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Full text of "The American Architect and Architecture 1918-10-30: Vol 114 Iss 2236"

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Entered as second class matter January 6, 1909, at the Post sa at New York, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. Publi- 
cation office, 243 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York, N. Y. Subscription price in the United States and Possessions, $10. 


Vol. CXIV, No. 


Resists Rust 



yaratus {c th etermn tion Hydr en 
of dros 
or the Determ a y 



Modern Science and Durable Armco Iron 

HE twentieth-century civilization 
has seen the application of science 
to industry. 

Agriculture, Mining, Manufactures 
and Commerce are to-day the fields in 
which are exercised the intellectual 
powers that in former periods were de- 
voted only to science. 

Departments of Scientific Research, 
equipped for the minute and laborious 

study of processes and products, are be- 
coming a necessary feature of great and 
progressive industrial establishments. 

The Research Department of the 
American Rolling Mill Co. at Middle- 
town was one of the first to study cor- 
rosion of iron and steel, and its preven- 

Armco Iron is to-day the standard of 

the world for Purity and Rust-Resist- 

The American Rolling Mill Company 

Licensed Manufacturers Under Patents Granted to the International Metal Products Company 

The trade 
carrics the as- 
fron bearing that mark is manufac 
tured by The American Rolling Mill 

pany with the s,ill, intelligence 

lelity associated with its prod- 

ucts, and hence can be depended up- 

on to possess in the highest degree 
the merit claimed for it. 

surance that 



- Branch Offices at —— - 








NUMBER 2236 


wre EA 


Industrial Housing at Perryville, Md. 

Mann & MACNEILLE, Architects and Town Planners 

HE housing development at Perryville, Md., 

for the Atlas Powder Company, as agents 

for the Government, was recognized as an 
immediate need early in May, 1918, and Perry R. 
Mac Neille, in charge of the Housing Branch of the 
Industrial Section of the Ordnance Department, 
prepared a report outlining the needs and approxi- 
mating the cost of a development comprising 160 
dwellings, three boarding houses, school building, 
community house, stores, moving picture theater, 
laundry building, church and fire house. 

In accordance with the recommendations of this 
report, an appropriation was made. Mann & Mac- 
Neille, architects and town planners of New York 
City, as consulting architects for the Housing 
Branch, were instructed to make a general layout 
and prepare sketches for the various buildings. 
From these drawings, and subject to their criticism, 
working drawings were made by the drafting de- 
partment of the F. T. Ley Company, general 

The cost of construction, which is of a permanent 
type, was paid for by the Government, and at the 
present date the westerly section is well along 
toward completion, all of the completed houses 
being now occupied by employes, who, following 
the policy of the Government during war times, 
rent them. 

The development is intended to house the em- 
ployes of the Atlas Powder Company, who com- 
prise engineers, chemists, superintendents, foremen 
and mechanics. 

The available site borders the easterly banks of 
the Susquehanna River, is adjacent to the plant 
now completed and under operation, and within 
easy access from the station of the Pennsylvania 

This plateau is 
the banks, which 
It is bounded on 

generally level, sloping gently to 
average 15 feet above the river. 
the north by a heavy growth of 
trees, forming a natural screen between it and the 

Copyright, 1918, The Architectural & Building Press (Inc. 




Its advantages are, therefore, actual proximity 
to the plant with effective separation from it and 
protection from the noise and smoke; good eleva- 
tion above high-water level; natural surface drain- 
age; good water supply; 


accessibility by railroad 
by turnpike to Perryville; and its topography 
and natural scenic features make it a picturesque 

and eminently fitting location for a home develop- 

lhe general layout as here presented follows the 
river bank with its long axis running in a generally 
southeasterly and northwesterly direction. 

lhe main avenues run parallel with the river, 

th the cross streets opening up vistas, and act as 



¢ 4 
_ 8-9 2 WV 


Central features 
have been developed in the design by locating the 
stores about the Circle and laying out to parallel 
streets, terminating at the water front before the 
Community House. 

iir channels direct to the water. 

Suitable shade trees have been 
planned for the streets with vines and shrubs about 
the houses, while the yards and gardens are en- 
‘losed by hedges. 

lhe property is by nature divided into two sec- 
tions, the first lying between the railroad station 
and the “Manse,” and the second extending from 
here to the easterly boundary as shown. The first 
section comprises what at the start was intended to 
be the complete development, but which later 
proved inadequate, with the result that the entire 
scheme will provide homes for 400 families. 

\Vhere the two sections join a wooded ravine 




offers the opportunity of securing a centrally lo- 
cated natural park, while the banks of the river 
have been developed into a park system extending 
along the entire southerly boundary of the develop- 
ment. The old manse has been remodeled as the 
residence of the company’s manager, and on the 
high easterly slope dominating the westerly section, 
and at the head of the central avenue of the easterly 
section, is located the school. 

The Community house architecturally is perhaps 
one of the most pleasing of the buildings and will 
be the center of social activities of the employes. 
Its central location and picturesque setting make it 
easily accessible to all and a fitting spot for relaxa- 

\ Bep “Room! 



PAGE 503 


tion and enjoyment. On the second floor is an au- 
ditorium 41 ft. by 50 ft., with stage and dressing 
rooms, and this opens on to a wide porch running 
along its entire length toward the river. 
also provided lounge, billiard rooms, periodical 
room, ladies’ room, and general kitchen. Along the 
river side of the lounge is a wide porch under the 
auditorium porch. 

The view up and the river from these 
porches is unobstructed while the foreground di- 
rectly in front is a broad terrace with paths and 
steps leading down to the river banks. Churches 
have been located at the heads of streets where they 

There are 


are seen from a distance, and form interesting mo- 
tives for village vistas. The moving picture theater 
located near the Circle seats 300 and is thoroughly 
modern in all its equipment. 




hs a cies 
he tre 

ae tar, 








\n unusually attractive exterior. 

Stores are also located at the Circle, where they 
are passed by those going to and returning trom 
the plant, while a laundry and pumping station are 
located as shown on the general layout. 

The houses for married men are of different 
types and sizes in order to offer such rents as are 
proportionate to the salaries of the employees, but 
each has a cellar, is furnished with hot air heat, 
has a complete bathroom and kitchen equipment 



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a § sa*s*a 18°0" 



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12-3" *« (5°0" 
24-0" - 
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The plans, as shown below, are particularly “liveable.” 

and is lighted by electricity. The arrangement and 
sizes of rooms and closets, and the sanitary pro- 
visions as regards light and ventilation, all conform 
to the best practice. 

Special attention has been paid to the placing of 
doors and windows and to the providing of proper 
wall surfaces for the advantageous placing of furni- 
ture; for small rooms can in this way often be 
made more liveable than larger ones in which it is 


Jo-0" x 13°-O" 


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Perito Ee aa Bagi “aap aeotres | 


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A Boarding House with Single Rooms for Forty-eight Men, with Ample Dining Room, Recreation Room and Porches 









impossible to place the furniture well, because of 
badly distributed wall surfaces. 
the size of rugs is determined. 
\ll of frame construction, covered 
with shingles on the roofs and walls, and each house 
has a front and kitchen porch and outside steps to 
ce llar. 
1G ft., 

In this way also, 

houses are 

Between each house is a distance of at least 
and ample ground for gardens is supplied in 
the rear, the average lots 
being 50 ft. by 110 ft. 

For single men, board- 



nished from the plant power house. The sewage 
is discharged into the river at a point below the 
intake of the water supply through a trunk sewer. 

All materials entering into the construction are 
good quality, and the workmanship first class, so 
that with the care used in planning the layout, a 
substantial and permanent type of housing develop- 
ment is assured, and its arrangement is such that 

ee | . 

ing houses are supplied, 

each accommodating = 
sixty and having gen- i} “KITCHEN - AND 
eral living room, kitchen, seinngioig 

° aie \ 10-@ 2 19-6 
recreation room and gen- a 

eral toilet and = wash i 

rooms. On the second rr 

floor, with private stairs 
leading up from kitchen, 
Is a two-room and bath 
apartment for caretakers. 

Water for domestic 
use and for the plant is 
pumped from the river 

— = . 
-— "7 
bo a 
et ee 
rs | noe Ie 
» » 
+ 4 
. wa C 
. 1 ¢ 
- Seale cy ¥ 
- hs 

and purified. Electric dl 
light and power is fur- 










The plan is good, and the living room on first floor an important feature 

should future needs require more houses, the ad- 

jacent property can be developed advantageously. 
The buildings are painted white, have green 
blinds and lattice, gray shingle roofs, and white 

chimneys. By a careful study of groupings, ot 

conserving the heights of cornices and roof ridges 

and by proper pianning, the completed development 
will be harmonious and distinctive, and will be 
further enhanced by the advantage taken of a beau- 
tiful site to form a picturesque setting and en- 
vironment for the homes of those employed in a 
needed war product. 

“Ber Room 



What The Architect’s Client Wants 


states The 
london, it 

S .success in 
in which we 
Reporter of 

depends on the manner 
fulfill certain require- 
Architect and Contract 
may be useful to con- 
sider in broad and general terms what it is thé 
architect’s clients want in matters of build- 
ing. What is sometimes defined as the want of ap- 
preciation of architecture on the part of the public 
may prove on analysis to be due to the fact that the 
architect of to-day has in many cases failed to 
realize his true functions and overlook certain ob- 
vious factors which reflection would convince him 
were paramount considerations, but to which he in 
many cases has not given their proper weight. How 
universal and powerful these factors are can easily 
be demonstrated. 

Very few of us possess means that can be de- 
scribed as being “ample”; building is expensive, and 
when the majority of men build it 1s because they 
have little or no alternative. Most men have calls on 
them which they must fulfill; the majority also 
have tastes they wish to indulge if possible, but 
which they can only gratify to an extent limited by 
the means they possess after essential claims are 
met and satisfied. 

It is rare to find anyone who builds a house be- 
cause he wishes to obtain a certain definite esthetic 
result, or because he has a passion for architecture 
in the abstract, and in the great majority of cases 
the client seeks the service of an architect because 
he cannot find an existing house to suit him, or be- 
cause he believes it may prove a good investment ; 
that is to say, his controlling motive is almost purely 
practical, and whether the client is a practical busi- 
ness man or a lover of some form of artistic expres- 
sion, with plenty of leisure, the same reasoning ap- 
plies, though the statement may at first sight seem 
open to question. 

The practical business man will often be a hard 
critic of the architect's mistakes, which he will be 
quick to see and condemn; his time is valuable, and 
he will object to being bothered with the considera- 
tion of defects which he puts down to the architect's 
incompetence. Many architects have discovered to 
their great disappointment, that the client possess- 
ing culture and artistic tastes is equally intolerant 
of small practical defects which give trouble, but the 
reason is in reality easy to understand. There is no 
man who dislikes trouble so much as the man of 
leisure, and the connoisseur who has an enthusiasm 
for painting or for collecting furniture or curiosities 
is usually so much absorbed in the pursuit of a spe- 
cial branch of art that he is in reality indifferent to 
art as expressed in other terms, and so, while he 


has more appreciation of the esthetic side of archi- 
tecture than the practical man, he is quite as intol- 
erant of defects which cause his trouble or expense. 
Both types of client will give their architect a bad 
time if a house is cold or draughty, if a roof gives 
trouble, and any failure in the arrangement of the 
kitchen or service department will act like an irri- 
tant poison, working through the servant to the 
client’s wife, and finally to the client, who will hold 
his architect responsible. 

It will be apparent that what the client really 
wants, whether specifically stated or not, is a house 
which is convenient and comfortable, will cause its 
owner the smallest possible expense in subsequent 
repairs and upkeep, to which we may add that 
whether a client is rich or poor it is always well to 
assume that the house may be sold at some future 
date and should, wherever possible, represent a rea- 
sonably good investment of capital. For this reason 
the architect should possess sufficient knowledge and 
judgment to insist on advising his client on the mat- 
ter of site, whether directly consulted on the question 
or not, for it is human nature to hold the archi- 
tect responsible, not only for the mistakes he has 
committed, but for the mistakes he has allowed his 
client to commit without protest. 

If an architect is employed to design a commer- 
cial building, such as shop premises, warehouse, or 
factory, the requirements are even more exclusively 
practical than in the case of a house. No satisfac- 
tory esthetic result will please the man who finds 
that full use of the opportunity of displaying goods, 
space for the easy arrangement of machinery, or 
proper lighting have been sacrificed. All these and 
many other details mean a gain or loss which have 
a direct money value. Again, when we take the case 
of the hotel, or block of flats, when built as a specu- 
lation, the same conditions hold, the problem being 
to obtain the greatest amount of floor space that 
can be efficiently lighted and conveniently divided. 
If the architect overlooks a possible claim for an- 
cient lights his client may find himself compelled to 
omit an upper story, the deletion of which will mean 
the difference between profit and loss on the amount 
expended, while a building may be so planned as to 
be suitable only for one purpose, when more thought 
would have resulted in a plan which was capable of 
arrangement for alternative requirements. We have 
often seen buildings which were indifferent speci- 
mens of architectural design, and found on examina- 
tion, clever planning and arrangement, proving that 
the so-called commercial architect had put himself 
completely in his client’s position and considered the 
building in its income-producing aspect. In so doing 


a clear vision of what is evidently the vital and fun- 
damental problem has often given architects of 
mediocre ability an advantage over their more gift- 
ed colleagues. 

\We do not believe that the world has changed, or 
that there is reason to regret modern tendencies. At 
all times, and in all countries, the great majority of 
buildings were erected for purely practical ends, and 
the zsthetic expression of those ends has been ar- 
rived at unconsciously. It is true that in Italy, and to 
a less extent in France and elsewhere, a small num- 
ber of the greatest buildings have been built pri- 
marily as architectural monuments, and secondarily, 

The Objection to “Lump Sum” 

\ serious objection from the contractor's point of 
view, to “lump sum” contracting is that no matter 
how much time and money he has spent on his or- 
ganization, he is usually classed with any other con- 
tractor who can furnish satisfactory bonds, says 
The Western Canada Contractor. This is due to the 
lack of appreciation by the average layman of the 
fact that there can be a very material difference in 
the structure when completed, as between two dif- 
ferent contractors, in spite of all reasonable inspec- 
tion, although apparently the plans and specifications 
have been complied with in both cases. This lack 
of knowledge and experience on the part of the av- 
erage layman makes it possible for bids to be re- 
ceived at times, from those incompetent to do the 
work in hand. Naturally, it frequently happens that 
a good job is spoiled for a good contractor by un- 
intelligent bidding of others, and is spoiled for the 
owner because he does not receive that for which he 
pays, and, in addition, frequently has law-suits and 
other troubles in connection with his work. 

But this is not the most serious objection. There 
have been so many chances taken in the past, and 
so much “rule of thumb” method used in estimating, 
together with real and unavoidable losses, due to 
“acts of God” or other causes beyond the control of 
the contractor, that very few contracting concerns 
really have a good standing with the banks. Lack 
of sufficient funds, by reason of this poor standing, 
frequently causes a loss in what should be a profit- 
able contract. It is impossible for banks to check an 
estimate and determine whether at the end of a job 
the contractor will show a gain or a loss in assets, 
and they are likely to withdraw credit at a critical 
time. In addition to this, if a contractor is bidding 
on all the work in his line which comes up in a cer- 



to serve some practical purpose. In such cases the 
practical end sought has been the utmost zxsthetic 
expression, and architects have shown their practi- 
cality in ignoring other considerations, as Van- 
brugh did at Blenheim, but these are exceptions to 
the general rule which applies to the “habitations of 
men in all ages.” We have everything to gain and 
nothing to lose in frankly adapting ourselves to the 
standpoint of our clients, nor will the art of archi- 
tecture suffer in the process, for history proves it is 
no exotic plant to be produced by artificial means, 
but the spontaneous production of human invention 
directed toward a natural end. 

tain territory, he is not likely to receive more than 
out of 15 jobs bid upon, and the cost of esti- 
mating becomes a very large part of his overhead 


expenses, as it is hardly possible to estimate, for ex- 
ample, a $300,000 job at a cost of less than S500. 
The only estimate by any bidder that does anyone 
any good is that of the successful bidder; the bal- 
ance of the money spent by other contractors on 
estimating is an economic waste. You can be very 
sure that the “lump sum” contractor does not forget 
this when he estimates his cost of a job (or if he 
fails to include it, he does not know his own cost), 
and the owner pays in the end; for like railroads, 
contractors are not Santa Clauses, and like other 
men, they have a feeling that no one is entitled to 
something for nothing. 

From the viewpoint of the consulting engineer 
or architect, there are real objections to 
“lump sum” contracting, for in the first place he 
increases his cost of supervision, which could be 


avoided by doing the work on a “cost plus” basis, 
and this is an economic waste. Furthermore, he is 
forced to look upon suggestions made by the con- 
tractor with a certain amount of suspicion, and the 
natural thought is, what advantage would the con- 
tractor making the suggestion obtain. In this way 
he loses a great deal of valuable assistance, because, 
even though he had confidence in the contractor, the 
owner, his client, might lose confidence in his ex- 
pert advice if he were taking suggestions or receiv- 
ing advice from one whose contractual relations 
were directly opposed to the interests of the owner. 
Again, contractors have been known to have some 
secret understanding among themselves. for this is 
sometimes done in spite of legislation against such 
practice. The modern first-class constructing and 
engineering organizations are the greatest enemies 
to “pooling,” and the greatest friends to “cost plus” 


Electricity a Factor in Reconstruc- 
tion in France 

The following translation from an article in 
l'Exportateur Francais appears in a recent issue of 
the weekly publication of the American Chamber of 
Commerce in Paris. We read: 

(he reconstruction of economic life in the invad- 
ed regions of France will not be possible without 
having recourse as largely as possible to electricity. 
Electricity is the one thing capable, because of its 
flexibility and unlimited power of expansion, of 
handling the complex problems which will arise 
in connection with the reopening of workshops, 
factories, and mines, and the resumption of social 
life in general. 

(he directors and representatives of the large 
central power stations and electric-lighting plants 
situated in the invaded regions, banded together 
under the auspices of the “Syndicat Profession des 
Producteurs et Distributeurs d’Energie Electrique,” 
are already engaged in studying the problem of re- 
constructing their central power stations. They 
have already marked out the broad outlines of their 
plan as follows: 

Those interested, as a technical committee, have 
been brought together in the “Comptoir Central 
d’\chats Industriels pour les Regions Envahies”, 
40, Rue du Colisé, under the provisions of articie 
20, paragraph 6, of the by-laws of the Comptoir 
Central, The data in the possession of this com- 
mittee indicate that the power stations existing in 
the regions occupied by the enemy represented elec- 
trical energy, including units in process of instal- 
lation, that did not fall far short of 300,000 kilo- 
watts. From the information gathered by the com- 
mittee, it is only too evident that in the immense ma- 
jority of cases the electrical machinery, boilers, 
transmission lines, and in many cases the buildings 
themselves have been destroyed. It seems prudent, 
therefore, to face the necessity for replacing practi- 
cally the whole electric-generating installation in the 

invaded regions. However, in order to avoid, on 

the one hand, undertaking a program which would 

’e too ambitious and which would attempt to rees- 
tablish at one stroke the electrical situation as it 
existed before the war, while, as a matter of fact, 
reconstruction of the invaded regions will with- 
doubt demand several years, and to avoid, on 
other hand, adopting a program so restricted 

as to cause cruel disappointments to those interest- 
1, the electrical committee has agreed to limit its 
ns, for the time being at least, to the restoration 
of one-third the energy of the period before the 

This involves the restoration of 100,000 kilo- 



To aid in solving this particular problem there 
has already been worked out a map showing the 
distribution lines existing in 1914. In addition, a 
new map has been prepared, indicating in a general 
way the transmission lines that will be necessary for 
the distribution of energy in the invaded regions 
after the war. The provisional and theoretical trans- 
mission lines that have thus been sketched out have 
been developed purely from the point of view of 
the general public interest. No account has been 
taken of the more restricted interests of electric 
companies themselves and their individual consu- 
mers. The transmission lines contemplated by the 
committee have been classified in various categories 
according to the urgency of their installation. 

By the creation of a vast system of power gener- 
ation and distribution established in accordance 
with a general plan carefully laid out and capable 
of realization by successive stages as the needs of 
the invaded regions may dictate, the committee 
hopes to achieve the maximum efficiency by avoiding 
the creation of numerous small private central sta- 
tions, which for the most part are not economically 
efficient. Moreover, the scientific use of fuel in the 
projected large central stations will prevent the 
waste of coal that it is impossible to eliminate in 
small installations. 

Needless to say, in realizing this plant the sup- 
port of the French Government, as well as of priv- 
ate parties, is absolutely necessary. It is desirable 
for all those interested, including manufacturers, 
farmers, municipalities and villages, public institu- 
tions, ete., and the public generally to be familiar 
with the program in course of elaboration, so that 
they may be in a position to share !n the benefits of 
the work that is being carried on. 

A Recent Legal. Decision 

To waive by contract the right to a mechanic's 
lien, there must be an express covenant or a 
covenant resulting by implication from the language 
used so plain that a mechanic can so understand 
without seeking professional interpretation as to its 
legal effect. A provision in a contract to furnish 
certain terra cotta for buildings by which the con- 
tractor agreed “to complete same free and clear of 
any liens or incumbrances” cannot be construed as 
waiving any right to a lien for any unpaid portion 
of the contract price due the contractor. Such a 
provision is, in effect, limited to the liens of sub- 
contractors and others claiming under the con- 
tractor, and in a measure a guarantee by him 
against subordinate liens. 


Waste Reclamation 

A meeting was recently held by Hugh Frayne, 
member of the War Industries Board and chair- 
man of its War Prison Labor and Reclamation Sec- 
tion, with various section chiefs in the War Indus- 
tries Board and representatives of other agencies 
concerning the important matter of the reclama- 
tion of waste materials. A general plan was out- 
lined for uniformity of method and co-operation 
among the various agencies in reclaiming materials 
much needed in the Government’s war program. 

As an illustration of ‘the value of reclamation 
work that can be done, Mr. Frayne pointed out that 
during June and July 17,000 soldiers were com- 
pletely outfitted with shoes, hats and clothing from 
material which other soldiers had discarded. All of 
this material was disinfected, renovated, and re- 
paired or remade, instead of being allowed to go 
to the junk pile. This work was done through 
the reclamation division of the Quartermaster’s 

Plans for After-War Trade in Eco- 
nomic Reconstruction 

The time is now ripe for more centralized, con- 

certed work on a program of economic reconstruc- 
tion after the war, says a report made public by the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, De- 
partment of Commerce. It is the first of a series 
of reports to be issued on this subject and is devoted 
to the plans under consideration by other countries, 
especially as they bear on future foreign-trade 

“The outstanding fact under observation,” states 
the report, “is the recognition in every land and by 
all statesmen of the problem called ‘economic recon- 
struction.’ But of more immediate importance is 
the fact that England, France, Italy, Germany, and 
Austria are making preparations to resume their 
peaceful economic life, with improved facilities for 
foreign trade, with a national supervision of the 
use of natural resources for the benefit of their 
own citizens, and with assistance from the state.” 

Attention is called to the achievement of our own 
Government in preparing for after-war conditions, 
such as the building and organization of a huge 
merchant navy backed by large and efficient ship- 
yards and docks, the Webb-Pomerene export 
trade act authorizing exporters to combine for ex- 
port trade and the leeway in foreign-trade banking 
now possessed by the Federal Reserve Board and 
banking system. All told, there has been a very 
considerable amount of effective work done looking 



toward the future, but much remains undone, and 
the bureau is issuing this analysis of European ten- 
dencies as a guide, although calling attention to the 
fact that each country has its own peculiar problem 
to work out for itself. 

“In England,” says Mr. Cutler, chief of the 
bureau, in his introduction, “judging from present 
comments on the work of the Committee on Com- 
mercial and Industrial Policy after the War, any 
present attempt to lay down complete and binding 
policies regarding the future is now recognized as 
a waste of effort. What is more important is the 
assembling of facts, taking the basic step to im- 
prove our educational, research and _ promotive 
organizations and contributing to clear thinking as 
to the questions involved. Sooner or later we must 
have a definite program in which work and plans 
for the future based on known conditions affecting 
our future may be co-ordinated. I personally feel 
that the time is now ripe for some more centralized, 
concerted work to that end.” 

The report is entitled “Economic Reconstruc- 
tion,” Miscellaneous Series No. 73, and is on sale 
at 10 cents a copy by the superintendent of docu- 
ments, Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D. C., and by all the district and co-operative offices 
of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 

Vocational Education Plans with 
States Are Approved 

The Federal Board for Vocational Education 
has approved the plans for vocational education in 
a number of States for the fiscal year 1919, and 
made allotment of funds to these States under the 
Smith-Hughes vocational education law. By the 
terms of this act, States accepting Federal aid bind 
themselves to expend an amount out of their 
treasury equal to that received from Federal 
sources, the whole disbursement being subject to 
approval by the Federal Board. Therefore, the 
amount allotted of Government funds is doubled, 
the total being the expenditure of the State for 
vocational education. 

The following States, with Federal fund allot- 
ments, have just been approved: 

Colorado, $19,273.43; Connecticut, 
$31,245.91; Georgia, $60.948.84; Kansas, 
867.34; Massachusetts, $86,138.70; Kentucky, 
701.68; Michigan, $67,539.35; Mississippi, 
888.92; Montana, $15,000; Nevada, $15,000; 
Jersey, $62,776.07; New Mexico, $15,000; North 
Carolina, $51,191.24; Texas, $91,361.83; West Vir- 
ginia, $29,417.16. 





Founded 1876 
No. 243 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York 

ARTHUR T. NORTH, Engineering Editor 

Subscriptions in the United States 
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SINGLE Copies (Regular Issue), 25 CENTS 

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Other Countries, 

CHICAGO OFFICE—Mallers Building 
Pace A. Rogpinson, Western Manager 

ST. LOUIS OFFICE, Wright Building 



320 Market Street 

Owned by United Publishers Corporation—H. M. Swetland President; 

Charles G. Phillips, Vice-President; W. H. Taylor, Treasurer; 

A. C. Pearson, Secretary. Entered as second-class matter January 

6, 1909, at the Post Office at New York, New York, under the Act of 
March 3, 1879. 

Vor. CXIV OCTOBER 30, 1918 No. 2236 

Looking Forward to Reconstruction 

to. ERNMENT control of trade and in- 
dustrial relations will probably be more ex- 

tensively exerted after the war than ever before. 

Writers of unquestioned 
unanimous in this belief. 

This fact has been well 
brought out and clearly stated in a report more 

authority are 

fully discussed on another page in this issue, issued 
by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
prepared by Burwell S. Cutler, chief of the bureau. 
Government control, it is stated in this report, will 
be especially a feature of the period of reconstruc- 
tion. The extent to which such control will be per- 
manent will largely depend on conditions in the 
various countries. 

Production and distribution in different countries 
had, up to the outbreak of the war, reached certain 
settled conditions. These conditions naturally be- 
came largely unsettled, and in all countries there 
has been a very careful examination of the existing 
structure with a view to such rebuilding of methods 
as would best meet the largely changed state. 

In this report, referring to these things, Mr. 
Cutler states: 

_ As the war progressed there has developed the general 
impression that the economic régime after the war will 
be fundamentally different from the old individualistic 
System and that it will require new facilities and organs 



for its proper operation. Thus we find that in two of the 
most imporiant belligerent countries of Europe—Great 
Britain and Germany—there are two parallel movements in 
the work of preparation: The government is creating new 
instruments or overhauling the old in order to be ready to 
meet the new conditions created by the war, and private 
organizations in commerce, industry and finance are getting 
closer together and co-ordinating their efforts, so as to 
present a solid front to the anticipated onslaught of their 
chief rivals. 

In this country we shall need to evolve a program 
that will prepare us to meet and successfully over- 
come every obstacle to our reconstruction. We 
shall need so to plan that we will secure for our- 
selves the measure of success in every commercial 
and industrial field to which as a nation which has 
achieved the greatest measure of good results, we 
are entitled. 

T is significant that with earlier possibilities of 

peace, there should be a very decided activity 
on the part of the Government in the formulation 
of a program for reconstruction. The Overman 
bill in Congress, providing for a Federal commis- 
sion, and the Weeks resolution for a joint Congres- 
sional committee, are drawn practically along the 
same lines of reconstruction. The Iron Age, in a 
consideration of after-the-war conditions, refers to 
these two measures and states: “The United States 
has been quite behind all the European belligerents 
in giving attention to the problems in industry 
which must be met when peace comes.” 

All of which is quite true, and it might also be 
added that while we were tardy in preparation, we 
have achieved in the end the greatest measure of 
success. But the cost has been large in proportion 
to what it would have been had we been better pre- 
pared at the outset. The same thing may again 
occur if we defer until after the war the prepara- 
tion for our rehabilitation. An already greatly 
taxed people will not then patiently regard methods 
involving unnecessarily large appropriations. 

HERE will be many opportunities after the 

war to study the advantages of a liberal edu- 
cation such as our men in the service, both at home 
and abroad, will have acquired. Every man, whether 
engaged as a civilian worker, or in any of the 
various industrial occupations, whether as a soldier 
on land or a sailor on the high seas, will have 
learned more practical methods, have had a broader 
view of life and its responsibilities than he could 
have acquired in any other way. In looking beyond 
the war to the period of reconstruction, it will be 
well to remember all these things and to entrust the 
work to be done to men of broad experience, to 
those of the most highly developed 




We shall hope for recognition of such a type of 
well developed men and we shall also hope that the 
man whose knowledge is based purely on theory 
may not be permitted to work his “prentice hand” 
on these problems. If peace’s victories are no less 
renowned than those of war, one of the greatest 
victories, the most valuable and lasting, will be the 
overwhelming demonstration of the value of edu- 
cation acquired by actual experience. 

The Opportunity 
HERE will be many phases in the after-war 
period of reconstruction with which architects 
should be prominently identified. 

Will they ? 

The suggestion has been made by Past-President 
Mauran that the Chamber of the 
United States is the national vehicle through which 
to inaugurate the movement towards the prepara- 
tion of a program of reconstruction, and that the 
American Institute of Architects should tender its 

Commerce of 

There has been 
sufficient opportunity for the profession of archi- 
tecture to learn of the many opportunities that are 
open to it to become actively identified with the big 
problems of the future. 

Will it hitch its wagon to this star—or will his- 
tory repeat itself ? 

The suggestion is a good one. 

War Labor Problems 

N' )T only at the present time, but also far into 
the future of our period of reconstruction, 
will the establishment of a new basis for wages in 
the building industries be a problem involving many 
difficulties in its solution. The activity of the Gov- 
ernment in the past, in the matter of labor adjust- 
ment, has not been thoroughly co-ordinated and 
much confusion has resulted. The condition exist- 
ing is undoubtedly due not so much to any lack of 
appreciation of the importance of the subject, as to 
the haste that was essential, leaving little time for 
study or consideration of all factors involved. 
Order is slowly but surely being evolved, and 
there is developing in the activities of the Govern- 



ment in its efforts to solve the labor problem a better 
method of procedure and one that will undoubtedly 
achieve some measure of practical results. 

The Washington, D. C., correspondent of /ron 
Age has been able to set forth the important steps 
contemplated by the Government toward its labor 
policy. These, briefly summarized, are: 

(a) Organization of a new general Wage Board, 
which will report directly to the President, and will 
be made up of representatives from all the boards 
now dealing with wage questions in the various 
Government departments. This board will 
supervising authority over all wage decisions. 

(b) Establishment of relation of cost of living to 
wages. This wage board will work out the statis- 
tics compiled throughout the country and will seek 
a uniform line in living costs to guide the settlement 
of wage controy ersies. 


(c) Settlement of shipyard wage question. This 
board will deal directly with demands of shipyard 
workers for higher pay. 

(d) Drafting men for war industries. To find 
a means of securing a speedier recruiting of labor 
for war industries has become a serious problem. 
This so-called recruiting is as truly a means of war 
service as is that carried forward by the army and 
navy; the services to be given are just as essential. 
And, for these reasons, it is believed that Govern- 
ment authority, even to the extent of pressure by 
the Provost Marshal General's 

office, might be 

Among the many problems affecting labor, none 
is more vital than this so-called “drafting.” And, 
as stated by the correspondent of Jron Age, the use 
of the word “drafting,” implying a compulsory de- 
mand on the individual, impedes the easy solution 
of the question. word, one less in- 
timately associated with compulsion, will need to be 

Some other 

Finally, among 
lined, is: 

the specific lines of effort out- 

(e) Recruiting of woman labor. In order to re- 
the necessity of substituting 
woman labor, as far as possible, has from the out- 
set been appreciated by the Government. This 
policy will undoubtedly be developed to its full pos- 

lease man power 

But up to the present time, as far as is 
known, no actual program for a comprehensive 
line of action has been evolved. 

Criticism and Comment 


The building industry of the country seems to 
have received a bad case of shell shock from the 
oreat We are awaking to the fact that we 
have been hit but do not quite realize where. Archi- 
tects and builders have in the past felt that they 
were an important factor in the nation’s life; that 
their work was considered seriously and that they 
had to do. But 

This is not to bewail the fact that the war has cut 
down our usual business. 


“man’s size’ work times have 

That was to be expected, 
except in the large Government construction cen- 
ters, and we heartily endorse the Government’s re- 
quest to cut down building during the war to that 
absolutely necessary. Our trouble seems to be that 
we have discovered that we are not what we thought 
When the nation has a real job to do 
such as to bridge an ocean or build a new highway 
to Berlin, we 

we were. 

are not asked into council, but in- 
stead we are gently but firmly asked to stand aside 
so as not to bother the men who are working. A 
successful architect past forty-five told me_ the 
other day that if he could only find some real work 
to help win the war by using any of his knowledge 
or skill, he would be at it immediately. This man 
has had a busy career for twenty years or more, 
and is highly trained in a number of fields where he 
ought to be able to give very valuable service to 
his country. Why are his services not sought? Is 
it possible that our favorite sport of finding where 
the contractor has skinned the job has reacted upon 
ourselves until both contractors and architects alike 
are looked upon with suspicion ? 

The spirit of something different, however, is in 
the air. Mr. Blackall’s article in THE AMERICAN 
Arciuirect a few weeks ago sounded this note very 
clearly. Building and engineering magazines and 
similar publications print articles 
on the coming changes in methods. 

and_ editorials 

\While there 
seems to be a considerable variety in the proposed 
remedies, all that past methods 
been entirely satisfactory. 

agree have not 

Whatever the new order may be, the architect 
is very greatly affected. It would seem vitally nec- 
essary that we should wake up now to a determina- 
tion as far as possible of what our place shall be in 
the new adjustment. We need a free and full dis- 
cussion of these questions at the present time, so 
that we will be ready to take our place in the new 

The first 

and perhaps most vital propasition 

which occurs to me, and which is also emphasized 
by Mr. Blackall, is that the architect must be will- 
1 We 
This may seem 
an unwarranted indictment against the past per- 

ing to assume leadership and responsibility. 
must cease being moral cowards. 

formances of the austere gentleman who has made 
the big contractors “come across.” It is only nec- 
essary to remind the reader, however, of how con- 
sistently and deliberately we have not only failed 
to take a business leadership in building enterprises, 
but we have regularly delegated most of 
sponsibilities to others, and have not 

our re- 
even hesi- 
tated to place our own errors on the shoulders of 
the luckless 
thing similar to: 

contractor. We all recognize some 
“Contractors will note carefully 
all parts of the drawings and specilications, and 
will call the architect's attention to errors or 
biguities contract. Any 

erected according to errors in the plans will be re- 
“The con- 
tractor shall furnish all radiators of sizes shown in 
plans, and must further guarantee to heat the build- 
ing in 20 degrees below zero weather to 70 degrees 


before = signing work 

placed at the contractor’s expense.” 

On specifications like the latter we 
have actually asked contractors to submit fair com- 
petitive bids. 

This is not an indictment against the integrity 
of the architect. The standard documents prepared 
under the direction of the Institute of 
Architects bear evidence of the high sense of jus- 


tice and fairness which dominates the profession. 
This, not meet the main. charge 
against us, that we look to others for results. 

however, does 
efforts have been to whip the contractor into getting 
results, and if he has failed, the failure has been 
his and not ours. If we shall assume leadership in 
the building field and be a real force in the new 
adjustment of things, it will be necessary not only 
to bring about results directly, but to be willing to 
assume responsibility for such results at the risk 
of both financial and professional loss. 

Just how this may be accomplished is a question 
which cannot be settled arbitrarily by any man or 
set of men. In the present shaking up of things, 
these questions will adjust themselves in their own 
large way. The point for us to get is, that unless 
we are thoroughly awake to the situation, the ad- 
justment may be made without taking us into ac- 
count, and we will have to be content to remain the 
makers of pictures, furnishing an occasional sug- 
gestion on the minor details of put 
through by someone else. 

big ideas 


Believing that this is the proper time to discuss 

new methods in detail, | am giving my ideas of a 
few of the necessary changes to be worked for. 
Knowing full well the futility and limitations of 
arbitrary statements of this kind, I am offering 
these to stimulate thought, and in the hope that they 
may lead to further discussion in the same direction. 

My principal proposition is to shift the purchase 
of materials from the contractor to the owner 
through the architect. This will bring about a 
series of adjustments somewhat as follows: 

In preparing the plans, the architect will assume 
new duties and obligations, and the price of his ser- 
In addition to 
the general plans and specifications worked out as 
at present, it will be necessary to do much detailed 
work to get out schedules and separate details and 

vices will increase proportionately. 

specifications for the various materials and equip- 
ment, which can be submitted directly to manufac- 
turers and material concerns for bids. Such bids 
will be made on designated quantities of specified 
materials at an exact degree of fabrication, and de- 
livered in a designated manner. 

This will first of all mean the work of a thor- 
oughly competent quantity surveyor in the archi- 
tect’s office. There is every reason to believe that 
a skilled quantity surveyor working constantly on 
plans prepared in the same office, and having ac- 
cess to the people who prepared the plans at every 
stage, should prepare very exact schedules of ma- 
terials, as compared to the present practice where 
every contractor “estimates” plans from different 
architects. The majority of contractors would un- 
doubtedly welcome this as a great relief. This will 
also tend to check any error in the plans before bids 
are received. The economy of this is evident where 
quantities are figured once instead of a dozen times. 

The work of the architect himself will not of ne- 
cessity be changed materially, but he will need a 
competent organization to carry out more exacting 
detail work. The practitioner whose stock in trade 
are fine pictures and clever salesmanship would 
find it harder to operate under these conditions. 

The honest material concern would undoubtedly 
rather sell direct where payment is guaranteed by 
the owner, and where preliminary information is 
more exact. The burden of rejected material will 
fall where it belongs, on the one furnishing it. 

The position of the superintendent or “clerk of 
the works” will be materially affected. At present 
his position is rather that of the watch dog, and 
as far as real production is concerned his work is 
negative. Under the new scheme he would be a 
nan of some consequence. It would be his place 
not only to see that the work is done properly, but 
that materials arrive at proper times, and are of 


the proper quality as well as quantity. Being in 
touch with the quantity surveyor who prepared the 
material schedules, he can check errors very 
promptly and forestall many of our present ex- 
pensive delays and other troubles. 

How about the contractor! Are we robbing him 
of his work, or trying to eliminate him altogether? 
By no means. We are simply leaving him to do 
the work which belongs to him—to build. His 
work can be by contract or percentage, and it is not 
unlikely that the latter would grow in favor. Re- 
lieving the contractor of his many duties in esti- 
mating, buying and checking materials will give 
him more time on his essential work of organizing 
and carrying on effective construction work. The 
contractor's legitimate field for profit even at pres- 
ent is in well organized labor, effective equipment, 
and up-to-date methods, and under the new ar- 
rangement he could concentrate all his energy on 
these. His percentage on the capital handled 
would be automatically increased to give him his 
just profits. The contractor would undoubtedly 
furnish all materials needed for forms, scaffold- 
ing, and other temporary work which would be- 
come part of his equipment. In other words, the 
contractor would work as at present, but would be 
relieved of all responsibility for securing the mate- 
rials entering into the construction of the building. 
His position would become safer for it is common 
knowledge that contractors are commonly “stung” 
by inaccurate estimating and rejected materials. I 
believe that the contractors over the country would 
welcome a change of this nature. 

And the owner will get what he pays for. But 
will he be able to know beforehand how much it 
is going to cost him? He will, if the architect 
knows his business, and if not—well, that is where 
the incompetent architect is disposed of. 

But would not this lower the standards of archi- 
tecture? I do not see any reason for believing 
so. Planning and design could be carried forward 
on fully as high a plane as at present with better 
chances of securing well executed work. To my 
mind there is reason to believe that this will ad- 
vance the cause of real architecture. We live and 
work in a commercial age, and we cannot do away 
with this fact by assuming a high ethical attitude 
and disclaiming any connection with commercial- 
ism. If we can guarantee results on a commercial 
basis, we will be given more or less freedom 
to put the new projects into our own architectural 
forms. \Ve must meet the demands of the times 
as they exist. We must live in the present, not in 
the past. 


Forest City, Iowa. 

¢ in 
| the 

» do 












an eight-room school. 

easily enlarged to 

as to be 

accommodates 140 pupils and is so designed 

This building 









VOL. CXIV, NO. 2236 

OCTOBER 30, 1918 


23 O° 393%0 


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OCTOBER 30, 1918 



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OCTOBER 30, 1918 


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VOL. CXIV, NO. 3 OCTOBER 30, 1918 



Living Room 
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Industrial Progress Stimulated 
by War 
HEN this war began, Germany practically 
controlled the world’s supply of potash. We 
have not only developed potash fields in 
America, but we have also found a way to take 
potash from the flue dust of cement works. And 
are now independent of the German potash sup- 
for all time. 


or years before the war, Germany was buying 
the world’s supply of castor oil and storing it 
We have 
now perfected a mineral oil that serves as well as 
castor oil in all but the very fast fighting planes. 

for use in lubricating airplane engines. 

\Ve have discovered a way to make coal smoke- 
less by extracting from it valuable by-products that 
have previously gone to waste. 

We have similarly found a way to save half the 
oils, greases and animal fats that have been lost in 
use in the past. 

We have recently produced a gas mask that can 
for hours without discomfort even in a 
rapid advance. 

be worn 

\Ve have introduced improvements in rifles and 
machine guns that give our soldiers weapons greatly 
superior to the enemy’s. 

New methods and appliances for fighting sub- 
industrial methods in shipbuilding have speeded up 
our production beyond all expectation. Improve- 
ments in wireless communication have given our 
troops a great advantage on the battlefield. Im- 
provements in medical reduced our 
army’s death rate from disease to one-tenth of the 
lowest rate established heretofore. 

marines have overcome the U-boat menace. 

science have 

In short, the nations whose inventive genius sup- 
plied the Germans with all their modern engines of 
war, have now so improved on those inventions that 
the Germans are fighting at an increasing disad- 
ve on land, on water, and in the air. And 
civilization is proving its ability to defend itself 



barbarism even when the barbarian is armed 
which he 
backward people. 

with weapons has borrowed from less 

Plant to Make ““Carbocoal’’ 

is stated by the Fuel Administration that the 
U. Ss. Government has interested in the 
establishment of a plant at Clinchfield, Va., for the 
manufacture of “Carbocoal,” a smokeless briquetted 
fuel produced from bituminous coal. This has de- 
veloped as the result of tests on the briquets made 
by the Navy Department and two railroad com- 
The plant, which is now in the preliminary 





stages of construction, is expected to be in operation 
early in 1919 and will have a capacity of treating 
several hundred thousand tons of bituminous coal 

A new process of low-temperature distillation is 
used by which coal is so treated as to recover greater 
quantities of the valuable by-products, such as 
toluol, sulphate of ammonia, and valuable oils. 
briquets are made from the residue. 

Tests of car- 
bocoal disclose that it contains less than 4 per cent 
of volatile matter, rendering it practically smoke- 

less, and that it is satisfactory where there is lim- 
ited grate area and restricted boiler capacity. 

No Surplus in Building Trades 

As a result of the enlarged military program, call- 
ing for the construction of new hospitals and addi- 
tions to army cantonments and military bases, the 
surplus which recently existed in building trade lines 
not only has been wiped out, but there actually ex- 
ists a shortage in such proportions as seriously to 
endanger the completion of proposed projects in 
anywhere near the time set, says the weekly labor 
geport of the United States Employment Service. 

The scarcity of carpenters is noticeably acute. 
Where many recently were looking for work the 
Employment Service is now looking for thousands 
to distribute among the army cantonments, where 
extensions planned for have been held in abeyance 
Waiting relief. 

Camp Knox, Ky., which was to have been ready 
for military occupancy on October 1, may not be 
completed for several months. At that place alone 
10,000 skilled and unskilled men are urgently need- 
ed. The most serious shortage facing the authori- 
ties at the Camp Knox cantonment is for carpenters. 
Unfilled orders for 6,000 are registered with the 
Employment Service. To a lesser degree the same 
situation prevails at Camp Meade, Camp Bragg, 
Camp Jackson, Paris Island, and the Navy base at 
Newport News. 

Machinists and machine hands are still far too few 
in number to satisfy the demands of the war plants. 
Pennsylvania, New York, Michigan, Illinois, and 
New Jersey are making urgent appeals that experi- 
enced machinists be diverted from nonessential lines 
into industries in the first line of war-producing in- 

Pennsylvania and Oregon shipyards want caulk- 
ers; the demand for ship carpenters and structural 
iron workers is widespread. Plumbers, bricklayers. 
tool makers, die sinkers, barbed wire operatives, 
gauge makers, riveters, and sheet-metal workers are 
also needed. 



Germany’s Problem of Recon- 

From advices coming out of Germany, through 
neutral countries and other sources of intelligence, 
writes C. A. 
World, it is a matter of some importance for 
American business men to study the manner in 
which Germany is applying herself to the problem 
of industrial reconstruction after the war. In that 
land questions very similar to those already existing 
in the United States have, of course, long since 
arisen, and are receiving intensified study. Ger- 
many, for example, is with labor 
troubles like every other nation, and the importance 
of according this factor definite recognition is fully 

Tapper in Engineering and Cement 


realized. The German trade unions have not been 
slow to foresee the possibilities which the economic 
situation offers of reaping advantages from the con- 
ditions which will arise during the period of peace 
and reconstruction for which they now so bitterly 
long. In this country, however, the problem is 
obscured by the uncertainty of the exact nature of 
trade conditions prevailing after the war, and the 
measures proposed to be taken are tempered ac- 
cordingly. In Germany a scheme has been sub- 
mitted to the Reichstag to ensure that the trade 
unions shall have a voice in reconstruction ques- 
tions (in line with the feelers put out by Mr. 
Gompers at the allied labor conferences in London) 
and a bill has already been submitted to the federal 
chamber or Bundesrat for the establishment of 
chambers of labor, with conciliation committees and 
arbitration courts, composed both of employers and 
employed, along lines which had previously been 
worked out, as far back as the time immediately 
preceding the war, when the writer was in Duessel- 
dorf and other centers of the movement. Engineer- 
contractors and other construction interests, which 
have found their operations hampered in this coun- 
try by the exactions of labor, should keep watch 
of developments in this line the world over, as on 
them will hinge much of our prosperity, or the lack 

of it, after we have won the war. 

New Department of the Engineer 
Few realize the immense volume of work accom- 
plished by the General Engineer Depot at \Washing- 
ton in supplying the engineering equipment required 
by the Army in this country and abroad. The fact 
that its various departments have often accom- 
plished the seemingly impossible is indicated by 
the slogan of the depot, “It can't be done, but here 


it is.” Specifications have been issued and orders 
placed for supplies to the extent of $5,700,000 by a 
single department in a single day. The personnel 
of the depot comprises a staff of 3600 situated in 
different parts of the country, with 150 engineers 
of the first class. 

Announcement has been made of a new division 
of the Depot on Investigation, Research and De- 
velopment, covering the following — subjects: 
Searchlights; surveying; map production; sound 
ranging; engineer equipment; testing mechanical 
and optical devices; physical and chemical research 
and tests; co-operation and co-ordination ; informa- 
tion sources and patents; heavy-equipment develop- 

Among the functions of this division are: 

1. To review, follow up and initiate improve- 
ments in the military equipment and supplies of the 
Mobile Army, in co-operation with purchasing offi- 
cers of corresponding equipment and with cogni- 
zance of manufacturing facilities and available ma- 

2. To conduct or follow chemical and physical 
tests of material and equipment; and to conduct 
efhciency tests. 

3. To assist in the creation of suitable specifica- 
tions and advise on technical questions. 

4. To assist officers of the depot to develop their 
ideas into patentable form in order to protect the 
Government against the payment of royalties for 
ideas originating in the depot. 

Survey Parties Needed by Construc- 
tion Division of the Army 

The Construction Division of the army is with- 

out doubt the most colossal organization of its kind 
in the history of the world. The approximate value 
of construction projects so far undertaken by this 
branch of the Government is one billion dollars. The 
figures representing the material used and the men 
employed are staggering. Twenty-five thousand 
workmen have been under the control of the Divi- 
sion at one time. 

Among the Division’s present urgent needs are 
50 chiefs of survey party at $2,700 to $3,000 a 
year; 50 transitmen at $2,400 a year; 25 levelmen 
at $2,100 a year; 125 rodmen at $1,800 a year; 150 
chainmen at $1,800 a year, and 50 topographic 
draftsmen at $2,100 a year. These positions are 
open to men only, except the drafting positions, 
which are open to both men and women. All of the 
positions are in the civil, not the military service 



Persons interested should apply to the United 
States Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C., 
or to the secretary of the local board of civil ser- 
vice examiners at Boston, New York, Philadelphia, 
Atlanta, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Paul, St. Louis, 
New (Orleans, Seattle or San Francisco. 

Applicants will not be required to undergo a 
written examination, the examination being of the 
“nonassembled” type; that is, the ratings will be 
based upon education, training, experience and phys- 
ical ability as shown by the applications and cor- 
rol orative evidence. These positions offer an excel- 
lent opportunity for patriotic service, and the Civil 
Service Commission urges qualified persons to ap- 
ply without delay. 

Making Forestry Pay 

Receipts from the National Forests in the fiscal 
vear 1918 ending June 30th amounted to more than 
$3,574,000. Fees from live stock brought in over 
$1,700,000, and timber sales yielded over $1,500,000. 
Water-power permits brought in a little less than 
Smaller amounts received from 
various forms of land occupancy. Turpentine priv- 
ileges on the Florida National Forest yielded the 
Government about $8,000. 

S100,.000. were 

In California co-operative arrangements have 
been made with 126 individual owners controlling 
about 250,000 acres of timber lands, whereby the 
Forest Service assumes the duty of detecting and 
fighting all fires which may occur. This protection 
is obtained at an average cost of 112 cents per acre 
paid by the owners.—The Modern City. 

American Efficiency 

Engineers with the American Expeditionary 
Force in France are showing the natives how to 
build and operate railroads under war conditions. 
If the road beds have not the stability of the more 
carefully built roads of that country, the celerity 
with which they were constructed is a cause of sur- 
prise to the French. This country is supplying the 
steel rails and in this connection it may be of in- 
terest that the July output of iron, according to 
The Iron Age, was 3,420,988 tons, compared with 
3.323.791 tons in June. The records of The /ron 
lrade Review show production in July of 3,411,597 
tons, an increase of 95,540 tons over the June re- 

The number of furnaces in blast as the month 
closed was 364, the largest known under condi- 
tions of modern production. The lake ore carry- 


¢ fleet moved 10,659,203 tons of iron ore in July, 



which established a new high record for this month, 

Further light was cast by The /ron Age on the 
scope of the steel demand for the armies in France 
through the announcement that the Government had 
distributed orders for 200,000 rails to be sent to 
General Pershing. Of this total the Steel Corpora- 
tion received 127,000 tons, the remainder being 
taken by the Bethlehem Steel Corporation and three 
other concerns. 

How to Compute Labor Turnover 

The following standard definition of labor turn- 
over and standard method of computing the percent- 
age of such turnover was adopted by the national 
conference of employment managers at Rochester, 
i} 4 

Labor turnover for any period consists of the 
number of separations from service during that 
period. Separations include all quits, discharges and 
lay-offs for any reason whatever. 

The percentage of labor turnover for any period 
considered is the ratio of the total number of sepa- 
rations during the period to the average number of 
employees on the force report during that period. 
The force report gives the number of men actually 
working each day as shown by attendance records. 

It is recommended that the percentage turnover 
be computed for each week. All turnover percent- 
ages for a week or for any other period should al- 
ways be reduced to a yearly basis and be reported in 
terms of percentage per annum. 

To compute the percentage of labor turnover for 
any period, find the total separations for the period 
considered and divide by the average of the number 
actually working each day throughout the period. 
Then multiply by the proper factor to reduce to a 
yearly basis. 


Method of computing percentage of labor turn- 

over for one week: 
Total number of separations during week, 300. 

Daily force reports ( workers actually on the job) : 
Monday 1,020 
Tuesday 1,065 
Wednesday 1,070 
Thursday 035 
Friday 040 
Saturday 990 

Average for week 

Percentage of labor turnover: 

= 15.04 per cent. 


Prevention of Accidents in Govern- 
ment Nitro Plant 

A remarkably low accident record lias been ef- 
fected during the construction of the United States 
explosive plant C, at Nitro, W. Va., which was be- 
eun the early part of January, 1918. This is at- 
tributed directly to forethought and careful plan- 
ning in the elimination of accident hazards through 
concerted effort in modern methods of safety en- 
gineering. This plant covers approximately 1600 
acres of land, upon which are constructed hundreds 
of buildings to be used in the manufacture of 
smokeless powder. In addition to the plant acreage 
there are about goo acres of land, upon which are 
being constructed thousands of homes in which the 
operators will live. 

No records in the United States accident statis- 
tical record books, past or present, have been more 
wonderful than those now 
ment powder plant, where, to date, there has been 
but two-tenths of 1 per cent of the number of work- 

shown at this Govern- 

ing hours lost by injuries resulting from accidents 
causing absence of employees. 

But six fatalities have occurred at this plant dur- 
ing the past eight months of its construction period, 
where upward of 19,000 employees have been 
working overtime and Sundays to complete this gi- 
gantic project. Only eight accidents per 10,000 em- 
ployees per day have occurred, entailing loss of one 
day or more. 

The supervision of this accident-prevention work 
has been done by a well-organized safety depart- 
ment which, representing the United States Em- 
ployees’ Compensation Commission, at Washing- 
ton, D. C., has been under the direction of C. B. 
Hayward, safety engineer in charge. Its activities, 
coupled with the assistance and co-operation of the 
officials down to the workmen, have made it pos- 
sible to create this new mark in accident-prevention 

Vast Interests Affected by 

In reply to Senator Calder’s inquiry regarding 
the plans of the War Industries Board in modifying 
ihe restrictions on construction, some very interest- 
ing figures were offered, showing the importance 
of the construction industry. The United States 
Fuel Administration estimates that the production 
of building materials consumes 30,c00,000 tons of 
fuel per annum; and the Railroad Administration 
finds that 25 per cent of the total tonnage normally 
moved by the railroads is building material. 



It is also stated that the direct and indirect war 
needs of the United States and its Allies for the 
last six months of the current year already exceed 
tons of iron and steel, and that the 
country’s output for the first six months was less 


1 7,000,CO0O0 tons. 

These figures, in addition to the need for more 
labor, were offered as reasons for modifying the 
restrictions in order to speed up the war program, 
—The American Contractor, 

Labor from Porto Rico 

To aid in the construction of new warehouses 
at New Orleans to be used by the Quartermaster 
Corps in connection with the shipment of supplies 
to France, Porto 

brought to 

laborers have been 
Orleans on an 

1200 Rican 
New transport. 

These men represent the first consignment of a 


force of 30,000 Porto Ricans who have registered 
with the United States Employment Service office 
in San Juan for work in the United States. They 
will all be used only on construction work for the 
War Department, and will be stationed in southern 
districts where the climate is suitable for their 
health. Further shipments will arrive at New Or- 
leans as rapidly as transportation becomes avail- 

Expansion of Our Merchant Marine 

The American merchant marine is to-day ex- 
panding more rapidly than any other in the world. 
In August of this year the United States took rank 
as the leading shipbuilding nation in the world. It 
now has more shipyards, more shipways, more ship- 
workers, more ships under construction, and is 
building more ships every month than any other 
country, not excepting the United Kingdom, hither- 
to easily the first shipbuilding power. Prior to the 
war the United States stood a poor third among 
the shjpbuilding nations. 

When the present Shipping Board began its 
work in August, 1917, there were only 61 ship- 
vards in the United States. There were 37 steel 
shipyards with 162 ways. About three-quarters of 
their capacity had been pre-empted by the naval 
construction program, while private orders over- 
flowed the remaining ways. In the 24 wood ship- 
yards there were only 73 ways. 

The largest shipyards in the world in September, 
1918, are those of the United States. The Clyde 
River, in Scotland, historically famous as the great- 
est of all ship building localities, is already sur- 
passed by two ship building districts on the Atlantic 
coast, Delaware River and Newark Bay, and by two 


Pacific coast, Oakland Harbor and Puget 
One yard, Hog Island, on the Delaware, is 

on the 
equipped to produce more tonnage annually than 
the output of all the shipyards of the United King- 
dom any pre-war year. 
There are now 203 shipyards in the United States. 
The list comprises 77 steel, 117 wood, 2 composite, 
and 7 concrete shipyards. Of these, 155 are com- 
35 more than half completed, and only 13 

in half completed. The great plant at Hog 

is 95 per cent completed 

It has 50 ways. 

built in one year. 
when the United States entered the war, 
was a swampy marsh. 

Every month of the past year has added to the 
of American shipways, until today the im- 
total is more than double the total 
of shipways in all the rest of the world. Of the 

press! e 1.020 
927 shipways that are for the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation of the Shipping Board, 810 are listed 

as completed, and only 117 

are to be added. 
here are 410 completed ways for the construction 
of ster | 

ships, 400 completed Ways for the construc- 
tion of wood, composite, and concrete ships. 

Zoning Laws Help Business Streets 

\s a concrete example of how the new zoning 
lations in New York help business thorough- 
there is to be seen Fifth Avenue, as decorated 

¢ the Liberty Loan drive. This dignified thor- 
hfare has only become so, and retained its pres- 
through the operation of the restrictions of the 
ning law. The menace of the sweat-shop has been 
well avoided, and this unusual shopping street has 
pt unspoiled. It is not that the 

ple of New York would patiently suffer any 
nge in these regulations after experiencing the 


thrill of local pride evoked by the recent gala aspect 
Fifth Avenue. Edward M. Bassett, counsel of the 

York Zoning Commission, in discussing the 
of zoning restrictions in cities has 
sometimes think that the new building 

zone law protects private homes and keeps garages 
in their proper places. They do not realize that the 
law is constantly and quietly helping business streets 
all over the city. Formerly there was a constant 
tendency to use a corner building in a thickly built- 
up residence locality for store purposes. Often a 
block-house owner decided that he could make his 
building earn more if he projected the first floor 
of his house out to the street line, put in some plate 
glass windows and rented it for business. In many 
cases this was done, although all of the neighbor- 
hood were block-houses standing back of the street 
Now instead of the sporadic store thrust 



among homes where it did not belong, these stores 
and the tenants who want to occupy them are com- 
pelled to go to the business streets. Sometimes new 
stores are built; more often a store on a business 
street which would otherwise be vacant, is occupied. 
Thus there is a constant tendency for business to 
stay in business streets where it belongs and this cen- 
tralization of makes it better for the 
business street and better for customers, because, as 


a rule, customers like to have their stores close to- 
gether in a nearby locality. 

Adequate Fuel Supply 

The whole question of fuel supply, states The 
American Contractor, has been brought home to in- 
dustry throughout the world by the demands of war. 
The weakness of the old system of unregulated con- 
trol of sources of power, whether in the coal fields 
or in water power sites, has been shown up, and the 
need for a consistent development according to a 
well defined program on the basis of a public utility 
has been demonstrated. The importance of such a 
step for the construction industry is evident. To 
relieve the transportation systems of the country 
of this enormous burden of fuel tonnage would at 
once make possible better facilities for the trans- 
portation of building material. Since building ma- 
terials comprise 25 per cent of the total tonnage 
normally moved by the railroads, the effect is even 
Again, the reduction in the cost of 
power, which such a program would insure will re- 
act strongly upon the cost of producing building ma- 
terials. A reduction in the cost of material will re- 
act in turn upon the demand for building. A better 
controlled fuel supply is certainly one of the ques- 
tions which must be considered by any commission 
or committee on reconstruction which the Govern- 
ment may create. 

more apparent. 

War and the Individual 

*\lore power to all of us,” 

says a writer in Ad- 
vertising and Selling. “One thing this war is doing 
for all of us, it is making us realize our own power. 

“It is making us willing to change, to grow. It is 
making us draw upon our reserves of power. It is 
making us break away from convention. It is mak- 
ing us adopt new standards. It is opening our minds 
to the fact that we can do pretty much what we find 
we have to do. 

“The war is sharpening our wits. It is making us 
come out of our shells. It is making us self-reli- 
ant. It is making us look to the future with resolu- 
tions to do something worth while. It is showing us 
how little our previous ideas are worth now. It is 

developing in us initiative. It is making us work as 
never before we have had to work. 

“The war is making us love our brother men, ex- 
cept the Germans. It is broadening our sympathies. 
It is making us aware of our neighbors. It is making 
us lend a hand. It is making us realize some of the 
bottom truths of religion, that have been formal 
words to us before. It is making us suffer, and re- 
alize the value to character of suffering. 

“In business, the war is making us broaden our 
views, open our eyes to the rest of the world, plan 
to be a world-merchant, manufacturer, professional 
person, salesman or advertiser. \We now see Eng- 
land, France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, Russia, and all 
the nations that have helped to bring the Germans 
to their knees. It is a great help to us that we at last 
know Germany for the business and industrial thief 
and pirate she is. It is useful to know all that the 
war is daily telling us for our future guidance. 

“It is our greatest task to realize what the war is 
doing for us, and profit to the full by it.” 

Revival of Candlesticks in France 
While the war has 
France, it has at the same time created new ones and 

wrecked some industries in 

revived older crafts. An excellent and interesting 
example of the latter is the art of candlestick mak- 
ing, which has, says The Scientific American, taken 
on a new lease of life. Even in some of the big 
towns there are houses which are not supplied with 
gas, where before the war petroleum or spirit was 
Now that the use of 
these is closely restricted, recourse has to be made 

to the old-fashioned candle. 

used for lighting purposes. 

This is true in the country especially, where can- 
dlesticks are in great demand, and everyone is buy- 
ing them according to his means or fancy. At first 
they were made of copper, but when that metal be- 
Some of the 
modern examples have several branches, and are 
A domestic art metal worker at Aix, 
who has specialized in this kind of work and has be- 
come quite a celebrity, has just constructed a series 
of tall iron candlesticks of very solid proportions 
which can hold several candles. 

came scarce, brass was employed. 

very artistic. 

They have been 
critically inspected by art metal critics and are 
claimed to be true works of art, and to appeal to all 
lovers of ironwork. 

The Over-Housed 
“Are we,” asks Carpenter and Builder of Lon- 
don, to have “the rationing of house room?” This 
query is prompted by the discussion of an article 
appearing in a London journal, directing attention 



to the fact that while there is a shortage of houses 
suitable for men of moderate sized families, there 
are a great many instances where childless couples 
are occupying large houses having up to eight 
bedrooms and three sitting rooms each. The article 
What is to be done about this? 


Engineers’ Society Favors Immediate 
Planning for Reconstruction 

The Engineers’ Society of St. Paul has placed 
itself on record as being in favor of immediate 
action by public officials and private interests look- 
ing toward completing during war time the prelimi- 
nary steps for construction work after the war, to 
the end that employment may be promptly fur- 
nished to a great number of returning soldiers and 
to men released from shipbuilding and war mu- 
nitions plants. There is no question but that such 
prompt action on the part of officials at this time 
will have beneficial results in producing a smooth 
transition from war conditions to peace conditions, 
\ great part of the 

engaged either directly or indirectly in war making. 

man-power of the nation is 
Unless there is work for these men after the war 
there will undoubtedly be discontent and a difficulty 
in adjusting the huge economic fabric of the na- 
tion to peace-time conditions.—/mprovement Bul- 

Professor Warren of Columbus Dies 

Charles Warren, of the School of Archi- 
tecture at Columbia University, died at his home in 
Woodcliff Lake, N. J., on October 16. 
Warren was born in I&69. 


He had been a member 
of the faculty of Columbia since 1909, serving as 
adjunct professor of architecture. 

Tacoma Society Elects Officers 
The Tacoma Society of Architects has elected 
the following officers for the ensuing year: 

FE. Borhek, president; Earl Dugan, vice-president; 
A. J. Russell, secretary and treasurer. 


Arthur Brown, Jr., of the firm of Bakewell & 
Brown, architect, who last year was of the faculty 
of Harvard University, has been appointed profes- 
sor of architectural design and theory of architec- 
ture by the Regents of the University of California, 


Department of Architectural 






gh we 4 


‘se wie Ber: 

eae MN) Meee 








Medal for Merit Awarded American Factory Building 

HII. importance of the building as it affects 

the community is appreciated by the Cleve- 
land Chamber of Commerce. Its activities along 
this line are conducted by the City Plan Committee 
and they have established the custom of awarding a 
medal for merit to the best designed factory, com- 
mercial building of three stories or less and apart- 
ment house, that The 
awards are made by three juries consisting of five 

is erected during the year. 
Each of the juries have two members 
appointed by the Cleveland Chapter, A. I. A., 
member appointed by the Engineering Society and 
one member appointed by the Builders’ Exchange. 
The fifth member of the factory jury is appointed 
by the Manufacturers Wholesale Merchants’ 
Board; of the commercial building jury by the Re- 
tail Merchants’ Board; of the apartment house jury 
by the Cleveland Federation of Women’s Clubs. 
The juries are asked to give particular attention 




to the following factors, the, percentages varying 
in each of the three classes of building: 
(a) Aesthetic Value: 
Artistic and practical use of inexpensive 
Adaptability of building to site and neigh- 

(b) Adaptation of space to use—plan. 

(c) Sanitation: 
Fire safety. 
Provision for thorough and economical 

The award for the best factory building erected 
in Cleveland in t917 was given to the Richman 







Brothers Company at 1600 East Fifty-fifth Street. 

The building was designed by the Christian, 

Schwarzenberg & Gaede Company, engineers, who 
architect, to de- 
velop the esthetic features of the The 

result of this happy combination of professional 

secured the services of Dana Clark, 

training is a prize-winning structure. 

The building faces the east, is four stories high 
and has a length of 321 ft. 10% in., 
depth of 195 ft. The plan is E shaped in form, the 
main stem being 65 x 321 ft., the end wings 64 ft. 
4'2 in. x 130 ft., with a central entrance and utility 
pavilion 46 ft. 6 in. x 64 ft. 4% in. The 
large court faces the street, which permits of a more 

and an overall 

in size. 









interesting elevation and landscape effects in the 

ivs of lawns and flower beds. This building takes 

osition splendidly in the locality in which it 

inds and the property upon which it is built is 

le to give it a proper setting. 

he building has a reinforced concrete 
me and flat-slab floors and roof. The 


on the three streets is faced with brick and stone 
The panels are 21 ft. 8 in. x 21 ft: 5% 
in., with drop panels and conical caps to the col- 

umns. The exterior columns are rectangular in 
section with bracket caps as shown in the interior 
view. The window heads are at the ceiling line and 
the daylight is well diffused over the floor. 


All of the horizontal utility pipes are bedded in 
the concrete floor slabs, and they consist of electric 
wire conduits for light and power wiring and gas 
piping. The central pavilion, all of the toilet rooms 
and the private offices are heated with steam by an 
overhead system. The water service is under the 
first floor, from which risers for the cold water and 
supply and return risers for the hot water service 
ascend and return as may be. The heating is ac- 
complished by a fan system. The main distribution 
is made in ducts under the first floor and from 
which vertical ducts, reducing at each floor, ascend. 
These ducts are shown in the interior view. A 
large vertical recirculating duct is placed in the 
northwestern corner of the building, through which 
the cooled air is taken to the fan to be reheated and 
distributed. This system permits of warming the 
buildings with the minimum expenditure of fuel and 
time. The apparatus is centrally located in the rear 
of the first floor, with fresh air inlets through the 
rear wall. The air is drawn through the heating 
coils by two fans, so regulated and dampered that 
the proper distribution is made as it may be re- 
quired by the exterior wind and temperature con- 

\djoining the blower apparatus is the boiler 
room which is about 4 ft. below the first floor level, 
28 x 56 ft. in size. This room contains the two 
72 x 20 R. T. boilers, hot water tanks, feed pumps 
and other equipment. 

The building is served with one elevator, which 
is within the central pavilion and used for freight 
purposes only. There are five fireproof stairways, 
enclosed in fireproof partitions with automatic fire 
doors. The stairway in the central pavilion is of 
the double type, making practically six stairways in 
all. No point on any floor is more than 9o ft. from 
a stairway and all spaces have access to one stair- 
way regardless of the location of a fire. The safe 
means of egress are especially well provided for in 
this building. 

As to the interior, the architectural treatment is 
restricted to the entrances and the private offices. 
In connection with the main lobby is an informa- 
tion and time-keeper’s department and a waiting 
space. Adjoining is a small first aid hospital and 
women's rest room. The floor is laid in quarry tile, 
the walls have a high dado of texture brick laid in 
pattern. The freize and ceiling are finished in rough 
floated plaster. The sprinkler pipes in this portion 
are concealed by a suspended ceiling. The entrance 
lobby in the south wing is not as large, but is treated 
in a similar manner. The stairway shown in this 
entrance leads to the offices on the second floor only, 
and the stairway to all floors is entered through the 



doors shown at the left. The entrance to the offices 
is closed by the collapsible gates at the intermedi- 
ate platform. The main entrance is treated in a 
simple yet dignified manner in harmony with the 
entire structure. 

The report of the sub-committee on medal 
awards incorporated the following suggestions for 
factory builders: 

After adaptation of the space to its proposed use, 
the next consideration in a factory should be safety 
from fire. The protection of human lives and the 

TT LLL Lite 
ee : F x. ™ = 
| aa ee ae 


conservation of the welfare of the business unite in 
a demand for fireproof construction reinforced by 
an adequate sprinkling system. 

Light and sanitation are requirements secondary 
in importance only to safety from fire. 

Both externally and internally a factory may be 
attractive with only small additional expenditure. 

Use inexpensive materials, but in an interesting 
way. A skilled designer will know how to do this 
and will do it more attractively and with less ex- 
pense than would one with limited or no artistic 

Utilize light wells and other unbuilt land in courts 
in front and behind the building and make them at- 

The disposition of the wall spaces and the win- 


dows is of the first and last importance in making 
the design good or bad. 

\\indow boxes with flowers and vines will prove 
welcome though inexpensive additions to factory 


cheapest way of getting a large architectural ef- 
fect in Cleveland factory design. 

The water tank is an opportunity. It is 

It may be both 
the feature of the individual factory and an arrest- 
ing point of interest in the sky line of the city. 


The jury on factory buildings conclude their re- 
port as follows: 

“The jury does not wish to bring its report to 
a conclusion without stating that there were a num- 
ber of other buildings among those visited which 
were highly commendatory from certain points of 
view, and we were much impressed by the outstand- 



ing but nevertheless interesting features in connec- 
tion with answers to the problems presented by the 
heavier type of factory. These great buildings, 
usually situated in congested manufacturing dis- 
tricts, present great possibilities of increased effec- 
At times 
they appear most interesting compositions of con- 

tiveness from an architectural viewpoint. 

crete, great glass surfaces and saw-tooth roofs in 
spite of the fact that no effort has been made for 
beauty, and it is principally because of their magni- 
tude that they appeal to us. Very often it is that 
these buildings would lend themselves to a great 
architectural achievement if put in the hands of a 
competent designer. This does not necessarily 
mean great increase in cost of construction nor in a 

reduction of the utilitarian value of the structure, 


but merely a readjustment of the proportions and a 
realignment of the general composition of the build- 
ing with possibly a little artistic touch of the mas- 
ter hand at the entrance or in the color of its paint- 
able portions. 

“The jury believes that all who build factories 

and love their city can do an inestimable service 
to their fellow citizens if they approach even this 
problem of the designing and construction of a 
factory building with some degree of respect tor 
beauty as well as utility and. financial gain, and it 
is worth while to make the effort to obtain a wholly 
satisfactory result whether the factory be small or 
great, for whatever purpose it is constructed, 
whether built of the cheapest materials obtainable 
and though situated in city districts quite void of 
any architectural interest. May we say that it is 
only a step toward the advancement of civilization 
in the moral effect it has upon our fellow men, who 
are as much affected by their sense of sight when 



going to and returning from their daily toil as they 
are affected by their sense of hearing and that of 
smell, and we note from time to time the efforts 
toward the elimination of and the 
abolition of horrible odors. 

useless noises 

In summing up this report this jury desires to 
state that it is its belief after carrying on this 
search for the best factory building of 1916, that it 
is quite impossible to judge these larger and heavier 
types of structures with those built for light manu- 
facturing, as there is little ground upon which to 
place them for c¢ ymparison. \We therefore respect- 
fully recommend that a division of the award be 
made in future years, one for the factories for light 
and the second 
tures built for heavy work.” 

manufacturing for those struc- 

[he activities of the City Plan Committee of the 
Cleveland Chamber of Commerce in regard to the 
merit of design is confined to the three classes of 
buildings noted because these kinds of buildings are 
usually less studied, from an architectural stand- 
point, than are other kinds of buildings. Generally 
speaking, large commercial structures, office build- 
ings, banks, churches and public buildings are de- 
signed with careful study. The amounts of money 
invested are such that the architect is carefully se- 
lected and he in turn has a proper realization of his 
responsibilities to his client, the adjoining property 
and the public. The thought and care which will 
be given to the design of these classes of buildings, 
for which awards of merit are given, will increase 
result of the this committee and 
Cleveland will reap the benefit in finding itself a 

as a action of 
more desirable place in which to live, in a more con- 
tented labor and better and more stable real estate 

Safe Construction of Scaffolds and 
Falsework, Mechanical 

F rates 

or a 



from preparing the 


plan and specification 
the architect has a supervision 
His primary duty to his client 
him a which represents a 
aith the monies invested. An- 
ther duty, not specified but nevertheless actual, is to 
nspect the working methods and equipment of the con- 
their the workers 
md the public. Also to the prevention of property 
destruction from fire or action of the elements must 
lirect his attention. 

its construction. 

is to deliver to structure 



tractor in relation to the safety of 

An ordinary sensing of human re- 
lations actuates the former and a realization of the re- 
sults of careless waste will induce the latter inspection. 



Among the many responsibilities of the architect, these 
are real and cannot be dismissed by the requiring or 
furnishing of a bond and liability insurance by the co: 
tractor. The following address delivered at the 
Seventh Annual Congress of the National Safety Coun- 
cil at St. Louis, September 16-20, 1918, is of especial 

Vr. Chairman and Members of the 

National Safety 
During the year 1917 the Pennsylvania De- 
partment of Labor and Industry received the following 
reports of accidents in connection with scaffolds in the 
manner indicated: 

Total Fatal 
I. Persons falling from structures dur- 

ing erection 

and staging 

Persons due 


Persons from scaffolds and 

material, falling 

Persons injured 

from scaffolds and buildings under 


3,0 yO 

of protection 

first absence 
record in the 
rhe information in the third group, by 
far the largest, tells us most vividly that we did not 
provide sufficient guards for the workmen on the scaf- 
folds. Inadequate protection for pedestrians and work- 
men against -objects falling from scaffolds and build- 
ings resulted in the accidents shown in the fourth 
group. The above records have been taken from the 
department files with considerable caution, such acci- 
dents which could not definitely be blamed on any of 
the above causes being rejected; the resulting figures, 
therefore, are most conservative and do not begin to 

group of accidents indicates an 
where such should have been 
Poor construction 

ond group. 

is shown by the sec- 

cover all accidents in connection with building construc- 


rhe scaffold problem of the builder, then resolves it- 
self into four items. namely: 

1. Determine the necessity for a scaffold. 

2. Construct sufficiently strong to prevent a collapse 
of the scaffold. 

3. Provide adequate guards to prevent falls of the 

4. Install protection to prevent injury from mate- 
rial or tools falling on persons. 

Poor and inadequate scaffold construction may be 
traced largely to the desire on the part of builders to 
use old and poor lumber. Subcontractors generally 
fail to include sufficient money in their bid to cover 
this contingency, depending on using scaffolds erected 
by the general contractor. These scaffolds may have 
for their original purpose, but in 
some cases may not be adequate for the use of the 

been satisfactory 

Even though sufficient money has been 
included in the bid for the erection of proper scaffolds, 
there is a great incentive to skimp this portion of the 


work in order to increase the amount of “velvet.” Too 
much dependence is usually placed on picking up suffi- 
cient lumber about the job to construct scaffolds. In 

this way not only will improper sizes be used but the 

material may also be mostly inferior and defective. 
lhe work of building the scaffold is too often dele- 
to unskilled persons, because it is not a perma- 
nent structure and appearance is no object. Many ac- 
cidents can be traced to this cause and it is surprising 
that we do not have more of them. The contractor 
should delegate a thoroughly experienced man to be 
responsible for this work, and all building, changing, 
and removal of scaffolds should be done under his 

attempt will be made in this paper to describe 
different kinds of scaffolds used abroad, there be- 
nly sufficient time to discuss briefly the various 
es used in this country. 
construction and 
wing general types: 

Scaffolds, according to 
use, may be divided into the 
Pole scaffolds, 

Independent pole scaffolds, 

Suspended scattolds, 

Outrigger scaffolds, 

Carpenters’ bracket scaffolds, 

Painters’ scaffolds, 

Needle-beam scaffolds, 
Plasterersanddecorators inside scaffolds, 
Horse scaffolds. 


lhe general construction of the pole scaffold, used 
stly by bricklayers, is as follows: 

* about 4 
erected about 7 feet 6 inches apart on a line approxi- 
mately 4 feet 6 inches from the wall. Stringers, 
“ledgers,” 114 thick and from 8 to 12 
inches wide—depending on the load they are to carry 
—are nailed on the poles in a position parallel to the 


“Poles” or “up- 

inches square in cross section, are 

called inches 

These are spaced vertically about 5 feet apart 
and serve 

as the outer bearings for the “putlogs.” 
he inner ends of the latter (often called “putlocks’” ), 
laving a cross section of about 3 by 4 inches and a 
length of about 6 feet, rest in holes left in the brick 


lhe putlogs support the platform planks, and there 

be a them so that there 
under plank. With 16- 
2 inches thick and Io inches wide, 
the putlogs may be spaced the same as the uprights— 
namely, 7 feet 6 inches apart. If thinner planks are 
used the putlogs should be placed closer together. The 
planks, with the above dimensions, will lay five wide 

space between the building and the uprights. 
Their ends will overlap each other 1 foot, and there 
should be a putlog under this point of overlapping to 
avoid the formation of a “blind trap.” 

sufficient number of 
least three 

planks, about 

be at every 

In the 

It will not be necessary to nail the putlogs or planks 
in position unless local conditions require that they 
be erected on an incline, or heavy vibration or other 
considerations should necessitate such a_ precaution. 



There should be a guard rail, at least 3 inches by 1% 
inches in cross section, erected along the uprights, 
parallel with the platform, and about 34 inches high. 
A similar guard rail should also extend across any 
window openings on the building side of the plat- 
form where these openings extend to more than 34 
inches above'the platform. Below this rail, along the 
outer edge of the platform, a toeboard about 6 inches 
deep should be provided to prevent material from fall- 
ing from the scaffold. If material, such as bricks, are 
to be placed on the platform in piles higher than the 
toeboard, then the latter should be higher accordingly, 
or the space between the toeboard and the guard rail 
should be filled in with 

boards or substantial wire 

In order to eliminate the possiblity of the pole scaf- 
fold collapsing in a direction parallel with the walls, 
there should be substantial diagonal braces nailed across 
the uprights. There should also be braces nailed to 
the building at various points, such as window frames 
and other points of attachment, in order to prevent 
the scaffold from from the building. 
On blind walls, where there are no points available 
for nailing braces of this kind, “spring stays” may be 

falling away 

To make a spring stay, two boards are inserted 
in the hole in the wall left by the removal of a putlog 
in raising the platform to a higher level and a brick 
is then placed between the two boards and pushed to 
within a few inches of the wall. The outer ends of 
the boards are then sprung together and nailed fast 
to the scaffold. The result is that both boards at their 
inner ends are pressing against the top and bottom 
of the hole with such force that there is sufficient 
holding power to prevent the scaffold from falling 
away from the building. 

The design of the independent pole scaffold de- 
parts from that of the pole scaffold. In- 
stead of using the building as the inner support for the 
platforms, an additional set of uprights is erected close 
to the building. This kind of scaffold is often used 
by stone masons, as it is usually undesirable to leave 
openings in stone walls for the reception of putlogs. 


These scaffolds are usually made in larger dimensions 
than the pole scaffolds, and a greater*amount of bracing 
is necessary on account of their being independent of 
the building for support. Instead of the usual putlogs 
resting upon the ledgers, as in the pole scaffolds, boards 
about 114 inches thick and about 9 inches wide are 
nailed on the sides of the uprights just above the 
ledgers and perpendicular to them and the building. 
These bearers, which correspond to the putlogs, add 
considerable bracing to the structure on account of 
being nailed fast. 

This scaffold is usually made twice as wide as the 
pole scaffold, and larger members are used through- 
out on account of the greater strain upon the various 
parts. The method of laying flooring is substantially 
the same as that for the pole scaffold and the same 
consideration should be given with reference to the 
guard rails and toeboards. 
on these 

Better footing is required 

scaffolds on account of a greater weight 


resting upon each upright. Where there is any ques- 
tion as to the ability of the soil to hold the pole, 
there should be a substantial block of wood, about 2 
inches thick and 1 foot square, nailed to the bottom 
of the upright in such a manner that a larger bearing 
area will be secured. Stones or bricks should never be 
used under uprights on any kind of a scaffold, as they 
are very easily knocked from position by trucks or 
material bumping against the uprights. 


Pole and independent pole scaffolds are generally 
used for buildings up to about six stories in height. 
Above this height the construction of these scaffolds 
becomes a large item of expense, and there is also a 
greatly increased element of danger connected with 
high scaffolds, due to the great weight coming upon the 
bottom uprights. On high buildings it is now custom- 
ary to use suspended scaffolds, which usually consist 
of substantial platform planks resting upon putlogs, 
each end of which is suspended by means of a cable 
hung from an overhead beam projecting from the 
building. These scaffolds are usually equipped with 
means for raising and lowering the platforms, which 
consists of a machine for each cable with a drum and 
means of winding up the cable. 

There are two principal types of these scaffold hoist- 
ing machines. On one the winding drums are located 
on the platform and on the other these drums are lo- 
cated on the overhead. Advantages are 
claimed for both systems and no attempt will be made 
here to justify the use of one over the other. The first 
type is worked, usually by a lever and ratchet operated 
directly on the cable drum on the platform; the other 
is operated by means of worm and a sheave 
wheel driven by a tiller rope which extends within 
reach of the men on the platform, These scaffolds are 
usually provided with cables approximately 100 feet 
long; where it is necessary to work beyond this range 
the scaffold is relocated to a new position above after 
the cable is wound up. 

Suspended scaffolds should never be used without 
guard rails and toe boards, on account of the great 
height at which they are operated. It is also advisable 
to fill in the space between the guard rail and toe- 
board with substantial netting having openings no 
greater than 1% inch. 




At certain places, such as under big and 
for other special construction, platforms often 
placed upon beams thrust out from the building. These 
beams should be of substantial dimensions and excel- 
lent quality, and they should be rigidly fastened on 
the inner ends to floor beams or substantially braced 
against overhead No dependence should be 
placed upon these cantilever beams being simply fast- 
ened into the wall; they should project inside of the 
building to some considerable distance and there se- 
curely fastened. Guard rails and toeboards should al- 
ways be used with this type of scaffold and the 
planks should be provided with the same consideration 
as used for laying the planks in pole scaffolds. These 




scaffolds are not recommended where it is possible to 
use one of the other types. 

With the carpenters’ bracket scaffold, platform 
planks are placed upon brackets, which consist of hori- 
zontal and vertical members, usually about 4 feet long, 
and a diagonal member to provide the necessary brac- 
ing. These members are bolted together in a substan- 
tial manner, and the bracket is placed on the building 
with its horizontal member perpendicular to the wall, 
It is held in that position by a bolt anchored at the 
inner end of the horizontal member, extending through 
the wall, and bolted on the inside. This bolt, usually 
about °g-inch in diameter, should not be simply bolted 
through the sheathing, but should project through a 
substantial block that extends across the inside of the 

There should be sufficient brackets in order that 
there may be three under each plank. Thus, with 16- 
foot planks, the brackets should be no farther apart 
than 7 feet 6 inches, in order that the planks may over- 
lap each other about one foot over every alternate 
bracket. This type of scaffold does not adapt itself 
very readily to the installation of guard rails and toe- 
boards. These rails and toeboards may, however, be 
installed without much trouble, and where the scaffold 
is used more than Io feet above the ground, they should 
certainly be erected. It is a very common practice to 
lay the platform planks upon these brackets in such 
manner that the points of overlapping do not always 
come upon a bracket. This forms a blind trap and 
under certain conditions result in a man being 
precipitated to the ground below, should he place his 


entire weight upon the unsupported point of overlap- 

To be continued) 

War Changes Engineering 

“Unusual and radical changes are taking 
daily, as a result of war demands.’ Thus 
ments A. H. Krom, Director of Engineering, 
is registering technical men for governmental needs. 



“Up to the present engineers, as a class, have been 
governed largely by tradition. Once a mechanical 
draftsman always a mechanical draftsman. A 
change to a new line of work was rarely heard of. 
Technical men are 
changing from one line of work to another; going 

This is no longer the case. 

to school, studying related branches of their profes- 
sion and striving to establish new standards. 

“Oddly enough they are changing their attitude 
toward technical women. We have daily calls for 
women to do drafting in new lines of work. The 
entire engineering profession is undergoing an im- 
portant change which will result in great gains for 
the nation. The Division of Engineering, 29 South 
La Salle Street, registering these 

changes and indicates they are far-reaching.” 

Chicago, is 

Industrial Information 

In this Department there is published cach week information as to the development of materials and 
methods, derived from reliable sources. 

‘First Aid’’ An Industrial Asset 

Man not attained to a mental attitude 
which will cause him to put forth his best efforts at 
all times. There are always circumstances and con- 
ditions which will give the most faithful of us an 
added impulse toward that goal. 

has yet 

Even when actual 
indifference is not resented, there is the feeling deep 
within us that kindliness is to be reciprocated, and 
in one form or another, we rise before it, and excel 
our past standards. 

The Bernstein Manufacturing Co., Third Street 
and Allegheny Avenue, Philadelphia, has been in- 
stalling first aid rooms to accomplish just that 
Their equipment includes bed, bedside 
table. chair, medicine and supply cabinets, sterilizing 


outfit, stretcher, and the usual linens, instruments, 
and appurtenances. The describe it as 
simple, strong and inexpensive; it is finished in 
white enamel, thoroughly baked on and easily kept 
clean, and guaranteed to fulfill all the requirements 
ofa hospital room. 


lhe morale which results from a “first aid” in- 
stallation in factories and any large organizations 
where dangers can befall, is hardly to be overesti- 
mated. Benefits result all along the line. First, there 
may be complete physical examination of employees 
upon engagement, eliminating those entirely unfit 
or having diseases dangerous to other workmen, 
thus raising the standard of the accepted workers 
from the very start. Second, immediate relief and 
continued treatment may be given to those incapaci- 
tated by injury, thus reducing danger from infec- 

tion in these times of epidemic, hastening recovery, 

and encouraging care of minor wounds which if 
neglected often become serious. Third, those hav- 
ing partial defects may be regularly examined and 
made more efficient by treatment, change of work, 
etc. Besides all this, there is the sense of safety 
and well being which induces a grateful loyalty on 
the part of the employee and which is inevitably 
converted into larger output, better service, and 
higher efficiency in general. These results are so 
easily obtainable that it will pay architects to in- 
vestigate and install first aid equipment as widely 
ads possible. 

forwarded by the 
Bernstein Co., on request, giving reasons for the 
use of their equipment and 


Its value. 

Further information will be 

additional details as to 

Industrial Organizations Fighting 


The place where men assemble for their day's 
work, where they spend most of their time, is the 
place which should care most particularly for their 
health and comfort. Managers of large organiza- 
tions are every day growing more and more aware 
of the value, both egotistic and altruistic, of whole- 
some surroundings, and many are engaged in 
actively “safeguarding the health of the men and 
women in their employ. 

As an instance of a progressiveness which may 
well be emulated, the S. F. Bowser & Co. Oil Tank 
and Pump Works, Wayne, Ind., may be 
specially cited. To halt the spread of the epidemic 
of influenza, this company has organized a sanitary 
campaign for the benefit of all employees and in- 
directly for the benefit of the city of Fort Wayne 
itself. Stations, accessible to all, have been installed 
about the plant buildings, and all employees are 
requested and expected to have their noses and 
throats sprayed at least twice daily. Attendants, 
especially instructed for this purpose, are at hand at 
all times. 


The service is entirely free, the company 
paying all the expenses. Special bulletins have also 
been posted bearing instructions in the special 
hygiene required by the conditions. As a further 
precaution, employees have been sworn in as deputy 
health commissioners with full power to enforce all 
rules and laws of the health department. It is their 
duty to work toward the prevention of the spread 
of disease through spitting, coughing or sneezing, 
and to report all cases, however slight, to certain 
otficers of the organizations. Any employee show- 
ing the slightest symptoms of influenza is im- 
mediately quarantined. Cuspidors, as one of the 
chief carriers of the influenza germ, have all been 
removed. The employees, it is stated, are respond- 
ing to the regulations prescribed, realizing that 
everything is being done to insure their health. 

There is no doubt that this sense of security will 
largely increase the efficiency of the working force, 
as it always does. 

The Bowser scheme of precaution is but a fore- 
runner of similar efforts in other large industrial 
plants, which are inaugurating campaigns along the 
same general lines, for the purpose of promoting 
the well-being of their employees and the com- 
munity at large. 


Steel Ceilings and Walls 

Through the medium of a 10 x 12 inch catalogue 
of nearly 200 pages and completely illustrated, the 
Friedley-Voshardt Co., 733 South Halsted Street, 
Chicago, call attention to the wide variety of de- 
signs for art metal ceilings and side walls which 
they are prepared to furnish. This firm states that 
it employs its own modelers, and is therefore en- 
abled to make special from architects’ 


Steel ceilings and walls have a wide range of 
usefulness, and their advantages are obvious and 
numerous. They are durable and sanitary ; they can 
be made highly decorative and ornamental; they 
are simple and economical to install. 

The continuous and panel ceilings and side wall 
patterns shown in this catalogue are claimed by 
their makers to combine essentials in the 
manufacture of a product which is said to be created 
from the best available material and workmanship. 

Working plans are furnished by these people in 
all cases where a diagram of the room is provided, 
as well as detailed plans 
applying the material. 

This catalogue, No. 33, 


to show the method of 

gives full particulars as 
to directions for installing these walls and ceilings, 
and that the Friedley-Voshardt Co. also 
manufactures zinc, and bronze statuary, 
architectural sheet metal ornaments, and sheet metal 



for the usual interior and exterior purposes. 


The Travelers’ Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn., 
has issued a very valuable booklet describing the 
salient points of the subject of elevators and show- 
ing how broad, varied and important elevator en- 
gineering becomes when it is rightly pursued. It is 
well known that the Travelers’ Insurance Co., main- 
tains an engineering and inspection department, and 
in thus following the developments of vertical 
transportation for many years, it has become an 
active f the progress 

factor in and 
safer appliances for elevators. 

toward better 

This pamphlet outlines the principal requirements 
which make for safety in the constant use of the 
elevator, and points out certain features which are 
recognized as usual sources of trouble, for the pur- 
pose of making architects familiar with what can 
be done to insure safety by the introduction of such 
improved methods and devices. 

Thousands of people depend on elevators daily, 



and it is the practicability of the elevator which has 
made the construction of high buildings feasible, 
A tall building would be almost useless were it not 
for the ever-ready elevator. But, if adequate pro- 
tection is withheld, and the price of an additional 
little piece of hardware is permitted to come be- 
tween a man and his life, the constant anxiety at 
the possibility of danger so easily avoided, should 
be enough to awaken all architects to the impor- 
tance of the safety devices available, and if need be, 
cause him to choose to eliminate some more attrac- 
tive but less vital accessory from his building. 


The Screw Machine Products Corp., 1012 Eddy 
Street, Providence, R. I, has issued a series of 
booklets and folders graphically analyzing the dis- 
tinction between and business, and 
showing how much of the inconvenience to which 
the average business man is subjected may be ban- 
ished by the use of a Select-O-Phone. This is an 
inter-communicating telephone system by which 
the user connects directly with his desired party 
without the intercession of an operator. 
may talk without fear of 


Thus he 
“eavesdroppers” and at 
any time of the day or night, unrestricted by the 
absence of the operator, all through the use of an 
automatic switchboard. The installation is said to 
be so made as simultaneously to permit of unin- 
terrupted conference between two or more in- 
dividuals at different parts of the building. 

This system, being separate and distinct from the 
outside phone, does away with the congestion by 
inter-office calls of outside wires bearing legitimate 
incoming messages. 

The operation of the instrument as described 
assures simplicity and economy. The automatic 
switchboard, the heart of the system, is a neat, com- 
pact, glass-faced case holding the selectors. It is 
this switchboard which is said to take the place and 
do the work of a human operator. Neither bulky 
nor obtrusive, it will harmonize with the usual office 
furnishings. The Selector operates automatically 
with a dial on the Select-O-Phone base attached to 
the regular telephone, connecting your line with the 
station called. To operate the Select-O-Phone, only 
one motion is necessary—that of moving the dial to 
the number desired. The ring and connection are 
automatic when you lift the receiver. 

Architects can obtain much interesting informa- 

about this interior service the 



trom manu-