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| SEPTEMBER 1935 + MODERNIZED BUILDINGS * ARCHITECTURAL TEXTILES © TIME-SAVER STANDARDS 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


















HIGHLIGHTS OF THE EDITORIAL MONTH 


The once lowly alteration job has lately become a Great Event 
so far as the building industry is concerned. Architects have 
converted modernization work into a kind of art; and in this issue 
the PLATE SECTION presents some noteworthy examples, vary- 
ing widely as to type and locality. .. . To Arthur C. Holden 
modernization is also a science—social and economic as well as 
structural—and in STABILIZED MODERNIZATION he expresses 
his conviction that group activity as opposed to individual effort 
is the only scientific solution to the manifold problems of re- 
habilitating urban properties. . . . TIME-SAVER STANDARDS, 
hailed in many quarters as the most useful and valuable of pub- 
lishing innovations, were announced last month as a regular fea- 
ture of American Architect. In this issue they include concise, 
clear data on kitchens and bathrooms, two spaces where modern- 
ization is usually most necessary. . . . Additional plates con- 
tain four unusual KITCHENS with plans and details. . . . TEX- 
TILES as a class of architectural materials have received less edi- 
torial attention, perhaps, than is merited by their importance in 
interior design. Thus, to most architects, the article on CARPETS, 
fourth of the Materials in Design series, will prove interesting and, 
we hope, thoroughly useful. 





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ROTECT your clients against the 

expense and nuisance of damage 

claims for falls. A dependably 
non-slip vestibule that prevents slip- 
ping accidents is the surest way to 
avoid unjustified and unreasonable 
claims. When tile is the preferred 
material specify Alundum Ceramic 
Mosaics or Alundum Floor Tile. If 
you favor terrazzo use Alundum Ag- 
gregate in the surface in the proper 
proportion. Both Norton Floors prod- 
ucts provide dependable, permanent 
walking safety—in wet weather or dry. 








NORTON COMPANY, WORCESTER, MASS. 


FIFTIETH % Var a. we ayn a7 
NORTON 4 7 TOR al a _ gomateaghS rs 


= \%4, ABRASIVES 8 
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1885-1935 ALUNDUM TILES —TREADS —ACCRECATES a 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 








—— 








Built-in conduit and eight outlets provide for telephone convenience in the residence of Mrs. C. M. Kitselman, 2400 West Jackson 
Street. Muncie, Indiana. Fredrick Wallick, Architect, Indianapolis, Indiana. 


TLL 


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TELEPHONE FACILITIES 
COST LEAST, GIVE MOST 


when they begin on your drawing board 











THE most efficient, economical telephone 
arrangements for modern residences are born 
on the drawing table and grow up with the 
blue-prints. On paper, conduit can be easily 
run in walls and floors to prevent exposed 
wiring and protect against certain service in- 
terruptions. On paper, outlets can be located 
at strategic points upstairs and down to make 
possible a full, flexible telephone convenience. 

Pre-planned telephone facilities add little 
to construction costs. But your client can 
have as few or as many telephones as he 
wants, when and where he wants them. He 
can move them as needs change with the years. 


published monthly by 
ean, $5.00. Entered 


American Architect, 
Canada, $4.( 


4 


as second class matter April 
act of March 3rd, 1879. Issue 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 


International Publications, 


He and all his household will save steps, stairs 
and minutes... have more privacy for personal 
conversations .. . and be grateful to you for 
the lasting livability you've provided. 

Incidentally, your local telephone company 
keeps trained telephone engineers always 
ready to work with you... on remodeling jobs 
or new construction . .. whether you're locat- 
ing a second-floor outlet in a small house or 
planning an elaborate intercommunication 
system for a large estate. There is 
no charge, of course. Just call the 
Business Office and ask for “Archi- 
tects’ and Builders’ Service.” 


(a) 


NG 
<iareD C & 


Pe 
SON 


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Bs 


For further information on Bell System telephone services and equipment, see Sweet’s Catalogue 


Avenue, New York, N. Y $3.00 per year. 
Post Office, at New York, N. Y., under the 


Inc., 572 Madison 
Sth 1926, at the 


2637, dated September, 1935. 








ARCHITECTURE 
ALLIED ARTS 


WIENER MOBEL 
By Erich Boltenstern. Published by Julius 


Hoffmann, Stuttgart, Germany. Illustrated; 
page cover; 96 pages; size 9 x II'/; 
price RM 10.50. 


Y treating in a comprehensive and 

effective manner, through the use 
of photographic illustrations, meas- 
ured drawings and explanatory text; 
the author of this book has made a 
distinct contribution to the subject of 
furniture design with wood as _ the 
basic material. 

While the great majority of the 
designs show the influence of tradi- 
tion, there is a refreshing note of 
simplicity—a_ straight-forwardness of 
design which enhances their value for 
use in the modern house. 

The photographic illustrations and 
measured drawings are so complete 
that any first class cabinet shop could 
easily reproduce any one of the pieces 
shown. Beside furniture details there 
are many interiors which should prove 
of interest to architects, decorators and 
the home owner. 





BAUEN IN HOLZ 


By Hans Stolper. 


mann, Stuttgart, Germany. 


HILE much has been written on 

the subject of wood utilization 
as a construction material, it still re- 
mains a fertile field for exploitation. 
To those who read German, this work 
is a clear-cut exposition of the rami- 
fied uses of this ancient material, with 


Published by Julius Hoff- 
Illustrated; 
148 pages; size 9x II'/; price RM 13.50. 






Above, left: interior shown in ‘Wiener 
Mobel". Right: detail from ‘Bauen In 
Holz". Below: from "Symbols for Designers 


special reference to the engineering 
features commensurate with sound 
construction. 

The value of the book is enhanced 
by the large number of photographic 
illustrations and measured details of 
construction. Subject matter is more 
or less limited to smaller structures, 
such as houses, recreational buildings, 
rural schools and churches; barns and 
bridges. 


SYMBOLS FOR DESIGNERS 


By Arnold Whittick. Published by Crosby 
Lockwood & Son, Ltd., Stationers’ Hall 
Court, London, E.C.4. Illustrated; indexed; 
168 pages; size 6!/44x10; price 12/6d. 


N alphabetical order, this book de- 

scribes various symbols with their 
practical application to modern work, 
giving to each its significance and 
history. The introductory chapter 
vividly portrays the meaning of sym- 
bolism; the type of symbols used in 
pictorial architectural sym- 
bolism; and symbols for the modern 
designer working in stone, marble, 
granite, metal and wood. While the 
text throughout deals comprehensively 
both with the origin and meaning of 
symbols and their practical applica- 
tion; the lasting value of this work to 
architects is found in the many care- 
fully drawn and well selected illustra- 
tions. As a reference book it should 


design ; 





ENGINEERING 
BUSINESS 





appeal to architects, sculptors, eccle- 
siastical designers and 
symbolism. 


students — of 


LUMBER GRADE - USE GUIDE 


Published by National Lumber Manufac- 
turers Association Washington D. &. 
Cover, loose leaf binder; 218 pages: 
9/y x II"/o: price $1.50. 

RINTED in loose-leaf 

form, this manual is a compilation 
of technical data, arranged in sep- 
arate pamphlets, each dealing exclu- 
sively with the species of woods from 
a particular region, and presented in 
a standardized order throughout. A 
description of the 


convenient 


characteristics of 
the species included in each group is 
followed by recommenda- 


a table of sizes and a brief de- 


grade-use 
tions ; 
scription of the grades, which, in many 
(Continued on page 113) 


cases, is 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 























WHY ANOTHER 
FAMOUS RESTAURANT USES 


a 
4 Armstrong’s Linoleum 


FOR ITS DANCE FLOORS 


This smart dance floor of Armstrong’s Linoleum in cadet blue with orange stripes gives Child’s Restaurant at 1501 Broadway, New York, 


an air of warmth and spaciousness. 


N this Child’s Restaurant, the 

dance floor is Armstrong's Lino- 
leum—a daring modern design in 
blue and orange. And here’s why 
Child’s installed it: 

First of all, Armstrong’s Lino- 
leum makes a good floor for danc- 
ing. It’s smooth. It’s resilient. It’s 
comfortable underfoot. And_ be- 
cause it can be laid in distinctive, 
made-to-order designs like this 
one, it “trade-marks” a restaurant 

.. makes patrons remember it and 
come back. 

Furthermore, an Armstrong’s 
Linoleum Floor is easy and inex- 
pensive to maintain. It never needs 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 


sanding or refinishing. It doesn’t 
buckle or warp. And an occasional 
washing with Armstrong’s Floor 
Cleaner, and periodic use of Lino- 
gloss Wax, keep it smooth and 
beautiful for years. That’s because 
the colors run clear through to the 
back, so that scuffing feet and scrap- 
ing furniture cannot wear them off. 

During rush hours, tables can 
be placed on an Armstrong’s Lino- 
leum dance floor without fear of 


Armstrong’s Architects’ Service Bureau offers complete technical assistance in designing floors like this. 


denting it or ruining its dancing 
surface. Spilled things wipe right 
up without leaving a stain or spot. 
Point by point, Armstrong’s 
Linoleum offers economies and 
advantages you cannot find in 
ordinary floors. For complete infor- 
mation, write now for your copy of 
“Public Floorsof Enduring Beauty.” a 
Armstrong Cork Products 
Co., Floor Division, 1201 
State Street, Lancaster, Pa. 


Armstrong’s LINOLEUM FLOORS 











The Readers 


Have a Word to Say 


® BUSINESS DOUBLED 
Editor, AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 
ELATIVE to architectural design as 
advertising medium and its competi- 
tion with bill board and other forms 
of advertising, | believe the profession 
is missing one of its greatest opportuni- 
ties. Recently we had an opportunity to 
display, against the opposition of the 
owners and everyone else, an idea that 
has since proved very  successful.— 
Pierre & Wright, Architects, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

The following letter addressed to the 
architects is self explanatory. (Editor). 
Pierre and Wright: 

I fully agree with your ideas, often 
expressed in our many conferences, 
that proper architectural treatment is 
a principal factor in the development 
and success of the restaurant business. 

We operated the Indianapolis Union 
Station Railway Restaurant for a num- 
ber of years prior to 1932. In 1929, the 
business of feeding the traveling public 
was declining to a marked degree. Also 
the city business we had enjoyed seemed 
to be getting away, as the city devel- 
oped to the north. Frankly, we needed 
an uptown location, so when the Build- 
ing Managers, offered us the opportu- 
nity to take over the Traction Terminal 
Restaurant located in a building at one 
of Indianapolis’ principal 
corners, we gladly agreed. 

The restaurant at that time had a 
total seating capacity of 80, was a 
typical lunchroom catering principally 
to traction and bus line patronage. We 
changed the style of the menu and the 
business gradually increased. However, 
labor and were mounting 
and in the summer of 1934, we decided 
to change the entire aspect of our busi- 
ness. A careful analysis of existing 
conditions brought out the following 
detrimental facts: 

1. The class of people passing our 
door was not generally the class of 
patronage we desired. 

2. While we thought that food and 
service were the best in the city, few 
people knew of our uptown location or 
associated it with our established busi- 
ness at the Union Station. 

3. The appearance of our restaurant 
did not appeal to the discriminating 
public. 


downtown 


food costs 


6 


Feeling that you as architects could 
most easily solve our problem, we pre- 
sented it to you. I recall vividly your 
first impressions and preliminary sug- 
gestions. Frankly, | thought them too 
elaborate, in fact, everyone except your- 
selves, the architects, was skeptical ot 
the proposed front. When you explained 
that to draw patronage not only from 
Indianapolis, but from the whole state of 
Indiana, an outstanding facade with 
character was necessary, | soon con- 
curred with your ideas. 

In October, 1934, we opened the 
Peasant Room, adjacent and connected 
with our older room. How successful 
this was, you well know. Overnight 
cur volume was doubled. The very at- 
tractive front, depicting two peasants, 
drinking each other’s health over a 
table, became the talk of Indiana. Our 
most recent addition of one hundred and 
twenty-five seats, together with complete 
transformation of the old restaurant, by 
you, has been most gratifying. We are 
now enjoying the largest volume of 
business in many years in mid-summer, 
a most unusual condition in the food 
business. 

Suffice it to say, we now consider the 
Peasant Room front, as well as the 
two new fronts just completed, one of 
the principal advertisements we have. 
The value of good architecture as an ad- 
vertising medium has no peer and this 
has certainly been demonstrated in this 
instance.—/. W. Fendrick, Indianapolis. 


® ARCHITECTS' MARKET 
Editor, AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 


E feel that the impetus given 
W modernization as a result of the 
FHA program is certain to carry on 
long after the expiration of the Act. 
FHA show that 
modernizing work being done with funds 
from sources other than modernization 
credit loans insured by Federal Hous- 
ing Administration, is in the ratio of 
about six to one—tangible evidence that 
the plan is pointing the way—with a 
great volume of normal business stimu- 
lated as a result. 


Figures released by 


The dramatic success of home mod- 
ernizing is evidence that industrial mod- 
ernizing, under the new $50,000  in- 
sured-loan limit, will be likewise great- 
ly stimulated. The statement made by 


B. J. Flynn, Director, FHA Indus- 
tries Division, that “at least 400,000 
retail establishments need modernization 
applied to exterior and interior” ... ap- 
pears to be a reasonable estimate. Our 
own experience, based on reports of 
our field men, shows a real pick-up and 
growing interest in 
all sections. 

Here indeed is a field for the archi- 
tect—a market that offers most unusual 
opportunities for homes 
and business properties; for planning 


modernization in 





re-designing 


new interior and exterior arrangements, 
for stores, apartment houses, offices and 
industrial plants. Furthermore, the 
growing appreciation that it is just as 
important to consult an architect when 
planning remodelling work as it is for 
new construction, brings the architect 
very much to the front in the entire 
FHA program.—lV. G. Kaiser, Port- 
land Cement Association, Chicago. 


® ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY 
Editor, AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

BELIEVE generally that we, as ar- 

chitects, are depending too much upon 
making a favorable impression upon the 
public as an inducement for employ- 
ment. But just such a thing is absolutely 
necessary and I think that we have all 
remained in the background too much 
for our own good. What we need may 
not be advertising as it is usually under- 
stood, but public education along ethical 
lines. 

What I think we have missed is the 
thought that there can be no employ- 
ment for architects except in a few 
spots if everything surrounding what 
we produce is, and has been, beset by 
conditions and laws and customs which 
render our re-employment improbable, 
if not impossible. We have been in the 
habit of leaving these things to others. 
If properly organized groups of archi- 
tects, not really acting as representa- 
tives of the profession, but as individ- 
ual citizens, would interest themselves 
in these problems, we would then have 
a businesslike plan. 

I am afraid that any movement that 
would have to have the endorsement of 
every architect in the country will fail 
to clarify itself somewhere along the 
line—D. A. Crone, Architect, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 





co peer 


EE 


— 

















ro 


— oxwelded coils of panel heating pipe will set 
directly in the plaster. Complete freedom from the 
slightest leak which might mar a beautiful room and from 
future maintenance of any sort have been assured by making 
the whole system jointless. By oxwelding, the lengths of pipe, 
as brought from the mill, have been put together in one 
continuous piece. Each weld is as strong or stronger than the 
pipe itself and as corrosion-resistant. 

Leakproof piping systems for all services can be assembled 
rapidly from pipe of any size, any commercial metal, by 
oxwelding. Permanence is so positive that oxwelded piping 
has been installed in masonry walls fourteen feet thick. 
Modern skyscrapers, hospitals, and public and private build- 


ings enclose mile upon mile of oxwelded piping. 


Ceetything foc Oy Mectylone Woldsug and Calting 


-OXWELDED PIPING - 


‘ 











pecfeeations fi Udlded : ping 


Linde engineers have prepared clear and con- 
cise technical data especially for the architect 
interested in designing and specifying jointless 
piping systems that will remain leakproof 
forever. Ask the Linde Office in your city for 
complete details or write to Department 
TPD, 30 East 42nd Street, New York, N. Y. 
The Linde Air Products Company, Unit of 


Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation. 




















LINDE OXYGEN © PREST-O-LITE ACETYLENE @© OXWELD APPARATUS AND SUPPLIES FR 0) at 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 


PRODUCTS OF UNITS OF 


UNION CARBIDE AND 
CARBON CORPORATION 





UCC 














Elevator cars, car doors, door hangers 
and door-operating devices by Otis 





Wi. you buy an Otis Elevator, you buy one of 
the finest pieces of machinery that money can 
buy. Its quality is recognized everywhere. 


In order to make sure that not only the elevator 
machinery but a complete elevator installation of 
Otis quality is available, Otis has manufactured cars, 
ear doors, door hangers, and door-operating de- 
vices for a number of years. Into this apparatus 
goes the same quality of materials and workmanship 
as into the Otis Elevator itself. 


In designing cars and car doors not only quality 
of workmanship but also styling and design are im- 
portant. And Otis craftsmen have developed a wide 
variety of modern treatments. From these you may 
choose a design that harmonizes with the architec- 
tural treatment of your building. Or, if you wish, 











you can have any special design executed. Cars are 
available in metal, wood and metal, or all wood. 


We wish to mention also that we make a wide 
range of door hangers and that in designing these 
we have made every effort to minimize noise and 
turn out a product that will give lasting service. 
Safety and silent operation are two important fea- 
tures of Otis door-operating devices. 


Your local Otis office will be glad to furnish 
complete details on any of the apparatus mentioned 
above. And may we suggest that you get an Otis 
proposal before buying any of this equipment for 
either an elevator installation or an elevator 
modernization project? 


Otis Elevator Company 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 





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AMERICAN 
ARCHITECT 


Trade-Mark Reg. U. S. Patent Office 


VOLUME CXLVII NUMBER 2637 


3ENJAMIN FRANKLIN Betts, A.I.A,, 
Editor 


RoGER WADE SHERMAN, 
Managing Editor 


TYLER STEWART RoceErs, 
Technical Editor 


T. W. Tow ter, 
Advertising Manager 


R. F. GARDNER, 
General Manager 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 


/ 
tpn. 
i 
iz dur qo 
3 '< 1937 
be * Aa Ks 7 
Fabrics “ee 
Cover Design by Ernest Born 
Ditoetia Lane, New VO. aoe osc io occ s od to eS4 a eeavadnn 10 
Photograph by Sigfrid A. Larson 
Fa Se Be Wr kk a 6 558 hse es oe ee eeeneun 1 
House of Philip Maguire, Shrub Oak, New York........... 15 
Elizabeth Coit, Architect 
sartlett & Son Store, Boston, Massachusetts............... 21 
Harold Field Kellogg, Architect 
Teme TG, TOR, FURPIGR. asic cc cc ce cnciecsenwesan 22 
Adams and Hamilton, Architects 
House of A. Dexter Best, Brooklyn, New York............. 25 


Harold Sleeper, Architect 


Banner Theater, Chicago, Tinos: .s.o....i0s..cd0ssccsde nse 26 
Mark D. Kalischer, Architect 


House on Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn, New York............ 28 
M. Milton Glass, Architect ' 

House of Miss Evelyn Brown, Wilton, Connecticut......... 30 
Evans, Moore & Woodbridge, Architects 

Family Club Playroom, San Francisco, California........... 31 
Miller & Pflueger, Architects 

Fendrick’s Peasant Room, Indianapolis, Indiana............ KY 4 
Pierre & Wright, Architects 

EREOO DUGMEERIEMUNON, 4 <.<.5-6-4500.0 550% Sane oases cus sss deesd 37 
By Arthur C. Holden 

Kitchen in House at Santa Barbara, California............. 45 
Lutah Maria Riggs, Architect 

Kitchen in House of Hoyt Catlin, New Canaan, Connecticut... 48 
Harrison Gill, Architect 

Kitchen in House at Bradford, Pennsylvania............... 51 


North and Shelgren, Architects 
Kitchen in House of W. P. Sidley, Barrington, Illinois....... 54 
Walcott & Work, Architects 


The Lepal Side of Apthitechite....... 66 iciccscccciceccdawd 55 
Clinton H. Blake 

PAGUSES OF TRE AIUE THOU 66. iks shiwis siniaiewas oe 20 hd cae aeee 57 

Se NP: PIII 5 as sce ede iecendecenscddecnes 65 
An Editorial 

Pa SE COGS OTe SU so ois ois. 0 Sw bso s whe oes Remarten's 66 

Measurimy tor AlberaliOns. <<. i.ccci ceed tasavecskesavein 68 
By Joseph W. Molitor 

eee 70 

se itl ek es ey hs on Hhubeaman eae 77 
By Carl T. Sigman and William J. Ward, Jr. 

Time-Saver Standards—Kitchen and Bathrooms............. 89 

RONNIE iso as Goch ei aaiie Sib eile Re ewe MA Gee Ua Al oes alpine ioe 4 

The Readers Have a Word to Say..............cccccccccses 6 

ee SN 8. 6xe deck he debstase®esbs dure cies na dtekaees 101 

PER MIs Sis en gia netic MES tiecaaic Geddes cee 103 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT. Published monthly by International Publications, Inc., 572 
Madison Avenue. New York. Other Offices. 919 N. Michigan Avenue, Chicago: General 
Motors Bldg.. Detroit: 132 Newbury Street, Boston. William Randolph Hearst, President; 
Richard E. Berlin, Vice President; John Randolph Hearst. Vice President; Arthur S. 
Moore, Secretary. Copyright. 1935. by International Publications. Inc. Single copies, $1.00. 
Subscription: United States and Possessions. $3.00 per vear: Canada. $4.00: Foreign, $5.00. 
Entered as second-class matter. April 5, 1926. at Post Office. New York. under Act of 
March 3, 1879. American Architect is protected by copyright and nothing that appears in 
it may be reproduced either whol'y or in part without special permission. 











NE Reg a ey 


‘ “SS Sinead se See SSRN AS <r, 











Door To Building 


Modernization ...an activity which has buoyed 
past hopes of building and now opens a three 


billion dollar opportunity for immediate work 


ICK UP the Sunday real estate section of any metropolitan newspaper. One gains 

the instant impression that a building boom is at hand. Turn to the financial pages 

and a bullish tone is evident. Editorial pages hold the inference that the country 
can at last see a clearing light in the economic woods. And throughout the news pages 
are items indicating a generally quickened interest in the accumulated needs of too-long 
deferred construction. 
This general impression of optimism—particularly as it refers to building activity—has 
been strengthened by a deluge of publicity that for more than a year has rolled from 
many an astute bureau. But behind the press-agentry lie conditions and probabilities that 
are a sounder guide to potentialities in building and to immediate opportunities in mod- 
ernization activities. Important governmental agencies and business organizations have 
regarded modernization as a door that will eventually swing wide open to building re- 
covery. Such an attitude implies a tremendous market for goods and services. How 
ereat is this market; and to what extent can architects expect participation in the eco- 
nomic opportunities offered? 
A general answer to the first part of the question as it refers to houses has been recently 
compiled by the FHA. A nation wide survey—which took into account the distribu- 
tion of population; the number, type and valuation of dwellings; and the purchasing 
power of the communities—uncovered a market for home modernization of at least a 
billion dollars. This figure may not indicate the total of the potential market, for it refers 
only to work that the FHA is authorized to insure through its $200,000,000 fund on the 
basis of 20 per cent of losses. 
Thus it is not possible to estimate completely the potentialities of residential modernization. 
Nor can much concrete information be obtained that might detail with any reasonable de- 
gree of accuracy, the breadth of the modernization field as applied to commercial struc- 
tures. As every architect now knows, the FHA insures loans on two types of projects. 
For dwellings the loan limit for insurance is set at $2,000. In the commercial field, 
loans up to $50,000 are insurable. It seems reasonable to suppose that commercial ven- 
tures would entail at least twice the expenditure estimated for home modernization work. 
Thus a possible total of three billion dollars delineates the extent of the immediate 















SUSINESS... 


Two Billion Dollars has been set 
as the extent of needed mod- 
ernization of commercial struc- 


tures throughout the country 








a ii aco nines = 


jes 
jai: 


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modernization market and points to its importance 
as part of the building activity of the next twelve 
or eighteen months. 

Aside from these figures and broad generalities, 
pointed inquiries to various official bureaus and 
trade organizations have elicited little concrete in- 
formation. In spite of inventories, surveys and 
charts, detailed facts regarding the extent of the 
modernization field appear to be meager. Total 
figures are impressive, but they can mean almost 
anything the individual wishes. 

Boldly stated, the guess of the architect is as good 
as that of thé statistician in this case. His personal 
participation in the great amount of modernization 





GALLOWAY 


HEDRICH-BLESSING 


work that unquestionably will be done depends large- 
ly upon the conditions—social and economic—of the 
town or city in which he lives. 
listings, 


From real estate 
3oard of Trade information and talks with 
local bankers the architect can shrewdly assemble 
his own facts and figures. From them he will be 
able to establish a reasonably accurate forecast of 
local activity upon which can be based a quota of 
professional accomplishment. 

Highlighting local conditions, however, is the 
broad beam of past accomplishment on a national 
scale and the opinions of competent and _ realistic 
authorities. As to the first, figures from a late re- 


lease of the Federal Housing Administration in- 


AMERICAN 








ARCHITECT 


















GALLOWAY 




















ALLOWAY 


FOR 





AND HOME... 


A Billion Dollars More will be 
spent in the remodelling and 
repair of nearly five million of 


our twenty-five million houses 








dicate that more than 359,000 notes with a total 
valuation of over $137,311,000 have been insured 
under the FHA Modernization credit plan. In ad- 
dition, largely due to the FHA Better Housing Cam- 
paign, pledges for modernization work throughout 
the country have reached a figure close to the half- 
billion dollar mark. This last to 
actual expenditures, but indicates one known degree 
of definitely scheduled modernization work. And 
since most of it refers to the residential field, car- 
ried with it is no implication of the extent by which 
commercial modernization activity will swell the total 
of a conservatively estimated volume. 

The extent of the modernization market 


does not refer 


in the 


SEPTEMBE 1935 





R 












wd 3 


residential field has been estimated by Morton Bod- 
fish of the U. S. Building and Loan League as in- 
volving an annual expenditure of $200,000,000 to 
$300,000,000 for the next several years “provided 
there is continual intelligent presentation of the case 
for refashioning the out-dated house.” And_ the 
National Lumber Manufacturers Association esti- 
mates that about 5,000,000 of the nation’s 25,000,- 
000 houses “need and are worthy of extensive re- 
pairs, rebuilding and modernization.” 

The latter quotation can be regarded as having 
encouraging significance to architects. 
past year, 
modelling 


During the 
expenditure in the field of residential re- 
as indicated by FHA figures has been 


Luvin RE 
















GALLOWAY PHOTOS 














confined in large part to operations of repair and 
maintenance. The low limit of $2,000 for a loan in- 
surable by the FHA permitted no extensive altera- 
tion. The experience of the Reconditioning Division 
of the HOLC records the average loan as $180 and 
indicates that more than 41 per cent of recondition- 
ing expenditures in the residential field went for 
painting and papering. 


T present, according to Mr. Bodfish, private 
lending institutions are moving rapidly into a 
period where they can disburse billions of dollars 
yearly. And in the belief that ‘remodelling and mod- 
ernization of homes has only just begun to be felt. 
associations are preparing to make a more substan- 
tial portion of their disbursements in this direction 
than was formerly characteristic.” In this connection 
it is interesting to note that in 1932, a year of ex- 
treme credit drought, building and loan associations 
were making repair and modernization loans at the 
rate of $5,000,000 per month. 
3ut undoubtedly it is in the field of commercial 
work that architects will find most of their immediate 
modernization opportunities. Gleanings from various 
sources present, in general, an engaging picture. 
Census figures for 1933 record more than 1,500,000 
retail stores, at least half of which urgently need 
modernization, according to a survey made by the 
FHA Industries Division. Department of Com- 
merce figures for 1934 list a total of 11,690 office 
buildings 70 per cent of which are said to be an- 
tiquated in most respects. Nearly 30,000 hotels, 
more than 20,000 institutions of various kinds and 
141,000 manufacturing institutions with a total build- 
ing inventory unknown are also included in the 1933 
Census of American Business. So far as is known, 
there exist no figures indicating what percentage of 
these totals are considered obsolete or how many 
require drastic modernization to render them satis- 
factorily efficient in terms of modern requirements 
of layout and equipment. 


HE extent of this activity—a large part of which 
I fechews will involve the technical abilities of ar- 
chitects—has been estimated at a round $2,000,000,- 
000 by B. J. Flynn, Director of the FHA Indus- 
tries Division. If this total were assumed, and if, 
further, it were assumed that a 6 per cent fee were 
available to some 10,000 offices for architectural ser- 





vices, each would receive as compensation a sum 
equivalent to an income of $1,000 per month over 
a year’s period. 

Obviously, no such assumptions would be valid; 
and such a naive computation is justifiable only to 
prove the point that sober business will spend huge 
sums for operations in which the technical knowl- 
edge and experience of architects will be in most 
cases indispensable. 

To what degree, then, can architects participate in 
the three billion dollar modernization market? The 
answer is: To any degree warranted by his pro- 
fessional abilities, technical ingenuity and business 
initiative. In other words, translation of the oppor- 
tunities at hand as indicated by facts and figures 
into terms of professional commissions can be fruit- 
fully made only by the individuals directly con- 
cerned. 

Abundant evidence exists that architectural offices 
can carry on admirably in the modernization field. 
To large offices and small ones such work has proved 
lucrative enough to justify a definite type of organi- 
zation to handle it. 


DITORIAL investigation has established the fact 

that a number of firms, who have been success- 
ful in the modernization field, have found it profit- 
able to set up a separate department for handling all 
work of this type, thus eliminating interference with 
other projects in preparation. All clerical records, 
as well as, design, plan and supervision for each 
project are handled through this department. To 
what extent the average office can adopt such a 
method depends upon its size and personnel. The 
simplest method, which is now in use by one well- 
known firm, seems to be the appointment of a mod- 
ernization project manager, whose duty it is to 
investigate each job and determine in advance the 
extent and type of work to be done. This informa- 
tion is then turned over to some individual in the 
office best fitted to handle that type of job. This 
man is made responsible for the entire project, in- 
cluding design, plan and supervision of all the con- 
struction. 

The full co-operation of other members of the 
staff is available in case of difficulties. This system 
is being used to advantage to keep down over- 
head cost which is, of course, a major factor in 
handling modernization work on a profitable basis. 


AMERICAN 




















ARCHITECT 

















View of approach 
to house of Philip 
Madauire Shrub 
Oak, New York 


GOTTSCHO 


STEPS TOWARD 





MODERNIZATION 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 











Po 

a; 

yl Nyyyjs 
maaan i, SPIES 






ELIZABETH COIT, ARCHITECT 


HOUSE OF PHILIP MAGUIRE 
SHRUB OAK, NEW YORK 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT 











Remodelling at a cost approximately $7,000—exclusive of electrical 
fixtures and hardware—transformed this old farm dwelling into an attrac- 
tive and comforta home with all convenien Y ern living. 
Above, view from garden side. Left, same view before changes were 


made. On facing page, view from driveway. Below, house before remod- 


s to match original siding were used, painted white. Roof 


cedar shingles unstained; shutters, bluish green 


FOR SEPTEMBER 935 























aR 


«aoa. 
sy. Fs Sea 


. Ting 












eee a 














Above, view of kitchen side looking toward 
entrance to new bedroom over the ga- j 


rage. House of Philip Maguire, Shrub 


Oak, New York. Elizabeth Coit, architect 











AMERICAN ARCHITECT 














FOR 


SEI 








PTEMBER 


1935 


PHOTOS: 








GOTTSCHO 


On this page ng vr m and detail in 
ning or Walls are wa i¢ rac vered 
tr reamy-white wa!lpaper of ea y Ameri 

can design; ceilings a kalsor 


are of wide antique be ards in random 


widths 


19 





’ 


vena sit aaa 


nt a 


na, 


ssi atin ais By, 


inate. eligi 


grr ~eorl 


a 





PHOTOS: GOTTSCHO 





. 


nee eee nee 


SRW wwe ve we eee were 


6 ON Ee AOS OE 


Above, game room in basement. Walls, knotty pine 
boards, antique finish; ceiling beams 8-in. x 10-in. 
fir, hand surfaced and kalsomined between. Right, 
detail of stairs in hall. House of Philip Maguire, 
Shrub Oak, New York. Elizabeth Coit, architect 


RICAN ARCHITECT 























aie ETN aT aT Se SS e Ler ae Sane 





—— cee 





























Wee IVY CORSLTS 


HEBEL Bek | 











HAROLD FIELD KELLOG, ARCHITECT 


BARTLETT & SON COMPANY STORE, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 


Storefront modernization from an old building similar to inset at left. 
Wall, slate, black Monson at base to light sea-green at top. Frames, 


stainless steel; trim, Belgian black marble; window, white translucent glass 
Se: PAUL J. WEBER 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 









































ADAMS AND HAMILTON, ARCHITECTS 


TRIBUNE BUILDING 
TAMPA, FLORIDA 














AMERICAN ARCHITECT 








pas 
vias S.EVANS MOTORS see 


aut! et 
hdl 
quit 
mt 

o- seo CARS 





— ES 


FOR 


SEPTEMBER 


Exterior modernization 
sisted in walling-i 
used for automc 
overall coat of white 
revamping the fenes 
entrance framed 


of extrudex 














PHOTOS: BURGERT BROS, 


Simplicity typical of modern newspaper plants characterizes interiors of the Tribune 


Building. The lobbies, detail on preceding page, depend for their interest on the use of 


black glass and metal, colored plaster surfaces and especially designed lighting fixtures. 


Above, view in the office of the publisher. Walls are surfaced with qumwood veneer. 


The cost of remodelling was approximately $100,000. Adams & Hamilton, architects 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 





PHOTO: GOTTSCHO 





HAROLD R. SLEEPER, ARCHITECT 


HOUSE OF A. DEXTER BEST 
BROOKLYN, NEW YORK 


Remodelling at a cost of $5,500—including the 
architect's fee—transformed a dilapidated garage 
into this modern apartment. Top right, plan after 


alteration. Below, arrangement before remodelling 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 











Fale om — "| 


FIRST FLOOR 



































FIAST FLOOR 



















Right, view of facade before mod- 
ernization. Below, detail in present 
lobby. On facing page, front after 
remodelling. Banner Theater, Chicago 


Mark D. Kalischer, 





Illinois. architect 























PHOT! 














PHOTOS: HEDRICH-BLESSING STUDIO 


MARK D. KALISCHER, ARCHITECT 


BANNER THEATER 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 


Changes made a ‘Screen Souvenir’ of 1910 into a modern 
theater at a cost of $20,000. The facade, illustrated above, is 
light gray structural glass with base course in black. Display 
case frames, stainless steel. Lobby, detail on facing page, is 
f os RS ee ee — a os — 
of plaster painted in chrome yellow, royal purple, orange and 
silver. Auditorium was re-seated, re-carpeted and re-decorated 
in shades of vermilions and siennas, contrasting with sil- 


ver and cerulean blue. Indirect lighting was used throughout 





After Remodelling 


x»—— JSlorm Doors 





CANOPY 





Before Remodelling 











mh 











i 
ibis 
inher 
ibti 


; 
Titi i mit] MPerereYs.. 
*" ? AAAAAR 





M. MILTON GLASS, ARCHITECT 


HOUSE ON BEDFORD AVENUE 
BROOKLYN, NEW YORK 


Erected in 1880 as a private residence, the building as altered provides a physicians's suite in basement, his living 
quarters on first floor. Two top floors, each containing a four-room apartment, are rented. The original atti 


24 ft. long 


story 


was demolished and roof re-built. A new brick extension 14 ft. wide and two stories high was erected at 


the rear; existing stone entrance steps wete removed; and main entrance changed from first floor to basement. 


$14,000, 


including heating, lighting and plumbing fixtures. The upper apartments were rented before mpletion 


AMERICAN 


Cost: 





ARCHITECT 























HOUSE ON BEDFORD AVENUE 
BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
M. MILTON GLASS, ARCHITECT 




















Po ae 














Second Fioor 





















































Basement 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 


















PHOTOS: GEORGI 




















LIVING 
ROOM 


13-6 x 27 





EVANS, MOORE & WOODBRIDGE, ARCHITECTS 


HOUSE OF EVELYN BROWN 


WILTON, CONNECTICUT - he 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT 































PHOTOS: GABRIEL MOULIN 


MILLER & PFLUEGER, ARCHITECTS 


FAMILY CLUB PLAY ROOM 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 





Remodelled from basement storage space this room serves 
a three-fold purpose: private dining room, small play 
room and auxiliary bar. By use of sliding doors the 


bar and stage may be closed from view. Walls, red- 








wood unfinished and trimmed with polished stainless steel 





FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 











ARCHITECT 


AN 


RIC 


a 
< 





Copper wash Wood dentils 


Hendricks Deasant Roo 


copper Gargoyle Painted letters“ 
wood pegs - Leaded glass 
(@) Oo ° 


wood 


Copper arip. > Wood 


Tiles repealed ; 
12'-bY2" ' 


ELEVATION 


PLAN AT ‘A’ PLAN AT’B" 


Line of 
lable over~ ; 
Wood seat - Seat 


Glas. 


: ‘Wood 


4 carving PIERRE & WRIGHT, ARCHITECTS 
Table op — ‘ 


Pea eC Seoereeer Sas 


FENDRICK'S PEASANT ROOM 
INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA 














Modernization at a cost of $8,135, including archi- 
tects’ and contractors’ fees, turned a losing res- Sy TAP ROOM 
taurant business into a profitable investment. As 


a result, the entire block is likely to be rehabili- 








tated. On this and facing page, details of entrance 








FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 








PHOTOS: HEDRICH-BLESSING STUDIO 


Above, view looking toward bar. The floor is sun burst quarry tile, wide 


joints; woodwork throughout is wormy chestnut stained and waxed to a warm 


brown; walls are decorated with colorful murals painted by J. Scott Williams 


Lighting fixtures are wrought iron with antique green, metal shades. Glass 


over entrance door is antique amber set in cames. Left, adjoining res 


taurant space before remodelling. The Tap Room was similar in character 








Above, view toward dining alcoves. 


The tap room seats seventy-two. Walls are 


very dark blue at the ceiling. 


mid-night sky. Over 


blue, graded from light at chair rail to a 


Indirectly lighted, the ceiling gives an effect of a 
each wrought iron coat hanger is a highly colored plaque with grotesque 
paintings of aquatic animals. Furniture 


is oak stained to harmonize with 


wainscot. On the following page are construction details of bar and alcoves 








tinuous wood ornament , 7/4 










Strip light 





Mrror— =| 
| 
1-10 2-93/8" 71° 4 
= q 







Wood grille 
BACK BAR ELEVATION and radiator 



















































































Storage 
' Wood / 
gre 
‘T.. . 
. ae Ray ] Ay \ Pr il i eae 4 
a ee eee 2s ee 2. 258 al ae | 
ad - a . a, on HH 
wine storage under | Sotltle rack Glass \! q 
, ; sloragei,—" | 
| center line He ’ 
, | a eee 
L |! 
! Be ae eee oases H 
‘'o Draft box | ' 
1a a | 
paul we ww ww we ow we oe we ew 6 we ee er ree - . PA 
> — Brass Tau —— 
¢ = > 

















PLAN ABOVE BAR PLAN BELOW BAR 








L ey Wallboard > _ | 
a ' . a 












s , 7 
Ceiling line. 

I 
{ih 


A 
wind \ 
WO0d i 
Grille 





Line of a 
Seat under 


DETAILS OF | wacrocre | 
ALCOVES es 


PLAN OF SEATS “sm Scale! 














Wallboard Wood 







































































“ on oo | 
panels —_i- / mouldings - eee 3-72 di 3-6°/8 J 
\ ? 
+ 

“9| 
)Wood| doors | 
| — 4 4 1] 
| ay Wood bach | Ty | | | | 1H 
| \ | ! Ht 
| | | | 
4-12" 9 | | Hl 
T meal 

We 4 lb | 

Wood grille | | 
































Floor line / 


ELEVATION SECTION 

















a6 AMERICAN ARCHITECT 














XUM 


FOR SEPTEMBER 


Stabilized Modernization 


BY ARTHUR C. 


\\ IVE me where I may stand,” said Ar- 
chimedes, “and I will move the world.” 
He might have added that he needed 
a firm foundation upon which to rest his mighty 
lever. For both are necessary to any such accom- 
plishment—a point of vantage and a fulcrum through 
which a forceful pressure acts. 

Architects today have at least the first of these 
two essentials. Their technical position is secure ; 
and if they had a firm basis on which to rest the 
lever of their professional competence they could 
easily lift blighted and _ profitless 
cities. 


sections of our 
Sut the lever of professional competence de- 
pends for its effectiveness upon the art with which 
it is applied. 


THE PROBLEM 


HE ordinary American city has grown almost 
} gioke design. It has some beautiful spots, 
some vicious plague spots. But, in general, it is a 
hodgepodge with tawdry business streets and rows 
of nondescript houses. Most of it was built without 
thought of the standard of life that may be possible 
in the motor age that is just dawning upon us. 
Whole sections in such a city cry aloud for 
modernization. What is the approach? Shall the 
architect seek out the best disposed property owner, 
and suggest that he put money into his house to 
make it more desirable? Shall the architect show 
him a pretty sketch to indicate the better attractions, 
the improved facilities, and the correct taste? Shall 
he even prepare figures explaining that if all is 
rented at the expected figure both interest and amor- 
tization payments on the new capital can be met and 
perhaps a profit shown besides? Many such ap- 
proaches have been made; and many have been 
successful. These are the individual cases that have 
offered the brighest hopes. The worst plague spots 
in our cities remain untouched. 
The belief that individual modernization projects 
should be superseded by group activity is based upon 


1935 


HOLDEN, 


A.1.A. 


a rapidly mounting store of technical evidence. 
Partly this has been derived from observing the ef- 
fect of the automobile and other forms of rapid 
transit upon the economic and social components of 
American cities. Partly also it has been amassed 
through factual surveys—of which the Real Prop- 
erty Inventory is typical—which reveal the location 
and extent of districts which, even though centrally 
located, have become subject to blight, depreciation, 
congestion and obsolescence. Areas with such char- 
acteristics exist to greater or less extent in every 
city in the country. Their rehabilitation—physically 
and socially—has become a real and serious prob- 
lem of urban life. And to architects this implies a 
new approach to the job of modernization. 

Owners of blighted urban properties 
the cities themselves 





and indeed 
face a new problem. What 
they seek is stabilization of earning power. Prop- 
erties are economically interdependent. Owners need 
working agreements, one with another, which will 
recognize this interdependence and permit more 
economical operation. Outgo can be cut down. Net 
income can be increased. Sound business methods 
which have long been followed by industrialists 
should be adapted so that owners and investors in 
real estate and the public all will benefit. Herein lies 
the firm basis upon which the professional com- 
petence of architects may be applied to move whole 
communities out of the doldrums and make them 
economically self-dependent entities—assets to the 
cities of which they are an important organic part. 





ARCHITECT'S VISION IS ESSENTIAL 


HE architect has the vision to see what is wrong 
I ie any out-moded group of properties. He 
should also be the one to suggest the remedy. 

For example, in a small town of 10,000 inhab- 
itants, he can see the need for rebuilding the shop- 
ping section where automobile congestion in the 
main street is exceedingly great. There may be sev- 
eral blocks of stores, possibly all of them well rented. 


37 








Above them may be a badly planned story, used, 
perhaps, for living quarters although noisy and lack- 
ing in modern conveniences. At the rear of the shop- 
ping block will be out-moded houses with lots par- 
tially used for storage. The condition of these rear 
houses is depreciated by the proximity of business 
properties. This depreciated belt, in turn, exerts a 


depressing effect upon properties on adjoining 
streets. Around the small nucleus of prosperous 


properties will generally be found a fringe of others 
in depreciated use which, though held at high prices, 
are incapable of earning their charges. 

Possibilities of improvement are at once apparent 
to the architect who sees the condition of the dis- 
trict. At a glance he recognizes the fact that con- 
flicting rivalries due to small lot ownership are 
choking development and thus preventing the best 
use of the property. He makes a set of attractive 
drawings indicating a widened street, faced with a 
newer and better type of building. The sketches 
are published, perhaps, in the local paper with a 
caption describing ‘“‘an architect’s dream for a mod- 
ernized Main Street.” But to the architect the 
scheme is not impractical. Nor need it appear to 
be so to others if its technical sponsor—the archi- 
tect—has the resourcefulness to demonstrate its logic 
and thus turn dream into practical reality. 





A GROUP OF OWNERS 
AS A POTENTIAL CLIENTELE 


T is easy to paint a picture of possible accomplish- 

ment. It is always difficult, however, to initiate 
a new method of approach. How is the architect 
who has grasped the larger concept of group plan- 
ning to put it into practice? 

First of all, let it be remembered that he is deal- 
ing with a number of people—a group, not an in- 
dividual. To each must be explained a plan for the 
financial and physical reorganization of the area 
involved. He must weld the group into an entity 
sufficiently conscious of the common interests in- 
volved to accomplish results from his advice as it 
refers to group interests. There are obstacles to 
overcome. Not the least of these concerns the archi- 
tect’s compensation for his efforts. Another touches 
upon the natural resistance to change that has proved 
to be a death grip for so many other worth while 
efforts of similar sorts. 





These obstacles may be conquered after it has been 
shown that in planning for the group, the architect 
is actually planning in a better, more constructive 
fashion for each individual involved. And while 
doing so he is rehabilitating the blight and eliminat- 
ing the unstable conditions that have been the results 
of the former sporadic modernization efforts of un- 
co-operative people—client and architect alike. Thus, 
the architect has an opportunity to disprove the con- 
tention of many Americans that their cities need 
“a dictator” who can fruitfully unscramble chaos, 
congestion and waste! 





38 


‘AN ORDINARY AMERICAN CITY' 


Tawdry business streets and a hodgepodge 
of nondescript houses are economic and 
social liabilities that cry aloud for modern- 
ization. But attention to individual prob- 
lems of rebuilding and repair is proving less 
and less effective as a means of rehabilitat- 
ing blight and eliminating unstable condi- 
tions of ownership and land usage that 
have developed urban plague spots and 
wiped profits off the books. Group mod- 
ernization projects can lift whole commuri- 
ties out of the doldrums. It is one effective 
method of making frazzled districts into 
economically self-dependent entities, assets 
instead of liabilities to the city of which 
they are a part. In such activity the archi- 
tect is the technical director. He must for- 
mulate the re-planning and reconstruction 
of the entire area and co-ordinate innumer- 
able details that are involved. This work 
is outside the field of routine professional 
activity. But by that same token it should 
ultimately prove a fertile opportunity to 
develop a responsible and productive 
clientele—a satisfied group of owners. .. 


TECHNIQUE OF DEVELOPMENT 


UCCESSFUL completion of any scheme for 
S group modernization will depend largely upon 
the careful co-ordination of many details. Strictly 
speaking, the problem is not so much one of “mod- 
ernization” as it is one of “reorganization” for it 
involves planning for individuals and the group as a 
whole upon an economic and social as well as a 
physical basis. Briefly, the architect must formulate 
the replanning and reconstruction of the area as a 
unified entity. The idea, with its implications for 
an extension of ordinary architectural service, is rela- 
tively new. 

Because of this fact, instances of its successful 
execution cannot well be cited. But much has re- 
cently been accomplished in New York City in 
establishing a working method applicable to group 
projects in any section of the country. Studies of 
the Land Utilization Committee show that the 
activity involved is divided into three broad classi- 
fications. Each is somewhat independent so far as 
the type of work is concerned, yet all are so closely 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 








— 


'e 


CT 





XUM 


FOR SEPTEMBER 


related to the ultimate practicality and success of 
the project that the relative importance of each is 
nearly the same in degree. In order of their natural 
sequence, the classifications are: 


1. Complete factual survey of the whole area. 
Upon adequate knowledge of existing conditions 
rests subsequent work of reorganization and replan- 
ning. Data should include extent and types of oc- 
cupancy and ownership; the entire financial situa- 
tion as it involves interests of various individuals 
or institutions; and the physical condition of every 
structure. Necessary also is a survey of the im- 
mediate districts adjacent to the project, since re- 
organization of the interests of one group may con- 
ceivably affect, or be affected by, the comparative 
conditions of others. 


2. Plan for economic reorganization. Upon estab- 
lished facts—economic, social and structural—can 
he based a scheme by which individual interests may 
be welded into group interests. This part of the 
program entails the most careful sort of analysis 
and the subsequent development of an economic en- 


1935 


tity of control to which are ceded proprietory rights 
of individuals in return for an equivalent participa- 
tion in group ownership and profitable participation. 

Such work on some projects may prove simple 
when original owners are few and where the lines of 
common interest are sharply defined. In areas of 
physical congestion and complicated ownership con- 
ditions it will prove difficult in the extreme. In any 
case the architect—either in himself or in others— 
requires a knowledge of appraisal and mortgage 
practices and a more than average ability at nego- 
tiation. A new set of contractural relationships must 
be effected—fair to all and of such a nature that 
each will contribute to the workability of the group 
modernization scheme. 


3. A program fer progressive physical rebuilding. 
Normally this will develop hand in hand with any 
plan of economic reorganization. But its execution 
must be delayed until at least a working majority 
of individual owners have subscribed to the plan for 
group control. Then the architect’s problem is to 
modernize, rebuild or both so that housing or other 


39 





FAIRCHILD 








needs are met without toss of any type of tenancy 
advantageous to the district. 

Essentially it is based upon progressive removal 
of inhabitants from one part of the area to another 
section which has already been improved to receive 
them. This decanting process is repeated in as 
logical a sequence as the project permits until in- 
dividual interests have been met and the entire area 
improved under the plan for its economic group con- 
trol and its physical modernization. 

The value of accurate research in the develop- 
ment of any group modernization program can hard- 
ly be over-estimated. Without knowledge of exist- 
ing conditions, the architect can hardly hope to ar- 
rive at any practical scheme for an economic re- 
organization. Without economic reorganization the 
“architect's dream for modernizing Main Street” 
can never reach fulfillment. 

Already perfected is a method for assembling the 
necessary data. The Real Property Inventories, or- 
ganized to give work to unemployed technical men, 
were instituted in many cities a little more than a 
year ago. The architect concerned with group mod- 
ernization will find them incomplete for his pur- 
pose. But the way by which the information was 
collected, codified and later presented in graphic 
form indicates a research tool that can profitably be 
applied to any local project. In many instances the 
Inventories were supplemented by intensive surveys 
of depreciated areas. Investigation of these and a 
study of the data included may disclose much of 
value. The remainder can be assembled through the 
organized activity of research canvassers. 


FINANCES FOR ADVANCED PLANNING 


HE foregoing outline of the group moderniza- 
T tion idea pictures the architect as an organizer, 
a director of advanced planning activities. It is a 
proper role, for which he is well adapted by tech- 
nical training and experience. But in assuming it he 
goes outside the bounds of routine professional ef- 
fort. He must find some means of financial support 
for himself and for those who will be working under 
his direction. Where and how can it be made avail- 
able to him? 

A decisive answer to this could well be made by 
the Federal Government. There is now being made 
a vast effort to develop low-rent housing and to 
stimulate the general improvement of towns and 
cities throughout the country. Notably in this con- 
nection, official attention has been focused on the 
blighted areas of those towns and cities. So far, 
however, there has been no official recognition that 
removal of such plague spots involves advanced plan- 
ning—just such planning as was undertaken by a 
group of engineers before actual construction was 
considered for the Panama Canal. If such recog- 
nition were forthcoming, it would be a simple mat- 
ter to set up—out of monies already allocated for 
housing and slum clearance—a revolving fund for 
advance planning of group modernization projects. 


40 


Out of such a fund, retainer fees could be appro- 
priated to secure the best consulting brains and 
adequate staffs of technical assistants. Upon com- 
pletion of research and plans for economic and 
physical reorganization, appropriations for actual 
construction could be made. Expenses for advanced 
planning studies could then be refunded out of these 
appropriations. 

This procedure is such a logical development of 
any adequate official policy of urban improvement 
that it—or something very similar—appears to be 
inevitable. At the present writing, at least two im- 
portant Federal agencies have both the necessary 
funds and the power to use them thus. The plan 
is not likely to get the immediate attention that it 
merits, however, unless it receives a stronger and 
more general advocacy than it has yet been accorded. 

At the same time, the wise architect will look to 
sources of private capital in support of group mod- 
ernization activities. Provided he has something 
concrete to offer, he can expect sympathetic assist- 
ance from institutional groups of mortgage lenders. 
sut lenders in some states are not certain how far 
to go in expending money for research and advance 
planning, even though the activity may be desirable 
as a needed protection for the investment of trust 
funds. Many state legislators—in common with 
Federal agencies 








have not yet understood the neces- 
sity of this activity; and in several states a legal 
recognition must be gained before lending institu- 
tions can reasonably be expected to give adequate 
financial support to advance planning work. 

But there is an immediate opportunity of which 
architects should be able to take advantage. This 
lies in the large amount of private capital which has 
accumulated and is seeking investment. The private 
promoter is familiar with the difficulties of property 
assembly. He has known that he could only buy in 
places where the pressure of demand kept rental 
prices up. Hence, assembly of property except for 
use by the higher income groups has not been pos- 
sible. The theory was therefore advanced that to 
serve lower income groups the government must 
step in and, by condemnation and subsidy, accom- 
plish what would be otherwise impossible. 

Private business has thus been challenged to find 
an alternative. Group enterprise is indicated as the 
sound and logical answer. It remains to work out 
the terms on which it can take place and to dispose 
of such obstacles, both real and fanciful, as may 
seem to impede the way. Basic factors involved are: 
(1) New improvement funds are needed, which (2) 
must be applied in such a way as to recognize the 
integrity of present investments. (3) Present in- 
vestors must not expect return of their principal at 
once, but should be assured reasonable benefits of 
increased net income due to economies of group 
operation. (4) Private capital can safely underwrite 
a revolving improvement fund with low initial yield, 
provided amortization is rapid and provided it can 
be assured a profit from stock participation. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 














 —7_- i —-  . ae, rs as as 


Sketch of proposed reorganization of District 8-D 


in a congested area in New York City's Harlem 





SD ye RE I. 


Organized Planning for 


Slum Clearance and Reconstruction 


IN NEW YORK, aided by studies of the Land. Utilization Committee, property owners in two 
localities are being formed into operating corporations for the economic reorganization and pro- 
gressive reconstruction of their holdings. One group represents a large slum area in Harlem, New 
York's Negro section. The other is confined to a single congested block in the ill-famed Lower 
East Side. Outlines and illustrations of the two projects show the wide practical adaptability of the 


group idea for Stabilized Modernization discussed by Arthur C. Holden in the foregoing pages 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 41 





XUM 

















Economic loss and unhealthful 








congestion are the main char- 
acteristics of the present neigh- 
borhood, the first illustrated 
by charts below. Slum condi- 


tions are evident in the pictures 






































) (mimes os 
(iL . =) (1 | t- "IR, tm | 
ee 2 ree 2 ee Roo BE: 


INTEREST UNEARNED 


FINANCING 


MORTGAGE 


LOSS BEFORE 





wai 5%220% 20%SRUP 


LOSS $31,080 MONTHLY 


Paen ave 
Pg 


pee 5 " % 
“4 or ee > aa we oe e 
ra 9 ys 2 NET+4662 A  e NET+6247 > 
25288 8=§= 1864 f 
) 
paracer NET +6186 \{ | 
= ii a 
"20927 no? 28174 3028 \) 
— 2 Gro 
eS a 
%v ‘al Be NET+3659 are NET+1494 manten 
I~ ESTIMATED NET+ Rives 


19127 55 
FF 
=e ————— 
_ 21498 ~1N7S 
es 
or re NET+ 6 
. Ny - | 
|| 10917 3933 
on 3 
if = mi 
ee NET+1972 









+2000 


2 
INDUSTRIAL BLocKy} 
[3952 603 
\ 


i 
f 








- = \ 
can 3007 l \ 
) { ee eeco 1 
FP 8 NET-1474 ge NET +107 
C 1415) Ey } | Issao 1319 {| 
gt es | eae ——— > ¢ 
oe es NET+ 1476 Beg? nero dee 
co || 
} | 176es 3925 di $304 4101 )) t 


District 8-D 


HIS AREA contains one block on the northwest with 

a density of over 700 persons to the acre. In the 

southwest corner are two blocks with a large propor- 
tion of condemned and vacant buildings. On the east lies 
a depreciated industrial area largely in one ownership net- 
ting a low yield to an estate. In the center is located a 
municipal hospital in the process of expansion. South of 
the hospital is a block of new law tenements which are 
adaptable to alteration. North of the hospital are several 
modern tenements planned for wide frontages and renting 
at from $10.00 to as high as $20.00 per room per month. 
At the northeast corner of the district the Madison Avenue 
Bridge over the Harlem River delivers traffic seeking an 
outlet to the west and south. There is need for street im- 
provements and for the provision of public recreation space 
for densely populated Harlem. 

A wide variation in earnings exists. The most profitable 
block nets $6,488 monthly out of a gross $31,191; the least 
profitable loses $1,474 on a gross of $14,151. Exclusive of 
industrial blocks, titles to the properties are vested in 608 
individual owners; and each month there is available for 
distribution on net earnings over financing of $38,653, or aa 
average per owner of $63.57 per month. 




























pRLER 
Rives 








BEFORE AND AFTER 


Plan left District before 
° ° 1 " 

reorganization. Be ow, plans 

Step |: 


New Building program 





for rehabilitation. 





izing industrial areas for 





























ECONOMIC SURVEY 


On chart opposite is the 
monthly income and out- 
go by blocks. Excluding 
industrial blocks, monthly 
figures total: 


Contract Income $240,885 





WOME totais 43,255 
Operating .. 95,47| | 
Net before Fin. 102,159 f 
Mort. Int. .... 46,595 
Amore, .....5. 16,911 


Net for Equities 38,654 
Distribution of this total 
among 608 owners al- 
lows an average monthly 2 aera 














income of only $63.57 ] pa 


— STEP N®°2 Lecenl 














Harlem, 


As a united group it should be possible at once to increase 
net by reducing outgo. The first operation is a “decanting” 
of tenants. So far as possible equivalent temporary quarters 
will be assigned to every desirable tenant. Those who give 
up favorable business locations will be offered first options 
after reconstruction. 

Instead of losing income, a usual result of eviction, the 
average net income is actually increased, because vacated 
buildings can be demolished with a resultant saving of both 
taxes and upkeep. 

3y decanting, large areas of vacant land can be cleared. 
But before the rebuilding program is begun land required 
for public use must be set aside. Space for traffic division 
is essential at the end of the bridgehead and the needed park 
can most advantageously be placed at the waterfront. Wid- 
ened streets and space for hospital expansion are needed. 
The assessed value of land for these public uses amounts to 
$1,346,650. Ordinarily, this sum would have been dissipated 
through payment of proportionate shares to equity owners 
and mortgagees involved. With the whole district one 
entity, however, the entire sum goes to the treasury of the 
district in which every constituent owner has an interest. 
The condemnation award may thus become a nest egg for 


New 


York 


starting the first new housing enterprise. Under existing 
conditions a Federal grant might be applied to acquire 
needed public properties with the proviso that all of the 
award to private owners should be pooled and applied to a 
replacement housing program. 

The district corporation should be free to work out the 
best possible arrangements, including execution of public 
improvements whenever it is advantageous to make public 
and private work a single project. The whole program 
should be established by contract between city and corpora- 
tion based upon completed plans, and, of course, subject to 
supervisory inspection. In the Harlem area it should be 
most practicable to commence construction of housing upon 
the industrial blocks, now in one cwnership. The upper 
level plaza should be a part of this project. The park might 
well be separate. To balance these, the decanting process 
should make possible the clearance of the two southerly 
blocks (1919 and 1732) which are in the worst condition. 
Here in turn can take place the next step in reconstruction 
by the replacement process. Again decanting will be neces- 
sary. Tenants able to pay the best rents move into newer 
buildings. Those from buildings to be demolished are 
shifted into buildings which are at least one grade better. 








Ce 
BLOCK REORGANIZATION aw NEW CONSTRUCTION - 6 story UNITS - (ELEVATOR) 41250/p, 
TAXES ON 80% OF CONSTRUCTION COST. 


INTERMEDIATE STAGES 








“1014 Rs 












Coverage 74% 

DEFICIT 

448 ACANCIES 
eee 

crea 7)|Il) Se 
3358 5,720 
TAXES 

929 


PROFIT perore FINANCING 
DEFICIT serort FINANCING 
MTGE INTEREST EARNED 
MTGE INT NOT EARNED 





ery 
BEFORE 


Nete : All figures on Monthly Basis 


- = 








(Capital expended 923045) 


AFTER 


ALTERNATE PROPOSALS > 


er 
a) OCCUR 95% 


Coverage Da 
























BLOCK 330-3 
AFTER NEW CONSTRUCTION 


LAND UTILIZATION COMMITTEE 
NY BUILDING CONGRESS 
WORK DividiOn PROSECT, EMLacEncy 
ALLIEF BUREAU CITY OF NEw YORK 

PROTECT 33. | 


Block 330-B ...New York 


WO BLOCKS in New York’s Lower East Side have 

been carried to the point where committees have been 

elected to represent owners and mortgagees. In one, 
75 per cent of the owners have already signified in writing 
their desire to join in a group enterprise for the replanning 
and rebuilding of the block. Their committee has caused a 
certificate of incorporation to be drawn and by-laws to be 
drafted. Each owner is to be given cumulative preferred 
stock which will pay him the equivalent of his present net 
income and common stock representing the ratio which the 
value of his property bears to the whole. The owners are 
ready to request from their mortgagees, consent to the plan 
for reconstruction. Extension agreements will be executed 
amending the mortgages and the stock will be placed in 
escrow as additional collateral when requested. Hope for 


44 


both owners and mortgagees lies in the improvement of net 
income. By no other means can depreciated capital values 
be restored. It is, therefore, important to get rid of un- 
economical buildings whose high maintenance costs have 
been a drain upon earning power. An outstanding advan- 
tage of the group plan is the opportunity to concentrate 
vacancies and demolish unfit structures. Reconstruction is 
to proceed progressively according to the group plan. 
Wholesale reconstruction would merely cut off all income 
and increase carrying costs out of proportion to ability to 
pay. Present vacancies are great enough to permit the 
immediate clearing of approximately one-quarter of the 
block. The diagram reveals the successive steps toward 
complete reconstruction and the economic status of the block 
corporation at the inception and completion. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


A graphic illustration showine 
cess of construction which ‘ 
formed the scene at far le# 


this modern housing develor4 











ge ae 


See) See eee 


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al 
cma) 
a 


fw eeeeeeenaee * 
- 
hme 


FOR SEPTEMBER 








a 
RW 
M4 Rus, 
ge 41 
VACA: 
Gross 
INCOME 
14085 
showin 
which 
far 
deve 

T 


Sw 





PHOTOS: 


JESSIE TAREOX BEALS 


LUTAH MARIA RIGGS, ARCHITECT 
HOUSE AT SANTA BARBARA, CALIFORNIA 


A modernization possibility is suggested in this plan, 
although it is not an example of remodelling. The 
relation of the small, compact kitchen to the din- 
ing room and outside entrances indicates that a simi- 
iar idea for an addition to an existing house might 


be used without materially changing the other rooms 


46 


SCALE 





aundry trays, Hot 
walter healer, and 
Incinerator outside 


GARDEN 


KITCHEN 


AMERICAN 








ARCHITECT 


























Wood cabi! 





Details of kitchen. The floor is red Angulo tile; 


walls, white plaster; ceiling beams and wood- 




















work painted white; shutters are emerald green; 





drainboard, blue and white Mexican Puebla 














tile. On facing page is view in dining room. 





In general, the same materials and color scheme 


has been used. Lutah Maria Riggs, architect 




















FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 47 





REPL ee 4 


oe 


z 
: 
, 
. 
z 
a 
: 
h 
ve 





PHOTOS: HOYT CATLIN 


Dining alcove in the Hoyt Catlin house, New Canaan, Conn., Har- 
rison Gill, architect. Although apparently a separate room, the dining 


space is actually a part of the unusually well-planned kitchen 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 











HARRISON GILL, ARCHITECT 
HOUSE OF HOYT CATLIN, NEW CANAAN, CONNECTICUT 





















SCALE 

5 oO 10' [ 1 = 
up 
we 
ALCOVE / 
) LIVING ROOM 
GARAGE 
= 




















FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 









Remodelling an unused room into a kitchen and din- 
ing alcove can easily be accomplished by developing 
the plan along lines similar to these. A bar 48 
inches high and 12 inches wide with a swing gate 
divides the kitchen from dining space. At back of 
bar are sink, drainboard and utensil cabinets hidden 
from view of diners. China cupboards under bar 
on dining side. Wall surface is knotty pine boards 


stained a natural finish and the ceiling is plaster 








—_ Ee y mens 





In the Hoyt Catlin kitchen are 32 square feet of working top, within two steps of the center of 


the room. Working surfaces are 36 inches high from floor and 22 inches deep, front and back 


50 AMERICAN ARCHITECT F 








FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 





NORTH AND SHELGREN, ARCHITECTS 
HOUSE AT BRADFORD, PENNSYLVANIA 


Modernizing for specific requirements of a large family that entertains 
many guests is illustrated in the design and plan of this kitchen. William H. 


Prentice Co., Inc., decorators and P. C. Quintard, kitchen plan consultant 


























. 
fe 
is + 
: ¥ tel + 
? 
' + 
~ * s1¢ 
if “ 
—— epare, Ge 
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a 
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yt , 
— ie ,% 
= : 
—— 





The plan solves the problem of combining elab- 
orate service features with dining facilities for 
occasional quests. The design is patterned after 
the traditional type of Dutch kitchen. Materials 
chosen to create this atmosphere are: floors, oak 
plank, oiled; walls, Dutch tile; woodwork, white 
oak stained; beams and ceiling of oak boards; 
windows, stained glass with medallions depict- 
ing Dutch scenes. Pantry and cold room floor, 
rubber tile; walls, plaster; woodwork, stained 


poplar. Electric fan ventilation throughout 


52 


re) 





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nin 
ne Mm f 
= tl a. = > 
a Joa 
- tdi % 
“io oA 
» 4 
aon 






Ga ROOM 


DININC 























i ik 2 
- aa | pt 


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Nok ae \; = 


i) 
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2 Company, 
and P. C. 
Consultant 

















WALCOTT & WORK, ARCHITECTS 
HOUSE OF W. P. SIDLEY, BARRINGTON, IIL 


A modernization solution to problem of com- 
bined kitchen and living room conveniences. 
Walls and ceiling, Canadian spruce; ceiling 
beams, pine; floor bluestone, waxed; fire- 


place faced with Javender old Dutch tile 
PHOTOS: JESSIE TARBOX BEALS 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 











ILL. 





FOR SEPTEMBER 


The Legal Side of Architecture 


BY CLINTON H. 


Blake and Voorhees, 


Proof of Substantial 
Performance Makes Contract 


Price Recoverable 


HE doctrine of substantial performance was 
adopted to do away with the obvious injustice 
of allowing one party to a contract to refuse 
to make payment for services rendered by the 
other party because, in some relatively unimportant 
details, the contract had not been exactly complied 
with. If a contractor on a $100,000 job omitted to 
install some hardware or failed to keep to the exact 
letter of the contract in other unimportant particu- 
lars, the courts in effect said that they would do 
justice by allowing him to recover the amount of the 
contract price, less a proper allowance for the de- 
fective or uncompleted work. This was on the theory 
that the contract had in all substantial particulars 
heen completed and that the payment of the con- 
tract price might not, therefore, be withheld because 
of some technical noncompliance with respect to 
which the owner could quite easily be compensated. 
This represented a relaxation in the case of build- 
ing contracts of the ordinary legal rule that a party 
toa contract cannot recover under it unless he proves 
that he has fully performed all of his obligations. 


BURDEN OF PROOF RESTS 
ON CONTRACTOR 


HE Court of Appeals of New York in a recent 
case again recognized this doctrine. It has re- 
fused, however, to apply it where the allowance for 
omissions and defects rests merely on conjecture. 

In the case in question (Nieman-Irving & Co. v. 
Lazenby) the plaintiff, a contractor, agreed to per- 
form work and furnish materials for the recon- 
struction of a residence for the defendant in ac- 
cordance with the architects’ plans. The work was 
to be done on a cost-plus-10% basis. The architects 
directed certain additions and changes to be made. 
The owner claimed that he had not authorized some 
of the work done and that in any event plaintiff had 
not properly performed the contract. The judge who 
tried the case made a finding that the cost to the 
plaintiff of the labor and materials was the exact 
amount which the plaintiff claimed, but deducted 


1935 


BLAKE 


Counsellors-at-Law 


te 


from this the sum of $2,500. The only explanation 
made by the Trial Court of this deduction was the 
statement by the judge that: 


“Believing the defendant to be entitled to a re- 
duction in the amount charged, in order that de- 
fective work may be repaired, that allowance may 
be made for work not ordered and for extras done 
without his knowledge and against his desire, an 
allowance of $2,500 is made to defendant.’ 


There was nothing to show how this allowance 
was arrived at or how it should be apportioned. The 
Court of Appeals, in reversing the judgment, held 
that: 


“The plaintiff's recovery is not based upon any 
finding of complete performance. The rule that re- 
covery under a contract can be had only upon proof 
of performance has been relaxed in actions upon 
building contracts. It has not been abrogated. Though 
there be defects or omissions in the complete per- 
formance of the contractor’s stipulated obligation. 
there may be a recovery upon proof of substantial 
performance where the omissions and defects are 
trivial and innocent and can be atoned for by the 
allowance of the resultant change. (Jacobs & 
Youngs v. Kent, 230 N. Y. 239; Spence v. Ham, 
163 N. Y. 220.) The contract price is the stipu- 
lated reward for a stipulated benefit. 

“A contractor is not entitled to compensation from 
an owner even for improvements which benefit the 
owner unless that is the benefit for which an owner 
agreed to pay. There may be adjustment where the 
contractor shows that the variance is unimportant 
and innocent and can be remedied or atoned for. 
There can be no adjustment based upon the conjec- 
ture of judge or jury that a payment to the con- 
tractor of a sum substantially less than the stipulated 
price for stipulated work will be fair compensation 
for an accession of value to the real property, though 
not through performance of the stipulated work. 
(Steel Storage & Elevator Constr. Co. v. Stock, 225 
N. Y. 173.) There must be both proof and find- 
ing of the nature of the omissions and defects; cost 
of making such omissions and defects good, and 
the findings must establish that the defects and omis- 
sions are in truth unsubstantial. (Spence v. Ham, 
supra.) Both proof and findings are wanting here, 
and judgment must, therefore, be reversed.” 

The architects for the work were brought into the 
litigation and their right to their fee was an addi- 


Ww 
wi 











tional issue. In considering this, the court reiterated 
the rule which we have recently discussed, that an 
architect who does not exercise proper skill and 
diligence is not entitled to compensation. It went 
further than this, however, and in effect applied the 
doctrine of substantial performance to the architec- 
tural services 
tractor. 


as well as to the services of the con- 
In this connection the court said: 


DOCTRINE APPLIES TO 
ARCHITECTURAL SERVICE 


\\ HAT we have said as to the claim of the 

contractor applies with even greater force 
to the claim of the architects. Their compensation 
was promised for the exercise of skill and diligence. 
If they failed to exercise that they 
compensation. 


are entitled to no 
If in the performance of their work 
they did exercise skill and diligence but through an 
oversight or lapse caused some damage to the owner, 
then the damages may be offset against the recovery.” 


The foregoing opinion seems entirely reasonable 
and proper. The doctrine of substantial performance, 
having been developed as an exception to the general 
rule for the purpose of preventing an_ injustice, 
should not be so applied as to work an injustice. To 
apply it in a case where there are admittedly defects 
and omissions, but proof of their extent and charac- 
ter is lacking, would put a premium upon shoddy 
work and to a substantial degree nullify the primary 
purpose of the contract. Inasmuch as the substan- 
tial performance exception to the general rule of 
full performance has been applied to building con- 
tracts, it necessarily should logically be applied to 
all phases of those contracts. The activities of the 
architect are definitely a part of the building opera- 
tion and in many cases are specifically referred to 
in the building contract. The standard form of the 
American Institute, for example, makes definite ref- 
erence to the Architect and to the plans and specifi- 
cations and ties them in with the other phases of 
the work. It is proper, therefore, that the archi- 
tect as well as the contractor should receive the 
benefit of the substantial performance rule. 











COST OF DEFECTS MUST 
BE PROVED 


N another recent decision by the New York Ap- 

pellate Court (Blanchard v. The City of Saratoga 
Springs, 241 App. Div. 193), the court pointed out 
the necessity of proving, not only that defects or 
omissions are unsubstantial, but also the cost of rem- 
edying them. In that case the referee who tried 
the case found that the trench system which the con- 
tractors had installed was defective, but refused to 
allow the owner any credit, on the ground that it 
had failed to prove the cost of remedying the defect. 
In reversing the case, the court pointed out that the 
burden of showing complete or substantial —per- 
formance was not upon the owner but upon the 
contractor and said in this connection: 


“He who relies upon substantial as contrasted 
with complete performance must prove the expense 
of supplying the omission or he fails in his proof. 
He cannot recover for full performance when a 
part of the contract is still unperformed. Unsub- 
stantial defects may be cured, but at the expense of 
the contractor, not the owner. The contractor can- 
not recover the entire contract price when defects 
or omissions appear, for he must show not only that 
they were unsubstantial and unintentional but also 
the amount needed to make them good, so that it 
can be deducted from the contract price and recov- 
ery had for the balance only. Ham, 163 
N. Y. 220.)” 

A contractor or architect, therefore, seeking to 
recover on the basis of substantial performance, 
must realize that he is being given the benefit of 
an exception to a general rule and that he must 
fulfill all of the necessary proof requirements. Be- 
cause the performance is substantial but not com- 
plete the owner is entitled to a credit for the cost of 
remedying the omissions. It is incumbent on the 
one making the claim to show what the cost of do- 
ing this will be, so that the court will be able, 
it finds that the work has heen substantially com- 
pleted, to give proper credit to the owner and award 
judgment only for the balance of the contract price. 


(Spence v 








56 


AMERICAN 


ARCHITECT 








HOUSES OF THE OLD SOUTH 


£ 4} most fascinatina chapters in 


shutter-bordered windows, and in 


* rata rich in historical lore a in romance, has contributed one 
instinctively brina to mind the charac 


‘the quarter y 


ames River. Many 
cupboards, book- 


of the Old South. U ) great mansions 


large rooms of pine 
»vitable fireplace. These house now fa ontribution to precedent for 
It remained for Frances Benjamin arant from the Carnegie 
of New York to make a_ photoaraphic she has 


| of her subject is vividiy portraye llustrations 


in capturing the spirit and details 








plendid exar of the period. The house was built by William Clai- 


w, Fairfield Farm, Princess Anne County, near Kempsvill built 1660 












































XUM 


ae heeds 


z 





Fluvanna 
y 1800's as a hunting lodge 
J } Hartwell Cocke 

















This interesting view of the brick gable end of the James Monroe 
gq [nda 


Fredericksburg, Spottsylvania County, shows the building as it st 








Schemes for Improvement 


O MUCH has been written about various types of plans that any suggestion which 
involves advanced planning for civic improvements is likely to meet with skeptical 
opposition. But not all plans imply an attempt to overthrow society as it is con- 

constituted at present. Some of them suggest practical methods of solving current problems 
which would strengthen the advantages of our current social and economic organization 


while eliminating some of its more obvious inefficiencies. 


Elements of one such scheme are embodied in the article “Stabilized Modernization,” by 
Arthur C. Holden, published elsewhere in this issue. To insure a program of general 
civic improvement, Mr. Holden suggests that advance planning is a necessity. He advo- 
cates using part of the monies already allocated for slum clearance and housing as a re- 


volving fund to finance the work of advance planning groups. Thus could be secured the 





best brains and adequate staffs of technical assistants to study and develop plans for 


economic and physical reorganization prior to appropriations for actual construction. 


The whole idea has much to recommend it. The basic necessity for slum clearance, prop- 
erty improvement and low-rent housing is apparent in most cities. Experience has proved 
that not all projects have equal justification, socially or economically. Proof of that justi- 
fication and demonstration of a project’s value from every point of interest are matters 
that can best be developed by means of practical research. And a program of advance 
planning for economic and physical reorganization can furnish graphic and convincing 
proof to financial and real estate interests of the essential soundness of a thoroughly 
studied technical solution. In too many recent efforts at slum clearance and housing we 
have declared an emergency, torn down, re-built and trusted to our proverbial good luck 


for good results beyond the expediency of the moment. 


It is true that planning boards exist in most cities of any size. But it is equally true that 
these boards accord very little recognition to the technical problems of land use and 
urban improvement that come within the province of the architectural profession. Solu- 
tion to such problems involve construction, which, in turn, implies an intimate concern 


with social and economic advantages. By serving the best interests of the various busi- 





ness factors involved an advance planning program would inevitably produce lasting and 


‘ general benefits to the community as a whole. 
FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 65 














S 


THE OUTLOOK 
CY; many fronts there are indications that Amer- 


ica is slowly but surely arising from the 
depths of despair, consistent demands of business for 
an adjournment of Congress -have been answered. 
The President’s message of a “Breathing Spell for 
sased the frazzled nerves of indus- 
try and for the seventh consecutive month, build- 
ing, the real barometer of progress, has shown a 
decided increase over the same period a year ago 
—an increase of 52.7 per cent., according to Dun & 
Bradstreet, is encouraging at least, when we consider 
that this figure is almost equal to the permits issued 
for the entire year of 1933. 

Residential building leads the field. A fairly ac 
curate estimate places this type of construction at 
approximately $400,000,000 for the year... so far 
as the architectural profession is concerned the cur- 


Jusiness” has 


rent building picture is not quite so glowing as it 
might seem for it must be remembered that residen- 
tial building in the $3,000 to $8,000 class does not 
offer the architect much opportunity ; however, the 
profession can take heart in the fact that history re- 
peats itself, that a residential swing upward is 
always followed by a general rise in heavy con- 
struction. 


A SYSTEM THAT WORKS 
tae Down Modernization might well be 


the title of a loose leaf record book in the office 
of a prominent firm of New York architects, for 
between its covers are listed a hundred or more 
buildings within the class of “modernization patients,” 
a record of vital importance to the architects and to 
their client, one of the largest banks in the coun- 
try. Every property on which the bank holds a 
mortgage is included. A system of key numbers 
designates individual projects, giving location and 
address with comprehensive data concerning those 
projects under construction, in the planning stage 
and to be given future consideration. This service 
has enabled their client to dispose of many mortgage 
holdings to their advantage. 


THE PRIMARY FUNCTION 

N approach to the practical side of architecture 

emphasizing the primary function of the archi- 
tect, that of creating a design for a building which 
can be built within a set appropriation, is at last to 
become a major factor in architectural education. 
At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology the 
students in the school of architecture will select and 


66 


t Look s 


purchase a suitable site and design and plan a mod- 
erate sized house, select a building contractor and 
supervise every step of construction. Studies of in- 
terior color schemes and landscape treatment of the 
grounds will complete the project. When the house 
is finished it will be sold and the money used for 
financing a similar dwelling for the next year’s class. 
Through the actual design, planning and supervision 
of construction the student will receive a practical 
knowledge hitherto sadly lacking in the 
architectural education. 


scheme of 


FIGURE COSTS FIRST 


HEN an industrialist on Long Island, N. Y. 

employed an architect, he listed his re- 
quirements and stated that the building should not 
cost over $200,000. The low bid was approximately 
$360,000. The architect then partially re-designed 
the building and after taking many alternates, re- 
duced the low figure to $320,000. What happened 
then is a sad story 


the architect was paid off 
and dismissed. 


The two low bidders were invited 
to re-design the building and submit new bids—re- 
sults: $235,000 and $216,000. This work was 
awarded to the lower of the two bidders for $218,- 
000 with a number of alternates. It is interesting 
to note that the contractor who received the award 
had employed an architect for re-designing the 
building. When the average architect learns to 
figure construction cost, like the average industrial 
executive figures plant production cost—then will 
architectural services be fully appreciated. 


A CASE OF RED-TO-BLACK 


VERY DAY brings to light some important 
E modernization project which has turned loss into 
profit for the owner. A recent example is that of 
the Fifth-third Bank in Cincinnati, which stood 
vacant for three years with a resultant loss of $160,- 
000 in revenue. The deep recess in front, the granite 
columns, plus the high vaulted banking room 160 
feet in depth made it impossible to find a tenant. 
Plans for the remodelling were drawn by Samuel 
Hannaford & Sons, and the completed structure 
made available two modern retail stores of two 
stories each. Leases have already been signed at a 
rental of $60,000 per year. The total cost of the 
work was $100,000 and the rental received will give 
the owner a six per cent return on his investment 
in the property. In every city, town and commu- 
nity throughout the country, modernization 
aloud for architectural attention. 


cries 
Investors need a 


AMERICAN 


ARCHITECT 











os 





FOR SEPTEMBER 


Oo. 6«6f © 


fair return on their money. Proper combination of 
the two should bring many excellent commissions to 
architects. 


QUESTION MARK 


A BOSTON department store has launched a 
“Home Development Plan” under which it 
will build, furnish, exhibit and later offer for sale 
seven model homes. An architectural contest for 
designs has been held, calling for houses ranging 
in price from $5,000 to $20,000. On the other 
side of the continent, a retail store in Los Angeles, 
has set up a good-will builder in the form of a 
“Home Advisory Bureau,” with full 
offered on all phases of home planning 
designing, building and decorating 

customers are 


information 
; real estate, 
interested 
referred to reliable architects. In 
Kalamazoo, Michigan, one of the leading banks is 
sponsoring in its quarters an Advisory Service by 
local architects on the design, plan and equipment of 
small homes . . . and so come similar reports from 
every section of the country. Architects are receiv- 
ing a lot of free publicity these days. The ques- 
tion is: What are architects doing to acquaint the 
public with the value of architectural service ? 


COLOR BLIND? 


NE well known architect—whose name we do 
e~ propose to disclose—is color blind. He 
has not only been successful as an architect, but also 
successful in keeping his minor handicap well con- 
cealed. The fact became known to his associates 
one day several years ago when he made a crayon 
sketch, the colors in which were more or less re- 
One of the draftsmen thoughtfully made 
him a special set of color crayons indicating on the 
end of the pencils the names of the colors. There are 
few handicaps that ingenuity will not overcome. 


versed. 


TO THE LADIES 


HE recent survey, by Women Investors in 
Epi Inc., reveals that women are benefi- 
ciaries of 80 per cent of the sixty-five million life 
insurance policies, aggregating more than $100,000,- 
000 . have 65 per cent of savings accounts, to 
the amount of $14,242,800,000 . . . hold 48 per cent 
of the stock of all railroad corporations . . . 44 per 
cent of public utility securities and titles to 40 per 
cent of all real estate. From these facts it seems 
that the market for architectural service now and in 
the future rests largely in the hands of women. 


1935 


rt a2? gs 


POINTING THE WAY 

HILE it may be true that prefabricated hous- 

ing has not proved as financially remunera- 
tive as its exponents desired, they have at least been 
successful in introducing some sound and _ practical 
ideas which the architectural profession can study 
to advantage in meeting the problem of the low-cost, 
single-dwelling housing shortage in every section of 
the country. 

Basements are being eliminated; waterproofing 
and drainage are no longer a necessity; excavating 
cost is reduced to a minimum; proper insulation re- 
duces fuel cost; wallboard, plywood, gypsum and 
other synthetic materials are proving their worth; 
windows and frames pre-built come complete with 
weather-stripping, screens and storm sash all fitted 
to be set in the wall; heating units; furnace, oil 
burner, water heater and thermostatic controls de- 
livered as a unit on the job with one guarantee. 

Prefabrication is clearly influencing design; more 
windows corner windows for light and air; 
compact room arrangement, terraces, simple 
and solid colors. 


lines 
Proper architectural supervision, 
elimination of speculative builders, better construc- 
tion organizations and open minds to the practical, 
economical and sound investment features of pre- 
fabrication points the way to a natural solution of 
the low-cost housing problem for the masses. 


FIRE! FIRE! 


N industrial plant in Binghamton, N. Y., caught 

fire; the outbreak discovered at 2:30 
P.M. on a working day when the place was full of 
employes. At 2:35 P.M. the building was such an 
inferno that the arriving firemen could not get on 
that side of the street—and 35 people had already 
heen cremated, most of them on the fire escapes. In 
a scant twenty minutes the factory was so completely 
gutted that the front wall collapsed. 

Human life is a precious thing and architects 
in their design of buildings are morally, if not other- 
wise, obligated to protect it. How many people know 
that a fire starting on the first floor sends to floors 
above an advance guard of withering heat which 
mounts with lightning-like rapidity from 300, to 
700, to 1000 degrees. Fire underwriters say that 
even hardwood will ignite at about 400 degrees when 
its entire surface is bathed in air of that tempera- 
ture. A few extra dollars invested in fire-resisting 
materials and adequate planning for fire protection 
would save millions of invested capital, to say noth- 
ing of human lives. 


was 


67 











Measuring tor 


WRITE FIGURES THUS 
S*t0° InoicATED Vio 



















SOV 4 1/10 Vs 
i 8 #6 
LAUNDRY 
#5 
A/TCHEN 
a7 A/ 
ENGL #2 


Porcu| LY-AN [WALLA #3 


DINING RM 














7H/S5 
rt 
Ve V2 S/o Ze! 


INDICATES THIS 








| 6| SHOw FIN. 70 FIN WALL 
THICKNESS AT OPENINGS 

# 
| 


| 


INDICATE ROOM No. 
THAT ALL DOORS LEAD 
70. ALSO SHOW 

| DOOR SWINGS 





CEILING BEAMS 
ABOVE /NDICATE GS — 
DEPTH BELOW FIN 
CE/LING AND W/DTH 
OF SOFFIT 


Ze” ee 
eo 
20-3C-15S 


RADIATORS AND 
PLUMBING SHOULD 
BE /NO/CATED /N 
RED PENC/L /N 
IANNER SHOWN 


Figure | 





Alterations 





68 


BY JOSEPH W. MOLITOR 


HE following method of preparing preliminary 

plans for an alteration is adapted for one man 

without a helper, and saves considerable time 

over the usual method. It is designed to put 
data in such form that any draftsman can develop 
the work at any time, even if it is postponed for a 
long period. 

The equipment is simple, 8% x 11 notebook paper 
(with standard data that can be typed or put on with 
some form of duplicator), a piece of 4” preswood 
9% x 13, two five-foot folding rules, a fifty-foot 
steel tape, an old jack knife and several pencils are 
all that is needed for any job. 

First make a small key plan, as shown in Figure 
1. This plan need not show any details, but should 
indicate the names of the rooms with a reference 
number for each. Now on a sheet of notebook 
paper, Figure 2, on which standard data have pre- 
viously been typed—make a plan of one of the rooms. 
By placing only one room on a sheet, all data about 
that particular room will be in one place and the 
chance of overlooking something will be consider- 
ably lessened. 

In noting dimensions speed is gained and con- 
fusion avoided by using the following system of 
notation: For example, 0’ and 7” is written simply 
7; 5’'—9" is written 5/9; fractions taken to the near- 
est half inch have proved accurate enough for any 
job, so 4’—8Y4” is written 4/8’—a short line next 
the inch figure indicating the fraction. To prevent 
errors check short figures with overall figures before 
leaving the job. 

Interiors offer no problems that are not readily 
solved. It is useful, however, to note in red pencil 
any figures referring to mechanical details such as 
radiators, light outlets, etc. in order to avoid con- 
fusion with structural figures. 

If any exterior elevations are required, the quick- 
est and most efficient way is to photograph them. 
Cut strips of black cardboard to exactly three by 
twelve inches. Fasten one of these scales to the trim 
of one of the ground floor windows; and another 
at the highest point, such as a dormer. If the build- 
ing is three or more stories high, one of the card- 
boards should be placed at the second floor. 

Take the photograph as a straight elevation; do 
not take a corner view or perspective. When the 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 














Sheet #7 


ee ay, 


Job 








/0 TREADS 
7% RISE 
UP /5R 





























al wita /¥f0 
24/8 
&® 





aS 
8/2 
Yoo 20 6 Yo\8 
7: — 
Vo 
| BRICK STEP 
O | 5 BELOW DOOR SLL 











Floor to window sill Zip $ill to head EI /e) Head to Ceil. g Each room should be drawn 


Floor to ceili S/o Finished floor to floor Ths on separate sheet (Figure 2 
this page) and given the same 
rioor fice. Zz" boards Radiators ~ 
number as on original key plan 
Width of door trim, # ) F _sCWindow trim “Z a (Figure | on facing page) 
Height of doors bho (Eck. door Yr) 











Figure 2 


photographs are enlarged to 8” x 10”, measurements measurements with the floor and window heights 
accurate to within three inches can be secured by taken inside will give all the data that will be 
using a pair of dividers and the scales provided by necessary. 

the cardboard strips. Due to the perspective of the It is always well for the person who is taking the 
picture the dimensions between floor levels will be measurements to be familiar with the extent of the 
found slightly smaller at the top than at the ground alterations, as much time will be saved by omitting 
floor. For this reason it is necessary to set dividers such data as have no bearing on the contemplated 
and take the measurement of each floor separately work, and a little more time spent on that portion 
instead of taking the entire measurement with one of the building on which alterations are to be made 
scale from first floor mark to roof line. These will be found advantageous. 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 69 





aay 






TRIANGLE SERVICE 





PHOTO: 








Above: Cocktail lounge, aluminum painted ceiling with dure 
lumin strips, Grand Central Air Terminal, Glendale, Calif, 
Joe Plunkett, architect. Top left: ‘Arkansas Woman," wood 
carving by "Andy," Hollywood, California. Left center 
First, General Electric, "New American'' home, Marble 


head, Mass., result of recent competition. Royal Barry Will, 



















architect. Bottom left: Log cabin, Cook Forest State Park uy 
Pennsylvania, built by CCC boys. Facing page: Model of y 
“Deutsches Stadium,'' Berlin, for Olympic games; seating F: ¥ 


100,000; the swimming stadium adjoining seats 12,000 


Trends and 


LOW-COST HOUSING ... The first completed 
low-cost housing project appears to have failed to 
meet its market, according to a report by Simon 
Breines “The Philadelphia Experiment in Low Cost 
Housing,” appearing in the Real Estate Record. 
After setting its objective as furnishing low-cost 
housing for hosiery workers, although making no 
attempt to limit occupancy to union members, Mr. 
Breines finds that only a minority of hosiery 
workers are actually housed there, largely because 
the price per room jumped from the intended $8.50 
per month to $10.50 per month, not including garage 
or the cost of a refrigerator. 

The report states that the PWA_ furnished 
$1,039,000 of the $1,153,607 cost. In January, 100 
apartments were occupied of which only 40 are 





PHOTO: UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD 






AMERICAN ARCHITECT 














th dura. 
, Calif, 
"wood 
center; 
Marble. 
ry Wills, 


te Park tg 


lodel of 





FOR 








Ss: WIDE WORL~ 


tenanted by hosiery workers. The average worker 
makes $30 per week, and prior to the erection of 
the new housing, was paying $42 per month for a 
six room cottage and garage, including an esti- 
mated $12.50. At 
$8.50 per room the new five room apartments were 
to rent at $42.50, but instead Mr. Breines declares 
they cost $52.50, to which must be added $5 per 
month for garage space and $5 per month for two 
years to purchase refrigeration, a total cost of 
$62.50. Two room apartments, however, can be had 
for $27 to $30. 


service cost for coal, etc., of 


DOES MODERNIZATION PAY? ... Expert opinion 
seems to think so. In New York City alone, the 


Emigrant Industrial Saving Bank, according to 


SEPTEMBER 1935 


Topics of the Times... 


Lloyd A. Smith in “American Builder,” has sold 
during the past two years approximately nine hun- 
dred buildings, taken under foreclosure, which have 
heen improved to a profitable condition. The bank's 
architects draw many plans for modernization even 
before a prospective buyer appears. Restoration is 
deemed an essential part of the investment. When 
a building fails to return a fair profit on the invest- 
ment it should either be demolished or 
to an income basis. 


modernized 


® Future residential buildings, so states Meyer 
Fridstein in a recent of “The 
must carry rentals not over $35 to $40 a month for 
family units in order to pay interest and return the 


capital in thirty-five years 


issue Economist,” 


The average family 
S » 








PHOTOS: WIDE WORLD 





HOLLAND BUILDS WITH GLASS... 


The “Oepluchten" school in Amsterdam through 
the use of modern construction materials, re- 
ed the prob 


lem of proper light and air, although situated in 




















the midst of a conae area. ote the open 
decks on each floor ‘providina student 
recreation on rainy days. nis idea also takes 
into consideration the ee movement of stu 
dents in and out of the building. roof deck 


for open air classes is an interesting feature 








AMERICAN ARCHITECT 

















Bn 





oak PTR. 
ft a os 


4 PHOTO: COPYRIGHT, HAMILTON M. WRIGHT 
. . oo 8 - 
: . NEW ARCHITECTURE IN OLD WORLD 
; - ‘ Above: type of apartment house being erected in 


Cairo and along the Mediterranean shore. Top 


left: Czecho Slovakia finds modern architecture 





in the Prague Electric Company Building. Bottom 


left: The central building of the Official Social 


Assurance Prague's’ number one _ skyscraper 
0S: GLOBE 
income must be estimated at $30 to $40 a week. as of July, according to Stewart McDonald, Acting 
Skilled labor must be available at a dollar an hour, Administrator. Eighty-four insurance companies 
common at sixty to sixty-five cents. Common brick with assets of more than $4,487,000,000 have been 
must not sell over $7 to $8 a thousand and lum- approved under Title 2 of the National Housing 
ber over $35 a thousand board feet. Taxes take Act as mortgagees authorized to purchase insured 
fully 12 per cent of gross income, 10 to 12 per cent mortgages and make insured loans direct to home 
more going for fuel. Janitor and service may take owners. The allocation of $361,852,019 was re- 
$3.50 a month for each apartment. Ruling cost of ported by only 1,842 of more than 5,800 approved 
construction must drop 50 per cent before housing mortgagees, which is taken as an indication that this 
of this kind can be expected. To revive construction sum is less than one-third the actual amount now 
on a recovery scale, a definite relationship must exist available for insured mortgage investment. 
between gross rental income and unit prices of items 
involved in the new structures. ® Thirty national organizations and a number of 
independent experts have developed a_ graphical 
The total amount of private funds definitely “dictionary” of drawings. The work has been 
allocated for the purchase of home mortgages under adopted by the American Standards Association and 
the FHA insurance plan has reached $404,389,515, will be used as the guide in thousands of drafting 
T FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 ” 





XUM 


Plywood 
tures of 
mg ere 
Tenness* 
with pli 
and el 
window 


fitchen: 








Metal and color . . . new design conceptions for kitchens and 
bathrooms shown at recent Master Plumbers’ show in Chicago 
by Briggs Manufacturing Company, Detroit. Above: Round 
Electric stove on casters permits cooking from any angle. Left: 
Open dinette, all steel construction. Below: Bathroom with 
streamlined fixtures: walls and ceiling drawn metal, stainless 


steel strips. Units are enamelled in various color combinations 


PHOTOS: JESSIE TARBOX BEALS 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 

















ures of the 


ing erected 


Tennessee. Right: typical bedroom 


with plywood walls above wainscot 


and electric 


window. Below: detail in all-electric 


oe 7. DP ID POS LO | He, 
i 


- 


Plywood and electricity . .. fea- 


litchen; dinette at end of room 


low-priced houses be 
by TVA at Norris 


radiator under the 


a 


=> ~- 
ae 
<i eae 


LO LO 
ee 


- 
e an 
Tues 


- 


~~ 
* 
ig 
Pw 


~ 
ry 
~ 


. 


DOI OPW OF OOS IE, FOO 





. 
a 
@ 









































FOR 


According to Dean 


rooms throughout the country. 
Franklin DeR. Furman, Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology, a lack of uniformity in symbols has made 


the drawings of one company most unintelligible to 
other concerns which were obliged to use them. This 
new standard seeks to eliminate confusion. 

© A new type of rubber putty, developed by the 
B. F. Goodrich Company and known as “Plastikon” 
is said to be highly resistant to moisture, corrosive 
chemicals and fumes. Similar in appearance and 
consistency to ordinary painters’ putty, it may be 





SEPTEMBER 1935 


PHOTOS: 


applied with a knife in the same manner. 





























GALLOWAY 





It adheres 


equally well to steel or wood surfaces and, because 
it contains little oil, requires no mixing. The prod- 
uct is especially recommended for prevention of air 
leakage in air conditioned buildings. 


® Chemical clashes between paints are the subject 
of recent investigations by Forest Products Labora- 
tory chemists, who hold these hidden conflicts ac- 
countable for many failures of exterior repaint jobs. 

Premature cracking and scaling are the most com- 
mon manifestations of paint antipathies, which are 
apparently mutual in paints of different pigmenta- 
tions. For example, a white or tinted paint cannot 
be applied over brown, green, or deep red with- 
out risk of early damage. It is considered inadvis- 
able to change the color scheme of any building 
radically without taking possible “paint disagree- 
ments” Do not use white paint 
Paints of varying kinds 
and proportions of solid constant content should not 
be mixed. Paints containing varnish when covered 
with paints lacking varnish will cause trouble. 


into consideration. 
over any full-color paint. 


© In a recent address before the Art Institute of 
Chicago, Dr. Gustav Pauli, veteran European mu- 
seum director and former director of the Hamburg 
Kunsthalle discussed present-day art museums and 
the museum of the future. 

Dr. Pauli asked that in the design of new mu- 
seums, experiences with old buildings be taken into 
consideration, using them partly as models, but 








BUILT IN TEN DAYS... 














A demonstration home erected under title No. 
2 of the Federal Housing Administration, at 
Freedom, Pennsylvania. George E. Trent, archi- 
tect. Right: Progress of construction on 6th day; 
five days between plaster coats was allowed. 
Below: Dedication ceremonies upon completion. 
The work, the lot, 


including represents an 


outlay of approximately $7,200. 


also as 


warning. He pleaded for smaller museums, 
“museums with unified contents and with an archi- 
tecture and decoration that corresponds to the con- 
tents, without imitating the exhibit. It is not neces- 
sary to build chapels for the altarpieces of former 
centuries, Dutch living rooms for Rembrandt or Jan 
van Goven, or halls of Venetian palaces for Titian 
or Tintoretto. In our museums of the future we 
need not disavow the architecture of our time; but 
at any rate we should strive to produce a harmony 
between the objects of the collection and their archi- 
tectural frame.” 


® For the prime purpose of co-operating in the 
encouragement of house-building of all worthy 
types, the General Electric Company has organized a 
separate company known as Houses, Incorporated. 
It will be the purpose of Houses, Inc., states Presi- 
dent Gerard Swope, to co-operate with others in the 
development of houses of any type which seem 
worthy and promising; to conduct research work ; 
and to assist in the management and financing of 
such enterprises. The new organization will not it- 
self engage in the construction or sale of houses. 
“Only by such experimentation and effort in the 
construction of small homes can their quality and 
conveniences be improved and their cost diminished 


so as to bring them within reach of the greatest 
number of people,” said Mr. Swope. 


¢ There is a strong preference among savings and 
loan association officials for houses designed by 
architects as opposed to houses designed and erected 
by builders with no architectural plan or supervision 
service, states Gardner W. Taylor, president of the 
First Federal Savings and Loan Association of New 
York, in a recent issue of the New York Times. 


® During the past ten months 527 Better Housing 
expositions, exhibits and building shows have grown 
out of the program inaugurated by the Federal 
Housing Administration, according to a recent re- 
port from FHA headquarters. During the same 
period, exhibitions of educational value to the public 
have been held in 43 leading trade centers, which 
ranged from huge expositions housed in large audi- 
toriums to small individual booths, with an esti- 
mated attendance of 2,500,000. 

® Ezra Cresson, entomologist at Philadelphia’s 
Academy of Science, testifies that termites are be- 
coming more numerous all the time. Over $40,- 
000,000 worth of damage to existing buildings are 
credited to termites annually in the United States. 
As natural breeding places are destroyed through 
clearing of forest, they spread in search of food to 
building sites in towns and cities. In view of this 
rapid migration, it more and more becomes neces- 
sary, that building codes provide for the protection 
of buildings against termite infestation. 


© Since costly mistakes may result from workers’ 
unfamiliarity in handling and laying new materials, 
it is pointed out that their correct application is often 
more important than the selection of the material 
itself. In this connection Harold Hawkins writes 
in the current issue of The Residential Appraisers 
Review, that “education will be necessary, and it is 
(Continued on page 106) 


AMERICAN 


ARCHITECT 












American Architect "Materials 
in Design" Series, Number 5. 
Part |, “Carpets,"’ is published 
in this issue: Pari Il, “Wall 
Fabrics and Draperies” will 


appear in the November issue 


Terri £t.€ Go 





FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 


BY CARL T. SIGMAN AND WILLIAM J. WARD, JR. 





TERTILES... 


LMOST from the time when man was able 


to weave more textiles than he needed for 
his protection against the elements, fabrics 
have constituted a part of architectural dec- 

It was a natural desire of the primitive 
weaver to. hang the products of his loom on the walls 
and at the windows of his rude home, to drape them 
over his furniture and to lay them before his hearth. 

Through the years, the laborious and slow proc- 
esses of spinning and weaving have gradually given 
way to great machines for the preparation of yarns, 
and highly mechanized power looms for the weav- 
ing of textiles. Once the simplest decorative fabric 
was a proud possession. Today infinitely finer and 
more diversified fabrics are a commonplace in every 
home. This progress, however, has been largely 
mechanical. Quite properly, the textile designer 
like the architect still gains inspiration from the past, 
but both today have new materials and highly per- 
fected machinery to produce effects, difficult or im- 
possible in other days. 

In the uses of these new materials and machinery, 
the architect and artisan are working for a common 
end. They are mutually dependent and each must 
think increasingly in terms of the other’s functions. 
Graceful and well executed interiors today demand 
beautifully woven and harmoniously colored drape- 
ries, carpets and upholstering to consummate the 
decorative scheme. 

Carpets are considered somewhat in the order of 
their cost. The architect's problems of design are 
usually less concerned with rugs than with standard 
floor coverings. This discussion, therefore, will be 


oration. 


limited to American-made carpetings. Much of these 
data apply as well to rugs that are woven of the 
same fibers and on the same looms. 





PART |, 











CARPETS 





CHENILLE 
TARTING our classification at the top—from 
the standpoint of price, quality and design, the 

Chenilles are the aristocrats of carpets. Produced in 

seamless pieces of any length and up to 30 ft. in 

width, they can be woven to fit round, oval or very 
irregularly shaped rooms. They are the only type 
that can be woven in special designs and colors to 
carry out a decorative or architectural conception. 

Chenille is not stocked in regular patterns. Roll 

goods for cut orders come only in plain shades. 

An important characteristic of this weave is its 
durability. The pile depth may be as much as a full 
inch, making it soft, quiet and resilient under foot. 
For this reason it is much in demand as a floor cov- 
ering in galleries, theater foyers and similar public 
rooms. The largest ever made (46 ft. x 70 ft. with 
but one center seam) is in the Nebraska State 
Capitol. Although expensive, Chenille compares 
favorably in price with continental hand-tufted 
carpets, and can only be considered a luxury when 
restricted budgets have to be met or special designs 
are not required. 

Unlike other carpeting, Chenille is woven on two 
looms. On the first or weft, the weaver sends a 
shuttle of woolen or worsted surface yarn colored 
to follow the design, across and back. This con- 
tinues until a weft blanket is woven. The length- 
wise threads are widely spaced, twice as far apart 
as the desired depth of the pile. Revolving circular 
knives cut the woolen blanket in the middle of these 
spaces, making a long double fringe. The 
woolen ends are pinched with steam to form a “V” 
with the cotton warp yarns resulting in furry 
strands that resemble caterpillars, hence the name 
“Chenille” meaning “caterpillar” in French. 


loose 








AMERICAN ARCHITECT 











FOR 








HARD AVERILI 


SMITH 


COURTESY: 


Typical bedroom showing use of Wilton in figured design. 


Background in brown with 


These strips ot woolen or worsted surface yarn 
are tied in the proper sequence of colors, and when 
combed by hand into the weft position on the sec- 
ond loom, are woven upon a heavy woolen back. 
The pattern is developed as each weft row carries its 
contribution when the Chenille fur is bound into the 
finished fabric. 


WILTON 
EXT after chenille as regards weaving quality 
and price, we place Wilton. The name, 
characteristically, comes from the town in which the 
carpet was first made—Wilton, England. 

The type of yarn used in the surface weaving is 
what distinguishes the two general types of this 
carpet. The worsted variety offers the greater pos- 
sibilities of delicacy in design and texture whereas 
the woolen is more luxurious with a greater softness 
and depth of. pile. In either, well-covered pattern 
effects minimizing the appearance of wear, make it 
a highly satisfactory carpet for public places. 
Woolen Wiltons are recommended for lobbies and 


SEPTEMBER 1935 


figures 


and fringe in beige 


corridors. Worsted Wiltons for bedrooms, dining 
rooms and the like. In the higher grades, Wilton 
represents a dependable, long-time investment. 

Among the better woolen Wiltons is the “loom 
tufted” which has a 5” pile, and the “Saxony” type 
made of three-ply yarn with a pile fully 3¢” deep. 

All Wilton carpets are woven on the Jacquard 
loom, probably the most important invention in 
textile manufacture. Three to six “frames” holding 
spools of colored surface yarn to form the pattern 
are attached to the back of the loom. Since it will 
accommodate only five or six different yarns, color 
schemes are more restricted than in other weaves, 
although twelve to thirty colors are common with 
the five or six-frame construction. 

The Jacquard loom has many cards in which are 
punched holes in much the same manner as music 
rolls. These holes indicate a pattern previously 
worked out on cross-section paper with a square for 
each tuft of color. As many as 11,000 25%” x 19” 
cards may be required for one 9’ x 12’ rug. 


The yarns are fed through the loom in parallel, 


79 


BIGELOW-SANFORD CO, 





CARPET CONSTRUCTION 


JUTE WARP 
CHENILLE FUR__-~ i COTTON 
OR CATERPILLAR WARP WOOL FILLING BINDER WARP 








Cross section of Chenille 
showing how the Chenille fur 
is woven into the heavy 
wool back. The quality and 
strength of catcher thread 
"X" is of vital importance. 
To right of each cross sec- 
tion diagram in this group 
of illustrations are typical 
backs of carpets. In case of 
Wilton and Axminster, the 
number of rows per inch in- 
dicate quality. High grades 
have I! and inexpensive ones 


may have as low as 5 rows 


CHENILLE 







WOOLEN 
YARN 


TUFTS_, 
_ COTTON 
atl STUFFER me 
THREAD i 


JUTE 4 LLIN 
—»+/ COTTON BINDER THREADS — FILLING 





Cross section of Axminster 
showing how the loom does 
the work of thousands of 
Oriental fingers. When the 
chain is drawn tight the 
tuft becomes, to all in- 





i 
t tp 
, = 
Ss 
E 
: 
& 
2 he. 
bg 
she 
3 
o 


tents and purposes, a knot 


AXMINSTER 


80 





being raised and dropped by a series of wires and 
cords, as required by the card for each tuft of the 
design. Any colors not to be raised are buried in 
the back. Each tuft of yarn as it is raised is looped 
over a flat wire, the depth of the wire regulating 
the depth of the pile. As the wire is pulled out of 
the loops forming the pile (which is securely fast- 
ened by the cotton weft the width of the loom) a 
blade on the end of the wire cuts the loops and makes 
the tufted velvety appearance of the weave. These 
wires for fine carpets may vary from as many as 
thirteen to the inch to as few as six or seven. The 
heavier the yarns used, the fewer the number of wires 
per inch. These may be easily counted on the back. 

It is always necessary to have two weft “shots” 
of cotton yarn to form the weave. For the sake of 
holding down the pile more securely in the better 
weaves, an extra shot is put in the surface between 
the rows of worsted or woolen tufts, producing what 
is known as a “three-shot” weave. This is readily 
seen by folding back the carpet. 

The determining factors of quality in a Wilton 
are the pitch, the number of frames in weaving, the 
wires per inch, the character of the yarn, the depth 
of pile and the construction—either two or three shot. 

Yarn not brought to the surface by the loom in 
the weaving is buried in the back. This is an im- 
portant factor in the life of the carpet, rendering 
it more resilient and durable. 

As Wilton carpets contain no sizing and very 
little jute, they are particularly adapted for use in 
damp regions where those materials would be sub- 
ject to mildew attack. 








BURIED + { 
WORSTED \| BINDER 
YARN —\_‘\’ THREAD 


\\ COTTON WARP 


COTTON STUFFER 


| 
| 
| 


\.. WORSTED VARN OR COTTON BINDER 
COTTON WARP__\S. FRAMES BURIED IN BACK WARP THREAD 









Cross section of Wilton. 
There is a colored yarn for 
every tuft in every pile. 
The yarns are brought to 
the surface through holes 
punched in the Jacquard 
card giving strength, weight 
and depth to the fabric 


WILTON 


AMERICAN ARCHITEC 




















XUM 


BRUSSELS 


OT long ago Brussels carpet—so-called because 

it was first woven in the Belgian capital— 
was an extremely popular type in this country. To- 
day it has been superseded by the more luxurious 
pile carpets. The method of weaving on Jacquard 
looms is identical to the Wilton process except that 
the pile remains uncut. Brussels is still used fre- 
quently for ball rooms where carpet must be rolled 
up repeatedly and pile crush avoided. 


AXMINSTER 


N EXT are the Axminster carpets deriving their 
name from the English city that brought them 
into being. The number of yards of this carpeting 
woven in America exceeds all other types, and in 
relation to the cost, it represents as regards appear- 
ance, durability, and depth of pile, generally speak- 
ing, the greatest carpet value. Since Axminsters 
range in quality from the finest weaves down to the 
low priced grades, the name cannot in itself be taken 
as a criterion of value. 

In determining quality, three things should be 
examined: the character of the yarn, the depth of 
the pile, and—as in the case of the Wilton carpets— 
the number of rows per inch on the back of the 
carpet. A high grade carpet may have eleven rows 
per inch, an inexpensive grade as low as five. 

Unlike Wiltons the better Axminsters are woven 
in a wide variety of patterns and colors to harmonize 
with interior architecture and decoration. They are 
particularly suited to the less extravagant kind of 





DEFINITIONS OF 


AUBUSSON ... Fine hand-woven tap- 


estry or carpet originally made in the 


CARPETING 


JUTE ... Fibrous skin taken from stalk 


interior modernization and may be used wherever 
luxuriously soft carpet (with a silencing effect) is 
desirable, as in libraries. The better grades are often 
used for public rooms subject to heavy traffic. 

A cut-pile carpet, Axminster is easily distinguished 
from any other weave by the stiff jute back con- 
struction which prevents its being rolled crosswise 
of the fabric. Structurally it bears the closest re- 
semblance of any to a hand-knotted carpet. In this 
case, the tufts of wool are inserted mechanically 
in rows and bound down in the weft instead of being 
knotted. Each tuft forms part of the surface design 
and none of the surplus yarn is buried in the back 
as it is in the Wilton weave. 


VELVET 


ELVET carpeting, though less ruggedly con- 
\V structed, so resembles Wilton in appearance, 
with its tightly woven pile, that they are frequently 
compared. 

Whether plain or figured, velvets come in an ex- 
tremely wide range of colors and shading. A low 
elastic pile, tight weave and moderate price make 
them adaptable for homes, theaters, hotels or wher- 
ever fast traffic is heavy. Since all the yarn used in 
weaving appears on the surface, velvets are not only 
the cheapest of the weaves, but embody a high quality 
of yarn to withstand this direct exposure to wear. 
Sized jute yarn is used in the fabric for weight and 
strength as a stuffer. Generally it is stained on the 
back. 

Velvet carpeting is woven over wires on the ends 
of which are sharp knives which cut the pile when 





TERMS 


SELVAGE .. . Edge of a woven fabric 


FOR SEPTEMBER 


ancient French village of Aubusson 


AXMINSTER .. . A coarse, thick weave. 


Yarn threaded through fingers, caught 
and bound by warp-and-weft motion; 
yarn then cut to form pile tufts 


BRUSSELS .. . A weave similar to Wil- 


ton, except that loops instead of tufts 
form the nap 


CHENILLE ... French word meanina 
"caterpillar." A furry ribbon is used as 
weft, the fur protruding between the 
warp threads forming the surface nap 
FRAMES . .. Trays holding spools from 
which yarn is fed into Wilton looms. 
GROUND COLOR... The prevailing 
color against which other colors create 
the motif or design 


JACQUARD ...A pattern-making me- 
chanism consisting of a cardboard roll 


in which are punched holes indicating 
the colors of the tufts 


of plant grown in India is shredded and 
spun into strong and durable yarn 


LATEX ... A substance derived from a 
liquid found in the inner bark of the 
rubber tree. Used on patent-back carpets 


PILE . . . Upstanding fibers or tufts of 
worsted or woolen yarn that form the 
wearing surface of rugs or carpets 


PITCH ...Number of warp threads 
per inch measured crosswise of the 
loom. Good Wilton ruas, for example, 
are 256 pitch. 


QUARTER ... Unit of loom width, 9 
inches, or '/4 of a yard. The standard 
carpet width is 34, or 3 times 9 equals 
27 inches. Yard wide carpet is known 
as 4/4: 9 feet wide as 12/4; |5 feet 
wide as 20/4, etc. 


REPEAT ... Distance from beginning 
to end of the same figure in the pat- 
tern, measuring lengthwise of the fabric. 


so formed as to prevent raveling. 


TAPESTRY ...A loom surface fabric 
resembling Brussels using only one layer 
of worsted yarn, on which all of the 
colors have been dyed, according to de 
sign, before being placed in the loom 


TOP COLORS... Colors forming the 


design, as distinguished from the ground 
color 


VELVET ...A pile fabric forming its 
soft compact surface by a second warp 
woven into the loops and then cut or 
left as woven 


WARP . . . Threads which run the length 
of the cloth and are first set up in the 
loom 

WEFT ... Threads which run from oni 


selvage of the cloth to the other. Also 
woof or filling 


WILTON ... Fabric woven on a Jac 
quard loom with either a worsted or 
woolen yarn surface 





13a32 


81 






















INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL 


withdrawn. Again the closeness of the weave, the 
depth of the pile and, above all, the quality of the 
yarn are the indications of quality. 


TAPESTRY 
HI foregoing details apply equally to velvet and 
tapestry carpetings except that the latter is woven 
over bladeless wires and the pile left uncut. The 
resultant looped nap has unusual wear value and is 
effective for large installations where attractive de- 
signs are desired and economy is a consideration. 


BROADLOOMS 
"pore the old standard carpeting was 27 inches 


wide, any seamless carpet woven more than a 


yard wide is termed a broadloom. Available widths 


BERNARD HERTZIG 















IRTESY: 


Tedg-Dack 





broadioom used in bedroom with inserted fig 
ires in white on a turquoise background. Illustr 


hows method of cut-out and insertion f figures in desiqr 


are usually in multiples of three feet—that is 6 ft., 
9 ft. 12 ft. 15 ft, up to the maximum of 18 it. 
Chenille alone is woven up to a width of 30 ft. 
Broadloom, either plain or figured, comes in nearly 
every weave described thus far. Today, because ot 
the revived interest in overall carpeting they de- 
serve the careful consideration of architects. Dur 
ing the depression a vogue for broadlooms has re 
vitalized the carpet business. 

Overall broadlooms create a feeling of spacious- 
ness and lend themselves particularly to the con- 
temporary style. In monotone they set off orientals 
as effectively as a hardwood floor. And in mod- 
ernization work, poor floors are a problem architects 
have to face. Overall carpeting may constitute an 
economical and pleasing solution. 





BIGEL 











RICH 














LOW-SA) 


1 








RICHARD A SMITH COURTESY: BIGELOW-SANFORD CO, 


Overall carpeting of Hookloom-broadloom in Cocktail Bar. Savoy-Plaza Hotel, New York City. Walter M. Ballard, Decorator 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 














BROW NING 


Jacquard Wilton carpet in Foyer, Center Theatre, Rockefeller Center, New York; designed by Eugene Schoen & Sons 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 











FOR SEPTEMBER 





WILLOUGHBY 


PATENTED BACK CARPETING 
a important type developed in recent 


years is the patented-back broadloom. A coat 
of waterproof cement on the carpet back has the 
effect of locking the warp and weft tufts so that 
they cannot unravel. Edge binding and turn-unders 
are unnecessary and the process makes the carpet 
lie absolutely flat under all 
ditions. 

This development is important in that it makes 
possible the utilization of an architect’s designs with- 
out special weaving. Drawn in reverse on the back 
of a carpet of the desired base color the design is 
cut out by hand. The same patterns are then cut 
from other carpeting to fill the openings, puzzle- 
fashion, in the base carpet. The joinings are taped 
and cemented making them more than twice as 
strong as sewn seams. 

In like manner sections of carpets are smoothly 
joined or mitred. 

-atented-back broadlooms possess the flexibility 
of Chenille. The distinction is that this type is cut, 
not woven to shape, and only flat tones can be used 
in the inserted designs. Some manufacturers will 
specially dye broadloom carpeting to match desired 
colors, at no extra charge, in quantities of twelve 
yards or more. 


atmospheric con- 


Made-to-order designs are obtainable on very 


1935 









Patented-back Velvet broadloom with alternating strips of color design 


in Cocktail Bar, Statler Hotel, Boston. 








COURTESY: L. C. CHASE CO. 





Rorermer Cleveland, Decorator 


short notice and at a cost which is considerably 
below that of Chenille. 

Broadlooms with waterproof backing can be 
washed on the floor. They are impervious to soap 
and water and the back is rot-proof. Worn or 
damaged areas are replaced while the carpet re- 
mains in position. Such carpets can be cut down 
to the dimensions of smaller rooms with a minimum 
of waste. 


LUSTRE CARPETING 

ROM the very beginning of carpet manufacture 

in this country, designers have been influenced 
by oriental motifs, but the connoisseur would have 
none of the American-made oriental, because it was 
impossible to reproduce the subdued and mellowed 
coloring of an original. 

Today, this antipathy to the American oriental 
is disappearing with the perfection of the so-called 
“lustre rug.” By a chemical bath the gloss of real 
orientals can now be imparted to the surface yarn 
of either woolen or worsted carpets. Often the 
ground colors are high-lighted to further enhance 
their brilliance. 

Some lustres have the ordinary types of back 
found in domestic rugs, while. others have the 
pattern woven through to the back as in genuine 
orientals. 


























he OE 


















cou 








FOR 








Left: 


Hutzler 


Velvet 





rant 


RTESY: L. C. CHASE Co. 


seeveneas 


(il 


CAMBON STUDIOS 


INGRAIN 


O list of carpets would be complete without 
N mention of ingrain. Favorite of our grand- 
parents, it is little used today because of the demand 
for greater luxury and durability of modern pik 
carpets. 

Ingrain carpet is woven like plain cloth from 2-ply 
or 3-ply yarn dyed before weaving. The warp, often 
made up of threads of various colors, is so handled 
that the ground color of the design on the face be- 
comes the color of the figure on the reverse, and 
an ingrain carpet can, therefore, be used on either 
side. The mixing and weaving of these threads of 
different colors is called ingraining, and the more 
closely it is done, or, to be more explicit, the 
greater the number of warp and filling threads to 
the inch, the more durable and finer the quality of 
the carpet. 


SEPTEMBER 1935 


Patented-back 
with alternating 


Bros. 








carpet in 
Rockefeller 


Raymond H. Court Studios 


strips 








Store 
Union 


Baltimore. Below: 
News 
New 








Restau- 


York. 









Plaza 









Decorators 


COURTESY: 


SPECIAL CARPETS 


yp new type of carpet combining character- 
istics of the three major weaves—Wilton, 
\xminster and Chenille—is now being manufac- 
tured. It has a heavy wool back such as one finds 
ina Chenille. For this reason the wearing quality 
is on a par with that of the Wiltons; yet the manu- 
facturing process permits the use of an almost un- 
limited number of colors and a high pile, both Ax- 
minster features. 

Another type recently introduced is made of pure 
hair, punched by a special process in two layers of 
heavy burlap which provide a strong base for sew- 
ing purposes. The hair is rubberized into the back 
with Latex. This forms a selvage whenever the 
piece is cut. The surface then is sheared to give a 
smooth pile effect. Such carpet is produced in nine 
foot widths, in a range of twelve shades. 


ALEXANDER SMITH 















. 








. LINCOLN 















Broadloom carpet, patented -back, in dining 
room, house of Lawrence Gumbinner, New York. 


LeMaire, Right: Velvet 


House Beautiful 


Decorator. 
"Bride's House," 


Magazine, New York. Mrs. Dodd, Inc., Decorator 


Eleanor 





broadloom, 


CARPET UNDER-PADS 

NDER-PADDING or carpet “cushions” def- 

initely prolong the life of floor coverings. A 
test made with a specially constructed machine to 
simulate the effect of walking, wore out a carpet 
in 225,000 “steps.” With padding under the carpet 
700,000 “‘steps” were required to produce the same 
wear results. 

Rug cushioning is obtainable in different weights, 
the thickness depending upon the weight. It has 
insulating value against sound, heat or cold and 
by impregnation during manufacture is permanently 
moth-proofed. 

Following are some interesting considerations in 
handling floor coverings: 

A light colored carpet is unsatisfactory in a hotel 
dining room where food and liquids are constantly 
being spilled. Carpets that can be turned to dis- 
tribute wear are often used for elevator floors. For 


a stairway it is advisable to have a carpet cut eight 
or nine inches longer than necessary, the excess to 
be folded against the top riser. Whenever the carpet 
shows wear at the nosing of the treads it is shifted 
downward perhaps two inches. 

Because design makes wear less noticeable, big 





COURTESY: 


} 











lll 


\: ELE REED EBEREQ 
























L. 





Cc. 





CHASE CO. 





patterns with plain borders are generally used for 
public spaces. By planning lobby rugs in inter- 
changeable sizes, those in heavily traveled areas may 
be exchanged for units used in sheltered spaces. The 
soiling of carpets at doors leading from the kitchen 
to a public dining room can be remedied by the 
use of separate sections with “zipper” edges which 
are readily removable for cleaning.* Similarly, for 
short and much used flights of steps, as from the 
street to a public lobby, it is a good policy to buy 
duplicate coverings and substitute one while the other 
is at the cleaners. Wall-to-wall coverings in cor- 
ridors reduce upkeep and create an illusion of greater 
width and spaciousness. Brilliant hues tend to 
brighten a meagerly illuminated corridor. 

Improved cleaning and sterilizing equipment make 
it possible to furnish hospitals more completely than 
in the past. Short-pile carpets of fast dye are best 
suited to hospital use. 





*There is now available a hookless fastener or “zipper for 
carpets. By this means a portion of a large carpet can be 
taken up in a few minutes to provide dance space in dining 
rooms, etc.; used in front of kitchen doors they permit frequent 
cleaning. Such zippers are fastened to the bottom of the 
carpet, thereby hiding the line of demarcation. They are used 
in the Waldorf-Astoria in New York. 






AMERICAN ARCHITECT 





m*MERICAN 
MRCHITECT 


( 





| 
a'\ 
i 





Saver 


Standard 


(/ 


HOUSEHOLD KITCHEN PLANNING .... 
BATHROOM PLANNING—FIXTURES .. . 
BATHROOM PLANNING—ACCESSORIES 











AMERICAN ARCHITECT 








SEPTEMBER 1935 sericino.2 Hlousehold KITCHEN PLANNING — ELEMENT 


PURPOSE 


Basic elements or “work centers” of modern household kitchens 
and pantries are presented in terms of their constituent parts, 
their proper functions and their ideal relationships, one to an- 
other. The actual assemblage of these work centers will vary 
according to the size and shape of space available in each project. 
The drawings represent idealized diagrams, not working layouts, 
and are subject to such practical modifications and adjustments 
as project conditions require. 


PLANNING PRINCIPLES 


The following rules are based on principles of planning ap- 
proved by Good Housekeeping Institute and other recognized 
authorities. Where project conditions do not permit absolute com- 
pliance with the rules as stated, modifications and adjustments 
are usually possible without departing from the underlying 
principles. 


Rule 1. Avoid miscellaneous traffic through kitchen work areas. 
Arrange service entrance, access to basement, etc., so traffic not 
required for food storage, preparation or service, need not pass 
through kitchen or pantry. 


Rule 2. Non-working areas should be segregated from working 
areas in the kitchen and pantry. Avoid interruption of work areas 
by breakfast nooks, general storage closets, rest areas, etc., not 
essential to normal kitchen routine. 


Rule 3. Organize equipment into work centers of the following types 
(see diagrams). 


(a) Bulk and perishable food storage center, including refrig- 
erator. 


(b) Food preparation center, including mixing equipment and 
sink. 


(¢) Cooking center around range. 


(d) Serving centers (combined or separate): (1) hot foods ad- 
jacent to range and dish-warmer; (2) cold foods and bever- 
ages (may be pantry with separate refrigerator and sink, or 
may use food preparation center after work on foods to be 
cooked has been completed). 


a 


(e) Cleaning centers (may be combined): (1) for kitchen ute 
sils; (2) for tableware. If separate, place tableware cleanin 
center in pantry; if combined, the sink in the food prepar 


tion center becomes the cleaning center. 


(f) Tableware storage may be in pantry, kitchen or dining row 
china closet. 


Rule 4. Equip each work center for the storage of utensils, sw 
plies and dishes according to the point of first use, duplicatis: 
utensils and supplies where used frequently at more than 0 
point. Example: Store sauce pans requiring water and mixé 
preparations before cooking at food preparation center; fryit 
pans and broilers heated before adding foods, at range; dup 
cate condiments at food preparation center and range. Store se! 
ing dishes, platters and plates requiring warming near range (! 
warming oven. Store service plates, glassware, flat silverwa! 
linens, nearest dining area. 


Rule 5. Arrange work centers in following sequence, so far as [0 
sible, from service entrance where supplies are delivered to dinili 
area. (a) Food storage center; (b) Food preparation and kitche! 
cleaning center; (c) Cooking center; (d) Serving center 
(e) Tableware storage with tableware cleaning center, if separalt 
in pantry. A U-shaped plan minimizing steps between all cente! 
and concentrating traffic at open end is ideal for both kitche 
and pantry layouts. Two-wall and single-wall layouts acceptabl 
for smaller kitchens. 


Rule 6. Limit doors to two if possible. Concentrate doors on Ol 
wall or near one corner and avoid swinging of doors against 
toward any work center. Doors swinging toward any work t 
area will void the use of this space. 


Rule 7. Avoid floor areas difficult to clean by using cabinet ty? 
equipment wherever possible resting on a raised base with t0 
recess. Also make work tops continuous to simplify cleaning. 


Rule 8. Use a pantry, if conditions permit, as (a) a noise bafit 
between kitchen and dining area, (b) for tableware storage 4! 
cleaning, (c) as a preparation center for cold beverages, salaé! 
desserts if equipped with a secondary refrigerator, and (d) 45° 
cold food and beverage service center. 





AME 





SEPT 


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COO\WICC CHITD ANCE 


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———————o——enrnooarnea nen seen 









AMERICAN ARCHITECT 














BA 























SIC WORK CENT 














Vent sp 















































SERVICE ENTRANCE Supplies Recd 








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s needed 








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PHL AL Ie 
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Cabinet Front 
optional 





























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repar: 


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= 


LOCATION: 


sorting supplies. 


near dining area. 


desserts. 


points for convenient use. 


refrigeration 





Hot Food Service 


SERVING CENTERS 


LOCATION: Hot foods: 


(22) Work top for filling serving dishes. 


1. FOOD STORAGE CENTER 


Near service entrance 


Accessible to sink and Serving Centers 


ELEMENTS: (1) Refrigerator for perish- 
ables. (2) Work top for receiving and 
(3) Storage for surplus 
non-perishables not required at other 
(4) Bins and 


racks for vegetables, fruits not requiring 


2. FOOD 


PREPARATION 


KITCHEN CLEANING CENTER 


LOCATION: Adjacent to Food Storage Center and to Cooking Center 


venient for cleaning utensils and (usually) tableware 


ELEMENTS: (5) Work top for mixing and preparing foods to be cooked. (6) 
Mixing, chopping, extracting utensils or machine. (7) Condiment racks. (8) Stor- 
age for staple foods, such as flour, sugar, etc., used daily in cooking. (9) Storage 


for cooking utensils filled before use at range (baking, boiling, etc.) (10) Sink 


for pots, dishes, tableware. 
Towel racks or dryer 


structor or receptacle) 


(11) Mechanical dishwasher if not in pantry. 
(13) Means of garbage disposal (incinerator chute, de- 


(14) Racks for cleaning utensils and compounds 




































































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3] || 26 YT 28 |] [> 32 °| 5| 
\ | | L r [ : a I cal, 
| Po poll: [| 
Cold Food Service Chats eto 


adjacent to range; 


Cold foods: 


in pantry, or 


make secondary use of Food Preparation Center 


ELEMENTS: Hot foods: (21) Plate warmer (or in 


Cold foods: (24) Work top for arranging salads, 


LOCATION. Kitchen type, see Food Preparation 
Center. Pantry type, in pantry adjacent to Table- 


ware Storage Center 


or receptacle 


(23) Storage for serving dishes, plates and cups to 


6. 


be heated, etc., platters and large dishes below. 


bleware Cleaning Center 


(25) Sink for beverage preparation 


certain beverage glasses 


(26) Secondary refrigerator for salads, fruits, bev- 


erages. (27) Shelving for salad and dessert plates, 


etc., set on dining table prior to service 


5. TABLEWARE CLEANING CENTER 


ELEMENTS: (28) Dishwasher, (25) Sink, (29) Racks 
for cleaning utensils and compounds, (30) Means 


of garbage disposal (incinerator chute, destructor 


TABLEWARE STORAGE 


LOCATION: Adjacent to dining area, near To- 


ELEMENTS: (31) Shelving and racks for all table- 
ware, hollow silverware and table decorations. 


(32) Shelving or drawers for linens, flat silverware, 


CENTER and 3. COOKING CENTER 
LOCATION: Adjacent to sink and to 
Con- Hot Foods Serving Center 


ELEMENTS: (15) Range, (16) Range 
hood (and vent), (17) Clock, (18) Racks 
for condiments, racks for forks, stirring 
spoons, ladles used at range. (19) Stor- 
age for cooking utensils heated before 
(20) Work 


top adjacent to range for removing hot 


(12) adding foods (frying, broiling) 


dishes 


CRITICAL DIMENSIONS 














} iam 
D -@®d 
= oN 
XL = +o 
v i> = 
a To 
co er 
SN a * 
Oo — ~ 
wa Oo 
sr — 
NN an 
} a 
ee 
a. 
.) 
> 
} . 
o- ~O 
OND 
2 Bw 
| ™ LO LO 
onc 
| | ac 
|} @ 
|: per 
OL vo 
ae Se 
} o a 
1 > 
44" > © = 
; 3g EV 
J \ 3 to 3! 2 
i 21/5 
' WIth s c 5) 
= % =" } CoA 
-~ = 1 1 ns 








95° 


30 
Ranges vary__ 2b, 28; 30 
Sinks vary______ 20; to 2b 
Refrigerators__ 24 2b. 28 
Stock Cabinets__ 24" lo 2b” 












Copyright 1935, AMERICAN ARCHITECT 








AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


gre ~Saver 
JOE SE ) 





SEPTEMBER 1935 servic.) BATHROOM PLANNING — FIXTURES 


PURPOSE 


Information presented in this sheet is intended for use only in 
preliminary planning. Fixture sizes are subject to slight variation 
among different manufacturers, and with the advent of new mod- 
els and designs. Sizes of built-in units, such as bath tubs, may 
vary enough within each nominal size classification to affect the 
spacing of studs or the location of enclosing walls. Hence work- 
ing drawings should be checked against actual dimensions of the 
selected fixtures and no substitutions of make should be per- 
mitted without rechecking these factors. 


ARRANGEMENT OF UNITS 


For piping economy arrange wastes of all major units along one 
wall with water closet nearest soil line. Consider relation of wastes 
to framing members and depth of joists. The maximum horizon- 
tal runs from water closet to riser, using 4” C.I. soil pipe and in- 


permits the lavatory mirror and medicine closet to be centered 
and effectively lighted. It also brings the water closet near a wall 
space upon which the paper holder may be conveniently mounted. 


In all bathrooms provide ample wall space for built-in and port- 
able accesories. See Time-Saver Standards “Bathroom Planning- 
Accessories”, Serial No. 10, for complete information. 


CLEARANCES AROUND UNITS 

The diagram on this sheet shows the spacing between fixtures, 
or fixtures and walls which are considered minimum for comfort- 
able and proper use. They should be increased wherever possible 
and never diminished without careful consideration and approval 
of owner. These clearances do not make allowances for wall space 
required by built-in accessories. 

















AME 





SEPTE 





















































































































































cluding bend at fixture are: 4/0” horizontal run between joists 8” 
deep; 12/0” run in 10” joists; 15’0” run in 12” joists. TABLE |. SIZES OF MISCELLANEOUS FIXTURES 
Do not place window over any part of a bath tub, whether or Out f | 
not it is equipped with shower. Window may be behind water Equipment | Width Depth “a a. | Height 
closet if necessary, though it is seldom desirable. Preferred loca- ee, ees = an on J 
tions: either side of lavatory, over a dressing table or in clear ‘ | : = enkate 
wall space reserved for portable equipment Bidet | 12% 24 
Sitz Bath | 2' 8/4 "2 6/2 *2' 6// 
Door swings should be arranged so that: (a) the door cannot Manicure Table | Wo 2' 3" re a ae Ne 
strike any person using any fixture; (b) it will shield or conceal Child’ B th 1'g" 9' 9" 9' 9" 2" 6" 
the water closet; and (c) it may be left fully open for ventilation 3 . - pram oe Sate BA 
in warm weather. ‘ = | . a . “ ; a a NOM 
Where possible, place water closet and a small extra lavatory in h | aD'O" > ae rye | |_ St 
: Foot Bat ee ae ‘a z= 1 : 
a separate compartment from the tub, shower and main lavatory, " " | *9'Q" «1 19" *1' 10" pase 
providing independent means of egress from both sections. This M Tah AN ‘yu ton iL 
will multiply the utility of the fixtures with very slight increase assage Table .| 6 0" 26" | 28 &. 
in space and will reduce ventilation and soundproofing problems. 66 20 oe 
When tub, lavatory and closet are compactly arranged with their * Subject to variation. |b 
wastes along one wall, place lavatory between tub and closet. This Tub 
NE} 
— ]-3) 
If no shower 
x in tub, lavatory -| f 
may overlap 
= tub 3"or4" 
Es 
— = ' ' 
E= ‘o - Oo ‘o 
£a — ve 34. 
“~~Oo | | | 
| i 
| ©) 
MINIMUM DESIRABLE FIXTURE CLEARANCES | 
\ 
Copyright 1935, AMERICAN ARCHITECT L 
0 








AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


wre -Saver 
OE ols 





SEPTEMBER 1935) sericit.9 BATHROOM PLANNING — FIXTURES 





































































































































































































































































































































































































Pa 
__ Variable e i Sore" 4/2" 5/2 to 72 
Ss , 2 — Le . crs Pie Ear occa So — 
= | rr) fw wr . - . | 
| | ‘ > 
L— a y L_- | Aabenet NOTE! All lavatories 2:7° fron Hoor except Dental Bowls 7 font 
Usually 2" = rd sit 
a +t enn — a | = 
3° e Ga 
red | ii 
wall P 
ted. | 2 o 6 7 9 10 
ort- ; 
ng- LAVATORIES and Dental Basins L- Length along wall or longest dimension D=Depth or projection from wall Height as indicated 
TYPE ] TYPE 2 TYPE 3 TYPE 4 TYPE 5 | TYPE 6 TYPE 7 TYPE 8 TYPE 9 TYPE 10 TYPE I 
China | China _| China_| E tron | E tron | China | E lron \ china | China | china _| Elron \ china | Elron | china | china | Elron | china | Firon 
Loft DiIL Dit Dit Dit Dit Dit Ofte Ofte Dit Ot D{t Dir Dt Of{[t Dft Dit D 
res, 30° 22°| 20" 18°] 3b 22°| 24" 18°] 24" 20°} 18° IS} 19 17 22° 18°} 26 14°] 20° Bu 26 4 Ie IT 19 7" 20" 14" 12 12" | 14 We 13 14"| 14" 14" 
ort. fp [3024] 24" 20|36 24) 24 20°]27 2 [20° [2 18 [2% 22 (26 MMi M4 |- - [20 Ila wie [4 we] ie ir 20° | wr 3 
ible — [362° [27 wl4r wir wl- - [4 wim wl- -|- -[- -[- -)w 2s wl- -|[e we l- - fir 23) 
val ea: @ 1 ES Ce Cees Cet -j- -j- -j- -j[- -j- -j- -i8 i- -is wei- = 
ace dlegs Usually 2legs under — Cabinet Wall Hung. Tes Wall Wall Hung Wall Hung Wall Wall Hung Wall Hung 
27°x22"and larger under Pedestal or | leg Hung or | Leg Hung 
— teteninate RECEPTORS 
a + MATERIALS 
—_ Basic | {-; S% _ 
ht L SHAPES | oyu S ” 
| 53zA88 
e ew 5 
| ~ : stazo 
5 HEIGHTS. Floor to Rim installed 7 sizes |< % oe . 3° 
vary from 1:5 tol-b; average 1-512 ~ |ZOSsu&-—W--* 
' 3 al 
4 except No.1 which is 1-l0"+or- DLihsses 
. : 2:443°4 v 
BATH TUBS Average Overall Dimensions ( see “/gs Catalogs for Exact Sizes) 6x28) TT AS 
NOMINAL TYPE | TYPE 2 TYPE 3 TYPE 4 TYPE 5 TYPE 6 TYPE 7 2:6x3'0| ~ 
SIZE L D L D LP OFL OTL D 3 D . 2 2-6x3-b| S a 
6 | - = - pn Ib) 3-7 tel 3-7 75] -  -—- | -  —-~ 728x281 | | lalv] 
40 |4-0 22876 | - = -  -|40 26141 25) -  - |-  -~ 3:0%30|¥ [+ [+] 8|+] 
46 | 4-6 2-2e26 | 4-7 2ba20 | 4-7 26) 47 26) - - [| -  -|- - 3043: |_ s\_ 
50 | 5-0 2-2@26 | 5:2 2eero | dsl" tel sl 26] - - | - - = 3:4%2:4[ 8 y 
— ce | Se 2278276 | 5-8 Feero|s7 Fo, ST Tol - - | 4m 40 [4 4172 3.434] A 
6-0 ee) 2°2°'& 2b 6-2 2-b & 2:10" | b-1"  2°b6 | b&-l" 2:6 < _ - - - - 3-6 x3- BT ofl ted 
— Tubs designed for built-in side and end faces of Ceramic Tile are made several inches larger than normal * Size overall 
NET DIMENSIONS Deduct 3/4 to 7/8 coverage of lips in plaster wails. 1/2’ in tile walls = Sizes inside of side slabs 
SYPHON - JET | LOW FLUSH ONE PIECE WALL ‘ei eae | 
with TANK or CLOSE HUNG is 
FLUSH VALVE S q COUPLED mie 
Ss 4 —. 
= TU} 8; Maximum tegt 
~ ) ia 
1 # | t | te 
. | “— 2: S th STALL 
l | l = 12+ | 
_ 1 1 } 1. 7 1 - 1-6 we - 1-2"—4 
} da ' ' 
KA —_ Ny, 
= ] - ” io 
r | | WALL HUNG TYPES 
3 a 
WATER CLOSETS Dimensions Wall to Front URINALS 
SYPHON | REVERSE | WASH ONE WALL WALL JUNIOR BABY 
| TYPE | TYPE FRONT JET TRAP DOWN PIECE | BLOWOUT |SYPHON-JET| 13 HIGH | IOHIGH VITREOUS CHINA 
FLUSH Extended 2°4°lo2-7 ye 2-3/2 = 2G 2-2%2 2 S 2°33/4 
VALVES |" Round 2-2°+ 2-2 Vint | - - = 7-134" [%Oto2-22 Space approx 2-0 ac 
iowa ee ae = — Wings are usually used between 
LOW Extended 2-b'/2 + 2-bt 2-b t 2-2 = = = y urinal ty es 2 and 4 
TANKS R 44 $ 4 77 “ = o Tr yP 
Brand ound 2:4°+ 2-47 2-44 | 2:2 to25'2 2-1 
Copyright 1935, AMERICAN ARCHIIECT 








AMERICAN ARCHITECT 





SEPTEMBER 1935 seiciNc. BATHROOM PLANNING —ACCESSORIES | set: 











——— 
PLANNING 
Minimum sized bathrooms and P Single Light, centered (> __ If side lights, use pair prefer- C1] 
toilets require special planning care 8 ably with large area diffusers 


to assure adequate wall space for 
essential accessories. In the accom- | 
panying drawings the recommended | 
location of each major item of built- 

in equipment is shown in relation to | | 





' 
! 
' 

| 


| 
$0; 


Reemenes 


the principal fixture it serves. The 
notes serve as a check list of items 


T 
' 
' 
' 
' 
' 
' 
| 
' 
' 
' 
' 
4 


to be considered. 












































{ se) | ) ] 

Towel bars should be ample in od - ay 
number and length to serve the needs pcan o la 
of each member of the family regu- - = Tmin. H 2 g 
larly using the bathroom, or the Tmin = 4 : : 5 oe 
number of guests likely to use its |] ia £ 7a : THT ' 
facilities before supplies can be re- = =] 4 : \F- 
plenished. For each person regularly | Oo 74 3 L.-Q..9..9..! 5] > 
using the bathroom there should be r > 
separate bar space for bath towel, i | | 











|-6 min ——+ 
Mm « 
€: — | 
ie 
: Be Fa} 
Min. 6-O° usually 6-6" ne 















additional rack for guest towels. 

Where a dental lavatory is in- 
cluded in the plan, transfer the tooth 
brush holder shown at the main lava- 
tory and add a shelf and a small 
cabinet for dentifrices. 

The medicine cabinet should be 
related in size to the type of bath- 
room or toilet. For guest baths or 
toilets space is needed only for den- 
tifrices, shaving accessories, toilet 8 8 
preparations and a few simple reme- 








face towel, and face cloth; plus an L 





3 
S 
+ 
2 min., b if shelf projects 














—Average 5-9°- 

















4+—_ 2:7 normal 


























dies. A bath serving several bedrooms as) i 

may require a complete supply of 

medicines in addition to the above. . Stock $1zes 

Every bathroom should have a stor- ro) 9 1-0" 1:3" U6 

age closet for cleaning utensils and Pi Smal] Face 2:0" 2-b.. to 

supplies and for reserve stocks of centers of 

toilet paper, towels and sundries. Small Bath or All lowels folded posts z 
Floor space should be left in the ae Large Face 3 tumes before 

plan of utility bathrooms for portable Bath hanging 

accessories desired by the owner or 

needed on occasion for the care of in- Stock sizes 1-6’ 2-O0° 2-6 3:0" 3-b’ 4:0" to post centers (B) 

fants or invalids. Consider such items 

as: scales, stool or seat, infant’s bath TOWEL BARS GRAB BARS 


and dressing table (portable type re- 
quires about 3’ x 4’ of floor space in 
use) soiled linen hamper, exercise 


devices, dressing table or vanity with SIZES OF ACCESSORIES FOR TILING 

nine ‘ies adtediinds ansiies 1. Mirror and medicine cabinet. Size governed by 

pe glo q - | | x6 | use of shelf or shelf-topped lavatory; mirror should 
| 2 3 


AT LAVATORY 





swing 7" over any shelf. (la) Fixed mirror desir- 
able immediately above lavatory for children 7 





MATERIALS aad to 14 years 
Accessories designed for use in = 2. Shelf. Preferably recessed flush with wall. May 
tiled walls are made in tile sizes ® q 1 2 3 5 6 7 be part of medicine cabinet or part of lavatory 
(basic units 3” x 3”, 3” x 6” and 44” Toilet paper holders was 
x 444”) and in colors to match wall 3, 4 and 5. Soap, tooth brush and tumbler holders. 
tiles. Include such units in the tile Combination holders. May be separate units or combined: flush or pro- 
contract. Similar ceramic or metal soap, brush, tumblerelc. v v v v of jecting type 
units are available for surface at- Units: soaps, tumblers, 
tachment. brush holders. etc. a a at a ao gt 6. Receptacle for connecting curling iron, automatic 
Towel and grab bars are available sttopper, etc. Should be above and to right of 
in: glass, clear, black, opal, crystal; Bases for towel bars lavatory, dead front type 
wood, enameled or covered with shelf brackets. door 
pyralin or its equivalent in colors; stops, hooks, etc. “ + ¥ 7. Strop hook. (7a) Optional: razor blade disposal 


metal, finished in nickel plate, chro- 














). Grab bars and soap or - 
mium plate or enamel, or rubber sponge holders. vv 
covered. ' wr 8. Towel bars. May be at level of shelf or lavatory 

Shelves are available in clear, Specials’ Some toilet paper holders 6x10 top. In congested space provide upper bar for 
opaque, opal or crystal glass; also Radiant heaters 15x15 and larger. face cloths, lower bar for towels 
in metal, usually enameled in colors 
or black. 7 

Copyright 1935, AMERICAN ARCHITECT Cony 








1m” 








AMERICAN ARCHITECT 





ya 10 -Saver 


Se aareley 


serciNc. 0o BATHROOM PLANNING — ACCESSORIES 


SEPTEMBER 1935 





rds 



































Pao ; 2\ Permit no projection 
vent [3° 14 Light or Bud 
' Lig 1 i . beyond tank or flush 
T ; > valve less than 4-6" 
I f a7 | 7 from floor ___ Jf 
2 2la | 
in 
= | 
} 9 
oO 
* = 
- = 
we) AS) 
> <= | 
= YU | 
vu 
z ~o | 
3 te! | | | 
oO > = =? 
rs = = | = 
g = 4 £ LJ 23 : 
= © + -) a 
| 8 is 
' 2 
ws | ne “0 
“ 1 ‘ = 
= 
= { | 
Oo ! 
1 | 
G * 
\ ; 
a ML 
27 274 : 
’ 7 i <9 Olen Ss 
O 4 3, oe : 
w+ © ~ O >< Y 
in in SD 0) 5 - 
: wn =|=> 
lo< }| 7 | 
ll Ila -2:0'—4----+4 | | }+--&— 9-0)" —4 
tooo | 
qecsesesSzzesezeseedl | | 
Pia E Stock Glass Enclosure Doors 
AT SHOWER AT BATHTUB AT WATER CLOSET 
9. Shower head. Height governed by client pref- 15, 16 and 17. Shower head, shower controls, bath 23. Toilet paper holder. Preferred position indi- 
erences; may be overhead for men only valves and spout. Location optional with client cated in diagram. Optional positions indicated 
See shower stall for recommended heights. by limit of easy reach of average adult 
- ; Always locate for accessibility from outside of 
10. Shower valves or mixing valves. Always place a 24. Bag hook. Height indicated is for enema bag; 
near entrance to shower See plan hook for douche bag only may be 5° to 5'6” 
18. Combination soap and sponge holder and grab above floor 
11. Shower curtain rod. (Ila) Optional; glass bor. Draining lip type preferred 
shower enclosure door; place hinges on edge 25. Towel bar. Desirable behind toilet only when 
opposite shower control valves 19. Vertical grab bars. Optional; but recommended flush valve equipment or one piece closet is used 
—_— 20. Towel bar. Do not use over tub equipped with 
12. quipp 
2. Combination soap and sponge holder and grab piece NOT ILLUSTRATED 
bar. Use draining lip type. May be on rear wall, 
or side wall opposite shower head Full-| bb ont II d 
21. Curtain rod. Keep within inside face of tub. er Saye 
(21a) Alternate, glass shower enclosure in place “14 
‘i : ; : Bath le. May be built- ortable type 
13. Shower ventilator. Optional; but desirable to of curtain. Various types, with and without doors, athroom scale. May be built-in or p: yp 
: +. : 
remove steam. May function as vent for bath ere oveilable Unen hamper. Optional: may be part of coblest 
ee type lavatory, built-in type, or portable 
22. Robe or Douche hook. Height only indicated 
14. Shower stall light. Optionai; must be vaporproof above; locate outside tub line, near supply end Auxiliary heater. Built-in radiant type desirable. 
fixture if possible, or near closet Should project toward open floor space 
— 
Coppight 1933, AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



































































































































CREATING 
STANDARDS 


of Architectural Practice 


MORE THAN 5000 ARCHITECTURAL OFFICES 
scattered throughout the United States are daily going through precisely the same motions 
at their drafting tables and specification desks. They are planning kitchens, bathrooms, 
basements, and heating plants, they are figuring stair risers and runs, they are calculating 
areas and volumes, they are designing window openings and roof slopes, and they 
are hunting through manufacturers’ catalogs for data on dimensions, clearances and 
capacities of all types of mechanical equipment. 


Much of this work is readily reducible to standard practice. Much information 
offered by manufacturers can be winnowed out from sales arguments and put in practical 
working form for the busy designer. 


American Architect has undertaken to simplify these common problems by 
producing its new Time-Saver Standards. Those already issued cover such diverse sub 
jects as floodlighting and electric signs, design of concrete members and the planning 
of bathrooms and kitchens. Thus far they merely serve to show the scope and variety o 
information that can be condensed for practical reference use in convenient form. A vast 
amount of work remains to be done—in fact the task will never be finished because 


practices change and new materials and equipment are constantly displacing old. 


You can assist us in the publication of helpful standards of American architectural 
practice by contributing or submitting for study your own office standards, and by 


suggesting subjects you wish to see published in this form in the immediate future. 


In the October issue we will announce an extraordinary distribution plan which 
will make these Time-Saver Standards available to your office for use by every member of 
your firm. Watch for this announcement. It represents the beginning of time-saving and 


cost-cutting methods of simplifying the daily work in your office. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 





FOLLOW THROUGH... 


Build beautiful houses (America needs more’of them) BUT don’t feel your 


job is done until you’ve advised your client’on the right sort of floor 


covering. Alexander Smith Broadloom Is the right sort of floor covering 





... smart, rich, beautifully made, long wearing, in gorgeous colors. In 





five qualities—to ‘suit the most.luxurious and the simplest tastes. Just 
as nearly right’ won’t do in building a house. .. so, too, “nearly right” 
won’t do in the kind and ‘color of carpet that goes into that house. Com- 
plete information on these carpets°may be had from W. & J. Sloane 


Selling Agents, Inc., 577 Fifth Avenue, New York. 


dee Smith Broadloom Carpets 


BY NAME 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 97 








¢ The Eighth Annual Small House Competition, 


being conducted by House Beautiful magazine, 
will close on October 15th. Architects who wish to 
enter photographs should submit their material at 
once, Only pictures of houses actually completed 
will be accepted. There are three classes and any 
architect or architectural designer may submit as 
many houses as he wishes in each class. The first 
class includes new houses of eight rooms and under ; 
the second class new houses of nine to twelve rooms ; 
the third class is for remodelled houses of not more 
than twelve rooms. These houses must have been 
recently built or remodelled and not published in 
a national magazine (architectural magazine 
cepted). 

Two prizes of $500 and $300 are offered in the 
first two classes; and one prize of $300 in the third 
class. In addition several houses will be selected 
for publication, for which an honorarium of $50 
will be paid. 

The competition will be judged immediately after 
the closing date by a jury consisting of Arthur 
H. Samuels, Editor of House Beautiful; Ethel B. 
Power, who is conducting the competition, and three 
members of the American Institute of Architects. 
Fifty of the best houses will be selected to form a 
Traveling Exhibition. Further details of the com- 
petition may be obtained by addressing Miss Ethel 
B. Power, House Beautiful, 572 Madison Avenue, 


New York City. 


z- 


© Announcement is made of the removal of the 
George Pearse Ennis School of Art from 681 Fifth 
Avenue to 628 West 24th Street, in the old Chelsea 
section of New York City. An atmosphere of old 
world character is offered, suggesting the studio 
schools of London or Paris. Huge ceiling-high 
studio windows cover the north side, flooding the 
spacious room with light. The studio was formerly 
a stained glass and decorative art shop and the equip- 
ment used will be retained, offering an unusual op- 
portunity in practical application of design. The 
Fall term opens September 23rd. 


® Two important problems on housing are to be 
dealt with in courses by Werner Hegemann and 
ernest Kahn, beginning with the Fall term, October 
3rd, at the New School of Social Research, in New 
York City—City Planning, or Problems of Human 
Settlement, and Management in Low Cost Housing. 

The course will begin with an historical survey 
which includes Versailles, Washington and the Ten- 
nessee Valley and proceeds to a consideration of 
fundamentals in housing: population; land values, 
government, transportation, including port areas, 
business, residential and recreation districts; build- 
ing heights and densities; replanning of old cities; 
esthetic problems and civic art; and finally, physical 
planning as the key to social planning. Fifteen 
lectures will be given. 

The second half of the course, consisting of ten 
lectures, will be devoted to specific operations such 
as rent collecting, accounting and figuring profits, 


98 


ANNOUNCEMENTS 





the repair problem, the management of co-operatives 
and the interchanging of experiences in housing 
settlements. 


® New York University, School of Architecture, 
announces a course on Community Planning de- 
signed to meet the needs of architects, engineers 
and others concerned with problems of city and 
regional planning and the method of developing 
planning schemes consistent with modern commu- 
nity needs. Consideration will be given to climatic 
and geographical influences, distribution of popu- 
lation, potential natural and other resources, the 
national trend in the distribution of urban centers 
in their relation to regional factors, as well as, the 
relation of the national program of public works 
tc future development of regional and urban plan- 
ning. The economic resources available will be con- 
sidered from the point of view of taxation, budgets 
and legislation. The course will afford students op- 
portunities for becoming familiar with methods of 
research ; techniques involved in the preparation of 
plans, legislation reports, etc., under the direction 
of Dr. Carol Aronovici, assisted by well known prac- 
tical city planners in the United States. An exhibi- 
tion of plans prepared for various cities and regions 
in this country and Europe will be on display. The 
course will open on September 24th. 


® The Housing Division of PWA announces allot- 
ments totaling $283,000,000. Recent changes au- 
thorized by the Administrator in the financial terms 
for construction of low-rent housing increase the 
total grant to each project from 30 to 45 per cent; 
set the amortization period at 60 years; and call for 
a three per cent interest rate. There is to be no 
amortization of land and only a 3 per cent interest 
rate on 55 per cent of the land cost. Other capital 
charges have been adjusted in the interest of lowered 
rents. Options have been accepted on a voluntary 
basis for a twenty-four acre site to house Cincinnati's 
$7,000,000 low-rent housing project. Preliminary 
plans provide 1,278 living units in three and four- 
story apartment buildings. The city of Cincinnati 
has appropriated $1,000,000 for extensive park and 
playground space in connection with this project. 
Architectural work is being handled by a group of 
Cincinnati architects under the chairmanship of 
Frederick W. Garber. 


® A continuous exhibition of Current Architecture 
in the galleries of the Architects’ Samples Corpora- 
tion, 101 Park Avenue, New York City, was opened 
te the public on September 3rd. The exhibit is 
sponsored by the Bureau of Architectural Relations, 
under the direction of R. W. Sexton and will be 
completely changed every two weeks. Sketches of 
proposed buildings, those under construction and 
photographs and plans of buildings recently com- 
pleted in the metropolitan area are being shown. 

® The [Illinois Society of Architects announce the 


removal of their offices, as of August Ist, to Room 
2104—134 North LaSalle Street, Chicago. 











AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



































THE COPING © «© -* 


The inherent characteristics of Alcoa Aluminum point the way to eliminate maintenance on copings. 
The metal itself defies the corrosive attack of the atmosphere and its burden of smoke and fume. 
The manner of construction forever eliminates the cost of pointing * Requirements of individual design 
may be attained either in castings or extruded shapes that are light in weight * The amazing versatility 
of this metal gives the designer full scope at a cost that is entirely comparable with that of the more 


traditional materials. Aluminum Company of America, 1895 Gulf Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 


ALCOA fee ALUMINUM 





REG. U. S. PAT. OFF. 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 99 








ANACONDA EXTRUDED SHAPES 


BRONZE 


HIS building at 407-411 Washing- 
7 Street, Boston, was recently 
completely remodeled under the 
direction of Elias Rothschild & Co., 
Inc., New York City, Designers and 
Engineers. In executing the bronze metal 
work, the W. T. Ryan Iron Works, 
Boston, effected important savings in 
die costs by making extensive use of 
stock extruded shapes in Anaconda 
Architectural Bronze. 


From the standpoints of lower original 
cost and of metal work that is always 
up to date, Anaconda Extruded Bronze 
in standard shapes offers almost end- 
less possibilities for the faithful execu- 
tion of even the most original designs. 
Thousands of extruded shapes may be 
had in Architectural Bronze and Nickel 
Silver, while Copper and various 
Copper alloys are available in a wide 
range of standard drawn shapes. These 
various metals offer interesting possi- 
bilities wherever contrast or close color 


harmony is desired. 


THE AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY 
General Offices: Waterbury, Connecticut 
Offices and Agencies in Principal Cities 


| 
AnaconpA 


parore 








AMERICAN 


ARCHITECT 





-— (7) 


- 
- 


a a ae SS lh ehlhlhmLlUCUrlUlU CU 





mew C ATALOCSS.. 


Readers of AMERICAN ARCHITECT may secure without cost any or all of the manu- 
facturers' catalogs described on this and the following page by mailing the prepaid 
post card printed below after writing the numbers of the catalogs wanted. Dis- 


tribution of catalogs to draftsmen and students is optional with the manufacturers 


SPEAKMAN SHOWERS AND 
FIXTURES 

742. ... Speakman Company, Wilming- 
ton, Delaware, has issued catalog K-1 
which illustrates and describes in detail 
various types of Speakman showers and 
fixtures especially adapted for use in 
schools, institutions, industrial plants and 
similar installations. The booklet con- 
tains specifications and many blueprint 
drawings showing plan and _ sectional 
views with measurements, together with 
data on shower piping, flush valve and 
valve construction, and tables showing 
rate of water discharge of shower heads 
and other fixtures. 


J-M AspHatt TILE FLOORING 

743. . . . Colorful combinations of as- 
phalt tile flooring in modern rooms and 
buildings are shown in a new portfolio 
published by Johns-Manville, New York. 
It contains ten color sheets, each showing 
from two to six samples of J-M Asphalt 
Tile Flooring in actual color. As insets 
in each of the color sheets are pictures 
of typical uses of this flooring. The 
portfolio also contains a 6-page brochure 
showing a score or so of existing instal- 
lations of both J-M Asphalt Tile and 
J-M Heavy Duty Asphalt Tile Flooring 
in various types of projects. 


CarricER Heat Dirrusinc UNITS 

744. ... Carrier Engineering Corpora- 
tion, Newark, N. J., has issued an illus- 
trated 24-page filing-sized catalog per- 
taining to its Heat Diffusing Units for 
industrial applications. All essential data 
are given, including construction details, 
dimensions, tables of basic ratings and 
Btu constants, pipe sizes, recommended 
piping connections, erection instructions, 
typical specifications and miscellaneous 
charts and diagrams. 


FoLtpER-Way ParTITIONS 

745... . The complete line of electri- 
cally operated, crank operated and manu- 
ally operated FoldeR-Way Partitions 
manufactured by Richards-Wilcox Mfg. 
Co., Aurora, IIl., is presented in Catalog 
A-63, an illustrated 56-page manual. 
Specifications and standard details are 
given for each type. The last several 
pages of the book are devoted to school 
wardrobes and contain specifications and 
details’ of several types. Filing size; 
A. I. A. File 19-E-61. 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 


GYPSTEEL PLANK 

746. . . . Factual information about 
Gypsteel Plank and its uses is contained 
in a 24-page catalog recently issued by 
Structural Gypsum Division, American 
Cyanamid & Chemical Corp., New York. 
This booklet is conveniently thumb-in- 
dexed and tells how this product is made 
and used, describes the various types and 
the advantages of each, and gives speci- 
fications and details. A section is de- 
voted to other types of structural floor, 
roof and ceiling slabs manufactured by 
this company. Filing size; A. I. A. 
File 10. 


Hitt Cotp Storace Doors 

747. ... The new 24-page refrigerator 
door catalog published by C. V. Hill & 
Co., Inc., Trenton, N. J., describes its 
line of standard pine front doors, oak 
front doors, freezer doors, dutch doors, 
porcelain doors, windows and frames, 
doors with windows, reach-in doors and 
complete refrigerator fronts, all in a 
wide range of sizes. The booklet also 
includes detailed specifications, tables of 
sizes, blueprints, and installation instruc- 
tions. Filing size; A. I. A. File 32-C-1. 


Formica TABLE Tops 
AND COUNTERS 

748. ... An eight-page broadside issued 
by Formica Insulation Co., Cincinnati, 
Ohio, illustrates a number of hotel res- 
taurants, bars and other public places 
which have used Formica table tops and 
counters, and describes the inherent 
qualities of this material. 


Iron FIREMAN AUTOMATIC 

CoaL BuRNER 

Iron Fireman Mfg. Company, Cleveland, 
offers two new catalogs: 

749... . Catalog H38. Illustrates and 
describes various types of Iron Fireman 
automatic coal burners for commercial 
heating plants. Filing size; 16 pages. 

750... . Catalog A38. Pertains to Iron 
Fireman automatic coal burners for resi- 
dential applications. Discusses the ad- 
vantages of this type of firing, and illus- 
trates and describes several models. 
Filing size; 16 pages. 


WELDED PIPING 

751.... A new 24-page booklet, “The 
Facts About Welded Piping” has been 
published by Air Reduction Sales Com- 
pany, New York. In its pages the 
features and advantages of the Airco- 
welding process for piping installations 
are described and profusely illustrated 
with scenes of typical heating and power 
piping installations. Specifications for 
the welding of various types of pipe are 
also included. 


Art METAL KITCHENS 

752. . . . Illustrated with pictures of 
typical kitchens using Art Metal kitchen 
equipment, the new 20-page catalog issued 
by the Art Metal Construction Company, 
Jamestown, N. Y., gives helpful sugges- 
tions for planning the modern kitchen 
and describes the features of Art Metal 
equipment. Standard sizes of cabinets 
and specification data are included. 


NO POSTAGE REQUIRED ON THIS CARD 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT, New York 


Please have the following catalogs reviewed in this issue sent to me. 
RS. bo. ccqdane se 
@ | also desire further information about the new products described in this month's 
“New Materials and Equipment.” 
en ee eee 


@ | would like to have catalogs and information concerning the following products adver 


(See pages immediately following this insert.) 


tised in this issue. (Write page number or name.) 


oe eee eee eee eee eee eee eee eeeeeeeeseeeeee 


ee | 


| 








September, 1935 





These NEW Catalogs may be obtained through 
AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


SONNEBORN PRODUCTS 

753... . A group of folders are avail- 
able from L. Sonneborn Sons, Inc., New 
York, which give essential data on vari- 
ous Sonneborn products, including a 
cement filler and dustproofer, Hydrocide 
colorless waterproofing, mineral colors, 
Cemcoat stucco, brick and cement coat- 
ing, and other products. 


Incor 24-Hour CEMENT 

754. ... A simple, non-technical discus- 
sion of good concrete fundamentals is 
presented in a 12-page brochure issued 
by International Cement Corp., New 
York. Suggestions for proportioning, 
mixing, placing and curing, and helpful 
hints on forms and form-making are 
given in this interesting discussion. 


Fans, BLoweErs, CooLinc UNITS 

755. . . . “Buffalo” fans, blowers and 
cooling units for air conditioning are 
illustrated and described in a new 24- 
page booklet (Bulletin No. 2968) issued 
by Buffalo Forge Company, Buffalo, N. 
Y. Application data, ratings, dimensions, 
specifications and other pertinent data are 
included. Filing size; A. I. A. File 
30-D-1. 


THE Tru-TONE CarPet Book 
756... . The story of Broadloom Car- 
pet—where, when and how to use it, and 
how to buy it—is interestingly told in a 
handsome consumer book published by 
Alexander Smith & Sons Carpet Co., 
New York. The range of colors in 
which Tru-Tone Carpets are available is 
shown in full color, and scattered through- 
out the book are illustrations of various 
rooms, also in full color, suggesting the 
decorative adaptability of these carpets. 


YorK REFRIGERATING EQUIPMENT 

é Se A set of six bulletins on York 
air conditioning and refrigerating equip- 
ment has been issued by York Ice Ma- 
chinery Corp., York, Pa. Two types of 
equipment are described: (1) 10, 15, 20 


and 25 horsepower freon condensing 
units for commercial refrigeration and 
air conditioning; (2) horizontal type air 
conditioners for year ’round air condi- 
tioning of restaurants, hotels, retail 
stores, office buildings, etc. 


GAMEWELL DUALARM SYSTEM 

758. ... The Gamewell Company, New- 
ton, Mass., has issued a four-page catalog 
which describes the advantages and fea- 
tures of the Dualarm—a fire alarm sys- 
tem especially designed for schools and 
other buildings having a large number 
of inmates or occupants. Complete speci- 
fications are included. Filing size; 
A. I. A. File 31-i-31. 


MINWAX BrICK AND 
CEMENT COATING 

759. ...A small folder has been issued 
by Minwax Company, Inc., New York, 
which briefly gives the essential facts 
about Minwax Brick and Cement coating 
for waterproofing and decorating brick, 
concrete or stucco. Color swatches show 
the ten standard colors and a few of the 
more popular inter-mixtures. 


Gypsum Boarp 

760.... A well illustrated 12-page cat- 
alog has been issued by Gypsum Asso- 
ciation, Chicago, which gives authorita- 
tive information on the qualities of gyp- 
sum board and lath. The booklet dis- 
cusses the fire-resistance of gypsum, its 
use in buildings at the Century of Prog- 
ress Exposition, its behavior in actual 
fire, and method of application and dec- 
oration. A_ section of the catalog is 
devoted to the new type of gypsum in- 
sulating board, using aluminum foil. 


Motors For CENTRIFUGALS 

761. ... The Louis Allis Co., Milwau- 
kee, Wis., has recently published a bul- 
letin (No. 601) dealing with the special 
characteristics of electric motors for cen- 
trifugals and containing other important 
information. 


een eneneneas 





FIRST CLASS 
PERMIT NO. 5 
(Sec. 510 PL & R) 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 














BUSINESS REPLY CARD 


NO POSTAGE STAMP NECESSARY IF MAILED IN THE UNITED STATES 








2c. 





POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 
572 Madison Avenue 


New York, N. Y. 


a 


ACCESSORIES COMPANY PRODUCTS 
Three new catalogs have been issued by 
The Accessories Co., Inc., New York: 

762....A four-page folder illustrating 
and describing Grip-Seal, the new bath 
hanger that grips the rim of the tub, 
locks it in place, and distributes evenly 
the weight between floor and walls. Fil- 
ing size; A. I. A. File 29-i. 

763. ... An eight-page broadside illus- 
trating and describing the Arcode com- 
bination bath and shower unit. 

764. . . . The Arcode 7-in-1 Lavatory 
Unit is described in an eight-page broad- 
side. This unit consists of medicine 
cabinet, shaving light, towel hamper, 
towel bar, utility shelf, supply cabinet 
and vitreous china lavatory. Filing size; 
A.I. A. File 29-i. 


REYNOLDS METALLATION 
Two booklets have been issued by 
Reynolds Metals Co., Inc., New York: 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT Reference Data 
No. 11 (May 1934) “Thermal Insulation 
of Buildings” and the four-page adver- 
tisement giving facts about Reynolds 
Metallation which appeared in the same 
issue. Filing size; A. I. A. File 37. 

766. . . . Descriptive and application 
data on Reynolds Metallation, a bright 
metal insulation; Reynolds Ecod Fabric, 
an insulating plaster and stucco base, and 
Reynolds wall coverings are contained in 
a twelve-page filing-sized catalog. 


GREEN HOUSES 

767. . . . “Greenhouses Attain Archi- 
tectural Style,” an article published re- 
cently in House & Garden, has been re- 
printed in booklet form by Lord & Burn- 
ham Co., Irvington, N. Y. It tells the 
story of the adaptability of the modern 
greenhouse to any architectural style. 


SISALKRAFT BUILDING PAPER 

768. ... The Sisalkraft Company, Chi- 
cago, has issued a new filing-sized catalog 
which discusses the advantages and uses 
of Sisalkraft Building Paper. It tells 
how this material is used in wall con- 
struction, in floors and roofs, for curing 
and protecting concrete, for temporary 
protection, and for a variety of other 
purposes. Actual samples of Sisalkraft 
accompany each catalog. 


MouHaAwk Carpets AND RuGs 

769. . . . While primarily designed for 
the consumer, the new 32-page booklet, 
“33 New Ideas for Charming Homes,” 
issued by Mohawk Carpet Mills, Inc., 
New York, has much of interest to the 
architect. It offers suggestions for for- 
mal and informal arrangements in vari- 
ous period styles, and is illustrated with 
typical examples, some in full color. 
Suggestions for the care of rugs or car- 
pets are also included. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 





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BRIEF REVIEWS OF MANUFACTURERS' 
ANNOUNCEMENTS TO KEEP THE ARCH- 
PRODUCTS 


ITECT INFORMED OF NEW 


Crossley Air Circulators 
498M Three types of portable air 
circulating units have been 
introduced by the Crossley Air Con- 
ditioning Corp., Cleveland. The Models 
A and B (for wall or table) tend to 
revitalize the air and purify it by 
means of ionization, dissipating cook- 
ing odors, tobacco smoke and other 
objectionable indoor odors. Model C, 
floor type, circulates 900 cubic feet 
of air per minute, filters the air by 
means of a steel wool filter, and has 
the Corozone Ionizer embodied in it 
for purifying, revitalizing and deodor- 
izing the air. The cooling effect of 
this model depends upon definite air 
circulation, but can be equipped with 
expansion or cooling coils for cooling 
and dehumidifying. No plumbing con- 
nections are necessary unless cooling 
coils are employed; the units are 
plugged into any AC light socket. 


Electric Clock Systems 

499M A new line of electric time 

clock systems for schools, 
hospitals, banks and public buildings 
has been introduced by the Holtzer- 
Cabot Electric Company, Boston, 
Mass. A simplified method of auto- 
matic hourly correction of all clocks 
on a system, which eliminates the 
necessity of wearing contacts in sec- 
ondary clocks, features this new line. 





Waste Food Grinder 


500M A new electrical device which 

grinds waste foods and there- 
by eliminates the garbage can has 
been announced by the specialty ap- 
pliance department of General Elec- 
tric Company, Nela Park, Cleveland. 
The device is installed beneath the 
kitchen sink and can be attached to 
existing sinks or obtained in conjunc- 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 





Crossley Air Circulators: left, Model B for 
desk or table; right, Model C, floor type; 
lower right, Model A for wall or table 


tion with dishwasher-sink ensembles. 
It grinds and pulpifies all waste foods, 
which are flushed by water and car- 
ried away as part of the sewage 
stream. The unit is simple to operate. 
Directly beneath the sink is a pro- 
jecting handle by which the hopper 
of the grinder is closed and the mo- 
tor started. When not in use the hop- 
per inlet is covered by a perforated 
cap, leaving the sink bottom flush and 
in condition for use. The unit weighs 
about 75 Ibs., is driven by a %4 hop. 
motor, and may be connected to the 
ordinary 110-volt house circuit. 


Esswood Flexible Veneer 

501M Driver-Harris Company, 

Harrison, N. J. has intro- 
duced Esswood, a_ flexible natural 
wood veneer which is applied to walls, 
metal or other surfaces like  wall- 
paper. It is not mounted on paper or 
fabric. It is claimed for this new 
veneer that it will not warp, blister or 
turn up at the corners; that it will not 
crack or splinter; and that it is un- 
affected by the expansion or contrac- 
tion of metal due to temperature 
changes. Graded logs used in the pro- 
duction of Esswood are sliced into 
veneers 1/80” to 1/100” thick, and 
then chemically treated. Esswood is 
obtainable in lengths 8, 10 and 12 
feet, and in widths 8 to 14 inches de- 
pending upon the size of the log from 
which the veneers are cut. Standard- 
ized veneers include: mahogany, oak, 
walnut, oriental lacewood, 
prima vera, avodire, tigerwood and 
zebra-wood. 


wood, 


New Materials 
and Equipment 





Vibration Isolation Platforms 
502M A means of eliminating or 
reducing rumblings and other 
noises induced by vibrating machinery 
has been devised by Johns-Manville, 
New York through the use of vibra- 
tion isolation platforms. The _plat- 
forms are made of two or more tiers 
of stringers, placed at right angles, 
and supported and separated from each 
other by vibration-absorbing “chairs.” 
These “chairs” are U-shaped pieces 
of metal and felt which fit the string- 
ers. A platform top is secured to the 
upper tier of stringers and the machine 
fastened to it. A loose rock wool fill 
occupies the space between the floor 
and the top of the platform and is held 
in place by an apron or skirting. The 
presence of heavy felt in the “chairs” 
lends the necessary resiliency to the 
vibration isolation platforms, 


Three-Light Mazda Bulb 
503M The Westinghouse Lamp 


Company, Bloomfield, N. J., 
announces a new bulb that gives 50, 
100 or 150 watts of illumination with 
the table models of certified portable 
lamps. Using this new three-light 
mazda bulb, decorative portables may 
also serve as a source of reading light 
at the turn of a switch. Constructed 
with a PS-25 bulb of inside-frosted 


103 

















glass, the new lamp has a_ mogul 
screw base which is necessary to pro- 
vide three-way lighting. Maximum 
overall length is 6 13/16 inches; light 
center length is 5 inches. It is avail- 
able in 110, 115 or 120 volts and pro- 
duces 525, 1420 and 1950 lumens at 
the three respective wattages. 


7 





Air Conditioning Low-Sides 
504M A new line of Lipman air 


conditioning “low-sides” for 
use in central system installations has 
been introduced by General Refrigera- 
tion Sales Co., Beloit, Wis. Each low- 
side consists of an evaporator, a ther- 
mostatic expansion valve, liquid line 
sight glass, liquid line filter and a 
heat interchanger. The expansion 
valve and the sight glass are already 
connected to the evaporator. The 
filter and heat interchanger are in- 
cluded as separate items. An im- 
portant feature is the heat interchang- 
er. This device in connection with an 
air conditioning evaporator, it is 
claimed, increases the capacity of the 
refrigerating system when freon is 
used as the refrigerant. These low- 
sides are arranged for freon only and 
are made in three sizes to balance the 
5 hp. the 7% h.p. and the 10 h.p. 
freon machines. 


Keg-Passing Door 
505M 


A vertical 
sliding keg- 
passing 
door for 
H breweries 
| and other 
plants 
where kegs 
are passed 
ry has been 
introduced 
by the Ja- 
J mison Cold 
Storage 
Door Company, Hagerstown, Md. The 
door has an all-steel frame which, it 
is claimed, eliminates warping from 
dampness and consequent sticking of 
door; a lightweight flexible composi- 
tion curtain forming the vestibule 
which does away with damage to kegs 
and door caused by shock and abra- 
sion; and a new design concentric 
fastener actuated by a simple operat- 

















104 


ing lever which, when raised, releases 
the clamp and allows the insulated ver- 
tical sliding door to be raised and low- 
ered at will. 





Illumination Analyzer 


506M A self-contained illumination 

analyzer that measures elec- 
trical input and lighting output is an- 
nounced by Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 
It consists of a light meter and com- 
bination voltmeter-ammeter with suit- 
able cable extensions, switches and 
plugs in a compact case. With this 
device the watts input to the lighting 
circuit can be measured by taking a 
reading of current and voltage. The 
light output can be measured with the 
Photox cell foot-candle meter supplied 
with the unit. The instrument is par- 
ticularly suited to analyzing volt and 
current consumed in addition to foot- 
candle intensities and light distribu- 
tion. The indicating instruments are 
equipped with knife-edged pointers and 
fine line scale divisions. 





Meter Entrance Switches 


507M New design features have 


been incorporated in the 
meter switches manufactured 
by Cutler-Hammer, Inc., Milwaukee, 
Wis. 


service 


All switches are now provided 


with a “‘twist-out” for wiring trough, 
This twist-out has two small rectangy- 
lar pieces on the outer edge, which can 
be removed by a twist of the pliers, 
after which the entire twist-out is re- 
moved. A change has been made in 
the cover which encloses the branch 
circuit fuses. The entire fuse cover is 
smaller and slides back, making the 
fuses more readily accessible and giy- 
ing a neater appearance. The enclos- 
ing case is also slightly smaller. 






Folding 
Chairs 
and 
Stools 


508M A new line of folding chairs 

and stools for restaurants, 
barrooms, fountains, and com- 
mercial establishments, has been in- 
troduced by Waukegan Foundry Co., 
North Chicago, Ill. The bar and 
counter units are fastened stationary 
to the floor and fold within 4” over- 
hang of counter top. Table chairs or 
fold under the table so that 
they do not project outside of the 
edge of the table top. The booth types 
fold against wall or partition. 
This equipment can be had in either 
aluminum or steel and cast metal con- 
struction. Stools can be furnished with 
polished metal, upholstered or 
seats. 


soda 


stools 


back 


wood 


Poretherm Cellular Concrete 
509M A new light-weight cellular 

concrete, called Poretherm, 
having high heat and sound insulat- 
ing qualities, has been introduced by 
Porete Mfg. Company, North Arling- 
ton, N. J. It is made of Portland 
cement with or without an addition of 
mineralized fiber and is_ per- 
meated uniformly with millions of 
small separate air bubbles. It can be 
made in precast shapes, in the form 
of slabs and blocks of 
but its principal use is for pouring 


wood 


various sizes, 


in the field. It is said to be permanent, 
fireproof and uncompressible under 
ordinary loads, and is made in two 
weights, 19 Ibs. and 32 Ibs. per cu. ft. 

























AMERICAN 


ARCHITECT 











@ We take this opportunity to thank the entire architec- 
tural profession for the helpful interestthat has been shown 
in this competition as evidenced by the many drawings 
submitted, and to extend our appreciation to all compet- 
itors for the thought and effort they have expended in 


Sew e Star 








THIS REPRESENTATIVE JURY 





MELVIN T. COPELAND, Professor of Marketing, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass. 

J. ANDRE FOUILHOUX, A.I.A., of Hood and Fouilhoux, 
Architects, New York, N. Y. 

ALBERT KAHN, F.A.I.A., Architect, Detroit, Michigan. 


WILLIAM LESCAZE, A.I.A., Architect, New York, N. Y. 


JOHN W. ROOT, A.L.A., of Holabird and Root, Architects, 
Chicago, Ill. 

F. R. WALKER, A.1.A., of Walker and Weeks, Architects, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

KENNETH C. WELCH, A.I.A., Expert in Store Planning and 
Equipment, Grand Rapids, Michigan. 


i judging the HUNDREDS OF DESIGNS submitted in the 
ODERNIZE MAIN STREET. 


Cte 


SPONSORED BY 


LIBBEY-OWENS-FORD GLASS COMPANY 


and conducted by The Architectural Record, with Kenneth K. Stowell, A. I. A., as professional adviser. 


what we sincerely believe is a worthwhile and constructive 
endeavor to visualize for the retail merchant the possi- 
bilities and advantages of intelligent modernization. The 
October issue of this magazine will announce the competi- 
tion awards. Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company, Toledo. 


ye teat me wy. 
; trios tiv 

















ter of deciding a business policy than one of architectural planning. The architect, H. |. 
Feldman, submitted to the Central Savings Bank, the mortgagee, preliminary sketches 
of a plan to convert the building into meeting rooms for use of various organizations in the 


neighborhood. The plan was rejected on the ground that it was too specialized a scheme 


for a conservative mortgage. The bank insisted on converting 
the building into apartments. The architect then submitted a 
scheme for an apartment building which, according to the best 
estimates obtainable would have netted only 7!/>% return on an 
$80,000 expenditure. Mr. Feldman held out for the meeting room 
plan and as a result his client obtained a 63% return on a $55 

000 investment. Although this alteration was completed on May 
1, 1935, over two hundred organizations have signed leases and 
many inquiries indicate that by late Fall the building will be 
leased to capacity. Applications for afternoon use are being 
received, a source of income not contemplated in the original 


financial set-up. The building as completed is shown at the top 


Before Remodelling Basement (after) 


PERSUADING THE MORTGAGEE .. . 63% RETURN VERSUS 7!/,%, 


Conversion of three New York tenement houses, illustration bottom right, was more a mat- 

















Trends and Topics of the Times (Continued from page 76) 











often difficult to instruct men who have been set in 
their ways for some time.” Many new synthetic 
materials require careful and appropriate backings 
or bases if they are to endure. A celebrated modern 


house in Cambridge, England comes to mind. 


Al- 


though not yet six years old, its decorations, wall 
surfacings and fixtures, all of which were innova- 
tions that brought fame to the architect, have de- 
teriorated to a degree necessitating complete renewal. 
This misfortune could have been avoided by the 
use of proper methods when applying the materials 


in the first place. 


¢ A recent cost analysis, issued by the HOLC, for 
remodelling the average American home shows that: 
40.92 per cent goes for painting and papering: 22.11 


for roofing; 15.36 for carpentry work; 4.91 


tor 


masonry; 4.51 for heating; 4.12 for plumbing; 
2.86 goes for plastering and 2.22 per cent for sheet 
metal work. It is estimated that the remodelling 
work has engaged more than 125,000 and has pro- 
vided about 8,000,000 “working days.” Approxi- 
mately 75 per cent for each dollar spent for re- 


conditioning goes for labor. 


© The Department of Justice has filed condemna- 


106 



















Ist Floor (after) 2nd Floor (after) 


. = 


_ 















































tion proceedings against a 36 acre tract of land at 
Indianapolis for a $6,000,000 housing project, de- 
spite the recent court decision against federal con- 
demnation of property for such purposes. 


® Designed for “an age of simplification,” the 
$4,000 house which won first prize in the recent 
competition, New York Chapter, A. I. A. is being 
studied by architects, builders, and material and 
equipment manufacturers as an example of low-cost, 
economical planning adapted to all parts of the coun- 
try and the financial capacity of a majority of the 
population. Criticism of this type of house has 
arisen due to the absence of cellar and attic. “The 
cellar was mostly necessary for heating apparatus 
and fuel storage,” says, J. Andre Fouilhoux, the 
architect, in defense of his plan, “With new heat- 
ing apparatus and gas or liquid fuel it appears that 
the additional cost of a cellar for the sake of tradi- 
tion, is hardly justified. The attic was used for 
storage which a family of small means would have 
very little chance of using.” It appears that in their 
present development prefabricated houses do not 
offer any economy in construction, Mr. Fouilhoux 
adds. “This situation is probably due to several 
factors: wrong approach to the problem in many 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 























“REPAINTE! 
4 ONLY O 
















Eagle Sublimed Blue Lead sets 
ord as rust-inhibitive paint on Pittsbure 
Bloomfield Bridge ( al , 

gheny Cor , Pa.) 


EOE eae 


@ The Bloomfield Bridge, built in 1913. Steel 
given priming coat of Eagle Sublimed Blue Lead 
at the mill, and two more coats after structure 

was completed. This long-wearing paint gave 

good service for 14 years!Onthe basisof this | 
remarkable performance, Eagle Sublimed Blue 
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E 


A More Enduring 
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Here’s why more and more engi- 
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1 Being pure lead, it is more en- 
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in material cost. Long lasting. ‘ EAGLE © The Eagle-Picher Lead Company, Dept. A A9Cincinnati, O. 


D LEAD Please send me free sample of Sublimed Blue Lead —also 
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gee . i, a Te 
facturers, Send for descriptive booklet and free sample. — City Seats 





FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 107 














Kinnear doors for 
"Normandie" dock, 
New York, three- 


quarters of a mile 





lona, balanced for 


one-man. operation. 


Left: New steward's 
quarters, wine cellar, 
silver vault, wood 


shop at White House 





HARRIS & EWING 


cases and insufficient demand at the present time 
to justify quantity production which in turn would 
lower cost. The fundamental factors in economy are 
the same whether we are dealing with prefrabricated 
units or old methods of construction.” 


® Buffalo Small House Bureau, operated under the 
auspices of the Buffalo Chapter, A. I. A., has issued 
a Circular of Information regarding the plan of 
operation and scope of architectural service offered 
by the Bureau. The Circular is a thoughtfully pre- 
pared comprehensive analysis of the perplexing 
problems encountered by the small home builder 
who wants architectural service, and of the architect 
who would like to render such a service at a small 
margin of profit. Architects and architectural or- 
ganizations interested in this plan of operation may 
obtain copies of the Circular by writing the Buffalo 
Small House Service Bureau, 1 Niagara Square, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 


© An electrically controlled steam water heater, 
utilizing a new system of heat transfer and method 
of control has been developed by the engineering 
laboratory of General Electric Company. The op- 
eration of the device is unique, state its sponsors, 
in that no steam-regulating valve is necessary. The 
heat from the steam is released to the water by 
means of an hermetically sealed heat-transfer system 
which uses water vapor as the heat-carrying medium, 
thus the release of heat from the steam rather than 
the steam flow itself is regulated. 


© A recent address before the Illinois Society of 
Architects, by Harry Freund, brings to light an in- 
teresting new acoustic wallpaper treatment. It con- 
sists of corrugated or honeycombed paper board 
from 5/16ths to 11% inches in thickness. This board 
comes in sheets 24 by 32 inches and is treated chemi- 
cally to be fire-resistant. Any design wallpaper may 
be selected and before it is applied to the board, the 
paper is run through a perforating machine to make 
effective the honeycomb below for acoustic purposes. 


108 








Further information may be had by addressing the 
Chicago Wallpaper Association, Chicago, Illinois. 


® Metals and other materials, styled in the modern 
manner for both technical and consumer products, 
will be featured in a joint exhibition by a group of 
world-famous industrial designers opening in the 
International Building, Rockefeller Center, New 
York City, on September 16th. The exhibit will 
consist of electroplates of a wide variety of metals; 
colored and chemical finishes for aluminum, silver 
and gold; lacquers and lacquer enamels, showing 
each step in the metal finish process. There will also 
be an exhibition of “Modern Plastics” in a variety 
of moulded and cast synthetics as supplied by lead- 
ing manufacturers. 


® In a thirteen story apartment house in Chicago, 
containing 22 suites, built 23 years ago moderniza- 
tion was undertaken at a cost of $100,000. Upon 
completion the occupancy was increased by 22 and 
the rental rate advanced by 25 per cent. The 
architect obviously proved his worth. 


© The resignation of James A. Moffett, Federal 
Housing Administrator, has been announced by 
President Roosevelt. In his letter of resignation 
Mr. Moffett informed the President that, despite 
necessary delays in getting the Housing program 
under way, the FHA was now insuring construc- 
tion and repair loans at the rate of $60,000,000 a 
day and that while the Housing Administration had 
insured only $126,000,000 of loans, $700,000,000 or 
more of modernization and repair work had been 
done during the past year. 


® The Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company, an- 
nounce the establishment of a new department to 
be known as ““New Uses in Design.”” The personnel 
of this department will specialize in creating and 
developing new uses for flat glass in its rapidly in- 
creasing field of application in the building indus- 
try. Kenneth C. May, who has had years of ex- 
perience in the glass industry, and Harold M. Alex- 
ander, a Cornell graduate in architecture, are in 
charge of the department. They will co-operate with 
architects, interior. decorators and others who are 
interested in glass design and its application in mod- 
ern architecture. (Continued on page 114) 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




















gf. Not so long ago, the editor of a leading women’s 
, Ww 


magazine declared a new declaration of inde- 
pendence aimed at a long-suffered and unnecessary 
household evil—the square corner, that dirt-collect- 
ing, hard-to-clean spot in cupboards, stair cases, and 
at the baseboard. Much progress has been made in 
establishing the round corner principle. Today Crane 
Co. presents the housekeeper with round corners in 
another place where they are badly needed—the 
laundry tub. 
The new Crane Porcelain (all clay) Laundry Tub, 
its glistening white, hard, glasslike surface impervious 


to strong alkalies, dyes, and acids, has well-rounded 


4A 
eee clean, 


_ gleaming white” 


corners, inside and out, which make it as easy to 
clean as a dinner plate. Its all-clay composition 
eliminates all danger of rust. One-piece construction, 
in both single and double styles, is a further aid in 
cleanliness. Supporting frame is angle iron, but por- 
celain or painted cast iron legs are also available. 
The supply fixture is a new Crane development, pre- 
cisely made, durable, and located above tub rim to 
prevent back siphonage. 

At a price only slightly higher than cement tubs, 
the new Crane Porcelain Laundry Tub brings cleanli- 


ness and fine appearance to the laundry far in excess 


of the slight additional cost. 


CRANE PLUMBING AND 


HEATING MATERIALS 


CRANE CO., GENERAL OFFICES: 836 S. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ¢ NEW YORK: 23 W. 44TH ST. 
Branches and Sales Offices in One Hundred and Sixty Cities 





FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 


109 














“a aed : 
\ se 
\ Dont regi 
c t 
\ ur FREE § enie ine 
° 
\ ye oe use * apn even postad 
\ guilt . 
, —_oppeate B oe 
r 
\ starnP is requ" booklets: 
yanti Y ° \ e { 
ant are 2¢ 
1, you ™ \5. They ¢ mor 
for 90 ° 
send “on hy for 
\ 50 or mo ‘ 
\ amen 
\ al 
. oe 
| 


Over 35,000 
of these Booklets 
Are Holping 
Anchitects 
Got Business! 


Send for Your FREE Copy 





Order Your Supply at Cost 


Tuts booklet helps you secure new clients. It is readable, 
authoritative. It explains the value of your services in a 
professional, dignified manner. 


Writing us about this booklet, William Orr Ludlow, 
F.A.1.A., says: “You could not have made a finer con- 
tribution to the cause of good architecture, and the welfare 
of the architect.” 


Around this booklet AMERICAN ARCHITECT, working in con- 
junction with TOWN & COUNTRY and HOUSE BEAUTIFUL, has 
conducted one of the most effective publicity campaigns 
ever carried on to help architects. 


Every month for over a year full-page advertisements in 


572 MADISON AVE. AMERICAN ARCHITECT 





110 


these two affiliated magazines have urged their readers to 
“Build Now and CONSULT YOUR ARCHITECT.” 


GOOD HOUSEKEEPING, another associated publication, has 
also been consistently advising its two million families to 
retain an architect. 


Over 35,000 of our ““WHEN YOU BUILD” booklets have either 
been distributed direct to potential home builders, or placed 
in the hands of prospects by architects or local “Better 
Housing Campaigns.” 

To secure your FREE copy of this business-getting booklet, 


use the post card opposite page 100; or, if you have seen it, 
order a supply for your own use. 


NEW YORK, N. Y. 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT 





IFETIN 
bril 
brings | 


Sixteen 
six han 
ety of | 
decora 
for dev 


The gle 
ever ne 
grease 
check, 
always 
































IFETIME beauty, today and always—modern, 
brilliant, colorful—that's what Vitrolite 
brings to new or remodeled structures. 


Sixteen beautiful colors—ten rich, solid hues, 
six handsome agate shades, an endless vari- 
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The gleaming, flint-like surface of Vitrolite is 
ever new — impervious to water, acids, oil or 
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VITROLITE 


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its ease and economy of installation. (Applied 
directly over present walls, without fuss, muss, 
or cost of tearing out plaster.) 


Your Vitrolite Distributor has a special display 
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and color possibilities. 


Send the coupon for this Vitrolite literature NOW 


BETTER THAN MARBLE ™ 


Structural Glass 


A LIBBEY - OWENS - FORD PRODUCT 


Tea oul andmuatl 


Vitrolite Division, Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Co. (G-9) 
208 W. Washington St., Chicago 
Please send New Vitrolite Color Chart of 16 colors—10 solid 
hues, 6 agate shades, and various surface effects—together with: 
Vitrolite Construction Details (Interior) 
Vitrolite Store Fronts (Colored Views) 
Vitrolite Store Fronts and Building Exteriors 
(Construction Details) 
Vitrolite Bathrooms and Kitchens 


Name 


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Sealex Linoleum offers white 


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{ ° ° 
C é a 24 LiL 
( 
2 ’ 
modernization 


A limited modernizing budget needn't 
limit your scope of flooring design 
effects ... if you specify Sealex Linoleum. 
No other type of flooring material offers 
the architect more freedom in either a 


creative or financial sense. 


The most minute detail of flooring 
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Information regarding our complete 
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No obligation— write: 


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TRADEMARK REGISTERED 


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illust 
divid 
wood 
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Th 
influ 
woot 
in th 
use 
valu 


- yf ot 
— 2] y ] 


tla: 


This designed-to-order Sealex Linoleum Floor answered Architect Armand sol 
Carroll’s requirements for “atmosphere” in the Planet Room at Philadelphia’s 


Hotel Bellevue-Stratford. mi 


we 
, a 


pa 
no 
su 
ite 
m: 





= see ae an 





Illustrating why Sealex remains a first choice in smart bars and cocktail lounges i 
a custom-cut Sealex Floor in the McCurdy Hotel, Evansville, Indiana. 














BOOKS 


(Continued from page 4) 


illustrated. Dealt with are 22 in- 
dividual kinds of soft woods, 33 hard- 
woods, and 26 different types of build- 
ings, bridges, etc. 

The manual makes no attempt to 
influence the choice of any kind of 
woods and as a ready-reference guide 
in the selection of recommended grade- 
use lumber it should be of unusual 
value to architects. 


SUSPENSION BRIDGES OF 


SHORT SPAN 
By F. H. Frankland. Published by the 
American Institute of Steel Construction, 
New York City. Cloth cover; illustrated; 


128 pages; size 6!/4x9l/, 


GROWING tendency toward col- 

laborative effort on the part of 
architects and engineers in the de- 
sign of bridges has quickened the 
esthetic value of these structures .to 
such an extent that it seems reason- 
able to expect a further extension of 
such collaboration in the development 
of all bridge work. 

For this reason, Suspension Bridges 
of Short Span, offers an_ intelligent 
solution to the many problems that 
might come up between architect and 
engineer. Here the basic theory of 
suspension bridge design is offered so 
that approximate design for any par- 
ticular crossing may be readily pre- 
pared for the purpose of quick eco- 
nomic comparison with other possibly 
suitable types. The discussion is lim- 
ited to main span bridges of approxi- 
mately 700 or 800 feet. 

The book is divided into eight parts : 
1 Suitability—economics of layout, 


types and esthetics. Design—dead 
and live loads. 3. Floor systems— 


stiffening 
bracing. 
Towers, 


girders and trusses—wind 
4. Cable and suspenders. 5. 
saddles and bases. 6. Mul- 
tiple-span suspension bridges. 7. 
Piers, abutments and anchorages. 8. 
Erection methods. 


EARLY ARCHITECTS AND 
BUILDERS OF INDIANA 


By Lee Burns. Published by the Indiana 
Historical Society, Indianapolis, Ind. Paper 
bound booklet; 212 pages; size 6x94: 


price $0.50. 


S the name implies, this is a trea- 

tise reviewing the historical back- 
ground and accomplishments of the 
early architects and builders in the state 
of Indiana, beginning with the first 
half of the Nineteenth Century and 
ending with the Civil War—a period 
which produced many noteworthy ex- 
amples in every section of the country. 
Included are eleven small illustrations. 


Those concerned 
early American 
find this modest 


with the history of 
architecture should 
booklet of interest. 


HOUSING PROBLEMS AND POS- 
SIBILITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 


By Frank Watson. 
Bros., 


Published by Harper & 
New York City. Paper cover; 


spiral 

binding; size 5!/>x7; price $1.25. 
GENERAL discussion of the 
housing problem in the United 


States and its relation to the Govern- 
ment’s recovery program is compre- 
hensively set forth in this booklet. 
Special attention is given the home 


mortgage situation; the respective 




















































merits and shortcomings of the banks, 
the insurance companies, the building 
and loan associations, in this field. 
The text is supplemented with statis- 
tical tables and graphs which further 


clarify the major contentions of the 
author. 

Why isn’t the housing problem 
solved? What are the needs of Ameri- 
can housing? How can the home 
mortgage problem be solved? How 


can real estate taxes be reduced? 
These are some of the urgent ques- 
tions here included. Mr. Watson was 
counsel for the Reconstruction Fi- 
nance Corporation. This work is the 
result of studies incident to his ad- 
ministrative labor. 


DEPARTMENT STORE 
IMPROVES HEATING 
BY MODERNIZATION 


Daytons, 


||HEATING PROBLEM SOLVEL 


Modernization 


REMOVES OLD COMPLAINTS 







































Minneapolis, Use: 
Webster Moderator System 
To Control Temperatures 





Equally A: 
Effective in Scores of 
Similar Buildings 


Setanenpette, Minn.—The Da: 


yto 
Department Store—one of the larg 


est retail stores in the entire north 
west is securing remarkably improve 


heating service 


as the result of 


Webster Heating Modernization Pro 
gram carried out in the fall of 193 


t 


tory, the 


For four years, through some ¢ 
he coldest a in Minnesota his 
bster Moderator Syste 


' has given the Dayton Store complet 


+ ha oe Prods ockoduak 






neeeee 


changing the mixed vacuum 
gravity system to full vacuum ope: 
ation, was completed without inte: 
rupting store operations. 


fj} ten stories in “wy and — 
total floor space of 500,000 
| feet. Installation of the Weil bste 


=| Belden-Porter Company, Minneap: 
lis heating contractors. 


certain portions of the 
underheated while others were ti 
hot 


central heating cont 


readings taken from a central 
tion four times daily indicate th: 
all store zones are perfectly heat 
even during the 
Following is the record of a typic 
day, indicating how various depar 
ments are kept at the temperatur 
desired 


“Control-by-the-Weather.” 
Modernization of the Dayton Cor 






The buildings vary from three | 


m was made by tr 





ently, under the old syster 
store we! 


Since the souieniion oe 74 




















severest weathe 





















Temp. Record, Nov. 6, -_ 
10 #1 12 


Floor Dept. am.am.M ” 


Base. Suits ...... 68 69 70 
74 74 75 
67 68 69 


Base. Hardware .. 
Main Gloves ..... 
Main Dress Gds. . 





Rugs.... 

6th Furniture 63 
7th Buyers’ Off. 75 76 76 
Outside.... 34 35 35 < 
In a department store, well-bs 
anced heating keeps merchandise 





of satisfaction to employees and cu 





Webster Heating Modernizati 
has been equally effective in sco 
of other department store install 
tions, among them the Donalds 
Store, also in Minneapolis, with t 
Hineline Company acting S: ~ 
ernization heating contracto: 
Golden Rule Store, J = Paul. Nene 
the Frank Eha Compe 
me the installation; 7 the 
Ayres Department Store, in India 
apolis, with Hayes Brothers maki 
the installation. 












If you are interested in (1) in 
proved heating service and (2) lowe 
heating cost in your building, addre: 

WARREN WEBSTER & CO.. Camden. N 

Pioneers of the Vacuum System of Steam Heat 

Branches in 60 principal U. 8. Cities—Estab. 1 





NEW COMFORT 4v-4e MODERN HOME 
~~~~ ATANY TEMPERATURE! 





Homes that were as hot 
as a Jungle Hut 


during the summer 


WILL BE COLD, UNCOMFORTABLE 
AND DRAFTY DURING THE WINTER 


Change these conditions with 





INCREASE REDUCE 
THE FUEL BILLS 

COMFORT 30% TO 
ZONE INSULATION 50% 


Gimco Rock Wool House Insulation is the light, fluffy, woolly 
insulator that may be blown, packed or poured into the walls and 
over attic floors between the joists. It fills the wall spaces com- 
pletely, stopping every crack and crevice and presenting a barrier 
three and five-eighths inches thick against the passage of heat 
and cold. 


Gimco Rock Wool is made entirely of rock, will not burn, settle, 
sift out, decay or disintegrate. It is easily applied to new or existing 
homes without alterations to the structure. 


Gimco Rock Wool is one item of home modernization that will 


a permanent source of satisfaction to the architect and the 
home owner. 


Gimco Supplies the Money 


Money for this type of home modernization is made 
available through the Gimco Finance Plan. Home 
owners everywhere are taking advantage of this 
opportunity to make their homes more comfortable. 


ee 
WE ARE COOPERATING 










GENERAL INSULATING [eae 
TODAY 
P & MFG. of oo PN S$ 4-lil-lal- Pele —; 
WORLD'S LARGEST EXCLUSIVE MANU- ‘an 


FACTURERS of ROCK WOOL PRODUCTS 


Send technical data concerning methods of installation 
and efficiency of Gimco Rock Wool. 


NAME 


ADDRESS 

















114 





Trends and Topics of the Times 
(Continued from page 108) 


* Tenants will occupy in mid-September the first 
Federal slum clearance and low-rent housing proj- 
ects on PWA’s national housing program. This is 
the dormitory section of the $2,875,000 Techwood 
development at Atlanta, which has been built for 
the Georgia School of Technology adjoining the 
campus, designed by Burge & Stevens, Atlanta 
architects. Living quarters are provided for 309 
students. One-third of the rooms will be double, 
accommodating two students, and rent for $8 per 
month per student. The remainder of the space is 
divided into suites, with study room between two 
double rooms. The rental will be $10 per student. 
The entire Techwood project is a park-like develop- 
ment covering ten square blocks, with eleven groups 
of buildings for white occupancy. 


¢ Air-Acoustic Sheets, a new product designed to 
reduce or eliminate the noise transmitted through 
ducts in air-conditioning and ventilating systems, are 
announced by Johns-Manville Corporation. These 
sheets are sound-absorbing material in rigid block 
form made of rock wool and suitable binder for pri- 
mary use as duct lining. It is said they will not 
smoulder or support combustion and are recom- 
mended for all installations where merely “‘fire-re- 
sisting materials would contribute to the fire hazard. 
The National Board of Fire Underwriters, it is 
understood, have long been interested in this phase 
of duct lining problems as a means of reducing fire 
hazards. 


® Radiator heat conditioning to provide air condi- 
tioning for the average home made its initial appear- 
ance on August Ist, at a national preview arranged 
by the American Radiator Company, at Chicago. 
Constructed for use in the $3,000 to $8,000 home, 
the new conditioner is priced at a little more than 
half the cost of the average electric refrigerator. It 
cleans the air, humidifies and circulates with provi- 
sions for ventilation. Provision is also made for the 
installation of refrigerating coils to cool and dehu- 
midify if this feature is desired. The unit may be 
hung from the basement ceiling and hooked into a 
radiator heating supply line, with an outlet through 
the floor above and a return register at one distant 
point in the house, eliminating the necessity of in- 
stalling elaborate ducts. A practical feature of this 
unit is that the heat supply may be increased or de- 
creased as desired without changing the circulating 
air flow. 


¢ In Norway, it is said, they build their wooden 
houses outwards from the inside. The framing 
is put up first, then lined with 234 inch or 3 inch 
tongued and grooved boards. After that comes the 
bituminous felt or paper and finally the weather- 
boarding. It must be shocking to see people living 
inside a house before it has its outside coat. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 

















@ if 

to Ar 
effect 
will n 
‘s pr 
exper 


. J 
beet 
Des 
Uni 
For 
pea 
he ° 
Eee 
fes: 
hab 
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XUM 


PERSONALS 


@ If you change your address, please report the change direct 
to American Architect five weeks before the change is to take 
effect, sending both old and new addresses. The Post Office 
will not forward copies to your new address unless extra postage 
is provided by you. Our request made to save you this 
expense and to assure the receipt of your American Architect 


¢ Joseph D. Murphy, Kansas City, Missouri, has 
been appointed Acting Associate Professor of 
Design in the School of Architecture, Washington 
University. While a student at M. I. T. he won the 
Fontainebleau Scholarship, the Fellowship for Euro- 
pean travel, and the Paris Prize. While in Paris 
he was four times Medallist in the Concours of the 
Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and collaborated with Pro- 
fessor Jacques Carlu in a competition for the re- 
habilitation of the Avenue de la Grande Armee. In 
1932 he returned to Kansas City where he was en- 
eaged to design the Civic Auditorium, the House 
of Detention, the interior designs for the Court 
House. He has recently been appointed as archi- 
tectural advisor on a committee of Kansas City 
business men sponsoring the rehabilitation of the 
down town section. Mr. Murphy, was associated 
with Bennett, Parsons & Frost, Chicago architects 
on the early plans for the World’s Fair, and recent- 
ly with Keene & Simpson, Kansas City. 

® William B. Ittner, Inc., architects and engineers 
formerly of 408 Board of Education Bldg., St. 
Louis, Mo., announce the removal of their offices to 
911 Locust Street, St. Louis. 

¢ E. H. Faile, architect, whose former office was 
located at Bridgeport, Connecticut, has moved to 
New York City and opened an office at 608 Fifth 
Avenue. 

® Hillger & Beardsley with offices at Auburn, N. Y. 
will hereafter be known as Wallace P. Beardsley, 
architect, due to the recent death of Mr. Hillger. 
® John J. Trich, architect, has opened an office at 
248 Forest Avenue, Lyndhurst, N. J. He was for- 
merly located in Rutherford, N. J. 

® Homer D. Rice, architect, announces the removal 
of his office from 6367 Colgate Avenue, Los Angeles, 
California to 3425 Oak Glen Drive. 

° T. O. Menees, architect, formerly located at 
Joliet, Illinois has recently opened an office at 7222 
Harvard Avenue, Chicago. 

® Niles F. Resch, architect, has moved his office 
from Independence, Missouri to 306 Dwight Build- 
ing, Kansas City. 

® Staab & Richardson, architects, announce the 
opening of an office at 600 Bloomfield Avenue, 
Bloomfield, N. J., and request information on build- 
ing materials and manufacturer's publication. 

® Joseph J. Kucera, architect, with offices at 573 
Lapaz Drive, Pasadena, California, announces the 
removal of his office to 1250 S. Los Robles Avenue. 
® N.S. Spencer & Son, architects, formerly located 
at 2330 Calumet Avenue, are now in Room 617, 180 
North Michigan venue, Chicago. 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 


Anything 





There is always something to be shipped or ordered; 
and regardless of shape, weight or size Railway Ex- 
press will transport it swiftly and unerringly. ¢ Rail- 
way Express service is as widespread as the Nation 
and as local as the next town. With offices at 23,000 
different points, Railway Express is always ready to 
pick up your shipments, speed them on fast passenger 
trains and deliver them quickly, safely and economi- 
cally in all important cities and towns—without extra 
charge. e For service or information telephone the 
nearest Railway Express office. 


RAILWAY EXPRESS 


AGENCY INC. 


NATION-WIDE RAIL-AIR SERVICE 











DEATHS 


@ Harold Van Buren Magonigle, nationally known 
architect, painter and sculptor, died at his Sum- 
mer home at Bain Harbor, Vermont on August 29th. 
He was 67 years old. Mr. Magonigle’s career as 
an architect was an unending series of successful 
competitions. There was hardly a field of drafts- 
manship and design in which he did not excel. His 
greatest accomplishment was his monumental work. 
As a designer in this field he achieved a leading 
position among modern architects. His Maine and 
Fireman’s monuments in New York, Mckinley 
monument in Canton, Ohio; Schenley Fountain in 
Pittsburgh, Peace Memorial in Kansas City, and 
his winning design for the Robert Fulton Memorial 
Watergate in New York were distinct achievements. 
As a boy he received his first architectural training 
in the office of Vaux & Bradford, and later in the 
offices of Charles C. Haight; McKim, Mead & 
White and Rotch & Tilden. He won the Gold 
Medal of the Architectural League of New York in 
1889 and the Rotch Traveling Scholarship in 1894. 
After returning from two years study in Europe 
he was associated with Evarts Tracy in the firm 
of Tracy & Magonigle. He later headed the office 
of Schiekel & Ditmars for two years. For the last 
twenty years he practiced alone. He designed the 
seal of the American Institute of Architects, whose 
fellow and past president he was. The New York 
chapter bestowed upon him its medal of honor 





—the new All-Steel Frame Ver- 
tical Sliding Keg-Passing Door 
with Flexible Insulating Cur- 
tain for breweries. 


@ Saves floor space. 


@ Eliminates 
sticking. 








warping and door 


| 

@ Speeds keg-passing — noiseless. | 

@ Eliminates damage to kegs. | 

@ Operates easier. | 
@ Is ideal for use between wash 
and racking rooms, racking or 

storage rooms and loading | 

platforms. | 


Get supplement to Bulletin 112-A. 


COLD STORAGE DOOR CO. 


Jamison, 


HAGERSTOWN, MD., U. S. A. 


Branch Offices in Principal Cities 







JAMISON 


Stevenson, and Victor Doors 








OUTLLS 
BUILT D 





in 1930. Mr. Magonigle was widely known for his 
literary talents having been the author of “The 
Renaissance,” “The Nature, Practice and History 
of Art,” “Architectural Rendering in Wash” and 
co-author of “Significance of the Fine Arts.” At 
the time of his death he was working on a “His- 
tory of the Architectural League of New York.” 
He held an honorary degree of Doctor of Architec- 
ture from the University of Nebraska, and was a 
trustee of the American Federation of Arts ; a mem- 
ber of Beaux Arts, the Architectural League of New 
York and a former president of the Alumni Associa- 
tion of the American Academy in Rome, besides 
many other art and literary organizations. Ameri- 
can architecture has lost one of its most outstanding 
members. 


® Henry C. Pelton, widely known New York ar- 
chitect, died on August 28th. He was graduated 
from the Columbia School of Mines in 1889. In 
association with members of his company he de- 
signed many noteworthy buildings. Among those 
that are better known are, Riverside Church, built 
for John D. Rockefeller Jr. at a cost of $4,000,000 
in New York City; Park Avenue Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, the Human Welfare group of the Yale 
Medical School and the New Haven Hospital. Mr. 
Pelton was elected a trustee of Columbia Univer- 
sity in 1931 for a six year term, and later he be- 
came head of the committee to make changes in 
the construction of the Columbia dormitories, Hart- 
ley and Jay Halls. Mr. Pelton died of pneumonia. 


® Charles Richardson Platt, engineer who designed 
the first electric elevator in 1888, died at his home 
in Montclair, N. J. on September 4th in his 76th 
year. It was while he was with the Whittier Ma- 
chine Co. of Boston that he built and installed the 
first electric elevator in the old Tremont House, 
3oston. Three years later, while with the late Frank 
J. Sprague, he designed and installed an electric 
elevator in the Grand Hotel, New York City. 


® Paul C. Hunter, architect, died at his summer 
home in Keansburg, N. J. in August, at the age 
of 73. During the World War, Mr. Hunter, served 
in France for over two years, with the rank of 
Major, in the Quartermaster Corps. He designed 
several cantonments for the A. E. F. and super- 
vised construction work for the army of occupa- 
tion on the Rhine. 


® George Kramer Thompson, retired architect, who 
was a pioneer in the use of caissons in foundation 
construction, died at his home in Piermont, N. Y., 
on August 2nd. A native of Dubuque, Iowa, Mr. 
Thompson received his professional training in the 
New York office of Frederick C. Withers. For 
years he was a member of the firm of Kimball & 
Thompson. From 1917 to 1932, he was head of the 
architectural metal department of the National Lead 
Company. He was a former governor of the New 
York Athletic Club and a Mason. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




















Suncun “ba 


THE NEW PYREX GLASS 
CONSTRUCTION UNE 


® Scientifically designed fluting on inside faces of unit provides ever-changing 
y oO to) P oo ou 


decorative effect—high diffusion of light—obscures images 








produces no lens 
effect— made of Pyrex Brand heat-resisting glass with a coefficient of expansion 


second only to natural quartz — partial vacuum — size 1154” x 1154" x 4”. 





CORNING GLASS WORKS 


Arethitechial G Diviston, Corning ty AM, YY. 74S Dili . Srenue, Now | Work 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 117 





Provide for Genuine 





AIR 


CONDITIONING 





In Your Remodeling Plans 





house or building comfortably 
cool during the hottest day—at 
a cost that's practical for the 
owner. 

Complete and compact, LIP- 
MAN duct or unit type systems 
can be quickly installed in the 
basement or storeroom, without 
expensive alterations. Carefully 
tested, at the factory, LIPMAN 
systems come all ready for the 
local heating and ventilating 
dealer to connect up to water 
and electric lines. Supplies wel- 
come summertime comfort for 
a surprisingly small cost. 





Send for Architect's Data 


Without obligation we will send you com- ". 
plete information about LIPMAN Air Con- 
ditioning Systems, together with plans for / 
typical installations and charts for estimat- 


ing requirements. 


Dept. AQ - - 


Name 
Address See va 
City. 


118 


The practical way to reduce 
room temperature and humid- 
ity is with genuine LIPMAN 


Air Conditioning. It has proved 


its efficiency, reliability and 
economy in hundreds of railway 
coaches as well as commercial 
and domestic installations 
throughout the country. The 
LIPMAN automatically supplies 
the desired amount of cooled 
air at the proper rate of circu- 
lation necessary to keep a room, 





Built by a company that 
pioneered the commercial auto- 
matic refrigeration and air con- 
ditioning fields, LIPMAN sys- 
tems are thoroughly practical, 
for the average installation. 
There is a LIPMAN Air Condi- 
tioning or Refrigerating unit of 
a size and type that will meet 
the particular needs of any 
business, institution, or home 
exactly. You may recommend 
LIPMAN with complete confi- 
dence that it will prove satis- 
factory in every respect. 





@ Con, 


) 
FOr | 


/ 
tn 
| 


prcc cont rrr -- 


GENERAL REFRIGERATION SALES COMPANY 
Beloit, Wisconsin, U. S. A. 
Please send me Architect's data 
LIPMAN Air Conditioning Systems. 


sheets and booklets covering 


State 





INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 


This index is an editorial feature, maintained tor the convenience 


of readers. It is not a part of the Advertisers’ contract and 
American Architect assumes no responsibilty for its correctness. 
Aluminum Co. of America.................. 99 


Pammprecem Tivene Co, Tees eos coon iin sd ccesesa’s 100 
oo a ee 3 
Armstrong Cork Products Co................ 5 
Compotewne Nairn, Tor... ... co. 60sec idccaccds 112 
Commie Gloes Wottes. cc... inci ccc asccccacn 117 
a aeitie hee as kal wed ok cease ee 109 
Eagle-Picher Lead Co., The................. 107 
General Insulating & Mfg. Co............... 114 
General Refrigeration Sales Co.............. 118 
Jamison Cold Storage Door Co........... x. <a 
EE ee ee ee 119 
Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Co................ 105 
Lande Air Products Co., The... .......<..00 7 
Nelson Corp., The Herman................. l 
a Sn re rs 
LS a ee 8 
Railway Express Agency, Inc................ 115 
Revere Copper & Brass, Inc................. 120 
Sloane, W. & J. (Alexander Smith).......... 97 
Union Carbide & Carbon Corp............... 7 
Vitrolite Div., Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Co... 111 
Webster & Co., Warren.................... 113 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 











Johns-Manville modernizes 
a lain Street Shop 


AS IT WAS... . AS IT WILL BE 






And here are the 
materials whose 
low cost enabled 
the owner to 
modernize ... 


CEILING 
J-M Decorative Ceiling Tile 


...Design C-3, natural light 
cream color. J-M Decorative 
Insulating Board is available 
in three pleasing Ceiling Tile 
patterns. Applied quickly, eas- 
ily, over old ceilings at ap- 
proximately half the cost of 
replastering. 


af 
\Ae 
4 
~> ae 





WALLS 
J-M Asbestos Flexboard 


...in buff, with two narrow 
Flexboard 
is asbestos, but it works like 
wood. Its attractive colors go 


strips of green. 


all the way through. It is per- 
manent, durable, fireproof. 
And installed cost is as little 
as 30 to 35 cents per sq. ft. 























SEATS AND DISPLAY CASES 
J-M Hard Board 


...in a rich shade of brown. 
Hard Board is available in 
four attractive styles, and in 
various pleasing tones of 
brown. It can be used in natu- 
ral colors, or varnished to du- 
plicate the appearance of the 
most expensive woods. 







cate ail cal 2 


cy 
, | 
FLOOR 
J-M Asphalt Tile Flooring 
..-in mahogany with buff 


stripe. J-M Asphalt Tile Floor- 
ing is resilient; comfortable to 
walk on. Extremely durable, it 
thrives on heavy store traffic. 
It is easily kept clean. It is re- 
sistant to burns. In fact, vir- 
tually abuse-proof. 





can’t afford it. . 
... the low cost of J-M materials, their economy of application, make modern- 


=. Main Street owner wants to modernize... but so often he thinks he 


. a mistaken idea, as you can prove to him in five minutes 





ization possible to almost any shop owner .. . let us tell you the full story... 
write for our new catalog . . . and details of our deferred payment plan for store 
owners (Government rates). Johns-Manville, 22 E. 40th St., New York City. 





ZOuNS —_e 


Ooucre 


FOR SEPTEMBER 1935 


119 








REVERE ‘Phru-Wall Flashing 


STRENGTH This new flashing of Revere Copper (soft 
temper) or non-staining Revere Leadtex (lead-coated 
sheet copper) is much stronger than plain sheet metal 
flashing. The design is simple but effective: parallel ribs 
are rolled at 3-inch intervals along the full width of the 
flashing, and embossings are rolled between each rib. 
Because the ribs are rolled rather than stamped, they are 
of equal thickness with the rest of the flashing and the 
metal retains its original softness.Because they extend the 
full width of the flashing, they provide a stiffened counter- 


flashing face that hugs the wall tightly. 


EFFICIENCY The parallel ribs permit a water-tight 
interlocking joint with 2-inch overlap to form continu- 
ous flashing without the use of solder. The ribs also allow 
water to drain off quickly. These ribs and embossings 
make an unusually tight bond between mortar and flash- 
ings, prevent all lateral movement of the wall, and allow 


for expansion and contraction. 


ECONOMY Revere Thru-Wall Flashing is considerably 
less expensive than the customary patented flashing. Due 
to its interlocking feature which makes a water-tight joint 
without the use of solder, it can be installed for less than 
plain sheet metal flashing with soldered joints. 

Another advantage of this flashing is its availability 
through the country-wide organization of Revere Distrib- 
utors. The well-known Cheney Flashing is also available 
at Revere Distributors, and is reduced in price. These two 


flashings answer your requirements for every type of con- 





struction. If you would like specification details, address 


Patent No. 1,928,589 our Executive Offices. 


Revere Copper and Brass 


INCORPORATED 


Founded by Paul Revere 1801 
ms Executive Orrices: 230 Park Avenue, New York City + Mutts: Battimore, Mp. + Taunton, Mass, 
New Beprorp, Mass. + Rome, N. Y. * 


Detroit, Micnw. * Cuicaco, Itt * Saves Orrices 1n Principat CIT1es 








AMERICAN ARCHITECT 





























FOR LET OR. MELO Ya ae 
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