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PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZ 


THE 



AND JOURNAL: 



COMPREHENDING 


THE VARIOUS BRANCHES OF SCIENCE, 
THE LIBERAL AND FINE ARTS, 
AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES, 

AND COMMERCE. 


By RICHARD TAYLOR, F.L.S. 


MEMBER OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, OF THE METEORO¬ 
LOGICAL society; and of the royal Asiatic society 

OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 


“ Necaranearum sane textus ideo melior quia ex se fila gignunt, nec noster 
vilior quia ex alienis libamus ut apes.” Just. Lips. Monit. Polit. lib. i. cap. 1. 


VOL. LXVII 


FOR 


JANUARY, FEBRUARY, MARCH, APRIL, MAY, and JUNE, 

1826. 


LONDON: 


PRINTED BY RICHARD TAYLOR, SHOE-LANE 


AND SOLD BY CADELL; LONGMAN, REES, ORME, BROWN, AND GREEN; 
BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY ; I1IGHLEY ; SHERWOOD, GILBERT, 

AND CO. ; HARDING ; UNDERWOOD ; SIMPKIN AND 


MARSHALL, LONDON :—AND BY CONSTABLE 
AND CO. EDINBURGH : AND PENMAN, 
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♦ 




CON T E N T S 


OF THE SIXTY-SEVENTH VOLUME. 

\ 


x4. NEW Catalogue of Meteoric Stones , Masses of Meteoric 
Iron, and other Substances, the Fall of which has been made 
known , down to the 'present Time. By E. F. F. Chladni 

Page 3 

An Account of some Eudiometers of an improved Construction. 
By Robert Hare, M.D. Professor of Chemistry in the 
University of Pen nsylvania . .21 

On the Theory of the Figure of the Planets contained in the 
Third Book of the Mecanique Celeste. By J. Ivory, Esq. 

M.A. F.R.S. .. . . 31, 81 

Sequel of the Memoir of M. Ampere on a new Electro-dynamic 
Experiment , on its Application to the Formula representing 
the mutual Action of the two Elements of Voltaic Conductors, 
and on new Results deduced from that Formula . . . 37 

On the Theory of Evaporation. By Thos, Tredgold, Esq. 45 

Reply to the Remarks of Mr. Riddle on the Double Altitude 
Problem. By James Burns, Esq .47 

Demonstration of Mr. Levy’s Property of the regular Octahe¬ 
dron ;—with a Postscript on P. Q’s Defence of Mr. Hera- 
path’s Demonstration. By T. S. Davies, Esq. . . 52 

On the Comet o/T825. By Thomas Squire, Esq. . . 55 

On the Playlet- Saturn. By M. Smith, Esq .57 

Further Researches on the Preservation of Metals by Electro¬ 
chemical Means. By Sir Humphry Davy, Bart. Pres.R.S. 

89 

Reply to Mr. Davies’s Postscript on Mr. Hekapath’s De¬ 
monstration. By P. Q.101 

Notice of a Meteoric Stone which fell at Nanjemoy, in Mary¬ 
land, North America, on February 10, 1825. By Dr. Sam. 
D. Carver. In a Letter to Professor Silliman . . 102 

Analysis of the Maryland Aerolite . By George Chilton, 
Lecturer on Chemistru, See .104 

Yol. 67. 


a 







CONTENTS. 

Essay on the Gales experienced in the Atlantic States oj North 
‘ America. By Robert Hare, MAX Professor of Chemistry 

in the University of Pennsylvania .Page 110 

On the Number arid Situation of the Magnetic Poles of the Earth. 
By Professor Christopher Hansteen . . . 114,167 

On the Combinations of Antimony with Chlorine and Sulphur. 

By M. Henri Rose . . • • ' .. 

On Mr. Burns’s Communications respecting the Double Alti¬ 
tude Problem. By E. Riddle, Esq . 131 

On the same. By Mr. T. Beverley . 131 

On the Figure of the Earth. By Wm. Galbraith, Esq. M.A 

Continuation of the New Catalogue of Meteorites. By E. 1 . F* 

Chladni. 

Some Account of the Dissection of a Simia Satyrus, Ourang 
Outam , or Wild Man of the Woods. By John Jeffries, 

M.D. .. 

Description of a nondescript Species of the Genus Condylura. 
By T. W. Harris, M.D . 191 

On the Volcanic Origin of the Rock-salt Formation. By Dr. 
J. Nceggerath.193 

On the Fossil Elk of Ireland. By Thomas Weaver, Esq. 

M.R.I.A. F.G.S. %c. . I 96 

On the Ebullition of Water at Specific Temperatures , as the 
Measure of Altitude. By John Murray, F.S.A. F.L.S. 
F.R.S. F.G.S. Src. tic. .. 201 

Report made to the Academy of Sciences , 22 d of August 1825, 
on the Voyage of Discovery , performed in the Years 1822, 
1823, 1824, and 1825, under the command of M. Duperrey, 
Lieutenant of the Navy. By M. Ar ago . 203, 280, 362 

List of Errata in the Mathematical Tables of Dr. Hutton 
and Dr. Gregory. By Mr. J. Utting.210 

On the Phenomena connected with some Trap Dykes in York¬ 
shire and Durham. By the Rev. Adam Sedgwick, M.A. 
F.R.S. M.G.S. Fellow of Trinity College, and' Woodward!an 
Professor in the University of Cambridge . . . 211, 249 

On the Properties of a Lint of shortest Distance traced on the 
Surface of an oblate Spheroid. By J. Ivory, Esq. M.A. 
F.R.S. ' . 241, 340 

On the Determination of the General Term of a New Class 
of Infinite Series. By Charles Babbage, Esq. M.A. Fellow 








CONTENTS. 


of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh, and of the 
Cambridge Philosophical Society . . . ! . . Page 259 

On the Applicatio?i of the Sliding Rod Measurement in Hydro- 
metry. By Robert Hare, M.D. Professor of Chemistry 
in the University of Pennsylvania . .266 

On the Skeleto7i of the Plesiosaurus Dolichodeirus discovered . 
in the Lias at Lyme , in - Dorsetshire, in the Collection of His 


Grace the Duke of Buckingham . 272 

Note on the Genus Condylura of Illiger. By J. D, Go dm an, 
M.D .. 273 


On the Opposition of the Minor Planets. By Stephen Groom- 
bridge, Esq. F.R.S. Sfc. fyc .277 

On Mr. Dalton’s Speculations respecting the Mixture of Gases, 
the Constitution of the Atmosphere, Syc. By Thomas Tred- 
gold, Esq . 321 

On the Equilibrium of the Funicular Curve when the String is 
extensible. By H. Moseley, Esq. B.A . 324 

On the mutual Action of Sulphuric Acid and Naphthaline, and 
07i a new Acid produced. By M. Faraday, Esq. F.R.S. 
Cor . Mem. Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris, fyc. 32 6, 397 

Hydrographical Notices-.—Remarks on the Method, of investi¬ 
gating the Direction and Force, of the Currents of the Ocean; 
Preseiice of the Water of the Gulf-Stream 07i the Coasts of 
Europe hi January 1822; Simunary of the Curre7ifs experi¬ 
enced by His Majestys Ship Pheasant, in a Voyagefro7n Sierra 
Leone to Bahia, and thence to New York ; Stream of the River 
Amazons crossed, three hundred Miles from the Mouth of the 
River . By Captain Edward Sabine, R.A. F.R. &>• L.S. $-c. 

332, 421 

Character and Description of Kingia, a new Geiius of Plaiits 
found, on the South-west Coast of New Holland: with Obser¬ 
vations on the Structure of its Unimpreg7iated Ovulum ; and 
07i the Female Flower of Cycadece a7id Conferee. By Ro¬ 
bert Brown, Esq., F.R.S.S.L. fy E., F.L.S. . 352,409 

On the Red if cation of Curve Lines. By T. Beverley, Esq. 

393 

On findi7ig the Latitude, Syc.from three Altitudes of the Sun and 
the elapsed Times. By James Burns, Esq. . . . 406 

Notice relating to the Theory of the Equilibrium of Fluids. By 
J. Ivory, Esq. M.A. F.R.S. . 439 

Supplement to Mr. Herapath’s Paper in the Philosophical 
Magazine for August 1825, 07i Functional Equations. By 
John Hera path, Esq. . . 442 





CONTENTS. 


On the Ignition of Gunpowder by the Electric Discharge; and 
on the Transmission of Electricity through Water , Sfc. By 

Mr. W. Sturgeon .445 

Notices respecting New Books . 60, 219, 289 

Proceedings of Learned, Societies 67, 133, 221, 290, 373, 450 
Intelligence and Miscellaneous Articles 72, 148, 225, 301, 387, 

453 

List of New Patents . 75, 156, 231, 317, 388 

Meteorological Tables .... 80, 160, 240, 320, 392, 457 


PLATES. 


I. & II. Prof. IIansteen’s Paper on the Magnetic Poles of the Earth. 
III. Skeleton of the Plesiosaurus Dolichodeirus. 


ERRATU M : 

Page 301, line 5, for American read Amician. 





THE 


PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE 
AND JOURNAL. 


31 st JANUARY 1826. 


I. A new Catalogue of Meteoric Stones, Masses of Meteoric 
Iron, and other Substances, the Fall of which has been made 
known, down to the present Time . By E. F. F. Chladni.* 

§ I. Introduction. 

TT is my intention to offer, in the present memoir, a com- 
plete and rectified catalogue of all the phaenomena of this 
description that have been observed from the earliest ages 
down to the present time. Since the publication of my 
work on Igneous Meteors and the Substances that have fallen 
from them\ ; in which I treated this subject as fully as I was 
able, new occurrences of the same description have taken 
place; and these I published, by way of appendices to my 
work, in vol. lxviii. p. 329, and in vol. Ixxi. p. 358, of Gilbert’s 
Annals. 

In the present catalogue, I shall, in order to avoid prolixity, 
forbear mentioning- the sources of my information on such 
phaenomena as are treated of in the above-mentioned work; 
but I shall cite them if the fact has not been inserted in it. 
I shall also omit all those phaenomena which do not really be¬ 
long to this class (for instance, where hail has been mistaken 

* From Schweigger’s Neues Journal , B. vi. p. 87. In order to make this 
catalogue of meteorites (which is the latest that has been drawn up,) as 
complete as possible, we have inserted notices of a mass of meteoric iron, 
and the fall of some meteoric stones, which have lately been communicated 
to the same Journal by Prof. Noeggerath; and we have also appended to it 
some particulars of the various falls of meteorites that have taken place 
since Dec. 1822, when the catalogue was first published, as well as of some 
masses of iron subsequently discovered. Our additions are distinguished 
by insertion within braclcets. — Ejdit. 

Ueber Feuer-meteore und iiber die mit denselben herabgefallencn Massen, 
in one vol. 8vo,- accompanied by an appendix with 10 lithographic prints 
by Schreibers, in folio; published at Vienna in 1819. 

Vol. 67. No. 333. Jan. 1826. A 2 


for 






4 Dr. Chladni’s Catalogue of Meteoric Sto?ies 

for the fall of meteoric stones); and where I cannot omit I 
shall insert them in parentheses, for the purpose of showing 
that they are extraneous. If uncertain, I shall prefix to them 
a note of interrogation. Those mentioned in my work are pre¬ 
ceded by an asterisk. 

§ II. Falls of Meteoric Stones and Masses of Iron. 

A. Before the Christian TEra. 

Division 1 . — Containing those the time of the fall of which 
can he indicated with some degree of certainty. 

? 1478 B.C. In Crete, on the Cybeline mountain, the stone 
considered as the symbol of Cybele, with which Pythagoras 
was initiated into the mysteries of the Idaei Dactyli. 

(The narrative in the book of Joshua of stones having fallen 
from heaven probably alludes to a hail-storm.) 

? 1403. Perhaps a mass of iron fell on Mount Ida in Crete. 
1200. Stones preserved in the temple at Orchomenos. 

? 705 or 704. The Ancyle: most probably a lump of iron 
somewhat flattened. 

654. Stones on the Albanian mountain. 

644. In China. 

465. A large stone near TEgos-potamos. 

Not long before or after. A stone near Thebes. 

211. A remarkable fall of a stone near Tong-Kien in China. 
During the period of the second Punic war, probably about 
206 or 205. Fiery stones. 

192. In China. 

176. A stone in agro Crustumino in the Lake of Mars. 

99 or 89. Laterihus coctis plait, probably at Rome. 

89. Stones in China. 

56 or 52. In Lucania (a district which consisted of part 
of the present Abruzzo, Apulia, and Calabria), spongy iron. 
(I believe that I am in possession of a small fragment of this 
iron, as I shall have occasion to show in sect. iii. B.) 

? Perhaps stones, perhaps hail, near Acilla. 

38, 29, 22, 19, 12, 9, 6, in the first moon, and 6, in the 
ninth moon. Stones in China. 

Division 2.— The time of the fall of the following is indeter¬ 
minable. 

The stone which fell at Pessinus in Phrygia, which was 
considered as a symbol of the Mother of the Gods, and carried 
to Rome by Scipio Nasica. 

The stone considered as a symbol of Phoebus, and brought 
from Syria to Rome by Heliogabalus. 


A stone 


5 


and Masses of Meteoric Iron, Sfc. 

A stone preserved at Abydos, and another at Cassandria. 

? Probably the symbol of Diana at Ephesus. 

? Probably the black stone in the Caaba at Mecca, and an¬ 
other also preserved there. 

(The stone preserved in the coronation-chair of the kings 
of England, and which was considered as something remark¬ 
able at a very remote period, is, according to late accounts 
communicated to me, not a meteoric production.) 

B. After the Christian JEra. 

A stone fell in the Vocontorium agro , perhaps in the first 
half or about the middle of the first century. 

In the years 2, 106, 154, 310, and 333. Stones in China. 

(The pretended fall of a stone at Constantinople in the year 
416, mentioned by Sethus Calvisius, originated in a misun¬ 
derstanding.) 

452. Three very large stones in Thrace. 

During the sixth century. Stones on Mount Lebanon, and 
near Emesa in Syria. 

? 570 (or about that time). Stones near Beder in Arabia. 

616. Stones in China. 

? 648. A fiery stone at Constantinople. 

? 839. Stones in Japan. 

852, in July or August. A large stone in Tabaristan. 

892 or 897 (or 908). At Ahmed-Dad , many stones. 

951. A stone at Augsburg (not in Italy). 

998. Two stones near Magdeburg. 

Not long after 1009, a large mass of iron, according to the 
description similar to that of Pallas, at Dschordschan. (Sub¬ 
sequently the name of the place has been falsely read and 
written Cordova, and Lurgea, and a Rex Torati made of the 
sultan of Khorasan ). 

1021. Stones in Africa. 

1057. A stone in Corea. 

1112. Stones, or perhaps iron, near Aquileja. 

1135 or 1136. A stone near Oldisleben in Thuringia. 

? 1138, the 8th of March. Probably stones near Mosul. 

1164, during Whitsuntide. Iron in the district of Misnia. 

(I pass over many accounts of that period, which are either 
fabulous, or relate perhaps to falls of hailstones). 

1249, the 26th of July. Stones near Quedlinburg, &c. 

? During the 13th century a stone is said to have fallen at 
Wurzburg. (The specimen preserved there was nothing but 
an old battle-axe.) 

Between 1251 and 1360, many stones fell near Welikoi- 
Usting in Russia. 


1280 . 


6 


Dr. Chlaclni’s Catalogue of Meteoric Stones 

1280. Near Alexandria in Egypt, a stone or mass of iron. 
1804, 1st of October. Near Friedland or Friedburg, many 
red-hot stones and masses of iron. 

? 1328, 9th of January. Perhaps stones, in Mortahiah and 
Dakhaliah. 

? 1339, 13th of July. Perhaps stones, in Silesia. 

? 1368. Perhaps iron, in Oldenburg. 

1379, 26th of May. Stones near Minden in Planover. 

1425. A meteoric stone in the island of Java. 

? 1438. Near Roa in Spain, a great many very light stones. 

1474. Near Viterbo, two large stones.— Biblioteca Italiana , 
tom. xix. p. 461, Sept. 1820. 

? During the same century a stone seems to have fallen near 
Lucca, accompanied by a substance takenfor coagulated blood. 

1491, 22d of March. A stone near Rivolta de Bassi, not 
far from Crema. 

# 1492, 7th November. The well-known fall of a large stone 
near Ensisheim. 

1496, 26th or 28th of January. Stones between Cesena and 
Bertinoro, and in the vicinity of Fork. 

? Perhaps during this century, or at the beginning of the fol¬ 
lowing, a stone near Brussels. 

(I forbear mentioning several accounts of that period in 
which the fall of hailstones seems to have been mistaken for 
that of meteorites.) 

1511, 4th of September, or a few days after. A great fall of 
meteoric stones near Crema, not far from the river Adda. 
(Some authors, misunderstanding the words jprojpe Abduam , 
have made Abdua of it.) 

1516. In the province of Se-tschuan in China, six stones. 

1520, in May. In Arragon, three stones. 

? 1528, 29th of June. Large stones near Augsburg. 

? 1540, 28th of April. A large stone and several smaller 
ones in Limousin. 

Between 1540 and 1550. A large mass of iron in the 
forest near Neunhof, between Leipzig and Grimma. (Some 
authors have changed Neunhof into Neuholem.) 

About the middle of the same century, iron in several parts 
of Piedmont. 

1552, 19th May. A large fall of stones near Schleusingen, 
&c. (In several French and English periodicals Schleusingen 
has been confounded with Schleisheim near Munich.) 

1559. Near Miskolz in Hungary, five large stones, or perhaps 
masses of iron. 

1561, 17th May. Stones or masses of iron near Torgau 
and Eilenburg. 


(There 


7 


and Masses of Meteoric Iron , fyc. 

(There is an account of a fall of stones in 1564, the 1st 
of March, between Mecheln and Brussels, which seems to be 
fabulous.) 

? 1572, 9th January. Perhaps a fall of stones near Thorn. 

1580, 2?th May. A large fall of stones near Norten, not 
far from Gottingen. 

1581, 26th July. A stone at Niederreissen near Buttelstadt 
in Thuringia. 

1583, 9th January. A stone or mass of iron near Castro- 
villari in Abruzzo. 

1583, 2d March. A stone in Piedmont. 

1596, 1st March. Stones at Crevalcore in Ferrara. 

Probably during the same century, a stone in the kingdom 
of Valencia in Spain. 

1608, in the 2d half of August. In Styria, very large stones, 
together with a substance resembling blood. 

1618. A metallic mass in Bohemia. 

1621, 17th April. A mass of iron, near Lahore in India. 

1622, 10th Jan. In Devonshire, a large stone. 

1628, 9th April. In Berkshire, a stone. 

1634, 27th October. In the county of Charollois, in the 
former duchy of Burgundy, a large fall of stones. 

? 1635,7th July. Perhaps a stone near Calceinthe Vicentine. 

1636, 6th March. A very large stone between Sagan and 
Dubrow, in Silesia. 

1637 (not 1627), 29th November. A stone on Mount Vai- 
sier in Provence. 

1642, 4th August. A stone in Suffolk. 

Between 1643 and 1644. Stones on-board a ship in the In¬ 
dian Ocean. 

1647, 18th Feb. A stone near Zwickau. 

1647, in August. A fall of stones near Stolzenu in West¬ 
phalia. 

? Between 1647 and 1654. A ball weighing eight pounds, 
and therefore probably a mass of iron, is said to have fallen on 
the deck of a vessel in the Indian Ocean, and to have killed 
two persons. 

1650, 6th August. A stone at Dordrecht. 

1654, 30th March. A large fall of stones on the island of 
Fuhnen. 

About the middle of the same century, a large stone at 
Warsaw. 

Likewise at Milan, a small stone which killed a Franciscan 
friar. 

(An account of stones said to have fallen in 1667 at Shiraz 
seems to be fabulous). 


1668 


8 Dr. Chaldni’s Catalogue of Meteoric Stones , 

1668 (not 1662, 1663, nor 1672), the 19th or 21st June. 
Very large stones in the Veronese. 

1671, 27th February. Stones in the Ortenau in Suabia. 

? 1673. Stones near Dietlingen in Baden. (Perhaps only 
the same event mistaken.) 

1674, 6th October. Two large stones in the canton of 
Glarus. 

? About 1675 or 1677. Near Copinsha, one of the Orkneys, 
a stone fell on a ship. (Perhaps a mistaken repetition of the 
former account.) 

1677, 28th May. At Ermindorf near Grossenhain, stores 
differing from other meteoric stones, and which, according to 
their appearance, as well as to Balduin’s analysis, contained 
copper, which some other circumstances render still more 
probable. 

[The following instances are cited by Dr. Nceggerath in 
Schweigger’s Neues Journal, Band. xiv. p. 357, from Beecher’s 
Laboratorium , published in 1680: their dates are of course 
prior to that period. 

Petermarin Eterlein relates, in his Swiss Chronicle, that in 
a great storm a mass of iron fell from the heavens, together 
with a number of stones; and that the iron measured sixteen 
feet in length, fifteen in width, and two in thickness. 

Paulus Merula says, in his Cosmographia , that six iron axes 
had fallen from heaven ; upon which Beecher remarks that 
he does not believe them to have been really aoces, but that 
they might have had the form of those weapons, as the stones 
which fall have, and whence they have received the name of 
JDonneraxte , or thunder-axes, in the German language.—This 
relation seems doubtful, as the stone weapons of the aboriginal 
inhabitants of Europe have been called thunder-bolts, &c. in 
every language. Edit.] 

(The account of the stones said to have fallen in 1686, the 
18th of May, in London, near Gresham College, is to be erased 
from my work, page 239 : since it appears from the work of 
Edward King, which I saw subsequently, at p. 20, that it was, 
like the event of 1791, nothing but hail. This instance, to¬ 
gether with many others, proves how necessary it is not to trust 
to second-hand accounts, but always to refer to the first source.) 

1697, 13th January. Stones near Siena. 

1698,19th May. A large stone near Waitring, canton of Bern. 

1706, 7th June. A large stone near Larissa in Thessaly. 

1715, 11th April. Stones near Stargard in Pomerania. 
—Gilbert’s Annals, vol. lxxi. (1822) p. 215. 

1722, 5th June. Stones near the convent of Schefftlar in 
the district of Freissingen. 

(The 


9 


and Masses of Meteoric Iron, fyc. 

(The pretended fall of metal in 1731, near Lessay, was no¬ 
thing but a misunderstanding of an electric phosphorescence 
of rain.) 

1738 5 18th October. A meteoric stone in the province of 
Avignon (badly described by a person ignorant of the sub- 
ject). 

174<0, 25th October. Stones near Rasgrad on the Danube. 

(The stone said to have fallen in Greenland, in the winter 
of 1740-41, was nothing but a piece of rock, which having 
detached itself from a hill, rolled down into the valley.) 

1750, 11th October. Stones near Coutances, in the de¬ 
partment de la Manche, or Normandy. 

* 1751, 26th May. The well-known mass of iron near 
Hradschina in the province of Agram. 

* 1753, 5th July. Stones near Tabor in Bohemia. 

1753, in September. Two stones near Laponas in Bresse. 

1755, in July. A stone near Terranova in Calabria. 

1766, in the middle of July. A stone near Alboreto, not 
far from Modena. 

? 1766, 15th August. Perhaps a stone near Novellara. 

* 1768. A stone near Luce, department de la Sarthe. 

* 1768, 20th November. A stone near Maurkirchen in 
Bavaria. 

1773, 19th September. A stone near Rodach in the duchy 
of Coburg. 

1775 or 1776. Stones near Obruteza in Volhynia. 

About 1776 or 1777, in January or February. Stones near 
Fabbriano. 

1779. A fall of stones near Petris wood in Ireland, in the 
county of Westmeath. 

1780, 11th April. Stones near Beeston in England. 

1782. A large stone near Turin. 

1785, 19th February. A fall of stones in the vicinity of 
Eichstadt. 

* 1787, 1st October. Stones in the government of Char- 
cow. 

* 1790 (not 1789), 24th July. A very considerable fall of 
stones near Barbotan, Juliac, &c. 

1791, 17th May. Stones near Castel-Berardenga in Tus¬ 
cany. 

(The account of a fall of stones on the 20th of October 1791, 
near Menabilly in Cornwall, mentioned in my work, page 261, 
must be expunged; since, according to the work of Ed. King, 
pp. 18 and 19, it was nothing but hail, as may also be seen by 
the drawing of some of the l arger fragments.) 

Vol. 67. No. 333. Jan . 1826. B 


* 1794, 


10 


Dr. Chladni’s Catalogue of Meteoric Stones , 

* 1794, 16th June. A well-known fall of many stones near 
Sienna. 

1795, 13th April. Stones in Ceylon. 

* 1795, 13th December. A stone near the Wold Cottage 
in Yorkshire. 

1796, 4th January. A large stone near Belaja-Zerkwa in 
Southern Russia. 

* 1798, 8th or 12th March. A stone near Sales, depart¬ 
ment of the Rhone. 

1798, 13th December. Stones near Krakhut in the vicinity 
of Benares, in Bengal. 

1801, On the Isle de Tonnelliers near the Mauritius. 

1802, in the middle of September. In the Scotch Highlands f. 

* 1803, 26th April. The well-known great fall of stones 
near L’Aigle, in the department de l’Orne or Normandy. 

1803, 4th July. A fall of stones at East Norton in Eng¬ 
land, which did some damage. 

1803, 8th October. Stones near Apt, in the department of 
Vaucluse. 

* 1803, 13th December. Near Massing, district of Eggen- 
feld in Bavaria. 

1804, 5th April. At High-Possil, near Glasgow, a stone. 

1805, 25th March. Stones near Doroninsk in Siberia. 

1805, in June. At Constantinople. 

* 1806, 15th March. At Alais in the department du Gard, 
two stones differing from others by their friability, and also by 
containing 2*5 per cent of carbon, in addition to the usual 
constituents of meteoric stones. 

1806, 17th May. A stone near Basingstoke in Hampshire. 

* 1807, 13th March. A large stone near Timochin, in the 
government of Smolenskoi. 

* 1807, 14th December. A fall of many stones near Weston 
in Connecticut. 

* 1808, 19th April. Stones near Borgo San Donino, and 
in the duchy of Parma. 

* 1808, 3rd September. Stones near Lissa in Bohemia. 

? 1809, 17th June. Upon a ship, and in the sea, near the 
coast of North America. 

1810, 30th January. Fall of stones in the county of Cas¬ 
well in New Connecticut. 

1810, about the middle of July. A stone near Shahabad 

J In a former catalogue of meteorites published in the Edin. Phil. Journ. 
vol. i. p.230, we find the following note on this passage: “ We have in¬ 
serted this notice from Chladni, though we believe that no stones fell in 
Scotland at the time here mentioned.” —Edit. 


in 


and Masses of Meteoric Iron , fyc. 11 

in India. The meteor set five villages on fire, and injured se¬ 
veral persons. 

* 1810, in August. A stone in the county of Tipperary in 
Ireland. 

* 1810, 23rd November. Three stones near Charsonville, 
near Orleans. 

1811, between the 12th and 13th March. A stone in the 
government of Poltawa in Russia. 

* 1811, 8th July. Some stones near Berlanguillas in Spain. 

* 1812, 10th April. Stones near Toulouse. 

* 1812, 15th April. A stone near Erxleben, between Magde¬ 
burg and Helmstadt. 

* 1812, 5th August. A large stone near Chantonay, de¬ 
partment de la Vendee, which differs from others in having 
no crust, and in a few other particulars. 

1813, 13th March. Meteoric stones nearCutro in Calabria, 
attended with a remarkable fall of red dust in several parts of 
Italy. 

? 1815, in the summer. Stones are said to have fallen near 
Malpas in Cheshire. 

* 1813, 10th September. Stones in the county of Limerick 
in Ireland. 

1814, 3rd February. In the district of Bachmut in Russia, 
government of Ekaterinoslaw. 

1814, about the middle of March (or 1813, 13th Decem¬ 
ber). Stones near Sawotaipolaor Sawitaipal in Finland.— Vide 
my work, and Schweigger’s Neaes Journ . Band i. p. 160. 

* 1814, 5th September. Many stones near Agen, depart¬ 
ment du Lot et Garonne. 

1814, 5th November. Stones in the Doab in the East Indies. 

1815, 18th February. A stone near Duralla in India.—Phil. 
Mag., August 1820, p. 156. Gilbert’s Ann., vol. Ixviii. p. 333. 

* 1815, 3rd October (not the 30th). A fall of stones near 
Chassigny, not far from Langres in Champaigne, or depart¬ 
ment de la Haute Marne. They belong to that class of mete¬ 
orites which contain no nickel, and are further distinguished 
by their greater friability, greenish-yellow colour, glimmering 
appearance, and a crust as if varnished. 

A stone is said to have fallen a few years ago, in the Isle of 
Man, very light and of a scoriaceous texture.—Phil. Mag. 
July 1819, p. 39. 

1816, A stone near Glastonbury in Somersetshire. 

(I pass over several other accounts of pretended falls of 
stones, as being unfounded.) 

1818. 10th August. A stone near Slobotka, government of 
Smolenskoi in Russia. 

B 2 ? 1819* 


12 


Dr. Chladni’s Catalogue of Meteoric Stones , 

? 1819. Towards the end of April a meteoric fall seems to 
have taken place near Massa Lubrense, in the Neapolitan 
duchy of Salerno, which appears not to have been sufficiently 
attended to. 

1819, 13th June. Stones near Jonzac, department de la 
Charente inferieure.— -Journ. de Phys . Fev. 1821, p. 136. 
Mem. du Museum d’Hist. Nat . tom. vi. p. 233. Thomson’s 
Ann. of Phil. Sept. 1820, p. 234-. Neues Journ. f CJiem. u. 
Phys. vol. xxix. No, 4, p. 508. 

*1819, 13th October. A stone near Politz, not far from 
Gera or Kostritz, in the principality of Reuss in Germany (not 
in Russia, as was stated in Thomson’s Annals, and repeated 
in several French publications).— Neues Journ. fur Chem. u. 
Phys. vol. xxvi. No. 3, p. 243. Gilbert’s Ann. vol. lxiii. 
pp. 217 and 451. 

? 1820. In the night between the 21st and 22d of May, a 
small stone is said to have fallen at Oedenburg in Hungary. 
Hesperus , vol. xxvii. No. 3, p. 94. 

* 1820, 12th (not 19th) July. A fall of stones in the circle of 
Dunaburg in Courland, of which an analytic account and a 
drawing has been given in Gilbert’s Ann. vol. lxvii. No. 4, 
p. 337, by Baron Th. von Grotthuss; and I am indebted to 
the kindness of that gentleman for a fragment of this stone, 
which differs from others, in its possessing a larger proportion 
of iron. 

1821, 15th June. Fall of one large and several small stones 
near Juvenas, in the department de l’Ardeche, of which an 
account made up from those that had been given in the Ann. 
de Chim ., together with Vauquelin’s and Laugier’s analyses, 
appeared in Gilbert’s Annals, vol. lxix. p. 407, &c., and vol. 
lxxi. pp. 201 and 203. 

1822, 4th June. A fall of stones near Angers. 

[1822, 13th September. A stone fell in the vicinity of 
Epinal in the department of the Vosges, in France.— Ann. de 
Cliim. et de Phys. tom. xxi. p. 324. 

1823, 7th August. Stones fell at Nobleborougli in the state 
of Maine, U. S.—Phil. Mag. vol. lxiii. p. 16. 

1824, 15th January. Stones fell in the commune of Re- 
nalzo, province of Ferrara, in Italy.—Ferrussac’s Bidletin , 
sect. i. Sept. 1825, p. 183. 

1824. Early in March, stones are said to have fallen near 
the village of Arenazo, in the legation of Bologna. Phil. Mag. 
vol. lxiii. p. 233.— Is this a mistaken notice of the preceding? 

1825, 10th February. A stone weighing sixteen pounds 
seven ounces fell at Nanjemoy in Maryland, U. S.—Annals 
of Philosophy, N.S. vol. x. p. 186.] 


§111. Masses 


and Masses of Meteoric Iron , fyc. 


13 


§ III. Masses of Native Iron containing Nickel , which are to be 

considered as meteoric, 

A. Spongy or cellular, the interstices being filled with a Sub - 

tance resembling Olivine. 

* The large mass found in Siberia, and made known by 
Pallas, whose meteoric origin was known to the natives, and 
in which the iron and olivine have the same constituents as 
are found in meteoric stones fi. 

? A fragment found between Eibenstock and Johann 
Georgenstadt. 

One in the imperial cabinet of natural history at Vienna, 
said to have been brought from Norway. 

* A mass weighing several pounds, found in a field, pro¬ 
bably at Grimma in Saxony, in the ducal cabinet of natural 
history at Gotha f. 

(The mass which fell in Dschordschan soon after the year 
1009, according to the description must have been of this 
kind.) 

13. Solid Masses of Iron containing Nickel , and crystallized in 

Octahedrons. 

(The only mass yet in existence, whose fall may be consi¬ 
dered as being historically proved, is that which fell in the 
province of Agram in 1751, as mentioned above. The fol¬ 
lowing, however, we conclude to be such, from their conformity 
with this and other circumstances.) 

* The mass preserved in Bohemia, from time immemorial, 
under the name of the Enchanted, Burggrcf the greater part 
of which is now in the cabinet at Vienna. The name, as well 
as the remains of a tradition, in which a tyrannical nobleman 
is said to have been killed by it, in the suburbs of Hrabicz, 
lead us to suppose that its fall had actually been noticed. 

* The mass found near Lenarto in Hungary, on the bound¬ 
ary of Gallicia, in which on the surface, treated with acids, as 
well as in the fracture, the crystalline texture very distinctly 
appears. 

* One or several masses found at the Cape of Good Hope. 

Many masses, and among them several large ones, on the 

right bank of the Senegal. 

f Being unacquainted with any account of the crystallization of the 
olivine or peridot in this mass, it may not be improper to remark that I 
have one piece, of the size of a pea, beautifully crystallized in the form of a 
pentagonal dodecahedron, besides several other pentagonal crystallized sur¬ 
faces being observable in it.—[See Phil. Mag. vol. lxvi. p. 356. —Edit.] 

t Ibid. p. 367. 

* Several 


14 


Dr. Chaldni’s Catalogue of Meteoric Stones , 

* Several large and small masses in Mexico and in the Bay 
of Honduras. 

* A very large mass near Otumpa in the district of Santiago 
del Estero, in South Americaf. Another, on the left bank of 
the Rio de la Plata, is said to be still larger. 

* A very large mass, about fifty Portuguese miles from Bahia 
in Brazil; respecting which maybe seen, besides the authorities 
mentioned in my own work, the account of the Bavarian na¬ 
turalists Martius and Spix. 

A mass found near the Red River in America, and brought 
to New York. 

Two masses on the northern coast of Baffin’s Bay. 

A mass found near Bitburg, to the north of Treves, which 
has been probably smelted. (I have mentioned it in my book, 
p. 353, as doubtful, not knowing then, as I have since learned 
from the American Mineral ogical Journal, vol. i. p. 218, that 
after an analysis by Colonel Gibbs, it was found to contain 
nickel, and to be in every respect similar to the mass at New 
York.) X 

A mass discovered by Professor Horodecki of Wilna, near 
Rockicky, district of Mozyrz, in the government of Minsk, in 
which Laugier found nickel and a little cobalt.—Gilbert’s 
Annals, vol. Ixiii. p. 32. § 

[Many masses of different sizes, discovered about the year 
1810, in the vicinity of Santa Rosa, in the eastern Cordillera 
of the Andes; and which probably belong to this division.— 
Edin. Phil. Journ. vol. xi. p. 120. 

Two masses discovered at Zipaquira, in the same Cordillera. 
Ibid. p. 122.] 

? It is possible that the isolated rock of forty feet high, near 
the source of the Yellow River, in Eastern Asia (according to 
Abel-Remusat’s account in the Journ. de Phys. May 1819) is 
of this description. The Moguls say that it fell down from 
heaven; and they call it Khadasoutsilao , i. e. rock of the pole. 

* The oldest fragment of meteoric iron, the antiquity of 
which can be historically proved, is probably the antique men¬ 
tioned in my work, p. 390, for which I am indebted to Pro¬ 
fessor Rbsel of the Academy of the Fine Arts at Berlin, in 
whose presence it was dug up at Pompeii, near the temple of 
Jupiter, and the Goldsmith’s-street, in 1817. Its external 
texture even shows it to be meteoric; and being protoxidated 
from its having lain so long in the damp volcanic sand, 
it is no longer attracted by the magnet, but still acts on the 

f See Phil. Mag. vol. lxvi. p. 367.— Edit. 

j Ibid. vol. lxv. p. 401. 

.§ Ibid. p. 411. 

magnetic 


15 


and Masses of Meteoric Iron , fyc. 

magnetic needle. It is a rounded oval about a quarter of an 
inch long, and a little less in breadth, and seems intended to 
have been set in a ring. One end is a little broken off. One 
side is a little more convex than the other, on which a small 
elliptic slab of jasper of a reddish brown is let in; and on this 
a star and a moon by the side of it are engraved. As the 
ancients considered substances fallen from heaven ( Bcetylia ) as 
something sacred (upon which subject see the works of Mlin- 
ter and Fred, von Dalberg), and as on several coins, &c. the 
meteoric origin has been indicated by a start, it probably 
indicates that this iron fell down with a fiery meteor of the 
apparent size of the moon. Now it seems more probable that 
it is a part of the iron which fell in Lucania, about fifty-six or 
fifty-two years before Christ, as mentioned by Pliny, Hist. 
Nat. ii. 57} than of any other: 1st, because it was close to 
Pompeii; 2dly, because no other fall of iron is mentioned by 
any more ancient author; and 3rdly, because the destruction of 
Pompeii occurred only about 135 years after that fall, which 
would therefore be still in the recollection of the people. 

a 

C. Masses of Native Iron , the Origin of which is uncertain , 

being different in Texture from the former , and containing 

no Nickel. 

* The large mass at Aix-la~Chapelle, containing a little 
arsenic, silicium, carbon, and sulphur. It may possibly be the 
produce of the furnace; against which hypothesis, however, 
many objections might be made. 

* A mass found in the Milanese, on the Collina di Brianza, 
nearVilla, weighing between 200 and 300 pounds, of very pure 
iron, with a small trace of manganese and sulphur. The tex¬ 
ture is spongy, and the iron whiter than usual, and exceed¬ 
ingly malleable; on which account it cannot be considered as 
a product of the furnace. 

A mass found near Gross-Kamsdorf, in 100 parts of which 
Klaproth found 6 of lead and 1*50 of copper. The frag¬ 
ment possessed by him (a part of which is now in the cabinet 
of natural history at Vienna), as well as the specimen in the mu¬ 
seum at Paris, may be considered genuine; but the fragments 
shown at Freiburg and Dresden are unquestionably spurious. 

Some other masses (for instance, that found near Florae) 
must be considered as products of artificial fusion. 

f To this method of indicating the fall of a fiery meteor, the Chinese ex¬ 
pression, “A star fell to the earth, and turned into a stone,” bears a close 
analogy. 


IV. Fallen 


16 Dr. Chaldni’s Catalogue of Meteoric Stones , 

IV. Fallen Substances , not being Meteoric Stones or Native Iron, 

but which in every appearance and in the most essential points 

agree with Meteoric Stones. 

(Livy iii. 10, mentions that about 459 years before our 
aera, flesh fell from the sky, which was partly caught up by 
birds in the air, and when on the ground, lay for many days 
without putrifying. If this story be not altogether an inven¬ 
tion, it is difficult to guess what could have given rise to it.) 

About the year 472 of our aera, on the 6th of November, or 
as some say, the 5th or 11th, there was, probably in the vici¬ 
nity of Constantinople, a fall of a great quantity of a mephitic 
black dust, accompanied by fiery meteors, which led people 
to apprehend the destruction of the world. 

652. Also a fall of dust near Constantinople, which ex¬ 
cited terror. 

743. A fall of dust in several places, accompanied by a 
meteor. 

During the middle of the ninth century, blood-coloured 
dust, in several places. 

929. At Bagdad, a reddish sand, after a red appearance 
in the sky. 

1056. In Armenia, red snow. 

1110. In Armenia, the fall of a fiery meteor into the lake 
Van, with much noise, and by which the water turned to a 
blood-colour; and deep rents were found in the earth. 

1222. Red rain near Viterbo .—Biblioteca Italiana , tom. xix. 
p. 461. 

1416. Red rain in Bohemia. 

? Probably during the fifteenth century, at Lucerne, a li¬ 
quid like coagulated blood, and a stone with a fiery meteor. 

1501. Red rain in several places. 

1543. Red rain in Westphalia. 

1548, 6th November. Probably in the district of Mansfeld, 
the fall of a substance, like congealed blood, attended by a 
fireball and great noise. 

1557. Friday after Sexagesima, at Schlage in Pomerania, 
large pieces of a substance resembling congealed blood. 

1560, or 1568, or 1571, at Whitsuntide. Red rain in the 
vicinities of Lowen and Emden. 

1560, 24th December. At Littebonne, department de la 
Seine Inferieure, red rain with a fiery meteor. 

? 1562, 5th July. At Stockhausen, a German mile from 
Erfurth, a fall of a substance resembling hair, attended by a 
commotion and extraordinary noise. 


1586, 


17 


and Masses of Meteoric Iron , fyc. 

1586, 3rd December. At Verden in Hanover, and other 
parts, a great quantity of a blood-red and blackish substance, 
by which a plank was burnt, attended by a thunder-storm: 
(meteors and reports).. 

1618, in the second half of August. A fall of large stones 
attended by a fiery meteor, and what is called a rain of blood, 
in Styria. 

1623, 12th August. Rain of a blood-colour at Strasburg, 
subsequent to the appearance of a thick red-smoke-coloured 
cloud. 

1637, 6th December. From seven o’clock in the evening 
till two on the following day, a great fall of black dust in the 
Gulf of Volo, in f he Archipelago, and near Acra in Syria. 

1638. Red rain near Tournay. 

? 1642, in June. At Magdeburg, Lohburg, &c., large lumps 
of sulphur. 

1643, in January. Rain called a rain of blood, at Vaihin- 
gen and Weinsberg. 

1645, between the 23d and 24th January. Red rain near 
Herzogenbusch. 

1646, 6th October. At Brussels. 

1652, in May. Between Siena and Rome, a transparent, 
slimy, and adhesive substance, in the place where a very bright 
meteor had been seen to fall. 

? 1665, 23rd March. Near Laucha, not far from Naum- 
burg, a substance like dark blue silk threads, in great quan¬ 
tity. 

? 1665, 19th May. In Norway, with an uncommon thun¬ 
der-storm (or a meteor mistaken for such), sulphureous dust. 

1678, 19th March. Red snow near Genoa. 

* 1686, 31st January. Near Rauden in Courland, a black 
substance like paper, in great quantity: a similar substance is 
said to have fallen at the same time in Norway and Pomerania. 
Baron Th. von Grotthuss found a portion of it in an old ca¬ 
binet of natural curiosities, and has published his analysis of 
and interesting observations on it, in Schweigger’s Journal , 
Band xxvi. p. 332, &c. He has been kind enough to present 
me with a fragment of it. 

1689. At Venice, and in the vicinity, red dust. 

1691. Red rain at Orleans, a la Madelaine, according to 
Lemaire. 

1711, 5th and 6th May. Red rain near Orsio in Schonen. 

1781, 24th March. On the island of Lethy, a heap of a 
jelly-like substance on the spot where a fiery meteor had fallen 
with a report. 

1719. A rain of dust with a radiant appearance, on the 
- Vol. 67. No. 333. Jan. 1826. C Atlantic 


18 


Dr. Chlaclni’s Catalogue of Meteoric Stones , 


longi- 


Atlantic Ocean, under 45° N. latitude, and .322° 45' 
tude. 

1721, in the middle of March. What was called rain of 
blood, at Stuttgard, with a meteor. 

1737, 21st May. Fall of earth, which was entirely attracted 
by the magnet, on the Adriatic sea, between Monopoli and 
Lissa.— Giov. Jac. Zanichelli , in the sixteenth volume of the 
Opuscoli di Calogera. 

1742. Red rain at San Pies d’Arena, near Genoa. 

1755, in October and November. In a great many places 
at a great distance from one another, a fall of red and black 
dust, with or without rain. 

1762, in October. At Detroit in North America, an ex¬ 
traordinary darkness from before daybreak till four o’clock in 
the afternoon, with rain containing sulphur and a black sub¬ 
stance.—Phil. Trans, vol. liii. p. 549. 

1763, 9th October. Red rain in the duchy of Cleves, and 
near Utrecht. 

1763, and likewise 1765,14th January. Red rain in Picardy. 

1781, 24th April. In the Campagna di Noto, in Sicily, a 
whitish dust, which was not volcanic. 

# 1796, 8th March. With an exploding fire-ball seen in a 
great part of North Germany, an adhesive gummy mass, in 
Upper Lusatia, not far from Bauzen. 

Without being able to fix the time. Near Crefeld, a jelly- 
like substance, after the fall of a mass of fire. 

1803, from the 5th to the 6th of March. In Italy, red dust 
that was not volcanic, partly with rain or snow r , and partly 
without, coming from the south-east, and exciting great terror. 

1809. Red rain in the Venetian territory. 

1810, 17th January. Near Piacenza, red snow, with light¬ 
ning and thunder-claps (probably a fiery meteor exploding). 

18 J1, in J uly. Near Heidelberg, fall of a slimy substance with 
an exploding fire-ball.—Gilbert’s Annals, vol. lxvi. p. 329. 

1813, 13th and 14th March. In Calabria, Tuscany, and 
Friuli, a great fall of red dust and red snow, with much noise, 
attended by fiery meteors and the fall of stones, near Cutro 
in Calabria. The component parts of this dust were nearly 
the same as in the meteoric stones that do not contain nickel. 

1814, 3rd and 4th July. A great fall of black dust w r ith 
appearances of fire, in Canada, near the mouth of the river 
St. Laurence. The event is very similar to that of the year 
472. 

1814, in the night between the 27th and the 28th October. 
In the valley of Oneglia in the Genoese territory, a rain of red 
earth. 


1814, 


19 


and Masses of Meteoric Iron , Sfc. 

1814, 5th November. Every meteoric stone that fel] near the 
Doab in India was surrounded by a small heap of dust. 

? 1815, towards the end of September. A probable fall of 
dust in the Southern Indian Ocean, an extent of more than 50 
miles in diameter having been found covered with it. 

1816, 15th April. Tile-red snow from red clouds, in some 
parts of Northern Italy. 

1818. Captain Ross found red snow on the north coast of 
Baffin’s Bay. Notwithstanding the very defective analysis (in 
which it was supposed, from ignorance of the analyses pre¬ 
viously made of red meteoric dust, that the colouring matter 
must be the excrement of certain birds), they found, besides 
other substances, oxide of iron and silica, but which, owing to 
the false preconception, they considered as something adven¬ 
titious. The oxide of iron seems to be the principal colouring 
substance ; and the kind of mould called uredo nivalis , which 
was found by the microscope in the long-preserved snow-water, 
was probably of an infusorial nature, and produced in it at a 
subsequent period. 

* Red snow was also found in 1817, on Mount Anceindaz 
in the south-east of Switzerland, by M. de C-harpentier, di¬ 
rector of the salt-manufactory of Bex, who was so kind as to 
give me the residue he collected from a flat rock ; which, how¬ 
ever, seems to have been mixed with some fragments of lichen. 
Professor Steinmann in Prague, and Professor Ficinus in 
Dresden found in it (as had been found in other meteoric 
dust), besides a volatile substance which leads us to infer the 
presence of some organic matter, oxide of iron, manganese, 
silica, alumina, lime, and a little sulphur. Prof. F. discovered 
also a trace of lime, but no traces of nickel, chrome, or cobalt. 
I have given some account ofthis in Gilbert’s Annals, vol. lxviii. 
p. 356; also in my own work. 

Accounts and an analysis of red snow found on mount St. 
Bernard (the colouring of which might possibly have been 
effected by lichen or dust containing iron being carried there 
by the wind) may be found in Gilbert’s Annals, vol. Ixiv. p. 319, 
as extracted from the Bibliotheque Universelle , besides some 
other notices on red dust. (It is very desirable that black me¬ 
teoric dust should be accurately analysed.) 

1819, 13th August. At Amherst in Massachusetts, the fall 
of a mephitic slimy substance attended by a fiery meteor. Silli- 
man’s Journal of Science, vol. ii. p. 335. (A more exact ana¬ 
lysis of this substance would, however, be very desirable). 

1819, 5th September. At Studein in the lordship of Keltsch, 
in Moravia, a fall of dry earth from a bright cloud in a clear 
sky.— Hesperus, 1819. Nov. Beilage. No. 42. 

C 2 


1819, 


20 Dr. Chladni’s Catalogue of Meteoric Stones, fyc. 

1819, 5th November. Red rain in Holland and Flanders, 
according to the Ann. Gener. dies Sc.Phys. It is not surprising 
that cobalt and muriatic acid were found in it by analysis, since 
both these substances have been found in meteoric stones. 

1819, in November. Near Montreal and in Maine, during 
an unusual darkness, black dust with an appearance of fire, and 
noise; whence it may be seen that it was not, as some pretend, 
the result of the burning of a forest, but of a meteoric nature. 
Accounts of it are given in the American and English Journals, 
and repeated in Gilbert’s Annals, vol. Ixvii. pp. 187 and 218, 
and vol. Ixviii. p. 354. 

? 1820, in the beginning of October. Near Pernambuco in 
Brasil, and on the sea, a substance like silk, in great quantities. 
—Vide Annates de Chini. tom. xv. p. 427; where a chemical 
analysis is promised. 

1821, 3rd May. Red rain at and near Giessen, during a 
calm, from a moderate-sized stratus , as detailed in the news¬ 
papers. Professor Zimmermann of that town found it to con¬ 
tain, upon a hasty analysis, chromic acid, oxide of iron, silica, 
lime, a trace of magnesia, carbon, and several volatile sub¬ 
stances, but no nickel. 

This gentleman, according to newspaper accounts, has found 
in the common rain which has fallen for some time past several 
substances which are found in meteoric stones; even iron con¬ 
taining nickel. However interesting these investigations may be, 
they furnish nothing decisive towards the hypothesis of fire-balls 
and other masses which have fallen on our earth being the 
produce of this planet, since it is very possible that the bodies 
contained in the rain were brought into the atmosphere by the 
uncommonly great number of fiery meteors that have lately 
appeared *. Even if the greater part of our atmosphere con¬ 
sisted of such substances, or could be transformed into such 
by some Deus ex machind , such meteors, as well as shooting- 
stars, cannot be atmospherical; since their course and velocity , 
which have been so frequently determined by observations 
from different stations, and calculations of their parallax, are 
sufficient to evince their cosmical origin as mathematically 
yroved. It therefore any one can yet doubt, it is like persons 
perfectly ignorant of the subject affecting to doubt the correct¬ 
ness of our astronomical and cosmological knowledge. It is 
however easier to form a partial opinion of things, than to take 
proper notice of what has been done by others. I have as- 

I have given all the observations I could obtain of the meteors which 
have lately appeared, especially those of last winter, in Gilbert’s Annals, 
vol. Ixxi. No. 4 (1822, No. 8). I regret that from many parts of the 
world similar accounts are withheld. 


sembled 


21 


Dr. Hare’s improved Eudiometers. 

sembled the results of all existing observations on the height, 
velocity? and movement of fire-balls in the 2d, 3rd, and 4th 
division of my work, which ought to be known previously to 
a person’s forming an opinion on the origin of meteors. Be¬ 
sides, having mentioned with every phenomenon the sources 
whence 1 took my account, the further details may be easily 
found by referring to them; and finally, I have in the last di¬ 
vision of the work drawn together the results of them, by 
which the proofs of their cosmical origin, and of the impossi¬ 
bility of their being the produce of our earth or our atmo¬ 
sphere, are elucidated in the simplest and most natural man¬ 
ner. 


II. An Account of some Eudiometers of an improved Construc¬ 
tion. By Bobert Hare, M.JD. Professor of Chemistry in 
the University of Pennsylvania. 

T N the second volume of the American Journal of Science 
I published an account of some eudiometers, operating by 
a mechanism which, previously, had not been employed in 
eudiometry. A graduated rod, sliding into a tube through a 
collar of leathers soaked in lard, and compressed by a screw 
so as to be perfectly air-tight, was employed to vary the capa¬ 
city of the tube, and at the same time to be a measure of the 
quantity of air, or of any other gas, consequently drawn in or 
expelled. About one-third of the tube was occupied by the 
sliding rod. The remainder, being recurved and converging 
to a perforated apex, was of a form convenient for with¬ 
drawing measured portions of gas from vessels inverted over 
water or mercury. 

There w'ere two forms of the sliding rod eudiometer: one 
designed to be used with nitric oxide, or with liquids absorb¬ 
ing oxygen; the other, with explosive mixtures. The latter 
differed from the eudiometers for explosive mixtures previously 
invented, in the contrivance for exploding the gases, as well as 
in the mode for measuring them; a wire ignited by galvanism 
being substituted for the electric spark, as the means of in¬ 
flammation. 

I shall proceed to describe several eudiometers, operating 
upon the principle of those above alluded to, with some mo¬ 
difications suggested by experience. Fig. 1 represents a 
hydro-oxygen eudiometer, in which the measurements are 
made by a sliding rod, and the explosions are effected by the 
galvanic ignition of a platina wire, as in an instrument formerly 
described, excepting that the method then employed of ce¬ 
menting the platina wire, in holes made through the glass, 

having 




22 


Dr. Hare’s improved Eudiometers. 

having proved insecure, a new and unobjectionable method 
has been adopted. 



In the instrument represented by the preceding cut, the ig¬ 
niting wire is soldered into the summits of the two brass wires 
(WW), which pass through the bottom of the socket (S), 
parallel to the axis of the glass recipient (G), within which 
they are seen. One of the wires is soldered to the socket; the 
other is fastened by means of a collar of leathers packed by 
a screw, so that it has no metallic communication with the 
other wire, unless through the filament of platina, by which 
they are visibly connected above, and which I have already 
called the igniting wire. The glass has a capillary orifice at 
the apex (A), which by means of a lever and spring (apparent 
in the drawing) is closed, unless when the pressure of the spring 
is counteracted by one of the fingers of the operator. The 
sliding rod (seen at R) is accurately graduated to about 320 
degrees. 

So easy is it to manipulate with this instrument, that any 
number of experiments may be performed in as many minutes. 
The ignition of the platina wire is caused by either of four 
calorimotors, each consisting of four plates of zinc, and five 
of copper. They are all suspended to one beam, as may be 
seen in fig. 2 following. 

Two furrows are made in the wood of the beam, one on each 
side. These are filled by pouring into them melted solder, 
after having caused a metallic communication between one 
furrow and all the copper surfaces of all the four calorimo¬ 
tors: also between all their zinc surfaces and the other furrow. 

The 




















23 


Dr. Hare’s improved Eudiometers. 


g g Fig. 2. 



The acid for exciting the plates is contained in the jug below, 
which may be so uplifted as to surround with acid either of 
the calorimotors. Hence while one is in operation, the others 
are, by repose, recovering their igniting power. Or by using 
a vessel (fig. 3) large enough to receive, and containing acid 



enough to excite two of the calorimotors at once, the igniting 
power may be doubled. The vessels for holding the acid are 
made of copper, covered with a cement of resin rendered 
tough by an adequate admixture of mutton suet. 

In order to use the eudiometer, it must be full of water, and 
free from air-bubbles, and previously proved air-tight*, the rod 

* To prepare the instrument and prove it to be in order, depress the 
glass receiver below the surface of the water in the pneumatic cistern, the 
capillary orifice being uppermost and open ; draw the rod out of its tube, 
and return it alternately, so that at each stroke a portion of water may 
pass in, and a portion of air may pass out. During this operation, the in¬ 
strument should be occasionally held in such a posture as that all the air 
may rise into the glass recipient, without which its expulsion by the action 
of the rod is impracticable. Now close the orifice (at the apex A) and 
draw out a few inches of the rod, in order to see whether any air can enter 
at the junctures, or pass between the collar of leathers and the sliding rod. 
If the instrument be quite air-tight, the bubbles extricated in consequence 
of the vacuum produced by withdrawing the rod will disappear when it is 
restored to its place. This degree of tightness is easily sustained in a well- 
made instrument. 

beinof 
























































































































24- 


Dr. Hare’s improved Eudiometers. 


being introduced to its hilt, and the capillary orifice open, in 
consequence of the pressure of the finger on the lever by which 
it is usually closed. Being thus prepared, let 11 s suppose that 
it were desirable to analyse the atmosphere. Draw out the 
rod 200 measures; a bulk of air, equivalent to the portion of 
the rod thus withdrawn, will of course enter at the capillary 
opening; after which the lever must be allowed to close it. 
Introduce the recipient into a bell-glass of hydrogen, and 
opening the orifice draw out the rod about 100 degrees; close 
the orifice, and withdraw the instrument from the water. 
Apply the projecting wires (WW) severally to the solder in 
the two furrows in the beam (fig. 2) communicating with the 
poles of the four calorimotors; then raise the jug so as that it 
may receive one of them, and subject it to the acid. By the 
consequent ignition of the wire, the gas will explode. The 
instrument being plunged again into the water of the pneu¬ 
matic cistern, so that the capillary orifice, duly opened, may 
be just below the surface; the water will enter and fill up 
the vacuity caused by the condensation of the gases. The re¬ 
sidual air being excluded by the rod, the deficit will be equi¬ 
valent in bulk to the portion of the rod remaining without; 
and its ratio to the air subjected to analysis may be known by 
inspecting the graduation. 

In the case of the gaseous mixtures above described, the 
deficit has, in my experiments, been 126 measures. Whereas, 
according to the theory of volumes, it ought to be only 1 20. 
But I have not as yet operated with hydrogen purer than it 
may be obtained from the zinc of commerce; and some allow 7 - 
ance must be made for the carbonic acid of the air, w 7 hich may 
be condensed with the aqueous vapour produced by the oxy¬ 
gen and hydrogen. 

In the invaluable work on the Principles of Chemistry, lately 
published by Dr. Thomson, it is suggested, that in order to 
obtain correct results in analysing the air with the hydro-oxy¬ 
gen eudiometer, more than 42 per cent of hydrogen should 
not enter into the mixture. I am not as well satisfied of the 
correctness of this impression, as I am generally with the re¬ 
sults of the wonderful industry and ingenuity displayed in the 
work above mentioned. 

If oxygen is to be examined by hydrogen, or hydrogen by 
oxygen, w r e must of course have a portion of each in vessels 
over the pneumatic cistern, and successively take the requisite 
portions of them, and proceed as in the case of atmospheric 
air. 

B (fig. 1) represents a glass with wires inserted through small 
tubulures, in the usual mode for passing the electric spark, 

should 


25 


Dr. Hare’s improved Eudiometers. 

should this method of producing ignition be deemed desirable 
for the sake of varying the experiments, or for the purpose of 
illustration. This glass screws on to the socket (S), the other 
being removed. The wires (WW) remain, but should be of 
such a height as not to interfere with the passage of the elec¬ 
tric spark. The instrument is operated with as usual, ex¬ 
cepting the employment of an electrical machine, or electro- 
phorus, to ignite the gaseous mixture, in lieu of a calorimotor. 
For the travelling chemist the last-mentioned mode of igni¬ 
tion may be preferable, because an electrophorus is more por¬ 
table than a galvanic apparatus. 

In damp weather, or in a laboratory where there is a pneu¬ 
matic cistern, or amid the moisture arising from the respira¬ 
tion of a large class, it is often impossible to accomplish ex¬ 
plosions by electricity. 


Of the Mercurial Sliding-Rod Eudiometer 'with a Water Gauge. 

The eudiometer which I have described, though satisfactory 
in its results, and in its eonveniency, when used with water, 
has not been found so when used over mercury. The great 
weight of this fluid caused the indications to vary in conse¬ 
quence of variations of position, during manipulation, too slight 
to be avoided. The instrument represented in the following 
cut (fig. 4) is furnished with a water gauge, which being ap¬ 
pealed to, enables us to render the density of the gases within 
in equilibria with the air without. Hence we can effect their 
measurement with great accuracy. 

Let us suppose that this eudiometer has been thoroughly 
filled with mercury, the sliding-rod being drawn out to its 
greatest extent, and that it is firmly fixed over a mercurial 
cistern in the position in which it is represented in the drawing, 
the little funnel-shaped part at the bottom descending into 
the fluid to the depth of half an inch. Above this part is seen 
a cock (C), the key of which, in addition to the perforation 
usual in cocks, has another, at right angles to, and terminating 
in, the ordinary perforation. When the lever (L) attached to 
the key of this cock is situated as it is seen in the drawing, the 
tube containing the sliding rod communicates with the re¬ 
cipient, but net with the mercury of the reservoir. Supposing 
the lever moved through a quarter of a circle, to the other 
side of the glass, the tube in which the rod slides will com¬ 
municate at the same time with the recipient and the reservoir. 
By means of the gauge-cock (C) the passage between the gauge 
and the recipient is opened or shut at pleasure. 

As subsidiary to this eudiometer, another is provided with 
-Vol. 67. No. 333. Jan. 1826. D a rod 


26 


W 

— 

TO 


.Dr. Flare’s improved Eudiometers • 


Fig. 4. 



a rod and graduation exactly similar*, excepting its being 
shorter. (See fig. 5.) 

* In order to ensure accuracy in the measures of gas, made by the sub¬ 
sidiary eudiometer, it is necessary to attend to the following precautions. 
In the first place, the instrument must be proved air-tight, and free of 
air-bubbles, by the means prescribed already in the case of the eudiometer 
for water. (See note, page 23.) The presence of air-bubbles is always 
indicated by the extent of the vacuity which appears wdien the glass reci¬ 
pient is held uppermost, and which disappears when it is held lowermost: 
the weight of the mercury acting upon the elasticity of the tubes always 
causes a minute change; but by the smallest bubbles of air the effect is 
very much augmented. The eudiometer should be introduced into the 
vessel whence the gas is to be taken, and about ten per cent more than is 
necessary drawn in by opening the orifice and duly drawing out the rod. 
The eudiometer being lifted from the mercury with as little change of 
position as possible, the rod may be adjusted accurately to the point de¬ 
sired. A momentary opening of the orifice causes the excess to escape. 
Th e gas thus measured and included is then easily transferred to the prin¬ 
cipal eudiometer, by introducing the apex of the subsidiary instrument un¬ 
der the funnel (see F, fig. 4), opening the orifice, and forcing the sliding 
rod home. 


The 




















Dr. Hare’s improved Eudiometers. 


27 



The method of analysing atmospheric air by means of these 
instruments is as follows. Supply the subsidiary eudiometer 
with its complement of hydrogen gas, by introducing the apex 
of the glass recipient into a bell-glass containing, over mercury, 
the gas in question, and drawing out the sliding-rod, the ori¬ 
fice being kept open only while above the surface of the mer¬ 
cury and inside of the bell. 

The gauge-cock (C, fig. 4) of the principal eudiometer being 
closed, and that which opens a communication between the 
recipient and the funnel (F) open, and the instrument having 
been previously thoroughly filled with mercury, and placed 
over the mercurial cistern, as already mentioned, introduce 
into it, through the funnel, the gas which had been included 
in the subsidiary instrument (fig. 5); next shut off the com¬ 
munication with the mercurial cistern, re-establish those be¬ 
tween the recipient and the rod and gauge, and push the rod 
into its tube up to the hilt. The re-entrance of the rod, by 
raising the mercury into the recipient, forces the hydrogen in 
bubbles through the waiter of the gauge, and displaces all the 
atmospheric air which it previously contained. Now shut the 
passage to the gauge, open that which communicates through 
the funnel with the mercurial cistern, and draw out the rod to 
its utmost extent. Into the eudiometer thus situated and pre¬ 
pared, introduce successively 100 measures of hydrogen and 
200 measures of atmospheric air, by means of the subsidiary 
eudiometer: then closing the passage to the mercurial cistern, 
and opening the passage to the gauge, push in the rod until 
the water in the gauge indicates that the pressure on the gases 
included is equivalent to that of the external air. The gauge- 
cock being closed, the gases are ready to be exploded. The 
explosion is produced by galvanic ignition, as in the case of 
the eudiometer for water (fig. 1), excepting that instead of car¬ 
rying the eudiometer to the calorimotor, the circuit is esta¬ 
blished by lead rods severally attached to the galvanic poles 
by gallows and screws. (See gg, fig. 2.) One of the lead rods 
terminates in a piece of iron immersed in the mercury, the 
other is fastened to the insulated wire of the eudiometer, Un- 

D 2 der 






28 


Dr. Hare’s improved Eudiometers. 

der these circumstances, one of the calorimotors is surrounded 
with the acid contained in the jug, and an explosion almost 
invariably succeeds. Before effecting the explosion, the num¬ 
ber of the degrees of the sliding-rod which are out of its tube 
should be noted; and it must afterwards be forced into the 
tube, in order to compensate the consequent condensation of 
the gases as nearly as it can be anticipated. A communication 
with the gauge must then be opened gradually. If the water is 
disturbed from its level, the equilibrium must be restored by 
duly moving the rod. Then deducting the degrees of the 
sliding-rod remaining out of the tube from those which it 
indicated before the explosion, the remainder is the deficit 
caused by it; one-third of which is the quantity of oxygen gas 
in the included air. Or, the residual air being expelled by 
the rod, and the quantity thus ascertained deducted from the 
amount included before the explosion, the difference will be 
the quantity condensed. 

It may be proper to mention, that as other metals are al¬ 
most universally acted upon by mercury, the cocks, sockets, 
screws, and sliding-rods of the mercurial eudiometers are 
made of cast steel. The tubes containing the rods are of 
iron. 

Since the drawings (figs. 1 and 4) were made, verniers have 
been attached to the screws through which the sliding-rods 
pass; so that the measurements are made to one-tenth of a 
degree. 

I have alluded to the water-gauge without explaining its 
construction. It consists of three tubes. A small tube of 
varnished copper (which is fastened into the only perforation 
which communicates with the cock, and of course with the 
glass recipient) passes up in the axis of a glass tube (T, fig. 4), 
open at top, cemented into a socket (S, fig. 4), which screws 
on to the cock. A smaller glass tube is placed in the inter¬ 
stice between the external glass tube and the copper tube in 
its axis. This intermediate glass tube is open at its lower ter¬ 
mination, but at the upper one is closed or opened at pleasure 
by a screw. The interstices between the three tubes are par¬ 
tially supplied with water, as represented in the drawing 
(W, fig. 4). When the passage between the gauge and the 
recipient is open, if the pressure on the included air be more 
or less than that of the atmosphere, the water will rise in one 
of the gauge-tubes, and sink in the other. Other liquids may 
be substituted for water, in the gauge, when desirable. 

In addition to the principal collar of leathers, and screws 
for rendering that collar compact, there is in the mercurial 
eudiometers a small hollow cylinder (a piece of a gun-barrel), 

with 


29 


Dr. Hare’s improved Eudiometers . 


with an additional collar of cork for confining oil about the 
rod where it enters the collar of leathers; otherwise, in ope¬ 
rating with mercury, the leathers soon become so dry as to 
permit air or mercury to pass by the rod. 

It may be proper to point out, that in operations with the 
hydro-oxygen eudiometer, accurate measurement is necessary 
only with respect to one of the gases. In analysing an inflam¬ 
mable gas by oxygen gas, or oxygen by hydrogen gas, it is only 
necessary that the quantity of the gas which is to be analysed, 
and the deficit caused by the explosion, should be ascertained 
with accuracy. The other gas, which must be used in excess, 
sometimes greater, sometimes less, must, in using the mer¬ 
curial eudiometer, be made to occupy the gauge. In analysing 
the air, or any mixture containing oxygen, the gauge is filled 
with hydrogen gas, as already stated; but, in examining in¬ 
flammable gas, the atmospheric air may be left in the gauge, 
as its only active qualities are those of oxygen gas. 

Figs. 6 and 7 represent those forms of the sliding-rod eu¬ 
diometer which I have found most serviceable for experiments 
with nitric oxide gas; with the solutions of sulphurets; or 
those of sulphate, or muriate of iron, saturated with nitric 
oxide. 



The receiver (fig. 8), shaped like the small end of an egg, 
is employed in these experiments, being mounted so as to slide 
up and down upon a wire. 



This 









30 


Dr. Hare’s improved Eudiometers . 



This vessel being filled with water, and immersed in the 
pneumatic cistern, the apex being just even with the surface 
of the water, one hundred measures of atmospheric air, and a 
like quantity of nitric oxide, are to be successively introduced. 
The residual air may then be drawn into the eudiometer, and 
ejected again into the receiver through the water, to promote 
the absorption of the nitrous acid produced. Lastly, it may 
be measured by drawing it into the instrument, and ejecting 
it into the egg-shaped receiver (fig. 8), or into the air, when 
the quantity of it will appear from the number of degrees 
which the sliding-rod enters during the ejection. That in this 
way gas may be measured with great accui'acy may be de¬ 
monstrated by transferring any number of measures, taken 
separately, into the semi-oval receiver, and subsequently re¬ 
measuring them. 

The eudiometers (figs. 6 and 7), with the accompanying 
semi-oval glass vessel (fig. 8), may be employed with the dis¬ 
solved sulphurets, or with solutions of iron, impregnated with 
nitric oxide in the following way. Let a small phial, with a 
mouth large enough freely to admit the point of the eudiome¬ 
ter, be filled with the solution to be used. Introduce into the 
bottle, over the pneumatic cistern, 300 measures of the air or 
gas to be examined. Transfer the bottle, still inverted, to a 
small vessel containing water, or a quantity of the absorbing 
fluid used in the bottle, adequate to cover the mouth of the 
phial and compensate the absorption. When there has been 
time enough for the absorption to be completed, transfer the 
residuum to the receiver (fig. 8), and measure as in the case 
of nitric oxide. 

As soon as I can make a sufficient number of satisfactory 
observations with the various eudiometers of which I have 
now given an account, I will send them to you for publica¬ 
tion. 


III. On 



















[ 31 ] 


III. On the Theory of the Figure of the Planets contained in 
the Third Book of the Mecanique Celeste. By J. Ivory, 
Esq. M.A. F.R.S. 

[Continued from vol. lxvi. p. 439.] 

COME apology may perhaps be due from me to the readers 
^ of the Philosophical Magazine, for drawing their attention 
to a subject so much neglected in the present times as that 
which I have undertaken to discuss. It seems to be the ge¬ 
neral disposition to rest entirely contented with what has al¬ 
ready been accomplished in the theory of the figure of the 
planets. But as all the useful and most important results had 
already been obtained by Clairaut, we ought, in order to be 
consistent, to go back to the luminous and elegant theory of 
that excellent geometer. It will be answered, that the theory 
in question is imperfect, inasmuch as it merely demonstrates 
the equilibrium of a planet when it is supposed to have the 
figure of an oblate spheroid of revolution. The objection is 
of great weight; and it never can be admitted that the suc¬ 
cessors of Newton have perfected his system, until the figure 
of a planet is clearly deduced from the laws of equilibrium 
without any adventitious supposition. The learned researches 
of Legendre and Laplace have generally been supposed to 
obviate the foregoing objection, at least when the bodies are 
nearly spherical, as is universally true of the planets. But an 
attentive examination will show that there is still something 
imperfect in the theory of the illustrious geometers we have 
named. There is, in fact, involved in it a hidden principle 
which is equivalent to the gratuitous supposition of Clairaut. 
The perpendicularity of gravity to the outer surface is common 
to both; but, as this principle is alone insufficient, Clairaut 
assumes the figure of an oblate spheroid, while the analytical 
method employed by Legendre and Laplace dispenses with any 
such supposition in the particular case they have considered. 
But is it possible that the varying of an abstract method of 
calculation can in any respect alter the physical foundations 
of the problem ? In order to solve this difficulty, it is to be 
observed that Legendre and Laplace proceed upon a deficient 
theory of equilibrium: a necessary condition is omitted; but 
it so happens that, in the particular circumstances of the pro¬ 
blem to which they have confined their attention, the omission 
may be made without leading to error in a first approximation, 
and in a first approximation only. This sufficiently explains 
why a result is obtained that agrees with the solution of Clai¬ 
raut. But if the result of a first approximation be correct, it 

is 


32 Mr. Ivory on the Theory of the Figure of the Planets 

is not correctly obtained. In a legitimate investigation we 
must first know all the conditions of equilibrium : we must 
then demonstrate that in particular circumstances some of 
them to a certain extent become unnecessary ; and having thus 
obtained sure principles to proceed upon, we may employ 
mathematical reasoning and the operations of analysis to com¬ 
plete our purpose. A calculation cannot be unexceptionable, 
even although it lead to a result not erroneous, when a neces¬ 
sary principle has escaped the penetration of the analyst. We 
may add, that a theory can never be reduced to the utmost sim¬ 
plicity of which it is capable, unless the physical principles 
are completely separated from the mathematical processes. 
These observations will help to explain the purpose intended 
by the present discussion. It would be ridiculous and a want 
of common sense to object on slight grounds to any thing 
sanctioned by the name of Laplace, or to detract from a re¬ 
putation placed on such solid foundations, and which will al¬ 
ways derive part of its lustre from the theory to which our 
present attention is directed. But in an intricate and difficult 
investigation, every bay and creek that can possibly lead to 
error must be explored, before the right track is discovered, 
and before we can arrive at a successful termination. The 
researches of Maclaurin and Clairaut were occasioned by the 
speculations of Newton ; the labours of Legendre and Laplace 
were intended to perfect those of their predecessors; and, if 
some steps still remain to be made, there is a field fairly open 
to future inquirers. 

• It follows from what has- been shown in the last number of 
this Journal, that, in the theory of Laplace, the equation at the 
surface of the spheroid is always true when the molecules, or 
small masses of matter on the surface of the sphere, are placed 
at a distance from the assumed point. In these circumstances 
the thickness of the molecules may vary in any manner with¬ 
out being subject to the law of continuity. But the equation 
cannot be true for molecules indefinitely near the assumed 
point, unless their thickness be restricted to a certain class of 
functions. In his later writings Laplace, supposing the law of 
attraction to be as in nature, has limited the equation to the 
case when the thickness of the stratum near the point of con¬ 
tact of the sphere and spheroid decreases as the square of the 
distance from that point. With this limitation the equation is 
no doubt rigorously demonstrated: but we are still left in the 
same uncertainty as before ; since we are not informed what 
kind of functions is comprehended under the hypothesis as¬ 
sumed.' When this point is inquired into, it turns out that 
the theorem is now too much restricted for the use to be made 

of 


contained in the Third Book of the Mecanique Celeste. 3$ 

of it. If we suppose that the thickness of the stratum is a 
finite and integral function of three rectangular co-ordinates, 
we embrace all the applications to the figure of the planets; 
the demonstrations are clear and effected by the usual pro¬ 
cesses ; and near the point of contact the thickness is divisible 
by the distance from that point, which is much more general 
than the cases comprehended in the demonstration of Laplace. 

By substituting the value of V expanded in a series, in the 
equation that takes place at the surface of the spheroid, the 
author of the Mecanique Celeste proves that the function y in 
the value of the radius may always be expressed in a series of 
terms, each of which is determined by an equation in partial 
fluxions, to which it is subject. This is a fundamental point in 
the analytical theory; and as it is a consequence of the equa¬ 
tion at the surface, it can be considered as true only in the 
cases in which that equation is clearly proved. Yet in the 
whole course of the work the symbol y is considered as per¬ 
fectly general, and as standing for any function ; which can¬ 
not fail to embarrass the reader, since the proof of the equa¬ 
tion is deficient and limited. Instead of deducing the. develop¬ 
ment in question from the equation at the surface, it will be 
much more simple to deduce it from the same formula on which 
the equation itself has been shown to depend: by this means 
the whole theory will rest upon a single analytical proposition. 

Now, resume the second of the formulae (2), 

/(»*-«•) X = 0, 

and separate it into the two parts of which it consists, then, 

/ {f 1 — a 2 ) d s — a 2 ) y'd s 

ji J yi •. 

As f is a function of \J/, if we put d s = a 2 d vj/ sin d <p, it be¬ 
comes easy to find the integral on the left side of the equa¬ 
tion. For the arcs and 0 are independent on one another; 
and the integration being effected, first with regard to d <p, be¬ 
tween the limits <p — 0 and <p = 2 %; and then with rega rd to 
d'fy, between the limits v[/ = 0 and vj/ = w, the result will be 
equal to 4 7 t a when r = a. The last equation will therefore 
become 

(r 2 — a 2 ) y'd s 

±vay=f± - jT - ; 

and if we consider y’ as a function of the arcs 0' and sx', we 
shall have ds = a* (W sin 0 'd ct', and 

1 /■* (r 2 —a 2 ) a 2 y'd & siu 6'd W 

y - 4*a J / 3 

V'ol. 67. No. 333. Jan. 1826. 


E 


(3) 

Again, 








34 Mr. Ivory on the Theory of the .Figure of the Planets 

Again, for the sake of brevity in writing, let us put 

i __ __ i___. 

f r' 1 — 2 r a cos -j- a 2 

then we shall have 

y = f; • f(? + 2a inr) ■ a 'y' d *' * in *' d ™- < 4) 

For this latter formula is no more than the first one written 
differently, as will be manifest by performing the differentiation 
of § with respect to a . 

It is to be observed here, that Lagrange conceived that the 
formula (4) contained the whole of Laplace’s demonstration, 
without its being necessary to add any limitation whatever re¬ 
lating to the thickness of the molecules near the attracted 

O 

point. For he says explicitly* that the function 

~ do 

s + 2a - dn ’ 

is always identically equal to zero on account of the evanescent 
factor it contains; whence it would follow that the integral 

( p + c la ar y'd T sin Q ! d vs* 

must be equal to nothing, whatever y ] stand for, and not equal 
to 4 7r ay as in the formula (3), and as he himself actually 
found to be true. There is therefore an inconsistency between 
the reasoning of Lagrange and the result of calculation; and 
it is this which he calls line difficulte singuliere , and a paradox 
in the integral calculus. Now all this arises from not observ¬ 
ing that the function mentioned is not in every case equal to 
zero. It is so, indeed, for every point of the surface of the 
sphere except one, when cos = 1; in which case the function 
has an evanescent divisor which balances the evanescent factor 
and produces a finite value. If one element of an integral have 
a finite value, the integral itself must be a finite quantity; and 
this is the plain and short solution of the difficulty. If La¬ 
grange’s attention had been directed to the formula 

f p + 2 a ^ « 2 ( y 1 —y) d Q 1 sin Q 1 d / & l ; 

and if he had observed that Laplace limited his theorem to the 
case when if — y is divisible by the evanescent factor which ap¬ 
pears in the denominator when the molecule is very near the 
point of contact of the two surfaces, there would have been 
neither difficulty nor paradox. But although he would in this 
manner have avoided inconsistency, he would not have ob¬ 
tained the most general demonstration of the theorem. For 

* Journ. de V E cole Polyt. tom. viii, p, 62. 


tins 







contained in the Third Book of the Mecanique Celeste. 35 

this purpose we must recollect that the expression we are con- 
sidering is a double fluent depending on two variable quan¬ 
tities. Let the variable quantities be functions of \f/ and <p; then 
the element of the surface of the sphere will be d\p sin ^d<p, 
and the expression may be thus written, 


f{? + 2 a ^-) tf <J/ sin iffa 1 ( if — y) df. 

Now, the integral f(y' — y)d<p being taken between the limits 
<p = 0 and 4> = 27r, it will be a function of cos and it is 
sufficient for the demonstration that this function be divisible 
by the evanescent divisor. By this procedure the utmost ex¬ 
tent possible is given to the theorem; and after all, it will be 
found that we have obtained nothing but what readily follows 
from usual rules of analysis. 

Let g or be expanded into a series, viz. 

i = y = — + 4- c(» + 4- c(2) +& c - 

* J r r l ?' 3 

the symbols C (1) , C (2) , &c. being functions of cos ^: then 
by substituting this series in the function on the right-hand 
side of the formula (4), that function will become 

l 
4 




sin Wd/n' + “ • 3 f C (1) y sin Q 1 did + &c. | (5) 


and by making a = r , we shall obtain 

y— - 1 - x ^J'f dQ' sin h'did + C (1) y dQ 1 sin tid'd +&c. j (6) 

Now the series (5) converges when a is less than r; and 
therefore, even when it goes on ad infinitum , it may represent 
a finite quantity to any degree of approximation. But when 
a — r, the principle of convergency disappears, and no exact 
notion can be formed of the value of any finite number of the 
terms. It cannot therefore be said, with any precision of ideas, 
that such a series, consisting of an infinite number of terms 
without convergency, will represent any finite quantity. The 
mind cannot take in the whole series ; it must be content with 
a definite portion of it; and no portion can be considered as 
equal to the quantity from which the whole is derived. It is 
only when the series breaks off, and consists of an assignable 
number of terms, that it can be said to represent a given quan¬ 
tity in the extreme case when a — r. Now this happens only 
when y belongs to a certain class of functions ; namely, when 
it is a finite and rational function of three rectangular co~ 
ordinates, which likewise comprehends every ciise in which the 
formula (4) is strictly demonstrated. For all such functions 
the equation (6) is exact, the two sides being identical, and 
differing from one another in nothing, except in the arrange- 

E 2 merit 



36 Mr. Ivory on the Theory of the Figure of the Planets. 

ment of the quantities of which they consist. The equations 
in partial fluxions to which the terms on the right-hand side 
are subject, are derived from the expressions C (1) , C (2) , &c.; 
and they are such as to determine each term separately when 
the aggregate of the whole is given. 

I have now examined particularly the fundamental points 
of the analysis of Laplace. Such an examination was required 
in a theory which in other respects is not unexceptionable. 
In intricate cases, in which there occur difficulties of different 
kinds, it seems best to acquire correct notions on one part 
before we proceed to the other parts. If such discussions (but 
little calculated to make a brilliant display in the eyes of the 
public) be ill suited to the prevailing taste of the present times, 
it must be acknowledged that they are necessary, unless we 
would entirely neglect a branch of knowledge that has always 
been reckoned of great value. 

But it would be improper to pass on to the second branch 
of my subject without noticing a demonstration of the equation 
at the surface of the spheroid, which we owe to M. Poisson*. 
This celebrated mathematician, who has particularly studied 
this branch of analysis, considers the formulae (3) and (4); 
and he proposes to demonstrate their truth, supposing that 
y stands for any function whatever of the two arcs & and -ok 
We are not therefore left in any uncertainty about the extent 
of the proposition to be proved. He observes, that on account 
of the evanescent factor the element of the integral is equal to 
zero, in all positions of the molecule, except when it is in¬ 
finitely near the point of contact of the two surfaces, when the 
denominator is infinitely small. Now, at the point of contact, 
we have y= y, $ r = 0, = an ; wherefore, if we put & = Q + h 9 

'si' — , 57 -f- Jc , we shall obtain the value of the double fluent by 
extending the integration to infinitely small values, positive or 
negative, of h and k. But while the arcs $ and an acquire the 
infinitely small variations h and k , the thickness of the mole¬ 
cule y may be supposed to remain constant; or, which is the 
same thing, we may put the equation (3) in this form, viz. 

_ y n (r 2 —a-) a y d 6’ sin l'dan' 

^ 4 v J P 

He then finds the value of the integral in the manner he pro¬ 
posed ; but as the same value may likewise be found by the 
ordinary rules, this part of the process adds nothing to the 
main argument. The force of the demonstration turns en¬ 
tirely on the assertion, that we may integrate on the supposi¬ 
tion that the thickness of the molecule remains constant. 


* Journal de VJEcolc Potyt. tom. xii. p. 145. 


To 




M. Ampere on a new Electro-dynamic Experiment . 37 

To enable us to judge of the validity of this supposition, 
put y — yd- (y'—y) iu the formula (3); then 

y r* {p —a * 2 ) a d & sin & dm' 

y ~ 4* j p 

1 p ip —a' 2 ) a ( y — y) dtf sin 6'd vs' 

+ 4 T-J p • 

Now, the first term in the value of y is what results from 
M. Poisson’s supposition, that the thickness of the molecule 
remains constant. That supposition therefore virtually ad¬ 
mits the equality of the second term to zero. It is very plain 
that, if the second term be not equal to zero, we shall not ob¬ 
tain the exact value of the double fluent by integrating on the 
supposition that the thickness of the molecule is constant. 
Now it is to prove that the second term in the foregoing value 
of y is evanescent, that Laplace has taken so much pains with¬ 
out having given a satisfactory demonstration of it. It has 
likewise been shown above, that the evanescence of the same 
quantity is in reality the foundation of the whole analytical 
theory. It would be superfluous to add another word re¬ 
specting M. Poisson’s demonstration, which aflords no addi¬ 
tional evidence of the proposition to be proved. 

An attentive reader who considers the foregoing observa¬ 
tions must allow that some material inadvertencies and inac¬ 
curacies have originally slipt into the analysis of Laplace. But 
the theory having been published, it has been deemed advisa¬ 
ble to repel all objections, and to defend it to the utterance . 

Jan. 6, 1826. James Ivory. 

[To be continued.] 


IV. Sequel of the Memoir of M. Ampere on a ?iew Electro- 
dynamic Experiment , on its Application to the Fonnula re¬ 
presenting the mutual Action of the two Elements of Voltaic 
Conductors , and on new Results deduced from that Formula. 

[Concluded from vol. Ixvi. p. 387.] 


\V r E have found, in the applications which we have just 
made of the formula which expresses the mutual action 
of two infinitely small portions of voltaic conductors, (see 
page 385 of this memoir in the preceding volume of the Philo¬ 
sophical Magazine) 


2 d 0 = — ai i' (cos 0 — sin 0) ( -r~— —— + — j — - -j-1 )d 0 
d y K \ sin 2 6 cos 2 6 sin 6 cos 6 / 


for the differential momentum of rotation in virtue of which a 
rectilinear conductor, of which the length is 2 a, moveable 

around 














38 


Sequel of M. Ampere’s Memoir 

around its centre, oscillates from side to side of its situation 
of equilibrium, when it is submitted to the action of two fixed 
conductors, each of which has one of its extremities at this 
centre, and whose length is a. In the instrument which I 
have contrived for verifying this result of my formula, it is not 
only these two conductors which act on that which is move- 
able, but also the circular portion of the voltaic circuit which 
joins the two other extremities of the fixed conductors: as the 
action which results from this portion is exerted in a contrary 
direction, a momentum is obtained of which the sign is opposed 
to that of the momentum of which we have just obtained the 
value, it must be added to the first; and what is very remark¬ 
able, the total momentum takes a form much more simple. In 
short, in naming M 7 the momentum of rotation produced by 

this arc, that which must be added to 2 d - M - d 0 

d 6 


is evidently 


2 ~ d i 

d 6 


as the radius of the arc s' is equal to a } we have s' = 2 a 0 + C, 
whence d 0 = -, 

2 a ? 


and, consequently, 2 d 0 = 4 a 4^- d 0. 

But the tangential force in the direction of the element d s' 
being i i i } d s' d -- s 


and its momentum of causing this element to turn round its cen¬ 
tre being equal, and of a sign contrary to that whose value 
we are seeking, we have 


d* M' 


dsds 


7 d s d s' = — \ a ii' d s' d 
/ £ 


whence 


dM' 


t d s' = — i a i i' ( 


/cos'* /3' 


cos'* /3 
r 

cos* /3' 


P)d,'. 


Observing that it is necessary to integrate in the same man¬ 
ner in relation to the direction of the current as for recti¬ 
linear fixed conductors, we find 

cos (3'= — cos 0, r' = 2 a sin 0, cos (3" = sin 0, r" = 2 a cos 0, 
thus 

d M' , . / cos 2 6 


dM , • •! / cos 2 8 sm* 6 \ , . , / 1 v 

~ ^ 7 )=i«*'(C08«-sin»)( S7 ^+l) > 

and 4 “ 37 d 3 = aii ' ( cos6 - sill 9) (~—+ J Yl 9. 
Uniting this momentum with that which we have called 



















39 


on a new Electro-dynamic Experiment. 


we have - d 9 = - 1 

sin* 6 cos 2 6 cos'-' >j 


sin \ ■» 


d0, 


because, besides the equation sin 0 cos 0 = f cos which we 
have deduced (page 394 of the former portion of this memoir) 


from the value of $, 0 = l £ = 1 

we obtain also from this same value 


cos 0 — sin 0 = V 2 sin £ >j. 

The action which causes the moveable conductor to oscillate 
is then proportionate to the sine of the quarter of the ano-l e 
comprised between the directions of the two fixed rectilinear 
conductors, divided by the square of the cosine of the half of 
the same angle ; it becomes null with this angle, as it ouo-ht to 
be, and infinite when they are directed following the same & rigfit 

line, because then « = -L 

2 

In the instrument intended for the measurement of these 
oscillations, the two extremities of the moveable conductor are 
also joined by a conductor forming a semi-circumference; but 
account is only to be taken of the action exercised on its recti¬ 
linear portion; since the circuit formed by the two fixedre cti- 
1 inear conductors, and by the arc which joins the extremities 
of it, is a closed circle which cannot act on the circular por¬ 
tion of the moveable conductor. 

The value which we have found for the elementary momentum 


divr 


d s' — 


j> a i i' I 


cos' 2 /S" 


cos' 2 /3 r 
r 



expresses generally the action impressed by the little arc d s' 
on a conductor of any form whatever, so as to make it turn 
round an axis elevated by the centre of this arc perpendicularly 
to its plane: this action is then independent of the form of 
this conductor, and only depends on the situation of its two 
extremities relatively to the little arc d s'; it is equal, as it 
ought to be, to the produce of the radius a by the value’which 
we have obtained (see vol. Ixvi. p. 378) for the force which is 
exercised on the same moveable conductor by a small por¬ 
tion equal to d s' of a rectilinear conductor directed ac¬ 
cording to this arc d s'. When we wish to see the action of an 
arc terminated, we must integrate afresh with relation to 5 ', 
. . second integration generally gives a different result 

in the two cases; but this result is the same when the move- 
able conductor has one of its extremities in the axis, and the 
other on the circumference of which the arc 5 ' makes a part. 
The only sign of the value which is obtained becomes changed* 

because 







40 


/ 


Sequel of M. Ampere’s Memoir 

because in one case /3 augments with s', and diminishes in the 
other; for then the angle (3 1 is a right angle, and the angle (3" 
is comprised between a chord and a tangent formed by the 
extremity, whence it is easy to conclude 

r = 2 a sin (3, s’— c — 2 a (3, d s'= — 2 ad {3, 

, . t . d s' d (Z 

whicn gives - — n $ 

G r sin 

and for the value of the momentum sought 

T . .. /-'COS 2 (id [i 

i a iv 

J sin (i 7 

which is precisely the same form as that of the force in the 
case of the rectilinear conductor, and is integrated precisely 
in the same manner. The reason of this analogy between 
these two cases, otherwise so different, is found in this circum¬ 
stance,—that in that of the rectilinear conductor we had 

— — a cot (3, d s' = ° d ^ - 


a 


r = 


sin /3 


sin'- 1 (i 


whence we obtain 


d s' 


d /3 


sin /S 


which differs only by the signs of the value of —in the case 

of the circular conductor; which ought to be so, because in 
the first, (3 diminishes when s! augments, and because it aug¬ 
ments "with s' in the second. 

Let us now consider two rectilinear conductors the direc¬ 
tions of which form a right angle, but may not be situated in 
the same plane, by naming a the right line which measures the 
distance of these directions, and by taking the points where 
they are met by the right line a for the origin of 5 and of s', we 

d 


have 


and 


12 


r* = a 1 + s' + s 1 


cos /3 = — 


d s' 


ds'= s'd s', 


d 5 ' 


But we have seen (vol. lxvi. page 381) that the mutual action 
of the two elements d s and cl s' is generally equal to 

a s' 


I ■ V 


COS 2 (i 


COS [i 

it may then be written thus, 

\ i i ! r s' d s' d 


^3 


and as this force must be multiplied by — to have its com¬ 
ponent parallel to the right line a, the value of this component 

is found to be — i a i i 1 s' d s' d —-, 

H 7 

by 















on a neiv Electro-dynamic Experiment. 41 

» 

by integrating it with relation to s between two points whose 
distances to the element d s' may be r 1 and r", we have 

~i a it s' d s' 

which may be written thus 




d '" els' - 


dr' 
d s' 


0 > 


d s' ~ 

of which the integral, taken for the first term of rj 1 to r w ", and 
for the second of rj to rj, gives 


1 i f 

2 \ r « 
x r u 


a 


a a \ 

—' —7 ); 

r u r ! / 


so that the action sought is precisely the same as if it were 
produced by four forces equal to \ i z 7 , directed according to 
the right lines which join two by two the extremities of the con¬ 
ductors, two of these forces being attractive and the other tw T o 
repulsive. 

If there be required the momentum of rotation impressed in 
the case which we are here examining, by one of the two 
rectilinear conductors on the other conductor around an axis 
parallel to the first, and whose shortest distance to the line 
which we have named a be represented by b , it will be ne¬ 
cessary to multiply the component parallel to a of the mutual 
action of the tw r o elements by s' — b, and then integrate in the 
same manner: as s' is constant in the first integration, it will 
suffice to perform this multiplication after it has been executed; 
thus we shall have two terms of the same form to integrate 
anew r , the first will be 


T * •! s b 

-iau' --j- 


d s 


- d s', 


and there will come, by integrating partially, 

% an' — \ aiv / . 

But it is easy to see that by naming c the value of s which 
corresponds to ? JI , and which is a constant in the actual inte¬ 
gration, we have 

v^!±£. s'— — v" a 2 + c 5 cot /3", d s f — d |3", 

sin p>" 7 r 7 sin 2 £" r 7 

,v r ds ' _ r d ^' _ i tan g a&/' . 

US J r" J sin /3" tang § p>/' 7 

the second term will be integrated in the same manner, and 
we shall have at last, for the momentum of rotation sought, 

's./— b s! — b s t i — b s' t —b , tang \ (l,," tang \ /J/ 

-7-1--7-i 


i aii iQlE±- s ±Jl- 
x **// '/ 


tang b, Pi" tan g a P/i 


;)' 


In the case where the axis of rotation parallel to the right 
line 5 passes by the point of intersection of the two right lines 
Vol. 67. No. 333. Jan. 1826. F a and 





















42 




Sequel of M. Ampere’s Memoir 

/- 

« and s', we have 6 = 0; and if we suppose, besides, that the 
current which flows along s' departs from this point of inter¬ 
section, we shall moreover have 




so that the value of the momentum of rotation will be reduced 


to 



__ j tang l \ 

rj tan S i /V / 


We have just seen that when the directions of the two rec¬ 
tilinear conductors of which we seek the mutual action, form a 
right angle, that of the two elements of s and s' becomes re¬ 
duced to — f i i 't s' d s' d -V, 

7*3 J 


and that we have, in the same case, 


r — \/ cP + s 2 + s' 2 : 


then this elementary action may be thus written, 

— \ ii 1 s'ds' y' a 2 + s 2 + s' 2 d (a 2 + s 2 + s ' 3 )“*2 

3 . . f s s' d s d s' 

~~ 2 11 ( a 2 $2 _J_ 5 / 2)4 ' 

As it acts in the direction of the right line r, it is necessary, to 
find the momentum of rotation which results from it around the 
right line a , to multiply it by the sine of the angle contained be¬ 
tween its direction and that of this right line, which is equal to 

VZ±Z 

fa* + s 2 S V 

and by the shortest distance 

s s' 

v' 

that is to say, that the force must be multiplied by the quantity 

s s' 

V a' 1 + & -+• 

which I shall represent by q , which gives 

d 2 M , , , _ . s' 2 a 1 dsds' 

— ... — dsds' = % iv - 7 —. 

dsds 2 s s_j- 

This value at first does not appear easy to integrate; but if 
we distinguish the value of q once with relation to s, and the 
other by varying s’ , we have 

d ? _ _^__ _ a 2 s' + *3 

d« + s 2 -fV 2 (a' 2 + s 2 + s' 2 )| ” (a 2 + s’ -f s'*)* 19 

d 2 q _ « 2 + 3 s' 2 3(fl 2 +i'-)s'' 2 

dsds (a 2 -f s 1 -f s'q.l (a 2 -j- s 2 -f- s' 2 ) 5 

_^_ 3 s 2 s'* 

(a 1 ~f~ S J -f- *' 5 )| + (o» + s 2 -f- s'*)a’ 


SO 


























43 


on a new Electro-dynamic Experiment. 


d 9 M 


so that t ~~7 d 5 d s'= b i i 1 Tt— rr d s d s’ 
dsds * Ldsds 

, . a 2 d s d s' 

the quantity 


a 2 d s d s' 


(a 9 + s 2 + s 1 ) 


LP 


+ ^ + 


integrated first with relation to 5, so that the integral becomes 
null with s, gives 

a 2 s d s' 


(a 2 -f~ s' 2 ) aJ a 2 + s i -j- s' 1 5 

that it remains to integrate by only varying s’, the most simple 
means to come there is to make 


which gives 

s = 
a 3 -f s ’ 2 ~ 


V 7 cd + s' 2 + s' 2 = */ M — s\ 


u —a 7 —s' 2 d s' d u 

2 aJ n ? -/ a J } s s -j-s' 5 2 zt ? 

(u — a 2 - s 2 ) 2 + 4a e u __ (u + a* - s 2 ) 2 -f 4 s 2 

~ 4 u ” 4 « 


and changes the quantity to integrate into 

adu 


2 a s 


1 + 


(u -j- a 2 — s 2 ) 2 ? 
4« 2 s 1 


of which the integral, taken so that it vanishes when s = 0 is 
a | arc tang 


(s' -f- aJ a 2 -j-s 2 + s' 2 ) 2 -j- a 2 — s 2 
2 a s 


arc tang: 


a £ 


which becomes reduced, by executing the indicated operations 
and in calculating by the formula known the tangent of the 
difference of the two arcs, to 


a arc tang 


ss 


a a/ a 2 + s- s' 2 




arc tang — 


We have then for the value of the momentum M of rotation, in 
the case where the two electric currents, of which the lengths 
are s and s ’, depart from points where their directions meet the 
right line which measures the shortest distance from it, 

M = \ ii 1 (q — a arc tang ~ 


when a — 0, we have evidently M = \ i i' q, that which agrees 
with the value M = b i i'p which we have already found (page 
382), because then q becomes the perpendicular which was then 
distinguished by p. If we suppose a infinite, M becomes null, 

as it should be, because that in this case a arc tang - q - — q m 

If we name 2 the angle of which the tangent is 

s s' 

a a 2 -j- ^ + 7*’ 

F 2 


we 


























44 M. Ampere on a new Electro-dynamic Experiment . 


we shall have 



\ • 

tang z / ’ 


it is the value of the momentum of rotation which would be 
produced by a force equal to 



tang % / 9 


acting according to the right line which joins the two extremi¬ 
ties of the conductors opposed to those where they are met by 
the right line which measures the shortest distance of it. 

It is, for the rest, easy to see that if, instead of supposing 
that the two currents depart from the point where they meet the 
right, we had made the calculations for what limits soever, we 
should have found a value of M composed of four terms of 
the form of that which we have obtained in this particular 
case, two of these terms being positive and two negative. 

By combining the last result which we have just obtained 
with that which we found immediately before, it is easy to cal¬ 
culate the momentum of rotation resulting from the action of a 
conductor having for its form the perimeter of a rectangle, and 
acting on a moveable conductor around one of the sides of a 
rectangle, when the direction of this conductor is perpendi¬ 
cular to the plane of the rectangle, whatever in other respects be 
its distance from the other sides of the rectangle, and the di¬ 
mensions of this one. In determining by experiment the in¬ 
stant when the moveable conductor is in equilibrium between 
the opposed actions of the two rectangles situated in the same 
plane, but of different sizes and at different distances of the 
moveable conductor, we have a very simple means of pro¬ 
curing verifications of my formula susceptible of great preci¬ 
sion : it is that which we may easily make with the instrument 
of which I spoke above, by conveniently modifying the fixed 
conductors which make a part of it. 

The same calculations may be made for any value whatso¬ 
ever of the angle of the directions of the two rectilinear con¬ 
ductors : by naming this angle s, we have 


r — \/ a 2 + -f- s n — 2 ss ! cos ?, 

and in always representing by q the quantity we find that 
the force parallel to the right line a is equal to 


i • •/ / « , /»d 5 d s' \ 

(— + a cos -Jj-*-)• 


The momentum of rotation around the right line a is then equal 

1 n ). 

As 


to 







45 


Mr. Tredgold on the Theory of Evaporation. 


As to the integral which enters into these expressions 

_ f* _ (s — s cos s) d s' _ 

II r3 f (a 2 -f- s' 2 sin 2 s) a 2 -j- s 2 -f- s ' 2 — 2 s s' cos $ J 


we may obtain by the known method of integration of dif¬ 
ferentials which comprise a radix of the second order, and 
more easily by a particular process which I shall explain else¬ 
where. 


V. On the Theory of Evaporation. By Thos. Tredgold, Esq. 

To Mr. R. Taylor. 

Sir, 

"p'VAPORATION has been considerably attended to, but 
rather as a matter of experimental research than with the 
object of finding those first principles which are essential to 
the process. In the following inquiry it is not intended to 
limit it to a particular case, but simply for illustration the 
vapour is supposed to be from the surface of water. 

When the air in contact with water is saturated with vapour, 
evaporation ceases, or there is an equilibrium between the 
powers which produce and retard the formation of vapour. 

Now conceive a portion of the vapour to be abstracted from 
the air, then the equilibrium will be destroyed; and all other 
circumstances being the same, the tendency to restore the 
equilibrium must be proportional to the quantity of vapour 
removed from the previously saturated air; for no other cir¬ 
cumstance than the weight of vapour in a given portion of air 
is altered. 

But, the equilibrium being destroyed, evaporation commences, 
and the vapour cannot be formed without a constant supply of 
heat; therefore, to obtain this supply of heat when there 
is no other source than the surrounding bodies of the same 
temperature, the temperature of the surface where the vapour 
forms must be depressed, in order that heat may flow to it 
from the adjoining bodies, or parts of the same body; and as 
the heat required is proportional to the quantity of vapour 
formed in a given time, the depression of temperature will be 
proportional to that quantity. 

It will also be obvious that the vapour formed will be of 
the elasticity corresponding to the temperature of the sur¬ 
face producing it, and therefore will correspond to the de¬ 
pressed temperature of the evaporating surface. 

Let T be the general temperature, t the temperature of the 
evaporating surface at its ultimate depression, and w the weight 
- of vapour in grains that would saturate a cubic foot of air at 

the 








46 


Mr. Tredgold on the Theory of Evaporation . 

the temperature t. Then, if it be ascertained by experiment 
that the evaporation per minute, from a surface of one foot, is 
a when w = 1 ; we have 1 : a :: w: aw = the evaporation 
when the weight of vapour required for saturation, at the tem¬ 
perature t, is w. 

Again: Let e be the evaporation in grains that produces a 
depression of one degree of temperature, then T — t — ; 


or 


t + 


a u> 


This is, however, not strictly accurate, un¬ 


less the specific heat of bodies be equal at all temperatures. 

The weight of a cubic foot of vapour at the temperature 60°, 
and pressure 30 inches, is 329*4 grains, and if f be any other 

force, 30 \f \: 329*4 : ~ 4 - = 10*98 f = the weight of a 

cubic foot of the force f and temperature 60°. And at the 

temperature t , near ly* That is, the 

weight of a cubic foot of vapour at the pressurey'and tempera- 
5600 / 

ture t is --- - - -- grains. 

450 -)- t 0 


The expansion of dry air by saturating it with moisture ap¬ 
pears to be equal to the addition of the same volume of vapour, 
of the force it would have in a vacuum at the same tempera¬ 
ture, but both reduced to the same pressure. Therefore, ify? 
be the greater pressure or force, and p 1 the less, the spaces 
being inversely as the forces 

pt y 

p : p ':: V : V' =- = the volume of the rarer fluid 

pf y 

corresponding to the greater pressure, consequently -- -f 



= the volume as increased by expansion. 


If the air be so rare that its force is less than that of steam 
of the same temperature, then p ] indicates the force of the air; 
but whenever the elastic force of the air exceeds the force of 
steam for the same temperature, then p = the force of the air. 

When the forces are the same, or p' = p , the volume is 
doubled by expansion. 

General Roy’s experiments, as far as they go, accord very 
well with this formula. The comparison of these experiments 
made by Mr. Daniell is not, however, quite correct. The 
volume of the air ought to be its volume at the same tempera¬ 
ture as the vapour, and not increased after the operation for 
expansion, as he has done in his Essays, p. 176. An example 
will render this more clear; and taking Mr. Daniell’s case 

(which 

















Double Altitude Problem. 


47 


(which is to find the volume of saturated air at 32°, that of dry 
air at zero being unity), he has, 30: 30* *216 : : 1 : 1*0072, which, 
added to the expansion = *07802, gives 1*08522. 

The process ought to be 30: 30*216:: T07802 : 1*08578. 
In my own comparison I assumed that the air was saturated 
at zero; and though the formula gives all the numbers a little 
in excess, they are nearer than those resulting from Mr. 
Darnell’s calculations. 

If these principles of the mixture of vapour with air be cor¬ 
rect, a cubic foot of dry air, of the temperature /, will be sa¬ 
turated by grains of vapour of the same temperature. 

Hence, if oc be the temperature of the point of deposition, and 
t the temperature of the evaporating surface, we shall have 

5600 (^f+T ~ Isfc ) = w > and 


5600 a 


( 


450 + t 

f 


f 


t) = e > or the evapo- 


450 + t 450 + 
tion from a surface one foot square in grains per minute. 

As t is only the temperature of the evaporating surface, the 

E 

general temperature will be T = t + —. 

The dynamical question respecting the velocity with which 
vapour will rise from the evaporating surface remains to be 
considered, and will most likely give employment to some of 


your reaaers. 


Thomas Tredgold. 


P.S. My thanks are due to Candour for his references 
to the preceding corrections of Dr. Ure’s results: I had over¬ 
looked them in the one Journal, and the other I do not regu¬ 
larly see. 


VI. Reply to the Remarks of Mr. Riddle o?i the Double Al¬ 
titude Problem . By James Burns, Esq,* 

To the Editor of the Philosophical Magazine and Journal. 

Sir, 

1V/TR. Riddle in his concluding remarks on my solutions of 
■*“*-*- the problem of double altitudes, takes it for granted that 
66 we are perfectly agreed,” though there is not a single sylla¬ 
ble in my communication (nor has he furnished a single proof) 

* [We had hoped that this controversy would have been concluded in our 
preceding volume, and shall be well pleased if our correspondents will now 
allow it to terminate.—E dit.] 


that 










48 Mr. Burns on the Double Altitude Problem. 

that should induce him to think so. I have there asserted that 
Mr, R. misunderstood the foundation of my method; and I 
think he has proved that he knew nothing further of the de¬ 
monstration, which he attempted to advocate, than the mecha¬ 
nical computations derived from it. I shall now, therefore, 
notice more in detail those solutions of the problem to which I 
objected, than I had originally intended. The equations which 
I first gave are, 


cos. A — 


cos. A — 


(1) 

( 2 ) 

( 3 ) 


cos. ^ (A -f «) • sin* h (A — a) 
sin. (<r -j- i ). sin. \ i . cos. I 
cos. \ ( A -j- a) . sin. £ ( A — a) 
sin. | (T -j- r) sin. \ (T— <r) . cos. § 

Now the second of these is identical with 

cos. \ (A -j- a ), sin. \ (A — a) 

COS. A 1 ■■ 11 « t ■ 1 • / t • \ ^ 

sin. \ i . sin. (-^ i — t) . cos. d 

since, T + r = /; \ (T 4- t) = \ i ; also, T — t = i — 2 t, 
&c. The only unknown quantity in the equations (1) and (3) 
is t, # or the time nearest noon : if that could be truly deter¬ 
mined, the question could be rigorously and easily solved. 
But it is plain that t cannot be so determined by means of 
the middle time (as in Douwe’s method), which is itself deter¬ 
mined by means of the latitude by account,—a quantity that 
may be very far from the truth. Hence the method of Douwe’s 
is no other than a pure paralogism. The more probable 
way, therefore, of arriving near the truth, would be to take 
from the “ Horary Tables ” the angle corresponding to the 
latitude by account, the greater altitude, and the declination, 
and substitute it, in one of the above formulae according to the 
case; and if the greater altitude were near the meridian, the 
probable error would be diminished. Mr. R. will ?iow pro¬ 
bably understand what is meant by “ all that is necessary to 
be known is, the time, the interval, and the altitudes,” which 
before appeared to him so inexplicable.—Now, Dr. Brinkley’s 
method is professedly a correction of the latitude computed by 
Douwe’s method, which, by the by, will be often further from 
the true latitude, than that by account. Let us now see how 
this correction is derived. The Doctor first deduces the fun¬ 
damental equation (see Nautical Almanac) 


dc- 


ii — 


dl (vers, t — sin. t . tan. m) 
1 — tan. D . cot. I 
1 — tan. D . cot. I 


or, d l: dc::n: 1, making 


vers, t — sin. t . tan. m 


The quantity n , therefore (on which 

* The time r could be rigorously deduced by means cf a third altitude 
and preceding interval; but that being a distinct problem, maybe consider¬ 
ed on another occasion. 


the 








49 


in reply to Mr. Riddle. 


the whole demonstration hinges) is a function of the latitude 
by account, of the time nearest noon, determined by means of 
that latitude and of the middle time connected with it; and 
must evidently partake, in any future combination, of the in¬ 
exactness to which each of these quantities may be subject; 
and that inexactness, we have seen, may be very considerable. 
We ask then, how is it possible that any combination or trans¬ 
formation of n can lead to an exact result, or to the correction 
of an inexact one? But to prop this, it is gratuitously sup¬ 
posed that, t — r : t — c:\n: 1, 

Or, t — c : c — r :: l : ?i — 1, 


Or, t - c = 

n— 1 

Now, this implicitly supposes that a certain fixed relation 
must always subsist between t, r, and c, and that they will con¬ 
stantly bear the same invariable relation to n. With such an 
order of latitudes, the correction certainly may sometimes suc¬ 
ceed ; but is such order to be always expected in practice ? 
We may with as much truth suppose, 


r — t: t — c :: n : 1, 
Or t — c : r + c ^ 2t 


Or t — c — 


r -f- c — 2 t 
n — 1 ' 


1 : n — I, 


Or 


t = 


- —which would considerably 

n + 1 J 


change the Doctor’s final equations, t = c + —— —, &c. &c. 


It is evident, therefore, that the correction derived from the 
Doctor’s reasoning will be conditionally true, and at best but 
very uncertain in practice. Hence I am not at all surprised 
that this mode of correction has imposed on Mr. R. Even 
Douwe’s solution, simple as it is, seems to have presented 
stumbling blocks, which he has not been able to get over. In 
his first paper, explaining what he calls the times A.M. and 
p.M., he says “ they are not mtended to represent the true ap¬ 
parent times of observation, but to determine the elapsed in¬ 
terval !—and to find with the aid of the estimated longitude 
the approximate Greenwich time for determining the declina¬ 
tion.” Now, without meaning any disrespect, was it possible 
he did not know that the times A.M. and P.M. do really repre¬ 
sent the true apparent times, not in the latitude sought, but 


* Hence would arise some curious paradoxes ; as when n = 0, t = r; 

T C 

and if n = 1, t — —-—,&c. 

Vol. 67. No. 333. Jan. 1826. ^ 


G 


ill 







50 


Mr. Burns on the Double Altitude Problem , 


in the latitude by account;—that a chronometer has been ge¬ 
nerally the only means used to determine the interval;—and 
that the declination must enter the computation before the times 
A.M. and P.M. could be determined ? From this we might 
have said at first, Eoc uno disce omnes; but we were willing to 
hear all that Mr. R. could say. In his last remarks is given 
a curious explanation of the assertion, 44 He assumes as known, 
not only the interval of time between the observations, but the 
true apparent time at each observation f for it is said, 44 I noted 
the assumption in italics .” Now we are to understand from 
this, henceforth, that 44 noting a passage in italics ” must clear 
one of the charge of misconception or misconstruction ! My 
having changed the order of the words does not make the least 
change in the sense of the passage certainly. In Mr. R.’s last 
paragraph, where he says, 44 I failed in giving any solution of 
the problem,” his language is not only inaccurate but uncan¬ 
did ; for only one method had been proposed when his first 
remarks appeared; and hence the phrase 44 any solution ” is 
inapplicable: and before his last, two other solutions had been 
given. The first of these latter, however, Mr. R. does not 
seem to approve of, though originally proposed by no less an 
astronomer than Lalande; and the second he passes over in 
silence, without a single word, for reasons best known to him¬ 
self. And to show Mr. R. that our resources are not so con¬ 
fined as he imagined, we shall now present him with a fourth 
solution, with an example calculated at full length, lest he may 
doubt the truth of the formula itself. It is, perhaps, the most 
convenient of the four, and shorter by nearly half than Dr. 
Brinkley’s correction alone. The four following equations 
very simply and briefly solve the problem. As I have not 
seen the method which Mr, R. has deduced from Mr. Ivory’s 
investigations, I cannot judge whether it is 44 the simplest so¬ 
lution of this useful problem that has yet been given.” 


Let first polar distance 

= a 

second ditto . . 

= b 

first zenith distance 

— z 

second ditto 

= z' 

interval .... 

= m 


The rest as in the third method, page 34*5. Then, 


vers, c 


sin. A = 


sin' a . vers, m 

sin. b . sin. m 


sin. c 


sin 2 — — 


B 

A 

vers, y 


(1) 

( 2 ) 

( 3 ) 


sin.r (a -(- z — c) . sin. a («' — z + c) 

sin. c . sin. z 

sin. a . sin. z . vers. C -f vers, (a — z) (4) 

Example. 




51 


in reply to Mr. Riddle. 

Example .—Let a — 76° 0' 0" 

b = 76 1 20 

s = 48 26 45 

s' = 39 58 45 

m = 22 30 0 

2 log. sin. « . . . 19*97380 
vers. 22 °30' . . . 8*88150 


21° 49' -f = vers, c = 8*85530 


sin. m . . . 

sin. b . . . 
ar. co. sin. c 


9*58284 

9*98694 

0.42972 


87° 16' sin. = 9*99950 


sin. \ (2 -f- z 1 — c) . 
sin. \ (z'~- z -f c) . 
ar. co. sin. c ... 
ar. co. sin. z ... 


9*73959 

9*06589 

0*42972 

0*12591 


Ji 

2 


2)19*36111 

28° 38' sin. = 9*68055 

_ 2 _ 

57 16 = B 
87 16 = A 


30 0 =C.. vers. 9*12702 
sin. a 9*98690 
sin. z 9*87409 


11342 nat.vers.(« — z) 


8*98801 . .log. 9727 

y = 37° 53' nat.vers. = 21069 
v lat. = 52 7. 

The demonstrations of the third and fourth methods (which 
methods, I believe, have been given for the first time) we 
must, for the sake of brevity, omit for the present; but they 
cannot create any difficulty to those who understand the prin¬ 
ciples of spherical trigonometry, as delivered in Woodhouse’s 
or Legendre’s treatises. We must notice, however, that the 
change in declination is not considered in the first equation 
given above, which will seldom make a difference of more 
than 1' on the final result. The latitude deduced by the third 
method, which is rigorously exact, is 52° 5' 20". 

Thus the candour and truth of Mr. Riddle’s statements are 
apparent. I cannot but acknowledge, however, that there 

G 2 is 













52 


On Mr. Levy’s Property of the regular Octahedron. 


is some wit in his concluding paragraph; but wit is a poor 
substitute for argument. Yet it is, perhaps, the best resource 
in the absence of the latter, as it frequently makes a man ap¬ 
pear , on quitting the field, equal, though seldom superior to 
his adversary. I remain, sir, your obedient servant, 
Gloucester Place, Hackney Road, James Burns. 

January 4, 1826. 


Errata in the formulas, page 345 : For sin. 
sin. £ y , read sin. 5 £ y. 


read sin. 2 —; and/or 


VII. Demonstration of Mr. Levy’s Property of the regular 
Octahedron ;—with a Postscript on P. Q’s Defence of Mr. 
Herapath’s Demonstration. By T. S. Davies, Esq. 


r T'LIIS very neat but simple 
A theorem was given by its 
discoverer (unaccompanied how¬ 
ever by the demonstration) to 
Mr. Brooke. The latter gen¬ 
tleman’s proof (Crystallography, 
pp. 317, 318) is unnecessarily 
complicated; and is, besides, 
effected by means not strictly 
mathematical. The following 
one, it is presumed, is liable to 
neither of these objections. 

Theorem .—Let ABCD be a 
plane cutting off one of the solid 
angles E of a regular octahe¬ 
dron ; then 




i 

DE 


1 , 1 
ElT + EC * 


Demonstration .—We assume the truth of the following 
well-known elementary properties: 

1 . Ihe diagonals AD, BC of the plane of section intersect 
in some point F in that diameter of the octahedron which 
passes through E. 

2 . The angles^ AED, BEC are right angles. 

3. Tiie line Ek bisects these right angles. 

I hen, if z. EDA = <p, we have, by trigonometry, 


EF 

DE 


sin <p 

sin 45°+ f 


and 


E F + cos 

EA. sin 45° + <p ’ 


whence 


EF 


the lower sign, 


DE 
6( 


+ 


EF 

~AE 


sin <p + cos <p 


\/ 2 


if 


sin 45° -j- <p 

referring to the position D ; A'. 


In 



















Mr. Davies on Mr. Herapath’s Demonstration, 53 


t • m /» i EF EF 

In a similar manner we nna rr H —7777 

Li) iliL 

therefore, dividing by EF we get 

i 1 __ 1 1 

AE“ + "de ~ eb" + EC * 


s/ 2 ; and 


g. E * D * 


Cor, AE + ED: EB + EC :: AE.ED:EB. EC. 


Postscript on P. Q.’s Second Defence of “ Mr, Herapath’s 
Demonstration .”— {Phil. Mag. vol. lxvi. p. 354.) 

I cannot close this short paper without rectifying a slight 
mistake into which your learned correspondent P. Q. has fallen 
respecting one or two points in my last communication. 

In the first place, I did not 64 abandon” the arguments em¬ 
ployed in my first paper on Mr. Herapath’s demonstration. 
They still remain opposed to the view which I then took of 
the process in question: and my second paper was intended 
to show the inefficiency of that demonstration, also under 
P. Q.’s interpretation of it; and to prove that under c< either 
view the same fallacy was involved, the same gratuitous as¬ 
sumption employed.” It could only be by an oversight that 
P. Q. could call my second paper an abandonment of the 
principles of the first. They are totally distinct arguments , 
and are directed against the two distinct views which I con¬ 
ceive may be taken of Mr. Herapath’s meaning. 

Secondly, the objection to my magical “ comparison be¬ 
tween the independence of r and v , and that of an angle and 
its complement ” appears also to have been too hastily made. 
For the addition of an indeterminate number of units to the 
fraction in Mr. Herapath’s demonstration is exactly similar to 
the addition of an indeterminate number of circumferences to 
any fractional portion of a circumference. The truth is, that 
the inquiry does not call for the consideration of indeterminate 
integers : these may be dropped; and the question would be 
stripped of its ambiguity by the adoption of two proper frac¬ 
tions as the values of r and v. If, however, the indeterminate 
integers be still contended for, I must still submit that an in¬ 
determinate number of circumferences will afford a complete 
parallel. As subjects of analytical investigation they are of 
precisely the same character. 

I own I was surprised to see so much confidence placed in 
the argument of P. Q. to establish the triple condition of Mr. 
Herapath’s equation, p. 354. When r + v — n = indeter¬ 
minate integer [r = const.], it cannot be for a moment dis¬ 
puted that At; = An. But are we therefore to admit that 
gentleman’s interpretation of the consequences which flow from 

this 









54 Mr. Davies on Mr. Herapath’s Demonstration. 

this admission ? Does not P. Q. perceive, so long as n varies 

by integer values only, that v varies through a system of fractions 
whose common difference is an integer , and is altogether inca¬ 
pable of any other system of values whatever ? 

Does it need to be urged 

whilst \ ^ V ~ A n> an ^ £ that A v is also = integer ? 

( An = integer ^ & 

Take, for 44 example ,” r — |, and n = integer: then v — n 
— \; and so long as n retains its integral character, v can never 
become n' ± f, nor n ,f + f — 1. The only system of values 
which it admits, is comprised in the expression m + \ [n!, 
rP and m being integers]; and so of other values of r. 
These 44 independent variables ” are therefore mutually depen¬ 
dent during their variation ! Thus I have shown by an ex¬ 
ample, which I thought too simple to need particularly in¬ 
stancing in my last paper, the fallacy of one of those principles 
which precede the application of P. Q.’s very elegant functional 
theorem, and have therefore completely overturned the in¬ 
genious structure raised upon that principle. 

It will be recollected that I made no objection to the reason¬ 
ing in Mr. Herapath’s subsequent equations, so long as r and v 
were really independent variables ; but wished to show that as 
r and v were not independent variables in the case before us, 
the conclusions derived on the assumption of that non-existing 
independence were inadmissible as a demonstration of the 
binomial theorem. By tracing the process and finding that 
the independence of r and v was essential to the truth of those 
subsequent equations, I conceive that a complete neutraliza¬ 
tion was given to the evidence so obtained. 

The passage alluded to by P. Q. in his last paragraph cer¬ 
tainly was intended as an objection to Mr. Herapath’s mode 
of establishing some theorems in periodical functions, where 
the indices of the characteristic were fractional , that mode 
being founded on the assumed independence of two fractions 
whose sum is an integer. I have not the Number at hand, 
nor had I then; but I think I can depend upon my memory 
respecting the method. If I erred, let this circumstance apo¬ 
logize for me : but if I have not mistaken the method, and the 
preceding reasoning be admitted, the fallacy of such a method 
is apparent. 

I can assure Mr. Herapath (in conclusion of a reply which 
has expanded much further than I intended when I sat down 
to write), that were I convinced of the accuracy of his method 
I should 44 not be backward to acknowledge it.” I trust I shall 
ever feel too sincere a regard for truth to contend upon any 

question 




Mr. Squire on the Cermet of 1825. 55 

question merely for the sake of victory, and too candid to 
hesitate a single moment in expressing my conviction, what¬ 
ever may have been my previous opinions, or however my 
credit may seem to be pledged in their support. 

Bath, Dec. 5, 1825. 


VIII. On the Comet o/T825. By Thomas Squire, Esq. 

To the Editor of the Philosophical Magazine and Journal. 

Sir, 

^I/TTHOUT entering into the nature of those chaotic com¬ 
pounds of elementary substances, or rather incipient 
worlds called comets, of which we, perhaps, are less acquainted 
than with their motions; yet, nevertheless, I think it may 
truly be said that no part of astronomy is more in its infancy 
than that which relates to the eccentric and anomalous mo¬ 
tions of these erratic bodies, which are occasionally and at very 
uncertain periods observed to visit the bounds of our solar 
system, when passing through the perihelion parts of their 
orbits. 

Should you, Mr. Editor, think the following computations 
and remarks, which relate to the comet of 1825 (that first ap¬ 
peared about the beginning of September), entitled to a place 
in your scientific Journal, they are truly at your service. 

On the supposition of a parabolic orbit, this comet must 
have passed from the northern to the southern side of the 
ecliptic about the 22d of August; but it was not visible to the 
naked eye until the 7th of September, when it was seen in the 
constellation Taurus , near Aldeharan and th ellyades; at which 
time its distance from the sun was 1*871) and from the earth 
1*407. On the 12th of the same month at 1 A.M. its anomaly 
was 69° 34' 38", its distance from the sun 1*8229, and from the 
earth 1*2391, having also a geocentric longitude of 60° 40' 19", 
and a southern latitude of 6° 34' 29". Again, on the 17th, the 
comet’s distance from the sun was 1*767, and from the earth 
1*105. It continued thus to approach the earth in a lateral di¬ 
rection till the 12th of October, when by computation it ap¬ 
pears to have come nearest to the earth, at which time it was 
a very conspicuous object in the heavens; when, at midnight, 
its distance from the sun was 1*525756, and from the earth 
only *61471 : its geocentric longitude was 35° S' 11", and lati¬ 
tude 35° 5 1 1 35" south. Hence it was then in the southern 
part of the constellation Cetus. Therefore at this time it must 
have been vertical between the parallels of 20 and 21 degrees 
south, a little before two o’clock that morning, according to 

the 





56 


Mr. Squire on the Comet 0/18*25. 

the respective meridians. From this it is clear that the comet 
must have been a very striking object to all the known parts of 
the southern hemisphere and the low northern latitudes. After 
the 12th of October the earth and comet gradually receded from 
each other, so that on or about the 17th of November the 
comet must have been too far from the earth to be visible, even 
under the most favourable circumstances of southern latitude. 
Although the relative motions of the earth and comet were now 
such as rapidly to increase their lineal distance, yet the comet 
continued to approach the sun till the 11th of December, when 
it passed its perihelion point at a distance of 1 *2295 from that 
body. 

The earth and comet will continue to recede from each 
other till about the 20th of January; and as the heliocentric 
motion of the latter body is retrograde, and being at the same 
time in an opposite part of the heavens in respect to the earth, 
the two bodies will for some time move nearly parallel to each 
other, and towards the same infinite distant point in space, 
when the comet’s distance from the sun will be 1*4, and from 
the earth 2*28, the latter distance being equal to 21660 millions 
of miles. Though the orbicular motion of the comet will now 
carry it rapidly from the sun, yet it will again gradually ap¬ 
proach the earth, or more properly, the earth may be said in 
the race to gain upon the comet till about the 22d of April; 
and on that day, at 5 h 49 m 12 s M.T. its distance from the sun 
will be 2*27056, and from the earth T37183, having at the 
same time a geocentric longitude of 243° 49 ; 4 6", and a southern 
latitude of 15° 27 r 56": hence it will be near the star $ in the 
neck of the constellation Lupus; at which time, and for a few days 
before and after, it may again be expected to be visible to the 
southern parts of the world, but its altitude above our horizon 
will be too small for it to be seen from our northern position; 
and by the beginning of May it will be too far from the sun and 
from the earth to admit of its being any longer visible to the 
inhabitants of our globe. On the second appearance of this 
comet it will, properly speaking, be divested of its tail; in which 
case the nucleus will only be surrounded by a nebulous light. 

Yours respectfully, 

Epping, Jan. ], 1826. THOMAS SQUIRE. 

P.S. It is a little remarkable that the comet of 1823 passed 
its perihelion about the same time in December as that of 
1825 ; but the former when in that point of its orbit was nearly 
at the same distance from the sun, as the latter was beyond 
the sphere of the earth’s orbit, their relative perihelion di¬ 
stances being *228944 and 1*22950 respectively. 


IX. On 


[ 57 ] 


IX. On the Planet Saturn . By M. Smith, Esq . 

To the Editor of the Philosophical Magazine and Journal . 

Sir, 

/OBSERVING in a very excellent work just published on 
^ telescopes, by Dr. Kitchener, an account of a singular 
appearance which the planet Saturn presented in the years 
1805 and 1818 (for which appearance no reason has been as¬ 
signed), and conceiving that the phenomenon admits of an easy 
explanation, I beg leave to trouble you with the following re¬ 
marks on it. 

The passage in Dr. Kitchener’s book to which I allude is 
the following, at page 349. 

“ The singular figure of which the body of Saturn was ob¬ 
served by Sir William Herschel on April 19, 1805, when he 
says 4 the figure of Saturn is somewhat like a parallelogram, 
with the four corners rounded off deeply, but not so much as 
to bring it to a spheroid,’ is very like the appearance which 
the planet presented in September 1818, when I made a sketch 
of it, which is like to Sir W. H.’s. I have occasionally ob¬ 
served this planet for nearly 30 years, and I do not remember 
to have seen the body of it of this singular form, except for a 
few months at the time I have mentioned.” 

Now, sir, if we consider that in the year 1818 the earth 
was in the plane of Saturn’s equator, and that it is only in 
that plane once in fifteen years, we shall easily comprehend the 
reason of this phenomenon. The true figure of Saturn can 
never be observed except on such occasions, because it is only 
then that the visible disc of the planet is bounded by a meri¬ 
dian ; for it is evident, that whatever be the true figure of the 
planet (provided it be a solid of revolution), it must to an eye 
placed vertically over its pole appear a perfect sphere; conse¬ 
quently, as we recede from the plane of its equator it must ap¬ 
proximate to the spherical figure:—on this principle we may 
expect to see the planet again in its true shape in the year 1833. 
It may here be proper to remark, that when we are in the 
plane of Saturn’s equator we are also in the plane of his ring ; 
and therefore that in making a diagram of the planet it would 
be improper to draw it of its true shape, except when the ring 
is represented edgewise, or as a straight line bisecting the body 
of the planet; for when the ring appears open, the figure of the 
planet will not sensibly vary from a sphere. 

The manner in which the ring of Saturn is balanced, so 
that the planet shall always occupy its centre, has been thought 
wonderful even by some celebrated astronomers. To me it ap- 

Vol. 67. No. 333. Jan . 1826. H pears 


58 Mr. Smith on the Planet Saturn, 

pears the simplest thing imaginable; for I think it self-evident 
that if the ring were removed to a distance ol two or three 
millions of miles from the planet and left at liberty, it must by 
its own gravity fall towards the planet; and after perhaps im¬ 
pinging thereon, it must continue to fall until its centre of gra¬ 
vity coincides with that of the planet: in which case the planet 
must of course occupy its centre. Now, if Saturn were a sphere, 
the ring might assume any accidental position with respect to 
the equator of the planet; but by reason of the spheroidal figure 
of Saturn occasioning an excess of gravity towards its equa¬ 
torial regions, the plane of the ring must be drawm into the 
plane of Saturn’s equator, which is exactly the situation in 
which we find it: the rotation of the ring on its axis is, there¬ 
fore, unnecessary to its support 

A very curious subject for speculation, which does not ap¬ 
pear to have hitherto suggested itself to the inquiry of astrono¬ 
mers, is the following: What is the use of this stupendous ring, 
which for extent of surface and solidity of structure (as we 
may infer from its superior brightness) surpasses even the 
planet itself? Can it be a habitable world ? Certainly it may; 
for the velocity with which the ring revolves on its axis may 
be so adjusted as to produce a centrifugal force which shall 
be an exact counterpoise to the force of gravity towards the 
planet: and in such case the surface of the ring must appear 
to the annularians as a horizontal plane; while the body of the 
planet is seen in the distance like an immense mountain, be¬ 
hind which the sun disappears for about one or two hours 
(according to circumstances) out of every ten hours, or one re¬ 
volution of the ring. The edges of the ring are probably 
rounded off, although our instruments will not enable us to 
verify this fact by observation; and in such case the annularians 
may travel either by land or w r ater from one surface of the 
ring to the other without observing any remarkable appear¬ 
ance, except that on passing round the edge of the ring the 
heavenly bodies will change their altitudes rapidly within a 
comparatively small space. To those who may be on the in¬ 
ner edge of the ring the body of the planet probably appears 
as a circular plane directly over their heads, and supported by 
twogreat pillars rising from opposite points of the horizon. The 
satellites of Saturn are probably never seen by the annularians, 
except by those who may be near the outer edge of the ring ; 
for as they revolve in the plane of the ring, they are always in 
the horizon: the seventh satellite is, perhaps, an exception ; 
for as it deviates from the plane of the ring, it may occasionally 
appear a few degrees above the horizon. 

It has been conjectured by some who have thought but 

slightly 


Mr. Smith on the Planet Saturn. 


59 


slightly on the subject, that the ring was constructed for the 
purpose of enlightening the planet in the absence of the sun. 
To those who advance this opinion it may be replied, that for 
the purpose of illumination the ring is worse than useless, in¬ 
asmuch as that it intercepts more of the sun’s light from the 
planet than it reflects towards it. To exemplify this, let us as¬ 
sume any particular spot on the surface of Saturn. Suppose a 
spot whose latitude is equal to that of London. Now by duly 
considering that the plane of the ring is inclined thirty degrees 
to the plane of Saturn’s orbit, it will be perfectly evident, that 
to the assumed spot the ring can only appear enlightened by 
the sun during one half of the year, and that the summer half; 
to which may be added, that all the portion of the ring which 
at midnight is near the meridian, must be eclipsed by the body 
of the planet. The phenomena actually observed will there¬ 
fore be as follows; viz. Immediately after sunset an arm of 
the ring will appear in the west, which will gradually shorten 
and finally set; but before it entirely disappears, another si¬ 
milar arm will rise in the east, and gradually lengthen until 
the superior brilliance of the ascending sun supersedes its use 
as an object of illumination. About the period of the summer ' 
solstice these two arms of the ring will unite so as to form an 
entire arch intersecting the horizon in the east and west, and 
inclined thereto at an angle equal to the co-latitude of the 
place, at which time there will certainly by considerable illu¬ 
mination. Still it may be remarked that the illumination is most 
perfect when least wanted. This therefore, as well as the fact 
that the planet is furnished with seven moons, is demonstra¬ 
tive proof that the ring was not constructed for the purpose 
of illumination; and no other supposition remains than that it 
was formed to be a habitable world. It may further be re¬ 
marked, that although the ring cannot usefully enlighten the 
planet, yet the planet reflects a very strong light on the ring 
for about half of each period of ten hours; and therefore the 
annularians have no reason to regret that the satellites do not 
rise above their horizon, because the planet reflects them, per¬ 
haps, ten times more light than would be the united effect of 
all the satellites. 

The ring of Saturn is now known to be double, or to be in fact 
two concentric rings; but this circumstance does not affect the 
justness of any of the foregoing arguments. Perhaps this di¬ 
vision may be advantageous to the inhabitants, as affording 
them a short cut from one surface of it to the opposite; or per¬ 
haps the adjustment of centrifugal force before alluded to, may 
require that the velocity of rotation should in a small degree 
differ in the two rings, in order to produce an equilibrium, or 

H 2 counterpoise 


60 Notices respecting New Books. 

counterpoise to the force of gravity towards the planet; for 
unless this equilibrium be effected, the surface of the ring could 
not appear to the inhabitants perfectly horizontal. 

It has been remarked by Sir V/illiam Herschel, that “ the 
ring of Saturn reflects more light than the body of the planet.” 
The natural inference is, that it is formed of materials of greater 
specific density; and it seems advantageous that it should be so : 
for otherwise, on account of its comparative thinness, it could 
not produce an adequate force of gravity perpendicular to its 
surface, which we must suppose essential to its being inha¬ 
bited. 

The annularians in their systems of geography can only 
estimate their latitude by the observed altitude of Saturn’s 
pole; for the sun and all the other heavenly bodies have the 
same altitude viewed from every part of the flat surface of the 
ring. As for their longitude, I have not hitherto been able to 
decide how they ascertain it. 

Should the foregoing remarks be thought to merit a place 
in your Journal, the insertion will much oblige, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Nov. 17, 1825. M. Smith. 


X. Notices respecting New Books. 

The English Flora, Vol. III. By Sir J. E. Smith, M.D.F.R.S . 

President of the Linn . Soc., fyc. fyc. fyc., 1825. 

r INHERE is a knowledge acquired by practice and expe- 
^ rience, which carries us much further into an acquaintance 
with sensible objects than the best instruction and informa¬ 
tion can do. This is a familiar observation when applied 
to such occupations as have to do with an article of trade. 
The farmer for instance, besides the obvious practice of his 
business, has a great deal of knowledge, the result of long- 
experience, which is incapable of being communicated, even 
if his vocabulary were richer than it is; and he could no more 
acquaint a pupil with all the rules by which he judges of the 
goodness of his samples of grain, than he could convey to him by 
words an idea of the looks and expressions by which he knows 
his neighbour’s countenance. The same thing is seen in other oc¬ 
cupations. We have been surprised at the dexterity with which 
a wool-sorter selects from a pack containing different sam¬ 
ples, at a single glimpse, the locks of wool of the same quality, 
while to our unpractised eye there was little or no difference 
amongthem. It is this empirical knowledge which gives the prac¬ 
tical tradesman such advantage, and far outweighs the superior 

intellect 




61 


Notices respecting Neiv Books . 

intellect and acquirements which a theoretical competitor 
may have. The truth seems to be, that sensible objects have 
many characters which make so slight an impression on the 
mind, that they do not in passing through it become the sub¬ 
jects of examination. They are to the eye and to the touch 
what the various flavours are to the taste,—too delicate and 
evanescent to be detected and examined as they pass. Hence 
the nicer qualities of things are long before they are observed, 
and it is not till they are observed with attention that terms are 
invented to express them. Here then is an impediment to 
the progress of knowledge, when no words are capable of ex¬ 
pressing the character of an object in consequence of its trans¬ 
ient nature; and it is an impediment not likely to be overcome 
by the practisers of art, but must be left to such as are habi¬ 
tuated to watch their own impressions and practised in arrest¬ 
ing them. 

But the reader will begin to say, how does all this lead to a 
notice of the English Flora? We come now to the applica¬ 
tion of our remarks. It cannot but have struck even the unbo- 
tanical observer, how much more difficult the science of botany 
has become by the vast multiplication of species, and by the 
minute differences which are relied on as sufficient to afford a 
character. Among European plants, indeed, the science has 
been followed up with such analytic severity, that naturalists 
have, in many instances, resorted to the empirical characters 
which experience has pointed out, but which are either untech- 
nical, and hence cannot be employed in a specific description, 
or are of such a nature that the mind, though it acts upon 
the impression, cannot discover it so as to describe it to another. 
Thus they speak of one species differing from another in 
habit, appearance, touch, &c.; by which they oftentimes mean 
that it has some undescribable peculiarities about it, which 
point it out to a practised observer as distinct. The astutest 
botanists of the age are all running into this extreme mi¬ 
nuteness of distinction; and it can only be explained, we think, 
by attributing it to the cause we have assigned. It is no re¬ 
flection upon them that there should be this tendency. On the 
contrary, it is to their honour that they have carried the ana¬ 
lysis as far as their present technical language will assist them. 
The botany of the old herbalists was, from the want of this lan¬ 
guage, almost entirely empirical ; and we are fast losing our¬ 
selves in the same difficulty. In order to be rescued, some new 
Linnaeus must spring up, who shall be possessed of a mind 
for seizing hold of and describing these subtile characters; and 
thus we shall artificially be carried on another stage: but what¬ 
ever 


62 


Notices respecting New Books . 

ever depends upon language for its communication and exten¬ 
sion must have its bounds. 

To illustrate our subject, we refer the reader to Weihe 
and Nee's Tinbi Germanici , where he will find the descrip¬ 
tions carried to a minuteness which could only have been pro¬ 
duced by the most laborious investigation; and yet, after all 
(with the exception of a few well-known species), this minute 
detail does not enable the reader to make out the plant, even 
with the aid of well executed figures (which mode of re¬ 
presentation delineates some of the characters of natural ob¬ 
jects far better than words); and in most instances we gain no 
more information than this,—that the authors saw something 
different which they are unable to describe. The English 
have not been behind their neighbours the Germans in the 
scrutiny to which they have subjected some genera. Take 
for instance Juncus , Rosa , Myosotis , Saxifraga , with some 
scores of species in other genera. How many of the new ones 
are purely empirical! In many instances no doubt the distinc¬ 
tion is perceived, but it is so minute and fluctuating that it is 
impossible to reduce it to a specific character, and seldom can 
be intrusted even to general description. 

If any one wishes to acquire information on these obscure 
species, about which books will not assist him, he must not be 
content with a single lesson: he must have £< line upon line, 
and precept upon precept.” We have ourselves attempted 
some of them under the most skilful preceptors; and regret 
that the dark hints and general terms which they are used to 
employ do not enable us to profit much by their instruction. 
Undoubtedly a rich vocabulary and ample command of illustra¬ 
tion will do something; but this only applies to the quantity. 
The point we are attempting to make is, that, after all, there 
is a limit to the communication of knowledge respecting the ob¬ 
jects of Natural History, created not only by the imperfect na¬ 
ture of language, but by the evanescent impression which cer¬ 
tain sensible characters leave upon the mind, thus furnishing 
materials for its own use, but which leave nothing behind that 
can be communicated to others. 

Let us not be misunderstood. We are not blaming modern 
botanists for the course they have been taking. The results are 
only such as all minute analysis is necessarily subject to. It 
is an inconvenience produced by the imperfection of the instru¬ 
ments of thought, and until they are improved it is in vain to 
blame the naturalist for the consequences. It is however a 
question for his consideration, whether he cannot remedy part 
of the evil by some mark, or name, or arrangement of his type, 
which he might adopt for such species as are capable of being 

distinctly 


Notires respecting New Books. 63 

distinctly characterized by words, and such as are only known 
by habit and growth. To raise them all to the same rank is, 
in many genera, to involve them all in the same obscurity. 
The old species, so well known to our ancestors, are in danger 
of being lost, to be superseded by others which are obscure 
and undefinable. Students are frightened from the study by 
the difficulty they find in detecting any species; and the science 
is left in the hands of an eclectic number, who can only trans¬ 
mit it to their descendants by uncertain tradition; and if the 
tendency should be to restrict it to the few, instead of throwing 
it open to the many, we may be assured our mode of pursuing 
it is erroneous. This subject is important, and needs illustra¬ 
tion to some extent; but we only hint at it here as introductory 
to our notice. 

Sir James Edward Smith in his English Flora has from ne¬ 
cessity adopted a great number of these recent obscure species, 
and which are not found in his Flora Britannica; not how¬ 
ever without regretting the multiplication, yet finding it impos¬ 
sible to reject them, in consequence of the high credit on which 
they rested. The third volume does not contain so many as 
the two previous *; and, with some exceptions as to genera, the 
species are pretty much as the author’s former works had left 
them. We will just notice the most prominent changes which 
have taken place. The Nuphar minima of Engl. Bot. is here 
very properly called pumila , a name which had been given by 
Hoffman previously to the publication of the figure in that work. 
The genus Tilia , which has been greatly confused, is revised 
thus: T. Furopcea and pcirvifolia remain as before. T. grandi - 
folia Ehrh. is adopted ; and the T. platyphyllos of Ventenat, and 
the T. ulmifolia semine hexagono of Dillenius, are quoted un¬ 
der it, while the T. corallina of Rees’s Cyclopaedia, and Ray’s 
Red-twigged Lime, are considered as a variety of it. T. parvi- 
folia appears to us to be the only species found undoubtedly 
wild, the rest having been probably introduced as ornaments 
to our pleasure-grounds. The stations in Stoken Church 
Woods in Oxfordshire, it appears, cannot be relied on as wild, 
as many of the species now found there have the appearance 
of having been planted. Merrett’s station for T. grandifolia 
in Surrey is in the same predicament: it is not found there 
in a natural wood. Aconitum Napellus is now first introduced 
as English; but it should, we apprehend, with the <e Lark¬ 
spur,” have been marked with an asterisk, to indicate its 
doubtful claim to be indigenous. Under Caltha palustris is 
introduced a var. (3, which DeCandolle has noticed, and which 

* The first and second volumes were noticed by us in vol. Ixiii. pp. 219 
and 284. 

Miller 


64 


Notices respecting New Bools. 

Miller had called C. minor . We have found it repeatedly on 
the mountains in Cumberland, and have seen it in herbaria 
mistaken for the C. radicans , which is a strongly marked and 
totally distinct species. Recent and authentic specimens of 
this last plant are, however, desiderata to the London botanists. 
The descendants of Dickson’s original plants still survive; but 
whatever might be the authority of the finder, it is still desi¬ 
rable to have it confirmed. 

Lamium maculatum wants confirmation even as an English 
plant: much more then does it need to be authenticated 
as found wild in woods in Scotland. St achy s ambigua appears to 
be confined to the North. It is but imperfectly known among 
Southern botanists ; and that knowledge is derived from dried 
specimens, which in such difficult species are but unsatis- 
factor}^. The Rhinanthus major is entirely new. For this 
addition w r e are indebted to a very active and successful bo¬ 
tanist, Mr. James Backhouse of York, who distinguishes it at 
first sight by its greater size, being two feet, high, much 
branched and bushy; its much denser spikes; and its yellow¬ 
ish bracteas, each of which terminates in an elongated green 
point. The segments of the upper lip of the corolla are wedge- 
shaped and purple. Germen narrower and more tumid than in 
R. Crista-galli. Style prominent. Nectary heart-shaped, more 
spreading, and greenish. The seeds are thick at the edge, 
and not quite destitute of a membranous margin; but this is 
much narrower than in the former. Ehrhart and Richardson, in 
Dillenius, had previously distinguished the species. The Lin- 
nee a borealis seems to be more frequent in Scotland than 
had been imagined, though a single station for it has been 
discovered in England, by Miss Emma Trevelyan, at Hart- 
burn in Northumberland, and recorded in the thirteenth volume 
of the Linnaean Transactions. 

The most considerable alteration throughout the volume 
is to be found in the recasting the genera of the class Tetra - 
dynamia . In this the learned author has in part followed Mr. 
Brown, who was the first to point out the important cha¬ 
racters afforded by the cotyledons; that is, whether they are 
flat, or folded, or spiral; whether incumbent , lying upon the 
embryo laterally, or, accumbent , their edges on one side meet¬ 
ing the embryo longitudinally. This Linnaean class, which 
comprehends one of the most natural orders throughout the 
vegetable kingdom*, furnishes in consequence very obscure 
characters for subdivision. Linnaeus was driven to rely upon 
the nectariferous glands for generic characters, and which, 
after all, did not enable the technical botanist to determine his 
plant; nor did it associate such species as were most nearly 

allied 


65 


Notices respecting New Books. 

allied in habit. The characters employed by Mr. Brown are 
said to be easy of detection as soon as the skin of the seed is 
removed, there being no separate albumen; and these afford 
the most natural, and indeed absolute, primary characters of 
these plants. 66 They serve,” says our author, 66 to divide the 
whole into great natural sections, liable, as far as I can find, 
to no exception; the genera under each section being easily 
characterized, and proving much more natural, in habit and 
fructification, than those found by Linnaeus.” 

Whatever objection may, at first sight, appear against the 
use of these characters in the cotyledons, as furnishing little 
artificial assistance to the tyro, they are invaluable in the ab¬ 
sence of more obvious marks, and confirm the empirical 
knowledge of habit and look, which we pointed out at the 
commencement of this paper as so much needed when we can 
no longer detect characters which can be described by bota¬ 
nical terms. 

Matthiola incana is admitted here; but surely it is an es¬ 
cape from the gardens. At Hastings even double flowers may 
be observed. The Malva pusilla of Engl. Bot. is here reduced 
to a variety of rotundifolia . The Orobus tenuifolius of Roth, 
which Mr. D. Don had found in Scotland, Mr. Peete in 
Kent, and to these may be added, by ourselves in Glamor¬ 
ganshire, is regarded (and we think rightly) only as a variety 
of tuberosus. Vicia angustifolia of Sibthorp and others is in¬ 
troduced, and is no doubt a well-marked species. Lotus de~ 
cumbens , an addition of Mr. T. F. Forster’s in his Flora 
Tonbridgensis, is also new; while L. diffusus turns out to be 
angustifolius of Linnaeus. Mcdicago maculata , muricata , and 
minima , first noticed by our author in the Cyclopaedia, were 
before included in M. polymorpha. 

In Syngenesia all the old Hedypnoides are placed under the 
genus Apargia. The Linnaean and Jussieuian genus Cnicus 
embraces many of our Cardui: but the author thinks the se¬ 
paration of these two genera justifiable only on the ground of 
convenience, and that they are not naturally separate. Cnicus 
Forsteri , (another discovery of our late estimable friend T. F. 
Forster, Esq., whose inquisitive eye seldom suffered a good 
plant to escape him,) if not absolutely distinct, is a sin¬ 
gular hybrid, perhaps between palustris and pratensis. San - 
tolina is now Diotis , upon the authority of Desfontaines and 
De Candolle. Under Doronicum Pardalianches our author 
does not quote the figure in the new series of the Flora Lon - 
dinensis; and in this we think he is right, the plant there re¬ 
presented being plantagineum , which is, with the other, an oc¬ 
casional escape from gardens, as we have evidence from the 

Vol. 67. No. 333. Jan. 1826. I very 


66 Analysis of Periodical Works on Natural History. 

very deserving and industrious botanist Mr. Baxter of the Ox¬ 
ford botanic garden, who received it a year or two ago from 
Brightwell in Berkshire, where it was found naturalized. 

We lay down the volume, under a sense of the highest re¬ 
spect for its excellent author, and will venture again to express 
our earnest hope that he will not remit in his labour until he 
has completed the Flora of Great Britain, and thus supplied 
us with a text-book worthy of the advanced state of science. 

Just published. 

New Tables of Life Contingencies ; containing the rate of 
mortality among the members of the Equitable Society, and the 
values of life annuities, reversions, &c. computed therefrom; 
together with extensive tables deduced from the Northampton 
rate of mortality, exhibiting the single and annual premiums 
for assurances on the joint existence, or last survivor, of two 
lives, or on one life against another, and the values of policies 
on single lives. To which are prefixed, a number of practical 
examples, illustrative of the application of the tables; and a 
new method of deducing the values of life annuities, &c. By 
Griffith Davies, actuary to the Guardian Assurance Company. 


ANALYSIS OF PERIODICAL WORKS ON NATURAL HISTORY. 

Zoological Journal. No. VII. 

This number contains the following articles Descriptions 
of thirteen Species of Formica, and three of Culex, found in the 
Environs of Nice , by Dr. Leach .—Descriptions of Neotoma 
Floridana, and Sigmodon hispidum, new mammiferous animals, 
of the order Glires, by Messrs. Say and Ord : from the Journal 
of the Philadelphia Academy.—Monograph of the Box Tor¬ 
toises^ by Mr. Bell: a new genus, St er noth cents, is described in 
this monograph, which is thus characterized : 66 Sternum uni¬ 
valve : lobus anterior mobiiis, lobi duo posteriores connexi, im- 
mobiles .”—On two Genera and several Species of Crinoidea, by 
Mr. Say : from the Journal of the Philadelphia Academy.— 
Additions to Mr. Say’s paper on Crinoidea; Notice of a Fossil 
belonging to the Class Radiaria, found by Dr.Bigsby in Canada ; 
and Descriptions of two new Species of the Genus Orbicula; by 
Mr. G. B. Sowerby .—On Leptophina, a group of Serpents com¬ 
prising the Genus Dryinus of Merrem, and a newly formed 
Genus named Leptophis, by Mr. Bell .—Generic and Specific 
Characters of Ophidian, Chelonian, and Batrachictn Reptilia, 
discovered by M. Spix in Brazil: from the splendid works on 
the Brazilian Reptiles by Spix and Wagler.— On the Genus 
Pscn'is of Cuvier, with an account of two new Species, P. crista- 

tus 




67 


Royal Society.—Linncean Society. 

tus and P. niger, by Mr. Swainson.— On the Isocardia Cor 
of the Irish Seas , by the Rev. J. Bulwer, F.L.S.— Descriptio7i 
of some new British Shells , by Dr. Turton : one of the shells 
described in this paper is generically new, and called Gale - 
omma ; being characterized as follows : 66 Testa bivalvis, aequi- 
valvis, aequilateralis, transversa; margine antico ovato-hiante. 
Cardo edentulus. Ligamentum internum.” The single spe¬ 
cies described by Dr. T., to which the conductors of the Jour¬ 
nal have assigned the specific appellation Twnto/zz, was dredged 
up in the English Channel during a gale of wind; but Mr. 
Sowerby is stated to have two other species, one from the 
Mauritius and the other from Van Diemen’s Land.— Sketches 
in Ornithology , by Mr. Vigors, comprising these sections,— 
On the groups of the Vidturidce—On a new genus of Falco - 
nidcc — On a new genus of Psittacidre , and On the arrangement 
of the genera of Birds : the last section consists of a list of the 
genera of Birds as they arrange themselves under their orders 
and families, in consonance with the views exhibited in the 
author’s paper “ On the Affinities of Birds,” lately published 
in the Linnean Transactions.— Analytical Notices of Books. — 
The subjects described in the Number are illustrated by four 
plates, three of which are coloured. 


XI. Proceedings of Learned Societies. 

ROYAL SOCIETY. 

Jan. 12.—following papers were read: Observations 
■*“ on the heat ol July 1825, together with some 
remarks on sensible cold, by W. Heberden, M.D. F.R.S.— 
Account of a series of observations to determine the difference 
of longitude between the national observatories of Greenwich 
and Paris, by J. F. W. Herschel, Esq. Sec. R.S.; commu¬ 
nicated by the Board of Longitude. 

Jan. 19.—On the Cambridge transit instrument, in a sup¬ 
plement to a former paper, by Robert Woodhouse, Esq. 
M.A. F.R.S. Plumian Professor of Astronomy in the Univer¬ 
sity of Cambridge.—On the magnetic influence of the solar 
rays, by S. H. Christie, Esq. M.A. F.R.S. 

Jan. 26.—On the barometer, by J. F. Daniell, Esq. F.R.S. 

LINNiEAN SOCIETY. 

Jan. 17.—Read a paper on some Cornish species of the 
genus Labrus , by Mr. Jonathan Couch, F.L.S. Among 

I 2 the 






68 Geological Society . 

the species noticed were Labrus Iulis; Tinea (Common 
Wrasse); cornubiemis (Goldsinny); microstoma (Corkwring); 
trimaculatus; Comber j Perea inermis. 


GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Nov. 18, 1825.—A notice was read respecting the appear¬ 
ance of fossil timber on the Norfolk coast, by Richard Taylor, 
Esq. of Norwich. 

In consequence of an extraordinary high tide which visited 
the coast of Norfolk on the 5th of February last, large por¬ 
tions of the cliffs, sometimes exceeding 200 feet in height, 
were precipitated into the sea, and an opportunity was af¬ 
forded of examining the site of a stratum containing a num¬ 
ber of fossil trees exposed on the east and west sides of the town 
of Cromer. In this singular stratum, composed of laminae 
of clay, sand, and vegetable matter, and about four feet in 
thickness, the trunks were found standing as thickly as is 
usual in woods, the stumps being firmly rooted in what ap¬ 
pears to be the soil in which they grew. They are invariably 
broken off about a foot and a half from the base. The stem 
and branches lie scattered horizontally; and amongst them 
are thin layers of decomposed leaves, but no fruits or seed- 
vessels. The species of timber appear to be chiefly of the 
Pine tribe, with occasional specimens of elm and oak : they 
are flattened by the pressure of the overlying alluvial strata. 
Mr. Taylor has not observed any animal remains in the stra¬ 
tum, except a skull of one of the Deer tribe ; but he supposes 
that the bones of elephants and other herbivorous animals 
found near this site may have been washed out of the same 
bed. 

An extract of a letter from the Right Hon. Earl Compton, 
F.G.S., to the President, was read, On the discovery of granite 
with green felspar found in excavations at Tivoli. In exca¬ 
vations made during the spring of 1825 at Tivoli, on the spot 
where the villa of Manlius Vopiscus stood, fragments of gra¬ 
nite were discovered, the felspar of which is of a green colour, 
exactly resembling that which is called Amazonian stone. “ As 
this rock was never before known to be among those employed 
by the ancients, it becomes a curious point,” observes the au¬ 
thor, “ to ascertain whence they derived it, since the modern 
localities ol the Amazonian stone are confined to Siberia and 
the continent of America.” As Egyptian hieroglyphics appear 
on the original surface of some of these fragments, Lord Comp¬ 
ton supposes the green granite to have been found, though a 
very rare substance, in Egypt. 

A paper was also read entitled Notice of traces of a subma¬ 
rine 



69 


Geological Society. 

line forest at Charmouth, Dorset, by H. T. De la Beche, Esq. 
F.R.S., G.S., &c.—A circumstance, seeming to indicate the 
existence of the remains of a submarine forest near the mouth 
of the Char, was lately pointed out to Mr. De la Beche by Miss 
Mary Anning, Upon a flat of some extent, stretching into 
the sea in front of the beach, only visible at low water, and 
composed of lias, patches of a blue clay show themselves, im¬ 
bedding pieces of blackened wood lying horizontally, similar 
in appearance to those usually met with in submarine forests: 
some of them are large, but the greater number must have 
been derived from small trees. Mixed with these are a few 
hazel-nuts, and abundant remains of plants, chiefly such as 
are found in marshy grounds. Angular and blackened pieces 
of chert and flint, precisely resembling those which occur in 
the diluvium on either side of the Char, form the substratum 
of this clay, which has been worn away in most places by the 
rolling of the large pebbles thrown up by the action of the sea 
upon the beach. 

Dec. 2.—A paper entitled Remarks on the geology of Ja¬ 
maica, by H. T. Dela Beche, Esq.F.G.S., was read in part, &c. 

A paper was also read entitled An account of an undescribed 
fossil animal from the Yorkshire Coal-field, by John Atkin¬ 
son, F.L.S., and Edward Sanderson George, F.L.S. 

Dec. 16.—A paper was read, On the chalk and sands be¬ 
neath it (usually termed Green-sand), in the vicinity of Lyme 
Regis, by H. T. De la Beche, Esq. F.G.S. See. 

Mr. De la Beche observes, that we ought not to suppose that 
the sands, marles, and clays which are immediately subja¬ 
cent to the chalk in the East of England, can be traced into 
other and distant countries, where however these sands, &c., 
as a mass, may be easily recognised. That this cannot be 
done even at comparatively short distances it is the object of 
this communication to prove, by examples derived from the 
cliffs at Lyme Regis in Dorsetshire, and Beer in Devonshire; 
detailed sections of which are given, and the succession of the 
strata and the organic remains which they contain fully de¬ 
scribed. The author first treats of the chalk, and the sands 
and sandstone usually called green-sand, as they occur be¬ 
tween Lyme Regis and Axmouth, and then notices the same 
formations as they are exhibited in the vicinity of Beer. 

From this examination it appears, that though there is a 
great correspondence in the organic remains, considerable 
changes take place in the mineral composition and characters 
ot the beds both of chalk and underlying sands, in short di¬ 
stances. Mr. De la Beche considers it probable that the Beer- 
stone is the equivalent of the Malm-rock of Western Sussex. 

A paper 


70 


Medico-Botanical Society of' London. 

A paper was also read, entitled, A geological sketch of part 
of the West of Sussex, and the N.E. of Hants, &c., by R. J. 
Murchison, Esq. F.G.S. &c. 

In this memoir Mr. Murchison describes the geological 
relations, distribution, and characteristic fossils of the strata of 
that part of the west of Sussex which is bounded on the south 
by the chalk escarpment of the South Downs, and that part 
of Hampshire which is included by the Alton chalk hills. 
These strata, commencing below the chalk, in a descending 
series, are, 1. Malm-rock, or upper green-sand.-—2. Gault.— 
3. Ferruginous green-sand.—4. Weald clay. The Weald 
clay in the valley of Harting Combe may be regarded as the 
central nucleus of this district; mantling round which, and ex¬ 
tending up to either chalk range, the other formations are de¬ 
veloped in regular succession : the breadth and boundaries 
of each are laid down by the author on a coloured portion of 
the Ordnance Map, to which a section is annexed. 

The Malm-rock of Western Sussex is identical with the stone 
of Merstliam: it is characterized by constituting terraces which 
afford a rich soil favourable to wheat. It sometimes furnishes 
a building-stone, contains occasionally a calcareous blue chert, 
and abounds in organic remains. 

The Gault of this district has been cut through to the depth 
of 120 feet, at Alice Holt, and iridescent Ammonites and other 
fossils are found in it. This clay is marked by fertile water- 
meadows ; and the timber, presenting a green belt, clearly dis¬ 
tinguishes it from the rich wheat land of the malm-rock above, 
and the arid expanse of the ferruginous green-sand below it. 

Of this latter formation the upper beds consist of pure 
white sand, and in some places compact ironstone and iron¬ 
stone in large cellular tubes are found in it. In the middle beds 
occurs a calcareo-siliceous grit, called Bargate-stone; in the 
lower, a siliceous yellow building-stone containing casts of Am¬ 
monites, Terebratulae, &c.—The Weald clay includes in its 
middle beds the compact Petworth marble; and in lower beds 
of clay in which tabular calcareous grit occurs, Mr. Murchison 
has discovered, together with scattered shells of the Vivipara 
Fluviorum , the bones of a large unknown vertebrated animal, 
specimens and drawings of which accompany this memoir. 

Jan. 6, 1826.—The reading of Mr. De la Reche’s paper on 
the geology of Jamaica was continued. 


MEDICO-BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

On Monday the 16th Jan. this Society held its anniversary 
meeting, when the following Officers and Council were elect¬ 
ed for the present year -.—President, Sir James M 4 Gregor, 

M.D. 




71 


Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris. 

M.D. F. R.S.-— Vice-Presidents, William'Thom as Braude, Esq.; 
-Sir Astlev Cooper, Bart. F.R.S.; Sir Alex. Crichton, F.R.S.; 
Sir William Franklin, F.R.S.; Edward Thomas Munro, 
M.D.; John Ayrton Paris, M.D. F.R.S. — 'Treasurer , Flenry 
Drummond, Esq. F.S.A.— Secretary , Richard Morris, Esq. 
F.L.S.— Director , John Frost, Esq. F.S.A.— Auditor of Ac- 
counts , William Newman, Esq.— Council , The President, 
Vice-Presidents, and other officers; together with Thomas 
Gibbs, Esq. F.H.S.; Theodore Gordon, M.D. M.R.A.S.; 
Thomas Jones, Esq.; George H. Roe, M.D.; John Gordon 
Smith, M.D.; William Yarrell, Esq. F.L.S. 

The gold medal of this Society was awarded to Matthew 
Curling Friend, Esq. Lieutenant in the Royal Navy and 
F.R.S., for his communication respecting certain articles of 
Materia Medica used in Africa: and the silver medal to 
James Hunter, Esq. F.H.S. 


ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF PARIS. 

Aug. 8.-—M. de Monferrand, professor at the Royal Col¬ 
lege of Versailles, wrote to the Academy with the design of 
showing that the properties of curves of the second degree, re¬ 
specting which M. Hachette had communicated a paper, were 
already known.—M. Dupetit-Thouars read a notice on the di¬ 
latation which slips of the White Poplar sometimes undergo. 
—A memoir by MM. Quoy and Gaimard was read, entitled 
Observations on certain Crustacea, considered with regard to 
their habits and geographical distribution ; succeeded by the 
description of some new species discovered during M. Frey- 
cinefs circumnavigation of the globe.—Dr. Lassis read a no¬ 
tice on the epizooty of 1815, and on that of the present year; 
and also the continuation of another notice on the causes of 
epidemics. 

Aug. 16.—M. Dupin read a notice on a new precept in 
geometry and mechanics, applied to the arts.—MM. Vau- 
quelin and Thenard made a favourable report on the memoir 
of MM. Bussy and Lecanu, entitled On the action of heat 
on the fatty bodies; and on that by M. Dupuy, On the distil¬ 
lation of those substances.—M. de Lacepede presented the 
new statutes of the University of New York, together with 
some meteorological observations made at Albany in that 
state.—M. Moreau de Jonnes read a note on the official in¬ 
quiries respecting the contagion of the yellow fever and the 
plague.—M. Marion read a memoir on cauterization in small¬ 
pox and other eruptive disorders. 

Aug. 22.—M. Bressy, a physician at Arpajon, transmitted 

to 



72 Natural Formation of various Metallic Oxides and Salts. 

to the Academy two pairs of spectacles which he calls rostral 
spectacles.—Drs. Laserre and Costa communicated some cri¬ 
tical remarks on M. Moreau de Jonnes’s note read as above.— 
M. Arago communicated extracts from two letters relative to 
the late appearance of two comets.—M. Mathieu, in the name 
of a committee, read a favourable report on a memoir of per¬ 
spective geometry, or a new method of describing bodies geo¬ 
metrically, by M. Cousinery.—M. Lonchamp read a memoir 
on the effects of a high temperature applied to the evapora¬ 
tion of liquids.—-M. Julia-Fontanelle read a memoir on the 
native hydrate of sulphur discovered in the department of 
the Aude.—-M. Arago, in the* name of a committee, gave a 
favourable report on the voyage of discovery made from 1822 
to 1825 under the command of Lieut. Duperrey. 

Aug. 29.—M. Berard, of Brian^on, communicated a new 
memoir on the theorem of Fermat.—Dr. Lassis addressed a 
letter to the Academy on the contagion of Typhus.—M. Ma- 
gendie presented a memoir on Hydrophobia, by Dr. Maro- 
chetti.—MM. Cuvier and Dumeril made a favourable report 
on M. Barry’s memoir relative to the action of the atmo¬ 
sphere on respiration.—M. Civiale read a memoir on lithon - 
tripty , or the new method of breaking the stone in the bladder. 


XII. Intelligence and Miscellaneous Articles. 

NATURAL FORMATION OF VARIOUS METALLIC OXIDES AND 

SALTS. 

npHE following is an abstract of a paper on this interesting 
subject, read before the Royal Society on the 17th of No¬ 
vember last: several other cases of the same nature will be found 
in our last volume, pp. 153 and 395. 

On the Changes that have taken place in some ancient 
Alloys ol Copper; in a letter from John Davy, M.D. F.R.S., 
to Sir Humphry Davy, Bart. Pres. R.S.—In this letter Dr. 
Davy, who is pursuing a train of scientific researches in the 
Mediterranean, describes the effects which time and the ele¬ 
ments have produced on various Grecian antiquities. The 
first he examined was a helmet of the antique form found in a 
shallow part of the sea between the citadel of Corfu and the 
village of Castrades, which was partly covered with shells and 
with an incrustation of carbonate of lime. Its entire surface, 
as well where invested with these bodies as where they were 
absent, presented a mottled appearance of green, white, and 
red. 1 he green portion consisted of the submuriate and the 

carbonate 




Magnetic Rotation . 73 

carbonate of copper, the white chiefly of oxide of tin, and the 
red of protoxide of copper in octahedral crystals, mingled with 
octahedrons of pure metallic copper. Beneath these substances 
the metal was quite bright, and it was found by analysis to 
consist of copper and 18*5 per cent of tin. A nail of a simi¬ 
lar alloy from a tomb at Ithaca, and a mirror from a tomb at 
Samos, in Cephalonia, presented the same appearances, but in 
less distinct crystallization: the mirror was composed of cop¬ 
per alloyed with about six per cent of tin, and minute portions 
of arsenic and zinc. A variety of ancient coins, from the ca¬ 
binet of a celebrated collector at Santa Maura, presented si¬ 
milar appearances, and afforded corresponding results; the 
white incrustations being oxide of tin, the green consisting of 
carbonate and submuriate of copper, and the red of the prot¬ 
oxide of the same metal; some having a dingy appearance ari¬ 
sing from the presence of black oxide of copper mingled with 
portions of the protoxide. Dr. Davy was unable to detect 
any relation between the composition of the respective coins 
and their state of preservation, the variation in this respect 
which they presented appearing to arise rather from the cir¬ 
cumstances under which they had been exposed to the mine¬ 
ralizing agents. In conclusion, Dr. Davy observed, that as 
the substance from which these crystalline compounds had been 
produced could not be imagined to have been in solution, their 
formation must be referred to an intimate motion of its particles, 
effected by the conjoint agency of chemical affinities, electro¬ 
chemical attraction, and the attraction of aggregation. He sug¬ 
gested the application of this inference to explain various phe¬ 
nomena in mineralogy and geology.— Annals of Philosophy. 


MAGNETIC ROTATION. 

M. Arago’s beautiful experiment is now well known, and, 
as it deserves, attracts attention every where. The following 
are some results obtained by MM. Prevost and Colladon, which, 
as they vary slightly in certain points from those as yet pub¬ 
lished in this country, will be interesting to such as pursue 
this branch of science. , 

A disc formed of a thick copper wire rolled in a spiral, pro¬ 
duced much less effect than a perfect disc of the metal of the 
same weight and size. 

A disc of glass covered with lead, or a single leaf of tin glued 
on to wood, sensibly deviated the needle. Wood alone, or 
sulphur, or a disc of peroxide of iron, had no appretiable ef¬ 
fect. 

A disc of hammered copper deviated the needle more 
strongly than the same disc annealed. 

. Vol. 67. No. 333. Jan . 1826. K A screen 



71 - Necessity of Water in the Preparation of Lead-plaster . 

A screen of copper, or copper and zinc interposed, dimi¬ 
nished the effect without destroying it. The diminution was 
greater as the screen was thicker, or placed nearer to the 
needle. A screen of glass had no influence. If the interposed 
metallic screen were pierced by an aperture equal in diameter 
to the length of the needle, its effect was very nearly the same. 

A vertical magnet suspended in the centre of a cylinder of 
copper remained unmoved, whatever the direction or rapidity 
of rotation of the ring. 

When two needles were fixed together in a similar direc¬ 
tion, the effect increased; when they were placed with their 
opposite poles together, it ceased entirely. 

A needle magnetized, so as to have similar poles at its two 
extremities, was the apparatus most sensible to the motion of 
the discs. It was one of this kind which the authors used in 
their delicate experiments. 

The conclusion arrived at by MM. Prevost and Colladon 
is, that the effects are due to a transient magnetization of the 
discs, which, not being able to modify itself with a rapidity 
proportional to that by w T hich the different points of the disc 
are displaced by rotation, are transported to a small angular 
distance from the needle before they are changed, and draw 
it after them. This is the same explanation in effect as that 
of MM. Herschel and Babbage. 

Experiments made with care to determine the influence of 
the velocity and the distance of the discs, indicated that the 
angles of deviation, and not their sines, augmented proportion¬ 
ally with the velocity, at least, within certain limits, and that the 
sines of the angles of deviation increased in an inverse ratio of 
the power of the distance. They were careful to employ, 
in this determination, discs having diameters very great in 
comparison to the length of the needle.— Bib. Univ. xxix. 316. 


NECESSITY OF WATER IN THE PREPARATION OF LEAD-PLASTER. 

Attempting to form lead-plaster, the Emplastrum Plumbi of 
the Pharmacopoeia *, without the use of w r ater, steam being the 
source of heat, I was surprised to find after several hours, du¬ 
ring which time the litharge and oil had been kept at a tem¬ 
perature of 220°, or thereabout, and constantly stirred, not 
the slightest appearance of combination ; upon the addition of 
a small quantity of boiling w r ater, the oil and oxide imme¬ 
diately saponified : water appeared, therefore, to be essential to 
the formation of the plaster. It also appeared probable the 
oxide might be in the state of hydrate. To ascertain if such were 
the case, I precipitated, by potash, the oxide from a quantity 
of acetate; the precipitate, when washed, was dried by a heat 

of 



75 


List of New Patents. 

of 220° until it ceased to lose weight. 100 grains, heated to 
redness in a tube, gave off* nearly 8 grains of water, and as¬ 
sumed the orange-colour of litharge : the recently precipitated 
oxide was no doubt, therefore, an hydrate; part of which, with 
somewhat less than two parts of olive oil, without any addi¬ 
tion of water, at a temperature of 212°, formed, in half an 
hour, perfect plaster. Each of these experiments has been 
repeated with precisely the same results. I am induced to 
mention this fact, because all pharmaceutical writers limit the 
action of the water to that of keeping down the temperature. 
H. H .—Journal of Science. 


LIST OF NEW PATENTS. 

To John M‘Curdy, of Cecil-street, Strand, esquire, for improvements 
in generating steam.—Dated 27th Dec. 1825.—6 months to enrol specifi¬ 
cation. 

To James Ogston and James Thomas Bell, of Davies-street, Berkley- 
square, watchmakers, for improvements in the construction or manufac¬ 
ture of watches, communicated from abroad.—Gth January, 1820.— 2 
months. 

To Richard Evans, of Bread-street and Queen-street, Cheapside, for 
improvements in the apparatus for and process of distillation.—7th Jan.— 
6 months. 

To Henry Houldsworth junior, of Manchester, for improvements in 
machinery for giving the taking-up or winding-on motion to spools or 
bobbins, &c. on which the roving or thread is wound in roving, spinning, 
and twisting machines.—16th Jan.—6 months. 

To Benjamin Newmarch, of Cheltenham, esquire, for his improved me¬ 
thod of exploding fire-arms. — 16th Jan.—6 months. 

To John Roth well, of Manchester, tape-manufacturer, for his improved 
heald or harness for weaving purposes.-—16th Jan.—2 months. 

To Henry Anthony Koymans, of Warnford-court, Throgmorton-street, 
for improvements, communicated from abroad, in the construction and use 
of apparatus and works for inland navigation.—16th Jan.—6 months. 

To John Frederick Smith, of Dunston Hall, Chesterfield, Derbyshire, 
esquire, for an improvement in drawing, roving, spinning and doubling 
wool, cotton, &c.— 19th Jan.—6 months. 

To William Whitfield, of Birmingham, for improvements in making of 
handles for saucepans, kettles, &c.—19th Jan.—6 months. 

To Benjamin Cook, of Birmingham, brass-founder, for improvements in 
making hinges.—19th Jan.—6 months. 

To Abraham Robert Lorent, of Gottenburg, Sweden, merchant, at pre¬ 
sent residing in King-street, Cheapside, for a method of applying steam 
without pressure to pans, boilers, coppers, stills, pipes, and machinery, in 
order to produce, transmit, and regulate various temperatures of heat in 
the processes of boiling, distilling, evaporating, inspissating, drying, and 
warming, and also to produce power.— 19th Jan.— 6 months. 

To Sir Robert Seppings, knight, a commissioner and surveyor of the navy, 
of Somerset House, for his improved construction of such masts and bow¬ 
sprits as are generally known.—19th Jan.—2 months. 

To Robert Stephenson, of Bridge Town, Stratford, Warwickshire, en¬ 
gineer, for axletrees to remedy the extra friction on curves to carriages used 
.on rail-roads, train-ways, and other public roads.—23d Jan.—6 months. 

K 2 Summaries 



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ANNUAL 




































































































Meteorological Register Joy 1825.—N. II. Yorkshire. 77 


ANNUAL RESULTS. 


Barometer. Inches. 

Highest observation, Jan. 9th. - Wind N. ... 30*800 

Lowest observation, Nov. 3d. Wind N.W. ... 28*550 

Range of the mercury . . 2*250 

Mean annual barometrical pressure . 29*878 

Greatest range of the mercury in January ... ... 1*730 

Least range of the mercury in July . *550 

Mean monthly range of the mercury . 1*200 

Spaces described by the different oscillations ... 64*040 

Total number of changes in the year . 156*000 


Six’s Thermometer . 

Greatest observation, July 18th. Wind N. 
Least observation, December 31st, Wind N. 
Range of the mercury in the thermometer 

Mean annual temperature ... . 

Greatest range in July .. 

Least range in February and November 
Mean monthly range . 

Winds . 


88°000 
18 000 
70 000 
48 171 
46 000 
29 000 
35 500 


North 

Days. 

... 67 

West 

Days. 

40 

North-East ... 

... 36 

North-West 

30 

1 > ast ... ... 

... 14 

Variable . 

21 

South-East ... 

... 19 

Brisk 

42 

South . 

... 49 

Boisterous 

22 

South-West ... 

... 89 




Rain , fyc. 

Inches, &c. 

Greatest quantity in December . 

3*280 

Least quantity in July . 

0*420 

Total amount for the year . 

27*370 

Days of rain . 

92*000 

Days of hail . 

4*000 

Davs of snow.. 

%/ 

12*000 

New Malton, January 6, 1826. 

J. s. 


Summary 

























78 Meteorological Register for 1825.—Westmoreland. 


Summary for the Year 1825, of the State of the Barometer > 
Thermometer, fyc. in Kendal . By S. Marshall, Esq* 


1825. 

Barometer 


Thermometer. 

Quantity 
of Rain 
in Inches. 

No. of 
rainy 
Days. 

Prevalent 

Winds. 

Quantity 
of Rain 
inInches 
in 1824. 

Max. 

Min. 

Mean. 

Max. 

Min. 

Mean. 

1st Month 

30-38 

28-52 

29-61 

0 

49-5 

0 

20-5 

35°72 

5932 

16 

NW. 

3-908 

2d Month 

30-14 

28-88 29-57 

48 

23 

37-66 

5*524 

9 

SW. 

2-906 

3d Month 

30-38 

29-03 

29-87 

58-5 

25 

39-42 

2-962 

11 

SW. 

6-301 

4th Month 

30-25 

29-09 

29*76 

65 

27 

45-51 

2-210 

12 

SW.&NW. 

2-377 

5th Month 

30-10 

29-30 

29-71 

70-5 

32 

51-21 

4096 

13 

SW. 

•681 j 

6th Month 

30-14 

29-08 

29-70 

80 

38 

55-50 

6-333 

14 

W. 

2-034 i 

7 th Month 

30-09 

29-29 

29-86 

85 

38 

60-39 

701 

4 

W. 

1721 

8th Month 

30-08 

29-05 

29-65 

80 

42 

5975 

4-558 

13 

SW. 

2.977 

1 9th Month 

3010 

2923 

29-59 

72 

37 

57-25 

6-624 

18 

SW. 

5-619 

jj 10th Month 

30-07 

28-86 

29-66 

66 

29 

49-79 

6-993 

24 

SW. 

7-598 

11th Month 

29-98 

28-45 

29-41 

52-5 

20 

38-82 

10-028 

19 

SW. 

13-433 

12th Month 

29-69 

28-76 

29-28 

51 

21 

38-95 

4-012 

16 

SW. 

13-207 

Average. 



29-64 

» 


47-49 

59-973 

169 


62-762 


Remarks. —The mean height of the barometer during the pre¬ 
sent year was greatest in the month of March (though in this 
part of the country that is usually the case in January), and least 
in December. The mean temperature exceeds that of 1824 
merely by half a degree. During the summer months the 
heat greatly exceeded that of last year; but towards the be¬ 
ginning and end of this, the weather has been more severe, 
which has tended nearly to equalize the annual means of 1824 
and 1825. 

The quantity of rain has fallen short of the last three years 
by nearly three inches, though it is still above the average for 
Kendal. In July, which is generally a wet month, there fell 
only *701 inch, and in November and December 14*030 inches. 
In these two months ofl824, 26*640 inches were taken, which 
is an unusually large quantity. The number of wet days in 
the present has fallen short of those in the last year, being 
169 ; but in 1824 there were 187. 

For eight months the prevalent wind was SW., which may 
be concluded, from preceding observations, to be decidedly the 
prevalent wind of Kendal. S. M. 


METEORQ- 
















































Meteorological Register for 1825.—Scotland. 79 

METEOROLOGICAL TABLE. 

Extracted from the Register kept at Kinfauns Castle, N. Bri¬ 
tain. Lat. 56° 23 / 30".—Above the level of the Sea 140 feet. 


1825. 

Morning, 

10 o’clock. 

Mean height of 

Evening, 

10 o’clock. 

Mean height of 

Mean 

Temp, 
by Six's 

I Depth 

of 

1 Rain. 

N° of Days. 

. k 1 .• 

Barom. 

Ther. 

Barom. 

Ther. 

Ther. 

Inch. 100 . 

« 5 0 
£ c 
^ c a 

Fail 

January .. 

,29-961 

39-387 

29936 

39935 

40-355 

1-45 

9 

22 

February. . 

29912 

39-928 

29-893 

39-250 

40-071 

0-95 

9 

19 

March .... 

29-992 

41-742 

29-978 

4 OT 6 I 

41-709 

1-20 

10 

21 

April. 

29-854 

47-300 

29-835 

43-600 

46-700 

2-40 

9 

21 

May ..... 

29 873 51’322 

29-897 

47*097 

50-096 

2*60 

13 

18 

June 

29785 57-566 

29-764 

53*000 

56-500 

2-50 

9 

21 

July. 

30-010 

63-097 

30020 

58-129 

62-032 

0-30 

5 

26 

August .. . 

29-733 

61-322 

29-725 

57-485 

60-838 

2-00 

9 

22 

September. 

29715 

58-600 

29-701 

54-866 

57-600 

2-35 

16 

14 

October. .. 

29-678 

51-322 

29-671 

48-903 

5M61 | 

2-15 

14 

17 

November . 

29-451 

41-400 

29-417 

39-833! 

41-066 

2-80 

9 

21 

December . 

29-412 

40-677 

29-437 

40-484 

40-451 i 

3-20 

17 

14 

Average of 
the year. 

29-781 

49-742 

29-773 

46-895 

49*048 

23-90 

129 

236 


ANNUAL RESULTS. 
MORNING. 


Barometer. 

Thermometer. 


Observations. 

Wind. 

Wind. 


Highest, 9th Jan. 

SW. 30-80 

16th June, SW. . 

. 71® 

Lowest, 18th Jan. 

E. 23 66 

31st December. W, 

. 25® 


EVENING. 


Highest, 9th Jan. 

SW. 30-75 

30th July, SE. 

. 66° 

Lowest) 5th Nov. 

SE. 2864 

31st December, W. 

. 26® 

Weather. 

Bays. 

Wind. 

Times 

Fair. 

. . 236 

N. andNE. . . . . 

9 

Ruin or Snow . 

. . 129 

E. and SE. 

. 119 



S. and SW. .... 

. 95 


365 

W. and NW. 

. 142 




365 


Extreme Cold and Ileat, by Si x’s Thermometer. 

Coldest, 31st December . . Wind W. . . . 21° 

Hottest, 18th July .... Wind W. . . . 80° 

Mean Temperature for 1825.49° 048 


Result of two Rain Gauges. In. 100 


1. Centre of Kinfauns Garden, about 20 feet above the level 

of the Sea... 

2. Square Tower, Kinfauns Castle, about 140 feet .... 


23*90 

2345 


METEORO- 























































METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS in London, and of Dr. BURNEY 
at Gosport , omitted in the Number for November. 


London 


Gosport, at half-past Eight o’Clock, a.m. 


Days of 

larom. 
past 8 . 
riches. 

.5 d 

.08 

• 

0 

<« >H* 

O 0J 

• 

6 

0 

• 

Month, 

1825. 

0 « 

«s 0 

<3 

X! 

QJ . 

H 

bO 

>> 

X 

a 

• pH 
£ 


1-4 


H 


O Oct .26 

30-02 

30-10 

40 

55*00 

70 

NW. 

27 

29-90 

30-00 

49 


72 

N. 

28 

2994 

30-00 

53 


76 

NW. 

29 

29*92 

30-06 

56 


80 

W. 

30 

29-90 

30-05 

52 


72 

w. 

31 

29-80 

3002 

48 

55-00 

76 

w. 

Nov. 1 

29-87 

30-00 

55 


81 

w. 

2 

29-72 

29-85 

48 


82 

w. 

<C 3 

28-93 

29-11 

54 


72 

sw. 

4 

29*45 

29-62 

41 


72 

NW. 

5 

29-90 

29-95 

36 


73 

NW. 

6 

29-15 

29-29 

55 


87 

SW. 

7 

29-20 

29-26 

41 


71 

NW. 

8 

29-32 

29-36 

40 

54-60 

67 

E. 

9 

29-02 

29-19 

44 


69 

W. 

© 10 

28-76 

28-60 

42 


100 

NE. 

ll 

29-32 

29-34 

38 


85 

N. 

12 

2975 

29-77 

37 


71 

N. 

13 

29-85 

29-88 

31 


82 

N. 

14 

29-80 

29-88 

43 


74 

NW. 

15 

30-00 

30-05 

38 

54-10 

75 

N. 

16 

30-11 

30-17 

37 


81 

NW. 

]> 17 

3004 

30-08 

40 


86 

E. 

18 

29-90 

29-97 

44 


90 

S. 

19 

29-80 

29-88 

45 


92 

w. 

20 

30-10 

30-27 

38 

53-70 

88 

w. 

21 

2970 

2990 

51 

. 

91 

NW. 

22 

29-82 

29-95 

40 

i 

87 

NW. 

23 

30-12 

30-30 

, 40 


86 

w. 

24 

30-11 

30-20 

49 


90 

sw. 

O 25 

30-16 

30-22 

i 42 

53-15 

88 

NW. 

Aver. : 

29-21 

29-817 44-10 54-26 

80-2 



I 

g • 
o 5 
p i o 
cf' ,rH - 
> 


W 


n-a 

cu a 
O 3 
C O 

.SO 

(2*! 


0*15 
® • • 

• • • 
•15 
• • • 

• • • 
*30 
• • • 

• • • 
•20 


10 


0 


•12 


•17 


•09 


13 


0-15 


1-56 


145 


105 

020 


100 
025 
• • • • 
165 
110 


820 

170 

510 


010 


010 
020 
030 
010 
• • • • 
080 


085 

160 


1 


Clouds. 


3-575 12 


11 


27 


1 

U 


21 


£ 


23 


OBSERVATIONS in Gosport, London, and Boston; continued from the last 

Number to the end of 1825. 


Gosport, at half-past Eight o’Clock, a.m. 


Clouds. 


Days of 
Month, 

1825. 

Barom. in 
Inches,&c. 

Thermo. 

Temp, of 
Sp. Water. 

Hygrom. 

Wind. 

Dec. 26 

29*95 

40 

51-60 

90 

W. 

27 

29-87 

30 


90 

NW. 

28 

29-70 

26 


86 

NW. 

29 

29-56 

32 


90 

NE. 

30 

29-60 

29 


87 

NW. 

31 

29-76 

26 

51-35 

84 

NW. 

Aver : 

29740 

30-5051-47 

87-8 



Evapora¬ 

tion. 

Rain near 
the Ground. 

| Cirrus. 

• 

E 

3 

0 

0 

s- 

u 

u 

1 

1— 

+* 

C/3 

O 

u 

0 

1 

] 

Stratus. 

| Cumulus. 
_| Cumuiost. 

a? 

3 

X 

£ 

Z, 

1 


0-030 

1 




| 

0-12 




1 

... 

l' 1 






1 


...1 1 




1 


l 

1 

..] l 

1 

•14 

•220 

• • • 

1 

1 

1 

... 

1 1 

1 

0-26 

0-250 

2 

2 

6 

~2 

21 5 

1 


Days of 
Month, 
1825.. 

Height of 

Thermometer. 

1 Rain. 

Weather. 

Inches 

stei, in 

i, &c. 

Lc 

S 

< 

00 

Nl) 

C 

O 

£ 

ON. 

£ 

p—^ 

p-h 

• 

g 

£ < 
£ Hf 

London. 

Boston. 

Lond. 

1 P.M. 

Bost. 

8-^a.m. 

London. 

Boston. 

Wind, 

Dec. 26 

29-82 

29-55 

38 

42 

40 

38-5 

... 

• • A 

Fair 

Snow p.m. 

SW. 

27 

29-89 

29-42 

30 

32 

28 

33 

• • • 

t • « 

Snow 


W. 

28 

29-70 

29-42 

32 

38 

34 

33 

• • • 

• • • 

Cloudy 


w. 

29 

29*66 

29-40 

33 

34 

$4 

31-5 

• • • 

• A A 

Foggy 


w. 

30 

29-75 

29-45 

30 

33 

29 

31-5 

0 A A 

a A A 

Fair 

Snow p . m . 

w. 

31 

2979 

29-50 

28 

32 

33 

32 

e • • 

•17 

Fair 


sw. 





























































































































































































































THE 


PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZIN 
AND JOURNAL, 


28 th FEBRUARY 1826. 


XIII. On the Theory of the Figure of the Planets contained in 
the Third Book of the Mecanique Celeste. By J. Ivory, 
Esq. M.A. F.R.S . 

.[Concluded from p. 37.] 

II. r pHERE can be no other apology for the observations 
-*■ which I have made on the analysis of Laplace, ex¬ 
cept that they are true and rigorously proved. And as this 
is the best apology that can be made, so I am not aware that 
any other is necessary. To avoid as much as possible all 
objection and cavil, I have employed in the proof the authors 
own mode of investigation. Speculations of this kind are at 
present entirely out of fashion, or rather they are discouraged 
and undervalued as much as possible. They seem even to be 
excluded from what is popularly 'called the inductive philo¬ 
sophy, forgetting that they form a part of the noblest and 
most successful induction that, we may venture to predict, 
will ever do honour to the human intellect. What has occu¬ 
pied the attention of Maclaurin and Simpson, of D’Alembert, 
Lagrange and Laplace, is now utterly condemned as useless, 
with a degree of levity that will not easily be believed. But 
the exclusive spirit which reigns so powerfully at present, 
whether it proceeds from particular interests or from narrow 
views of science, will at length spend its force ; and the dis¬ 
cussion I have undertaken may then contribute to place an 
important branch of the philosophy of New r ton on a solid 
foundation. It follows from what has been shown, that the 
method of Laplace, when freed from series without con- 
vergency, and reduced to what is strictly demonstrative, is 
confined to a class of spheroids first proposed by D’Alem¬ 
bert. We cannot, therefore, allow that the method is per¬ 
fectly general, unless it were proved that the class of spheroids 
mentioned comprehends every case in which the conditions 
of equilibrium can possibly be fulfilled. But it is greatly to 
be wished that so important a part of the system of the world 
as the theory of the figure of the planets, were deduced from 
Vol. 67. No. 334. Feb. 1826. L sui*q 




82 Mr. Ivory on the Theory of the Figure oj the Planets 

sure principles, by a process of reasoning not depending upon 
any dubious or intricate point of analysis. 

In treating of the figure ‘ of the planets there are three dif¬ 
ferent cases that principally engage attention. We may con¬ 
sider the equilibrium of a fluid mass that is homogeneous; or 
of one composed of strata varying in density according to any 
law; or we may suppose a solid nucleus wholly or partially 
covered with a fluid. Although the principles on which I 
proceed are equally applicable in every case, yet for the sake 
of brevity and simplicity I here confine myself to the first case 
only; namely, the equilibrium of a homogeneous mass of 
fluid. Such is the intimate connexion which binds together 
the different parts of the same theory, that if we can fairly 
overcome the difficulties which obstruct our progress in one 
case, every other case will readily be brought within our 
power. 

Now the principles by which Laplace has determined the 
equilibrium of a homogeneous fluid mass are these two: first, 
the direction of gravity must be every where perpendicular to 
the outer surface; secondly, the radius r of the spheroid must 
come under this formula, viz. r = a (1 + ay \ y being a func¬ 
tion of the angles which determine the position of the radius, 
and a a small coefficient of which the square and higher 
powers are to be neglected. In the theory of Laplace, the 
equilibrium of a fluid of uniform density is a necessary conse¬ 
quence of the two conditions mentioned. Of these the first is 
entirely mathematical; the only purpose it can serve is to al¬ 
low the rejecting of certain quantities which would otherwise 
embarrass calculation; but it can in no respect contribute to 
make out the proof of the equilibrium, which must be deduced 
from hydrostatical principles alone. Whether there be an 
equilibrium or not must depend entirely on the first condition. 
If that is sufficient, Laplace’s solution will be exact; otherwise 
we must conclude that it is defective, and we can consider it 
only as a method of calculation which accidentally leads to a 
result that we know to be true from other considerations. 

We have now then to inquire what are the conditions ne¬ 
cessary to the equilibrium of a homogeneous fluid. The whole 
received doctrine on this head is contained in the single pro¬ 
position following. Conceive a homogeneous fluid contained 
within a continuous surface, and let #, y , z denote the rect¬ 
angular co-ordinates of a point in the surface drawn to three 
planes intersecting in the centre of gravity of the mass; then, 
<p denoting a function of «r, y, z, if the equation of the outer 
surface be <p z= C ; 

the fluid will be in equilibrio , if every molecule, whether si¬ 
tuated 


contained in the Third Book of the Mecanique Celeste. 83 
tuated in the surface or any where in the interior of the fluid, is 
urged by the forces , ~ * n the direction of the co- 

o J dx 7 dy 7 dz 

ordinates and tending to shorten them, it being always under¬ 
stood that the co-ordinates of the molecule are to be substi¬ 
tuted in the expressions of the forces. 

In order to demonstrate this proposition take the differential 
of the equation of the surface ; then 

dp d(p , d p 

^ ' dy + 


d x 


dx + 


dy 


d z 


dz = 0: 


now 


d p 
dx 7 


dp dp 


, are the forces which act upon a molecule 

dy dz L 

in the surface at the point of which x,y, z are the co-ordinates; 
and if we put 


V 


fy. 


then p , which is the resultant of the partial forces, will repre¬ 
sent the gravity at the exterior surface; and it is easy to de¬ 
duce front the differential equation that the direction of p will 
be perpendicular to that surface. Suppose that the constant 
quantity C in the equation of the fluid’s surface decreases by 

a small variation, then ^ ^ ^ 

$ = (y — 0 O, 

which will be the equation of a surface in the interior of the 
mass indefinitely near the outer surface: and since the forces 
which urge every molecule of the fluid are expressed by the 
same functions of the co-ordinates of the molecule, it follows 
that the resultant of the forces acting at any point of this new 
surface w r ill be perpendicular to it, for the same reason that 
the like resultant is perpendicular to the outer surface. And 
as we may conceive that C decreases by indefinitely small 
gradations till it is entirely exhausted, it is evident that the 
whole fluid mass may be supposed to be divided into thin 
strata separated from one another by surfaces perpendicular 
to the forces which urge the molecules contained in them. 
Clairaut has called such surfaces Couches de niveau , or level 
surfaces, from the property which they possess in common of 
being perpendicular to the direction of gravity. Again, let k 
denote the perpendicular distance between the outer surface 
of the fluid and the level surface immediately below it; and 
let x, y , z be the co-ordinates of the extremity of k in the first 
surface, and x — §x, y — $y, z — § s the co-ordinates of the 
other extremity in the other surface; then if we substitute the 
respective co-ordinates in the equations 

<p = C 

<p = c - $ c, 

. • and 














84 Mr. Ivory on the Theory of the Figure of the Planets 


and take the difference, we shall get 

+ + ALiz = SC. 

dx dy u dz 

As before, put _ 

? - v /(£)'+(5)’ + (^> 

and it will be easy to prove that the cosines of the angles 
which the lines 8 8 y, $ z make with k are respectively equal 



i 

cl <p 

i 

d <p 

1 

X 

d i p 



to 

— X 



X ~T~t 


J 


P 

dx ’ 

p 

dy 

V 


d z 



hence 










8 x — 

X 

j Ss 

d (p 
d x 5 

- 

k 

= — X 
P 

d <p 
dy 3 

, 8 z 

— 

k 

— X 
P 

d <P . 
d z 


wherefore, by substituting these values in the foregoing ex¬ 
pression, we shall obtain 




Suppose, further, that the level surface is divided into equal 
elementary parts, one of which is d s ; then 1c x d s will repre¬ 
sent the small mass of fluid contained between the two sur¬ 
faces upon the base ds; and, jp being the resultant of the 
forces that urge every molecule of the small mass, k x p X d s 
= ds x 8 C will represent its pressure upon the level sur¬ 
face : wherefore, since 8 C and d s are the same at every point 
of the surface, it follows that the pressure will be equal upon 
all equal spaces of the level surface. In the very same man¬ 
ner it may be shown that the second stratum presses equally 
upon the level surface below it; and the same thing is mani¬ 
festly true of all the successive strata in order. But as the 
number of strata increases, the fluid within them continually de¬ 
creases in quantity; ultimately therefore it will be reduced to a 
particle which exerts no force, and which, being pressed equally 
on all sides, cannot fail to be in equilihrio . Remounting now 
from this central drop to the exterior surface, it is evident that 
the whole mass of fluid, and every part of it bounded by a 
level surface, will be separately in equilibi'io . 

In the foregoing demonstration w T e have followed the ideas 
of Clairaut in his excellent work on the figure of the earth*. 
It appears from the reasoning that all the conditions of equi¬ 
librium are contained in the equation of the external surface, 
viz. <p = C, 

nothing more being necessary than that $ be a function of 


* Figure dc la Terre, prem. partie, $ xxi. 


three 














contained in the Third Book of the Mecanique Celeste. 85 


three independent co-ordinates. Instead of the equation itself 
we may substitute its fluxion, viz. 


d <p 
dx 


d <p 


d (p 


dx H —dy + —- dz — 0; 

d y ^ ft v. . 


d z 


which again amounts to affirming that the resultant of the 


forces 


4^-. 4 1 , ~r~ urging a molecule in the external sur- 

dx ' dy 7 dz ° b 


face must be perpendicular to that surface. 

From what has now been shown, it appears that Laplace in 
his investigation has strictly adhered to the received theory 
of fluids. But the algebraic calculus, in its generalizations, is 
apt to overlook distinctions, the neglect of which sometimes 
leads to error and inconclusive reasoning. It never can be 
too often repeated, that analysis is merely an engine of in¬ 
vestigation, although a very powerful one. All its force and 
all its beauty are derived, as in the ancient geometry, from the 
certainty of the principles on which it proceeds, and from the 
clearness with which it traces their consequences. The mat¬ 
ter we are considering will furnish an example of a theory 
which is correct in general, but which becomes defective when 
applied in circumstances where a modification is necessary. 
In the foregoing investigation p is the gravity at the level sur¬ 
face immediately below the external surface; or lather, it is the 
gravity which, according to the principles of the differential 
calculus, is supposed to remain without change from the one 
surface to the other. The force p therefore depends entirely 
on the level surface and the matter within it; p x k x d s is the 
pressure which this force causes by its action on an elementary 
part of the superincumbent stratum. In the investigation of 
Clairaut the pressure mentioned is supposed to be the only 
force which the stratum exerts on the fluid below it; and if 
we allow that it is equable, and likewise that the whole mass 
is in equilibria^ it will follow that the part bounded by the 
level surface will be in equilibrio separately, if the stratum 
above it were taken away or annihilated. But, in the case of 
a planet, there is another force that must be taken into ac¬ 
count, besides the pressure of the stratum caused by the gra¬ 
vitation at the level surface: it is the attraction of the stra¬ 
tum itself upon all the particles within it. The existence of 
this force is a consequence of the law universally prevailing in 
nature, that every particle of matter attracts every other par¬ 
ticle. Thus, in the case of a planet, the stratum is made to 
press upon the fluid below it by two different forces,—by the 
gravitation at the level surface, and by the attraction which its 
own matter exerts upon the particles within it. Both these 

pressures 








86 Mr. Ivory on the Theory of the Figure of the Planets 

pressures must be equable over the whole level surface, other¬ 
wise Clairaut’s reasoning will not apply; and as they are pro¬ 
duced by independent causes, they cannot possibly be included 
in one and the same equation. In the case of a planet it there¬ 
fore becomes necessary to add to Clairaut’s theory a new con¬ 
dition, which can only be derived from the figure of the stra¬ 
tum. If we suppose that the stratum is possessed of such a 
figure as to attract every particle in the inside with equal force 
in opposite directions, it is manifest that the attraction of the 
stratum will not disturb the equilibrium of the fluid below it, 
and consequently that the pressure upon the level surface 
must be equable. Every level stratum being subjected to this 
new condition at the same time that the usual equation of the 
level surface is retained, we may extend Clairaut’s demonstra¬ 
tion to the case of a planet; and as the two conditions are suf¬ 
ficient, so we must infer that they are necessary, for the equi¬ 
librium. Thus are we led to the true conditions requisite to 
the equilibrium of a homogeneous mass of fluid consisting of 
particles that mutually attract one another, which are these 
two; viz. 1st, The resultant of the forces acting at every point 
of the external surface must be perpendicular to that surface; 
2dly, A stratum of the fluid contained between two level sur¬ 
faces must attract every particle in the inside with equal forces 
in opposite directions. 

It follows from what has been proved, that the solution of 
Laplace is defective, because one of the conditions that must 
be attended to in the case of a planet is omitted. We have 
no direct evidence that the figure brought out is one of equi¬ 
librium. Whether the result be exact or not, is accidental, 
and can be known in no other way than by a comparison 
with other solutions derived from unexceptionable principles. 

We can now assign the reason why Maclaurin, and all those 
who supposed an elliptical spheroid, have succeeded in this in¬ 
vestigation. That condition of equilibrium which has always 
been omitted in the hydrostatical theory, is contained in the 
assumed figure. In a homogeneous ellipsoid the level sur¬ 
faces are similar to the outer surface; and the author of the 
Principia has proved that a hollow shell of homogeneous 
matter, contained between two similar elliptical surfaces, at¬ 
tracts a particle in the inside with equal force in opposite di¬ 
rections. Thus the most difficult and abstruse part of the 
investigation being contained in the very hypothesis assumed, 
the rest of the solution is readily completed by the more ob¬ 
vious principles ol hydrostatics. It deserves to be mentioned 
that of the two requisite conditions, the second, or the one 
which has always been omitted, determines the kind of figure 

without 


contained in the Third Book of the Mecanique Celeste. 87 

without which the equilibrium cannot subsist; the other ascer¬ 
tains the proportion of the forces necessary to make that figure 
possible. 

We can now likewise discover, a priori , why Laplace’s 
method, in the circumstances supposed, brings out a result 
which is exact as a first approximation. It arises from this,— 
that, when the fluid is a perfect sphere, the two conditions of 
equilibrium coincide in one; for Newton has proved that a 
spherical shell of homogeneous matter attracts a particle in 
the inside equally in opposite directions. What is exactly 
true in the case of a sphere, must be nearly so when the fluid 
approaches indefinitely to that figure; and in these circum¬ 
stances, the second condition being implied to a certain extent 
in the first, we obtain an approximation by means of the lat¬ 
ter alone. This, however, is true only of the first step in ap¬ 
proximating to the figure of a planet; in proceeding further it 
becomes necessary to take in all the conditions of equilibrium. 

I shall only add one more remark on the analysis of La¬ 
place. The radius of the spheroid, drawn from the centre of 
gravity, is represented by a series of this form, viz. 

r = a + aa [Y<*> + W 3 > + Y (4) + &c,}, 

the terms on the right-hand side being the development of the 
function y. This expression has nothing to do with the con¬ 
ditions of equilibrium; it belongs to every spheroid nearly 
spherical. Now the second of the conditions of the problem, 
or that one which determines the species of the figure neces¬ 
sary to the equilibrium, proves immediately that the radius 
can consist only of two terms, viz. 

r — a -f a a Y (2 '. 

In the method of Laplace the superfluous terms are got rid 
of by a particular mode of reasoning, which does not cohere 
well with the rest of the investigation, and certainly hurts the 
unity of solution. The process, indeed, is not long in the case 
of a uniform density; but when the fluid is composed of 
strata of variable density, the reasoning is both long and com¬ 
plicated, and the result is at length brought out by dint of 
calculation *. There is therefore a great advantage in solving 
the problem, as it ought to be solved, by the true principles 
of the case, both because it is more satisfactory to the mind, 
and because it is more simple. The observation here made is 
of the greater importance as it extends to the theory of the 
tides, and to the other questions treated of in the Mecanique 
Celeste , where the figure of the planets is concerned, the same 
form of the radius being assumed in all these cases, 

* Livre iii. £ 29 & 30. 


In 



88 Mr. Ivory on the Theory of the Figure of the Planets . 

In a paper printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 
1824 I have investigated the conditions of the equilibrium of 
a homogeneous mass of fluid, and have applied them to de¬ 
termine the figure which it will assume when it is urged by 
the attraction of its particles and a centrifugal force caused by 
a rotation about an axis passing through the centre of gravity. 
This is the first general solution of the problem that has been 
deduced from the principles of hydrostatics, without having 
recourse to approximations, and without introducing arbitrary 
suppositions. It must be allowed, however, that the investiga¬ 
tion is in some respects not so simple as it might be made. 
But I propose to return to this subject, and in a particular 
work to treat the theory of the figure of the planets from its 
fundamental principles. 

Feb. 3, 1826. James IvORY. 

N. B. In the Conn . des Terns, for 1828, M. Puissant, in a 
note at p. 220, notices a mistake in naming an angle I fell into 
in the solution of a geodetical problem inserted in the Philo¬ 
sophical Magazine for July 1824, and which is corrected in 
the same Journal for April 1825. The least attention to the 
solution would have shown M. Puissant that the import of the 
angle, which I have inadvertently called the true latitude , is 
fixed by the assumed values of the co-ordinates. Hence it 
cannot possibly be what I have said it is; it is the reduced 
latitude , and can be nothing else. There certainly is a mis¬ 
nomer ; but the accuracy of the solution is not affected by it, 
because the meaning of the angle is determined independently 
of the name given to it. M. Puissant uses these words, “ 11 est 
aise de voir que le calcid rt est pas fo?ide sur des considerations 
analytiques assez rigoureuses, puisque le theoreme qui en decoule 
n’est pas parfaitement exact T Now here M. Puissant is passing 
sentence without having examined the case. My solution is 
perfectly exact: it is deduced from the most rigorous princi¬ 
ples of analysis; although, in enunciating the theorem in ques¬ 
tion, I have inadvertently given the name of the true latitude 
to an angle, which in the analysis stands for the reduced lati¬ 
tude, and can possibly stand for nothing else. In the pages of 
the same Journal I have made many observations relating to 
subjects treated of in the Conn . des Terns; and although it would 
excite no surprise to find all these discussions passed by in 
silence in that work, yet it is rather remarkable that an inad¬ 
vertence alone, substantially of no moment, and which has 
been corrected so long ago, is held up to public notice and 
carelessly misrepresented. J. I. 


XIV. Further 


[ 89 ] 


XIV. Further Researches 071 the Preservation ofMetalsby Electro¬ 
chemical Means. By Sir Humphry Davy, Bart. Pres. R.S.* 

TN two papers read before the Royal Society I have de- 

scribed the effects of small quantities of electro-positive 
metals in preventing the corrosion or chemical changes of 
copper exposed to sea water, and I have stated that the results 
appear to be of the same kind, whether the experiments are 
made upon a minute scale and in confined portions of water, 
or on large masses and in the ocean. 

The first and preliminary experiments proved that the cop¬ 
per sheeting of ships might be preserved by this method; but 
another and a no less important circumstance was to be at¬ 
tended to,—how far the cleanness of die bottom, or its freedom 
from the adhesion of weeds or shell fish, would be influenced 
by this preservation. 

The use of the copper sheathing on the bottom of ships is 
twofold: First, to protect the wood from destruction by worms: 

And secondly, to prevent the adhesion of weeds, barnacles, 
and other shell fish. No worms can penetrate the wood as 
long as the surface of the copper remains perfect; but when 
copper has been applied to the bottom of a ship for a certain 
time, a green coating or rust, consisting of oxide, submuriate 
and carbonate of copper, and carbonate of magnesia, forms 
upon it, to which weeds and shell fish adhere. 

As long as the whole surface of the copper changes or cor¬ 
rodes, no such adhesions can occur; but when this green rust 
has partially formed, the copper below is protected by it, and 
there is an unequal action produced, the electrical effect of 
the oxide, submuriate, and carbonate of copper formed, being 
to produce a more rapid corrosion of the parts still exposed 
to sea water; so that the sheets are often found perforated 
with holes in one part after being used five or six years, and 
comparatively sound in other parts. 

There is nothing in the poisonous nature of the metal which 
prevents these adhesions. It is the solution by which they are 
'prevented-—the wear of surface. Weeds and shell fish readily 
adhere to the poisonous salts of lead which form upon the 
lead protecting the fore part of the keel; and to the copper, 
in any chemical combination in which it is insoluble. 

In general, in ships in the navy the first effect of the adhe¬ 
sion of weeds is perceived upon the heads of the mixed metal 
nails, which consist of copper alloyed by a small quantity of 

* From the Philosophical Transactions for 1825, part ii. 

Vo!. 67. No. 334. Feb. 1826. M 


tin. 


90 Sir H. Davy’s further Researches 

tin. The oxides of tin and copper which form upon the head 
of the nail and in the space round it, defend the metal from 
the action of sea water; and being negative with respect to it, 
a stronger corroding effect is produced in its immediate vici¬ 
nity, so that the copper is often worn into deep and irregular 
cavities in these parts. 

When copper is unequally worn, likewise in harbours or 
seas where the water is loaded with mud or mechanical depo¬ 
sits, this mud or these deposits rest in the rough parts or de¬ 
pressions in the copper, and in the parts where the different 
sheets join, and afford a soil or bed in which sea weeds can fix 
their roots, and to which zoophytes and shell fish can adhere. 

As far as my experiments have gone, small quantities of 
other metals, such as iron, tin, zinc, or arsenic, in alloy in 
copper, have appeared to promote the formation of an insolu¬ 
ble compound on the surface; and consequently there is much 
reason to believe must be favourable to the adhesion of weeds 
and insects. 

I have referred in my last paper to the circumstance of the 
carbonate of lime and magnesia forming upon sheets of cop¬ 
per, protected by a quantity of iron above 1-120th part, when 
these sheets were in harbour and at rest. 

The various experiments that I have caused to be made at 
Portsmouth show all the circumstances of this kind of action; 
and I have likewise elucidated them by experiments made on 
a smaller scale, and in limited quantities of water. It appears 
from these experiments that sheets of copper, at rest in sea 
water, always increase in weight from the deposition of the 
alkaline and earthy substances when defended by a quantity 
of cast iron under 1-150th of their surface; and if in a limited 
or confined quantity of water, when the proportion of the de¬ 
fending metal is under 1-4000th. With quantities below 
these respectively proportional for the sea, arid limited quan¬ 
tities of.water, the copper corrodes; at first it slightly in¬ 
creases in weight, and then slowly loses weight. Thus a 
sheet of copper 4 feet long, 14 inches wide, and weighing 
9 lbs. 6oz. ? protected by 1-100th of its surface of cast iron, 
gained in ten weeks and five days 12 drachms, and was coated 
over with carbonate of lime and magnesia: a sheet of copper 
of the same size protected by 1-150, gained only 1 drachm 
in the same time, and a part of it was green from the adhering 
salts of copper; whilst an unprotected sheet of the same class, 
both as to size and weight, and exposed for the same time, 
and as nearly as possible under the same circumstances, had 
lost 14 drachms: but experiments of this kind, though they 

* See Phil. Mag. vol. lxv. p. 205. 


agree 


on the Preservation of Metals by Electro-chemical Means . 91 

agree when carried on under precisely similar circumstances, 
must of necessity be very irregular in their results, when made 
in different seas and situations, being influenced by the degree 
of saltness, and the nature of the impregnations of the water, 
the strength of tide and of the waves, the temperature, &c. 

In examining sheets which had been defended by small 
quantities of iron in proportions under 1-250 and above 
1-1000, whether they were exposed alone, or on the sides of 
boats, there seemed to me no adhesions of Conferva ?, except 
in cases where the oxide of iron covered the copper imme¬ 
diately round the protectors; and even in these instances such 
adhesions were extremely trifling, and might be considered 
rather as the vegetations caught by the rough surface of the 
oxide of iron, than as actually growing upon it. 

Till the month of July 1824 all the experiments had been 
tried in harbour, and in comparatively still water; and though 
it could hardly be doubted that the same principles would 
prevail in cases where ships were in motion, and on the ocean, 
yet still it was desirable to determine this by direct experi¬ 
ment; and I took the opportunity of an expedition intended 
to ascertain some points of longitude in the North Seas, and 
which afforded me the use of a steam-boat, to make these re¬ 
searches. Sheets of copper carefully weighed, and with dif¬ 
ferent quantities of protecting metal, and some unprotected, 
were exposed upon canvass so as to be electrically insulated 
upon the bow of the steam-boat; and were weighed and ex¬ 
amined at different periods, after being exposed in the North 
Seas to the action of the water during the most rapid motion 
of the vessel. Very rough weather interfered with some of 
these experiments, and many of the sheets were lost, and the 
protectors of others were washed away; but the general re¬ 
sults were as satisfactory as if the whole series of the arrange¬ 
ments had been complete. It was found that undefended sheets 
of copper of a foot square lost about 6*55 grains in passing at 
a rate averaging that of eight miles an hour in twelve hours; 
but a sheet having the same surface, defended by rather less 
than 1-500, lost 5*5 grains; and that like sheets defended by 
l-70th and l-100th of malleable iron were similarly worn, and 
underwent nearly the same loss, that of two grains, in passing 
through the same space of water. These experiments (the re¬ 
sults of which were confirmed by those of others made during 
the whole of a voyage to and from Heligoland, but in which 
during the return the protectors were lost) show that motion 
does not affect the nature of the limits and quantity of the 
protecting metal; and likewise prove that, independently of 
the chemical, there is a mechanical wear of the copper in 

M 2 sailing, 


92- 


Sir H. Davy’s further Researches 

sailing, and which on the most exposed part of the ship, and 
in the most rapid course, bears a relation to it of nearly 2 to 
4*55. 

I used the very delicate balance belonging to the Royal So¬ 
ciety in these experiments; the sheets of copper weighed be¬ 
tween 7 and 8000 grains; and I was fully enabled to ascertain 
by means of this balance a diminution of weight upon so large 
a quantity, equal to 1-100th of a grain. It was evident from 
a very minute inspection of the sheet with the largest quantity 
of protecting metal, that there was not any adhesion of alka¬ 
line or earthy substances to its surface. 

Having observed, in examining the results of some of the 
experiments on the effects of single masses of protecting metal 
on the sheeting of ships, that there was in some cases in which 
sheets with old fastening had been used, tarnish or corrosion, 
which seemed to increase with the distance from the protecting 
metal, it became necessary to investigate this circumstance, 
and to ascertain the extent of the diminution of electrical ac¬ 
tion in instances of imperfect or irregular conducting surfaces. 

With single sheets or wires of copper, and in small confined 
quantities of sea water, there seemed to be no indications of 
diminution of conducting power, or of the preservative effects 
of zinc or iron, however divided or diffused the surface of 
the copper, provided there was a perfect metallic connexion 
through the mass. Thus a small piece of copper, containing 
about 32 square inches, was perfectly protected by a quantity 
of zinc which was less than 1-4000th part of the whole sur¬ 
face ; and a copper wire of several feet in length was prevented 
from tarnishing by a piece of zinc wire which was less than 
1-1400th part of its length. In these cases the protecting 
metal corroded with great rapidity, and in a few hours was 
entirely destroyed; but when applied in the form of wire and 
covered, except at its transverse surface, with cement, its pro¬ 
tecting influence upon the same minute scale was exhibited 
for many days. A part of these results depend upon the ab¬ 
sorption of the oxygen dissolved in the water when its quantity 
is limited, by the oxidable metal, and of course the proportion 
of this metal must be much larger when the water is constantly 
changing; but the experiments seem to show r that any diminu¬ 
tion of protecting effect at a distance does not depend upon 
the nature of the metallic, but of the imperfect or fluid con¬ 
ductor. 

This indeed is shown by many other results. 

A piece of zinc and a piece of copper in the same vessel of 
sea water, but not in contact, were connected by different 
lengths of fine silver wire of different thickness. It was found 

that 


on the Preservation of Metals by Electro-chemical Means. 93 

that whatever lengths of wire of 1-300th of an inch were used, 
there was no diminution of the protecting effect of the zinc; 
and the experiment was carried so far as to employ the whole 
ol a quantity ol extremely fine wire, amounting to upwards of 
forty feet in length, and of a diameter equal only to 100-98742 
of an inch, when the results were precisely the same as if the 
zinc and copper had been in immediate contact. 

Pieces of charcoal, which is the worst amongst the more per¬ 
fect conductors, were connected by being tied together, and 
made the medium of communication between zinc and cop¬ 
per, upon the same principles, and with the same views as 
those just described, and with precisely the same conse¬ 
quences. 

In my first experiments upon the effects of increasing the 
length or diminishing the mass of the imperfect or fluid con- 
ducting surface in interfering with the preserving effects of 
metals, I used long narrow tubes; but I found them very in¬ 
convenient ; and I had recourse to the more simple method of 
employing cotton or tow for this purpose. 

Several feet of copper wire in a spiral form were connected 
with a small piece of zinc wire of about half an inch in length. 
The zinc and a portion of the copper were introduced mto 
one glass, and the coils of copper wire were introduced into 
other glasses, so as to form a series of six or seven glasses, 
which were filled with sea water, and made part of the same 
voltaic arrangement, by being connected with pieces of tow 
moistened in sea water. 

It was found in these experiments, that when the pieces of 
tow connecting the glasses were half an inch in thickness, the 
preserving effect of the zinc in the first glass was no where 
diminished, but extended apparently equally through the whole 

When the pieces of tow were about the fifth of an inch in 
thickness, a diminution of the preserving effects of the zinc 
was perceived in the fourth glass, in which there was a slight 
solution of copper ; in the fifth glass this result was still more 
distinct, and so on till in the seventh glass there was a con¬ 
siderable corrosion of the copper. 

When the tow was only the tenth of an inch in thickness, 
the preserving effect of the zinc extended only to the third 
glass; and in each glass more remote, the effect of corrosion 
was more distinct, till in the seventh glass it was nearly the 
same as if there had been no protecting metal. AH the che¬ 
mical changes dependent upon negative electricity were suc¬ 
cessively and elegantly exhibited in this experiment. In the 
first glass, containing the zinc, there was a considerable and 


94 


Sir H. Davy’s further Researches 

hasty deposition of earthy and alkaline matter, and crystals of 
carbonate of soda adhered to the copper at the surface where 
it was clean and bright; but in the lower part it was coated 
with revived metallic zinc. In the second glass the wire was 
covered over with fine crystals of carbonate of lime; and the 
same phenomenon of the separation of carbonate of soda oc¬ 
curred, but in a less degree. In the third glass the wire was 
clean, but without depositions; and the presence of alkaline 
matter could only be distinguished by chemical tests. In the 
fourth glass the copper was bright, evidently in consequence 
of a slight but general corrosion, but with a scarcely sensible 
deposit; in the fifth, the deposit was very visible; and in the 
seventh the wire was covered with green rust. 

These results, which showed that a very small quantity only 
of the imperfect or fluid conductor was sufficient to transmit 
the electrical power, or to complete the chain, induced me to 
try if copper nailed upon wood, and protected merely by zinc 
or iron on the under surface, or that next the wood, would 
not be defended from corrosion. For this purpose I covered 
a piece of wood with small sheets of copper, a nail of zinc of 
about the 1-200th part of the surface of the copper being pre¬ 
viously driven into the wood: the apparatus was plunged in 
a large jar of sea water: it remained perfectly bright for many 
weeks; and when examined, it was found that the zinc had 
only suffered partial corrosion, that the wood was moist, and 
that on the interior of the copper there was a considerable 
portion of revived zinc, so that the negative electricity, by its 
operation, provided materials for its future and constant ex¬ 
citement. In several trials of the same kind, iron was used 
with the same results; and in all these experiments there ap¬ 
peared to be this peculiarity in the appearance of the copper, 
that unless the protecting metal below was in very large mass, 
there were no depositions of calcareous or magnesian earths 
upon the metal; it was clean and bright, but never coated. 
The copper in these experiments was nailed sometimes upon 
paper, sometimes upon the mere wood, and sometimes upon 
linen; and the communication was partially interrupted be¬ 
tween the external surface and the internal surface by cement; 
but even one side or junction of a sheet seemed to allow suf¬ 
ficient communication between the moisture on the under sur¬ 
face and the sea water without, to produce the electrical effect 
of preservation. 

These results upon perfect and imperfect conductors led to 
another inquiry, important as it relates to the practical appli¬ 
cation of the principle; namely, as to the extent and nature of 
the contact or relation between the copper and the preserving 

metal. 


on the Preservation of Metals by Electro-chemical Means . 95 

metal. I could not produce any protecting action of zinc or 
iron upon copper through the thinnest stratum of air, or the 
finest leaf of mica, or of dry paper; but the action of the me¬ 
tals did not seem to be much impaired by the ordinary coating 
of oxide or rust; nor was it destroyed when the finest bibulous 
or silver paper, as it is commonly called, was between them, 
being moistened with sea water. I made an experiment with 
different folds of this paper. Pieces of copper were covered 
with one, two, three, four, five and six folds; and over them 
were placed pieces of zinc, which were fastened closely to them 
by thread: each piece of copper so protected was exposed in a 
vessel of sea water, so that the folds of paper were all moist. 

It was found, in the case in which a single leaf of paper was 
between the zinc and the copper, there was no corrosion of 
the copper; in the case in which there were two leaves, there 
was a very slight effect; with three, the corrosion was distinct; 
and it increased, till with the six folds the protecting power 
appeared to be lost: and in the case of the single leaf there 
was this difference from the result of immediate contact, that 
there was no deposition of earthy matter:—showing that there 
was no absolute minute contact of the metals through the 
moist paper; which was likewise proved by other experiments: 
for a thin plate of mica, as I have just mentioned, entirely de¬ 
stroyed the protecting effect of zinc; and yet when a hole was 
made in it, so as to admit a very thin layer of moisture be¬ 
tween the zinc and copper, the corrosion of the copper, though 
not destroyed, was considerably diminished. 

The rapid corrosion of iron and zinc, particularly when 
used to protect metals, only in very small quantities, induced 
me to try some experiments as to their electro-chemical powers 
in menstrua out of the .contact, or to a certain extent removed 
from the contact of air, such as might be used for moistening 
paper under the copper sheathing of ships. The results of 
these experiments 1 shall now detail. A small piece of iron 
was placed in one glass filled with a saturated solution of 
brine, which contains little or no air; copper, attached by a 
wire to the iron, was placed in a vessel containing sea water, 
which was connected with the brine by moistened tow. The 
copper did not corrode, and yet the iron was scarcely sensibly 
acted upon, and that only at the surface of the brine; and a 
much less effect was produced upon it in many weeks than 
would have been occasioned by sea water in as many days. 

With zinc and brine in the same kind of connexion there 
was a similar result; but the solution of the zinc was com¬ 
paratively more rapid than that of the iron, and the copper 

was 


96 


Sir H. Davy’s further Researches 

was rendered’more highly negative, as was shown by a slight 
deposition of earthy matter upon it. 

A solution of potassa, or of alkaline substances possessing 
the electro-positive energy, has nearly the same effect on sa¬ 
line solutions as if they were deprived of air, and when mixed 
with sea water impedes the action of metals upon them; but 
if used in quantity in combinations such as these I have just 
described, in which iron is the protecting metal, it destroys the 
result, and renders the iron negative. Thus, if iron and cop¬ 
per in contact, or fastened to each other by wires, be in two 
vessels of sea water connected by moist cotton or asbestos, all 
the various circumstances of protection of the two metals by 
each other may be exhibited by means of solution of potassa. 
By adding a few drops of solution of potassa to the water in 
the glass containing the iron, the negative powers of the cop¬ 
per in the other glass are diminished; so that the deposition 
of the calcareous and magnesian earths upon it is considerably 
lessened: by a little more solution of potassa the deposition is 
destroyed, but still the copper remains clean. The corrosion 
of the iron, which before was rapid, is now almost at an end; 
and a few drops more of the solution of potassa produces a 
perfect equilibrium: so that neither of the metals undergoes 
any change, and the whole system is in a state of perfect re¬ 
pose. By making the fluid in the glass containing the iron 
still more alkaline, it no longer corrodes; and the green tint 
of the sea water shows that the copper is now the positively 
electrified metal; and when the solution in the glass containing 
the iron is strongly alkaline, the copper in the other glass cor¬ 
rodes with great rapidity, and the iron remains in the electro¬ 
negative and indestructible state. 

I began this paper by some observations upon the nature 
of the processes by which copper sheeting is destroyed by sea 
water, and on the causes by which it is preserved clean, or 
rendered foul by adhesions of marine vegetables or animals ; 
I shall conclude it by some further remarks on the same sub¬ 
ject, and with some practical inferences and some theoretical 
elucidations, which naturally arise from the results detailed in 
the foregoing pages. 

The very first experiment that I made on harbour-boats at 
Portsmouth, proved that a single mass of iron protected fully 
and entirely many sheets of copper, whether in w r aves, tides, 
or currents, so as to make them negatively electrical, and in 
such a degree as to occasion the deposition of earthy matter 
upon them: but observations on the effects of the single con¬ 
tact of iron upon a number of sheets of copper, where the 

junctions 


on the Preservation of Metals by Electro-chemical Means. 97 

junctions and nails were covered with rust, and that had been 
in a ship for some years, showed that the action was weakened 
in the case of imperfect connexions by distance, and that the 
sheets near the protector were more defended than those re¬ 
mote from it. Upon this idea I proposed, that when ships, 
of which the copper sheathing was old and worn, were to be 
protected, a greater proportion of iron should be used, and 
that if possible it should be more distributed. The first ex¬ 
periment of this kind was tried on the Sammarang, of 28 guns, 
in March 1824, and which had been coppered three years be¬ 
fore in India. Cast iron, equal in surface to about l-80th of 
that of the copper, was applied in four masses, two near the 
stern, two on the bows. She made a voyage to Nova Scotia, 
and i eturned in January 1825. A false and entirely un¬ 
founded statement respecting this vessel was published in most 
of the newspapers,—that the bottom was covered with weeds 
and barnacles. I was at Portsmouth soon after she was 
brought into dock: there was not the smallest weed or shell¬ 
fish upon the whole of the bottom from a few feet round the 
stern protectors to the lead on her bow. Round the stern 
protectors there was a slight adhesion of rust of iron, and upon 
this there were some zoophytes of the capillary kind, of an 
inch and a half or two inches in length, and a number of mi¬ 
nute barnacles, both Lepas anatifera and Balanus Tintinna- 
bulum. For a considerable space round the protectors, both 
on the stern and bow, the copper was bright; but the colour 
became green towards the central parts of the ship; yet even 
here the rust or verdigrease was a light powder, and only 
small in quantity, and did not adhere, or come off in scales, 
and there had been evidently little copper lost in the voyage. 
That the protectors had not been the cause of the trifling and 
perfectly insignificant adhesions by any electrical effect, or by 
occasioning any deposition of earthy matter upon the copper, 
was evident from this,—that the lead on the bow, the part of 
the ship most exposed to the friction of the water, contained 
these adhesions in a much more accumulated state than that 
in which they existed near the stern; and there were none at 
all on the clean copper round the protectors in the bow; and 
the slight coating of oxide of iron seems to have been-the 
cause of their appearance. 

I had seen this ship come into dock in the spring of 1824, 
before she was protected, covered with thick green carbonate 
and submuriate of copper, and with a number of long weeds, 
principally Fuel, and a quantity of zoophytes, adhering to dif¬ 
ferent parts of the 'bottom ; so that this first experiment was 

Vol. 67. No. 334. Feb, 1826. N bUhlv 


98 Sir H. Davy’s further Researches 

highly satisfactory, though made under very unfavourable cir¬ 
cumstances. 

The only two instances of vessels which have been recently 
coppered, and which have made voyages furnished with pro¬ 
tectors, that I have had an opportunity of examining, are the 
Elizabeth yacht, belonging to the Earl of Darnley, and the 
Carnebrea Castle, an Indiaman, belonging to Messrs. Wig- 
ram. The yacht was protected by about 1-125th part of 
malleable iron placed in two masses in the stern. She had 
been occasionally employed in sailing, and had been some¬ 
times in harbour, during six months. When I saw her in 
November she was perfectly clean, and the copper apparently 
untouched. Lord Darnley informed me that there never had 
been the slightest adhesion of either weed or shell-fish to her 
copper, but that a few small barnacles had once appeared on 
the loose oxide of iron in the neighbourhood of the protectors, 
which however were immediately and easily washed off. The 
Carnebrea Castle, a large vessel of upwards of 650 tons, was 
furnished with four protectors, two on the stern and two on 
the bow, equal together to about 1-104th of the surface of the 
copper. She had been protected more than twelve months, 
and had made the voyage to Calcutta and back. She came 
into the river perfectly bright; and when examined in the dry 
dock was found entirely free from any adhesion, and offered 
a beautiful and almost polished surface ; and there seemed to 
be no greater wear of copper than could be accounted for 
from mechanical causes. 

Had these vessels been at rest, I have no doubt there would 
have been adhesions, at least in Portsmouth or Sheerness 
harbours, where the water is constantly muddy, and where 
the smallest irregularity or roughness of surface, from either 
wear, or the deposition of calcareous matter, or the formation 
of oxides or carbonates, enables the solid matter floating in the 
water to rest. There is a ship, the Howe, one of the largest 
in the navy, now lying at Sheerness, which was protected by 
a quantity of cast iron judged sufficient to save all her copper, 
nearly fifteen months ago. She has not been examined ; but 
I expect and hope that the bottom will be covered with ad¬ 
hesions, which must be the case if her copper is not corroded : 
but notwithstanding this, whenever she is wanted for sea, it 
will only be necessary to put her into dock for a day or two, 
scrape her copper, and wash it with a small quantity of acidu¬ 
lous water, and she will be in the same state as if newly cop¬ 
pered. 

At L iverpool, as I am informed, several ships have been 

protected, 


on the Preservation of Metals by Electro-chemical Means . 99 

protected, and have returned after voyages to the West Indies, 
and even to the East Indies. The proportion of protecting 
metal in all of them has been beyond what I-have recom¬ 
mended, l-90th to 1 -70th; yet two of them have been found 
perfectly clean, and with the copper untouched after voyages 
to Demarara; and another nearly in the same state, after two 
voyages to the same place. Two others have had their bot¬ 
toms more or less covered with barnacles; but the preserva¬ 
tion of the copper has been in all cases judged complete. The 
iron has been placed along the keel on both sides ; and the 
barnacles, in cases where they have existed, have been generally 
upon the flat of the bottom ; from which it may be concluded, 
that they adhered either to the oxide of iron, or the calcareous 
deposits occasioned by the excess of negative electricity. 

In the navy the proportion adopted has been only 1-250th 
of cast iron, at least for vessels in actual service, and when the 
object is more cleanness than the preservation of the copper. 

In is very difficult to point out the circumstances which 
have rendered results, such as these mentioned with respect 
to Liverpool traders, so different under apparently the same 
circumstances, i. e. why ships should exhibit no adhesions or 
barnacles after tw r o voyages, whilst on another ship, with the 
same quantity of protection, they should be found after a 
single voyage*. This may probably depend upon one ship 
having remained at rest in harbour longer than another, or 
having been becalmed for a short time in shallow seas, where 
ova of shell fish, or young shell fish existed; or upon oxide of 
iron being formed, and not washed off, in consequence of calm 
weather, and which consolidating, w r as not afterwards sepa¬ 
rated in the voyage. From what I can learn, however, the 
chance of a certain degree of foulness, in consequence of the 
application of the full proportion of protecting metal, wi 11 not 
prevent ship-owners from employing this proportion, as the 
saving of copper is a very great object; and as long as the cop¬ 
per is sound, no danger is to be apprehended from worms. 

It ought to be kept in mind that the larger a ship, the more 
the experiment is influenced by the imperfect conducting 
power of the sea water, and consequently the proportion of 
protecting metal may be larger without being in excess. 

I have mentioned these circumstances because they apply to 
ships already coppered, and because I have heard that a Liver¬ 
pool ship, of which it w r as doubtful whether the copper was in a 
state such as would enable her to make another vovage to India 

* The quality of the copper may be another cause. 

N 2 * with 


100 Sir H. Davy on the Preservation of Copper , fyc. 

with security, has, by the application of protectors of l-70th, 
made this voyage *, without apparently any wear of her sheet¬ 
ing ; and that she is now preparing with the same protectors 
to make another voyage. 

In cases when ships are to be newly sheathed, the experi¬ 
ments which have been detailed in the preceding pages render 
it likely, that the most advantageous way of applying protection 
will be under, and not over the copper: the electrical circuit 
being made in the sea water passing through the places of 
junction in the sheets; and in this w r ay every sheet of copper 
may be provided with nails of iron or zinc, for protecting 
them to any extent required. By driving the nail into the 
wood through paper wetted with brine above the tarred paper, 
or felt, or any other substance that may be employed, the in¬ 
cipient action will be diminished; and there is this great ad¬ 
vantage, that a considerable part of the metal will, if the pro¬ 
tectors are placed in the centre of the sheet, be deposited and 
re-dissolved: so there is reason to believe that small masses 
of metal will act for a great length of time. Zinc, in conse¬ 
quence of its forming little or no insoluble compound in brine 
or sea water, will be preferable to iron for this purpose; and 
whether this metal or iron be used, the waste will be much 
less than if the metal was exposed on the outside: and all dif¬ 
ficulties with respect to a proper situation in this last case are 
avoided. 

The copper used for sheathing should be the purest that 
can be obtained; and in being applied to the ship, its surface 
should be preserved as smooth and equable as possible: and 
the nails used for fastening should likewise be of pure copper; 
and a little difference in their thickness and shape will easily 
compensate for their want of hardness. 

In vessels employed for steam navigation the protecting 
metal can scarcely be in excessf, as the rapid motion of these 
ships prevent the chance of any adhesions; and the wear of 
the copper by proper protection is diminished more than two- 
thirds. 


* The Dorothy. 

f 1 have mentioned in the two last communications on this subject some 
application of the principle; many others will occur. In submarine con¬ 
structions—to protect wood, as in piles, from the action of worms, sheathing 
of copper defended by iron in excess may be used: when the calcareous 
matter deposited will gradually form a coating of the character and firm¬ 
ness of hard stone. 


XV. Reply 


[ 101 ] 


XV. Reply to Mr. Davies’s Postscript on Mr. Herapath’s 

Demonstration. By P. Q. 

To the Editor of the Philosophical Magazine and Journal. 
Sir, 

BEG to trouble you with one more view of the extremely 
1 simple and obvious matter of dispute between Mr. Davies 
and myself; and if this be not satisfactory to Mr. D. I must 
despair of giving any that is, and shall therefore give up the 
point. 

Let x, y be any two variable and absolutely independent 
integers; and let a be any non-integer also independent of 
both x and y. Then 

[x + #) + (?/ — «) = 2 = some variable integer. 

But because x is a variable integer independent of y , and a is 
independent of both, x + a considered as a variable, whose 
changes are by integral saltations, is independent of y — a, 
whose changes are likewise by integral saltations. That is, the 
saltations of x + a do not necessarily affect the value or salta¬ 
tions of y — a; which is evidently the utmost that the princi¬ 
ple of Mr. Herapath’s demonstration requires; for it only 
needs that the function of one non-integer, of x -j- a for ex¬ 
ample, should not be affected by the changes of the other, 
y .— a. Mr. Davies’s error seems to consist in making the 
variation of these non-integers continuous and to depend on 
that of the common part a. 

I wish to make no observations that may provoke a reply; 
but I beg to observe, that Mr. Davies is altogether mistaken 
in saying, “ that the inquiry does not call for the considera¬ 
tion of indeterminate integers .” The spirit of Mr. Herapath’s 
demonstration (Phil. Mag. for May 1825, p. 324,) is expressly 
founded on the assumed indeterminate nature of the integer n 9 
as any one may see by referring to the above page. 

If Mr. Davies will also turn to the page he refers to, “ Phil. 
Mag., November 1824, p. 333,” and also to Annals of Philos, 
for December 1824, p. 420, he will find that “ Mr. Hera¬ 
path’s mode of establishing some theorems in periodical func¬ 
tions,” is not “ founded on the assumed independence of two 
fractions whose sum is an integer;” nor has it the most di¬ 
stant allusion to such a principle. Of course, Mr. Davies’s 
objections, which he admits are grounded on such a presump¬ 
tion, rest on mistaken views. 

I have already observed, that I wish not to say anything 
which may educe a reply; therefore, and therefore only, I pass 

over 


Dr. S. D. Carver on a Meteoric Stone 


102 

over Mr. Davies’s defence of his circular comparison, and one 
or two other points. 

In retiring from this controversy, I do it with a full and un¬ 
qualified conviction of the perfect accuracy and completeness 
of that part of Mr. Herapath’s labours I have endeavoured to 
defend. I retire, because I am sure the further occupying 
of your pages with a subject so simple and axiomatic, will ap¬ 
pear to the majority of your readers unnecessary and super¬ 
fluous. With respect to Mr. Davies, I leave him in full pos¬ 
session of my esteem, and on any other subject I shall be most 
to see your Journal ornamented with his labours. 

P. Q. 

Erratum in my paper, Phil. Mag., Nov. 1825. 

Page 855, Theorem, for F s ( p r , q r ) read Ys(p r , q v ). 


XVI. Notice of a Meteoric Stone which fell at Nanjemoy , in 
Maryland , North America , on February 10, 1825. By Dr. 
Samuel D. Carver. In a Letter to Professor Silliman # . 

T TAKE the liberty of forwarding you a notice of a meteoric 
i stone which fell in this town on the morning of Thursday, 
February 10, 1825. The sky was rather hazy, and the wind 
south-west. At about noon the people of the town and of the 
adjacent country were alarmed by an explosion of some body 
in the air, which was succeeded by a loud whizzing noise, like 
that of air rushing through a small aperture, passing rapidly 
in the course from north-west to south-east, nearly parallel 
with the river Potomac. Shortly after, a spot of ground on 
the plantation of Capt. W. D. Harrison, surveyor of this port, 
was found to have been recently broken; and on examination 
a rough stone of an oblong shape, weighing sixteen pounds 
and seven ounces, was found about eighteen inches under the 
surface. The stone, when taken from the ground, about half 
an hour after it is supposed to have fallen, was sensibly warm, 
and had a strong sulphureous smell. It has a hard vitreous 
surface, and when broken appears composed of an earthy or 
siliceous matrix, of a light slate colour, containing numerous 
globules of various sizes, very hard, arid of a brown colour, 
together with small portions of brownish yellow pyrites, which 
become dark coloured on being reduced to powder. I have 
procured for you a fragment t of the stone, weighing four 
pounds and ten ounces , which was all I could obtain. Various 
notions were entertained by the people in the neighbourhood 

* From Silliman’s Journal of Science, vol. ix. p. 351. 
f This specimen is not yet received.— Amfr. Edit. 

on 





which fell at Nanjemoy , N. America , Feb. 10, 1825. 103 

on finding the stone. Some supposed it propelled from a quarry 
eight or ten miles distant on the opposite side of the river; 
while others thought it thrown by a mortar from a packet lying 
at anchor in the river, and even proposed manning boats to 
take vengeance on the captain and crew of the vessel. 

I have conversed with many persons living over an extent of 
perhaps fifty miles square; some heard the explosion, while 
others heard only the subsequent whizzing noise in the air. All 
agree in stating that the noise appeared directly over their 
heads. One gentleman, living about 25 miles from the place 
where the stone fell, says, that it caused his whole plantation 
to shake, which many supposed to be the effect of an earth¬ 
quake. I cannot learn that a fire-ball or any light was seen 
in the heavens,—all are confident that there was but one re¬ 
port, and no peculiar smell in the air was noticed. I here¬ 
with transmit the statement of Capt. Harrison, the gentleman 
on whose plantation the stone fell. 

Statement of TV. D. Harrison , Esq. 

On the 10th of February 1825, between the hours of twelve 
and one o’clock, as nearly as recollected, I heard an explosion, 
as I supposed, of a cannon, but somewhat sharper. I imme¬ 
diately advanced with a quick step about twenty paces, when 
my attention was arrested by a buzzing noise, resembling that 
of a humming bee, which increased to a much louder sound, 
something like a spinning-wheel, or a chimney on fire, and 
seemed directly over my head, and in a short time I heard 
something fall. The time which elapsed from my first hearing 
the explosion, to the falling, might have been fifteen seconds. 
I then went with some of my servants to find where it had 
fallen, but did not at first succeed (though, as I afterwards 
found, I had got as near as 30 yards to the spot); however, 
after a short interval, the place was found by my cook, who 
had (in the presence of a respectable white woman) dug down 
to it before I got there, and a stone was discovered from 22 
to 24 inches under the surface, and which after being washed, 
weighed sixteen pounds, and which was no doubt the one 
which 1 had heard fall, as the mud was thrown in different di¬ 
rections from 13 to 16 steps. The day w as perfectly clear, a 
little snow w r as then on the earth in some places, which had 
fallen the night previous. The stone when taken up had a 
strong sulphureous smell; and there w'ere black streaks in the 
clay which appeared marked by the descent of the stone. I 
have conversed with gentlemen in different directions, some 
of them from 18 to 20 miles distant, who heard the noise (not 
the explosion). They inform me that it appeared directly 

, over 


104 Mr. G. Chilton’s Analysis of the Maryland A'drolite. 

over their heads. There was no fire-ball seen by me or others 
that I have heard. There was but one report, and but one 
stone fell, to my knowledge, and there was no peculiar smell 
in the air. It fell on my plantation, within 250 yards of my 
house, and within 100 of the habitation of the negroes. 

I have given this statement to Dr. Carver, at his request, 
and which is as full as I could give at this distant day, from 
having thought but little of it since. Given this 28th day of 
April 1825. W. D. Harrison, 

Surveyor of the port of Nanjemoy, Maryland. 


XVII. Analysis of the Maryland. Aerolite. By George 
Chilton, Lecturer on Chemistry , §c. % 

r T'HE piece of Maryland aerolite f subjected to examination, 
-*■ weighed 228*30 grains in air, and lost 62*25 grains by im¬ 
mersion in water, at 60° temperature. Its specific gravity is 
therefore 3*66. The external crust was taken off, and the re¬ 
mainder powdered, not very finely, and separated into two 
parts by the magnet; 40 grains were obedient to the magnet, 
25 of which were taken for examination. The same quantity 
was taken of the unmagnetical portion. 

Examination of the unmagnetical Portion of the Maryland 

Aerolite . 

Process 1.—The 25 grains were digested in dilute nitric 
acid; an undissolved part floated, which, together with the 
solution, was decanted from a heavier part, which remained 
at the bottom of the flask. To this last, muriatic acid was 
added, and digestion continued till every thing soluble was 
taken up. The two insoluble parts, managed in the usual 
way and carefully dried, weighed 15*87 grains. During ex¬ 
posure to a red heat, in a crucible, sulphur burnt off with its 
usual blue flame, and left siliceous earth which weighed 14*6 
grains. 

P? 'ocess 2.—The acid solutions were mixed together and 
evaporated slowly to dryness; during which, portions of mat¬ 
ter fell down, which, together with a portion left after treating 
the dry mass with water, weighed 0*7 gr. at the common tem¬ 
perature. On further examination they proved to be silica 
and oxide of iron. By estimation, 0*3 silica, and 0*2 oxide of 
iron, in the perfectly dried state. 

* From Silliman’s Journal, vol. x. p. 131. 

t A notice of the fall of this aerolite was published in our last number : 
[see the preceding article.— Ed.] For a more particular description of the 
stone, and^ for illustrative remarks respecting it, see the end of this paper. 
—Amer. Edit. 


Process 




Mr. G. Chilton’s Analysis of the Maryland Aerolite . 105 


Pi 'ocess 3.—Bi-carbonate of potash was added to the solu¬ 
tion, which was heated a little. The precipitate was separated 
by the filter, washed and digested in pure potash. The caustic 
liquor, drawn off by the syphon, super-saturated with muriatic 
acid, and treated with carbonate of ammonia, yielded a pre¬ 
cipitate which after ignition weighed 0*1 gr. It appeared to 
be alumina contaminated with oxide of iron. 

Process 4.—The filtered solution, from which the first pre¬ 
cipitate in the last process was separated, was boiled; a gray 
earth fell down in flocks. The addition of potash occasioned 
a further deposit. On heating, it changed to a cinnamon- 
brown colour; dilute sulphuric acid, added in excess, dis¬ 
solved it, with the exception of a brown residue, which weighed 
after ignition 0*2 gr. Before the blowpipe, with borax and 
phosphoric salt, this brown matter yielded yellow beads—in¬ 
dicating nickel ? 

Process 5.—The sulphuric solution of the last process was 
evaporated to dryness, and heated further to drive off the ex¬ 
cess of acid. On adding water, a part only dissolved : on 
adding more water, the whole dissolved, except a portion of 
a brown colour, which by solution in muriatic acid, and 
subsequent precipitation by ammonia, yielded oxide of iron 
weighing 0’2 gr. 

Process 6 . —The last watery solution was gently evaporated 
to a small compass; sulphate of lime fell down during the 
evaporation. On leaving it to exhalation in the open air, sul¬ 
phate of magnesia crystallized. These crystals, together with 
the deposited sulphate of lime, were exposed to a dull red 
heat. The weight, while warm, was 9 grains. On adding a 
saturated solution of sulphate of lime, to dissolve out the sul¬ 
phate of magnesia, a portion was left, which weighed after 
ignition IT grain. This subtracted from the weight of the 
mixed sulphates, leaves for sulphate of magnesia 7*9 grains. 

Pi 'ocess 7.—The precipitate (Process 3), which had been 
digested in pure potassa, was redissolved in muriatic acid. 
Ammonia added in excess, threw down oxide of iron, which 
after ignition weighed 3*9 grains. 

Pi *ocess 8 . —The last ammoniacal solution, which had a 
blueish green colour, was evaporated to dryness. After the 
further application of heat, to volatilize the ammoniacal salt, 
a residue was left ol a dark-brown colour, which, on solution 
in nitric acid and precipitation by potassa, give a bulky apple- 
green precipitate, which turned to a dark-brown by heating 
it to ignition. It weighed 0*3 gr. 

Pi 'ocess 9.—The liquor, from which the apple-green preci- 
Vol. 67. No. 334. Feb. 1826. O pitate 


106 Mr. G. Chilton’s Analysis of the Maryland Aerolite . 

pitate had been separated, had a wine-yellow colour, thereby 
affording a suspicion that it contained more metal. Neutrali¬ 
zation and heat were both tried without effecting a further se¬ 
paration. Hydro-sulphuret of ammonia threw down a black 
precipitate. This precipitate heated, redissolved in nitric acid, 
and precipitated by potash, gave another apple-green preci¬ 
pitate, which ignited, weighed 0’2 gr. The solution being 
still a little coloured, was again treated with hydrosulphuret 
of ammonia, redissolved in nitric acid, and precipitated by 
potash. By this treatment another precipitate was obtained, 
which weighed 0*1 grain. 

Process 10.—Twenty grains of the same unmagnetica! aero¬ 
lite were mixed with an equal weight of nitre, and heated in 
a bright red heat. On dissolving out the matter of the cru¬ 
cible and neutralizing the solution, it neither produced a yel¬ 
low with nitrate of lead, nor a red with nitrate of mercury— 
hence it contained no chrome . 

From the 25 grains there were obtained by these processes, 


14-6 

+ 0*3 



silica 

14-90 

7*9 

sulph. mag. 



magnesia . 

2-60 

1*1 

sulph. lime 



lime . . . 

0-45 

3*9 

+ 0*2 + 2-0 

+ 

0*5 = 

oxide of iron . 

6-15 

0-2 

+ 0*3 + 0*2 

+ 

o-i - 

oxide of nickel 

0-80 





sulphur 

1-27 





alumina 

0*05 






26-12 


It would seem superfluous to remark, that the increase of 
weight in this, and the following analysis, must be accounted 
for from the change of condition of the iron with respect to 
oxygen. 

Examination of the magnetical Portion of the Maryland 

Aerolite . 

Process 1 .— Twenty-five grains exposed to the action of 
nitro-muriatic acid left, 
silica, after ignition. 

Process 2.—-Ammonia, added to excess, threw down from 
the acid solution oxide of iron, which weighed, after ignition, 
24 grains. 

P? 'ocessS, —Tothe ammoniacal solution, which had a hlueish- 
green tinge, potash was added. On the application of heat a por¬ 
tion of earthy matter precipitated, too trifling for examination. 
Hydro-sulphuret of ammonia threw down a black precipitate, 
which, heated, redissolved in nitric acid, and precipitated by 

potash, 


by the usual management, 3 grains of 



Prof. Silliman’s Description of the Maryland Aerolite . 107 

potash, yielded an olive-green precipitate, which, ignited, 
weighed 1*70 gr. and had a light-brown colour. 

a. Nitric acid added to this precipitate, did not dissolve the 
whole of it. Muriatic acid w r as added without effecting a com¬ 
plete solution. The mixture was heated and evaporated nearly 
to dryness. On standing till the next day it formed a gela¬ 
tinous mass of a green colour. Water was then added, and 
the insoluble portion separated by the filter. It weighed 5 
grains, and had a gray colour. 

h. Ammonia was added to the nitro-muriatic solution (a) in 
excess, which re-produced the blueish green tinge. By eva¬ 
poration to dryness, and exposure to a red heat for some time, 
the ammoniacal salts were volatilized, and a yellowish brown 
oxide left. 

c. Before the blowpipe, with borax and phosphoric salt, 
beads were produced of a brown colour, and opaque when the 
oxide was in considerable proportion to the salt; but when di¬ 
luted with more salt, blood-red globules formed, which changed 
on cooling, to hyacinth-red, and when entirely cold had a fine 
yellow, with, in some instances, a slightly reddish cast. The 
undissolved portion produced the same appearances nearly, 
but less distinctly. Regarding, therefore, the precipitate 1*70, 
in Process 3, as oxide^of nickel contaminated with siliceous 
earth, perhaps 1*2 5 maybe put down for oxide of nickel. We 
shall then have, as the result of analysis of the magnetic aero- 

lite, Oxide of iron.24*00 

Oxide of nickel .... 1*2.5 

Silica with other earthy matter 3*46 

Sulphur a trace. - 

28*71 

The presence of sulphur was indicated by the odour of sul¬ 
phuretted hydrogen, on the first addition of the acid. 


Additional Notice of the Physical Characters of the Maryland 
Aerolite. By Professor Silliman. 

As the visits c r these extraordinary strangers to our planet 
are frequent, and their origin is not yet satisfactorily explained, 
it is obviously proper to register carefully all the facts respect¬ 
ing them; that thus we, or those who follow us, may by and 
by be in a condition to reason correctly respecting them. 

We hastened to lay before our readers the account which 
we received of the fall of the Maryland aerolite; but as no 
specimen had then been received, it was not possible to give at 
that time either a description or an analysis.—Mr. Chilton has 

O 2 supplied 




108 Prof. Silliman’s Description of the Maryland Aerolite . 

supplied the analysis.—-We add the following notice ol the 
appearance of the stone. 

An excellent specimen, for which we are indebted to Dr. 
Samuel D. Carver, weighs four pounds five ounces. Its di¬ 
mensions are seven inches by three and four: its form is that 
of an irregular ovoidal protuberance, nearly flat where it was 
detached from the larger mass, and bounded by irregular 
curves in the other parts of the surface. In all parts, except 
where it has been fractured, it is covered by the usual black 
vitreous coating, which in this case, especially when it is viewed 
by a magnifier, has more lustre than is common. This coat¬ 
ing is severed by innumerable cracks running in every direc¬ 
tion, and communicating with each other, so as to divide the 
surface into polygons resembling honeycomb or madrepore, 
and no undivided portion of the surface exceeds half an inch 
in diameter. 

This circumstance is much less apparent upon the aerolites 
of Weston (1807), L’Aigle (1803), and Stannern in Moravia 
(1808): it appears to have arisen from the rapid cooling of the 
external vitreous crust after intense ignition. It is impossible 
to doubt that this crust is a result of great and sudden heat. 
In the Maryland aerolite it is not quite so thick as the back 
of a common penknife, and, as in that of Weston and Stan¬ 
nern, it is separated by a well defined line from the mass of 
the stone beneath. The mass of the stone is, on the fractured 
surface, of a light ash-gray colour, or perhaps more properly 
of a grayish white : it is very uniform in its appearance, and 
not marked by that strong contrast of dark and light gray 
spots, which is so conspicuous in the Weston meteorolite. 
The fractured surface of the Maryland stone is uneven and 
granular, harsh and dry to the touch, and it scratches window 
glass decidedly, but not with great energy. To the naked eye 
it presents very small glistening metallic points, and a few 
minute globular or ovoidal bodies scattered here and there, 
through the mass of the stone. With a magnifier all these 
appearances are of course much increased. The adhesion of 
the small parts of the stone is so feeble, that it falls to pieces 
with a slight blow, and exhibits an appearance almost like 
grains of sand. The metallic parts are conspicuous, but they 
are much less numerous than the earthy portions, which, when 
separated, are nearly white, and have a pretty high vitreous 
lustre, considerably resembling porcelain. They appear as if 
they had undergone an incipient vitrification, and as if they 
had been feebly agglutinated by a very intense heat. I can¬ 
not say that I observed in them, as M. Fleuriau de Bellevue 

did 


Prof. Silliman’s Description of the Maryland Aerolite. 109 

did in the aerolites of Jonzac [Journ.dePhys. tome xcii. p. 136 ), 
appearances of crystallization; although it is possible there may 
have been an incipient process of that kind, especially as the 
small parts are translucent*. The Maryland stone is highly 
magnetic; pieces as large as peas are readily lifted by the 
magnet, and that instrument takes up a large proportion of 
the smaller fragments. The iron is metallic and perfectly 
malleable; although none of the pieces are larger than a pin’s 
head, still they are readily extended by the hammer. The 
iron in the crust is glazed over, so that the eye does not per¬ 
ceive its metallic character; but the file instantly brightens 
the innumerable points which then break through the varnish 
of the crust, and give it a brilliant metallic lustre, at all the 
points where the file has uncovered the iron. The same is the 
fact with the Weston stone, and with that of L’Aigle, but not 
with that of Stannern in Moravia; specimens of all of which, and 
of the meteoric iron of Pallas, of Louisiana, and of Auvergne, 
are now before me. The aerolites of Jonzac and of Stannern, 
as stated by M. Bellevue, are the only ones hitherto discovered 
that do not contain native iron, and do not affect the magnet; 
still their analysis presents a good deal of iron, which is pro¬ 
bably in the condition of oxide. 

The iron in the metallic state is very conspicuous in the 
Weston stone, sometimes in pieces of two inches in length; 
and both in this stone and in that of Maryland it is often 
brilliant like the fracture of the meteoric iron of Pallas and of 
Louisiana. 

In the analysis of the Weston stone published in 1808 , I 
did not discover chrome, although it was afterwards announced 
by Mr. Warden. I have desired Mr. Chilton to re-analyse 
the Weston stone, and he has nearly completed the labour, 
the result of which may be given hereafter; but he writes that 
he has not been able to discover any chrome. I am not quite 
sure that I discover pyrites in the Maryland aerolite, although 
it is mentioned by Dr. Carver in his letter in the preceding 
volume. 

October 4, 1825. 

* This vitreous appearance I believe has not been observed before (at 
least as far as appears in any account that I have seen). It seems to have 
resulted from intense heat; the same, doubtless, which covered the exterior 
with the black crust; and the difference of the two is probably to be as¬ 
cribed to the one being covered and compressed, and to the other being on 
the outside. 


XVIII. Essay 


[ no ] 


X VIII. Essay on the Gales experienced in the Atlantic Stales 
of North America . By Robert Hare, M.D. Professor of 
Chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania *. 

the gales experienced in the Atlantic States of North 
America, those from the north-east and north-west are 
by far the most influential: the one, remarkable for its dryness 
-—the other, for its humidity. During a north-western gale, 
the sky, unless at its commencement, is always peculiarly clear, 
and not only water, but ice, evaporates rapidly. A north¬ 
east wind, when it approaches to the nature of a durable gale, 
is always accompanied by clouds, and usually by rain or snow. 
The object of the following essay, is to account for this striking 
diversity of character. 

When, by a rise of temperature, the lower portions of a 
non-elastic fluid are rendered lighter than those which are 
above them, an exchange of position must ensue. The par¬ 
ticles which were coldest at first, after their descent, becoming 
the warmest, resume their previous elevation; from which 
they are again displaced by warmer particles. Thus, the 
temperatures reversing the situations, and the situations re¬ 
versing the temperatures, a circulation is kept up, tending to 
restore the equilibrium. 

Precisely similar would be the case with our atmosphere, 
were it not an elastic fluid, and dependent for its density on 
pressure as well as on heat. Its temperature would be much 
more uniform than at present*—and all its variations would be 
gradual. An interchange of position would incessantly take 
place, between the colder air of the upper regions, and the 
warmer, and of course lighter, air, near the earth’s surface, 
where there is the most copious evolution of solar heat. Cur¬ 
rents would incessantly set from the poles to the equator below, 
and from the equator to the poles above. Such currents would 
constitute our only winds, unless where mountains might pro¬ 
duce some deviations. Violent gales, squalls, or tornadoes, 
would never ensue ; gentler movements would anticipate them. 
But the actual character of the air, with respect to elasticity, 
is the opposite of that which we have supposed. It is perfectly 
elastic. Its density is dependent on pressure, as well as on 
heat; and it does not follow, that air which may be heated, in 
consequence of its proximity to the earth, will give place to 
colder air from above. The pressure of the atmosphere vary¬ 
ing with the elevation, one stratum of air may be as much 
rarer by the diminution of pressure, consequent to its altitude, 

* From the Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

as 


Prof. Hare on Gales in the Atlantic States of N, America. Ill 

as denser by the cold, consequent to its remoteness from the 
earth—and another may be as much denser by the increased 
pressure arising from its proximity to the earth, as rarer, by 
being warmer. Hence when unequally heated, different strata 
of the atmosphere do not always disturb each other. Yet after 
a time, the rarefaction in the lower stratum, by greater heat, 
may so far exceed that in an upper stratum, attendant on an 
inferior degree of pressure, that this stratum may preponderate, 
and begin to descend. Whenever such a movement commences, 
it must proceed with increasing velocity; for the pressure on 
the upper stratum, and of course its density and weight, in¬ 
creases as it falls; while the density and weight of the lower 
stratum must lessen as it rises. Hence the change is at times 
so much accelerated, as to assume the characteristics of a tor¬ 
nado, squall, or hurricane. In like manner may we suppose 
the predominant gales qf our climate to originate. Dr. Franklin 
long ago noticed, that north-eastern gales are felt in the south- 
westernmost portions of the continent first; the time of their 
commencement being found later, as the place of observation 
is more to the windward. 

The Gulf of Mexico is an immense body of water—warm, 
in the first place, by its latitude,—in the second place, by its 
being a receptacle of the current produced by the trade-winds, 
which blow in such a direction as to propel the warm water of 
the torrid zone into it, causing it to overflow and produce the 
celebrated Gulf stream, by the ejection, to the north-east, of 
the excess received from the south-east. This stream runs 
away to the northward and eastward of the United States, pro¬ 
ducing an unnatural warmth in the ocean, as well as an im¬ 
petus, which, according to Humboldt, is not expended until 
the current reaches the shores of Africa, and even mixes with 
the parent flood under the equator. The heat of the Gulf 
stream enables mariners to ascertain by the thermometer 
when they have entered it: and in winter, this heat, by in¬ 
creasing the solvent power of the adjoining air, loads it with 
moisture—which, on a subsequent reduction of temperature, 
is precipitated in those well-known fogs with which the north¬ 
eastern portion of our continent, and the neighbouring seas 
and islands, especially Newfoundland and its banks, are so 
much infested. An accumulation of warm water in the Gulf 
of Mexico, adequate thus to influence the ocean at the distance 
of two thousand miles, may be expected, in its vicinity, to have 
effects proportionally powerful. The air immediately over the 
Gulf must be heated, and surcharged with aqueous particles. 
Thus it will become comparatively light: first, because it is 
comparatively warm; and in the next place, because aqueous 

vapour, 


112 


Prof. Flare on the Gales experienced 

vapour, being much lighter than the atmospheric air, renders 
it more buoyant by its admixture. 

Yet the density, arising from inferiority of situation in the 
stratum of air immediately over the Gulf, compared with that 
of the volumes of this fluid lying upon the mountainous coun¬ 
try beyond it, may to a certain extent more than compensate 
for the influence of the heat and moisture derived from the 
Gulf: but violent winds must arise, as soon as these causes 
predominate over atmospheric pressure, sufficiently to ren¬ 
der the cold air of the mountains heavier. 

When, instead of the air covering a small portion of the 
mountainous or table land in Spanish America, that of the whole 
north-eastern portion of the North American continent is ex¬ 
cited into motion, the effects cannot but be equally powerful, 
and much more permanent. The air of the adjoining country, 
first precipitates itself upon the surface of the Gulf, and after¬ 
wards, that from regions more distant. Thus a current from 
the north-eastward is produced below. In the interim, the 
air displaced by this current rises, and being confined by the 
table land of Spanish America, and in part, possibly, by the 
trade-winds, from passing off in any southernly course, it is, 
of necessity, forced to proceed over our part of the continent, 
forming a south-western current above us. At the same time 
its capacity for heat being enlarged, by the rarefaction arising 
from its increased altitude, much of its moisture will be pre¬ 
cipitated ; and the lower stratum of the south-western cur¬ 
rent, mixing with the upper stratum of the cold north-eastern 
current below, there must be a prodigious condensation of 
aqueous vapour. 

The reason is obvious why this change is productive only 
of north-eastern gales—and that we have not northern gales, 
accompanied by the same phenomena. The course of our 
mountains is from the north-east to the south-west. Thus no 
channel is afforded for the air proceeding to the Gulf, in any 
other course, than that north-eastern route which it actually 
pursues. 

That the table lands of Mexico are competent to prevent 
the escape over them of the moist warm air displaced from 
the surface of the Gulf, must be evident from the peculiar dry¬ 
ness of their climate—and the testimony of Humboldt. Ac¬ 
cording to this celebrated traveller, the clouds formed over 
the Gulf never rise to a greater height than four thousand 
nine hundred feet; while the table land, for many hundred 
leagues, lies between the elevation of seven and nine thousand 
feet. Consistently with the chemical laws which have been 
experimentally ascertained to operate throughout nature, air, 

which 


113 


in the Atlantic States of North America. 

which has been in contact with water, can neither be cooled 
nor rarefied, without being rendered cloudy by the precipi¬ 
tation of aqueous particles. It follows, that the air displaced 
suddenly from the surface of the Gulf of Mexico, by the in¬ 
flux of cold air from the north-east, never rises higher than the 
elevation mentioned by Humboldt as infested by clouds. Of 
course it never crosses the table land, which, at the lowest, is 
2000 feet higher. 

Our north-western winds are produced, no doubt, by the 
accumulation of warm moist air upon the surface of the ocean, 
as those from the north-east are by its accumulation on the 
Gulf of Mexico. But in the case of the Atlantic, there are no 
mountains to roll back upon our hemisphere the air displaced 
by the gales which proceed from it, and to impede the im¬ 
pulse, thus received, from reaching the eastern continent. Our 
own mountains may procrastinate the flood, and consequently 
render it more lasting and violent, when it can no longer be 
restrained. The direction of the wind is naturally at right 
angles to the boundary of the aquatic region producing it, and 
to the mountainous barrier which delays the crisis. 

The course of the North American coast is, like that of its 
mountains, from north-east to south-west; and the gales in 
question are always nearly north-west, or at right angles to 
the mountains and the coast. The dryness of our north-west 
wind may be ascribed not only to its coming from the frozen 
zone, where cold deprives the air of moisture, but likewise to 
the circumstance above suggested, that the air of the ocean is 
not, like that of the Gulf, forced back over our heads to deluge 
us withj?ain. 

Other important applications may be made of our chemical 
knowledge. Thus, in the immense capacity of water for heat, 
especially when vaporized, we see a great magazine of nature 
provided for mitigating the severity of the winter.—To cool 
this fluid, a much greater quantity of matter must sustain a 
proportionable increase of its sensible heat—Aqueous vapour 
is incessantly a vehicle for conveying the caloric of warmer 
climates to colder ones. Mistaking the effect for the cause, 
snow is considered as producing cold, by the ignorant; but it 
has been proved, that as much heat is givCn out during the 
condensation of aqueous vapour as would raise twice its weight 
of Hass to a red heat. Water, in condensing; from the aeri¬ 
form state, will raise ten times its weight one hundred degrees. 
The quantum of caloric which can raise ten parts one hun¬ 
dred degrees, would raise one part one thousand degrees nearly 
(or to a red heat visible in the day); and this is independent 
of the caloric of fluidity, which would increase the result. 

Vol. 67. No. 334. Feb. 1826. P Further, 


J14 Prof. Hansteen on the Number and Situation 

Further, The quantum of heat which would raise water to 
1000, would elevate an equal bulk of glass to 2000. Hence 
we may infer, that from every snow there is received twice as 
much caloric as would be yielded by an equal depth of red- 
hot powdered glass. 

It is thus that the turbulent wave, which at one moment 
rocks the mariner’s sea-boat on the border of the torrid zone, 
transformed into a cloud, and borne away towards the arctic, 
soon after supports the sledge or the snow-shoe of an Esqui¬ 
maux or Greenlander; successively cooling or warming the 
surrounding media, by absorbing or giving out the material 
cause of heat. 


XIX. On the Number and Situation of the Magnetic Poles of 
the Earth . By Professor Christopher Hansteen *. 

nPHE attraction of iron by the magnet was known to the 
naturalists of Greece and Rome, but it is uncertain at 
what time the Europeans became acquainted with that remark¬ 
able property of the magnet which we call Polarity; distinct 
traces, however, of the use of the compass are found towards 
the end of the twelfth century. There is no doubt that the 
Chinese knew it long before, and it is very probable that the 
Venetians obtained some information respecting it while 
trading on the Red Sea. 

Our Northern ancestors were in this respect not behind the 
inhabitants of Southern Europe, as may be seen in the Land- 
namabolc , part i. chap. 2 and 7, where we are told that the 
famous Viking Floke Vilgerdarson, the third discoverer of 
Iceland, who sailed about the year 868 from Rogaland in 
Norway, in order to seek for Gardarsholm (Iceland), took 
three ravens with him, which were to serve him as guides. 
For on letting birds fly on the open sea, and finding them to 
return, it was considered as a sign of there being no land near. 
But if they flew away, the vessel followed them, with a view 
of reaching the nearest shore. In order to consecrate these 
ravens for his purpose, Floke offered up a great sacrifice at 
Smorsund , where the ships lay ready for sailing; for 66 at that 
time the navigators in the Northern countries had no magnets ” 
(J 'viat pa hofdo hafsiglingarmen enger leidarstein i pan pima a 
nordorlandiim ). As tli eLandnamabok was apparently written at 

* From Dr. Kaemtz’s translation into German of the original memoir, 
published in the Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, udgivet af Professorer ne 
Litndh, Plcimteen og Maschmann, yol. i. p. 1—46. 


the 









Phil . Mao . Vol. LXVU. PI. J 





























































































































115 


of the Magnetic Poles of the Earth. 

the close of the eleventh century, the polarity of the magnet 
must then have been known in the North, although the passage 
just quoted does not imply the actual existence of a regular * 
compass*. 

The circumstance of a freely moveable magnet turning con¬ 
stantly with its poles to the north or south, leads us to the 
conclusion that the earth itself must be a large magnet, which 
has near the geographical arctic pole a pole like that of the 
magnetic needle turned towards the south, and near the ant¬ 
arctic geographical pole a magnetic pole like that of the mag¬ 
netic needle turned towards the north. If the magnetic needle 
were, in every part of the earth, to point due north and south, we 
might say without hesitation thattlie magnetic poles correspond¬ 
ed with the geographical. However, after the compass had been 
used for several centuries, it was found, on closer investigation, 
that the magnetic needle actually deviates from the meridian: 

further, 

* This work was published at Copenhagen in 1774, under the title of 
Islands Landnamabok. Hoc est; “ Liber originum Islandiae. Versione La¬ 
tina, lectionibus variantibus et rerum, personarum, locorum, nec non vocum 
rarissimarum indicibus illustratus. Ex manuscriptis Legati Magnaeani. 4.” 
The editor of this book names himself at the end of the preface Johannes 
linnaeus. This work, in which the position and condition of Iceland, as 
\ycll as the history of its industrious inhabitants, is given at large, had several 
authors. The first of them was ( Landnamabok , p. 378), Arius Polyhistor 
(Ari prestrhina Frodi Thorgilssun ), born in the year 1068; and the last, 
Hauk, son of Erlend ( Haukr Erlendssun), who died in 1334. For in the 
Latin version (Lib. v. cap. 15. p. 378J it is said ; (( Hunc autem librum Do- 
minus Haukus Erlendi filius secundum librum, quern Dominus Sturla filius 
Thordi Nomophylax vir eruditissimus concinnaverat, et secundum alium 
librum, a Styrmere Polyhistore exaratum, scripsit, et ex quovis libro ea quae 
uberius enarrata erant, retinuit, maxima autem ex parte uterque liber eadem 
referebant; non igitur mirurn hunc Landnamabok omnibus aliis prolixi- 
orem esse.” The passage quoted by Professor Hansteen appears indeed 
in the beginning of the work, and it might thence be inferred that it was 
written by Arius: yet this is not certain, and it might easily have been added 
by later editors. Moreover the editor says in reference to this passage 
(p* /)> “ Hoc caput,” the second in which the passage appears, “ est secun¬ 
dum Hauksbok,” as he calls it according to its author Hauk ; and, what is 
more, the passage (according to the editor) is missing in three different 
manuscripts. It is, therefore, yet to be doubted whether the passage be 
genuine, and whether the Icelanders knew the magnet at so early a period. 
That they knew the deviation of the needle as early as 1269, appears 
from a manuscript of Adsigerius in the library at Leyden, and which Pro¬ 
fessor Hansteen (Investigations respecting the Magnetism of the Earth, 
p. 403) seems to have known only from Thevenot’s account. The words, 
according to Van Svvinden ( Bibliothcque Universelle , tom. xxiv. p. 262), are 
as follows: “ Nota quod partem meridionalem acus, in usu directorii de- 
beinus facere declinare per unum punctum versus occidens, et hoc debet 
fieri per declinationem partis septentrionalis ad oriens, quia pars meridiana 
instrumenti divisionibus caret. Nota quod lapis magnes, ut ut exactius con- 
sectatus tarncn non directe tendit ad polos, sed pars, quae ad meridiem 

I 3 2 tend ere 


116 


Prof. Hansteen on the Number and Situation 

further, that the deviation is different in various places, being 
in some more westerly and others more easterly: at last, too, 
it was found that the deviation differed at different times in the 
same places. These phenomena can only be explained by 
the assumption that the magnetic poles do not correspond 
with the geographical, and change their position from year to 
year. As there are, however, natural magnets having four 
poles, two and two of the same denomination, the earth itself 
may possibly be such an anomalous magnet. Thus, then, the 
two following questions are to be answered: Are two magnetic 
poles sufficient to explain all the phenomena of the declination , 
or must we assume several of them ? What is the position and 
motio n of these poles ? 

Our curiosity for obtaining a better knowledge of the mag¬ 
netic state of the earth must be excited from its importance to 
navigation ; but it is increased by the prospect of the light that 
thereby may be thrown on natural philosophy. It is impossible 

tendere reputatur, aliquantum declinat ad oecidens, ilia quae ad septen- 
trionem respicere creditur, tantumdem ad oriens se inclinat. Quanta 
autem sit haec inclinatio, inveni multis experiments versus 5 gradus.” .... 
The work is dated “ in castris et obsidione.(name illegible) anno Do¬ 

mini 1269, 8° die Augusti.” 

I will take this opportunity of adding another historical observation. 
Both Hansteen (Magnetism of the Earth, p. 405) ,and after him Horner 
(Gehler’s Physical Lexicon, n. ed. vol. i. p. 137), believe, that Father Gay Ta- 
chart first discovered in the year 1682 that the advance of the needle was not 
regular, but was subject to variations. The same subject is, however, already 
mentioned in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. iii. no. 37, p. 726, in an 
Extract of a Letter written by Dr. B. to the publisher, concerning the present 
Declination of the Magnetic Needle, dated 23rd of May 1668. The author 
of this letter says that he had received these observations from Capt. Samuel 
Sturms, an experienced seaman, who had made them in presence of the ma¬ 
thematician Staynred, near Bristol, on the 13th June 1666. These obser¬ 
vations are as follows: 


Height of the 
Sun. 

Azimuth of the 
Sun with the 
Magn. Merid. 

True Azimuth 
of the Sun. 

Declination. 

o / 

44 20 

39 30 

31 50 

27 42 

23 20 

6 / 

72 0 

80 0 

90 0 

95 0 
103 0 

o / 

70 38 

78 24 

88 26 

93 36 

101 23 

1° 22 W. 

1 36 

1 34 

1 24 

1 23 


These observations were repeated by this gentleman, in the same place, 
on the 13th June 1667, and he then found that the declination was 6' more 
west. The same seaman also said, that in different places he found a differ¬ 
ence in the declination from 2' to 7 , .~-JLemtz, 


for 











117 


of the Magnetic Poles of the Earth . 

for us to dive with our bodily eyes into the bowels of the 
earth, the greatest depth to which we have arrived being 
trifling compared with the actual diameter of the globe :—yet 
the interior of the earth is revealed by its effects] on its sur¬ 
face. Thus, the experiments on the deviation of the plummet 
from the vertical line in the vicinity of mountains, show that 
the mean density of the mass of the earth is five times greater 
than that of water; and that consequently this mass is denser 
than most kinds of stone, and is therefore for the most part 
metallic. Thus the periodical annual and diurnal motions of 
the magnetic needle are a mute language, telling us what is 
passing within the earth. Thus the aurora borealis is perhaps 
the result of a contest of powers set in motion by the different 
substances of the earth, substances which by these means may 
one day become known to us. For we may justly conclude 
of the causes from their effects, which is the usual way of extend¬ 
ing our knowledge of nature. 

Yet, although this investigation affords a great interest both 
for theory and practice, it is not every person’s business to 
enter into mathematical investigations. I thought, therefore, 
that I might gratify many readers in giving here a popular 
sketch of the results of my investigations on terrestrial mag¬ 
netism. 

The accompanying charts (Plates I. and II.) represent two 
segments of the surface of the earth from the poles to the 50th 
degree of latitude. The longitudes are calculated from the 
meridian of Greenwich, as most observations have been made 
by British seamen, who calculate from that meridian. The 
arrows on the charts indicate the directions of the magnetic 
needle; the end of them, towards the opposite side of the pole, 
denotes the place of observation ; and the angle formed by the 
geographical meridian with this end of the arrow is there¬ 
fore the variation of the needle found in the observation. The 
observations given on the southern chart are all Captain 
Cook’s, and were made between the years 1772 and 1777 : the 
observations on the northern segment are by Captains Cook and 
Phipps, Admiral Lbvenorn, Captain Billings, and others, made 
about the same period. Some of them have the time of the ob¬ 
servation affixed to them. The most important observations 
made during the last English north-polar expedition (1818— 
1820) are marked with an asterisk. As these observations 
embrace so short a space of time, they may be considered as 
being contemporaneous, and thus show the magnetic condition 
of the earth in the vicinity of the poles during the quarter of a 
century just elapsed. 

The variation in all Europe is now westerly. If we go from 

* ' east 


118 Prof. Hansteen on the 'Number and Situation 

•- ' i ■ : •• \ 

east to west by the Atlantic Ocean to Greenland, it increases 
in proportion as we approach the southernmost points of 
that country. Thus it is at St. Petersburg about =8° W., 
at Stockholm = 15f°, in Christiania = 20°, in London = 
24^°, on the north coast of Iceland above 40°, and in the co¬ 
lony of Godthaab in Greenland above 51°. From the western 
coast of Greenland to Hudson’s Bay it decreases again by some 
degrees: but in Hudson’s Bay this decrease is so strong, that 
in the year 1769 it was found in fort Prince of Wales, on 
the western coast of the bay, to have been only = 9° 41'. If 
we proceed on the continent, it disappears entirely, becomes 
then easterly, and increases so rapidly towards the western 
coast of America, that it was, according to the observation of 
Cook in the year L778, in Nootka Sound = 19° 5P E.; and in 
the same year, in the northernmost part of Behring’s Straits, 
= 35° 37' E. If we extend the arrows in Nootka Sound and in 
Hudson’s Bay and Strait, we see them meet in one point, 
which is about 20° distant from the pole, and about 259° east 
of Greenwich. 

In fact, every apparently straight line on the surface of the 
earth is the arc of a great circle. If, then, we wish to determine 
the situation of this point more accurately, we must combine 
some of the above-mentioned points of declination, two by two, 
(for instance, in Nootka Sound and in fort Prince of Wales), and 
calculating, according to the rules of spherical trigonometry, the 
situation of the point of meeting of these prolonged lines of 
magnetical direction (the magnetical point of convergence), we 
shall obtain as many determinations of the same as we have 
pairs of observations. In order to obtain the situation of this 
point, I have made use of the following observations: 


Observer. 

Place of Ob¬ 
servation, 

Time. 

North 

Lat. 

West 

Long. 

from 

Lond. 

Declin. 

West. 

Nos. 

r 

i 

Hutchins < 

W. Wales L 

Hudson’s \ 

Strait 1 

Hudson’s Bay- 
Fort Moose 

Fort Albany 

Ft. Pr. of YVales 

1774. July 23 

— 27 

— 28 
Aug.14 
Sept. 8 

— 14 
1769.- 

0 / 
62 3 

62 23 
62 25 
56 53 

51 20 

52 22 
58 47 

o / 

69 0 
71 30 
71 30 
85 22 
82 30 
82 30 
94 4 

o 1 

43 0 
42 50 

44 0 
28 0 
17 0 
17 0 

9 41 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 


Among these observations the 7th can be most relied upon, 
having been made on shore by the astronomer Wales, by 
means of a large compass and an exact meridian, and being 

the 
























119 


of the Magnetic Poles of the Earth. 

the mean of 21 observations made within a few days. If we 
calculate from them the situation of the point of convergence, 
the following will be the result: 


From Nos. 

Situation of the Point of Convergence. 

Distance from 
the Pole. 

Longitude West 
from London. 

'2 and 7 

1 — 7 

1 — 5 

3—4 

o / 

19 44 

19 42 

19 32 

19 23 

o / 

99 53 

99 54 

101 24 

105 20 

Mean 

19 33 

101 45 


As the result of the 4th observation deviates considerably 
from the others, and having moreover reason to believe that 
1 have noted it wrong, we will omit it entirely*. As, more¬ 
over, from the reasons given above, we must consider the 7th 
observation the most accurate, I thought that I ought only to 
rely on the mean obtained from the determinations 2—7 and 
1—7, by which w r e obtain the following for the determination 
of the point of convergence in 1769: 

Distance from the pole.= 19° 43 f 

Longitude W. of London . . . . = 99 53^ 

-E. of Greenwich . . . = 259 58 

If in the North we follow the coast of Norway, the declina¬ 
tion decreases, and at last entirely disappears in the White 
Sea. Thus Bohr found it in the year 1818, in Bergen = 24° 
18' W.; Lieut. Christie, in Vadsoe in Varangerfiorden, the 
28th of June of the same year, = 7° 55'. In the year 1770, in 
the vicinity of Spitzbergen, Captain Phipps found the decli- 

* “The observation No.4. is given by Lambert (Aslron. Jahrb. 1779, 
p. 148) as follows : Variation 24° O' W. Long. 292° 11\ Lat. 56° 33\ The 
point of convergence is calculated after this. On the other hand, you will find 
in my extracts from the Philosophical Transactions for 1775, the latitude 
= 56° 53', and the declination = 28° 0' W., which would remove the re¬ 
sult still further. As I have not the above work at hand, I cannot make 
out where the error lies.”—On the Magnetism of the Earth, p. 90, note. 
According to the Philosophical Transactions for 1775, p. 135, Lambert is cor¬ 
rect : Hutchins, however, adds: “ These experiments were made in conjunc¬ 
tion with Capt. Richards, in the cabin of the Prince Rupert, whilst she lay 
among the ice. The ship frequently varied the position of her head a point 
of the compass ; but by replacing the instrument as often as we found occa¬ 
sion, I have the greatest reason to think these observations (which took up 
nearly three hours) are pretty accurate.” Under all these circumstances, 
we may be justified in entirely overlooking this observation.—K. 


nation 















V 


120 Prof. Hansteen on the Number and Situation 


nation in some places between 11° and 12°, and in others 
about 20°. Capt. Buchan and Lieut. Franklin found the de¬ 
clination in the discovery ships Dorothea and 1 rent, in the 
year 1818, in most places near Spitzbergen about 24°. If 
we draw on these places in the chart arrows forming the 
above-mentioned angles with the meridian, their continuation 
will not go through the point which we found above at 19° 43' 
from the pole, and 259° 58' E. of Greenwich. The same will 
be the case with the extension of the arrows that may be drawn 
in the northernmost parts of Behring’s Straits and jn north¬ 
eastern Siberia. By this we are led to the supposition that 
there must be somewhere in the Siberian Ocean a magnetic 
pole which attracts the northern pole of the needle,—in the sea 
between Spitzbergen and Norway, towards the east, and in 
eastern Siberia and Behring’s Straits, towards the west. 

The following observations may serve to determine t -e po¬ 
sition of this point of attraction * *. 


Y ear. 

N. Lat. 

Long. 

from 

Ferro. 

Variation. 

Nos. 

1761 

o / 

55 48 

o 

67 1 

2° 25 W. 

1 

1805 

— — 

— ■— 

2 2 E. 

2 

1761 

56 51 

78 2 

0 50 E. 

3 

1805 

— — 

— — 

5 27 E. 

4 

1761 

ca 

00 

no 

85 46 

3 46 E. 

5 

1805 

- - 

— — 

7 9 E. 

6 

1768 

62 2 

147 21 

5 15 W. 

7 

1769 

— — 

— — 

5 0 W. 

8 

1788 

i 

-- . 

2 0 W. 

9 

1770 

49 56 

100 20 

2 0 E. 

10 

1770 

53 20 

101 11 

2 45 E. 

11 

f 

58 1 

74 6 

1 10 E. 

12 


56 55 

91 45 

6 6 E. 

13 

1805C 

56 30 

107 50 

5 37 E. 

14 


54 55 

116 42 

2 40 E. 

15 

l 

52 17 

121 51 

0 32 E. 

16 


Place of Observation. 


Casan ......./ 

Katharinenburg 
Tobolsk.^ 

Jakutskoi. 

Ustkameno-gorskaio 

Barnaul. 

Perm. 

Tara. 

Tomsk. y 

Nizni Udinsk . . . 
Irkutsk.J 


Thence we see that the western declination entirely disap¬ 
peared in 1805, before we arrive at Casan; from Casan to 

* The observations for the year 1805 are by the counsellor of state Schu¬ 
bert, and are found in Bode’s Astron. Jahrb. Ib09 : the others are by dif¬ 
ferent literati who resided in various parts of Siberia in order to observe 
the transit of Venus through the Sun in the years 1761 and 1769, and are 
given in Bode’s Jahrbuche for 1779.—H. 


Tobolsk 




























121 


of the Magnetic Poles of the Earth. 

Tobolsk the eastern declination increased; and again decreased 
towards Irkutsk, where it was only = \°. Further east it 
must vanish entirely; for in Jakutskoi, Billings found in 1788, 
a westerly declination of 2°, Further east from Jakutskoi 
this western declination disappears again, and becomes in 
Kamtschatka, and the whole of north-western America, again 
easterly. Thus we see that there are round the north pole 
four places where no declination is found: viz. 1st, on the 
west coast of Hudson’s Bay; 2dly, in the line between the 
White Sea and Casan; Srdly, a little eastward of Irkutsk; and 
4thly, a little eastward of Jakutsk. Between the first and se¬ 
cond distance, i. e. in north-eastern America, the Atlantic 
Ocean, and all Europe, the declination is westerly; between the 
2d and 3rd, i. e. in the greater part of Siberia, it is easterly; 
between the 3rd and 4th, i. e. in eastern Siberia, it is westerly; 
and between the 4th and 1st, i. c. in Kamtschatka, the northern 
part of the Pacific Ocean, and the north-west part of America, 
it is again easterly. 

If we continue the arrows which point out the direction of 
the magnetic needle in Siberia in the year 1805; for instance, 
in Tobolsk, Tara and Udinsk, we see them converge in one 
point, situated about 5° from the pole, and between the meri¬ 
dians 110° and 120° E. of Greenwich. If we combine the ob¬ 
servations, by pairs, and thereby calculate the position of the 
magnetic point of convergence, we have the following results: 


From Nos. 

Distance from 
the Pole. 

Longit. from 
Ferro. 

13 and 15 
6—15 
6—14 

6 — 16 

o , 

4 27 

4 50 

3 51 

5 16 

O 1 

134 7 

133 31 

155 54 

124 58 

Mean . . 

4 36 

137 7i | 


Thus the mean of all gives the distance from the pole at 
4° 36', and the longitude from Ferro =137° 7'i : but a mean 
of the two first which agree best, gives the distance from the 
pole at =s= 4° 38' 30", and the longitude from Ferro = 133° 49', 
or 116° 9' from Greenwich. 

From the above observations it appears that the declination 
in Siberia has changed every where from 1761 to 1805. Thus 
at Casan, it was in the year 1761 = 2° 25' W., in the year 
1805 = 2° 2' 30" E., or in forty-four years it had a change of 
— 4° 27 / 30", or 6'*1 per annum. The change in Catha- 
Vol. 67. No. 334. Feb. 1826. Q rinenburg 














122 Prof. Hansteen on the Number and Situation 

rinenburg during the same period is = 4° 37', or 6 r *3 per 
annum; in Tobolsk = 3° 23', or = 4'*6 per annum; in 
Jakutskoi, from 1768 to 1788, = 3° 157 or = 9'*7 per ann. 
Thence we find by interpolation, that in 1770 the declination 
in Jakutskoi was = 4° 50 1 W., in Tobolsk = 4° 27^ E., and 
at Barnaul 2° 457 If we pair these declinations in the usual 
manner, we find the situation of the point in 1770: 


According to the Observations 

Distance from 
the Poles. 

Longit. from 
Ferro. 

In Tobolsk and Jakutskoi 

In Barnaul and Jakutskoi 

to 

1 

! 

o / II 

117 31 0 

120 48 0 

J Mean . . . 

4 14* 

119° 9' 30"! 


If we compare with this the above result for the year 1805, 
we find the distance from the pole to have remained nearly 
the same, but that the longitude of this point increased from 
1770 to 1805; the change during these 35 years having- 
been = 133° 49' — 119° 9' 30" = 14° 39' 30", or 25M28 per 
annum. Thus this magnetic pole has a motion from west to 
east. Whether its course be a circle round the terrestrial pole, 
or a differently curved line, or whether it be merely an oscil¬ 
lation, must be learned from the experience of future ages. 
If we assume a uniformly circular motion, the period of the 
revolution, according to the degree of velocity found above, 
would be 860 years. 

Whether the magnetic point of convergence found above in 
North America be also moveable, must be determined by cal¬ 
culating its position from older observations, and comparing 
it with that of the year 1769. 

The following observations of declinations, made at the Fort 
Prince of Wales, distinctly show that this point has a percep¬ 
tible motion towards the east: 


By Chr. Middleton in 

1725 = 21° 

O' 

W. 

annual change. 

• • • ••• ••• 

1738 = 18 

0 


13'9 

• • • 

1742 = 17 

0 


150 

By W. Wales 

1769= 9 

41 


163 


1798= 1 

0 

E. 

22 n 

20 oP 

From 


1813= 6 

0 

E. 


* In the original, as well as in the work on the magnetism of the earth, 
p.94, it is stated by mistake at 4° 17' instead of 4° 14'. 
f These two observations are from the MS. journal, entitled His Majesty’s 

sloop 
















123 


of the Magnetic Poles of the Earth. 

From these observations it would appear that the declina¬ 
tion in Fort Prince of Wales in the year 1795, was =0 ; that 
therefore the magnetic converging point lay north of it, viz. in 
the meridian 265° 48'. We have seen above that in the year 
1769 it lay in 209° 58'; and consequently that from 1769 till 
1795, i.e. in the space of 26 years, this point moved 5° 50' from 
west to east, by which the annual variation would amount to 
13'*45. The following observations made in Hudson’s Bay 
ini813, and which are also extracted from the above-quoted 
log-book, will determine the point more exactly. 


1813. 

North Lat. 

Long. W. from 
Greenwich. 

Declination. 

Nos. 

Aug. 1 

o / 

62 16 

o / 

70 17 

50 0 W. 

1 

11 

62 47 

80 17 

45 0 

2 

Sept. 3 

58 48 

94 16 

6 0 E. 

3 

23 

58 18 

88 50 

10 0 w. 

4 

25 

60 35 

81 30 

36 0 W. 

5 


Calculating these observations by pairs, in the usual man¬ 
ner, we find the following situation of the American point of 
convergence: 


From Nos. 

Distance from 
the Poles. 

Long. W. from 
Greenwich. 

1 and 3 

o / 

21 44 

o t 

91 35 

2 — 3 

23 40 

92 18 

1 — 4 

22.. 9 

93 22 

3 — 5 

23 47 

92 21 

Mean 

22 50 

92 24 


According to some older observations by Chr. Middleton, 
1 have laid down the situation of this point for the year 1730, 
in my work on the magnetism of the earth, (p. 90, 91,) as fol¬ 
lows. Distance from the pole = 19° 43', and eastern longitude 


sloop Brazen’s Remark-book between the 31st of June and 24th of Novem¬ 
ber 1813, in Hudson’s Bay; which I read in the year 1819, together with 
a great many other ship-journals and log-books in the Marine Chart Office 
of the Admiralty in London.—H. 

Q 2 


from 
























124 


M. Rose on the Combinations of 


from Greenwich = 108° 6'. 
terminations together, we obtain: 

Distance from 
the Pole. 

1730 19° 15' 

1769 19 43 

1813 22 50 


If now we place these three de- 

Long. W. from 
Greenwich. 

108° 6 f 
100 2 
92 24 


Which distinctly shows that this magnetic pole has also a per¬ 
ceptible motion towards the east; and it seems also to follow 
that it moves away from the terrestrial pole. From the year 
1730 to 1796, i.e. within 39 years, it has moved 8° 4', or 12'* *41 
in every year more east; from 1769 to 1813, i.e. within 44 
years, this motion amounted to 7° 38', or 10'*41 annually. 
Whether this difference arises from an inequality in the motion 
or an error in the observation, we must leave to the decision 
of future generations. 

As the northern pole of the magnetic needle is directed to¬ 
wards this point in the whole of North America, we seem to 
be justified in concluding, that if we were to travel round it 
with a compass, the needle would in that time make a com¬ 
plete revolution. If then we are south of this point, the 
northern pole of the needle will point due north, or in other 
words, there will be no variation at all on this spot: to the 
north of it the northern pole would point to the south, or the 
declination would be 180°; to the east of it the declination 
would be 90° W., and to the west it would be 90° E. The 
justness of this conclusion is proved from the observations of 
Captains Ross and Parry in the years 1818, 1819 and 1820, 
some of which are marked on the chart. Most of these arrows, 
as may be seen, are directed to one point; and the situation of it 
in the year 1820 might be determined in the manner described 
above. As these observations are very important for the theory, 
and we may probably have no speedy opportunity of making 
observations in these inaccessible parts, I shall proceed to give 
the most remarkable of them. 

[To be continued.] 


XX. On the Combinations of Antimony 'with Chlorine and Sul¬ 
phur. By M. Henri Rose*. 

I. Combinations of Antimony and Chlorine . 

"Vl/'HEN pulverized antimony is distilled with an excess of 
* * corrosive sublimate, it is known that there is obtained a 
solid compound of antimony and chlorine, which melts at a very 

* From the Annates de Chimie , tom. xxix. 


moderate 




125 


Antimony with Chlorine and Sulphur . 

moderate heat. It attracts the humidity of the air, and is con¬ 
verted into a liquid similar to an emulsion 

Treated with water it changes, without giving out heat, 
into hydrochloric acid and a compound of the oxide and chlo¬ 
ride of antimony. This white powder, which is precipitated 
by mixing the chloride with water, is entirely volatilized when 
heated by a blowpipe in a little matrass j it contains therefore, 
neither antimonious acid norantimonic acid: but as this chlo¬ 
ride of antimony is converted by water into hydrochloric acid 
and oxide of antimony, it must correspond to them in compo¬ 
sition ; and as oxide of antimony contains 3 atoms of oxygen, 
the antimony must be combined with 3 atoms of chlorine in the 
solid chloride of antimony, or contain 


Antimony.54*85 

Chlorine.45*15 


100*00 

Yet as Dr, John Davy’s analysis of this solid chloride of an¬ 
timony gives a different result f, I analysed it in the following 
manner. I poured water on a quantity of the chloride, and 
added tartaric acid, until the liquid was perfectly clear and 
ceased to become milky by adding afresh a large quantity of 
water. I then passed a current of sulphuretted hydrogen 
through the liquid, till sulphuret of antimony was no longer 
precipitated. This sulphuret, which was orange-coloured, was 
washed on the filtre, weighed and dried, then melted in a glass 
tube; it gave a black sulphuret of antimony, and only traces 
of sulphur : it was therefore the sulphuret of antimony con¬ 
taining 3 atoms of sulphur, or precisely what ought to be 
formed under these circumstances. As, however, it contained 
traces of an excess of sulphur, in consequence of the sulphu¬ 
retted hydrogen which had been passed for a very long time 
through the liquid, I heated a part of this sulphuret in a bulb 
blown in the middle of a glass tube, and passed over it a cur¬ 
rent of hydrogen dried by chloride of calcium. The sulphu¬ 
ret of antimony was decomposed; and there was obtained an¬ 
timony, sulphuretted hydrogen, and traces of sulphur. 

The liquor, separated from the sulphuret of antimony, was 
slowly heated, to drive off the sulphuretted hydrogen, but not 

* The ordinary butter of antimony in pharmacy, which forms a clear 
liquid, is not a solution of the solid chloride of antimony in a small quantity 
of water, but in muriatic acid ; for the Pharmacopoeias prescribe for its pre¬ 
paration a greater quantity of acid than is necessary for the formation of the 
solid chloride. 

f According to Dr. Davy, the chloride contains: 


Antimony.60‘42 

Chlorine.39\ r )8 


100 00 


the 








126 


M. Rose on the Combinations of 


the hydrochloric acid, which cannot be separated from water 
by heat when it is mixed with it in small proportion. The 
hydrochloric acid was then precipitated by nitrate of silver. 
The chloride of silver obtained had notwithstanding a black¬ 
ish colour, from a slight mixture of sulphuret of silver. The 
results of this analysis were : Antimony 1*937 gramme (29*9 
grs.), and chloride of silver 6*886 grammes (106*3 grs.), equi¬ 
valent to 1*699 gramme (24*7 grs.) of chlorine. The chloride 
of antimony then is composed of 


Antimony ...... 53*27 

Chlorine.46*73 


100*00 


If I had obtained the chloride of silver quite free from sul¬ 
phuret of silver, this result would agree much more with the 
calculation. 

If a current of dry chlorine is made to pass over heated 
metallic antimony, another chloride of antimony is ob¬ 
tained. The antimony burns vividly in the gas, emitting 
sparks, whilst a very volatile liquid is formed. This liquid is 
white, or of a very light yellowish tint; it also contains chlo¬ 
ride of iron, if the antimony employed contained a portion of 
this metal. The chloride nevertheless remains at the bottom 
of the vessel, and does not dissolve in the liquid. This resem¬ 
bles, in all its external characters, the fuming spirit of Liba- 
vius; it has a strong and disagreeable smell, and fumes in the 
atmosphere. When exposed to the air, it attracts water and 
changes into a white mass, in which white crystals form, which 
afterwards dissolve without rendering the solution milky. 
This phenomenon is caused by a property of the liquid chlo¬ 
ride of antimony, (which it possesses in common with the 
fuming spirit of Labavius,) of forming a crystalline mass when 
mixed with a little water. 

The liquid chloride of antimony heats strongly when mixed 
with a greater quantity of water ; it becomes milky, and a pre¬ 
cipitate is formed having the properties of hydrated antimonic 
acid. Heated gently, it gives off water and becomes yellow¬ 
ish ; but at an elevated temperature it becomes white. The 
liquid contains hydrochloric acid. As the liquid chloride of an¬ 
timony is changed by water into the hydrochloric and antimo¬ 
nic acids, which last contains 5 atoms of oxygen to 1 of anti¬ 
mony, it follows that this chloride contains 5 atoms of chlo¬ 
rine to 1 of antimony, or 

Antimony.42*15 

Chlorine .57*85 


100*00 


I analysed 








m 


Antimony with Chlorine and Sulphur. 

I analysed the liquid chloride of antimony exactly in the 
same manner as the solid chloride. By sulphuretted hydro¬ 
gen I obtained sulphuret of antimony; also orange-coloured, 
but a little paler than the sulphuret obtained in analysing the 
solid chloride. It contained 5 atoms of sulphur to 1 of anti¬ 
mony. Treated with dry hydrogen, it is converted into me¬ 
tallic antimony and sulphur, and sulphuretted hydrogen is dis¬ 
engaged. I obtained T980 grammes (30*6 grs.) of metallic anti¬ 
mony; and the liquid, separated from the sulphuret and preci¬ 
pitated by nitrate of silver, gave 11*764 grammes (18T6 grs.) 
of chloride of silver, equivalent to 2*902 grammes (44*8 grs.) 
of chlorine. The chloride of silver, however, contained a little 
more sulphuret of silver than that obtained in the analysis of 
the solid chloride. The result of this analysis is, then, 40*56 
of antimony, and 59*44 of chlorine; which differs from the cal¬ 
culated result: but the difference is produced solely by the 
sulphuret of silver which is left mixed with the chloride. 

It is not the liquid chloride of antimony that is obtained 
when dry chlorine is passed over sulphuret of antimony con¬ 
taining 3 atoms of sulphur, but it is the solid chloride of anti¬ 
mony and the chloride of sulphur which are formed. The 
chloride of sulphur may be separated from the chloride of an¬ 
timony by gently heating them in a very narrow-mouthed ma¬ 
trass : there remains then only chloride of antimony. This is 
the same product which is formed when gray copper is ana¬ 
lysed by chlorine; chloride of antimony containing 3 atoms 
of chlorine, and chloride of sulphur containing 2 atoms of 
chlorine only are obtained. There is no double chloride 
formed, the chloride of sulphur remains on the solid chloride 
of antimony. Heated gently, so as merely to fuse the chloride 
of antimony, the latter dissolves completely in the chloride of 
sulphur, and forms with it a homogeneous liquid; but the chlo¬ 
ride of antimony is precipitated in crystals on cooling. This is 
one way of obtaining large crystals of this chloride; but it must 
be filtered quickly through blotting-paper, to separate them as 
much as possible from the adhering chloride of sulphur. 

It is remarkable that the liquid chloride of antimony is pro¬ 
duced only by the action of chlorine on metallic antimony, 
but that none is formed if the chlorine is made to act on the 
sulphuret of antimony.* 

' II. Com- 

* I several.times passed chlorine over sulphuret of antimony, and always 
found the same result. I imagined, for reasons which I shall hereafter 
state, that chloride of antimony with 5 atoms of chlorine was formed. Yet I 
only obtained chloride with 3 atoms, if I drove off the chloride of sulphur. 
I was then induced to believe that 2 atoms of chlorine were separated from 
- the chloride of antimony, and had combined with the chloride of sulphur; 

with 


128 M. Rose on the Combinations of 

II. Combmations of Antimony and Sulphur. 

I have made many experiments on the siilphurets of antimo¬ 
ny, and only found three which correspond with the oxides of 
that metal. 

The sulphuret of antimony with 3 atoms of sulphur has dif¬ 
ferent colours. That which is found native is of a lead-gray. 
Its composition has been made known by Berzelius. It is 
analogous to the oxide of antimony, with 3 atoms of oxygen ; 
for it dissolves without residuum in hydrochloric acid, disen¬ 
gaging only sulphuretted hydrogen. 

The same sulphuret of antimony is obtained by passing a 
current of sulphuretted hydrogen through a solution contain¬ 
ing oxide of antimony; but it is of an orange colour, nearly 
similar to that of the golden sulphuret. It becomes brownish 
by drying, and then takes an aspect more like kermes. This 
same sulphuret is obtained by passing sulphuretted hydrogen 
through a solution of tartar emetic, or through a solution of 
butter of antimony in water and tartaric acid. 

The kermes mineral is, as M. Berzelius first showed, of a 
composition exactly similar. Its colour, however, is brownish 
red *. 

The deuto-sulphuret of antimony with 4 atoms of sulphur 
is of an orange colour, very like that of the golden sulphuret. 
It is formed, if sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through a 
solution of antimonious acid. Nevertheless, tartaric acid must 
not be added to enable the liquid to be diluted with water, but 
hydrochloric acid onlyf. The best way to obtain a solution 
of antimonious acid, is to dissolve antimony in aqua regia, and 
to evaporate the solution to dryness. Then the antimonic 
acid which is formed is changed into antimonious acid by a 
red heat; this is fused with caustic potash, and the melted 
mass is treated with hydrochloric acid and water till a clear 
liquor is obtained. I precipitated this solution by sulphuretted 

with which they had perhaps formed a chloride with 4 atoms of chlorine. 

I therefore passed some chlorine over chloride of sulphur, and carefully pu¬ 
rified it by distillation from the sulphur dissolved, in order to detect such a 
chloride of sulphur. The chloride of sulphur indeed took a little darker 
colour; but there was no other change, although I made the chlorine pass 
over it for a long time. 

* I analysed a kermes that I had prepared by digesting black sulphuret 
of antimony with a solution of carbonate of potash. I dried it at a mode¬ 
rate temperature, until it contained no more hygroscopic moisture, and de¬ 
composed it by hydrogen. 0*719 gramme (11T grs.) of kermes gave me 0*520 
gramme (8 grs.) of antimony : its composition then was 72*32 antimony and 
27'68 sulphur. 

*j- Very remarkable results are obtained if tartaric acid is added to anti¬ 
monious acid. —I shall make it the subject of a separate memoir. 

hydrogen : 

x * O 


129 


Antimony with Chlorine and Sulphur. 

hydrogen: the sulphuret obtained, after being carefully dried, 
was decomposed by hydrogen. I obtained in one trial 1*305 
gramme (20*1 grs.) of antimony from 1*973 gramme (30*5 grs.) 
of sulphuret, and in another 0*977 gramme (15*1 grs.) of anti¬ 
mony from 1*468 gramme (22*7 grs.) of sulphuret. It is then 
composed, according to the first trial, of 

Antimony ....... 66*14 

Sulphur.33*86 

100*00 

and, according to the other, of 

Antimony.66*55 

Sulphur ........ 33*45 

100*00 

The composition, when calculated, is 

Antimony.66*72 

Sulphur.33*28 

100*00 

The sulphuret of antimony with 5 atoms of sulphur to 1 
of metal, which corresponds to antimonic acid, and which, by 
calculation, contains 61*59 of antimony and 38*41 of sulphur, 
is realized in the golden sulphuret of the shops. The different 
methods of its preparation are well known. It is also obtained 
if a current of sulphuretted hydrogen be passed through so¬ 
lutions which contain antimonic acid: as, for example, that 
of the liquid chloride of antimony in water, to which tartaric 
acid has been added. The precipitate obtained is of an orange 
colour, paler than the precipitate from solutions of oxide of 
antimony, and does not change colour in drying. 

I analysed the golden sulphuret in two ways: I dried it at 
a heat insufficient to decompose it, till it no longer lost weight. 
It had then lost all its hygroscopic moisture. I generally made 
the analysis by passing a current of dry hydrogen over the 
heated golden sulphuret. Sulphuretted hydrogen was formed, 
but never water: sulphur was sublimated, and metallic anti¬ 
mony remained. I also analysed it by aqua regia, to which I 
added tartaric acid. I separated the undissolved sulphur, and 
precipitated the sulphuric acid by muriate of barytes: this 
method, however, is slower than that with hydrogen. An 
exact result is not obtained by fusing the golden sulphuret in 
a small matrass to convert it into sulphuret of antimony with 
3 atoms of sulphur, and calculating the composition of the 
former from the weight of the latter; not only because the sul¬ 
phuret of antimony is not absolutely fixed, but also because 
some oxide of antimony is formed by the air in the matrass, 

. Vol. 67. No. 334. Feb. 1826. R which 












130 M. Rose on the Combinations of Antimony , fyc. 

which produces a crocus antimonii with the sulphur sublimated 
in its neck. 

I do not give the results of the analyses that I made of this 
sulphuret of antimony at a maximum , because they differ very 
little from the calculated result. 

III. Combinations of the Sulphuret of Antimoyiy with Oxide of 

Antimony . 

In the Pharmacopoeias, as is generally known, the names 
of crocus and nitrum antimonii are given to the compounds 
in which sulphuret of antimony combined with oxide of an¬ 
timony in various proportions. Kermes has also been taken 
for such a compound. M. Berzelius, however, has shown that 
it does not differ in its composition from the sulphuret of anti¬ 
mony with 3 atoms of sulphur, and the analysis of kermes 
above given confirms this. 

There exists, however, a combination of sulphuret of anti¬ 
mony with the oxide in a definite proportion, and that is the 
native kermes of mineralogists ( rothspiesglanzerz ). The result 
of the analysis which I made differs a great deal from Klap¬ 
roth’s, from his having supposed that the whole quantity of the 
antimony was both oxidated and sulphuretted, and from his 
having determined the quantity of antimony only*. I ana¬ 
lysed the rothspiesglanzerz from Braunsdorf, near Freiberg 
in Saxony, which M. Weiss obligingly gave me for this pur¬ 
pose. The analysis was made by hydrogen, in the same man¬ 
ner as those of the different sulphurets of antimony. I added, 
however, to the apparatus a weighed tube containing chloride 
of calcium, to absorb the water formed. I obtained in one 
experiment 0*676 gramme (10*4 grs.) of antimony, and 0*054 
gramme (0*84 grs.) of water, from 0*908 gramme (14 grs.) of 
the mineral, or 74*45 per cent of antimony and 5*29 of oxygen ; 
and in another, from 0*978 gramme (15*1 grs.) of the mineral, 
0*740 gramme (11*4 grs.) of antimony, and 0*047 gramme (0*73 
grs.) of water, or 75*66 per cent of antimony and 4*27 of oxy¬ 
gen. I then dissolved 0*340 gramme (5*24 grs.) of the mineral 
in aqua regia; I added to the solution tartaric acid, and pre¬ 
cipitated by muriate of barytes. I obtained 0*517 gramme 
(8 grs.) of sulphate of barytes, equivalent to 20*47 per cent of 
sulphur. 

If the mean be taken of the oxygen of the first two analyses, 

* Beitrage, t. iii. p. 182. The composition of this mineral is, according 

to him, Antimony.67*80 

Oxygen.10-80 

Sulphur.. 19-70 


98-30 


that 





Mr. Riddle on the Double Altitude Problem. 


131 


that is, 4*78 per cent, and the quantity of antimony required to 
form the oxide be added to it, the remaining quantity of metal is 
sufficient (slight errors of observation being neglected) to form 
with the sulphur the sulphuret of antimony with 3 atoms of sul¬ 
phur. It will moreover be found, that the quantity of the oxide 
of antimony is to the quantity of sulphuret as the weight of an 
atom of the first is to the weight of 2 atoms of the second ; so 
that the native kermes consists of 1 atom of oxide of antimony 
and 2 atoms of sulphuret of antimony, or of 

Sulphuret of antimony . . . 69*86 
Oxide of antimony.30*14 

The chemical formula is then S b + 2 S b s 3 , which M. Ber¬ 
zelius had already assigned for the composition of the native 
kermes. This composition is remarkable, as it offers the only 
example of a native crystallized oxy-sulphuret. 


XXI. On Mr. Burns’s Communications respecting the Double 

Altitude Problem. 

To the Editor of the Philosophical Magazine and Journal. 
Sir, 

T CERTAINLY did not. intend to notice further the com- 
munications of your correspondent Mr. Burns; but I must 
request you to point out a most singular misquotation which 
he makes from my last letter. I stated that 44 1 noted the mis¬ 
take in his assumption in italics;” Mr. B. quotes the remark 
thus, 44 1 noted the assumption in italics.” 

No person acquainted with what has been done on the dou¬ 
ble altitude problem, will expect any notice to be taken of 
Mr. B’s third and fourth solutions, as there is nothing new 
either in the principles of the solution or the formulas employed. 

Your obedient servant, 

Greenwich Hospital, Feb. 18, 1826. R. RlDDLE. 


To the Editor of the Philosophical Magazine and Journal. 

Sir, 

Having, with a little surprise, noticed a paper in your very 
useful work, No. 329, entitled 44 A short Method of finding 
the Latitude at Sea byDouble Altitudes and the Time between,” 
by James Burns, B.A., I beg leave to say that, though it 
certainly is a kind of double altitude, which he has investi¬ 
gated, it is not the problem that generally goes under that 
name, and which is so very puzzling to navigators in general: 

R 2 neither 






132 Mr. Beverley on the Double Altitude Problem. 

neither has he, in that paper, given a solution to the problem 
which he professes to solve. 

The observations of Messrs. Riddle and Henderson are well 
founded; and I wonder you have not heard from more of your 
correspondents on the same subject: for after all he has ad¬ 
vanced or may advance in its favour, it is evident he has proposed 
one problem and solved another. I do not hesitate a moment 
in saying, in the words of Mr. Riddle, that in his first paper 
66 he has altogether misapprehended the nature of the pro¬ 
blem.” And though he has been practising it these six months, 
we have not yet received from him a direct analytical solution 
of a double altitude. The one he has given us at page 50, 
vol. Ixvii., which is identical to the one at page 345, vol. lxvi., 
is the same in substance as those given in Kelly’s Spheroids, 
Bonnycastle’s Trigonometry, &c. &c. —as it represents no more 
than the several trigonometrical operations in algebraical terms. 

The horary angles cannot be determined by any less la¬ 
borious an investigation than the latitude itself; neither do 
the “ Horary Tables” show those horary angles at all. They 
only show the horary angle when the latitude, altitude, and 
declination are given, or the latitude when the horary angle 
is given. They might, however, be of excellent use in single 
altitudes , if they were about sixty times as extensive as they are. 

In Mr. B.’s first paper, I cannot see how far he can con¬ 
ceive himself justified in endeavouring to depredate the very 
valuable labours of Mr. Douwes and Dr. Brinkley, while at 
the same time he is pursuing a problem of a quite different and 
inferior nature, and which is no more than the declination, 
two altitudes of the sun, and the times from noon when those 
altitudes were taken, given to find the latitude. 

Yours, &c. 

Brompton, near Scarborough, Thomas Beverley. 

Feb. 13, 1826. 


[Mr. Beverley proceeds at great length to the discussion of 
this problem, and states the mode of its solution as given in his 
forthcoming Mariner’s Celestial Guide: but as so much has 
been said already upon the subject, we are desirous of bring¬ 
ing it to a close. We shall have great pleasure in hearing 
from Mr. Beverley on any other scientific subject, and are 
sure that he will not attribute our shortening his communica¬ 
tion to any want of respect for the talent with which he has 
treated the subject.— Edit.] 


XXII. Pro - 



[ 133 ] 

XXII. Proceedings of Learned. Societies . 

ROYAL SOCIETY. 

Feb. 2.— A PAPER was read On the magnetizing power 
of the more refrangible rays of light; by Mrs. 
Mary Somerville: communicated by William Somerville, M.IX 
F.R.S. 

The reading was commenced of a paper On the action of 
sulphuric acid upon naphthaline ; by M. Faraday, Esq. F.R.S. 

Feb. 9.—The reading of Mr. Faraday’s paper was con- 
tinued. 

Feb. 16.—Mr. Faraday’s paper was concluded : and a paper 
was read, On the circle of nerves which connects the voluntary 
muscles with the brain; by Charles Bell, Esq. F.R.S. E. 


LINNiEAN SOCIETY. 

Feb. 6.—Read, A description of the Plectrophanes Lap- 
ponica , a species lately discovered in the British Islands: by 
Prideaux John Selby, Esq. F.L.S. M.W.S. Ed. &c.* 

Lapland Bunting ( Fringilla Lapponica Linn.), Emberiza 
calcarata Temminck ;— found in Leadenhall-market among 
Larks from Cambridgeshire. Fam. Fringillidce Vigors. Gen. 
Plectrophanes Meyer. This genus Mr. Selby states to be in¬ 
termediate between Alauda and Emberiza. It approaches the 
former in the thickness of the bill, and in the form of the feet 
and production of the hinder claw. Its affinity to Emberiza is 
shown in the peculiar form of the bill characteristic of that 
genus : it differs, however, in having the first and second quill- 
feathers nearly equal in length, and the longest in the wing. 

Read also, Some account of a collection of Cryptogamic 
Plants formed in the Ionian Islands, and brought to this coun¬ 
try by Lord Guildford. By Robert Kaye Greville, LL.D. 
F.R.S. E. &c.—Among the species described in this paper 
the following are new:—B yssoide^;; Sporotrichum badium , 
Thallus casspitosus, badius; fiiis tenuissimis, confervoideis, 
implexis, sporidiis concoloribus, ovalibus, acervulis distinctis 
coacervatis.—G astromyct ; Sclerotium gyro sum • parvum, ni¬ 
grum, erumpens, plano-convexum, sulcis gyrosis rugosum, 
intus albidum.— Ai.Gas ; Delesseria tenerrima , fronde tenuis- 
sima, avenia, lineari, dichotoma, rosea, apice obtusa, soris spo- 
ridiorum sparsis.—F ucoide.®; Zonaria rubra , fronde reni- 
formi, plana, subintegerrima, fragili, nitida, rubra, lineis mi- 
nutissimis longitudinaliter densissime notata.—Musci; Tor- 

* Author of Illustrations of British Ornithology, a work of great merit; 
the very accurate plates of which are beautifully executed by Mr. Selby. 

tula 



134 Geological Society. 

tula Northiana . Caulis brevis simplex, foliis erecto-patentibus, 
lineari-lanceolatis, acutis, siccitate lortuosis, theca subcylin- 
drica(named after LordGuildford .)—Bryum elegans. — B.Don - 
ianum.—Hyjpnum Le&kea. 

Feb. 21.—The Reading of Dr. F. Hamilton’s Commentary 
on the Hortus Malabaricus, Part IV., was begun. 


GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Jan. 20.—A paper was read On the Geology of Jamaica, 
by H. T. De la Beche, Esq., F.R.S. &c. 

Mr. De la Beche’s observations are confined to the eastern 
half of Jamaica, which includes the whole range of the Blue 
Mountains, the highest eminences of the island, those of Port- 
Royal, Spanish-Town, the Mocko Mountains, and other ridges 
of inferior elevation. These heights often include or are con¬ 
nected with extensive plains, the principal of which are those 
of Liguanea, Vere, and Lower Clarendon, Luidas Vale, and 
St. Thomas’s. The rocks of oldest formation which presented 
themselves to the author, within this district, he refers to the 
submedial or transition series. They compose the greater 
part of the Blue Mountain range, and consist of, 1. Gray-wacke, 
both foliated and compact, coarse and fine; presenting in short 
the usual variations common to this rock in Europe, and ap¬ 
pearing, on some points, to pass into old red sandstone: 2. 
Transition limestone, apparently destitute of organic remains, 
compact, of a dark blueish gray colour, and traversed by veins 
of calcareous spar; occasionally associated with argillaceous 
slate, and its upper beds much intermixed with sandstones. 
These stratified rocks throughout the Blue Mountains gene¬ 
rally dip towards the N.E. and E.N.E. at a considerable angle; 
but there are frequent exceptions to this rule, and the strata 
are on the whole much contorted. They are occasionally as¬ 
sociated with trap rocks, viz. syenites, greenstones, and clay- 
stone porphyry. The author observed on one point, viz. the 
southern slope of St. Catherine’s hill, a series of strata which 
he conceives to represent the coal measures; the old red 
sandstone is however developed on a larger scale, and in more 
numerous localities : so that the medial or carboniferous series 
is certainly not wanting in Jamaica. Resting upon this ap¬ 
pears, on many points, a porphyritic conglomerate, associated 
with porphyry, and occasionally with greenstone and syenite. 
Similar trap rocks, intermixed in the most varied manner, 
show themselves very extensively, composing the greater part 
of the St. John’s Mountains, and the district bordering on the 
Agua Alta. One variety of porphyry met with by the author 
is composed of nodular concretions, separated by a soft argil¬ 
laceous 



135 


Geological Society. 

laceous substance, among which strings of chalcedony are some¬ 
times found. It is remarkable, that the only instance of a 
similar structure which has occurred to the author, is in an 
amygdaloidal rock, decidedly of volcanic origin, at Black Hill, 
on another part of the island. 

These trap rocks are found, generally, supporting the great 
white limestone formation , which occupies a very large portion 
ol the whole island. This formation, from the fossils it con¬ 
tains, is referred by Mr. He la Beche to the tertiary series. It 
is principally composed of white limestone, most frequently 
very compact, and then strongly resembling the compact va- 
lieties of Jura limestone. I he strata are usually very thick, 
varying from 3 to 20 feet in breadth. In some districts, this 
rock is interstratified with thick beds of red marie, and sand¬ 
stone, and white chalky marie. The compact limestone con¬ 
stitutes the middle part of the formation : the lower beds con¬ 
sist, chiefly, of sands and marles, sometimes associated with 
blueish gray compact limestones, at others with beds of earthy 
yellowish white limestone, containing an abundance of organic 
remains, viz. Echinites , Ostreee , and a particularly large species 
of Cerithium. The upper beds of the formation are rather 
chalky, sandy, and marly, and contain numerous remains of 
the genera Conus , Cerithium , As tart e f Natica , &c.; and near 
the sea coast a great quantity of corals, which, frequently, have 
almost a recent appearance. 

Above the white limestone formation, beds of conglomerate 
and sandstone are visible on many points, particularly on the 
edges of the savannahs; whence the author calls them the 
Savannah sandstones. f 

The upper beds of all visible in the island, consist of Di¬ 
luvium and Alluvium. The former shows itself on a verv 
large scale, covering the surface of the principal plains, par¬ 
ticularly that of Liguanea. It consists of rounded fragments 
of the rocks which compose the neighbouring mountains. The 
Hope river, which has cut its channel through the plain of 
Liguanea, has exposed sections of these diluvial gravel-beds, 
from 200 to 300 feet in thickness. The greater part of the 
large plain of Vere and Clarendon is also composed of dilu¬ 
vium. The pebbles of these beds consist chiefly of trap rocks; 
those of white limestone are comparatively rare, this rock ap¬ 
pearing to have failed in resistance to the force of attrition by 
which its fragments were attacked. The separation between 
the diluvium, and alluvium is not very decided ; but deposits 
of the latter class have certainly been produced, in consider¬ 
able quantities, along the course of many of the rivers; and 
on parts of the shore, particularly between Kingston and Port 

Henderson, 


2 30 Astronomical Society. 

Henderson, in front of which extends a long sand-bank, called 

Palisades. • 

Mr De la Beche’s paper concludes with an interesting com¬ 
parison of the Jamaica formations with those of Mexico and 
South America, as described by M. de Humboldt. T le gray- 
wacke of Jamaica would seem to be continued in Mexico, with 
its accompanying trap rocks, and dark-coloured °^ s * 

In South America it is absent} and its place is supplied solely 
by porphyries, syenites, and greenstones, which are developed 
there on a very large scale. The red sandstone which is found 
in Jamaica occurs very extensively m the neighbouring pai ts 
of the American continent. A formation analogous to t ie 
white limestone of Jamaica, seems, from M. de Humboldt s 
description, to occur both in Mexico and Venezuela. 

Feb. 3.—A paper was read, entitled Remarks on some paits 
of the Taunus Mountains, in the duchy of Nassau; by bir 
A. Crichton, V.P. G.S. &c. [An abstract of this paper will 

be given in oui next. J # 

Feb. 17.—-At the Anniversary Meeting of the Society held 

this day, the following gentlemen were elected Officers and 

Council for the year ensuing:' 

President: John Bostock, M.D. F.R.S.— Vice-x residents: 

Sir Alexander Crichton, M.D. F.R. & L.S. Hon. Memb.lmp. 
Acad. St. Petersburgh; Rev. W. D. Conybeare, F-B-k.; Wm. 
Henry Fitton, M.D. F.R.S.; Cha. Stokes, Esq. F.R.A. & L.S. 

Secretaries : W. J. Broderip, Esq.. F.L.S.; R.J. Murchison, 
Esq.* Tho.Webster,Esq.— Foreign Secretary: Hen. Heuland, 
Fsa.’—Treasurer : John Taylor, Esq. F.R.S.— Council: Arthur 
Aikin, Esq. F.L.S.; Henry Thomas De laBeche, Esq. F.R.S. 
& L S.; J. E. Bicheno, Esq. Sec. L.S.; Henry Thomas Cole- 
brooke, Esq. F.R.S. L. & E. F.L. & Asiat. Soc.; Sir Charles 
Henry Colvil; George Bellas Greenough, Esq. h.R. & L.S.; 
Sir Charles Lemon, Bart. F.R.S.; Armand Levy, Esq.; Cha. 
Lyell, Esq. F.R. & L.S.; William Hasledine Pepys, Esq. 
F.R.S. L.S. & H.S.; George Poulett Scrope, Esq.; J. F. Van- 
dercom, Esq.; Henry Warburton, Esq. F.R.S. 


astronomical society. 

Jan. 13.—There was read a paper by Stephen Groom- 
bridge, Esq., F.R.S., on the co-latitude of his observatory at 
Rlackheath, as determined from his own observations. The 
author first describes a simple method of bringing the transit- 
instrument into the meridian, by the observations of Polaris 
and other circumpolar stars, and then by comparisons of high 
and low stars. He next describes the method of ascertaining 

the true zenith point, and thence the elevation ol the pole, by 

observations 



137 


Astronomical Society . 

observations of circumpolar stars in zenith-distance above and 
below the pole, from which twice the co-latitude becomes 
known. Employing his own constant of refraction, he obtains 
from observations of 32 circumpolar stars above and below 
the pole 77° 3' 55",65 for the mean double co-latitude; thence 
38° 31' 57", 82, and 51° 28 / 2 ,, ,18 for the latitude; a result 
which accords with his independent observations on the sol¬ 
stices. 

Mr. Groombridge next proceeds to deduce from this, the 
co-latitude of the Royal Observatory. He determines the'dif¬ 
ference of the zeniths of the two observatories at 35", 25, which 
applied to the latitude of the Blackheath Observatory, by 
addition, gives 51° 28' 37 // ,43 for that of the Royal Obser¬ 
vatory, being less than Mr. Pond makes it by more than a se¬ 
cond. Mr. Groombridge imputes the difference to an erroneous 
constant of refraction. The author concludes his paper, by 
presenting some simple formulae for finding the position of a 
transit instrument, from the observed transits of a high and low 
star, passing the meridian to the south of the zenith ; or from 
the observed transit of a circumpolar star above and below the 
pole. 

There was next read, a communication from Sir Thomas 
Brisbane, dated Paramatta, 2d July, 1825. The contents were, 
1st. Observations with a repeating circle for the winter sol¬ 
stice 1825, extending from June 12 to July 1 inclusive. These 
are not yet reduced. 2dly. Observations on the inferior con¬ 
junction of Venus and the Sun, May 1825, with the mural cir¬ 
cle, from May 1st to the 25th inclusive. 3d)y. Observations on 
the dip of the magnetic needle, March 1825 ;—the mean of the 
whole was 62° 41' 35". 4thly, Observations on the declina¬ 
tion of the needle in March, April, and May, 1825 ;—the mean 
of the whole is 8° 59'' 48". Lastly. An abstract of the mete¬ 
orological Journal kept at Paramatta, from April 1824 to 
April 1825. 

Feb. 10.-—The Sixth Annual General Meeting of the Society 
was this day held at the Society’s rooms in Lincoln’s Inn Fields, 
for the purpose of receiving the Report of the Council upon 
the state of the Society’s affairs, electing Officers for the en¬ 
suing year, &c. &c. 

The President, F. Baily, Esq. in the chair. 

From the Report, which was read by Dr. Gregory, we give 
the following extracts: 

“ In meeting the Astronomical Society of London at its Sixth 
Anniversary, the Council have great pleasure in being enabled 
still to use the language of cordial congratulation : for not only 
does the number of the Members and Associates of the So- 

Vol. 67. No. 334. Feb. 1826. S ciety 


138 


Astronomical Society . 

ciety continue to increase, and its affairs to prosper; but also 
the theory and practice of Astronomy (the extension of which 
was the sole object of the Society) have both been obviously 
promoted by the zeal and talent of many of its Members and 
friends.” 

The Report proceeds to state that “ in 1822, the Members 
and. Associates amounted to 188; in 1823, to 207; in 1824, 
to 210; in 1825, to 224 ; in February 1826, to 237;—a num¬ 
ber, in which are included several of the most eminent pro¬ 
moters of Astronomy, not only in Britain but in Europe. 

“ Amongst the few Members of whom the Society has been 
deprived by death, the Council think it proper to call your 
attention to the loss of Mr. Cary. As an artist of considera¬ 
ble eminence and high reputation he was well known in the 
scientific world. Amongst the many excellent instruments 
which he contrived and perfected, he was the maker of the 
2^-feet Altitude and Azimuth Instrument at Konigsberg, with 
which M. Bessel made his first observations at that celebrated 
Observatory. 

66 Among the duties, which it has devolved upon your 
Council to discharge, one of the most interesting has been 
the selection of papers (read at the ordinary Meetings) for 
publication in the volumes of the Memoirs of the Society. 
The Second Part of the First Volume, which was nearly ready 
for delivery at the Anniversary Meeting of 1825, was shortly 
afterwards laid before the public, and has been well received 
by Astronomers.—The First Part of the Second Volume is 
now nearly ready for publication ; and the Council trust that 
it will experience an equally favourable reception. Besides se¬ 
veral valuable papers tending to improve the theory of As¬ 
tronomy and of astronomical instruments, and others descri¬ 
bing instruments, which are entirely new; the several parts, 
here alluded to, contain tables, which tend very much to faci¬ 
litate the labours of the practical Astronomer. Thus the se¬ 
cond part of Vol. I. terminates with subsidiary Tables for fa¬ 
cilitating the computation of annual tables of the apparent 
places of 46 principal fixed stars, computed by order of the 
Council; to which is prefixed a statement by the Foreign 
Secretary of the formulae employed, and the elements adopted 
in their construction. These tables with their introduction 
occupy 76 pages. 

“ The Tables of precession, aberration, and nutation, serv¬ 
ing to determine the apparent places of about 3000 principal 
fixed stars, to which allusion was made in the last Report of 
the Council, have been completed to 180° of JR, and written 
out for the press. The remainder are in a state of conside¬ 
rable 


Astronomical Society, 


139 


rable forwardness. These tables, together with an ample in¬ 
troductory paper on their construction and use, by the Presi¬ 
dent of this Society, will constitute an appendix to the second 
volume of the Memoirs. 

66 Amongst the numerous communications which have been 
made from the Associates of this Society, the Council may 
specify a very interesting and elaborate paper, forwarded to 
the Foreign Secretary by M. Plana, on some important in¬ 
quiries in physical Astronomy, which will be found in the se¬ 
cond part of the second volume. The President also has 
received a letter from M. Bessel, requesting to know whether 
the Astronomical Society would patronize and promote a plan, 
which he had suggested, for making detached charts of the 
heavens. The President was requested by the Council to 
assure M. Bessel that the Astronomical Society would doubt¬ 
less promote so laudable and useful a measure, as much as lay 
in their power. That active and indefatigable astronomer, 
pursuant to his general plan, now regularly observes all the 
smaller stars in zones, agreeably to the method suggested, and 
practised, by the late Rev. F. Wollaston. He has already com¬ 
pleted the zones within 15° on each side of the equator; and in 
that space has observed upwards of 30,000 stars. The obser¬ 
vations are annually published by M. Bessel, with the other 
observations made at the Royal Observatory at Konigsberg. 
When they are reduced (as there is great reason to hope they 
will be), they will constitute a most valuable accession to the 
stores of Astronomy. 

fi< The instrument made use of in this survey of the heavens, 
as well as that used by Mr. Wollaston, were both made by 
the late Mr. Cary. 

66 Others of the Associates have especially distinguished 
themselves, and have forwarded to this Society some very in¬ 
teresting communications, as the successive parts and volumes 
of the Memoirs will evince. In alluding to these distinguished 
characters, your Council cannot avoid noticing the indefati¬ 
gable labours of M. Schumacher, Professor of Astronomy at 
Copenhagen. His Astronomische Nachrichten , or Astronomi¬ 
cal Newspaper, has considerably facilitated the intercourse be¬ 
tween Astronomers in every part of the world; serving to re¬ 
cord the observations of various interesting phsenomena, as 
well as to draw the attention of observers to other phenomena 
about to appear. He has also published several compendious 
collections of tables of great practical utility. Among these, 
your Council cannot omit a particular reference to the very 
important Tables, which constitute the second part of his 
Sammhmg von Hiilfstafeln , and which have been prepared for 

8 2 the 


140 


Astronomical Society, 

the purpose of reducing the 50,000 stars contained in La- 
lande’s Histoire Celeste ,* serving, indeed, to effect the reduc¬ 
tion of any one of those stars in the short space of two or three 
minutes. 

“ Thus, whilst M. Schumacher has laid all Astronomers 
under considerable obligations by the publication of these 
tables, he has conferred a peculiar mark of his esteem upon 
the body now assembled, by dedicating this volume to the 
Astronomical Society; a distinction, which they, who know 
the talent and zeal of this our eminent Associate, will be able 
to appreciate in an adequate manner. 

c< One of our Associates, M. Struve, has devoted himself 
with great perseverance and success to the observation, and 
classification, of double stars; an important department of 
astronomical research, which was originally opened and pur¬ 
sued with his wonted assiduity and accuracy by our late re¬ 
vered president, Sir William Herschel. 

st This subject has been still more extensively pursued, and 
with considerable ardour and zeal, by two of our Members, 
Messrs. Herschel and South; whose labours on this very in¬ 
teresting branch of the science are contained in a paper read 
before the Royal Society, and which in itself forms the third 
part of the Philosophical Transactions for the Year 1824. 
Whoever has read that paper with attention, must be struck 
with the vast labour and perseverance, the great accuracy and 
uniformity of result, with which those delicate observations 
have been made. Such an immense mass of interesting facts 
cannot fail to open new views to the contemplative philosopher, 
and extend our knowledge of the true system of the universe: 
and Mr. Herschel himself has, in a communication about to 
be laid before the Royal Society, made a happy application 
thereof, as explanatory of some of the phenomena connected 
with parallax. The indefatigable ardour of Mr. South in the 
cause of Astronomy, induced him to follow up his researches 
on the same subject whilst he was in France; and he has re¬ 
cently made a communication to the Royal Society, of some 
new observations, of equal, if not superior, importance; and 
which will appear in a subsequent volume of the Philosophical 
Transactions. 

66 For these laborious and valuable researches and observa¬ 
tions relative to double stars, the Council have awarded to 
each of those distinguished Members and Associate, Mr. Her¬ 
schel, Mr. South, and M. Struve, the Gold Medal of the So¬ 
ciety, which will be presented to them at a General Meeting 
expressly called for that purpose, as soon as the medals can 
be prepared. 


“ Sir 


141 


Astronomical Society. 

“ Sir Thomas Brisbane, Governor of New South Wales, has 
devoted himself indefatigably to the practice of Astronomy, at 
Paramatta in that colony, having taken out with him some, 
excellent instruments for that purpose. He and his assistants 
have already made several thousand observations, the records 
of which have been sent over to this country: and it is hoped 
that they will be published, either in their original shape, or 
after they have been reduced to some appropriate epoch. Dr. 
Brinkley, of Dublin, one of the Vice-Presidents of this Society, 
has instituted a series of computations on Sir Thomas Bris¬ 
bane’s Observations, with a view to the comparison of the 
results thus furnished, with the results deduced from obser¬ 
vations made in the northern hemisphere. This particular in¬ 
quiry has served to confirm the accuracy of the constant of 
refraction, formerly exhibited by that illustrious astronomer 
in his well-known formula for that species of reduction. Dr. 
Brinkley’s paper on this subject is printed, and will appear in 
Part I. Vol. ii. of the Memoirs of this Society. 

“ Another of the Members of the Astronomical Society, the 
Rev. Fearon Fallows, Astronomer at the Cape of Good Hope, 
has also made a great number of Observations of the southern 
stars; and the Royal Society has published his Approximate 
Catalogue of 273 of the principal stars observed by La Caille. 

“ The continuance of Observations, such as these, at two 
Observatories in the southern hemisphere, cannot but be pro¬ 
ductive of considerable benefit to the science of Astronomy. 
In order, however, that they may be rendered subservient, in 
the highest degree, to the extension of this branch of know¬ 
ledge, it is especially desirable that some efficient plan of co¬ 
operation should be arranged between the Astronomers at 
some of the northern Observatories, and those who are em¬ 
ployed at the two above-mentioned stations, south of the equa¬ 
tor. Those who are conversant with the history of Astronomy 
will recollect that when La Caille went to the Cape of Good 
Hope, in 1751, he addressed a circular letter to the principal 
Astronomers in Europe, enforcing the advantages of co-opera¬ 
tion ; and Lalande was in consequence sent to Berlin, to act 
in concert with him. Circumstances are now still more favour¬ 
able for the production of advantageous results, provided a 
judicious plan of mutual co-operation be agreed upon. For 
while there is the Observatory established by Sir T. Brisbane 
in New South Wales, and that occupied by Mr. Fallows at 
the Cape; there are also in the northern hemisphere, M. Bessel 
at Konigsberg, M. Struve at Dorpat, and M. Argelander at 
Abb (the meridians of the four latter-mentioned places differ¬ 
ing from each other but a very few degrees),—the respective 

Astronomers, 


14*2 


Astronomical Society . 

Astronomers, men of considerable science, activity and perse¬ 
verance, and possessing instruments far superior to those, 
which were in existence in the time of La Cable. The advan¬ 
tages of this kind of pre-arranged co-operation, to which your 
Council here advert, are so well understood in the present ad¬ 
vanced state of Astronomy, that a mere hint will (it is hoped) 
suffice, to produce the desired concert.” 

The Report then adverts to the contributions and exertions 
of other scientific bodies. “ The erection of an Observatory 
at the University of Cambridge, and the still more recent an¬ 
nouncement of a prize of 7 51. at Edinburgh, to be awarded to 
the two best essays on Comets *, cannot but be hailed as of 
auspicious tendency in the developement of knowledge. In 
the same light, too, may doubtless be considered the deter¬ 
mination of the British Board of Longitude, to employ ade¬ 
quate computers on the reduction of Mr. Groombridge’s Ob¬ 
servations at Blackheath, as well as to devote a part of the 
funds, which are at its disposal, to the arrangement and pub¬ 
lication of the Observations of Tobias Mayer (so justly cele¬ 
brated for their importance and accuracy) from the original 
manuscripts, which have been forwarded to this country for 
that express purpose. 

“As another subject of congratulation, the Council cannot 
avoid noticing the interest which appears recently to have 
been excited in the United States of America to the subject of 
Astronomy. On the opening of the present Session of Con¬ 
gress, the President pointed out to them the propriety and 
advantage of constructing Observatories in various parts of 
their immense territory, and of establishing a system of co¬ 
operation between each other. A plan of this kind, under 
the direction of active and skilful Astronomers, cannot fail to 
advance the science, and is worthy of the patronage and pro¬ 
tection of a great and powerful nation. 

“ No less than five comets were discovered within the com¬ 
pass of as many months in the last year, and one of these has 
(as it was predicted) been seen again within the last fortnight. 
This is a natural result of the augmented attention, which has 
been lately paid to these bodies, and to the investigation of 
the laws, which their motions obey. 

“ With respect to the Prize Questions proposed at the last 
general meeting of the Society, the Council report that they 
have received only one answer to the first question, which being 
just delivered in, is now under investigation. The period 
allotted for the determination of the second question will not 

* Open to all students who have attended that University during the last 
ten years. 


expire 


Astronomical Society. 143 

expire till the next Anniversary, and that allotted for the third 
question not till the Anniversary in 1828 : prior to which time 
the Council trust that the subjects proposed will have excited 
the attention of Astronomers, and induced them to forward to 
the Society the result of their inquiries and investigations. 

<£ It has frequently been a subject of regret with many 
Members of this Society, that there are so few particulars 
known relative to the different public Observatories in various 
parts of the world: such as the construction of the building, 
and the instruments with which it is furnished. The cele¬ 
brated John Bernouilli in his Lettres Astronomiques , published 
at Berlin in 1771? attempted a description of some of those, 
which he had visited : but so many alterations have taken place 
since that period, not only in the Observatories themselves, 
(some of which no longer exist,) but also in the instruments, 
which are now of a totally new character, that but little infor¬ 
mation as to the present state of those establishments can be 
obtained from that source. The Council are of opinion that 
it would tend materially to the advancement of Astronomy, if 
an accurate description of every principal Observatory could 
be obtained, accompanied with a ground plan and elevation of 
the building; together with a description of the instruments 
employed, and drawings of such as are remarkable, either for 
their novelty or peculiar interest. It is well known that there 
are several instruments in constant use on the Continent, and 
much approved by Astronomers, which have not yet been seen 
in this country: and some in this country, which are not suf¬ 
ficiently known abroad; or even amongst ourselves. The 
Council would encourage every attempt to promote this spe¬ 
cies of information, by publishing in their Memoirs the ac¬ 
counts which they may from tim$ to time receive on this sub¬ 
ject, and the drawings, with which they might be accom¬ 
panied. 

44 Your Council think it unnecessary to extend this Report 
to a greater length. It must be evident that many things, 
which (as far as regard the objects and labours of this Society) 
were six years ago only matters of hope and anticipation, have 
now become subjects of mutual congratulation. But it can 
only be by a cordial and zealous co-operation of all its Mem¬ 
bers, and by a continued course of perseverance, that the So¬ 
ciety can ever expect fully to attain the principal objects for 
which it was established; and which, as stated in their ori¬ 
ginal Address, are for the purpose of 4 collecting, reducing, 
4 and publishing useful Observations and Tables:—for set- 
4 ting on foot a minute and systematic examination of the 

4 Heavens: 


144 Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris. 

4 Heavens:—-for encouraging a general spirit of inquiry in 
4 practical Astronomy:—for establishing communications with 
6 foreign Observers:—for circulating Notices of all remarkable 
4 Phenomena about to happen:—for enabling the public to 
4 compare the merits of different artists, eminent in the con- 
4 structionof astronomical instruments:-—for proposing Prizes 
4 for the improvement of particular departments, and bestow- 
4 ing Medals or rewards on successful research in all:—and 
4 finally, for acting, as far as possible, in concert with every 
4 Institution both in England and abroad, whose objects have 
4 any thing in common with their own; but avoiding all inter- 
4 ference with the objects and interests of established scientific 
4 bodies.’ Keeping these objects in view, as constant land¬ 
marks, the Council trust that the Society will insure the appro¬ 
bation and applause of every friend of science; and that it will 
not only prove a source of interest and information to the Mem¬ 
bers at large, but likewise tend to advance the progress of 
Astronomy in every habitable and civilized part of the globe.” 

After reading the Report and Treasurer’s accounts, the 
Members proceeded to ballot for the officers for the ensuing 
year, when the following were declared to have been duly 
elected. 

President: Francis Baily, Esq. F.R.S. L.S. & G.S,— Vice- 
Presidents: Rev. John Brinkley, D.D. F.R.S. Pres. R.I.A. 
And.Prof Ast. Univ.of Dubl. ; Capt. F. Beaufort, R.N. F.R.S.; 
Henry Thomas Colebrooke, Esq. F.R.S. L. & E. F.L.S. & 
G.S.; Davies Gilbert, Esq. M.P. V.P.R.S. F.L.S. & G.S.— 
Treasurer: Rev. William Pearson, LL.D. F.R.S.— Secreta¬ 
ries: Olinthus G. Gregory, LL.D. Prof. Math. Roy. Mil. Acad. 
Woolwich; Lieutenant William S. Stratford, R.N.— Foreign 
Sec.: J.F. W. Herschel, Esq. M.A. Sec. R.S. Lond. & F.R.S, 
Ed.— Council: Colonel Mark Beaufoy, F.R.S. & L.S.; Ben¬ 
jamin Gompertz, Esq. F.R.S.; Stephen Groombridge, Esq. 
F.R.S.; James Llorsburgh, Esq. F.R.S.; Daniel Moore, Esq. 
F.R.S. S.A. L.S. & G.S.; John Pond, Esq. F.R.S. Ast. Roy.; 
Edward Riddle, Esq.; Richard Sheepshanks, Esq. M.A.; 
W. H. Fox Talbott, Esq. B.A.; Edward Troughton, Esq. 
F.R.S. L. & E.—The Society afterwards dined together at the 
Freemason’s Tavern, to celebrate their sixth Anniversary. 


ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF PARIS. 

Sept. 5.—Doctors Sarmetaine, Flory, and Remonet, of Mar¬ 
seilles, announced, in a letter to the Academy, their intention 
of joining Dr. Costa and others, in submitting to all the ex¬ 
periments necessary to determine the question of the non-con¬ 
tagious 



Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris. 145 

tagious or contagious nature of yellow fever.—Captain Vene 
communicated a memoir on circular functions.—M. Magendie 
presented some notes on the history of goitres, by Dr. Poulin 
of Santa-Fe-de-Bogota.—MM. Legendre and Cauchy made 
a report on M. Berard’s memoir in which he proposes to 
prove the truth of the only theorem of Fermet which has not 
yet been demonstrated. 

Sept. 12.—M. Durville presented a MS. memoir on the 
Flora of the Malouine Isles.—M. Ampere communicated 
some new electro-dynamic experiments.—MM. Desfontaines 
and Labillardiere made a report on M. Ad. de Jussieu’s me¬ 
moir on the family of the Rutaceae .—M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire 
commenced the reading of a memoir entitled 44 On the beings 
of the intermediate degrees of the animal scale, which respire 
both in the air and under water, and which possess respiratory 
organs of two kinds, developed to a certain extent.” He pre¬ 
sented a specimen of the Birgits Latro , in which, besides 
branchiae, there are organs w^iich M.Geoffroy regards as lungs. 

Sept. 19,—M. Geoffroy read another memoir in continua¬ 
tion. on the above subject.-—M. Foulhious read a memoir on a 
law by which the arteries and nerves are governed in their 
respective relations.—M. Costa read a memoir on the epide¬ 
mic typhus which ravaged the commune of St. Laurent-des- 
Ardens and its environs, during six months of 1823.—A me¬ 
moir on the composition of new hydraulic morters, by M. Gi¬ 
rard, was referred to a Committee. 

Sept. 26.—M.*Geoffroy St. Hilaire exhibited several living 
specimens of the common crab, C. mcenas , and detailed ver¬ 
bally the results of his researches on the respiration of the 
Crustacea . 

Oct. 3,—M. Feburier read an‘account of his experiments 
on the electricity of oxygen gas.—M. Ch.GemmeJlaro commu¬ 
nicated a memoir, in Italian, on the soil of Mount iEtna, with 
specimens in illustration.—MM. Quoy and Gaymard read 
some zoological observations on the Corals, made in the bay of 
Coupang, at Timor, and in the Isle of Guan, in the Mari¬ 
annes. 

Oct. 10.—M. Dulong read a memoir, entitled 44 Researches 
on the refractive powers of elastic fluids.”—M. Lenoir, jun. 
read a memoir, by his father and himself, on the new instru¬ 
ments called Levclling-circles , which they have constructed. 

Oct 17.—M. Damoiseau read a memoir on the comet with 
a short period.—M. Dupetit-Thouars read a report on M. 
Gaudichaud’s memoir respecting Cycas circinalis .—M. Geof- 
froy St. Hilaire read a memoir on a foetal monster. 

Vol. 67. No. 334. Feb. 1826. T 


Oct. 24. 


146 Horticultural and Agricultural 

Oct. 24.—MM. Vauquelin and Thenard made a report ofi 
M Laugier’s memoir on the Fer re smite of Haiiy, from Frey* 
berg.—M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire read a memoir on the ol¬ 
factory organs of fishes.— M. de Grandpre read a memoir on 
the means of sounding the ocean in order to discover the val¬ 
leys which give rise to currents. 

Oct. 31.—M. Serres communicated a work, in manuscript, 
on the comparative anatomy of animal monsters.—M. Moreau 
de Jonnes read some extracts from letters written from Mar¬ 
tinique, detailing the ravages of the yellow fever and those of 
the last hurricane. 


HORTICULTURAL AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF JAMAICA. 

We feel much pleasure in announcing the establishment, on 
Jan. 10, 1825, of 64 The Society for the encouragement of 
Horticulture and of Agriculture, and of the arts connected 
with them, in Jamaicathe first, we believe, that has yet 
been formed in the British West Indies. 

The following is a list of the Officers and Council of this 
Society. 

Patron: His Grace William, Duke of Manchester, See. See . 
— President: Edward Nathaniel Bancroft, M.D., Fellow of 
the Royal College of Physicians, &c.— Vice-Presidents: Ho¬ 
nourable John Mais ; Samuel Murphy, Esq.— Treasurer: Ro¬ 
bert Smith, Esq.— Secretary: John Miller, M.D.— Honorary 
Members of the Council: The Right Reverend the Lord Bi¬ 
shop of Jamaica; the Honourable William Anglin Scarlet, 
Chief Justice; the Honourable William Burge, Attorney- 
General.— Council: Honourable Joseph Barnes; Honour¬ 
able Francis Smith; William Shand, Esq.; George Mills, 
Esq.; Edward Tichbone, Esq.; George Atkinson, Esq.; 
William Brooks King, Esq.; William Lambie, Esq.; Charles 
Mackglashan, jun. M.D.; James Wier, M.D.; Jacob Adol¬ 
phus, M.D.; James Simpson, Esq.; Honourable James Laing; 
Sir M. B. Clare; John Lunan, Esq.; Stewart West, M.D.; 
William Gordon, M.D.; John Ferguson, M.D.; J. R, Phil¬ 
lips, Esq.; Thomas Higson, Esq.; C. S. Cockburn, Esq.; 
Rev. W. T. Paterson; Alexander MTntosh, Esq.; Robert 
Gray, Esq. 

The more especial objects of this association will be best 
seen from Nos. XI. and XII. of its regulations, with their sub¬ 
ordinate heads, which are as follows: 

“ XL That the following be the subjects for information, 

upon 



, Society of Jamaica . 147 

upon which prizes shall be offered; the communications to be 
sent to the Secretary by the 15th of November 1826: 

44 1. The progress and present state of agriculture in Ja¬ 
maica or in the other West India colonies. 

44 2. The progress and present state of horticulture in Ja¬ 
maica or in the other West India colonies. 

44 3. New methods by which the culture or preparation of 
the present staples of the island may be improved. 

4. The diseases of horses, mules, oxen, and sheep in the 
West Indies, and the means of curing them. 

44 5. The diseases of cultivated plants in this climate, and 
the modes of preventing and of checking them. 

44 6. The natural history of the insects, birds, and other 
animals, most destructive to vegetation, and the most effec¬ 
tual means of hindering or counteracting their ravages. 

. 44 7. The most ceconomical modes of irrigating flat and 
mountainous lands, with the least waste of the nutritious par¬ 
ticles of the soil. 

44 8. The most oeconomical and effectual modes of draining 
marshy soils. 

44 9. Any valuable medical property in plants hitherto un¬ 
known. 

44 10. The preparation of wine from the vine ( Vitis vinifera ), 
and of vinous liquors from other fruits, in the Tropics. 

44 11. Descriptions of plants not previously known, or known 
imperfectly, with their botanical characters, and with speci¬ 
mens of each plant described, if practicable. 

44 12. The most advantageous modes of grafting in the Tro¬ 
pics, with an account of the plants on which these modes have 
been successful. 

44 The Society shall likewise offer prizes for the following ob¬ 
jects : 

44 13. Improved specimens of esculent vegetables and fruits, 
whether native or foreign, raised in this island. 

44 14. The introduction of any new and valuable plants, or 
esculent vegetables, or fruit. Specimens of each to be accom¬ 
panied with an account of its history and cultivation. 

44 15. The best specimens of wines made within the Tro¬ 
pics, from the vine or from other fruits. Not less than three 
bottles of each sort of wine to be sent. 

44 16. To such persons of free condition, whether of colour 
or black, and male or female, as may, through his own indus¬ 
try, have put the cottage lie has inhabited, with a garden at¬ 
tached to it, into the neatest condition, a premium not exceed¬ 
ing two doubloons. 

T 2 


44 17. To 


148 Difference of Longitude.—Earthquake at Sea. 

“ 17. To a slave of either sex, for the same, a similar pre¬ 
mium. 

6( XII. That the prizes to be bestowed by the society shall 
consist of silver medals of two sizes, and of premiums in money 


XXIII. Intelligence a7id Miscellaneons Articles . 


DIFFERENCE OF LONGITUDE BETWEEN GREENWICH AND 


PARIS. 


r T'HE subjoined is a notice of Mr. Hers chefs paper on this 
-*■ subject, read before the Royal Society on the 12th of Ja¬ 
nuary. 

64 An Account of a Series of Observations to determine 
the Difference of Longitude between the National Observa¬ 
tories of Greenwich and Paris; by J. F. W. Herschel, Esq. 
Sec. R.S.: communicated by the Board of Longitude/’ 

In this paper, after stating the wish expressed by the French 
Ministry of War, that the above determination should be made* 
with the ready accession to their desire of our own Board of 
Longitude, and describing the method resorted to, Mr. Her¬ 
schel gives the observations in detail. They were made by 
himself and one French officer on this side of the Channel, and 
by Capt. Sabine and another French officer on the coast of 
France. Their general result is 9 r 21 fo" f° r the difference of 
longitude between the two Observatories; and though many 
of the observations had been rendered unavailable by un¬ 
toward circumstances which it was impossible to foresee or to 
obviate, Mr. H. stated that this determination was not likely 
to require a correction exceeding 1-1 Oth of a second, and very 
unlikely to want one of twice that amount.— Ann. of Phil. 


EARTHQUAKE FELT AT SEA, IN FEBRUARY 1825. 

There are few observations of greater importance, in refer¬ 
ence to the theory of earthquakes, than the determination of 
the exact time when they are felt at sea. The place where 
they have their origin,—the velocity with which they are pro¬ 
pagated,—and their probable depth beneath the surface, may 
be inferred from a series of accurate observations on the effects 
which they produce, and the time when they are felt at dif¬ 
ferent points on the earth’s surface. 

The earthquake which was experienced at Lisbon, on the 
2d February 1816, at five minutes past midnight, was felt at 
sea by the Portuguese vessel, the Marquis de Angeja, bound 
from Bengal to Lisbon, at the distance of 270 leagues from 

that 






Formation of Metallic Copper. — Crystallization. 149 

that city; and it was also experienced by another vessel, bound 
from Brazil to Portugal, at the distance of 120 leagues. 

^ On the 4th of April 1812, the vessels on the coast of the 
Caraccas trembled, during the heavy shock of an earthquake, 
as it they had been on a reef of rocks. 

In the earthquake which took place at Chili, on the 19th of 
November 1822, the effect on the ships in the bay was such, 
as if the chain-cable had run out in an instant. 

On the 10th of February 1823, the East India Company’s 
ship Winchelsea, in east long. 85° 33", and north lat. 52°, ex¬ 
perienced the effects of an earthquake. When the vessel was 
some hundred miles from land, and out of soundino-s, a tre¬ 
mulous motion was felt, as if it were passing over a coral rock, 
and this was accompanied with a loud rumbling noise, both 
of which continued for two or three minutes. 

This effect bears a close resemblance to that which is de¬ 
scribed in the following extract of a letter from on board the 

Recovery, of-, in a voyage from Madeira to Honduras, in 

February 1825. 

“ In running through among the islands, we were in dread 
of eveiy schooner-rigged vessel we saw, as these seas swarm 
with pirates. However, nothing worthy of note occurred till 
off the island of Ruatan. Between seven and eight o’clock at 
night, being quite dark, we were all alarmed by a rumblino- 
noise, as if the vessel had been running over a reef of rocks! 
Every one rushed upon deck, and all cast a wishful look over 
the side of the vessel, expecting every moment to see her go 
down. The pumps were sounded, but no water was in the 
well. It was then concluded, that it must have been a large 
log of timber which the vessel had come in contact with ; but, 
on arriving in Belize, we ascertained that it was the effect of 
a smart shock of an earthquake, which had been experienced 
there at the very time we felt the concussion.”— Edin. Journ . 
of Science. - 

TO RM ATI ON OF METALLIC COPPER BY WATER AND FIRE. 

In making cement-copper in Germany, plates of solid cop¬ 
per are obtained, and also reguline copper in the fibrous, ca¬ 
pillary, dentiform, reniform, and botryoid external shapes ; 
and in the smelting of some sulphurets of copper, fibrous, la¬ 
mellar, and crystallized pure copper is formed.— Edin. Phil . 
Journ. - 

EFFECT OF POSITION ON CRYSTALLIZATION. 

* • Machman, professor of chemistry at Christiania, in Nor¬ 
way, in a memoir 6i On the Effect of the Earth’s Magnetism on 
the Separation of Silver,” states that in the year 1817, when 

exhibiting 





150 Account of Professor Berzelius’s Method of detec tmg 

exhibiting, in a syphon-shaped glass tube, the formation of an 
arbor Diance , the tube having accidentally been placed in the 
direction of the magnetic meridian, he remarked that finer and 
longer crystals were formed towards the north than towards 
the south, and yet every thing was the same in both legs of 
the tube. The solution of nitrate of silver in both legs of the 
tube was in communication, while the mercury covered only 
the bottom of the tube. The experiment was again repeated, 
in presence of Hansteen, with two syphon-tubes, one parallel, 
and the other at right angles to the magnetic meridian. The 
silver began to separate in the tube which was placed in the 
north and south direction, and shot out into larger, more nu¬ 
merous, and more brilliant radiations in the leg towards the 
north, than in that towards the south. In the syphon in the 
east and west direction no change was observed until the ex¬ 
piry of twelve hours. Hansteen afterwards repeated the ex¬ 
periment several times, and always with the same result, and 
deduced from his experiments the following inferences. 1. 
The arbor Diance is more strikingly developed when the tube 
is placed in the magnetic meridian, than when in the east and 
west direction. 2. When it remains in the magnetic meridian, 
the silver tree rises higher in the northern than in the southern 
leg. 3. The crystals are more acicular, and have a higher 
metallic lustre, in the northern than in the southern leg of the 
syphon. The same experiment has been successfully repeated 
by Doebereiner and Schweigger, from whose Journal the above 
details are extracted.— Edin. Phil . Journ . 


ACCOUNT OF PROFESSOR BERZELIUS’S METHOD OF DETECTING 
ARSENIC IN THE BODIES OF PERSONS POISONED. 
Professor Berzelius has lately given some instructions for 
the discovery of arsenic in persons that have been poisoned 
with it. He considers the reduction of arsenic to the metallic 
state as the only incontestible proof of the presence of this poison . 
Arsenic may occur in two ways, viz. when it is found in sub¬ 
stance (in the state of arsenious acid) in the dead bodv, and 
when it is not found in this state; though the intestines of 
the dead body may contain it in the state of a solution. 

In the first of these cases, it is easy to determine the pre¬ 
sence of arsenic. In order to do this, take a piece about three 
inches long of an ordinary barometer tube, and having drawn 
out one end of it into a much narrower tube, close the nar¬ 
rower end. Let some of the arsenic found in the body be now 
put in at the open wide end, so that it may fall down to 
the narrow end. Any quantity of this arsenic of sufficient 
volume to be taken from the body will suffice for this 

purpose. 



Arsenic in the Bodies of Persons poisoned. 151 

purpose. A little charcoal is then let fall upon the arsenic, 
after it has been freed from all moisture by bringing it to a 
red-heat with the blow-pipe. The charcoal is then heated in 
the tube at the flame of a spirit-lamp, the point of the tube 
being held out of the flame. When the charcoal is very red, 
the point containing the arsenic is drawn into the flame. The 
arsenic is then instantly volatilized, and passing into vapour 
by the red charcoal, it is reduced, and reappears on the other 
side of the flame in a metallic state. The flame is then brought 
slowly towards the metallic sublimate, which is thus concen¬ 
trated into a smaller space in the small tube, and then pre¬ 
sents a small metallic ring shining like polished steel # . We 
have now only to verify, by its smell, that the metallic sublimate 
is arsenic. For this purpose, cut the small tube with a file a 
little above the sublimate, and, having heated the place where 
it lies, put the nose above it at a small distance, and the par¬ 
ticular odour of the metal will be immediately perceived. 

In the case where the solid arsenic cannot be found, we 
must collect as much as possible of the contents of the stomach 
and the intestines, or even cut the stomach in pieces, and mix 
it with its contents. The whole is then to be digested with a 
solution of hydrate of potash. Hydrochloric acid is then added 
in excess. The whole is filtered, and, if the liquid is too much 
diluted, it is concentrated by evaporation. A current of sul¬ 
phuretted hydrogen is then passed through it, which precipi¬ 
tates the arsenic in the form of the yellow sulphuret. If the 
quantity of arsenic is very small, the liquid will become yellow 
without giving a precipitate. It must then be evaporated, and 
in proportion as the hydrochloric acid becomes more concen¬ 
trated, the sulphuret of arsenic will begin to be deposited. It 
is then filtered. If the sulphuret remaining on the filter is in 
too small a quantity to be taken from the paper, add some 
drops of caustic ammonia, which will dissolve it. Then put 
the liquid which passes the filter into a watch-glass, and eva¬ 
porate it. The ammonia will be volatilized, and will leave as 
a residue the sulphuret of arsenic. If it shall still be difficult 
to collect the sulphuret, we must put into the watch-glass a 
little pulverized nitrate of potash, and, with the finger, mix 
the sulphuret with the nitrate of potash, which detaches it 
from the glass. At the bottom of a small phial, or a piece of 
glass tube, shut at one end, melt a little nitrate of potash at 
the flame of a spirit-lamp, and introduce into it, when melted, 
a little of the mixture which contains the sulphuret of arsenic. 
It is oxidized with effervescence, but without fire, or detona- 

* Had the experiment been made in the wide part of the tube, the re¬ 
sult would scarcely have been visible with a small quantity of arsenic. 

tion, 


152 On the Combustion of compressed Gas. 

tion, and without loss of arsenic. The melted salt is then to 
be dissolved in water, and lime added in excess, and the liquid 
boiled. The arseniate of lime will then be deposited, and 
may be collected. When dried, it is mixed with charcoal, 
and then brought to a red heat by the blowpipe, and a small 
quantity of this mixture is allowed to fall to the narrow end of 
the above tube. It is now gradually heated to expel all humi¬ 
dity which tends to throw it into the wide tube, and when .it is 
very dry, heat at the flame of the blowpipe, the part of the 
tube which contains the mixture. The arsenic will be disen¬ 
gaged, and be sublimed, at a distance from the heated part. 
An addition of vitrified boracic acid greatly promotes the de¬ 
composition which then takes place at a less elevated tempe¬ 
rature ; but this acid frequently contains water, and produces 
a bubbling of the melted matter which raises it in the tube, 
and causes the vapours to issue by perforating the softened 
part of the glass. 

M. Berzelius maintains, that the sixth part of a grain of sul¬ 
phur et of arsenic is siffcient to make three different trials; but 
he adds, that, when we have discovered only very small traces 
of arsenic, we must take care not to introduce any by means 
of re-agents, among which both the sulphuric and the hydro¬ 
chloric acid may contain it. The first almost always contains 
some arsenic when it is not manufactured from volcanic sul¬ 
phur; and the second, in consequence of sulphuric acid being 
used in the preparation of the hydrochloric acid, yields the 
arsenic which it contains in separating it from soda. We 
must, therefore, be certain of the purity of these re-agents. 

When death has been caused by the arsenic, and not by the 
arsenious acid, the process must be modified, because the sul¬ 
phuretted hydrogen gas decomposes the arsenic acid too slowly* 
In this case, we must add hydrosulphuret of ammonia, which 
reduces the arsenic acid to the state of sulphuret, which is af¬ 
terwards precipitated by the hydrochloric acid.— Edin . Journ . 
of Science, —— - 

ON THE COMBUSTION OF COMPRESSED GAS.-BY MR. DAVIES. 

In making, upwards of twelve months ago, some experi¬ 
ments upon the combustion of compressed gas, I accidentally 
observed a fact which is, I think, of rather a singular nature. 

When the aperture of the burner is, in this case, too large, 
the flame cannot be maintained, being blown away by the rapid 
current of the gas. When it is father small, the flame is under 
the best circumstances. If the aperture be further enlarged 
without being carried to the extent at which the combustion is 
extinguished, the flame will then be blue, noisy, and agitated, 
affording very little light. But I found, to my great surprise, 

that 



On the Invisibility of certain Colours to certain Eyes. 1 53 

that if, when the flame was in this last state, the vessel of the 
gas was invented, the flame was instantly changed; and instead 
of being as I have just stated, it was steady, silent, and power¬ 
ful. I have repeated the experiment frequently, and with dif¬ 
ferent vessels. In every instance the result has been precisely 
the same. 

It became interesting to inquire into the cause of the phe¬ 
nomenon. I submit with deference the only explanation which 
I have been able to discover. 

1 he gas, rarefied by heat, being lighter than the atmosphere, 
has a tendency to move in the direction of the flame when the 
vessel is held upright. In this case, therefore, it moves with 
greater impetuosity than it could were the burner in any other 
position. On the contrary, when the flame is directed down¬ 
wards, it has a tendency to return upon itself. Thus the ascent 
of the gas is promoted, and the descent retarded, by the agency 
of the atmosphere; for the gas being rendered lighter in the 
way just mentioned, has a tendency to rise in the air on the 
same principle that a cork rises in water, and its descent is in 
like manner resisted. The fact might, perhaps, be better illus¬ 
trated by conceiving air to be forced through water. If the 
air be urged from the bottom of the vessel, it readily moves by 
reason of its great levity in the required direction ; but if it be 
forcibly impelled downwards from the surface, as from the 
extremity of a condensing syringe, it can only be driven to a 
short distance, and it is then forced back towards the pipe. 
This case appears to me to be analogous to that of the gas, 
which, if I am not mistaken, it serves to illustrate and explain. 
The upright position of the vessel admits, in the case referred 
to, of the escape of some of the gas unburnt; but when the 
burner is inverted, the flame, for reasons already assigned, 
returns upon the stream of gas, and the combustion, which was 
before imperfect, is then complete. 

IIow far the fact may be susceptible of a practical applica¬ 
tion, I am not at present prepared to offer an opinion ; but the 
consumption of the gas is, by this mode of burning, very con¬ 
siderable, and I have not yet been able to determine that there 
is in the combustion ol gas under the ordinary pressure, any in¬ 
crease of illuminating power obtained by inverting the burner. 
—Annals of Philosophy. 


ON THE INVISIBILITY OF CERTAIN COLOURS TO CERTAIN EYES. 

A variety of cases have been recorded, where persons with 
sound eyes, capable of performing all their ordinary functions, 
were incapable of distinguishing certain colours; and what is 
still more remarkable, this imperfection runs in particular fa- 
\ ol. 67. No. 334-. Eeb. 1826. LJ milies. 



154 On the Invisibility of certain Colours to certain Eyes, 

milies. Mr. Huddart mentions the case of one Harris, a shoe¬ 
maker at Maryport in Cumberland, who could only distinguish 
black and white, and he had two brothers almost equally de¬ 
fective, one of whom always mistook orange for green. Harris 
observed this defect when he was four years old, and, chiefly 
from his inability to distinguish cherries on a tree like his 
companions. He had two other brothers and sisters, who, as 
well as their parents, had no such defect. Another case of a 
Mr. Scott is recorded in the Philosophical Transactions, in 
which full reds and full greens appeared alike, while yellows 
and dark blues were very easily distinguished. Mr. Scott’s 
father, his maternal uncle, one of his sisters, and her two sons, 
had all the same imperfection. Our celebrated chemist, Mr. 
Dalton, cannot distinguish blue from pink by daylight; and 
in the solar spectrum the red is scarcely visible, the rest of it 
appearing to consist of two colours, yellow and blue. Dr. But¬ 
ters, in a letter addressed to the editor of this work, has de¬ 
scribed the case of Mr. R. Tucker, son of Dr. Tucker of Ash¬ 
burton, who mistakes orange for green, like one of the Har¬ 
rises. Like Mr. Dalton, he could not distinguish blue from 
pink; but he always knew yellow. The colours in the spec¬ 


trum he describes as follows: 

1. Red mistaken for.brown, 

2. Orange.. v .green, 

3. Yellow, generally known, but sometimes taken for orange, 

4. Green mistaken for.orange, 

5. Blue.pink, 

6. Indigo.purple, 

7. Violet.purple. 


Mr. Harvey has described, in a paper read before the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, and which will soon be published, the 
case of a person now alive, and aged 60, who could distinguish 
with certainty only white, yellow, and gray. He could, how¬ 
ever, distinguish blues when they were light. Dr. Nichols has 
recorded a case where a person who was in the navy purchased 
a blue uniform coat and waistcoat, with red breeches to match 
the blue; and he has mentioned one case in which the imper¬ 
fection is derived through the father, and another in which it 
descended from the mother. 

In the case of a young man in the prime pf life, with whom 
the writer of this article is acquainted, only two colours were 
perceived in Dr. Wollaston’s spectrum of five colours, viz. red, 
green, blue, and violet. The colours which he saw were blue 
and orange or yellow , as he did not distinguish these two from 
one another. When all the colours of the spectrum were ab¬ 
sorbed by a reddish glass, excepting red and dark green , he 

saw 








155 


On the Poison of the common Toad. 

saw only one colour, viz. yellow or orange. When the mid¬ 
dle of the red space was absorbed by a blue glass, he saw the 
black line with what he called the yellow on each side of it. 
We are acquainted with another gentleman who has a similar 
imperfection. 

In all the preceding cases there is one general fact, that red 
light , and colours in which it forms an ingredient , are not di¬ 
stinguishable by those who possess the peculiarity in question . 
Mr. Dalton thinks it probable that the red light is, in these 
cases, absorbed by the vitreous humour, which he supposes 
may have a blue colour: but as this is a mere conjecture, 
which is not confirmed by the most minute examination of the 
eye, we cannot hold it as an explanation of the phenomena. 
Dr. Young thinks it much more simple to suppose the absence 
or paralysis of those fibres of the retina which are calculated to 
perceive red; while Dr. Brewster conceives that the eye is, in 
these cases, insensible to the colours at the one end of the 
spectrum, just as the ear of certain persons has been proved, 
by Dr. Wollaston, to be insensible to sounds at one extremity 
of the scale of musical notes, while it is perfectly sensible to 
all other sounds. 

If we suppose, what we think will ultimately be demon¬ 
strated, that the choroid coat is essential to vision, we may 
ascribe the loss of red light in certain eyes to the retina itself 
having a blue tint. If this should be the case, the light which 
falls upon the choroid coat will be deprived of its red rays, by 
the absorptive power of the blue retina, and consequently the 
impression conveyed back to the retina, by the choroid coat, 
will not contain that of red light.— Edin. Journ. of Science . 


ON THE POISON OF THE COMMON TOAD. BY DR. J. DAVY. 

The following is an abstract of Dr. Davy’s paper on this 
subject, lately read before the Royal Society., 

The popular belief in the venomous nature of the toad, Dr. 
Davy states, though of great antiquity, has been rejected as a 
vulgar prejudice by modern naturalists, decidedly so by Cu¬ 
vier; but like many other long received and prevalent opi¬ 
nions, it is a true one, and the denial of it by philosophers 
has resulted from superficial examination. Dr. D. found the 
venomous matter to be contained in follicles, chiefly in the 
cutis vera, and about the head and shoulders, but also distri¬ 
buted generally over the body, and even on the extremities. 
On the application of pressure this fluid exudes, or even spirts 
out to a considerable distance, and may be collected in suffi¬ 
cient quantity for examination. It is extremely acrid when 
applied to the tongue, resembling the extract of aconite in this 

U 2 respect, 



156 List of Latents for New Inventions . 

respect, and it even acts upon the hands. It is soluble, with 
a small residuum, in water and in alcohol, and the solutions 
are not affected by those of acetate of lead and corrosive sub¬ 
limate. On solution in ammonia, it continues acrid; it dis¬ 
solves in nitric acid, to which it imparts a purple colour. By 
combination with potash or soda it is rendered less acrid, ap¬ 
parently by partial decomposition. As left by evaporation of 
its aqueous or alcoholic solutions, it is highly inflammable; and 
the residuary matter that appears to give it consistence seems 
to be albumen. Though more acrid than the poison of the 
most venomous serpents, it produces no ill effect on being in¬ 
troduced into the circulation; a chicken inoculated with it was 
not affected. 

The author conjectures that this “ sweltered venom,” as it is 
correctly termed by our great dramatist, being distributed over 
the integuments, serves to defend the toad from the attacks of 
carnivorous animals;— u to eat a toad” has long been held as 
an opprobrious difficulty; and the animal is still further pro¬ 
tected in this respect by the horny nature of its cutis, which 
contains much phosphate of lime, &c. As the venom consists 
in part of an inflammable substance, it is probably excre- 
mentitious, and an auxiliary to the action of the lungs in de¬ 
carbonizing the blood. This view of its use is confirmed by 
the fact that one of the two branches of the pulmonary artery 
supplies the skin, its ramifications being most numerous where 
the follicles of venom are thickest. 

Dr. Davy has found the skin of the toad to contain pores of 
two kinds : the larger, chiefly confined to particular situations, 
and which, when the skin is held up to the light, appear as 
iridescent circles, and the smaller, more numerously and gene¬ 
rally distributed, which appear as luminous points of a yellowish 
colour. Externally these pores are covered with cuticle, and 
some of the larger ones even with rete mucosum; internally 
they are lined with delicate cellular tissue. By inflating the 
skin, Dr. D. ascertained that it was not furnished with spira * 
cula, the existence of which he had been led to suspect by 
some particular circumstances in the physiology of the animal. 
— Ann. of Phil. -- 

LIST OF NEW PATENTS. 

To Robert Rigg, of Bowstead Hill, Cumberland, for a new 
condensing apparatus, to be used with the apparatus now in 
use for making vinegar.—Dated 4th February 1826.—6months 
to enrol specification. 

To J. C. Gamble, of Liffeybank, in the county of Dublin, 
chemist, for his apparatus for the concentration and crystalli¬ 
zation of aluminous and other saline and crystallizable solu¬ 
tions, 



Meteorological Journal for Jan. 1826. 157 

tions, part of which may be applied to the purposes of evapo¬ 
ration, distillation, inspissation, and to the generation of steam. 
—7th February.—4 months. 

To William Mayhew, of Union-street, Southwark, and 
William White, of Cheapside, for their improvement in the 
manufacture of hats.—7th February.—6 months. 

To Hugh Evans, Harbour-master, of Flolyhead, for his 
method of rendering vessels, whether sailing or propelled by 
steam, more safe in cases of danger by leakage, &c.—7th Feb. 

-—2 months. 

To William Chapman, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, for his im¬ 
proved machinery fer loading or unloading of ships.—7th Fe¬ 
bruary.—2 months. ^ 

To Benjamin Cook, of Birmingham, brass-founder, for im¬ 
provements in making files.—7th February.—6 months. 

To William Warren, of Crown-street, Finsbury-square, for 
improvements (communicated from abroad) in the process of 
extracting from the Peruvian bark quinine and cinchonine, 
and preparing the various salts Jo which these substances may 
serve as a basis.—11th February.—6 months. 

To John Lane Higgins, of Oxford-street, for improvements 
in the construction of the masts, yards, sails, rigging of ships, 
and in the tackle used for navigating the same.— 11th February. 
— 6 months. 

To Benjamin Newmarch, of Cheltenham, and Charles Bon¬ 
ner, of Gloucester, for their invention for suspending and se¬ 
curing windows, gates, doors, shutters, blinds, and other ap¬ 
paratus.—18th February.—6 months. 

lo Thomas Walter, of Luton, Bedfordshire, for improve¬ 
ments in straw plats, for making hats, &c.— 18th February._ 

6 months. 

l o Charles Whitlaw, of Bayswater Terrace, Paddington, 
for his improvement in administering medicines by the agency 
of steam.—18th February.—6 months. 

1 o Arnold Buffum (late of Massachusetts, but now of Bridge- 
street, London), for improvements (in part communicated from 
abroad) in making and dyeing hats.—18th Feb.—6 months. 

Results of a Meteorological Journal for January 1826, kept at 

the Observatory of the Royal Academy , Gosport, Hants. 

General Observations. 

The first part of this month was fair and frosty, with the 
exception of two or three days; and the latter part very damp 
and humid, with variable winds from the east side of the me¬ 
ridian. The frosty weather was ushered in by a N.E. wind, 
which blew strong from that point nearly seven days ; it then 

shifted 



158 Meteorological Journal for Jan . 1826. 

shifted to the N. and N.W. with a low temperature till the 13th 
instant, which was the coldest day and night we had had since 
the 15th of January 1820. Here the thermometer in the ex¬ 
ternal air at. 7 o’clock A.M. on the 14th, was as low as 17 de¬ 
grees* in London, on the morning of the 16th, it sank to 15 
degrees * and in Paris it was said to have receded several de¬ 
crees lower. In the morning of the 8th all the- pumps that 
were not under cover were ice-bound, and continued so nine 
or ten days. On the 9th, the skaters assembled upon the ice 
in Stoke’s Bay-Marsh, and upon the Moat round the bonifi¬ 
cation of Gosport, where they amused themselves and the 
bystanders eight or nine days; as the calm, cleai, and fiosty 
weather afforded a favourable opportunity. In the morning 
of the 15th there was an apparent change in the atmosphere, 
when three winds prevailed simultaneously; viz. the lower one 
from the E., the next from the S.E., and the upper one from 
N. W., with a rising temperature, which continued till the 21st, 
when the external thermometer rose to 46 degrees: but the 
lower wind being dry, the barometer rose steadily till the even¬ 
ing of the 17th; and on the 18th the frost went off, succeeded 
by drizzling ram. A more favourable thaw could not hu^e 
been desired, as it was remarkably gradual, attended with 
scarcely sufficient rain to wet the ground; and the thick masses 
of ice had not entirely dissolved into a fluid state till the close 
of the month. Plere we had not enough snow to cover the 
oround; but in the northern parts of the country it was se¬ 
veral feet in depth, so that the stage coaches could not pass 
for some days. In Paris too it was nearly a foot in depth, 
which was deeper than had been known there for some years 
past. The change in the atmosphere, from a very cold and 
dry state to a considerable increase of temperature and great 
dampness, was attended, as usual, with colds, coughs, and 
rheumatism. The weather, however, was seasonable and 

healthy till the full of the moon. 

A few minutes after sunset on the 9th, there appeared round 
the horizon a dark purple haze with an even altitude of about 
5 degrees; next to this was a band of red 2^ degiees wide, 
surmounted by a band of yellow of the same width. Phe 
primitive colours thus forming contiguous bands near the ho¬ 
rizon, btit brighter diametrically opposite to the sun, had a fine 
appearance, and were produced by reflection of the sun s hoii— 
zontal rays from the falling frozen dew or descending hoar frost. 

The atmospheric and meteoric phenomena that have come 
within our observations this month are one parhelion, one so¬ 
lar and three lunar halos, two meteors, and six gales of wind, 

or days on which they have prevailed, from the N.E. 

Numerical 


159 


Meteorological Journal for Jan. 1826. 


Numerical Results for the Month. 

Inches. 

r> , f Maximum 31*51, January 17th—Wind S. 
aiome er ^ ]Vrini rnL im 29*54<, Ditto 6 th-—Ditto N.E. 

Range of the mercury . . 0*97. Inches 

Mean barometrical pressure for the month. 29*980 

--for the lunar period ending the 8 th inst.. . 29*693 

- . for 14 days, with the Moon in North declin. 29*671 

- for 16 days, with the Moon in South declin. 29*715 

Spaces described by the rising and falling of the mercury 3*550 

Greatest variation in 24 hours . .. 0*340 

Number of changes .. 21 

rpi k Maximum 49°, January 31st—Wind S.W. 

inermometer ^ Minimum 17 Ditto 14th—Ditto E. 

Range.32 


Mean temp, of the external air 35*56 

--for 29 days with the 

Sun in Capricornus . . . 

Greatest variation in 24 hours 17*00 
Mean temp, of spring water 4 . 

at 8 o’clock A.M. . . . J 


34*21 


De Luc’s Whalebone Hygrometer. 

Degrees. 

Greatest humidity of the air . 93 in the evening of the 30th. 

Greatest dryness of ditto ... 59 in the afternoon of the 9 th. 

Range of the index. 34 

Mean at 2 o’clock P.M. . . . 74*0 

- at 8 o’clock A.M. . . . 80*1 

—— at 8 o’clock P.M. ... 78*9 

——— of three observations each 1 

day at 8 , 2, and 8 o’clock ) 1 

Evaporation for the month. 1*000 inch. 

Rain in the pluviameter near the ground . 0*890 

Rain in ditto 23 feet high. 0*825 

Prevailing winds, N.E. 

A Summary of the Weather. 

A clear sky, 5 ; fine, with various modifications of clouds, 
10; an overcast sky without rain, 12; foggy, 1; rain, 3.— 
Total 31 days. 

Clouds . . 

Cirrus, Cirrocumulus. Cirrostratus. Stratus. Cumulus. Cumulostr. Nimbus. 
11 8 27 1 9 20 13 


A Scale of the 'prevailing Winds. 

N. N.E. E. S.E. S. S.W. " W. N.W. Days. 

3 10 3 4 3 2{ \ 5 31 

A METERORO- 

















A METEOROLOGICAL TABLE : comprising the Observations of Dr. JBURNEY at Gosport, Mr. J. Cary in London, and Mr. Veall at Boston. 


Weather. 

Boston. wind> 



A A 

f ? 

o .H 

a «3 

1 1 ^ 

r© a ir© ,TJ t 3 03 T 3 03 03 'a i T 3 " 3 ’T 3 'T 3 n 3 03'3 

Da>tu 3 c:S 3 D 3 a) 3 cua)cuS(ii=! 3 a> | i> = a>aa>S 33 Sa)S 3 

occo7o® oocossc0!::00!:;5oc: ° so °°° t: °® 

5 SSSti^ 3 D 3 S 5 ESEGSooSSGSS£y.oo 6 Su 3 


London; 

3 ^ 3 U* r-? >. >. r© pq jpr^- 03 ^3 T 3 

13 13 .m 13 1* fe , , bU bE _ . . 0 d 0 £ fc L 3 3 s* s_ j_ 3 3 

0 -3 .h 0 ^ 0 0 O .fc .- .3 bJD bJ3.£ .*3 .is ©-3 0-3 SP O O -3 *2 *3 00 

— cS o 3 -2 .2 p 2 «J c 3 tS c c 3 <33 3l O O cj c« <1 ^ ^ 3-; ^ r ° - 3 3 3 


Rain. 

•uoisog; 

. . . . . ........... CO •»•«••••*••* 

.O • • • .. f O.. 0 


•uopuo^j 



Thermometer. 

'It*v |-g 

•Noxsog 

vo LO vo vo vo lo *P *P *P *P 

m^r'-^ooco t^(M ou^o t^o o h nu^ioo d ^ 

cocococococococodi— 1 co d >—1 >—1 >—< 1—1 d conronc^cor0 O ro co co ^ 

10 

6 

CO 

London. 

•JAT M XI 

d >o> vo m^too of co vo vo of or oo of ovj\a ao i> Tf r-w o £L £ 19 S. £2 S21 £2 

TfnconnnrxN d d d d d d — d d cocococococococococococoofof co 

•uoojv[ 

p-< p-< to vo <o oo 3td r^o doo vo co r^ d d d ^roLoip 

rf^nn^cDnoddcodddddcon^ocoo coo ooo 

uO 

1 *A 

CO 

•wv 8 

omk r^-i © c^Hiocoppoocowncoiocoo>ddO^ 

COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOdddd -3 — d-idCO-^^COCOCOCOCOCOdCOCO^f^t 

Height of 
Barometer, in 
Inches, &c. 

s A 

O <n 

«ar 

oo^t^dOOO'^tcor^oor-dcococoOQOOLOLOcooor^ocoGOOro 

u^vo t^-oooo c^r^oo o^'O'oo tp<p'7< •p'-^tcpoo o a^o^cc a 9 r-t <—< 0 ® 0 7 

cri6^c^cri^c^c^^6>a>a^coavro6 6 6 6 6 >o 6^ 0 6 6 6 

ddddddddddddddcocococodcoddddcocococoddd 

X 

00 

6v 

01 

Lond. 

1 P.M. 

rqi >.0 »-4 r't '00 0\'0 0 (S 0 0 t^naiO LO CO 00 VO C 0 d ^tcoo LOVOGOO 

0000 0^<0\00 00 t'p t'' I O —3 d vpp'^'T 1 ^ P d d ■p l< p < pcpd 0* p*00 

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o><o> 

ddddddddddddcocococococococorococoeocococococodd 

0 

6 

Clouds. 

•snquiifsr 

^ : -* : ~ ^ : : : : : 

... • • • • • • • •• •••• •♦ 

co 

H 

0 

JN 

.jso T mnnD : : :•-i -- : \ : 

•sn[nuin3 

: ; ; : : : : ^ : ; ^ ~ ^ ^ ^ ^ p^ : ; : ; : ; : ■ ^ : : ; ; : jw 

..«•••• .® •••••••• ••••• j 

•snpuig 

, . • • ..pH *. 

..•••••••«•••• *••»••••••••*••? 

...••••••••••• #•••••••••••• »•• 

rH 

1 

X 

| »h /mm* r—H • rH • f—« r—• f-< —A *r—' p—< p-Hr—«r—ir—< * *-H < -H 

ujsojtaif) 1 : : : : 

■ # , • • • • . . • • « H H *r-»i-H * * • • • * * * * * * * l—1 

•umoojuinl : : : : : : : : : : : :::::::::::: 

. • • • p— pH • H -H * 'pH. -H "l—Mr - 

‘<211 TIT A • ^ ^ ^ ••••• • • • • «• ••••*»• • | 

CJ UAA J | , ••••• « » • • •• ••••••• • » 

Gosport, at half-past Eight o’Clock, a.m. j 

•punoiQaq? 
IP 3 U uiph 

/—v • • • O Q •••••••• • • • O • * LO LO O •••••JOO 

• • • lo ( o!III*****»»^ ••O'—< »—< l • ! I I « «— .*** 

o:::c^9:::::::::::?::?9? ::::::<?? 

Q « ( • ' •*••••••••• •• •••••• 

0 

CO 

ao 

b 

•uoip 

-BxocluAg; 

O 

u 

9 

H 

I 

T U IAV 


-3 

6 

oc 

•uioaSXfj 

cod i>iod 00 — r^r-< r-~ 0 ovO o^o>oo uovoco^tuo^coc^d 0 0 d co 
0000 t—00 00 00 vo vo C^C^OOGO 0-00 OOOOOQOOOOOOOOOX O- 00 00 00 00 GO 

'^S 

jo -duioj. 

i /o •••••••• •••••• • • • • • • • • lO 

co :::::::: vo :::::: 0 ::: 00 :::: vo :::: d 

• ••••••••* •••••• • • • • • « • • - • • • • • 

P--H •••••••• fp) •••••• . . • • 0 *^ • • * • • Ol 

to.uo. 

0 

6 

LO 

r~ 

oc 

CO 

CO 

X 

r~ 

9 

cv 

cs 

•o 

Ul • 

uiaaqx 

c^id OVd (N vo vo rH -sf-rfOCOO 1-3 OVOd r^fdOO O ^O'lOOQO ^tCOVOOO iH co! 
C0O , OC0CGC0C5C0dd0ldddddC0r0TfC0O , C0(0C0C0C0CGC0C0O'vf| 

‘ssipuj 

uioxeg; 

COO VOI>H VO O 00 00 VO VO CO O GO O O O T #0 O LOO VO-^VO 1-hOO o> 0 0 1 

o-r-Ht'-c^c-Hvoipt^-co ip vo r^ovOii— 'p' l P' ,: T-3 p ^ T 1 t* *9 d d p p 0 ip tp I 

C^^O^cOC^OiC^^OMCOC^C^^O^OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOiOi! 

ddddddddddddddcocococococococococoiococococoddl 

Days of 
Month, 
1826 . 

1— dro^vovo p" 00 00 —< d co ^ *o vo r^GO 00 —3 d co ■^r vo vo r^-ac co.o —• 

PHPH— 1 H - 1— Ip-pH— IrHC^dddddddddCOCO 

-3 © ^ 0 

• 

>- 

> 

< 













































































































































PHILOSOPHICAL MAGA2LINE 
AND JOURNAL. tA 


31 st MARCH 1826. 


XXIV. On the Figure of the Earth. By William Gal¬ 
braith, Esq. M.A. 

To the Editor of the Philosophical Magazine and Journal. 

Sir, 

i 

TN some of the previous Numbers of your Journal 1 was in- 
duced to make a few remarks on several of the most ac¬ 
curate systems of experiments by the pendulums hitherto exe¬ 
cuted for the purpose of determining the figure of the earth. 
Since that time Captain Sabine’s work on that subject has ap¬ 
peared, containing an extensive series of experiments in the 
northern hemisphere, reaching from the equator to about 80° 
north latitude, embracing the longest arc of the meridian yet 
attempted ; and executed, it is believed, with an accuracy which 
cannot easily be surpassed. Capt. Sabine has also reconsidered 
some of the experiments of others, particularly those made by 
the French mathematicians on the arc passing chiefly through 
France; and, by applying corrections analogous to those em¬ 
ployed by himself, has by that means rendered them more 
consistent, and comparable with each other, and with his own. 
By the French experiments it appeared from the character of 
the errors,—Phil. Mag. vol. lxiv. p. 167, but more especially 
from vol. lxv. p. 15,—that the gravitating force at about 45° N. 
was less from experiment than theory required, so far as the 
accuracy of these experiments could be depended upon; or in 
other words, that the pendulum was more distant from the 
centre of the earth than could have been anticipated: and this 
conclusion seemed to derive some support from the compres¬ 
sion obtained from the measurement of arcs near the mean 
parallel. 

Whether this conclusion, which it must be admitted is not 
very natural, is to be ranked among those views which the 
early French mathematicians entertained, in opposition to 
Newton, remains to be determined. Perhaps the nature of the 
ground over which the arc passed, when properly examined, 

V ol. 67. No. 335. March 1826. X would 




162 


Mr. Galbraith on the Figure of the Earth . 

would, in part at least, explain the irregularity in question; 
since at Forraentera the pendulum was not much above the 
level of the sea, in the interior of France it was considerably 
elevated, and again at Dunkirk it descended nearly to the level 
of the ocean. Now it is obvious, that if the experimental re¬ 
sults were not properly reduced to what they would have been 
at the level of the sea, the configuration of the country would 
have, generally speaking, produced the irregularity we have 
endeavoured to point out. May net this also have its effect 
on the compression derived from the measurement of arcs? 
It is probable it would to a certain extent. Indeed it appears 
certain, that irregularities of this nature must be expected, un¬ 
less regularity of ground, and similarity of geological charac¬ 
ter, be selected for either of these series of experiments; and 
this, it must be granted, cannot easily be obtained, though it 
should be attended to as far as circumstances will permit. The 
truth of these remarks will be obvious from a comparison of 
Captain Sabine’s observations at St. Thomas and Ascension, 
with those at Maranham and Trinidad. 

Captain Sabine has combined all his own observations with 
some of those of Captain Kater and of the French, and allows 
each to have its proper share in determining the coefficients 
of the theoretic formula, as well as the compression; and in 
general this method is to be recommended, where solid objec¬ 
tions cannot be made to some particular observations. Now 
in the present case, we think strong objections may be urged 
against some of them ; particularly those on basaltic or vol¬ 
canic bases, as those at St. Thomas, Ascension, Galapagos, 
&c. being combined with others on alluvial soils. 

It is true we have three determinations of the length of the 
pendulum, when nearly on the equator: one at Galapagos, one 
at St. Thomas, and another at Java ; though the temperature 
at which this last was determined is not mentioned in the source 
whence we obtained it. A mean of all these would give about 
39*02 inches for the length of the equatorial pendulum ; but, 
unfortunately, two of them at least were obtained on rocky 
bases, and may therefore be considerably more than when de¬ 
termined on a basis of an ordinary state of geological charac¬ 
ter. Under these circumstances it would perhaps be prudent 
to reject those which are obviously affected by such a cause, 
and by means of the usual formulae to reduce a considerable 
number of observations near the point where we wish to ob¬ 
tain it with great precision, to that point exactly. The ob¬ 
servations are recommended to be near it, in order, as much 
as possible, to avoid an error arising from any small error in 
the coefficients of the general formula. Proceeding on these 

principles, 


163 


Mr. Galbraith on the Figure of the Earth . 

principles, it may be supposed that the deviation from the truth 
would be nearly insensible. 

But accurate observations on the length of the pendulum 
at stations selected with judgement, are not of themselves 
the only data necessary to determine the compression. If 
there is any error in the fundamental formula employed for 
this purpose, a corresponding error will be communicated to 
the amount of compression. It is true that the deductions 
hitherto given have the appearance of great accuracy; for 
when expressed by a fraction of which the numerator is unit, 
the denominator is frequently carried to one or two places 
of decimals. This, however, is a mere deception, if it can 
be shown that the denominator of that fraction is by the or¬ 
dinary formula erroneous to the amount of several units. 
The formula first demonstrated by Clairaut has been ac¬ 
quiesced in by Laplace, Delambre, Borda and Biot in France, 
and by Kater and Sabine in England. Now it is well known 
that it is but an approximation obtained in course of the ana¬ 
lysis by omitting the powers greater than the first. “ At the 
present time,” says Mr. Ivory (Phil. Mag. vol. lxvi. p. 432), 
one of the ablest geometers of the age, “ when so much has 
been done, and is still doing, to determine the figure of the 
earth experimentally, it seems proper likewise to reconsider 
the theory.” With these sentiments our opinion perfectly 
coincides. The failure of Clairaut’s first attempts to integrate 
a differential equation in the solution of the famous problem 
of the three bodies in his theory of the moon, is well known 
to geometers, and might have suggested the propriety of ex¬ 
amining this celebrated theorem, and to determine the degree 
of its accuracy by taking in at least another term compre¬ 
hending the squares in the series expressing the ratio of the 
centrifugal force to gravity. We intended originally to have 
given a complete analysis of this theorem from first principles ; 
but since the time which we are enabled to devote to such 
speculations is but limited, we shall content ourselves by re¬ 
ferring to a very masterly paper by Mr. Ivory in the Philoso¬ 
phical Transactions for 1824. It is there demonstrated that 

q = ~ sin 2 <p + ~ sin 4 <p — &c.(1) 

Now when the oblate spheroids do not differ very considera¬ 
bly from spheres, as in the case of the planets; A, which is 
equal to the eccentricity of the meridian divided by half the 

polar axis is so small that we may consider A 2 as equal to sin 2 <p 

2 2 

&c., and in this case q = —A 2 + — A 4 . . . . (2) 

5 25 

Now by reversion of series A 2 = -- q — A 4 . . (3) 

. * But 




164 


Mr. Galbraith on the Figure of the Earth. 

But the polar axis is to the equatorial diameter as 1 to V 1 + A 2 , 
or 1 to 1 + — A 2 — — A 4 &c. And by substituting for A 2 its 
value from equation (3) we have 

V 1 + A - = 1 + — q — 

Hence i + i- ? _iZ|^ = i + 


25 

28 


q 2 = 1 + 


± q - 

4 q 224 * 06 


1 A 4 
8 A J 


quently - q - 


275 2 

112 ^ 


= 


But A = 


and conse- 

1 


300 


nearly, 




therefore — is about 
4 

lected. And finally, 

5 275 

T*“ U2 
55 


1 


32400000000 


f = 


, which may be safely neg- 


( 


55 

56 


) .... (4) 


As q is nearly, — q = 0*0033936: therefore A 2 

(1 — 0*003396) = 2*491516y very nearly = p. 

But Phil. Mag. vol. lxiv. page 163, 

<P _ y_ __ V r _ __ y 

z 


5 

T 9 


€=p X 


< 5 ) 


1+f z -+(4)’- . 

And taking the radius of the equator and time of rotation as 
formerly stated, we have 


5212458 




y_ 

z 


( 6 ) 


20919576+18.56062635 * 

From Captain Sabine’s observations combined with the French 
in page 351 of his work, he obtains / = 39*01520 + 0*20245 
sin 2 A; and adopting this, we can on the principles formerly 
laid down, (that is, rejecting those at St. Thomas and Ascen¬ 
sion, as on basaltic bases,) deduce the length of the equatorial 
pendulum from observations at 

Maranham . . . . = 39*01175 
Sierra Leone . . . = 39*01556 

Trinidad.= 39*01193 

Bahia.= 39*01402 

Mean . . . = 39*01332 

On the same principles, from observations of the Spanish 
navigators as given in the Connaissance des Terns for 1816, we 


get, at 


Acapulco 
Manilla . . 
Umatag . . 
Zamboanga 
Lima . . . . 
Isle Rabao 

Mean . 


39*01126 
39*02067 
39*00157 
39*01379 
39*01046 
39*01370 
39*01191 


Also 



























165 


Mr. Galbraith on the Figure of the Earth . 

Also we have from several others, as 

Formentera .... 39*01803 
Madras ...... 39*01275 

San Bias.39*01311 

Rio Janeiro .... 39*01447 

Paramatta. 39*01250 

Mean. 39*01254 

As these means are tolerably consistent, we may group them 
all thus: 

1. 39*01332 

2. 39*01191 

3. 39*01254 

Mean of the whole, or z = 39*01259 inches = 3*25105 feet. 
Substituting this value of z in formula (6), it will become 

52127458 y 

e ~ 20919575+6034152420 V 

or, e = 0*008608 . . .(7) 

Z 

Hence from Captain Sabine’s book, page 351, 

•2024 5 ' 1 

s = 0*008608 — - -- - = 0-003419, or instead of 

^ as he has found it. 

He also gives the ellipticity for the lengths of several equa¬ 
torial pendulums, page 352, such as 39*0152 and 39*01, and 
finds the difference inconsiderable. But when he changes the 
equatorial pendulum from 39*0152 to 39*01*, he retains the 
same total increase from gravitation, or 0*20245, with which we 


are by no means satisfied. 

For if the equatorial pendulum be.. 39*01520 

Total increase to the pole. 0*20245 


The polar pendulum would be. 39*21765 

Now if the polar pendulum remained the 

same and the equatorial became. 

the total increase would be. 0*20765 

These substituted in equation (7) would give an ellipticity 

of ^, differing little from Laplace’s estimate. The question, 

however, still remains,—are we at liberty to make such changes 
in either? It is at least unsafe. The better way would, in 
our opinion, be to determine the equatorial and polar pendu- 


39*01 


* In fact, the ratios of ‘20245 to 39*0152 and of ‘20245 to 39‘01 are 
nearly ratios of equality, as their value only differs about a unit in the sixth 
place of decimals! How then could there be any difference in the re¬ 
sulting compression ? 


lu ms 


















166 


Mr. Galbraith on the Figure of the Earth . 

lums by the means of a number of observations near those 
points; so that any small change or error of the total variation 
from the equator to the pole, when substituted in the formula 
may have little effect on their absolute lengths when reduced 
through a small arc by that formula. Thus at 70° N. Cap¬ 
tain Sabine finds 39 in *19452 for the length of the pendulum 
by grouping those within 10° on each side of it. Now by re¬ 
ducing this to the pole, it becomes 39*21816, differinglittle from 
what we have already found it. The equatorial pendulum 
has, by nearly a similar manner, been found to be 39*01259, 
though Captain Sabine’s group gives 39*01604. But if those 
at St. Thomas and Ascension he rejected as being on a ba¬ 
saltic basis, it will be 39*01308, differing little from the general 
mean of a number of places and different observers, and which 
we regard as the more decisive. Taking the polar pendulum 
at 39*21816, and the equatorial at 39*01259, the excess of the 
polar above the equatorial will be 0*20557, and hence the ellip- 

ticity will become 0*008608 — 0*005270 = —very nearly. 

Hence, if we set out from the equator, the formula for the 
length of the pendulum at any latitude will be 

l — 39*01260 + 0*20557 sin 5 A .... (A) 
or, commencing at the parallel of 45° N. 

I = 39*11540 — 0*102785 cos 2 A . . . . (B) 

From the foregoing results it appears that even if the quan¬ 
tities determined by Captain Sabine himself be substituted in 
the corrected formula for deducing the compression, it be¬ 
comes considerably different from the fraction expressing the 
ratio of the centrifugal force to gravity at the equator, and still 
more so if the quantities which we have selected be adopted, 
as in our opinion best entitled to confidence. 

By these remarks, it is by no means intended to set a light 
value upon Captain Sabine’s labours. They will be highly 
estimated by all capable of appretiating their merit; but so 
much we are afraid cannot be said for the formulae he has em¬ 
ployed for deducing his final results. Approximations which 
might have been supposed sufficiently correct about a century 
ago, cannot now receive that appellation. What we have said 
is therefore rather intended to direct the attention of mathe- * 
maticians to this subject, and to reconsider the degree of ac¬ 
curacy which may be conceded to the usual formulae, than a 
critique on the labours of this distinguished officer, whose 
abilities and acquirements do so much honour to himself, and 
credit to his profession. 

It is hoped Mr. Ivory, who is now examining with so much 

ability 







40 


no 

I 


Longitude from Greenwich* ** 


340 


330 


. Voi Lxvn. /, 

‘ 


190 


200 


210 


220 


S E G M E 3’ T, 

of the 

SOUWMJEXN HENlSmSME OF TEE 

GARTH. 

£xhdbiting the situation of the MaxjtieZie 
point of Convergence. 

BY C.HMSTEEK. 











































































































Prof. Hansteen on the Magnetic Poles of the Earth. 167 

ability the Mecanique Celeste , will not allow this part of his sub¬ 
ject to pass without receiving decided improvement at his hands. 

Indeed the problem of the determination of the figure of the 
earth has now arrived at that point, (as Captain Sabine has re¬ 
marked to me,) that no results from experiments on the pen¬ 
dulum should be admitted which are not of the accurate de¬ 
scription ; and I may add, that the requisite formulae em¬ 
ployed in making the usual deductions should also possess all 
the accuracy that the present state of science can give them. 

I am, sir, yours, &c. 


Edinburgh, Feb. 9, 18,26. 


William Galbraith. 


XX\ . On the Number and Situation of the Magnetic Poles of 
the Earth. By Professor Christopher Hansteen. 

[Concluded from p. 124.] 

I. Observations of Declinations by Captain Sabine, in the 
voyage of Captain Ross in the year 1818. Extracted front 
the Philos. Trans, for the year 1819. 


1818. 

Lat. 

Long. W. from 
Greenwich. 

Declination. 

West. 

June 

9 

o 

68 

23 

o 

53 

47 

o 

67 

i 

31 

11- 

-12 

68 

14 

54 

15 

67 

52 

17- 

-18 

70 

26 

54 

52 

71 

58* 

' July 

27 

71 

2 

54 

13 

75 

30 

4 

72 

44 

56 

49 

78 

55 

| 

6 

73 

22 

57 

32 

80 

1 


12 

74 

1 

57 

52 

80 

44 •j' 


21 

74 

58 

59 

16 

84 

33 


22 

75 

4 

60 

3 

87 

0 


28 

75 

23 

60 

34 

88 

19 

Aug. 

SO 

75 

32 

61 

0 

87 

56 

2 

75 

45 

64 

0 

88 

57 


4 

75 

59 

64 

32 

90 

18 


6 

70 

51 

64 

34 

91 

8 


12 

75 

55 

65 

30 

93 

40 


19 

76 

30 

72 

35 

102 

36 


22 

76 

33 

76 

53 

107 

56 


25 

76 

9 

78 

21 

109 

58 

Sept. 

ii 

. 

70 

36 

66 

56 

86 

55 


* Observations on Hare Island. f On the 3 Baffin’s Islands. 


II. Ob- 






































168 - Prof. Hansteen on the Number and Situation 

II. Observations of Declinations by Captain Parry. Extracted 
from Brewster’s Philos. Journ. July 1821. 


1819. 

N. 

Lat. 

Long. W. from 
Greenwich. 

Declination. 



c 

i 

o 

/ 

o 

/ 

June 

19 

59 

49 

48 

9 

48 

38 W. 

■% 

26 

63 

58 

61 

50 

61 

12 


27 

63 

44 

61 

59 

60 

20 


30 

63 

28 

62 

9 

61 

23 

July 

15 

70 

29 

59 

12 

74 

39 

17 

72 

0 

59 

56 

80 

55 


23 

73 

4 

60 

12 

82 

20 


24 

73 

0 

60 

9 

81 

34 


31 

73 

31 

77 

23 

108 

47* 

Aug. 

3 

74 

25 

80 

8 

106 

58 


7 

72 

45 

89 

41 

118 

16f 


13 

73 

11 

89 

23 

114 

17 

r 

15 

73 

33 

88 

18 

115 

37 


22 

74 

40 

91 

47 

128 

58 i 


28 

75 

9 

103 

45 

165 

50 § E. 

Sept. 

1 

75 

3 

10'5 

55 

158 

4 

2 

74 

58 

107 

3 

151 

30 


6 

74 

47 

110 

34 

126 

17 


15 

74 

28 

111 

42 

117 

52 

1820, 


74 

47 

110 

49 

127 

48 || 

June 

3 

75 

7 

110 

28 

128 

30 


7 

75 

35 

110 

36 

135 

4 


11 

75 

13 

111 

52 

125 

15 


12 

75 

5 

111 

57 

123 

48 


13 

75 

3 

111 

37 

126 

2 


15 

74 

49 

111 

12 

123 

6 

Aug. 

5 

74 

24 

112 

53 

110 

56 


10 

74 

26 

113 

48 

106 

7 


18 

74 

25 

112 

41 

111 

19 


25 

74 

27 

112 

11 

114 

35 

Sept. 

3 

71 

16 

71 

18 

91 

29 W. 


7 

70 

22 

68 

37 

80 

59 


From these observations (which, for the purpose of avoiding 
the influence of the iron on board-the vessels, were all made 
on shore, or on icebergs) it appears, that in Baffin’s Bay and 
near 64° of longitude the declination already amounts to 90°, 

* In Possession Ba}^. 4 East coast of Regent’s Island, 

f Cape Riley. § South-east point of B) am Martin’s Island. t 

In Winter Harbour on Melville’s Island. All the observations from 
2d September 1819 to 25th August 1821, were made on this island, for the 
most part during an excursion in the interior. 

and 






















169 


of the Magnetic Poles of the Earth. 

and thence increases westward; that Capt. Parry found it on 
the 22d of August 1819, in latitude 74° 40' and longitude 
91° 47' = 128° 58' W.; and on the 28th of August in latitude 
75° 9' and longitude 103° 45', = 165° 50' E. During the 
six days’ interval (those in which no observations were made), 
the western declination must have risen to 180° before it be¬ 
came easterly, as it was found on the 28th of August. Dr. 
Brewster thence concludes, that between the 23d and 28th of 
August the expedition must have been several degrees north 
of the great magnetic pole; adding, that this circumstance fully 
agrees with the position given to it for that year in my in¬ 
vestigation of the magnetism of the earth. 

If in these investigations we also consider the dip of the needle, 
it is evident that above the pole the dipping needle must assume 
a vertical position,—that here therefore the dip is 90°; that the 
same must decrease the further we remove from this point, 
that it disappears entirely somewhere near the equator, and 
at last becomes southerly. Thus, for instance, the northern 
dip in Paris is = 68° 38', in Copenhagen = 70°*37', in Go¬ 
thenburg = 72° 1', in Christiania = 72° 45', in Bergen = 
74° 3' &c. Therefore the observations on the dip may also 
be referred to, if we wish to ascertain the position of the mag¬ 
netic pole of the earth.—The observations made on this sub¬ 
ject by the two English north polar expeditions are contained 
in the two following tables : 

I. Observations made during the voyage of Captain Ross. 


1818. 

North Lat. 

Long. W. from 
Greenwich. 

Dip. 

April 


o 

i 

o 

/ 

o 

/ 

13 

53 

51 

0 

8 

70 

35* 


30 

60 

9 

1 

12 

74 

21 f 

June 

9 

68 

22 

53 

50 

83 

8 


19 

70 

26 

54 

52 

82 

49 f 

July 

8 

74 

4 

57 

52 

84 

9§ 


23 

75 

5 

60 

3 

00 

25 

August 

2 

75 

51 

63 

6 

84 

45 


4 

75 

59 

64 

47 

84 

52 


19 

76 

32 

73 

45 

85 

44 


20 

76 

45 

76 

0 

86 

9 


25 

76 

8 

78 

29 

86 

0 

Sept. 

11 

70 

35 

66 

55 

84 

39 

Nov. 

3 

60 

9 

1 

12 

74 

21 || 

1819. March 

51 

31 

0 

8 

70 

33 


* Regent’s Park, London. f Island of Brassa, Shetland. 

% Hare Island. § On the three Baffin’s Islands. 

|| Island of Brassa. f Regent’s Park, London. 

Vol. 67. No. 335. March 1826. " Y 


II, Ob- 

















170 Prof. Hansteen on the 'Number and Situation 


II. Observations made by Captain Parry. 


1819. 


North Lat. 

Long. W. from 
Greenwich. 

Dip. 



o 

i 

o 

i 

o 

i 

March 


51 

31 

0 

8 

70 

33* 

June 

26 

64 

0 

61 

50 

83 

4 

July 

17 

72 

0 

60 

0 

84 

14 

31 

73 

31 

77 

22 

86 

3f 

August 

7 

72 

45 

89 

41 

88 

27J 


11 

72 

57 

89 

30 

88 

25 


15 

73 

33 

88 

18 

87 

36 § 


28 

75 

10 

103 

44 

88 

261| 


30 

74 

55 

104 

12 

88 

29 

September 6 

74 

47 

110 

34 

88 



11 

74 

27 

111 

42 

88 

S7j ' 

1820. July 18 

74 

47 

110 

48 

88 

43 

September 17 

68 

30 

64 

21 

84 

21 


28 

51 

43 

0 

14 

70 

33ff 


From these observations it would appear, that the greatest 
dip was found by Captain Ross on the 20th of August 1818, 
near the entrance of Sir James Lancaster’s Sound, into which 
he did not venture to penetrate; but that Captain Parry, after 
having proceeded up that sound, found a regular increase of 
the dip, till on the 11th of September 1819 it had risen to 
88° 37', leaving the needle only 1° 23' from the vertical posi¬ 
tion. We may then conclude from this increase of the dip, 
that the expedition was about 3° north of the point where the 
dip is 90°, which also agrees pretty nearly with the point of 
convergence which we have deduced before from the observed 
declinations. Thus then, according to the indication of both 
instruments a magnetic pole exists in that vicinity. 

If we consider the southern segment of the globe (Plate II.), 
we see that between the meridians 50° and 140° all the ar¬ 
rows are directed to one point, which is about 20° distant 
from the antarctic pole, and 137° east of Greenwich. To the 
east of the meridian of 140°, and to the west of that of 40°, the 
arrows begin to deviate from this point; and in the vicinity of 
Terra del Fuego, between 240° and 300° of longitude, they 
are again directed to another point, distant about 32° from 
the pole, and situated in 237° longitude. Thus the southern 
hemisphere has, like the northern, two different points of 

* Regent’s Park, London. f* Possession Bay. 

£ East coast of Regent’s Island. § North side of Barrow’s Strait. 

|| Byam Martin’s Island. If Melville Island. 

** Observatory in Winter Harbour, ft Near London. 


magnetic 









of the Magnetic Poles of the Earth . 1V1 

magnetic attraction. For the calculation of the position of 
the first, I have made use of the following observations : 


1773. 

South Lat. 

Long. E. from 
Greenwich. 

Declination 

West. 

No. 

Cook. 

O / 

o / 

o / 


February 20 

58 46 

91 58 

40 31 

1 

March 3 

60 12 

110 52 

39 15 

2 

6 

59 56 

119 7 

32 11 

3 

7—8 

59 44 

121 19 

28 44 

4 

1777. Jan. 8 

47 37 

99 21 

25 29 

5 

14 

Fourneauxl773. 

47 19 

115 28 

17 34 

6 

February 20 

52 20 

99 23 

30 11 

7 

21 

52 8 

100 6 

29 11 

8 

27 

50 34 

118 51 

15 37 

9 

28 

49 30 

124 17 

11 18 

10 


From these observations we find the position of the point 
of convergence thus: 


From No. 

Distance from 
the Pole. 

Longitude East 
from Greenwich. 

2 and 4 

O / 

20 26 

o i 

138 7 

1 — 4 

19 46 

140 0 

2—10 

20 58 

135 12 

2—9 

21 30 

132 47 

7—10 

19 47 

136 31 

8—10 

19 53 

136 25 

2 — 3 

20 27 

138 29 

5—6 

19 39 

138 11 

9—10 

18 12 

138 36 

3—9 

21 48 

134 21 

Mean 

20 14'*6 

136 53'*4 


If we reject the results of 1 and 4? and 9 and 10, which 
differ most from the others, we find 

Distance from the pole = 20° 33'*5 

Longitude E. from Greenwich =136 15 *4 


Y 2 


The 



























172 Prof. Hansteen on the Number and Situation 


The following are the observations from which I deter¬ 
mined the point of convergence south of Terra del Fuego. 


1774. 


South Lat. 

Long. E. from 
Greenwich. 

Declination 

East. 

No. j 

Cook. 

January 

28 

o / 

69 37 

252 

l 

6 

o 1 

22 41 

1 


29 

70 20 

253 

3 

24 39 

2 

December 

13 

53 24 

270 

30 

13 23 

3 


29 

55 20 

293 

55 

23 52 

4 

Fourneaux. 
January 24 

59 37 

256 

2 

12 59 

5 


28 

61 47 

271 

50 

22 59 

6 


29 

61 53 

276 

45 

24 

1 

7 


30 

61 30 

281 

57 

25 13 

8 


31 

61 20 

288 

10 

26 

6 

9 


The result of this is : 


From No. 

Distance from 
the Pole. 

Long. E. from 1 
Greenwich. 

2 and 7 

O i 

12 36 

o / 

237 8 

2 — 8 

12 44 

237 39 

2 — 6 

13 15 

239 18 

7 — 9 

12 46 

23 5 53 

1 — 8 

12 47 

236 12 

4 -— 5 

14 19 

242 33 

3 — 4 

14 48 

247 21 

Mean 

12 50 

237 14 


Omitting the two last, we find : 

Distance from the pole — 12° 43 f 

E. longitude from Greenwich = 236 43 

These two magnetic poles of the southern hemisphere also 
alter their position. From the observations made by Abel 
Jansen Tasman, who, proceeding from the Mauritius, dis¬ 
covered the islands of Van Diemen’s Land and New Zealand, 
in the year 1643, I have determined the position of the mag¬ 
netic point of convergence south of New Holland, for the year 
1642, as follows: 

Distance from the pole = 18° 55 f 

E, longitude from Greenwich = 146 59 


The 































173 


of the Magnetic Poles of the Earth. 

The distance we found above for the year 1773 was 

Distance from the pole = 20° 33' 

E, longitude from Greenwich ^=136 15 

It is possible that the determinations for the year 1642 may 
not be quite correct, since at that period they had no means 
of giving the exact longitude; nevertheless I do not believe 
that the uncertainty with respect to the longitude of this point 
amounts to one degree. Thus then this magnetic pole has 
moved within 131 years, 10° 14'; or 4'’69 per annum west¬ 
ward. The situation of the other magnetic pole south of 
the continent, I have fixed for the year 1670, from some ob¬ 
servations mentioned by Halley in his table of variations of 
the magnetic needle (Philos. Trans. No. 148), as follows: 

Distance from the pole = 15° 53' 

E. longitude from Greenwich = 265 26j 

We have found the situation of this pole for the year 1774: 

Distance from the pole = 12° 43' 

E. longitude from Greenwich = 236 43 

Thus this pole has moved within 104 years 28° 43'^, or 
16'*57 annually, westward. 

Whence we see that the two magnetic poles in the northern 
hemisphere move eastward , while those in the southern hemi¬ 
sphere move westward. 

For the sake of abbreviation we will designate the south¬ 
eastern pole below New Holland, by A; the south-western 
below Terra del Fuego, by a; the north-westerly in America, 
by B; and the north-easterly in Siberia, by h. Thus A and 
B are very nearly diametrically opposed to each other : for 
the distance of both from the pole is about 20°; and A lies in 
the meridian 136°, and B in that of 260° E. of Greenwich, 
which makes a difference in longitude of about 125°. The 
case is similar, although with greater deviations, with the points 
a and b; the distance of the former from the antarctic pole 
being 13°, and of the latter from the arctic pole a little above 
4°; and the longitude of the former being = 237°, and that 
of the latter 116°; thus giving a difference in longitude of 
= 121°. Experience, however, teaches us that there are no 
magnets with one or three poles, i. e. with any odd number 
of poles; a result which might have been found d priori , 
as the magnetic force only arises from a destruction of the 
equilibrium in the opposite powers; whilst one power prevails 
in one part of the body, the other must be forced into the 
opposite extremity. Therefore a magnet of several poles must 

be considered as an assemblage of magnets each of which has 

• . 


174 Prof. Hansteen on the Number and Situation* 

its two poles. Thence we must consider the four magnetic 
points found above, as the ends of two magnetic axes:—which 
of them belong to one another, can only be ascertained by a 
combination of the declinations and dips calculated from theory 
with those found by observation. That hypothesis must be 
correct, in which theory and experience agree. The poles A 
and B are at about the same distance from the terrestrial poles, 
and therefore very nearly diametrically opposed: besides, they 
are much stronger than the poles a and b; whence it seems 
natural to assume that A and B are the terminating points of 
one magnetic axis , and a and b those of the other. Therefore 
these two magnetic axes cross one another without intersecting 
each other, or passing through the centre of the earth: the 
centres of both lie much nearer the surface in the South Sea, 
than on our side of the earth. 

This naturally produces several questions, which we cannot 
yet answer satisfactorily: What is it that produces these two 
magnetic axes in the earth? What is the cause of their motion ? 
How are we to imagine the possibility of this motion within the 
solid mass of the earth ? Concerning the first question, we have 
to consider that the magnetic powers are incorporeal essences, 
which, like the light, penetrate the densest bodies without be¬ 
ing subject to the Laws of gravitation. A magnetic axis, there¬ 
fore, is nothing but a direction in a physical body in which 
these powers act. In a prismatic piece of steel these powers 
may be separated by simply passing a magnet over it; they 
may be destroyed by rubbing in a contrary direction; or they 
may even be inverted, so that a northern pole be changed into 
a southern, and vice versa , without the internal position or me¬ 
chanical connexion of the material particles being in the least 
altered. If then the interior mass of the earth consists of a 
material in which magnetic powers may be excited (and the 
above experience compels us to assume this hypothesis), the 
same causes which have excited the magnetic power may, 
under different circumstances, produce a different direction in 
the position of the axes, without there being any necessity of 
having recourse to an internal mechanical motion. Thus then 
the answer to the first question will probably also include that 
to the second. That to the third is of no difficulty. Light 
is the active principle of nature. The effect produced by the 
solar light, and the warmth excited by it, on the surface and 
atmosphere of the earth, is sufficiently known. The develop¬ 
ment and precipitation of aqueous vapour in the atmosphere, 
and the electricity which is thereby excited, are the effects of 
light and heat most generally known. The essential difference 
between electricity and magnetism, which was assumed ac¬ 
cording 


of the Magnetic Poles of the Earth 1 75 

cording to former experiments, but in spite of philosophical 
misgivings has been removed by CErsted’s discovery. It is 
possible that the various illumination and heating of the earth 
during the period of one revolution on its axis, may produce 
a magnetic tension, as well as it produces the electrical powers, 
and that the altered position of the magnetic axes may be 
explained from an altered position of the terrestrial axis to¬ 
wards its orbit. Let it however be understood, that I ad¬ 
vance these positions merely as suppositions. 

It is proved then that the earth has two magnetic axes * 
and, consequently, four magnetic poles, of which the two 
northern turn from west to east, and the two southern from 
east to west, but with great difference in their motion. Let 
us see whether the variation in the declination may be ex¬ 
plained from this. In the beginning of the 17th century the 
declination throughout all Europe was eastward; then it de¬ 
creased, and disappeared a short time after the middle of that 
century; then became westward, increasing till within the late 
years, when it began to become invariable, and even to de¬ 
crease.—Thus the declination in Paris was in 


1541 

= 7° O' E. 

1667 

= 0° 

15' W. 

1550 

8 

0 

1670 

1 

30 

1580 

11 30 

1680 

2 

40 

1603 

8 45 

1683 

3 

50 

1630 

4 30 

1700 

7 

40 

1640 

3 

0 

1800 

22 

12 

1659 

2 

0 

1807 

22 

34 

1664 

0 40 

1814 

22 

54 

1666 

0 

0 

1824 

22 

23^ # 


From the motions of the two northern magnetic poles found 
before, it appears that in the year 1580 the Siberian pole b, 
was about 40° E. of Greenwich, i.e. north of the White Sea: 
whilst the American B, was in about 224° E. from Greenwich 
and thus somewhat above 30° east from Behring’s Straits! 
Thus the former lay much nearer Europe than now; and the 
latter was further off:—thence the effect of the former was 
greater in Europe than that of the latter, and the needle 
turned towards the.east. In the mean time the first removed 
towards the Siberian Ocean; and as the second approached 
Europe, although rather slowly, its effect became stronger, 
and the needle turned westward, till it has now attained its 
greatest declination, and will probably again approach the 

* I have added this declination from the Annates de Chimie tom xxvii 

p. 436.—K. 


meridian. 


!?6 Prof. Hansteen on the Magnetic Foies of the Earth . 

meridian. In the same manner it may be explained why the 
eastern declination was less before the year 1580. 

The changes in the southern hemisphere may also be ex¬ 
plained from the above-mentioned motions of the magnetic 
poles. Thus, for instance, at the Cape of Good Hope and 
in the different bays of the adjoining sea, the declination, 
during the time of Vgsco de Gama was easterly (z. e. the 
northern pole of the needle pointed to the east, the southern 
to the west); but subsequently it became westerly, and that by 


more than 25°. 

It was in the 

year 



1605 

= 0°30' E. 

1724 = 

16° 

27' W. 

1609 

0 12 W. 

1752 

19 

0 

1614 

1 30 

1768 

19 

30 

1667 

7 15 

1775 

21 

14 

1675 

8 30 

1791 

25 

40 

1702 

12 50 

1804 

25 

4 


But in the year 1605 the position of the South American 
magnetic pole a was 283°-| E. i. e . nearly south of Terra del 
Fuego; and the New Holland magnetic pole A lay about 150° 
E. from Greenwich. The first point lay therefore much 
nearer the Cape of Good Hope, which is about 18° E. from 
Greenwich, than it does now, whilst the latter was further 
from it. Thence the effect of the former on the needle was 
stronger than at present, whilst that of the latter was weaker; 
and the southern pole of the needle moved more towards the 
west, and the northern more towards the east. But as the 
American southern point went further off, and that of New 
Holland approached, the southern pole of the needle turned 
more and more towards the latter, whereby the declination 
became westerly. - 

The dip also varies on different parts of the surface of the 
earth, increasing in some, and diminishing in others. Thus 
it was in Paris: 

in 1671 ~ 71° Cf 1798 = 69°26' 

1754 72 15 1806 69 12 

1780 71 48 1814 68 36 

In eastern Siberia and at Kamtschatka it increases. Both 
are the results of the motion of the Siberian magnetic pole 
towards the east, in which it is removing from Europe, and 
approaching Kamtschatka. In the whole of South America 
the southern dip decreases, and that in consequence of the 
motion of the south-western magnetic pole, towards the west. 


Appen- 


Prof. Hansteen on the Aurora Borealis. 


177 


Appendix. 

On the Noise attending the Aurora borealis*; hi a Letter from 

M. Ramm, Royal Inspector of Forests at Torset , to Pro¬ 
fessor Hansteen. 

I. 

I have been much pleased with several Numbers of the 
Magazin for Naturvidenshaberne , but particularly so by your 
article on the magnetism of the earth. On reading Scoresby’s 
voyage for the re-discovery of the east coast of Greenland, I 
thought to observe that neither he nor anybody else had 
noticed the noise attending the motions of the northern lights. 
I believe, however, that I have heard it repeatedly during a 
space of several hours, when a boy of ten or eleven years old 
(it was in the year 1766, 1767 or 1768); I was then crossing 
a meadow, near which was no forest, in winter, and saw for 
the first time the sky over me glowing with the most brilliant 
light playing in beautiful colours, in a manner I have never 
seen since. The colours showed themselves very distinctly 
on the plain, which was covered with snow or hoar-frost, and 
I heard several times a quick whispering sound simultaneously 
with the motion of the rays over my head. However clear 
this event is, and always has been, in my memory, it would 
be unjust to expect it to be received as an apodictical truth; 
but should others have made similar observations, it would be 
important for the inquirer into the nature of the aurora borealis. 

Ramsmoen in Torset, March 1825. 

Postscript to the aboi ; by Professor Hansteen. 

II. 

I feel indebted to M. Ramm for the above communication. 
The polar regions are in reality the native country of the 
polar light; wherefore we ought to be peculiarly interested in 
obtaining any additional information on the natural history of 
this remarkable phenomenon; and we have so many certain 
accounts of the noise attending it, that the negative experience 
of southern nations cannot be brought in opposition to our 
positive knowledge. Unfortunately, we live, since the beginning 
of this century, in one of the great pauses of this phenomenon, 
so that the present generation knows but little of it from per¬ 
sonal observation. It would therefore be very agreeable to 
the editors of the Magazin , to receive from older people simi¬ 
lar experiences from the time of their youth, when the aurora 
borealis yet showed itself in its full splendour. It can be proved 
mathematically, that the rays of the northern lights ascend 

* From the .Magazm for Nat urvidenskab erne, for the year 1825, part i. 
p. 171—176, translated into German by L. F. Kaemtz. 

Vol. 67. No. 335. March 1826. Z from 


173 


Prof. Hansteen on the Aurora Borealis. 


from the surface of the earth, in a direction inclining towards 
the south (an inclination which with us forms an angle of 
about 73°). If then this light occupies the whole northern 
sky, rising more than 17° above the zenith, the rays must pro¬ 
ceed from under the feet of the observer, although they do not 
receive their reflecting power till they have reached a consi¬ 
derable elevation, perhaps beyond our atmosphere. It is 
therefore conceivable why we should frequently hear a noise 
attending the northern lights, when the inhabitants of southern 
countries , who see these phenomena at a distance of several 
hundred miles, hear no report whatever. Wargentin, in the 
15th volume of the Trans, of the Swed. Acad., savs that Dr. 
Gisler and Mr. Hellant, two scholars who had resided for some 
time in the north of Sweden, having been so requested by 
the Academy, made a report of their observations on the 
aurora borealis . 

The following is an extract from Dr. Gisler’s account: 

££ The most remarkable circumstance attending the northern 
lights is, that although they seem to be very high in the air, per¬ 
haps higher than our common clouds, there are yet convincing 
proofs that they are connected with the atmosphere, and often 
descend so low in it> that at times they seem to touch the earth it¬ 
self and on the highest monntams they produce an effect like a 
wind round the face of the traveller A He also says that he 
himself as well as other credible persons, ££ had often heard the 
rushing of them , just as if a strong wind had been blowing ( al¬ 
though there was a perfect calm at the time ), or like the whizzing 
heard in the decomposition of certain bodies during, a chemical 
process.” It also seemed to him that he noticed ££ a smell of 
smoke or burned salt.” ££ I must yet add,” says Gisler, ££ that 
people who had travelled in Norway, informed me they had 
sometimes been overtaken on the top of mountains by a thin 
fog, very similar to the northern lights, and which set the air 
in motion; they called it Sildebleket (Haring’s lightning), and 
said that it was attended by a piercing cold, and rendered 
breathing difficult.” Dr. Gisler also affirms that he heard re¬ 
peatedly “of a whitish gray coldfog with a greenish tint , which , 
although it did not prevent the mountains from being seen , yet 
somewhat obscured the sky , rising from the earth, and changing 
itself at last into a northern light; at least such a fog was fre¬ 
quently the forerunner of this phenomenon.” 

Capt. Abrahamson, in the publications of the Scandinavian 
Literary Society, has also collected several observations of 
noises that were heard with the northern lights. I know my¬ 
self several persons who have witnessed it, and shall make use 
of their observations on the first opportunity. 


XXVI. Con - 


[ 179 ] 

XXVI. Continuation of the New Catalogue of Meteorites. By 

E. F. F. Chladni *. 

I. Additions to the Catalogue of Falls of Meteoric Stones and 

Masses of Iron. 

OESIDES tlie meteoric stones preserved at Abydos and 
Cassandria, as mentioned by Pliny, Plist. Nat. ii. 58, 
Joh. Laurentius Lydus, in his work de Ostentis, mentions after 
Apuleius (probably from some MS. of this author since lost), 
a similar stone preserved at Cyzicus, and of which it was 
thought that if it ever perished, the town would perish with it. 

During the consulate of Cn. Calvinus and M. Messala, i. e. 
about fifty-two years before our sera, there were, according to 
Dio Cassius, xl. 47, Mis of earth and stone. 

During the consulate of AEmilius, 3 Kalend. April, a fall 
of stones took place at Vejae, according to an account taken 
from an ancient publication in the form of a newspaper (Acta 
diurna , Acta urbis populique ), and communicated in the Roman 
newspaper called Notizie del giorno 1822. (As it is not said 
which AEmilius it was, it is impossible to point out the precise 
year.) 

In the year 921, some stones fell near Narni, in the vicinity 
of Rome, which were considered infernal productions; one 
in particular which fell into the river Narnus, and which is 
said to have projected two feet above the surface of the water, 
according to a MS. chronicle by the friar Benedictus de St. 
Andrea, in the library of prince Chigi at Rome. 

? 1201. Probably stones with a fiery meteor, according to 
a passage of Cardanus mentioned in Lubienicii theatr . comet, ii. 
p. 226, but which I have not been able to find in his own works. 

Not long before 1349, in Arragon, three large stones, ac¬ 
cording to a MS. continuation of the Chronicle of Martin us 
Polonus, in the Hungarian National Museum at Pesth. 

About the year 1780, in North America, in the territory of 
Kingsdale, in New-England, between West River Mountain 
and Connecticut, masses of iron.—Quarterly Review, Na 59. 
April 1824. 

1818, 11th of June (or 30th of May, O. S.). Stones near 
Zaborzyca, in Volhynia, according to Laugier, in the Bidletin 
de la Soc. Philomat. June 1823, p. 86 ; and Mem. du Museum, 
17 Annee , t. xvi. des Annates , cah. 2. 

? 1822, 10th of September. Probably meteoric stones, near 
Carlstadt in Swedenf. 

* From Schweigger’s Journal , N. II. Band xiv. p.475. 

J We omit the accounts which here follow in the original, of the recent 
falls of meteorites we have already incorporated with Dr. Chladni’s former 
Catalogue; —see our present volume, p. 12.— Edit. 

Z 2 


1824, 


180 


Dr. Chladni’s Continuation 

1824, about February. At some distance from Irkutsk, a 
large stone, according to newspaper accounts from St. Peters¬ 
burg. 

1824, 14th of October. Near Zebrak, in the circle of Beraun, 
in Bohemia, a stone, according to Hallaschka, in Schumacher’s 
Astron. Nachr . No. 70. 

? Small crystalline stones, or perhaps small pieces of mag¬ 
netic pyrites, which (according to an account of Dr. Evers- 
mann, communicated by Professor John, in the Annalen der 
Physik , v. lxxvi. p. 340; and in Kastner’s Archiv fiir Natur- 
Jcund-e , v. iv. p. 2. p. 196) fell at Sterlitamansk in the govern¬ 
ment of Orenburg. It is however doubtful whether they be¬ 
long to the class of meteoric stones, or whether they form a 
concretion of a peculiar kind. 

(The pretended rain of stones mentioned in the newspapers 
as having fallen near Torresilla de Carneros in Spain, the 25th 
of July 1825, seems to have been nothing but common hail, 
of which pieces weighed as much as from 5 to 16 ounces.) 

II. Additions to the List of solid Masses of Iron containing 

Nickel. 

A. Cellular Masses of solid, Iron , Nth Portions of Olivine in 

the Interstices. 

The analyses of the olivine contained in such masses made 
by Counsellor Stromeyer are very remarkable, since they 
establish: 1. that the olivine of such masses contains no 
nickel; 2. but that, on the contrary, all other olivine and 
chrysolite contains nickel; 3. that olivine, chrysolite, and the 
species of stone of such solid masses of iron, belong to the 
same class *. 

To these masses we have to add one found in the year 1809, 
in the vicinity of Brahin and Rzeczyca, in the government of 
Minsk, which seemed to have fallen a short time previously. 
Further particulars of it are given in the Journal fiir Chemia , 
&c. new series, vol. xiii. h. 1. p. 25 f. 

B. Solid Masses of Iron containing Nickel. 

The mass found near Bitburg has been melted, through 
ignorance, and fragments of it have been again discovered by 
Professor Nceggerath : according to the analyses of Professor 
Bischof and Counsellor Karsten, they are of this kind J. 

Besides the masses of iron found in Louisiana near the Red 
River, and mentioned before, several more have been found, 

* See Phil. Mag. vol. lxvi. p. 357. t Ibid. vol. Ixv. p. 411. 

f Ibid, vol. Ixv. p. 401. 


in 


181 


of the new Catalogue of Meteorites. 

in the same vicinity, according to the Minerva, p. 1. vol. 1. 
n. 12, 26th of June 1824, published at New York. 

III. Additions to the Catalogue of fallen Substances not being 

Meteoric Stories or solid Iron. 

1792, the 27th, 28th, and 29th of August. A rain of dust 
for three days without intermission, in the vicinity of La Paz 
in Peru, which could not have proceeded from a volcano. At 
the same time explosions were heard, and the sky was seen 
inflamed .—Mercurio Peruano , t. vi. 7th December 1792. 

1824, 23d of August. At Mendoza in South America, near 
the river Plate, from a black cloud, a rain of dust with which 
the whole city was covered. Forty miles from the city the 
same cloud discharged itself again.—From a Buenos Ayres 
newspaper, 1st November 1824. 

1824, 17th of December. About a quarter after six o’clock 
in the evening, at Neuhaus in Bohemia, a bituminous mass must 
have fallen, accompanied by a globe of fire (a phaenomenon 
which has frequently happened before) which had been seen 
to descend there, since a part of the meteor remained burning 
against the church steeple for a quarter of an hour.— Maude 
und Spenersche Zeitung of Berlin, No. 7. 10th of January 
1825*. 

On the Mechanical Structure of Meteoric Stones. 

Dr. G. Rose of Berlin has succeeded in separating crystals 
of pyroxene from a large fragment of the meteoric stone of 
Juvenas, the angles of which lie has measured with a reflec¬ 
tive goniometer. One of these crystals is that modification of 
the octahedron which is represented in Haiiy’s Mineralogy, 
fig. 109. The same structure also includes microscopic ma- 
cled-crystals, which seem to be Labrador-spar. [?] 

At the request of M. Humboldt, Dr. Rose has also ex¬ 
amined the meteoric mass of Pallas, and the trachytes of 
Chimborazo, and other volcanos of the Andes. Fie found 
the olivine of the Siberian mass perfectly crystalline; the 
trachytes contained for the most part inclosed crystals of al- 
bite and hornblende. 

This notice may serve as an explanation of the imperfect 
account given before. 

* I ought also to mention that we have lately had an analysis by M. 
Buchner, in Kastner’s Arckiv. vol. v. p. 182, of a slimy meteor. It was 
found to be an organic substance like a mucus, containing mephitic matter. 


XXVII. Some 


[ 182 


XXVII. Some Account of the Dissection of a Simia Satyrus, 
Ourang Outang , or Wild Ma?i of the Woods. By John 
Jeffries, M.D.* 

HjPHE attention of the medical profession to comparative 
anatomy, and the interest which the naturalist feels in 
prosecuting this interesting study, are my inducements for of¬ 
fering the following account of an animal which forms, in the 
chain of created beings, the connecting link of brutes to man. 

Many have been disposed to doubt the existence of such an 
animal as the Satyrus , and more have been incredulous of any 
remarkable similarity in structure to man. Such doubts, I 
think, must be removed, by an examination of the anatomical 
preparations I have been enabled to make of him f. 

This animal is a native of Borneo, an Asiatic island under 
the equator, in longitude from 110° to 120° east. This indi¬ 
vidual was carried from Borneo to Batavia, and came into the 
possession of Mr, Forrestier of that place, where he remained 
some time. By him he was sent, consigned to Mr. Charles 
Thatcher, merchant, of this place, in the Octavia, Captain 
Blanchard. He died on the night of the second of June, the 
first after his arrival; disappointing the sanguine expectations 
of his owners of great pecuniary remuneration from his exhi¬ 
bition in public. 

In his external appearance, our subject resembled an Afri¬ 
can, with the neck somewhat shorter and the head projecting 
more forward. He was three feet and a half in height. He 
was covered with hair, except his face, the palms of the hands 
and feet, which were all of the colour of the negro. The hair 
was of a dun colour, inclining to black. It resembled the hair 
of the human body more than that of brutes, in consisting all 
of one kind, and not, as in quadrupeds, of two forms of plicae. 
On the head the course of the hair was forward and upward ; 
before the ears it was downwards. There was very little on 
the anterior part of the head, leaving him an extensive fore¬ 
head. On the arm, its course was down; on the fore arm, up. 
It was longest on the back of the arms and thighs, measuring 
from six to seven inches. His ears were thin, small, and 
handsome, lying close upon the head 

His eyes were hazel-coloured, bright, and somewhat deep 

* From Webster & Treadwell’s Boston Journal of Philosophy, vol. ii. p.,570. 
t I cannot sufficiently regret the season of the year in which he fell into 
my hands, which has prevented that patient and slow dissection which alone 
could enable me to give a correct and full description of his internal struc¬ 
ture. The above is the best account I can offer, from a dissection nrose* 
euted with the temperature for several days from 88° to 94°. 

in 


183 


Dr. Jeffries’s Dissection of an Ourang Outang. 

in the sockets. His brow was prominent, to defend the eyes 
from injury in the woods. He had very little hair on the brow. 
His nose was flat. His lips were very large and thick, more 
so than those of any negro I ever saw. His chin was broad 
and projecting, as was likewise the upper jaw. His chest was 
round, full, and prominent. His shoulders were set well back. 
His scapulae were flat and close behind. His waist was small. 
His hips were flat and narrow. His arms were very long, the 
fingers reaching to the ancles. His lower extremities were 
short and small in proportion to the rest of the animal. He 
had the spiral lines like human, on the tips of the fingers, and 
the lines of palmistry on the hands, and also on the lower 
limbs. He had the bend of the spine above the sacrum. There 
was no projection of the coccyx. His nates were small, as 
were also the calves of his legs, which had however some 
figure. His mammae and umbilicus were distinct. The scro¬ 
tum was very small, being merely a little laxity of the skin at 
this part. 

The account which I have learned from Captain Blanchard 
illustrates his habits and manners. 

He was put on board the Octavia, under the care of this 
gentleman, and had a house fitted for him, and was provided 
with poultry and rice sufficient for the voyage. Captain Blan¬ 
chard first saw him at Mr. Forrestier’s house in Batavia. 

While sitting at breakfast, he heard some one enter a door 
behind, and found a hand placed familiarly on his shoulder: 
on turning round, he was not a little surprised to find a hairy 
negro making such an unceremonious acquaintance. 

George, by which name he passed, seated himself at table 
by direction of Mr. Forrestier, and after partaking of coffee, 
&c. was dismissed. Fie kept his house on ship-board clean, 
and at all times in good order ; he cleared it out daily of rem¬ 
nants of food, &c. and frequently washed it, being provided 
with water and a cloth for the purpose. He was very cleanly 
in his person and habits, washing his hands and face regularly, 
and in the same manner as a man. He was docile and obe¬ 
dient, fond of play and amusement; but would sometimes be¬ 
come so rough, although in good temper, as to require cor¬ 
rection from Captain Blanchard, on which occasions he would 
lie down and cry very much in the voice of a child, appearing 
sorry for having given offence. His food was rice paddy in 
general, but he would, and did, eat almost any thing provided 
for him. The paddy he sometimes ate with molasses, and 
sometimes without. Tea, coffee, fruit, &c. he was fond of, 
and was in the habit of coming to the table at dinner, to par¬ 
take of wine; this was in general claret. 


His 


184 Dr. Jeffries’s Dissection of an Ourang Outang . 

His mode of sitting was on an elevated seat, and not on the 
floor. He was free from some of the peculiar propensities of 
monkeys. His bowels were in general regular. The direc¬ 
tions given by Mr. Forrestier were, in case of sickness, to give 
him castor oil. It was administered to him once on the be¬ 
ginning of the passage, and produced full vomiting and free 
catharsis with effectual relief. He sickened a second time on 
the latter part of the voyage, and resisted the attempts of the 
captain and several strong men to get the oil into the stomach. 
He continued to fail gradually, losing his appetite and strength 
until he died, much emaciated, soon after the ship anchored. 
Obstruction of the bowels was no doubt the source of his sick¬ 
ness and cause of his death. Captain Blanchard used to feel 
his pulse at the radial artery, and describes it to be like the 
human. It was probably quicker. His mode of walking was 
always erect, unless when tired; he would then move or rest 
on all fours* - . 

The skin was attached very closely to the body at all parts, 
particularly on the face, hands, elbows, and soles of the feet. 
He had no cutaneous muscles except the platisma mvoides. 
This was not connected on its inner surface, but formed a 
large pouch extending from the chin to the sternum, con¬ 
tinuing round to the sides of the neck. It was supposed by 
those who saw him, to be a receptacle for food. This was 
not however its purpose ; for it communicated with the larynx 
and not with the pharynx, as will be described when speaking 
of those parts. 

The abdomen presented a view so similar to the human, 
that it required some attention to note any peculiarities. The 
omentum was small, lying high up the intestines, coloured 
with bile, as were the bowels generally. The peritoneal folds 
wmre very strong, particularly the ligaments of the liver, the 
mesentery, &c.; the caput coli was also strongly confined to 
its place. The spermatic cord received its parts, and passed 
obliquely under the muscles and came out at Poupart’s liga¬ 
ment, as in man. The proportion of the small to the large 
intestines was about the same as in the human subject. The 
arch and sigmoid flexure of the colon exceedingly resembled 
the human. He had the appendix vermiformis very long, 
measuring four inches. This I found full of small stones and 
some pieces of egg shell, together with liquid faeces. The 
lame intestines were found loaded with indurated faeces from 

O \ 

* This circumstance T was not informed of until after I had completed 
his dissection, and made observations, which close this communication. It 
did not therefore influence me in judging from his anatomical structure of 
his natural mode of walking. 


the 


Dr. Jeffries’s Dissection of an Ourang Outang. 185 

the caput coli to the extremity ot the rectum. The stomach, 
in situation and figure, was like a man’s; its cardiac orifice 
was perhaps smaller, and the pylorus larger; its dimensions 
were, when inflated, from one orifice to the other round the 
fundus, ten and a half inches; across it measured three inches. 
It was nine inches in circumference round the fundus. The 
spleen was attached by the vasa brevia, and in colour, size, 
and situation, accorded to man’s. The liver was very much 
like ours, of a deep red colour, and divided into two lobes, 
but the fissure was not quite so distinct. In connexion with 
the other viscera, it appeared exceedingly like the human. 
The gall-bladder was much longer and smaller round, and 
was found full of dark inspissated bile, which could with dif¬ 
ficulty be crowded along the duct. The pancreas laid upon 
the spine as in man. These had all their orifices opening into 
the bowels in the same way as the human. The kidneys did 
not present any difference, except that the renal capsules were 
larger. The bladder was small, containing when full, about 
two gills. The urethra, prostate gland, vesiculse, &c. were 
situated like the human. The prepuce, glans, &c. were like 
the human, but small. The organs of the chest resembled the 
human in size, figure and situation. The lungs did not pre¬ 
sent quite so much difference on the two sides as in man; that 
of the left being nearly of the same size with the right, carry¬ 
ing the heart more towards the centre of the thorax. The 
lungs were not so distinctly divided into lobes; they were very 
sound and healthy in appearance. The heart was conical like 
man’s, and in every respect resembled the human. The arch 
of the aorta and the descending aorta were small, in propor¬ 
tion to the size of the heart. The right subclavian, right and 
left carotid arteries, all arose from the arteria innominata; 
the left subclavian rose separately, near the base of this. The 
pericardium was connected extensively to the diaphragm, 
which was very large and strong. The chest was divided by 
the mediastinum, and the thymus gland laid between its 
sides. 

The mouth and fauces resembled the human, except in di¬ 
mensions ; being much longer from front to rear. The velum 
palati was without the uvula, but broader and more lax. The 
body which answered the purpose of the uvula was situated 
on the posterior surface of the velum ; and when this was forced 
backwards, exactly closed the posterior entrance of the nose. 
The glottis and epiglottis resembled the human. The os hy¬ 
oides and cartilages of the larynx were much as in man. Be¬ 
tween the os hyoides and the thyroid cartilage, there were on 
each side two openings about a quarter of an inch in diameter, 

Vol. 67. No. 335. March 1826. 2 A leading 


186 


Dr. Jeffries’s Dissection and Description 

leading into the larynx and coming out at the base of this 
cartilage. A valve played at the inferior opening, preventing 
the passage of an instrument downward, but it passed easily 
upwards into the pouch on the neck, which has been mentioned. 
This pouch, the animal could inflate at pleasure; for what 
purpose 1 do not know. One use might be, when inflated, to 
assist in supporting him when swimming. 

The brain weighed nine ounces and three quarters. The 
nerves arose from this in the same manner as the human, and 
took their exit from the cranium in a similar way. The po¬ 
sition of the brain differed by the anterior lobes being more 
raised in consequence of the projecting plates of die orbits in¬ 
ternally, and by the posterior lobes and cerebellum lying lower 
than the human, according to the form of the base of the cra¬ 
nium. This organ was not dissected. The muscles and blood¬ 
vessels could not be so minutely examined, in consequence of 
the warmth of the season, as to enable me to give a correct 
account of them. The muscles were in general very distinct, 
having their fasciculi of fibres remarkably strong. The blood¬ 
vessels were small. 

Description of the Skeleton . 

The whole skeleton is three feet four inches high. From 
the first vertebra of the neck to the end of the coccyx, it 
measures nineteen inches. 

From the head of the humerus to the end of the middle 
finger is thirty-one inches; the end of this finger reaches to 
the end of the fibula. 

From the top of the trochanter major, to the bottom of the 
os calcis, is seventeen inches. The length of the foot is nine 
inches and a half. The length of the hand is eight inches. 

A line drawn from the nose to the occipital protuberance, 
measures eight and a half inches. 

Round the cranium over the orbits to the occipital protu¬ 
berance is fourteen inches. 

From the meatus auditorius of one side to that of the other, 
over the coronary suture, is eight inches. 

The longitudinal diameter is four inches and an eighth. 

The lateral diameter is three inches and a half. 

The depth from the vertex to the foramen magnum is three 
and a quarter inches. 

The sutures are serrated, and resemble very much the 
human. 

It has the os triquetrum perfect. 

The orbitar ridges are very prominent. 

The styloid and mastoid processes are short. 


The 


187 


of the Skeleton of an Ourang Outang. 

The nasal bones are wanting, giving him that flat or simous 
appearance, from which is derived the term simia, to distin¬ 
guish the ape species. 

The maxilla superior and inferior are very prominent, which 
makes the facial angle more obtuse than the African. 

The frontis is somewhat high and projected. 

The inferior maxilla is closed at the mentum, which is a 
little angular and projecting. 

The teeth consist in each jaw of two dentes incisivi; the 
two middle of the upper jaw are very long and broad, mea¬ 
suring seven-eighths of an inch in length, and five-eighths in 
breadth. The two lateral have not yet fully grown ; two cus- 
pidati, and four molar teeth; making in all, twenty-eight. 

The four incisores are new and permanent teeth; the cuspi- 
dati had not been shed. 

The first molar in each jaw was just giving place to the bi¬ 
cuspid. 

The last.molar in each jaw are permanent teeth, the others 
were about being shed. 

I should judge from the teeth, that this individual was about 
five and a half years old. 

The spine consists of twenty-three vertebras, viz. seven of 
the neck, twelve of the back, and four of the loins. 

The neck is short, being but three and a quarter inches in 
length. The vertebrae composing it are flatter before, and not 
so round, having their spinous processes much longer and 
rounder than in man. 

The first vertebra of the neck has no spinous process, being 
in this respect unlike the human, which has a small one; but 
anteriorly, it resembles man, and differs from the monkey, in 
having an eminence rather than a fissure. 

The second vertebra has the processus dentatus long, and 
partly cartilaginous; the transverse processes are so also. 

The vertebrae of the back are like those of man; they mea¬ 
sure eight inches and three quarters. 

The vertebrae of the loins are three inches in length. They 
have their transverse and spinous processes short and thick, 
like man’s. 

The ilea are very flat, and are articulated to the sacrum 
as in man. The sacrum differs materially from the human, 
being more flat and narrow; it consists of five bones, con¬ 
nected by cartilage. Indeed, the whole pelvis exhibits a more 
striking difference from the human than any other part of the 
skeleton. 

The ileum measures from the anterior superior spinous pro¬ 
cess to its junction with the sacrum, three inches. 

2 A 2 The 


188 Dr. Jeffries on the Skeleton of an Ourang Qutang. 

The ilea, ischia, and pubes, are distinct bones, connected 
by cartilage. The symphysis pubis is also cartilaginous. 

The lateral diameter of the pelvis is two and a half inches. 
The longitudinal diameter is three and a quarter inches. 

The pelvis is so joined to the spine as to project backward, 
and so flat, that a perpendicular line from the bodies of the 
dorsal vertebrae falls upon the pubis. 

The coccyx is cartilaginous, and resembles the human; it 
is not so long, and has no appearance of a tail. 

The ribs are twelve in number, articulated and curved as 
much as the human, giving the animal a full chest. 

There were eight true ribs attached to the sternum by car¬ 
tilage, as in man, and four floating ribs. 

The sternum consists of four bones like man’s, but more 
cartilaginous; the ensiformis longer. 

The clavicle remarkably resembles the human; it is not 
quite so much bent, and measures five and a half inches. 

The scapulae likewise resemble those of man; the base is 
narrower and longer; the acromion and coracoid processes 
are more cartilaginous than those of a child. 

The chest gives the animal the greatest resemblance to man; 
the position of the shoulders, the articulations of the humerus, 
clavicle, and scapula, the angle of the ribs, the prominent 
thorax, the situation of the arms, all so much resemble the 
human, that they might easily pass for such. 

The length of the humerus is eleven and a quarter inches; 
the head of the bone is cartilaginous; it is articulated like the 
human ; on the lower part it is thinner and flatter than man’s ; 
the condyles are prominent and cartilaginous; the radius is 
eleven inches in length; it is somewhat curved anteriorly, in 
other respects it resembles the human. 

The ulna is eleven and a half inches long; it has a large 
curved projection at the lower part for the insertion of mus¬ 
cles. 

The bones of the carpus are eight in number, and resemble 
the human, except that they are all longer and a little narrower, 
more cartilaginous, and admit of more free motion upon one 
another. 

The bones of the metacarpus are five in number, each about 
three inches in length, except that of the thumb, which is an 
inch and three quarters. 

The thumb has two bones, and is an inch and a half in 
length. 

The phalanx of the fore finger is four inches long, that of 
the middle and ring fingers, four and a half inches; the little 
finger is three and a half inches. 


The 


Dr. Jeffries on the Skeleton of an Ourang Oulang. 189 

The articulation of the femur with the acetabulum is almost 
exactly like man’s; the neck of this bone forms about the same 
angle. In quadrupeds, this forms a distinguishing character¬ 
istic, being in them nearly a right angle; the inspection of this 
joint is alone sufficient to satisfy the naturalist of at least the fa ¬ 
cility, if not the natural disposition of the Satyrus to walk erect. 

The femur is eight and a half inches in length and two 
inches round; the trochanters and condyles are cartilaginous 
and prominent. 

The patella is one round piece like that of man; it is but 
little ossified in this individual; the tendon connecting it to 
the tibia is strong. The knee joint has the semilunar carti¬ 
lages and is connected by the crucial and lateral ligaments as 
in man. The tibia is seven and three quarters inches long, 
and two inches round at the upper part. 

The fibula is seven and a half inches long, and an inch and 
a quarter round; the extremities of both bones of the leg are 
cartilaginous. 

The ankle joint is formed like man’s. 

The tarsus consists of seven bones like the human; these 
are mostly cartilaginous, and admit of free motion one upon 
another. 

The os calcis is broad, and sufficiently projects behind to 
support the erect posture. The metatarsus consists of four 
bones; for what answers to the great toe is a perfect thumb of 
two joints, but not on the range of the other toes; indeed the 
whole foot, except the os calcis, much more resembles a hand 
than a human foot, the phalanges being longer and consisting 
of bones similar to the hand. 


From the structure which has been thus cursorily described, 
I shall note those peculiarities which will enable us to form an 
opinion of the natural mode of his walking. 

First. Going on all fours, he would find inconvenience from 
the elbow joint; for when the hand is placed upon the ground 
flat, the flexion of the joint would be contrary to that of qua¬ 
drupeds, by bending back towards the body instead of for¬ 
wards, which would rather impede, than assist progression. 
It is not however as difficult for the Satyrus to turn the joint 
forwards, as it would be for man, on account of the curvature 
of the bones of the fore arm, and the free motion which ex¬ 
isted in all the joints. 

The roundness of the chest, and the scapulas setting so far 
back, would make it difficult for him to bear weight upon his 
hands; quadrupeds have the chest flat and the scapulas far 
forward upon the ribs. 


The 



190 Dr. Jeffries on the Skeleton oj an Ourang Outang. 

The articulation of the hip would make it more easy for him 
to go erect, on account of the little angle made by the neck 
with the body of the femur. 

Secondly. In walking erect, he would derive advantage 
from the extension of the os calcis and the length of the foot; 
and also from the position of the arms so far back, and from 
their length, which would enable him to balance the body by 
them. 

Thirdly. From the structure of the viscera he seems to be 
peculiarly formed for an erect posture. 

The pericardium being united extensively with the dia¬ 
phragm, would prevent it from being drawn dow r n by the weight 
of the liver and abdominal viscera. In quadrupeds this is not 
necessary, for the pressure of the abdominal contents assists 
expiration, 'and if the pericardium w T as attached to the dia¬ 
phragm as in the Satyrus and in man, inspiration w’ould be 
impeded. 

The exit of the spermatic cord is another difference from 
quadrupeds. It does not pass out directly from the abdomen, 
as in the dog, but perforates the peritoneum and muscles 
obliquely, as has been described, thereby giving that admira¬ 
ble structure to fortify the groin from rupture, which exists 
in man. 

The viscera of the abdomen were suspended to bear weight 
in the erect posture, particularly the liver, which had its liga¬ 
ments very strong. 

From these and other circumstances, apparent from an ex¬ 
amination of the skeleton, I think we must conclude the erect 
posture to have been most natural. At least, if it is humili¬ 
ating to dignify him with the title of a biped, he stands ac¬ 
quitted from that of a quadruped from the peculiar formation 
of his lower extremities. We must then denominate him, as 
some naturalists have done, a quadrumanus animal. 

Note .—The preparations which have been made from him are 

The skin stuffed and prepared to exhibit his external ap¬ 
pearance. 

His natural skeleton entire. 

The heart fully injected, with the aorta and other vessels, 
and the lungs in situ , with a portion of the diaphragm. 

The tongue, larynx, pharynx, &c. exhibiting the peculiar 
structure of its connexion with the pouch, and its general re¬ 
semblance to man’s. 

Dried preparations of the stomach, caput coli, and its ap¬ 
pendix, and of the urinary and gall bladders. 

Boston, July 1, 1825. 


XXVIII. De- 


C 191 ] 


XXVIII. Description of a nondescript Species of the Genus 
Condylura. Bp T. W. Harris, M.D. # 

r | ’’HE genus Condylura was constructed by Illiger for the 
reception of the Sorex cristatus of Linnaeus, the Radiated 
Mole of Pennant. 

This name, derived from xovdvXog a knot, and ovqyj the tail, 
is essentially bad, as it is founded on an exaggerated or cari¬ 
catured representation of the tail of the animal, and on a 
structure which does not exist, in the slightest degree, in the 
species to be here described. Desmarest, who has amended 
the characters of the genus, did not think it expedient to 
change the name, and thus embarrass nomenclature with a 
new synonym. 

Cuvier, in the Regne Animal, has suppressed the genus Con- 
dylura , being confident, he says, from an inspection of the 
teeth, that the radiated mole is a Talpa and not a Sorex. Des¬ 
marest + thinks that Cuvier must have examined, by mistake, 
the denuded head of a true Talpa , instead of that of the Con¬ 
dylura. He observes that a specimen of this animal, sent by 
Le Seuer from Philadelphia, presents characters peculiar to 
itself; that it cannot be united either with the Talpce or Sorices, 
but holds an intermediate rank between these two tribes or 
families. In its form and habits it has an affinity to the for¬ 
mer, while its teeth closely resemble those of the latter. It is 
arranged in the family Soricii and genus Scalops by the author 
of the article Mazology, in Brewster’s Encyclopaedia. 

The Sorex cristatus , with another animal of the same genus 
recently detected in Maine, might with propriety constitute a 
new family with the following characters. 

Upper and lower jaw each with twenty teeth; four incisors 
only in the lower jaw; nostrils carunculated; tail scaly, of 
moderate length; feet with five claws, the anterior ones broad, 
and formed for digging in the earth; the hind feet elongated, 
slender; eyes minute; and no external ears J. 


* FromWebster& Treadwell’s Boston Journal of Philosophy, vcl.ii. p.580. 

T See articleTAUPE; Nouveau Dictionnaire d’HistoireNaturelle, tom. xxxii. 
Paris, 1819. 

J The essential characters of the Shrew-mice or Sorices, are six or eight 
cutting teeth in each jaw, the intermediate ones the longest; tail and exter¬ 
nal ears sometimes wanting. 

The family of the Moles, or Talpce, is characterized by having twenty-two 
teeth in each jaw; six incisors in the upper and eight in the lower jaw, 
equal to each other; no external ears; tail very short; eyes and feet as in 
the Condy lures. 


The 


192 Dr. Harris on a nondescript Species of Condylura. 

The animals of this family, like the moles and shrew-mice, 
burrow in the ground, and live upon insects. 

In March 1825, a small animal was discovered, near Ma- 
chias, in the state of Maine, which exhibits the characteristics 
of the genus Condylar a, but which is evidently distinct from 
C. cristata , the type of that genus. These animals both have 
in the upper jaw six incisors implanted in the prsemaxillary 
bone, the two intermediate ones large, their cutting edge oblique; 
the adjoining incisors resembling long canine teeth, slightly 
triangular at the base, where are situated two minute tubercles; 
each external incisor isolated, very small, conic, and pointing 
backwards. Seven molares on each side; the three first re¬ 
sembling canine teeth, and may be considered as false molares ; 
they are smaller than the true molares, are isolated with two 
minute lobes at the base. The four posterior molares large, 
formed of two layers of enamel, furrowed externally, and 
tuberculated within. 

The palate has seven transverse ridges between the incisors 
and the first two molares. 

Lower jaw with four flattened and projecting incisors; five 
false molares, separated from each other, the first the largest, 
and each of them with three or four small lobes; three true 
molares, composed of two layers of enamel, channelled within, 
and tuberculated on the outside. 

Proboscis elongate, extensile; the nasal extremity naked, 
and bordered with about twenty cartilaginous, acuminated 
processes, disposed in a circle, the two superior ones united 
at the base, longer than the others, and situated a little in ad¬ 
vance of them. 

Neck indistinct; legs short, the hind ones placed far back; 
feet five-toed, the anterior ones very broad and scaly, with a 
series of curved hairs on the external edge; the nails long 
and straight. The hind feet a third longer than the fore feet, 
scaly, narrow, with a warty excrescence on the inner part of 
the tarsus; nails slightly curved and short. Tail scaly, and 
thinly covered with coarse hairs. Eyes minute. No external 
ears. 

The species from Maine appears to be a nondescript, and 
may therefore receive the name of prasinata. It is clothed 
with a long and very fine fur of a green colour, with a few 
gray hairs at the extremity of the tail. The nose is naked, 
the caruncles, which surround it in a stellate manner, are 
twenty-two in number, and of a brownish hue. The eyes are 
exceedingly minute, and are entirely concealed by the fur. 
The fore feet greatly resemble hands; the palms are covered 
with a thick cuticle, and on the inside of each of the fingers, 

near 


Dr* J. Nceggerath on the Origin of the Rock-salt 'Formation, 193 

near their origin, are three triangular acuminated scales, or 
cuticular processes. A large rounded warty excrescence is 
situated midway, on the inner and lower part of the foot. The 
specimen was a male. The tail nearly three quarters the 
length of the body, very small, or strangulated at its insertion, 
becoming abruptly very large, and gradually tapering towards 
the extremity. The caudal vertebrae were not distinguishable 
through the mass of fat with which they were enveloped, and 
of which the tail was principally composed. There were no 
transverse folds or ridges on the tail, its surface being perfectly 
uniform, nor were the hairs disposed in distinct whorls. The 
tail of this species therefort/di fl ers essentially from that of the 
cristata , as described by authors, and induces us to wish that 
Desmarest had changed the name of the genus for some one 
more expressive of the species which compose it. 

Length of the male Condylar a prasinata , from the end of 
the snout to the origin of the tail, four and a half inches. 
Length of the tail three inches. Circumference of the body 
three inches and three quarters. Circumference of the tail, 
at the largest part, one and a half inch. Average length of 
the nasal radii five-twentieths of an inch. Length of the hand 
eight-tenths of an inch. Length of the longest nail three- 
tenths of an inch. Length of the foot one-inch and one-tenth. 
Length of the longest nail of the foot five-twentieths of an inch. 
Distance between the eyes rather over three-tenths of an inch. 
From the end of the snout to the eyes seven-tenths of an inch* 

Milton, May 4, 1825, 


XXIX, On the Volcanic Origin of the Rock-salt Formation . 

By Dr. J. NceGGERATH # . 

I HAVE read with pleasure M. de Charpentier’s letter of 
the 22d of March 1825, to M. L, de Buch, with the valu¬ 
able remarks of the latter meritorious naturalist attached to 
it, which have appeared in Poggendorf’s Annalen der Phys, 
und Chemie 1825, St. 1. 

It describes a great vein at Bex in Switzerland, which is 
between perpendicular strata of anhydrite, and rises from 
30 to 40 feet, with fragments of anhydrite: this vein is filled 
with silicate of lime, and a considerable quantity of sand and 
dust of anhydrite, which are collectively combined together 
into a firm mass by a pure rock-salt, perfectly free from 
water: this mass is covered with a powder and has no cavities 
with crystals. All this indisputably evinces, that it is a fissure 

A 

* From Schweigger’s Journal, N. S. Band xiv. p. 278« 

Voi. 67. No. 335. March 1826. 2 B produced 












194 Dr. J. Noeggerath on the Volcanic 

produced by volcanic power, into which the chloride of so¬ 
dium has entered by sublimation. L. de Buch proves this in 
a highly convincing manner. Guided by that fact, and sup¬ 
ported by other grounds, he further supposes that the rock- 
salt formations in the floetz strata very probably have also a 
volcanic origin. 

But I had already ventured to propose the same theory of 
rock-salt formations before the vein at Bex was known. The 
merit of this I must indeed acknowledge is not great: having 
the advantage of L. de Buch’s work, it was easy for me to ad¬ 
vance one step further than he had gone; or perhaps, I only 
expressed more definitely what L. de B. had long conceived, 
and was a simple consequence of his comprehensive observa¬ 
tions. But since my theory has the concurrence of so valuable 
an experience as that of M. de Charpentier, it will not be wholly 
uninteresting to make my early expositions better known. 

In the collection of foreign works published by me and 
M. D. Pauls on volcanos and the phenomena allied to them, 
the second volume of which (containing the volcanos at Java, 
by Sir T. S. Raffles; the Monte-somma by L. A. Necker, and 
the volcanos in Auvergne, by Dr. Daubeny) had already been 
printed at the end of February 1825, I put in a note a Ger¬ 
man translation of Humboldt’s treatise concerning, the ap¬ 
pearance of sulphur in the primary rocks, according to Gay- 
Lussac and Arago, (Annales de Chimie ct de Phys. 1824, Oct.) 
and I added the following remarks of my own. 

\ C J a/ 

66 The excellent communications of A. von Humboldt afford 
us not only decisive proofs of the existence of sulphur in the 
primary rocks, but render it very probable also that they con¬ 
tain great masses of it. To ascertain the origin of the sul¬ 
phur and its combinations in the fixed, fluid, and gaseous pro¬ 
ducts of volcanos has hence lost the greater part of its diffi¬ 
culties. If on the one hand collective experience, and the 
theories that have been most recently raised on it, tend to 
establish Von Humboldt’s remark ( Ueber der Bau und the 
WirJcungen der Vidka?ie), that c the powers of volcanos operate 
simultaneously, not superficially from the outer crust of the 
earth, but profoundly from the interior of our planet, through 
caverns and vacant passages, on its remotest points,’ the ex¬ 
istence of sulphur in the newer rocks, and especially in those 
that are formed in horizontal strata, cannot account for the im¬ 
portant part which this mineral (sulphur) performs in volcanos. 
Von Przystanowski ( Ueber den Unsprung der Vulkane in Italie 
1822) has indeed the merit of having indicated two great tracts 
in Italy, in which the sulphur (with iron-pyrites, sulphuret of 
antimony, asphaltum, anthracite, and rock-salt) is diffused in 

the 


195 


Origin of the Rock-salt Formation, 

the limestone, marl, and gypsum; and in regard to this fact, 
nothing more is requisite than to ascertain more exactly the 
relative ages of these formations. 

fi< But if Von P. assumes that this sulphur is the cause of the 
existence and duration of the volcanos of Italy, we are by no 
means disposed to adopt his view ; although he has very clearly 
shown that the three active volcanos of Italy, (Vesuvius, Strom- 
boli, and iEtna); arid moreover, the points which, according to 
history, have had only one vent (Ischia and the Monte-nuovo 
at Pozzuoli); and finally, those places of the Roman territory 
which display in the character of their mountains, traces of 
lava, and other effects of fire, asValentano, Viterbo, Frescati, 
and perhaps Monte Rossi,—lie collectively in a floetz district 
which he has indicated (part of it lying at Solfaterra), and 
which contain sulphur and other inflammable substances. It 
is certainly not denied that in this tract a chemical agency 
displays itself in various ways; but it still seems to us very 
different from the proper volcanic agency. We dare not as¬ 
sume with Von P. that the former can rise to the height or 
vehemence of the latter. If it also is the fact that we cannot 
always distinguish on the surface of the earth, effects whose 
causes are deeply hid in the bowels of our planet, from those 
which are peculiar to the newer formations of the earth’s crust; 
and if, moreover, the earlier results of the chemical agency still 
operate in some places, it would be impossible to pass from 
the one class to the other, on account of the similarity between 
the weaker volcanic effects and the most striking phenomena, 
which are both produced on the surface of the earth by the 
same chemical process. 

“ Was then the coincidence of the locality of the Italian vol¬ 
canos with the existence of the sulphuriferous tract merely 
accidental ? That is a question which one might not answer ex¬ 
actly with a negative. Although the rationale of the association 
of those phenomena is not quite clearly before us, and we can 
only premise obscurely, only hint at what it is; still it is not 
impossible that time may completely prove it to us. Perhaps 
too what Von P. regards as a cause of volcanic powers, may 
be only an effect of them ? Such a hypothesis can be viewed 
only as a geological heresy, since the illustrious L. de Buch 
has given a very credible explanation of former volcanic agency 
to so wide an extent. The proportionately limited presence 
of gypsum of all forms, and its accompaniments of rock-salt and 
sulphur in the various formations of limestone, had long ago 
been observed, and may indicate that the formation is in a state 
of decline. With a view to this question we venture to draw 
attention, particularly, to the interesting letter of L. de B. to 
M. Freisleben, concerning the Hartz. 

2 B 2 


« The 


196 


Mr. Weaver on the Fossil Elk of Ireland* * 

“ The presence of rock-salt and of muriatic acid in volcanic 
productions of every kind has appeared hitherto less strange 
than the presence of sulphur, because the sea-water which 
is supposed to flow to the foot of the volcanos, and to occasion 
their activity, may explain it. But if the metals and metalloids 
in the bowels of the earth are to be considered only as in 
the state of chlorides, as Gay-Lussac has rendered very pro¬ 
bable the explanation would have still fewer difficulties. 

The local limitation and the concurrence of gypsum and 
rock-salt in rock-formations of the changeable and secondary 
kind, is a phenomenon too striking not to lead our minds ne¬ 
cessarily to revert to them both, when we treat of the origin • 
of the former. L. de Buch certainly has never made a 
remark to this extent in his essays; for he seems not to have 
made any general application even of his own theory of the 
formation of gypsum: as he only says, that it is frequently con¬ 
verted to limestone by the operation of internal causes upon 
it. But are not the products of the salt-formation actually 
produced from the s alt-cl ays ? We certainly are very well 
aware that the admission of the volcanic origin of rock-salt 
either by immediate or secondary agency, has still many diffi¬ 
culties, and we therefore readily value the idea only as a gentle 
hint, such as may very well be tolerated in the province of 
geology, which has not yet advanced beyond the age of fiction 
and hypothesis. At least this idea is not wholly without foun¬ 
dation ; and we shall not mourn over its fall, if more particu¬ 
lar experience should at some future time supplant it, or more 
correct conclusions be drawn from our present experience.” 

Four months ago I wrote this. Now, I should suggest the 
hypothesis still more boldly; for it has acquired important 
evidence, and its permanent confirmation has been rendered 
still more probable. 


XXX. On the Fossil Elk of Ireland. By Thomas Weaver, 

Esq. M.R.I.A. F.G.S. fyc .f 

I^OTWITHSTANDING the frequent occurrence of the 
remains of the gigantic elk in Ireland, it is remarkable that 
precise accounts should not have been kept of all the peculiar 
circumstances under which they occur entombed in its super¬ 
ficial strata. To obtain an opportunity of examining these 
relations had long been my desire; and as fortunately, during 

* See Philosophical Magazine, vol. lxii. p. 81. 
f From the Philosophical Transactions for 1825, Part II. 


my 




191 


Mr. Weaver on the Fossil Elk of Ireland . 

frny avocations last autumn in the north of Ireland, a discovery 
came to my knowledge that seemed likely to throw light on 
the subject, I proceeded to its investigation, intending, should 
the results be found deserving of attention, to place them on 
record. These results have proved the more interesting, as 
they apparently lead to the conclusion, that this magnificent 
animal lived in the countries in which its remains are now 
found, at a period of time which, in the history of the earth, 
can be considered only as modern. 

I had advanced thus far when I became apprised of an 
analogous discovery made last year in the west of Ireland, by 
the Rev. W. Wray Maunsell, archdeacon of Limerick ; which 
is not only confirmative of my own experience, but has the 
additional value of embracing particulars not hitherto noticed 
by any other observer. Mr. Maunsell’s researches, elucidated 
by the able assistance of Mr. John Hart, member of the Royal 
College of Surgeons, have been communicated from time to 
time to the Royal Dublin Society, in the form of letters, and 
have been entered upon their minutes; and it is to be hoped 
that a distinct publication on the subject may hereafter ap¬ 
pear, illustrated by a description of the splendid specimen of 
the skeleton of the animal, now deposited by the liberality of 
the reverend archdeacon in the museum of that Society. In 
the mean time I propose, after giving a concise account of my 
own inquiries, to refer briefly to the more prominent points in 
Mr. Maunsell’s discoveries, in as far as they bear immediately 
on the question of the ancient or modern origin of those re¬ 
mains. 

The spot which I examined is situated in the county of 
Down, about a mile and a half to the west of the village of 
Dundrum. That part of the country consists of an alternating 
series of beds of clay-si ate and fine-grained grauwacke, with 
occasional subordinate rocks, which it is needless at present 
to mention; the whole distinguished by numerous small con¬ 
temporaneous veins of calcareous spar and quartz, and tra¬ 
versed in some places by true rake veins that are metalliferous. 
Hills of moderate elevation, from 150 to 300 feet high, are 
thus composed. In a concavity between two of these hills is 
placed the bog of Kilmegan, forming a narrow slip, which ex¬ 
tends about one mile in a nearly N. and S. direction. The 
natural hollow which it occupies appears formerly to have 
been a lake, which in process of time became nearly filled 
by the continual growth and decay of marshy plants, and the 
consequent formation of peat. The latter, however, from the 
flooded state of its surface, afforded little advantage as fuel, 
until the present marquis of Downshire caused a level to be 

brought 


198 Mr* Weaver on the Fossil Elk of Ireland? 

brought up from the eastward (part of it being a tunnel), and 
thus laid the bog dry. This measure was attended with a 
two-fold benefit to the tenantry,—-the provision of a valuable 
combustible, and the discovery of an excellent manure in the 
form of white marl beneath the peat. The latter extends 
from a few feet to twenty feet in depth; and the subjacent 
marl from one to three, four, and five feet in thickness. The 
marl when fresh dug has partly a grayish tinge, but on losing 
its moisture it becomes white. 

In cutting down the peat to the bed of marl, the remains 
of the gigantic elk have frequently been met with; and in¬ 
variably, as I am assured by the concurrent testimony of the 
tenantry, placed between the peat and the marl; or merely 
impressed in the latter. It is stated that at least a dozen heads 
with the branches, accompanied by other remains, have thus 
been found from time to time: but being unfortunately deemed 
of no value by the country-people, they have for the most part 
been scattered and destroyed. It is to be hoped, however, 
that a sufficient inducement will lead them to bestow greater 
care on the preservation of whatever remains may be hereafter 
discovered. 

The marl, upon examination, appears in a great measure 
composed of an earthy calcareous base, containing commi¬ 
nuted portions of shells: and that these are all derived from 
fresh-water species, is proved by the myriads of these shells 
that remain in the marl, still preserving their perfect forms. 
They are however bleached, very brittle, and retain little of 
their animal matter; but in all other respects they have the 
characters of recent shells. After examining several masses 
of the marl, I found the whole of the shells referable to three 
species,—two univalves, and one bivalve; namely, 

1. The Helix putris of Linnaeus. See Donovan’s British 
Shells, pi. 168, fig. 1 ; and Lister, Conch, tab. 123, fig. 23.-— 
N. B. Of the two, Lister’s figure is the more exact represen¬ 
tation of the shell. 

2. The Turbo fontinalis. Donovan, pi. 102. 

3. The Tellina cornea. Donovan, pi. 96. 

Of these shells some prevail more in one spot than in an¬ 
other; but generally speaking, they appear distributed through 
the upper portion of the marl in nearly equal quantities; in the 
lower portion they are less frequent, if not altogether absent. 

The circumstances which I have related seem, to remove all 
idea of these remains of the Irish elk being of any other than 
comparatively recent origin. In seeking a cause for the nearly 
constant distribution of these remains in Ireland in swampy 
spots, may we not conjecture that this animal often sought 

the 


199 


Mi*. Weaver on the Fossil Flic of Ireland, 

the waters and the marshy land as a place of refuge from its 
enemies, and thus not unfrequently found a grave where it 
had looked for protection? 

The foregoing conjecture appears supported by the following 
details of circumstances, observed by the Rev. Mr. Maunsell 
in the peat bog of Rathcannon, situated about four miles to 
the west of the town of Bruff, in the county of Limerick. 
This bog covers a space of about twenty plantation acres, oc¬ 
cupying a small valley, surrounded on every side by a ridge 
of the carboniferous or mountain limestone, except on the 
S. W., where it opens into an extensive Bat. The peat is from 
one to two feet thick ; and beneath this is a bed of white shell- 
marl, varying from one foot and a half to two feet and a half 
in thickness, succeeded below by blueish clay marl, of an un¬ 
ascertained depth, but in one place ’it was found to exceed 
twelve feet. This blueish clay marl becomes white, and falls 
to powxler on being dried. Coars e gravel is said to occur, 
partially at least, below the marl. 

In this small valley portions of the skeletons of eight indi¬ 
viduals were found, seven of adult, and one of a young ani¬ 
mal, all belonging to the gigantic elk. With these also oc¬ 
curred the pelvis of an adult annual, probably referable to the 
red deer; and the skull of a do g, of the size of that of an 
ord in ary water-spaniel. 

The bones that were first discovered were found at the depth 
of two or three feet below the surface ; and Mr. Maunsell 
had the advantage of seeing them before they were displaced. 
Most of the above-mentioned remains were lodged in the shell- 
marl ; many of them, however, appeared to rest on the clay 
marl, and to be merely covered by the shell-marl. But part 
of some of the bones were immersed ii i the peat also: these 
were tinged of a blackish colour, and wei ’e so extremely soft, in 
consequence of the moisture they had imbibed, that it was 
with difficulty the horns found in this si tuation could be pre¬ 
served entire; yet, when carefully handle xl and allowed to dry, 
they became as firm and hard as the res t. 

Some of the bones of the elk showed marks of having been 
diseased; and one rib had evidently be en broken, and after¬ 
wards reunited. Another rib exhibits I a remarkable per¬ 
foration of an oval form, about half an inch long and one- 
eighth of an inch broad, the longer axis being parallel to the 
side of the rib ; the margin of this open ing was depressed on 
the outer, and raised on the inner sur face; while a bony 
point projected from the upper edge of th v e rib, which deviated 
from its natural line of direction to ai i extent equal to the 
length of the aperture. The only cause that could have pro¬ 
duced 


SCO Mr. Weaver on the Fossil Elk of Ireland. 

duced this perforation is a wound by a sharp instrument, which 
did not penetrate deep enough to prove fatal, and between 
which event and the death of the animal a year at least must 
have elapsed, as the edges of the opening are quite smooth. 

The bones are so well preserved, that in a cavity of one 
shank-bone which was broken, marrow was found, having all 
the appearance of fresh rendered suet, and which blazed on 
the application of a lighted taper. They appear to contain all 
the principles to be found in fresh bones, with perhaps the 
addition of some carbonate of lime, imbibed with the moisture 
of the soft marl in which they had lain. 

The remains of the eight individuals were disposed in such 
a manner as to prevent the possibility of referring the com¬ 
ponent parts exactly to each skeleton; but all the heads with 
their branches were found; and one specimen is particularly 
fine, displaying the broad expanded palms, with almost every 
antler and projecting point in a perfect state. By joining this 
head to a selection from the other remains, a nearly perfect 
skeleton of the largest size has been formed by Mr. Hart; one 
rib, a few of the carpal and tarsal bones, and the bones of the 
tail being only wanting. 

Of the shells found in the white marl many are preserved 
entire; but the greater part are broken into small fragments. 
They are all univalves, and belong to fresh-water species, 
which exist at the present day. 

It is added, that so frequently have the remains of the fossil 
elk been discovered in the county of Limerick, that one gen¬ 
tleman enumerated thirty heads which had been dug up at 
different times within the space of the last twenty years. 

From Professor Heaislow’s account of the curraghs, or peat 
bogs of the Isle of Man, it would appear that the remains of 
the gigantic elk are there also distributed in a manner analo¬ 
gous to that in which they are found in Ireland. That gen¬ 
tleman supposes a herd of elks to have perished there; and 
his description of the white, or grayish marl, in which their 
remains are found, answers in most respects to that of the 
white marl which so frequently forms the substratum of the 
peat bogs in Ireland. 

Upon the whole, t lie preceding details appear to justify the 
conclusion that the extinction of the gigantic species of elk is 
attributable rather to the continued persecution it endured from 
its enemies, accelerated perhaps by incidental natural local 
causes, than to a gen eral catastrophe which overwhelmed the 
surface ol the globe. \ In a word, it may be inferred that these 
remains are not of di luvian, but of post diluvian origin. 

Kenmare, April 12, 18$ !5, T. Weaver. 

XXXI. On 


‘201 J 


\ 


XXXI. On the Ebullition of Water at Specific Temperatures , 
as the Measure of Altitude. By John Murray, F.S.A. 
F.L.S. F.H.S . F.G.S. Sfc. $c* 

TT is known that water boils in the attenuated atmosphere 
of the air-pump, at an inferior temperature, and that this 
point and period of ebullition has some ratio comparatively 
with the density of the incumbent air. Theodore de Saussure 
found that water boiled on the summit of Mont Blanc at 187° 
Fahr. It was Fahrenheit that first proposed this application 
of the thermometric expression of boiling water as a measure 
of altitude. In the Philosophical Transactions for 1817, the 
Rev. Francis Wollaston has described an instrument for this 
purpose, most ingeniously constructed, and no doubt accurate 
enough for minor elevations. 

During last summer, on my excursion in Switzerland, Italy, 
&c., I made several experiments on the ebullition of water at 
different elevations, A few of these I beg leave to submit to 
you. The thermometer was graduated by a diamond on the 
stem; the bulb was small, and the divisions only indicated 
the entire degree of Fahrenheit’s scale. 

At the Hospice of the Great St. Bernard, on the 30th of 
July 1825, at eight o’clock P.M., the barometer indicated 
21 *08 inches. Thermometer without, 52° Fahr., and within 
the Hospice 59° Fahr. Water boiled at 186° Fahr. 

At the village of Simplon on the Simplon, 13th of August, 
at ten o’clock P.M.; air 62°. 

Exp. 1.—Water boiled, ball touching the surface 197° 5 f 
Ditto, entirely immersed .... 202 

Ditto, bottom .. 203 5 

Exp. 2.—Ball touching the surface . . . . 197 5 

Ball immersed and at the centre . . 203 5 

Ditto at bottom . . . 205 

3d of August. At Brieg, in the Valais, at 4 h 30' A.M.; 
air 56° Fahr. Water boiled at 204° 5 r Fahr. 

15th of August. At Sion in the Valais, at ten o’clock P.M.; 
air 69° Fahr, Water boiled at 206° 5' Fahr. 

17th August. At Martigny in the Valais, six o’clock 
A.M.; air 57° Fahr. Water boiled at 110° Fahr. 

1st of September. At the inn on the Mounhm Righi, 
at 9 h 45 ; A.M.; air 63° Fahr. Water boiled at 201° 
Fahr. 

1st of September. At Lucerne, at 8 h 15' P.M.; air 70° 5 1 
Fahr. Water boiled at 206° Fahr. 

* Communicated by the Author. 

YqI. 67. No. 335. March 1826. ' 2 C 


It 



202 Mr, Murray on Ebullition of Water at different Altitudes . 

It will on proper calculation be seen that, though I pretend 
not to the niceties pointed out in Mr. Wollaston’s ingenious 
paper, (the circumstances under which the experiments were 
made precluding such accuracy, and I had not indeed the en¬ 
tire provision of apparatus constructed by this philosopher,) 
ruder apparatus subserving my purpose,—that a distant ap¬ 
proximation to the altitude, as indicated by the barometer at 
three elevations, is only insured. 

In consequence of the capricious results indicated by my 
experiments on the ebullition of water at the village of Sim- 
poln on the Simplon, I made a series of experiments with the 
thermometer on hot water contained in a tumbler. I subjoin 
the results of five of these experiments. 


1. Ball of thermometer touching the surface 

Ditto completely immersed. 

Ditto touching the bottom of tumbler . 

2. Ball in contact with the surface .... 

Ditto immersed ...... 

Ditto bottom ....... 

3. Ball on surface ......... 

Ditto immersed ......... 

Ditto bottom ......... 

4. Ball on surface ......... 

Ditto immersed ......... 

Ditto bottom .. 

5. Ball on surface ......... 

Ditto immersed .. 

Ditto bottom . ... . 


131° 

135 

131 


131° 


134 

5 ? 

126 


124° 


131 


126 


116° 

5' 

120 

5 

116 

5 

109° 

5 ' 

114 

5 

109 

5 


In one experiment I found a difference of 1° 5' Fahr. be¬ 
tween the centre portion of the superior surface of the water 
and the sides. In another experiment, the difference amounted 
to 2° 5' Fahr. 

The following I presume to be the conditions that must in¬ 
terfere with anything like accuracy in thermo-barometrical 
indications of this kind in elevated regions. 

1. The hygrometric state of the incumbent atmosphere at 
the time the observation is taken. 

2. The attenuated pressure on the bulb of the thermometer, 
by which its form and dimensions must necessarily be altered. 

3. The water used must be more expanded in volume at 
great altitudes, than on the level of the sea, its density being 

therefore 














Report of the Voyage of the Coquille. 203 

therefore reduced in the ratio of the attenuated atmosphere* 
This density would be modified too by its saline contents. 

4. The depth to which the ball of the thermometer is plunged 
in the water, and the place it occupies in the cylinder. 

5. The evolving steam or heated vapour will also affect the 
stem of the instrument, and with it disturb the results. 

6. The form, size, and material of the vessel will also con¬ 
tribute their share in modifying the indication. 

7. The depth of the vessel containing the boiling water. 

8. If made in the house, the difference between the internal 
and external temperature will be a modification of the phae- 
nomena. 

9. A gust of wind, wafted from the glacier, avalanche, or 
other cooling surface, will disturb and change the density of 
the incumbent air; and therefore irregularities such as these 
must be provided for. 

10. The greater or less rapid escape of the steam will ne¬ 
cessarily render capricious the observed temperature. 

11. The period of the day or night, strength of the sun¬ 
beams, &c.'—all concur in varying the results. 

It will, I apprehend, be very difficult to maintain a success¬ 
ful struggle against all these combining circumstances; and 
they thus render this instrument, certainly ingeniously applied 
by Mr. Wollaston, nearly useless for considerable elevations. 
Captain Hall’s experiments corroborate the inference; and at 
those he made at the village of Simpoln on the Simplon, (with 
an instrument constructed under the immediate sanction of 
Mr. Wollaston,) in 1818, I had the satisfaction and pleasure 
of being present. 

January 27, 1826. J. MURRAY. 


XXXII. Report made to the Academy of Sciences , 22 d of 
August 1825, on the Voyage of Discovery , performed in the 
Years 1822, 1823, 1824, and 1825, under the command of 
M. Duperrey, Lieutenant of the Navy *. 

{Commissioners: MM. de Humboldt, Cuvier, Desfontaines, 
Cordier, Latreille, de Rossel; and Arago, Reporter .) 


CINCE the return of peace, many voyages have been per- 
^ formed for the advancement of the sciences and of naviga¬ 
tion. Captain Gauttier’s maps of the Mediterranean and of 
the Black Sea; Captain Roussin’s labours on the coasts of 
Africa and of Brazil; the expedition of Captain Freycinet; the 
hydrographic operations directed by our colleague Beau- 
terns-Beaupre, will be durable monuments of the enlightened 

* From the Annates dc Chimie, tom. xxx. p. 337. 

2 C 2 protection 





204 Report of the Voyage of Discovery 

protection which the minister of the marine affords to useful 
enterprises. 

The plan of the new voyage, an account of which the Aca¬ 
demy has charged us to give them, was presented to the mar¬ 
quis de Clermont-Tonnerre, then minister of the marine, by 
MM. Duperrey and Durville, towards the end of 1821. His 
Excellency approved of it, and placed the corvette Coquille 
at the disposal of these young officers. The zeal and skill of 
which they had given repeated proofs,—-the one during the cir¬ 
cumnavigation of the Uranie, the other as fellow-labourer of 
Captain Gauttier,—afforded every pledge that could be desired. 
The Academy will find, at least in our opinion, in the analysis 
which we have to lay before it of the numerous labours per¬ 
formed on board the Coquille, that the hopes of government 
and of men of science have been completely realized. 

Itinerary . 

The Coquille set sail from Toulon the 11th of August 1822. 
The 22d of the same month she anchored in the roads of St. 
Croix at Teneriffe, which she quitted the 1st of September, 
making for the coast of Brazil. In her passage, M. Duperrey 
observed, the 5th of October, the small isles ofMartin-Vaz and 
of the Trinity; on the 16th, the Coquille was moored at the an¬ 
chorage of the isle of Saint-Catherine: she staid there till the 
30th. The 18th of November she reached Port Louis of the 
Malouines, situated at the bottom of the bay Fran^aise, from 
whence she sailed the 18th of December, to double Cape Horn: 
she then visited, on the western coast of America, the port Con¬ 
ception at Chili; that of Callao at Peru; and afterwards the 
port of Payta, situated between the magnetic equator and the 
terrestrial equator. The want of any diplomatic relation be- 
between France and the republican governments of South 
America did not occasion any obstacle to the proceedings of 
M. Duperrey: on the coasts of Chili, as at Peru, the autho¬ 
rities eagerly complied with their slightest wishes. 

The Coquille set sail from Payta the 22d of March 1823 : 
in her course she coasted along the Dangerous archipelago, 
and first put in at Otaheite the 3d of May, and then at Bora- 
bora, which also makes part of the Society Isles. Quitting 
this last point, the expedition took a westerly course; ob¬ 
served, successively, the Salvage Isles, Eoa (in the group of 
the Friendly Islands), Santa-Cruz, Bougainville, Bouka, and 
reached New Ireland, where she anchored in the bay of Praslin 
the 11th of August. 

After a stay of nine days, the expedition left the port of 
Praslin, to make for Waigiom We shall presently speak of 

the 


205 


made in the Coquille by M. Duperrey. 

the observations which she made in her passage, and during 
her stay in the harbour of Offiik, which she left on the 16th of 
September. On the 23d, M. Duperrey cast anchor at Cajeli, 
(Boron island); the 4th of October he landed at Amboina, 
where he received from M. Merkus, governor of the Moluc¬ 
cas, the most cordial reception, and all the assistance which he 
needed. On the 27th of October the Coquille again set sail, 
steering her course from north to south; she observed the isle 
of the Volcano; crossed the strait of Ombay; coasted the isles 
situated to the west of Timor; observed Savu, Benjoar, and 
finally left this latitude to make Port Jackson. Contrary 
winds did not allow M. Duperrey to range the western coast 
of New Holland, as he meant to have done : it was only on the 
10th of January 1824 that he doubled the southern point of 
Van Diemen’s land; the 17th, the corvette was moored in 
Sydney Cove. Sir T. Brisbane, governor of New Holland 
and corresponding member of the Academy, received our tra¬ 
vellers with the most amiable eagerness, and put into their 
hands all that could contribute to the success of the opera¬ 
tions with which they were entrusted. 

In leaving Sydney the 20th of March 1824, after resting for 
two months, the expedition sailed for New Zealand, where it 
arrived the 3d of April, in the Bay of Isles. The works which 
were to be done there were terminated the 17th. During the 
first days of May, the Coquille had already surveyed in every 
direction the archipelago of the Carolines. The monsoon from 
the west obliged her to abandon these roads towards the end of 
June 1824; she then went to the northern extremity of New 
Guinea, ascertaining during the voyage the geography of 
a considerable number of islands little known or badly placed, 
and reached the haven of Dory the 26th of July; a fortnight 
afterwards she again sailed, to arrive, by crossing the Moluccas, 
at Java. She cast anchor in the port of Sourabaya the 29th of 
August; went from it the 11th of September; and arrived the 
following month at the Isle of France, where her operations 
detained her from the 31st of October to the 16th of Novem¬ 
ber ; she remained at Bourbon from the 17th to the 23d of the 
same month, and then made sail for Saint Helena. The stay 
of M. Duperrey in this island lasted a week. He went from it 
on the 11th of January 1825, cast anchor at Ascension the 
18th, rapidly executed there the observations of the pendulum 
and of the magnetic phenomena, and finally quitted these En¬ 
glish establishments on the 27th, after having received from the 
commanders and from the officers of the two garrisons every 
assistance that could be desired. At last, on the 24th of April, 
M. Duperrey entered the road of Marseilles. 


During 


206 


Report of the Voyage of Discovery 

✓ 

During this voyage, of thirty-one months and thirteen days , 
the Coquille sailed 25,000 leagues. She came to the place of 
her departure without having lost one man, without illness, and 
without damage. M. Duperrey attributes for the most part 
the good health which his crew constantly enjoyed, to the 
excellent quality of the water preserved in the iron tanks, and 
also to the order which he had given that it should be used at 
pleasure. As to the good fortune which the Coquille had, to 
execute so long a voyage without damage either in its masts, 
its yards, or even in “its sails, if it should be attributed to a con¬ 
currence of extraordinary circumstances which it would be 
imprudent always to expect, it should also be remarked that 
such chances only offer themselves to the best seamen. We may 
also add, that M. Duperrey and his fellow-labourers had had, 
in 1822, the advantage of finding at Toulon, M. Lefebure de 
Cerizy, an engineer of the greatest merit, who presided at the 
repair and outfitting of the corvette with all the solicitude of 
a true friend. 

Maps and Plans taken during the Voyage of the Coquille . 

The hydrographic works executed during the circumnaviga¬ 
tion of the Coquille are already completely drawn, and only wait 
the hand of the engraver : they form 53 maps or plans, pre¬ 
pared in the best manner. We shall give in this place an 
enumeration, reciting the names of the officers to whom we 
are respectively indebted for them. 

The plan of the islets of Martin Vaz and of the Trinity, on 
the coast of Brazil, has been executed with much care by M. 
Berard. 

On the coast of Peru the same officer made a very detailed 
plan of the anchorage of Payta and a map of the adjacent 
coasts, from Colan, situated at a small distance from the mouth 
of the Rio de Chira, as far as the isle of Lobos. 

The general map of the Dangerous archipelago has been 
executed by M. Duperrey himself; the particular map of the 
isle Clermont-Tonnerre belongs to M. Berard ; the plans of 
the isles of Augier, Freycinet, and of Lostange have been made 
with much care by M. Lottin. 

M. Duperrey has profited by his navigation among the So¬ 
ciety Islands to rectify several serious errors which are re¬ 
marked in all the maps of this archipelago. 

M. Berard has taken, in the island of Otaheite, with his ac¬ 
customed skill, the plan of the anchorage of Matavai’. The 
plan of the isles of Moutou-iti and Moupiti, and that of the 
anchorage of Papoa, are by M. Blosseville: they do equal ho¬ 
nour to his zeal and his experience. 


In 


made in the Coquille by M. Duperrey. 207 

In New Ireland, Messrs.Berard, Lottin, and Blosseville have 
taken jointly and in the greatest detail the plan of Port Pras- 
lin and of the creek belonging to the English, the plan of 
Cape Saint George, and the chart of the Strait of the same 
name which separates New Ireland from New Britain. 

In quitting New Ireland, the Coquille made a detailed sur¬ 
vey of the isles of Schouten, respecting which we had hitherto 
only rather confused notions. M. Duperrey made the chart 
of it. The harbour of Offak, in the isle Waigiou, of which 
the interior was little known, has been the object of peculiar 
labour, in which all the officers took part. M. Berard made 
the chart of that portion of the coast of New Guinea lying be ¬ 
tween Dory and Auranswary; the plan of the harbour of Dory is 
founded on the united observations of Messrs. Berard, Lottin, 
and De Blois. The chart of the coast between Dory and 
the Cape of Good Hope in New Guinea, is by M. Lottin. It 
is also to this officer we owe the map of the isles of Yang, si¬ 
tuated to the north of Rouib. 

Cruisings performed in very various directions in the Mo¬ 
luccas have furnished M. Duperrey with the elements of a new 
chart of this archipelago, and of that of the strait of Wangi- 
Wangi, to the east of the isle of Boutoun. Admiral D’Entre¬ 
casteaux saw only the northern coasts of the islands Savu and 
Benjoar, situated to the south-west of Timor; M. Berard has 
traced a great part of the southern coasts. The chart of the 
strait of Ombay and of the island of the Volcano is also formed 
upon the observations of the same officer. That of the island 
of Guebe is due to M. de Blois. 

In New Zealand, the labours of the Coquille had for their 
object the northern extremity only of the island Eaheinomauve ; 
they occupy four plates. The first shows the configuration 
of all the N.E. coast: it is by M. de Blois. The second repre¬ 
sents the Bay of the Isles, from the united labours of all the 
officers. The third gives the plan of the Bay of Manawa, by M. 
Berard. And the fourth, is the detailed plan of the river Ke- 
dekede, laid down after the observations of M. de Blosseville. 

The isolated islands of Rotumah, Cocal, and Saint-Augustin 
were taken by Messrs. Berard and Lottin. 

In the archipelago of the Mulgrave Islands, the general 
chart of which M. Duperrey has drawn, M. de Blosseville has 
completed a survey of King’s Mill, Hopper, Wood and Hen- 
derville islands; and M. de Blois that of Hall’s Island; of an 
archipelago of five islands ; and lastly, of the Mulgrave Islands, 
properly called Marshall’s Islands. 

The vast archipelago of the Carolines, hitherto so imper¬ 
fectly known, has been the principal theatre of the geographic 

operations 


!208 


Report of the Voyage of Discovery 

operations of the Coquille. The general chart of it which 
M. Duperrey has made will rectify many errors. Benham Island 
is there represented according to the observations which M. 
de Blosseville made. Ualan Island, which the American Cap¬ 
tain Crozier named Strong, and to which M. Duperrey has 
restored the name which the inhabitants give it, merits parti¬ 
cular interest. During a stay of fifteen days, the officers of 
the corvette went over it in every direction; they found there 
some tolerably large ports: one, which the inhabitants call 
Lele, and another which has received the name of the Coqnille , 
are laid down in the atlas, after the very detailed operations of 
Messrs. Berard, Lottin, and de Blois. 

M. de Blois has besides made a complete survey of the 
islands Tougoulon and Pelepap, which are probably the Mac- 
Askill of certain maps; and also of the islands Mougoul,Ougai, 
and Aoura, which were discovered on the 18th of June. It is 
also to this officer we owe the detailed plan of the rather ex¬ 
tended group of Hogoleu, of which father Cantova had al¬ 
ready formerly spoken ; and in the midst of which the Co- 
quille navigated, the 24th of June 1824. The survey made by 
M. Lottin of the islands Tametain, Fanadik, and Holap, 
unites in these latitudes the operations of the Coqnille to those 
of the Uranie. 

The three last sheets of this rich atlas, an analysis of which 
we have just given, represent the anchorages of Saint-Helena 
and of Sandy Bay, and the island of Ascension, from the ob¬ 
servations of all the officers. 

Charts are not the less improved, when freed from islands, 
rocks and sand-banks which do not exist, than when newly 
discovered lands are inserted in them. The expedition of the 
Coquille will have rendered more than one service in this re¬ 
spect. 

According to most geographers, there is, not far from the 
eastern coasts of Peru, a rock named the Trepied. M. Du¬ 
perrey has sought for it in vain : the Coquille went full sail over 
the very places where the Trepied is generally laid down. 

Whilst standing along the coasts of New Guinea, M. Du¬ 
perrey sought with great care, but without success, for the isles 
which Carteret had named Stephens’ Islands. According to 
him, these islands, still represented in our maps, would be the 
Providence Islands of Dampier, situated at the opening of 
Geelving Bay : this is also the opinion of Captain Krusenstern, 
and it cannot be denied that it is now a very probable one. It 
will nevertheless seem very strange that Carteret should have 
been deceived by nearly three degrees in his reckoning. 

Our most modern maps place a group of isles called the 


made in the Coquille by M. Duperrey. 209 

Trials, opposite De Witt’s land, by 20° of south latitude and 
100° west longitude; M. Duperrey, who would have attached 
a great value to the determination of their position, was not 
able to find them. 

The archipelago of the Carolines was repeatedly sailed 
through and minutely examined. M. Duperrey shows satisfac¬ 
torily that Hope island, Teyoa island, the groups of Satahual 
and Lamurek, do not exist in the positions which are assigned 
to them. Perhaps it may be sometimes difficult for him exactly 
to apply these old names to the islands whose place he has 
fixed. Moreover, the inconvenience is not serious; all was so 
inexact in the charts of this archipelago, that the labours of 
the Coquille are equivalent to a firs* discovery. 

Astronomical Observations. 

In a voyage like that of the Coquille, in which the periods 
of lying-to were always necessarily very short, the astrono¬ 
mical observations could only have for their object the im¬ 
provement of geography. These observations, in each port, 
consist of elevations of the sun and stars fit for verifying the 
rate of chronometers; of numerous series of circummeridian 
heights taken with the astronomical repeating circle, and de¬ 
signed for giving the latitudes. Lastly, -of a multitude of 
distances from the moon to the sun, to the stars and to the 
planets, taken with the reflecting repeating circle. 

The examination which we have made of the part of this 
labour already completely reduced, has given us a most fa¬ 
vourable opinion of it. All the officers of the Coquille have 
equally assisted in it. We must here, however, make particular 
mention of M. Jacquinot, who, intrusted by the commander 
with the care of the chronometers during the whole voyage, 
fulfilled this critical task with a zeal and exactitude worthy of 
the praises of the Academy. 

Observations relative to the Determination of the Figure of the 

Earth. 

M. Duperrey was furnished with two invariable pendulums 
of copper, which had before served in the voyage of theLranie. 
They had been observed at Paris before the departure, and 
after the return of the expedition ; al Toulon, whilst the vessel 
was fitting out; at the Malouines, 51° 3i 13" south latitude; 
at Port Jackson, on the eastern coast of New Holland; at the 
Isles of France and Ascension, between the tropics. Our col¬ 
league, M. Mathieu, has already calculated the observations 
for the Malouines and those of Paris. He has deduced from 
them this important consequence, at variance with an opinion 
long accredited, that the two terrestrial hemispheres north 

Vol. 67. No. 335. March 1826. 2 D and 


210 Mr. Utting’s Errata in Mathematical Tables . 

and south have very nearly the same form. Those of the ob¬ 
servations which there has not yet been time to discuss, belong 
to questions not less curious. It results, for example, from the 
operations of M. Freycinet, that there exists at the Isle of 
France a cause of local attraction so intense as to alter the 
rate of a clock there 13 or 14 seconds a day. It may be con¬ 
ceived how interesting it becomes to investigate, in the obser¬ 
vations of M. Duperrey, if the accidental influence was also 
manifest.—In a few days the results of this inquiry will be 
presented to the Academy. 

[To be continued.] 


XXXIII. List of Errata in the Mathematical Tables of Dr. 
Hutton and Dr. Gregory. By Mr. J. Utting. 

To the Editor of the Philosophical Magazine and Journal. 
Sir, 

AS it is very desirable to obtain the greatest accuracy in 
mathematical tables, the following list of errata , which I 
have discovered in Dr. Hutton’s and Dr. Gregory’s tables, 
vill I trust be acceptable to such gentlemen as use the tables 
in which the following list of errors are pointed out. 

In Dr. Hutton’s Mathematical, &c. Dictionary, first edition: 

Square roots of numbers to ten places of decimals. 


138 for 

11. 

43808 

read 

11. 

01245 

149 — 

12. 

3 

— 

12. 

7 

197 — 

14. 

41 

—- 

14. 

76 

374 — 

19. 

537514 

— 

19. 

796058 

462 — 

21. 

579 

— 

21. 

602 

482 — 

21. 

24 

-—, 

21. 

01 

499 — 

22. 

9 

— 

22. 

7 

504 — 

22. 

1206 

•— 

22. 

3206 

580 — 

24. 

683962 

—. 

24. 

891576 

586 — 

24. 

6 

— 

24. 

8 

634 — 

25. 

01 

— 

25. 

40 

706 — 

26.4 

•— 

26.5 

712 — 

26. 

3 

—- 

26. 

2 

788 — 

28. 

881 

— 

28. 

952 

879 — 

29. 

24743 

— 

29. 

41607 

952- 

30. 

7 

-— 

30. 

1 


For Dr. Hutton’s tables of the product and powers of numbers: 

Table of products. 

No. 15 by 277, for 5155 read 4155. 


In 




Prof. Sedgwick on Trap Dykes in Yorkshire and Durham. 211 

In the table of cubes. 

Nos. 11 for 1338 read 1331 

408 — 67911312 —- 67917312 

702 — 34594-8008 — 345948408 

813 — 537366797 — 537367797 

The last 3 errors apply also to Dr.Hutton’s Course and Tracts . 
In Dr. Gregory’s Mathematics for Practical Men: 

Table II. of Supplementary Tables. 

In the column of Areas. 


Nos. 7 for 

38. 

6000 

read 38. 

1001 

18 

-— 

264.46900493 

— 254. 46900494 

19 

— 


6 

— 

9 

24 

— 


07 

— 

12 

28 

— 


7 

— 

0 

33 

<— 


89 

——. 

94 

40 

— 


4143 

— 

6144 

56 

— 


68 


41 

61 

— 


92 

— 

00 

64 

— 


0 

-— 

8 

65 

— 


0 

— 

5 

96 

— 


0 

•— 

7 


In the areas for Nos. 22, 27, 30, 32, 39, 45, 48, 51, 54, 57, 
60, 62, 66, 69, 72, 75, 87, 90, 99, increase the last figure by 2. 

In Nos. 1, 8, 9, 10, 14, 16, 20, 21, 23, 26, 29, 34, 36, 38, 41, 
42, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 52, 55, 58, 59, 63, 68, 70, 71, 74, 78, 
81, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, and 98, increase the 
last figure by unity. 

N. B. The areas for each integer, from 1 to 100, or one- 
twelfth part of this table only, has been examined. 

I have recomputed the Tables of Dr. Hutton, for all Nos. 
from 1 to 1000; and if the above corrections are made, the 
tables to which they apply will stand correct. 

March 1826. J. UlTlNG. 


XXXIV. On the Phcenomena connected with some Trap 
Dykes in Yorkshire and Durham. By the Rev. Adam 
Sedgwick, M.A. F.R.S. M.G.S. Fellow of Trinity College , 
and Woodwardian Professor in the University of Cambridge *. 


Introduction. 

THE various phenomena presented by trap rocks have long 
A engaged the attention of geologists. Different ages have 
been assigned to them, founded on their union with older or 


* From the Cambridge Philosophical Transactions, vol. ii. Part I. 

2 D 2 newer 




212 


Prof. Sedgwick on some Trap Dykes 

newer strata, and distinctive characters have been pointed out 
by which it has been attempted to separate the several forma¬ 
tions from each other. As observations have become more 
widely extended, many of the conclusions founded on such 
characters have proved to be fallacious; and it is now generally 
admitted, that the mineralogical composition of any system of 
trap rocks give us little information respecting its antiquity or 
probable associations. When strata rest conformably upon each 
other, in such a way as to indicate a continued succession of de¬ 
positions, we can immediately determine, at least, their rela¬ 
tive antiquity, and may often adopt some natural or artificial 
arrangement which will greatly facilitate their description. 
But formations, which appear as dykes and overlying masses, 
afford no such facilities for correct classification; and the only 
general conclusion which we can arrive at respecting them is, 
that they are newer than the beds into which they have in¬ 
truded. It is on this account that different observers have 
formed completely different views respecting the classification 
of certain formations of trap ; each, in ambiguous cases, having 
adopted that opinion which happened to fall in with his fa¬ 
vourite theory.—In determining the origin of any one of these 
formations, it seems essential to inquire, (1) In what manner 
it is associated with other rocks. (2) What minerals enter 
into its composition. (S) What effects are produced by its 
presence. Satisfactory answers to these questions have been 
obtained from so many quarters, that the discussions in which 
they have originated will perhaps soon terminate. It is my 
intention in this communication to bring together some facts, 
connected with the subject, which fell under my observation 
during last summer. 

Trap Dykes in the Coal-fields. 

Dykes and overlying masses of trap are of such ordinary oc¬ 
currence in many of our coal-fields, that they have sometimes 
been regarded as true members of the great coal formation. 
Should it, however, appear, that they have not originated in 
the same causes which formed those innumerable layers of 
sandstone, shale, ironstone,. &c. which enter into the composi¬ 
tion of the coal strata; but that they have been subsequently 
driven in among these beds by the irregular action of power¬ 
ful disturbing forces; we shall then be compelled to regard 
them, not as the subordinate members, but as the intrusive 
associates of the great coal formation. In confirmation of this 
Opinion it may be stated; (1) That in many extensive coal¬ 
fields there are no traces of any beds or dykes of trap. (2) 
1 hat in other places, such beds or dykes pass beyond the 

bounds 



in Yorkshire and Durham . 


213 


bounds of the coal-fields, and traverse indifferently all the 
newer strata which cross their line of direction. The facts 
presented by the north coast of Ireland afford several illustra¬ 
tions of the truth of this assertion. 

Mr. Winch, in the fourth volume of the Geological Trans¬ 
actions, has given many interesting details respecting the dykes # 
which intersect the great coal basin of Northumberland and 
Durham. They are in some instances filled with clay and 
rounded pebbles or shattered fragments of sandstone, mixed 
with other materials derived from the neighbouring rocks, and 
their whole appearance plainly indicates the violent nature of 
the forces by which the solid strata have been cleft asunder. 
In other instances, the fissures are filled with a variety of ba¬ 
salt, which rises like a great partition wall through all the beds 
of the formation. (Geol. Trans, vol. iv. p. 21—30.) It is the 
opinion of Mr. Winch that these basaltic dykes never pass up 
into the magnesian limestone which reposes immediately on 
the coal strata. Thus, for example, the cliff of Tynemouth 
castle is intersected by a basaltic dyke which does not pene¬ 
trate the capping of magnesian limestone. 

Every one who is acquainted with the details of English 
geology must have remarked, that our newer strata, down to 
the magnesian limestone inclusive, are generally unconform- 
able to all the older rocks. Thus in numberless instances, 
more especially in the West of England, we find some of the 
newer strata filling up the inequalities, or resting on the in¬ 
clined edges, of the coal measures. In all such cases, the frac¬ 
tures and contortions of the lower formation must have taken 
place prior to the deposition of the superincumbent horizontal 
beds. Now if it appear, that masses of trap are not only the 
common associates of such fractures and dislocations, but 
sometimes the very instruments by which they have been pro¬ 
duced ; it follows, almost of necessity, that the dykes we have 
been describing will not generally be found among the hori¬ 
zontal beds which repose upon the disturbed strata. Such a 
rule as this may, however, admit of many exceptions. For 
no reason can be given a priori , why the same forces, which 
produced the great fissures in our coal formations, should not 
again come into action in successive epochs in the natural hi¬ 
story of the earth. Accordingly, it is found that basaltic dykes 
are not confined to any particular set of strata, but may occa- 

* In the North of England the term dyke is not confined to the descrip¬ 
tion of those fissures which have been filled with trap, but is extended to all 
the great faults and dislocations which intersect the strata in a nearly vertical 
direction. A want of attention to this extended use of the word has given 
rise to occasional mis-statements and false inferences. 

sionally 


214 Prof. Sedgwick on some Trap Dykes 

sionally appear among the newest secondary rocks. The facts 
exhibited by the north coast of Ireland have been already al¬ 
luded to. The great dyke which starting from Cockfield Fell, 
in the county of Durham, crosses the plain of Cleveland, and 
terminates in the eastern moors of Yorkshire, leads us to a si¬ 
milar conclusion. 

Cockjield Fell and Cleveland Dykes. 

This dyke, which preserves such an extraordinary continuity, 
forms a striking feature in all the geological maps of the di¬ 
strict. Some good general descriptions have already been 
given of it # . My principal object in this paper will be, to 
place before the Society, in a connected point of view, those 
facts which appear to bear on the question of its origin. I shall 
afterwards notice some phenomena which are exhibited in High 
Teesdale, and seem to throw light on the same question. 

Dykes near Egglestone in Upper Teesdale. 

A mass of trap occupies the lower part of the left bank of 
the river Tees exactly opposite to the entrance of the Lune. 
It may be traced without difficulty for three or four hundred 
feet, close to the edge of the water; and it at length disap¬ 
pears under Egglestone bank; where it rests upon, or abuts 
against a bed of slate clay. The prolongation of the trap to 
the other side of the Tees is rendered highly probable by the 
appearance of a bed of similar character in the left bank of the 
Lune immediately under Lonton Chapel. But the accumu¬ 
lation of diluvium prevents this connexion from being esta¬ 
blished by direct evidence. The imperfect denudation on the 
left bank of the Tees did not allow me to ascertain the exact 
relation which the trap on that side of the water has to the 
contiguous strata. Above Egglestone bank another mass of 
trap, to all appearance immediately connected with that which 
has been described, crosses the road about a mile to the north¬ 
west of the village. Itr there assumes the unequivocal charac¬ 
ters of a dyke, ranges (as nearly as I could discover from very 
imperfect data) E. by N. and a few hundred yards above the 
road crosses the western branch of the rivulet which runs past 
Egglestone. A quarter of a mile further up the same branch 
of the rivulet, a second dyke crosses its bed, and seems to 
range about S.E. by S. From what has been stated it appears 
probable that these two dykes unite, or intersect each other. 
Their concourse will probably be found on the moor above 
the new smelting-house. The former, where it is seen above 

* Geological Survey of the Yorkshire Coast, by Young and Bird. p. 17b 

Egglestone, 


in Yorkshire and Durham. 215 

Egglestone, is about forty feet wide, and cuts through a bed 
of coarse grit, provincially called firestone. The latter is about 
sixty feet wide, and is associated with gritstone and a band 
of indurated shale which has been much quarried for whet¬ 
stones. 

It would certainly be very interesting to trace these dykes 
as far as possible through the eastern moors, as there can be 
little doubt of their connexion with some of those masses of 
trap which traverse the great coal-field. My own observa¬ 
tions were much too limited to complete this task. I however 
found on Woolly Hills, in the Woodland Fells, several quarries 
opened in a dyke which, from its position as well as in its 
structure, seemed to form a connecting link between the trap 
of High Teesdale and some of the dykes which traverse the 
country near Cockfield Fell *. 

Cockjield Fell Dyke. 

Proceeding some miles further to the S.E. we come to the 
north-western termination of Cockfield Fell dyke, which is 
seen in a quarry by the side of the brook which runs past 
Gaundlass Mill. In that single locality it assumes a compound 
form, being made up of three distinct and nearly vertical masses 
of trap alternating with a variety of indurated slate-clay. The 
following is a transverse horizontal section of the whole dyke. 

(1) On the south-west side, common coal shale, which, as it 
approaches the dyke, becomes much indurated and has a ver¬ 
tical cleavage. In this state it is provincially termed pencil . 

(2) Trap one yard. (3) Pencil about four or five yards, but 
of variable thickness and much shattered. (4) Trap two yards. 
(5) Pencil half a yard. (6) Trap about seven yards. (7) 
Coal shale resembling No. (1). These entangled masses of 
coal shale are probably not prolonged far beyond the quarry, 
as they are seen in no other section. 

The dyke afterwards ranges through the coal works which 
are opened in Cockfield Fell about half a mile to the north of 

* It is stated by Mr. Winch (Geological Transactions, vol. iv. p. 76.), that 
at Egglestone, three miles below Middleton, a very strong vein of basalt 
may be seen crossing the Tees in a diagonal direction.” I suspect that he 
here alludes to the mass of basalt abovementioned, which appears on the 
left bank oi the Tees opposite to the entrance of the Lune, as I in vain en¬ 
deavoured to discover the traces of a dyke further down the river. If this 
conjecture be right, it will be necessary to remove the dyke (which in the 
map accompanying Mr. Winch’s memoir is made to cross the Tees below 
Egglestone) to a place considerably to the N.W. of its present position. 
When so represented, it will be seen, by an inspection of the map, that the 
basalt in Teesdale and the neighbourhood of Cockfield Fell are much more 
nearly in a straight line than they have been represented. 


the 


216 


Prof. Sedgwick on some Trap Dykes 

the village; and its farther progress in a direction about E.S.E. 
is marked in Blackburn quarry and Crag-wood. Near the 
former place it is intersected by a cross course, and heaved 
several yards out of the line of its direction. To the S.E. of 
Crag-wood, it would perhaps be impossible to trace it at the 
surface; but the vein of trap which runs along the high ridge 
of coal strata between Bolam and Houghton-le-side, agrees so 
well in character and direction with the masses above men¬ 
tioned, that it has generally been assumed as the prolongation 
of them. 

Bolam Quarry. 

In the quarries which they are now excavating near Bolam, 
the vertical dyke is unusually contracted in its dimensions; but 
on reaching the surface, it undergoes a great lateral extension, 
especially on the south-west side, so that the works are con¬ 
ducted in a perpendicular face of columnar trap more than 
two hundred feet wide. The changes produced by this over- 
lying columnar mass are highly instructive, and will be de¬ 
scribed in their proper place. The old excavations, in the 
direction of Houghton-le-side, show that the trap is there con¬ 
fined to a fissure nearly forty feet wide, which, with a slight 
undulation in its direction, bears to a point about S.E. by E. 

Sandstone on the Trap. 

There is another locality, the mention of which must not be 
omitted, though I think it probable that it is not in the line of 
the great dyke. In this opinion I may, however, have been 
misled by the maps of the district, in which many of the places 
are laid down entirely out of their true bearings. At Wacker- 
field-lane-end, half a mile W.N.W. of Hilton, a mass of trap 
appears to range east and west, and may therefore join the 
leading dyke which intersects the country still further to the 
east. The excavations in that place would not deserve any 
particular attention, were it not for the important fact, that at 
their western termination horizontal beds of sandstone are 
seen to rest immediately upon the upper surface of the dyke. 

I have been informed that masses pf trap occur on the north¬ 
east side of the quarries of Bolam; but I had no opportunity 
of examining them with a view of ascertaining their probable 
connexion with the principal dyke. 

From all these facts we may infer—(1) That from Gaund- 
lass Mill to Houghton-le-side, a distance of about ten miles, 
the dyke of trap is uninterrupted—(2) That it may be con¬ 
nected with other dykes, which appear still further to the 
north-west nearly in the same line of direction, and through 

them 


in Yorkshire and Durham . 


217 


them with the dykes in Upper Teesdale-—(3) That it pro¬ 
bably gives out some lateral branches connecting it with other 
masses of trap in the same district. It may further be ob¬ 
served, that all this portion of the dyke, however modified by 
local circumstances, dips towards a point on the north-eastern 
side of its general line of direction, so as to make with the 
horizon an angle perhaps in no instance less than eighty de¬ 
grees. 

The high ridge of coal strata, extending from Bolam to 
Houghton-le-side, forms a kind of abutment which encroaches 
considerably on the line of the magnesian limestone. The 
present collocation of the two formations might lead to a con¬ 
jecture that a great fault, ranging along the line of demarca¬ 
tion, had thrown the magnesian limestone down below its na¬ 
tural level. But the supposition is not necessary; for the ap¬ 
pearance of the limestone below the level of the ridge may be 
only an indication of its unconformable position. 

Dyke in Lower Teesdale. 

In the low region of the magnesian limestone we lose all 
traces of the basalt from Houghton-le-side to Coatham Stob. 
From the last-mentioned place it may be traced through the 
quarries of Preston across the Tees ; and very large excava¬ 
tions have been made in a corresponding quarry at Barwick 
on the right bank of the river. The mineralogical character 
of this dyke, its direction, and its dip, agree so well with the 
one which ranges through Cockfield Fell; that no one has, I 
believe, denied the probability of their being continuous The 
great distance between Houghton-le-side and Coatham Stob 
in which no trap has been discovered; and still more the fact, 
that the basaltic veins in the great coal-field do not generally 
pass up into the magnesian limestone; have led some to ima¬ 
gine, that the prolongation of the dyke of Cockfield Fell is for 
several miles concealed beneath the beds of that formation. 
These basaltic veins, which do not penetrate the magnesian 
limestone, prove one of two things. .Either that they took 
their present form before the deposition of the limestone; or 
that they were injected from below, but not with sufficient 
energy to break through the superincumbent limestone.—Nei¬ 
ther of these suppositions can apply to a great dyke intersecting 
an enormous mass of secondary strata which are newer than 
the magnesian limestone, and probably rest upon it. If there- 

* Should any one maintain that the dykes of Cockfield Fell and the plain 
of Cleveland have a distinct origin ; he may, perhaps, draw an argument in 
favour of his own opinion, from the great thickness of the vein of trap in the 
quarries of Preston, Barwick, Langbargh, &c. In this one respect there is 
undoubtedly a considerable difference between them. 

Vol. 67. No. 335. March 1826. 2 E 


fore 


218 Prof. Sedgwick on Trap Dykes in Yorkshire and Durham. 

fore we admit the identity of the Cockfield Fell and Cleveland 
dykes; we must suppose that in the whole interval, between 
Houghton-le-side and Coatham Stob, it is concealed by a thick 
covering of diluvium : an opinion which no one will have much 
difficulty in admitting who has observed the enormous accu¬ 
mulation of transported materials in all the neighbouring di¬ 
strict. 

Range of the Dyke through the Eastern Moors. 

At Preston the trap emerges from beneath nearly fifty feet 
of diluvian brick earth; and would probably have remained 
concealed, had it not been laid bare in the bank of the river. 
On both sides of the Tees it is more than seventy feet wide, 
and ranges through horizontal strata of sandstone in a direc¬ 
tion about S.E. by E. These horizontal strata must be re¬ 
ferred to the new red sandstone formation, though they ex¬ 
hibit but faint traces of the usual ferruginous tinge. From 
Barwick, the dyke passes through the quarries of Stainton, 
Nunthorp, and Langbargh, to the foot of the Cleveland hills; 
making in its progress a considerable flexure to the north. At 
Stainton, the north face of the dyke is interrupted by a fissure 
about five feet wide, which is filled with light coloured argil¬ 
laceous materials, with a transverse slaty texture. These sub¬ 
stances bear no resemblance either to the sound or decom¬ 
posing specimens of the dyke itself. 

On the east side of Nunthorp it gradually rises above the 
level of the neighbouring country, and might be mistaken for 
a gigantic artificial mound, had not the quarries exposed its 
interior structure. A well defined ridge, about four hundred 
feet above the level of the neighbouring plains, marks its pas¬ 
sage over the south flank of Rosebury Fopping. Still further 
to the east it is traced by a gap in the outline of the moors: 
for the upper beds of sandstone appear to have been shattered 
and carried off, and the dyke only rises to the highest level of 
the great bed of alum-shale. After passing through this gap 
and descending into Lownsdale, we found the trap forming a 
mass of bare rock which rose twenty or thirty feet above the 
vegetable soil. From thence it may be followed without diffi¬ 
culty many miles down the valley of the Esk, in a line bearing 
about E.S.E. Afterwards, by the turn of the valley at Egton 
Bridge, it is once more brought through the high moorlands; 
and its course is marked in that desolate region by a low ridge 
resembling an ancient Roman road. A quarry which is 
opened at Silhoue, near the seventh milestone on the road 
from Whitby to Pickering, proves the whole thickness of the 
dyke to be about forty feet, and its inclination and direction 
nearly the same as in the other localities. Beyond this place 


219 


Notices respecting New Books. 

it continues to thin off; but it may be traced, though not with¬ 
out some difficulty, as far as a small rivulet about two miles 
to the east of the road. The exact point of its termination 
has perhaps not been ascertained; but there does not seem to 
be any good reason for supposing that it is continued to the 
German Ocean, as no vestige of it has been seen in any part of 
the cliff where it might be expected to appear. 

[To be continued.] 


XXXV. Notices respecting New Books. 

r PHE First Part of the Second Volume of the Memoirs of 
A the Astronomical Society has just been published, and 
the following are its contents: 

On the method of determining the difference of meridians, 
by the culmination of the moon. By Francis Baily, Esq.— 
On the utility and probable accuracy of the method of deter¬ 
mining the sun’s parallax by observations on the planet Mars 
near his opposition. By Henry Atkinson, Esq.—On the cor¬ 
rections requisite for the triangles which occur in geodesic 
operations. By Captain George Everest.—On the rectifica¬ 
tion of the equatorial instrument. By J. F. Littrow.—On the 
variation in the mean motion of the comet of Encke, produced 
by the resistance of an ether. By M. Ottaviano Fabrizio 
Mossotti.—Observations of the solstice in June 1823, made at 
Paramatta, New South Wales. By Sir Thomas Brisbane.— 
Observations made in the years 1823-4 at Paramatta, New 
South Wales. Transmitted byMajor-General Sir Thomas Bris¬ 
bane.—On a new instrument, called the Differential Sextant, 
for measuring small differences of angular distances. By 
Benjamin Gompertz, Esq.—Observations on some singular 
appearances attending the occultation of Jupiter and his satel¬ 
lites on April 5, 1824. By Mr. Ramage, Captain Ross of the 
Royal Navy, and Mr. Cornfield.—Observations on the occul¬ 
tation of the Herschel planet on August 6, 1824. By Capt. 
John Ross.—An account of the arrival and erection of Fraun¬ 
hofer’s large refracting telescope at the observatory of the Im¬ 
perial University at Dorpat. By Prof. Struve.—On a new zenith 
micrometer. By Charles Babbage, Esq.—The results of com ¬ 
putations on astronomical observations made at Paramatta, in 
New South Wales, under the direction of Sir Thomas Brisbane, 
and the application thereof to investigate the exactness of ob¬ 
servations made in the northern hemisphere. By the Rev. 
John Brinkley, D.D.—A short account of a new instrument 
for measuring vertical and horizontal angles. By George 

2 E 2 Dollond, 





220 


Notices respecting New Books. 

Dollond, Esq.—Observations made at Bushey Heath (north 
latitude 51° 37' 44 ,, *3; west longitude, in time, from Green¬ 
wich, 0 h l m 20 s *93), from May 17, 1816, to December 7? 1824. 
By Colonel Beaufoy.-—On astronomical and other refractions; 
with a connected inquiry into the law of temperature in dif¬ 
ferent latitudes and at different altitudes. By Henry Atkin¬ 
son, Esq.—A report on the properties and powers of a new 
3-feet altitude and azimuth circle, lately fixed at the Rectory- 
house of South Kilworth in the county of Leicester: con¬ 
structed by Edward Troughton, and divided by T. Jones. 
Drawn up by the Rev. William Pearson, LL.D.—Observa¬ 
tions made at Paramatta, in New South Wales, by Major- 
general Sir Thomas Brisbane. To which are annexed, Obser¬ 
vations made by Mr. C. Rumker, at Stargard, New South 
Wales, on the comet which appeared in July 1824.—Astro¬ 
nomical observations: 1. Observation of an eclipse of the 
moon, taken at Chouringhy, near Calcutta, in the year 1798; 
and, 2. Observations of the eclipses of Jupiter’s satellites, taken 
at Chouringhy, in the years 1797, 1798, 1799, 1800, 1801, 
and 1803. By the late Colonel R. H. Colebrooke; 3. Ob¬ 
servations of the eclipses of Jupiter’s satellites, taken at 
Chouringhy, in the years 1821, 1822, and 1823. By Captains 
Hodgson and Herbert ; 4. Observations of the occultations 
of the Pleiades by the moon, in July and October 1821. By 
the Rev.W. Pearson, LL.D.—Report, lists of presents, mem¬ 
bers, associates, and officers: Appendix, containing a part of 
the tables (mentioned in our last Number, p. 138) for deter¬ 
mining the apparent places of nearly 3000 principal fixed stars: 
with a treatise on their construction and use, drawn up at 
the request of the council, by the president, F. Baily, Esq. 


Just published. 

The Narrative of a Tour through Hawaii or Owhyhee; 
with an account of the geology, natural productions, volca¬ 
nos, &c. history, superstitions, traditions, manners and cus¬ 
toms of the inhabitants of the Sandwich Islands; a grammatical 
view of their language, with specimens. The account given of 
the death of Captain Cook by the natives, and biographical 
notices of the late king and queen who died in London. By 
W. Ellis, missionary from the Society and Sandwich Islands. 

The Tanner’s Key to a New System of Tanning Leather 
quicker and cheaper than usual.—Price 5s. 


XXXVI. Pro - 



[ 221 ] 

XXXVI. Proceedings of Learned Societies. 

ROYAL SOCIETY. 

Feb. 23.— A Paper was read, entitled, “ An Account of a 

new reflecting curve; with its application to 
the construction of a telescope having only one reflector;” by 
Abram Robertson, D.D, F.R.S. Savilian Professor of Astro¬ 
nomy, Oxford. 

Also a paper, on the constitution of the atmosphere; by 
John Dalton, Esq., F.R.S. 

Mar. 2.—Two papers by Sir E. Home, Bart. V.P.R.S., 
were read, on the coagulation of blood by heated iron. 

Mar. 9.—A paper was read, on oil of wine; by Mr. H. 
Hennell: communicated by W. T. Brande, Esq. Sec. R.S. 

A paper was also read, on the mathematical principles of 
suspension bridges; by Davies Gilbert, Esq. M.P. V.P.R.S. 

The reading was commenced of a paper on a new method 
of determining the parallax of the fixed stars; by J. F. W. 
Herschel, Esq. Sec. R.S. 

Mar. 16.—The reading of Mr. Flerschel’s paper was 
concluded ; and a paper was read, on the expression of the 
parts of machinery by signs; by C. Babbage, Esq. F.R.S. 
The Society then adjourned till April 6th. 


LINNiEAN SOCIETY. 

Mar. 7.—A further portion of Dr. Plamilton’s Commen¬ 
tary on the Uortus Malabaricus was read. 

Mar. 21.—The following communications were read:— 

Descriptions of two new birds belonging to the family Pha - 
sianidee , by Major-gen. Hardwicke, F.L.S. 

The first of these birds is a species of the genus Lophopho - 
rus of M. Temminck, which General Hardwicke proposes to 
call L. Wallichi , after Dr. Wallich, the distinguished curator 
of the Company’s botanic garden at Calcutta, through whose 
exertions, aided by the influence of the Hon. Edward Gard¬ 
ner, the English resident at the court of Katmandu, many in¬ 
teresting subjects in ornithology were procured. It is about 
the size of the Impeyan Pheasant, another species of Loplio - 
phorus , to which it does not yield in beauty. It is a native of 
the Aim or ah Hills on the north-eastern boundary of Bengal. 
The local name of this bird is Cheer. 

The second species belongs to Phasianus , and will together 
with P. cruentus constitute a small but well marked group of 
that interesting genus. General Plardwicke has called this 
species P. Gardneri. It is a native of the Snowy Mountains 
north of the valley of Nepal. 

, Description 



222 


Geological Society. 

Description of a new genus belonging to the natural family 
of plants called Scrophularince , by Mr. David Don, Libr. L.S. 

Mr. Don proposes to name this genus Lophospermum , and in 
this paper points out its affinity to Antirrhinum and Maurandia, 
from both which, however, it is abundantly characterized by 
its flat winged seeds and campanulate corolla. The essential 
characters of the genus are as follows:— Calyx 5-partitus. 
Corolla campanulata: limbo 5~lobo, subaequali. Capsula bi- 
locularis, irregulariter dehiscens. Semina imbricata, membra- 
naceo-alata. 

The genus consists of two species, both of them natives of 
Mexico, where they were discovered by the Spanish botanists 
Sesse and Mocinno, and which Mr. Don has named Lop/io- 
spermum scandens and physalodes . 

A review of the genus Combretum , by Mr. George Don, 
A. L.S. 

The author here describes thirty-eight species of this inter¬ 
esting and beautiful genus, exclusive of six doubtful species 
enumerated by Dr. Roxburgh in the Hortns Bengalensis. In 
the Systema Vegetabilium of Professor Sprengel, which is the 
latest general work, only six species are enumerated. 


GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

March 3.—The reading of Sir A. Crichton’s paper On the 
Tanuus Mountains in Nassau was concluded. 

The great mountain groups forming the Tanuus, are por¬ 
tions of that vast chain which crosses the Rhine to Valen¬ 
ciennes ; and in the duchy of Nassau they are composed of 
transition and trap rocks: they here separate into two ranges, 
nearly at right angles to each other. The southern chain lies 
on the north of Mayence and Frankfort, and its highest point 
is the Feldberg, 2600 feet above the level of the Mayne. The 
northern chain includes the Westervald, celebrated for its 
brown coal. The strata of the southern face of the former 
chain, consist of talc and quartz-slate dipping north-west; 
whilst those of the northern face are of grauwacke and clay 
slate, inclining upwards south-east. The summit is a decom¬ 
posing quartz rock, containing talc and iron, the sides and 
base of the mountain being formed of talc and slate. The 
baths of Schlangenbad are surrounded by slaty quartz: 
quartz conglomerates occur near the foot of the southern 
chain; where also a thick bed of sandstone, resembling our 
new-red-sandstone, rests upon the calcareous deposits of the 
valley of the Mayne, quarries of which are seen at Wisbaden. 

The valley of the Mayne, which is interposed between the 
northern and southern chains, is chiefly occupied by low hills 

of 



Geological Society.—Royal Institution of Great Britain. 223 

of coarse shelly limestone, analogous to the upper fresh-water 
formation of Paris, and quarries of it occur near Wisbaden 
and Hockheim: Paludmce and Modioli abound in it. At 
Hockheim the beds are much dislocated; and at Wisbaden 
fossil bones are found, the teeth accompanying which refer 
them to animals allied to the Lophiodon tapiroides , and to the 
Sumatran Tapir. These calcareous deposits are only two hun¬ 
dred feet above the level of the Mayne, and they are per¬ 
forated in many places by basalt, upon which they rest. The 
basalt finally disappears south-east of Darmstadt, and is suc¬ 
ceeded by primitive rocks. There are strong salt-springs at 
Soden, and various mineral waters near Frankfort and Had- 
nigstein. 

The Falkenstein mountain, though composed of talc-slate, 
protrudes through the high table land in the form of basalt. 
To the north of this the older rocks disappear, and the district 
is occupied by grauwacke. The grauwacke is divided into 
quartz grauwacke and grauwacke slate; the latter is very di¬ 
stinct from micaceous slate, and contains casts of Spiriferi , of 
the Pleurobranchi of Cuvier, &c.; the former offers encrinites, 
and unknown corailoids. The valley of the Lahn, between 
Coblentz and Diety, affords the best sections of grauwacke, 
and higher up that river the transition limestone appears at 
Baldowinstein. The schalstein (or problematic stone of Von 
Buch), is seen in all its varieties in the valley of the Aar, and 
with it are associated, porphyry, carbonate of lime in veins, 
iron, and copper. At Diety and Baldowinstein, porphyry 
seems to rise through the limestone. Crystalline dolomite, 
resting upon transition limestone, is the most recent formation 
observable in the mountainous ranges of Nassau. No diluvial 
detritus is seen in any part of the duchy, but quartz pebbles 
in sand occur in the elevated plain between Selters and 
Nassau : these are supposed to have been torn from the grau¬ 
wacke by local causes, and to have been deposited prior to 
the elevation of that formation. The author, reflecting upon 
the marine fossils on the summits of some of these mountains, 
infers, that the horizontal strata were formed at the bottom of 
a sea, and were subsequently elevated; and he is inclined to 
attribute the origin of the grauwacke to the attrition of the 
primitive rocks during the period of their elevation. 


ROYAL INSTITUTION OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

The following is an account of the proceedings at the Roval 
Institution, on the Friday evening meetings of the members. 

Feb. 3. —The history of caoutchouc was given in the lec¬ 
ture-room by Mr. Faraday, and various specimens relating 
to its chemical nature and its application in producing water¬ 
proof 



224 Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris. 

proof fabrics shown. The latter were prepared by Mr. Han¬ 
cock. 

Feb. 10.—The progress made by Mr. Brunell in his appli¬ 
cation of the condensed carbonic acid to the construction of a 
mechanical engine was described to the members by Mr. Fa¬ 
raday, and stated to be highly favourable. 

Feb. 17.—Mr. Griffiths’s experiment on the state of alkali in 
glass, Mr. Varley’s single adjustable microscope, Mr. Brant’s 
large bar of palladium, and a South American Geological 
series of specimens were shown and explained in the library. 

Feb. 24.—Mr. Varley explained the nature of his graphic 
telescope intended for the use of artists. It combines magni- 
fying powers with the properties of Dr. Wollaston’s camera 
lucida. 

Mar. 3.—The art of lithography was illustrated by nu¬ 
merous operations, and its minute chemical and mechanical 
principles explained by Mr. Faraday, and Mr. Hullmandel, 
who furnished the beautiful specimens shown. 

Mar. 10.— Mr. Brande entered into the chemical history of 
wines as respected the alcohol contained in them ; and showed 
the state of combination in which it was retained, the conse¬ 
quent loss of part of its power, and the most perfect modes of 
analysis. Some specimens of unadulterated port and very old 
hock were operated upon. 


ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF PARIS. 

Nov. 7, 1825.—A letter from M. de Gregori was read, re¬ 
lative to the success of vaccination in the Piedmontese states.— 
M. D’Hombre-Firmas communicated a memoir on a great de¬ 
pression of the barometer observed at Alais in October last.— 
Dr. Rouze presented a memoir in manuscript, entitled, An ex¬ 
planation of the famous problem of general electricity.—Dr. 
Candiloro, of Palermo, presented a memoir, entitled, Medico- 
chirurgical reflections on the quickest and surest means of ex¬ 
tracting calculi from the bladder.—M. Latreille was appointed 
to make a verbal report on M. de Blainville’s w T ork, entitled, 
6i Manuel de Malacologie et de Conchyologie.—M. Dupuytren 
read the second part of the report of the committee appointed 
to examine the memoirs on the yellow fever and on the plague. 
-—M. de Ferussac read a memoir, entitled, A methodical table 
of the class of Cephalopoda , presenting a new classification, by 
M. Dessalines d’Orbigny, jun. 

Nov. 14.—M. Paul Laurens communicated a memoir on 
aerial perspective.—M. Lejeune d’lrichlet communicated a 
supplement to his memoir on the impossibility of some inde¬ 
terminate equations of the fifth degree.— M. Amussat com¬ 
municated 



Comet .— -The Pantochronometer. 225 

fimnreated a memoir on the different rights of priority in the 
discovery oi lithontriptic methods.—M. Rcestrentret commu¬ 
nicated a plan of an instrument for sounding at the greatest 
depths, hi. Magendie, in the name of Mr. Hulkens, a clock- 
maker at Philadelphia, presented an improved instrument for 
executing the same operations as those of MM. Amussat, 
Civiale, &c.—M. Girard made a report on the machine pre¬ 
sented to the King by M. Blanc, of Grenoble.—MM. Geof- 
froy St. Hilaire, Latreille and Dumeril gave a report on M* 
Set i es s work on animal monsters.—M. Dumeril gave a verbal 
account of M. de Blainville’s comparative anatomy.—M. de la 
Billardiere read a report on M. Poiret’s History of the Plants 
of Europe. 

Nov. 21. — M. Libri communicated a memoir, in which he 
discusses various questions relative tto the analytical theory of 
heat.—M. Dupuytren read the third and last part of the re- 
P°2t of the committee on the memoirs on yellow fever, &c. 


XXXVI. Intelligence and Miscellaneous Articles . 


COMET. 

A NOTHER comet has been discovered this year, by Cap- 
tain Biela, at Josephstadt. It was first seen in M 27° 38', 
and N. deck 9° 47': but both its right ascension and declina¬ 
tion were diminishing. 


THE PANTOCHRONOMETER® 

In vol. lxiii. of the Philosophical Magazine we noticed Es¬ 
sex’s Portable Damp Detector, an useful application of hy- 
grometry to the purposes of good housewifery and the pre¬ 
servation of health. The same ingenious artist has pro¬ 
duced an instrument called the Pantochronometer, intended, 
by a neat combined application of several principles of nature 
and facts in astronomy, to instruct young persons in the va¬ 
riation of time according to longitude, in a very amusing 
manner. A sun-dial is supported by a magnetic needle, ad¬ 
justed to the variation in the different longitudes for which 
the instrument is constructed, and the divisions of the hours 
on which are made to indicate, in an outer fixed circle, the 
corresponding time at most places of consequence on the 
globe. The principle and applications of the Pantochrono¬ 
meter are perspicuously explained in a work which is sold 
with it; and, altogether, we think the invention a very useful 

Vol. 67. Xo. 335. March 1826. 2 F addition 











226 Mr. Murray’s Chemical Observations. 

addition to our stock of means for imparting scientific know¬ 
ledge to the juvenile mind. 

CHEMICAL OBSERVATIONS : BY MR. MURRAY. 

1. Singular Modification of Temperature by Copper and Silver 

Leaf. 

When we grasp in the hand a few foils of copper or silver 
leaf, a peculiar glow of temperature is communicated and felt. 
I found that a delicate thermometer placed in the hollow of 
the hand, the ball completely enveloped, indicated 98° 5' F.; 
with the ball wrapped round with loose copper leaf, the tem¬ 
perature shown was 101° F.; with silver leaf, 101° + F.; with 
mixed silver and copper foil, 99° 75'. 

2. Aphlogistic Phenomena of Gum. 

If a portion of powdered gum arabic be placed on a disc of 
platinum and burnt to charcoal, it will, when ignited, continue 
long to glow in that state: let fall on paper it ignites the 
paper; and placed on the platinum wire of the “lamp with¬ 
out flame” it continues aphlogistic with the coils, and it will 
ignite a sulphur match, See. 

The platinum cage supplied with these aphlogistic live coals 
produces a fine effect; and when even the platinum has become 
extinct, they will continue to glow and give light, and the 
reignition of the wick is more certainly secured. 

When the aphlogistic gum is introduced into a glass cylinder 
containing a portion of ether, it will glow in the superior part 
of the vessel; when immersed too low and brought near the 
surface of the ether, it will be apparently extinguished; but 
when raised to its former position it will be rekindled, and 
continue to glow with additional brightness. There is this 
difference, however, between the platinum and the gum; there 
is no appretiable waste in the former, while there is a sensible 
expenditure in the latter. 

When this substance reduced nearly to whiteness is intro¬ 
duced into the lower part of the flame of coal gas, the starlike 
brilliancy is excessive. It will be easy now to account for the 
peculiar intensity of light which supervenes on introducing 
into the exterior verge of common flame, platinum wire, bits 
of straw, &c. reduced to whiteness,—the brilliancy of mag¬ 
nesia, &c. before the ignited gas in the compound blowpipe, 
&c. : —these being all reducible to the class of aphlogistic phe¬ 
nomena. 

3. Liquid Aqueous Ammonia , burning voith Flame in Chlorine. 

It is well known that if two cylinders, the one containing 

chlorine 



Fossil Remains, 


22? 

chlorine and the other ammoniacal gas, be brought in con- 
tact, a flash of light pervades the interior. Professor Silliman 
has also stated that a large volume of ammoniacal gas may be 
ignited and continue to burn; and Dr. Henry has adverted to 
a phaenomenon of the same description : indeed, the foreign 
flame exhibited when a lighted taper is introduced into a small 
cylinder of this gas, sufficiently proves that the gas is inflam¬ 
mable in atmospheric air. I find, however, that if a slip of 
paper be dipped in strong liquid ammonia, and immersed into 
a cylinder of newly prepared chlorine, it will burn with a beau¬ 
tiful flame, and the liquid ammonia will also burn with flame 
when introduced in the deflagrating spoon. 


FOSSIL REMAINS. 

Notwithstanding the confused arid unscientific manner in 
which this account is drawn up, we think there is reason to 
believe that some interesting fossil remains have been found; 
and not wishing to assume any responsibility for the correct¬ 
ness of the notice, we give it as originally published. It is to 
be hoped that a more satisfactory description of these remains 
will soon be received. 

Our enterprising fellow-citizen, Mr. Samuel Schofield, has 
disinterred from the low prairie grounds between Placquemine 
and the lakes, a number of remains of the most gigantic size. 
They evidently belong to some class of animals now no longer 
in existence; whether antediluvian or not, we are unable to 
say. The great Elephas mastodon , or American Mammoth, 
described by Dr. Mitchill, is inferior in size to these bones we 
have seen. From the circumstance of ambergris being col¬ 
lected in some quantity from the inferior surface of the maxil¬ 
lary bone, we are led to the conclusion that they are of marine 
origin, but of what description we are unable to conjecture. 
Upon examining these remains, we are easily led to give cre¬ 
dit to the extraordinary relations given by Father Kircher, of 
the Kraken and Norway sea snake. This nondescript, when 
alive, must have equalled either of them in bulk. 

We will attempt a faint description of those which have al¬ 
ready been brought up to this city, and are now on board the 
steam-boat, Expedition. They consist, first, of an enormous 
fragment of a cranium. It is about twenty-two feet in length, 
and its broadest part four feet high, and perhaps nine inches 
thick. It is said to weigh about twelve hundred pounds. On 
the interior surface the vitreous table appears to be separated 
from the cancelli for some way down; this table is perfectly 

2 F 2 firm, 



.2.28 Fossil Remains* 

firm, and in a perfect state of preservation ; the digital de¬ 
pressions formed by the convolutions of the cerebellum are very 
p erfect. 

The foramina for the passage of the sensorial nerves are 
very discernible. A very large portion of the inner table of 
the inside of the cranium is joined by a very singular squamous 
suture. The inner surface appears in many places perma¬ 
nently discoloured by the bed of earth from whence it was 
taken. In the interior part of the cranium the diploe presents 
a very singular appearance, the cavities of which are very 
large, in some cases presenting holes of nearly an inch in dia¬ 
meter, and generally very regular. Upon what we judge to 
be the temporal portion, a most singular process or elongation 
presents itself: it is eight feet in length, and of a triangular 
form, and about six inches through, tapering gradually to the 
point. This singular appearance sets all our conjectures at 
defiance; it is of a spongy construction, with a rough and ir¬ 
regular surface. There appears to be no seat for the insertion 
of muscles, or foramina for the passage of the nerves or blood- 
.vessels. 

This bone must have been covered for its whole length with 
a membrane. The cancelli are remarkably regular. There 
is a singular consolidation of the nasal and maxillary bones. 
They are not united by any of the description of sutures found 
in quadrupeds, but form one entire mass of uniform consist¬ 
ence all through. A large groove or canal presents itself in the 
superior portion of this bone, upon the side of which consi¬ 
derable quantities of ambergris may be collected, which ap¬ 
pears to have suffered little or no decomposition or change by 
age. It burns with a beautiful bright flame, and emits an 
odoriferous smell while burning; it is of a greasy consistence, 
similar to adipocire. 

The foramen for the transmission of the facial nerve is of 
an immense size. 

In the inferior portion of this stupendous bone there ap¬ 
pears to be an articulating depression, in which the superior 
angle of the lower jaw might have been articulated. 

The other bones are; one of a cylindrical shape, with a 
round head similar to the os humeri in quadrupeds. It is 
two feet in length, and about ten inches in diameter, with about 
two processes near the head, in some respects similar to the 
trochanters of the femoris. The cartilaginous extremities ap¬ 
pear to have been entirely detached. Upon one end a sur¬ 
face for the articulation of two bones appears, one of which 
is in the collection. This bone is over one foot in length, and 

of 


Volcano in Owhyhee. 229 

of a flattened cylindrical shape; the cartilaginous extremities 
are also gone. It is of a firmer consistence than any of the 
other bones, with a singular irradiation of ossific appearance 
on the outside surface. These two bones are probably the 
leg of the animal. 

There are also lumbar, dorsal, and cervical vertebrae. The 
cylindrical portions of those of the first class are fourteen 
inches in diameter, with transverse processes, in every respect 
like those of quadrupeds. One of them has the introvertebral 
substance completely detached; it is about twelve inches in 
diameter, and perhaps two inches thick in the centre, tapering 
gradually to the extremities ; this specimen is in a perfect state 
ol preservation. In the articulation of these bones there is 
considerable analogy to the human vertebrae. 

To judge from the appearance of this portion of the cranium 
which we have seen, if this monster was of the Balcena species, 
his length could not be less than two hundred and fifty feet. 
It is stated, that from this place, whence these remains were 
disinterred, a large carnivorous tooth was found, and has been 
carried away. It is also related, that in the year 1799, many 
remains of antediluvian creation were taken up near this same 
place, and shipped to Europe .—Boston Journal of Philosophy, 
Aug. 1825. J 


VOLCANO IN OWHYHEE. 

Mr. William Ellis, a missionary, in his narrative of a tour 
through the island so well known as the place where Captain 
Cook was murdered, gives the description of a volcano of a 
singular kind, of which we shall select for our readers some of 
the most striking particulars. Mr. Ellis passed over a laro- e 
tract of volcanic country with burning chasms and hills, which 
had the appearance of having been craters. The plain over 
which their way lay, was a vast waste of ancient lava, which 
he thus describes: 

44 This tract of lava resembled in appearance an inland sea, 
bounded by distant mountains. Once it had certainly been in 
a fluid state, but appeared as if it had become suddenly petri¬ 
fied, or turned into a glassy stone, while its agitated billows 
were rolling to and fro. Not only were the large swells and 
hollows distinctly marked, but in many places the surface of 
these billows was covered by a smaller ripple, like that ob- 
sei ved on the surface of the sea at the first springing up of a 
breeze, or the passing currents of air, which produce 3 what the 
sailors call a cat’s-paw. * * * * 

“ About two P.M. the crater of Kirauea suddenly burst 
upon our view. We expected to have seen a mountain with a 

broad 



230 


Volcano in OwhyJiee. 

broad base and rough indented sides, composed of loose slags, 
or hardened streams of lava, and whose summit would have 
presented a rugged wall of scoria, forming the rim of a mighty 
cauldron. But, instead of this, we found ourselves on the 
edge of a steep precipice, with a vast plain before us, fifteen 
or sixteen miles in circumference, and sunk from two hundred 
to four hundred feet below its original level. The surface of 
this plain was uneven, and strewed over with huge stones and 
volcanic rock, and in the centre of it was the great crater, at 
the distance of a mile and a half from the place where we were 
standing. .... We walked on 

to the north end of the ridge, where, the precipice being less 
steep, a descent to the plain below seemed practicable. 

. . With all our care, we did not reach 

the bottom without falls and slight bruises. 

. . After walking some distance over the 

sunken plain, which in several places sounded hollow under 
our feet, we at length came to the edge of the great crater, 
where a spectacle sublime, and even appalling, presented itself 
before us. Immediately before us yawned an immense gulf, 
in the form of a crescent, about t wo miles in length, from N.E. 
to S. W. nearly a mile in width, and apparently eight hundred 
feet deep. The bottom vras covered with lava, and the S.W. 
and northern parts of it were one vast flood of burning matter, 
in a state of terrific ebullition, rolling to and fro its 4 fiery surge’ 
and flaming billows. Fifty-one conical islands of varied form 
and size, containing so many craters, rose either round the 
edge, or from the surface of the burning lake; 22 constantly 
emitted columns of gray smoke, or pyramids of brilliant flame; 
and several of these at the same time vomited from their ig¬ 
nited mouths streams of lava which rolled in blazing torrents 
down their black indented sides, into the boiling mass below. 
The existence of these conical craters led us to conclude that 
the boiling cauldron of lava before us did not form the focus of 
the volcano; that this mass of melted lava was comparatively 
shallow; and that the basin in which it was contained was se¬ 
parated by a stratum of solid matter from the great volcanic 
abyss, which constantly poured out its melted contents through 
these numerous craters into this upper reservoir. 

44 The sides of the gulf before us, although composed of 
different strata of ancient lava, were perpendicular for about 
400 feet, and rose from a wide horizontal ledge of solid black 
lava of irregular breadth, but extending completely round: be¬ 
neath this ledge, the sides sloped gradually towards the burn¬ 
ing lake, which was, as nearly as we could judge, three hun¬ 
dred or four hundred feet lower. It was evident that tire large 

crater 


231 


List of Patents for New Inventions. 

crater had been recently filled with liquid lava up to this black 
ledge, and had, by some subterraneous canal, emptied itself 
into the sea or under the low r land on the shore. The gray, 
and in some places apparently calcined sides of the great cra¬ 
ter before us—the fissures which intersected the surface of the 
plain on which we were standing—the long banks of sulphur 
on the opposite side of the abyss—the vigorous action of the 
numerous small craters on its borders—the dense columns of 
vapour and smoke that rose at the N. and S. end of the plain 
—together with the ridge of steep rocks by which it was sur¬ 
rounded, rising probably in some places 300 or 400 feet in 
perpendicular height, presented an immense volcanic pano¬ 
rama, the effect of which was greatly augmented by the con¬ 
stant roaring of the vast furnaces below.” 


LIST OF NEW PATENTS. 

To James Fraser, of Houndsditch, London, for his im¬ 
proved method of constructing capstans and windlasses.—- 
Dated 25th of February 1826.—2 months allowed to enrol 
specification. 

To Benjamin Newmarch, of Cheltenham, for certain inven¬ 
tions to preserve vessels and other bodies from the dangerous 
effects of external or internal violence on land or water.— 
25th of February.—6 months. 

To Benjamin Newmarch, of Cheltenham, for a preparation, 
to be used either in solution or otherwise, for preventing 
decay in timber, &c. arising from dry rot, &c.—25th of Fe¬ 
bruary.—6 months. 

To James Fraser, of Houndsditch, London, for his im¬ 
proved method of distilling and rectifying spirits, &c.—4th of 
March.—2 months. 

To Robert Midgley, of Florsforth near Leeds, for his ap¬ 
paratus for conveying persons and goods across rivers or other 
waters, and over valleys.—4th of March.—6 months. 

To George Anderton, of Chickheaton, Yorkshire, worsted 
spinner, for improvements in the combing or dressing of wool 
and waste silk.—4th of March.—2 months. 

To James Neville, of New Walk. Shad Thames, Surrey, 
engineer, for his improved boiler for generating steam with 
less expenditure of fuel.—14th of March.—6 months. 

To Nicholas Flegesippe Manicler, of Great Guildford- 
street, Southwark, chemist, for his new preparation of fatty 
substances, and the application thereof to the purposes of af¬ 
fording light.—20th of March.—6 months. 

O O 


Results 




Results of a Meteorological Journal for the Year 1825, kept at the Observatory of the Royal Academy , Gosport , Hants, 

By William Burney, LL.L ). 

Latitude 50° 47' 20" North—Longitude 1° 7' West of Greenwich, In time 4' 28". 



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Vol, 67. No. 335. March 1826 


ANNUAL 











































































































234 Meteorological Summary for 1825.—Hamp shire. 

ANNUAL RESULTS FOR 1825. 

Barometer . Inches. 

Greatest pressure of the atmosphere, Jan. 9th, Wind N. 30*820 
Least ditto ditto Nov. 10th, Wind N.E. 28*600 

Range of the mercury. 2*220 

Annual mean pressure of the atmosphere . . . 29*964 

Mean pressure for 177 days, with the moon in North 

declination. 29*983 

Mean pressure for 177 days, with the moon in South 

declination. 29*968 

Annual mean pressure at 8 o’clock A.M. 29*966 

--at 2 o’clock P.M. .... 29*965 

----at 8 o’clock P.M. 29*961 

Greatest range of the mercury in November . . . 1*700 

Least range of ditto in July.0*510 

Greatest annual variation in 24 hours in March . . 0*770 

Least of the greatest variations in 24 hours in May . 0*300 

Aggregate of the spaces described by the rising and 

falling of the mercury .* 67*230 

Number of changes . 268* 

Self-registering Day and Night Thermometer . 

Greatest thermometrical heat, July 19th, Wind S.E. 86-|° 

-cold, Dec. 27th and 30th, 

Wind N. W... 26 

Range of thermometer between the extremes . . 601- 

Annual mean temperature of the external air . . 53*01 

—- G f do. g A.M. . . . 52*00 

---of do. at 8 P.M. . . . 51*72 

--of do. at 2 P.M. . . . 58*34 

Greatest range in June.41*00 

Least of the monthly ranges in December . . . 29*00 

Annual mean range.. 32*10 

Greatest monthly variation in 24 hours in April and 

August.27*00 

Least of the greatest variations in 24 hours in December 16*00 
Annual mean temperature of spring water at 8 A.M. 51*56 

De Luc’s Whalebone Hygrometer. Degrees. 

Greatest humidity of the atmosphere, October 12th 

and November 10th. 100 

Greatest dryness of ditto, August 1st . ... 37’ 

Range of the index between the extremes ... 63 

Annual mean of the hygrometer at 8 o’clock A.M. 69*2 

--— at 8 o’clock P.M. 71*9 

---- a t 2 o’clock P.M. 62*9 

Annual 


























Meteorological Summary for 1825.—Hampshire. 235 

Degrees. 

Annual mean of the hygrometer at 8, 2, & 8 o’clock 68*0 
Greatest mean monthly humidity of the atmosphere 

in December ........... 86*0 

Greatest mean monthly dryness of ditto in July 53*1 


Position of the Winds . 

Days. 

From North to North-east .... 

. . 37 

-- North-east to East. 

. . 59 

- East to South-east. 

. . 21 

—— South-east to South .... 

. . 36 

- South to South-west .... 

. . 30 

- South-west to West .... 

. • 66^ 

-- West to North-west .... 

. . 54 

- North-w r est to North .... 

. . 614 


-365 

Clouds , agreeably to the Nomenclature; or the Number of Days 
on 'which each Modification has appeared . 


Days. 

Cirrus ..216 

s Cirrocumulus. 142 

Cirrostratus. 322 

Stratus. 19 

Cumulus .. 213 

Cumulostratus. 247 

Nimbus. 192 


General State of the Weather . 

A transparent atmosphere without clouds 
Fair, with various modifications of clouds 
An overcast sky, without rain .... 

F °ggy . . 

Rain, hail, and sleet. 


Atmospheric Phce?iomena. 

Parhelia, or mock-suns, on the sides of the 

true sun. 

Paraselenae, or mock-moons .... 

Solar halos. 

Lunar halos. 

Rainbow r s, solar and lunar. 

Meteors of various sizes. 

Lightning, days on which it happened 
Thunder, ditto ditto 


Evaporation. 

Greatest monthly quantity in July 

2 G 2 


Days. 

55{ 

165 

85 

4 

55b 

-365 


No. 

8 

2 

15 

15 

9 

159 

19 

7 

Inches. 

10*37 

Least 

































236 Meteorological Summary for 182 5.—Hampshire. 

Least monthly quantity in January .... 0*76 In. 

Total amount for the year.46.61 

Rain. 

Greatest monthly depth in December . . . 5*325 

Least monthly depth in July.0*180 

Total depth near the ground for the year . 30*450 

Total depth 23 feet high, for ditto .... 27*200 

N. B. The barometer is hung up in the observatory 50 feet 
above the low-water mark of Portsmouth Harbour ; and the 
self-registering horizontal day and night thermometer, and De 
Luc’s whalebone hygrometer, are placed in open-worked cases, 
in a northern aspect, out of the rays of the sun, 10 feet above 
the garden ground. The pluviameter and evaporator have re- 
spectively the same square area: the former is emptied every 
morning at 8 o’clock, after rain, into a cylindrical glass gauge 
accurately graduated to 1-100th of an inch; and the quantity 
lost by evaporation from the latter, is ascertained at least 
every third day, and sometimes oftener, when great evapora¬ 
tions happen by means of a high temperature, and dry northerly 
or easterly winds. 

Barometrical Pressure. —In consequence of the high 
pressure of the atmosphere during the first three months, also 
in June and July, the mean height of the barometer is greater 
this year by 79-1000th of an inch, than the mean of the last 
eleven jears. This was the case in every part of the country 
with some little differences. The aggregate of the spaces de¬ 
scribed by the alternate rising and falling of the mercury is 
15*89 inches less this year than last, and the number of changes 
seven less, which indicate a comparatively uniform pressure. 

For 177 days in which the moon ranged in North declina¬ 
tion, the pressure was 3-200ths of an inch greater than that 
in the 177 days in which she ranged in South declination. 

Temperature. —The annual mean temperature of the ex¬ 
ternal air is exactly one degree higher than that in 1824, and 
1*39 degree higher than the mean of the last ten years. The 
mean temperature of June, July, August and September was 
high, and these months were dry, particularly July, when we 
experienced oppressive heat for several days: but the spring 
and autumn were rather cold, which in great measure equa¬ 
lized the annual average temperature of 1824 and 1825. 

The annual mean temperature of spring water at 8 o’clock 
A.M. this year, is nearly a degree and a half lower than the 
annual mean temperature of the external air. 

Wind. —The crossing and opposite winds, or upper cur¬ 
rents, have been found to prevail very much this year. 


In 



Meteorological Summary for 1825.—Hampshire. 237 

In comparing the Scale of the Winds in 1821 and 1825, 
there appears a near coincidence in their duration from six 
out of eight points of the compass; but there is a great dif¬ 
ference in the North-east and South-west winds this year; the 
former having prevailed longer by nearly one-third, and the 
latter a less time by nearly one-fifth. The longer duration of 
the North-east wind, with the additional mean temperature of 
the atmosphere, seems to accord with the increased evapora¬ 
tion, which is nearly one-third more this year than last; and 
the shorter duration of the South-west wind, was the means 
of keeping back about one-fourth of the comparative depth of 
rain: besides, the gales from the South-west have not been so 
prevalent as they were last year. Such is the influence the winds 
appear to have in drying and condensing the lower stratum of 
air, in connexion with the temperature of the ground. 

The following is the number of strong gales of wind, or days 
on which they have prevailed, this year: 


N. 

N.E. 

E. 

S.E. 

s. 

s.w. 

w. 

N.W. 

Gales. 

1 10 

1 

5 

5 

26 

5 

4 

57 


The gales from the S. W. are more than half the number in 
the scale. 

Clouds.— The following is a correct scale of the clouds 
agreeably to the nomenclature, being the number of days on 
which each modification has appeared during the last nine 
years , ending with 1825. 


Cirrus. 

/ 

Cirro- 

cumulus. 

Cirro- 

stratus. 

Stratus. 

Cumulus. 

Cum ul o- 
stratus. 

Nimbus. 

1838 

1476 

2582 

295 

1711 

1708 

1773 


By this scale the cirrostratus appears to be the prevailing 
cloud, having appeared more than three-fourths of this long 
period. 

The cumuli and cumulostrati are nearest in the times of their 
appearance; and the cirri and detached nimbi the next nearest. 
The cirrocumuli and strata are the least in number, being in 
general lair weather clouds. 

Weather. —The general state of the weather throughout 
the year, was calm and dry, but very variable in temperature 
at intervals ; the dry part was in the winter and summer 
months, and the wet part in spring and autumn. The summer 
was uniformly hot, which brought on an early corn harvest. 

January, 





































238 Meteorological Summary for Feb . 1826.—Hampshire. 

January, March, June, October, and November, were rather 
windy months, the others comparatively calm. 

The spring and summer seasons were healthy, but the win¬ 
ter and autumn were sickly, in consequence of the sudden 
changes that occurred in the temperature and quality of the 
air; as it must be acknowledged that health, or sickness, and 
also the spirits of the human mind, are materially influenced 
by the good or bad state of the air we inhale, and the means 
employed to keep the body of an uniform temperature through¬ 
out the vicissitudes of the seasons in the variable climate of 
England and her united kingdoms. 

Results of a Meteorological Journal for February 1826, kept at 
the Observatory of the Royal Academy , Gosport , Flants . 

General Observations . 

This month has been mild for the season, but generally 
windy and wet, agreeing with the old proverb 66 February fill 
dike.” It has rained, more or less, on 20 days, and the ther¬ 
mometer a few feet from the ground did not recede once to 
the freezing point. In consequence of the constant humid air, 
very little evaporation, and the quantity of rain, the ground 
was saturated nearly the whole month, and is now in good 
condition for an early produce of the approaching spring. 

The average temperature of the external air this month, is 
2J degrees higher than in February 1825, and nearly 3j de¬ 
grees higher than the average of that month for the last ten 
years. There is a difference in the mean temperature be¬ 
tween last month and this of 10 J degrees ! 

The temperature of spring water has increased upwards of 
one degree this month, and is 1J- degree higher than at this 
time last year. This is certainly an unusual circumstance in 
February, as the temperature of spring water almost invariably 
decreases till the vernal equinox, and sometimes later. The 
last two or three days having been dry, and the temperature 
of the ground increasing, there was therefore a sudden appear¬ 
ance of the fruit and other trees breaking into bud. 

Although the wind has prevailed half the month from the 
S.W. and W., yet the result of the barometer is above the 
general mean indication, arising no doubt from the closer 
union of the atmospherical particles, and a lower temperature 
in the superior stratum of air not far above the disturbing 
force of the late S.W. gales of wind. 

The atmospheric and meteoric phenomena that have come 
within our observations this month, are, one parhelion, one 
solar and one lunar halo, three meteors, and eight gales of 
wind, or days on which they have prevailed ; namely, one from 
S.E. and seven from S.W. Nu- 



Meteorological Journal for Feb. 1826.—Hampshire. 239 

Numerical Results for the Month. 

Inches. 

-d f Maximum 30*44, February 26th—Wind S.W. 

aiome ei ^ Minimum 29*33, Ditto 17th—Wind S. 

Range of the mercury . .1*11. ~ Inches 

Mean barometrical pressure for the month ...... 29*957 

—- for the lunar period ending the 7th inst.. . 30*006 

•- for 15 days, with the Moon in North declin. 30*218 

-- for 15 days, with the Moon in South declin. 29*794 

Spaces described by the rising and falling of the mercury 6*000 

Greatest variation in 24 hours.. 0*680 

Number of changes .... . 26- 

Maximum 56°, February 25th and 28th. 

v Minimum 33 Ditto 9th—Wind E. 

Range.23 

Mean temp, of the external air 

-for 30 days with the > 

Sun in Aquarius . . . . ^ 

Greatest variation in 24 hours 
Mean temp, of spring water 
at 8 o’clock A.M. 


Thermometer 


water ^ 


45*91 

43*23 

16*00 

49*44 


De Luc’s Whalebone Hygrometer. 

Degrees. 


96 in the morning of the 6th. 

63 aftern. of the 7th & 25th, 

33 

75*8 

84*4 

84*2 


81 


5 


Greatest humidity of the air 
Greatest dryness of ditto . 

Range of the index .... 

Mean at 2 o’clock P.M. . 

—— at 8 o’clock A.M. . 

—- at 8 o’clock P.M. 

-of three observations each ^ 

day at 8, 2, and 8 o’clock J 
Evaporation for the month ......... 1*30 inch. 

Rain in the pluviameter near the ground . 3*86 

Rain in ditto 23 feet high. 3*42 

Prevailing winds, S.W. 

Summary of the Weather. 

A clear sky, 3; fine, with various modifications of clouds, 
11 ; an overcast sky without rain, 6; foggy, J; rain, 7\. — 
Total 28 days. 

Clouds • 

Cirrus. Cirrocumulus. Cirrostratus. Stratus. Cumulus. Cumulostr. Nimbus. 
18 9 27 0 17 18 21 

Scale of the prevailing Winds . 

N. N.E. E. S.E. S. S.W. W. N.W. Days. 

0 0 2 4 5f lOf 4 2 28 

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AND JOURNAL. 



30 th APRIL 1826. 
- -- 


XXXVIII. On the Properties of a Line of shortest Distance 
traced on the Surface of an oblate Spheroid . Bp J. Ivory, 
Esq . M.A . F.R.S.* 


TVTY intention in treating of the geodetical problem inserted 
in this Journal for July 1824, p. 35, was to show that by 
giving a proper form to the coordinates of the surface of the 
spheroid, the usual analysis might be much shortened, and 
more simple formulae of solution obtained. If the polar semi¬ 
axis be unit, and V 1 + e 2 represent the radius of the equator, 
the equation of the surface will be, 


aft + y % 

1 -f e 2 



* being perpendicular, and x and y parallel, to the equator. 
Now this equation is satisfied by assuming 

X — COS COS 4/ y'l _|_ p - 

y — sin <p cos 4/ V 1 + e 2 
z = sin 4/, 


the angles <p and 4> remaining indeterminate. The coordi¬ 
nates belong to a spherical surface when e = 0; and this man¬ 
ner of expressing them, which I have used on other occasions, 
is well adapted for simplifying the investigation of such pro¬ 
perties of the elliptical spheroid as are analogous to those of 
the sphere. 

With regard to the arcs <p and 4 / ? it is obvious that sin \Ji is 
the distance from the equator (estimated in parts of the polar 
semi-axis) of a parallel to the equator drawn through the point 
on the surface of the spheroid; and hence it is obvious that <p 
is the angular distance between the meridian passing through 
the same point and a given meridian. The arc 4 / is the lati¬ 
tude of a parallel to the equator on the surface of the sphere 
inscribed in the spheroid ; but it is not the true latitude of the 
same parallel on the surface of the spheroid, as I have inadver- 

* Communicated by the Author. 

Vol, 67. No. 336. April 1826. 2 H 


tently 








242 Mr. Ivory on the Properties of a Line of shortest 

tently called it in the communication alluded to. I have already 
noticed the inadvertency in this Journal for April 1825 ; and 
have shown that the accuracy of the solution is not affected by 
it, because the import of the symbol is independent of the name 
given to it, being fixed by the assumed form of the coordi¬ 
nates. The relation of the arc vf/ to the true latitude may like¬ 
wise be deduced directly from the equation of the surface, or 
from the expressions of the coordinates, without recurring to 
particular properties of the spheroid, in the manner following. 

From a point in the spheroid, of which the coordinates 
are x 9 y 9 z 9 let a perpendicular p be drawn to the surface, and 
extended outward to a point of which the coordinates are a , 
b, c; then, 

p z = (« — <r ) 2 4 - (h — ?/) 2 4 - (c — z) 3 : 

and if x, y 9 z vary in the surface of the spheroid, the condi¬ 
tion of perpendicularity will be, 

0 =2 (a — x) doc + {b — y) dy 4 - (c — z) dz. 

If the arc u denote the inclination of p to the equator, then, 
c and z being perpendicular to that plane, we shall have 
c — z = p sin u. Also p cos u will be the projection of p 
upon the same plane; and, as the spheroid is a solid of revo¬ 
lution, p and its projection will be contained in the meridian 
which makes an angle with the given meridian to which y 
is perpendicular and x parallel: hence a — x = p cos u cos <p, 
b — y = p cos u sin <p. The foregoing equation will therefore 
become by substitution, 

0 = cos u (dx cos <p 4- dy sin $) + dz sin u. 

Now substitute the differentials of the coordinates, then the 
arc (p will disappear; and, having divided by cos u cos ^ dff 9 
we shall get tan M _ 

tan \f/ = -p e a 

This very simple equation expresses the relation between the 
arcs \js and u, of which the latter is the true latitude of the 
point on the surface of the spheroid. It is usual to call the 
arc \f/ the reduced latitude; but, as this name is purely arbi¬ 
trary, it seems preferable to define the same arc from some 
of its geometrical properties. This may be done by saying 
that u and 4* are the latitudes of the same parallel to the equa¬ 
tor, the one on the surface of the spheroid, the other on the 
inscribed sphere. To the formula already given we may add 
the two following resulting from it, which are of continual 


use, viz. 


sin 4/ = 


sin u 


a/ 1 4- e' 2 cos 2 U 


COS 4/ 


COS U /y/1 4" 


/d 1 4" e<2 cos< * u 


Having 










Distance traced on the Surface of an oblate Spheroid . 243 

Having now ascertained the import of the arcs <p and \f/, all 
the properties of the geodetical line are readily deduced from 
the formulae investigated in this Journal for July 1824. Using 
the arc 4' to denote the latitude (on the surface of the inscribed 
sphere) of a plane parallel to the equator which cuts the geo¬ 
detical line, put for the azimuth at the point of section; 
then the most distinguishing property is expressed by this 

equation, viz. ., • , . , \ 

1 cos 4 sin f = cos i (a) 

where cos i expresses a quantity which is constantly the same 
for every point of the geodetical line. If we suppose that the 
parallel plane moves towards the equator, and finally coin¬ 
cides with it, the foregoing equation will become, sin f = 
cos i ; whence we learn that the arc i is the inclination of the 
geodetical line to the equator where it crosses that circle. 
Conceive a great circle on the surface of the inscribed sphere, 
which is inclined to the equator in the same angle i ; and it 
readily follows from the rules of spherical trigonometry, that 
the equation (a) is common to the geodetical line on the sur¬ 
face of the spheroid, and the oblique circle on the surface of 
the sphere; that is, the two lines have the same azimuth at 
any two points in the same parallel to the equator. It follows 
that a parallel which meets the oblique great circle, will like¬ 
wise meet the geodetical line; and consequently they are both 
contained within the same limits on either side of the equator. 
They both extend from the equator to two parallels of which 
the latitudes, on the inscribed sphere, are + i ; and having 
touched these planes, they bend back in an opposite direc¬ 
tion. 

In order to compare the two lines further, it is requisite to 
fix two initial points, or two points of departure from which 
to reckon. Having assumed any point in the geodetical line, 
draw through it a parallel to the equator. This parallel will 
likewise meet the oblique great circle; and we may suppose 
the plane of the circle turned about the centre of the sphere, 
till the point in the parallel comes to the meridian of the point 
assumed in the geodetical line. These two points, one in the 
oblique great circle, and one in the geodetical line, are the 
two initial points required; they are in the same parallel to 
the equator, and they have the same longitude. If A and l 
denote the two latitudes of the parallel to the equator, the 
first on the sphere, and the other on the spheroid, we shall 
have, according to the equation before found, 

tan l 

tan A = — . 

\/i + ei 

Suppose now that any other parallel to the equator cuts the 

2 H 2 two 




244 Mr. Ivory on the Properties of a Line of shortest 


two lines: let be the latitude of the parallel on the sphere; 
s' the arc of the oblique great circle between the parallel and 
the initial point; and <p r the spherical angle subtended by s' 
at the pole of the sphere, or the difference of longitude be¬ 
tween the extremities of s'; also let ^ be the azimuth of the 
oblique circle at the initial point, and f the azimuth at the 
other extremity of s' : then we shall have the following equa¬ 
tions, viz. cos 1 _ cos x sin ju. 


els' 


d 4 cos 4 
a/ sin 2 i — sin 2 *4 


, , cos i d -4 

= --: - 

cos ”4 /v/sin 9 i — sin 2 4 



, , cos i d 4' sin *4 

O /// = --- - - ■ . 

cos 4 /\/sin 2 i — sin 2 -4 

These formulae express the relations between the differentials 
of the latitude, longitude, and azimuth of a variable point in 
a great circle of the sphere having the inclination i to the 
equator; and their use is to compare them with the like quan¬ 
tities in the geodetical line. The expressions of d s' and d cp' 
are the same with those marked (B) in the communication in¬ 
serted in this Journal for July J 824, except that I have here 
written sin 2 i — sin 2 \J/ for the equivalent quantity cos 2 4/ — 
cos 2 i — cos 2 — cos 2 A sin 2 //,. The expression of d which 
is common both to the circle and the geodetical line, has now 
been added. 

Again, let s denote the part of the geodetical line cut off by 
the same parallel to the equator; and put <p for the difference 
of longitude of the two extremities of s; that is, for the angle 
contained between the meridian which passes through the va¬ 
riable extremity of s and the fixed meridian of the two initial 
points. Then, according to the formulae marked (A) in the 
communication alluded to, we shall have, 


d s = d s' x 


d <p = d <p f x 


\/ 1 + e 2 sin 2 

a/ 1 -}- e 2 sin 2 4 


(A) 


V 1 + e 2 

These different formulae, extremely simple, contain all that is 
necessary to a complete theory of a geodetical line on the sur¬ 
face of an oblate spheroid. I have here merely supplied the 
geometrical explanation of the analytical solution before given. 

Let'us compare the longitude in the geodetical line with 
that in the oblique great circle. The second formula (A) 
shows that d <4 is always less than d <$' ; and hence the longi¬ 
tude in the geodetical line continually falls behind the longi¬ 
tude in the great circle, the defect accumulating more the 

further 













Distance traced on the Sui'Jace oj an ohlate Sjphevoid. 245 

further the line is produced. If therefore we suppose that 
the variable parallel to the equator begins to move from the 
two initial points, passes beyond the equator to the extreme 
latitude — i, then returns to the other extreme latitude + i, 
and lastly, falls down to the situation it first left; the moveable 
point in the oblique great circle will have made a complete 
cncle in longitude, and will have returned to its original place ; 
but the moveable point in the geodetical line, although it will 
ia\ e returned to the same latitude it left, will not have com- 
pleted a circle of longitude, and therefore it will meet the pa¬ 
rallel of latitude in a point different from its first place. Thus 
a geodetical line does not return into itself; if it be continued 
lor several successive circuits of the spheroid, it will form a 
spiral line upon its surface. It is manifest from the analytical 
expression of d<p, that when i, which is the limit of 4/, is very 
small, the whole arc of longitude answering to one turn of the 

geodetical line, approaches very nearly to — : or, if we 

\/1 + e ® ' 

estimate the longitudes on the equator of the spheroid, it will 
be equal to an arc of the same length with the periphery of 
t e msciibed sphere. Accurately speaking, the arc mentioned 
is the limit of the longitude made in one turn, when the geo¬ 
detical line cuts the equator in an indefinitely small angle. It 
follows therefore that the equator itself is not comprehended 
m the analytical expression of the arcs of shortest distance; 
out, when the inclination to the equator is infinitely small, all 
the turns of the spiral curve become blended with one another 
and with the equator. 

We may next compare the lengths of the geodetical line 
with the arcs of the oblique great circle cut off by the same 
paradel to the equator. The first formula (A) shows that ds 
is greater than d s ’; and hence an entire turn of the geodetical 
me is gi eater than the periphery of the great circle. But 
these two quantities approach nearer to an equality as the 
obliquity to the equator increases; so that they are exactly 
equal when the geodetical line makes an infinitely small ano-le 
with the equator. This agrees with what has already been 
said lespecting the longitude in the same circumstances. 

lom the same expression it follows that all the turns of 
t le same geodetical line are equal and similar; and even that 
every single turn consists of four equal parts or quadrants: 

tor the integral ot ds has the same value, while 4, varies be¬ 
tween the limits 0 and + i. 

. a denote the aic ol the oblique great circle between the 
initial point and the equator; then a — s’ will be the arc be¬ 
tween 




246 Mr. Ivory on the Properties of a Line of shortest 


tween the equator and the variable parallel; and we shall have 
these equations, sin A = sin i sin a 

sin \J/ = sin i sin ( a — s'). 

Now substitute this value of sin \J/, then 

ds = els' \/ 1 -f e 2 sin 2 i sin 2 (a — s '); 

and this formula shows that the lengths of a geodetical line, 
reckoned from a fixt point on the surface of the spheroid, are 
equal to the arcs of an ellipse reckoned from a fixt point in 
the periphery. The greater semi-axis of the ellipse is equal 
to 1 + e 2 sin 2 i 9 which is the semi-diameter of the spheroid 
perpendicular to the plane of the oblique great circle; the less 
semi-axis is equal to the radius of the inscribed sphere. 

Enough has now been said to show the use of the formulae 
in investigating the properties of a geodetical line. There can 
be no difficulty in this respect, at least if we suppose that the 
figure of the spheroid, or the proportion of the polar axis to 
equatorial diameter, is known. Without knowing this pro¬ 
portion, we cannot deduce the inclination of the oblique great 
circle to the equator, nor pass from the latitudes actually ob¬ 
served on the surface of the spheroid, to the corresponding 
latitudes on the surface of the sphere. In the question of the 
figure of the earth, the problem must therefore be viewed a 
little differently. It is necessary to introduce the angles ac¬ 
tually found by observation in the expression of the length of 
the geodetical line. Now, we have, 

cos i = cos X sin //.; 

and, by substituting the value of cos A, we get 

. cos l sin u, a/ 1 + <? 2 

COS l = -- _ — 

1 -f- e 2 cos 2 l 


Sill l 

Let us now put 
then, 


jy/ 1 — COS 2 l sill 2 (t t -j- e 2 COS 2 l COS 2 f.C 

*/\ — e 2 cos 2 l 

cos (3 = cos l sin g : 


• • /3 + e- cos 2 l cos 2 u, 

sin i = ----— 


,y/ 1 -j- e 2 cos 2 1 

The arc (3 being deduced from the latitude and azimuth on 
the spheroid, is always known ; and it is very little different 
from i. 

Again : if we combine the values of d s and d, s\ found in the 
formulae (A) and (B), we shall get, 

7 d il cos \/ 1 -f- e 2 sin 2 d) 

(.1S —— --- . 


sin 2 i — sin 2 


But, 

















Dista?ice traced on the Surface of an oblate Spheroid . 247 


But, u and \J/ being the latitudes of the same parallel to the 
equator on the spheroid and the sphere, we have, 

• . sin u 

sin *4/ — - - : 

e 2 cos 2 u 

and it we transform the expression of ds , by introducing the 
values of sin \p and sin i, we shall obtain, 

A = \/sin 2 (3 + e 2 cos 2 / cos 2 y, — sin 2 u (f + e 2 cos 2 l cos 2 


ds = 


(l+c 2 ) */ 1 + e 2 cos 2 / . du cos u 



3 

(1 -f- <? 2 COS 2 U) 2 . A 

This formula determines the length of s by means of the lati¬ 
tudes at the two extremities, and the initial direction with re¬ 
spect to the meridian. 

In the first place, if the geodetical line be in the direction 
of the meridian, then sin y, = 0, cos y, — 1, sin (3 = 1 : hence 


A = cos u V 1 + e 2 cos 2 /, 


7 (1 e~) du 

ds = ——'— - - • 

(1 -f- e 2 cos 2 u) 2 

If we expand the radical and integrate as usual between the 
limits l and u , supposing u greater than /, we shall get, 

s 

¥ 

—• c 4 1 3(& — 0 


~ = u - / + > u ~ l 3 


64 


* ——-g- (sin 2 u — sin 2/) | 

3 (sin 2 a. — sin 21) 15 (sin 4 u — sin 4 /) 


32 


256 


I have here written for s , on the supposition that 5 is the 

actual length measured, and P the semi-polar axis expressed 
in the same parts. There are therefore two unknown quan¬ 
tities P and e ~; and consequently two different measurements 
are required at different latitudes. The latitudes chosen ought 
to be very distant from one another, one near the equator and 
one near the pole, in order that the curvatures of the meridian 
may be as different as possible. In places not remote, the pro¬ 
portion of the lengths measured would approach so near the 
proportion of the observed differences of latitude, that the un¬ 
avoidable errors of observation would render the result quite 
uncertain. 

Let us next suppose that the geodetical line is perpendicu¬ 
lar to the meridian. In this case, sin y, = 1, cos y, = 0, sin 

/3 = sin l, and A = */ sin 2 l — sin 2 u. 


Wherefore, if we put sin u = sin l cos z 9 then 

A = sin l sin z 9 

j _ (1 + e 2 ) /v/ 1 + e 2 cos 2 l . dz 

(1 -f- e 2 — e 2 sin 2 1 cos 2 z) 2 


In 


















248 Mr. Ivory on the Properties of a Line of shortest 

In this equation 5 and z increase together from zero. If it 
be expanded we shall obtain a formula for computing s as in 
the foregoing instance. I shall not however take the trouble 
of further developing the expression, because it is not proper 
to be employed in the research of the figure of the earth. The 
reason is, that the small arc z is determined by its cosine; so 
that a minute error in the latitude u would occasion an exces¬ 
sive variation in z. When a geodetical line is perpendicular 
to the meridian, the variation of latitude is at first proportional, 
not to the length measured, but to the square of the length; 
and therefore it cannot safely be employed in so delicate a 
research as the deviation of the figure of the earth from a 
sphere. 

In the most general case when the geodetical line is inclined 
to the meridian in any proposed angle, we must make, 

sin u = sin (3 cos z. 

And here it is evident that the determination of the arc z will 
be liable to the same objection as in the perpendicular to the 
meridian, unless sin u is considerably different from sin (3. It 
follows therefore that a geodetical line must not make a great 
angle with the meridian, at least if we employ the difference 
of latitude in the research. The inclination to the meridian 
ought not to exceed 45°. On this supposition the arc z will be 
tolerably well ascertained, and the formula (C) will be suffi¬ 
cient for finding the length of s by means of that arc. The 
expression would however be a little complicated on account 
of the number of quantities that enter into it; but as an in¬ 
stance of such an oblique measurement has neither actually 
occurred, nor can any good reason be given for carrying it 
into execution, I shall not pursue the subject further. 

I have now considered very particularly the problem of the 
figure of the earth as it depends upon the lines measured on 
the surface, and the observed differences of latitude. It fol¬ 
lows that observations made in the direction of the meridian 
are the most advantageous for obtaining the values of the 
quantities sought. When the lengths measured extend only 
to a few degrees, we may use the differential equation before 
found, viz. ^ _ (l + e 2 ) du 

(1 e 2 cos' 2 wp 

instead of the integral. In this case, d s or s is the length 
measured; d u, or u — Z, the difference of latitude in degrees ; 
and if m denote the degrees in the arc equal to the radius 

(57°*29578), then — —- will be the radius of a circle in which 

an arc equal to s contains u — l degrees. Hence if P be the 

polar 




Distance traced on the Surface of an oblate Spheroid . 249 


polar semi-axis in the same parts with s , and if we take the 
mean latitude ■ u for w, we shall have 

A 


m s 


P(l+e») 


u 


(1 -j- e 2 cos 2 


l + U 


y 


and by expanding the radical and retaining only the first 
power of e 2 , we get, 


VI s 


u ■ 


= Pi 1 + 


3e°~ 


4 


cos (/ + u) | . 


Two such equations are required for determining P and the 
ellipticity . 

But in determining the figure of the earth by means of ter¬ 
restrial observations, instead of the difference of latitude, we 
may employ the difference of longitude of the two extremities 
of the line measured, or the change in azimuth at the same 
stations. And in the case of a perpendicular to the meridian, 
one or other of the two quantities mentioned must be used, 
since it has been shown that the difference of latitude is in¬ 
adequate to the purpose. It therefore becomes necessary to 
form the expressions of a geodetical line in terms of the dif¬ 
ference of longitude, and in terms of the azimuth at its further 
extremity; but, as this would make too great an addition to 
what I have already written, I shall reserve it for a future 
communication. 


April 5, 18 26. 


J. Ivory. 


XXXIX. On the Phcenomena connected with some Trap 
Dykes in Yorkshire and Durham. By the Rev. Adam 
Sedgwick, M.A. F.R.S. M.G.S. Fellow of Trinity College , 
and Woodwardian Professor in the University of Cambridge. 

„ [Concluded from p. 219.] 

Extent and Position. 

1V[ O other dyke has, I believe, been yet described, which in- 
•*- ^ tersects so many secondary formations, and preserves such 
an extraordinary uniformity of direction and inclination. The 
whole length, reckoning from the quarry at Gaundlass Mill, 
is more than fifty miles: and if any one should object to this, 
as including a considerable space in which the continuity is 
not apparent, there will still remain from Coatham Stob a di¬ 
stance of about thirty-five miles, through which it is almost 
certain that the trap ranges without any break or interruption. 
Perhaps it might with more justice be objected, that the first 
Vol. 67. No. 336. April 1826. 2 I com- 











250 


Prof. Sedgwick on some Trap Dykes 

computation falls below the truth; in consequence ol the pro¬ 
bable extension of the dyke to the N.W. through the Wood¬ 
land Fells and Egglestone Bum to the banks of the Tees. 
Should this supposition be admitted, we shall have an unin¬ 
terrupted dyke extending from High Teesdale to the confines 
of the eastern coast, a distance of more than sixty miles. 

The angle at which it cuts the strata is of course variable, 
and in many places cannot possibly be ascertained. At Bar- 
wick, near the Tees, its inclination to the horizontal beds of 
sandstone is more than eighty degrees; and the angle at which 
it intersects the beds of shale and sandstone in the eastern 
moors is still greater; occasioned, perhaps, by the south¬ 
eastern dip, which generally prevails among the strata in that 
region *. 

Secondary formations, when interrupted in the manner 
above described, seldom preserve the same level on the oppo¬ 
site sides of their line of separation. Thus at Cockfield Fell, 
the coal-beds on the north side of the dyke are eighteen feet 
below the corresponding beds on the south side. In the ex¬ 
cavations at Preston and Barwick there is no indication of 
any great change having been produced in the relative level 
of the beds of sandstone ; nor can any conclusive evidence be 
obtained on this subject from the obscure sections exhibited 
by the quarries in the eastern moorlands. Perhaps, as a 
general rule, the greatest dislocations are produced by those 
fissures into which trap is not intruded : such at least appears 
to be the case in the great coal-field of Northumberland and 
Durham. The injected masses of trap may be supposed to 
have acted as a kind of support, and to have partially hindered 
the broken ends of the strata from sliding past each other. 

Structure of the Dyke . 

Notwithstanding the great length of the Cleveland dyke, and 
the different nature of the rocks with which it is associated, it 
undergoes very little modification in its general structure. Its 
prevailing character is that of a fine granular trap rock of a 
dark blueish colour. This colour is indeed, with some unim¬ 
portant exceptions, so constant in all the sound specimens, that 
the dyke is provincially termed blue-stone bv the men who 
are employed in working the quarries. It breaks into irre¬ 
gular, sharp, angular fragments; and on a recently exposed 
surface there generally may be seen a number of minute bril¬ 
liant facets: but the constituent parts are never sufficiently 
distinguished from each other to give it the appearance of a 
green-stone. The essential ingredients of the rock are, if I 

* See the Survey of the Yorkshire coast by Young and Bird. 

mistake 


251- 


in Yorkshire and Durham . 

mistake not, pyroxene and felspar, in which respect it agrees 
with the greater number of trap dykes which have been care¬ 
fully examined, as well as with a great many varieties of re¬ 
cent lava. The principal modifications, of course, arise from 
the variable proportions of these essential ingredients. Among 
the prevailing and nearly compact portions of the dyke, there 
are some larger crystals of felspar and carbonate of lime; very 
rarely, however, in such abundance or order of arrangement, 
as to give any decided appearance of porphyritic structure. 
Good specimens of amygdaloid are not common; where they 
do occur, the nodules* are chiefly composed of carbonate of 
lime. In one or two instances we found chalcedony filling the 
hollows of an imperfect amygdaloid. Iron pyrites may be 
mentioned among the minerals frequently associated with the 
dyke. It is found disseminated through the substance of some 
decomposing varieties in considerable abundance; and small 
spangles of it may occasionally be seen in the sound specimens, 
especially among the larger crystals of felspar before men¬ 
tioned. All the dark sonorous specimens act strongly on the 
magnet; but some of the light-coloured varieties, which con¬ 
tain a great excess of decomposing felspar, do not sensibly 
affect it. 

The dyke is generally separated by a number of natural 
partings into large blocks, which are amorphous, prismatic, or 
globular. Near the centre they are sometimes of such entire 
irregularity as to defy all description. Not unfrequently, how¬ 
ever, in the midst of this confusion we may observe traces of 
a prismatic form; and where this arrangement is most com¬ 
plete the prisms are always transverse to the dyke. Good ex¬ 
amples of this form may be seen in the quarry of Preston, and 
in other l ocalities above described. The sides of the dyke are 
generally occupied by clusters of minute horizontal prisms, 
Which are often seen in great perfection even where the cen¬ 
tral mass is amorphous. In the great quarry of Bolam, where 
the trap has extended laterally over the horizontal beds of 
sandstone and coal shale, the capping of basaltic rock is di¬ 
vided into rude columns which are perpendicular to the strata 
on which they rest; and, therefore, nearly at right angles to 
the prismatic blocks which lie across the leading dyke. "This 
arrangement is exactly similar to that which takes place among 
some masses of ancient lava near Mount Vesuvius ■ . 

Traces of the globular structure are often visible, especially 

where 

* Altered beds of coal in contact with trap sometimes exhibit a similar 
arrangement. Thus at Coley Hill (Geological Transactions, vol. iv. p. 2.3), 
a small bed of coal abuts against a dyke ol basalt, and near this contact 

2 12 the 


252 


Prof. Sedgwick on some Trap Dykes 

where the trap passes into an earthy state: for many of the 
larger blocks, whether prismatic or amorphous, decompose in 
concentric crusts, which easily fall off and expose the hard 
spherical nuclei. 

These balls are particularly abundant in the old quarry of 
Coatham Stob, and are associated w ith some blocks of a light 
gray colour, which have an earthy fracture. Both these va¬ 
rieties are interesting. Some of the balls contain a consider¬ 
able quantity of olivine, which is, if I mistake not, a very rare 
mineral in all the other localities. The light-coloured blocks 
have a superabundance of decomposing felspar, and are par¬ 
tially porphyritic. Carbonate of lime exists in the form of 
distinct crystals, and is also disseminated through the mass; 
and in some instances small spherical concretions of compact 
felspar are found in a congeries of very minute crystals, giving 
to such specimens the appearance of an amygdaloidal struc¬ 
ture. In other cases the concretions effervesce when first 
plunged into acids, are opaque from the admixture of impuri¬ 
ties, and do not possess the characters of a simple mineral. 

Effects of Decomposition. 

In this dyke, as in almost every similar formation, the effects 
produced by decomposition are exceedingly varied. The com¬ 
ponent parts, from the centre to the surface, are in some 
quarries hard and sonorous. In others, the sides are invested 
with a ferruginous earthy matter which only penetrates to the 
depth of a few inches, and gradually passes into a sonorous 
granular rock. Not unfrequently, a decomposing crust of 
more considerable thickness covers the surface even of the 
blocks wdhch are derived from the centre of the dyke. A 
number of white spots, probably resulting from decomposing 
felspar, are often disseminated through these earthy masses, 
and enable us to separate them from other argillaceous ma¬ 
terials, with which they are sometimes in contact. It would 
be a laborious, and not a very profitable task, to attempt a 
minute account of phenomena like these w hich vary with every 
different locality. 

Effects produced by Contact of the Dyke. 

It now remains to describe some of the effects produced by 
the intrusion of the dyke. These effects will of course vary 
with the substances which are acted on. In some of the quarries 

the coal is deprived of its bitumen, and arranged in beautiful small hori¬ 
zontal prisms. Under the overlying mass in the quarry of Bolam, the car¬ 
bonaceous shale is rudely prismatic: and in one or two places where this 

structure is best exhibited, the prisms are nearly vertical 

which 


in Yorkshire and Durham. 


253 


which have been already described, the trap passes through 
horizontal beds of slate-clay, and the changes produced by its 
presence are in all these cases strikingly similar. At Nunthorp 
and Langbargh these beds of slate-clay belong to the great 
alum-shale formation {lias)> and are easily identified by the 
belemnites, pectinites and other characteristic fossils which are 
imbedded in them. On approaching the dyke they become 
much indurated, and are divided by a great many yertical 
fissures, which, when combined with the ordinary cleavage, 
separate the strata into rhomboidal fragments. In all such 
cases the rifts and fissures are coated over with oxide of iron. 
In other instances, the true horizontal cleavage entirely disap¬ 
pears ; and the indurated masses might then be easily mistaken 
for beds which had been tilted out of their original position. 
The alteration produced in the coal-shale at Gaundlass Mill 
is exactly analogous to what has been described, though not 
so strikingly exhibited. 

In the quarry at Barwick, on the right bank of the Tees, 
the vein of trap is well denuded, and the south side of the sec¬ 
tion exposes a great many horizontal beds of sandstone, which 
are separated into prismatic blocks by a number of natural 
transverse fissures. Close to the dyke this structure disappears; 
the sandstone is much more compact, and breaks into amor¬ 
phous fragments. 

It must however be allowed that in some other localities the 
sandstone did not, under similar circumstances, appear to have 
undergone any modification. 

Perhaps, as a general rule, none of the changes above de¬ 
scribed are well exhibited, where the portion of the dyke, in 
contact with the horizontal beds, assumes the appearance of a 
wacke. Should this observation be sufficiently verified, it 
would seem to indicate, that the earthy texture of the dyke is, 
in some cases, rather due to its original mode of aggregation, 
than to any subsequent decomposition. I may, however, as¬ 
sert unequivocally, that I never saw any beds which are easily 
susceptible of modification (such as coal or carbonaceous shale) 
in immediate contact with the trap, without having undergone 
a remarkable change. 

The overlying trap at Bolam bears no resemblance to a sub¬ 
stance which has been tranquilly deposited on the inferior 
strata; for it is separated from them by a broken indented su¬ 
perficies which has exposed many distinct beds to its immediate 
action. Some of the massy columns rest on a bed of shale 
partially converted into a substance resembling Lydian stone, 
which rings under the hammer, or flies in all directions into 
a number of sharp splinters. Others are supported by a bed 

- * of 


254 


Prof. Sedgwick on some Trap Dykes 

of impure coal or carbonaceous shale, in the upper part of 
which are found shapeless masses in various states of indura¬ 
tion, mixed irregularly with angular pieces of trap, and an 
earthy substance like soot or pounded, charcoal. Where the 
carbonaceous ingredients are most abundant, the parts of the 
bed in immediate contact assume the appearance of coke de¬ 
rived from the artificial distillation of impure coal, and not 
unfrequently separate into a number of minute prisms*. An 
impure carbonaceous powder is sometimes found in the crevices 
between the basaltic columns, several feet above the beds on 
which they rest. 

In addition to the substances above described, I found be¬ 
neath the trap some thin white porcellanous fragments, which 
appeared to be derived from an indurated bed of fire-clay— a 
well-known associate of the great coal formation. 

All these phenomena so exactly resemble the effects pro¬ 
duced by fire, that I am unable to describe them without using 
language which may be thought hypothetical by those who 
deny the igneous origin of trap dykes. 

In Cockfield Fell the coal-works have been conducted on 
both sides of the dyke, and the extraordinary changes pro¬ 
duced by its influence have been recorded by practical men 
who had no theory to support, and who founded their opinions 
upon actual observation. The works are not now carried on 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the dyke; but I procured 
so many specimens of the substances which had been taken 
from the altered coal-beds, that I have no doubt of the general 
accuracy of the accounts which have been published. 

Close to the dyke, the main coal is converted into a sub¬ 
stance resembling soot> and at some distance it passes into a 
more solid substance, which the miners call cinder . At a still 
greater distance it retains a part of its bitumen, and about 
thirty yards from the trap it does not differ from the ordinary 
pit-coal of the district. It is stated (Hutchinson’s History of 
Durham) 64 that immediately above the cinder there is a great 
deal of sulphur in angular forms of a bright yellow colour. 
The cinder burns clear, without smoke, and affords very little 
sulphurous effluvia.” 

Igneous Origin of the Dyke . 

Were there no other examples of corresponding pheno¬ 
mena, it would perhaps be unsafe to draw any direct conclu¬ 
sions from the facts which have been stated. But in different 
parts of the British Isles, similar effects appear, in instances 
almost without number, to have been produced by the opera- 

'* See the note to p. 251. 


tion 


in Yorkshire and Durham. 


2 55 


tion of similar causes: so that the igneous origin of a large 
class of trap dykes seems to be established by evidence which 
is almost irresistible. 

It is urged to no purpose, that Lydian stone and glance- 
coal occur in places which have never been influenced by vol¬ 
canic action. The assertion may be true, but is of no value 
in determining the question; unless it can be shown, that sub¬ 
stances, similar to those derived from the sides of the dykes, 
are found in other parts of the same district which are removed 
from their influence. This, however, is not the case; for the 
enormous excavations which have been carried on in the great 
coal-basin of Northumberland and Durham have, with one 
ambiguous exception*, made us acquainted with no similar 
substances excepting those which appear to have been pro¬ 
duced by similar agents. 

General Summary. 

It may be proper briefly to enumerate some of the facts 
which are established by a detailed examination of the great 
dyke, and which will, perhaps, be considered to place its origin 
out of all doubt. 

1. It is more recent than the formations which it traverses. 
For it occupies the interval between beds which were evidently 
once continuous; but have been subsequently broken up and 
severed by some great convulsion. 

2. It was consolidated prior to the last great catastrophe 
which formed the beds of superficial gravel, and excavated the 
secondary valleys. In proof of this we need only state, that it 
partakes of all the inequalities of the districts through which it 
passes, rising with the hills and falling with the valleys, so that 
in many of the lower regions it is buried in diluvium. On this 
subject there is, I believe, no difference of opinion. 

3. There is every reason to believe that it has been filled 
from below. For there exists no trace of any upper bed from 
which its materials could have been supplied; and in one place, 
horizontal beds of sandstone rest on the top of a mass of trap 
which is probably connected with the dyke. We may further 

* See the Geological Transactions, vol. iv. p. 27. The case is obviously 
ambiguous, because the effect of a large mass of trap on a bed of coal may 
be propagated to a considerable distance. The very change described by 
Mr. Winch may therefore have been effected by amass of trap which is not 
exposed in the workings. We must carefully distinguish between the phe¬ 
nomena here described, and the effects of those dislocations which so com¬ 
monly intersect the coal strata. In these latter instances the coal beds are 
often deteriorated on both sides of the line of fault by the mere mechanical 
effects of the rupture. 


state, 


256 


Prof. Sedgwick on some Trap Dykes 

state, that many dykes of similar origin wedge out before they 
reach the surface*. 

4. The dyke has once been in a fluid state. For it is 
moulded to all the flexures of the chasm which it fills up. The 
same assertion is also proved by its crystalline texture. 

5. The materials of which it is composed are the same with 
those which abound in a great many varieties of recent lava. 
On this subject there is perhaps no difference of opinion. For 
the Wernerians at one time asserted, that recent lava was de¬ 
rived from the igneous fusion of trap rocks of aqueous origin. 

6. The effects produced by the dyke are such as might be 
expected from the intrusion of a great mass of ignited matter. 
This assertion is fully established by the facts which have been 
already stated. 

If, therefore, similar effects have originated in similar causes, 
we must conclude, that this dyke, as well as all the other si¬ 
milar masses in the great Durham coal-field, are the undoubted 
monuments of ancient volcanic action. 

Conclusion . 

It is a matter of fact, which is independent of all theory, 
that an enormous mass of strata has been rent asunder; and 
it is probable that the rent has been prolonged to the ex¬ 
tent of fifty or sixty miles. If we exclude volcanic agency, 
what power in nature is there capable of producing such an 
effect? By supposing such phenomena the effects of volcanic 
action, we bring into operation no causes but those which are 
known to exist, and are adequate to effects even more exten¬ 
sive than those which have been described. 

Combining this observation with the facts described with 
minute detail in the preceding parts of this paper, we obtain 
a chain of evidence, in favour of the igneous origin of a cer¬ 
tain class of trap dykes, not one link of which appears to be 
defective. It is not to be denied, that the associations of trap 
rocks may in other cases present great difficulties to the igneous 
theorist. But jhese difficulties are not the present subject of 
consideration. I have confined myself, as far as possible, to 
a statement of facts, and I have only attempted to record such 
conclusions as a review of those facts appeared fully to justify. 

Trin. Coll. March 12, 1823. 

P. S. Before this paper was sent to the press, I received 
two letters from my friend Mr. Wharton, of Oswald House, 

* See ProfessorHenslow’s paper on the Isle ofAnglesea; Dr. MacCulloch 
on the Hebrides, &c. &c. 


near 



in Yorkshire and Durham » 


257 


near Durham, communicating some very interesting facts con¬ 
nected with the appearance of a basaltic dyke; which ranges 
from the escarpment of the magnesian limestone (atQuarring- 
ton Hill, a few miles to the east of Durham) through the great 
coal-field, in a direction about W.S. W. It is found along this 
line at Crowtrees, Tarsdale, Hett, Tudhoe, Whitworth, and 
Constantine farm. From the last-mentioned place, it passes 
along the same line of bearing, through the collieries of Bitch- 
burn and Hargill Hill, to a spot near the confluence of Bed- 
burn Beck and the river Wear, where it is well exposed on 
the surface of the ground; and it is known to pass up the Bed- 
burn Beck valley towards Egglestone Moor. If prolonged 
a few miles in the same direction, it must meet the line of the 
Cockfield Fell dyke within a short distance of Egglestone; 
and may, perhaps, be a prolongation of one of the masses of 
trap described in a former part of this paper. 

This dyke is laid down in none of our geological maps. 
Indeed its existence was probably unknown before Mr. Whar¬ 
ton ascertained >cs continuity, by examining the thickness, the 
dip, and the bearing, of several masses of trap, which ap¬ 
peared in separate quarries, but in the same general line of 
direction. That its further extension towards Egglestone 
Moor, and its probable connexion with the trap of High Tees- 
dale, should be correctly determined, is certainly an object of 
considerable interest. 

The following facts appear of most importance in illustra¬ 
ting the natural history of this dyke. 

1. The trap, in colour, fracture, and external form, is simi¬ 
lar to that of Cockfield Fell. It often parts into irregular pris¬ 
matic blocks witli well defined angles, and four or five plane 
sides covered with an ochreous crust. 

2. The width of the dyke appears to increase in its pro¬ 
gress westward. Thus, at Crowtrees quarry it is six feet and 
a half wide,—at Tarsdale quarry nine feet and a half,—atBitch- 
burn bank fifteen feet,—and still further west it is seventeen 
feet wide. 

3. It dips to the north at an angle which brings it up in 
a direction which is nearly perpendicular to the coal strata; 
which, on the north side of the dyke, are found about twenty- 
four feet above the level of the corresponding beds on the 
south side. 

4. In the collieries situate in its line of direction (viz. Crow¬ 
trees, Bitchburn, and Hargill Hill) the seams of coal near the 
dyke are charred, or converted into a hard mass of cinders; 
in consequence of which, the works have in some cases been 
partially abandoned. 

Vol 67* No. 336. April 1826. 2 K 5. The 


258 Prof. Sedgwick on Trap Dykes in Yorkshire and Durham. 

5. The dyke appears to decrease in width as it rises to¬ 
wards the surface. Thus, in Crowtrees colliery, the width of 
the dyke, where it is cut through at the depth of fifteen fa¬ 
thoms, is nearly twice as great as at the surface. 

6. It does not appear at Quarrington Hill to cut through 
a bed of sand and pebbles, which lies between the highest beds 
of the coal-formation and the magnesian limestone. 

The importance of these facts in confirming the theoretical 
views given in the preceding paper, is too obvious to need any 
explanation. 

Mr. Winch asserts (Geological Transactions, vol. iv. p, 25), 
“ that he has never been able to trace any of these basaltic 
veins into the magnesian limestone, and is almost certain that, 
wilh other members of the coal-formation, they are covered by 
it.” The dyke just described affords some additional evidence 
in support of this opinion. Moreover, it appears, in its ge¬ 
neral relations, to agree so exactly with the Cockfield Fell 
dyke, that I now cannot help suspecting, that this latter also 
belongs to the class of i( basaltic veins ” which do not pass up 
into the magnesian limestone, though I inclined to a different 
opinion when the preceding paper was written. 

Respecting the prolongation of the Cockfield Fell dyke 
through the region of the magnesian limestone, there are con¬ 
flicting probabilities which lead to directly opposite conclu¬ 
sions. The near agreement in the direction and dip of the 
Cockfield Fell and Cleveland dykes, has generally been sup¬ 
posed to afford sufficient evidence for their continuity. If this 
opinion be adopted, we must, I think, be compelled to admit 
the existence of a dyke through all the intermediate district*. 
On the contrary, there is no direct evidence for the existence 
of any trap associated with the magnesian limestone; and the 
relations of all the analogous formations in the coal district 
seem to prove, that the Cockfield Fell dyke cannot pass out 
of the limits of the coal-formation. 

If we adopt this latter opinion, we must admit that the dykes 
of Cockfield Fell and Cleveland (notwithstanding the agree¬ 
ment in their line of direction) belong to two distinct epochs. 
After all, the question is only one of local interest; and, as far 
as regards the leading object of this paper, of no importance 
whatsoever. 

Through the kindness of T. R. Underwood, Esq. of Paris, 

I have become acquainted with the results of an examination 
of specimens from several English trap dykes by Professor 
Cordier. I will subjoin his description of such specimens as 
were derived from localities alluded to in the preceding paper. 

* See the observations at p, 217 of this paper. 


No. E 


259 


Mr. Babbage on a New Class of 'Infinite Series. 

No. 1. From Preston quarry in the Cleveland dyke. Mi - 
mosite , fine grained, imperfectly porpheroidal from the salient 
crystals of pyroxene. It is a basalt of the ancient mineralo¬ 
gists. The specimen contains a great abundance of dark- 
greenish gray felspar, mixed with a very small quantity of 
pyroxene and titaniferous iron. Some points of pyrites are 
to be seen. The paste also, envelops laminar crystals of fel¬ 
spar, having a considerable lustre, which give the paste a scaly 
appearance which distinguishes it from basalt. 

No. 2. From Coaly Hill dyke near Newcastle. Mimosite , 
small grained, passing into ocerasite. Many of the cavities 
contain green-earth. It is imperfectly porpheroidal. The 
crystals of felspar very brilliant. 

No. 3. From Walbottle Dean dyke. This has a more de¬ 
cided character of a dolerite , very fine grained, the felspar 
whiter than in the others. 

As these distinctive terms are not generally adopted by 
English mineralogists ; it may be proper to state that mimosite 
and dolerite are granular rocks. Xerasite and basalt are com¬ 
posed of the same elements, but microscopic, and having the 
appearance of a paste. 


XL. On the Determination of the General Term of a New Class 
of Infinite Series. By Charles Babbage, Esq. M.A. Fellow 
of the Royal Societies of London a?id Edinburgh , and of the 
Cambridge Philosophical Society *. 

r I ''FIE subject of investigation on which I have entered in 
-*■ the following paper, had its origin in a circumstance 
which is, I believe, as yet singular in the history of mathema¬ 
tical science, although there exists considerable probability, 
that it will not long remain an isolated example of analytical in¬ 
quiries, suggested and rendered necessary by the progress of 
machinery adapted to numerical computation. Some time has 
elapsed since I was examining a small machine I had con¬ 
structed, by which a table, having its second difference con¬ 
stant, might be computed by mechanical means. In consi¬ 
dering the various changes which might be made in the ar¬ 
rangement of its parts, I observed an alteration, by which the 
calculated series would always have its second difference equal 
to the unit’s figure of the last computed term of the series; 
other forms of the machine would make the first or the third, 
or generally any given difference equal to the unit’s figure of 


* From the Cambridge Philosophical Transactions, vol. ii. Part I. 

2 K 2 the 




260 


Mr. Babbage on the General Term 


the term last computed; and a further alteration would make 
the same difference equal to double, or generally to ( a ) times 
the digit in the unit’s place: or if it were preferred, the digit 
fixed upon might be that occurring in the ten’s place, or ge¬ 
nerally in the n\h. place. I did not, at that time, possess the 
means of making these alterations which I had contemplated, 
but I immediately proceeded to write down one of the series 
which would have been calculated by the machine thus altered; 
and commencing with one of the most simple, I formed the 
series. Series. Diff. 


2 

4 

8 

6 

2 

4 

8 


2 

4 

8 

16 

22 

24 

28 


If u % represent any term of this series, then the equation which 
determines u is 

z 

A u — unit’s figure of u , 

Z C 5 z’ 

an equation of differences of a nature not hitherto considered, 
nor am I aware that any method has been pointed out for the 
determining u in functions of z from such laws. I shall now 

lay before the Society, the steps which I took for ascertaining 
the general terms of such series, and of integrating the equa¬ 
tions to which they lead. I shall not, however, commence 
with the general investigation of the subject, but shall simply 
point out the paths through which I was led to their solution, 
conceiving this course to be much more conducive to the pro¬ 
gress of analysis, although not so much in unison with the 
taste which at present prevails in that science. 

If we examine the series, and its first differences, it will be 
perceived, that the terms of the latter recur after intervals of 
four, and that all the changes in the first differences, are com¬ 
prised in the numbers 2, 4, 8, 6, which recur continually, and 

the series may be written thus: 

* 


Series. 


Diff. 

2 

4 

8 

6 

2 

4 


2 

4 

8 

16 


22 = 20 + 2 
24 = 20 + 4 


5 


28 =: 


261 


of a New Class of Infinite Series . 

Series. DiffI 

28 = 20 + 8 8 

36 = 26 + 16 6 

42 = 40 + 2 2 

10 44 = 40 + 4 4 

48 = 40 + 8 8 

56 = 40 + 16 6 

62 = 60 + 2 2 

64 = 60 + 4 4 

15 68 = 60 + 8 8 

76 = 60 + 16 6 

82 — 80 + 2 2 

If then z be of the form 4 v + i 9 the value of u will be 20y -f one 

of four numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, according to the value of i ? and if 
i always represents one of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, the value of 
u will be thus expressed, 

u — 20v + 2 Z . 

z 

As a second example, let us consider the series whose first 
term is 2, its first difference 0, and its second difference always 
equal the unit’s figure of the next term ; its equation will be 

A = unit’s figure of u 

and the few first terms are 

2 28 

2 48 

4 76 

10 110 

16 144 

182 

This series may be put under the form 


Series. 

1 Diff. 



• 


2 

0 





2 

2 





4 

6 





10 

16 

6 

12 



!Table of (a ). 

28 

20 



if a = 0 (a) 

= 2 

48 

28 



1 

2 

76 

34 



2 

4 

110 

34 



3 

10 

144 

38 



4 

16 

182 

40 = 40 

+ 

0 

5 

28 

222 

42 = 40 

+ 

2 

6 

48 

264 

46 = 40 

+ 

6 

7 

76 

310 

46 = 40 


6 

8 

110 

356 

52 = 40 


12 

9 

144 


262 


Mr. Babbage on the General Term 



Series. 

) Diff. 




15 

408 

60 

nz 

40 

T 

20 


468 

68 


40 

+ 

28 


536 

74 

zzz 

40 

+ 

34 


610 

74 

S3 

40 

+ 

34 


684 

78 

=3 

40 


38 

20 

762 

80 

=3 

80 

-f 

0 


842 

82 

— 

80 

+ 

2 


924 

86 

— 

80 

T 

6 


1010 

86 

zzz 

80 

+ 

6 


1096 

92 

3 = 

80 

+ 

12 

25 

1188 

100 

33 

80 

+ 

20 


1288 

108 

— 

80 

+ 

28 


1396 

114 

= 

80 

+ 

34 


1510 

114 

— 

80 

+ 

34 


1624 

118 

33 

80 

+ 

38 

30 

1742 

120 

33 

120 

H- 

0 


1862 

122 

—- 

120 

+ 

2 


In this series it may be observed, that u when z is less 

than 10, is equal to the sum of the first differences of all the 
preceding terms; and if z be greater than 10, it will be com¬ 
posed of four terms, viz. first the sum of the ten first terms of the 
first difference, multiplied by the number of tens contained in 
z; secondly, of the sum of the series 40 + 80 + 120 + to as 
many terms as there are tens in z, this must be multiplied by 
10, as each term is ten times added; and thirdly, of the num¬ 
ber 40 multiplied by the same number of the tens, and also 
multiplied by the digit in the unit’s place of z; and fourthly, 
of the sum of so many terms of the series as is equal to the 
unit’s figure of z; this being expressed by (a) signifying the 
number opposite a in the previous table. These four parts, if 
z — 10 & + «, are thus expressed, 

1 st 180 5, 

2" d 40— ~ * 10, 

3 rd 40 b a, 

4 th (a). 

These added together produce 

33 20 5 (10 5 + 2 a — 1) -j- (a). 

This value of u , if diminished by 2 , is equal to the sum of % — 1 

term of the series which constitute the first difference. 

This inductive process for discovering the nth. terms of such 
series, might be applied to others of the same kind; but it does 
not admit of an application sufficiently general or direct, to 
render it desirable that it should be pursued further. 


If 



268 


of a New Class of Infinite Series. 


If we consider any series in which the first difference is 
equal to the digit occurring in the unit’s place of the corre¬ 
sponding term, as for example, the series 

6 6 

12 2 

14 4 

18 8 

26 6 

32 2 

a slight examination will satisfy us, that the value of the digit 
occurring in the unit’s figure of a , depends entirely on the 

value of u , at the commencement of the series, and also that 

s’ 7 

whenever the same digit again occurs, there will, at that point, 
commence a repetition of the same figures which have pre¬ 
ceded ; consequently, the first difference at those two points 
will be equal. 

In the first example which I have adduced of a series of 
this kind, it will be found, that this reappearance of the ter-, 
minal figure, happens at the 5th, at the 9th, at the 13th terms, 
&c. or that 


A«! — Aw 5 = Au,, = Aw l3 = . . . . 
This gives for the equation of the series, 

A"„=a« +4 , 

or by integrating 

% = 

but when z * 1, u x = u, therefore 5 = 0, and 


a — u =0, 

% -f-1 z 7 

whose integral is 

u z - a(—\/ — l) z + b(— v / -l) i!+l + c( — */ — lf+ 2 + 

+ 5z. 

The four constants being determined, by comparing this 

value of u with the first four terms of the series, we shall find 

% 

< 2 = 0 , 5 = — o, c — ~2 — v/ — 1 5 d —— ~< 2 , T — 1, 

and the value of u becomes 

Z 

u z =5(z-\) + (i + + v/-l) (--/-l)*, 

which expresses any term of the series 

2, 4, 8, 16, 22, 24, 28, 36, 42, 44, 48. 

It is necessary, for the success of this method, that we should 
have continued the given series until we arrive at some term 
whose unit’s figure is the same as that of some term which 
has preceded it: now if we consider that this figure depends 
. . solely 


264 


Mr. Babbage on the General Term 

solely on that of the one which occupied the same place in the 
preceding term, it will appear that the same digit must re¬ 
appear in the course of ten terms at the utmost, since there 
are only ten digits, and that it may re-occur sooner. The 
same reasoning is applicable to the case of series whose first 
difference is equal to any multiple of the digits found in the 
unit’s place of the corresponding term, or to those contained 
in the equation 

A u^~ a x (unit’s figure of uj, 
as also to those in which this is increased by a given quantity, as 

Au^ = a (unit’s figure of ) + h. 

If the second difference is equal to some multiple of the figure 
occurring in the unit’s place of the next term, as in the series 

2, 2, 4, 10, 16, 

already given, since the unit’s figure must always depend on 
the same figure in the first term of the series, and its first dif¬ 


ference 2 0 

2 2 

4 6 

10 6 

• • 

• «• 


whenever those two figures are the same, a similar period must 
reappear: now as there are only two figures concerned, they can 
only admit of 100 permutations, consequently, this is the greatest 
limit of the periods in such species of series.—In the one in 
question the period is comprised in ten terms. This reasoning 
may be extended to other forms of series in which higher 
differences are given in terms of the digits occurring in the 
unit’s, ten’s, or other places of u n or « j or elsewhere, but I 

am aware that it does not in its present form present that de¬ 
gree of generality which ought to be expected on such a sub¬ 
ject: probably the attempt to solve directly that class of equa¬ 
tions to which these and similar inquiries lead, may be at¬ 
tended with more valuable results. 

As the term 66 unit's figure of ” occurs frequently, it will be 
convenient to designate it by an abbreviation; that which I 
shall propose is the combination of the two initials, and I shall 
write the above equation of differences thus 

A u — a UI ?u .(< 2 ). 

This may be reduced to a more usual form by the following 
method. If S represent the sum of the <rth powers of unity, 

divided by ten; then 

OS, 



265 


of a New Class of Infinite Series. 


0 S* + 1 S^j + 2 S^ 2 3 ^ x +3 * ®*+4 + 5 ^ 0 * 4-5 + 

6S x + 6 + 7S ,+7 + 8S x+8 + 9S , + 9> 
will represent the figure which occurs in the unit’s place of 
any number x : substituting u instead of x, we have 


— A w ~ 0 S -f-lS , ,4 2 S , n 4* • • • • 9 S iq / 7 } \ 

a ^ u u x 4* 4- 2 m*+9. [O). 


an equation in which u v enters as an exponent. 

From the previous knowledge of the form of the general 
terms of the series we are considering, it would appear that 
the general solution of the equations (a) and ( b ) is 

u ~ 9s4"cS 4'^'iS . 4* Ce S . 4 ••••»» c q S . n , 

1 z* x-f-z 5 z-\-2 1 y ^49’ 

where the constants must be determined from the conditions. 
In the further pursuit of any inquiries in this direction, much 
assistance may be derived by consulting a paper of Mr. Her- 
schel’s in the Philosophical Transactions for 1818, “ On cir¬ 
culating functions.” 

Amongst the conditions for determining the general terms 
of series by some relation amongst particular figures, there 
occurs a curious class, in which, if we consider only whole 
numbers, the series becomes impossible after a certain num¬ 
ber of terms. 

Let the equation determining a be 

Au = (UF?^ . 4 UFm 

Then the following series conform to this law, 


Series. 

Diff 

Series. 

Diff. 

Series. 

Diff 

1 

3 

4 

6 

1 

9 

4- 

5 

10 

4 

10 

1 

9 


14 

4 

11 

1 



18 


12 

3 





15 



If the law is restricted to whole numbers, none of these series 
admit of any prolongation; nor have I, with that restriction, 
been able to discover any series of the kind possessing more 
than five terms. 

Devonshire Street, Portland Place, C. Babbage. 

March 29, 1824. 


2 L 


Vol. 67. No. 330. April 1826. 


XLL On 



[ 266 ] 

XLL On the Application of the Sliding Hod Measurement in 
Hydrometry. By Robert Hare, M . D . Professor of Che¬ 
mistry in the University of Pennsylvania*. 

nPHERE is, in my opinion, no mode of measuring fluids, 
heretofore contrived, so accurate and convenient, as that 
which I have employed in my eudiometers. I allude to the 
contrivance of a rod, or piston, sliding through a collar of 
leathers into a tube, and expelling from it any contained fluid, 
in quantities measured by degrees marked upon the rod; and 
ascertained, with additional accuracy, by means of a vernier. 

One of the most advantageous applications of the mechanism 
alluded to is, in ascertaining specific gravities, in the case either 
of liquids or solids. To assay liquids which are not corrosive, 
I have employed two instruments like that represented in the 
following figure, severally graduated to 100 degrees, and fur¬ 
nished with a vernier, by which those degrees may be divided 
into tenths, and each scale made equivalent to 1000 parts. 


In order to avoid circumlocution, I shall, to the instrument 
here represented, give the name of Chyometer y from the Greek 
chuOs to pour, and meter , measure* 

Supposing two such instruments to be filled, to the extent 
of the graduation, one with pure water, the other with any 
spirituous liquid, lighter than water, whose gravity is to be 
found ; let 1000 parts of the liquid be excluded into one scale 
of a beam, and then exclude into the other scale as much water 
as will balance it. Inspecting the graduation of the chyome¬ 
ter, from which the water has been expelled, the numbers ob¬ 
served will be the answer sought. For, supposing 1000 mea¬ 
sures of alcohol were placed in one scale, if 800 measures of 

* Communicated by the Author. 



water 


Prof. Hare on the Sliding Rod Measurement inHydrometry . 267 

water counterbalance it, the alcohol must be to the water in 
gravity as 800 to 1000; since it is self-evident, that when any 
two masses are made equal in weight, their gravities must be 
inversely as their bulks. 

To ascertain the Specific Gravity of a Solid , by the Chyometer, 

For this purpose, the body, whose gravity is in question, 
should be suspended in the usual way, beneath one of the 
scales of a balance, and its w r eight in parts of water, at 60° Fahr. 
ascertained, by measuring from the chyometer, into the oppo¬ 
site scale, as many parts as will balance the body. Being thus 
equipoised, and a vessel of pure water, at the same tempera¬ 
ture as that introduced by the chyometer, duly placed under 
it; the number of parts of water, competent exactly to cause 
it to be merged in this fluid, will be the weight of a quantity 
of water equivalent in bulk to the body. Of course, dividing 
by the number thus observed, the weight of the body in parts 
of water as previously found, the quotient will be the specific 
gravity. ’ • 

This process ought to be easily understood, since it differs 
from the usual process only in using measures of water in¬ 
stead of the brass weights ordinarily employed. 

The chyometer enables us to make new weights, out of wa¬ 
ter, for each process. 

To ascertain the Specific Gravity of a Corrosive Fluid , by the 

Chyometer . 

The process described in the preceding page, is only appli¬ 
cable w here the fluid is not of a nature to act upon the sliding 
rod. By employing a body,—a glass bulb for instance,—ap¬ 
pended from a balance, as in the usual process, we may use 
water measured by the chyometer, in lieu of weights. 

First, having counterbalanced the body exactly, ascertain 
how many parts of water will cause it to sink in water; next, 
how many parts will cause it to sink in the liquid whose gra¬ 
vity is to be ascertained. The number last found, being di¬ 
vided by the first, the quotient is the specific gravity. 

Supposing that the graduation be made to correspond with 
the size of the bulb, so that 1000 parts of pure water will just 
sink the bulb in another portion of the same fluid; the pro¬ 
cess for any other liquid will be simply to ascertain how many 
parts of water wall sink the bulb in it. The number observed, 
will be the specific gravity; so that recourse to w r ater, or to 
calculation, would be unnecessary. 


2 I. 2 


To 


268 


s 

Prof. Hare on the Application 

To find the Specific Gravity of a Mineral , without Calculation , 

and without Degrees, 

Fig. 2. 

W S 



The preceding figure represents a balance employed in this 
process. It is in two respects more convenient than a com¬ 
mon balance. The moveable weight on one of the arms, ren¬ 
ders it easier to counterpoise bodies of various weights; and 
the adjustment of the index (I) by the screw (S) to the beam, 
saves the necessity of adjusting the beam to the index; the 
accurate accomplishment of which, by varying the weights, is 
usually a chief part of the trouble of weighing. 

One of the buckets, suspended from the beam, is five times 
as far from the fulcrum as the other. 

A chyometer is employed in this process, of which the fol¬ 
lowing figure will convey a correct idea. B 



The rod of this instrument is not graduated, but is provided 
with a band (B) which can be slipped along the rod, and fast¬ 
ened at any part of it by means of a screw. 


Let 




























of the Sliding Bod Measurement in Hydrometry . 269 

Let a mineral be suspended from the outer bucket, and ren¬ 
dered equiponderant with the counter-weight (W), by moving 
this further from or nearer to the fulcrum, so that the index 
point (I) may be exactly opposite the point of the beam. Place 
under the mineral a vessel of water, and add as much of this 
fluid to the bucket, by means of the chyometer, as will cause 
the immersion of the mineral. The band (B) which is made 
to slip upon the rod, should be so fastened, by means of the 
screw, as to mark the distance which the rod has entered, in 
expelling the water, requisite to sink the mineral. Having 
removed the vessel of water and the mineral, ascertain how 
many times the same quantity of water, which caused the im¬ 
mersion of the mineral, must be employed to compensate its 
removal. 

Adding to the number thus found, one for the water (pre¬ 
viously introduced into the bucket, in order to cause the im¬ 
mersion of the mineral), we have its specific gravity; so far as 
it may be expressed without fractions. When requisite, these 
may be discovered by means of the second bucket, which gives 
fifths for each measure of water; which, if added to the outer 
bucket, would be equivalent to a whole number. By the eye 
the distance is easily so divided, as to give half fifths or tenths. 
Or, the nearest bucket being hung one half nearer the ful¬ 
crum, the same measures will become tenths in the latter, which 
would be units, if added to the outer bucket. 

Rationale . 

The portion of the rod, marked off by the band, was evi¬ 
dently found competent, by its introduction into the tube of 
the chyometer, to exclude from the orifice a weight of water, 
adequate to counteract the resistance encountered by the mi¬ 
neral in sinking in water: consequently, to find the specific 
gravity of the mineral, we have only to find how often this 
weight (of water) will go into the weight of the mineral; or, 
what is the same effect, how often the former must be taken, 
in order to balance the latter. Indeed it must, otherwise, be 
sufficiently evident, that the mineral and the water being made 
equal in weight, their specific gravities must be inversely as 
their bulks, which are known by the premises. 

The inner bucket may be dispensed with, and greater frac¬ 
tional accuracy attained, by means of a sector, graduated into 
100 parts. It is for this purpose that the sliding band, and 
the ferule at the but-end of the tube, are severally furnished 
with the points. The assistance of a sector is especially ap¬ 
plicable, where fluids are in question, since it is necessary to 
find their differences in thousandths. 


To 


270 


Prof. Hare on the Application 


To find the Specific Gravity of a Liquid , by the Sectoral Chyo - 

meter. 

Let a glass bulb (represented in fig. 2, under the buckets) 
be suspended from the outer bucket, and counterpoised. Let 
the situation of the beam be marked, by bringing the point of 
the index opposite to it. Let the tube of the chyometer be 
full of water, and the rod retracted, until stopped by an en¬ 
largement purposely made at its inner B termination. Next re¬ 
turn it into the tube, until as much water is projected into the 
bucket, as is just adequate to cause the immersion of the bulb. 
Let the band be fastened upon the rod, close to where it en¬ 
ters the tube, so as to mark the extent to which it may have 
entered. The rod must in the next place be drawn out from 
its tube, to its first position; and the sector so opened, as that 
the points may extend from 100 degrees on one leg to 100 
upon the other. Leaving the sector thus prepared, place un¬ 
der the suspended ball, a vessel containing an adequate quan¬ 
tity of the fluid, whose gravity is required. If the fluid be 
lighter than water, in order to cause the immersion of the bulb 
in it, the rod will not have to enter so far, as at first. This 
distance being marked, by fixing the sliding cylinder, and the 
rod withdrawn from the tube as far as allowed by the stop, the 
number on each leg of the sector, with which the points will 
coincide, gives the gravity of the fluid. Forcing as much water 
into the bucket as had been sufficient to sink the bulb in wa¬ 
ter, will not sink it in a heavier liquid; consequently, in the 
case of such liquids, it will be necessary to fill the chyometer 
a second time, and force as much more water from it, as may 
be sufficient to cause the immersion of the bulb. The sliding * 
band being then fixed, and the points separated and applied 
to the sector as before, the number to which they extend must 
be added to the weight of water = 100, for the specific gravity 
of the fluid in question. 

Small differences are better found by subtraction; as, for 
instance, suppose the specific gravity of the fluid were 101; 
after the small addition of water made to the bucket, beyond 
the 100 parts required for the immersion of the bulb in voater 
(the band being unmoved), the points would extend from 99 
on one leg to 99 on the other. The difference between this 
number and 100, is then to be added to the weight of water; 
so that the specific gravity is found to be 101. 

The angle made by the sectoral lines in using the same bulb 
and the same rod will always be the same. Hence, a stay may 
be employed to give the sector the requisite opening. 

Indeed, were liquids alone in question, an immoveable sec¬ 
toral 


of the Sliding Bod Measurement in Hydfometry . 271 ' 

toral scale would answer. Thus prepared, it were unneces¬ 
sary to have recourse to water, excepting in the first adjust¬ 
ment ol the scale. The number of parts required to meroe 
the bulb in any fluid, will reach (at once or twice) the number 
01 numbeis, on the sector, which give the required gravity. 

In this process if greater accuracy be desirable^, it is onlv 
necessary to employ a smaller rod or a larger bulb. Instead 
of effecting an immersion by one stroke of the rod, it may be 
done by ten strokes, which will make each division of the sec¬ 
tor indicate a thousandth of the bulk of the bulb. 

. Allowing process is, however, preferable, as the sector 

is made to give the answer in thousandths, without the delay 
oi filling and emptying the chyometer more than once. 

Let the distance on the rod of the chyometer be ascertained ; 
which, when introduced five times successively, will exclude 
just water enough to overcome the resistance encountered bv 
a globe, in sinking in that fluid. Let the sector be opened, 
to the distance so designated : let the globe be partially coun¬ 
terpoised, so as to float in any liquid heavier than 800. The 
apparatus being thus prepared, if the globe be placed in a li¬ 
quid, in which it floats, add as much water, from the chyo¬ 
meter to the scale, from which it hangs, as will sink it; and, 
by means of the points and the sector, ascertain the value of 
the distance to which the rod has been introduced. Addins 

the numbers thus found to 800, the sum will be the specific 
gravity of the liquid. 1 

For this process the sector should be divided into 200 parts; 
and the proper opening being once duly ascertained, should 
be preserved by means of an arc like that attached to common 
beam compasses. 

Instead of a globe, a hydrometer surmounted with a cup, 
may be employed, either with a graduated or a sectoral chyo¬ 
Before taking leave of the reader, it may be proper to ex¬ 
plain the use of the square dish, which may be seen to the left 
under the beam (fig. 5), The arc of wire is for the purpose 
of suspending the dish to the hook, in place of the outer bucket. 
When so suspended, filled with water, and duly balanced, it 
will be found soon to become sensibly lighter, in consequence 
of the evaporation of the water. By means of the chyometer, 
it is easy to ascertain the different quantities evaporated, in 
similar times, at different periods, and in different places;’ so 
that, guarding against the effect of aerial currents, hydrome- 
trical observations may be made with great accuracy. 

In lieu of having points attached to the chyometer, as re¬ 
presented in the figure, it may be as convenient to have two 

small 


272 On the Skeleton of the Plesiosaurus Dolichodeirus. 

small holes, for the insertion of the points of a pair of com¬ 
passes, either of the common kind, of the construction used by 
clock-makers, or that which is known under the name of beam 

compasses. c , 

The compasses may be used to regulate the opening ol the 

sector, or to ascertain by the aid of that instrument, the com¬ 
parative value of the distances which the rod of the chyometer 
has to be introduced into its tube. 

In order to convey an idea of the nature of the sector to any 
reader who may be unacquainted with it, I trust it will be suf¬ 
ficient to point out, that its construction is similar to that of 
the foot-rule used by carpenters. We have only to suppose 
such a rule, covered with brass, and each leg graduated into 
200 equal parts, in order to have an adequate conception of 

the instrument employed by me. 

A more particular explanation of the principle of the sector, 
may be found in any Encyclopaedia, or Dictionary of Mathe¬ 
matics. 


XLII. On the Skeleton of the Plesiosaurus Dolichodeirus dis¬ 
covered in the Lias at Lyme , in Dorsetshire , in the Collection 
of His Grace the Duke of Buckingham. 


T HE plate (III.) given in our present Number, represents a 
nearly perfect skeleton of the Plesiosaurus Dolichodeirus , 
described by the Rev. W. D. Conybeare, F.R.S. &c. in a me¬ 
moir given at p. 412 of our 65th volume. The drawing from 
whiclTthe original plate in the Geological Transactions was 
enoraved was executed with extreme care by Mr. Webster. 
The several parts are described in the memoir. 

44 The bones are entirely imbedded in a matrix of lias shale, 
which, though intersected in several places by Pies of fracture, 
has evidently, from the mutual adaptation of the;'parts, formed 
one entire mass. Above twenty of the cervical vertebras con¬ 
nected with the head, lie together unbroken. 

44 We have omitted to state in the memoir, that a second 
unbroken specimen of the entire vertebral column, from the 
head to the tail, was found at the same time and place with 
the one here represented; and has been presented by Professor 
Buckland to the museum at Oxford.”— Trans. Geol. Soc. Sec. 
Ser. vo). i. 

[See a delineation of the Skeleton conjecturally restored m 
Plate III. vol. lxv.] 


XLIII. Note 

















ys. J sfr//r// sy/sy ;// 








































[ 273 ] 

XL III. Note on the Ge7ius Condylura of Uliger. By J. D. 

Godman, 

A S several very interesting external characters peculiar to 
^the Condylura cristata have been entirely overlooked by r 
those who have heretofore written on this subject, the object 
of this Note is to supply the deficiency as far as possible, es¬ 
pecially as these characters may be very serviceable in enabling 
us to compare the present genus with some others. 

The Condylura cristata is destitute of an auricle projecting 
above the level of the skin, but is, nevertheless, provided with 
an extremely large exter nal ear, as we may properly consider 
all that part which is entirely exterior to the tympanum and 
skull. The meatus externus is half an inch long, having a 
distinctly marked tragus and anti-tragus, and is situated at a 
short distance from the shoulder, in the broad triangular fold 
of integument connecting the fore-arm and head, and may be 
very easily missed by those who merely examine stuffed skins, 
or specimens preserved in spirits. From the meatus, the 
course of the cartilaginous tube is obliquely downwards, for¬ 
wards, and inwards, until it terminates in a delicate bony tube, 
previous to reaching the tympanum, which is large and com¬ 
posed of a very delicate membrane. 

The scales on the anterior and posterior extremities have 
been mentioned in general terms by several writers, especially 
by Desmarest, who has given the best description of the ani¬ 
mal that has yet appeared. But these scales are so peculiar 
and uniform in their position, that I cannot understand how 
a naturalist could pass over the particulars of their arrange¬ 
ment in silence. 

On the anterior extremities the superior or ulnar edge of 
the hand has on its anterior surface, (regarding the position 
of the animal,) a row of corneous scales, about nine in number, 
which are broadest midway from the carpus to the first pha¬ 
lanx of the fifth finger. Another row of scales commences on 
the inferior part of the back of the little finger, becoming 
broader and of a semilunar figure as they extend towards the 
metacarpus, between these two a much smaller row is placed. 
The fourth finger has a single row of small scales on its upper 
posterior side, and a large one extending along the back of 
the finger to the metacarpus; the middle finger has a small 
central row, which is distinguishable; that on the fore finger 
is still more faint; the thumb has none but very small ones on 
its central posterior part, but on its inferior posterior part, or 

* From Journal of Acad, of Nat. Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. v. p. 109. 

Vol. 67. No. 336. April 1826. 2 M radial 



274 Dr. Godman’s Note on the Ge?ius Condylura of Illiger. 

radial edge, it has one scale of considerable size on the pha¬ 
lanx, and four or five between this part and the carpus; the 
two nearest the scale on the phalanx are largest. 

The surface of the palm of the hand is covered with small 
circular scales, extending most numerously, and of a darker 
colour, from opposite the root of the thumb obliquely outward 
to the basis of the little finger. 

On the inferior extremities, the whole of the superior sur¬ 
face of the foot is covered with minute, blackish, circular 
scales, which increase slightly in size as they approach the 
toes. On the anterior part of the fourth toe is a large central 
row of black scales, and on the fifth a rather smaller one; 
hence these toes have a very considerable resemblance to the 
toes of a bird. The other toes of the hind foot being applied 
with their anterior surfaces to the ground, have the scales very 
minute and almost colourless. 

The colour of the scales varies on different parts of the 
hand. On so much of the back of the hand as is formed by 
the fourth and little fingers, the scales are very dark blue, 
approaching a black, in the living animal; thence to the large 
scales of the thumb the colour changes to a faint purplish 
blue, which is little more than distinguishable. 

Two other excellent characters belonging to the palm of the 
hand have been neglected: the first is the enlargement of the 
carpal edge of the palm by an elongation of the integuments; 
this, in addition to the row of bristles that margins all the rest 
of the palm, has two distinct bristly hairs at its superior and 
inferior edge, more than Jth of an inch long. The second cha¬ 
racter is still more striking; it is a process of the palmar cu¬ 
ticle on the superior edge of the thumb and three succeeding 
fingers. These processes are serrated and directed obliquely 
upwards and outwards; the serrations on the thumb being 
two, and on the three succeeding fingers three in number. 

On the soles of the (posterior) feet another character is 
found, which consists of five circular, distinct spots, so ar¬ 
ranged that the two nearest the body are parallel with each 
other, opposite the commencement of the first toe, counting 
as in the human subject, from the one nearest the median line 
of the body; the superior spot is nearly in a line with the 
fourth toe, and larger and darker coloured than the inferior; 
the two succeeding spots (nearer the extremity of the toes) are 
also parallel with each other; the exterior one is largest of all 
these plantar scales, and placed nearly over the extremity of 
the metatarsal of the fourth toe; the inferior spot is nearly 
over the root of the second toe; the fifth or single scale is 
placed in advance of all the rest, and is situated immediately 

over 


Dr. Godman’s Note on the Genus Condylura of llliger. 275 

over the centre and behind the separation of the third and 
fourth toes. 

A very analogous arrangement may be observed in the sole 
of the feet of the Sigmodon hispidum of Ord. 

By comparing the Condylura with the Scalops, we are led 
to several interesting observations. We have seen that the 
Condylura has a remarkable and large external ear, though it 
is destitute of a projecting auricle. The Scalops has neither 
auricle nor meatus externus opening on the side of the head, 
as the skin of the head extends over the cartilaginous tube, 
which is small, and a simple funnel. The situation of the ear 
is to be discovered externally only by a very small spot, not 
larger than the circumference of an ordinary pin head. , 

The hand of the Scalops is peculiar for its great breadth 
and strength: the extraordinary breadth is produced by an 
additional metacarpal bone, inferior or external to the thumb, 
articulated with the carpus, and having a tendon for moving 
it from the common flexor of the fingers*. On the superior 
or ulnar edge of the hand there is a cartilaginous additament, 
connected with the little finger by a tendon. The Condylura 
has the additional metacarpal bone, but rather like a rudi¬ 
ment, and has not the cartilaginous additament at the superior 
edge of the hand; hence the very great difference in breadth 
in the hands of the two genera. The Scalops has a slight 
process or elongation, not at the carpal extremity of the palm, 
but on the inferior or outer edge of the supplementary bone. 

If we compare the Scalops and Condylura with the de¬ 
scription of Talpa europcea , the resemblance will be found 
greater between the Condylura and Talpa in regard to the 
ears and eyes. If we compare the hands and nose, we shall 
find that the Scalops approximates more closely to the Euro¬ 
pean genus; nevertheless, the affinity of neither is so strong 
as to endanger their being confounded with Talpa, if we were 
to judge from external characters alonef. 

Of the genus Condylura I believe after a patient examina¬ 
tion, and obtaining specimens from various localities, that 
most probably there is no other species in this country than 

* This structure resembles that of the Talpa europcea; but as that species 
does not exist in this country, I have not been able to obtain a recent spe¬ 
cimen for comparison. 

' f 1 am happy to state from actual and repeated observation, that it is 
the Scalops which in this country forms the “ mole-hills similar to those 
thrown up by the Talpa europcea. As far as I can ascertain, no such cir¬ 
cumstance has yet been remarked relative to the burrowing of the Condy¬ 
lura. In a forthcoming work on American Natural History, a full account 
will be given of my observations on the habits of the Scalops and Condy¬ 
lura. 


2 M 2 


the 


276 Dr. Godman’s Note on the genus Condylura of Illiger. 

the cristata *. The only evidence of the existence of a longi- 
caudata is that given by Pennant, who describes it without 
reference to the nasal rays. It is on this indication that 
Gmelin, Illiger, and Desmarest have allowed of the species, 
the latter author with very strong doubts, which Ranzani re¬ 
peats. From Pennant’s figure I feel convinced that his Ion- 
gicaudata was a stuffed and dried specimen of the Condylura 
cristata , having the nasal radii shrunk and distorted. A spe¬ 
cimen in this condition I have now in my possession, and it 
might readily be taken for the longicaudata y figured by Pen¬ 
nant. 

The Condylura cristata is subject at certain seasons to a 
very remarkable enlargement of the tail, varying from the 
smallest or most ordinary size to the thickness of the little 
finger. This circumstance was long since made known to 
many of his friends by Mr. Titian Peale, who found one of 
the largest size: since then I have found one, and examined 
several others, and both Messrs. Say and Bonaparte confirm 
this observation by other examinations: all the specimens yet 
examined having the tail thus enlarged, were males; and it is 
most probable that the enlargement occurs only during the 
rutting season. Messrs. Say and Peale both suggested to me 
a long time since, that the differences heretofore serving for 
the establishment of the longicaudata as a distinct species, 
were merely sexual. In all other respects the species of Con¬ 
dylura found are invariable in their external characters, if we 
except a single specimen obtained by my friend, Titian Peale, 
which may prove to be a new species, should he find other 
specimens with the same character, for which purpose he 
defers his observations. It is certainly an extremely desirable 
circumstance that we should rid the American Fauna of a 
great number of merely nominal species, which never had 
existence unless in the imagination of their authors: to this 
end the labours of American naturalists should be directed, 
as it is a great advance towards true knowledge to disencum¬ 
ber ourselves of error. 

It is well known that the appearance from which Illiger 
named the genus, was an extravagant exaggeration of Dela- 
faille, who represented it in his plate as having numerous 
knots or strangulations on the tail. Desmarest’s figure is also 
incorrect in relation to the tail; he having figured it from a 

* A late number of the United States Literary Gazette contained an 
annunciation of a newly discovered species of this genus, by Dr. Han •is, of 
Milton. From a description given by this gentleman in a letter to a distin¬ 
guished naturalist of Philadelphia, we are satisfied that the supposed new 
animal is the well known Condylura cristata . 


Mr. Groombridge on the Opposition of the Minoi' Planets* 277 

dried specimen ; in the recent state, the knotted appearance 
is not distinguishable: he has also drawn it with the palms 
turned nearly to the earth, instead of placing them with the 
thumbs to the ground and the palms presenting backwards. 
In the recent English translation of Baron Cuvier’s Regne 
Animal , Desmarest’s figure is copied, but is rendered vastly 
more incorrect and unnatural than it is in the original. 

Note .—In my Note on the genus Condylura recently pub” 
lished, it is stated that the Scalops has the integuments con¬ 
tinued over the cartilaginous tube leading to the internal ear. 
I lately had an opportunity of examining several fine speci¬ 
mens, and have found the very small meatus auditorius ex¬ 
tern us, w hich will admit a body of the size of a common pin. 
It is by no means easily discovered, and is situated about 
three-fourths of an inch behind the eye, nearly over the ante¬ 
rior part of the shoulder joint. 


XLIV. On the Opposition of the Minor Planets. Bp Stephen 
Groombridge, Esq. F.R.S. fyc. fyc. 


TTAVING computed the apparent places of these planets 
about the time of their respective oppositions in pre¬ 
ceding years, from elements which required correction in the 
mean epoch of longitude on the orbit; particularly in Pallas, 
whose mean diurnal tropical motion had been assumed too 
great a quantity : I have now corrected their elements from 
the observations made at Greenwich in the last year; and the 
following Ephemeris will show their apparent places at mid¬ 
night for 1826. 

Dist. from 


Pallas . . . 
Ceres . . . 
Vesta . . . 

Juno . . . 


Opposition. 

June 23d at 17 h 28' 
June 28th 23 59 
August 18th 15 20 
November 1st 10 23 


Anomaly. 
329° 26' 
311 16 
256 35 
166 19 


© - 1 

2-563 

1-886 

1-291 

1-023 


Pallas will appear very faint, being so distant from the earth; 
but Vesta and Juno being in the lower part of their orbits, will 
appear as stars of 6th and 7th magnitude. 


Blackheath, April 19, 1826. 


S. Groombridge. 


Ephemeris 







278 Mr. Groombridge on the Opposition of the Minor Planets . 


Ephemeris at Midnight. 


PALLAS. 

CERES. ' 

1826. 

M 

Dec 

. N. 

1826. 

JR 

Dec. S. 



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Mr. Groombridge on the Opposition of the Minor* Planets, 279 


Ephemeris at Midnight. 


v 

VESTA. 


JUNO. 

1826. 

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Dec. S. . 

1826. 

/R 

Dec. N. 


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[ ' 280 } 


XLV. Report made to the Academy of Scie?ices , c 2 c 2d of 
August 1825, on the Voyage of Discovery , performed m the 
Years 1822, 1823, 1824, arid 1825, under the command oj 
M. Duperrey, Lieutenant of the Navy. 

(Commissioners: MM. deHumboldt, Cuvier,Desfontaines, 
Cordier, Latreille, de Rossel; and Arago, Reporter.) 

[Continued from p. 210.] 

Magnetism. 

T HE phenomena of terrestrial magnetism, in spite of more 
than a century of researches, are still enveloped in great 
obscurity. M. Duperrey was occupied upon them, during 
the whole of his voyage, with the most persevering attention, 
both when at sea and when in various ports. His journals 
contain a multitude of observations of declination, inclination, 
intensity, and diurnal variations of the decimation, made ac¬ 
cording to the best methods. The Commission is of opinion 
that by here presenting a rapid sketch of the advancemen 
which science may expect from this great woik, it will ful 

the intentions of the Academy. 

There exists, as is well known, on the globe, a curve along 
which the magnetic needle maintains a horizontal position. 1 his 
curve, which has received the name of the magnetic equator, 
has been lately the object of the investigations of MM. Hans- 
teen and Morlet. Although these two philosophers have 
used the same data, yet on some points they have anived at 
results slightly different. In the chart of the learned Norwe¬ 
gian, as well as in that of our countryman, the magnetic equa¬ 
tor is, entirely, to the south of the terrestrial equator, between 
Africa and America. The greatest distance of these two 
curves in latitude, corresponds to about 25 of west longitude. 

lt In'the first chart we find a node (nceud) in Africa, at 22° of east 
longitude; the second places it 4° more to the west. According 
to Messrs. Hansteen and Morlet, if we proceed from this node 
advancing to the side of the Indian sea, the line of no dip swerves 
rapidly towards the north of the terrestrial equator, quits Africa 
a little to the south of Cape Guardafui, and comes in the 
Arabian sea to its absolute maximum of northern excursion 
(about 12°), at 62° east longitude. Between this meridian and 
the 174th degree of longitude, the line of no dip constantly 
keeps in the northern hemisphere. It cuts the Indian penin¬ 
sula a little to the north of Cape Comorin ; crosses the GuJi 
of Bengal slightly approaching the terrestrial equator from 

which it is only 8° apart at the entranceof the Gulf of Siam; then 
■ J 1 remounts 


281 


Report of the Voyage of the Coquille, 

remounts a trifle to the north; nearly touches the northern 
point of Borneo; crosses the isle Paragua, the strait which se¬ 
parates the southernmost of the Philippines from the island 
ol Mindanao, and under the meridian of Waigiou is again 
found at 9° of north latitude. From thence, after having 
passed through the archipelago of the Carolines, the magnetic 
equator descends rapidly towards the terrestrial equator, and 
cuts it, according to Morlet, at 174°; and according to 
Hansteen, at 187° of east longitude. There is much less un¬ 
certainty respecting the position of a second node also situated 
in the Pacific Ocean: its west longitude should be about 120° : 
but whilst the researches of M. Morlet have led him to admit 
that the magnetic equator, after having merely touched the 
terrestrial equator, immediately inclines towards the south, 
M. Hansteen supposes that this curve passes into the northern 
hemisphere for a space of about 15° of longitude, and then 
returns again to cut the equinoctial line at 23° distance from 
the western coast of America, In fine, not to exaggerate this 
discordance, we ought to say that in its northern excursion, 
Hansteen’s curve without dip does not depart from the ter¬ 
restrial equator more than one degree and a half, and that, de¬ 
finitively, this line, and that of M. Morlet, are nowhere at two 
degrees distance one from the other in the direction of the 
parallels of latitude. 

These different results belong to the magnetic equator of 
the year 1780. Have there happened, since then, any re¬ 
markable changes, either in the form of this curve, or in the 
position of its nodes? We do not doubt that the labours of 
M. Duperrey, united to the excellent observations of M. Frey- 
cinet, may fully clear up this question; your commissioners 
must confine themselves here to laying before you what they 
have been able to deduce from a first view. 

The Coquille has crossed the magnetic equator six times. 
Two of the points whose position she thus directly deter-" 
mined are situated in the Atlantic Ocean at 27° 19' 22 f/ and 
14° 2Cf 15" west longitude, and 12° 27' ll w and 9° 4 5’ 0" of 
south latitude. In M. Morlet’s map the latitudes of the 
points of the line of no dip answering to 27°^ and 14°J west 
longitude, are respectively 14° 10' and 11° 36 r . The line with¬ 
out inclination seems then, at the first point, to have come 
nearer to the terrestrial equator by 1° 43', and at the meridian 
of the second, by 1° 5l r . M. Hansteen’s chart gives very 
nearly the same differences. 

In the South Sea, near the coast of America, M. Duperrey 
found, first in going from Callao to Payta, and afterwards 
during his navigation between Payta and the Society Islands, 

Vol. 67. No. 336. April 1826. ‘ 2 N two 


282 Report of the Voyage of Discovery 

two points of the magnetic equator, of which the co-ordinates 
are : 

Long. 83° 38' W. Lat. 7° 45' S. 

Long. 85° 46' W. Lat. 6° 18' S. 

In the charts of MM. Hansteen and Morlet, the latitudes 
are about one degree less . Llere the difference is in a con¬ 
trary direction to that which we found in the Atlantic Ocean: 
towards the coasts of Peru, the magnetic equator seems then 
to have become more distant from the terrestrial equator. 

Let us, lastly, proceed to the two points determined directly 
during the circumnavigation of the Coquille, in the northern 
part of the line of no dip. M. Duperrey has found for their 
co-ordinates: 

Long. 170° 37' 24" E. Lat. 0° 53' N. 

Long. 145° 2' 38" E. Lat. 7° 0' N. 

These latitudes are less on the charts which represent the 
equator of 1780. In the part of the equinoctial ocean corre¬ 
sponding to the Carolines and to the Mulgrave Islands, the 
line of no dip seems now, notwithstanding, to remove from the 
terrestrial equator. - 

Variations apparently so contradictory, will notwithstanding 
admit of a very simple explanation, even without its being ne¬ 
cessary to admit a change of form in the magnetic equator, 
provided we suppose that this curve is endowed with a trans- 
latory movement, which, from year to year, transports it pro¬ 
gressively and in mass from the east to the west. From 1780 
to the present period, this retrogradation of the nodes, in order 
that the numerical value of the change observed in the lati¬ 
tudes may be deduced from it, should hardly be below 10°. 
If the rapidity of this change of position be looked upon as an 
objection, we would remark that the direct observations of the 
position of the nodes lead very nearly to the same results. 
M. Duperrey has found, in fact, a node of the curve at about 
172° east longitude : on M. Hansteen’s map this node is placed 
at the 184th degree. In the South Sea, the tangent node of 
M. Morlet, and the two nodes of M. Hansteen are found between 
the 108th and the 126th degree of west longitude. Very ex¬ 
act observations made on board the Uranie, in 1819, and which 
M. Freycinet has had the goodness to communicate to us, 
carry this node as far as the 132d degree of longitude. 
Indeed we find, in a work by Captain Sabine, published only 
a few weeks since by order of the British Board of Longitude, 
an observation which shows in a manner no less evident 
that the point of intersection of the two equators, which was 
situated in Africa, in the interior of the continent, and pretty 
far from the coast in 1780, has advanced from the east to the 

west 


283 


made in the Coquille by M. Duperrey . 

west as far as the Atlantic Ocean. The observation of which 
we have been speaking was made at the Portuguese island of 
St. Thomas. Captain Sabine found indeed, in 1822, for the 
value of the dip, 0° 4' S. The magnetic equator then 
actually passes by this island, the latitude of which is 24' N., 
or some minutes only more to the west. Its point of inter¬ 
section with the terrestrial equator is about 5° of east longi¬ 
tude, whilst, according to the observations of 1780, MM. 
Morlet and Hansteen have placed it at least 13° more to the 
east. 

According to these several approximations, the existence of a 
translator) 1 movement in the magnetic equator is very probable. 
M. Morlet had already pointed it out, but with the proper doubt 
which measures of the dip obtained without change of the 
poles of the needle justly excited in his mind. In this re¬ 
spect we can now obtain complete certainty in investigating 
under the same point of view the whole of the observations on 
the dip made in the open sea in the equinoctial regions. The 
journals kept on board the Uranie and the Coquille include 
aU the elements of these researches, in our opinion one of the 
most important that can now be undertaken on the pheno¬ 
mena of terrestrial magnetism. It would appear, in short, 
that it is the form and position of the line of no dip, which 
determines from one pole to the other, in what direction, in 
every place, the annual variations of the magnetic needle shall 
manifest themselves. This conjecture, inasmuch as there is 
question of change of inclination, is to be found in the inter¬ 
esting memoir of M. Morlet, which the Academy some years 
ago honoured with its approbation. If the appellation of mag¬ 
netic latitude of a point be given to the angular distance from 
this point to the line without dip, measured on the magnetic 
meridian considered as a great circle, we shall find in general, 
according to M. Morlet, that the inclination of the needle di¬ 
minishes , where the translatory movement of the equator 
tends to diminish the magnetic latitude; and that it increases , 
on the contrary, every where where the magnetic latitude be¬ 
comes greater. Some places, such as New Holland, Teneriffe, 
&c. seem notwithstanding to form an exception to it. The 
observations collected in the voyages of the Uranie and Co¬ 
quille have enabled us to submit this rule to a greater number 
of verifications, and to learn that it agrees with experience in 
a very remarkable manner, even in the stations which M. Mor¬ 
let had excepted. We see in this manner that if the south 
inclination increases rapidly at St. Helena, whilst the north 
inclination diminishes rapidly at Ascension, it is because in its 
translatory movement, the magnetic equator, which is consi- 

2 N 2 derably 


284 


Report of the Voyage of Discovery 

derably removed from the first of these islands, approaches, on 
the contrary, the second, which it will even reach in a few 
years. The magnetic meridian of the Cape, produced to¬ 
wards the north, passes at a little distance from one of the 
nodes towards the west: hence the inclination must rapidly 
increase there; and this is what the observations of Cook, of 
Bayly, of King, of Vancouver, and of Freycinet, also show. 
At Otaheite, Bayly, Wales, and Cook found, in 1773, 1774, 
and 1777, a dip of the needle of about 30°; M. Duperrey de¬ 
duces from his observations 30° 36'; the annual change then 
is nearly insensible: but the magnetic meridian of Otaheite 
also meets the line without dip very near to its maximum of 
latitude; that is to say, in a point where this curve is nearly 
parallel to the terrestrial meridian. The rapid change of dip 
at Conception in Chili, deduced from the comparison of the 
observations of Malaspina and of M. Duperrey; the inconsi¬ 
derableness, on the contrary, of this motion at the Sandwich 
Islands, which seems to us to result from the observations of 
Bayly, Cook, Vancouver, and M. Freycinet, present a no less 
striking confirmation of the rule. 

If an exact investigation of the observations on the hori¬ 
zontal needle showed, what at first sight appears to be the 
case, that in each place the changes of variation may also 
be connected with the position of the magnetic equator, the 
study of the motion of this curve would acquire a new import¬ 
ance. It is an inquiry of which MM. Freycinet and Du¬ 
perrey possess all the elements, and which appears to us 
worthy of occupying their attention. We shall content our¬ 
selves here with remarking, that it results from the observa¬ 
tions of these two officers, compared with those of Cook and 
Vancouver, that the declination, whether at Otaheite, to the 
south of the two equators, or at the Sandwich Islands, in a 
northern latitude, is still as little variable as the dip. 

The maritime expedition of the Uranie is the first during 
which the diurnal oscillations of the horizontal magnetic needle 
were studied. The valuable observations published by M. Frey¬ 
cinet have established in an incontestable manner, that between 
the tropics the extent of this oscillation is sensibly less than in 
our climates. It would also appear that we may infer that 
in the southern hemisphere, vohatever be the direction of the 
dip , the northern extremity of the needle moves towards 
the east at the same hour when we see it in Europe vary to¬ 
wards the west. This fact, in its turn, led to the consequence, 
that between Europe and the regions where M. Freycinet’s 
observations were made, points mustbe found in which the varia¬ 
tion would be absolutely nothing. There remained only to de¬ 
termine 


285 


made in the Coquille by M. Duperrey. 

term ine whether these p oints belonged to the magnetic equator 
or the terrestrial equator. The second supposition could hardly 
be reconciled with the existence of a diurnal variation offrom three 
to four minutes at Rawack: for this port, situated in the country 
of the Papous, is only in 0° l'~ south latitude. Nevertheless 
it seemed desireable, in order to dissipate all uncertainty, that 
the phoenomenon should be observed between the two equators. 
Such was the principal object of the stay of M. Duperrey at 
Payta. In this city, situated to the north of the magnetic 
equator and to the south of the terrestrial equator, the 
northern extremity of the needle observed with a microscope 
moved, as in Europe, from east to west, from eight o’clock in 
the morning till noon. This angular deviation is very small; 
but its direction, respecting which the observations leave no un¬ 
certainty, would seem to authorise the conclusion^ that all 
along the magnetic equator the horizontal needle is not sub¬ 
ject to diurnal variations. In other stations situated like 
Payta,—at the Isle of Ascension, for example,—we have never¬ 
theless been able to see that this inference would have been 
premature. The phaenomenon is more complex than would be 
imagined. Perhaps the changes in the declination of the sun, 
which in Europe occasion such great variations in the extent 
of the diurnal oscillations, produce, according to the seasons 
under the tropics, motions of the needle in an inverse direction. 
Further observations made in months and places suitably 
chosen will remove these doubts. It appears to us also, that 
it would be very useful for the Academy, from this time, to 
recommend this inquiry in a particular manner to the attention 
of navigators, especially if, as is announced, a new expedition 
for discovery is soon to sail from our ports. 

To terminate this article, the length of which we hope will 
be excused, we have yet to add that M. Duperrey has given 
all his attention to the experiments from which may be de¬ 
duced the comparative intensities of terrestrial magnetism in 
various places, and that he is also engaged in making obser¬ 
vations proper for giving the corrections of which the mag¬ 
netic elements obtained at sea are susceptible. It has ap¬ 
peared to us that in general these corrections will be very in¬ 
considerable. 

Meteorology. 

Meteorology will have been enriched by the expedition of 
the Coquille, from a journal in which, for thirty-one months in 
succession and without there being one exception, were noted 
six times a day the state of the atmosphere, its temperature, 
its pressure, and the temperature of the sea. While lying-to 
for example, at Payta; at Waigiou, under the terrestrial equa¬ 
tor ; 


286 Report of the Voyage of Discovery 

tor; at the Isle of France, at St. Helena, at Ascension, be¬ 
tween the tropics ; our navigators had the incredible patience 
to observe the thermometer and the barometer at every quarter 
of an hour, day and night, for whole weeks. So much pains, 
will not be lost; observations so minutely exact, so detailed 
will furnish valuable data on the law which connects cor¬ 
responding atmospheric temperatures with the different hours 
of the day; on the value of the diurnal and nocturnal baro- 
metric period; on the hours of the maxima and the mi- 
nima , &c. Thanks to the extreme complaisance of M. Del- 
cros, (a very distinguished geographical engineer,) in going at 
the request of one of us, to Toulon,—in order to compare the 
instruments of the Coquille with a barometer which belongs 
to him, and which has agreed for several years with that of the 
Observatory,—we shall' be able to decide that which indeed 
is scarcely any longer a question, since the observations of 
MM. Boussingault and Riviero have been received in Europe, 
whether the mean pressure of the atmosphere be the same in 
all climates. 

Since the celebrated voyages of Cook, no one any longer 
doubts that the southern hemisphere is in mass decidedly 
colder than the northern ;—but at what distance from the 
equinoctial regions does the difference begin to be felt? Ac¬ 
cording to what law does it become greater in proportion as 
the latitude augments? When these questions shall have been 
completely resolved, the various causes to which this great 
phenomenon has been attributed may be submitted to an ex¬ 
act investigation. Already the stay of M. Duperrey at the 
Malouines, will show that by 51°^ of latitude, the difference 
of climate is very great. We see, in effect, that at the anchor¬ 
age of the Baie Fraiiyaise, from the ] 9th to the 30th of No¬ 
vember 1822, the mean temperatures of the atmosphere and 
of the sea were respectively : 

+ 8°* 0 and -f 8°* 2 Cent. 

The month following, from the 1st to the' 18th, we found : 

4- 10°* 0 and + 9°* 4. 

We can then adopt + 9°* 0 Cent, for the mean temperature 
of the Malouines, in the thirty days which precede the sum¬ 
mer solstice of these regions. London is precisely under 
the latitude of Baie Fra?icaise. Then the mean tempera¬ 
ture of the twelve last days of May, and of the eighteen 
first days of June, according to the tables published by the 
Royal Society, is about 15° Cent. : that is, 6° more than at the 
Malouines. 

The inquiry respecting the direction and swiftness of cur¬ 
rents merits in the highest degree the attention of naviga¬ 
tors. 


287 


made in the Coquille by M. Duperrey . 

tors. Meteorological observations are not less adapted to ac¬ 
celerate the progress of this important branch of the nau¬ 
tical art, than the method generally employed by mariners, 
and which consists in comparing latitudes and longitudes as¬ 
tronomically determined, with the corresponding latitudes and 
longitudes deduced from the observation of the compass and 
the log. 

The waters of a certain region, when they are transported 
by a current into a region more or less approaching to the 
equator, lose in the passage only a part of their former tem¬ 
perature. The ocean is thus furrowed by a great number of 
streams of warm and cold water, whose existence the thermo¬ 
meter manifests, and points out in a certain degree their direc¬ 
tion. Every one knows the researches of Franklin, of Blag- 
den, of Williams, and of Humboldt, on the equinoctial current, 
which, after being turned back in the Gulf of Mexico, after 
having issued out through the strait of Bahama, moves from 
the south to the north, at a certain distance from the eastern 
coast of America, and proceeds, under the name of the Gulf- 
Stream, to temper the climate of Ireland, of the Shetland 
Isles, and of Norway. At the other extremity of this vast con¬ 
tinent, along the coasts of Chili and of Peru, a rapid current 
from south to north carries on the other hand as far as Callao 
the cold waters of Cape Horn and of the Straits of Magellan. 
The anomalous temperature of the ocean, in the port of Lima, 
was remarked as far back as the sixteenth century. Acosta, 
indeed, says (lib. ii. cap. 2. pag. 70), that liquors may be 
cooled at Calloa by plunging them in the sea water; but it was 
M. de Humboldt who first proved, by exact experiments, that 
this accidental temperature is the effect, in a great degree at 
least, of a southern current, whose limit is Cape Blanc: more 
to the north, in the Gulf of Guayaquil, he found no traces of it. 
The numerous observations collected in the Coquille, either 
during its navigation along the coasts of Chili and Peru, or 
during its stay at Conception, at Lima, and at Payta, will fur¬ 
nish important data relative to this curious phsenomenon. At 
Payta, for example, the temperature of the air was in general 
5, 6, and even sometimes 7° Cent, above that of the sea. 
The mean difference of these temperatures, determined by 
thirteen days observations in the month of March, rises to 
5°: during the stay at Callao, a difference was also found in 
the same direction; but it is less than at Payta, which perhaps 
would not have been expected. The journals kept in all the 
other ports, that of Conception in Chili excepted, do not pre¬ 
sent any thing similar: the water and the atmosphere on an 

average 


288 Report of the Voyage of Discovery 

average of ten days observations give very nearly the same 
degree. 

The consideration of the absolute temperatures would fur¬ 
nish a proof not less certain of the existence of this current of 
cold water. At the port of Callao, from the 26th of February 
to the 4th of March, the mean temperatures of the air and of 
the sea were respectively 21° *3 and 19°T Cent. At sea, 
at 800 leagues from the coasts, under the same latitude, 
as also under a higher latitude, they found, from the 7th to 
the 10th of April, 25°*9 and 25°*6. At Payta, from the JOth 
to the 22d of March, the mean temperatures of the air and 
water which we deduce from the journals of the Coquille are 
25° * 1 and 20° *0. Here the current no longer exercises, as it 
appears, a very great influence on the temperature of the at¬ 
mosphere near the coast; but it is still 6 or 7 degrees colder 
than the ocean at a similar latitude in all other parts of the 
sea. 

We applied ourselves to this investigation of some of the 
meteorological observations made by M. Duperrey, in order 
to show how desirable it would be that they should be printed 
entire; the physical sciences and even the nautical art would 
derive great advantage from this. May it also be permitted us, 
in closing this article, to express the regret which we have 
felt, in not finding in such rich and valuable journals, some 
observations of the temperature of the sea at great depths. 
This inquiry, so directly connected with that of the existence 
of submarine currents, would nevertheless not have retarded 
the sailing of the Coquille a quarter of an hour, since in ge¬ 
neral it would have sufficed to have attached a thermometer to 
the deep-sea-lead every time it was thrown into the sea. If 
experiments so interesting were completely neglected by 
M. Duperrey and his fellow-labourers, it is almost needless to 
say that it was only because the means of making them with 
exactitude were wanting. There was not indeed on board 
the corvette one of those ingenious thermometers which mark 
by indexes the maxima and minima of temperature to which 
they have been exposed. 

An expedition for discovery seldom leaves our ports with¬ 
out the Academy being consulted by the public authorities, 
even without their requiring it, to prepare the instructions 
for the commander. We think that it would contribute in a 
manner not less efficacious to the progress of the sciences, if 
it caused to be prepared before-hand, by the most skilful 
artists, some of the philosophical instruments which the na¬ 
vigators might want. If the Academy, as we hope, shall deign 

to 


Notices respecting New Books. 289 

to give effect to the proposition which we have had the honour 
to make, it will for the future not have to remark any omission 
in the labours which may be laid before it: and this arrange¬ 
ment will contribute to diffuse the spirit of research and the 
taste for accuracy, amongst that rising generation, full of talent 
and of zeal, with which our ports abound. 

[To be continued.] 


XLVI. Notices respecthig New Books. 

Remarks on the Cultivation of the Silk Worm ; with additional 
Observations , made in Italy , during the summer q/T825. By 
John Murray, F.S.A., F.L.S. Glasgow, 1825 pp. 29. 

HPHE substance of this useful tract formed an article in the 
“■* Edinburgh Journal of Science, No. III.; and the author 
has now made various additions to it, embracing the most 
material parts of Count Dandolo’s work on his improved cul¬ 
ture of the silk worm. In an appendix, an account is given of 
the chemical nature of silk, &c., and some particulars of the 
history of its use*in the manufacture of clothing, together with 
an outline of its preparation for that purpose, as now practised 
in Italy. 

Descriptive Account of a Shower Bath , constructed on a princz* 
pie not hitherto applied- to that machine; to which is added , 
that of an apparatus for restoring suspended animation ; 
and an invention for forming a line of communication in ship¬ 
wreck s and a fire-escape , in cases of fire. Bv the same Author, 
Glasgow, 1826. 

In Mr. Murray’s shower bath, the column of water in the 
vase above is supported by the resisting atmosphere; and the 
superiority of his improvement consists, in the numerous repe¬ 
titions which may be made from the same supply of w r ater:— 
The intervals may be shortened or prolonged at pleasure, 
while the duration of each is under the complete control of 
the patient, and the water may be suffered to fall in a continued 
shower of any required division of the streams, attenuating 
even to a gentle dew. 

Just Published . 

The Zoological Journal, No. viii. completing the second 
volume: conducted by Thomas Bell, Esq. F.L.S., J. G. Chil¬ 
dren, Esq. F.R. & L.S., J. D. C. Sowerby, Esq. F.L.S., and 
G. B. Sowerby, Esq. F.L.S. Also No. II. of Supplementary 
Plates to the Zoological Journal. 

Treatise on Clock and Watch Making, theoretical and 
practical. By Thomas Rei: 1 , Edinburgh, Hon. Mem. of the 
Worshipful Company of Clockmakers, London. 

Vol. 67. No. 336. April 1826. 2 O XLVII. Pro - 




[ 290 ] 


XL VII. Proceedings of Learned Societies. 

ROYAL SOCIETY. 

April 6.— A PAPER was read On observations made with 

an invariable pendulum at Greenwich, and at 
Port Bowen; by Lieut H. Forster, R.N., F.R.S. 

April 13.—The following papers were read : On the diurnal 
variation of the needle at Port Bowen ; by Capt. W. E. Parry, 
R.N., F.R.S., and Lieut. H. Forster, R.N., F.R.S. 

On the dip of the needle at different latitudes between 
Woolwich and Port Bowen; by Lieut. Forster. 

On the magnetism imparted to iron by rotation; by the 
same: with remarks by S. H. Christie, Esq. M.A., F.R.S. 

April 20.—A paper was read On a formula expressing the 
decrement of human life ; by Thomas Young, M.D. For. Sec. 
R.S. * 

LINNiEAN SOCIETY. 

April 4.—The following papers were read :—On dichoto¬ 
mous and quinary arrangements in Natural History; by Hen* 
Thos. Colebrooke, Esq. F.R.S. F.L.S. &c. 

The learned author states that what has been called the 
dichotomous arrangement of nature can only be represented 
on a superficies: whereas the affinities of natural objects ramify 
in every direction, and cannot therefore be correctly repre¬ 
sented on a plane surface. Fie then shows that that distribu¬ 
tion which, taking one central or interior group, makes only 
a few equidistant exterior ones, is 7iecessarily quinary. The 
centres of the exterior groups wdll represent the solid angles 
of a tetrahedron within a sphere of which the centre is the 
middle point in the interior group.—He finally observes, that 
although the tendency to a quinary arrangement in natural 
history has hitherto been chiefly developed in zoology, yet the 
same principle may be recognised in botany. 

Also a communication, by the same author, On Boswellia , 
and certain Indian Terebinthacece. Mr. Colebrooke is of opi¬ 
nion that the three genera Amyris , Idea , and Bur sera require 
to be thrown together and recast: the whole group com¬ 
prising nearly 40 species, several of which are unpublished. 
Among those described are Boswellia serrata , Bur sera serrata , 
Chalcas nitida , Amyris heptaphylla , A. punctata , Bergera in- 
tegerrima , and B. Kcenigii . 

April 13.—A large collection of the plants of Nepal was 
presented from the East India Company. The papers read 
were a continuation of Mr.Colebrooke’s on Boswellia^ and cer¬ 
tain Indian Terebinthacece s —and observations on a species of 

Si mi a 



Geological Society. 291 

Simla Linn., now alive in the collection of Exeter ’Change, 
allied to, if not identical with, the Simia Lagothrioc of Baron 
Humboldt; by Edward Griffiths, Esq. F.L.S. 


GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

March 17.—A paper was read, entitled, “ On the strata of 
the Plastic Clay formation exhibited in the cliffs between Christ¬ 
church Head, Hampshire, and Studland Bay, Dorsetshire; 
by Charles Lyell, Esq. F.G.S. &c. 

The strata of sand and clay which form the subject of this 
communication are referable exclusively to the plastic clay 
formation. They occupy an interval in the coast of about 16 
miles in extent, between the London clay of Highciiff on the 
east of Muddiford, and the chalk of the Isle of Purbeck. A 
coloured section of the strata exhibited in these cliffs accom¬ 
panies the paper. The author first describes in detail the cliffs 
of Christchurch, or Hengistbury Plead, which consist of sand 
and loam, often much charged with bituminous matter, and 
containing large concretions of ferruginous sandstone and clay 
ironstone, disposed in fine parallel layers, in which, as well as in 
the sand and loam, occur black-flint pebbles, lignite, and flat¬ 
tened impressions of fossil trees. Below these strata are dark 
bituminous clays, alternating with red and brown sands, and 
with occasional layers of black-flint pebbles. After the outcrop 
of the above strata, the cliffs are low, and about three miles from 
Muddiford are composed solely of diluvium. When they 
rise again in height, their direction corresponds with the line 
of bearing of the strata, so that the same beds are continuously 
exposed for eight miles, as far as the mouth of Poole Harbour. 

These beds consist of fine white sand, pinkish sand, and 
thinly laminated argillaceous marls, containing occasionally 
much vegetable matter; and the whole series exceeding 150 
feet in thickness. The section is interrupted for a space of 
2~ miles by the mouth of Poole Harbour and the bars of sand 
on each side of it. But in the cliffs near Studland the strata 
are again seen, consisting principally of yellow and purplish 
sand, white sand alternating with thinly laminated white clay, 
and sand with ferruginous concretions passing into sandstone, 
and pipe-clay. 

The junction of the chalk with the superior strata is very 
indistinctly exposed, but a thin bed of striated soft chalk-marl 
rests immediately upon the chalk, as is the case in Alum Bay. 
The author concludes with observations on the diluvium of 
this district, composed chiefly of chalk-flints; and he infers from 
its local characters, both here and in the rest for Hampshire, 
as well as in the district between the North and South Downs, 

( 2 0 2 that 



292 


Astronomical Society, 

that it owes its origin, in this part of England, to causes much 
more local in their operation than those generally assigned. 
He examines how far the phenomena attending its distribu¬ 
tion are consistent with the supposition, that the diluvium was 
formed in consequence of the protrusion of the inferior through 
the superior strata, along the anticlinal axis which now’ sepa¬ 
rates the tertiary basins of London and Hampshire. Admit¬ 
ting that this elevation took place when all the strata were be¬ 
neath the level of the sea, Mr. Lyell endeavours to show, that 
the returning waters, when the land was raised to its present 
position above the sea, would have strewed the debris of the 
older over the newer formations, as we now find it; while those 
of the more recent would not cover, except in inconsiderable 
quantities, the more ancient strata; and that the marked dis¬ 
similarity between the diluvium of the Wealds of Kent and 
Sussex, and that of Hampshire and the neighbourhood of 
London, may thus be accounted for. As the freshwater for¬ 
mations in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, as well as the 
Plastic and London clays, are covered by deep beds of a simi¬ 
lar gravel, consisting of chalk-flints, the author states several 
geological facts to prove, that these more recent formations 
existed when the chalk and tertiary strata were elevated, and 
notwithstanding their difference of inclination, even when the 
strata of Alum-bay assumed their vertical position; and con¬ 
sequently they w’ere all covered indiscriminately by a similar 
stratum of diluvium. 

April 7.-—A translation was read of a letter from M. de Gim- 
bernat, of Geneva, principally upon sulphate of soda, to G. B. 
Greenough, Esq. F.G.S. &c. 

A paper, entitled, “ On the geology of the valley of the St. 
Laurence;” by John J.Bigsby, M.G. F.G.S. was read in part. 

April 21.—The reading of Dr.Bigsby’s paperwas continued. 


ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 

March 10.—A paperwas read “ On an appearance hitherto 
unnoticed in the nebula of Orion,” communicated by the Astro¬ 
nomer Royal. This appearance was detected by means of 
Mr. Ramage’s 25-feet reflector, which is now placed up at the 
Royal Observatory. It is w’ell known that among a variety 
of stars, which appear at the same time in the field of view of 
the telescope with this nebula, there are four very bright ones, 
which form a trapezium, and, at a little distance, three others 
nearly in a straight line. These three stars, Mr.Pond observes, 
are neithei situated on the edge of the nebula, nor are they pa¬ 
rallel to the edge; but they seem to be insulated from the ne¬ 
bula, the light of which retires from them in a semicircular 

form, 



293 


Astronomical Society. 

form, as if they had either absorbed or repelled the light from 
their immediate vicinity. 

The same appearance, the Astronomer Royal remarks, is 
observable in the trapezium, round the four stars of which the 
light has also receded analogously, leaving them on a com¬ 
paratively dark ground. He conjectures that the stars have 
been the immediate cause of the disappearance of the light; 
and therefore he wishes to draw the attention of astronomers 
to the phenomenon, as it seems to deserve a marked attention. 

The Astronomer Royal has noticed a similar appearance, 
still more decidedly, in another part of the same nebula at some 
minutes distance from the trapezium. 

2. There was read a communication from Colonel Mark 
Beaufoy, a member of the Council of this Society. It contains 
1st. Observed transits of the moon and of moon-culmina¬ 
ting stars, over the middle wire of his transit instrument at 
Bushey Heath in Sidereal time. These were observed in the 
course of 1825, and amount to 322. 

2dly. Occultations of stars by the moon, in number 6. 

3dly. Observations of two lunar eclipses, in 1825. 

4thly. Observations of eclipses of Jupiter’s satellites, in 1825, 
at Bushey Heath. These amount to twenty-five, and the 
results are given both in Bushey and Greenwich, mean time. 

There was also read a communication from Major J. A. 
Hodgson, of the 61st Bengal Native Infantry, Revenue Sur¬ 
veyor General, residing at Futty Ghur, on the Ganges. This 
letter records seventy-five observations of the eclipses of Ju¬ 
piter’s satellites, made at Futty Ghur (latitude 27° 21' 3 5" N.) 
in the autumn of 1824- and spring of 1825. Some of these 
observations were made by Major Flodgson himself, and others, 
under his superintendance, by young men who are his appren¬ 
tices in the Revenue Survey Department. The names of the 
several observers are given:—each observation has its appro¬ 
priate meteorological indications registered :—and the natures, 
powers, and qualities, of the telescopes employed, are respec¬ 
tively described. These observations, compared with corre¬ 
sponding observations of the same phaenomena in any places 
whose longitude have been accurately ascertained, will serve 
to determine the longitude of Major Hodgson’s observatory. 

An Address delivered, at a special General Meeting of the Astro- 
nomical Society of London, on presenting the Gold Medals to 
J. F.W. Herschel, Esq., J. South, Esq., and Professor 
Struve, on April 14, 1826, by Francis Baily, Esq. EP.S. 
L.S . 4* G.S. M.R.I. A. and President of the Society. 

The Members of the Astronomical Society are convened 

together 


294 


Astronomical Society. 

together this evening for the purpose of witnessing the distri¬ 
bution of the Medals, which have this year been awarded by 
the Council, agreeably to the powers vested in them for that 
purpose. The subject, which has called for this public ex¬ 
pression of their opinion and approbation, is that of Double 
Stars; which has been pursued with uncommon zeal and energy 
by three distinguished members of your body. 

The history of this particular branch of astronomy is but 
of recent date. For, it cannot be unknown to any of you that 
this subject occupied a considerable portion of the time and 
attention of our late illustrious President, Sir William Her- 
schel; and that, in fact, it was he who first directed the at¬ 
tention of astronomers to this important branch of the science; 
having himself commenced and carried on, with great ability 
and diligence, a minute survey of the heavens, for the express 
purpose of detecting those almost imperceptible combinations 
of stars, which had hitherto escaped the observation of ordi¬ 
nary observers. 

Assisted by his own inventive genius, and the labour of his 
own skilful and unerring hand, he contrived and brought to 
perfection telescopes of a size which may be truly termed gi - 
gantic , and possessing powers of vision and penetration far su¬ 
perior to any that had ever yet been used by astronomers : and 
with which he made those astonishing and remarkable disco¬ 
veries that have filled the contemplative mind with wonder and 
admiration. 

It did not escape the sagacity of this illustrious astronomer 
that these important discoveries, which he was the first to dis¬ 
close to the world, might be made conducive to the investiga¬ 
tion of the parallax of the fixed stars : a subject which has, 
from the earliest period, occupied the attention and curiosity 
of astronomers. And it was, in fact, this consideration that 
first led him to the pursuit of this important branch of astro¬ 
nomy: but this object was soon lost sight of, in the singular 
and remarkable phenomena which he afterwards brought to 
light*. 

Before he commenced his observations, however, he w 7 as de¬ 
sirous of ascertaining what other astronomers had done be¬ 
fore him in the same pursuit. But, not having the facility of 
reference to many works, he himself (as he emphatically ex- 

* Indeed the obvious use which might be made of such observations had 
occurred to Galileo, who first suggested the idea that the apparent distance 
of two apparently contiguous stars might perceptibly vary according to the 
position of the earth in its orbit. But, his theory was founded on very im¬ 
perfect and unsatisfactory data : and he himself made no progress in the 
solution of this important problem. 


presses 


Astronomical Society. 29 5 

presses it) opened the Great Book of Nature, ahd explored 
that vast and splendid Volume, as the best Catalogue that he 
could find for the occasion. At the time that he began his 
important and interesting enquiries, he was not aware of more 
than Jour stars that came under the description of double 
stars : yet, with this small stock he began his pursuit; and, in 
the course of a few years, formed a catalogue of 269 double 
and triple stars, which he presented to the Royal Society, and 
which is published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1782. 
In this Memoir, and in all his subsequent ones, he gave not only 
the Distances between the two stars, as measured by various 
methods, but also the Angle of Position, or the angle formed 
by the parallel of declination, and an imaginary line joining 
the two stars. These records have now become of conside¬ 
rable importance, as enabling future observers to compare their 
results, and thus determine the change which those quantities 
have undergone during the interval that has elapsed since they 
were made. 

Ever ardent in the cause of science, this distinguished astro¬ 
nomer followed up his favourite pursuit by a second collection, 
consisting of 434 additional double stars; which was published 
in the Philosophical Transactions for 1785. 

In the years 1803 and 1804 he communicated to the Royal 
Society 64 An account of the changes that have happened 
during the last 25 years, in the relative situation of double 
starsand it was in these papers that he first made known 
to the world those astonishing and important facts which have 
so justly excited the admiration of astronomers. In order to 
set this in a clearer light, I would remark that it had been 
hitherto a commonly received opinion, that the difference in 
the apparent magnitude of the fixed stars was caused by the 
difference in their distance from the eye of the observer : that 
a star of the first magnitude, for instance, was situated nearer 
to us than one of the second magnitude; and this again, 
nearer to us than one of the third magnitude; and so on in 
succession till we came to the smallest point visible in the most 
powerful telescopes: and moreover that those apparent com¬ 
binations of stars, by twos or by threes, or any larger clusters 
(numbers of which present themselves to the eye of the ob¬ 
server) were merely the consequence of their lying nearly in 
the same line of vision, and that they were nevertheless se¬ 
parated from each other by an immense and immeasurable 
distance. But this, however much it may be true in some par¬ 
ticular instances, is not universally the case : for, in the course 
of the observations alluded to in the two papers just men¬ 
tioned, the most remarkable and unexpected phasnomena pre¬ 
sented 


296 Astronomical Society. 

sented themselves. The apparent distances of many of the 
double stars were found to differ from what they had been at 
a former period; at the same time also that their angles of 
position were discovered to have undergone a perceptible 
variation, and evidently indicating a revolution round each 
other. This was the case whether the star had a considerable 
proper motion of its own ; or whether it was apparently at rest 
with respect to the other stars around it: thus showing incon- 
testibly that the two stars acted on each other agreeably to the 
universal law of gravitation. 

In fact, in the language of Messrs. Herschel and South, 
44 the existence of binary systems (in which two stars per- 
44 form to each other the office of sun and planet) has been 
44 distinctly proved; and the periods of rotation of more 
44 than one such pair ascertained with something approach- 
44 ing to exactness. The immersions and emersions of stars 
44 behind each other have been noted; and real motions 
44 among them detected, rapid enough to become sensible and 
44 measurable in very short intervals of time.” The most re¬ 
markable and regular instance of this kind is that of the double 
star £ Ursce Majoris: where the stars perform a revolution 
round each other in the short space of 60 years : and already 
three fourths of the circuit has been actually observed from 
the first period of its discovery in 1781 to the present day. 
The double star p Ophiuchi presents also a similar phenome¬ 
non, with a motion in its orbit still more rapid. In this case 
the two stars are very unequal in their magnitude. Castor , 
y Virginis , £ Cancri , £ Bootis , 8 Serpentis and that remarkable 
double star 61 Cygni , together with several others exhibit like¬ 
wise the same progressive increase in the angle of position. 
The instances are indeed too numerous for me to enlarge upon 
in this place; and-1 allude to them merely with a view of 
drawing your attention to this important and interesting branch 
of the science. 

These binary systems, it must be confessed, open a vast field 
of inquiry and speculation relative to the true system of the 
universe. The mind is lost in the contemplation of such im¬ 
mense bodies performing their revolutions round each other 
at such immeasurable distances. Our vast planetary system 
shrinks to a mere point, when compared to the orbits of these 
revolving suns. When we consider likewise the remarkable 
appearances exhibited by clusters of very minute stars, by ne¬ 
bulous stars and by nebulae, and the singular changes which 
they seem to be undergoing, and which are too evident to ad¬ 
mit of a doubt, and too important to be overlooked, we must 
confess that there is still much to learn in the science of astro¬ 
nomy. 


297 


Astronom leal Society, 

nomy. It is true that our late illustrious President has drawn 
some important inferences from those remarkable appearances 
which he was the first to discover, and has advanced a theory 
relative to the system of the universe, which whether it be 
realized or not, (and centuries must elapse before we can even 
approximate towards the truth of it,) must ever show the vigour 
of his bold and comprehensive mind. 

The last production of this Great Man, relative to double 
stars, was communicated to this Society, in the year 1821; and 
is inserted in the first volume of our Memoirs. 

Such was the state of this interesting branch of the science 
at the time it was taken up by Messrs. Herschel and South. 
The singular and extraordinary changes that had been ob¬ 
served by Sir William Herschel in his review of the heavens 
in 1802 and 1804, had determined Mr. Plerschel to follow up 
the intentions of his father, by a review of all the double stars 
inserted in his catalogues: and as early as 1816 he had com¬ 
menced this arduous undertaking. Mr. South also being dis¬ 
posed to pursue the same enquiry, suggested the plan of car¬ 
rying on their observations in concert: and, with the aid of 
two excellent achromatic telescopes, belonging to the latter, 
they employed the years 1821, 1822, and 1823 in this re¬ 
search. The result of their labours was presented to the Royal 
Society, and published in the Philosophical Transactions for 
1824 at the expense of the Board of Longitude. 

The number of double stars observed jointly by these two 
astronomers amounts to 380 : and we may judge of their 
value and importance when we learn that the authors were 
more anxious to obtain accurate results, than to extend the 
field of their inquiries in the first instance. But, when we 
find that, even to obtain these results, many thousand mea¬ 
surements of distance and position were made, we must justly 
admire the patience and perseverance of the authors in this 
their laborious, but highly important pursuit. The remark¬ 
able phenomena, first brought to light by Sir William Her¬ 
schel, have been abundantly confirmed; and many new ob¬ 
jects pointed out as worthy the attention of future observers. 

Whilst these important inquiries were carrying on in Eng¬ 
land, one of our Associates, Professor Struve, was engaged in 
similar observations at Dorpat in Russia. The result of his 
labours is contained in the several volumes of the Observations 
made at that observatory; and will be read with pleasure and 
advantage by every lover of astronomy*. The remarkable 

coincidence 

* Although not immediately connected with the object of this Address, 
1 cannot omit this opportunity of noticing the labours of M. Amici on 

Vol. 67. No. 336. April 1826. 2 P double 


298 Astronomical Society. 

coincidence in most of the measurements made by M. Struve, 
and those made by Sir William Herschel and afterwards by 
Messrs. Herschel and South (although with very different in¬ 
struments and micrometers), confirms the general accuracy of 
the observations, and marks the degree of confidence that may 
be placed in measurements of this kind. Some slight discre¬ 
pancies have indeed been observed on a comparison of the 
total results, and some singular anomalies have presented 
themselves: but these, so far from invalidating their accuracy, 
tend to give them greater confirmation, and may probably, at 
some future period, lead to the detection of some hidden law 
which regulates the motions of these remarkable bodies. 

It is for these important observations and discoveries, and 
for the great zeal and talent displayed by these distinguished 
astronomers, in the pursuit of this interesting subject, that your 
Council has resolved to bestow on each of them the Gold Medal 
of the Society : and which I have now the honor of doing. 

[The President, then addressing Mr. Herschel, said:] 44 In 
44 the name of the Astronomical Society of London, I present 
44 to you this Medal. You will accept it, Sir, as a mark of 
44 the deep interest which this Society takes in the object of 
44 your labours. Be assured that we are pleased to see (from 
44 the Paper presented to us this evening) that the subject still 
44 occupies your attention, and that it is likely to be pursued 
44 with so much energy and zeal, by one who can so fully ap- 
44 pretiate the importance of such inquiries, and who is so 
44 competent to conduct investigations of this kind. We trust 
44 that you will have health and strength to pursue the path 
44 which you have thus commenced with so much honour to 
44 yourself, and so much benefit to science. Inheriting, as you 
44 do, those rare and exalted talents which distinguished your 
44 venerable and honoured father, and aided by the resources 
44 of your own powerful and enlightened mind, you have al- 
44 ready opened another and very interesting field of inquiry 
44 and research in this particular branch of astronomy, by pro- 
44 posing a nexv method of applying such observations to the 
44 investigation of the parallax of the fixed stars ; a subject 
44 which cannot be fully appretiated till after the lapse of many 
44 years, and which we hope will not be lost sight of by those 
44 who are engaged in investigations of this kind. The name 

double star?. With some excellent and beautiful telescopes and micro¬ 
meters of his own workmanship and construction, this indefatigable and 
careful observer has extended his examination to upwards of 200 double 
stars ; and has detected motions in some of them, not yet noticed by other 
astronomers. It is to be hoped that his very valuable labours will be col¬ 
lected and published, for the benefit of science. 


44 of 


299 


Astronomical Society. 

“ of Herschel, doubly connected as it thus is, with the history 
“ of astronomy, can perish only with all records of the science. 
“ The splendid example of the father has been emulated by 
<£ the son : and you have the proud and enviable satisfaction 
“ of knowing that you will share the Glory of his Immortal 
“ Name.” 

[The President next presented the Medal to Mr. South in 
a similar manner, and said:] ££ In presenting you with this 
66 Medal, Sir, I can only repeat the sentiments which I have 
“just delivered to your friend and fellow-labourer Mr. Her- 
<£ schel. The ardent zeal which you have always evinced in 
££ the cause of astronomy, the patience and perseverance 
<£ which you have shown in conducting so many and so valu- 
<£ able observations, of no ordinary kind, and the skill and 
<£ accuracy which you have displayed in those delicate mea- 
<£ surements, are subjects that are duly estimated by this So- 
<£ ciety. Possessed of a princely collection of instruments, of 
“ exquisite workmanship and considerable magnitude, such 
“ as have never yet fallen to the lot of a private individual, 
<£ you have not suffered them to remain idle in your hands, 
££ but have set an example to the world how much may be 
<£ done by a single person, animated with zeal in the cause of 
<£ science. Scarcely indeed have those labours issued from the 
££ press, for which this Society is now assembled to congra- 
C£ tulate you, than they have been followed by a communi- 
“ cation of others (now lying on the table) rivalling them ii 
<£ magnitude and importance; extending your examination t< 
<£ 460 additional stars (many of which are new), and confirmin' 
<£ in a satisfactorv manner the remarkable changes which hai 

n/ m # O 

<£ been noticed in your previous review. The subject whicl 
“ you have thus commenced with so much success, with so 
££ much benefit to science and so much honour to yourself, i 
<£ as vast as it is important. The number of double and triple 
££ stars seems to increase with the attention that is paid to 
<£ them: and already their amount is sufficient to appal an 
££ ordinary observer. Boldly pursuing the path of science, 
££ your energy has, however, increased with your difficulty ; so 
<£ that few of these singular bodies have escaped your patience 
<£ and penetration : and the Society hope and trust that the 
t£ same talents will be exerted in a further prosecution of the 
££ subject. There is no doubt but that a careful examination 
£< and re-examination of these remarkable bodies will tend to 
££ throw some new and interesting light on the system of the 
££ universe : and it must ever be a pride and satisfaction to 
££ you to reflect that you have been instrumental in advancing 
££ the boundaries of this department of science, and that your 

2 P 2 ££ own 


300 


Royal Institution of Great Britain. 

66 own Name will always stand conspicuous in the history of 
54 these discoveries.” 

[The President afterwards presented the Medal, in a similar 
manner, to Mr. Herschel, as proxy for Professor Struve, and 
addressed him as follows :] 44 Assure M. Struve of the lively 
44 interest which we take in all that is passing at the Qbserva- 
64 tory of Dorpat: that we admire the patience, the exertions 
44 and the address, with which he has overcome the difficul- 
44 ties he has had to encounter, in the progress of his disco- 
44 veries: and that we look forward with confidence to a con- 
44 tinuance of the same brilliant career in the cause of astro- 
44 nomy. Furnished, as he now is, with one of Fraunhofer’s 
44 colossal telescopes, and thus armed with the most powerful 
44 means, we anticipate the most successful results from his 
44 laborious exertions. Unconscious of what was going forward 
44 in this country, he had opened for himself a vast field of 
44 inquiry, which he has pursued with the most splendid suc- 
44 cess; and which places his name amongst the most cele- 
44 brated of modern astronomers. The Paper which has been 
44 read to us, this evening, shows that his ardour is unabated: 
44 since he there announces the important fact of the observa- 
44 tion of 1000 double stars of the first four classes, (most of 
44 which are entirely new,) and amongst which are 300 of the 
44 first class. To a mind, formed like his for the pursuit of 
44 science, little need be said to animate him to a continuance 
44 of his labours : but, it may be pleasing to him to know that 
44 we are alive to the progress of his discoveries : and I am 
44 sure that you will convey to him, in much better terms than 
44 I can do, the expressions of our esteem and admiration for 
44 his services in the cause of science;—services which assure 
44 us that the name of Struve will be imperishable in the an- 
44 nals of astronomy.” 


ROYAL INSTITUTION OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

April 7.—Mr. Faraday spoke in the Lecture-room on the 
subject of vapour of extreme tenuity, opposing the general 
opinion that vapour may be diminished in its tension ad irifi- 
nitum , and stating that there was reason to believe that a limit 
existed, varying with different bodies, but beneath which they 
gave off no vapour. He began from Dr. Wollaston’s argu¬ 
ment of the finite extension of the atmosphere, and then showed 
that either gravity or cohesion were sufficient to overcome a 
certain degree of elasticity, advancing experiments in illustra¬ 
tion of the power of cohesion over vapour. He concluded 
that some bodies might have their limit of vaporization within 
the range of temperature which we can command, and even 

near 



The new- Expedition into the Interior of Africa , SOI 

near ordinary temperatures; whilst others, as the earths and 
some of the metals, are perfectly fixed under common circum¬ 
stances. The bearing of these opinions upon one of the 
theories of meteorites was pointed out. 

Mr. Cuthbert exhibited his fine American microscope, and 
his short reflecting telescope in the Library; and several spe¬ 
cimens of Mosaic gold w r ere also brought for inspection, by 
Mr. Parker. 

April 14.—Dr. Granville gave a condensed account of his 
researches into the history and processes of mummification, 
and illustrated it by his fine specimens, an account of which 
has already been before the public in our Journal. 

April 21.—Dr. Harwood read an essay on the natural hi¬ 
story of the Asiatic elephant, including some account of the 
individual lately existing at Exeter ’Change : a cast of the head 
of this animal was in the room, with a number of other large and 
small specimens, and a series of finely coloured drawings. 

A specimen of illuminated writing, being the fac simile of a 
page of a missal, was placed upon the table in the Library. 


XLVIIL Intelligence and Miscellaneous Articles . 

THE NEW EXPEDITION INTO THE INTERIOR OF AFRICA. 

T'MSPATCHES, public and private, have been received 
from Captains Clapperton and Pearce, dated Badagry 
Roads, in the Bight of Benin, the 29th of November last. On 
the evening of that day they were to land at Badagry, where, 
fortunately, they found Mr. Houtson, a British merchant, well 
known in that part of the country, who not only arranged for 
them a safe passage in palanquins, through the king of Bada¬ 
gry’s dominions, but agreed to accompany them to the next 
kingdom, Hio, or Eyo, about five days’ journey of twenty-five 
miles each, and there to settle a palaver with the king of that 
country, who is in constant communication with Nyfie and 
other parts of Houssa. From him they learn, that once ar¬ 
rived at Hio, he apprehends there is little reason to fear any 
check to their future progress. From Hio to Tasso is about 
nine days’ journey, and from Tasso to Nyffe nine days’ more; 
so that the whole distance from the coast to Nyffe is twenty- 
three days, or about 570 miles. At Whydah they met with 
a M. de Souza, a Portuguese; and also Mr. James, wdio makes 
so remarkable a figure in Mr. Bowditch’s book, who both 
recommended a visit to the king of Dahomey, as the direct 

road 




302 Mr. Moyle on the Temperature of Mines , 

road to the Sultan Bello’s dominions was through a part ol 
Pis • and as M. de Souza was most intimate with this sove¬ 
reign, he offered to accompany any of the gentlemen to Ins 
capital. Abomey, to obtain permission for them to pass through 
his territory: for this purpose Dr. Dickson was dispatched 
with orders to join the party in the interior. They were all 
in the best health and in high spirits. 


ON THE TEMPERATURE OF MINES. BY M. P. MOYLE, ESQ. 

During the last summer and autumn, I repeated most of 
my former experiments on the water in the old and relin¬ 
quished mines as before stated (vide Annals, vol. v. IS. &.), and 
almost precisely with the same results. Suffice it to say on 
this head, that the greatest heat found in those collections of 
water from the depth of 20 to 170 fathoms from the surface, 
was 55° Fahr. in Relistian mine, in the parish of Gwinear, 
while the coldest temperature found was 52° at 134 fathoms 
in Huel Ann, in Wendron. 

I conceived that by selecting a stagnant collection of water 
in a deep part of a mine at work, the temperature of which 
spot while it was occupied by the workmen was known, might 
more effectually give us the true temperature of the surround¬ 
ing strata, than by any other means. I, therefore, selected a 
winze * at the 110 fathom level, in Huel Trumpet tin mine, in 
the parish of Wendron. Fhis winze was sunk between foui 
and five fathoms, when it was found necessary to relinquish it 
from the water being too quick; and until the 120 fathom level 
was driven far enough under it to drain it of its water. 

A hole was bored in the solid granite at the bottom of this 
winze two feet deep; a thermometer was put into it, and the 
hole was soon found to fill with water from a natural infiltra¬ 
tion without a drop falling into it from above. As this hole 
filled with water, the thermometer fell to 56°, but in a few 
hours it rose to 70°, while the air at the bottom of the winze 
was 72°. I fastened a line to the thermometer, and allowed 
it to remain in the hole. The place was now relinquished, 
and was in the course of a few hours full with water, and gieat 
care was taken to prevent any of the water in common to the 
mine from running into this reservoir. On the following day 
this water was found at the surface 70°, at two fathoms in 
depth 68°, and at the bottom 67°: at the expiration of nearly 
three months, it was thought necessary to examine it again, 
as the approach of the end of the 120 fathom level might other- 

* A winze is a small shaft sunk simply from one level to another, often 
required for ventilation, as well as for the judicious working of a mine. 

wise 



SOS 


Physiology of the Brain. 

wise destroy the opportunity sought. The water was now 
found at all depths to be 54°. A few weeks after this, the wa¬ 
ter was found to be sinking, when additional care was taken 
to prevent any water from falling into the winze ; when it had 
sunk to within two feet of the bottom, the thermometer which 
was allowed to remain in the hole w r as suddenly withdrawn, 
when it was found to be at 54°. Two days after this period, 
this hole was dry, and showed the temperature of 70°. 

Not willing to rely too much on this single experiment, I 
sought another opportunity of repeating it in Huel Vor tin 
mine, situated in slate. Here a winze similarly circumstanced 
to the one just related occurred at the 124 fathom level. This 
winze w r as sunk just six fathoms before relinquished, at which 
time the temperature was 75°; but after being filled with wa¬ 
ter for about tw T o months, the registering thermometer indi¬ 
cated only 56°; and this possibly might be influenced in some 
measure by its being found impossible wholly to exclude a fall 
of water running into it from above. 

I do flatter myself that these experiments tend much to 
strengthen my former assertions of the earth in general pos¬ 
sessing and preserving the mean annual, temperature of the 
latitude; and although these experiments give a degree or 
two above this mark, we cannot but suppose the local causes 
of heat in a mine at full work must tend to influence the re¬ 
sults; but it should be observed that it falls far below what 
we are taught to expect at these depths, by those holding a 
different opinion from myself.— Ann. of Phil. 


PHYSIOLOGY OF THE BRAIN:—EXPERIMENTS OF MM. FLOU- 

RENS, MAJENDIE, ETC. 

Analysis of the Physiological labours of the Royal Academy 
of Sciences of Paris, for the year 1824, by M.Le Baron Cuvier. 
—We have reported in our analysis for 1822, with the interest 
which they deserve, the experiments of M. Flourens to deter¬ 
mine with more precision the functions proper to each parti¬ 
cular part of the brain ; and we have seen that the result ap¬ 
pears to be, that the brain ( cerebrum ) properly speaking, is the 
receptacle for the impressions transmitted by the organs of 
sense; the cerebellum the regulator of locomotion; and the 
medulla oblongata the agent of muscular irritability; that the 
tubercula quadrigemina in particular participate in this irritant 
power of the medulla oblongata, and produce as it does, con¬ 
vulsions when stimulated. The author expected that these 
properties might contribute toward the solution of a problem 
in comparative anatomy which had for some time occupied the 

attention 



304 - Baron Cuvier on the Physiological Lahoios 


attention of naturalists, to determine the true nature ot the 
different tubercles which compose the brain of fishes. 

We have given an account more than once, and especially 
in 1820, of die doubts which exist with respect to those two 
tubercles which are interior to the cerebellum, and are generally 
hollow, containing in the interior one or two pair of smaller 
tubercles. These have long been considered to be the tiue 
brain, the tubercles which they cover, to be the tubercula 
quadrigemina, and those placed anterior to them the olfactory 
tubercles, analogous to those which we find m front of the 
cerebrum in the rat, mole, and other mammalia. 

For some years M. Arasky, and subsequently M. hen es, 
have come to the conclusion, but from anatomical comparison 
onlv, that the anterior tubercles constitute the cerebrum, and 
that the large hollow pair correspond to the tubercula quadi 1 - 
eemina. It follows from the experiments of M. Flourens made 
on carps, that irritation of the anterior tubercles, or ot the su¬ 
perior part of the hollow tubercles, produces no convulsions, 
but if the base of the last be pricked, violent spasms are in¬ 
duced • which would also lead us to consider the lesser internal 
tubercles to be tubercula quadrigemina, as well as the hollow 
tubercle which incloses them. The removal of the anterior 
tubercles does not at first perceptibly change the animal s con¬ 
dition or manner; but it appears to move less frequently and 
not voluntarily; it even appeared to the author, as well as ne 
could iudge. from the state of restraint in which he was obliged 
to keep the fish thus mutilated, that it could neither hear nor 
see. The removal of the hollow tubercles produces a much 
more decisive effect on the ceconomy of the animal; it moves 
no longer, respires with difficulty, and lies on its back or side. 
M. Flourens does not hesitate to conclude that it is to the tu¬ 
bercula quadrigemina that these hollow tubercles correspond, 
and considers that the great influence which they exert on the 
svstem of fishes arises from their extraordinary state of deve¬ 
lopment in this class of animals. With respect to the single 
tubercle which has universally been regarded as cerebellum, it 
exhibits phenomena similar to those ot the cerebellum of qua¬ 
drupeds and birds. Injury of it does not excite convulsions; 
when removed the fish can scarcely remain on its belly; it 
swims in an extraordinary way; and it turns on its centre as 
birds do who have lost the cerebellum. The protuberances 
which are placed behind the cerebellum in fishes, from which 
their 8 th pair of nerves appears to originate, remain to be ex¬ 
amined ; those which in the superior classes aflord only doubt- 
ful or imperceptible analogies. Irritation 01 all then parts 
produces violent convulsions, particularly in the opercula of 


305 


of the Royal Academy of Paris, for 1324. 

the gills, which derive their nerves from this source. If they 
be destroyed, the motions of the opercula are lost, and respi¬ 
ration ceases. The same effect follows from dividing them 
longitudinally. M. Flourcns concludes that the cerebral organ 
of inspiration is found here, circumscribed, distinct, and de¬ 
veloped to a true lobe, while in other animals it is scarcely 
separated from the mass. Similar phenomena are to be ob¬ 
served in the Gadus lota , pike, and eel. 

The conclusion to be drawn bv the author and those who 
coincide in his views respecting the hollow tubercles is, that 
the point in which the brain in fishes most essentially differs 
from that of other classes, consists in the great development of 
the part which presides over the respiratory function; which 
M. Flourens accounts for by the more laborious respiration of 
aquatic animals, who act on the air through the intervention 
of water, unlike animals respiring in air which immediately 
penetrates the lung. 

It is thus, says hie, that the brain is larger in animals en¬ 
dowed with much intelligence, the cerebellum in bifds, which 
are so much more agile than any other, and that this same 
cerebellum always disappears in reptiles, sluggish animals, the 
very name of which implies torpor. The author finally ex¬ 
presses an opinion that the parts which render the animal 
tenacious of life, and especially the spinal marrow, are with 
respect to volume in an inverse ratio to those upon which the 
intellectual functions depend ; animals destitute of the means 
of defence from violence require a bl unted or coarse descrip¬ 
tion of vital condition, which should be to them what we might 
designate a defence against the effects of its own peculiar con¬ 
dition. 

M. Flourens being obliged to make so many and such ex¬ 
tensive wounds of the brain to resolve questions so important 
to humanity, took the opportunity of making numerous ob¬ 
servations respecting injuries of this organ and the regenera¬ 
tion of its coverings, as also upon the corresponding phaeno- 
mena in the animal’s faculties as the reproductions advance. 
To analyse these < bservations made day after day would re- 
quiie a copy of them, and the details would prove equally in¬ 
teresting in this point of view', if our limits permitted us to 
enumerate them. In general, where a portion is removed, a 
clot of blood is formed, and a scab produced, beneath which 
lymph is deposited. The bone exfoliates; beneath this ex¬ 
foliation and scab a new skin forms which casts them off, and 
beneath this skin a new bone forms; but this new skin does 
not consist of true corium or rete mucosum, nor is the bone 
formed with two laminae and a diploe. The new skin is con- 

Vol. 67. No. 336. April 1826. 2 Q tinueQ 


306 Baron Cuvier on the Physiological Labours 

tinued from the old, and requires for its formation that the 
lymph from which it is produced should be maintained in its 
position either by the scab or some other means. The entire 
portion of brain removed is not regenerated, but a cicatrix is 
formed upon the cut surface. A simple division is repaired 
by reunion. The superior part of the ventricle, when re¬ 
moved, is repaired by a production from the margins of the 
remaining part. Finally, as we have observed in 1822, the 
animal recovers by little and little its faculties as the parts ci¬ 
catrize, at least they do so if the injury has not been very 
great. 

M. Majendie has also made many experiments respecting 
the functions peculiar to the different parts of the brain, and 
has communicated to the Academy one of the most remarkable, 
which in every respect corresponds with one made on the ce¬ 
rebellum by M. Flourens, and which serves as a support to it. 
When the great commissure of the cerebellum (pons varolii) 
is divided anterior to the origin of the 5th pair of nerves, the 
animal loses all power of supporting itself on its four limbs; 
it falls on the side upon which the division has been made, and 
rolls over and over during entire days, ceasing only when pre¬ 
vented by some obstacle. The harmony in the motion of its 
eyes is also destroyed; the eye of the injured side is irresistibly 
directed downward, while that of the opposite side is turned 
upward. A Guinea pig thus treated turns over and over sixty 
times in a minute. This rotatory movement is produced by 
division of one of the crura cerebelli, but if both be divided the 
animal remains without motion; the equilibrium of these two 
organs being as essential to the repose as to the regular move¬ 
ments of the animal. Similar phenomena are exhibited when 
the cerebellum itself is divided from above downward. If 
three quarters of it be left on the left side, and one quarter on 
the right, the animal turns over to the right, and its eyes are 
distorted as stated above; a similar section leaving the one 
quarter on the left side re-establishes the equilibrium, but if 
leaving the quarter on the right untouched it is cut on the left 
down to the crus, the animal turns to the left, or in other words 
it turns to the side where least is left. A vertical section of 
the cerebellum puts the animal into an extraordinary condi¬ 
tion : its eyes appear to project from the orbit; it leans some¬ 
times to one side and sometimes to the other: its limbs are 
stretched out as if it endeavoured to go backward. M. Ma¬ 
jendie quotes an observation of M. Serres, which proves that 
the same effects might take place in the human subject; an in¬ 
dividual after excessive drinking was seized with a propensity 
to turn over and over, which continued till death; on dissec- 
* _ ... H tion 


of the Royal Academy of Paris, for 1824. 307 

tion a rupture of one of the crura cerebri was discovered. 
M. Majendie has not confined his observations to the centre 
of the nervous system, he has made some very curious obser¬ 
vations respecting the nerves distributed to the organs of 
sense. Hitherto the first pair of nerves or olfactory has been 
considered as dedicated to the organ of smell. M. Majendie, 
wishing to make an experiment which appeared to him a 
work of supererogation, to prove the correctness of an opinion 
doubted by none, cut the olfactory nerves of a young dog. 
What was his surprise the following day to find the animal 
sensible to strong odours I The experiment repeated on other 
animals afforded similar results. The author suspected that 
this sensibility was to be attributed to the branches of the fifth 
pair distributed to the nostril; he accomplished the division 
of these nerves on either side, notwithstanding their depth, 
in dogs, cats, and Guinea pigs, and thus destroyed all sensibi¬ 
lity in the nostril. Animals which sneezed, rubbed the nose, 
and turned away the head when compelled to inhale the va¬ 
pour of ammonia or acetic acid, remained passive when the 
fifth pair was divided, or at least manifested only the effects 
resulting from stimulation of the larynx. This effect of strong 
odours remained even in hens, from whose heads the whole 
cerebral hemispheres and olfactory nerves had been removed. 
We might certainly suspect that the volatile alkali acted only 
chemi'cally on the pituitary membrane, and attribute the effects 
more to pain than smell; in that case the pain alone would de¬ 
pend upon the fifth pair: but M.Majendie, who saw the force 
of this objection, observes, that it is much weaker with re¬ 
ference to the animal oil of Dippel or essential oil of almonds, 
which affected the organ before the fifth pair was divided, and 
lost all effect when it was cut, although the first pair remained 
untouched. What would still better rebut the objection, would 
be to prove that animals which have had the olfactory nerve 
divided, still continued to seek and distinguish their food by 
the nose. The experiments on this head do not appear as yet 
conclusive, but he promises to prosecute the investigation. 
The dissections of Dr. Ramond, reported by M. Majendie, 
prove also that when the hemispheres are gorged with blood, 
or that deep and rooted alterations take place in their cortical 
substance, the sensibility of the nostril to the most delicate 
odours is not impaired. But it is not to the sense of smell 
alone that the participation of the fifth pair is essential; it con¬ 
tributes to all the senses of those organs to which it is distri¬ 
buted ; when divided, the sense of touch is also destroyed, but 
on the anterior part of the head only; behind the ear and on 

2 Q 2 the 


SOS Baron Cuvier on the Physiological Labours 

the back of the head it is unimpaired as in other parts of the 
i>ody. The most irritating chemical agents will not produce 
tears; the eyelids and iris become immoveable; one might even 
suppose the eye to be artificial. After some time the cornea 
becomes white and opaque,-the conjunctiva and iris inflame 
and suppurate, and finally, the eye shrinks into a small tuber¬ 
cle, which fills only a small part of the orbit, and its substance 
resembles newly coagulated milk. In this state the animal is 
no longer guided by its whiskers, as it should if merely de¬ 
prived of sight; it advances with the chin resting on the ground, 
and pushing its head before it; the tongue is equally insensi¬ 
ble, and hangs out of the mouth ; sapid bodies appear to have 
no apparent effect on its anterior part, although they exert 
their influence on its centre and base. The epidermis of the 
mouth thickens and the gums separate from the teeth. The 
author even thinks, that he has observed that the sense of 
hearing is lost by the division of the fifth pair, which if cor¬ 
rect, shows that all the senses are under the influence of this 
nerve. It has long been known that it was in the lingual 
branch of the fifth pair that the sense of taste essentially re¬ 
sided, and more recently the experiments of Mr. Bell prove, 
that the sensibility of the face depends upon the numerous 
branches of this nerve distributed upon it, but those distri¬ 
buted to the nose, eye, and ear, were not considered equally 
essential to the integrity, or even to the perfect exercise, of 
the senses of smell, sight, and hearing, as has been shown by 
M. Majendie. The details of these experiments, and of others 
not less interesting, may be found in a journal of physiology, 
of which the author publishes four numbers in the year, and 
where he collects whatever is founded on positive tacts, esta¬ 
blished by accurate observations. 

M. Flourens has also endeavoured to apply his method of 
successive removal to determine the use of the different parts 
of the ear. We know that this complicated organ is com¬ 
posed in warm-blooded animals of an external passage leading 
to the membrane of the tympanum, which forms the entrance 
into a second cavity named tympanum or box, and from which 
a chain of bones commences, the last of which, the stapes, is 
applied to the fenestra ovalis, or entrance of the second cavity 
called vestibule, into which three canals called semicircular 
canals and one of the orifices of a third cavity of a spiral form 
called cochlea open, the other orifice of the cochlea opening 
immediately into the tympanum by the fenestra rotunda. There 
are also mastoid cells formed in the substance of the bone, 
which communicate with the tympanum, and a canal called the 

fallopian 


309 


of the Royal Academy of Paris, for 1824. 

fallopian tube which leads from the tympanum to the back of 
the nostril or fauces. M. Flourens in a previous investiga¬ 
tion, endeavoured to ascertain what part of the organ of hear¬ 
ing should be considered most essential to the perfection of 
the sense. Pigeons were made the subject of experiment; birds 
having the ear enveloped in a delicate cellular structure easily 
removed. He destroyed the meatus auditorius, the first bones, 
and the tympanum, without destroying the sense; the stapes 
was then removed, and hearing was sensibly injured ; merely 
raising this bone from its situation, and then replacing it al¬ 
ternately diminished and re-established the faculty; on re¬ 
moving the semicircular canals much more remarkable phae- 
nomena were observed; not only the animal continued to hear, 
but the impression of sound became painful, the slightest noise 
produced severe agitation, and its head was moved horizontally 
from right to left with remarkable violence, which did not 
cease till perfect rest was obtained, and re-commenced when 
the animal attempted to move. Exposure of the vestibule, 
and destruction of part of the nervous pulp contained within 
it, did not entirely destroy hearing: to effect this, the total re¬ 
moval of the whole of the pulp and the nervous expansions 
continuous with it was necessary, the animal remaining deaf 
although the rest of the ear was untouched. The author con¬ 
cludes, that the pulp in the vestibule is the essential part of 
the organ, and that it is in fact, as shown by Scarpa and Cuvier, 
the only part existing in inferior animals; so that we may con¬ 
sider the other parts of the organ as serving to give to this 
sense the different degrees of perfection, which characterize it 
in the higher classes of animals. 

We have given the above report at full length, not so much 
on account of the value of the information communicated, as 
to put our readers in possession of the opinion entertained by 
the highest literary tribunal in France respecting those expe¬ 
riments which have latterly so much attracted the attention of 
physiologists. We do not however, by any means, consider 
that those experimenters have settled the respective questions 
which they profess to decide, but look upon their labours as 
little more than so much argument in favour of pursuing the 
investigation ; in which light it is to be hoped that the authors 
themselves view the subject. With respect to the experiments 
of M. Majendie, to determine the nerve to which we are in¬ 
debted for the sense of smell, they must be admitted to be in¬ 
conclusive, if not altogether fallacious, as we hope to be able 
to demonstrate in another place .—Dublin Phil. Journ. 


ACTION 



510 Alcohol .- —Mr. Dalton on the Constitution of the Atmosphere, 

ACTION OF LIME ON ALCOHOL. 

It was known that when alcohol and lime are kept in con¬ 
tact, during a length of time, the alcohol becomes pale yellow*. 
Dr. Menici introduced into a vessel, three ounces of alcohol^ 
of 35 degrees (B), and a similar quantity at 28, into another; 
each vessel containing also an equal quantity of lime ; and 
they were all exposed to the ordinary temperature, being 
previously well closed.' At the end of four months, the liquor 
in the second vessel had become sensibly yellow, which soon 
became deeper, and in six months it was reddish. The alco¬ 
hol now restored reddened litmus, owing to the solution of 
lime. Submitted to distillation it afforded unaltered alcohol. 
The residual liquor, evaporated to dryness, afforded a sub¬ 
stance analogous to our black resin flolofonia rossastra], which, 
when kindled, burned brilliantly, with much smoke f. But 
the strong alcohol contained in the first bottle seemed not to 
have been, in any manner, affected; unless that it feebly re¬ 
stored the colour of reddened litmus.— (Giornale diFisica.) 
Dublin Phil. Journ . - 

MR. DALTON ON THE CONSTITUTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE. 

The following is an abstract of Mr. Dalton’s paper on the 
constitution of the atmosphere, read before the Royal Society 
on the 23d of February last. 

After some preliminary remarks, the author observes, that 
whatever may be thought of Newton’s hypothesis as to elastic 
fluids, as far as the mechanical effects of such fluids are objects 
of inquiry, we may safely adopt it; namely, that each fluid is 
constituted of particles repelling one another by forces inversely 
as their central distances , at least within ordinary limits of con¬ 
densation and rarefaction. 

After adverting to the fact that mixtures of various elastic 
fluids, such as is the atmosphere, composed of atoms of dif¬ 
ferent volumes and elasticities, do notwithstanding observe the 
same laws of condensation and rarefaction as simple elastic 
fluids, and to the difficulties which this fact throws in the way 

* Gay-Lussac first noticed this change of colour, while engaged in di¬ 
stilling alcohol off lime, which he proposed as abetter method of obtaining 
alcohol than by means of muriate of lime. [ Memoires d? Ar cue'll, tome iii. 
p, 104.] But this method had been practised long before. See Element 
de Pharmacie, par Baume, 1770, p. 474. — Dublin Edit. 

f When sulphuric acid and alcohol are distilled, as in the preparation 
of aether, towards the end of the process the mixture becomes black, and 
a black matter collects (if the quantity operated on be large) into a mass. 
This black mass is brittle; it may be melted f it solidifies on cooling: it is 
combustible, and burns with a smoky flame. It is, in fact, a kind of pitchy 
matter, which seems very much to resemble this resin noticed by Dr. Me¬ 
nici.— Dublin Edit. 


of 




Mr. Dalton on the Constitution of the Atmosphere, 311 

of the Newtonian hypothesis, Mr. D. puts a case which he 
thinks has not before been considered, and which may assist 
us materially in forming a correct notion of such mixed at¬ 
mospheres. 

Two equal cylindrical pipes are conceived to.be placed per¬ 
pendicular to the horizon, in contact, and of indefinite length, 
close at the bottom, and open at the top. These are supposed 
to be filled with two gases of different kinds, the one with car¬ 
bonic acid, and the other with hydrogen, in order to show the 
contrast more strikingly. The columns,of gases are assumed 
each to be of the weight of 30 inches of mercury, and conse¬ 
quently will represent vertical columns of atmospheres of the 
respective gases equal in weight to like columns of the earth’s 
atmosphere. Mr. D. calculates from known principles that 
the column of carbonic acid gas will terminate at 30 or 40 
miles, of elevation, or at least will become of such tenuity as 
that it,may be disregarded. In like manner that of hydrogen 
will be found to become insignificant above 1200 miles of al¬ 
titude. The author then supposes that horizontal air-tight 
partitions are made across both tubes at any,given intervals of 
distance, and that openings are made, so that the gases in the 
corresponding horizontal cells may communicate with each 
other; in which case each gas, as is well known, would divide 
itself equally between the two cells. For 30 or 40 miles both 
gases would be found in each cell; but for the rest of the co¬ 
lumn, namely, for 1000 miles or upw r ards, there would be no¬ 
thing but hydrogen in both cells. 

In the next place, Mr. D. conceives the horizontal partitions 
to be withdrawn, and considers what change would ensue. 
There would have been many cells about the summit of the 
carbonic acid atmosphere which, when opened for the purpose 
of communication, would part with half their contents to the 
collateral cells, but half the contents would not be able to fill 
the whole space of the cell, by reason that the gas was at its 
minimum density before. Hence the gas would be confined 
to the lower half of the cells, and there would be no carbonic 
acid in the upper parts. Of course when the partitions were 
removed, the carbonic acid in each cell would descend till it 
came in contact with the like gas of the inferior cell. Thus 
there w'ould be a slight descent of the upper regions of car¬ 
bonic acid gas. The same also w’ould happen to the hydro¬ 
gen gas .about the summit of its atmosphere, and a still more 
considerable descent would take place. Mr. 1). seems to think 
there w*ould be no material change in the mixed atmospheres 
afterwards. Thus the two mixed atmospheres would exhibit 
equal volumes of each gas in the lowest cells, or at the surface 

of 


212 


Analysis of Oil of Wine, tyc. 

of the earth, though in the whole compound atmosphere the 
two gases are of equal weights. 

All this would take place according to the author’s argu¬ 
ments were the mixed atmospheres quiescent ; but if the atmo¬ 
spheres are like the earth’s atmosphere, in a constant state of 
commotion, greater or less, still there will be a constant ten¬ 
dency towards that state of equilibrium which is above de¬ 
scribed. In the conclusion Mr. D. states, that he has a series 
of observations which support the opinion that the atmosphere 
at different seasons and elevations exhibits different propor¬ 
tions of its elements in association, which he intends to bring 
forward on some future occasion .—Annals of Philosophy. 

ANALYSIS OF OIL OF WINE, &C. 

On the 9th of March, a paper on this subject and on the 
sulphovinates, by Mr. H. Hennell, of Apothecaries’ Hall, was 
read before the Royal Society :—the following is a summary of 
its contents. 

Mr. Hennell at first supposing that the elements of oil of 
wine were the same as those of sulphuric aether, endeavoured 
accordingly to determine their relative proportions in the for¬ 
mer substance, by passing its vapour over ignited peroxide of 
copper. In this process, portions of sulphurous acid gas and 
sulphate of copper were invariably obtained ; in attempting to 
ascertain the origin of which, the oil of wine was heated in 
solution of muriate of barytes, but no precipitate or even 
cloudiness was produced in it, though litmus paper at the same 
time indicated the presence of free acid. On concentrating 
the solution, however, a precipitate of sulphate of barytes was 
gradually formed; showing that either the sulphuric acid 
was in some state of combination interfering with its action 
upon tests, or that its elements existed in the oil of wine in some 
unusual state of arrangement. From 200 grains of pure oil 
of wine, treated with solution of potash, evaporated to dryness 
and ignited, and then treated successively with nitric acid and 
muriate of barytes, w’ere obtained 218*3 of sulphate of barytes, 
indicating 74 of sulphuric acid. 

On resuming the analysis with peroxide of copper, with due 
care, and the additional precautions suggested by the nature of 
the substance as just pointed out, it appeared that 100 grains 
of oil of wane contain 53*70 of carbon, and 8*30 of hydrogen : 
the deficiency = 38 parts being referable to the sulphuric acid, 
as shown by the experiments above mentioned. These pro¬ 
portions indicate the hydrocarbon combined with the sulphuric 
acid to contain an atom of each constituent; but they do not 
show the quantity of hydrocarbon combined with the sulphuric 

acid, 



313 


Analysis of Oil of Wine , $?c. 

acid, for oil of wine always holds in solution an excess of this 
hydrocarbon, from which it is impossible to free it. In order 
to determine, therefore, the quantity of hydrocarbon in com¬ 
bination with the sulphuric acid, some oil of wine was heated 
with water, and precipitated carbonate of barytes was then 
added to it, which was dissolved, with effervescence. When, 
however, the solution was evaporated, it soon became acid, 
and sulphate of barytes precipitated. On treating a further 
quantity of oil of wine in the same manner, but precipitating 
the barytic solution by carbonate of potash, and evaporating 
at a temperature of 150° Fahr. it yielded tabular crystals, not 
unlike chlorate of potash, very soluble in water and alcohol, 
and burning with a flame resembling that of aether. These 
crystals were found to contain, in 100 parts, 


Potash .. 28*84 

Sulphuric acid.48*84 

Carbon ..13*98 

Hydrogen.2*34 

Water .. 7*00 

101*00 


It thus appears, that in this salt four proportionals of car¬ 
bon united with four of hydrogen, are combined with one of 
sulphuric acid, forming oil of wine. 

Mr. Henneil ascertained that this salt w r as identical with that 
called sulphovinate of potash; and whilst preparing some of 
the sulphovinates, for the purpose of comparing them with the 
salts obtained from oil of wine in this manner, he found that 
a great reduction of the saturating power of sulphuric acid was 
produced by its mixture with alcohol; 440 grs. of acid mixed 
with an equal weight of alcohol, requiring for their saturation 
only 398 grs. of partially dried carbonate of soda, whilst an 
equal weight of pure acid required 555 grs. of the same 
carbonate. This fact shows that sulphuric acid, by mixture 
with alcohol, is immediately converted into sulphovinic acid; 
and, in conjunction with the facts detailed in the former part 
of the paper, it also evinces that the loss of saturating pow 7 er 
cannot be owing, as MM. Vogel and Gay-Lussac have sup¬ 
posed, to the formation of hyposulphuric acid. 

By heating oil of wine either in solution of potash, or in 
water, much of the excess of hydrocarbon which it contains is 
liberated in the form of an oil, resembling in appearance some 
of the balsams. This oil, as well as the crystals which form 
spontaneously in oil of wine, yielded by analysis carbon and 
hydrogen, in proportions nearly approximating to those of 
olefiant gas; but in the analyses, which were several times re- 

Vol. 67. No. 336. April 1826. 2 R peated, 








314 


Mechanical Notation of Machinery . 

peated, a slight loss was always experienced, the cause of 
which Mr. Hennell was unable to ascertain.— Ann . of Phil, 

MECHANICAL NOTATION OF MACHINERY". 

A paper was lately read before the Royal Society, On the 
expression of the parts of machinery by signs ; by C. Babbage, 
Esq. F.R.S. of which the following is a notice. 

In contriving his calculating engine *, Mr. Babbage found 
great difficulty from not having any regular method, by which 
he could find, at an instant’s notice, the precise time at which 
any given piece began to move, and also the state of motion or 
rest, at the same instant, of all the other parts. He therefore 
devised a method of expressing all the motions of any machine, 
however complicated, by signs. This it is almost impossible 
to describe without figures; but the following statement of the 
information which may be derived, almost at a glance of the 
eye, from the paper on which the 44 mechanical notation ” of any 
machine is expressed, will serve to show the important pur¬ 
poses to which the method may be applied. 

1. The name of each part is written at length, and there 
are references from the name to all the drawings. 

2. The number of teeth on each wheel, pinion, rack, or 
sector, is seen. 

3. Any given part, a wheel for example, being named, it 
will be seen what immediately moves it, what drives the mover, 
and so on up to the origin of motion: and not only will the 
whole succession of movements be visible, but the manner in 
which they act; as, for instance, whether by being permanently 
connected, or in the manner of a pinion driving a wheel, or 
by stiff friction, or at intervals only. 

4. The angular velocity of each part will be seen. 

5. The comparative angular velocity, or the mean velocity. 

6. All parts which require adjustment will appear; and the 
order in which those adjustments should be made is pointed out. 

7. At any part of the cycle of the engine’s motion, it will be 
seen at a glance what parts are moving, what are at rest; and 
it will appear in what direction the motions of the moving 
parts take place, and whether their velocity is uniform or vari¬ 
able. It will also be seen whether any given bolt or click is 
locked or not. 

8. Any part being named, the entire succession of its mo¬ 
tions and intervals of rest is at once presented to the eye; and 
if the contemporary movements at any particular time be re¬ 
quired, they will be visible adjacent to it. 

Mr. Babbage gives, as specimens of his method, the mecha¬ 
nical notation of the common eight-day clock, and of the hy¬ 
draulic ram.— Ann . of Phil . 


Results 



Results of the Meteorological Tables at the end of the Philosophical Magazi. 
from the 25th of December 1824 to the 25th of December 1825. 

By William Burney, LL.D. 


Results of our Meteorological Tables for 1825. 815 


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316 Results of our Meteorological Tables for 1825. 

In order to obtain the correct mean annual results of the 
barometers, thermometers, and depths of rain at Gosport, in 
London, and at Boston for this table, I recalculated the tables 
at the end of the Numbers of the Philosophical Magazine and 
Journal for 1825. 

I shall here notice by the way of Rrrata , that Mr. Veall’s 
barometer appears too low by 45-100dths of an inch on the 
11th of May, and on the 16th of that month 5-1 Oths of an inch 
too low*. Again, on the 26th of November, Mr. J. Cary’s 
barometer is too high by 6-1 Oths of an inch. These errors 
I have corrected in the monthly mean pressures in the table, 
as on comparison it will be readily discovered that they are 
errors by some means or other. 

The mean annual heights of the barometers in the table at 
the different stations this year, will be found much higher 
than they were last year, particularly at Gosport and in Lon¬ 
don : and the mean annual temperatures of the external air 
are more than a degree higher. The aggregate depth of rain 
at each place is nearly one-third less this year than last. I am 
much disappointed at the discontinuation of the use of the 
pluviameter in London; but by the way of making the table 
complete, I have substituted the depth of rain that fell there 
in November and December by approximation. As the va¬ 
rieties of weather, and the heights of barometers very much 
depend on the position of the prevailing winds, as well as on 
the vicissitudes of the seasons, I think it necessary to notice 
some peculiarities in their position at Boston and Gosport. 

The winds from the North-east and East frequently travel 
over the Russian empire, Denmark, &c., and those from the 
South-east over part of Asia, Turkey, Hungary, and Germany 
before they arrive at Boston; and in these directions overland 
they become drier than the opposite winds which travel over 
a great extent of sea: hence it is that the pressure at Boston 
is comparatively greater with these winds than with those from 
opposite points of the compass. 

In comparing the position of the winds as registered at these 
places, they will seldom be found to blow simultaneously from 
the same point, and their directions are very often four, some¬ 
times eight points different, and not unfrequently in opposite 
directions. The difference in their directions at the same time 
of registering, no doubt arises chiefly from the different lati¬ 
tudes of these places, as it respects a tract of land upwards of 
two degrees in extent between them; and the South-west and 
West winds, which are so prevalent here from the Atlantic 

* We have just learnt, however, that Mr.Veall finds these heights to be 
correct, according to his journal.— Edit. 

Ocean, 


Melaina .— Patents.—Meteorological Journal for March. 317 

Ocean, either often die away, or change their direction, before 
they arrive at Boston, from their meeting with other currents 
over the land; consequently, a less quantity of rain falls an¬ 
nually at Boston than at Gosport. 


MELAINA. 

Sig. Bizio considers the black matter of the ink of the cuttles 
fish as a substance sui generis , which he calls Melaina, from 
pe\c<s and as). It is obtained by digesting the ink with very 
dilute nitric acid until it become yellowish, washing it well, 
and separating it by the filter; it is then to be frequently boiled 
in water, one of the washings to be a little alkalized, and finally 
with distilled water. 

The melaina is a tasteless black powder, insoluble in alco¬ 
hol, sether, and water while cold, but soluble in hot water; 
the solution is black. Caustic alkalies form with it a solu¬ 
tion even in the cold, from which the mineral acids precipitate 
it unchanged. It contains much azote. It dissolves in and 
decomposes sulphuric acid. It easily kindles at the flame of 
a candle. It has been found to succeed as a pigment, in some 
respects better than China ink.—( Giornale diFisica.) Dublin 
Phil. Jour 71 , -- 

LIST OF NEW PATENTS. 

To John Bellingham, of Norfolk-street, Strand, for im¬ 
provements in the construction of cooking apparatus.—Dated 
18th of April 1826.—2 months allowed to enrol specification. 

To James Rowbotham, of Great Surrey-street, Blackfriars 
Road, hat manufacturer, and Robert Lloyd, of No. 71, Strand, 
in the county of Middlesex, for a method of preparing a sub¬ 
stance for the purpose of being made into hats, bonnets, coats, 
and wearing apparel in general, and various other purposes.— 
18th of April.—6 months. 


Results of a Meteorological Journal for March 1826, kept at 
the Observatory of the Royal Academy , Gosport , Plants. 

General Observations. 

The first part of this month was alternately wet and dry, 
but mild for March; the latter part was dry, windy, and very 
cold. 

From the vernal equinox to the end of the month, with the 
exception of one day, the temperature of the air decreased 
considerably, with smart frosty nights; and a heavy equinoc¬ 
tial gale blew seven days and nights from the North and North¬ 
east. The 23d was a cold winter-like day, with snow from 
9 till 11 A.M.; but from the dampness of the air it was not 

adhesive 





313 Meteorological Journal for March . 

adhesive to the trees or to the ground, and was the first we 
had had here during the past winter: it again snowed in the 
night, and by the morning it had covered Portsdown Hill. 
Snow also fell here on the 26th, which was the coldest day 
and night since the 28th of last January. Heavy snow-showers 
and boisterous winds were also experienced in other parts 
of the country, particularly to the northward. Early in the 
morning of the 27th, the ice was one-third of an inch thick, 
and in the mornings of the 30th and 31st, it was one-eighth of 
an inch thick. This ungenial weather was a seasonable check 
upon the budding of the fruit-trees, and has therefore made 
the spring rather backward; but this will no doubt be bene¬ 
ficial in the end. An early spring, with variable weather, is 
much dreaded in this latitude, as the frosty nights which al¬ 
most invariably ensue, have a destructive effect upon the young 
fruit, and vegetation. The mean temperature of the external 
air this month, is one-third of a degree less than that of last 
month ! The maximum temperature occurred in the night of 
the 6th, instead of in the day. Spring water seems to have 
arrived at its minimum temperature, as it is now at a stand. 

On the morning of the 31st two beautiful parhelia , and a 
fine solar halo appeared between 8 and 9 o’clock. The first 
parhelion on the south side of the sun was visible from eight 
till half-past, one degree without the exterior colour of the 
solar halo, and 23 degrees distant from the sun’s centre: it 
varied in shape, being sometimes circular, at other times gib¬ 
bous and oblong, according to the motion and density of the 
almost invisible vapour in which it was formed by the reflected 
rays of the sun; and the orange, light yellow, and blue co¬ 
lours with which it was embellished, were sufficiently vivid to 
be traced through a passing attenuated cirrostratus cloud. 
The other parhelion on the north side of the sun, which ap¬ 
peared from half-past eight till a quarter to nine, was not so 
bright in its primitive colours, in consequence of the most 
dense part of the_vapour having passed off by means of a fresh 
wind from the North-west; but its distance was the same from 
the sun’s centre, viz. 23 degrees. The solar halo was well- 
defined, its horizontal diameter was 44 degrees, and its whole 
area presented a lake colour bounded by a turbid red, whilst 
that part of the sky in its vicinity was gray. 

The atmospheric and meteoric phenomena that have come 
within our observations, this month, are two parhelia, two so¬ 
lar and two lunar halos, three meteors, one rainbow, and thir¬ 
teen gales of wind, or days on which they have prevailed, 
namely, one from the North, seven from North-east, one from 
South-east, and four from the South-west. 

Numerical 


Meteorological Journal for March, 


319 


Numerical Results for the Month . 

Inches. 

r> , /Maximum 30-36, March 31st—Wind N.W. 
a onic ei ^ Minimum 29*37, Ditto 24th—Wind N.E. 

Range of the mercury . . 0*99. j h 

Mean barometrical pressure for the month ...... 29*958 

•-- for the lunar period ending the 8th inst.. . 29*971 

1 for 14 days, with the Moon in North declin. 29*902 

———— for 15 days, with the Moon in South declin. 30*040 
Spaces described by the r ising and falling of the mercury 6*110 

Greatest variation in 24 hours... 0*470 

Number of changes .. 23- 

Thermometer $ Maximum 59°, March 9th.—Wind S.E. 

f Minimum 31 Ditto 26th—WindNE. 

Range.28 

Mean temp, of the external air 45*56 

-for 30 days with the 1 . „ 

Sun m risces.J 

Greatest variation in 24 hours 21 *00 
Mean temp, of spring water 
at 8 o’clock A.M. 


water | 


49*44 


De Luc’s Whalebotie Hygrometer, 

Decrees. 


Greatest humidity of the air 
Greatest dryness of ditto . 


Range of the index 
Mean at 2 o’clock P.M. 


at 8 o’clock A.M. 
at 8 o’clock P.M. 
of three observations each 
day at 8, 2, and 8 o’clock 


} 


95 in the evening of the 6th. 
50 several times. 

45 

64*2 

72*3 

71*6 

69*4 


Evaporation for the month. 3*520 inch. 

Rain in the pluviameter near the ground . 2*615 

Rain in ditto 23 feet high. 2*370 

Prevailing wind, N.E. 

Summary of the Weather. 

A clear sky, 5; fine, with various modifications of clouds, 
13 ; an overcast sky without rain, 9; rain, 4.—Total 31 days. 

Clouds . 

Cirrus. Cirrocumulus. Cirrostratus. Stratus. Cumulus. Cumulostr. Nimbus. 
13 5 24 1 17 23 15 

Scale of the prevailing Winds. 


N. 

3 


N.E. 

10 


E. 

2 


S.E. 

3 


S. 

0 


s.w. 

6 


W. 

2* 


N.W. 

4 L 


Days. 

31 


A METEORO- 



















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PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE 


AND JOURNAL. 


■ <4 


T A 


31“ MAY 1826. 


VY* 


XLIX. Oft Mr. Dalton’s Speculations respecting the Mix - 
o/" Gases, the Constitution of the Atmosphere, Sfc. Bp 

Thomas Tredgold, 

TT appears that Mr, Dalton’s speculations respecting the 
A mixture of gases and vapours, and the nature of the atmo¬ 
sphere, have been very generally received as true explanations 
of the phenomena of the one and of the nature of the other ; 
and by those who are considered of high authority in science. 

Under these circumstances, it becomes the duty of those who 
reject these speculations as erroneous, to exhibit the grounds 
on which they do object to them, in the hope that the true 
explanation of these important points of physical science may 
be established. 

We owe much to Mr. Dalton, even in cases where he has 
not been successful, and his name will always be respected by 
those who feel any interest in the progress of knowledge; and 
I am sorry that I have to oppose as inaccurate one of those 
bold speculations on which much of his fame has been raised. 

If his had been merely speculations, and without influence 
on the progress of other branches of physical inquiry, they 
might have remained unopposed; but when formulae for the 
reduction of chemical experiments to a common standard are 
founded on them, and they are made the basis of other theories, 
and are used in the correction of barometrical measurements, 
and in various meteorological inquiries, it becomes a work of 
necessity to examine how far these doctrines are founded in 
truth. 

When Mr. Dalton’s opinions first appeared, they were op¬ 
posed by Mr. Gough, and with sufficient force to have called 
for more accurate investigation before they were acceded to. 
Mr. Gough’s paper was however not satisfactory to me; and 
as far as I can recollect, it was very diffuse. 

The whole of Mr. Dalton’s theory rests upon a very im- 

* Communicated by the Author. 

Vol, 67. No. 337. Map 1826. 2 S 


portant 




322 Mr. Tredgold on Mr. Dalton’s Speculations 

portant proposition in aerostatics: for if this proposition be true, 
the whole of his speculations are at variance from it, and must, 
therefore, be erroneous. Consequently, the labour of refuting 
them is reduced into a very narrow compass. 

Proposition I.—If an uniform mixture of gases or vapours, 
which mix without condensation, be confined in a close vessel, 
the elastic force of each gas on a given surface must be the 
same, and equal to the elastic force of the mixture on the same 
extent of surface. 

Let p be the elastic force of the mixture, and V the volume 
of the vessel. Also let A and B be the two gases, and v the 
volume of the gas A when its elastic force is p. 

It is obvious, that v must be less than V, otherwise the gas 
A would entirely fill the vessel, and a mixture could not be 
formed without condensation. 

But since v is less than V, and the gas A is uniformly dis¬ 
tributed throughout the greater volume of the vessel V, its 
parts must be kept asunder by a force which is not less than 
its own elastic force; and as the force which keeps separate 
the parts of the gas A, is the elastic force of the gas B, there¬ 
fore, the elastic force of the gas B in the mixture cannot be 
less than that of A. 

But by the same steps it may be proved that the elastic 
force of the gas A cannot be less than that of B, and conse» 
quently, that their elastic forces must be equal in the mixture, 
and also equal to the elastic force of the mixture. 

The addition of two other propositions will not only give 
the means of comparing the result of the preceding one with 
experiment, but also give the formulae which will supply the 
place of Mr. Dalton’s. 

Proposition II.—If given volumes V,u, ofgases of different 
elastic forces Fbe allowed to mix and occupy the volumes 
which previously contained them, the elastic force of the mix- 

ture will be equal to 

1 V -f- v 

Let p be the elastic force of the mixture : and since it has 
been proved that each gas taken separately must be of the 
same elastic force as the mixture, and the volumes are in¬ 
versely as the elastic forces, we have 

~ : — : : v : — = the volume of the gas whose elastic force 
f p p 

was f before mixture ; and consequently, 

V + v — — = —Of — the volume to be occupied 

v p 1 

by the other gas. Hence 

i P i ^ 

:: F :p = 


r p 


VF -j- vf 


v P( V ft))"*'/ 


i»(V + t>) —t?/’ 


V-f V 


- p . 

Cor. 


or 










respecting the Mixture of Gases, fyc. 323 

Cor . 1 .— When the volumes before mixture are equal 
F -f- f 

- ' = p ; or the resulting elastic force is the mean be¬ 
tween the elastic forces before mixture. 

Cor . 2. —If F —f then F = p, or the elastic force, is not 
changed by mixture. 

Proposition III.—If given volumesV,p,of gases or vapours 
of different elastic forces F ,f be mixed, and the elastic force 

of the mixture be p, then ■ — - r - = the volume of the mix- 

ture. 

For, by Prop. 1, the elastic force of each gas is to be equal 
to the elastic force of the mixture, and therefore 

: — :: V : —— = the volume of the gas whose force be- 
F p p ° 

fore mixture was F; and 

4r-: — : : v : — = the volume of the gas whose force was f 

f p P ° 

before mixture: hence, the volume of the resulting compound 

VF + vf 


IS 


P 


Cor .—When V = v, and F — p, we have 
-P- — the volume after mixture. 


p 

This condition, viz. that V = v, seems to apply with accuracy 

to the combination of air with the vapour of water, when the 

V v 

air is saturated. Mr. Dalton arrives at the formula-- = 

P ~f 

the volume; and to put the two to the test, let an experiment 
be made when f is equal to § p. 

By Mr. Dalton’s formula, the volume of the mixture of air 
and vapour would be three times the volume of the dry air. 

By my formula the volume of the mixture of air and vapour 
would be only If of the volume of the dry air. 

I did intend to conclude here ; but I cannot resist the temp¬ 
tation to ask Mr. Dalton, or M. Gay-Lussac, how in a mix¬ 
ture of one part of dry air of an elastic force of 30 inches of 
mercury with 2 parts of vapour of the elastic force of only 
20 inches, the whole mixture should possess an elastic force 
of 30 inches ? If the}^ can answer this question satisfactorily, 
we need not altogether despair of a perpetual motion being 
discovered. But to be once again serious: I shall be very 
happy to have any error in my train of reasoning or results 
pointed out, should such be detected by any of your learned 
contributors. 

16, Grove Place, Lisson Grove, May 2, 1826. 

2 S 2 


L. On 








[ 324 


L. On the Equilibrium of the Funicular Curve when the String 
is extensible . By H. Moseley, Esq. B.A.* 


T ET the forces acting on the point ( x , y) of the curve in the 
directions of the axes be X Y. 

Let the length of the corresponding branch of the curve be 
(s) and the tension at its extremity T. 

Then since by a property of the funicular polygon all the 
forces acting on the branch ( s ) if applied at its extremity 
would be in equilibrum with the tension (T) at that point, we 
have, calling y, the mass of an unit of ( 5 ), and S its length 
before distension, the mass of each linear unit being in this 


case considered unity, 

f^ds + Tlf=o.(1) 

fY^ds + T% = 0 .( 2 ) 

ds —( 1 + dS ~ 0.(3) 


(E being the modulus of extension) 

dS — (xds^O ..(4) 

From the two first equations, we get 

yj X y,ds — xfY y.ds 

rp ydx — xdy 
d s 

Now, ~~^~ d y dX = the perpendicular on the tangent = p 
(suppose), differentiating S we obtain (observing that dy 


jTX y, d s — dx J Y ( a d s — 0) 

(Xy - Y x)y.ds - d(Tp) = 0.(«) 

Again, differentiating the equations (1) and (2) multiplying the 
former by dx and the latter by dy and adding, we get 

d T + (Xdx + Y dy)y. = 0 ..(0) 

And by equations (3) and (4), 


ElSlJjllL — d (T p) = 0 
1 + T 

+ dT = 0 

1 + B 



* Communicated by the Author. 


from 


0 















Mr. Moseley on the Equilibrium of the Funicular Curve. 325 
from the last equation 

f(Xdx + Ydy) + T + y-l L = C 
T 2 + 2TE = CE - 2f(Xdx + Xdy) E 

••• T = — E + */ E 2 + [C- 2 f(Xdx + Ydy)\ E 

if one extremity of the string be free so that at this extremity 
T = 0, and the integral be taken from this point as a limit, 
then C = 0, and the equilibrium becomes impossible, unless 

E>2 f (Kdx + Y dy). 

In the impossible case, a continual motion will be com¬ 
municated to the string by the action of the forces upon it. 

In the case in which the extremities of the string are joined: 
if M be the value of f(Xdx + Y dy) taken through the arc 
(s), and N its value taken throughout the whole length plus the 
quantity s, we have, since in the latter case T becomes — T 

T 2 + 2TE = C - 2ME 

T 2 - 2TE = C - 2NE 


2T = (N - M) 
T - N ~ M 


To determine the equation to the curve, we have generally! 
if £c ~2/(Xd* + Ydy)} E = K. 


P = 
T = 


E 


E-f-T 


= (JL--)i 

\E + K / 


E ± (E 3 + KE)* 

— E + (E 2 + KE)^ + = c, 

J (E + K)2' 

Whence the curve may in all cases be determined. Also 
when the force acts from a centre, we have Xj/ — Y x = 0 
.*. by the equation (a) 

d( Tp) = 0 

c 

p = ——- 1 

-E±(EHXE)1 

the double value of ( p ) for a given value of (r), shows two 
positions of equilibrium; in the case in which p is negative 


ydx — xdy 




y 


dy 













326 Mr. Faraday on the mutual Action of Sulphuric Acid 




Or the angle PSM < PTX and .*. the pole S lies without the 
curve as in fig. 2. 

In this case the equilibrium is stable when the force is at¬ 
tractive, and unstable when repulsive. 

In the other case the curve may be convex or concave to 
the pole, or both. 

In the case in which the extremities of the string are joined, 
we have but one position of equilibrium, and 

P~ M —N ‘ 

In this case the form of the curve will be the same as though 
it were inextensible. 


LI. On the mutual Action of Sulphuric Acid and 'Naphthaline , 
and on a new Acid produced. By M. Faraday, Esq. F.R.S. 
Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences , 
fyc, 4'c* 

IN a paper <fi On new compounds of carbon and hydrogen f,” 
lately honoured by the Royal Society with a place in the 
Philosophical Transactions, I had occasion briefly to notice, 
the peculiar action exerted on certain of those compounds by 
sulphuric acid. During my attempts to ascertain more mi¬ 
nutely the general nature of this action, I was led to suspect 
the occasional combination of the hydro-carbonaceous matter 
with the acid, and even its entrance into the constitution of the 
salts, which the acid afterwards formed with bases. Although 
this opinion proved incorrect, relative to the peculiar hydro¬ 
carbons forming the subject of that paper, yet it led to expe¬ 
riments upon analogous bodies, and amongst others, upon 
naphthaline, which terminated in the production of the new 
acid body and salts now to be described. 

* From the Philosophical Transactions for 1825, Part II. 
f See Philosophical Magazine, vol. lxvi. p. 180. 


Some 
















and Naphthaline, and on a new Acid produced. 327 

Some of the results obtained by the use of the oil gas pro¬ 
ducts are very peculiar. If, when completed, I find them suf- 
ficiefitly interesting, I shall think it my duty to place them 
before the Royal Society, as explicatory of that action of sul¬ 
phuric acid which was briefly noticed in my last paper. 

Most authors who have had occasion to describe naphthaline, 
have noticed its habitudes with sulphuric acid. Mr. Erande, 
several years since* stated that naphthaline dissolved in heated 
sulphuric acid “ in considerable abundance, forming a deep 
violet coloured solution, which bears diluting with water with¬ 
out decomposition. The alkalies produce in this solution a 
white flaky precipitate, and if diluted the mixture becomes 
curiously opalescent, in consequence of the separation of nu¬ 
merous small flakes.” The precipitate by alkali was probably 
one of the salts to be hereafter described. 

Dr. Kidd observesf, that “it blackens sulphuric acid when 
boiled with it; the addition of water to the mixture having no 
other effect than to dilute the colour, neither does any preci¬ 
pitation take place upon saturating the acid with ammonia.” 

Mr. Chamberlain states J, that sulphuric acid probably de¬ 
composes naphthaline, for that it holds but a very small quan¬ 
tity in solution. The true interpretation of these facts and 
statements will be readily deduced from the following experi¬ 
mental details. 

1. Production arid Properties of the new Acid formedfrom Suls 

phuric Acid and Naphthaline . 

Naphthaline, which had been almost entirely freed from 
naphtha by repeated sublimation and pressure, was pulverized ; 
about one part with three or four parts by weight of cold sul¬ 
phuric acid were put into a bottle, well shaken, and left for 
36 hours. The mixture then contained a tenacious deep red 
fluid, and a crystalline solid; it had no odour of sulphurous acid. 
Water being added, all the liquid and part of the solid was 
dissolved; a few fragments of naphthaline were left, but the 
greater part was retained in solution. The diluted fluid being 
filtered was of a light brown tint, transparent, and of an acid 
and bitter taste. 

For the purpose of combining as much naphthaline as pos¬ 
sible with the sulphuric acid, 700 grains, with 520 grains of 
oil of vitriol were warmed in a Florence flask until entirely 
fluid, and were well shaken for about 30 minutes. The mix¬ 
ture was red; and the flask being covered up and left to cool, 

* Quarterly Journal of Science, viii. p. 289. 1819. 

f Philosophical Transactions, 1821, p. 21G. 

% Annals of Philosophy, N.S. vi. p. 136. 1823. 


was 


328 Mr. Faraday on the mutual Action of Sulphuric Acid 

was found after some hours to contain, at the bottom, a little 
brownish fluid, strongly acid, the rest of the contents having 
solidified into a highly crystalline mass. The cake was re¬ 
moved, and its lower surface having been cleaned, it was put 
into another Florence flask with 300 grains more of naphtha¬ 
line, the whole melted and well shaken together, by which an 
uniform mixture was obtained; but opaque and dingy in co¬ 
lour. It was now poured into glass tubes, in which it could 
be retained and examined without contact of air. In these the 
substance was observed to divide into two portions, which 
could easily be distinguished from each other, whilst both were 
retained in the fluid state. The heavier portion was in the 
largest quantity; it was of a deep red colour, opaque in tubes 
half an inch in diameter, but in small tubes could be seen 
through by a candle, or sun light, and appeared perfectly clear. 
The upper portion was also of a deep red colour, but clear, 
and far more transparent than the lower: the line of separa¬ 
tion very defined. On cooling the tubes, the lighter substance 
first solidified, and after some time the heavier substance also 
became solid. In this state, whilst in the tube, they could 
with great difficulty be distinguished from each other. 

These two substances were separated, and being put into 
tubes, were further purified by being left in a state of repose 
at temperatures above their fusing points, so as to allow of 
separation; and when cold, the lower part of the lighter sub¬ 
stance, and the upper, as well as the lower part of the heavier 
substance, were set aside for further purification. 

The heavier substance was a red crystalline solid, soft to the 
nail like a mixture of wax and oil. Its specific gravity was 
from 1*3 to 1*4, varying in different specimens; its taste sour, 
bitter, and somewhat metallic. When heated in a tube, it 
fused, forming as before a clear but deep red fluid. Further 
heat decomposed it, naphthaline, sulphurous acid, charcoal, 
See. being produced. When heated in the air it burnt with 
much flame. Exposed to air it attracted moisture rapidly, 
became brown and damp upon the surface, and developed a 
coat of naphthaline. It dissolved entirely in alcohol, forming 
a brown solution. When rubbed in water a portion of naph¬ 
thaline separated, amounting to 27 per cent, and a brown acid 
solution was obtained. This was found by experiments to 
contain a peculiar acid mixed with a litde free sulphuric acid, 
and it may conveniently be called the impure acid. 

The lighter substance was much harder than the former, and 
more distinctly crystalline. It was of a dull red colour, easily 
broken down in a mortar, the powder being nearly white, and 
adhesive like naphthaline. It was highly sapid, being acid, 

bitter. 


329 


and Naphthaline , and, on a neve Acid produced. 

bitter, and astringent. When heated in a tube it melted, 
forming a clear red fluid, from which by a continued heat 
much colourless naphthaline sublimed, and a black acid sub¬ 
stance was left, which at a high temperature gave sul¬ 
phurous acid and charcoal. When heated in the air it took 
fire and burnt like naphthaline. Being rubbed in a mortar 
with water, a very large portion of it proved to be insoluble; 
this was naphthaline; and on filtration the solution contained 
the peculiar acid found to exist in the heavier substance , con¬ 
taminated with very little sulphuric acid. More minute ex¬ 
amination proved that this tighter substance in its fluid state 
was a solution of a small quantity of the dry peculiar acid in 
naphthaline; and that the heavier substance was an union of 
the peculiar acid in large quantity with water, free sulphuric 
acid, and naphthaline. 

It was easy by diminishing the proportion of naphthaline to 
make the whole of it soluble, so that when water was added to 
the first result of the experiment, nothing separated; and the 
solution was found to contain sulphuric acid with the peculiar 
acid. But reversing the proportions, no excess of naphtha¬ 
line was competent, at least in several hours, to cause the 
entire disappearance of the sulphuric acid. When the expe¬ 
riment was carefully made with pure naphthaline, and either 
at common, or slightly elevated temperatures, no sulphurous 
acid appeared to be formed, and the action seemed to consist 
in a simple union of the concentrated acid and the hydro¬ 
carbon. 

Hence it appears, that when concentrated sulphuric acid 
and naphthaline are brought into contact at common, or mo¬ 
derately elevated temperatures, a peculiar compound of sul¬ 
phuric acid with the elements of the naphthaline is produced, 
which possesses acid properties; and as this exists in large 
quantity in the heavier of the bodies above described, that pro¬ 
duct may conveniently be called the impure sotid. acid. The 
experiments made with it, and the mode of obtaining the pure 
acid from it, are now to be described. 

Upon applying heat and agitation to a mixture of one 
volume of water and five volumes of impure solid acid, the 
water was taken up to the exclusion of nearly the whole of 
the free naphthaline present; the latter separating in a colour¬ 
less state from the red hydrated acid beneath it. As the tem¬ 
perature of the acid diminished, crystallization in tufts com¬ 
menced here and there, and ultimately the whole became a 
brownish yellow solid. A sufficient addition of water dis¬ 
solved nearly the whole of this hydrated acid, a few flakes only 
of naphthaline separating. 

Vol. 67. No. 337. May 1826. 2 T A portion 


330 Mr. Faraday on the mutual Action of Sulphuric Acid 

A portion of the impure acid in solution was evaporated at 
a moderate temperature; when concentrated, it gradually 
assumed a light brown tint. In this state it became solid on 
cooling, of the hardness of cheese, and was very deliquescent. 
By further heat it melted, then fumed, charred, &c. and gave 
evidence of the abundant presence of carbonaceous matter. 

Some of the impure acid in solution was neutralized by 
potash, during which no naphthaline or other substance se¬ 
parated. The solution being concentrated until ready to yield 
a film on its surface, was set aside whilst hot to crystallize: 
after some hours the solution was filled with minute silky cry¬ 
stals, in tufts, which gave the whole, when stirred, not the 
appearance of mixed solid salt and liquid, but that of a very 
strong solution of soap. The agitation also caused the sud¬ 
den solidification of so much more salt, that the whole became 
solid, and felt like a piece of soft soap. The salt when dried 
had no resemblance to sulphate of potash. When heated in 
the air, it burnt with a dense flame, leaving common sulphate 
of potash, mixed with some sulphuret of potassium, resulting 
from the action of the carbon, &c. upon the salt. 

Some of the dry salt was digested in alcohol to separate 
common sulphate of potash. The solution being filtered and 
evaporated, gave a white salt soluble in water and alcohol, 
crystalline, neutral, burning in the air with much flame, and 
leaving sulphate of potash. It was not precipitated by nitrate 
of lead, muriate of baryta, or nitrate of silver. 

It was now evident that an acid had been formed peculiar 
in its nature and composition, and producing with bases pe¬ 
culiar salts. In consequence of the solubility of its barytic 
salt, the following process for the preparation of the pure acid 
was adopted : 

A specimen of native carbonate of baryta was selected, and 
its purity ascertained. It was then pulverized, and rubbed in 
successive portions with a quantity of the impure acid in so¬ 
lution, until the latter was perfectly neutralized, during which 
the slight colour of the acid was entirely removed. The so¬ 
lution was found to contain the peculiar barytic salt. Water 
added to the solid matter dissolved out more of the salt; and 
ultimately only carbonate and sulphate of baryta, mixed with 
a little of another barytic salt, remained. The latter salt be¬ 
ing much less soluble in water than the former, was not re¬ 
moved so readily by lixiviation, and was generally found to be 
almost entirely taken up by the last portions of water applied 
with heat. 

The barytic salt in solution was now very carefully decom¬ 
posed, by successive additions of sulphuric acid, until all the 

baryta 

4< 


331 


and Naphthaline , and on a new Acid produced. 

baryta was separated, no excess of sulphuric acid being per¬ 
mitted. Being filtered, a pure aqueous solution of the peculiar 
acid was obtained. It powerfully reddened litmus paper, and 
had a bitter acid taste. Being evaporated to a certain degree, 
a portion of it was subjected to the continued action of heat; 
when very concentrated it began to assume a brown colour, 
and on cooling became thick, and ultimately solid, and was 
very deliquescent. By renewed heat it melted, then began to 
fume, charred, but did not flame; and ultimately gave sul¬ 
phuric and sulphurous acid vapours, and left charcoal. 

Another portion of the unchanged strong acid solution was 
placed over sulphuric acid in an exhausted receiver. In some 
hours it had by concentration become a soft white solid, ap¬ 
parently dry; and after a longer period was hard and brittle. 
In this state it was deliquescent in the air, but in close vessels 
underwent no change in several months. Its taste was bitter, 
acid, and accompanied by an after metallic flavour, like that 
of cupreous salts. When heated in a tube at temperatures 
below 212°, it melted without any other change; and on being 
allowed to cool, crystallized from centres, the whole ultimately 
becoming solid. When more highly heated, water at first 
passed off, and the acid assumed a slight red tint; but no sul¬ 
phurous acid was as yet produced, nor any charring occa¬ 
sioned ; and a portion being dissolved and tested by muriate 
of baryta, gave but a very minute trace of free sulphuric acid. 
In this state it was probably anhydrous. Further heat caused 
a little naphthaline to rise, the red colour became deep brown, 
and then a sudden action commenced at the bottom of the 
tube, which spread over the whole, and the acid became black 
and opaque. Continuing the heat, naphthaline, sulphurous 
acid, and charcoal were evolved ; but even after some time the 
residuum examined by water and carbonate of baryta, was 
found to contain a portion of the peculiar acid undecomposed, 
unless the temperature had been raised to redness. 

These facts establish the peculiarity of this acid, and distin¬ 
guish it from all others. In its solid state it is generally a 
hydrate containing much combustible matter. It is readily so¬ 
luble in water and alcohol, and its solutions form neutral salts 
with bases, all of which are soluble in water, most of them in 
alcohol, and all combustible, leaving sulphates or sulphurets 
according to circumstances. It dissolves in naphthaline, oil of 
turpentine, and olive oil, in greater or smaller quantities, ac¬ 
cording as it contains less or more water. As a hydrate, when 
it is almost insoluble in naphthaline, it resembles the heavier 
substance , obtained, as before described, by the action of sul¬ 
phuric acid on naphthaline, and which is the solid hydrated 

2 T 2 acid, 

t » j 


332 Capt. Sabine’s Remarks on the Method of investigating 

acid, containing a little naphthaline, and some free sulphuric 
acid; whilst the lighter substance is a solution of the dry acid 
in naphthaline; the water present in the oil of vitriol originally 
used being sufficient to cause a separation of a part, but not 
of the whole. 

[To be continued.] 


LI I. Hydrographical Notices :—Remarks on the Method of in¬ 
vestigating the Direction and Force of the Currents of the Ocean; 
Presence of the Water of the Gulf-Stream 071 the Coasts of Europe 
in January 1822; Summary of the Currents experienced by 
His Majesty’s Ship Pheasant , in a Voyage from Sierra Leone 
to Bahia , and thence to New YorkStream of the River 
Amazons crossed .', three hundred Miles from the Mouth of the 
River 0 By Capt . Edward Sabine, R.A. F.R. Sf L.S. SfcA 


OREVIOUSLY to my leaving England in 1821, I had had 
the great advantage of much conversation with Major 
Rennell, on the subject of the currents in the northern and 
southern Atlantic Oceans, and of having my attention direct¬ 
ed by him to those points in particular, concerning their ve¬ 
locity, limits, and temperature, on which further inquiries 
might conduce to the advancement of hydrographical know T - 
ledge. 

The method of ascertaining the existence, direction and ve¬ 
locity of a current, where land is not in sight, and a ship can¬ 
not be rendered stationary by anchorage, is to compare her 
position at intervals of sufficient length (generally of 24 hours) 
by observation and by reckoning. By the former is learnt 
her real change of geographical position in the interval; by the 
latter, the course and distance that she has gone through the 
water; should the position by the reckoning not agree with 
the position by the observation, the difference (presuming both 
to be correct) is the indication and measure of current. 

To determine a ship’s position from day to day by observa¬ 
tion, or rather, her relative position on one day to the pre¬ 
ceding, has become, since the introduction of chronometers, a 
matter of very simple accomplishment, and capable of much 
precision. It is far otherwise with the reckoning, however, 
when more is sought by it than such a rough approximation 
as may serve the ordinary purposes of navigation: it must, in 
fact, require the most assiduous and unremitting attention, as 
well as considerable nautical experience and judgement, to 

* From Captain Sabine’s newly-published Account of his Experiments to 
determine the Figure of the Earth. 

estimate 




the Direction, $c. of the Currents of the Ocean. 333 

estimate correctly the continually varying effects of the winds 
and sea, on a body that is also continually varying the mea¬ 
sure of her exposure to their influence. It may be in the 
power of an individual in a vessel, to obtain, by his own ex¬ 
ertions alone, that portion of the materials towards the evidence 
of currents, which depends on her real change of position; 
but the completion of the evidence by a sufficiently correct 
reckoning must be the result of an interest participated in by 
all the executive officers of a ship; or by the establishment of 
such habits of accuracy, under the authority of her com¬ 
mander, as are not of usual practice, because they are not ne¬ 
cessary for the general purposes of navigation; the employ¬ 
ment of chronometers, by which the position of a ship is ascer¬ 
tained and a fresh departure taken on every day that the sun 
shines, has superseded the necessity of that vigilant and scru¬ 
pulous regard, which the older navigators paid to all the de¬ 
tails of the reckoning, on which alone they had to depend; 
and has tended to substitute general habits of loose and vague 
estimation, for the considerate and well-practised judgement 
with which allowances were formerly made for the incidental 
circumstances of steerage, leeway, making and shortening sail, 
&c. &c., on a due attention to which the accuracy of a reckon¬ 
ing so materially depends. 

In ships of war especially, the reckoning is further embar¬ 
rassed by a difficulty less obvious, but not less generally opera¬ 
tive, by which, if not properly provided against, the know¬ 
ledge of the true course which the ship has made is necessarily 
rendered very uncertain : it arises from the usual practice of di¬ 
recting the course by the binnacle compasses, which are two in 
number for the convenience of the helmsmen, and being placed 
one on the larboard and the other on the starboard side of 
the midship, with a space between them of greater or less ex¬ 
tent according to the size of the vessel, can scarcely fail, and 
are, in fact, generally influenced differently by the ship’s iron ; 
and being subject to different systems of attraction, the com¬ 
passes not only disagree, but their disagreement varies ac¬ 
cording to the direction of ship’s head, the amount of the dip 
of the needle, and the force of terrestrial magnetism. It is 
customary always to steer by the weather compass ; and thus 
each is liable to become in its turn the directing compass for 
periods of more or less duration, and the corrections of the 
courses for the disturbing influence of the ship’s iron, becomes 
so various and complicated, as to render the deduction of a 
correct reckoning practically unattainable. For example, the 
binnacle compasses of the Iphigenia,on her passage from Eng¬ 
land 


834 Capt. Sabine on the Presence of the Water 

land to Madeira, were observed to differ from each other half 
a point in one direction when on south-westerly courses, and 
less than half a point in the opposite direction when on easterly 
courses, the indications of the compasses having crossed each 
other, and agreed at some intermediate point; it was requisite, 
therefore, that the correction to be allowed on every course 
by each of the two compasses should be ascertained, and that 
the compass by which each course was directed should be 
specially recorded, in order that the true course should be 
known. . 

The most obvious mode of preventing so much inconve¬ 
nience and trouble, as well as the more correct practice, is to 
direct and note the ship’s course by one compass only, sta¬ 
tioned permanently in some convenient situation, without re¬ 
ference to the helmsmen, and to use the binnacle compasses 
solely to steer by, on the point which may be noticed at the 
time to agree with the magnetic course of the standard com¬ 
pass; and by employing an azimuth compass for the latter 
purpose, the advantage is gained of enabling the variation to 
be observed directly with the compass by which the course is 
governed, and thus of avoiding intermediate comparisons, in 
which time is occupied, and errors frequently introduced. 
This arrangement of a standard compass was adopted by 
Captain Clavering in the Pheasant, and subsequently in the 
Griper, and was found to answer its purpose perfectly, and to 
be attended with no practical inconvenience whatsoever. 

Although from the courses above noticed, no satisfactory 
investigation of the direction or velocity of currents could be 
made in the Iphigenia, in her passage from England to the 
coast of Africa, a remarkable and very interesting evidence 
was obtained by observations on the temperature of the sea, of 
the accidental presence in that year of the water of the Gulf- 
stream, in longitudes much to the eastward of its ordinary ex¬ 
tension. The Iphigenia sailed from Plymouth on the 4th of 
January, after an almost continuous succession of very heavy 
westerly and south-westerly gales, by which she had been re¬ 
peatedly driven back and detained in the ports of the Channel. 
The following memorandum exhibits her position at noon on 
each day of her subsequent voyage from Plymouth to Ma¬ 
deira, and from thence to Cape Vercl Islands, the tempera¬ 
ture of the air in the shade and to windward, and that of 
the surface of the sea; it also exhibits in comparison, the or¬ 
dinary temperature of the ocean at that season, in the respec¬ 
tive parallels, which Major Rennell has been so kind as to 
permit me to insert on his authority, as an approximation 

founded 


335 


of the Gulf stream in Europe , in 1822. 


founded on his extensive inquiries ; the last column shows the 
excess or defect in the temperature observed in the Iphigenia’s 
passage. 


Date. 

Latit. 

N. 

Longit. 

W. 

Air. 

Surface Water. 

Excess 

or 

Defect. 

Observed. 

Usual. 

1822. 

’Jan. 5 

Plymouth 2 

to \ ' 

Madeira. 

[ 10 

r . r 19 

Madeira | 20 

to the 21 

C.Verds. 22 

l 23 

o / 

47 30 
44 20 
41 22 
38 54 

no o 

33 40 
26 00 
24 30 
23 06 
21 02 
19 20 

o / 

7 30 
9 30 
11 37 
13 20 

3serv. 

15 30 

17 50 

18 50 
20 00 
21 27 
23 00 

o 

47 

52*5 

54 

54-2 

56 

60*7 

66 

68 

69 

69*5 

70*6 

o 

49 

55*7 

58*2 

61*7 

63 

64 
65*5 
67 

69 

69- 5 

70- 2 

o 

50 

52-5 

54 

55*7 

58 

60 

67 

68-4 

69*5 

71*2 

71*6 

— 1 
+ 3*2 
+ 4*2 
+ 6 
+ 5 
+ 4 

— 1-5 
—1*4 
-0-5 
—1*7 

— 1-4 


It is seen by the preceding memorandum, that in the pas¬ 
sage from Plymouth to Madeira, the Iphigenia found the tem¬ 
perature of the sea, between the parallels of 44^° and 33f°, 
several degrees warmer than its usual temperature in the same 
season; namely, 3°*2 in 44^-°, increasing to 6° in 39°, and 
again diminishing to 4° in 33f 0 ; whilst at the same period, the 
general temperature of the ocean in the adjoining parallels, 
both to the northward and to the southward, even as far as 
the Cape Verd Islands in 19§°, was colder by a degree and 
upwards than the usual average. The evidence of many care¬ 
ful observers at different seasons and in different years, whose 
observations have been collected and compared by Major 
Rennell, has satisfactorily shown, that the water of the Gulf- 
stream, distinguished by the high temperature which it brings 
from its origin in the Gulf of Mexico, is not usually found to 
extend to the eastward of the Azores. Vessels navigating the 
ocean between the Azores and the continent of Europe, find 
at all seasons a temperature progressively increasing as they 
approach the sun; the absolute amount varies according to 
the season, the maximum in summer being about 14 degrees 
warmer than the maximum in winter; but the progression in 
respect to latitude is regular, and is nearly the same in winter 
as in summer, being an increase of 3° of Fahrenheit for every 
5° of latitude. It is further observed, that the ordinary con¬ 
dition of the temperature, in the part of the ocean under no¬ 
tice, is little subject to disturbance, and that in any particular 
. * parallel 
























336 Capt. Sabine on the Presence of the Water 

parallel and season, the limits of variation in different years 
are usually very small: after westerly winds of much strength 
or continuance, the sea in all the parallels is rather colder 
than the average temperature, on account of the increased ve¬ 
locity communicated to the general set of the waters of the 
north-eastern Atlantic towards the southward. To the heavy 
westerly gales which had prevailed almost without intermission 
in the last fortnight in November, and during the whole of 
December, may therefore be attributed the colder tempera¬ 
tures observed in the latitude of47|°, and in those between 26° 
and 19 J°. 

If doubt could exist in regard to the higher temperatures 
between 44<J° and 33f°, being a consequence of the extension 
in that year of the Gulf-stream in the direction of its general 
course, it might be removed by a" circumstance well deserving 
of notice; namely, that the greatest excess above the natural 
temperature of the ocean was found in or about the latitude of 
39°, being the parallel where the middle of the stream, indi¬ 
cated by^the warmest water, would arrive, by continuing to 
flow to the eastward of the Azores, in the prolongation of the 
great circle in which it is known to reach the mid Atlantic. 

& One previous and similar instance is on record, in which 
the water of the Gulf-stream was traced by its temperature 
quite across the Atlantic to the coasts of Europe; this was by 
Dr. Franklin, in a passage from the United States to France, 
in. November 1776 *. The latter part of his voyage, i.e. from 
the meridian of 35° to the Bay of Biscay, was performed with 
little deviation in the latitude of 45°; in this run, exceeding 
1200 miles, in a parallel of which the usual temperature, to¬ 
wards the close of November, is about 55^°, he found 63° in the 
longitude of 35° W., diminishing to 60° in the Bay of Biscay; 
and 61° in 10° west longitude, near the same spot-where the 
Iphigenia found 55°*7 on the 6th of January, being about 
five weeks later in the season. At this spot then, where the 
Iphigenia crossed Dr. Franklin’s track, the temperature in 
November 1776 was 5y°, and in January 1822, 3°*2 above 
the ordinary temperature of the season. 

There can be little hesitation in attributing the unusual ex¬ 
tension of the stream in particular years to its greater initial 
velocity, occasioned by a more than ordinary difference in the 
levels of the Gulf of Mexico and of the Atlantic: it has been 
computed by Major Rennell, from the known velocity of the 
stream at various points of its course, that in the summer 
months, when its rapidity is greatest, the water requires about 

* Franklin’s Works, 8vo, London 1806, vol. ii. pp. 200, 201. 

eleven 


\ 


337 


of the Gulf stream in Europe in 1822. 

eleven weeks to run from the outlet of the Gulf of Mexico to 
the Azores, being about 3000 geographical miles; and he has 
further supposed, in the case of the water, of which the tem¬ 
perature was examined by Dr. Franklin, that perhaps not less 
than three months were occupied in addition by its passage to 
the coasts of Europe, being altogether a course exceeding 
4000 geographical miles. On this supposition, the water of 
the latter end of November J 776, may have quitted the Gulf of 
Mexico, with a temperature of 83° in June; and that of Ja¬ 
nuary 1822, towards the end of July, with nearly the same 
temperature. The summer months, particularly July and 
August, are those of the greatest initial velocity of the stream, 
because it is the period when the level of the Caribbean sea 
and Gulf of Mexico is most deranged. 

It is not difficult to imagine, that the space between the 
Azores and the coasts of the old continent, being traversed by 
the stream, slowly as it must be, at a much cplder season in the 
instance observed by thelphigenia than in that by Dr. Franklin, 
its temperature may have been cooled thereby to a nearer ap¬ 
proximation to the natural temperature of the ocean in the 
former than in the latter case; and that the difference between 
the excess of 5°*5 in November, and of 3 0, 2 in January, may 
be thus accounted for. 

If the explanation of the apparently very unusual facts ob¬ 
served by Dr. Franklin in 1776, and by the Iphigenia in 1822, 
be correct, how highly curious is the connexion thus traced 
between a more than ordinary strength of the winds within 
the tropics in the summer, occasioning the derangement of the 
level of the Mexican and Caribbean seas, and the high tem¬ 
perature of the sea between the British Channel and Madeira, 
in the following winter. 

Nor is the probable meteorological influence undeserving 
of attention, of so considerable an increase in the temperature 
of the surface-water over an extent of ocean exceeding 600 
miles in latitude and 1000 in longitude, situated so importantly 
in relation to the western parts of Europe. It is at least a re¬ 
markable coincidence, that in November and December 1821, 
and in January 1822, the state of the weather was so unusual 
in the southern parts of Great Britain and in France, as to 
have excited general observation; in the meteorological jour¬ 
nals of the period it is characterized “ as most extraordinarily 
hot, damp, stormy, and oppressive:” it is stated 66 that an un¬ 
usual quantity of rain fell both in November and December, 
but particularly in the latter;” that, <£ the gales from the west 
and south-west were almost without intermission,” and that 
VoL 67, No. 337. Map 1826. 2 U in 


338 


Capt. Sabine on the Influence of the Vicinity 

in December, the mercury in the barometer was lower than it 
had been known for 35 years before *. 

On leaving the Cape Verd Islands, the Iphigenia proceeded 
to make the continent of Africa at Cape Verd. The distance 
between the Cape and the Islands is about 400 miles, both be¬ 
ing in the same parallel of latitude. This passage afforded an 
interesting opportunity of observing on the approach to land, 
the influence of its vicinity on the temperature of the sea. The 
general temperature of the surface in that parallel and at that 
season may be considered 71°*7, the observations made at sun¬ 
rise, noon, and sunset, in the first 350 miles ol the passage, va¬ 
rying from 71° to 72°*4 : but at sunrise on the 31st of January, 
being then at the distance of 26 miles west of Cape Verd, with 
no land as yet in sight, the surface-water had lowered to 69 0, 6. 
On approaching nearer it progressively diminished, until at 

* The following description of this very remarkable winter is extracted 
from Mr. DanielPs Essay on the Climate of London (Meteorological Essays, 
London 1823, pages 297 and 298), and becomes highly curious when viewed 
in connexion with the unusual temperature of the ocean in the direction 
from which the principal winds proceeded. 

“ November 1821, differed from the mean, and from both the preceding 
years, in a very extraordinary way. The average temperature was 5° above 
the usual amount, and although its dryness was in excess,” [the relative 
dryness, in consequence of the increased temperature] “ the quantity of rain 
exceeded the mean quantity by one half. The barometer on the whole 
was not below the mean. All the low lands were flooded, and the sowing 
of wheat very much interrupted by the wet. 

“ In December, the quantity of rain was very nearly double its usual 
amount. The barometer averaged considerably below the mean, and de¬ 
scended lower than had been known for 35 years. Its range w’as from 
30’27 inches to 28*12 inches. The temperature was still high for the sea* 
son, and‘the weather continued, as in the last month, in an uninterrupted 
course of wind and rain; the former often approaching to an hurricane, 
and the latter inundating all the low grounds. The water-sodden state of 
the soil, in many parts, prevented wheat sowing, or fallowing the land at 
the regular season. The mild temperature pushed forward all the early 
sown wheats to an height and luxuriance scarcely ever before witnessed. 
The grass, and every green production, increased in an equal proportion. 

January 1822. This most extraordinary season still continued above the 
mean temperature, but the rain, as if exhausted in the preceding month, 
fell much below the usual quantity in this. There was not one day on 
which the frost lasted during the twenty-four hours. 

“ Serious apprehensions were entertained lest the wheats, drawn up as 
they had been by warm and moist weather, without the slightest check from 
frost, should be exhausted by excessive vegetation, and ultimately be more 
productive in straw than corn. 

“ The month of February, still five degrees above the mean temperature, 
ended a winter which has never been paralleled.” 

It would not be difficult to trace in detail, each of the effects described 
in the preceding extract, to the cause which has been thus placed in con¬ 
nexion with them. 


cne 


of Land on the Temperature of the Sea. 


339 


one mile from the shore, it had fallen as low as 64 degrees, 
and continued from 64 to 65 degrees, between Cape Manoel 
and Goree. Cape Verd is situated nearly at equal distances, 
exceeding 70 miles, from the mouths of the Senegal and Gam¬ 
bia, the one being to the north and the other to the south. It 
is probable that the water of both these rivers is always colder 
at their entrance into the sea, than the ocean temperature of 
the parallel; that of the Gambia certainly was so at that sea¬ 
son, but it was not so cold as the sea in the vicinity of Cape 
Verd, as on approaching the entrance of the Gambia, the tem¬ 
perature of the surface rose to 67°*5, and varied in the river 
itself at different hours from 66° to 67°*5; and at the depth 
of 36 feet, being within six feet of the bottom, a self-registering 
thermometer indicated at high water less than a degree colder 
than the surface. The coast in the neighbourhood of Cape 
Verd is every where low and sandy, and is covered with trees 
to the water’s edge. Such, indeed, is the general character of 
the shores of western Africa, with the exception of Cape Sierra 
Leone; but at no other part of the coast was the diminution 
of the temperature of the water, on approaching the land, so 
great, as in the instance which has been mentioned. Between 
the Gambia and Sierra Leone are a succession of rivers, ori¬ 
ginating in land of less elevation than the Senegal and Gambia, 
and much exceeding them in the temperature of the waters 
which they convey into the ocean; in the mid-channel of the 
Rio Grande, at a few miles from its mouth, the surface was 
never less than 74°, and occasionally as high as 77°*5, and at 
the depth of 30 or 40 feet was less than a degree colder than 
the surface. At the entrance of the River Noonez the surface- 
water w r as 77°*5, and at that of the Rokelle 80°. To the south 
of the Rokelle, and from thence to the extremity of the Gulf 
of Guinea, the coast is swept by a current of considerable ra¬ 
pidity, which renders the cooling effect of the land less appa¬ 
rent ; but in the bays of the coast, where the current sweeps 
from point to point, and leaves still water in the inside, a diffe¬ 
rence is commonly found amounting to three and four degrees*. 

[To be continued.] 

LIII. On 

* The passage from the Cape Verd Islands to Cape Verd and the Gambia, 
afforded a not less interesting opportunity of observing the difference in the 
hygrometrical state of the atmosphere at sea, and in the vicinity of the 
continent, in the region of the trade winds. We had entered the N.E. 
trade in the latitude of 24° North, nine degrees to the northward of the Cape 
Verd Islands, and did not lose it until the afternoon of the day on which 
we quitted the Gambia, the strength declining on the approach to the 
continent, but the direction continuing unchanged. On the 28th, 29th, 
and 30th of January, in navigating the first 350 miles of the passage from 
the islands to the continent, the air in the shade and to windward varied at 
different hours of the day from 70 o, 2 to 71°'2> and the dew -point from 68° 

217 2 to 


340 


LIII. On the Properties, of a Line of shortest Distance traced 
on the Surface of an oblate Spheroid . By J. Ivory, Esq . 
M.A. F.R.S* 

[Concluded from p. 249.] 

¥ N continuing the subject of my last communication, I shall 
^ now examine particularly the case of a geodetical line di¬ 
rected at right angles to the meridian. For this purpose I 
resume the formula before found, viz. 

sin u — sin l cos z , 

( j _ (1 -}- e' 1 ) f 1 -j- e 2 cos 2 l . dz 

(1 -J- e s — e 2 sin 2 1 cos 2 *) I ? 

l being the latitude at the commencement of the line, and u 
the latitude at its termination. We rejected this formula, be¬ 
cause the arc z cannot be safely determined by means of the 
latitudes. But this objection will be of no force if the same 
arc can be ascertained with sufficient exactness either by the 
difference of longitude, or the change in azimuth. In reality 
the formula is extremely proper for finding s : for so long as 
z is not very considerable the denominator varies slowly, and 
* is almost proportional to s, We may likewise illustrate the 


to 64°‘5. At sunrise on the 31st, when at 26 miles west of Cape Verd, the 
dew-point was 6l 0- 5, and lowered to 57°‘5 on nearing the land, the tem¬ 
perature of the air not being sensibly affected. Off the entrance of the 
Gambia, on the 1st of February, and in the river on the 2d and 3rd and 4th, 
the dew-point was never higher than 51°, and occasionally as low as 48 0, 5, 
the air over the water and in the shade being generally during the day 
from 69° to 70°. When about to quit the Gambia on the morning of the 
5th of February, we experienced, although in a very slight degree, the pe¬ 
culiar wind called the Harmattan, of which the season was nearly over : its 
direction was one or two points to the north of the trade wind, or about 
N.N.E.; the air during its influence fell to 66°*5, and the dew-point to 
37°‘5; affording a reasonable inference, that in a genuine Harmattan, and 
before it reaches the sea, the constituent temperature of the vapour may 
be at least as low as 32°. In the progress toCapeRoxo, on the afternoon 
of the same day, we lost the Harmattan, and with it the continuance of the 
trade wind. The sea breeze which followed, raised the temperature of 
the air to 70°, and of the dew-point to 61°'5. 

It appears, therefore, that when the north-east wind first comes off the 
continent of Africa it contains only 53 parts in 100 of the moisture which 
would be required for repletion at the existing temperature; that in blowing 
over the sea its proportion of moisture rapidly augments, until at fifty miles 
from the land, it has acquired 80 parts in 100; which proportion is not 
subsequently increased by its passage over 350 additional miles of ocean. 
In the Harmattan the air contained only 38 parts in 100 of the proportion 
of moisture required for its repletion. 

* Communicated by the Author. 


same 





Mr. Ivory on the Properties of a Line of shortest Distance. 341 

same thing by attending to what z represents on the surface 
of the sphere. Let the arc i' be determined by this equation; 

viz, t tan V 

tan i = l 

and draw a great circle having the inclination i' to the equa¬ 
tor, and intersecting it in the same diameter with the former 
oblique circle. Now let any meridian meet the two circles^ 
and let and u be the arcs of the meridian between the equa¬ 
tor, and the respective circles; then we shall have this equa¬ 
tion, viz. tan u 

tan vl/ = ' • ; 

a/ l -j- 

whence it follows, that if \p be the latitude of a parallel to the 
equator on the surface of the sphere, u will be the latitude of 
the same parallel on the surface of the spheroid. Hence it 
will readily appear that z is the arc of the latter great circle 
intercepted between the two meridians that pass through the 
extremities of the arc s' of the former circle; and, on account 
of the proximity of the two circles, it is never much different 
from s’ or s. When the meridian is nearly perpendicular to 
the circles, it is also evident, as has already been observed,, 
that a small error in the latitude will occasion a great varia¬ 
tion in z. 

Having expanded the foregoing formula and integrated as 
usual (using Hirsch’s tables of fluents, or the tables of any 
such plodding collector, if need be), we shall get, by neglecting 
the powers of e 2 above the square, 

—-"64 ( 16sin 1 ~ 13sm 4 /)| 

(4 sin 2 l — 3 sin 4 /) ^ 


"F = * 1 
4- sin 2 s j 


1 + 


3e°~ 


8 


sin 2 / —- 


32 


+ 


15 e* sin 4 1 
256 


X sin 4 *: 


and, in this formula, we have only to substitute the value of 
* in terms of the difference of longitude, or of the change in 
azimuth. 

Let us first compare z with the difference of longitude. The 
second formula (A) gives us 

i -j- e 2 sin 3 4 _ 

(!$■=$ x ^ i ff ~ cos2m 

Observing that here sing. = 1, sin i = sin A, the foimulas (13) 
give us. 

-d?' = 

CUfc V A/ MlA * D111 

Now 


cos A d 4 

cos 4 <\/ 5 * n 2 * —‘ s ’ n 7 “4 


















342 Mr. Ivory on the Properties of a Line of shortest 
Now we shall find 


\/ sin 2 A — sin 2 

d 4 
cos 4 


V\ 4 e‘ . sin 2 / — sin * u 
^/i -\-e ' z cos 2 /. 1 4 e~ cos 3 u 9 
d 

• ■ ■ — . . ■ . ,-i • 

cos U V 1 + e 2 cos 12 u * 


COS X VI -)- e 2 cos 2 / 

and hence, because cos l =- 7t— 


we get, 


dff = 
= 


a/i +«* 

cos l d u 


cos w V sin‘ 2 / — sin 2 u f 
cos £ <Z z 

cos 2/4 sin 2 / sin 2 z 


We have therefore, 

, cos Idz 

dp = 


cos 2 / 4 sin 2 / sin 2 z 


X 


( tan z \ , ( 

-j—j- ) — ^ X COS L \ 


COS 


*1- 


y' l -j- e 2 (cos 2 / -j- sin 2 / sin 2 z) 

If this expression of dtp be expanded and integrated, we 
shall find, 

e 2 

~2 ~8~ 

In this value I have rejected ? e COa ^ sln - - ~f dz sin 2 2 , which 
is altogether insensible even supposing z equal to 10° or 12°. 
Next P ut tan p cos l = tan *, 

a o 3 e 4 2 . 

a = -§ e 2 — g— COS 2 /, 

and the last equation will become 


( tan x \ . / tan z \ 

—) = arc tan (-- ) — a cos l x z. 

We must now find z in terms of x, and, as this operation re¬ 
quires only the ordinary rules of analysis, I shall suppress the 
detail of the calculation. Neglecting quantities of the order 
already indicated, I have found, 

2 = x | 1 4 (cos 2 / + sin 2 / sin 2 x) — ~ cos H j, (D) 

which formula may likewise be written thus, 

z = x V 1 + c 2 cos 2 /' 4* sin 2 / sin 3 x . . . . (D') 

This value of 2 must now be substituted in the formula for s ; 
and, in doing this, it will be sufficient to make 


sin 2 2 = sin 2 x 
Thus we get, 


^1 + ~cos z l') — sin 2x 4 e 2 cos 2 / x x. 


s 

p 


tan <p cos l = tan 


























Distance traced on the Surface oj an oblate Spheroid . 343 

S , . & /. sin 2 / 

= * I 1 + tO “ 


s 

"P 


~^(t- 


2 

+ 


+ sin 2 / sin 2 


sin 2 l 27 sin * Z 


64 


)} 


+ sin 2 x | ^ sin 2 / — (4 sin- 3 sin * l) j 

15 e 4 sin 4 Z 

H- ■——- X sin 4 .r. 

In this formula the only unknown quantities are e 9 and P, all the 
coefficients being known, provided the initial latitude and the 
difference of longitude have been determined by observation. 

If the length measured extend to an amplitude of only 2° or 
3°, we may make cos z = l in the denominator of the diffe¬ 
rential equation, and then, 

s __ (l + g' 2 ) g 
1 + e l cos 2 1 

In this case we likewise obtain from the formula (D f ), 

z — x f 1 + e* cos 2 1 ; 

and hence, (i+e‘ 2 )i 

* § -- • 

v'l + e 1 cos' 2 Z 

The quantity into which x is here multiplied is the radius of 
curvature of the geodetical line; or, it is the normal to the 
surface of the spheroid terminating in the axis of revolution. 

Let us next compare z with the change of azimuth. From 
the fundamental equation (a) we get, 

cos i Vi + <? 2 cos 2 u 


sin f = 


cos X 


cos^ 

Put to = 90° — f ; then, 


cos 


u 1 -f- e 2 cos 2 7 


sin to 


sin -1 — sin - u 


Consequently, 
sin to = 


cos u 1 -f- e' 1 cos 2 Z 
sin l sin z 


1 


sm z — 


>y/ cos 2 7 -f- sin 2 2 sin 2 z 1 -f- e% cos 

tan w a/ 1 -f- e l cos 2 Z 


i; 


tan Z 


sj 1 — e 2 cos 2 l tan 2 w 

It appears therefore that z is rigorously determined by the 
change in azimuth. But it will be better to have recourse to 
approximation. Assume 

tan w 

= sin ?/; 


tan l 


then 


sin z 


sin y 


aJ 1 + e 2 cosy/ 


or 


sin z ss= sin y f 1 4- e i cos 3 


1 — e'- sin 2 l sin 2 y 

71 + 4 


sin 8 l sin 9 y. 


And, 

































344 Mr. Ivory on the Properties of a Line of shortest 

And, by passing from the expression of the sine to that of the 
arc itself, I have found. 


z = y */ 1 + e 2 cos 2 / + 


e 3 (1 + *2 sin 2 l) 
__ 


sin 3 3 /. (E) 


If we compare this expression with the formula (D') we shall 
readily deduce 


x 


y + 


e‘ 7 cos * l 


■sm * y. 


(F) 


Hence, in measurements to a certain extent, x and y may be 
regarded as equal; and either of them will give the amplitude 
of the length measured. It is easy to substitute y for x in the 
expression of the geodetical line already given. 

It is requisite to observe that in low latitudes the value of 

sin y (= is the quotient of two small quantities; and 

that an error in w will be greatly augmented in y. It is there¬ 
fore only in considerable latitudes that z can be safely deter¬ 
mined by means of the azimuth. 

The foregoing analysis will enable us to deduce the diffe¬ 
rence of longitude directly from the variation in azimuth. We 
have already found, 

. sin l sin z 1 

Sill W = . -- T— —• X 


therefore assume 


V’ cos 2 l -j- sin 3 1 sin 2 z */ \ -j- e 2 cos 2 l 


then 


sin $ — 
sin $ = 


sin w /s/l -j- e' 1 cos 2 l 


sin l 
sin 2 


a/ cos 2 l q- sin 3 1 sin 2 % ? 


tan % 
cos l 


= tan 3. 


But we have likewise found 

_ , / tan 2 \ 

<p = arc tan (-— r ) - 

V cos l / 

wherefore, we get, 


cos l { — 


i£i 

8 


cos 


d 


X z : 


sin 0 


sin to a/i + e 2 cos 2 l 

- * J 

sin l 


9 


/ ^2 3^4 ) 

== 0 — < — cos l — cos 3 1 l x arc tan. (tan 0 cos l). 


•(G) 


This formula is already very exact, and will extend to an am¬ 
plitude of 10 ° or 12 ° from the beginning of the geodetical 
line: but the method we have employed may be carried to 
any required degree of approximation. 

In the Conn . des Terns 1828, I find an example very pro¬ 
per to illustrate the foregoing calculations. In a perpendicu¬ 
lar to the meridian commencing in latitude 45° M. Puissant 

has 



















Distance traced on the Surface of an oblate Spheroid . 345 

has computed the angles at the extremity of a length equal to 

400,000 metres, supposing the oblateness equal to : and 

the results of his calculation, given in pp. 221, 222, expressed 
by the symbols we have and are as follows: 

s = 400,000 
l = 45° 

u = 44° 53' 14"*7$ 

<p = 5° 4' 3"*78 
ft! ss 86° 25' 8"*46 : 

also, taking the proportion of the axes of the spheroid, we 


have s/ 1 -f e* — ~ 


309 
308 5 


and hence 


O 

e~ — 


617 

3083 


log. 


0*0065045 
-3*8131838. 


We may now compare the values of z computed in the dif« 
ferent ways we have investigated. In the first place, by the 
formula, sin u = sin l cos z, we get 

2=3° 35' 39 r . 

As u is here the result of an exact calculation and not affected 
with errors of observation, the value of z now found must be 
accurate as far as the tables usually employed will allow. But 
if u were determined by observation, we may reasonably sup¬ 
pose an error of 1" in defect; then 

z - 3° 35' 54"-8, 

so that an error of 1" in w has produced one of near 16'' in z. 
Next computing by the difference of longitude, we have 

tan $ cos l = tan x, 
x — 3° 35' 17"-13; 
then, by the formula (D), 

z = x x 1*001631 = 3° 35' 38"*20. 

Lastly, to determine z by means of the variation in azimuth, 
we have 

= 90° - u! = 3° 34 r 51"*54 


HD 


sm y — 


tan w 


tan l 


35' 16"'78 : 


y = 3 ' 

then, by the formula (E) 

z = y x 1-001625 -f 0"-l 1 = 3° 35' 37"*88. 

The values of z deduced from the difference of longitude 
and the variation of azimuth are not exactly equal, the former 
exceeding the latter by 0 ,, *32, which seems to arise from small 
errors in the calculated longitude and azimuth. For ac~ 
Vol. 67. No. 337. May 1826. 2 X cording 






346 Mr. Ivory on the Properties of a Line of shortest 

cording to the formula (F) the arcs x and y ought to be more 
nearly equal than they are found to be. I have likewise com¬ 
puted the difference of longitude <p directly from the azimuth 
by means of the formula (G), and have found it equal to 
5° 4' 3 ,/ *32, or O'HG less than it should be, which agrees with 
the remark just made. 

I shall not prosecute this subject further at present. It 
would be interesting to investigate the general case of a geo- 
detical line directed in any angle to the meridian ; but it would 
occupy too much room. The relations of all the quantities 
concerned in the problem have, in the foregoing analysis, been 
expressed by formulae so simple and manageable, that there 
can be little difficulty in the investigation of any point that can 
occur in practice; and it'is in this that I conceive the advan¬ 
tage of the solution I have given to consist. 

Since my last communication on this subject, the 41st number 
of the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Institution has appeared, 
which contains some investigations of M. Bessel relating to 
the curve of shortest distance on a spheroid of revolution. It 
is extremely remarkable that M. Bessel’s general solution of 
the problem is exactly the same with that which I published 
in this Journal for July, 1824*. By saying this I mean, not 
that every step of his investigation is the same with mine, but 
that the same view is taken of the problem, and the ultimate 
formulae obtained, are not a jot different from those which I 
have given. The two formulae marked (5) in p. 139 of the 
Journal of Science, are identical with the two marked (A) in 
my solution, the apparent difference existing only in the nota¬ 
tions. Although this is so plain as to require only to be no¬ 
ticed, yet in a case of this kind it may not be improper to 
prove incontestibly the exact coincidence of the expressions. 
Now one of my formulae (A) is this, 

d s = d s' V 1 + <? 2 sin 2 

which belongs to a spheroid of which the semi-axis of revolu¬ 
tion is unit; and if the same semi-axis be of any other mag- 

d s 

nitude P, it is evident that we must write — for d s, and then 
we shall have, 

ds — P x ds' */ 1 + c 2 sin 2 \[/: 
put 1 —cos 2 ^ for sin 9 ^; then 

rf4=P X d *\fi 

* It is proper to observe that I have no knowledge of M. Bessel’s writ¬ 
ings on this subject, except from the Journal of Science. 

but 









Distance traced on the Surface of an oblate Spheroid . 317 

but when the semi-axis of revolution is changed from 1 to P, 
the equatorial semi-diameter will be changed from 1 + e* 
to P V 1 -he 2 — a; and the formula will now be, 


d s = a 


x d s' 



e 2 cos 2 ^ 

1 + 7 r? 


which is identical with the first of the formulae (5) in the Journal 

e 3 

of Science, because in my notation d s' , \|/, and stand for 

^ -i t 

the same things as da, u, and e 2 in M. Bessel’s. The other 
of my formulae (A) is, 


d <p = d <p' x 


\J 1 -f- e* sin 2 

V l+« r 


or, 




e 2 cos * d' 

1 -J- e 2 


9 


which is identical with the second of the formulae (5). It is there¬ 
fore certain that the two investigations end in the same results. 
The equations marked (4) in p. 138 of the Journal are no 
more than the equations (5) in p. 139 in a different shape. I 
investigated these equations by giving to the coordinates a cer¬ 
tain form, which led to them directly without successive sub¬ 
stitutions, and many intermediate inferences : M. Bessel has 
arrived at the same conclusion by setting out from the usual 
property of the curve of shortest distance on a solid of revo¬ 
lution, and by a train of reasoning which rests upon proper¬ 
ties directly flowing from my analysis. How this coinci¬ 
dence has happened I am not called upon to give any ac¬ 
count. The date of my solution exculpates me from the charge 
of silently producing formulae found by another, as my own 
under a little disguise, in the form of the expression and the 
mode of investigation. 

If we except the general solution of the problem, M. Bes¬ 
sel’s investigations contain nothing new or of much interest. 
His principal formula (10) in p. 141, is the length of an ellip¬ 
tic arc expressed in a complicated manner, and requiring in 
practice bulky tables, and the calculation of many subsidiary 
arcs. Let us try with what success the methods we have fol¬ 
lowed will apply to determine the geographical position of 
places on a given spheroid. 

In the first place we have, 


cos i — cos A sin g 


cos l sin (a V i . 

\/ 1 e 2 cos 2 / 


but, from the relation between the arcs i and i\ we likewise 
have, 




2X2 


cos 















348 Mr. Ivory on the Properties of a Line of shortest 


cos i — 


cos i' yj 1 -f- e* 

V~ t 


-e' cos 4 1 

wherefore, by equating the two values of cos i 9 we get, 

•I _ cos l sin /u, 

COS 2 1 COS 2 [X 


COS V 


(i) 


Again, by combining the formulae (A) and (B), we get, 

d p cos P V 1 + e 2 sin 2 p 


ds = 


V^sin 2 i — sin 8 p 


sin i 


but, we have, 

sin i ■— —- -v - 7 , 

y 1 —|— e* cos 2 1 

wherefore, by substitution, 


sin ’J/ as 


un u 


V 1 + e % cps * 


and hence, 


7 (1 4- e*) v 1 4- e 2 cos 2 i' . du cos u 

(l $ ~ —1-1_ _ _ — . - - ; 

(1 -f e 2 cos 2 u) \ Vsin 2 i' — sin 


sin u 


sin i 1 sin z 


j (1 -f- e 2 ) \] 1 -f- e 2 cos 2 i! . d x 

(1 -f- e 2 — e 2 sin 2 i sin 2 %) 1 

This formula is different from that we have obtained above in 
no other respect, except that s and z are now to be reckoned 
from the equator, the one along the geodetical line, and the 
other along the great circle of the inscribed sphere, having the 
inclination i' to the equator. The terminations of s and z are 
points in the two lines that have the same latitude u . We 
next obtain, 

e 2 sin 2 1 

f = r+?> 


d s — 


vi ~r>d 


(1 — f 2 sin 2 z) 2 

In order to integrate this formula, I assume, 

*- =s A z —• cos z f B sin z + C sin 3 z 4- &c.| ; 

%/i-f 2 L 3 

then having taken the fluxions and made the two values of 
d s coincide, I have found, 

A - B = 1 
2 B - 3 C = |-/ s 


4 C - 
&c. 


5D = 

2.4 ^ 


and hence by exterminating B, C, &c. successively, we get, 
























Distance traced on the Surface of an oblate Spheroid . 349 


A = 1 +(t) 3- 3 /* + (g )*' 5/ 4 + &c. 

B = A - 1 

c = 1 b ”t/ 2 &c * 

The coeficients B, C, &c. decrease at the same rate with the 
successive powers of f 2 . It may be remarked here, once for all, 
that, if we are to calculate with the usual tables, the approxi¬ 
mation need not be carried further than to include f 4 : for it 
will be found that the other terms affect the numbers only in 
the eighth decimal place, which is beyond the reach of the or¬ 
dinary tables. This being observed, we have, 

a (0) = a = i +\r + g/« 

A" 1 ’ = B sTC^Tp = + £/« 

a < 3) = c 


s — A^ 0) z — cos 2 : £a ( 1 ^ sin z + A (5) sin 3 z\ ♦ 

Now this very simple expression will accomplish all that can 
be effected by M. Bessel’s formula (10) in p. 141 of the Jour¬ 
nal of Science. But it will be more convenient in practice if 
it be written a little differently, as follows, 

l 


m = 


V - 


L (0) 

(i) 


A (0) 4 


_1 _ J fl _/'4 

"" 1 4 d 5 

= T/ 8 + 


l ( 3) 

JO) 


_ ii ~ 

3 2 J j 


m s = z — cos % [p sin z + q sin 3 z ]. (2) 

For illustration I take M. Bessel’s example in pp. 143, 144* 
of the Journal of Science. The latitude of Seeberg, or /, is 
50° 56' 6 11, 7; or the azimuth, 85° 38' 56 "’82 reckoning 
from the north westward ; and, if s be the distance from See¬ 
berg to Dunkirk on the geodetical line, and reduced to a sphe¬ 
roid of which the polar semi-axis is unit, we have, log s = 
8’9649485. Further, the square of the excentricity is, in my 

notation, equal to ——- ; and according to M. Bessel, 

log -i-; = 7-8108710 

b 1 +e* 

\oge 2 = 7*8136900. 

From these data we get, by the formula (1), 

i’ = 51° 4' 9^*94. 


And 









350 Mr. Ivory on the Properties of a Line of shortest 
And hence, 


f 2 = 


e 9 sin 2 i' 


= 0*0039150 


l -j- <? 2 

/ 4 = 0-0000153. 

It will be convenient to multiply the coefficients m 9 p , q by the 
seconds in an arc equal to the radius in order to have all the 
terms of the formula expressed in seconds of a degree: then, 

log m — 5*3139988, 
log P = 2*78254, 
log q — 0*170, 

The arc z is the hypothenuse of a right-angled triangle in 
which the latitude subtends the angle i 1 : therefore, 

(01 sin l 

sm z [U) — -—- ; 


sin i 


or, when i 1 and t are very nearly equal, we may use this for¬ 
mula, _ 

cot. z° = ^ sin ^ ^ sin V ~ • 

sin l 

z° = 86° 28' 19"-0. 

This quantity must now be substituted in the formula (2) to 
find m s° ; the amount of the terms to be subtracted is only 
37"*31 ; therefore, 

m°s = 86° 27' 4l"-69. 

In order to get m (s° -f s ) we must add the degrees in the arc 
between Seeberg and Dunkirk, viz. 5° 16' 48"*48, which is 
found by adding the log. of m to the log. of the distance be¬ 
tween the two places; then, 

m (s° + s) = 91° 44' 30"-17. 

This value being found, we must next compute the correspond¬ 
ing quantity 2 ° -f z by the formula (2) : the correction to be 
applied is only — 18"“4 ; wherefore, 

z° z = 91° 44' ll"-77. 

Finally, we have, 

sin u — sin i 1 x sin ( 2: 0 + z ); 
the lat. of Dunkirk, u = 51° 2' 12"-7. 

In order to find the difference of longitude, I shall resume 
the expression of d <p before found, writing i’ for /, and sin * 
for cos z 9 and likewise, for the sake of brevity, putting A a = 
cos 2 i ' sin 2 i’ cos 2 z = 1 — sin 2 i 1 sin 2 z : then, 

, , cos 1 d z 1 

A \J 1 + e 2 A* 

By expanding the radical we get, 

d<p = 


cos i d X . , L e* 3 4 A 

—-— — cos tdz^Y — J e 4 A 


2 + ^ e 6 A 4 — &c. | . 


If now we substitute what A 3 stands for, and in place of the 
powers of sin z write the equivalent expressions in the cosines 

of the 










Distance traced on the Surface of an oblate Spheroid. 351 

of the multiples of the arc, we shall get with sufficient exact¬ 
ness, 

n ’l / 63 3e 4 , 5e 6 0 x 

C “ C0S 1 V 2 ~ T + 16 " &C - ) 

+ COS i' sin 3 i' — ~ + &c.) 

+ cos i' sin 4 i 1 x — &c.) 


d p = 


cos i d x 


— C x d z -f- 


/■*. 4 • o •/ ♦/ 

^ e* sin 2 1 cos i 


16 


d Z COS 2 Z. 


cos i d z 


Now p — is the arc <p', or the difference of longitude of 

the two extremities of the arc 2 ; and hence, by integrating 
between the limits z° and 2 ° + 2 , we get, 


- 1 n 3 e 4 cosi' sin 2 i' N . 

<p = <p' — C X 2 —■ --g-cos (2 2 0 + 2 ) sin 2 . 

Now in the foregoing example, we have 

e 2 cos i } — *0040917 
e 4 cos i' = *0000266*4 
c 6 cos i' = *0000001*7 
e 4, cos i 1 sin 2 i' = 0000161*2 

and hence we get, 

C == 0*0020389, 

and the log. of the coefficient of the remaining term, multiplied 
by the seconds in the arc equal to radius, is 9*791. Where¬ 
fore, the arc 2 being 5° 15' 52"*77 = 18952"*77, we get, 

= <p' — 38"*64 - 0"*06. 

The arc <p' is readily computed by this formula, 


sin 0 ' 


cos i' sin % 
cos l cos u * 


<p' = 8° 21' 57"*76 
- 38*7 


<p — 8° 21' 19"*06 

which is the difference oflongitude between Seeberg and Dun¬ 
kirk, the latter place being west of the former. 

In such calculations, the defect is not in the algebraic for¬ 
mulae, but in the tables in ordinary use, which are not suffi¬ 
cient to ensure exactness in the fractions of a second. 

The editor of the Journal of Science greatly approves of 
M. Bessel’s researches, and he comments upon them with all 
that complacency which is so natural to him when he thinks 
he lias got things in a right train. He concludes his remarks 
with announcing in set phrase, a simple rectification of the geo- 
delitic curve . It is an expression of the length of an elliptic 

arc 


# 









352 Mr. Robert Brown’s descriptioii o/'Kingia. 

arc at which he has arrived with the help of Hirsch’s tables. 
Now there is perhaps no problem in pure mathematics that 
has more engaged the attention of geometers than the various 
ways of computing elliptic arcs. In particular Legendre has 
written largely on this subject, and has published extensive 
tables for the use of the calculator. Hence there is some dif¬ 
ficulty as to the sense in which we are to understand the word 
simple . Is it to be taken generally in reference to the labours 
of all mathematicians ? Or is it merely intended to mark a con¬ 
trast with the complicated calculations of M. Bessel ? This is 
a point which I shall not take upon me to decide ; although I 
should not be surprised if it shall be found that, on the present 
as on other occasions, this member of the Royal Institution has 
outdone, with a stroke of his pen, all that has hitherto been at¬ 
tempted on the same subject. After all it may perhaps be ai¬ 
led ged that the word in question slipt in cursorily, and its 
meaning must not therefore be scanned too precisely. In con¬ 
clusion should any part of these investigations happen to hit 
the fancy of the Editor of the Journal of Science, I beg leave 
to suggest the propriety of his taking it from the pages of this 
Journal without waiting to get it at second-hand from Germany. 

May, 5, 1826. J. Ivory. 


LIV. Character a7id Descydption of Kingia, a new Genus of 
Plants found on the South-west Coast of New Holland : with 
Observations on the Structure of its Unimpregnated Ovulum ; 
and on the Female Flower of Cy cade re and Conferee . By 

Robert Brown, Esq., F.R.S.S.L. E., F.L.S. 

[Read before the Linnean Society of London, Nov. 1 &15,1825*.) 

T N the Botanical Appendix to the Voyage to Terra Australis, 

I have mentioned a plant of very remarkable appearance, 
observed in the year 1801, near the shores of King George the 
Third’s Sound, in Mr. Westall’s view of which, published in 
Captain Flinders’s Narrative, it is introduced. 

The plant in question was then found with only the imper¬ 
fect remains of fructification: I judged of its affinities, there¬ 
fore, merely from its habit, and as in this respect it entirely 
agrees with Xanthorrhoea, included the short notice given of 
it in my remarks on Asphodelese, to which that genus was re¬ 
ferred f. Mr. Cunningham, the botanist attached to Captain 

* From Captain King’s Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts 
of Australia, 1826, vol. ii. p. 534. 

■f Flinders’s Voyage, vol. ii p. 576. 


King’s 





a new Genus of Plants in New Holland. 353 

King’s voyages, who examined the plant in the same place of 
growth, in February 1818 and in December 1821, was not 
more fortunate than myself. Captain King, however, in his 
last visit to King George’s Sound, in November 1822, ob¬ 
served it with ripe seeds: and at length Mr. William Baxter, 
whose attention I had particularly directed to this plant, found 
it, on the shores of the same port in 1828, both in flower and 
fruit. To this zealous collector, and to his liberal employer 
Mr. Henchman, I am indebted for complete specimens of its 
fructification, which enable me to establish it as a genus distinct 
from any yet described. 

To this new genus I have given the name of my friend Cap¬ 
tain King, who, during his important surveys of the coasts of 
New Holland, formed valuable collections in several depart¬ 
ments of Natural History, and on all occasions gave every as¬ 
sistance in his power to Mr. Cunningham, the indefatigable 
botanist who accompanied him. The name is also intended 
as a mark of respect to the memory of the late Captain Philip 
Gidley King, who, as governor of New South Wales, materially 
forwarded the objects of Captain Flinders’s voyage; and to 
whose friendship Mr. Ferdinand Bauer and myself were in¬ 
debted for important assistance in our pursuits while we re¬ 
mained in that colony. 

KINGIA. 

Ord. Nat. Juncece prope Dasypogon, Calectasiam et Xerotem. 

Char. Gen. Perianthium sexpartitum, regulare, glumaceum, 
persistens. Stamina sex, fere hypogyna: Antheris basi afflxis. 
Ovarium triloculare, loculis monospermis ; ovulis adscenden- 
tibus. Stylus 1 . Stigma tridentatum. Pericarp him ex s u c cu m . 
indehiscens, monospermum, perianthio scarioso cinctum. 

Planta facie Xanthorrhcege elatioris. Caudex arborescens cica - 
tricibus basibusve foliorum exasperatus ? Folia caudicem ter - 
minantia confertissima longissima , figura et dispositione Xan- 
thorrhoese. Pedunculi numerosi foliis breviores , bracteis va- 
ginantibus imbricatis tecti , foriferi terminates erectly mox , 
caudice parum elongato foliisque novellis productis , laterales , 
et divaricati vel deflexi , terminati capitulo denso globoso fo- 
ribus tribracteatis 

Kingia Australis. Tab. C. 

Desc. Caudex arborescens erectus simplicissimus cylindra- 
ceus, 6—-18 pedes altus, crassitie femoris. Folia caudicem ter- 
minantia numerosissima patula, apicibus arcuato-recurvis, lo- 
rea, solida, ancipitia apice teretiusculo, novella undique tecta 
pills adpressis strictis acutis laevibus, angulis lateralibus et ven- 
. • Vol. 67. No. 337. May 1826. 2 Y trali 


354 Mr. Robert Brown’s Description o/'Kingia, 

trali retrorsum scabris. Pedunculi numerosi teretes 8—12-pol- 
licares crassitie digiti, vaginis integris brevibus imbricatis hinc 
in foliolum subulatum productis tecti. Capitulum globosum, 
floridum magnitudine pruni minoris, fructiferum pomum par- 
vum aequans. Flores undique dense imbricati, tribracteati, ses- 
siles. Bractea exterior lanceolata brevb acuminata planiuscula 
erecta, extus villosa intus glabra, post lapsum fructus persis- 
tens : dure laterales angusto-naviculares, acutissimae, carina la- 
teribusque villosis, longitudine fere exterioris, simul cum pe- 
rianthio fructifero, separatim tamen, dilabentibus. Perianthium 
sexpartitum regulare subaequale glumaceum: foliola lanceolata 
acutissima disco nervoso nervis immersis simplicissimis, antica 
et postica plana, lateralia complicata lateribus inaequalibus, 
omnia basi subangustata, extus longitudinaliter sed extra me¬ 
dium praecipue villosa, intus glaberrima, aestivatione imbricata. 
Stamina sex subaequalia, aestivatione stricta filamentis sensim 
elongantibus: Filamenta fere hypogyna ipsis basibus foliolo- 
rum perianthii quibus opposita leviter adhaerentia, filiformia 
glabra teretia : Antherce stantes, ante dehiscentiam lineares ob- 
tusae filamento paulo latiores, defloratae subulatae vix crassitie 
filamenti, loculis parallelo-contiguis connectivo dorsali angusto 
adnatis, axi ventrali longitudinaliter dehiscentibus, lobulis ba- 
seos brevibus acutis subadnatis : Pollen simplex breve ovale 
laeve. Pistillum : Ovarium sessile disco nullo squamulisve cine- 
tum, lanceolatum trigono-anceps villosum, triloculare, loculis 
monospermis. Ovula erecta fundo anguli interioris loculi paulo 
supra basin suam inserta, obovata lenticulari-compressa, aptera: 
Testa in ipsa basi acutiuscula foramine minuto perforata: Mem - 
hr ana interna respectu testae inversa, hujusce nempe apici lata 
basi inserta, ovata apice angustato aperto foramen testae ob- 
turante: Nucleus cavitate membranae conformis, ejusdem basi 
insertus, caeterum liber, pulposus solidus, apice acutiusculo 
laevi aperturam membranae internae attingente. Stylus trigonus 
strictus, infra villosus, dimidio superiore glabro, altitudine sta- 
minum, iisdem paulo praecocior, exsertus nempe dum ilia adhuc 
inclusa. Stigmata tria brevissima acuta denticuliformia. Peri - 
carpium exsuccum, indehiscens, villosum, basi styli aristatum, 
perianthio scarioso et filamentis emarcidis cinctum, abortione 
monospermum. Semen turgidum obovatum retusum, integu- 
mento (testa) simplici membranaceo aqueo-pallido, hinc (intus) 
fere a basi acutiuscula, raphe fusca verticem retusum attingente 
ibique in chalazam parvam concolorem ampliata. Albumen se- 
mini conforme dense carnosum album. Embryo monocotyledo- 
neus, aqueo-pallidus subglobosus, extremitate inferiore (radi- 
culari) acuta, in ipsa basi seminis situs, semi-immersus, nec 
albumine omnino inclusus. 


Tab, 


3 55 


a new Genus of Plants in New Holland. 

Tab. C. fig. 1. Ringing Australis pedunculus capitulo florido 
termkiatus; fig. 2. capitulum fructiferum; 3, sectio trans¬ 
versals pedunculi: 4, folium: hae magnitudine naturali, se- 
quentes omnes plus minus auctas sunt; 5, flos; 6, stamen ; 
7, anthera antice et, 8, eadem postice visa; 9, pistillum ; 
10, ovarii sectio transversalis ; 11, ejusdem portio longitu- 
dinaliter secta exhibens ovulum adscendens cavitatem loculi 
replens ; 12, ovulum ita longitudinaliter sectum ut membrana 
interna solummodo ejusque insertio in apice cavitatis testae 
visa sit; 13, ovuli sectio longitudinalis profundius ductaex¬ 
hibens membranam internam et nucleum ex ejusdem basi 
ortum; 14, bracteae capituli fructiferi; 15, pericarpium 
perianthio filamentisque persistentibus cinctum; 16, pe¬ 
ricarpium perianthio avulso filamentorum basibus relictis; 
17, semen. 

Obs. I.—It remains to be ascertained, whether in this genus 
a resin is secreted by the bases of the lower leaves, as in Xan- 
thorrhcea; and whether, which is probable, it agrees also in 
the internal structure of its stem with that genus. In Xan- 
thorrhcea the direction of fibres or vessels of the caudex seems 
at first sight to resemble in some degree the dicotyledonous 
arrangement, but in reality much more nearly approaches to 
that of Dracaena Draco, allowance being made for the greater 
number, and extreme narrowness of leaves, to which all the 
radiating vessels belong*. 

Obs. II.—I have placed Kingia in the natural order Jun- 
ceae along with Dasypogon, Calectasia and Xerotes, genera 
peculiar to New Holland, and of which the two former have 
hitherto been observed only, along with it, on the shores of 
King George’s Sound. 

The striking resemblance of Kingia, in caudex and leaves, 
to Xanthorrhcea, cannot fail to suggest its affinity to that genus 
also. Although this affinity is not confirmed by a minute com¬ 
parison of the parts of fructification, a sufficient agreement is 
still manifest to strengthen the doubts formerly expressed of 
the importance of those characters, by which I attempted to 
define certain families of the great class Liliaceae. 

In addition, however, to the difference in texture of the outer 
coat of the seed, and in those other points, on which I then 
chiefly depended in distinguishing Junceae from Asphodeleae, 

* My knowledge of this remarkable structure of Xanthorrhcea is chiefly 
deriveci from specimens of the caudex of one of the larger species of the 
genus, brought from Port Jackson, and deposited in the collection at the 
Jardin du Roi of Paris by M. Gaudichaud, the very intelligent botanist who 
was attached to Captain De Freycinet’s voyage. 

' 2 Y 2 


a more 


356 Mr. Robert Brown on the Structure of the 

a more important character in Juncese exists in the position of 
the embryo, whose radicle points always to the base of the 
seed, the external umbilicus being placed in the axis of the 
inner or ventral surface, either immediately above the base as 
in Kingia, or towards the middle, as in Xerotes. 

Obs. III .—On the Structure of the Unimpregnated Ovu- 

lum in Phcenogamous Pla?its. 

The description which I have given of the Ovulum of Kingia, 
though essentially different from the accounts hitherto pub¬ 
lished of that organ before fecundation, in reality agrees with 
its ordinary structure in Phaenogamous plants. 

I shall endeavour to establish these two points ; namely, the 
agreement of this description with the usual structure of the 
Ovulum, and its essential difference from the accounts of other 
observers, as briefly as possible at present; intending here¬ 
after to treat the subject at greater length, and also with other 
views. 

I have formerly more than once* adverted to the structure 
of the Ovulum, chiefly as to the indications it affords, even 
before fecundation, of the place and direction of the future Em¬ 
bryo. These remarks, however, which were certainly very 
brief, seem entirely to have escaped the notice of those authors 
who have since written on the same subject. 

In the botanical appendix to the account of Captain Flin¬ 
ders’s Voyage, published in 1814*, the following description of 
the Ovulum of Cephalotusfolliculciris is given : 44 Ovulum erec- 
tum, intra testam membranaceam continens sacculum pendu¬ 
lum, magnitudine cavitatis testae,” and in reference to this de¬ 
scription, I have in the same place remarked that, 44 from the 
structure of the Ovulum, even in the unimpregnated state, I 
entertain no doubt that the radicle of the Embryo points to 
the umbilicusf”. 

My attention had been first directed to this subject in 1809, 
in consequence of the opinion I had then formed of the func¬ 
tion of the Chalaza in seeds J ; and some time before the pub¬ 
lication of the observation now quoted, I had ascertained that 
in Phaenogamous plants the unimpregnated Ovulum very ge¬ 
nerally consisted of two concentric membranes, or coats, in¬ 
closing a Nucleus of a pulpy cellular texture. I had observed 
also, that the inner coat had no connexion either with the 
outer or with the nucleus, except at its origin ; and that with 
relation to the outer coat it was generally inverted, while it 

* Flinders’s Voyage, vol. ii. p. 601, and Linn. Soc. Trans, vol. xii. p. 136. 

f Flinders’s Voy. loc. cit. f Linn. Soc. Trans, vol. x. p. 35. 

always 


unimpregnated Ovulum in Phcenogamous Plants . 357 

always agreed in direction with the nucleus. And lastly, that 
at the apex of the nucleus the radicle of the future Embryo 
would constantly be found. 

On these grounds my opinion respecting the Embryo of Ce- 
phalotus was formed. In describing the Ovulum in this genus, 
I employed indeed, the less correct term “ sacculus,” which, 
however, sufficiently expressed the appearance of the included 
body in the specimens examined, and served to denote my un¬ 
certainty in this case as to the presence of the inner membrane. 

I was at that time also aware of the existence, in several 
plants, of a foramen in the coats of the Ovulum, always distinct 
from, and in some cases diametrically opposite to, the external 
umbilicus, and which I had in no instance found cohering 
either directly with the parietes of the Ovarium, or with any 
process derived from them. But, as I was then unable to de¬ 
tect this foramen in many of the plants which I had examined, 
I did not attach sufficient importance to it; and in judging of 
the direction of the Embryo, entirely depended on ascertain¬ 
ing the apex of the nucleus, either directly by dissection, or 
indirectly from the vascular cord of the outer membrane : the 
termination of this cord affording a sure indication of the ori¬ 
gin of the inner membrane, and consequently of the base of 
the nucleus, the position of whose apex is therefore readily de¬ 
termined. 

In this state of my knowledge the subject was taken up, in 
1818, by my lamented friend the late Mr. Thomas Smith, who, 
eminently qualified for an investigation where minute accuracy 
and great experience in microscopical observation were neces¬ 
sary, succeeded in ascertaining the very general existence of 
the foramen in the membranes of the Ovulum. But as the fo¬ 
ramina in these membranes invariably correspond both with 
each other and with the apex of the nucleus, a test of the di¬ 
rection of the future Embryo was consequently found nearly 
as universal, and more obvious than that which I had pre¬ 
viously employed. 

To determine in what degree this account of the vegetable 
Ovulum differs from those hitherto given, and in some measure 
that its correctness may be judged of, I shall proceed to state 
the various observations that have been actually made, and 
the opinions that have been formed on the subject, as briefly 
as I am able, taking them in chronological order. 

In 1672, Grew* describes in the outer coat of the seeds of 
many Leguminous plants a small foramen, placed opposite to 
the radicle of the Embryo, which, he adds, is “ not a hole ca¬ 
sually made, or by the breaking off of the stalk,” but formed for 

* Anatomy of Veget, begun p. 3. Anal, of Plants, p. 2. 

. • purposes 


358 


Mr. Robert Brown on the Structure of the 

purposes afterwards stated to be the aeration of the Embryo, 
and facilitating the passage of its radicle in germination. It 
appears that he did not consider this foramen in the testa as 
always present, the functions which he ascribes to it being per¬ 
formed in cases where it is not found, either, according to him, 
by the hilum itself, or in hard fruits, by an aperture in the 
stone or shell. 

In another part of his work * he describes and figures, in 
the early state of the Ovulum, two coats, of which the outer is 
the testa; the other, his “ middle membrane,” is evidently 
what I have termed nucleus, whose origin in the Ovulum of 
the Apricot he has distinctly represented and described. 

Malpighi, in 1675 f, gives the same account of the early 
state of the Ovulum; his “ secundinae externae” being the testa, 
and his chorion the nucleus. He has not, however, distin¬ 
guished, though he appears to have seen, the foramen of Grew, 
from the fenestra and fenestella, and these, to which he assigns 
the same functions, are merely his terms for the hilum. 

In 1694, Camerarius, in his admirable essay on the sexes of 
plants J, proposes, as queries merely, various modes in which 
either the entire grains of pollen, or their particles after burst¬ 
ing, may be supposed to reach and act upon the unimpreg¬ 
nated Ovula, which he had himself carefully observed. With 
his usual candour, however, he acknowledges his obligation on 
this subject to Malpighi, to whose more detailed account of 
them he refers. 

Mr. Samuel Morland, in 1703 §, in extending Leeuwen¬ 
hoek’s hypothesis of generation to plants, assumes the existence 
of an aperture in the Ovulum, through which it is impregnated. 
It appears, indeed, that he had not actually observed this aper¬ 
ture before fecundation, but inferred its existence generally 
and at that period, from having, as he says, 44 discovered in 
the seeds of beans, peas, and Phaseoli, just under one end of 
what we call the eye, a manifest perforation, which leads di¬ 
rectly to the seminal plant,” and by which he supposes the 
Embryo to have entered. This perforation is evidently the 
foramen discovered in the seeds of Leguminous plants by Grew, 
of whose observations respecting it he takes no notice, though 
he quotes him in another part of his subject. 

In 1704, Etienne Francois Geoffroy j|, and in 1711, his bro¬ 
ther Claude Joseph Geoffroy % in support of the same hypo- 

* Anat. of Plants, p. 210. tab. 80. f Anatome Plant, p. 75 et 80. 

X Rudolphi Jacobi Camerarii de sexa plantarum epistola, p. 8, 46, et seq. 

*5 Philosoph. Transact, vol. xxiii. n. 287- p. 1474. 

|| Quccslio Medica an Hominis primerdia Vermis ? in auctoris Tractatu dc 
Materia Medica, tom. i. p. 123. 

f Mem, dc l y Acad, des Sc. de Paris, 1711, p. 210. 

thesis, 


unimpregnated Ovulum in Phcenogamons Plants. 359 

thesis, state the general existence of an aperture in the unim¬ 
pregnated vegetable Ovulum. It is not, however, probable 
that these authors had really seen this aperture in the early 
state of the Ovulum in any case, but rather that they had 
merely advanced from the observation of Grew, and the con¬ 
jecture founded on it by Morland, whose hypothesis they adopt 
without acknowledgmen