. servation. 


the answering station, and will 
be repeated for their better ob- 


[To be continued.] 


















































































































































































L 211 3 


XXXII. Some Observations on Dr. Taylor’s Theorem for 
the Development of the Function <p (a -f x).* 

When the Methodus Increment or um, &c. was first pub¬ 
lished, some of the continental analysts seemed to think 

that *he theorem a (a + x) = $ (a) 4- ^ 4 . ff 

^ v v w ^ 1 da ' V 2 

d 1 ^5 (a) 

— +* &c. which doctor Taylor had given as a disco¬ 
very of his own, was really the same with another theorem 
which John Bernoulli had previously investigated, and by 
which he had been led to the value of ]' y dx , when y is a 
function of x alone. Bernoulli, however, was himself too 
well informed to support this opinion openly; but under 
his patronage the question was agitated ; and he tacitly, at least, 
permitted the republication of the papers against Taylor in 
the collection of his works, which was edited at Lausanne 
in 1745 . But, whatever may have been the opinion of 
Bernoulli and his supporters, the after-judgment of suc¬ 
ceeding analysts has settled the debate; and it is now uni¬ 
versally admitted that the two theorems are totally different 
in the objects and purposes to which they can be applied. 
That which was discovered by Taylor has, under the hands 
of La Grange, been made the basis of a calculus similar in 
its uses and extent to the differential calculus; and the other, 
which was given by Bernoulli, performs the same office in 
the integral calculus to which the former is adapted in the 
differential. 

Betwixt the two theorems, however, there is not that dif¬ 
ference which might be expected to arise from the diversity 
of their objects of application, and the opposite principle 
upon which their demonstrations have been made to rest. 
The one may be very easily deduced from the other: but, 
although this is the case, there is not the least reason for 
confounding the theorems together; nor does this circum¬ 
stance afford even the shadow of a reason for alleging any 
similarity between them. The process on which we are 

* Communicated by the Author. 

O 2 


about 




212 Some Observations on Dr. Taylor's Theorem 

about to enter will explain a method by which the one 

theorem may be deduced from the other; and at the same 

time it will illustrate the analytical distinction betwixt them. 

By the theorem of Taylor we have 9 (a 4- x) = 9 (a) 4 * 

d 9 (a) d 2 9 {a ) x 2 . 

•—^- x 4 —--+, &c.: and, it we take the suc- 

d a d a % i‘ 2 5 

cessive differentials of this equation according to a, we 

shall obtain a series of new equations, by means of which 

we can easily eliminate all the terms on the right hand side 

except the first, and the result will be 9 (a) = 9 (a 4- x) — 

d 2 <p (a -f- x) 


x d <p (a+ x) ' x 2 

1 dx ^1*2 


d x 12 


4-, &c.: or, by transfer¬ 


ring the terms to the other side we shall have <p (a + x) 


, . % d. <p (a 4 x) 

■ (n) + 1 is 


x 2 d 2 9 {a + x) 


+ , 8rc. 


1*2 d x* 

From the form which we have here given to the develop¬ 
ment, a number of consequences can be derived ; and 
among these we shall first notice the theorem of Bernoulli. 

If we take a = o, then will 9 (x) — 9 (0) 4- j ^ ^ 


x. 


d 2 9 (x) 


x 3 d 3 9 (x) 


I" 2 d X I • 2* 3 d x 3 


+, &c. and if 9 (.r) re¬ 


present the area of a curve, of which x and y are the co¬ 


ordinates, then 9 (x) — sy di'5 — 


d 9 57 


d x 


y 


d 2 9 (F) 

d tf 2 


dy 

d x 


&c. and ,fy d« = 9 (0) + 




d */ 


+ 


r 2* 3 


d 2 y 
lx* 


1*2 d a? 

&c.; where the quantity 9 (0) represents the constart, re 
quisite for completing the integral. 

We shall next proceed to consider the form which the 
binomial (a 4- x) n takes when subjected to. this new spe¬ 
cies of development. Here we have d. = 


7 i' (a + xV 


n 


l d 2 9 (a 4- %) 
7 d x* 


/ .71 — 2 

71. 7 i — l. (a 4- x) > 


71 71 71 

£cc. and thence we shall find {a + x) —a 4 - . x. 


n 


(a + x \ 


1 


n. 7i 


r 2 


2 .71 — 2 

x (a 4 v) 


4* &c» 
























for the Development of the Function Q (a -f x.) 213 

This equation can be easily put under the form (a 4 - x) U 


n + n 


x 


■ a 


1 CL -j- X 

n. n — 1. n — 2 


, n n. 7i — 1 1 

(a + x) - 


A 


71 


(a + „r) -j- 


1 2’ 3 


1-2 (a+*) ! 

• (a 4 - x) n — &c. and thence we 
n. ?i — l a 2 


(a + x®) 

calculate (a -f a;)” fl — -• —-- , - 

* \ \ ci + x 1*2 ( 0 -j- 'F) 


71. Tl — 1 .71 — 2 X 3 \ 71 

v~2r~3 - '(a~+Tiy + &C 'J = ; or, by a very simple 

71 

transposition, we arrive at the following result : a (a -f x) 


71 _ 71 


X 


1 CZ -p X 


4- 


71, 71 — 1 


71. 71 — 1. 71 — 2 


1-2 (a + a) 2 


1* 2- 3 


w • 


X 


4 - &:c. 


(a + x) 3 

This expression, were it only for the singular manner in 
which we have obtained it, is certainly worthy of attention; 
but besides this, it evidently furnishes a more convergent 
series for the extraction of roots, than that which is procured 
from the ordinary development of the binomial. For if we 

. . , , .71 , 71 / 71 X 

change n into — ??, we have (a 4 - x) —a l -+--— 

° 5 v ' ' \ \ a + x 


71.71 4- 1 
+ * 


71. 71 4- 1. 71 4- 2 , 


X' 


4* ^ 
4 - &c. and. 


1 * 2 (a 4- xf 1- 2* 3 (a 4- a) 3 

putting x = 1 , the form of the equation is changed into 


y .71 71 ( 71 

{a + J) ~ “d 1 + ^TT + n 


n. n 4- 1 


r.T 


71. 7l+\.7l + 2 


2. (a 4- 1)“ l-2'3*(a4-l) 3 

4- &c.) where the series is always the more convergent as 
a is the larger. 

We shall next apply the general theorem p (a 4- x) — 

, . x d. <2 (cl 4 - x) a 2 d: 1 <p (a 4- x) _ 

P («) + r— a-F ——— L — -—-. — - A — ' + See. to the 
1 du 1 * 2 du l 

determination of the sine and cosine of a 4- x; and in the 

first instance making cp (a 4- x = Sin. a 4- x , we have 

d. <p (a 4 - a) ^ cF <p (u 4 - :i) 

— - = Cos. a 4 - A 3 — —- ,—— - - = — Sin. a + x ; 

du d iF 

d. 3 <d(a 4 - a) . 

—}——• = — Cos, (a 4- x); &c.; and substituimo- 
au ' 

these 


f 



































214 Some Observations on Dr. Tai/lor’s Theorem 
these values in the preceding formula we shall find 

Sin. a 4- x = Sin. a 4* -• Cos. a -4- x -I - • Sin. cl 4 - x — 

1 1 ’ 2 


x' 


• Cos. a -j- x — 


x 


- Sin. a + x -f 


5C 5 


Cos. 


1' 2’ 3 ‘ I* 2- 3* 4 ’ 1 1- 2' 3*4* 5 

a + x + &c.; and arranging the terms of this equation ac¬ 
cording to the sine and cosine of a + x we have, Sin. a + x • 


( 


1 + 


X 


‘ 1- 2 

x 5 


+ 


1 • 2* 3 • 4 


- &c.) - Cos. a + x. ( X -— 

/ Vl 1'2*3 

&c.^ = Sin. a. Now if we develop Sin x 


4- _ 

1* 2* 3* 4* 5 

and Cos. x by Taylor's theorem, we shall find 


x a 3 x 5 


Sin. x = ' - - -}- 

1 1*2-3 


Cos. x 


1 — 


X‘ 


1‘2- 3‘ 4'5 

A 


— See. 


+ 


X 


— &G.J 


1*2 1* 2* 3* 4 

and putting these values into the former result, we obtain 
the following property of the functions, viz. Sin. a + x. 
Cos. x — Cos. a + x. Sin. x = Sin. a. 

We now proceed to consider the development of the 
Cos. a + x; and having in this case <p (a + x) — Cos. 

d <p {a + x) 

1 - 1 -=* ■ 

du 

d 3 . <p (a +o?) 


a -f Uj 
Cos. a + X j ‘ f 


C* , 9 ( a -H D 

Sin. a -+■ x : ———'—- 
’ du 1 


d 7V 


Sin. a 4 - x; &c. we ealeu- 


X 

late Cos. a + x = Cos. a — — Sin. a -f x + — Cos. 

l 1-2 




a + x + 


■z 3 


— Sin. a -f x — 


X' 


Cos. a 4 - x — 


X' 


1-2*3 ’ 1-2-3* 4 • 1-2'3-4-S 

Sin a 4- x 4- &c.; and putting this result under the form 

/ 

— &e.) 4 - Sin. a 4 - w. 


x 4 x* 


Cos. a+x. (l — -!— 

v 1-2 1- 

( 


2 - 3 * 4 


X 

J 


X s 

1 - 2 - 3 


&c.} — Cos. a , we obtain this 


1 - 2 - 3 * 4-5 

other property of these functions ; Cos. a 4 - x. Cos. x 4 - 
Sin, a 4 - x. Sin. x = Cos., a. 


Frorifc 






















f or the Development of the Function 0 (<3 - 4 - x.) 21 J 

From the two equations 

(1) . Sin. a 4 - x. Cos. x — Cos. a -f x. Sin. x = Sin. a. 

(2) . Cos. a 4- x. Cos. x + Sin. a + x. Sin. x = Cos. a. 

we can easily deduce two other equations which have 
been usually considered as the foundation upon which the 
whole theory of these functions rests. These equations 
are 

♦ 

Sin. a + x = Sin. a . Cos. x -f Cos. a. Sin. x . 

Cos. a + x — Cos. a. Cos. x. — Sin. a. Sin. x; 

and to have a demonstration of them, we multiply equation 
(1) by the cos. x, and equation (2) by the sin. x : then by 
adding these two products together, we shall find Sin. a + x. 
(Cos 2 , x + Sin*, x) = Sin. a, Cos. x + Cos. a. Sin. x. 
and as the sum of the squares of the sine and cosine is 
equal to the square of the radius (equal to unity), we have 
Sin. a + x = Sin. a. Cos. x + Cos. a. Sin. a:. Again, if 
we multiply equation (1) by the sin. x , and equation ( 2 ) by 
the cos. x, and if we subtract the latter product from the 
former, we shall have Cos. a + x, (Cos 2 , x -f Sin 2 , x.) = 
Cos. a. Cos. x — Sin. a. Sin x\ or Cos. a + x = Cos. a . 
Cos. x — Sin. a. Sin. x. 

The examples which we have now given evidently show 
the advantage that may sometimes be derived from the de¬ 
velopment which we have here investigated; and it would 
not be difficult to adduce other instances to which it might 
be successfully applied. But as we have accomplished what 
we originally proposed; namely, to point out the analytical 
distinction betwixt the two theorems of Bernoulli and Taylor, 
we shall leave the further consideration of the subject to 
those who may think it worth the trouble of a more minute 
examination. 

W. S- 


0 4 


xxxirr. n 


[ 216 1 

XXXIIL On the Quantity of Carbon in Carbonic /lcid, and 
on the Nature of the Diamond. By William Aller, 
Esq. F.L.S. and William Hasledine Pepys, Esq.* 

J[ he estimates of the quantity of real carbon in carbonic 
acid differing very widely, and the experiments of Guyton 
de Morveau upon the combustion of the diamond, detailed 
in the 31 st volume of the Ann ales de Chirnie, being liable 
to some objections from the manner in which the operations 
were conducted, we determined to institute a set of experi¬ 
ments, in order, if possible, to settle the question. 

Lavoisier, from the result of experiments apparently con¬ 
ducted with much accuracy, concluded that, every hundred 
parts by weight of carbonic acid consisted of 28 carbon and 
72 oxygen. This was in a great degree confirmed by the 
very valuable researches of Smithson Tennant, esq. on the 
nature of the diamond, an account of which is printed in 
the Transactions of this Society for the year 1707, and 
which were made previously to the experiments of Guyton; 
but notwithstanding this, the result of Guyton’s experiment, 
which only allowed 17*88 per cent, of carbon to carbonic 
acid, has been adopted in all the systems of chemistry to 
the present time. 

In researches of this nature, the results are much in¬ 
fluenced by slight variations in the quality of the gas ; 
but having had repeated experience of the accuracy of 
the eudiometer (Pepys’s) described in this volumef, we 
were enabled to proceed in this respect with great confi¬ 
dence. 

Our object was, to consume certain known quantities of 
diamond and other carbonaceous substances in oxygen gas, 
and we at first determined to employ the sun’s rays, by means 
of a powerful lens; but considering the uncertainty of a 
favourable opportunity in this country, and at the season in 
which our experiments were made, we resolved to employ 
the apparatus represented by the drawing. 

* From the Transactions of the Royal Society for 1807. 
f See p. 119 of the present volume of our Magazine. r 


Descrip 


On the Quantity of Carbon in Carbonic Acid, &c. 217 

Description of the Apparatus . 

This consisted of two mercurial gasometers, fig. 1 and 2, 
each capable of containing from 70 to 80 cubic inches of gas. 
The internal cylinder CC is of cast iron, and solid, except 
the perforation through its middle ; the external cylinder is 
also of cast iron ; and the glass receiver slides up and down 
in the space between them, which is filled with mercury : 
not more than sixteen pounds are required for each, and the 
small bath B, fig. 1. 

To the top of each receiver, a graduated scale or register 
H, is screwed, showing the number of cubic inches of gas, 
measuring from the upper edge of the external iron cylinder. 
The level of the mercurv is ascertained by a small glass 
gauge. The registers were graduated by throwing up one 
cubic inch of gas at a time. 

The gasometers stand upon mahogany stools, perforated 
for a socket, fo which, according to the nature of the expe¬ 
riment, a small receiver R, or the triple socket TS, or any 
other combination, may be united. 

Prepresents the platina tube with its furnace ; the ends 
of the tube are mounted with female screws of brass, to one 
of which the accommodating screw socket AS was joined. 

T is a double section of the platina tray which contained 
the substances to be heated. During their combustion, it 
was made to slide easily within the platina tube P. The ac¬ 
commodating socket and platina tray are drawn considera¬ 
bly larger in proportion than the instrument. 

By means of the triple socket and the cocks, the gas was 
made to pass freely over the substances in combustion, 
from one gasometer to the other ; and by shutting off the 
communication with the platina tube, while that with the 
small receiver was open, any portion of gas in the gasome¬ 
ter, fig. 1. might be transferred into eudiometers or measures 
standing in the mercury bath M, for examination. 

In order to discover whether the several sockets were air¬ 
tight, after the apparatus w-as put together, the communica¬ 
tion with the gasometer, fig. 1 . was closed, and the other 
communications opened ; the receiver of the gasometer, 
tier, o being raised, drew up a column of mercurv in the small 

receiver 


218 On the Quantity of Carlon in Carlonic Acid , 

receiver R, equal to two inches: the communication with 
the gasometer was then closed, and the column was support¬ 
ed without alteration. This was always tried previous to, and 
after every experiment. As the joints would bear this degree 
of exhaustion, we were confident they would resist a much 
greater pressure than we had any occasion to employ. The 
glass tubes GG, which connected the platina tube with the 
gasometers, enabled us to observe any flash arising from the 
combustion of hydrogen which might be contained in the 
substances subjected to experiment. In order to avoid prolix¬ 
ly* we shall generally state the method which was invariably 
followed. 

We soon found that oxygen gas, even when secured in 
bottles with ground glass stoppers, was not always to be de¬ 
pended upon, but was sensibly deteriorated by keeping; and 
therefore in all our experiments we made the gas within an 
hour or two of the time of using it, and always from the 
hyperoxygenised muriate of potash. Its degree of purity 
was constantly ascertained by the eudiometer before every 
experiment, and was generally determined in about 10 
minutes. The solution employed was that recommended by 
professor Davy; namely, the solution of green sulphate of 
iron saturated with nitrous gas * ; and whenever the dimi¬ 
nution had arrived at its maximum, and the gas began to 
increase in volume, we substituted a simple solution of the 
green sulphate of iron for that saturated w ith nitrous gas, 
and always had the most satisfactory results : for the simple 
sulphate absorbs any nitrous gas which may have escaped 
from the saturated solution, and the residuum in this case 
enables us to ascertain exactly the quantity of oxygen con¬ 
tained in the gas. 

We determined to make our first experiment with char¬ 
coal, and as Morozzo and Rouppe had ascertained the absorb¬ 
ing properties of this substance, and as our results must 
obviously be influenced by it, our attention was directed to 
this point.-—The following quantities of different kinds of 
wood, sawed into slips fh- °f an inch were weighed :— 

* This solution absorbs oxygen much more rapidly in warm weather than 
in cold. 

White 


£19 


and on the Nature of the Diamond . 


While fir - 
Lignum vitae 

O 


300 grains. 
800 grains. 


Box - - 400 

Beech - - 500 

English Oak - 250 

Mahogany - 200 

These slips were put into small crucibles, and completely 
covered with dry sand. Heat was very gradually applied at 
first, until the volatile parts were dissipated ; they were then 
kept about 40 minutes in a white heat. On being collected 
and weighed, while still warm, the charcoal from each was 
as follows : 


Fir - - 

54*5 grs. 

equal to 181*7 per cent. 

Lignum vitas 

138 

17*25 

Box 

81 

20*25 

Beech 

75 - 

15 

Oak 

43*5 

17*40 

Mahogany 

31*5 

15*75 


These being exposed to the air during one week, increased 
n weight thus : 

Fir - - 13 percent. 

Lignum vitae - 9-6 


Box - 14 

Beech -» - 16*3 

Oak - - 16-5 

Mahogany - 18 


Certain quantities being confined in common air increased 
very little in weight, and all in the same proportion •, we arc 
therefore much inclined to think that this increase is owino* 
to an absorption of water from the air; and we repeatedly 
found that the greatest increase of weight took place in the 
first hour or two after exposure, and arrived at its maximum 
in less than 24 hours, as the following experiment, selected 
from several others, will prove. 

40 grains of charcoal from willow wood, which had been 
put into a bottle with a ground glass stopper immediately 
after they were removed from the fire, were exposed in the 
scale of a delicate balance, in a room where the thermo¬ 
meter was 62 ° Fahrenheit, barometer 30*26. 


6 


0 o’clock 


520 On the Quantity of Carbon in Carbonic Acid y 


Grains. 


6 o’clock 

P. M.'40 

Total increase. 

►'I”. * 

1 ime. 

i- past 

4Q-7 -f *7 




7 

4 1 * 3 + * (> 

— 

1,3 

I hour. 

■f- past 

41*6 -j-*3 

— 


ip hours. 

8 

4 1 * 8 -p * 2 

— 

\)S 

2 hours. 

The pieces were now spread out on 

paper 

after every wei 

ing, to expose 

them more com 

pletely. 


i past 8 

42*5 T* 7 

= 

2-5 

2p hours. 

9 

42*8 -f*3 

— 

2*8 

3 hours. 

4- past 

431-j-*3 

—- 

3*1 

3-C hours. 

10 

-A 43’3 + ‘2 

— 

3*3 

4 hours. 

\ past 

43*4 -j-* 1 


3*4 

4p hours. 

Here it was left all night. 




io A. M. 

45 

'ZZZ. 

5 

16 hours. 

4 P. M. 

45 




6 

- 44*5— *5 

~ 

4*5 

24 hours. 

9 

- 44*4— *1 

— 

4-4 

27 hours. 


Next < 

day. 



-}r past 8 A. M.44*9+ .5 

— 

4*9 

38-t hours. 

-i-past 1 P. M.44*7 — *2 

— 

4*7 

43p hours. 

10 

44-5— *2 


4*5 

52 hours. 


Hence charcoal seems to act as an hydrometer : its greatest 
increase was 5 grains on 40, or 12p per cent. And in order 
to ascertain to what the increase of weight was owing, we 
put 27*25 grains of charcoal, which had been thus exposed, 
into a small bgttle and tube connected with a receiver stand¬ 
ing in the mercury bath, the whole of the vessels being also 
filled with mercury in order to exclude common air. Heat 
applied by an Argand’sdamp produced gas equal to about half 
the bulk of the charcoal ; but as soon as the temperature of 
the niercurv rose to 214° Fahrenheit, elastic fluid streamed 
from every piece of charcoal, which quickly condensed, and 
Finch of the tube was occupied with water. This proved 
that our suspicion of the increase of weight being principally 
attributable to water, was well founded. 

The result of these, and other experiments, plainly point¬ 
ed out the precautions which were necessary in order to ob¬ 
tain an accurate result with charcoal ; for if we had weighed 

4 grains 


and on the Nature of the Diamond. 251 

A grains of the charcoal a few hours after it was made, 
we should only in fact have had 3*5 grains of real charcoal 
ai)d our calculations would have been erroneous. To avoid 
this source of error, we subjected our charcoal to a red heat 
immediately before using it, and also weighed it as speedily 
as possible ; in fact while it w r as still warm. It may be pro¬ 
per to state, that our weights were such as we could tho¬ 
roughly depend upon. 

The volume of gas being so much influenced bv tempera¬ 
ture and pressure, these were noted during every experiment; 
and thermometer 60° Fahrenheit, barometer 30°, were as¬ 
sumed as the standard. Gay Lussac remarks, that from 32° 
to 21 2 P Fahrenheit, dry air expands 0*00208, or T J v part of 
its bulk for every degree of the thermometer.* Dalton makes 
it 0*000207, or T -’- T part; we therefore divided the whole 
quantity of gas by 480, and multiplied the quotient by the 
degrees of difference under 60°. 

It being of great consequence in these experiments to 
know the exact weight of a given quantity of oxygen and 
carbonic acid gases, we resolved to examine for ourselves, 
whether the statements already given were quite correct, 
and accordingly made carbonic acid over mercury from 
Carrara marble and diluted sulphuric acid, which being 
tried with lime water in Pepys’s eudiometer, was all ab¬ 
sorbed in 3 minutes except 1 part in 100. We used two 
charges of lime water, though one would have been suffi¬ 
cient. 

A glass globe being exhausted by an excellent air pump, 
'was exactly balanced on abeam sensible to a minute portion 
of a grain ; then being screwed upon one of the glass re¬ 
ceivers of the mercurial gasometer previously filled with 
Garbonic acid gas, 21 cubic inches entered. The globe was 
now increased in weight by 10*2 grains. In order to be cer¬ 
tain we repeated the experiment, with exactly the same re¬ 
sults. The 21 cubic inches were to be brought to the mean 
temperature and pressure, as the thermometer stood at 44° 
Fahrenheit, the barometer 29*8(1. 


222 On the Quantity of Carl on in Car Ionic Acid, 

21 480)21*00(0-043 60® 

•68 add for temp. 16 44 

1 J ft.,. ■■■ ■ 

21*68 0-688 add for temp. l6diff, 

• --i [■■in i » 

Correction for pressure. 

30 : 29*86 : : 21*68 : 21*58. 

The volume therefore at mean temperature and pressure 
would have been 21*58 cubic inches. 

21*58 : 10*2 : : 100 : 47*26 

Consequently 100 cubic inches of carbonic acid gas at 
mean temperature and pressure weigh 47*26 grains. 

We next tried oxygen gas from the hyperoxygenised 
muriate of potash made over mercury, and which, by the 
eudiometer, left only a residuum of 2 parts in 100. The 
glass globe exhausted as before, and weighed, was [screwed 
on to the glass receiver of the mercurial gasometer contain¬ 
ing oxygen, and 21 cubic inches entered, by which it in¬ 
creased in weight 7*3 grains. This experiment was repeat¬ 
ed with exactly the same result. The thermometer and ba¬ 
rometer remaining the same, we take the volume as before 
corrected. 

21*58 cubic inches. 

21*58 : 7*3 : : 100 : 33*82. 

Then 100 cubic inches of oxygen gas at mean temperature 
and pressure weigh 33*82 grains. After these experiments 
we examined Davy's researches on nitrous oxide, and had 
the satisfaction to find that his estimate, both of carbonic 
acid and oxygen gases, agreed almost exactly with ours. 

The next point was to ascertain whether lime-water 
would take the whole of the carbonic acid gas from a mix¬ 
ture with oxygen, or common air; we therefore mixed a 
known quantity of carbonic acid gas with a certain quantity 
of common air, and on trying it with our eudiometer and 
lime-water, the whole of the carbonic acid gas was in a 
short time absorbed. We also found, that though the solu¬ 
tion of green sulphate, saturated with nitrous gas, would not 
take up the whole of the carbonic acid gas, yet the simple 


green 








and on the Nature of the Diamond, 


223 


green sulphate, merely by its water of solution, absorbed it 


very readily. 


It may be proper to notice here, that though we repeated¬ 
ly tried the oxygen procured from hyperoxygenised mu¬ 
riate of potash by the eudiometer and lime-water, it never 
gave the least trace of carbonic acid. 

Experiment with Charcoal from Box-ivood. 

The thermometer being at 42° Fahrenheit, barometer at 
30*2, we kept some box-wood charcoal red hot for a con¬ 
siderable time under sand, and weighed four grains as expe¬ 
ditiously as possible ; this being put into the platina tray, 
was pushed to the middle of the platina tube ; the oxygen 
(made from hyperoxygenised muriate of potash over mer¬ 
cury) was contained in gasometer No. 1 ; No. 2 was empty. 
Every thing being adjusted and found perfectly air-tight, 
the communication with the small receiver R was closed, 
and the common air contained in the tubes and sockets, 
amounting only to 2*84 cubic inches, was driven, out by a 
pressure of oxygen from gasometer No. 1 : when several 
cubic inches had passed into gasometer No. 2, the gas was 
let out by opening the cock at the top of its glass receiver, 
and pressing it down ; the cock being then closed, the gaso¬ 
meter No. 2, was completely empty, and the whole of the 
gas from No. 1, was driven through the tubes into No. 2, 
and back again. The common air having been previously 
withdrawn from the small receiver R, we tried the purity of 
our oxygen by the eudiometer in the manner before de¬ 
scribed, and found a residuum of 3 parts in 100 : we then 
disengaged as much gas as reduced the quantity to 4 7 cubic 
inches by the register or scale ; to this must be added the 
contents of the tubes and sockets 2*84 cubic inches, makinor 
the total quantity of oxygen employed 49*84 cubic inches. 


49*84 

1*85 for temp. 


Correction for temperature. 
4 SO) 4 9’84 (0‘103 


f)0° 

42 


18 


51 *69 


1*854 add for temp. lSdifF, 


Cor- 








224 


On the Quantity of Carlon in Carbonic Acid, 


Correction for pressure. 

30 : 30*2’: : 51*69 : 52*03. 

The volume, therefore, at mean pressure and temperature* 
would have been 52*03 cubic inches. 

We now lighted a fire in the small black lead furnace 
under the pi atm a tube, and as soon as it became red hot, 
opened the cocks and passed the gas from No. 1 to No. 2, 
when the charcoal entered into vivid combustion, and heated 
the platina tube white hot. The operation was repeated 
many times during six or seven minutes, by pressing alter¬ 
nately upon the glasses of the gasometer. Not the least 
Hash of light was observable in the glass Connecting tubes 
G G, nor the smallest appearance of moisture. The fur¬ 
nace being removed, the tube was now cooled by the appli¬ 
cation of wet cloths; aud when all was reduced tq the tem¬ 
perature of the room, we pressed upon the glass of gasome¬ 
ter No. 2, so as to force all the gas into No. 1. The cock 
below being closed, we tried the tubes, &c. and found them 
perfectly air-tight. We next unscrewed the tube and took 
out the platina tray ; but it only contained a light white ash, 
somewhat resembling the shape of the pieces of charcoal, 
and weighing only *02 of a grain. On observing the regis¬ 
ter of No. I, it indicated exactly the quantity of gas that we 
began with, so that although 3*98 grains of charcoal had 
been dissolved, the volume of gas was unaltered by it ; a 
circumstance which had been remarked before by Lavoi¬ 
sier. The small receiver R was now nearly full of mercu¬ 
ry ; the communication with the gasometer being opened, 
the large glass receiver was gently pressed upon, until seve¬ 
ral cubic inches were forced through the receiver R, and 
tube K, in order to clear the latter of common air. This 
being done, on trying our gas with the eudiometer and lime 
water, 56 parts were absorbed out of 100. These of course 
were carbonic acid gas ; the test for oxygen absorbed 41, 
and a residuum of 3 was left, which was exactly what we be¬ 
gan with; This is a striking proof that nothing but carbonic 
acid was produced in the experiment. 

100 : 56 : : 52*03 : 29*13. 


Then 29'13 cubic inches 


of carbonic acid gas were produced. 


100 


I 


and on the Nature of the Diamond . 225 

100 : 47*2(5 :: 29*13 : 13*7(5. 

These 29’13 cubic inches of carbonic acid gas would there¬ 
fore weigh 13*7(5 grains. 

w O 

The charcoal weighed 4 grains. 

T he residual white ash, 0*02 

Charcoal consumed 3*98 grains. 

y N 

rhen, if 13*76 grains, the weight of the carbonic acid pro¬ 
cured, contain 3*98 of charcoal, 100 grains must contain 23*92. 

13*76 : 3*98 : : 100 : 28*92. 

Then, according to. this experiment, 100 grains of carbonic 
acid gas contain 28*92 charcoal. 

The gas before the experiment consisted of 

Oxygen 50*47 cubic inches. 

Azote 1*56 , 

v 

52*03 


After the experiment, 
Carbonic acid 29*13 cubic inches. 
Oxygen 21*34 

Azote - 1*56 


52*03 


Now as the volume of gas was unaltered, it will be fair to 
consider the quantity of oxygen gas consumed as equal to 
the carbonic acid produced, or 29*13 cubic inches. 

Then, if 100 cubic inches of oxygen weigh 33.82 grains, 
29*13 cubic inches will weigh 9*85 grains. 

100 : 33*82 : : 29*13 : 9*85. 

The weight of oxygen consumed was therefore 9.85 grains. 
Charcoal consumed - 3*98 

Carbonic acid from this statement. 13'83 grains. 

Do. by calculations on carbonic acid gas 13*76 

•07 

Vol.29. No, 11.5. Dec . 1807. P 13*83 










226 


On ike Quantity of Carbon in Carbonic Acid, 

13-83 : 3*98 : : 100 : 28*77- 

•Thus, calculating by the oxygen consumed, 100 grains 
of carbonic acid gas contain 28*77 charcoal. 


First Experiment on Diamond. 


Thermometer 36° Fahrenheit, barometer 30*20. 


Our oxygen was made as in the former experiment: it 
contained no carbonic acid ; and on being tried with the 
impregnated green sulphate left a residuum of 3 parts 
in 100. 


Having selected nine of the clearest and most transparent 
Brazil diamonds, we found they weighed 3*93 grains. 
These were ranged in the platina trav, which was placed in 
the tube, and the whole apparatus, adjusted as before, was 
perfectly air-tight. The quantity of oxygen was 49*84 cu¬ 
bic inches, as in the last experiment. The same precau¬ 
tions were used to secure accuracy in the results as in the for¬ 
mer experiment; and it would only be an unnecessary intru¬ 
sion on the time of the Society to repeat them. The platina 
tube was heated red-hot, and kept so for ten minutes ; 
during this time the gas was repeatedly passed from one 
gasometer to the other; the tube did not become white hot, 
as in the experiment with charcoal, because in this case the 
combustion went on more slowly. When every thing was 
cooled to the temperature of the room, the gas was all passed 
into No. 1, by pressing down the receiver of No. 2, and the 
volume was precisely the same as when we began the expe¬ 
riment. On drawing out the tray wc observed that some of 
the diamonds were reduced to a minute speck, and all of 
them resembled opake white enamel : there was no discolo¬ 
ration in the tray, nor any residual ash whatever ; the un¬ 
consumed parts weighed 1*4 6 grains; the original weight 
was 


3*93 
1 *46 


consequently 2*49 grains were consumed. 



and on the Nature of the Diamond) 2-27 

We could not perceive any dullness on the surface of the 
mercury in the gasometers, or any appearance of mois¬ 
ture. 

On introducing lime-water to a hundred parts of the gas 
in the eudiometer, a dense white precipitate was formed, and 
36 parts absorbed j the test for oxygen absorbed Go,- and a 
resid uuin of 4 vvas 1 eft. 

Correction for temperature. 

60 ° 460)4 9-84(0-103 49* S4 

56 4 *41 add for temp, 

4 difference. . ’412 50\25 


Correction for pressure. 

30 : 30-20 : : 50*25 : 50*58.- 

The quantity of oxygen at the mean was 50-5S cubic 
inches. 

100 : 36 : : 50*58 : 18*00 cubic inches. 

The quantity of carbonic acid gas produced was 18*£G 
cubic inches. 

100 : 47*26 : : 18*20 : : 8*60 grains. 

8-60 : 2-49 : : 100 : 28-95. 

Then 100 grains of carbonic acid gas contain 28’95 of 
diamond. 

•Calculation by oxygen. 

10 O : 33*82 j : 18*20 : 6*15 grains of oxygen consumed^ 

2*49 grains of diamond. 

8*64 

Calculat. by carbonic acid 8 60 

*04 difference'. 

-A ... ■ ~, 

8*64 : 2 49 : : 100 : 28*81. 

Thus, if we calculate upon the oxygen consumed, l6& 
grains of carbonic acid gas contain 28*81 of diamond. 

[To be continued.} 



XXXIV. Jc- 









f 228 ] 

tr 

XXXIV. Account of the Discoveries made by the Rev, Dr, 

Buchanan, in the course of his Investigations undertaken 

by Order of the Supreme Government of Bengal. 

The Rev. Dr. Buchanan, who left Bengal some months 
ago, with the view of proceeding to Travancore, to inquire 
into the state of the Syrian Christians, arrived in that coun¬ 
try about the beginning of November last, having travelled 
from Calcutta to Cape Comorin by land. His highness the 
rajah of Travancore was pleased to afford to Dr. Buchanan 
the most liberal assistance in the prosecution of his in¬ 
quiries. About the middle of November, Dr. Buchanan 
proceeded from the sea-coast into the interior of the coun¬ 
try, north-east from Ouilon, to visit the antient Syrian 
churches, situated amongst the low hills at the bottom oi 
the high ghauts, which divide the Carnatic from Ma- 
layala. The face of the country in general, in the vicinity 
of the mountains, exhibits a varied scene of hill and dale, 
and winding streams. These streams fall from the moun- 
tains, and preserve the valleys in perpetual verdure. The 
woods produce pepper, cardamoms, and cassia, or wild cin¬ 
namon; also frankincense and other aromatic gums. 
What adds much to the grandeur of the scenery in this 
country is, that the adjacent mountains of Travancore are 
not barren, but are covered with teak forests, producing the 
largest timber in the world. 

The first view of the Christian churches in this seques¬ 
tered region of Hindostan, connected with the idea of their 
tranquil duration for so many ages, cannot fail to excite 
pleasing emotions in the mind of the beholder. The form 
of the oldest buildings is not unlike that of some of the old 
parish churches in England ; the style of building in both 
being of Saracenic origin. They have sloping roofs,, point¬ 
ed arch windows, and buttresses supporting the walls. The 
beams of the roof being exposed to view, are ornamented ; 
and the deling of the choir and altar is circular and fretted. 
In the cathedral churches the shrines of the deceased bishops 


Literary Discoveries in India .. 229 

are placed on each side of the altar. Most of the churches 
are built of a reddish stone, squared and polished at the 
quarry ; and are of durable construction, the front wall of 
the largest edifices beino; six feet thick. The bells of the 
churches are cast in the founderies of Travancore. Some 
of them are of large dimensions, and have inscriptions in 
Syriac and Malayalim. In approaching a town in the even¬ 
ing, the sound of the bells may be heard at a distance 
amongst the hills : a circumstance which causes the British 
traveller to forget for a moment that he is in Hindostan, 
and reminds him of another country. When Dr. Buchanan 
arrived at the remote churches, he was informed by the in¬ 
habitants that no European had, to their knowledge, visited 
the place before. The Romish priests do not travel thither, 
there being no church of their communion in that quarter. 

The number of Syrian churches is greater than has been 
supposed. There are at this time fifty-five churches in 
Malayala*, acknowledging the patriarch of Antioch. The 
church was erected by the present bishop, in 1793 . 

The Syrian Christians are not Nestorians. Formerly, 
indeed, they had bishops of that communion ; but the li¬ 
turgy of the present church is derived from that of the early 
church of Antioch, called Liturgia Jacobi Apostoli. They 
are usually denominated Jacolitce; but they differ in cere¬ 
monial from the church of that name in Syria, and indeed 
from any existing church in the world. Their proper de^ 
signation, and that which is sanctioned by their own use, is 
Syrian Christians , or The Syrian Church of Malay ala. 

The doctrines of the Syrian church are contained in a very 
few articles; and are not at variance, in essentials, with the 
doctrines of the church of England. Their bishops and 
metropolitan, after conferring with his clergy on the sub¬ 
ject, delivered the following opinion : “ That an union with 
the English church, or at least such a connection as should 
appear to both churches practicable and expedient, would be 

* Malayala comprehends the mountains, and the whole region within them, 
from Cape Cogmorin to Cape Illi, whereas the province of Malabar, common 
ly so called, contains only the northern districts, not including the country of 
Travancore. 

P 3 


a happy 


230 


Literary Discoveries in India. 

a happy event, and favourable to the advancement of reli¬ 
gion. 1 ” It is in contemplation to send to England some of 
the Syrian youth for education and ordination. 

The present bishop, Mar Dionysius, is a native of Malay¬ 
sia, but of Syrian extraction. He is a man of respectable 
character in his nation, and exercises himself in the pious 
discharge of the duties of his high office. He is now seven¬ 
ty-eight years of age, and possesses a venerable aspect, his 
white beard descending low to his girdle. On public occa¬ 
sions he wears the episcopal mitre, and is robed in a white 
vestment, which covers long garments of red silk ; and in 
his hand he holds the pastoral staff. The first native bishop 
was ordained by the Romish church in 1663 ; but he was 
of the Romish communion. Since that period the old 
Syrians have continued, till lately, to receive their bishops 
from Antioch : but that atitieut patriarchate being now 
nearly extinct, and incompetent to the appointment of 
learned men, the Christian church in Malayala looks hence¬ 
forth to Britain for the continuance of that light which has 
shone so long in this dark region of the world. 

.. From the information given by the Syrian Christians, it 
would appear that the churches of Mesopotamia and Syria, 
(215 in number), with which they are connected, are strug¬ 
gling with great difficulties, and merely owe their existence 
to some deference for their antiquity ; and that they might 
be expected soon to flourish again, if favoured with a little 
support. It would be worthy the church of England to aid 
the church of Antioch in her low estate. The church of 
England is now what the church of Antioch once was. Die 
mode in which aid can be best afforded to Christians under 
a foreign power in the East, is not chiefly by contributions 
of money, but by representing to those governments, with 
which we mav have friendlv intercourse, that these Chris- 
turns are of the same religion with ourselves; and that we 
are desirous that they should be respected. The argument, 
from the sameness of religion, is well understood by all 
Asiatic princes, and can never fail when seriously proposed ; 
for they think it both natural and obligatory that every 
< joVernment should be interested in those who are of its own 

f \ - * * 


Lifer ary Discoveries in India . 231 

religion. There are two circumstances which invite us to 
turn our eyes to the country ot’ <c the first generations of 
men.” The tolerant spirit of the Wahabian Mahomedans 
is a fair prognostic; and promises to aid our endeavours to 
restore to an anticat community of Christians the blessings 
of knowledge and religious liberty. Another favourable 
circumstance is, that some of the churches in Mesopotamia, 
in one of which the patriarch of Antioch now resides, are 
said still to remain in their pristine state, and to have pre¬ 
served their archives and antient manuscript libraries. A 
domestic priest of the patriarch, now in Cochin, vouches 
for the truth of this fact. We know from authentic his¬ 
tory that the churches between the rivers escaped the gene¬ 
ral desolation of the Mahomedan conquest, in the seventh 
century, bv joining arms with the Mahomedans against the 
Greek Christians, who had been their oppressors. The re¬ 
vival of religion and letters in that once highly-favoured, 
land, in the heart of the antient world, would be, in the 
present circumstances of mankind, an auspicious event. 

The Syrian Christians in Mai ay ala still use the Syriac 
language in their churches : but the Malavalim, or proper 
Malabar (a dialect distinct from theTumul), is the vernacu¬ 
lar tongue. They have made some attempts to translate 
the Syriac scriptures into Malayalim ; but have not 
hitherto had the suitable means of effecting it. When a 
proposal was made of sending a Malayalim translation to 
each of their fifty-five churches, as a standard book, on con¬ 
dition that they would transcribe it, and circulate the copies 
among the people,—the ciders replied. That so great was 
the desire of the people in general to have the Bible in the 
vulgar tongue, that it might be expected that every man 
who could write would make a copy on ollas (palm leaves) 
for his own family. 

It ought to be mentioned, to the praise of the present 
bishop of the Romish church on the coast of Malabar, that 
he has consented to the circulation of the Scriptures 
throughout his diocese. The Malayalim translation acquires 
from this circumstance an increased importance, since there 
will be now upwards of 200,000 Christians in Malaysia 

P 4 v ho 


23 £ Literary Discoveries in India . 

who are ready to receive it. The translation of the New 
Testament (which it is proposed to print first) has already com¬ 
menced,'under the superintendance of the Syrian bishop. 
The true cause of the low state of religion amongst the 
Romish churches on the sea-coast and in Ceylon is, their 
want of the Billed It is doubtful whether some of the priests 
know that such a book exists ! It is injurious to Christi¬ 
anity in India to call men Christians who know not the 
scriptures of their religion : they might as well be called by 
any other name. Oral instruction they have none, even 
from their European priests. The best effects may there¬ 
fore be expected from the simple means of putting the Bible 
into their hands. All who are well acquainted with the na¬ 
tives, know that instruction by books is best suited to them. 
They are in general a contemplative people, and patient in 
their inquiries; curious also to know what it can be that is 
of importance enough to be written,—at the same time that 
they regard written precept with respect. If they possess a 
book in a language which the.v understand, it will not be 
left long unread. In Tanjore, and other places where the 
Bible is freely given, the Protestant religion flourishes; and 


produces the happiest effects on the character of the people. 
In Tanjore the Christian virtues will be found in exercise by 
the feeble-minded Hindoo, in a vigour and purity which 
will surprise those who have never known the native cha¬ 
racter but under the greatest disadvantages. On the Sunday, 
the people, habited in their best apparel, repair to the parish 
church, where the solemnity of their devotion in accom¬ 
panying the public prayers is truly impressive. They sing 
the old psalm tunes well ; and the voice of the full congre¬ 
gation may be heard at a distance. Prayers being ended, 
thev listen to the sermon evidently with deep attention ; nor 
have they any difficulty in understanding it, for they almost 
all, both men and women, can read their Bible. Many of 
them take down the discourse on ollas, that they may read 
it afterwards to their families at home*. As soon as the 


* It is well known that natives of Tanjore andTravancore can writedown 
what is spoken deliberately, without losing one word. They seldom look at 
their ollas while writing, and can write in the dark with fluency. 


minister 


233 


Literary Discoveries in India . 


minister has pronounced his text, ttie sound o{ the iron style 
on the palm-leaf is heard throughout the congregation. 
Even the hoys of the schools have their ollas in their hands ; 
and may be seen after divine service reading their\ to their 
mothers as thev pass over the fields homewar Is. This apti¬ 
tude of the people to receive and to record the words of the 
•preacher renders it peculiarly necessary that “ the priest's 
lips should keep knowledge.” Upon the whole, the moral 
conduct, upright dealing, decorous manners, and decent 
dress of the native protestants of Tanjore, demonstrate the 
powerful influence and peculiar excellence of the Christian 
religion. It ought however to be observed, tfyit the Bible, 
when the reading of it becomes general, has nearly the same 


effect on the poor of every place. 

When the Syrian Christians understood that the proposed 
Malavalim translation was to accord with the English Bible, 
they desired to know on what authorities our translation 
had been made ; alleging, that they themselves possessed a 
version of undoubted antiquity, namely, that used by the first 
Christians at Antioch ; and that they could not depart from 
the reading of that version. This observation led to the in¬ 
vestigation of the antient Svrio-Chaldaic manuscripts in 
Malayala; and the inquiry has been successful beyond any 
expectation that could have been formed. 

It had been commonly supposed that all the Syriac manu¬ 
scripts had been burned by the Romish church, at the synod 
of Udiamper, near Cochin, in 1599 ; but it ,now appears 
that the most valuable manuscripts were not destroyed : the 
inquisitors condemned many books to the flames ; but they 
saved the Bible. They were content with ordering that the 
Syriac scriptures should he amended agreeably to the read¬ 
ing of the Vulgate of Rome ; and these emendations now 
appear in black ink, and of modern appearance, though 
made in 1599 : but many Bibles and many other books were 
not produced at all ; and the churches in the mountains re¬ 
mained but a short time subject to Romish dominion (if in¬ 
deed they can be said to have been at any time subject to it) ; 
for the native governments have ever formed a barrier be¬ 


tween 


224 Literary Discoveries in India , 

tween the inquisition at Goa and the Christians in the 
mountains. 

In the acts of the council of Nice, it is recorded that 
Joannes, bishop or India, signed his name at that council, 
A. D. 325 , 1 his date corresponds with the Syrian year 

h' 30 ; for the primitive Syrian church docs not compute 
time from the Christian aera, but from Alexander the Great. 
The Syriac version of the Scriptures was brought to India, 
according to the belief of the Syrians, before the year 030 ; 
and they allege that their copies have ever been exact tran¬ 
scripts of that version, without known error, through every 7 
age, down to this day. I here is no tradition among them 
of the churches in the southern mountains having ever been 
destroyed, or even molested. Some of their present copies 
are certainly of antient date : though written on a strong 
thick paper, (likfi that of some MSS. in the British Museum, 
commonly called Eastern paper,) the ink has, in several 
places, eaten through the material in the exact form of the 
fetter. In other copies, where the ink had less of a corro¬ 
ding quality, it has fallen off, and left a dark vestige of the 
letter, faint indeed, but not in general illegible. There is 
one volume found in a remote church of the mountains, 
which merits particular description :—it contains the Old 
and New Testaments, engrossed on strong vellum, in lame 
folio, having three .columns in the page, and is written with 
beautiful accuracy. The character is Estrangelo-Syriac, 
and the words of every book are numbered. This volume 
is illuminated, but not after the European manner, the 
initial letters having no ornament. Prefixed to each book 
there are figures of principal Scripture characters (not rude¬ 
ly drawn), the colours of which are distinguishable; and in 
some places the enamel of the gilding is preserved : but the 
volume has suffered injury fiom time or neglect, some of 
the leaves being almost entirely decayed. In certain places 
the ink has been totally obliterated from the page, and has 
left the parchment in its natural whiteness; but the letters 
can, in general, be distinctly traced from the impress of the 
pen, or from the partial corrosion of the ink. 'The Syrian 

church 


I 


Literary Discoveries in India. 23 5 

church assigns to this manuscript a high antiquitv ; and 
alleges that it has been for some centuries in the possession 
of their bishops ; and that it was industriously concealed 
from the Romish inquisition in 1599 •: but its true a<r e can 
only be ascertained by a comparison with old manuscripts 
in Europe of a similar kind. On the margin of the draw¬ 
ings are some old Roman and Greek letters, the form of 
which may lead to a conjecture respecting the age in which 
they were written. This copy of the Scriptures has admitted 
as canonical the epistle of Clement, in which respect it re¬ 
sembles the Alexandrine manuscript: but it has omitted the 
Revelations,—that book having been accounted apocryphal 
by some churches during a certain period in the early ages. 
The order of the books of the Old and New Testament differs 
from that of the European copies,—this copy adhering less 
to unity of subject in the arrangement than to chronological 
order. The very first emendation of the Hebrew text pro¬ 
posed by Dr. Kcnnicott (Gen. iv. -8.) is to be found In this 
manuscript. The disputed passage in 1 John, v. 7, is not 
to be found in it : that verse is interpolated in some other 
copies in black ink, by the Romish church in 1599 . 

Thus it appears, that during the dark ages of Europe, 
while ignorance and superstition in a manner denied the 
Scriptures of the rest of the world, the Bible found an asy¬ 
lum in the mountains of Malayala ; where it was revered 
and freely read by upwards of 100 churches ; and that it has 
been handed down to the present time under circumstances 
so highly favourable to accurate preservation, as may justly 
entitle it to respect, in the collation of doubtful readings of 
the sacred text. 

There are many old Syriac manuscripts besides the 
Bible, which have been well preserved : for the synod of 
Udiamper destroyed no volumes but those which treated of 
religious doctrine or church supremacy. Two different cha¬ 
racters of writing appear ever to have been in use amono- the 
Syrian Christians, the common Syriac and the Estrangelo. 
The oldest manuscripts are in the Estrangelo. 

But there are other antient documents in Malayala, not 
less interesting than the Syrian manuscripts. The old Por¬ 
tuguese 


236 


Literary Discoveries in India . 

tuguese historians relate, that soon after the arrival of their 
countrymen in India, about three hundred years ago, the 
Syrian archbishop of Angamalee, by name Mar Jacob, de¬ 
posited in the fort of Cochin, for safe custody, certain ta¬ 
blets of brass ; on which were engraven rights of nobility 
and other privileges, granted to the Christians by a prince 
of a former age ; and that while these tablets were under 
the charge of the Portuguese, they had been unaccountably 
lost, and had never after been heard of. The loss of the 
tablets was deeply regretted by the Christians ; and the 
Portuguese writer, Gouvea, ascribes their subsequent op¬ 
pressions by the native powers to the circumstance of their 
being no longer able to produce their charter. It is not ge¬ 
nerally known, that at a former period the Christians pos¬ 
sessed regal power in Malayala. The name of their last 
king was Beliarte. He died without issue ; and his king¬ 
dom descended, by the custom of the country, to the king of 
Cochin. When Vasco de Gama was at Cochin, in 1503, 
he saw the sceptre of the Christian king. 

It is further recorded by the same historians, that besides 
the documents deposited with the Portuguese, the Christians 
possessed three other, tablets, containing antient grants, 
which they kept in their own custody, and that these were 
exhibited to the Romish archbishop Menezes, at the church 
of'Teveleear, near the mountains, in 1599, the inhabitants 
having first exacted an oath from the archbishop, that lie 
would not remove them. Since that period little has been 
heard of the tablets : though they are often referred to in 
the Syrian writings, the translation itself has been lost. It 
has been said that they were seen about forty years ago; but 
Adrian Moens, a governor of Cochin in 1770, who pub¬ 
lished some account of the Jews of Malabar, informs us that 
he used every means in his power for many years to obtain 
a sight of the Christian plates, and was at length satisfied 
they were irrecoverably lost, or rather, he adds, that they 
never existed. 

* 4 

The learned world will be gratified to know that all these 
antient tablets, not only the three last mentioned exhibited 
in 159.9, but those also (as is supposed) delivered by the 

Syrian 


Literary Discoveries in India, <237 

Sy rian archbishop to the Portuguese on their arrival in 
India, which are the most antient, have been recently re¬ 
covered by the exertions of lieutenant-colonel Macaulay, 
the British resident in Travancore; and are now officially 
deposited with that officer. 

The plates are six in number: they are composed of a 
mixed metal: the engraved page on the largest plate is thir¬ 
teen inches long, by about four broad. They are closelv 
written : four of them on both sides of the prate, making in 
all eleven pages. On the plate reputed to be the oldest, 
there is writing perspicuously engraved in nail-headed or 
triangular-headed letters, resembling the Pcrsepolitan or 
Babylonish. On the same plate there is writing in another 
character, which has no affinity with any existing character 
in Hindostan. The grant on this plate appears to be wit¬ 
nessed by four Jews of rank, whose names are distinctly 
written in an old Hebrew character, resembling the alpha¬ 
bet called the Palmyrene ; and to each name is prefixed the 
title of Magen ; that is, chief. 

It may be doubted whether there exists in the world 
# 

another document of equal antiquity, which is at the same 
rime of so oreat a length and in such faultless preservation, 
as the Christian tablets in Malavala. The Jews of Cochin 
indeed contest the palm of antiquity and of preservation ; for 
they also produce tablets containing privileges granted at a 
remote period. The Jewish tablets are two in number. 
The Jews were long in possession of a third plate, which 
now appears to be the property of the Christians. I he 
Jews commonly show an antient Hebrew translation of 
their plates. Dr. Leyden made another translation, which 
differs from the Hebrew : and there has lately been found 
among the old Dutch records at Cochin, a third translation, 
which approaches nearer to Dr. Leyden’s than to the Hebrew. 
In a Hebrew manuscript, which will shortly be published, it 
is recorded that a grant on brass tablets was given to the 
Jews in A. D. 379* 

As it is apprehended that there may he some difficulty 
in obtaining an accurate translation of all these tablets, it is 
proposed to print a copperplate fac-simile of the whole, 

and 


Literary Discoveries in India. 

and io transmit copies to the learned societies in Hindustan 
and jn Rurope : for tins purpose an engraver is now employed 
on the plates at Cochin. The Christian and Jewish plates 
together will make fourteen pages. A copy has been sent^ 
in the first instance, to the pundits at the Shanscrit college 
at Trichiur, hv direction of the rajah of Cochin. 

W hen the White Jews at Cochin were questioned re¬ 
specting the antient copies of their Scriptures, they answered, 
that it had been usual to bury the old copy read in the sy¬ 
nagogue, when decayed hv time and use. This, however, 
does not appear to have been the practice of the Black Jews, 
who were the fust settlers ; for in the record-chests of their 
synagogues, old copies cf the law have been discovered ; 
some of which are complete, and for the most part legible. 
Neither could the Jews of Cochin produce any historical 
manuscripts of consequence, their vicinity to the sea-coast 
having exposed their community to frequent revolution t 
but many old writings have been found at the remote syna¬ 
gogues of their antient enemies the Black Jews, situated at 
Tritooa, Paroor, Chcnotta, and Maleh, the last of which 
places is near the mountains. Amongst these writings arc 
some of great length, in Rabbinical Hebrew but in so. 
antient and uncommon a character, that it will require 
much time and labour to ascertain their contents. There 
is one manuscript written in a character resembling the 
Palmyrene Hebrew on the brass plates ; but it is in a de¬ 
cayed state, and the leaves adhere so closely to each other,, 
that it isdoubth.il whether it will he possible to unfold them, 
and preserve the reading. It is sufficiently established by 
the concurring evidence of written record and Jewish tra¬ 
dition, that the Black Jews had colonized on the coasts of 
India long before the Christian aera. There was another 
colony at Rajapoor, in the Mahrgtta territory, which is not 
yet extinct: and there are at this time Jewish soldiers and ♦ 
Jewish native officers in the British service. That these are 
a remnant of the Jews of the first dispersion at the Baby¬ 
lonish.captivity, seems highly probable. There are many other 
tribes settled in Persia, Arabia, Northern India, Tartary * 
and China, whose respective places of residence may he 

easily 


Literary Discoveries in India. $39 

easily discovered. The places which have been already 
ascertained are sixty-five in number. These tribes have in 
general (particularly those who have passed the Indus) assi¬ 
milated much to the customs of the countries in which they 
live; and may sometimes be seen by a traveller, without 
being recognised as Jews. The very imperfect resemblance 
ot their countenance to the Jews of Europe, indicates that 
they have been detached from the parent stock in Judea, 
many ages before the race of Jews in the West. A fact cor¬ 
roborative of this is, that certain of these tribes do not call 
themselves Jews, but Beni-Israel or Israelites ; for the 

n2me Jew is derived from Judah ; whereas the ancestors of 

/ 

these tribes were not subject to the kings of Judah, but to 
the kings of Israel. They have in most places the book of 
the Law, the book of Job, and the Psalms ; but know little 
ot the Prophets. Some of them have even lost the book of 
the Law, and only know that they are Israelites from tra¬ 
dition, and from their observance of peculiar rites. 

A copy of the Scriptures belonging to the Jews of the 
East, who might be supposed to have no communication 
with the Jews in the West, has been long a desideratum 
with Hebrew scholars. In the coffer of a synagogue of the 

4 O w 

Black Jew's, in the interior of Malavala, there has been 
found an old copy of the Law, w ritten on a roll of leather. 
The skins are sewed together, and the roll is about fifty feet 
in length. It is in some places worn out, and the holes 
have been patched with pieces of parchment. Some of the 
Jew's suppose that this roll came originally from Senna, in 
Arabia; others have heard that it was brought from Cash- 
mir. The Cabul Jews, who travel annually into the inte¬ 
rior of China, say, that in some synagogues the Law is still 
found written on a roll of leather; not on vellum, hut 011 a soft 
flexible leather, made of goats’ skin, and dyed red ; which 
agrees with the description of the roll above mentioned. 

Such of .the Syriac and Jewish manuscripts as may, on 
examination, be found to be valuable, will be deposited in 
the public libraries of the British universities. 

The princes of the Deccan have manifested a liberal re¬ 
gard for the extension of Shan&c.rit learning, by fW.nishiiur 

lists 


240 


On the prdhalle Composition of Sulphur . 

lists of the books in their temples for the college of Fort 
William in Bengal. His excellency the rajah of Tanjore 
was pleased to set the example, by giving the voluminous 
catalogue of the antient library of the kings of Tanjore ; 
and his example has been followed by the ranny of Ram- 
nad, patroness of the celebrated temple of Ramisseram, near 
Adam’s Bridge ; by his highness the rajah of Travancore, 
who has Given lists of ail the books in the Travancore 

O 

country ; and by the rajah of Cochin, patron of the antient 
Shanscrit college, at the temple of Trichiur. It is under¬ 
stood that a copy of any book in these catalogues will be 
given when required. The brahmins of Travancore con¬ 
sider that their manuscripts are likely to have as just a claim 
to hijgjft antiquity, or at least to accurate preservation, as 
tliG'se in the temples in the North ; and for the same reason 
that the Christian and Jewish records have been so well pre¬ 
served 5 which is, that the country of Travancore, defended 
by mountains, has never, according to tradition, been sub¬ 
jugated by invaders from the north of Hindostan. 

The design of investigating the history and literature of 
the Christians and Jews in the East, was submitted to the 
marquis Wellesley before he left India. His lordship, 
judging it to be of importance that the actual relation of the 
Syrian Christians to our own church should be ascertained, 
and auguring something interesting to the republic of let¬ 
ters from the investigation of the 
tiquities, was pleased to give orders that public aid should be 
afforded to Dr. Buchanan, in the prosecution of his inqui¬ 
ries, wherever it might be practicable. To the operation of 
these orders it is owing that the proposed researches, of 
which some slight notices are given above, have nor been 

made in vain. 

Cochin, 

January 1807. 


NXXY. On the probable Composition of Sulphur. By a 

Correspondent . 

1 he decomposition of any of those substances, which are 
at present regarded as simple, would certainly be a conside-* 

rable 


Syriac and Jewish an- 





241 


On the prolalle Composition of Sulphur . 

9 

rable step in the advancement of the science of chemistry.— 
Among the simple combustibles is a substance, which I am 
induced to think a compound ; I mean sulphur. It appears 
to be compounded of the electric fluid and some atmospheri¬ 
cal gas; and this I think may be safely concluded from the 
following considerations :— 

1. Upon briskly exciting the electrical machine, a strong 
sulphureous odour may be perceived. From whence can 
this arise, except from the real presence of sulphur, or some 
incipient process of its formation ? 

2. In violent thunder-storms also, we frequently perceive 
a sulphureous smell. This must undoubtedly either arise 
from the electric fluid itself, or it must proceed from the 
agency of that fluid on certain surrounding bodies. 

3. But sometimes upon such occasions real sulphur has 
been produced. In America, while a company was in a 
room together, a violent thunder-storm came on ; some of 
the persons present were even lifted off their feet, and the 
chamber windows were found covered with real sulphur. 
Surely no one will affirm that this sulphur was originally in 
a concrete state in the atmosphere. What could have raised 
it from the earth ? for it does not sublime, as w'ater evaporates, 
at the usual temperature of the atmosphere. What could 
have supported it in the air ? or Why should it never descend 
but in a thunder-storm ? In short, it is reasonable to sup¬ 
pose that it was formed in the air, and that the electric fluid 
is one of its component parts. 

4. It is a well-known fact that the sulphurets of copper 
and iron emit light in any gas, or even in a vacuum ; this is 
also a distinguishing property of the electric fluid. And as 
sulphur and this fluid are the only two substances in nature 
which shine without the presence of oxygen, must we not 
suppose that a strong analogy subsists between them ; or 
even that thev are the same substance differently modified 
and combined ? 

5. It is a circumstance worthy of attention, that Dr. 
Priestley and other philosophers have strongly suspected the 
electric fluid of possessing acid properties : in this respept 

Vol. 29 . No. 115. Dec. 1807. O it 


242 On the probable Composition of Sulphur, 

it coincides with sulphuretted hydrogen, which without the 
apparent presence of oxygen shows itself to bean acid, by 
converting vegetable blues into red. 

6 . The fumes of sulphur will whiten a red rose, and this 
is also a property of the electric spark. 

7 . Dr. Priestley among his original experiments observes, 
that as he was passing the electrical explosion over lead, ([ 
believe, to form those curious circles which he first remarked) 
he found some sulphur upon the lead. This he attributes to 
the disengagement of the sulphur contained in the ore. Yet 
it would be proper to repeat the same experiment with pure 
lead, and observe if it be possible to procure the same result. 
—Indeed I am inclined to think, that the black grains men¬ 
tioned as being produced, when wire is melted by the elec¬ 
tric explosion, have been too little examined. Perhaps they 
may sometimes besulphurets or sulphuretted oxides of the 
metal, instead of being pure oxides, as has been generally 
supposed. 

In short, from the facts above stated, I am led to conclude, 
that sulphur is probably a compound substance, contain¬ 
ing the electric fluid as one of its principles, and perhaps 
also some surrounding atmospherical substance or substances 
as the other. By passing a strong spark through pure oxy¬ 
gen and other aerial fluids, or by experiments upon sulphur 
itself with a particular view to this subject, we may hope 
that its composition will be finally proved. 

As in the infancy of chemistry those gases passed unob¬ 
served, which the labours of Priestley have since proved to 
be such general agents ; so perhaps in future years, the gal¬ 
vanic, electric, magnetic, and other subtle fluids may be 
found equally universal in their operations. Perhaps poste¬ 
rity may find the electric fluid to be a component part of 
all the simple combustibles. Perhaps to its presence 
oxygen may owe its power of supporting combustion, 
and its acidifying principle. For as the electric fluid i& 
infinitely more subtle than oxygen, and seems to pos¬ 
sess the properties of combustion and acidity without the 
apparent presence of oxygen ) it is more improbable that 

electricity 


Description oj an improved Galvanic Trough. 24 3 

electricity should owe these qualities to the gas, than that 
oxygen should derive them from electricity. Perhaps to this 
fluid, independent of oxygen, the muriatic acid may owe 
its acidity ; and as the electric fluid has been shown above to 
possess the quality of removing colour, the muriatic acid 
may owe the same property, which it possesses, to this very 
active fluid. Perhaps, in fine, it may have a greater share in 
the formation of nitric acid than has been generally imagined. 
Put passing by conjectures, which the present generation 
has little hopes of seeing verified, 1 shall come to a con¬ 
clusion, happy if the above hints should conduct some 
fortunate genius to open so wide a field of interesting and 
important discovery. I am, sir, yours, 

E. B. 


XXXVI. Descriptioii of an Improved Galvanic Trough , 

By C. Wilkinson, Esq. 

To Mr. Tilloch . 

H &ir ’ 

aving experienced considerable inconvenience in the 
course of my galvanic experiments, with the emptying the 
troughs, and of correcting any defects as to the plates be¬ 
coming unsoldered, or the trough leaking; I have removed 
those difficulties by the following construction upon the 
principle of Volta’s Couronne desTasses.—The box is form¬ 
ed as usual, but with a series of wooden partitions, in 
place of the usual plates of metals, about half an inch 
distant from each other, and well covered with cement ; 
a piece of copper wire bent as Z, C, (fig. 3. Plate V.) 
with a ring R soldered to it in a direction parallel to the 
zinc and copper plates : the end Z is soldered to the zinc 
plate, and the end Cto the copper; the ring is for the conve- 
niency of passing a wire through, when the experiments are 
concluded, so that all the plates may be raised at once from 
the trough. It is evident by this arrangement that we have a 
power equal to the sum of both the zinc surfaces : allowing 
for the loss sustained by the common method, from the pait 

O 2 covered 

<*v 






244 Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 

covered with cement, we should have a battery composed 
of 4-inch plates equal to one composed of 6-inch plates, 
according to the construction of Cruikshanks. The plates 
in this arrangement can easily be repaired, and the acid 
fluid may be left in the trough. 

I am, sir, 

No. 19 , Yours respectfully, 

Soho Square. C. WlLKINSON. 

N. B. It will necessarily be understood that the bent wire 
is to be placed on each partition, and the same order observed 
as in other galvanic arrangements ; that a zinc plate soldered 
to one bent wire shall be in the same cell with a copper plate 
soldered to another bent wire, and taking care that these 
plates are not in contact with each other. This species of 
galvanic arrangement may be seen at Mr. Eastwick/s, 102,, 
Aldersgate-street. 


XXXVII. Additional Memoir upon living and fossil 
Elephants . By M. Cuvier. 


[Continued from p. 65.] 

jL have drawn up a table of the numbers and dimensions 
of these laminae, which I subjoin. From this we may see, 

1st, That the laminae vary in thickness in various indivi¬ 
duals of each species. 

2dly, That there is, as we have said a little before, a con¬ 
nection between this thickness and the number of the lami¬ 
nae ; i. e . the more laminae there are in a tooth, the thicker 
is each lamina taken separately. 

3dly, That nevertheless, by comparing together some teeth 
with the same number of laminae, these laminae always oc¬ 
cupy a space sensibly less in fossil grinders, and that this 
difference goes very far in certain specimens ; and so much 
the further, the greater the number of laminae. 

TABLE. 


t 


1 





Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants 


245 


TABLE. 


1 

FOSSIL TEETH. 

• 

Total number 

of the lamina. 

Number ot the) 

worn, laminae, j 

Total length, j 

•s G 

's § 

-5 & 
*>.5 
£ £ 

Breadth. j 

, 1 

UPPER TEETH. 






From Siberia, brown,lamina separated, 
but little altered. Daubenton,No. 1023 

XXV 

11 

0-260 

0-135 

0-085 

Origin unknown,yellowish, little altered 

XX 

16 

0-200 

0-165 

0.081 

From Siberia, brown, blackish, several 




0-110 

0-080 

lamina wanting before and behind 

XVIII 

12 


From Siberia, very much altered in its 
cement, some laminae wanting. Dau- 


13$ 

0-185 


0-089 

benton, 1022 

XVI 

0-165 

Origin unknown, altered, white, one la- 





0075 

ntina at least wanting behind 

XV 

14 


0-165 

Origin unknown, very much altered, 



0-165 

0-165 

0084 

white, much worn 

XV 

15 

From Toulouse, much altered, white, 



0095 



and much worn 

XIII 

13 

0-095 

0-050 

From Fouvent, altered, yellow, and 



0-085 



worn - 

XII 

12 

0-035 

0-037 

From ditto, yellow, much worn 

VII 

7 

0-055 

0055 

0035 

LOWER TEETH. 






From the canal of Ourque 

XXIV 

22 

0-245 

0-247 

0089 

Origin unknown, white, earthy, broken 
in two places - - - 

XXIV 

• 

12 

0-265 

0-142 

0085 

From Siberia (probably), brown, but 

XXI 




not altered - 

11 

0-250 

0160 

0070 

From Fouvent, yellow, earthy, four frac- 

XIX 




tures behind - 

15 

0-230 

0-190 

0080 

Probably from Siberia, little altered, 

XVIII 




bhek ----- 

18 

0-178 

0-178 

0-088 

From the environs of Cologne 

XVIII 

13 

0-230 

0.180 

0-075 

A small tooth from the same place 

XIV 

11 

0-125 

0-088 

0-050 • 

A fossil tooth from Siberia—M. Cam- 





per’s cabinet - 

Idem - 

XIII 

XI 


0-160 

O-HO 



TEETH FROM INDIA. 






UPPER TEETII. 

Of an elephant of Ceylon 

X V 

11 

0-200 

0-162 

0055 

Of the grand skeleton mookna 

XIV 

7 

0177 

0-102 

0-060 

Of the dentelah skeleton 

Separate tooth in a cabinet 

XIV 

XIV 

8 

7 

0-145 

0-090 

0-045 

Separate tooth of a mookna, or female 

XIV 

5 

0-155 

0-085 

0055 

Another do. from a cabinet 

XIV 

4 

0-120 

0-045 

0 045 

Idem ------ 

XIII 

8 

0-150 

04)92 

0-060 

Idem ------ 

XI 

10 

0-150 

0-125 

0 065 

Front tooth of the dentelah skeleton 

IX 

9 

0-080 

0-Q80 

0057 

Ditto of the mookna, from the separate 






head of the animal ... 

VII 

7 

0-078 

0-078 

0-055 

Q3 





Front 



















24 6 


Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants. 


(Table continued .) 


TEETH FROM INDIA. 

Total number 

of the laminae. 

Number of the 

worn laminae. 

Total length. 

Length of the 

worn laminae. 

Breadth. 

Front tooth of the mookna from the en- 






tire skeleton - - - - 

VII 

7 

0-075 

0-075 

0-060 

Tooth of a very young elephant—Dau- 






benton, 1019 and 1020 

VII 

7 

0.055 

0-055 

0030 

LOWER TEETH. 

/ 





Tooth from Ceylon—M. Camper’s cab. 

XXII 


0*270 



Separate in the anatomical cabinet, part- 






ly sawed ----- 

XIX 


0-315 


0-070 

Tooth from Ceylon—M. Campef’s ca- 






, binet - 

XVII 


0-190 



Head of the mookna skeleton 

XV 

10 

0-230 

0-156 

0-065 

Separate head of the mookna 

XV 

8 

0-205 

0*110 

0-055 

Separate tooth from M. Faujas’s cabinet 

XIV 

12 

0-200 

0-158 

0-054 

Skeleton of the'dentelah 

XIII 

12 

0-182 


0060 

Separate tooth in the anatomical cabinet 

XIII 

13 

0-192 

0-192 

0*065 

Tooth of a separate head of the dentelah 






of Ceylon - 

XII 

10 

0-240 

0-215 

0-065 


Thus, when M. Camper opposes to my theorv the tooth 
of a living elephant with thin laminae, and another with 
thick laminae, it is because the first he has represented, 
pi. xix. fig, 2. of his work, has only 12 laminae, and pro¬ 
ceeds from a young elephant; and because the other (ib. 
fig. 6., as well as that in pi. xiii. fig. 4 and 5) has 23, and 
belongs to an old animal. It is only necessary to compare 
together some teeth with the same number of laminae. 

It results from this first character, (the narrowness of the 
laminae,) that the number of these laminae, which serve at 
once for trituration, must have been more considerable in 
the fossil elephant than in the elephant of India. 

Corse says expressly, that, this last has scarcely more than 
ten or twelve in action at once, and we very often find fos¬ 
sil teeth which have their twenty-four teeth worn; such is 
that from the forest of Bondy, represented in pi. vi. fig. l. 

A second character which does not appear less sensible is, 
that the lines of enamel which intersect the cuts of the la¬ 
minae are thinner and less festooned in fossil teeth than in 
others. I remark this in all the specimens of our mu¬ 
seum, one only excepted, of which I shall speak below. 

A third 




















Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants. 247 

A third character is taken from the breadth, as well abso¬ 
lute as proportional, of the teeth, being much more con¬ 
siderable in the fossil elephant than in that of India. We 
may ascertain this by referring to the fifth column of my 
table. We there see that the fossil elephants have almost 
all from 0-08 to O'OQ in breadth, and the teeth of the living 
from 0 06 to 0 * 07 . 

If these differences stood alone, perhaps they would not be 
sufficient to establish a distinction of species; but as they 
agree with the differences in the jaws and in the crania, as 
we shall soon see, they become important. 

But are there none else in the fossil state but these teeth 
with narrow laminae ? 

I have mentioned a specimen already with broad laminae : 
it was dug up near Porentrui, in the department of the Upper 
Rhine. Without being very much altered, it is-sufficiently 
so to entitle it to the appellation of a true fossil. Nine la¬ 
minae remain entire, and an uncertain number have been 
carried off from behind. These nine laminae are thick, 
much undulated, and occupy a space of 0-180 in length : 
their breadth is still more considerable than in other 
fossil teeth, being 0 ’ 090 . This tooth must have belonged 
to a very old elephant. 

M. Adrian Camper speaks of three fragments of fossil 
teeth, which he has in his cabinet*, the laminae of which 
are as broad as those in living elephants ; but we must 
know whether the teeth to which these fragments belonged 
had numerous or few laminae, before we can institute a 
comparison. 

M. Authenrieth informs me that he saw at Philadelphia 
some teeth, which, in his opinion, resembled much more 
the African than the Asiatic elephant: but Mr. Barton po¬ 
sitively assures me that these were fresh teeth brought from 
Africa. That which was engraved for Mr. Drayton’s work 
upon Carolina, resembles the common fossil teeth ; and 
those of which M. Humboldt brought over some fragments 
from Mexico also resemble them, as well as those which 
Mr. Barton speaks of. 

* Descr. anat. d’un Eleph. p. 19. 

24 


M, Hum 


^48 Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 

M. Humboldt indeed says* that he found near Santa Fe 
an immense quantity of fossil elephant bones* as well Afri¬ 
can as oj the Ohio species', but a closer examination has 
since shown* that all these bones were of a particular species 
of mastodonlus. 

It seems therefore clear, that beyond comparison the 
greatest number of fossil elephants’ teeth have narrow lami¬ 
nae, and that the small number of exceptions hitherto dis¬ 
covered are neither very important nor well authenticated, 

► 

Article VI. 

Varieties in the Size and Curvatures of the Tusks of Ele¬ 
phants—Comparison of fossil Tusks with those of living 

Elephants . 

a. Tusks of the living; Species. 

Let us now examine the varieties of tusks* and the differ¬ 
ences remarked in this respect among elephants. 

Their texture exhibits no important differences. It al¬ 
ways presents upon its transverse section those streaks 
which proceed like an arc of a circle from the centre to the 
circumference* and form, in growing, curvilinear lozenges 
which occupy the whole disk* and which are more or 
less broad, and more or less perceptible to the eye- This 
character* common to all elephant ivory* and depending im¬ 
mediately upon the pores of their pulpy nucleus, is not to 
be found in the tusks of any other animal. It is to be seen 
in all fossil tusks, and it refutes the opinion of Leibnitz** 
adopted by some other writers* and even by Linnteusf* that 
the mammoth horns might have belonged to the tsnchecus 
rosmarus. The tusks of these animals* however* seem 
wholly composed of small round accumulated grains. 

Fhe size of tusks varies according to the species* sexes* 
and varieties; and as they are growing all their lives* age 
more than any thing else influences their dimensions. 

The African c>ephant* as far as we are able to ascertain 
has very large tusks in both sexes. The African female* 
seventeen years old* the skeleton of which is in our posses- 

* Protogaa, § xxsiv. p. 26. f Syst. Nat. ed. xii. p. 49. 

sion* 


Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants. 019 

sion, has larger tusks than any male or female Indian ele¬ 
phant of the same size, that we are acquainted with. 

It is from Africa we receive the most ivory, and the 
greatest number of tusks, and they are also harder and 
whiter than any others. 

But our limited knowledge is confined to the elephants of 
the Western coasts, and to those of the South of Africa : 
we are ignorant if those of the Eastern shores resemble 
them in every thing, and if there he any varieties in the in¬ 
terior. 

We know from Pennant, however, that the coast of Mo¬ 
zambique furnishes tusks ten feet long, being the largest 
ever known. 

In the Indian species there are more varieties, which Mr. 
Corse develops with more care than any other writer*. 

In the first place, no female of this species has long tusks : 
they have them small, and directed in a straight line 
downwards, (this was very properly mentioned by Aristotlef 
in a passage since improperly contradicted,) and some of 
them are so short that they cannot be seen until the lips are 
lifted up. 

Further, there are several males which have not large tusks. 
Tavernier says, that in the island of Ceylon it is only the 
first born of each female which has tusksJ. On the con¬ 
tinent of India they distinguish the dauntelah , or elephants 
with long tusks ; the mookna , which have verv short ones. 
The latter have them always straight. Wolfs, who travelled 
much in Ceylon, says, also, that there are several males in 
that island without tusks, and that they are named majanis§. 

Among the dauntelah they again distinguish, according 
to Corse, the pullung dauntelah , the tusks of which are di¬ 
rected almost horizontally ; and the puttel dauntelah , in 
which they are directed straight downwards. Between these 
two extremes there are several intermediate, and they have 
also given names to individuals in which one tusk differs 
from the other, or which have only one. But all these va- 

* Phil. Trans. 1799, p. 205 & seq. f Hist. Anim. lib. ii. c. 5. 

| Tavernier, tome ii. p. 175. 

§ Voyage a Ceylan, en Allem. p. 106, eit£ par Camper, Anat. d’un Eleph,. 
p. 17. 

• . 


r iclics 


550 Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 

rieties have nothing constant, and are mixed indiscriminate^ 
ly with each other. We find them together in the same herds. 

In Bengal the tusks weigh little more than seventy- 
two pounds, and they do not exceed fifty in the province of 
Tipperah, which produces the best elephants. There are 
tusks in London, however, probably from Pegu, which 
weigh 150 pounds. It is in fact from Pegu, and from 
Cochin-China, that the largest elephants and tusks of the 
Indian species come. The coast of Malabar furnishes no 
tusks, according to Pennant, more than four feet long. 

I have drawn up the following table of the length, diame¬ 
ter, and weight of the largest tusks, taken from other 
authors, or actually inspected by myself. 

The tusks from Africa are not distinguished here from 
those of India, and there is not all the accuracy we could 
wish in the kinds of measures employed. 

TABLE. 


Authors 



* o 

4^ 

who have 
quoted the 
facts. 

Their authorities and details upon 
the origin of the tusks. 

j s>! 

*-> .3 > 

“I £ 
J 23 

Diamete 
the th 
end. 

Weigh 


"Tusk from Sumatra, according toLouis 
Vartoman, quoted by Jonston 



lbs. 


— 

— 

168 


Tusk mentioned by J. C. Scaliger, 





« De Reb. Ind.” 

—. 

_ 

162 


Tusk from the cabinet of Septal, quo¬ 
ted by Herzog - 

Tusk mentioned by Vielhauer, in his 

— 

— 

160 


“ Trait£ des drogues etrang^res” 

— 

— 

200 

Hart enfels, 

Tusk by Louis Barth,—“ Rer. Indie.” 
Tusk, at Basle, brought from India, 

— 

— 

325 

Llephanto- , 
graphia, ^ 
p. 47 & 48. 

quoted by Munster in his “ Cos- 
mographie” - 
Idem - 

9' 

— 

about 

100 

114 


Another tusk mentioned by J, C.\ 

more 




Scaliger - \ J 

than 5' 


■ 


Idem by Al. Cadamosto - 

8 ' 

MM. 

--- 


The largest tusks, according to Gyllius 
A tusk in the possession of a merchant 

10 ' 

— 

— 


of Venice - 

The tusks taken from Firmus, by"] 

14' 

10 ' 

Rom. 

— 

—- 

' 

Aurelian, according to Flavius > 
Vopiscus J 

“ 

lOOto 
120 ' 

208 

Camper, 1 

Common tusks from Guinea - | 

__ 


Descr. Anat.^ 
d’un Eleph. j 

! A tusk belonging to M. Wolfers, 1 
merchant in Amsterdam. J 

7' 4" of 
France. 

91 


Tu#k 















Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 


251 


(Table continued.) 


Authors 
who have 
quoted the 
facts. 


origin of the tusks. 


Tusk belonging to M. Ryfsnyder, 
merchant in Rotterdam, according 

d’un El I "S to Klockner 

^ 0ia ^Tusk sold at Amsterdam, same author 
Tusk in Camper’s cabinet 


Camper, 
Descr. An. 
d’un El 
p. 243. 


Faujas,Geo- j The largest tusk in the Museum of 
logie, 243. ^ Natural History at Paris 
Fortis, 

Mem. 

1 


rortis, 

VIem. pour f 
’Hist.Nat. f 


Tusk in the Florence cabinet 


de l’ltal. 11. j 

Pennant. ^The large tusks from Mozambique 

pSeveral tusks measured by Eden ^ 

Lopes *. 

BufFon,Hist. Drack - 
Nat. tom.ii.<( Tusks from Lowango, according to 
in 4to. the Voyage of the Indian company 

Tusks from the Cape, according tc 
Kolben - 


A ^ oi i 

k J 

« w 



<u A 

5 

S = « 

<6 

bo 

t 

6 a) ts 

CJ 

s = S 

1 

«j: g 

Q ~ ° 

K- 

K 






lbs. oz. 

— 

— 

250 

— 

— 

350 

6" 

7" 

105 

6' 6" 

5" 4'" 

72 8 

— 

7" 6'" 

— 

10 ' 

\ Eng.or 
9 ' 2" of 
France 

— 

— 

9' Eng. 

— 

from 90 
to 125 

— 

— 

200 

— 

— 

200 


— 

126 

fromCO 

— 

— 

to I2Q 


As the tusks grow during the life of the animal, and the 
body does not, the size of an elephant cannot be concluded 
from its tusks, even by establishing the proportion between 
individuals of one same variety and the same sex : as, on 
the other hand, the tusks rot, or break at their points, accord¬ 
ing to the greater or less use the animal mak'es of them ; and 
they are sharpened more or less abruptly into a point, we 
cannot conclude their length from the diameter at their 
base. 

Finally, their weight cannot be concluded from their di¬ 
mensions, (Messerschmidt in the Philosophical Transac¬ 
tions,) because their cavity at the base may be more or less 
filled. 

The degree of curvature of the tusks of elephants varies 
almost as much as their size. We have seen above the 
most common differences in this respect among the Indian 
elephants. In various cabinets there are several tusks to be 

seen 

























%32 Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants , 

seen with curvatures more or less strange, and in particular 
some are spiral. Camper saw several of them in the British 
Museum*, and Crew represents onef which is turned 
round several times ; and I know from M. Fabroni, that 
there is one of this description in the Florence cabinet also. 
They are frequently seen in the form of the Italic £, &c. 

h. Fossil Tusks. 

It is impossible to ascertain if there have been among fos- 
•II elephants the same differences as among those of India, 
with respect to the tusks of the different sexes, and different 
varieties, since fossil tusks are generally found separate, and 
£ sufficient number of heads has never been found to entitle 
us to say if there were ever any adults without long tusks. 
We are equally little enabled to ascertain the limits of fossil 
tusks in point of smallness. The small-sized tusks have 
been little sought after, having excited less attention amongst 
the workmen. 

We are perfectly well acquainted, however, with theif 
limits in point of size : the large ones have never been neg¬ 
lected, and those who have described them have never been 
tempted to diminish their volume. 

I have drawn up a table of the largest fossil tusks, the di¬ 
mensions of which have been given. From this we may 
see that they do not much surpass those of living elephants, 
at least of the African species. 

It may be further remarked, that if elephants were allowed 
to live their natural age in forests, without being hunted, 
their tusks, growing during their whole life, would acquire 
a size much more considerable than they generally have. 

* Pescrip. Anat. d’un Eleph. f Mils. Soc. Reg. pi. iv f 


TABLE. 


Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants 


253 


TABLE. 


Authors 

consulted. 


Details upon the tusks. 


Daubenton, 
tome xi. 


Faujas,Geo- 
logie, 293. 


No. DCDXCVI of Siberia, trun¬ 
cated in front 

No. DCDXCV of Siberia, trun-1 
cated at both ends J 

No. DCDXCIV of Siberia, trun-1 
cated at both ends J 

No.DCDVCII, truncated at both } 
ends ( 


Tusk from the environs of Rome, 
found by Messrs. Larochefou- 
cauld and Desmarets, much 
truncated at the two ends, and 
broken in three pieces - 
Tusk found at Serbars, near Ve 
rona, by Fortis and Count Ga- 
zola, truncated at both ends, 
swelled by infiltration 
Fossil tusk from Tuscany 

{ Tusk from Siberia—Camper’s') 
cabinet \ 

f First elephant of Burgtonna 

Second - - - - - 

. ?The largest tusk from Siberia, in') 
.<{ the Petersburg!! cabinet, trun¬ 
cated at both ends 

rThe. largest tusk of Cnnstodt, i 
J very crooked, truncated at the > 
two ends J 

Reisel & Opleiss assert that it was 

Messer- 
schmidt and 
Breynius, 

Phil. Trans, 
xl. p. 134. 

Herman, VThe tusk suspended in the cathe-*^ 
Prog, pecul. ( dral, very crooked j 

Idem. ^'g us k a t \Vendeheine 


Fortis, ti. 

Camper. 

Zach, 

Pallas, Nov, 
Com. Petr 
xiii. p.473. 


• I 

c ^ b 

r- Oij ^ 

.5 u ir 

oj _0 ^ ™ 


lengtli of 
the trunk 
S' 4" 

S' 


3' 4" 


3' 3" 


ri 0 
t—« Zl 

<D 

B v "d 
.2 a 
Q ~ w 


6 " and at 
the other 
end 5" 4"' 
4" S'" & at 
the other 
end 4" 

2 " 10'" at 
the two 
ends 

2" 9"' and 
1 " 10"' at 
the other 
end 


A very crooked tusk from Sibe¬ 
ria 


ters. 


_fc;0 

‘3 


lbs. oz. 
89 4 



9 12 


S’ 

8 " 

hr f r'tt 

/ O 

from 9" to 

ofVerona 

10 " ditto. 

8 ' 6" 

_ 

, S and 


upwards. 


8 ' and 


upwards, 


10 ' 

_ 

f 

6 6'" & at 

8 ' J 

the other 

l 

end 6" 4'" 


5" and at 

5' 6'<J 

the other 

1 

end 3" 

10 7 

— 

13' 6" 5"' 

„ <*// J 

Roman. 

t> < 

6 ' 7" 

3" S'" 

4' 10" 

5" 6"' 


137 1 

Apothe¬ 
caries’ 
•weight. 



























£5 4 


Memoir upon living and fossil Elephants . 

As to the texture, we have seen a little before, that it is ab¬ 
solutely the same in all the species, and the tusks of the mas- 
todontus are not distinguished in this respect from those of ele¬ 
phants. It only remains therefore to compare their curvature. 

Several fossil tusks have only one very common curva¬ 
ture : such are the tusks in our Museum. 

But there is a 1 sufficient number of them, the curvature 
of which is much greater than we see in the tusks of living 
elephants. The shape approaches a semicircle, or the half 
of an ellipsis divided by its small axis. 

There are four fossil tusks described :—that of Messer- 
schmidt, in the Philosophical Transactions; that in theStras- 
burg cathedral, according to Herman ; that of the church of 
Halle, in Suabia, according to Hoffman and Bevsehag; and 
that of the cabinet of Stutgardt, according to Authenrieth 
and Seeger. This striking resemblance of four of the most 
entire fossil tusks we know, in a point which distinguishes 
them from the tusks of living elephants, is worthy of remark. 

Some have thought of making a distinct character from 
this circumstance : but it may be easily inferred, that this 
great curvature depends only upon the length of the tusks, 
where this circumstance has been remarked. 

The part of the tusks once made being no longer subject 
to change, each increase in length will also be an augmenta¬ 
tion in the number of the degrees of the arc it describes. 

It is thus that the incisor teeth of hares, when the opposite 
©nes are broken, curl up into a spiral direction. 

Tt is proper, however, to observe, that a tusk from Africa, 
in our Museum, although six feet long, is by no means so 
crooked as the four we have quoted.—There are also some 
fossil teeth turned like a still-worm, as we see in living ele¬ 
phants. Pallas quotes one from the Petersburgh cabinet*. 
There is one also, but less twisted, in the Stockholm cabinet, 
of which M. Quensel sent me a drawing. 

Thus tusks can establish no certain character, either 
among the living species, or between the latter and the fossil 
species. 

* Nov. Com. xiii. 


[To be continued.] 


XXXVIII. Me - 


[ 255 ] 


XXXVIII. Memoirs of the late Erasmus Darwin, M.D. 

[Continued from p. 141.] 


HIS NOSOLOGY ,. 


CLASSES OF DISEASES. 

I. DISEASES OF IRRITATION. 

II. DISEASES OF SENSATION. 

III. DISEASES OF VOLITION. 

IV. DISEASES OF ASSOCIATION. 

The Orders and Genera of the First Class of Diseases. 

CLASS I. 

DISEASES OF IRRITATION. 

ORDO I. 

Increased Irritation . 

GENERA. 

1. With increased actions of the sanguiferous system. 

2. W ith increased actions of the secerning system. 

3. With increased actions of the absorbent system. 

4. With increased, actions of other cavities and membranes. 

5. With increased actions of the organs of sense. 

ordo n. 

Decreased Irritation . 

GENERA. 

1. With decreased actions of the sanguiferous system. 

2. With decreased actions of the secerning system. 

3. With decreased actions of the absorbent system. 

4. With decreased actions of other cavities and membranes. 

5. With decreased actions of the organs of sense. 

ORDO III. 

Retrograde Irritative Motions . 

GENERA. 

% 

1. Of the alimentary canal. 

2. Of the absorbent system. 

3. Of the sanguiferous system. 

Orders, 




256 , Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 

Orders > Genera, and Species, of the First Class of Diseases 

CLASS I. 

DISEASE'S OF IRRITATION. 

ORDO I. 

Increased Irritation . 

GENUS I. 

With increased Actions of the Sanguiferous System. 

SPECIES. 


1. Felris irritativa. 

2. Ebrietas. 

3. Hcemorrhagia arteriosa. 

4. Hcemoptoe arteriosa. 

5. Hcemorrhagia narium . 


Irritative fever. 
Drunkenness. 

Arterial haemorrhage. 
Spitting of arterial blood. 
Bleeding from the r^ose. 

GENUS II. 

With increased Actions of the Secerning System , 

SPECIES. 

Febrile heat. 

-■ redness. 


1. Calorfebrilis. 

2. Rubor febrilis. 

3. Sudor calidus . 

-—— febrilis. 

—— a lab ore. 

•—— ab tone. 

O 

——- a medicamentis. 

4. Urina uberior color at a « 

5. Diarrhoea calida. 

—-— - febrilis. 

—- crapulosa. 

-— infantum. 

6. Salivatio calida. 

7. Catarrhus calidus. 

8. Expecioratio calida. 
o. Exsudatio pone aures. 

10. Gonorrhoea calida. 

11. Fluor allrns calidus. 

12. Haemorrhois alba. 

13 . Serum e vesicatcrio. 

14. Perspiralio feetida. 

15. Crines novi. 


Warm sweat. 

Sweat in fevers. 

—— from exercise. 

-- from fire. 

——- from medicines. 
Copious colouted urine. 
Warm diarrhoea. 

Diarrhoea from fever. 
- from indigestion# 


—- of infants. 

Warm salivation. 

——-— catarrh. 

-.expectoration. 

Discharge behind the ears, 
Warm gonorrhoea. 

- fluor albus. 

White piles. 

Discharge from a blister. 
Fetid perspiration. 

New hairs# 


GENUS 


















257 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, ]\L D. 

GEN US III. 

With increased Actions of the Absorbent System. 


SPE 

1. Lingua arida. 

2. Fauces aridce . 

3. Nares aridi . 

4. Expectoratio solida. 

5. Constipatio alvi. 

6. Cutis arida. 

7 . Erin a parcior color at a. 

8. Calculusfelleus et icterus 

g. ..- renis. 

JO. -- : vesiccE . 

J1. - arthriticus. 

J 2. Rhcumatismus chronicus. 

13. Cicatrix vulnerum . 

14 . Cornece obfuscatio. 


CIES. 

Dry tongue. 

Dry throat. , 

Dry nostrils. 

Solid expectoration. 
Costiveness. 

Dry skin. 

Diminished coloured urine. 
. Gall-stone and jaundice. 
Stone of the kidney. 

Stone of the bladder. 
Gout-stone. 

. Chronic rheumatism. 
Healing of ulcers. 

Scar on the cornea. 


GENUS IV. 


With increased Actions of other Cavities and Membranes. 


1. Nictitatio irritativa. 

2. Deglutitio irritativa. 

3 . Respiratio et tussis . 

4. Exclusio bilis . 

5. Dentitio. 

6. Pricpismus. 

7. Distentio mammularum. 

8. Descensus uteri. 

Q. Prolapsus ani. 

10. Lumbricus. 

11. Tcenia. 

12. Ascarides. 

13 . D racunculus . 

14. Morpiones . 

15. Pediculi. 


SPECIES. 

Irritative nictitation. 
Irritative deglutition. 
Respiration and cough. 
Exclusion of the bile. 
Toothing. 

Priapism. 

Distention of the nipples. 
Descent of the uterus. 
Descent of the rectum. 
Round worm. 
Tape-worm. 

Thread-worms. 

Guinea-worm. 

Crab-lice. 

Lice. 


GENUS V. 

With increased Actions of the Organs of Sense . 

SPECIES. 

1. Visus acrior. Acuter s’lGrht. 

Vol. 29. No. 115. Dec . 1807. R 




2. Au- 





258 

Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin } M. Do 

o 

Auditus acrior. 

Acuter hearing. 

3. 

Olfactus acrior, 

- smell. 

4. 

Gustus acrior. 

- taste. 

5. 

Tactus acrior. 

- - touch. 

6. 

Sensus caloris acrior. 

•— ™ sense of heat. 

r? 

/ • 

- — extensionis acrior. 

- sense of extension- 

8. 

Titillatio. 

Tickling. 

9. 

Pruritus. 

Itching*. 

o 

10. 

Dolor urens. 

Smarting. 

11* 

Const ernatio. 

Surprise. 


Qrdo IT. 


Decreased Irritation. 


GENUS I. 


With decreased Actions of the Sanguiferous System „ 


SPECIES. 

1. 

Felris inirritativa . 

Inirritative fever. 

2, 

Pares is inirritativa . 

--——— debility. 

3. 

Somnus interruptus. 

Interrupted sleep. 

4. 

Syncope . 

Fainting. 

5. 

Hcemorrhagia venosa. 

Venous haemorrhage. 

6. 

Hcemorrhois cruen ta . 

Bleeding piles. 

S • 

Hcemorrhagia renum . 

——- from the kidneys 

Q 

/i «•/-)/7C 

- from the liver 

iq« 

' 11/ks L Lift/ iO • 


9- 

Has m op toe venosa. 

Spitting of venous blood. 

10. 

Palpitatio cordis. 

Palpitation of the heart. 

11. 

Menorrhagia. 

Exuberant menstruation. 

12. 

Dysmenorrh ag la. 

Deficient menstruation. 

13. 

Lochia nimia. 

Too great lochia. 

14. 

Abortio spontanea. 

Spontaneous abortion. 

15. 

Scorbutus. 

Scurvy. 

16. 

V ibices'. 

Extravasations of blood. 

17. 

Peiechice. 

* 

Purple spots. 


> GENUS II. 


With decreased Actions of the Secerning System , 


SPECIES. 

1. 

Frigus febrile. 

Coldness in fevers. 


— chronicum. 

---— permanent. 

a 

jj • 

Pa llor jug i t i vus . 

Paleness fugitive. 


-——- permanent. 

—- permanent. 


3 r . 
















259 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 


s. 

Pus parents. 

Diminished pus. 

4. 

Mucus parcior. 

Diminished mucus. 

5. 

Urina parcior pallida. 

Pale diminished urine. 

6. 

Torpor hepaticus. 

Torpor of the liver. 

7. 

Torpor pancreatis. 

Torpor of the pancreas. 

8. 

Torpor renis. 

Torpor of the kidney. 

9. 

Puncta mucosa vultus. 

Mucous spots on the face. 

10. 

Maculae cutis fulvee. 

Tawny blots on the skin. 

11. 

Canities . 

Gray hairs. 

12. 

Callus. 

Callus. 

13. 

Cataracta. 

Cataract. 

14. 

Innutr it io os slum. 

Innutrition of the bones. 

15. 

Rachitis. 

Rickets. 

1 6. Spivce distortio. 

Distortion of the spine. 

17- 

Claudicatio coxaria. 

Lameness of the hip* 

18. 

Spina protuberans. 

Protuberant spine. 

19- 

Spina bifida. 

Divided spine. 

20. 

Defect us palati . 

Defect of ihe palate. 


GENUS III. 

With decreased Actions of the Alsorhent System. 

SPECIES. 

1. Mucus faucium frigidus. Cold mucus from the throat. 

-sweat. 

-catarrh. 

—.— expectoration. 

Copious pale urine. 

Cold diarrhoea. 

-floor albus. 

—■— gonorrhoea. 

Swelling of the liver. 

O 

Green sickness. 

Dropsy of the vagina testis. 

-of the brain. 

•-of the bellv. * 

-of the chest. 

-of the ovary. 

-of the lungs. 

Corpulency. 

R 2 


2. Sudor frigidus. 

3. Catarrhusfrigidus. 

4. Expectoratiofrigida. 

5. Ur in a uberior pallida. 

6. Diarrhoea frigida . 

7. Fluor albus frigidus. 

8. Gonorrhoea frigida. 

9. Hepatis tumor. 

10. Chlorosis. 

11. Hydrocele. 

12. Hydrocephalus internus. 

13. Ascites . 

14. Hydrothorctx. 

13. Hydrops ovarii. 

16. Anasarca pulmonum. 

11. Olesitas, 


i 


IS. Splenis 












260 Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 

18. Splenis tumor . Swelling of the spleen. 


19 . 

20 . 
21 . 
OQ 

6J Jmi ft 
28. 

24. 

25. 


Genu tumor 
Bronckecele * 

• / 

Scrap hula. 
Sc'mhus. 

—- recti. 

——- urethrae. 

- oesophagi. 


White swelling of the knee. 
Swelled throat. 

King’s evil. 

Scirrhus. 

■-of the rectum. 

-of the urethra. 

-of the throat. 


26. Lacteorum inirritabilitas Inirritability of the lacteals. 

27. Lymphaticorum inirrita - Inirritability of the lympha- 

bilitas. tics. 

GENUS IV. 

With decreased Actions of other Cavities and Membranes . 

/ 

SPECIES. 


1. Sitis calida. 

■-" frigida . 

2. Esuries. 

3. Nausea sicca. 

4. JEuritudo ventricuii. 

O 

5. Cardialgia. 

6. Arthritis ventricuii. 

7. Colica flatulent a. 

8. Colica saturnine. 

9. Tympanitis. 

10. Hypochondriasis. 

11. Cep haluea frigida. 

12. Odontalgia . 

13. Otalgia. 

14. Pleurodyne chvonica. 

15. Sciatica frigida. 

16. Lumbago frigida. 

17. Hysteralgia frigida . 

18. Proctalgia frigida . 


Thirst warm. 

-— cold. 

Hunger. 

Dry nausea. 

Sickness of stomach. 
Heart-burn. 

Gout of the stomach. 
Flatulent colic. 

Colic from lead. 

Tympany. 

Hypochondriacism. 

Cold head-ach. 

Tooth-ach. 

Ear-ach. 

Chronical pain of the side. 
Cold sciatica. 

- - lumbago. 

pain of the uterus. 
- pain of the rectum. 


19. Vesicce fellece inirritabi - Inirritability of the gall-blad* 
litas et icterus. der and jaundice. 

GENUS V. 

With decreased Actions of the Organs of Sense. 

SPECIES. 

3. Stullitki inirriiabilis. Folly from inirritability. 

2. Visus 












Memoirs of Erasmus Dario in, M. D. 


261 


o 

JU • 

3. 

4. 

5. 
G. 

py 

l • 
8 . 

9 . 

10 . 


Visus imminutus . 
Mu sc ca volitantes. 
Strabismus. 
Amaurosis . 

Auditus imminutus. 
0 If act us i m m in utus . 
Gustus imminutus. 
Tact us imminutus. 
Stupor. 


Impaired vision. 

Dark moving specks. 
Squinting. 

Palsy of the optic nerve. 
Impaired hearing. 
-smell. 


—■- taste. 
— touch. 


Stupor. 
Ordo III. 


Retrograde Irritative Motions. 

O 

GENUS I. 

Of the Alimentary Canal. 

SPECIES. 


1. 

2 . 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7 . 

8 . 

9 - 

10 . 

11 . 


Ruminatio. 

Rue t us. 

Apepsia. 

Vomit us. 

Cholera. 

Ileus . 

Globus hystericus. 


Chewing the cud. 
Eructation. 

Indigestion, water-qualm. 
Vomiting. 

Cholera. 

Iliac passion. 

Hysteric strangulation. 


1. 

2 . 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

** 
l • 

8 . 

9 . 

10 . 

11 , 


Vomendi conamen inane. Vain efforts to vomit. 
Bnrborigmus. Gurgling of the bowels* 

Hysteria. Hysteric disease. 

Hydrophobia. Dread of water. 

GENUS II. 

I 

Of the Absorbent System. 

SPECIES. 

Catarrhus lymphaticus. Lymphatic catarrh. 


Salivatio lymphatica. 
Nausea hum id a. 
Diarrhoea lymphatica. 
Diarrhoea ckylifera. 
Diabetes. 

Sudor lymphaticus. 
Sudor asthmaticus. 
Translatio puris . 

- lactis. 

—*- urince. 


Lymphatic salivation. 
Moist nausea. 
Lvmphatic flux. 

Flux of chyle. 
Diabetes. 

Lymphatic sweat. 
Asthmatic sweat. 
Translation of matter. 

-of milk. 

•-of urine. 


R 3 


GENUS 


♦ 









Life of the Duke de Chaulnes . 


GENUS III. 

Of the Sanguiferous System. 

SPECIES. 

■ 

1. Capillarium molus retro- Retrograde motion of the ca- 

gressus. pillaries. 

2. Palpitatio cordis. Palpitation of the heart. 

3. Anhelatio spasmodica. Spasmodic panting. 

[To be continued.] 


XXXIX. Life of the Duke de Chaulnes. 

IVfrcHAEL Ferdinand d’Albert d’Ailly, duke de 
Chaulnes, peer of France, lieutenant-general of the king's 
armies, Ills majesty's governor and lieutenant-general of 
the province of Picardy, and reconquered countries, Artois, 
&c., was born at Paris in 1714. We shall here only 
consider the duke de Chaulnes as a man of science, and 
relatively to the arts which he cultivated with so much 
success; taking our principal traits from the very elegant 
life of this nobleman, given by M. de Fouchy, one of the 
most celebrated members of the Academy of Sciences. 

After a long series of military services, which obtained 
him the most distinguished honours from a just and bene¬ 
ficent sovereign, the duke de Chaulnes retired, and dedicated 
the whole of his leisure to the cultivation of the arts and 
sciences, for which his mind was eminently qualified by 
peculiar talents. He procured a very large collection of 
scientific books, of instruments for making experiments 
in natural philosophy and mechanics ; he arranged a most 
extensive cabinet of the subjects of natural history; and he 
built himself a laboratory to enlarge this collection by a 
number of his own inventions, which were daily produced by 
his fertile mind. He applied himself with great assiduity to 
dioptrics, and the improvement of mathematical inst ruments, 
especially those which belong more particularly to astronomy. 

In 1/55 lie published a Memoir, which contains experi¬ 
ments relative to an article in the beginning of the fourth 
book of Newton’s Optics. 

The great English philosopher had -remarked, that in a 

dark 





263 


Life of the Duke de Chaulnes. 

dark room, if we receive a ray of light from the sun in the 
axis of a glass, concave on one side, convex on the other, 
and silvered on the convex side, this ray would necessarily 
he reflected on itself; but that if we opposed to the reflected 
ray a w’hite paper or pasteboard pierced in the middle to let 
the direct ray pass through, the opening in the paper would 
be circumscribed by four or five coloured rings. The duke 
de Chaulnes, in repeating this experiment, found, by a most 
fortunate chance, that when we dull the fore surface of the 
glass by breathing on it from above, the rings, so far from 
losing their distinctness, become more brilliant than before. 
Nothing further was necessary to raise his curiosity. He 
first thought to render this effect permanent, by substituting 
for the breath some water mixed with a little milk to dull 
the glass; and he varied the experiment in so many different 
ways, that at last he discovered the cause of this singular 
phenomenon to proceed from inflection ; that is, from the 
property which rays of light have of bending at the ap¬ 
proach of solid bodies. He found that the breath and the 
water mixed with milk formed a kind of round net work, 
which produced the appearance of coloured rings; that, by 
substituting for this kind of covering a clear muslin, there 
are obtained, instead of rings, coloured squares or chequers : 
and that parallel threads give bands or belts. In short, he 
made such epod use of this happy chance, that Newton’s 
experiment became in his hands an object altogether newq 
and far more interesting than it had hitherto been. 

Whilst the duke de Chaulnes was amusing himself with 
his dioptric experiments and improvements, he applied 
himself to another object equally important: this was the 
perfecting of astronomical instruments, or, to propose the 
problem in its fullest extent, the art of producing from in¬ 
struments of a very small radius, an equal degree of accu¬ 
racy at least with that obtained from those of a considerable 
radius, such as were then commonly used. This problem, 
on account of its difficulty, might till then have been ranked 
with those of the trisection of an angle, and the quadrature 

i 

of the circle; but experience has proved to us that he was 
fully competent to resolve it. 

R 4 


The 


264 


> 


Life of the Duke de Chaulnes. 

1 he duke de Chaulnes, in 1755, gave the world a me¬ 
moir which conrained the principles of this discovery. He 
hrst thought to apply the motion of an endless screw, to 
obtain these minute divisions. 1'he screw made of steel 
would itself mark the widths of the worm on the edo-e of the 
hmb to be divided ; and these marks, which ought to be 
perfectly equal, he thought might be regulated by means of 
an index; and hence the smallest parts would become accu¬ 
rately obtained by means of very fine and truly equal sub¬ 
divisions. 

Who would not conceive, with him, but that a division 

made in this manner was exact ? Could we suppose there 

would be any inequalities in a small number of steps of 

such a screw made with care, and in those of the same 

species of screw all marked with the same worm ? The 
♦ 

dukede Chaulnes, nevertheless, found by experience that no 
confidence whatever is to be placed in this method : the un¬ 
equal hardness and expansion of the particles of steel in the 
screw, and of the brass in the instrument, renders the steps 
of the one unequal to those of the other. Whence it fol¬ 
lows that this method of dividing instruments cannot be 
depended on, and that we must determine by observation 
the value of each part of a micrometer, and not content, our¬ 
selves by measuring the whole, or a large portion of its 
course depending for the intermediate divisions on the 
equality of the worm of the screw, as is commonly done. 
This is a new source of error, for the discovery of which 
we are indebted to the duke de Chaulnes, and which raav 
alter the most important and best made observations. 

It now became necessary to try other methods. The. 
duke de Chaulnes had found for a longtime, that by apply¬ 
ing a micrometer to a microscope he mould measure accu¬ 
rately as far as the four thousandth part of a line. It was 
on this truly ingenious principle, that he, first of any one, 
undertook to give the division of astronomical instruments 
a greater degree of accuracy than they were hitherto thought 
capable of receiving. We cannot here follow him through 
the whole of his contrivances : all we can say is, that never 
was any principle applied with more address, and we are 

astonished, 


Life of the Duke de Chaulnes. 265 

astonished, in reading this work, at the resources with which 
his genius furnished him, and the sagacity with which he 
profited by an infinity of circumstances, that probably would 
have escaped other persons. The fruit of so much labour 
and attention was the production of an instrument eleven 
inches radius furnished with achromatic telescopes, the ac¬ 
curacy of which was so great, that, when compared with 
two excellent quadrants or six feet radius in measuring sol¬ 
stitial meridian altitudes of the Sun and Arcturus, the same 
precision was obtained as with them. This trial was the 
strongest and most certain proof of its excellence to which 
it could have been submitted. 

Not only did he give his instrument the degree of ac¬ 
curacy which we have just spoken of, but he also con¬ 
trived means of rendering all others equally as exact that 
might hereafter be made, by a largo platform, which he pro¬ 
posed to construct on this principle, and which was, if we 
may use the expression, to serve in future instead of an 
able artist. YV r e jeave men of science to judge whether the 
duke de Chaulnes has not completely resolved this difficult 
problem, and likewise to appreciate the degree of gratitude 
due to him for this discovery, so valuable to all the mathe¬ 
matical and astronomical world. This entirely new art, the 
principles of which he had given, as before observed, in 
1765, have since been published in greater detail in 1768, 
in the description of the arts published by the academy. 

Every thing that the duke de Chaulnes did with regard to 
the construction of astronomical instruments, proved to 
him the great utility of achromatic telescopes. This was a 
sufficient inducement for him to endeavour to improve them, 
and he gave the public a Memoir, in which he details his 
ideas on the subject. , 

We are astonished, in reading this work, at the inventive 
powers of his genius, in contriving methods for determining 
quantities, which, to superficial observers, appear not 
worthy of notice. The same microscopes which before 
served for dividing his instruments are here again found 

o o 

useful, but employed in a very different manner, and 

mounted 


566 Life of the Duke de Cliaulnes. 

. . ■ / * 

mounted on a kind of micrometers, which measure the mo¬ 
tion of the instrument to the four hundredth part of a line. 
It was by the help of these microscopes and several other 
ingenious instruments, that he measured the exact degree 
of refrangibility of different kinds of glass: the convex and 
concave curvature of all the pieces of an object glass without 
separating them from each other. This singular problem 
appears at first sight impossible to resolve, or to determine 
even with any degree of precision when the curvature of the 
glass which is to correct the aberration of refrangibility, and 
destroy the colours, is such as it ought to be. 

These discoveries were followed by the invention of a new 
parallactic instrument more firm and convenient than those 
already in use, by several reflections on the manner of ap¬ 
plying the micrometer to these telescopes, and to measure 
accurately the value of the parts of this instrument. For 
this purpose he used a wall, which, that it might be seen 
from a distance, had the singular property of presenting to 
the observer thick strokes, by means of which be could 
measure very small intervals. This Memoir shines through¬ 
out with the genius of the inventor, and cannot be read 
without admiring his contrivances to avoid difficulties, which 
at the first glance appear insurmountable. Unfortunately 
this was his last work, and it makes us greatly regret that 
others which he proposed to execute on this subject, were 
prevented from being finished by his death. 

'The duke de Chaulnes’s disposition was of the most 
amiable kind : the mildness from which it proceeded was 
ornamented by the greatest politeness, and he could scarcely 
reckon any but friends among ail those with whom he lived. 
The king himself was well acquainted with his zeal and his 
merit, and often showed him the strongest marks of that 
kindness which gives pleasure to a good subject and happi¬ 
ness to a gentleman of the court. From his elevated situa¬ 
tion one would suppose he was out of the reach of chagrin 

i 1 o 

and reverses, but he experienced some of the most unplea¬ 
sant ones for a considerable time. He however opposed to 
them the constancy prescribed by philosophy, and the pa¬ 
tience 


Surgical Cases hi the Finsbury Dispensary . 267 

thence inspired by religion. But it is impossible to contend 
long with impunity against such enemies to health, and his 
constitution, although strong, at last gave way. 

He died the 23d of September, 1769, in less than five 
hours, of a death that perhaps may be called sudden, but 
which was certainly not unforeseen, as he put his worldly 
affairs in order some davs before, and received the sacra- 
meat with those unfeigned sentiments of religion and piety 
which had always been the rule of his conduct. 


XL. Report of Surgical Cases in the City and Finsbury Dis¬ 
pensaries in July ISO/, containing a remarkable Case oj 
Cancer in the Breast. By John Taunton, Esq. 

For the month of July there were admitted on the books 
of the City and Finsbury Dispensaries 209 surgical patients. 


Cured or relieved 

- 

- 

169 

Died 

- 

- 

O 

o 

Under cure 

- 

- 

37 




209 


Mrs. R. ret. 49, first applied for surgical assistance on 
the 30th of July 1806, for a disease in her breast, which 
Proved to be a confirmed cancer. About eighteen months 
preceding the above date she discovered a tumour in the left 
breast, which was hard, and attended with acute darting 
pains at irregular intervals, but not such as to prevent her 
from attending; her domestic concerns. The breast, now, 
was not much enlarged, but ulcerated on the left side near 
the nipple, the skin was puckered, and adhered firmly to 
the diseased part of the gland : the discharge was ichorous 
and profuse, and produced extensive inflammation of the 
integuments on which it ran : the pain was much increased: 
the elands in the axilla were enlarged and indurated, and a 

w 

general debility pervaded the whole system. 1 he disease 
b(finer too far advanced to admit of its being removed by ail 

o 

operation, the fern rubigo was given in moderate doses: the 

ulcer 











ms 


Surgical Cases in the Finsbury Dispensary. 

ulcer was dressed with the ung. sabinae for some days, then 
with the ung. arsenicum ; neither of which produced the 
least effect. A small blister was then applied between the 
ulcer and the axilla, and repeated for fourteen successive 
days ; the pain from which was very trivial, and the darting 
pain, which had been very severe in the beginning, was 
nearly subsided, the appetite was much improved, and her 
health and spirits were greatly recruited. 

The old ulcer, and that produced by the blister, were 
dressed with the ung. sabinae, and the thin ichorous 
discharge was now succeeded by well digested purulent 
matter. 

At the beginning of September a small blister was applied 
from the ulcerated part nearest the axilla, around the upper 
part of the breast, nearly to the sternum, and repeated for 
many days, so as to form an ulcerated surface about an inch 
wide. T hat part of this new ulcer between the breast and 
the axilla was dressed with the ung. arsen. cum pu.lv. opii, 
the upper part with the ung. sabinae. The sloughs occa¬ 
sioned by the caustic were trivial, and the pain inconsidera¬ 
ble, but a free discharge of purulent matter continued from 
every part of the ulcer. 

On the 8th of September she caught cold, and had a 
troublesome cough with pain in the chest, which was re¬ 
lieved much by taking a few doses of the lac ammon. cum 
tinct. scillae. 

The caustic dressing was applied about every other day, 
sometimes to one and sometimes to another part of the ulcer, 
and the whole covered with the ung. sabinae. This was at¬ 
tended with very little pain, and the health Of the patient 
was much improved. The scirrhous'tumour appeared to 
enlarge at the upper part till about the middle of October, 
when it became stationary, and was greatly diminished in 
size by the beginning of November. 

The ulcer was now dressed with the ung. sabinae alone. 
The discharge was good, and the breast entirely free from 
pain. Some alterative powders, composed of hydrarg. cum 
sulph. with nitre, were given, and ©ne of the following pills 
was ordered to be taken every night. 

Ii. Hydrarg. 


Surgical Cases in* the Finsbury Dispensary . 269 

•B. Hydrarg. Mur. Mit. P. L. Sulph. Aur. Antim. ail 3i 
F. Pil. XL. 

I hrs treatment was continued, with very little variation, 
till February 1807, with evident advantage, the health being 
completely reinstated : no pain was experienced in the 
diseased part, which was greatly reduced in size, so as to 
be much smaller than the other breast. 

I he lerri rubigo was again given for some weeks, then 
the above powders, and occasionally the pill at night, the* 
ulcer being dressed with the ung. sabinte the whole time. 
With this mode of treatment every thing appeared in the 
most favourable light, till the beginning of September, 
when the breast was nearly reduced to a plain surface, anti 
the ulcer was exceedingly small, without the least pain hav¬ 
ing been experienced therein for many months : the dis¬ 
charge was much reduced in quantity, and continued well 
digested purulent matter. 

She had now a troublesome cough, with pains apparently 
rheumatic in her limbs ; these did not yield to the usual re¬ 
medies, and she lost strength fast, so that in the beffinnirnr 
of October she was nearly confined to her room. 

October the 17th, on removing her from the bed to the 
chair, the left thigh bone gave way, without any fall or vio¬ 
lence, and the left arm became bent above the elbow, pro¬ 
ducing exactly the appearance represented in the Philosophi¬ 
cal Transactions in the case of Elizabeth Ouenot of Paris 

1*1 » . ‘v 

who died of mollities ossium. In this state she did not 
experience much pain, when lying still, either from the 
thigh or arm, but the least motion increased her sufferings 
exceedingly. The breast remained perfectly easy, and the 
discharge continued as before. The left arm now became 
oedemalous, iier appetite declined, and vhe died extremely re¬ 
duced on the fourth of November I807. 

John Taijnton, 

Surgeon to the City and Finsbury 
Dispensaries, Lecturer on Ana- 
tomy. Surgery, Physiology, &c. 

Greviiie-street, Hat ton-garden, 

December 24, 1807. 


* 

Erratum. — In the last Report, p. 170, line 12 from bottom, instead o! 
“ ox round ” read “ around.” 


XL!. A0- 



[ 270 ] 


XLL Notices respecting New Books . 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London$ 
for the Year 1807* Part II. 
np 

.1 his Part contains the following papers:—VII. On 
Fairy-rings. By William Hyde Wollaston, M. D. Sec, 
R. S.—- VIII. Observations on the Structure of the 
Stomachs of different Animals, with a View to elucidate the 
Process of converting animal and vegetable Substances into 
Chyle. By Everard Home, Esq. F.R.S.—IX. Experi¬ 
ments for investigating the Cause of the coloured concentric 
Rings, discovered by Sir Isaac Newton, between two Ob¬ 
ject-glasses laid one upon another. By William Herschel, 
LL. D. F. IF S.—X. On the Economy of Bees. In a 
Letter from Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq. F. R. S. to the 
Right Honourable Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. K. B. P.R. S.—• 
XI. Observations and Measurements of the Planet Vesta. 
By John Jerome Schrocter, F. R. S.—XII. A new Eudio¬ 
meter, accompanied with Experiments, elucidating its 
Application. By William Hasledine Pepys, Esq. commu¬ 
nicated by Charles Hatchett, Esq. F. R. S.-—XIII. Ob¬ 
servations on the Nature of the new celestial Body discovered 
bv Dr. Gibers, and of the Comet which was expected to 
appear last January in its Return from the Sun. By William 
Herschel, LL. D. F. R. S.—XIV. On the Quantity of 
Carbon in carbonic Acid, and on the Nature of the Dia¬ 
mond. Bv William Allen, Esq., F. L. S. and William 
Hasledine Pepys, Esq. Communicated by Humphry Davy, 
Esq. Sec. R. S.—XV. An Account of the Relistian Tin 
Mine. By Mr. Joseph Came, in a Letter to Davies Giddy, 
Esq. M. P. F. R. S.—XVI. An Analysis of the Waters 
of the Dead Sea and the River Jordan. By Alexander 
Marcet, M. D. one of the Physicians to Guy’s Hospital. 
Communicated by Smithson Tennant, Esq. F. R. S.—Pre¬ 
sents received by the Royal Society from November 1806 
to June 1807. —Index. 


An 


271 


Notices respecting New Books. 

An Elementary Treatise on Natural Philosophy . Trans¬ 
lated from the French of M. R. J. TIauy, Professor 
of Mineralogy at the Museum of Natural History , &c. 
By Olinthus Gregory, A. M. of the Royal Military 
Academy , Woolwich. 2 Vols. 8vo. with Plates. 

(< The design of M. Hauy,” as the translator observes, ec in 
composing this work, was not to produce a compilation of 
earlier performances, a collection of insulated dissertations, 
in which every former theory shall be exhibited, but none 
examined ; it was rather to give a cast of unity to this de¬ 
partment of human knowledge, to present Natural Philosophy 
though in an abridged, yet in a complete form, to free it 
from a great number of superfluities with which it had been 
overcharged, and to develop scarcely any but theories now 
solidly established, though perhaps previously contested, 
that he might be the better able to place Physics in the situa¬ 
tion it ought to occupy, by assigning their due portions to 
the comparatively recent branches of Magnetism, Electricity, 
Galvanism, Crystallography, &c., and by enlarging those 
boundaries which some modern authors seem to have esta¬ 
blished upon too narrow a space.’" 

The object which Mr. Gregory had in view in the Trans¬ 
lation, was, by giving this work in the same form as his own 
treatises on Astronomy and Mechanics, to complete' a 
course of Natural Philosophy, fie has not, however, con¬ 
fined himself to a bare translation, but has given many vain- 

J O J 

able notes, which add considerably to the usefulness of the 
work. 

Mr. Gregory has done justice to the author in his transla¬ 
tion, and has, we think, rendered a service to the public, by 
giving, in an English dress, a work written professedly for 
the use of the French National Lycaeum, in conjunction 
with Biot’s Elementary Treatise on Physical Astronomy, 
and Francceur’s Elements of Mechanics. 

The work seems to be well adapted for the purpose it was 
intended to answer, and has less* irrelevant verbiage than is 
generally to be met with in French works on Physics. It is 
not, however, entirely free from this fault : the following ex¬ 
ordium. 


272 


Notices respecting New Books* 


ordium, with which the author introduces his remarks C6 on 
the Air,” may serve as an example: 

“ After having elucidated the properties of the liquid 
which bathes the surface of our globe, or glides along within 
it, we shall proceed to those of the invisible fluid which sur¬ 
rounds it to a great height. Here a very lively self-interest 
is blended with that which the science inspires of itself, to 
solicit us towards the study of this fluid • in the midst of 
which we are continually immersed, which acts upon us in 
so many different ways, and to which we are indebted both 
for the preservation of life, and for furnishing us with one 
of its principal delights; since it is to the air that we first 
commit our thoughts, to be transmitted to others, with the 


words which are their symbols.” 

A translator of Mr. Gregory’s acknowledged reputation 
might certainly have taken upon him to retrench such exu¬ 
berances, without stepping beyond his province. But, as 
we have already stated, the work in other respects is valu¬ 
able, and, we doubt not, will be found an useful addition 
to the elementary works on science already in the hands of 
the public. 


An Essay on the Warming of Mills and other Buildings , ly 
Steam, By Robertson Buchanan, Civil Engineer, 

This short essay, consisting of only twenty-four pages, 
contains a variety of curious and useful information, ar¬ 
ranged under the following heads : 

I. The proportionate Size of Boilers and -Quantity of Fuel. 
—-il. T. be Proportion of Steam-pipe required to heat a given 
Space.—III. The Substance and Colour of Steam-pipes._ 

IV. The Direction and Arrangement of the Steam-pipes._ 

V. The Modes of connecting the Steam-pipes ;—and con- 

o * aostract of dimensions an d proportions 

of pipes, and important facts relative to a variety of buildings 
which have been actually heated bv steam. 

1 he advantages of cleanliness, convenience, and safety, 
which this mode of warming buildings possesses, has long 
made it an object of attention ; but it is only of late that it 
has been brought intq practice, so as to be commodious and 

certain 


Royal Society . 273 

certain in its effects. It haSj however, now arrived at that 
point ; and this Essay contains a collection of the facts 
which have been ascertained, for the use of those who may 
wish to put in practice the warming of buildings by steam. 

Besides the advantages of this application of steam for 
Ordinary purposes of warming buildings, it is of import¬ 
ance in a national point of view, as it may prevent accidents 
in all situations where there is much combustible matter, 
such as in arsenals and dock-yards. 

An Essay on Symbols , with a View to suggesting a new 
System of Gesture-signs for the Deafly-Dumb, Bij 
J. M. Weinberger. 

This tract is in the German language, and M. Weinber“ 
ger, as far as we know, is the first of his countrymen who 
has devoted his attention to the study of that science, by 
which Messrs. Sicard and L’Epee have rendered their names 
sacred to every friend of humanity. M. Weinberger’s 
labours, however, deserve a higher title than that of im¬ 
provements upon the systems of his predecessors. He 
first sets out with an attempt to simplify the mode of con¬ 
veying ideas and language between the deafly-dumb. He 
discusses the most remarkable methods that have been pro¬ 
posed for gesture, language, and emblematical writing, and 
concludes by giving a hand alphabet of his own invention* 
This new system greatly excels the finger talk at present 
adopted, in so far as it requires the use of one hand alone ; 
and the characters are so contrived as to he capable of suc¬ 
ceeding each other with great rapidity. 

M. Weinberger seems to have been extremely successful 
in his practice as a teacher of the deafly-dumb in Germany ; 
and in his work he has detailed the results of some public 
examinations of his pupils, who displayed great proficiency. 


XLII. Proceedings of Learned Societies. 

ROYAL SOCIETY. 

Nov. 26 . The President in the chair. Continuation of 
Mr. Home’s paper on the Functions of the Spleen. A de- 
Vol. 29 . No. Ii 5 . Dec. 1607 % S coction 








274 - ' Royal Society . 

coction of madder was injected into the stomach, in the 
same manner as the indigo ; but this not answering the pur¬ 
pose, rhubarb was substituted, in consequence of its extreme 
sensibility to alkali. This experiment succeeded, and the 
cardiac portion of the stomach, with a ligature on the py¬ 
lorus, communicated the rhubarb to a kind of plexus in the 
spleen, and thence to the bladder. The application of alkali 
to the urine immediately discovered the presence of the 
rhubarb, but none appeared by the same means in the liver: 
hence it was inferred, that the spleen assists in secretion, as 
well as in assimilating the nutriment. 

On the 30 th of November the Society held their anniver¬ 
sary meeting ; when the president delivered with the Cop- 
leyan medal, as usual, a very eloquent address to Mr. Home,, 
taking a brief but perspicuous retrospect of the philosophi¬ 
cal labours and discoveries in physiology of that gentleman, 
from the commencement of his professional career, as the 
relation and successor of the late Mr. J. Hunter in 178 5 , to 
the present period. In the course of the learned President’;* 
review of the relative importance of this Fellow's numerous 
communications, he took occasion to contrast the general 
estimation of theTransactions of the Royal Society of London, 
which are produced and supported by the voluntary contri¬ 
butions of its individual members, with those of other nations, 
where they are supported by considerable revenues drawn 
from the state. This comparison was not a little flattering to 
the talents and spirit of Englishmen, and to their disinter¬ 
ested love of science. 

The Society then proceeded to the choice of the council 
and officers for the ensuing year ; when the following gen¬ 
tlemen were elected of the council : 

Of the old council—The Right Honourable Sir Joseph 
Ranks, Bart. K. B.; sir Charles Blagden, knight; Henry 
Cavendish, esq.; Humphry Davy, esq. ; right honourable 
Charles Greville; William Marsden,esq.; rev. NevilMaske- 
lyne, D. D. ; George earl of Morton; right honourable sir 
William Scott, knight; Charles Wilkins, esq.; William. 
Hyde Wollaston, M. D. 

Of the new council—John duke of Athol; sir James Earl, 

knight; 


275 


Royal Society. 

knight; John Gillies, LL. D.; James Glenie, esq.; sir Fre¬ 
derick Morton Eden, bart.; lord Henley; Benjamin Hob- 
house, esq.; Joseph Jekyll, esq. ; Edward lnnes, M. D. ; 
John Rennie, esq.; John Sylvester, LL. B. 

And the officers were—the Right Honourable Sir Joseph 
Banks, K.B. President ; William Marsden, esq. Treasurer ; 
William Hyde Wollaston, M. D., and Humphry Davy, 
esq. Secretaries. 

Dec. 10. The President in the chair. The minutes of the 
proceedings of the anniversary, the amount of the receipts 
and disbursements, and lists of members dead and new ones 
elected during the last year, were laid before the Society ; 
after which a mathematical paper, by Mr. Woodhouse, on 
the form of the teeth of wheels, was read, fn this paper 
the author proposed to unite the method of epicycloidal 
curves, invented by De la Hire, and improved by Camus, 
with the analytical method proposed by Euler, in order to 
reduce them to general practice. 

Dec. 17. The President in the chair. The Croonian Lec¬ 
ture, by Mr. Carlisle, on the nature and chemical qualities 
of the muscles, and natural history of muscular motion, 
was read. Mr. C. began by taking a physiological view of 
the circulation of the blood, and of the influence of the nerves, 
so far as they operate on the muscular fibre. He then no¬ 
ticed the existence of an oxide of iron discovered in the red 
globules of the blood, which he considered as materially in¬ 
fluencing the muscular fibre, and the healthful state of the 
animal ceconomy; and proceeded to relate the results of nu¬ 
merous experiments on vegetable and animal substances, in 
all of which he founder oxide of iron, as in peas, yolks of 
etrgs, bile, urine, &c. {The yolks of eggs he discovered to 
be entirely composed of a fatty oil and an oxide of iron ; 
but his experiments on the nature of the muscular fibre are 
not yet in a state to be laid before the Society. 

Dec, 24. The President in the chair. A paper, by Mr. 
Smithson, on quadruple and binary compounds, particularly 
the sulphurets, was read. The author seemed to doubt the 
propriety of the distinction, or rather the existence, of qua¬ 
druple compounds, believed that only two substances could 

S 2 enter 


276 Society of Antiquaries . 

enter as elements in the composition of one body, and con¬ 
tended that in cases of quadruple compounds, a new and 
very different substance was formed, which had very little 
relation to the radical or elementary principles of which it 
was believed to be composed. This opinion he supported 
by reference to the sulphurets of lead (galena) and of anti¬ 
mony, and to the facts developed by crystallography. In the 
latter science he took occasion to correct and confirm some 
remarks of his in the Transactions for 1804, on different 
crystals, which he acknowledged have not hitherto been 
found in nature. 

In consequence of the Christmas holidays, the Society 
adjourned till Monday the 14th of January 1808. 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 

Mr. S. Lysons laid before this Society some curious ex¬ 
tracts from the antient records, containing; directions to a 
bailiff for the management of land, aud also a recommenda¬ 
tion of oxen in preference to horses for agricultural pur¬ 
poses, written in the reign of Edward III. 

Mr. R Smirke, in a letter to sir H. C. Englefield, hart. 
Save an account of his observations on the substances used 
as colouring in the paintings found in Saint Stephen's. It 
appeared to Mr. Smirke, that oil had been used as a varnish 
for these paintings; and as they were executed prior to the 
supposed period of the discovery of oil painting in 1410, it 
was inferred that this art may have been of English origin. 
This is the more probable, since several English words exist, 
even since the beginning of the 0 th ccnturv, in which, 
among the articles of the Materia p.ctoria , is enumerated oil 
for the painting of public edife?." Hence it was extremely 
probable, that, as oil was used, it was at least combined with 
some one colour, in this country, nearly a cent ury before the 
reputed sera of the discovery of oil painting. Of some of the 
colours in these paintings, which are now completely en¬ 
closed from the view by the new improvements, the compo¬ 
sition could not be determined. 


i 


BRITISH 


British Institution.—French National Institute . 


277 


BRITISH INSTITUTION - . 


On the 51st of November a meeting of the com¬ 
mittee of directors of the British Institution was held at 
the Gallery in Pall-mall, for the purpose of adjudging the 
premiums offered for the three best companions to pictures 
selected from the works of the old masters.—The following 
was the decision : 

To Mr. Pocock, jun. the premium of one hundred pounds 
for his picture of “ Archbishop Bucket’s Insolent Visit to 
the Palace of Henry the Second, with the Intention of 
excommunicating that Monarch.” Painted as a companion 
to Mr. Angersteiiv s e( Theodosius” by Vandyke.—To Mr. 
James Green the premium of sixty pounds, for his picture 
of “ Gadshill and the Carriers from the second act of the 
first part of Shakespeare’s Henry the Fourth. Painted as a 
companion to Mr.Duncombe’s “ Candlelight” by Rubens.— 
To miss Reinagle the premium of forty pounds, for her 
i( Landscape with Banditti.” Painted as a companion to 
lord Grantham’s “ Mercury and Admetus” by Salvator 


Rosa. 

The stimulus thus afforded not only to those artists who 
have been so deservedly successful, but also to their less for¬ 
tunate competitors (among whom are several who have pro¬ 
duced works of considerable merit), will doubtlessly be 
evinced in their future performances. Indeed, we confidently 
anticipate that the governors of the British Institution, if 
they pursue the liberal line of conduct that they have hither¬ 
to adopted, will ultimately enjoy the satisfaction of bring¬ 
ing the arts to a state more nearly approximating to perfec¬ 
tion, than they have ever yet arrived to in this country. 


TRENCH NATIONAL INSTITUTE. 

[Concluded from page 187.] 

Medicine, which is nothing else than the application of 
the laws of the animal oeconomy to the cure of diseases, has 
lately made one of its most important discoveries, viz. Vac¬ 
cination. Its preservative properties are at present sufficiently 
demonstrated ) but observations are still wanting, as to the 

S 3 modi- 


278 French National Institute. 

modifications of which it is susceptible, M. Halle has 
communicated to the Institute some very interesting observa¬ 
tions upon the irregularities which the vaccine inoculation 
has undergone at Lucca in the course of 1806, 

These differences did not affect the progress, the periods, 
nor the essential characters of the vaccine eruption. 

They were manifested in the form of the pimple, which, by 
extending and confounding itself with some small pustules 
round the principal one, lost both its regular form and the 
umbilical depression, which it presented at the moment of 
its formation. 

In the nature of the crust which succeeds the pustule, 
the latter had not the brown shining colour of the crust of 
the common vaccine ; it was irregular in its form, like the 
pimple which had given birth to it, and left in the skin a 
hollow, which afterwards filled up completely. 

Finally, eruptions of pustules over the whole hody were 
seen at the moment the areola was formed around the prin¬ 
cipal button. 

These irregularities were epidemical throughout the whole 
territory of Lucca. 

The counter proofs made by small pox-inoculation upon 
individuals who had exhibited these irregular symptoms of 
vaccine, demonstrated that their irregularity had in no mea¬ 
sure altered the preservative properties of vaccine. 

The third branch of natural history, that which treats of 
minerals, has been recently enriched with a most interesting 
fact. 

M. Vauquelin has discovered the presence of platina in 
the famous silver mines of Guadalcanal in Estremadura. 

This metal had only been found in Peru hitherto, where 
it is combined with a multiplicity of different substances,. 
In those of Guadalcanal, it is alloyed with silver, copper, 
antimony, iron, arsenic, lead and sulphur. It sometimes 
forms a tenth of the mass. 

The same chemist has made some very important expert* 
merits upon the refining of iron ores. 

France, although poor with respect to precious metals, 
compensates for this deficiency in the quantity of fine iron j 

biff 


French National Institute •. 279 

but we know equally well how much this metal differs in 
goodness, according to the mines from which it comes, and 
the forges in which it is wrought. 

M. Vauquelin., in order to discover the causes of these 
differences, has begun to analyse with great exactitude the 
minerals and fluxes generally exposed to the furnace, and the 
scoriae or other matters which are separated from it. 

He found in the scaly iron ores of Burgundy and Tranche 
Comte, besides oxide of iron, silex, alumine, lime, oxidated 
manganese, phosphoric acid, magnesia and chromic acid. 
A part of these substances remains in the flux, and they are 
ever found in the best refined iron, although the greater 
quantity passes into scoriae, and those substances which are 
sublimed in the furnaces. 

It is to the remains of chrome, phosphorus, and manga¬ 
nese, that M. Vauquelin attributes the bad qualities of cer¬ 
tain kinds of iron which are brittle both when hot or cold ; 
and all the attention of forge-masters should be directed to 
fre6 their metal from these noxious substances. 

Besides these useful remarks, M. Vauquelin has made a 
very curious one: viz. that this composition, whether in ores 
or particularly in the sublimate of furnaces, resembles much 
that of meteoric stones. Nothing but nickel is to be found 
in the latter. As all those substances which are sublimed 
do not remain in the flue of the furnace, and some are with¬ 
out doubt elevated into the air, he thinks it not improbable 
that these substances enter into the composition of meteoric 
stones : the only difficulty would be, to ascertain how sub¬ 
limed metals could unite in the atmosphere in such large 
masses as w r e find. 

This subject of iron ores has been treated in another point 
of view by Mess. Descostils and Hassenfratz in the Me¬ 
moir under the title of Spathic Iron. (See Phil. Mag. vol. 
xxv.) These ores are more or less fusible, and furnish iron 
of various qualities. M. Descostils thinks that the difficulty 
of melting some of them is owing to the magnesia which 
enters into their composition. All the infusible spathic irons 
he has analysed furnished him with this earth \ and having 

S 4 added 


2S0 Trench National Institute . 

added a portion of it to some specimens fusible by them* 
selves, he deprived them of this property. From this he 
explains the effect of the exposure to air and humidity, in 
order to facilitate the flux of these minerals: this must hap¬ 
pen, because there is some sulphuric acid, which dissolves 
the magnesia, formed by the decomposition of the pyrites. 
M. Hassenfratz, however, disputes this theorv, and asserts 
that he has seen infusible spathic iron ores, although they 
contained no magnesia. He thinks that exposure to the air 
can only destroy the cohesion of the mineral. We shall 
give an account of the judgment, when it is pronounced, 
upon this interesting question in metallurgy, 

M. Lelievre has described a mineral, which has been also 
mistaken for a spathic iron, and which was found to contain 
more than one half of oxide of manganese combined with 
nearly one third of carbonic acid, and only 00*8 of iron and 
00*2 and a half of lime. It is therefore a carbonated man - 

r ; • • / 

ganese , a new species in this genus. 

The same mineralogist has described a stone, which he 
discovered in the island Elba. It contains more than half 
its weight in oxide of iron, and a little oxide of manganese. 
The rest,is formed of silex and lime. Its crystalline nucleus 
is a prism with a rhomboidal base, colour black and 
opaque, hardness a little inferior to that of feldspar, and 
specific gravity four times that of distilled water. M. Le¬ 
lievre names it Jenite , from the battle of Jena, one of the 
most memorable events of this century. 

M. Baraillon, a correspondent of the historical class, 
having; discovered in the trenches, which he caused to be 
cut in the antient Roman city of Neris, near Montlucon, 
some antient tin vases, M. Mongez, member of the same 
class, has had the curiosity to ascertain their degree of pu¬ 
rity. It results from the analyses made by M. Anfrye, in¬ 
spector-genera] of the mint, that they contain nearly three 
tenths and a half of lead. We know lrorn the experiments 
of M. Proust, that a similar alloy presents none of the dan¬ 
gers generally conceived. 

We mentioned last year an important application of che- 

t * . 

mis try 


( 


281 


Trench National Institute. 

xnistry to the arts, which consisted in rendering!; common 
alums equal to Roman alum for dyeing, and we have seen 
that it is only requisite to purify them from a little iron. 

To the. dliferent methods invented for this purpose, M. Se- 
guin, a correspondent, has added a new one, taken from 
the difference and the solubility of pure alum and alum 
charged with iron. Ue dissolves sixteen parts of common 
alum in 21 of water, allows it to crystallize, and by this me¬ 
thod obtains 14 parts of alum as pure as that of Rome, and 
almost as pure as that of Liege. 

We may apply this process to the first manufacture, and 
obtain at once an alum a third more in value. 

The same chemist has continued his labours upon the 
analysis of the juices of vegetables. 

He has recently treated of those which contain no tannin; 
all have more or less albumen and bitter principle. The 
more abundant the albumen is, the stronger is the smell, 
and the sap is more easily corrupted. Mushrooms, crucb- 
ferce and solaniae are of this description. M. Seguin gives 
a view of the proportion of these two principles, in twenty- 
two natural families of plants, by remarking in several the 
differences of these proportions in the various parts of the 
vegetable, and in the same plant taken at different acres. 
All these saps, treated by the sulphuric acid, or the mu¬ 
riate of tin. acquired the smell of pears or boiled apples, and 
sometimes of fermented liquor, like cyder and beer. 

What renders this description of researches so difficult, is 
the prodigious quantity of reactions, and various combina¬ 
tions, which enter into elementary substances so few in 
themselves. 

We h ave had new proofs of this in the memoir of 
M. Thenard, professor in the college of France upon nitric 
ether. 

We know that the ethers are odoriferous and combusti¬ 
ble liquors, which are obtained by treating alcohol with the 
acids. The best known is the sulphuric ether. We are in¬ 
debted to the inquiries of Messrs. Fourcroy and Vauquelin 
for being acquainted with the progress of its formation, and 

all 


282 , French National Institute . 

all the combinations formed with it. The theory of the 
citric ether was less perfect. What was mistaken for this 
article in the shops was not even a true ether. The nitric 
acid is formed, as we know, of azot and oxygen; alcohol, of 
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Thus, there are only four 
elementary substances in the two liquors, and there arc 
formed, by bringing them together, ten combinations suscep¬ 
tible of being separated : viz. a great deal of water, of oxi¬ 
dated azotic gas, of ether, a little oxidulated azotic gas, ni¬ 
trous gas, carbonic acid gas, acetic acid, and a substance 
which is easily charred. One portion of these substances 
remains in the first vessel, where the mixture takes place; 
another passes into the receiver by distillation, and there 
takes the liquid form ; a third remains gaseous. 

It is this last portion which is almost wholly ether; and 
In order to obtain it separately, we must pass the gas through 
a course of basks submitted to great cold* The ether is se¬ 
parated in the form of a yellowish liquid, which we must, 
by means of lime, still deprive of the nitrous and acetous 
acid it contains. 

M. Thenard concludes, from his experiments, that in 
these operations the oxygen of the acid is combined with a 
great deal of hydrogen, alcohol, and little of its carbon: 
from this result plenty of water, gaseous oxide of azot, a 
small quantity of nitrous acid and nitrous gas, and but 
little free azot; that the other is formed from the union of 
the two principles of nitric acid with de-hydrogenated and 
slightly- de-carbonised alcohol; and that the residues of car¬ 
bon, hydrogen, and oxygen, furnish the acetous acid and the 
charry matter. 

It may be easily conceived how difficult it must be thus to 
seize, in their minutest details, actions so fugitive, and to 
separate combinations so various, and so easy to be altered, 
and reciprocally converted into each other. We regret that 
our limits prevent us from giving an idea of the ingenious 
and delicate processes resorted to by M. Thenard. 

We may remember the theory peculiar to count Rum- 
ford, as to the cause of heat, which he attributes to certain 

vibrations 


French National Institute. 283 

vibrations of the particles of bodies, and not to a particular 
substance, or to caloric, as admitted by several chemists, 
A very strong objection has been made to him ; which is, 
that bodies are heated when they arc condensed, a's if the 
condensation pressed out the caloric contained in them, and 
which, no longer finding any room, manifests its departure by 
its effects. Thus water and alcohol, when mixed, lose a 
fortieth part of their volume, and gain several degrees in the 
thermometer. Pieces of money come out quite hot from 
the die under which they are stamped. 

Count Rumford has answered these objections by experi¬ 
ments which are not less certain, andin which condensation is 
accompanied with cold. Thus, some solutions of salts in 
pure water lose both in volume and in heat. We know 
well, that salts on dissolving often produce cold, and we 
explain this phamomenon by the necessity of a solid sub¬ 
stance absorbing caloric when it becomes liquid : but this 
explanation does nor appear applicable when a solution 
already completely effected is simply diluted with a fresh 
quantity of water. 

We know that steam when confined is susceptible of ac- 
-quiring a heat far superior to that of boiling water ; and 
count Rumford, long ago, invented a speedy and ceconomi- 
cal method of heating liquids, by introducing into them this 
steam in a state of extreme heat. 

He has made an extremely fortunate application of this 
discovery in the art of soap-making, and has succeeded in 
boiling this article completely in six hours, while sixty u'ere 
requisite in the usual way. The kind of percussion which 
heated steam gives to the mixture of oil and ley, by penetra¬ 
ting into it, and suddenly condensing, contributes, accord¬ 
ing to count Rumford, to the acceleration of the process. 

This learned chemist has also succeeded in adding new 
perfection to cauldrons destined for heating liquids, by ap¬ 
plying to their bottoms several tubes which descend into the 
tlame, and by thus multiplying the surface of the bottom 
without increasing its diameter. By these means we not 
pnly save fuel, but also the cauldron ; because the latter, re¬ 
sisting 


284 French National Institute. 

si sting more the effect of the heated steam., does not heqmrfc 
to he so thick*. 

Almost the whole of meteorology depends on the variable 
action of heat upon the atmosphere. It is the air, when va¬ 
riously heated, that produces the winds, by the inequality of 
its dilatations ; and the winds, carrying the vapours into 
warmer or colder places than those where they were formed, 
cause their more complete solution, or their precipitation 
jrrore or less rapid, i. e. fine weather or rain. 

M. Dupont Nemours, member of the class of history, 
has presented to the class of sciences some reflections, 
which have the merit of rendering in some measure sensi¬ 
ble, the futility of every attempt to predict these phenomena 
from the analogy and experience of the past. 

The zone, in the different points of which the sun is ver¬ 
tical in the course of the year, is never precisely the same 
upon the earth for two consecutive years, nor even for an 
infinity of centuries ; in the mean time the precession of the 
equinoxes, which does not collect them at the same points 
until after more than 26,000 years, and the variations of the 
obliquity of the ecliptic, of which the period is still more 
tardy, contribute to vary this zone : and even supposing 
that we had one day of observationsanticnt enough,--in order 
to be applicable, it must have been requisite that the surface 
•of the earth, the seas, and mountains, which are not less es¬ 
sential elements of this phenomenon, had not changed in 
this whole interval. 

M. Dupont admits that electricity contributes also to vary 
the weather, forming water by the combustion of hydrogen 
©-as. It is true that it seems now clearly ascertained, that 
this gas does not exist in the region where storms are 
formed : but M. Dupont supposes Jthat it is brought down 
from higher regions in tempests, which, by their violence. 
disMrb the natural order of the strata of the atmosphere. 

* The application of tubes to boilers does not appear tp have been an inven¬ 
tion Of count Ru inford’s. Patents were taken out in England for such a con¬ 
struction of boilers several years ago. A patent was likewise taken out 
aoine years ago for heating water by passing steam into it. Edit. 

XLIII, Iri- 


f- 

L 


233 


1 


ALIII, Intelligence and Miscellaneous Articles * 

O 

To Mr. Tilloch. 

Manor House, Hayes, Middlesex, 
SIR, Dec - 27 > ls07 « 

X he cloudy state of the weather for some weeks past had 
made me almost fear that I should no more see the comet ; 
but within this hour I have found it very distinct, 32 / 32 " E. 
of a Cygni, and 1° 52 ' 30 " N. of that star: it is therefore 
within the circle of perpetual apparition, and never sets. A 
small cluster nebula was to-night in the field of Blunt’s 
night-glass at the same time. The comet formed nearly the 
angle of a small equilateral stellar triangle, through w hose 
haze the angular star was nearly as distinct as the other two. 

After much attention the comet was visible to the naked 
eve, forming; a straight line with v and £ Cvgni, and will be 
readily found in the tail of the Swan, a few evenings hence, 
between ?r and p. 

Through my seven-feet Newtonian reflector its disc was 
very conspicuous and defined : but I could not with any 
attention ascertain its tail. By due labour I think it will be 
visible a month longer. 

As the month is concluding:, I write in haste, that your 
many readers may not be tempted to forgo their search 
after this curious object. 

I am, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 

W. Walker. 

ANOTHER COMET. 

A letter from a gentleman, dated Crantits, Orkney, 
Oct. 30 , says :—“ Las^ night I observed another comet. 
It was nearly vertical to this place about eight o’clock. The 
nucleus is fully as large to appearance as the other comet, 
which is also still visible. This new comet is very laag© 
and distinct. It appears to be on its approach to the Sun ; 
will probably be visible for a considerable time; and seerns 
to have moved, since I first saw it last night, about two de- 
grees.” 


M. Ca- 


286 Lectures**-Patents. 

M. Caselii, an astronomer of Naples, accounts for tiff- 
extraordinary heat of the past summer, which continued so 
intense throughout the whole month of September, by 
ascribing it to the extreme purify of the face of the sun, 
which this year was turned towards the earth. For nearly two 
months he observed none of the spots which are commonly 
perceived in it. Hence M. Caselii concludes, that the sun’s 
rays, having been emitted in greater abundance and with less 
interruption, produced that violent degree of heat, which, 
though it scorched the fields, nevertheless increased their 
fertility. 

LECTURES. 

Dr. Clutterbuck, one of the Physicians to the General 
Dispensary, Aldersgate-street, purposes, during the ensuing 
Spring, to give a Course of Lectures on the Theory and 
Practice of Physic, including an Outline of Physiology and 
the Materia Medica.—The introductory Lecture will be 
©'iven on Friday, January 22, at six o’clock in the evening, 
and be continued on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
at the same hour. Further particulars, with a Prospectus, 
may be had on application at the Dispensary, or at No. 17, 
St. Paul’s Churchyard. 

Mr. Taunton’s Spring Course of Lectures on Anatomy, 
Physiology, Pathology, and Surgery, will commence on the 
23d of January, at eight o’clock in the evening, at the 
Theatre of Anatomy, Greville-street, Hatton Garden. The 
nights of lecturing are Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. 

In these Lectures it is proposed first to take a comprehen¬ 
sive view of the structure and oeconomy of the living body, 
and then to consider the causes, symptoms, nature, and 
treatment of surgical diseases, with the mode of performing, 
the different surgical operations. 

An ample field for professional instruction will be af¬ 
forded , by the opportunity which pupils may have of attend¬ 
ing the clinical practice of both the City and Finsbury Dis¬ 
pensaries. 

LIST OP PATENTS FOR NEW INVENTIONS. 

Samuel Roberts, of Sheffield in the county of York, 
silver-plater, for a toast tray capable of being contracted 
qi expanded at pleasure. Nov. 28, 1807, 

Thomas 


287 


List of Patents for Netv Inventions. 

Thomas Cobb- the younger, of Calthrop House, near 
Banbury in the county of Oxford, paper-maker, for certain 
improvements in the art of making paper in separate sheets. 

Dec. 4. 

Joseph Manton, of Davies-street, Berkeley-square, Lon¬ 
don, gun-maker, for certain improvements in time-keepers. 
Dec. 5. 

John Williams, of Cornbill in the city of London, sta¬ 
tioner, for a new mode of covering and enclosing all kinds 
of carriages. Dec. 9 . 

Mark Laybourn, of Great Driffield in the county of 
York, mechanic, and Richard Millbourn, of the same place, 
gentleman, for an improved roving machine for preparing 
flax, tow, and wool for spinning. Dec. 9 . 

Charles Grant Viscount de Vaux, of Elizabeth-street, 
Hans-square, Chelsea, for a machine which will show the 
latitude and longitude at sea, serving also for weighing any 
object, for measuring space, or the course of a ship and 
time, showing and keeping account upon dials and upon 
cosmographical columns which are part of such machine, 
and also showing the lee-way of a ship ; part of which ma¬ 
chine may also be applied to other useful purposes. Dec. g, 

James Breck, of Newcaetle-under-Lyne in the county 
of Stafford, ironmonger, for a new method, of manufactur¬ 
ing iron straps or girdles into various articles, as a substitute 
for those now composed of hemp. Dec. 16 . 

George Remington, of Queen-square, Bloomsbury, in the 
county of Middlesex, cabinet-maker, for certain improve¬ 
ments on tables and couches. Dec. 16 . 

John Williams, of Cornhill in the city of London, sta¬ 
tioner, for a method of preserving the equilibrium, and pre¬ 
venting all kinds of carriages and vehicles from, overturning 
Dec. 19 . 

« 

William Juniper, of the parish of Saint Saviour^South- 
wark, engine-maker, for certain improved rolls for punching 
of tire, and drawing hoops for the stocks of wheels, and a 
segment for sweeping and setting the same. Dec. 19 . 

Samuel Salter, of Watford in the county of Herts, malt¬ 
ster, for an apparatus for the purpose of drying malt, hops, 
or any kind of grain. Dec. 1 9 , 


METEORO- 


Meteorology • 


2S3 


METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, 

By* Mr. Carey, of the Strand* 
For December 1807. 


Days of the 
Month. 

Th< 

gc M 

CJ c 

.2 c 

~) 5 
T T 

oo ^ 

L’rmoiTi 

• 

rj 

o 

G 

£ 

eter. 

K/ 

J 4 

CJ t/. 

" c £ 

i— 

He lent of 
the Barom. 
Inches. 

1 gn> 

cj • 

QT h . 
T 8 S 

V) p 

<]J > C 

uj 1 - 

9 > 

Q cS 

Weather. 

Nov. 27 

29° 

34° 

28° 

29’67 

12 

Fair 

28 

27 

33 

36 

*75 

10 

Foggy 

29 

40 

41 

35 

•62 

7 

Cloudy* 

30 

33 

35 

, 38 

•80 

6 

Cloudy 

Dec. 1 

35 

37 

0 

JO 

. -86 

5 

Cloudy 

o 

39 

43 

42 

•75 

4 

Cloudy 

3 

32 

37 

39 

•91 

10 

Fair 

4 

39 

47 

41 

•82 

17 

Fair 

5 

45 

47 

44 

'57 

16 

Cloudy 

, 6 

33 

42 

33 

•4 7 

25 

Fair 

7 

32 

85 

30 

°5-2 

19 

Fair 

8 

22 

24 

32 

’45 

0 

Snow 

G 

33 

36 

33 

•(}0 

15 

Fair 

10 

26 

30 

24 

"93 

15 

Fair 

11 

33 

39 

38 

•95 

0 

Cloudy 

12 

37 

41 

39 

30-17 

9 

Cloudy 

13 

40 

42 

40 

*18 

16 

Fair 

14 

41 

44 

36 

*15 

10 

Fair 

15 

35 

o 7 

37 

•1 I 

0 

Cloudy 

16 

37 

39 

36 

•06 

0 

Cloudy 

17 

36 

37 

34 

*04 

0 

Cloudy' 

18 

34 


36 

29*99 

' 0 

Cloudy 

19 

36 

38 

32 

30-09 

0 

Cloudy 

20 

29 

31 

30 

*20 

4 

Cloudy 

21 

29 

30 

29 

•35 

0 

Cloudy 

22 

29 

36 

34 

•22 

14 

Fair 

23 

33 

35 

36 

•11 

0 

■Cloudy 

24 

36 

40 

3 7 

•12 

0 

Cloudy 

2 5 

37 

43 

46 

•01 

10 

Cloudy 

26 

. ' \ 

46 

/ 

50 

49 

29*90 

0 

Small rain 


, N. B. The Barometer’s height is taken atone o’clock. 


\ 























L 289 ] 


NLIV. Directions for constructing a cheap Bed and clastic 
Frame , for the easy Conveyance of sick or wounded 
Persons, Invented , and most humbly presented to his 
Royal Highness the Commander in Chief, by Patrick 
Crichton, Lieutenant-colonel of the Second Regiment 

^ u O 

Royal Edinburgh Volunteers. 

Directions for the Construction of the Elastic Frame . 

REFERENCES. 

he lower frame aa (Plate VII.) is made of ash or elm, 
seven feet long, and five feet four inches broad. 

BB. Two strong wooden pillars, bound on the sides bv 
two circular pieces of iron, for supporting the elastic frame. 

ccc. The elastic frame, made of the best ash, supported 
by the wooden pillars, and semicircular pieces of iron. 

ee. The frame or cott, containing a mattress or pelisse, 
stuffed with straw.—Two or three hammocks may be sus¬ 
pended, and will answer as well as the cott. 

ff. Rings and iron hooks, by which the cott, bed, and 
mattress are supported. 

ggg. Four handles projecting from the under frame, one 
foot three inches long each, by which the whole may be 
carried bv four men. 

hhhh. Four semicircular hoops, over which a cover can 
be thrown, to protect the patient from the weather. 

The under frame and pillars should be made of ash or 
elm, well seasoned. 

The elastic, or upper frame, should be made of ash, re¬ 
markably clean and well seasoned, thick in the middle 
where it is supported, and tapering towards the ends. 

The total expense of the whole, including the iron-work* 
should not exceed four pounds ten shillings. 

Directions for using the Bed and Frame. 

The lower frame may be fastened bv rtfpes to any cart of 
waggon, of the same size, or larger than itself. 

The sick or wounded person should first be placed in.the bed. 

Vol. No. 116 . Jan . 1808 * T The 




290 Directions for constructing 

The frame should then be placed over the bed, and the 
ropes at the head of the bed suspended upon the iron hooks. 

Then the ropes at the feet should be hooked up. 

The frame, containing one or two sick men, can be easily 
lifted by the four handles by four men, and carried to any 
distance to a cart or baggage-waggon. 

The lower frame is then fixed to the cart by ropes, and 
the machine is ready to move. 

When the sick are taken from the barroa^e-cart, the 
whole frame should be lifted at once, and carried to the 
hospital. 

The bed should then be unhooked, first at the feet and 
then at the head, and the frame taken away. 

Upon large English waggons, two or three of these 
frames may be conveniently placed'. 

If the carts of any district are too small for the breadth of 
the frame, it may be made narrower, so as to adapt it to 
that conveyance. 


When the machine, which is delineated in the plate, 
was first invented, it was solely intended for the use of the- 
army. 

To this purpose it has been successfully applied ; and is 
in common application in several of the garrisons of Great 
Britain, as affording the easiest meansof transporting sick or 
wounded soldiers, from garrison or quarters, to the hospital. 

Since the time of its being adopted by the army, it has 
likewise been brought into the service of a great many of 
the public hospitals, not only for the purpose of conveying 
maimed or bedridden patients from their houses to the 
wards, but for removing such patients, as were under the 
necessity of undergoing operations, from the wards to the 
operation room, and returning them again from the opera¬ 
tion room to the wards, without subjecting them to the ne¬ 
cessity of being dressed, or even removed from the beds. 

Having successfully answered these purposes, it lias'of late 
been used, when fixed upon a cart, waggon, or upon the car¬ 
riage of a postchaise, for removing wounded persons, or such 



a cheap and elastic Frame. 291 

fls were afflicted with disease, and who were unable to support 
the motion of a chaise or coach, from different parts of the 
country to towns where they might enjoy the benefit of me¬ 
dical advice. 

In this manner, the use of it, in Scotland, has become 
of late very general, and, fortunately, very beneficial to 
those who have travelled in it ; all of them concurring, that 
they were insensible of any unpleasant motion during their 
respective journeys. 

To enumerate the instances of its successful application 
in this manner would fill a small volume ; but a few facts 
will enable the public to appreciate its value. 

A person was brought in it, with a compound fracture in 
the thigh bone, from the west Highlands to Edinburgh, a 
distance of 74 miles, in two davs. 

A gentleman, with an attack of gout both in his hands 
and feet, was removed from Edinburgh to the north of 
England, above 140 miles, in three days. 

In both these instances, and a great many more, the bed 
and frame were suspended to the carriage of a postchaise, 
and, with a servant sitting in front, travelled post. 

Some hundreds of examples can be adduced of the re¬ 
moval of patients by its means, when fixed on a cart or 
waggon, and in many of these the patients were in a 
state of the most severe bodily distress ard debility. 

In all these removals, the patients have borne testimony 
to their enduring no additional pain or inconvenience from 
the motion of the machine; all of them, even in the most 
severe cases, declaring, that they were alike insensible of 
bodily fatigue, or of the least increase of pain, from the 
mode of conveyance. 

The royal colleges of physicians and surgeons of this 
place have bestowed upon it the most unlimited approba¬ 
tion, both by letters addressed to the inventor, and in the 
publications of several of their members. 

In consequence of these proofs cf its successful effects, 
and these encomiums from the learned and respectable bo¬ 
dies who are so well enabled to decide regarding its merits, 

^ number of applications have of late been addressed to the 

T 2 inventor. 


S92 On the Establishment of Telegraphs 

inventor, soliciting; him to describe and delineate the m&- 
chine, so as it might be introduced into general use in the 
various quarters of the kingdom. 

To save time in complying, with these requests, he adopt¬ 
ed the method of printing and circulating these plates, ac¬ 
companied with a description, which will clearly demon¬ 
strate, at how very small an expense, and with how very 
little mechanical art, the elastic frame can be constructed ; 
for, in fact, there is no village in Britain, in which an or¬ 
dinary smith and carpenter reside, where it may not be 
easily made. 

j 

Under these circumstances, the inventor feels it a duty 
he owes to his country, and to those suffering bodily di¬ 
stress, to give it all the publicity in his power; with which 
view, and with the most ardent wishes for its continuing to 
prove beneficial, in mitigating the distresses of such as may 
require its aid, this account is submitted to the public. 

Gayfield Place, 

17tii Sept. 1807. 


XLV. Project for the Establishment of Telegraphs on a 
New Construction. By Capt. Pasley, of the Royal 
Engineers . 

[Concluded from p. 210.] 

2d. A Polygrammatic Telegraph for Day Signals. 

In the reflections concerning the use of telegraphs in gene¬ 
ral, into which I was unavoidably led whilst digesting the 
above proposal, it appeared to nie a fundamental principle 
of the art, to aim as much as possible at celerity and di¬ 
spatch, which I found were in some measure to be gained 
by employing a number of words and sentences adapted to 
the key of the telegraph, according to the method of sec¬ 
tions, instead of adhering entirely to the tedious alphabetical 
mode, which (to the best of my knowledge) is the only 
one in common use. 

Still there remained a defect, in its being impossible to 
express a variety of significations without making two oi 







on a New Construction. $93 

fhrec signals for each, The only remedy for this at first 
seemed to be, increasing the number of combinations of the 
telegraphs already established by adding more bodies, as, 
for instance, to construct an Admiralty telegraph with seven, 
eight, or nine bodies instead of six ; but this remedy is only 
partial, because additional bodies would run into confusion 
before the signal code can be enlarged to a sufficient extent. 

On further consideration it therefore occurred to me, that 
it might be allowable to propose anew diurnal telegraph; 
and if my preceding observations are granted, I hope it may 
meet with approbation, being capable of exhibiting seven 
hundred and seven thousand two hundred and eighty distinct 
combinations* whereas no former one used in this country 
has exceeded sixty-three. I now proceed to describe the 
nature of the telegraph proposed, which, for the sake of 
distinguishing it from others on a more confined principle, 
I shall call the Polygrammatic Telegraph. 

'Nature and Construction. 

Four upright posts are erected, each having two arms 
moveable on a spindle at top, which in their natural po¬ 
sition hang down, but can be raised by means of strings 
to various degrees of extension, so as to appear in positions 
either vertical, horizontal, or inclined at an an<de of 43 ° 

. _ CD 

with the horizon. The length of the arms may be about 
six feet from the centre of motion to the ends, or mere, in 
proportion to the distance between the telegraphic stations. 
The strings will be worked by two men. 

I he combinations ot two arms in the several positions 
enumerated are twenty-eight, of which a table is given in 
Plate VIII : eighteen of these are allotted to the alphabetical 
characters, and ten to the numerical ciphers, so that using 
the common mode of signal making, every post with its 
arms might form a complete telegraph, were it not the ob¬ 
ject of the present proposal to go further. A book is there¬ 
fore made of words and sentences arranged in regular order, 
to the extent judged necessary, and let signal 2 067 signify, 
for example, “ The enemy have landed on the south-west 
coast N and let signal 9304 signify, “ A convoy is just ar- 

T 3 - • rived 


594 


/ 


On the Establishment of Telegraphs 

rived from the West Indies” Then these two pieces of in¬ 
telligence will be successively communicated by the two 
signal?,. Fig, 2, 2. 

But this telegraph has another property, I believe entirely 
new, of expressing words or parts of words not exceeding 
four letters, by a single signal, For instance, let it be re¬ 
quired to communicate the following orders alphabetically : 

Send 1000 men to Dover f or, u Three regiments will- 
march to Leith the first will be effected by five signals, and 
the second by seven, as in fig. 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, and 4, 4, 4, 4, 
4 , 4 , 4 . 

In working this telegraph no signal is required to denote 
the end of a word, it being sufficient to mark a pause by 
leaving one of the posts in its quiescent state. And to di¬ 
stinguish between the numerical signals referring to the 
book or code, and such as are really intended to denote 
numbers, the unit place of the latter must never, but that 
of the former must always, be placed on the fourth or right- 
hand post of the telegraph. Hence this post, when left 
quiescent between two numbers, will not be considered to 
denote a pause or break, as it would between two words. 
Thus, fig. 5 will signify one thousand, whilst fig. 6 will 
denote the lOOOdth word or sentence in the book, and must 
be referred to there for its signification. Also, in con¬ 
sequence of the last remark, the signals 5th, 6th, 7th, 
and 8th, the fig. 7? 8, 3, 10, will signify 104, 5Q6, 820 
pounds. 

Observing; this restriction, it will he found that a signal 
hook may be formed, containing 10,999 words and sen¬ 
tences, if thought necessary, each to be expressed by one 
change on this telegraph, whilst all unforeseen intelligence 
can bo communicated by an improved alphabetical mode, 
without these two methods interfering in the least with each 
other ; so that I trust it will he allowed, that the object I 
had in view, namely, increased dispatch in signal making 
without loss of clearness or precision, is fully obtained, 

C. Pasley, Capt. Royal Engineers, 


P. S. Iq 


2 95 


on a New Construction. 

P. S. In describing the principles of the polygrammatic 
telegraph, I avoided entering into the minutiae of its me¬ 
chanical construction ; by which, however varied, no funda¬ 
mental part of the scheme can be affected. A model made by 
my di rections in Malta proved to all who saw it the practica¬ 
bility of the machine ; f shall, in explanation, say a few words 
here, which will perhaps be almost equally satisfactory. 

The under part of the posts is solid, but the upper part of 
them ts composed of two side pieces with a space between, 
within which the arms play. One of the arms is repre¬ 
sented in the annexed figure, (fig. ll,) hanging down in 
its natural position, so as to be entirely hid by the post when 
the telegraph is at rest. A roller A is fixed to the arm near 
its head, having an iron ring a, a, a , screwed upon one side 
of it, and provided with grooves for the strings Z-, c, the 
ends of which are fastened to it in contrary directions. The 
other ends of these strings are brought down into the signal 
room, and have seven knobs (1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,) fixed upon 
them, the intervals between which are proportioned to the 
circumference of the roller, in such a manner that as thev 

# J 

are respectively pulled down to the plane D, D, they will 
raise the arm by moving it on its pivot (which coincides 
with the centre of the roller) to the seven positions required 
in signal making. As the arm rises to any of these posi¬ 
tions, the corresponding tooth of the ring a a a will he 
griped by one or other of two springs or catches fixed to the 
side pieces, which will hold it up in its proper position with¬ 
out fatigue to the men employed, till an order is eiven to 
prepare fora new signal.- Then, by pulling another string, 
(not expressed in the figure,) the catches are drawn away 
from the teeth, and the arms being thus released fall down 
to their natural state. I ne same string, by a very simple 
contrivance, presses the arms down after the fourth position, 
and prevents their vibrating as they fall at the end of every 
signal, dd is a piece that would be invisible at the telegraphic 
distances, serving to increase the weight of the part B as 
much as may be judged necessary, ft was omitted in the 
model, as not being an essential part of the machine in any 
ether respect. 

T 4 


It 


^90 Proposal for the Establishment of 

It has been already observed that one man is to work two 
posts ; the arms must therefore be so poised, by duly pro¬ 
portioning the weight of the part (B) above, and of the 
part (C) below the pivot, that he may with ease be able to 
raise two arms with each hand, the requisite preponderance 
of the lower part being at the same time preserved. 

With regard to tne signal houses chosen for this kind of 
telegraph, I have only to remark, that instead of having the 
two exterior posts over the roof of the building, which 
might require it to be larger than necessary, they may be 
made to stand upon beams projecting from its extremities*. 


XLVL Proposal for the Establishment of a National Mu¬ 
seum. By J. S. Duncan, Esq. of Lincoln’s Inn. 

[Concluded from p„ 205,] 

rp 

1 he following outlines of tablets, supposed to be affixed 
to different parts of an arranged museum, are not offered as 
a complete plan of a museum arranged with a view to the 
illustration of natural theology, but are sketched slightly, 
with the view of merely suggesting the practicability of such 
mode of exhibition. 

I. Varieties of Power,, 

II, Extent of Power, 

A. 

1. Attraction, Magnets. Electrometers. Cohering Plates, 

See. Compass. 

2. Repulsion. Magnets. Electrometers. Five-arms, &c. 

3 . Impulse. Ivory Balls. Reaction, &c. 

Gravitation appears to be only a particular attraction. 
Thus, we may say the heavenly bodies are attracted by, or 
gravitate toward, one another. Some say, all bodies are 
impelled bv external agency in all cases of what is com¬ 
monly called attraction and repulsion. Of late this has 
been maintained by Le Sage of Geneva. It is not material 
to the conclusions of natural theology, whether these be 

i 

* For several omissions, in the former part of Capt. Pasley’s communication, 
see the end of the present Number of the Phil. Mag. 

different 








a National Museum. 297 

different powers, or different effects of one power, itself 

controlled and modified by all-pervading Intelligence.-. 

Crane, Inclined Plane, Lever, Pulley, Screw, &c. 

B. 

4. Terrestrial Glote. 

5. Celestial Sphere . Orrery. 

4. About four-fifths of the surface of the globe consist of 
Water. This large proportion of water displays various re¬ 
lations to the sustenance and welfare of animated beings. 
It supports vast multitudes, whose whole organization, 
under very different forms, is peculiarly adapted to that 
element. Some of its inhabitants require salt in addition to 
the water they inhabit. The well-being of others requires 
fresh water. The welfare of others requires occasional 
change from the former to the latter. Some animals to 
which water is principally necessary require occasional re¬ 
sidence in air. Some commonly respiring air, and dwelling 
on land, seek their principal sustenance and comfort in the 
water. The organization of these is variously adapted to 
either element. Fresh w'ater, as drink, is requisite to the 
maintenance of most land animals. It is highly important, 
if not essential, to the maintenance of man. Its relations to 
our comfort, are innumerable. It is necessary to vegeta¬ 
tion. It contributes to the formation of earthy inanimate 
solids, perhaps to the solidification of the greater part of 
xhe habitable globe. 

The earth in its turn prevents the water from putrefying 
by affording, conjointly with the air, and with the influ¬ 
ences of the sun and moon, facility to its continual mo¬ 
tion ; straining it through crevices and pouring it along de¬ 
clivities. The surface of the earth assists evaporation : its 
cavities cool and condense vapours. 

The relations of earth to the wants and comforts of all 
jiving beings are innumerable. 

The air which surrounds the globe is requisite to the sup¬ 
port of life, and to the well-being of all living creatures. 
The heat retained by the earth preserves a great portion of 
the air from being chilled to the destruction of vegetable and 
8 animal 



*» , 

208 Proposal for the Establishment of 

animal life. Evaporation of water gives coolness to a great 
portion of air, which, from excessive heat, would other¬ 
wise lay waste the torrid regions. 

Heat, so necessary to the sustenance, and so conducive to 
the comfort of living beings, contributes incessantly to pro¬ 
duce countless modifications of earth, air, and water, and 
is itself incessantly controlled by their reagencies. 

Moderate cold and moderate heat are terms nearly con¬ 
vertible. Where the moderation of either is required, a 
moderate degree of the other becomes requisite.-—See 
further, Paley, Nat, Theology, chap. xvii. and xxi. 

5. Planetarium . This machine is intended to represent 
the relative situations of the sun and the planets, (one of 
which is the earth.) at different periods of time. The 
planets are restrained by their relations to the sun in their 
respective orbits. The sun dispenses light and heat to all. 
We may refer, by analogy, to other planets, the advantages 
which we fully experience from our relations to the sun. 
Ihe revolutions of the earth round its axis cause the vicis¬ 
situdes of day and night. But the darkness, the coolness, 
the tranquil repose of night, are no less requisite to the well¬ 
being of man and other animals, than the cheering in¬ 
fluences of the day. The earth’s orbit, or path round the 
sun, has such relation or inclination to the equator, and the 
axis of the earth is placed in such relation to its orbit, that 
the sun becomes at different periods of the year perpendi¬ 
cular to different portions of the globe, and thus produces 
the continual succession and order of the seasons, cherishincr 

O 

all nature, and making life delightful. 

Ihe stagnation of the ocean is prevented, and the ebb and 
flow of the tides effected, by the influence of the moon as 
well as of the sun, 

The planets are all placed in definite relations one to an¬ 
other, and each affects the other by mutual attraction. 
“ Phis subsisting law of attraction falls within limits which 
utility requires:—If the planet Saturn had attracted the earth 
in a proportion increasing according to its distance (instead 

8 of 

t 


a National Museum, 


299 

©f the reverse,) it would have dragged the globe out of its 
course, and have perplexed its motions to a degree incom¬ 
patible with our security, our enjoyments, and probably 
our existence.”—Paley, chap. xxii. p. 42t>. 

C. 

EXTREMES OF ORGANIZED BEING, 

6. Elephant—Mouse. 7* Ostrich—Humming-Bird, 
8. Skeleton of a Whale — of a Minnow, 9. Crocodile — 
Microscope and Wheel Animal, 


FIRST APARTMENT, 

ANATOMICAL RELATIONS. 

Man. 

1. Casts or statues of the Farnese Hercules and the 
Venus de Medicis. 

2. Wax models from Florence representing; dissections. 

3. Male and female skeletons. 

4. Foetuses in spirits. Injected preparations, &c. 

5. Parts of the skeleton. 

a. Skull. 

Relation to the subsistence of the individual. 

It is destined to contain a substance so soft as easily to 
receive external injury; so important to the continuance of 
life, that a very slight injury suspends or extinguishes the 
vital energy. This substance is accordingly enclosed in a 
strong bony case, “ adapted not for motion, but solely for 
defence. It is lined with soft membranous coats. Hollows 
and inequalities may be observed in the inside of the skull : 
these exactly lit the folds of the brain, keeping the sub¬ 
stance steady, and guarding it against concussions.”—Paiey, 
chap. xi. p. 225. 

Relation to the well-being of the individual. 

The secure protection of the brain is of the first import¬ 
ance to sensation, the source of all animal delight; which 

is 


3ftft Proposal for the Establishment of 

k liable to be disturbed or suspended by less injuries to the 
brain than those which affect life. 

h. the Spine in its cavity is a long canal conveying the 
substance of the brain through a great part of the animal 
form. Like the skull, it affords to its contents a firm hard 
covering. Like the skull, it is variously perforated, sending 
forth minute ramifications of brain through all parts of the 
body. But, unlike the skull, it is curiously adapted to va¬ 
rious motions; none of these motions, however, occasion 
it to press at any time on any of the line branches of brain 
which issue from its cavities. Were not this circumstance 
most nicely adjusted, every motion of the body would be 
liable to induce palsy, and to endanger life. 

{( The head rests immediately on the uppermost of the 
vertebrae, and is united to it by a hinge joint, upon which 
joint the head plays freely forward and backward, as far 
either way as the ligaments allow.”—- 

* £ The strength of the compages, and the security against 
luxation is an instance of wonderful contrivance. Where so 
many joints are concerned, and where in every one derange¬ 
ment would he fatal, a peculiar protection is provided : the 
vertebrae are articulated ; that is, moveable joints between 
them are formed by means of those projections called pro¬ 
cesses, which so. lock in with and overwrap one another as 
to secure the body of the vertebra not only from accidental 
slipping, but even from being pushed out of its place by 
any violence less than that which would break the bone.” 

The relations of the spine to the subsistence of the indi¬ 
vidual are nearly the same with those of the skull ; it is 
further related to the well-being and comfort of animal life 
by affording the facilities of motion. 

c. Ribs. These are fixed by strong cartilages at one of 
their ends to the vertebrae, at the other to the sternum. 
Their relations to life and well-being are manifest in their 
adjustment to all the motions of the spine, in the remark¬ 
able protection which they afford to the principal organs of 
life, the heart and the lungs, and their peculiar adaptation 
to assist the movements of the latter. 

d. The Pelvis being the centre of bodily motion, in the 

human 


301 


a National Museum, 

human form, requires peculiar strength. All the larger and 
stronger muscles of the body, which move the thighs and 
hind-legs ot quadrupeds, move round or are aitac ed to it. 

I he bones diller from those above and below them in size 
and compactness, and derive great firmness from their cir¬ 
cular disposition. If great strength was requisite in the 
covering which was to protect the brain of the individual, 
no less was needful for that which was to form the shelter, 
and as it were the antenatal cradle, of the newly conceived 
being. Here one of the most interesting relations of ana¬ 
tomy is displayed ; a relation not only to the safety and well¬ 
being of the individual, but also to the continuance of the 
species, in the remarkable expansion of the bones of the * 
female pelvis beyond those of the male. These, and nume¬ 
rous other formations having similar relations, are obviously 
formed by a power regarding prospectively their future use. 

e. The exact correspondencies of legs, feet, arms, and 
hands, enable them to cooperate equally and mutually in 
powerful exertion and in rapid movement. 

f. Teeth. These are different in different animals ; but 
wherever they are found, a provision is also found for giving 
those motions to the jaw from which their chief use is de¬ 
rived. A relation then exists between the muscles of the 
jaw and the solid substance, between the form and sub¬ 
stance of the jaw and the teeth, between these and the or¬ 
gans necessary to deglutition, between the latter and the- 
gullet; between that and the stomach; between the sto¬ 
mach and the gastric juice ; between this and the absorbents, 

lacteals, and lymphatics, which secrete the chyle or neces- 

♦ * 

sary nutriment, and convey it to the thoracic duct; between 
this duct and the subclavian and other veins, between veins 
and arteries, between arteries and lungs, between all and 
the heart. 

g. The mutual relations of muscles and nerves, of mus¬ 
cles to each other, and of nerves to each other, contributing 
constantly to the security and well-being of individuals and 
species, will appear to the most cursory observer. 

h. Organs of sense. Dissected eye. Ear, nose, and 
tongue, See. 


t c U -1 ! 1 a 

A : . 


302 


Proposal for l fib Establishment of 

‘ £ The eye is formed on principles similar to those which 
are applied to the construction of the telescope or camera 
obscura. The perception arising from the image is a sub¬ 
ject of distinct consideration. The instruments, as far as 
they relate to the production of the image, are of the same 
kind. The end is the same ; the means are the same. The 
lenses of the telescope and the humours of the eye bear a 
complete resemblance to one another in their figure, in their 
position, and in their power over the rays of light; viz. in 
bringing each pencil to a point at the right distance from 
the lens : in the eye at the exact place where the membrane 
of the retina is spread to receive it.”—Paley, p. £3. 

The ear is no less artificially adapted to its office than 
the eye.”—“ The external ear is calculated to catch and 
collect the pulses of air—These, passing through the barrel 
of the ear, strike on the thin membrane known bv the name 

v 

of the drum, which, stretched over bony cavities, presents 
a concurrence of circumstances very analogous to the con¬ 
struction of that instrument.”—Vide p. 46. 

The organs of smell direct many, perhaps most, animals 
to a proper choice of aliment, and greatly contribute to gene¬ 
ral delight. The internal part of the nose has six cavities, 
called the maxillary frontal and spheroid sinuses, on each 
side. These are lined with a thick but very irritable mem¬ 
brane, in which the sensation of smelling certainly, begins. 

The tongue is covered with irritable papillae, supposed to 
be formed by the extremities of its nerves. Its delight in 

'v , , ^ 

flavours prompts its exertions in the work of deglutition. 

The organs of touch are diffused throughout the whole 
surface of the forms of most animals : perhaps some tribes 
of insects are alone to be excepted. The cutis (a delicate 
network of fine vessels, disclosed upon removal of the 
epidermis, the exterior or scarf skin,) is found to have 
throughout its whole surface innumerable papillae, like 
minute granulations, which are most easily observed where 
the sense of feeling is most delicate. 

i. Relations of individuals to each other.—Hercules and 
Venus. 

The male is almost always more robust than the 

female. 


a National Museum. 


303 


female, i his ig requisite in a state in which it is ordained 
that subsistence shall depend upon exertion : for during the 
period of parturition, 8tc., it is necessary that the strength 
ot the male should be exerted for the maintenance of both. 
The difference between the strength of males and females 
will be found generally proportionate to the different degrees 
in which such necessity shall be found to exist. 

The teats of females of different species are adapted in 
size, form, situation and number, to their respective youno-. 
“ At the moment the young animal enters into the world, 


its maintenance, the maternal milk, is ready for it.’’ 

The new-born child is without teeth. “ It is evident that 
the act of sucking will be performed with more ease, both 
to the mother and infant, while the edges of the gums are 
smooth and soft, than when they are bordered with sharp 
bones. By the time they are wanted the teeth are ready.” 

The remarkable increase of ingenuity and courage in most 
brutes during the tender and defenceless state of their young, 
apptats to be a relation of instinct. This impulse of instinct 
guides the sexes of all species, directs the young to the 
teat, induces birds to build nests, and brood on their eo-c? 
urges fish from salt to fresh water, and insects to provide for a 
progeny of which they never live to see the birth.—Ch. xviii. 

k. Relations of animals’ to food, and food to animals. 
Specimens of teeth, bill, gizzards, and stomachs. 

The teeth of animals are adapted to the mastication of 
varieties of food. Where long-continued mastication and 
trituration is requisite, the teeth are broad and solid,* where 
less comminution is needful, they are hollow and sharp. 

I he gastric juice of birds of prey, of an owl, or a kite, 
acts upon animal fibre alone, will not act upon seed and 
grasses at all. I be gastric juice of ruminating animals, as 
the sheep and the ox, speedily dissolves vegetables, but makes 
no impression upon animal bodies.The construction of 
the stomachs of ruminating animals differs considerably 
from that of animals which require animal food. Birds 
furnished with soft bills are provided with gizzards neces- 
sar ) *-0 tiiturate their grain. J hose which possess hard, 
strong, and hooked bills and claws, whose gastric juices 

will 


304 


Proposal for the Establishment of 

will not act on grain, have soft membranous stomachs* 
The teeth and stomachs of mankind are suited to the masti¬ 
cation and digestion both of animal and vegetable food. 

Skeletons or preserved specimens of parts should be in¬ 
troduced wherever they are requisite to illustrate peculiar 
organization. 

CLASS I. MAMMALIA, 

According to the Linnsean arrangement, includes all animals 
that suckle their young ; which also correspond in other 
respects ; in the heart, which has two ventricles and two 
auricles; and in the blood, which is red and warm. They 
are likewise all viviparous. 

DIVISION I. Digitated or Clawed. 

Order I. Primates. Fore teeth four. Canine single. 
Relations to sustenance, well-being, &c. 

GENERA. 

Man . 

, Ape . Relation to man. cc Notwithstanding the great 

similarity between the form and organization of 
the Ouran-Outan^—though he has the same or¬ 
gans of speech, he never attempts to articulate. 
The figure and proportion of his brain likewise 
are the same ; but he discovers no extent of 
thought. There cannot, M. Buffon properly re¬ 
marks, be a more evident proof that matter alone, 
though perfectly organized, can produce neither 
language nor extensive thinking, unless it be ani¬ 
mated by minds superior to those of brutes. Ouran- 
Outangs imitate almost all human actions except 
speech.”—Smeilie, Phil, of Nat. Hist. vol. iu 
p. 423. 

Macauco . - 

Bat . Relation of conservation. If the bat did not 

sleep during the winter it must starve, as the in¬ 
sects upon which it feeds disappear.—Paley and 
Smeilie. 


Relation 


a Nat ioml Museum . 305 

Relation of compensation. The hook in the 
wing of a bat is strictly a mechanical and com¬ 
pensating contrivance. Without her hook the 
bat would be the most helpless of all animals. 
She can neither run upon her feet, nor raise her¬ 
self from the ground. By her hook she suspends 
herself to the sides of rocks, caves, and buildings. 

Order II. Bruta. Fore teeth or incisors none. 

GENERA. 

Elephant . Relations of conservation. Superior sagacity. 

Tusks not formed till the sucking-time ceases. 
Length and position of the tusks. Various powers 
of the proboscis. 

Relations of compensation. “ The necessity of 
the elephant's proboscis arises from the shortness 
of his neck : the shortness of the neck is rendered 
necessary by the weight of the head, &c.”—Paley. 

Walrus. Conservation. 

Morse . Preserved by their blubber amidst regions of 

Arctic ice, and enabled to cope with their only 
enemy the white bear by their tremendous tusks. 

Relation of compensation. Their soft enor¬ 
mous bodies, though possessing much activity in 
water, are most unwieldy on land; but they are 
enabled to ascend the rocks of ice by means of 
their tusks, which they fix in the crevices, and so 
draw themselves out of the sea. 

Sloth . Relations of conservation and compensation. 

It is enabled to subsist for a long time without 
food. Its inaptitude for locomotion is compen¬ 
sated by an extraordinary strength of claw's, and 
by its power of climbing. “ The tardiness of his 
pace seems to have reference to the capacity of his 
organs, and to his propensities with respect to 
food.”—Paley, 308. 

Ant-Eater. Relations. 

Peculiar construction of snout and tongue— 
Strong claws for defence. 

Vol, 29 . No. 116* Jan , 1808, 


U 


Manis, 


306 Proposal for the 'Establishment of 

Mauls . Relations. Its food is of insects. The tongue 

covered with a viscus, by which they are ensnared. 
It is slow of motion, but securely protected from 
most enemies by a strong scaly armour. 

Armadillo. Relations of conservation. Covered with a 
hard bony shell, it is said to escape from pursuers 
by rolling itself like a ball, and dropping from the 
edge of a precipice. It burrows deep in the 

Order III. Fer^k. 

Fore teeth six, two, and ten in the upper jaw; two, 

four, and eight, in the lower. One canine on each side in 

all genera. 

genera. 

Seal. Relations of conservation and compensation.—- 

Adaptation to long continuance in and under 
water, and swiftness in diving and swimming. 
No external ears. Hind feet palmated. Quaere 
respecting foramen ovale.—See Derham, Physico- 
Theol. 157 and 325. 

Dog. Relations, &c. Acute sense of smelling: Strength 

and activity. (e Adaptation of wide gullet to a 
voracious appetite/'—Derham, Ph. Theol. 1 97• 

Cat. (including the Lion and Tiger.) Relations, &c. 

Superior strength and activity. Power of expand- 
ing or closing the pupil of the eye.—Paley, 257. 

Sharp retractile claws. Activity of gastric juice 
and shortness of intestine.—Paley, 246. 

Civet. Fetid odour emitted by the skunk when pursued. 

Weasel. Relations of organization to sustenance and 
security, &c. 

Bear. Strength of paws. Power of long abstinence 
from food during the winter. 

Opossum. A false skin under the belly of the animal 
forms a pouch, into which the young litter are re¬ 
ceived at their birth. It is furnished with peculiar 
bones and muscles, which serve to open and to 
close the bag.”—Paley, 266. 



Mole* 


a National Museum. 307 

Mole, “ The strong short legs, the palmated feet 
armed with sharp nails, the pig-like nose, the 
teeth, the velvet coat which is never soiled, the 
small external ear, the sagacious smell, the sunk 
protected eye, all conduce to the utilities or to 
the safety of its underground life.”—Paley, p. 293 . 

Shrew. 

Hedge Hog. A guard of sharp prickles—Ouse re whether 
less sensible of pain than other animals. See 
Perham, note, p. 240. Dormant during winter. 
Smellie, vol. ii. p. 41 ]. 

Order IV. Geires. Fore teeth two, canine none. 

GENERA. 

Porcupine . Protected like the hedge-hog. 

Hare. 


Beaver. 

Castor. 

Filer. 


Bat. 

Squirrel. Blood not exceeding the heat of the external air. 

Sleeps during the severity of winter. Some are 
provided with membranes which enable them to 

extend their leap to a short flight. 

* 

DIVISION II. Hoofed. 

Order V. Pecora. Fore teeth, none above. 

GENERA. 

Camel. Relations of organization, &c., to sustenance 
and well being. (C The stomach of the camel is 
well known to retain large quantities of water, and 

U 2 to 


"The ears of the hare and other animals of flight 
are turned backwards, those of beasts of prey and 
pursuit forwards.—Paley, 256. 

Its eyes take in a great range of vision. It runs 
with ease up hill. 

A plastering species, endued with a natural 
trowel, possessing singular sagacity. The fore 
feet small with divided claws ; the hind feet united 
by a membrane for swimming.—Beavers thus dive 
with swiftness exceeding that of the fish on which 
they prey. 


Proposal for the Establishment of 

to retain it unchanged for a considerable length of 
time. This property qualifies it for living in the 
Desert.”—Paley. 

The soft callous foot is peculiarly adapted to 
sandy regions. 

ie Where the substance on which animals feed 
is of slow concretion, the intestines are propor¬ 
tionally long. Those of a Canadian stag four feet 
in height, measured 96 feet.”—Paley, p. 246. 

ce The wild sheep (like the preceding) is swift 
and active ; and if it lose these qualities when it 
comes under the subjection of man, the loss is 
compensated by his protection.”—-Paley. 

Ox. Strength of neck and horns. Stomach formed 

for rumination. 

Order VI. Bellu^e. Fore teeth above and below, obtuse. 

GENERA. 

Horse . Strength, swiftness, power of long continued 

speed. Stomach formed for rumination. 

Hippopotamus . Able to walk under the water as easily as 
on land. By his prodigious strength, especially 
of jaws, he overcomes and devours crocodiles; he 
takes fish by swimming. On land he eats rushes, 
millet, grass, sugar canes. &c. 

Hog . u The babyrouessa hitches its crooked tusks on 
the branch of a tree ; then suffers its whole body to 
swing from it. Thus it continues during the 
night secure from animals which hunt it for 
prey.”—Paley, 271. 

Rhinoceros . Defended by its great strengh, the peculiar 
position of its horn, and the thickness of its hide, 

DIVISION III. Without Claws or Hoofs. 

Order VII. Cete. 

GENERA. 

Narwal. Means of defence and offence, two long, straight, 
spiral teeth perforating the upper lip. 


308 


Musk. 
Deer. 


Goat . 
Sheep. 


Whale . 


a National Museum. 309 

Whale. Feeds on myriads of medusae, which it drinks 
in with the sea water. These and other small fish 
are entangled in parallel hairy laminae, of which 
about 700 adhere to the upper jaw. The water is 
ejected through two orifices near the middle of the 
head. When attacked it strikes with the tail. 
The sound from the stroke of the tail on the water 

is said to exceed the report of a cannon. 

Cachalot .— 

Dolphin .— 

CLASS II. AVES. 

Heart and blood as in the former class. Oviparous. 

Latham’s Arrangement. 

DIVISION I. Land Birds, 

Order I. Accipitres. 

Relations, See. 

Rapacious. Hooked bill; superior mandible near the base 
extending beyond the inferior. 

“ Birds of prey, by their talons and beaks, are quali¬ 
fied to seize and devour many species, both of other 
birds and of quadrupeds. The constitution of the sto¬ 
mach agrees exactly with the form of the members. 
The gastric juice of a bird of prey, of an owl, a falcon, 
or a kite, acts upon the animal fibre alone, not at all on 
seeds or grasses.”—Paley. 

Order II. Picae. 

Pies. The parrot is of this order, remarkable for the. com¬ 
pensatory motion of the upper bill.—Paley, 301. Bill 
convex, compressed. 

Order III. Passeres. 

Sparroiu trihes. Conical sharp pointed bills. Migration of 
swallows. 

» Order IV. Columea?. 

Pigeon trihes. Long nostrils covered with soft loose mem- 

U 3 brane , 


31ft 


Proposal for the Establishment of 

brane ; eject a miiky substance from the craw to feed 
their young.—Montague. Ornithol. Diet. Introduction* 

Order V. Galling. 

Qock tribes. Analogy between their stomachs and the 
structure of corn-mills.—Paley, 287. Margin of the 
upper mandible folds over the inferior. 

Order VI.- Struthiones. 

Ostrich tribes. The wings of the ostrich are unfit for flying : 
the feathers are not compacted in their laminae like 
thqse of other birds. 

DIVISION II. Water Fowl. 

Order VII. Grall/e. 

Waders\ Cloven footed. In water fowl the oil bag is 
particularly conspicuous. 

Order VIII. Graded, 

Waders . Pinnated feet. 

Order IX. An seres. 

Web footed. Dentated filtering bill of the duck, furnish * 
cd with large nerves, enabling it minutely to examine 
the liquids containing its food, and probably increasing 
its gratification.—Paley, 241. 

N. B. I have noticed but cursorily the orders, and have 
omitted the ninety-six genera of birds, as my object is to 
illustrate the proposed plan, and not in this place to attempt 
a completion of the necessary detail. In touching on other 
classes I shall accordingly be still more concise. 

CLASS III. AMPHIBIA. 

Heart with one ventiicle, and one auricle. The blood cold 
and red. Animals of this class respire at will with lungs : 
have no molares or grinding teeth. 

Order I. Chiefly inhabit land, but occasionally water. 

II. Chiefiv the water, but occasionally the land. 

Crocodiles, 


a National Museum . 3] 1 

Crocodiles, lizards, frogs, eels, serpents, and sea tor¬ 
toises are of this class. Their command over the 
lungs; the structure of the heart, and other peculiar 
organizations, manifest an original destination to either 
element* 


CLASS IV. PISCES. 

Heart with one ventricle and one auricle : blood cold and red. 
Thev breathe by gills. u The ordinary shape of a fish’s 
eye being much more convex than that of land animals, 
a corresponding difference attends its muscular conforma¬ 
tion, viz. that it is throughout calculated for flattening the 
eye.—The fins are placed in such relation to each other as 
exactly to balance the body of the fish in the attitude best 
suited to all conveniences of life. The tails of fish are 
adapted to progressive motion in water; those of warm¬ 
blooded water animals, as Order 7, Cetc, Mammalia, are 
horizontal, or principally adapted to perpendicular motion, 
having relation to their necessity of rising every two or 
three minutes to the surface to take breath. Among the 
peculiar organizations of fish, the most remarkable is the 
air bladder ; the distention or contraction of which faci¬ 
litates their ascent and descent in water.”—Paley. The 
peculiar muscular organization of fishes has been lately 
developed in an interesting manner by Mr. Carlisle, at 
the Roval Society. 

j * 

Order I. Nantes. Gills and lungs. Ravs of fins cartila- 
ginous. 

II. Apodes. No ventral fins. 

IIL Jugulares . Ventral placed before the pectoral fins. 

IV. Thoracici. Ventral fins under the thorax. 

V. Abdominales. Ventral fins in the abdomen be¬ 
hind the thorax. 

Sixty-one Genera. 

CLASS V. INSECT/E. 

One ventricle, without an auricle; with antennae. 

In addition to the peculiar organization of insects, the 

U 4 unrjues- 


312 


Proposal for the Establishment oj 

unquestionable characters of instinct, of a superior power 
which directs their voluntary exertions, both to the suste- 
nance of individuals and to the preservation of species, must 
excite strong interest in the student of Natural Theology. 
For the sake of brevity, I shall here give only a general re¬ 
ference to Paley, chap. xix. p. 346. 

Order L Coleoptera , Sheath wings, like chafers ; the 
upper wing covers are called elytra; these, in 
most, cover the abdomen ; but in some are 
partial, as in the earwig. 

II* Hemiptera . Elytra half membranaceous, half 
crustaceous, incumbent on each other. Grass¬ 
hoppers are of this order. 

III. Lepidoptera . Four membranous wings, scaly or 

powdered. Butterflies. 

IV. Neuroptera . Membranous wings reticulated with 

nerves, without sting. Dragon Flies, See. 

V. Hymenoptera . Four transparent wings, with 
stings. Bees, &c. 

VI. Dip ter a. With only two wings; but with alteres, 
or poisers, instead of under wings. Flies, 
Gnats, &c. 

VIT. Aptera. Without wings. Spiders, Scorpions, 
Fleas, Lobsters, &c. 

CLASS VI. VERMES. 

One ventricle without an auricle ; a cold colourless sanies for 
blood. e( The play of the rings in an earth worm as it 
crawls; the undulatory motion propagated along the 
body; the beards or prickles with which the annuli are 
armed, and which the animal can either shut up close to 
its body, or let out to lay hold of the roughnesses of the 
surface on which it creeps—afford, when compared with 
the provisions for motion in other animals, proofs of new 
and appropriate mechanism.'—Paley, 313 . 

Order I. Intestina. IT. JMallusca. III. Testacea . IV. Lf- 

thophyta . V. Zoopkyta . 

SO Genpra—1166 Species, 


SHELLS, 


a National Museum . 


313 


SHELLS. 

The shells of the third order of vermes are so various and 
so beautiful as to deserve a distinct place in the Exhibition* 
They are commonly arranged in three Orders : I. Mulli - 
valves . II. Bivalves . III. Univalves .—See Paley, 30G, 307. 
Thirty-six Genera. 

PLANTS. 

Pictures and dried specimens displaying the characte¬ 
ristics and interesting peculiarities of classes, orders, ge¬ 
nera, &c. 

We d iscover in plants, as well as in animals, numerous 
relations to the preservation of individuals, and of species; 
but we perceive also a limitation of the faculty of motion, 
which renders it doubtful whether any of their movements 
are spontaneous, or can be considered as proceeding from 
internal power, independent of- the immediate agency of 
some external force attractive, repulsive, or impulsive. 

Their forms, like those of animals, are composed of he¬ 
terogeneous particles, # which, when once separated, display 
no tendency to reunite in similar form. They are composed 
in great measure of numerous tubes, which convey juices 
to each part necessary to nutrition and to growth. The 
period of vegetable like that of animal form is limited;—■ 
of various extent in different species. Like animals, plants 
grow to a limited magnitude according to their species, and, 
having attained to a certain growth, soon tend to decay.— 
Moderate heat and light are requisite to their sustenance or 
well-being. They are subject to variations of health, from 
defect or excess of nutriment. The organization of some is 
adapted to subsistence in water. Watry situations are de¬ 
structive to others. Relations exist between different parts 
of vegetable forms, and between different individuals, on 
which depends the continuance of their species. Plants are 
incapable of locomotion; but provisions are ordained for 
the conveyance of their seeds to proper distances, that they 
may have room for growth. Analogies of plants to ani¬ 
mals may be specified to a great extent; and in the com- 
6 pletion 


314 Proposal for the Establishment of a National Museum . 

pletion of this scheme may be referred to the respective 
classes, orders, &c. It may suffice here to observe, that the 
most important difference between the animal and vegetable 
appears to be, that constant means are every where provided 
for conveying to the stationary plant whatsoever is necessary 
to its subsistence, and to the continuance of the speciesj 
while the locomotive animal is left to seek such means for 
itself. The vegetable appears to possess life and very limited 
sensation ; but neither thought nor voluntary power. In 
the animal, all relations to the subsistence of the individual, 
and to the continuance of the species, are wholly subject to 
the exertions of thought, or of voluntary power, or of both 
united.-24 Classes. 

PETRIFACTIONS. 

These are Nature’s archives, and they record a stupendous 
and miraculous change which has been wrought at a distant 
period over the whole surface of the globe. One cabinet 
should be arranged according to the several classes, or¬ 
ders, &c., of animals and plants to which they appear to 
belong: but another, and indeed the principal, collection of 
organic remains should be classed according to the order of 
the strata in which they are found, with specimens of the 
strata ; carefully distinguishing the gravel fossils, or those 
found in alluvial deposits ; likewise the peat or surface fos¬ 
sils ; and those belonging to the existing race buried by 
known means, from original fossil remains of the regular 
strata. Where the order of the strata is not known, or is 
doubtful, an arrangement of clay, sand, limestone, &c, 
fossils by themselves will facilitate a future identification of 
them, when oihers are obtained from known strata. 

A partial attempt has been made by Mr. W. Smith, au¬ 
thor of an Essay on Draining, to form a collection arranged 
according to the order of strata. 

MINERALS. 

The characteristics of animated forms are rendered more 
conspicuous from being contrasted with inanimate forms, 

in 



On the Quantity of Carlon in Carbonic Acid, &c. 315 

in which we do not discover anv mutual relations of parts, 
or of distinct forms to the subsistence of other parts or forms. 
They arc not formed by gradual growth. Their period of 
duration appears to have no fixed limit. Their particles 
unite by mutual attractions; and after separation by external 
force, are found to reunite as perfectly as before such sepa¬ 
ration. They are chiefly distinguished one from another by 
variety of colour, difference of transparency and opacity, 
weight, hardness, ductility, fusibility in heat, difference 
of mutual attractions; by the sound caused in their con¬ 
cussion, their smell and taste, their peculiarity of frac¬ 
ture, and by the regularity of solid forms which they are 
severally found to assume, after solution, in assignable de¬ 
grees of temperature. The ordinary visible characteristics, 
colour, gloss, fracture, 8cc., recorded by Werner; the 
crystalline forms enumerated by Hatty; the weight and 
mutual attractions ascertained bv various philosophers and 
chemists, are to be found collected together in several mo¬ 
dern Treatises on Mineralogy, and should accompany the 
reference to each specimen in the Catalogue of the National 
Museum. 


XLVII. On the Quantity of Carbon in Carbonic Acid, and 
on the Nature of the Diamond . By William Allen, 
Esq. F.L.S. and William Hasledine Pepvs, Esq . 

[Continued from p. 227.] 

Second Experiment on Diamond . 

rp 

1 hermometku 4S° Fahrenheit, barometer SO’OS. Oxy¬ 
gen gas made as usual, left a residuum of 3 parts in 100. 

Eleven small diamonds, weighing 4*01 grains, were put 
into the tray. We began with 49*84 cubic inches of oxy¬ 
gen ; and every thing being properly adjusted, kept the 
platina tube red-hot for a quarter of an hour, and during 
this time the gas was passed from one gasometer to the 
other, as in the former experiments. When the tubes, 8cc. 
were cooled down to the temperature of the room, all the 




316 On the Quantity of Carlon in Carbonic Acid, 

gas was transferred to gasometer No. 1. and the volume 
was exactly the same as before the experiment. On examin¬ 
ing the tray, all the diamonds were entirely consumed, and 
not a vestige left. 

Lime water absorbed 57* 5 parts from 100. 

The test for oxygen 39*5 
Residuum - 3 


800 

Correction for temperature. 

60° 0*103 49*84 

48 12 1*23 

3 2 diff. 1-236 add for temp. 51*07 

Correction for pressure. 

30: 30*08 : : 57*07 : 61*20. 

The volume of gas at the mean was therefore 51*20 cubic 
inches. 

100: 57*60 : : 51*20 : 29*44. 

Then 29*44 cubic inches of carbonic acid gas were 
produced. 

100 : 47*26 : : 29*44 : 13*91. 

13*91 : 4*01 : : 100: 28*82. 

Then, according to this experiment, 100 grains of carbo¬ 
nic acid contain 28*82 diamond. 

Calculation by oxygen. 

100 : 33*82 : : 29*44 : 9*95 grains of oxygen consumed 

4*01 of diamond 

13*96 

Calculation by carbonic acid 13*91 

•05 difference. 

13*96 : 4*01 : : 100 : 28*72. 

Then, calculating by the weight of oxygen employed, 
100 grains of carbonic acid contain 28*72 diamond. 

The precipitate in lime water from the gas produced in 
the combustion of diamond, appeared to us denser than that 
from the combustion of charcoal. 


In 











and on the Nature of the Diamond . 317 

In order to see how far the weight of the precipitate of 
carbonate of lime would agree with the results of the fore¬ 
going experiments, we drew off 20*5 cubic inches of the gas 
which had been thus altered by the combustion of diamond 
in the last experiment by the register H, and received it in 
bottles over mercury ; then admitting lime water, we ob¬ 
tained a copious precipitate of carbonate of lime, which 
being dried at the temperature of 212 ° Fahrenheit, weighed 
12 grains. 

But as the 20*5 cubic inches require the same corrections 
to bring them to the mean temperature and pressure; we 
say, as the actual volume of all the gas is to its correction, 
so is the quantity drawn off to that which it would have been 
at the mean : 

49*84 : 51 *20 :: 20*50 : 21 * 06 , the volume after the correc¬ 
tions were made. 

Then, to find how much carbonic acid was contained in 
these 21-06 cubic inche > we state it thus: As the total 
quantity of gas after the e periment is to the total weight of 
carbonic acid gas found by calculation, so is the quantity 
of gas experimented upon to the weight of carbonic acid 
gas which it ought to have contained, 

51*20 : 13*91 : : 21*06 : 5*72 grains. 

Every 100 grains of precipitated carbonate of lime contain 
44 grains of carbonic acid ; 12 grains were procured in our 
experiment. 100 : 44 : : 12 : 5*23 

Therefore the carbonic acid conlained in our precipitate #f 
12 grains weighed 5*28; by calculation it should have 
weighed 5*72; this is as near as we had a right to expect 
from the difficulty of collecting the precipitate. 

Stone Coal. 

Upon the suggestion of our mutual friend Professor Dav\\ 
we next examined the results of the combustion of stonex 
coal and plumbago; thermometer 57° Fahrenheit, baro¬ 
meter 29*65. 

The stone coal from Wales, employed by maltsters, is 
well known to contain little or 110 maltha or mineral pitch, 
and to bum without flame. 


A portion 


318 On the Quantity of Carbon in Carbonic Acid, 

A portion of this coal was placed under sand in a crucible, 
and exposed to a strong heat for one hour; 4 grains of it 
thus prepared were put into the tray,: our oxygen lefts 
residuum of 5 parts in 100, and we began with 49*84 cubic 
inches as usual. The tray being placed in the platina tube 
was heated to redness for about 10 minutes. When the 
gas was first passed, we thought we saw a flash in the glass 
tubes. On suffering the whole to cool the quantity of gas 
still remained the same, and the tray being drawn out con¬ 
tained only *3 of a grain unconsumed. From the gas thus 
charged with 3*5 grains of coal. 

Lime water absorbed 53 parts from 100. 

The tests for oxygen 39 

Residuum - 8 or an increase of 3. 

100 


Correction for temperature. 

€(}° 0*103 40*84 

57 3 *30 

3 diff. 0*309 add for temp. 50*14 

Correction for pressure. 

30 : 29*65 :: 50*14 : 49*55. 

The quantity of oxygen at the mean was therefore 49*55 
cubic inches. 

100 : 53 : : 49*55 : 26*26. 

Consequently 26*26 cubic inches of carbonic acid g^s 
were produced. 

100 : 47*26 :: 26*26 : 12*41 grains. 

12*41 : 3*50 : : 100 : 28*20. 

Then, according to this experiment, 100 grams of carbo¬ 
nic acid gas contain 28*20 of coal. 

O 

Calculation by oxygen. 

100 : 33 82 :: 26*26 : 8.88 grains of oxygen consumed. 

3*50 coal 


12*38 


Calculation 







and on the Nature of the Diamond. 31 9 

Calculation by carbonic acid 12-41 

by oxygen 12-38 

difference *03 

4 *. ... a 0 . r 

Here, contrary to what happened in other experiments, the 
calculation by carbonic acid rather exceeds that by oxygen : 

12*38 : 3-50 : : 100 : 28*27. 

Calculating therefore by oxygen, 100 grains of carbonic 
acid contain 28*27 of coal. 

* ■ w * »a - > *' , ' * 

i# A 

Experiment ivith Plumbago. 

Thermometer 44° Fahrenheit, barometer 29 94. 

4 grains of plumbago, from a very fine specimen belong¬ 
ing to Dr. Babington, were put into the trav. Our oxygen 
left a residuum of 2 parts in 100, and we began with 49*81 
cubic inches. The tray, with its contents, being placed in 
the platina tube, was heated to redness for a quarter of an 
hour, and the gas made to pass over it several times. When 
all was cool, the original quantity was neither increased nor 
diminished, and on withdrawing the tray we found only *2 
of a grain of oxide of iron ; so that this specimen of plum¬ 
bago contains only 3 per cent, oxide of iron. 

The ^as beino now examined, 

Lime water absorbed 55 parts from 100 

The tests for oxygen 42 

Residuum - 3 or an increase of 1 percent. 

100 


Correction for temperature. 

60 ° 0*103 49*84 

44 16 1*64 


16 diff. 


1*648 add for temp. 51*48 


Correction for pressure. 

30 : 29*94 : : 51*48 : 51*37. 

The quantity of oxygen at the mean would be 51'37 cubic 
inches, 

100 










320 On the Quantity oj Carlon in Carlonic Add\ 

100 ; 55 : : 51*37 : 28*25. 

Therefore 28*25 cubic inches of carbonic acid gas were 
produced. 

100 : 47*26 : : 28*25 : 13*35 grains., 

13*35 : 3*8 : : 100 : 28*46. 

Then, according to this experiment, 100 grains of carbonic 
acid contain 28*46 of the carbonaceous part of the plumbago* 

Calculation by oxygen. 

100 ; 33*82 : : 28*25 : 9*55 grains of oxygen 
consumed 3*80 plumbago. 

13*35 

Calculation by carbonic acid 13*35 


First Experiment on Animal Charcoal . 

Thermometer 60° Fahrenheit, barometer 30*23. 

Muscular fibre distilled in a coated glass retort left a black 
shining coal, 4 grains of which were put into the tray. Our 
oxygen left a residuum of 2 parts in 100. The tray and its 
contents being placed in the platiha tube, was heated to 
redness for 8 minutes. The first time the gas was passed, a 
lambent flame filled the whole length of the glass tube, and 
the gas became turbid or milky. It was passed frequently 
through the heated tube, but we observed no repetition of 
the flashes. Hence we conjecture, that if the diamond had 
contained hydrogen we should probably have had a similar 
appearance. After the experiment all the apparatus was, 
as usual, perfectly tight, and the volume of gas unaltered. 
On examining the platina tray a minute portion of charcoal 
remained, and a quantity of saline matter adhered to it so 
firmly, that it became difficult to ascertain the quantity of 
carbon consumed, and we forbore to make the calculation ; 
we however examined the gas. 

Lime water absorbed 40 parts from 100 

The tests for oxygen 54 

Residuum - 6 or an increase of 4 per cent* 

100 


Second 






32' 


and on the Nature of the Diamond. 

Second Experiment on Animal Charcoal. 
Thermometer 59° Fahrenheit, barometer 29 * 45 . 

Some of the animal charcoal of last experiment was heated 
to redness under sand for one hour. 4 grains were placed 
in the platina tray ; and as we were so much embarrassed 
in the last experiment with the saline matter which adhered 
to the tray, we exactly balanced it with its contents. Our 
oxygen, made as usual, left a residuum of 2 parts in loo, 
and we began with 49*84 cubic inches. When every thin si 
was adjusied, and the platina tube red-hot, on passing the 
oxygen, flashes resembling lightning ran along the glass 
tube ; and this was repeated 5 or 6 times. The whole o £ 
the gas became very cloudy, exhibiting a turbid milky ap¬ 
pearance. The tube was rendered white-hot by the com¬ 
bustion of the carbonaceous matter in oxvoen. The fire 

j C 

was kept up about 8 minutes, and the gas passed several 
times. When all was cool, we could observe no alteration 
in the volume of gas by the register. The tray contained a 
mixture of salts ; and, being weighed, was lighter by 3*2 
grains. This loss was not wholly carbon, for it is well 
knowp that animal substance contains a variety of salts, as 
phosphates, muriates, &c., some of which, though not 
volatde in a low red heat, might be decomposed and dissi¬ 
pated in the intense white heat produced by the combustion 
of the carbonaceous matter in oxygen ; and we accordingly 
found the internal parts of the gasometers and tubes very 
slightly covered with a sort of efflorescence. On examining 
the gas after the experiment, 

Lime water absorbed 41 parts from iOO 

The tests for oxygen 55 

Residuum - 4 or an increase of 2. 

100 

Correction for temperature, 

60° 49*84 

39 *10 add for temp, 

1 difF. or 0*103 49*94 

Vol. 29. No. 1 16. Jan, 1808. 


X 


Correction 





322 On the Quantity of Carton in Carlonic Acid, 

Correction for pressure. 

30 : 29*45 : : 49*94 : 49*02. 

The quantity of oxygen at the mean would therefore be 

49*02 cubic inches. 

100 : 41 : : 49*02 : 20*09 

The carbonic acid gas produced was therefore 20*09 cubic 
inches. 

100 : 47*26 : : 20*09 : 9*49 
and this carbonic acid weighed 9*49 grains. 

Now the coal in the tray had lost 3*2 grains ; but as 
the whole 4 f this was not carbon, but part of it volatile 
saline matter, &c., we shall endeavour to estimate the 
carbon by the experiment on plumbago. When 13*35 
grains of carbonic acid contained 3*80 grains of carbon, 

13*35 : 3*80 : : 9*49 : 2*70. 

The quantity of carbonic acid produced in this experiment, 
therefore, contained 2*70 grains of carbon. 

Loss 3*20 
Carbon 2*70 

Leaves * *50 for volatile saline matter, &c. 

' 11,11 

So that, this being granted, the present experiment agrees 
with the foregoing. 

In two of our first experiments with box-wood charcoal, 
the calculations gave us in one case 29*75 parts of carbon in 
100 of carbonic acid, and in the other 30*68 ; but we were 
not then fully aware of the absorption of water by charcoal, 
which rendered the quantity of real carbon employed less 
than indicated by the weight. Also in another experiment, 
in which 4 grains of diamond were consumed, the calcula¬ 
tion gave us 29*96 per cent, of diamond in carbonic acid 5 
but apprehending that a slight degree of inaccuracy had 
crept into this experiment, we have not detailed it with the 
rest; but we have thought it right to give a simple state¬ 
ment of matters of fact; in no one instance have we en¬ 
deavoured to strain or accommodate these to suit any par¬ 
ticular thehry, being fully aware that every experiment, 
carefully made and faithfully recorded, will remain an im¬ 
mutable truth tp the end of time, while hypotheses are 

constantly 



and on the Nature of the Diamond . 3 £3 

constantly varying, and even the most beautiful theories ate 
liable to change* 

O 

1 lie experiments above related give us the following results : 


Lox-wood charcoal 

:arbonic acid. 

28'92 

’Ey oxygen. 

28-77 

1st expt. diamond 

28*95 

28*81 

2d expt. diamond 

28*82 

26*72 

Stone coal 

28*20 

28*27 

Plumbago 

28*46 

28*46 

5) 

143*35 

5) 143*03 

mean 

28*67 

28*60 


Hence we conclude that 100 grains of carbonic acid con- 
tains 28*60 of carbon, which does not greatly differ from 
the results of the experiments of Smithson Tennant, esq. 
on the nature of diamond.—See Phil. Trails. 1797 . 

1 his gentleman made his experiment in the following 
manner: A quarter of an ounce of nitrate of potash was 
rendered somewhat alkaline by exposure to heat, in order 
that it might more readily absorb carbonic acid 3 it was then 
put into a gold tube with 2 ' grains of diamond 3 and being 
subjected to heat, the diamond was converted into carbonic 
acid, by uniting with the oxygen contained in the nitric 
acid. 1 he carbonic acid thus produced combined wiih the 
potash 3 and on pouring a solution of muriate of lime into a 
solution of this salt, he obtained a precipitate of carbonate 
of lime: this being decomposed by muriatic acid, gave as 
much carbonic acid gas as occupied the space of 10*1 ounces 
of water. The thermometer was at 55 ° Fahrenheit, the ba¬ 
rometer 29 * 80 . In a second experiment he procured a 
larger quantity, or equal to 10*3 ounces of water. 

If we therefore consider an ounce of water as consisting 
°f 480 grains, and a cubic inch of water equal to 253 grains, 
and then make the proper corrections for temperature aijd 
pressure, one of his experiments will give about 27 per cent. 

the other about 27 *S 0 for the carbon in carbonic acid, which 

* ' 

is somewhat less than our estimate ; but the difference may 
easily be accounted for, from the different methods employed. 








J 




324 On the Quant ity of Carbon in Carbonic Acid , &c. 

The experiments of Guyton, as detailed in the Annales de ! 
Chimie, vol. xxxi. page 76, are liable to very strong ob¬ 
jections ; but at ttye same time the candid manner in which, 
he has related every circumstance merits considerable piaise. j 
It is impossible, however, not to observe, that the quantity l 
of gas before and after the experiment could not, from the 
construction of his apparatus, be very rigorously ascertained, i 
We object also to nitrous gas as a test for oxygen; and asi 
it is acknowledged that the wooden support included in the' 
oxyp'en ttas took fire, the product oi caibomc acid must] 
have been influenced by it j so that, it no chance of eiror 
had existed in estimating the carbonic acid gas from the 
residuum after barvtic water had absorbed a part, still tbej 
result would not have been satisfactory. 

The experiments which we have had the honour of laying; 
before this society prove several important points : 

1 st. That the estimate given by Lavoisier, of 28 parts oi 
carbon in every 100 parts of carbonic acid, is very nearly! 
correct; the mean of our experiments makes it 28*60. 

gdly. That the diamond is pure carbon ; for, had it con-f 
tained any notable proportion of hydrogen, it must have 
been discovered, either by detonating with the oxygen, a< 
in the case of animal charcoal, or by diminishing the quan-i 

tity of oxygen gas. 

3 diy. That well burnt charcoal contains no sensible quan¬ 
tity of hydrogen ; but if exposed to the air for a few hours 
it absorbs moisture, which renders the results uncertain. 

4thlv. That charcoal can no longer be considered as aij 
oxide of carbon, because, when properly prepared , it le 
quires quite as much oxygen for its combustion as the dia¬ 
mond. This is also the case with stone coal and plumbago! 

5 tblv. It appears that diamond and all carbonaceous sub' 
stances (as far as our present methods of analysis are capabtj 
or demonstrating their nature) differ principally from eacl, 
other in the state of aggregation of their particles. BertholleJ 
has well remarked, that in proportion as this is stronger; 
decomposition is more difficult : and hence the variety o| 
temperatures required for the combustion of different in 
llaoimable substances . 


XLVJIT. Met 


[ 325 ] 

XLVIII, Memoirs of the late Erasmus Darwin, M.D • 

[Continued from p. 162 .] 


IIIS NOSOLOGY continued . 


The Orders and Genera of the Second Class of Diseases. 

CLASS L 

DISEASES OF SENSATION. 

ORDO I. 

Increased Sensation . 

GENERA. 

j. With increased action of the muscles. 

2. With the production of new vessels by internal mem¬ 

branes or glands, with fever. 

3. With the production of new vessels by external mem¬ 

branes or glands, with fever. 

4 . With the production of new vessels by internal mem¬ 

branes or glands, without fever. 

5. With the production of new vessels by external mem¬ 

branes or glands, without fever. 

6 . With fever consequent to the production of new vessels 

or fluids. 

T. With increased action of the organs of sense. 

ORDO II. 

Decreased Sensation . 

GENERA. 

1. With decreased actions of the general system 

2. With decreased actions of particular organs, 

ORDO III. 

Retrograde Sensitive Motions . 

GENERA. 

1. Of the arterial system. 

2. Of the absorbent system, 

3. Of the excretory ducts. 

X 3 


The 




326 Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 

'The Orders^ Genera , and Species, of the Second 

Diseases. 

CLASS II. 

PISEASES OF SENSATION. 


Class of 


ORDO I. 

Increased Sensation . 

GENUS I. 

With Increased Action of the Muscles. 


1 , Deglutitio. 

0 . Respiratio . 

3. Sternutatio. 

4. Anhelitus. 

5. Tussis ebriorum. 

6. Singultus . 

7 . Asthma humor ale. 

8 . Nictilatio sensitiva. 

9 < Oscitatioet pandiculatio. 

10 . Tenesmus. 

11 . Stranguria . 

12 . Parturiiio. 


3CIES, 

Deglutition. 

Respiration. 

Sneezing. 

Panting. 

Cough of inebriates. 
Hiccough. 

Humoral asthma. 
Winking from pain. 
Yawning and stretching. 
Tenesmus. 

Strangury. 

Parturition. 


GENUS II. 

With the Production of new Vessels by internal Membranes 

or Glands 9 with Fever. 

SPECIES. 


1 © Febris sensitiva irritata. 

2. Ophthalmia interna « 

3. Phrenitis . 

4. Peripneumonia . 

--——— trachealis 

5 . Pleuritis. 

6. Diaphragmitis . 

7. Carditis. 

8. Peritonitis. 

9 . Mesenteritk • 

10. Gastritis , 


Sensitive irritated fever. 
Inflammation of the eye. 

< — — . —~ of the brain. 

——————- of the lungs. 

—-—■ —— the croup. 

—— -— of the pleura. 

--■—■—- of the diaphragm. 

———- of the heart. 

—-—■—-of the peritoneum, 

-—--of the mesentery, 

———— of the stomach. 

11. Ds-. 












Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 327 

1 !. Enteritis. Inflammation of the bowels. 

12 . Hepatitis . --— of the liver. 

13. Splenitis, - of the spleen. 

14. Nephritis . --of the kidney. 

15. Cystitis, -of the bladder. 

16 . Hysteritis . --of the womb. 

17* Lumbago sensitiva, -of the loins. 

18. Ischias. ---of the pelvis. 

19. Paronychia interna. *-beneath the nails. 

GENUS III. 

With the Production of new Vessels by external Membranes 

or Glands, with Fever. 

SPECIES. 

1. Febrissensitivainirritata. Sensitive inirritated fever, 

2. Erysipelas irritatum. Erysipelas irritated. 


inirritated. 

sensitive. 


- inirritatum. 

-- sensilivum . 

3 . Tonsillitis interna . 

-- superficialis. 

- inirritata. 

4 . Parotitis suppurans. 

- mutabilis. 

-- felina. 

5 . Catarrkus sensitivus. 

6 . - contagiosus. 

-.—- equinus et ca - 

ninus. 

7 . Peripneumonia superfi - Superficial peripneumony 

cialis . 


Angina internal. 

-superficial. 

•-inirritated. 

Mumps suppurative. 

-— mutable. 

-of cats. 

Catarrh inflammatory. 

-contagious. 

-- among horses and 

dogs. 


8. Pertussis■. 

9 . Variola aiscreta. 

-- confluens . 

--— inoculata . 

] 0 . Rubeola irritata. 

■ ■ inirritata . 
11 . Scarlatina mitis. 

--- maligna. 

IS. Miliaria sudatoria. 


Chin-cough. 

Small-pox distinct. 

- confluent. 

- inoculated. 

Measles irritated. 

--inirritated. 

Scarlet fever mild. 

•-malignant. 

Miliary fever sudatory, 

X 4 Miliaria 



































. \ 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin , M . D. 


328 

Miliaria irritata. 

■ -w- inirritata. 

13. Pestis . 

■ --— vaccina „ 

14. Pemphigus. 

15. Varicella. 

16 . Urticaria . 

1 7 * aphtha sensitivei. 

-- irritata. 

- - inirritata. 

18. Dvsenteria. 

c • 

19 . Gastritis superfcialis , 

20. Enteritis superfcialis. 


Miliary irritated. 

-— inirritated. 

Plague. 

-of horned cattle. 

Bladdery fever. 

Chicken-pox. 

Nettle rash. 

Thrush sensitive. 

—--irritated. 

—-—-inirritated. 

Bloody flux. 

Superficial inflammation of th 
stomach. 


of the bowels. 

GENUS IV. 

fFM the Production of new Vessels hj internal Membranes 

or Glands, without Fever . 


1 . Ophthalmia superfcialis. 

• --—— lymphatica . 

-—- equina. 

2 . Pterin ion. 

O 

3. Tarsitis palpebrarum. 

4. Hordeolum. 

5. Paronychia superfcialis. 

6 . Qutta resea hepatica . 

--- stomatica. 

—--— hereditaria . 

7 . Odontitis . 

8 . Otitis. 

9 . Fistula lacrymalis . 

10 . Fistula in ano. 

11 . Hepatitis chronica . 

12 . Scrophula suppurans. 

13. Scorbutus suppurans . 

34. Scirrhm suppurans , 

15. Carcinoma . 

16 . Arthrocele . 


Ophthalmy superficial. 

-lymphatic. 

---of horses. 

Eve-wing. 

Red eyelids. 

Stye. 

Whitlow. 

Pimpled face hepatic. 

-- stomatic. 

-- hereditary. 

Inflamed tooth. 

-- —ear. 

Fistula lacrvmaiis. 
Fistula in ano. 

Chronical hepatitis. 
Suppurating scrophula. 
Suppurating scurvy. 
Suppurating scirrhus. 
Cancer. 

•Swelling of the joints, 

17. 


1 



















329 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 


17. 

Arthropuosis. 

Suppuration of the joints. 

18. 

Caries os slum. 

Caries of the bones. 


GEN'JS V. 

JVith the Production of new Vessels In/ external Membranes 


or Glands, without. Fever. 



SPECIES. 

1. 

Gonorrhoea venerea . 

Clap. 

2. 

Syphilis. 

Venereal disease. 

3. 

Lepra. 

Leprosy. 

4. 

Elephantiasis. 

Elephantiasis. 

5. 

Framhoesia. 

Framboesia. 

6. 

Psora. 

I tc h. 

7. 

Psora ehriorum. 

Itch of drunkards. 

8. 

Herpes. 

Herpes. 

9- 

Zona ignea. 

Shingles. 

10. 

Annulus repens. 

King-worm. 

11. 

Tinea capitis. 

Scald-head. 

12. 

Crusta lactea. 

Milk-crust. 

13. 

Trichoma. 

Plica polonica. 


GENUS VI. 

With Fever consequent to 

• the Production of new Vessels or 



Fluids. 



SPECIES. 

1. 

Fchris sens it iv a. 

Sensitive fever. 

2. 

—•— a pure clausa. 

Fever from concealed matter. 

3. 

-- a vomica. 

- from vomica. 

4. 

- ah empyemate. 

-- from empyema. 

5. 

- mesenterica. 

- mesenteric. 

6. 

- a pure aeruto. 

- from aerated matter* 

7. 

- a phthisi. 

•- from consumption. 

8. 

-- scrophulosa. 

-- scrophulous. 

9- 

- ischiadica. 

-- from ischias. 

10. 

-— arthropuodica. 

•-- from joint-evil. 

11. 

- a pure contagiosa. ■ -- from contagious matter. 

12. 

- variolosa secundaria.' -- secondary of small-pox. 

13. 

-- carcinomatosa. 

- cancerous. 

11. 

- * venerea. 

- venereal. 

15. 

-- a sanie contagiosa. - from contagious sanies. 


16 . F<?- 





























330 Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 
J6. Febris puerpera . Fever puerperal. 


17. 


a sphacelo. 


from sphacelus. 


genus VII. 

With Increased Action of the Organs of $ens& 

SPECIES. 


1. Delirium febrile. 

2. - maniacale . 

3 . -—— ebrietatis , 

4. Somnium. 

5. Hallucinatio visits. 

6. — ——-—— audit us. 

7. Rubor a calore. 

9. - jucundilatis . 


Delirium of fevers. 

. .. maniacal. 

• -—— of drunkenness. 

Dreams. 

Deception of sight. 

• -—— of hearing. 

Blush from heat. 

• -- from joy. 

9* Priapismits amatorius . Amorous priapism. 

10. Distentio mammularum. Distention of the nipples. 

Ordo II. 

Decreased Sensation . 

GENUS I. 

With Decreased Action of the General System . 

SPECIES. 

1. Stultitia insensibilis. Folly from insensibilitv. 

2. Tcedium vitca. Irksomeness of life. 

3. Paresis sensitiva. Sensitive debility. 

GENUS II. 

With Decreased Actions of particular Organs . 

SPECIES. 


1. Anorexia . 

2 . Adipsia. 

3. Impotentia , 

4. Sterilitas. 

5. Insensibilitas artnum. 

6. Dysuria insensitiva. 

7 . Accumulatio alvina. 


Want of appetite. 

Want of thirst. 

Impotence. 

Barrenness. 

Insensibility of the limbs. 
Insensibility of the bladder. 
Accumulation of faeces. 


Ordo III. 

Retrograde Sensitive Motions . 

GENUS i. 

\ 

Of Excretory Ducts. 

SPECIES. 

Mo^us retrogressus . Retrograde motion. 


\. Mo- 












331 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M.. D. 

1. Motus ureterum. Motion of the ureters, 

2. - urethrce. —- of the urethra. 

3. - ductus choledoci. -- of the bile-duct. 


The Orders arid Genera of the Third Class of Diseases , 

CLASS III. 

DISEASES OF VOLITION, 

ORDO I. 

Increased Volition . 

GENERA. 

1. With increased actions of the muscles, 

2. With increased actions of the organs of sense. 

ORDO II. 

Decreased Volition . 

. GENERA. 

1. With decreased actions of the muscles. 

2. With decreased actions of the organs of sense. 


The Orders, Genera, and Species, of the Third Class of 

Diseases. 


CLASS III. 

DISEASES of volition. 


ORDO I. 

Increased Volition . 


GENUS I. 


With Increased Actions of the Muscles . 


1. Jactitatio. 

2. Tremor fehr ills. 

3. Clamor. 

4. Risus . 

5 . Convulsio . 


SPECIES. 

Restlessness'. 
Febrile trembling. 
Screaming. 
Laughter. 
Convulsion. 


Con- 






332 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin> M. 1L 


Convulsio ~ deb ills, 

0. -. dolorifica. 

7- Epilepsia . 

8 , —_-- dolor ifica, 

9 - Somnam bulismus . 

10 . Asthma convulsivum . 

11 . *-— dolor ificum. 

12. Stridor dent him, 

13. Tetanus trismus . 

34. — dolorificus. 


Convulsion weak. 

*-—-painful. 

Epilepsy. 

—-painful. 

Sleep-walking. 
Asthma convulsive. 

-— painful, 

Gnashing of the teeth. 
Cramp of the jaw. 

- — painful. 

Dread of water. 

GENUS II. 


1 5, Hydrophobia , 


With Increased Actions of the Organs of Sense. 


SPECIES, 


1 . Mania mutabilis . 

Mutable madness. 

2 . Stadium inane . 

Reverie. 

3. Vigilia. 

Watchfulness. 

4. Erotomania . 

Sentimental love. 

5. Amor ski. 

Vanity. 

6. Nostalgia. 

Desire of home. 

7 . Spes religiosa. 

Superstitious hope. 

8 . Superbia stemmatis . 

Pride of family. 

9 . Ambitio. 

Ambition. 

30. Mceror. 

Grief. 

11 . Tcedium vitce. 

Irksomeness of li% 

12. Desideriumpulchritudinis. Loss of beauty. 

13. Paupertatis*timor . 

Fear of poverty. 


14. Let hi timor . 

15. Orel timor. 


of death, 
of hell. 


16 . Satyriasis. 

17 * dr a. 

3 8 . Rabies. 

19 . Cilia. 

20 . Cacositia. 

21 . Syphilis imaginaria. 

22 . Psora imaginaria. 


Lust. 

Anger. 

Rage. 

Depraved appetite. 
Aversion to food. 
Imaginary pox. 
™—-itch. 


23. Tabes 












333 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 

23. Tales imaginary a. Imaginary tabes. 

24. Sympathia alien a. Pity. 

25. Educatio heroica . Heroic education. 

Ordo II. 

Decreased Volition . 

GENUS I. 

Decreased Actions of the Muscles , 

SPECIES. 

1. Lassitudo . Fatigue. 

w 

2. Vacillatio senilis » See-saw of old age. 

3. Tremor senilis . Tremor of old age. 

4. Brachiorum paralysis* Palsy of the arms. 

5. Raucedo paralytica. Paralytic hoarseness. 

6. Vesicce urinaria? para - Palsy of the bladder.. 

lysis. 

1. Recti paralysis. 

. 8. Paresis voluntaria. 

9- Catalepsis. 

10. Hemiplegia. 

11. Paraplegia, 

12. Somnus. 

13. Incubus. 

14. Lethargus . 

15. Syncope epileptics. 

16. Apoplexia. 

17- Mors afrigore. 

GENU'S II. 

/Li/A Decreased Actions of the Organs of Sense, 

SPECIES. 

1. Recollectionis jactura. Loss of recollection. 

2. Slultiiia voluntaria . Voluntary follv. 

3. CreduUtas. Chedu-itv. 


Palsy of the rectum. 
Voluntary debility. 
Catalepsy. 

Palsy of one side. 

Palsy of the lower limb?. 
Slepp. 

Night-mare. 

Lethargy. 

Epileptic fainting. 
Apoplexy. 

Death from cold. 


The 



334 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 


The Orders and Genera of the Fourth Class of Diseases » 

CLASS IV. 

DISEASES OF ASSOCIATION* 

ORDO I. 

Increased Associate Motions* 

GENERA. 

, I. Catenated with irritative motions. 

2. Catenated with sensitive motions. 

3. Catenated with voluntary motions. 

4. Catenated with external influences, 

ORDO IT. 

Decreased Associate Motions . 

GENERA. 

1. Catenated with irritative motions. 

2. Catenated with sensitive motions. 

3. Catenated with voluntary motions. 

4. Catenated with external influences. 

ordo nr. 

Retrograde Associate Motions. 

GENERA. 

1. Catenated with irritative motions. 

2. Catenated with sensitive motions. 

3. Catenated with voluntary motions. 

4. Catenated with external influences. 

The Orders x Genera> and Species , of the Fourth Class of 

Diseases, 

* CLASS IV. 

DISEASES OF ASSOCIATION. 

ORDO I. 

Increased Associate Motions . 

GENUS I. 

Catenated with Irritative Motions . 

SPECIES. 

I, Rulor vultus pransorum. Flushingof the face after dinner. 

2. Su- 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 335 

Sudor stragulis immerso - Sweat from covering the face 
rum, in bed. 

3. Cessatio cegritudinis cute Cure of sickness by stimula- 

excitata. ting ihe skin. 

4. Digestio audafrigore cu- Digestion increased by cold- 

taneo. ness of the skin. 

5. Catarrkus a frigore cu~ Catarrh from cold skin. 

taneo. 

0. Ahsorptio cellular is aucta Cellular absorption increased 
vomitu. by vomiting. 

7. Singultus nephriticus. Nephritic hiccough, 

8. Fehris irritativa. Irritative fever. 


GENUS II. 


Catenated with Sensitive Motions • 

SPECIES. 

1. Lacrymarum fluxus sym- Sympathetic tears. 

patheticus . 

2. Sternutatio a lumine. Sneezing from light. 

3. Dolor dentium a stridor e. Tooth-edge from grating 

sounds. 

4. Risus sardonicus . Sardonic smile. 

5. Saliva fluxus cibo visa . Flux of saliva at sight of food. 
0. Tensio mammularum viso Tension of ihe nipples of lac- 

puerulo . tescent women at sindit of 

the child. 

7- Tensio penis in hydro - Tension of the penis in hy- 
phobia. drophobia. 

8. Tenesmus calculosus . Tenesmus from stone. 

y. Polypus narium ex asca - Polypus of the nose from as- 
ride . earides. 

10. Crampus surarum in di - Cramp from diarrhoea. 
arrhaea . 

Nephritic shingles. 

Eruption of small-pox. 

Stomalic rosy drop. 

Hepatic rosy drop. 

Gout. 

Rheumatism. 


11. Zona ignea nephritica . 

12. Eruptio variolarum. 

13. Gutta rosea stomatica . 

14 . ---- hepatica . 

15. Podagra. 


] 6. Rheu m a t is m us , 


1/. 



336 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M. D. 

17- Erysipelas. Erysipelas. 

18. Testium tumor in gonor- Swelled testes in gonorrhoea. 

r lice a. 

19 . —- - ■ — — inparotitide. -*-- in mumps. 

GENUS III. 

Catenated with Voluntary Motions . 

SPECIES. 

3. Dtglutitio invita. Involuntary deglutition. 

2. Nictitatio invita . ■-—--— nictitation. 

3. Risus invitus . --- laughter. 

4. Lusus digitorum invitus. --—— actions with the 

fingers. 

5. Unguium morsiuncula in ---biting the nails. 

vita. 

6. Vigilia invita. - -— watchfulness. 

GENUS IV. 

Catenated with External Influences . 

SPECIES. 

1. Vita ovi. Life of an egg. 

9. Vita kiemi-dormientium. Life of winter-sleepers. 

3. Pullutatio arhorum. Budding of trees. 

4. Orgasmatis venerei pe- Periods of venereal desire. 

riodus. 

5. Brachiiconcussioelectrica .Electric shock through the arm* 

6. Oxygenatio sanguinis . Oxygenation of the blood. 

7. Humectatio corporis. Humectation of the body. 

Or do II. 

Decreased Associate Motions. 

GENUS I. 

Catenated with Irritative' Motions. 

SPECIES. 

1. Cutisfrigida pransorum. Chillness after dinner. 

2. Pallor urince pransorum. Pale urine after dinner, 

3. -- afrigore cu - -— from cold skin. 

taneo , 

4. Pallor ex cegritudine. Paleness from sickness. 

-5. Dyspnoea a balneoJrigido. Shortness of breath from cold 

bathing. 


6. Dys - 













Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin, M- D. 33j 

G. Dyspepsia -a pedibnsfri - Indigestion from cold feet. 
aid is. 

O 

7. lussis a pedibus frigidis. Cough from cold feet. 

S. -— hepatica. Liver-cough. 

Gout-cough. 

Vertigo rotatory. 

•-- visual. 

-inebriate. 


9. - 


arthritic a. 


10 . Vertigo rotatoria. 


- visuatis. 

- ebriosa. 

- ftbriculosa . 
■ cerebrosa. 


- feverish* 

from the brain. 


] 1. - 

12 . - 

13. - 

14. - 

J 5 . Murmur annum verti- Noise in the ears. 
ginosum. 

Id. Ta ins, gustus, olfactus Vertiginous touch, taste, smell. 
vertiginosi . 

1 7. Pulsus mollis a vomitione. Soft pulse in vomiting. 

IS-- intermittens a ven- Intermittent pulse from the 

triculo. stomach. 

19- Debris inirritaliva. Jnirritative fever. 

GENUS II. 

Catenated with Sensitive Motions. 

SPECIES. 

1. Torpor gen ce a dolor e den- Coldness of the cheek from 

tis. tooth-ach* 

2. Stranguria a dolore vesicas. Strangury from pain of the 

bladder. 

3 . -—- convulsiva. Convulsive strangury. 

4. Dolor termini ductus cho- Pain of the end of the bile- 

ledochi. duct. 

5. Dolor pharyngis ah acido Pain of the throat from gastric 

gastrico. acid. 

6. Pruritus narium a vermi- Itching of the nose from 

bus. worms. 

7. Cephalcea. Head-ach. 

8. Hemicrania et otalgia. Partial head-ach, and ear-ach. 

9 . Dolor humeri in kepati- Pain of shoulder in hepatitis. 

tide. 

10. Torpor pedum variola e- Cold feet in eruption of smail- 
rumpente. pox. 

Vol. 29 . No. 116 . Jan. 1808. Y • w.Tes* 














538 Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin 9 . M. D, 

U. Testium dolor nephriticus. Nephritic pain of testes. 

12. Dolor digiti minimi sym - Pain of little finger from sym-. 

patheticus. pathv. 

13. Dolor Irachii in hydrope Pain of the arm in dropsy of 

pectoris. the chest. 

14. Diarrhoea a dentitione. Diarrhoea from toothing. 

GENUS III. 

Catenated with Voluntary Motions. 

SPECIES. 

I. Titulatio linguae. Impediment of speech. 


2. Chorea Sancti Viti . 

3. Risus. 

4. Tremor ex ird. 

5. Rubor ex ird. 

6. - criminati. 

7. Tarditas paralytica, 

g. -- senilis. 


St. Vitus’s dance. 
Laughter. 

Trembling from anger. 
Redness from anger. 
Blush of guilt. 
Slowness from palsy. 
--of age. 


GENUS IV. 

Catenated with External Influences. 

SPECIES. 

1. Somni.periodus. Periods of sleep. 

2. Studii inanis periodus. *- of reverie. 

5. Hem i scan ice periodus. —-—• of head-ach. 

4 , Epilepsia* dolor if cce pe- --— of painful epilepsy, 

riodus. 

5. Convulsionis dolor if cce -of painful convulsion* 

periodus. 

th Tussis periodical periodus. -—- of periodic cough, 

7 . Catamenice periodus. *-of catamenia. 

8 . Hcemorrhoidis periodus. ——■—of the piles. 

9 . Rodagrae periodus. -- of the gout. 

& 0 . Erysipelatis periodus. --of erysipelas, 

11 T Febrium periodus. -—--of fevers. 

Ok do III. 

Retrograde Associate Motions » 

GENUS I. 

Catenated with Irritative Motions . 

SPECIES. 

Diabetes from irritation. 


j. Dialeies irritaia. 















33D 


Memoirs of Erasmus Darwin 9 M. D. 

2. Sudorfrigidusinastkmate. Cold sweat in asthma. 

3. Diabetes a timore. Diabetes from fear. 

4. Diarrhoea a timore . Diarrhoea from fear. 

5. Pallor et tremor a timore. Paleness and trembling from 

fear. 

6. Palpitatio cordis a timore. Palpitation of the heart from 

fear. 

7. Ahortio a timore . Abortion ffom fear. 

8. Hysteria a timore . Hysterics from fear. 

GENUS II. 

Catenated with Sensitive Motions . 

SPECIES. 

1 . Nausea idealls . Nausea from ideas; 

2. - a conceptu . -- from conception. 

3. Vomitio vertiginosa. Vomiting from vertigo. 

4. - a calculo in ure - -* from stone in the 

ureter. 

5. - ab insultu para - —- from stroke of palsy. 

lytico . 

6. - a titillationefau -*-- from tickling the 

cium. throat. 

7 4 _ ..- cu te sympathetica .- from sympathy with 

the skin* 

GENUS III. 

Catenated with Voluntary Motions. 

SPECIES* 

1. Ruminaiio . Rumination. 

2. Vomitio voluntaria. Voluntary vomiting. 

3. Eruclatio voluntaria . —-— eructation* 


GENUS IV* 

Catenated with External Influences, 


SPECIES. 


J. Catarrhus periodicus* 

2. Tussis periodica. 

3. Hysteria a frigore. 

4. Nausea pluvialis. 


Periodical catarrh* 
Periodic cough. 
Hysterics from cold. 
Sickness against ram. 

w 


[To be continued.] 

X.2 


XLIX. Ow 













[ 340 ] 


XLTX. On that Power of the Eye, In/ which it is adjusted 
to see Objects distinctly at different Distances. By 
Ez. Walker, Esq » 


To Mr. Til loch. 


sir?. 


Philosophers have varied much in their opinions, for 
near two hundred years, respecting that power of the eye 
by which it is adjusted to see objects distinctly at different 
distances. 

Kepler, M, le Cat, and some other philosophers sup¬ 
posed, that when we view distant objects the eye contracts 
itself and becomes flatted, by which means the distance be¬ 
tween the crystalline lens and the retina is decreased; but 
when near objects are seen, the axis of the eye is lengthened, 
find this distance is therefore greater. Des Cartes, Dr. Pem¬ 
berton, and Dr. Young, have adopted the opinion that the 
form of the crystalline lens alters with the distance of the 
object from the eye. Dr. Porterfield thinks, that the ad¬ 
justment of the eye is produced by an alteration in the cur¬ 
vature of the cornea and a motion of the crystalline lens. 
De la Hire imagined, that the eye undergoes no change, 
except the contraction and dilatation of the pupil. Mr. 
Ramsden and Mr. Home conclude from their experiments, 
that the adjustment is produced by three changes in the 
eye; a motion in the crystalline lens, an elongation of the 
axis of vision, and an increase of curvature in the cornea. 
Haller, Smith, Jurin, Monro, and many others, have also 
written upon this subject. But as-none of the hypotheses 
hitherto advanced have been demonstrated, either by deci¬ 
sive experiments or from the known laws of dioptrics, 
this property of vision seems still to remain in much ob- 

li J 

scurity. 

On entering ijpon an inquiry of this nature, it will be 
necessary to reject all suppositions that are not conform¬ 
able to those beautiful mechanical laws which are seen in 
every other part of the animal ceconomy. I cannot there¬ 
fore suppose that the whole globe of the eye alters its form 

every 


341 


On the Adjustment of the Eye , &>c. 

every time we view objects at different distances. Nor does 
it appear probable that the power of adjustment lies either 
in the vitreous humour or in the crystalline lens, for tbev 
are too dense to admit of that infinite variety of chances 
which the eye undergoes every day. 

As the crystalline lens alone is sufficient to form a distinct 
image of an object upon the retina, it is therefore very 
reasonable to suppose that the aqueous and the vitreous 
humours are designed for other purposes than merely to 
act as refracting;: mediums. 

The vitreous humour is a dense transparent substance, 
which seems designed by nature to preserve thedenticular 
form of the crystalline, and to keep it at the same distance 
from the retina ; for the crystalline lens is so deeply imbed¬ 
ded in the vitreous humour, and adheres so closely to it, 
that the crystalline cannot suffer any change in its form, 
without giving motion to some part of the vitreous. 

Now, as nature performs all her mechanical operations 
by the most perfect mechanical laws, it must appear im¬ 
probable, from the density of these substances, that any 
change should take place, either in the figure of the crystal¬ 
line lens or in its distance from the retina. 

Just before the crystalline lens the iris is placed. The use 
of this organ is to contract and enlarge the pupil ; and as it 
is put in motion by almost every ray of light that falls upon 
the cornea, it seems necessary for its preservation that it 
should meet with the least resistance possible ; therefore it 
swims in a limpid fluid called the aqueous humour. 

The contraction of the pupil answers two'important pur¬ 
poses ; one to exclude too great a quantity of light, which 
would be injurious to the eye, and the other to give us a 
distinct view of near objects. But how a contracted pupil 
should produce this effect may be explained from the fol¬ 
lowing: property of vision, viz.— 

That we have no vision perfectly distinct, but by rays 
which enter the eye in a direction parallel to the axis of the 
crystalline lens. 

This will be easily understood from the following obser¬ 
vations : 

Y 3 


First 


342 


On the Adjustment of the Eye to see 

First Observation « 

If we look attentively at a remote object, which subtends 
a very small angle at the eye, that object will be seen more 
distinctly ihan any other object that may be near it; because 
those rays that enter the eye near the axis of vision are so 
nearly parallel, on account of the great distance of the ob¬ 
ject, that the eye can distinguish no difference between these 
and parallel rays ; and those rays passing through the cry¬ 
stalline lens, near its axis, and falling perpendicularly upon 
the retina, produce vision as perfect as the distance and 
magnitude of the object will admit. But those rays which 
form an angle with the visual axis fall obliquely upon the 
retina, and produce indistinct vision. 

Second Observation. 

If we look at a near and small object with attention, the 
pupil will contract so as to admit only those rays that are 
nearly parallel to the axis of vision. Suppose, for example, 
that we look at the point on the letter i in a printed book, 
the remaining part of the letter, and all the surrounding 
letters, will be seen imperfectly, for the same reason that was 
given above. 

Third Observation . 

Let the same object (•) be brought within two inches of 
the eye, and it will appear indistinct, because the rays issuing 
from it will enter the eye in a diverging state, in conse¬ 
quence of the pupil’s being too large for tire object. But if 
the pupil be contracted by means of a perforation about 
of an inch in diameter, placed before the eye, made either 
in a thin piece of metal or a slip of paper, the object will be 
seen distinctly, because no rays will then enter the eye, 
except those that are nearly parallel to the axis of vision. 

Hence it is evident, that we have no perfect vision, but 
by rays which enter the eye in a direction parallel to the 
axis of the crystalline lens, and fall perpendicularly upon 
the retina; and as all rays that fall upon a convex lens 
parallel to its axis are converged to the same point, the fol¬ 
lowing conclusion must be strictly true, viz. 


When 


Objects distinctly cit different Distances . 34 3 

When an object is seen distinctly, its image is painted at 
the same invariable distance trom the crystalline lens 
whether the object be near or remote. 

The same Property of Vision demonstrated hj Experiments. 

It is a property of the convex lens, that when its aperture 
is contracted, the image of a near object is painted at the 
same distance from the glass, as a remote one when its 
aperture is enlarged. 

_ The instrument with which I made the following expe¬ 
riments consists of two large tubes, one within the other, 
like the tubes of a telescope. At the end of the large tube 
a double convex lens of 24 inches focus is fixed to represent 
the crystalline lens ; and the other end of the instrument 
contains a piece of ground glass, 4 1 inches in diameter, 
polished on one side, to represent the retina. This instrument, 
being fixed upon a proper stand, was carried into a room 
and placed at about five feet from a window from which 
I had an extensive view. 

First Experiment. 

After I had contracted the object glass to two inches, I 
drew out the inner tube until the picture of remote objects 
was distinctly painted upon the rough glass, but near ob¬ 
jects were represented imperfectly. 

Second Experiment . 

When T had contracted the aperture of the lens to half 
an inch, near objects were represented very distinctly, but 
the picture of remote objects was less conspicuous. 

Third Experiment. 

The aperture of the lens being further contracted to i- of 
an inch in diameter, all outward objects appeared indistinct 3 
but a plumb-line, which hung down the middle of the win¬ 
dow, was clearly represented upon the artificial retina. This 
line was not seen upon the retina in the first experiment, 
and only like an enlarged shadow in the second. The di¬ 
stance between the glasses was the same in all the experi- 

^ 4 ments. 


344 


On the Adjustment of the Eye, &> c. 


merits, and no alteration whatever was made in the instru- 
men! except in the aperture of the lens. 

Whence it ts evident, that a large pupil gives us a distinct 
view of remote objects ; that a contracted pupil gives us a 
clear view of near objects ; and that no part of the eye, ex¬ 
cept the iris, suffers any change in making these adjust¬ 
ments. 

The same Property of Vision demonstrated ly a more simple 



Experiment. 


Let a remote object be observed through an aperture of 
about W of an inch in diameter, made in the manner al¬ 
ready mentioned, and if the object be seen in a proper light 
it will appear as distinct as to the naked eye. Then intro¬ 
duce a pin, or any other small object, in aline between the 
remote object and the eye, at the distance of five or six 
inches from it, and these two objects will appear as distinct 
when seen together as when they are viewed separately; 
but the moment the aperture is taken away from before the 
eye, the near object will be seen very indistinctly ; and as 
the aperture may be removed so instantaneously as to render 
it impossible for any change to take place in the internal 
parts of the eye, it is therefore evident, that the iris is the 
only organ by which the eye is adjusted to distinct vision. 

Hence it is as clearly proved as any proposition in optics, 
that the rays issuing from a near object, after having passed 
through a small aperture, are conveyed to the same point 
upon the retina as those from a remote one \ the rays from 
both objects being nearly parallel. 

These experiments also prove, that an eye which has 
lost the crystalline lens, if the iris has not received any in¬ 
jury, may still retain its power of adjustment. 


Lynn, 

6th Jan. 1808. 


I am, sir, 

Your humble servant 


Ez. Walker. 


L. On 


[ 345 ] 


L. On the Stanhope and other Temperaments of the Musical 
Scale . Bij Mr. Joi-iN Farey. 

To Mr. Tilloch. 

SIR, 

rn 

JL he Table of Musical Intervals which you have done me 
the favour to engrave for your 1J 2th number, (vol. xxviii. 
p. 143,) after I had left Town, and could not therefore at¬ 
tend to the proof which the engraver obligingly sent me, 
unfortunately contains three errors, which I beii here to 
correct, viz. the minor third should be 161 2 &c., instead 
of 191. The numerator of the ratio of the dieze minimum 
should be ] 9,683, instead of 16,983 ; and that of the comma 
and half should be 1953 instead of 15Q3. At pace 142, 
vol. xxviii., the temperament or difference of the equal tem¬ 
perament V, from the Diatonic V, should also be corrected 
and made — 2 — m? instead of — 1 F 2 - T V rn. 

Such of your readers as are in the habit of attending at 
the Koval Institution, and of noticing the pamphlets on 
their library tables, can scarcely be unacquainted, and it is 
perhaps proper that your readers in general should be in¬ 
formed, that in the beginning of July last, a pamphlet en¬ 
titled u Plain Statement of Earl Stanhope’s Ten?0eminent, 
ly Dr. Call cot tf was exhibited for sale, foi a day or two, 
in the shops of Mr. Birchall, Mr. Byfield, and perhaps of 
others, and then disappeared therefrom, in conseq icnce, as 
I have been told, either of a le^al interposition or the threat 
of such, both against that pamphlet, and the one which you 
did Dr. Callcott and me the favour to reprint, at p. 143 of 
your last volume; . nd that a great number of copies of 
another “ Plain Statement of Earl Stanhope’s Temperament, 
by Dr. Callcott,” printed some weeks prior to that offered 
for sale as above mentioned, have since been stitched up with 
the cc Plain Statement” and “ Letter to the Duke of Cum¬ 
berland” above mentioned, (which two are said to have been 
printed under Lord Stanhope’s directions.) arid these three 
pamphlets in one cover, were, and I believe still continue 
to be, privately circulated. The reason forwhich extraordinary 
4 proceedings 


4 - 16 On the "Stanhope and other Temperaments 

proceedings I did expect (when I left 7’own in August last) 
would quickly appear to the public, from the proof of the 
first sheet of a printed Narrative of transactions, between 
certain persons relative to the Stanhope Temperament , which 
was shown to me at the Institution ; and as this ci Narra¬ 
tive” promised to throw some additional light upon the Let¬ 
ter to the Duke of Cumberland, relating to me, (vol. xxviii. 
p. 143,) I abstained from replying thereto before I went 
out of Town. Since my return, which was but a short 
time before Christmas, I have not been able to learn any¬ 
thing concerning the progress of the 66 Narrative,” but hear, 
that the public may very shortly expect some further remarks 
from his Lordship on his Temperament, and which it were 
much to be wished (for the interests of science) that his 
Lordship would communicate through the medium of your 
Magazine. On these accounts, I shall further defer my ob¬ 
servations on his Lordship’s Letter, and on the merits or 
defects of his system, since the appeal to mathematical 
writings and truths which I meditate, may perhaps apply 
at oitce to 'the whole of his Lordship’s case, if he really has 
anything further to advance, and save me and your readers 
much trouble: in the mean time, as a great part of his 
Lordship’s Plain Statement is made to turn on a comparison 
of his system with three others, viz. the Isotonic or equal 
temperament, M. Prinz’s system, and that of M. Kirn - 
ler^cr, I beg to present your readers with the notes of these 
three systems, expressed in the small intervals f and m, 
as has been done for his Lordship’s system, in my table, 
voL xxviii. p. 14 1, column 6. 


A Table 


Table of the Relations which the several Notes in an Octave hear to the fundamental Note C, when tuned 

according to three different Sgstems of Temperament . 


of the Musical Scale, 


347 



c 

c c: c 

r- |C< 

to oo rft (j, ^' to ^ n m o ^ 

. I 


e+ 1 

c 



0 I 


4- + + + + + + + + + + + 

cn 


C-l —4 *4~( *4-4 ( 4—1 - 4-1 * 4-4 *t— C 4 -, * 4—4 *4-4 *4—4 


• 

(M'-OOflONOiO^COOl 

bJD t 

to 

r—» »■—» 

CJ | 


++++++++++++ 

H 

i~4 


W H W ^ >1 W W M H W W W 

2 


~R 

G1 O QO 'O T+i CO - 
—4ioO‘OO i oO i oCf>‘nO'^ 

CO ‘O ‘O ^ Tp CO CO 0< «—* —i 4—4 

<; 


~ - - _f* *= nW S £ 0 c -h H 

^ 10 o 6 ch>. n co ^ 

TP Tp CO CO CO 51 y „ n 

p 


4“ + + + 4* + 4- H—|—?—4* 

O 

c/> ■ 


'*4_( (4-4 '-4-4 t4- '*4-1 C-M " 4 _ ( 4_4 '*4_, ( 4 -, (4_ ( 4-4 


• 

H O O) CO N 0 0 ^ to C l 

*—1 *—< r— { 

1 «‘ J J 


4-+ 4-4-4-4-4-4-4-4-4-4- 

’u. 

Cm 


W P'4 W W u w ^ W W W W ^ W 

V* * 


tamooco^oOrfiNCQOto 

<-■ 1 *0 0 l O 0 ‘O O »0 Cj O 0 ^ 
(OOO^^cOCGCNm-4 



r" i S 0 S "" S 0 S t- 

5 «J* , -jo* |c< ~ ^ C J* 

cn Jr dr 24 *jr - 1 - -i* 1 - -h* * 4 © i- 

C 2~3 Cll °OtOO<t^cOQO’t? 



*0 Tp rp cO CO CO G5 G< >—4 4—4 

% 


+ + + + + +4-+ 4 + + + 

53 

4 ~» 

C/3 

• 

t-M '-*■“* *4-4 ( 4 _, C+_, f [ , C4-4 *J _4 *) , ■ | 1 r! ( 4-4 

CO 


—' OOiOOt'.tOOrjiCO^ 

0 


r“—• r-—i 

r~* 



O 


+ + + + + + + + + + + 4- 

O i 

C/5 

>—< 


W M w w w n w w n W W P4 

—' O Ci 00 t^*. 0 40 Tf p) C) H 



1 — 1 to <l OO l Ow , OO l OO l O 

to O 0 ^ ^ CO CO C) Ct - -1 



t ( 


CO 

VII 

VII 

7 th 

VI 

6 th 

V 

IV 

4th 

III 

3d 

II 

2d 

Key 


0 * 


•sjojio'J 

• 

4H 0 a 00 t> Q 0 Tf CG Ol rl 

•S3JOII J|T3l{ 

r“—4 


III SJKAJ3JUJ 


In 









































348 On the Slanhope and other Temperaments . 


la column 4 of the preceding table, the 2nd ( = 51 2 
f -f 4yV m) will be found to be the difference or interval 
between each adjoining note, and consequently every 3rd, 
III, 4 th, V, 6 th or VI, as well as VIII in this system are 
equal, in whatever part of the scale the same are taken 5 
and if VIII (612 2 4 12 f 4 - 53 m) be added to the 2 nd, II, 
3 rd, III, &c., in order to obtain a second octave above the 
one in the table, this will at once appear, by subtracting 
the value of any note from the value of another, situate the 
proper number of half-notes above it. 

A superior octave being in like manner supplied to each 
of the other systems, in columns 5 and 6 , and column 6 , 
vol. xxviii. p. 141, if the 12 several minor thirds (3rds) in 
each system be taken out, and if the difference between each 
o" these and a true or perfect 3rd (161 2 4 3 f 4- 14 m) be 
found and placed in order in a table, with the sign + to 
every sharp .temperament or interval larger than a 3rd, and 
the sign — to every flat temperament or interval smaller 
than a true 3 rd, then these several temperaments will be 
found very unequal among themselves, except in the Isoto¬ 
nic (where each is 8 2 4 - f nj) ; but on adding up the whole 
of them, paying proper attention to the signs 4 - and —, it 
will be found, that the sum of the temperaments of all the 


Srds, in each system, is 96 2 4 9 m, or 3 Semitones mini¬ 
mum, as mentioned in my engraved table, vol. xxviii. In 
like manner, if all the major thirds (III) in each of the four 
systems be taken out, and their temperaments or imperfec¬ 
tions (or difference from 197 2 -f- 4 f -j- 1 7 m) are found, 
the sum of all these will in each system be found equal 


to 84 2 4 8 m, or 4 Enharmonic Diesis ; also if all the tem¬ 
peraments of the 4ths, (or differences, from 2 34 2 4- 5 f 
4 - 22 m) be summed up, they will in each system amount 
to 12 2 4“ or the Diasckisma : the sum of the tempera¬ 
ments oftheVths (or differences from 353 24 7 f 4 3] m) 
will -be found 12 2 4 - ni ; of the 6 ths (or differences from 
415 2 4~ 8 f 4 - 36 m) 84 2 4 8 m; and of the Vllhs (or 
differences from 451 2 -j- 9 f 4- 39 in) 96 2 4 9 m, as 


mentioned in the engraved table above referred to. 
With such tables as these before us, calculated for each 


n n 1 


every 



Surgical Cases in the City and Finsbury Dispensaries . 3 39 

every system, between which and his own Lord Stanhope has 
drawn or may draw a comparison, referring also to the num¬ 
ber o {beats made per l" by each tempered conchord, through¬ 
out the whole scale, we shall ultimately be able to bring his 
Lordship’s loud pretensions to pre-eminence over every other 
system, to a more scientific and competent test, than the 
o pit. urn of 60 or 70 anonymous persons, who heard an instru¬ 
ment played upon, which. Lord Stanhope says, (vol. xxv. 
p. 306) was tuned according to his system. See Monthly- 
Magazine, vol. xxii. p. 114. 

I am, sir, yours, &c. 

John Faret. 

12, Upper Crown-Street, Westminster, 

January 15, 1808. 


LI. Deport of Surgical Cases in the City and Finsbury Dis¬ 
pensaries for August 1S07* By John Taunton, Esq, 

In the month of August there were admitted on the books 
of the City and Finsbury Dispensaries 18S surgical patients. 


Cured or relieved 

- 

- 

171 

Died 

- 

- 

1 

Under cure 

- 

- 

16 


188 


Mrs. A. C. set. 53, of a thin spare habit of body and of 
a very delicate constitution, has been afflicted with hernia 
in the left thigh upwards of 20 years : it first appeared sub¬ 
sequent to a difficult labour, and was much aggravated bv a 
second labour about two years afterwards : she suffered much 
from carrying heavy burthens, and w r as frequently confined 
to the house for some days. For about the first eight years 
it could be easily returned by placing the body in a hori¬ 
zontal position ; but from that time it has been irreducible, 
and occasionally attended with great pain, sickness, vomit¬ 
ing, and constipation of the bowels; for which, however, 
ihe had not any surgical assistance till the present attack, 

which 








850 Surgical Cases in the City and Finsbury Dispensaries, 


winch took place on Monday August 24th,, when she was 
seized with violent pain and tension of the abdomen similar 
to labour pains. The neighbours gave her the usual carmina¬ 
tives ; but the pain increased, the tumour enlarged, vomit¬ 
ing, hiccup, and cold sweats came on ; she was worse on 
the 25th, and was delirious at' night* On the 26th in the 
morning an aperient medicine was given, but that was im¬ 
mediately rejected on its being received into the stomach* 
At four o’clock in the afternoon an enema was injected, but 
that also returned immediately without any feculent matter. 
On the 27 th she was much worse during the whole day, 
feculent matter being vomited in large quantities. I saw her 
for the first time at nine o’clock 111 the evening, when the 
pulse was scarcely perceptible, the extremities cold, the eyes 
bad a peculiar wild stare, and the body was partially covered 
with a profuse cold sweat : she appeared to be nearly in arti- 
cuio mortis. Having explained the extreme danger of the case 
to the patient and to her husband, she expressed her desire 
of having the operation immediately performed. The hernia 
was situated under Poupart’s ligament, on the inner side of 
the large blood-vessels (the usual seat of crural or femoral 
hernia). An incision of about three inches in length was 
made through the integuments along the middle of the tu¬ 
mour, beginning at the inferior edge of Poupart’s ligament. 
The fascia was thin, and very little adipose substance inter¬ 
vened between the integuments and hernial sac; which last 
was also extremely thin, but did not contain any fluid, and 
adhered to the omentum, which was much discoloured and 
compressed, the circulation having ceased in every part of it. 

It was then removed by excision close to the mouth of the 


sac, the edges of the integuments were supported in contact, 
by two sutures and some straps of adhesive plaster. The 
patient lay perfectly quiet during the operation, from which 
she did not express any sensation of pain. Two spoonfuls of 
an aperient medicine were then given, which remained on the 
stomach. She was quiet during the night, but did not sleep. 
2.8th. There had not been any pain or sickness since the ope¬ 
ration, the pulse was somewhat more distinct, but the ex¬ 
tremities remained cold. The aperient medicine was repeated. 


and 


On the Means of gaining Tower in Mechanics . 351 

and succeeded by a copious evacuation by stool. The hic¬ 
cup and vomiting returned in the evening for a short time ; 
alter which she slept well, and was much recovered in the 
morning, when she took some breakfast with an appetite. 
September the 1st the wound was dressed, which had nearly 
healed by the first intention ; she appeared to be gaining 
health and strength rapidly, and was completely recovered 
by the l oth. 

In the course of the year 1807, 1419 surgical patients 
have been admitted on the books of the Citv Dispensary. 
Cured or relieved - 1139 

Died - 15 

Remain under treatment £>65 

1419 

7 he estimated expense, including drugs, salaries, house- 
;(*nt, taxes, See., attending the treatment of the above 
1419 patients, does not exceed 247/. 10s. 1 

John Taunton, 

Surgeon to the City and Finsbury 
Greville-strcet, Hatton-garden, Dispensaries, Lecturer on Ana- 

January 23, ISOS. tomy, Surgery, Physiology, &c. 


LII. On the Means of gaining Power in Mechanics. 


To Mr. Til loch. 

SIR, 

Among the mathematicians of every age much labour and 
time have been employed to discover the means of gaining me¬ 
chanicalpower• and even in these enlightened times, although 
numerous individuals of distinguished talents and reputation 
persist in asserting the impossibility of gaining such power, 
the contrary opinion is, notwithstanding, cherished and 
acted upon by as man\, perhaps, of eejual genius and science, 
let, inconsistent as it may appear, the result of the experi¬ 
ments and practice during more than 2000 years, is, that 
principles and maxims have gradually been established ut¬ 
terly discouraging every hope of success in the pursuit. 


This. 








35 2 On the Means of gaining Power in Mechanics, 

This variance of opinion among those who may fairly be 
presumed the best informed and most intelligent, respecting 
a very simple mathematical question, (as it may he here¬ 
after proved,) implies, • or rather makes it evident, that 
doubts have been, and are still, entertained of the infalli¬ 
bility of the admitted principles ; and there is reason to su¬ 
spect, that to the influence these have had on the generality 
of mathematicians and mechanics, may be imputed the 
disappointments experienced in many of their attempts, 
which might else have succeeded : for it is remarked,, that 
the world is mostly indebted for discoveries and inventions 
to illiterate men, whose genius was not checked or restrained, 
like that of the learned, by rules and maxims, beyond which 
they never dare or deign to look. 

A s a mere private gentleman, having but a very super¬ 
ficial knowledge of mechanics, in which I occasionally 
amuse myself with experiments, my taking ground on 
either side is quite out of the question ; but i am going to 
state a fact which cannot he controverted, and which, in 
addition to the instance of CEffyreus’s wheel, seems to jus¬ 
tify those who are seeking the perpetual motion. 

1 have constructed an engine, rather simple than com¬ 
plicate, which produces the following effect : 

On applying my moving power, a weight of two pounds — 
while this descends through a space of only three feet , a 
■weight of twenty pounds, is thereby raised two feet per¬ 
pendicular 

Some friends and acquaintances to whom this circum¬ 
stance was mentioned, Were either incredulous, or suspected 
inv being; deceived in the operation of the machine, or mis¬ 
taken in some other wav. But the' operation is so very 
simple that I cannot be mistaken or deceived; for the en¬ 
gine stands perfectly motionless, or at rest, until the moving 
power of two pounds is applied to it, in opposition to the 
twenty pounds weight which is hung on to be raised ; where¬ 
upon this last immediately rises in the time that the former 

* That moving power also raises another considerable weight to a small 
height at and in the same time ; but the single stated fact will suffice for pre¬ 
sent consideration. ' ' > ' 

descends. 


O/i destroying Insects injurious to Cultivation. 353 

descends, as before described; and this experiment has 
daily been repeated and verified for some months past. 

I therefore at length venture, with all deference, to an¬ 
nounce this plain and indisputable fact, and to submit it to 
the consideration and comments of the scientific among' 

o. 

the numerous readers of the Philosophical Magazine; and 
shall be grateful to those gentlemen who will take the trouble 
to inform me, through the same medium, whether anything 
similar has been produced ; and favour me with their obser¬ 
vation upon, and candid opinion of, this presumed novelty, 
the possibility of which cannot he admitted consistently with 
the present theory of mechanics. 

I shall probably have further important communications 
to make on this subject in the next Philosophical Magazine. 
b-, ~E. V. 

January 20, 1808. 


LIII. On destroying Insects injurious to Cultivation . 

To Mr. Tilloch. 

DEAR SIRj 

Among all the casualties to which vegetable life is ex¬ 
posed, nothing seems so destructive or difficult to be ob¬ 
viated, as the effects of predatory insects. There is pro¬ 
bably an infinite variety of vermin, particularly in green¬ 
houses, stoves, and similar contrivances to force vegetation, 
which, in the shape of flies, caterpillars, worms, or grubs, 
are constantly blasting the hopes of the cultivator. I be¬ 
lieve, however, it has been clearly ascertained, that the 
most prevailing and obnoxious of all these enemies is the 
plant-louse, the aphis of Linn tens; a genus perhaps the 
most numerous of the whole system, for every kind of ve¬ 
getable has, it is said, a species of this insect, to whose 
ravages it is peculiarly liable: and another circumstance 
tends materially to confirm the mischief, when it has once 
begun, for, according to the general opinion of naturalists, 
these pernicious animals multiply with astonishing rapidity 
and certainty, wherever they intrude; and from their 
Vol. 29 . No. 116. Jan. 1808. Z structure, 






354 


Notices respecting New Books, 

structure, and general oeconomy, they are amply provided 
for spreading destruction. 

It must give great satisfaction to those who practise or 
patronize horticulture, to be informed of a very simple cure, 
which has proved invariably successful, and is neither costly 
nor difficult to be obtained—it is the mere application of 
sulphur , but not burned by way of fumigation or smoke. 
The precise method of using it has not yet been detailed to 
me; when it is, you may expect to receive all necessary 
instructions : in the mean time let it be observed, that the 
sublimed sulphur,* the flores sulphur is , not the crude brim¬ 
stone in powder, is what has been employed. 

Having received my information from the most respect¬ 
able source, it becomes me to disclaim all pretension to the 
merit of the discovery ; I shall, therefore, add, that it was 
in the extensive and highly cultivated gardens of the lion, 
baron Hepburn, in East Lothian, where the first experi¬ 
ments were made; and, I understand, both there and in 
other gardens, the practice has been constantly attended 
with success. 

I remain, dear sir, 

your obliged and obedient servant, 

Long-Acre, Jos. HUME, 

Jan. 22, 1808. 


LIV. Notices respecting New Books . 

JFncy clop cedische Uelersicht der Wis sense haft en des Orients , 
mis sielen Arabischen , Persischen , und Turkischen Werken 
uehersetzt : den Freunden und Kennern der Orientalischen 
Litteralur gewidmet von einem derselhen Bejlissenen in 
Konstantinopel. — (e Cyclopedical View of the Sciences of 
the East, translated from seven Works, in Arabic, Per¬ 
sian, and Turkish : inscribed to those who are acquainted 
with Oriental Liteiature, by a Person residing; at Con- 
stantinople.”—Leipsick, 1804, 8 vo, 2 parts, pp. 699 . 

However useful to the advancement of Oriental learning, 
or however necessary for completing the history of the human 

mind 





Notices respecting New Books, 355 

i o 

mind it might be, were we in possession of a good literary 
history of the Arabs, Persians, and Turks, there has been 
no work of this description yet attempted, from the insur¬ 
mountable difficulties hitherto attending its execution. These 
difficulties do not arise from the three Eastern nations al¬ 
luded to having neglected to transmit to posterity the history 
of those of their countrymen who have cultivated the va¬ 
rious branches of science and literature. It is rather the 
abundance of the books of this description they have com¬ 
posed, than the want of materials, which has been the ob¬ 
stacle to the execution of a literary history of the East. 
Grammarians, interpreters and lecturers upon the Alcoran, 
theologians of all classes, doctors and jurisconsults of all 
sects, philosophers, physicians, historians, prose-writers, 
poets ;—in short, from the immediate companions of the 
Prophet down to those who in the last century were the 
honour of Turkish literature, all have found their historians, 
as well as the khalifs, the sultans, and their ministers. Be¬ 
sides all this, we have histories of celebrated men of all 
kinds, of each of the principal cities in the country of the 
Mussulmcn, such as Mecca, Medina, Sanaa, Damas, Bag¬ 
dad, Cairo, &c. We may add, that in most of the annals 
composed by the Arab historians, such as Ebn-Athir, 
Aboulfeda, Makrizi, Aboulmahasen and others, we find, 
after the recital of the political events of each year, a ne¬ 
crological article, containing the names of all the celebrated 
men who died in the course of the year, with more or less 
detailed accounts of their lives and writings. With these 
materials, however, for composing a literary history of the 
Eastern countries, there is a multitude of difficulties to 
he removed before w'e can render our materials of any 
service. 

The literary historv of a nation may be divided into two 
principal parts : the history of letters and sciences, and that 
of the persons who have cultivated them. The first ought 
to make us acquainted with the commencement, and the 
various revolutions, of each science or particular branch of 
literature, and the causes which have concurred to accelerate 
or retard its progress. It is the systematic part of literary 
* Z 2 history * 


356 


Notices respecting New Books . 

history, in which those who have acquired celebrity in 
learning or science by their labours, their discoveries, or 
their error's, appear by turns upon the stage, but merely as 
an accessory part of the picture, and without drawing off 
the attention irom the principal object to fix it upon each of 
them in particular. 1 be second part of literary history, 
which may be called biographical, is composed of the par¬ 
ticular histories of those who have contributed, either by 
their own labours or by their influence and benefactions, to 
the cultivation and advancement of human knowledge* 
Each of them here appears isolated, in order to make us ac- 
quainted with the time, place, and circumstances in which 
he lived, the means of instruction which nature or fortune 
presented to him, the application he made of them, the la¬ 
bours for which posterity is indebted to him, the services 
he rendered, the monuments he has bequeathed of his talents 
and zeal. According to the importance of the part which 
each of them has performed, he occupies in this kind of histo¬ 
ric gallery a space more or less considerable; but no person 
whose literary or scientific career has been marked by any 
service rendered, or any work left to posterity, should be 
omitted. Thus the principal cities, the seals of administra¬ 
tion, or the places illustrated by any great events, have 
claims to a place in the general chart of a great empire ; and 
when it is requisite to draw a map of a province, the small¬ 
est cottage, which contributes its share to the support of the 
charges of the state, cannot be omitted without injustice. 

The biographical part of literary history is, properly 
speaking, the only one with which the Orientalists are oc¬ 
cupied; and it is only by comparing and classifying the 
abundant materials of this kind which-they have left us, that 
we can afterwards extract what is necessary for composing 
the systematic part neglected by them. It is therefore with 
biographical history exclusively we must commence : but 
even here the task is not easy ; it requires great opportuni¬ 
ties, time, and discernment, and the concurrence of several, 
as the following observations will convince us. 

In the first place, all the materials for a labour of this 
kind arc in manuscript, and consequently they require 

much 


No!ices respecting New Books. 357 

much critical skill, and a knowledge far from superficial of 
the languages in which they are written. 

Secondly, it is impossible to unite all these materials;— 
the number of booksellers who possess them is not vcrv 
considerable, and but a small part of them falls to the lot 
of each. Some even of the most essential documents do 
not appear to have as yet arrived in Europe, or are alto¬ 
gether unknown. 

Thirdly, the Orientalists having but a small number of 
proper names, the same name, Abdallah, for example, or 
Mahomed, Ali, Hassan, Hosain, Stc., is necessarily com¬ 
mon to a very great number of men. In order to remedy 
the confusion which would result from this homonymy, 
there is added to the name of each, 1st, a surname (conya) 
taken from the name of his eldest son, as Abou-Mahomed, 
Aboul-Hassan, (father of Mahomed, father of Hassan): 
2d, the name of his father, and frequently that of his 
grandfather: 3d, a surname taken from the place where he 
was born, or where he lived, as Ispahani, Baconi, Bagdadi, 
&c. : 4th, an honorary title (lakab)—this is peculiar to the 
cadis, or their assessors, the imans, the sheiks, the doc¬ 
tors, and monks —such as Boha-cddin, (the splendour of re- 
ligion,) Djelal-eddin, (the glory of religion,) Tadj-eddin, 
(the crown of religion.) In the order of these names and 
surnames, the honorary title is generally first ; then comes 
the surname (conya) properly so called, then the name fol¬ 
lowed by that of the father and grandfather, and lastly, the 
surname taken from the place of birth : sometimes the same 
person bears several names of this last description. Thus, in 
order to designate completely the celebrated physician Abd- 
allatif, the author of a ^reat number of works, be is thus 
described: Mouwaffik-eddin Abou-Mahomed Abd-allatif 
Ben Yousoff Mauseli Bagdadi. Mouwaffik-eddin (the pro¬ 
tector of religion) is his honorary title; Abou-Mahomed 
(father of Mahomet) is his surname, taken from the name 
of his eldest son ; Abd-allatif is his own name; Ben Yousoff, 
(son of Yousoff',) the surname taken from the name of his 
father; Mauseli, from Mosul, Bagdadi, frrom Bagdad, are 

Z 3 surnames. 


/ 


358 Notices respecting New Books, 

surnames, which intimate that his family was originally from 
Mosul, but that he was born at Bagdad. Many individuals 
have, besides, certain nicknames, or surnames taken from 
some illustrious ancestor, or circumstance of their life. This 
multitude of names and surnames contributes in several 
ways to throw much confusion upon literary history, and 
chiefly because they rarely designate a person by the whole 
of these names, and the same individual is sometimes called 
by his honorary title only, as Djelal-eddin, or by his name 
without any surname, as Abd-allatif, or by the name of his 
son, as Aboulabbas, (the father of Abbas,) or by that of 
his father, as E’hn-Arabschab, (the son of Arabschah,) or 
lastly, bv the surname taken from the place of his birth, as 
Djordjani, Schahrestani, Soyouti. We may be often led 
into error, therefore, by supposing several personages to be 
p ie only, and vice versa. In the second place, the copyists, 
by omitting the words Abou, (father,) or Ebn, (son,) or 
confounding together these two words, often call Abd-allah, 
or Abd-alrahman, the person who is really called father 
or son of Abd-allah, or Abd-alrahman. Lastly, there is so 
great a number of celebrated men, whom vye are accustomed 
to know merely by one of their surnames, that the Oriental 
biographers themselves can neither discover their names o.r 
surnames. There are none of the learned who are occupied 
with the literature of the East, without excepting Herbelo.t 
and Caziri, who have not been often led into error from, some 
of these causes. The titles of books being also almost al¬ 
ways conceived in an indistinct manner, and several works 
of various writers having either the same or very similar 
titles, this is also a new source of mistakes, from which the 
Eastern historians themselves have not always been exempt. 

From all these considerations, it is evident, vye are not yet 
competent to the task of a general history of the literature 
and science of the Arabs, Persians, and Turks ; and we 
must begin by clearing away this chaos, and by putting the 
materials into the hands of a greater number of persons, by 
publishing successively, either entire or in extracts, the 
most important works of this kind. It is also to be wished, 

that 


Notices respecting New Books. 359 


that no occasion should he neglected of giving detached no- 
tices upon the most celebrated writers ; and by pointing out 
their names and writings, we should employ all the means 
furnished by criticism, in order to present with the greatest 
possible exactness, and in original characters, the entire 
name of the authors, and titles of their works. 

The most important books of this description, and those 
which would furnish the greatest number of articles for 
literary history, arc : 

The kitab Aljihrist , by Aboul-faradji Mohamed Ecn- 
Ishak, better known by the name of Ebn-Abi-Yacoub Ne- 
dim : it is a catalogue of Arabian authors and their works, 
for the three first centuries of the Ilegira and a part of the 


fourth, 

The JVafyat Alayan , or dictionary of illustrious men, by 
Ebn-Khilcan. 

The Tarikh Alislam, by Dhehebi. 

The Menhal Alsapi, another dictionary of the same kind, 
composed by Aboulmahassen, forming a continuation of 
the preceding. 

The Kitab Almohadhara , an abridged history of Egypt, 
by Soyouti, which contains a very useful catalogue of cele¬ 
brated men who have been born or lived in that country. 

r f he Kitab Caschf Aldhonoun , or library of Arabian, Per¬ 
sian, and Turkish books, by Hadji Khalf’a. 

This last work, of which Herbelot has already made so 
great use, is the same from which the author of the Cyclo- 
pedical View of the Sciences of the East has extracted the 
greatest part of the materials he has collected in the volume 
now before us ; but he has also laid under contribution six 
other works, four of which are written in Arabic, one in 
Persian, and one in Turkish. 

The author explains, in the preface, I he plan according to 
which he has arranged the extracts from these various works. 
The last six have merely served to supply the desiderata in 
the general picture of the sciences of the East by Hadji 
Khalfa. Sometimes the extracts of several of these works 
have been blended together; but oftener he has contented 
himself with abridging them, indicating the source of each in 

E 4 particular 


360 


Notices respecting New Books. 

particular, and leaving to his readers the care of comparing 
and combining them. This arrangement is disadvantageous 
to ihe au hor, and favourable to the critic, who may thus 
compare more easily each of these extracts or abridged 
translations with the originals, and thus ascertain and rec¬ 
tify the errors which may have escaped the translator. 

Frequently, persons who devote their attention to one 
branch of literature, and who have wasted much time and 
labour in acquiring profound knowledge, contract a kind of 
enthusiastic love lor the object of their studies, which some¬ 
times appears excessive to readers who judge with greater 
coolness. The author of the work now before us does not 
appear altogether free from this weakness ; and there are 
few who will consent to allow Hadji Khalfa the epithets 
bestowed upon him by our anonymous author, of the triple 
Hermes of the literature of the East, the Bacon, the Meuse) 
of the Arabs, Persians, and Turks. We may, however, 
excuse this exaggeration in a man of letters, who has had 
courage enough to undertake a dry and painful task 5 and 
we ought to remember, that, without this enthusiasm, the 
most of those works which have extended our knowledge, 
and placed the study of the sciences and literature in the 
flourishing state they now are, would never have existed. 

We find, immediately after the preface, the Life of Hadji 
Khalfa, whose name is Mustafa, the son of Abd-allah ; his 
surname, Hadji Khalfa, is composed of two Arabian words, 
Hadji (pilgrim), and Khalifa, or, as ihe Turks write and 
pronounce it, Khalfa or Kalja (assessor) : he takes the name 
of Hadji from having accomplished the pilgrimage to Mecca 
in the year 1043 of the Hegira, (A. D. 1633 ,) and he 
added Khalfa to it when he obtained the place of second 
assessor in the office of Basch-mobaesebe, or chief of the 
accounts. He was also known by the name of Catib Tche- 
jebi. His father had filled the place of secretary to the 
Porte, which produced him the name of Catib, and his son 
inherited it from him : Tchelebi is a Turkish word signify¬ 
ing a man of genteel birth. 

Th is Lifeot Hadji Khalfa, written by himself, was printed 


with his Chronological Tables , a work of which there is an 

•' f . t < '• \ 

4 Italian 


> ■ 


Notices respecting New Books . 361 

Italian translation published at Venice in 1697, and a 
Latin translation in manuscript by the celebrated Reiskc. 
The 1 urkish editor of these Chronological Tables has finished 
the Life of Hadji Khalfa, which the latter had added to one 
of his works, entitled Mizan-Alkakk, i. e. The Balance of 
J ruth. It shows us Hadji Khalfa consecrating the greatest 
part of his life to study or teaching, neglecting no method 
of increasing his knowledge, and voluntarily renouncing 
the pleasures and illusions of ambition, in order to amass, 
in tranquillity, the materials for a great number of useful 
works, with which he has successively enriched the litera¬ 
ture of his country. He finished his mortal career in the 
year 1068 of the Hegira (A. D. 1657). We are ignorant 
how old he was, the year of his birth not being mentioned ; 
but it is probable that he was not 60, since he was ap¬ 
pointed to the situation of adjunct or commissary in the 
office of accounts for Natolia, being the first he filled, in 
the year 1032. 

To the Life of Hadji Khalfa, in itself a precious relic of 
literary history, succeed short notices of the seven original 
works, the extracts from which compose the work before 
us; and after all, a tale in the form of a dialogue, extracted 
from the last of these works; but the original Arabic has 
for its author, according to report, Imam Gayali. 

The interlocutors engaged in this dialogue are, a youno- 
Arab named Beschir, and a young Persian named Schadan, 
and their conversation takes place in presence of the khalif 
Haroun Raschid, who arrives at the moment these two 
young people, both strangers, meet, and imbibe a mar¬ 
vellous sympathy for each other. The khalif, after having 
received their salutations and politely answered them, struck 
with the vivacity of their looks, addresses himself to Be¬ 
schir, and asks him whence he came, and how old he is. 
Beschir answers him in a sententious and enigmatical man¬ 
ner. To the question put by Haroun, “ Combien <T amices 
avez-vous ?” (How old are you ?) “ Avenues (None) he 
answered : the years are in the hands of God ! How many 
do you count, then ( I count, said the Arab, from one 

up 


362 


Notices respecting New Books. 

lip to 100,000. In what manner, said the khalif with emo-* 
tion, must I interrogate you in order to obtain a rational 
answer? Ask me, said Beschir, how much time of my 
life has gone past. The khalif puts this question to him, 
and receives for answer, Fourteen years. He then leaves the 
two young philosophers to themselves. 

Schadan earnestly entreats Beschir to enter into conversa¬ 
tion with him, and to place him among the number of his 
friends ; but Beschir, who does not seem inclined to receive 
as friends any who could not by their talents or wisdom 
contribute to the improvement of his mind and heart, sub¬ 
jects Schadan to a rigorous examination, from which the 
latter does not shrink : for you know/’ says he to Beschir, 
what the Arab proverb says : Amid the flying sand of the 
Desert, we can easily distinguish a man on horseback from 
him who is mounted on an ass.” 

The questions put by Beschir to Schadan turn upon sub¬ 
jects of dogmatic theology, the interpretation of the Alco¬ 
ran, grammar, etymology, poetics, aesthetics, gnomics, 
lexicology, scriptures, jurisprudence, traditional theology, 
medicine and morals; and the answers of Schadan leave him 
nothing to desire. The two young people then embrace, and 
swear a sincere friendship. The khalif, who had overheard 
their whole conversation, can scarcely believe his ears. All 
the readers of this work *vill not partake in this enthusiasm, 
perhaps, upon hearing that Beschir proposes questions of the 
following nature : What is the Arab word, which, with¬ 
out any change of letters, can be a veib, noun, and parti¬ 
ciple ? Why do walnuts eaten before dinner lock up the bow¬ 
els, and when taken after dinner produce a contrary effect ? 
Why is a certain word in the Alcoran a nominative ? 

j 

We must admire the answers of Schadan, however, when 
Beschir asks where God was before he created the world ? 
and wherefore did he create it ? Schadan thus answers these 
questions : i( Where indicates a place ; and God not being 
contained in any space, to ask where God was , is an absurd 
question. The manner of acting peculiar to God is too 
elevated to afford room for asking how and wherefore he 

acts j 


363 


Notices respecting New Books . 

acts ; by the sole omnipotence of his will he has produced 
those things which his knowledge embraced, and he pro¬ 
duced them without means and without cause.” 

Schadan answers several literary questions in a similar 
manner ; we shall quote one only, which presents a pleasing 
anecdote. Besehir asks him the origin of this Arabian 
proverb : £( The camel would be a good bargain, were it not 
for the cursed animal hanging at its neck 5 ” and Schadan 
relates the following story : 

An Arab who was plagued with a vicious camel, , ex¬ 
claimed in a moment of anger : 66 May my wife be always 

barren if I do not sell thee for a piece of silver 1” His 
choler beino* over, he devised the following method of ful- 
filling his oath, which he repented. He suspended a cat to 
the neck of his camel, and cried round the market, U A 
camel and cat to sell together, but not separately; the camel 
for a piece of silver, and the cat for 400.” The people hear¬ 
ing this, exclaimed in the words of the proverb : u The 
camel would be a good bargain, were it not for the cursed 
animal at its neck.” 

Haroun invites the two young philosophers to his palace, 
thinking himself fortunate in securing their friendship. 
(( Servant of God,” said Besehir to him, “ thy society is 
as little fit for us as ours is for thee.” u How so ?” said 
Haroun. Because,” answered the Arab, c< thou art the 
slave of our slaves.” The khalif became angry, but Besehir 
soon appeased him by explaining the meaning of his answer. 
Ha roun dissolves into tears, and, on withdrawing, asks 
Besehir to be pleased to dictate something to him upon 
which he might meditate usefully. Besehir gives him this 
passage in the Alcoran : 

“ Have you not seen that we have granted them several 
years of respite? and when the vengeance with which we 
menaced them has come upon them, the respite we have 
granted them has been of no use to them.” 

The anonymous author has not given the sense of this 
passage correctly ; but as he gives the original in a note, 
the translation may be easily rectified bv those acquainted 
with the language. 


The 


564 


Notices respecting New Books. 

The work of Hadji Khalfa consists of a short preface, an 
introduction, a bibliographical dictionary, and the con¬ 
clusion. 

The preface displays in few words the object the author 
has in view. The introduction is divided into five chapters, 
subdivided into sections, paragraphs, &c. The first chap¬ 
ter has for its object the definition of science in general, its 
division info various principal branches, and the subdivisions 
jof these last; the second treats of the origin and history of 
sciences and books ; the third, of the different classes of 
writers and books ; the fourth contains general considera¬ 
tions upon the sciences, upon those who have cultivated 
them, upon the circumstances which favour their cultiva¬ 
tion, and the obstacles to their progress; upon the qualities 
which a learned man onght to possess, and other similar 
subjects : the fifth chapter is a kind of supplement to the 
former, and contains various miscellaneous observations not 
alluded to in the preceding chapters. 

In spite of the multitude of divisions and subdivisions in 
this treatise, which may be regarded as a synoptical picture 
of the sciences, and every thing relating to them, we do 
not think Hadji Khalfa has adopted the most perspicuous 
arrangement. He has often confounded considerations of a 
general nature with those which have a particular object; 
and although he may have had some idea of a general sy¬ 
stem of human knowledge, he is far from having realised 
this idea in a manner to entitle him to rank with Bacon, 
or the author of the preliminary discourse to the French 
Encyclopedia. 

The work, however, notwithstanding its faults, deserves 
to be better known. The introduction is the most deserving 

O 

of notice; and our anonymous author has translated it from 
beginning to end, with some slight exceptions, and it oc¬ 
cupies nearly 160 pages of the volume. Some people, 
perhaps, would have preferred the suppression of this intro¬ 
duction, and would have wished to have seen, if not the 
whole, at least the principal articles of the Bibliographical 
Dictionary of Hadji Khalfa, from which those who cultivate 
Oriental literature would certainly eterive very great advantages. 

Mithridates : 


Notices respecting New Books * 


3 &> 

JMlthridates : oder Allgemexne Sprachenkunde, wit dem 
u Vater-Unser/* als Sprueh-prole, in beynahe f iuifhun- 
dert Sprachen undMund-arten , von Johann Christopher 
Adelung. — “ Mithridates : orGeneral Principles of Lan¬ 
guages, with the Lord’s Prayer as an Example, in nearly 
500 Languages or Dialects, by John Christopher 
Adelung, Aulic Counsellor and Chief Librarian to the 
Elector of Saxony, with this Motto : 

“ Alius alio plus invenire potest, nemo omnia.”—A usonius. 

Parti. Berlin 1806. 686 pages, exclusive of the Synoptical 
Table, the Preface, the Introduction, and the Alphabetical 
Table. 

The learned and philosophical author of Mithridates is 
now no more, having finished a lon^ laborious life, at the 
age of 75, about a year ago. He wa s one of the most in¬ 
defatigable scholars in Germany, a country already so fertile 
in this class of men ; he excelled in grammatical learning, 
and was distinguished in several other branches of science. 
Besides the excellent dictionary of his native language, which 
is as much celebrated in Germany as t hat of Dr. Johnson ; 
besides his learned and judicious works upon German phi¬ 
lology, Adelung has published numerous and valuable 
writings, both upon civil and literary history, as upon ra¬ 
tional philosophy, physics, chemistry, and finally upon 
diplomacy. See the <c Teutchland Geh-hrle*’ of Hamberger 
and Meusel, article Adelung. 

Mithridates, a posthumous work, and the fruit of fifteen 
years of assiduous labour, will furnish general notions upon all 
the languages, and the texts of each are carefully explained. 
The author has only been able to finish what concerns the 
languages of Asia and those of Europe. This first part com¬ 
prehends the languages of Asia to the number of ]59. 

The second part is preparing for the press, and will em¬ 
brace all the languages of Europe. It is only bv taking it 
l’or granted that the work will be continued and completed, 
that we may flatter ourselves with possessing in this book 
every thing which the title promises, namely, general ideas 

upon 


366 


Notices respecting New Books . 

upon all the known idioms, and the Pater Noster in fivehml~ 
dred languages or dialects. 

We shall then be in possession, within a very narrow 
compass, of the materials necessary for resolving the splen¬ 
did problem in the author’s contemplation : we shall know 
the characters and differences of each language, in order to 
account for the progress, followed by reason and genius, 
amotw the different races of mankind, for determining with 
more certainty, or conjecturing with more probability, tho 
origin of the idioms, and in part the history of the nations 
who speak them. 

It would seem, however, that besides vocabularies, or 
attempts at vocabularies, in each language or dialect, three 
kiuds of auxiliaries would be still desirable, in order to create 
or render complete the comparative science of the idioms of 
the whole earth. 

The first would consist in faithful pictures of all the in- 
tonations and articulations of the known languages. 

The second, in the different alphabets of these same lan¬ 
guages, exactly drawn, with explanations which should an¬ 
nounce and determine the value of each character. 

The third, in order to serve as a kind of control, would 
be the knowdedge of all the intonations and articulations of 
which the human voice is susceptible. It is thus that, in 
the different artificial arrangements employed in botany, we 
prefer uniting the advantages of the natural order. 

But these auxiliaries are still wanting. 

The first and second, with respect to the dead languages ; 
because, in general these languages have several characters 
and vowels and consonants, upon the value of which the 
learned are not yet agreed ; and with respect 40 certain lan¬ 
guages in the Eastern part of Asia, because the characters 
o.f these languages are the signs of ideas, and by no means 
of sounds or articulations 5 and because, w'hen pronounced, 
they give, in each of these idioms, words completely 
dissimilar with respect to perfectly identical ideas and 
written signs : lastly, with respect even to the living lan¬ 
guages, and the characters of which represent intonations 
and articulations, because, as repeatedly confessed by the 

editors^ 


Notices respecting New Books. 3(57 

editors and interpreters of foreign alphabets, without ex¬ 
cepting the learned sir William Jones, it is impossible to 
represent in words the just value of certain characters, and 
the exact intonation or articulation they express. 

We may add upon the subject of the unexplained simple 
representing of the existing alphabets, that this task alone, 
which is physically possible to execute, is, however, so 
tedious, laborious, and difficult, that in reality we have 
nothing of this kind but monographies. The work is exe¬ 
cuted with care and success with respect to some idioms: 
as to the generality of the known languages, there exists 
scarcely a single work where an attempt has been made to 
collect the methods of writing it, and it is a very defec¬ 
tive attempt, the copies of which, however, are excessively 
scarce. This is called <( Pantographia, containing ac¬ 
curate copies of all the known alphabets in the world ; to¬ 
gether with an English explanation of the peculiar force or 
power of each letter; to which are added specimens of all 
well authenticated oral languages, forming a comprehensive 
digest of phonology ; by Edmund Fry, London, 1799/’ in 
one volume, 8vo. A German, too much led away by his 
imagination, also published in 1781 a kind of panto- 
graphy, but executed in a still more execrable manner : it is 
a curious book, however, and is entitled 6C Synopsis uni¬ 
verses philologiae, in qua miranda unitas et harmonia lira - 
guarum totius orbis occulta eruitur, adornata a Gothofredo 
Henselio.’ J Norimbergae, in Svo, one volume. 

The above are the first two indications which we could 
wish to see satisfied. 

The third object, which would be as much the province 
of physiology as of grammar, is equally difficult with the 
two others, in a double respect. On the one hand, it seems 
agreed that we cannot make known by words, i. e. by a 
clear and sufficient description, oral or written, some move¬ 
ments of the human voice, or certain very well known and 
often used effects of this organ, so mysterious in some mea¬ 
sure, and so complicated in every respecU On the other hand, 
to consider even the convex and concave, the straight and 
spiral portions of this instrument only as so many straight 

lines ; 


368 


Notices respecting New Books . 

lines: who is there so audacious, or so foolish, as to pretend 
to trace the scale of all their possible divisions, to classify 
and calculate all the effects of the general or partial con¬ 
course and reciprocal influences of all these parts ? What 
alphabet can there be invented, to represent by simple signs 
so many new and delicate ideas? What an inexhaustible 
source of contradictions and endless disputes i Even at the 
present day our knowledge is not extended to the language 
of antient ideas. 

Let us ask for example, between two analogous articula¬ 
tions D and T, which is the hard or the soft, the strong or 
the weak, we shall be told without doubt that T is the 
hardest ; and the President de Brasses, Beauzec, &c., will 
be quoted : nevertheless, upon opening the excellent Port 
Royal Greek Grammar and its numerous abridgments, you 
find that the T is soft; and this grammar adds, that the 
consonant which ib not soft, becomes so when we pro¬ 
nounce it too gently, Le Roy, in his Greek Grammar, is 
also clearly of opinion that T is soft ; and in order to finish 
the climax, a learned Greek Grammar lately printed informs 
us that soft is synonymous with hard. Upon this point, there¬ 
fore, and upon manv others, the ideas and the language are 
still to be made and fixed. 

This is a superfluous blit a new proof of this truth, so 
frequently forgotten and incessantly confirmed by expe¬ 
rience, that the human mind is on all occasions forced to 
acknowledge either irs imbecility or its uncertainty. We 
find, on the subject of the alphabet, that it is often reduced, 
particularly when it wishes to embrace various languages, to 
content itself with approximations, probabilities, and hypo¬ 
theses ; happy if it can always avoid contradiction and 
error. 

We shall see therefore without astonishment, that the 
learned author of Mithridates has not taken the pains to 
employ exotic characters, nor even to appropriate to his 
use, by necessary additions, the Roman alphabet, the only 
one he employs. He was of opinion that this alphabet pro¬ 
nounced broad as the Germans do, is sufficient to render 
in a tolerable manner the value of all the foreign alphabets. 

We 


Notices respecting New Books. 369 

We shall find, perhaps, that this is to content ourselves with 
a too distant approximation : the Roman alphabet, if we 
renounce exotic letters, certainly agrees better with facilita¬ 
ting some comparison of the languages with each- other— 
the Russian language for example—-because the first prevails 
among the most enlightened people in the world ; but it 
will only procure incomplete or inaccurate notions of the 
numerous and important foreign languages, and most of 
which have peculiar sounds and articulations, such as the 
Roman alphabet cannot be used to express. It is necessary, 
in order to represent faithfully these languages with the letters 
of the Roman alphabet, to add to this alphabet some new 
characters, as the inhabitants of India, when writing the 
Shanscrit, when they neglect to employ the Devanagari 
characters, add certain letters to the alphabets of their ChiiJia 
or vulgar languages, because the Shanscrit is generally richer 
in sounds and intonations than the Chas/ia. 

M. Volney has suggested that the Roman alphabet might 
be employed for writing the languages of Asia : see his 
Methode nouvelle el facile d’apprendre les langues Arabe , 
Persane et Turque. Paris, 1795, in 8vo. This idea may 
succeed with the assistance of the learned ; it would save 
Europeans much time and trouble. An entirely new lan¬ 
guage has been agreed upon for chemistry : is it more diffi¬ 
cult to grant, for certain languages, an alphabet already 
completely known in a great measure, and which, in time, 
might become the universal alphabet of the country ? 

Whatever may be the imperfection which results in the 
new Mithridates, from the exclusive employment of the 
Roman alphabet, deprived of the additions necessary for the 
comparison of languages, we admit that this book is singu¬ 
larly rich in facts relative to this comparison, and that it 
will be very useful even to those who possess the most 
novel works of this nature. It will be particularly so to ex¬ 
perienced travellers, w ho may wish to procure a good guide in 
their inquiries upon the idioms of the countries they visit. 

[To be continued.] 


Dr. Beer, a celebrated oculist of Vienna, has addressed 
VoJ, 29. No, 116. Jan . 1808. A a a small 



$70 Royal Society. 

a small pamphlet to the medical gentlemen of Great Britain* 
containing twenty-nine ingenious queries on the subject of 
the epidemical ophthalmia* which has recently appeared in 
the British army. This new contagion is as yet a stranger 
in the continental armies, and the medical practitioners iq 
Germany and France seem to be unacquainted with its 
characters. 


We are happy to find that Mr. Leybourn, of the Royal 
Military College, continues the publication of his valuable 
Repertory of Mathematical Science. The seventh number 
has made its appearance; and it is but justice to add, that 
the work has no way failed in the estimation formed of its 
character. 


Mr. John Clennell, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, has pub¬ 
lished an Essay on the propriety of disclosing the secrets of 
manufactories. 



LV. Proceedings of Learned Societies . 


ROYAL SOCIETY. 

f p 

J. his Society met on the evenings of the 14 th and 22d, 
when A. Marsden> esq., in consequence of the indisposition 
of the president, was in the chair. A very curious paper 
on Oxalic Acid, by Dr. T. Thomson of Edinburgh, was 
read. It contained the results of a great variety of experi¬ 
ments made to ascertain the relative qualities of the consti¬ 
tuent parts of this acid, on a principle of calculation laid 
down by this able chemist in the last edition of his excellent 
System of Chemistry. It is impossible to convey any ade¬ 
quate idea of the various facts detailed in this interesting 
paper, in the present summary of the society’s proceedings, 
as Mr. Davy’s illness has unfortunately prevented him from 
attending the society, and the inexperience of the other 
secretaries in reading, and their low voices, were such as to 

render them scarcely audible. 

.. J 

; , > SOCIETY 








371 


Antiquarian Society.—Royal Institution. 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 

N. Carlisle, esq., the secretary, laid before the society some 
ingenious observations on the round painted boards, con¬ 
taining verses and figures, found in some families in Staf¬ 
fordshire, and called rondles . A great many conjectures oil 
the origin and use of these round boards, about five inches 
in diameter, and one fourth of an inch thick, were extracted 
from the Gentleman’s Magazine ; and it is supposed that 
they are of the age of Henry VII. or VIII.; that they had 
been imported from Flanders, and used either as conversa¬ 
tion cards, or wooden platters. The circumstance of their 
being found chiefly in Staffordshire sanctioned this opinion, 
and that they might have been the precursors of some of our 
Delft Ware. The poetical stanzas, written in old English 
characters, supposed of the above age, are chiefly amatory, 
and some of them rather indelicate : the poetry is generally 
as bad as the sentiments are trifling;. The figures are also 

O O 

very coarse, and painted mostly round the outside, and the 
verses in the centre. 

ROYAL INSTITUTION. 

The following arrangement has been made for the Lec¬ 
tures of the ensuing season, which commenced on the 
13th instant (January) : 

Mr. Davy, a Course on Geology. 

*-on the Elements of Electrochemical 

Science. 

Mr. Allen, on Mechanical Inventions. 

-Natural Philosophy. 

Mr. Coleridge, on the distinguished English Poets, in 
Illustration of the General Principles of Poetry. 

Rev. Mr. Crowe, on Architecture, an extended Course. 

Rev. Mr. Hewlett, on Belles Lettres, 4th Course. 

Rev. T. F. Dibdin, English Literature, 3d Course. 

Dr. Callcott, on German Music. 

- T -on the Music of the 18th Century. 

Dr. Smith, on Botany. 

Mr. Craig, on the Principles and Practice of Drawing, 
Painting, and Engraving. 

Mr. Wood, on Perspective. 

A a 2 


ROYAL 





372 


Gottingen Society .'—The New Metals • 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF GOTTINGEN. 

The Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Gottingen has 
offered a prize of 50 golden ducats, for the best Memoir on 
the following subject : The difference of colour remarked 

between the blood of the veins and that of the arteries 
having induced an opinion among several of the learned, 
that the same difference exists in the blood of the embryo 
in an inverse degree 5 but as experience has never confirmed 
this with respect to new-born infants, the society is de¬ 
sirous that, by researches and direct experiments upon in¬ 
fants born of healthy mothers, (either by the instant liga¬ 
ture of the umbilical cord at its two extremities, at the 
moment of their birth, or in any other way,) it should be 
determined if there really exists an inverse difference in the 
colour of the blood ; in what it consists ; what are the con¬ 
stituent principles of the blood of the infant y —keeping out 
of the question the acid particles, which must be mixed with 
It by the contact of the atmosphere ?” 

The memoirs in answer to this question must be trans¬ 
mitted to the society previous to September 1808. 

UNIVERSITY OF GOTTINGEN. 

The following question has been announced for the sub¬ 
ject of a prize essay, by the University of Gottingen « 

What is the influence of the acid and other kinds of gases 
upon electricity produced by friction ? and what are the 
relations of the other electrical phenomena, such as attrac¬ 
tions, repulsions, sparks, &c., with the principal gases }** 
This question has been announced for two successive years; 
but the memoirs not being satisfactory, it has been renewed 
for the year 1809 , 


LYL Intelligence and Miscellaneous Articles. 

professor davy’s new metals. 

The experiments of Mr. Davy on the alkalies wore re¬ 
peated on the 14th and 28th instant (January) before the 
Askesian and Mineralogical Society, with a very large Gal¬ 
vanic apparatus of Mr, Pepys’s, consisting of 120 pairs of 
plates of 36 inches surface each (containing near seven 
" 4 hundred 








Professor Davy’s Keiv Metals . 3/3 

hundred weight of copper and zinc). The solid caustic 
potash was used, slightly moistened by the breath. The 
metaloid obtained was highly inflammable, swam in recti¬ 
fied naphtha, but was difficultly separated from the potash., 
in which it is plentifully imbedded, after being exposed to the 
Galvanic action. Water being dropped upon it, the particles 
explode similarly to grains of gunpowder thrown into the fire. 

I he metaloid obtained from soda is not so highly inflam¬ 
mable, and can therefore be collected more easilv. A <do- 
bole about the size oi a small tare being thrown on paper 
moistened, instantly became apparently red-hot, and, run¬ 
ning off the surface of the paper, fell luminously through 
the air. 

Mr. Allen has also repeated Mr. Davy’s experiments,, and 
obtained both the metaloids by four troughs of fifty pairs 
each of sixteen inches surface. The metaloids obtained by 
Mr. Allen were exhibited by Dr. Marcet at the Theatre of 
Guy’s Hospital. 

Mr. Dibdin, in his introductory lecture at the Royal Insti¬ 
tution, a few days ago, announced that some of the primi¬ 
tive earths, as they are called, such as Barytes and Strontian, 
having many alkaline qualities, Mr. Davy was induced 
.0 suomit them to similar experiments, and has discovered 
that these also consist of metallic bases, united to oxycen, 
forming compound bodies analogous to the two fixed alkalies. 


To Mr. Tilloch . 

SIR t 

3 _ London, Jan. 24, 1808: 

I am convinced you would not wish any mistakes to re¬ 
main uncorrected in your excellent Magazine. 

I have just read the account given in the Number for 
November, of Mr. Davy’s Bakerian Lecture. Your Report. 
I am soiiy to say, is m some particulars not quite correct 
I was present at the reading of the paper before the Royal 

Society, and I paid particular attention to the statements 
of facts. 

It will he merely doing justice to the author, to mention 
accurately the particulars of his important discovery. 

A a 3 


It 




3/4 Napoleon* s Prize for Galvanism . 

It is stated in your Magazine, that the basis of potash 
is volatile at 100°. Mr. Davy’s account was, that cc it is 
volatile at a heat a little below redness.”—It is likewise said 
that the amalgam of the bases of potash and quicksilver, when 
applied in the circle of a Galvanic battery, dissolved iron, 
silver, gold, and platina. Mr. Davy merely mentioned 
that it dissolved these metals ; he said nothing that I can 
recollect of the Galvanic battery. 

G 1 ass, it is said by the Reporter on the Lecture, as well 
as all other metallic bodies, was dissolved by the basis of 
potash. 

The real statement with regard to glass was, that the basis 
of potash decomposed it by combining with its alkali, and 
by forming a red oxide of less degree of oxygenation than 
potash * which oxide was likewise procured by other means. 

It is stated that the specific gravity of the basis of soda is 
to that of water as 7 to 10. Mr. Davy said ££ as 9 to 10.” 

Mr. Davy mentioned nothing about the effects of these 
new and extraordinary bodies upon the phosphates and 
phosphurets ; but detailed some remarkable experiments on 
the phenomena of their combinations with phosphorus 
and sulphur. He said nothing concerning the specific gra¬ 
vity of the amalgams of the bases of potash and soda. 

As the account in the Philosophical Magazine has been 
copied into many periodical publications, it is but justice to 
the discoverer of these new facts to correct its inaccuracies ; 
as otherwise they may be attributed to the author by those 
who repeat bis experiments, on the faith of the statements. 

You will, therefore, I trust, take the trouble of inserting 
this letter in your next number. I am, sir, with great respect, 

your obliged humble servant, 

A Chemist. 


napoleon’s prize for galvanism. 

The annual prize of 3000 livres, founded by the emperor 
of the French for the best experiment made in the course 
of the year on the Galvanic fluid, has been decreed to Mr. 
Davy, member of the Royal Society of London, for his 
Memoir on the Chemical Action of Electricity. 


NEW 



New Vhotomelrical Telescope.—Cure for Gout . 375 

NEW PHOTOMETRICAL TELESCOPE. 

Dr. Brewster of Edinburgh has invented a photometrical 
telescope, the primary object of which is to ascertain the 
relative brightness of the fixed stars, though it is capable of 
measuring; the relative intensities of all other lights. With- 
out any additional apparatus, it becomes a micrometer for 
measuring the distance of any two stars comprehended in 
the field of view, or the angle subtended by any two lumi¬ 
nous points. 

SINGULAR CURE FOR THE GOuT. 

M. Cadet de Vaux, in his Journal d’Economic Rurale, 
mentions the following as a fact : 

“ A lady above eighty years of age, whom I have the 
honour of knowing intimately, was attacked with rheu¬ 
matic gout thirty years ago. It seized the whole body ; her 
pains were excessive ; and during six weeks the efforts of 
art to relieve her were ineffectual ; when a friend of the lady 
mentioned the cure of a similar disorder by drinking enor¬ 
mous quantities of hot water, to the amount of forty-eight 
glasses in the space of twelve hours. The severity of the 
pains the lady endured determined her to make the experi¬ 
ment, and she set about taking, every quarter of an hour, a 
cup containing seven or eight ounces of hot water (not 
merely warm , as this occasions vomiting, an effect that is 
not required). Thirty glasses were found sufficient to re¬ 
move the pains, as it were by enchantment. She then 
stopped, and fell into a profound sleep, which she had not 
enjoyed for a long time before. Nothing of the disorder 
remained, except a sense of weight in one arm; but dreading 
a relapse, she determined, after a fortnight, to repeat the 
operation, and carried it on this occasion to forty glasses ; 
when hunger, and a desire to sleep, put a stop to the expe¬ 
riment. From this time the cure was complete. 

“About fifteen years afterwards, the same lady, then sixty- 
five years old, had a new attack of her former disease, with 
an entire loss of the use of her limbs : she had recourse to 
her former remedy of hot water, and with the same success 
as before. From that time she lias had no return of the 
disease, and at present enjoys a good state of health.” 

M. Griebel, 


/ 


/ \ 

SJo Singular Clock.- — Lectures. 

M. Griebel, a watch-maker of Paris, has invented a clock 
without weights, of a globular form, the dial-plate of which 
is transparent, and, by means of a reflecting lamp on Ar- 
gand’s construction, shows the figure to a great distance. 
By a particularity of formation, neither the wheels, the 
hands, nor the pendulum, cast any shadow. The light-irfay 
be made stronger or weaker, and adapted to the sick-cham¬ 
ber, or to clocks in the most public situations ; where it 
answers the purpose of a time-piece and a lamp at the same 
time. 

.LECTURES. 

On Monday, February the 2d, Dr. G. Pearson’s Course 
of Lectures on the Materia Medica, Practice of Physic, and 
Chemistry, will re-commence at No. 9, George-street, 
Hanover-square, at the usual morning hours, viz : the 
Materia Medica at a quarter before eight, the Practice of 
Physic at half after eight, and the Chemistry at a quarter 
after nine. 

St. Thomas's and Guy's Hospitals. 

The Spring Courses of Lectures at these adjoining Hos¬ 
pitals will commence the beginning of February, viz.: 

At St . Thomas's . 

Anatomy, and the Operations of Surgery, by Mr. Cline 
and Mr. Cooper. 

Principles and Practice of Surgery, by Mr. Cooper. 

At Guy's. 

Practice of Medicine, by Dr. Babington and Dr. Curry. 
Chemistry, by Dr. Babington, Dr. Marcet, and Mr. Allen. 
Experimental Philosophy, by Mr. Allen. 

Theory of Medicine, and Materia Medica, by Dr. Curry 
and Dr. Cholmeley. 

Midwifery, and Diseases of Women and Children, by 
Dr. Haighton. 

Physiology, or Laws of the Animal CEconomy, by Dr. 
Haighton. 

Structure and Diseases of the Teeth, by Mr. Fox. 

N. B. These several Lectures are so arranged, that no two 
of them interfere in the hours of attendance; and the whole, 
together with the Lectures on Anatomy, and those on the 
Principles and Practice of Surgery, given at the Theatre of 
St, Thomas’s Hospital adjoining, is calculated to form a 
Complete Course of Medical and Chirurgical Instructions.— 
Terms and other particulars may be learnt from Mr. Stocker* 
apothecary to Guy’s Hospital. 


METEORO- 


I • 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

0 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

N, 


Meteorology • 


METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, 

Jr. Caret, of the Strand, 
For January 1808. 


rmom 

eter. 


• co 


Noon. 

o A 

p-a 

£ 

r - 

Height of 
the Baroin. 
Inches. 

DegreesofDi 

ness bv Les]i 

J 

Hygrometer 

Weather. 

46° 

38° 

29-72 

6 

Cloudy 

46 

47 

*78 

15 

Cloudy 

51 

44 

•37 

10 

High wind and 
cloudy 

46 

36 

•62 

8 

Fair 

47 

46 

•45 

0 

Stormy , 

45 

42 

*21 

12 

Fair 

42 

40 

*02 

20 

Fair 

40 

34 

*31 

15 

Fair 

37 

44 

*92 

22 

Fair 

49 

42 

•67 

0 

Rain 

49 

46 

30-31 

21 

Fair 

48 

49 

•45 

7 

Cloudy 

45 

43 

*51 

0 

Cloudy 

45 

42 

*50 

0 

Cloudy 

46 

46 

*30 

5 

Cloudy 

47 

40 

29‘92 

12 

Fair 

39 

36 

•so 

16 

Fair 

45 

42 

*72 

18 

Fair 

39 

34 

•25 

0 

Stormy 

35 

29 

30*02 

21 

Fair 

30 

28 

•10 

12 

Foggy 

34 

27 

•38 

15 

Fair 

33 

30 

1 *41 

10 

Fair 

39 

37 

*02 

0 

Cloudy 

40 

30 

29*60 

18 

Fair 

28 

22 

*82 

7 

Small snow 

27 

23 

30*14 

15 

Fair 

37 

38 

29-91 

0 

Rain 

39 

36 

*75 

5 

Cloudy 

39 

30 

•32 

0 

Small rain 

35 

30 

*30 

JO 

Fair 


Barometer’s height is taken at one o’clock. • 






















i 378 ] 


INDEX TO VOL. XXIX. 


/\cID Muriatic, Carbonic, Sul¬ 
phuric, reagents for, 17 ; Mu¬ 
riatic , supposed formation of 
by Galvanism, 19; Gallic, his¬ 


tory of, 29 ; Carbonic, quan¬ 
tity of carbon in, 216, 3 15 
Adams' $ discovery of a Mam¬ 
moth, 141 

Adelung’s Mithridates. Account 
of, _ 367 

Alkalies. Composition of, 180, 

372 

Allen on carbonic add, 216, 3 1 £ 
Alum to purify, 281 

Ammonia. Reagents for, 17 


Animal charcoal. Exper. on, 320 
Antiquaries . Society of, 183, 276, 

Antiquities. Christian 228, Jewish 

237 

Architecture, 97 

Astronomy , 91, 1^5, 188, 285 


Barytes, a compound, 

373 

Bed for conveying sick 

or 

wounded persons. 

289 

Bees. On the coxonomy of, 

104 

Biography 4. 38, 129, 2 5 5, 

2 62, 


3 2 7 

Blood. Iron found in. 

2 7$ 

Boilers — Lube. On, 

283 

Books, Notices respecting. 

17 1 , 


189, 270, 354 
Botany, 85, 97 

Box-wood-char coal. Ex. on, 223 
Brewster's micrometer, 48 

--new photometrical 

telescope 375 

British Institution , 277 

Buchanans Essay on warming 
buildings, 272 

Building . Proposal for a new sy¬ 
stem of, 97 


Canada. Statistical account of, i 
Canals. On locks for, 94 

Carbon, quantity of, in carbonic 
acid, 216, 315 

Carbonate of Lime. Acid in one 
hundred parts, 317 

Carey's meteorological tables, 96, 

192, 288,377 
Carlisle. On muscles, 275 

Charcoal Animal. Exper. on, 320 
Charcoal, Box-voood. Exper. on, 

223 

Chaulnes, (Duke de) life of, 262 
Christians in India, 69, 228 
Clennell on public libraries, 126 
Clock, singular, 376 

Coal. Experiments on combus¬ 
tion of, 317 

Cochin. State of Christians in, 69 
Colours. Prieur on, 11 

Comet. A new one, 90,188,283 
Crichton's bed for conveying 
wounded soldiers, 289 

Crystallography, 27 6 

Cuvier on elephants, 52, 244 

Darwin, (Dr.) life of, 38, 129, 

2 55 > 3*5 

Davy's discovery of the bases of 
potash and soda, 180, 372 
Descostils on a fulminating sil¬ 
ver,. 36 

Diamond. Allen and Pepys on, 

216, 3:15 

Duncan's proposal for a national 
museum, 193,296 

Elephants. On living and fossil, 

5 2 ? 2 44 

Ether Nitric, On, 281 

Eudiometer. Pepys’s new, 116 
Eye . On the power of, 340 

Farcy 











Farcy on musical temper. 345 
Field's new system of building, 97 
Fluxions. On, 211 

Foundry. On antient, 20, 154 
Fourcroy's chemical philos. 171 
French National Institute , 85, 

164, 277 

Fulminating Silver. On, 36 

Gall nuts. Experiments on, 29 
Galls statistical account of Ur- 
per Canada, r 

Galvanism. On, 19, 243, 374 
Geography , 9 3 

Gout. Remedy for, 375 

Graham on starch-making, j 66 
Gregory’s (O.) translation of 
Haiiy’s Nat. Phil. 271 

Haiiy’s natural philosophy, 271 
Heat , effects of, in producing 
colours, 11. On gall nuts, 29 
Hemp. Culture of, 7 

Hindostan. Christians in, 228 
Home on the functions of the 
spleen, 183, 273 

Hume on destroying insects, 333 

India. State of Christians in, 69 
Insects. On destroying, 333 
Instinct. On, 88, 184 

Iron found in blood, peas, eggs, 
bile, urine, 273 

Iron Ores. Chrome, phosphorus 
and manganese found in, 279 

Knight on the ceconomy of bees, 

104 

Lagrange on gallic acid, 29 
Lakes. Remarks on, 3 

Learned Societies , 85, 180, 270, 

2 75>37° 

Lectures , 286, 376 

Libraries. On public, 126 

Mammoth. Discovery of one, T41 
Manuscripts. Curious, 228 
Mechanics. New power in, 351 
Medicine, 373 

JMetals , two new ones, 180, 372 


1 N D E X, 279 

Meteoric Stones. Gonjectures on, 


279 

Meteorology , 96, 192, 288, 377 

Micrometer. Brewster’s, 48 
Mineralogy , 279 

Moon, Horizontal. On, 65 
Muscles . Carlisle on, 273 

Museum , National. Proposed, 

193, 296 

Musical Scale. On temperaments 

of > 34s 

Napoleon"s Galvanic prize award¬ 
ed to Professor Davy, 374 
National Museum. Proposal for, 

193, 296 

Nitric Ether. On, 281 


Optical experiments, 


34° 


Fainting. Oil used in before 
1410, 276 

Pasley’s construction, of tele¬ 
graphs 203, 292 

Patents , 191, 286 

Pepys's new eudiometer, 116— 
on carbonic acid, 216, 313 
Ffaff on reagents for acids and 
ammonia, 17 ; on supposed 
formation of muriatic acid, 19 
Platina found in Europe, 278 
Plumbago. Exper. with, 319 
Potash proved to be an oxide of 
a metal 180,372 

Pt ieur on light and colours, 11 
Prize questions , 372 

Publications , new , 171, 189, 

2 7o, 3 54 

Reagents for muriatic, carbonic, 
and sulphuric acids, and am¬ 
monia, jj 

R oyal Ins tit u tion , 3 -7 x 

Royal Society, 180,270,273,370 
Royal Society of Gottingen , 372 

Schroder on the planet Vesta, 

115 

•SWfc; on antient foundry, 20, 

1 54 

Silver. On fulminating, 36 

Smithson 


INDEX. 


3&0 

Smithson on quadruple and binary 
compounds, 275 

Soap made by the heat of steam, 

„ . ' -s? 

Society of Antiquaries, 183, 276 

37 1 

Societies hear tied, 85, 180, 270, 

273, 370 

Soda discovered to be an oxide 
of a peculiar metal 180, 372 
Spleen. Home on the, 183, 273 
St anhope temperament. On, 343 
Search. On making, 1 66 

Statistics. Account of Upper 
Canada, I 

Statues. On founding, 20, 159 
Steam employed to heat build¬ 
ings, 27 2 ; to boil soap-pans, 

283 

Strontian , a compound, 373 
Sulphur . What l 240 

Sulphur els , references to, 273 
Surgical eases, 83, 169, 267, 349, 

37* 

Symbols for the deafly-dumb, 273 
Syrian churches hi India, 229 

Owr Readers are requested to supply some Omissions in 
Capt. Pas ley’s Communication. 

In the Key of the Nocturnal Telegraph, (page 210,) the 
following Numbers appropriated to the seversl Signals were 
omitted to be inserted : 

For signal No. 21 st, the appropriate numbers are 2 , 4 , 5 , 
For signal 22 d, 1 , 2 , 3, 4. For signal 23d, 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 . 
For signal 2-1 tb, 1 , 2 , 4, 5, For signal 25th, ], 3 , 4 , 5 . 
For signal 26 th, 2 , 3, 4, 5. For signal 27 th, 0 , 1 , 2 , 4 , 
For signal 28th, 0 , 1 , 2 . For signal 29 th, 0 , 1 , 3 , 4 . For 
signal 30th, 1 , 2 , 3, 4, 5. For signal 31st, 0 , 1 , 3 , 5 . For 
signal 32d, 0 , 1,4, 5. For signal 33d, 0 , 2 , 3 , 5. For 
signal 34th> 0 , 2 , 4, 5. For signal 35th. 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4. 
For signal 36th, 0 , 1 , 2 , 3, 5. For signal 37 th, o, l, 9 , 4 , 5 . 
For signal 38th, O, 1 , 3, 4, 5. For signal 39th, 0 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 . 
For signal 40th, O, 1 , 2 , 3, 4, 5. 


In Mr. Duncan’s Paper, p. I 99 , for “motion of any 
power” read “of any body:”,—p. 196 , for “ Lord WiL 
liam” read “ Lord Webb.” 

IND OF THE TWENTY-NINTH VOLUME. 


Taunton's Reports of the Finsbury 
Dispensary, 83, 169, 267, 349 
Taylor's Theorem for the deve¬ 
lopment of the function <p (a 
T sc) observations on, 2 11 
Telegraphs of a new construc¬ 
tion, 205, 292 

Telesc p e, photometricai , 373 

Travancore. State of Christians 
in, 69 

Travels, 141, 190 

Vaccination, 189, 277 

Vegetables. Qn analysis of juice 
of, ’281 

Vesta. On the planet, 11 7 

Vision. Properties of, 340 

Walker (E.) on the horizontal 
moon, 6 g • on the power of 
the eye, 340 

Walker W. on the new comet, 91 
Wasps. On the production of, 

186 

Wilkinson s improved galvanic 
trough, 243 


Printed by Richard Taylor mid Co. } 6 hoe Lane , 






Fy. 1. 


FA//.My. Vo/.XXtX.Fl.L. 




\ \ 































































f 


\ 


r 












< 




r 








•- f 


* 


V' 




/■ 


Pul. Mag. PL. u VoL XXfX 



1 





































































































































































-Phil. May. Vol. XXIX. 2?ate IV. 







































































































































































JTiil.Maxj. Vo l. XX1X./7.VT 



cT. -Pcrber sculp . 



















































































































































































































































































































































































Thil.May. Vo/.mXJl VI 



Elephants, tl.iv. 


STarter in 

























nos 



























Thii.Mag. Voi.xxix.Fi.yin. 


taibjle of Combinations 9 

or 

MET of the Tjejlje gmajpm . 

Sutnal 

JT? 

ConilniLHtiou 
shewn. 

(It!MFl (LITTON 

Signal 

2TP 

Combination [, 
shewn. | 

1GNZFTC1770N 

1 

yf 


1 

l5 

4 

s, 

E 

2 

o==C 


2 

l6 



P 

— 

3 

\ 

: 


3 

17 

~j 

— 

G 

4 

o 

1 


4 

18 

°=c 

1 

/ 

-1 

H 

5 

c 

/ 

5 

19 

l- 

\ 

I. J. Y 

6 

f 

— 

=° 

6 

20 

s 


E 

7 

c 

h 

7 

%L 

V 

/ 

M 

8 

\ 

\ 

8 

22 

\ 

=0 

1ST 

L- 

9 

/ 

/ 

o 

23 


/ 

O 

10 

I- 


■ 

10 initial,O 

24 

< 

L 

P 

ii 



1 - 

A ' 

25 


k 

R 

T% 

> 


B 

J - 

* 

J 

. 

S.Csoft.Z 

13 

1- 

0==3 

q 

1 

C lard ICQ 

27 

J 

f 

T 

M 

I ' 

r 

I) 

2 6 


F 

TJ,X,W 



fJLur f rt l 



Ell A 






S.Tarter scu/f/.