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Saint Poet Wazir Singh 

Raj Kumar Hans 

Sri Satguru Jagjit Singh Ji eLibrary 

135 Raj Kumar Hans: Sant Poet Wazir Singh 

Sant Poet Wazir Singh: 
A Window for Reimagining 
Nineteenth Century Punjab 

Raj Kumar Hans 
The MS University of Baroda, Baroda 

The dominant historiographical tradition of Punjabi literature has generally neglected 
the powerful literary current called ‘sant sahit’ besides ‘sufi’ and ‘gurmat’ literature. 
Most of these sant-poets were either part of the established orders or independent 
composers, at times leading to tensions between the custodians of established religions 
and followers of non-conformist spirituality. The paper focuses on an ‘unknown’ dalit 
poet, Wazir Singh, who remained unrecorded and unrecognized in the literary and 
historical culture of the Punjab, and places him in the context of the Sant movement. He 
becomes important not only for his iconoclastic ideas but also for the space and respect 
given to women in the otherwise exclusive male domain. One of his followers, Nurang 
Devi, is regarded as the first Punjabi woman poet. Sant Wazir Singh’s life and work 
open up possibilities of re-imagining the Indian and regional pasts. 

There is much which appears to be known, that is 
questionable, or even false. There is much that many believe 
to be unknown, or even unknowable, which is actually part of 
people's everyday experience. 

Jonathan J. Dickau' 

The diversity and plurality of religious practices in the nineteenth century 
Punjab has been discussed at some length by Harjot Oberoi.” Such diversity 
was best manifest in the intellectual expressions of poets, more so of such 
poets who either carried the hybrid religious practices during the nineteenth 
century in their bones or those who also experimented with new ideas which 
would go against the acceptable norms. Moreover, such poets were not 
necessarily individualistic, meditating in solitary confines of monasteries but 
were active public figures with their followings. 

In the dominant tradition of history of Punjabi literature what is less 
known and acknowledged is the powerful literary current called ‘sant sahit’ 
besides ‘sufi’ and ‘gurmat’ literature. Most of these compositions by sadhus 
and sants were either part of the established orders like Nath or Kanpata 
Yogis, Udasi, Nirmala, Gulabdasi, Sewapanthi, Suthrapanthi, Nirankari, 
Namdhari, Radhaswami, Kabirpanthi, Dadupanthi, and Raidaspanthi where 
chances of survival of such literature were quite high due to continuity of 
succession. On the other hand, in the case of several independent and 

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autonomous sadhus and sants like Saeen Hira Das and Sadhu Wazir Singh, the 
access to such literature would require conscious effort on the part of the 
interested researchers.’ This sant tradition as part of the popular religion* has 
been fairly inclusive and the establishments of the sants (deras) were open to 
all the castes and communities. The fact that the study of the Vedas has been 
an integral part of much of this tradition has also been overlooked in the wake 
of hegemonic tendencies of the established religiosity. This becomes clear 
from the tension between their custodians and the followers of non-conformist 
spirituality of Sant Gulabdas and others during the nineteenth century. While 
this paper focuses on an ‘unknown’ spiritual poet, namely Sant Wazir Singh, 
who remained unrecorded and unrecognised in the literary and historical 
culture of the Punjab, it attempts to situate his ideas in his larger contemporary 
poetic and cultural context. The paper also tries to establish connection 
between him and his ideas with those of his contemporary junior and 
successful intellectual poet Gulab Das, who was much maligned in the 
established orders. 

Sant Wazir Singh 

Wazir Singh remained unknown in the Punjabi literary and even in the dera 
cultures. He has been rescued from obscurity by Shamsher Singh Ashok, a 
well-known researcher and scholar of Punjabi literature and history. He had 

= size containing 72 works (folios 2- 248 

carrying Braj poems in more than 3800 chhands and folios1-105 with Punjabi 
poems in 922 chhands) by Wazir Singh that came to be part of the editor’s 
personal collection.” The Punjabi University, Patiala decided to publish the 
edited volume of select Punjabi poems of Wazir Singh under its scheme of 
publishing the manuscripts of Punjabi classics by the Department of Studies of 
Punjabi Literature.° 

Wazir Singh was born in village Daulatpur near Zira town of Firozepur 
district in about 1790 and very early in his adulthood he had started moving in 
the company of sadhus from whom he learnt reading and writing Punjabi. He 
left his house for good in 1815-16 and after staying in Lahore for some time 
settled in Lahuke village in the same district where he died in 1859. His 
unorthodox views communicated in a mystical (sufiana) idiom soon attracted 
people in large numbers to his dera. He preached life unbridled by orthodox 
religiosity and social taboos which won him the devotion, among others, of 
five budding poets, including two young widows who became his ardent 
disciples, serving him till his death. This was a radical departure from the past 
tradition both of the established religions as well as heterodox practices of the 
Nath, Sufi and Sant orders at least as far as the Punjab was concerned. His 
radicalism appears to have earned him enough enemies who even attacked his 
premises as evident from his own writings. 

It is intriguing that in Ashok’s monograph Wazir Singh’s caste identity is 
suppressed whereas he had already been identified as belonging to an 

procured a manuscript of long 12”X6 

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137 Raj Kumar Hans: Sant Poet Wazir Singh 

untouchable (Mazhabi) family in an earlier writing by Ashok himself. Given 
the volume of Wazir Singh’s work and the range of topics covered by him 
from metaphysical to socio-political he came to be recognised as a great poet 
(mahan kavi) of his times.’ After long contemplative sessions and close study 
of the ancient texts and discussions on bhakti and sufi thought he appears to 
have attained the spiritual height of a gnostic (brahmgyani).® Five of his 
identified poet disciples, including two young widows, came from the upper 
castes. One of them was Vir Singh Sehgal while another, Nurang Devi, turned 
out to be the first Punjabi woman poet groomed under his guidance as a guru.’ 
While Ashok largely uses the prefix ‘sadhu’ for Wazir Singh in this 
monograph I prefer to use the prefix ‘sant’ for him for two reasons. Firstly, the 
internal evidence in his poetry, which also includes some compositions by his 
followers, explicitly supports my assumption that Wazir Singh should be 
unequivocally characterized as a ‘sant’. Secondly, Ashok himself uses the 
expression ‘sant poet’ for Wazir Singh at least five times in his introduction.” 

In one sense, Wazir Singh is part of the Sant tradition of north India, yet 
he seems to be going beyond the set paths. He is radical and iconoclast like 
Kabir, but in addition, he brings in the question of gender equality. He is 
highly critical of establishments whether social or religious. He lashes out at 
Brahmanical structures of inequality manifested in varna-ashram dharma and 
jat-pat, and like Sant Ravidas, envisions ‘Beghampura’, a liberated society. In 
the backdrop of the Sufis, the Sants and the Sikh movement fracturing and 
weakening Brahmanical ideology in the Punjab, space became available to the 
Punjabi dalits. They became a respectable part of the Sikh movement and also 
got an opportunity to express their creativity in writing. Lest Wazir Singh 
should be looked upon as an aberration or an isolated instance, a quick 
mention must be made of the three other powerful dalit poets of Punjab who 
appeared on the horizon of Indian literary world from the last quarter of the 
seventeenth century to the first quarter of the twentieth, that is prior to the rise 
of ‘dalit consciousness’ in politics and literature.'! 

The dalit literary tradition in Punjabi may be said to begin with Bhai Jaita 
alias Jeevan Singh (c.1655-1704), who was very close to the Gurus’ household 
as he was the one who had carried the severed head of Guru Tegh Bahadur 
from Delhi to Anandpur, and composed a devotional epic ‘Sri Gur Katha’ 
around Guru Gobind Singh’s life which is placed in 1699-1700.'" Sant Ditta 
Ram alias (and more famously) Giani Ditt Singh (1850-1901) emerged as a 
poet, polemicist, journalist, teacher, orator and ardent Sikh missionary who left 
behind more than 50 books to his credit. [See the next article in this issue: 
Editor] The last dalit intellectual poet in this line happens to be Sadhu Daya 
Singh Arif (1894-1946) who came to master Gurmukhi, Urdu, Persian, and 
Arabic and Sanskrit languages with the help of several non-formal teachers 
who were stunned by his sharp intellect. Not only did he read and understand 
the Vedas, Puranas, Granth Sahib and the Quran, besides a wide range of 
secular literature, he had also reached the spiritual heights of a gnostic, true to 
the title of ‘Arif? assumed by him. Chronologically, Wazir Singh, the subject 
of this paper, was the second of these sant poets who had prolifically 

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composed philosophical, spiritual and social poetry in the first half of the 
nineteenth century. 

Philosophy of Wazir Singh 

The best way to discuss Wazir Singh’s philosophy may be through his 
compositions which are fairly clear in their import and emphasis. Stressing the 
importance of unity and non-dualism, he says: 

Forsaking all contestations and disputes I have realised myself. 
You are there in the day as you are at night, at evenings, all the 

Ruler and the ruled, you are the teacher and the taught, who 
can distinguish? 

Wazir Singh! the Supreme manifests in you in different forms 
all around." 

He seems to have a materialist approach to God: 

Let me speak the truth and understand that He is not far from 

Learn this primeval thought from the guru to be free from any 

If you need to loot, you construct god and tell lies and commit 

Wazir Singh says if there is really a god, then I should make 
you see and touch with your hands.'* 

He reasserts his position by asking his audience: 

Tell me where does He live for whom all meditate and pray? 
Cannot be at peace when we cannot see but believe what 
others say. 

This is my question to everyone, let anyone come forward who 

Anyone who answers to Wazir Singh is his fellow learner and 
real friend.'° 

He celebrates human body and equality among human beings: 

Only human body can contemplate, soul and god neither eat 

nor reside. 

Only the body has ‘five elements’ which could be seen and 

No one is born or dies, neither comes and goes, all forget this 

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139 Raj Kumar Hans: Sant Poet Wazir Singh 

O! Wazir Singh it is your entire embodiment, everyone is alike 
and equal.'° 

He is equally refreshing in his view of creation: 

Tell me what time, day, date and season the universe was 
Pundits invented this notion and have been transmitting this 
O’ Pande! If you do not know, listen to the sants who talk with 
Wazir Singh this creation is independent, evolved on its own, 
no one has made it.!” 

He is wary of the old established religions: 

I am contented after realising the self as I do not see the world 
is different. 

I have no illusion about Hindus and Turks, both consider 
better than the other. 

Hindus read their granths and pothis as Muslims read the 

We are beyond all O’ Wazir Singh! as we only subscribe to 

At places, Wazir Singh gets aggressive as if he has been confronted by his 
orthodox opponents: 

We never need the Quran as we also tear the pothis after 
seeing their emptiness. 

No desire for either Sikh or Muslim prayer as we burn the 
temples and mosques. 

We have given up Ganges, Gaya and Prayag as we also do not 
worship the tombs. 

As we have become impartial O’ Wazir Singh! we watch the 
games both play.’ 

He pronounces his liberation thus: 

There is no desire to go to heavens as hells do not scare me. 

I have no fear of god (khuda) as I have declined Muhammad 
and Ram. 

I ‘have no respect for religion and faith as I tested the limits of 

O’ Wazir Singh! I stand liberated after seeing Him in my 

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He could do so because he claims brahmgyan at several places in his poetry. 
He says at one place: 

Meditated for long and did not get tired till reached the truth. 
By covering the body with ashes, had all the pilgrimage. 

A close study exposed all the granths as empty, not leaving 
even the secrets of four Vedas. 

After realising the self I came to know that the universe exists 
in the form of personal self. 7! 

He goes on in the same vein: 

When the fire of Truth got ignited, the illusion of karma was 

The ecstasy of realising the self freed me from the question of 
life and death. 

Found Brahman in everything- in mountains, woods and flora 
that removed the illusion of duality. 

Wazir Singh attained the brahmgyan that liberated him from 
the prison of baran-ashram.”* 

Wazir Singhs’s poetry is suffused with the negation of varnashramadharma 
(in Punjabi baran-ashram) and untouchability (jaat-paat), the pillars of 
Brahmanical Hinduism, which he denounces vehemently. A few samples 
would show the depth of his conviction: 

Dualism was the source of arrogance and miseries which the 
guru has removed. 

The guru has cut the chains of casteism, baran-ashram and 

While distinguishing the Name, Form and Way the guru has 
emphasised the unity of soul. 

Understand O’ Wazir Singh! the existence is in your image 
after duality is removed.” 

Once I realised the self, I threw away the baran-ashram. 
Shameless I am after breaking the three-shames and 
demolishing the ego. 

Freed from caste-differences, I have also risen above Hindu- 
Turk differences. 

Going beyond all O’ Wazir Singh, I find everyone within 

Once you meditate on breath you would get subsumed in 

Concentrate and see that there is nothing outside Brahman. 

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141 Raj Kumar Hans: Sant Poet Wazir Singh 

Realise the truth about yourself once you see the unity in soul 
and Brahman. 

By relinquishing baran-ashram O’ Wazir Singh! you would 
sing of your omniscience.” 

Ashigs have no doubts as they have gone beyond frames of all 

They have left behind distinctions of castes and baran-ashram, 
of Turk-Hindus. 

After going through rituals, prayers and knowledge they have 
gone beyond. 

Realising all in the self O’ Wazir Singh! they stand distinct 
from all.”° 

We have no shame either of lineage or people, nor do we 
recognise Vedas and the Quran. 

Neither have we bothered about Muslims or Hindus nor about 

We have gone beyond this or that world; we also do not 
differentiate between jeev and ish. 

We relish the state of ecstasy O’ Wazir Singh! beyond the two 
there is no profit and loss.”” 

Appreciate him as brave who has destroyed the illusion of 

Who has crossed the boundaries of baran-ashram and 
annoyed others by abandoning three-shames. 

Who has gone beyond concerns of five-koshas, three-gunas 
and three stages. 

Being different from all O’ Wazir Singh! you have passed the 
degree of self-realization.”* 

Do not get self-conceited, give up your ego and listen to the 
guru’s counsel. 

Weigh the three-shames and baran-ashram in the scale of 
truth and decide. 

If you have strong desire to play the love-game, bring your 
head in your palm. 

Guru sayeth to you O’ Wazir Singh! you are God unto you.” 

Look! The enemy parents oppressively detain the child 
wanting to be free. 

He has been tied in the bonds of three-shames and trapped in 

His body is trapped in the prison of caste identity. 

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O’ Wazir Singh! the man gets forcefully married at young age 
to this social trap.*° 

Wazir Singh notices degeneration that was taking place in the Sikh religion 
during his time. His could perhaps be the first bold voice in this regard. He 

The Guru left the Granth and Panth under the care of sants to 
be rated above all. 

There are many sects now and the leaders stress their own 
codes of conduct. 

Bringing back the trap of baran-ashram, they also bind people 
with three-shames. 

By creating different sikhis, 0’ Wazir Singh, they have created 
cults around them.” 

They highlight their own sects and do not give clue to the 
common thread. 

They surround the unattached and trap the free into their 
narrow sects. 

Gurus are greedy and so are Sikhs, both reciprocating in their 

The Sikhs become angry with their gurus who in turn keep 
pleasing their clients. 

Both accuse each other in public while people get surprises of 
this kind. 

O’ Wazir Singh! these gurus and Sikhs have become worldly 
to the disenchantment of sants.** 

The lions that had eaten together with goats are devouring the 
goats and call themselves singhs. 

As the lion awakens another lion, O’ Wazir Singh, the Sikhs of 
Gurus should not forget their duty to awake others to 

Turning now to Nurang Devi, the disciple of Wazir Singh, and a poet in her 
own right, we find her strengthening Wazir Singh’s observation on this count: 

Akalis have made their own Sikhs without any real teaching. 
If they are merciful, they would ritualise ‘initiation’ by a few 

By preaching they recruit their followers by removing from 
their families. 

On such occasions sons-daughters and wives cry as do the 
parents and kins. 

All relatives get together and create ruckus. 

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143 Raj Kumar Hans: Sant Poet Wazir Singh 

Sayeth Nurang Devi! the Jat has been made a Sikh who knows 
nothing of true meaning.” 

Keeping in mind such a bold denunciation of the established orders and their 
current practices, one may expect equally strong reactions from a range of 
vested interests. In fact, it is possible to get sufficient leads from Wazir Singh’s 
compositions how his radical preaching invoked opposition from several 
quarters and even incurred hostilities. He refers to his own establishment: 

The sants reside in the tower of Lahuke, they do not hurt 
anyone nor do they allow others to hurt them. 

Years have passed staying here but they never asked anyone 
for a penny. 

People wonder from where we eat and how we survive. 

Some speculate we have something O’ Wazir Singh, some 
think we manufacture.*° 

Many crave for audience while others burn in envy at the 

While many come full of love for us, others want to kill us. 
Many worship in great devotion while some unnecessarily 

O’ Wazir Singh! while devotees bow their heads the 
opponents seek duels.*° 

He provides a graphic picture of one such skirmish in a composition: 

If you are really interested in knowing let us enter into 

If you do not want to listen why we should waste our time, 
better be silent. 

From wherever the truth can be had we should touch the feet 
of the source, why fight? 

Sayeth Wazir Singh! if interested we meet, else keep distance 
and not hurt.*” 

They created ruckus and misbehaved with sants. 

These fools hurled abuses in hundreds on guru and women 
without discrimination. 

They got back what they came intended and got thoroughly 

Wazir Singh got a staff in his hands and gave them five to 
seven to get rid of.** 

Wazir Singh’s criticality does not stop at the established religious practices but 
extends to the caste-communities. He talks of the Khatris, Jatts, Julahas, and 

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the artisan communities as well as the shepherds. He is very critical of the 
dominance of the Khatris from amongst whom all the Sikh Gurus came: 

Bedis*” are supposed to know the Vedas but today’s Bedis 
meaninglessly call them such. 

They are greedy and coax others’ women while kill their own 
female infants. 

Wazir Singh! they claim to be gurus of the world but 
shamelessly commit sins.*” 

He also talks about the Sodhis*’ who manned religious establishments as their 
shops. Khatris generally were business people who would flourish on their 
tricks and intelligence.*” He does not spare the Jogis either: 

Today’s Jogis do not know the methods of jog and without 
that method 0’ people do not recognise them. 

They shave their heads and pierce their ears for big 

In congregation they drink liquor and eat flesh. 

They have all kinds of intoxicants: they eat bhang, post, 
charas, and afeem, and smoke tobacco and ganja. 

They have tarnished the Jogi image howsoever bravely they 
might try to rescue. 

O’ Wazir Singh! they have no idea of jog, only in attire do 
they appear to be fagirs.“* 

Wazir Singh also records his observations about different places he had visited 
and the ways of the people he had encountered. He had traveled to different 
parts of the Punjab, mountainous areas of Kashmir and present Himachal 
Pradesh as also the eastern part of the present day Uttar Pradesh. Given his 
ideological position, especially in the spatial context of the Punjab, his 
observation about the Ganga- Yamuna plains brings out the subtle differences 
between the societies in the two regions: 

Eastern land is very ritualistic (karam-kandi), where I endure 

One has to cook ones’ food to satisfy the hunger. 

Those liberated who go from this side and settle there become 
ritualistic as everyone is. 

After seeing the eastern des O’ Wazir Singh! we decided to 
come west.”” 

Given the range of his observations from material to spiritual, social to 

religious, political to philosophical, it is not difficult to see Wazir Singh, the 
sant-philosopher, also in the role of a preceptor, or a guide. Luckily, we have 

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145 Raj Kumar Hans: Sant Poet Wazir Singh 

the compositions of his disciples expressing their gratitude toward their guru. 
There is no dearth of internal evidence to suggest that he had reached those 
heights to be considered as a spiritual master and guru. Even though Wazir 
Singh stresses the importance of the preceptor for paving the way to 
enlightenment there is no clue to his personal guru. He himself definitely got 
recognised as the guru by his followers and the literal testimony is important in 
this respect. 

The use of the terms sant and guru needs some clarification in the context 
of Indian religions, especially the bhakti traditions. Karine Schomer offers 
some clarification about the variety of usages in different traditions: 

Derived from Sanskrit sat (‘truth, reality’), its root meaning is 
‘one who knows the truth’ or ‘one who has experienced 
Ultimate Reality’, i.e. a person who has achieved a state of 
spiritual enlightenment or mystical self-realization; by 
extension, it is also used to refer to all those who sincerely 
seek enlightenment. Thus conceptually as well as 
etymologically, it differs considerably from the false cognate 
‘saint’ which is often used to translate it. Like ‘saint’, ‘sant’ 
has taken on the more general ethical meaning of the ‘good 
person’ whose life is a spiritual and moral exampler, and is 
therefore found attached to a wide variety of gurus, ‘holy men’ 
and other religious teachers. Historically, however, sant is the 
designation given to the poet-saints belonging to two distinct, 
though related devotional bhakti traditions.” 

While distinguishing the north Indian devotees of a formless God from the 
non-sectarian Vaishnava poet-saints of Maharashtra, Schomer is clear that the 
north Indian sants defy classification within the usual categories of Hindu 
bhakti. Though in the ‘Sikh’ usage the word sant acquires a different and also 
an evolving meaning and the term guru carries the hierarchically higher 
status,*’ our poet of the paper was more in tune with Schomer’s north Indian 
usage. Let us listen to Wazir Singh what he has to say on who is a sant: 

The entire world lives in limits, only a sant is limitlessly 

He abandons parents, siblings and relatives and runs away 
from home. 

He breaks the trap of baran-ashram and shackles of three- 

He boldly denies and defies  caste-differences and 

Who have joined the company of truth-seekers do not do 
anything else. 

O’ Wazir Singh! by getting the human form, you are adoring 

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A sant is full of knowledge, beautiful worth audience, 
surrounded by disciples. 

Listening to his discourses, people start revering him as Sahib 
in bhakti. 

Priests get extremely jealous on his being adored and served 
by people. 

A sant is God (parmeshwar) manifested in him O’ Wazir 

A sant is the one who is free of three-shames and Hindu-Turk 

People get furious in vain listening to a sant that baran- 
ashram is outdated. 

O’ Wazir Singh! a sant is liberated, carefree and listens to his 
heart only.*° 

Having reached that height of liberation for himself and his followers as the 
realised goal Wazir Singh is in a position to call it ‘Beghampura’ as visualized 
by Sant Ravidas. This may be a small space, a commune, a liberated zone but 
it is of the realised and loved ones. Wazir Singh describes it thus: 

Beghampura is our city in which we reside and speak truth. 
We give damn to codes of conduct, we live as we desire. 
Devotees throng and serve us; they come with offerings but 
get fruits in return. 

O’ Wazir Singh! here the river of love flows where lovers 
come and swim across. 

Even though in the Punjab context a guru stands higher to a sant in status 
(Sikh Gurus for example), Wazir Singh is also accorded that status by his 
disciples. The poetic compositions of Vir Singh Sehgal and Nurang Devi are 
full of their adoration for him as their ‘guru’. Let us listen to Vir Singh first: 

The guru has awakened vairag in me which has come in full 
share to me. 

Without my going through meditation the guru has awakened 
me in a flash. 

He has filled me abundantly and allowed my entry into his 
good company. 

Wazir Singh has accepted me as his servant O’ Vir Singh! he 
has opened my eyes.” 

Throwing away the quilt of lineage-shame we accepted the 
guru’s words and got rid of our sorrows. 

We the ignorant humans came to the guru who filled us with 

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147 Raj Kumar Hans: Sant Poet Wazir Singh 

The guru accepted our devotion and removed the difference of 
the jeev and Brahman for us; we got transformed from 
cowards to the brave. 

Sayeth Vir Singh, the servant of Wazir Singh, he has removed 
our faults and made us popular.”* 

So much so that Vir Singh could not resist elevating Wazir Singh above the 
status of an incarnation (avatar) when he says: 

Guru’s charisma is such that I fail to describe. 
Four Vedas and ten avrars are no parallel to the guru.’ 

In her moving poetry Nurang Devi proclaims Wazir Singh as her guru with an 

I had taken this birth to better the life but got trapped in the 

family net. 

I have met the enlightened guru and has passed the test by 

leaving the blind. 

O God! Destroy those sinners who prevented me from the 


Nurang Devi beseeches Guru Wazir Singh to keep me at your 

feet as servant.” 

I have left the shelter of the amateur guru and found the true 

Amateur guru had raw ideas but now I have met the perfect 

As the perfect guru has shown IJ have burnt the heightened ego 
and pride. 

Nurang Devi has left crafty guru behind while meeting the 
excellent guru.° 

Historical Context of Wazir Singh’s Ideology 

The question arises where and how to place Wazir Singh in the existing 
traditions of Sikh religion, bhakti or sant mat. Clearly, he does not belong to 
the Sikh tradition even if his upbringing was in a Sikh family and was 
surrounded by Sikh ethos. Strong elements of the sant tradition are evident in 
him. ‘The ‘tradition of the Sants’ (sant prampara)’, as Charlotte Vaudeville 
says, ‘is essentially non-sectarian, though a number of Sant poets have been 
considered the founders of sects which bear their name but have developed 
after them’.”’ Following Vaudeville, the sant poetry as a whole has strong anti- 
Brahmanical overtones as the sants appear to be heterodox and even ‘heretics’. 
They reject the authority of ‘books’ whether Vedas or the Quran and also that 
of Brahmans and Mullas. To quote Vaudeville at some length: 

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Sant mat has been equated with ‘nirguna bhakti’, a term which 
would seem to define bhakti according to its objective: the 
non-qualified (nirguna) aspect of the Supreme Brahman, the 
One non-personal, all pervading, ineffable Reality which can 
only be spoken of in negative terms. This notion of the 
Absolute as nirguna coincides with the Upanishadic concept 
of the Brahman-Atman and the advaita  (monistic) 
interpretation of the Vedantic tradition, which denies any real 
distinction between the soul and God and urges man to 
recognise within himself his true divine nature. The northern 
Sants, led by Kabir, mostly seem to adopt this stance, speaking 
of merging or re-absorption of the finite soul, the jiva, into the 
infinite ineffable reality — or state — which is the ultimate 

Since we find in Wazir Singh all the elements stressed by the sant poets — the 
necessity of devotion to and practice of the divine Name (nama), devotion to 
the divine Guru (satguru) and the great importance of the company of the sants 
(satsang)” — it is not difficult to place him within the sant tradition. His 
recognition as the guru also falls within this tradition. Juergensmeyer puts it 
aptly: ‘As a manifestation of a higher form of spirituality than most devotees 
possess, the guru is both exemplar of behaviour and a revelation of the divine 

Wazir Singh’s poetry that has survived the vagaries of time suggests that 
probably some major churning was taking place in the realm of thought in the 
early nineteenth century Punjab. Piara Singh Padam discovered Sadhu Jagan 
Singh a contemporary of Wazir Singh, who stresses the exploration of the self 
in his poetry. In his Siharfi Yog Gian, Jagan Singh dismisses the differences of 
caste and regards different faiths, texts, rituals and worship as useless.°' Quite 
interestingly, in his composition Asi Kaun Han, like Bulle Shah in the previous 
century, he raises the question of identity as had been done by others: 

Neither we are Singh Sardar soldiers, nor do we become 
Neither pandit nor mulla kazi, nor are we untouchables or 

Neither we follow six-philosophies or four-sects, nor do we 
wear the panthic robes. 

We do not subscribe to baran-ashram, caste or lineage, nor do 
we identify with territories.” 

Another such liberated poet of the first half of the nineteenth century happened 
to be Sant Surjan Das Azad from Ajnianwale in Gujranwala.” Readings of his 
poetry published by Dharampal Singal and Baldev Singh Baddan suggest that 
true to his name Azad was a liberated person, who did not practice any kind of 

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149 Raj Kumar Hans: Sant Poet Wazir Singh 

sectarianism, opposed all kinds of ritualism, had a carefree, independent mind, 
and would not hesitate to attack his opponents fiercely. Azad proclaims: 

Surjan Das Azad has become without caste, 

He has talked straight in a fearless poetry. 
Whatever came to my mind, I have uttered, 
Without bothering about poetic meters and genres.” 

In his Siharfi also he is explicit about his liberated persona: 

Once I realised myself, the sectarianism of Hindu-Muslim 

After breaking the trap of baran-ashram, there was no need to 
follow the religious business. 

We follow the path of the shameless, the fear of punishment of 
the Vedas or the Quran has gone. 

Surjan Das says it is the pleasure of the liberated in seeking 
joy from anywhere. 

Evidently, Wazir Singh was not voicing his radical ideas in isolation. In fact, 
his courageous defiance of the established orders and entrenched ideas 
emboldened a few other voices. His junior contemporary, Gulab Das (1809- 
1873) followed in his footsteps and even went somewhat beyond. Even if 
Wazir Singh did not launch a movement and it appears he had no such desire, 
Gulab Das succeeded in creating a stable following and a sect came to be 
known after his name. 

The Gulabdasi sect emerged as an intellectually vibrant movement in the 
late nineteenth century Punjab. Gulab Das was born in a Jatt family of Ratola 
village near Tarn Taran in Amritsar district. He served as a trooper in 
Maharaja Sher Singh’s army and after the Sikhs were defeated by the British, 
Gulab Das became a sadhu, studied the Vedas and soon started his own 
establishment (dera) at Chathhianwala between Lahore and Kasur. He was an 
accomplished poet and a gnostic. He became an atheist and advocated an 
epicurean life. Like Wazir Singh, he shunned caste and gender differences and 
the discrimination based on these; the untouchables and women thus became 
integral part of his creed. His dera became a hub of intellectual activity and 
soon there were numerous Gulabdasi deras across the Punjab.°’ An account by 
E. D. Maclagan in the Census of 1891 offers interesting details about this 

The Gulabdasis have thrown over asceticism and have 
proceeded to the other extreme. They originally held that all 
that was visible in the universe was God, and that there was no 
other. It is said that Gulab Das declared himself to be Brahm 
and many of his disciples believe themselves to be God; and, 
properly speaking, their faith is that man is of the same 

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substance as the deity, and will be absorbed in him, but for the 
most part they are looked on by their neighbours as denying 
the existence of God altogether. They do not believe in a 
personal future life, and dispense with the veneration of saints 
and with pilgrimages and religious ceremonies of all kinds. 
Pleasure alone is their aim; and renouncing all higher objects 
they seek only for the gratification of the senses, for costly 
dress and tobacco, wine and women, the lust of the eyes, and 
the pride of life. They are scrupulously neat in their attire and 
engage in all worldly pursuits, some of them being men of 
considerable wealth. They are said to have an especial 
abhorrence for lying, and there is certainly little or no 
hypocrisy in their tenets. In appearance they vary; some 
always wear white clothes; others preserve the Udasi dress; 
others are clothed like the Nirmalas; and others are 
distinguished by being always shaved. They are of course 
greatly distrusted and, to some extent, despised by their co- 
religionists, and their numbers are said to be on the decrease.” 

What was more scandalising about the sect was the presence of a woman at the 
sadhu’s dera: Peero Preman (c.1830-1872). She came from a Muslim family, 
had a turbulent life of unhappy marriage, forced prostitution and concubinage; 
she also emerged as a poet who ultimately became the co-saint of Gulab Das’ 
establishment.” While giving details from thel1891 Census about the 
Gulabdasi sect, a Sanatan Sikh paper, Shuddhi Patra, of 1897 denounced the 
sect in its editorial, alleging that Peero was a harlot of Lahore but the 
Gulabdasis addressed her as ‘mata’. They used to go to Chathianwala during 
Holi celebrations and worshipped both Gulab Das and Peero while the close 
disciples waved sacred fly-brush over their heads as the followers do now at 
their joint-grave. This paper alleges that the Gulabdasis have been dancing, 
wining and dining ever since and they have two kutha (Muslim style) mutton 
shops at the dera.”’ In continuation of its attack on the Gulabdasis in its next 
issue, the Shuddhi Patra cited some verses from Gulab Chaman, a book of 
poetry by Gulab Das, and on the basis of those compositions summed up the 
philosophy of the sect. It was asserted that going against all religions the 
Gulabdasis subscribe to enjoying life with women, not even discarding the 
Muslim women; by following arbitrary system of knowledge they consider 
themselves as the Brahman; by discarding all Hindu thought they reject 
reincarnation; they dismiss mahatmas and pilgrimage; do not follow any 
religious conventions and rituals; and indulge in gratifying the sensual desires 
by eating meat of all kinds, drinking alcohol, smoking tobacco and viewing 
women’s photos.”! 

The intensity of attack against the Gulabdasis was probably a pointer to 
their popularity in Punjab in the mid-nineteenth century. Apparently, the 
movement was gaining strength, for the contemporary observers note that the 
Gulabdasi deras had been established throughout the Punjab. What most of the 

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151 Raj Kumar Hans: Sant Poet Wazir Singh 

critics debunking the sect appear to miss is that its ideas were fairly close to 
what can perhaps be regarded as the Punjabi ethos. Mahant Ganesha Singh, a 
Nirmala intellectual, admitted that listening to the liberating ideas of Gulab 
Das, thousands of people became unattached and free from the dogma of 
various kinds; eating meat and drinking liquor, they would move from village 
to village; finely dressed with fragrances, they would sing the Mirza and the 
Heer; the men and women had thus become shameless. There was uproar in 
the country and there also were complaints against them. Maharaja Narendra 
Singh of Patiala and other rajas started arresting the Gulabdasis and the British 
also followed suit that stemmed the Gulabdasi tide.” Because of its radical and 
heretical ideas the sect came to be opposed strongly by the new reformist 
orthodoxies such as the Singh Sabhas, Arya Samajes and the Ahmadyas. 
Eventually, the Gulabdasi sect came to be banned officially. 


The credit for discovering the dalit intellectual poet in Wazir Singh from the 
labyrinth of obscurity must be given to the researcher and editor of his poetry, 
namely Shamsher Singh Ashok. However, since its publication in 1988, Wazir 
Singh’s work has somehow escaped the notice of otherwise liberal Punjabi 
literary world. To the best of my knowledge this is the first modest effort to 
understand the poetry and the underlying philosophy of this iconoclastic 

Wazir Singh’s life and work open up possibilities of re-engaging with the 
Punjab pasts. First of all, there is the possibility of imagining dalits achieving 
such creative and spiritual heights in the face of historical disabilities and also 
of stretching the limits of spatial and temporal boundaries of ‘dalit literature’. 
It has implications thus for looking afresh at the heritage of the sant literature 
as a powerful precursor to, or may be part of ‘dalit literature’. Secondly, quite 
often the great sant tradition is taken to be confined to the ‘medieval’ times 
whereas Wazir Singh’s work shows its continuity into the early nineteenth 
century. He becomes important also for the space and respect given to women 
in the otherwise exclusive male domain. Allowing women to live in the dera 
of a sant is a radical departure for those times. The tradition Wazir Singh laid 
down was followed by Gulab Das who accorded equal respect and stature to 
Peero, the great woman Punjabi poet after Nurang Devi. For historians, Wazir 
Singh’s work may open up the possibility of reimagining Indian and regional 
past during the last three hundred years and to locate an intellectual tradition 
independent of the dominant traditions. 


1. ‘The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable: Are the Boundaries of 
Consciousness a Fractal?’ 

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2. Harjot Oberoi, The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity 
and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 

3. Some earlier attempts to compile information about the sant tradition in 
Punjabi were Mahant Ganesha Singh’s Bharat Mat Darpan (Amritsar, 1926) 
and Sufi Sadhu Singh’s Jag Jeevan (Amritsar, 1954). The latest compilation in 
Punjabi by Dharampal Singal and Baldev Singh Baddan, Punjabi de Sant Kavi 
(New Delhi: National Book Trust, 2006) lists 67 Punjabi sant poets and offers 
samples of their poetry. The Hindi works incorporating Punjabi sadhu and sant 
writings are: Pandit Chandrakant Bali, Punjab Prantiya Hindi Sahitya ka Itihas 
(New Delhi, 1962); Acharaya Parshuram Chaturvedi, Uttari Bharat ki Sant 
Prampara (Prayag, 1964); and Manmohan Sehgal, Sant Kavya ka Darshanik 
Vishleshan (Chandigarh, 1965). 

4. In the Punjab context see Oberoi’s chapter 3, entitled ‘An Enchanted 
Universe: Sikh Participation in Popular Religion’ in his Construction of 
Religious Boundaries, pp. 139-203. 

5. Shamsher Singh Ashok (ed.), ‘Mudhali Jaan-Pachhaan’, Siharfian Sadhu 
Wazir Singh Ji Kian (Punjabi), (henceforth Siharfian Wazir Singh) (Patiala: 
Punjabi University, 1988), p. xxviii. 

6. Rattan Singh Jaggi, ‘Bhumika’, in ibid., p. vii. 

7. See Shamsher Singh Ashok, Mazhbi Sikhan da Itihas (Punjabi), (Amritsar: 
Bhai Chattar Singh Jeevan Singh, 2001 [1981]), p. 110. 

8. Brahamgyani is the one who has realized and attained knowledge of the 
supreme cosmic power, the “Brahman, the one non-personal, all-pervading, 
ineffable Reality’. See Charlotte Vaudeville, ‘Sant Mat: Santism as the 
Universal Path to Sanctity’, in The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of 
India (hereafter The Sants), ed. Karine Schomer and W.H. McLeod (Delhi: 
Motilal Banarsidas, 1987), p. 26. 

9. Ashok (ed.), ‘Mudhali Jaann Pachhann’, Siharfian Wazir Singh, p. xiii. 

10. Ibid., pp. xi-xxviii. 

11. See Laura R. Brueck, ‘ Dalit Chetna in Dalit Literary Criticism’, Seminar, 
special issue on Dalit Perspectives, No. 558 (February 2006): 
http://www.india-seminar .com/2006/558/558%20laura%20r.%20brueck. 

12. This important composition by Bhai Jaita came to light only in the second 

half of the 20th century. It was included in Naranjan Arifi’s Ranghrehtian da 
Itihas: Adi kal ton 1850 tak (Punjabi), (Amritsar: Literature House, 1993), part 

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153 Raj Kumar Hans: Sant Poet Wazir Singh 

I, pp. 396-424. Then it was published by Gurmukh Singh in Bhai Jaita Ji: 
Jiwan te Rachna (Punjabi), (Amritsar: Literature House, 2003), pp. 49-82. 
Baldev Singh also gives this poem at the end of his Punjabi novel Panjwan 
Sahibzada (Ludhiana: Chetna Prakashan, 2005), pp. 465-501. Also see Giani 
Nishan Singh Gandiwind, Shaeed Baba Jiwan Singh: Jeevan, Rachna te 
Viakhia (Punjabi), (Amritsar: Bhai Chatar Singh Jeevan Singh, 2008), p. 174. 

13. Siharfian Wazir Singh, Siharfi 18, Chhand 28, p. 80. 

Alif- apna aap pachhata, chhad sabh jhagde jhere, baad 

Aape din aape hai raati, aape saanjh savele, hai har vele. 
Aape raja aape parja, aape hai gur chere, kaun nikher. 

Wazir Singh tuN ikkar maula, eh sarup haiN tere, disan 

14. Ibid., Siharfi 19, Chhand 16, p. 83. 

Suad- juda hari nahiN kise then, tudh nuN sach sunaiye, beh 


Eho matt jatharath aadoN, gur then eh matt paaiye, vehem 

Jhooth paap je kehna hove, taN rabb kite banaiye, te lut 

Wazir Singha je rabb sarbtar hoye, taN naineeN tujhe 
dikhaiye, hath farhiye. 

15. Ibid., Siharfi 21, Chhand 13, p. 91. 

Je- jis vaste karn sadhna, so tum kaho bataayee, kithe 


Naikee vekhe jin tript na aave, kanni sune sunayee, shanti na 

Eh prashan hai sabh par kehya, koyee kaho janayee, jis nuN 

Wazir Singh jo uttar deve, so hamra gur bhai, saka sakhayee. 
16. Ibid., Siharfi 21, Chhand 27, p. 93. 

Noon- nakh sikh dehi kiya bibek, keete jeev ishar na khaye, 
nahiN thiaye. 

Deh andhar bahar panjh tatt hoye, eh nainnee tujhe dikhaye, 
je samjhaye. 

Na koyee janme na koyee mar hai, na koyee aaye jaaye, 
sarabh bhulaye. 

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Wazir Singha hai sarup tumahra, ahe jete roop sabaye, 
samayN janaye. 

17. Ibid., Siharfi 21, Chhand 28, p. 93. 

Wao- waqt rut thitt kaun vaar see, jab eh rachan rachayee, 
kaho batayee. 

Pandit ukat jugat surtee siyoN, kahee eh sunee sunayee, te mil 

Jekar paNde khabar na tainuN, santan aakh sunayee, deh 

Wazir Singha eh rachna sutantar, sute upje binsayee, na kise 

18. Ibid., Siharfi 12, Chhand 15, p. 43. 

Suad- sabr aaya vekh aap tari, nahiN japda hor jahan loko. 
Hindu Turk da vaad na riha koyee, ehnaN dharm te uhnaN 

iman loko. 

Hindu parhe graNthaN te pothiaN nuN, Musalman kateb 
Kuran loko. 

AseeN sarbh thoN pare Wazir Singha, nihcha dharia vich 
vigyan loko. 

19. Ibid., Siharfi 12, Chhand 22, p. 44. 

Qaf- kade Kuran di lor naahi, vekh pothiaN thothiaN paaDde 

Rehras namaz di khahash naahi, dharmsaal maseet nuN 
saDde haN. 

Gang Gaya Prayag nuN tiyag keeta, gor maDhi niyaz na 
chhaDde haN. 

Hoye aap nirpakh Wazir Singha, pakhaN dohaN di khed nuN 
taDde haN. 

20. Ibid., Siharfi 12, Chhand 16, p. 44. 

Suad- dozkaN da riha na sog koyee, naata jannataN da diloN 
tod baithhe. 

Khud aap Khudaye da khauf naahi, Muhammad Ram koloN 
mukh moD baithhe. 

NahiN dharam imaan di kaan koyee, sharaa dohaN di nuN 
neer boD baithhe. 

Aap hoye beqaid Wazir Singha, an-al-haqq maeiN aiyena joD 

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155 Raj Kumar Hans: Sant Poet Wazir Singh 

21. Ibid., Siharfi 12, Chhand 3, p. 42. 

Te- tak rahe jaan nakk aye, rahe thakk na hakk nitaria si. 
Dhooni lae vibhut charae rahe, teerath naeh ke haal gujaria 

Parh pothiaN vekhian thothiaN ni, chare bedan da bhed 
vicharia si. 

Mithe arifan aye Wazir Singha, sarup apna aap niharia si. 

22. Ibid., Siharfi 12, Chhand 4, p. 42. 

Se- sach di agg jan mach payee, jal bal gayee granthi karam 
di Si. 

Jaan apna aap nishang hoye, chhuti kalapna maran te janam 
di Si. 

Van trin parbat parbrahm jata, kiti dur dwait jo bharam di si. 
Ahm brahamgyan Wazir Singha, rahi kaid na baran ashram di 

23. Ibid., Siharfi 2, Chhand 9, p. 6. 

Dal- dukh dwait da hungta si, tan hungta nuN guraN pattia je. 
Jaat paat te baran-ashram taaeen, teen laaj janjir nuN katia 

Naam rup te bidh nikhed guraN, ik aatma hi sekh rattia je. 

So hai tera sarup Wazir Singha, samajh aap dwait nuN sattia 


The term teen laaj (three shames) has been explained by Wazir Singh in a later 
composition as lok laaj (social shame), kul laaj (shame of lineage), and Bed 
laaj (as shame literally of the Vedas and metaphorically of formal religion): 
Ibid., Siharfi 21, Chhand 25, p. 92. In a note, however, Ashok explains the 
three shames as: 1. lok laaj, 2. kul di laaj, and 3. Bhaichare di laaj which is not 
satisfactory. Ibid., p. 54, n. 2. 

24. Ibid., Siharfi, Chhand 15, p. 7. 

Suad- soojh payee jabee aatman di, tabhi baran ashram 
udayia meiN. 

Teen laaj ko todi nirlajj hoye, tann hungta burj nuN dhaiya 

Jaat paat thin aap achhut gaye, Hindu-Turk da pachh uthaiya 

Hoye sarb ke pare Wazir Singha, sarb aatma aap kahiya 

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25. Ibid., Siharfi 3, Chhand 4, p. 9. 

26. Ibid., Siharfi 4, Chhand 12, p. 14. 

27. Ibid., Siharfi 5, Chhand 24, p. 20. 

28. Ibid., Siharfi 6, Chhand 4, p. 21. 

29. Ibid., Siharfi 6, Chhand 25, p. 24. 

30. Ibid., Siharfi 14, Chhand 30, p. 54. 

31. Ibid., Siharfi 16, Chhand 47, p. 66. 

32. Ibid., Siharfi 16, Chhand 48, p. 66. 

33. Ibid., Siharfi 21, Chhand 25, p. 93. 

34. Ibid., Siharfi 17, Chhand 18, pp. 71-72. 

35. Ibid., Siharfi 14, Chhand 10, p. 51. 

36. Ibid., Siharfi 14, Chhand 13, p. 52. 

37. Ibid., Siharfi 22, Chhand 1, p. 94. 

38. Ibid., Siharfi 22, Chhand 2, p. 94. 

39. Guru Nanak was from the family of Bedi Khatris. 
40. Siharfian Wazir Singh, Siharfi 16, Chhand 4, p. 59. 
41. From the fourth Guru onwards all the Sikh Gurus were Sodhi Khatris. 
42. Siharfian Wazir Singh, Siharfi 16, Chhands 9, 10, 15 and 16, pp. 60-61. 
43. Ibid., Siharfi 16, Chhand 11, p. 60. 

44. Ibid., Siharfi 16, Chhand 12, p. 61. 

45. Ibid., Siharfi 22, Chhand 23, p. 97. 

46. ‘Introduction: The Sant Tradition in Perspective’, in The Sants, ed. 
Schomer and McLeod, pp. 2-3. 

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157 Raj Kumar Hans: Sant Poet Wazir Singh 
47. W. H. McLeod points out that in the works of the Gurus, the ‘sikh’ and 
‘sant’ are interchangeable while the word ‘gurmukh’ is favoured over both. 
See his ‘The Meaning of Sant in Sikh Usage’, in ibid., p. 255. 

48. Siharfian Wazir Singh, Siharfi 16, Chhand 54, p. 67. 

49. Ibid., Siharfi 19, Chhand 20, p. 83. 

50. Ibid., Siharfi 20, Chhand 6, p. 86. 

51. Ibid., Siharfi 22, Chhand 30, p. 98. 

52. Ibid., Siharfi 5, Chhand 1, p. 17. 

53. Ibid., Siharfi 23, Chhand 24, p. 105. 

54. Ibid., Siharfi 11, p. 40: In Vir Singh’s words, 

Mahima guru ki adhik hai, keti kahuN sunai. 
Bed char avtar das, e guru ke sam nahiN. 

55. Ibid., Siharfi 7, Chhand 1, p. 25. 
56. Ibid., Siharfi 7, Chhand 4, p. 25. 

57. ‘Sant Mat: Santism as the Universal path to Sanctity’, in Schomer and 
McLeod (ed.), The Sants, p. 21. 

58. Ibid. p. 26. 
59. Ibid. p. 31. 

60. Mark Juergensmeyer, ‘The Radhasoami Revival of the Sant Tradition’ in 
ibid., p. 340. 

61. Piara Singh Padam, Kalam de Chamatkar (Patiala: Author, 1981), pp. 272- 

62. Ibid., p. 280. 

63. Piara Singh Padam, Punjabi Majhan te Aasawarian (Patiala: Author, 
1991), p. 37. 

64. Dhrampal Singal and Baldev Singh Baddan, Punjab de Sant Kavi (New 
Delhi: National Book Trust, 2006), p. 471. 

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65. Ibid., p. 472. 
66. Ibid., p. 475. 

67. For details see Gian Inder Singh Sevak, Gulabdasi Sampardaye: Rachna te 
Vichar, Ph.D. thesis (Amritsar: Guru Nanak Dev University, 1984); Navratan 
Kapoor, Sadhu Gulab Das: Jeevan te Rachna (Patiala: Punjabi University, 
1993); Bikram Singh Ghuman, Kishan Singh Arif: Jeevan te Rachna (Patiala: 
Punjabi University, 1987), pp. 9-10. 

68. H.A. Rose, comp., A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and 
North-West Frontier Province (Lahore: Civil and Military Gazette, 1911), vol. 
II, p. 319. 

69. For details about Peero Preman see, Santokh Singh Shaharyar, ‘Punjabi di 
Pahili Shaira: Peero Preman’, Ajoke Shilalekh, Jan 1997, pp. 5-8; Swarajbir, 
‘Antika’ (Epilogue) in his Shairee: A Play (Ludhiana, Chetna Prakashan, 
2004), pp. 185-97. For a scholarly treatment of Peero and her poetry see Anshu 
Malhotra, ‘Telling her tale? Unravelling a life in conflict in Peero’s Jk Sau 
Sath Kafian (one hundred and sixty kafis)’, Indian Economic & Social History 
Review, vol. 46, no. 4, 2009, pp. 541-78. 

70. Shuddhi Patra: Khalsa Dharam Prakashak, 2, 5 (1 September 1897), p. 3. 
71. Ibid., 2, 6 (1 October 1897), pp. 1-3. The real purpose of the paper was to 
attack Giani Ditt Singh and Jawahar Singh of the Lahore Singh Sabha who had 

earlier been Gulabdasis. 

72. Mahant Ganesha Singh, Bharat Mat Darpan (Amritsar, 1926). 

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