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ARCHITECTURE 





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For heating lines 


»-- greater efficiency with 
Anaconda Copper Tubes 


/Naloketolale foi Gxe}o}ol-T am tl of -: 
folg-Wmel-Teh diel P4-te ME col lilea-telt— 
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Anaconda Fittings have 
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SiselilemololalerMelivemulel ew) ob 
port for tubes. 


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4) 


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for heating lines can be quickly summarized. 
These modern heating lines cut heat losses. 
Their smooth inner surfaces reduce resistance 
to flow ... especially valuable in forced circula- 
tion systems. More heat is delivered — faster! 
Cost installed is only a little more than that of 
rustable pipe. 

Contractors appreciate the convenience of 
being able to make soldered connections in 
tight corners, the ease with which radiators are 
hooked up, and the wide variety of fittings. 
These features simplify and expedite the heat- 
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THE AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY - GENERAL OFFICES: WATERBURY, CONNECTICUT 
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XUM 





MOBE than just an Air Conditioner. 
because this HT ZGIBBONS provides 


BOILER-AIRCONDITIONER 
° 


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f HEALTHFUL aN 
a AIR CONDITIONING —— ae 
See. BOILER- ., 
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@ AIR CONDITIONING. Here is the most practical type of air 
conditioning for the average home of small or medium size. The 
Fitzgibbons Boiler-Airconditioner cleans, tempers (keeps at even 
temperature) and humidifies the air, and circulates this thoroughly 


ba i conditioned, healthful and refreshing air through those rooms 
ECONOMICAL++ | which the owner wishes to have air-conditioned. This selective 
RADIATOR HEAT method is known as “‘Split-System”’ air conditioning. 






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<= 


@ RADIATOR HEAT. Radiator heat is supplied to such rooms 
as bath, kitchen and garage, where air conditioning may not be 
desired. The famous Fitzgibbons copper-steel boiler assures quick 
heating and fuel savings. 


@ BASEMENT BEAUTY. This equipment permits you the 
broadest scope in basement design. The entire unit, including 
burner or stoker, is enclosed behind a compact, streamlined, beau- 
tifully enameled jacket that harmonizes perfectly with any base- 
ment recreation room. The largest model occupies only 4/6” by 2/5” 
of floor space. You can plan the extra basement room in even 
the small home. 


@ HOT WATER SUPPLY. Here’s one of the greatest boons for 
home owners. Abundant clean hot water is automatically supplied 
summer and winter — at remarkably low cost. The Fitzgibbons 
TANKSAVER, a copper coil submerged within the boiler water, 
eliminates the need for a storage tank or other outside accessory. 


J “4 


The boiler is made in types for whatever method of automatic 
heating your client prefers — oil burner, gas burner or stoker. 
These FITZGIBBONS units are fully described ** your ¢ ‘lients in 
most issues of home owners catalogs of the F. W. Dodge Corp. 
— or write FITZGIBBONS BOILER COMPANY, a Architects 
Building, 101 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. In Canada write to 
Fess Oil Burners of Canada, Ltd., Toronto and Montreal 





Give Your Clients ALL these Benefits—Specify the 


=| FITZGIBBONS 








American Architect and Architecture, published monthly by Hearst Magazines Inc., 572 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y 
$3.00 per year; Canada, $4.00; Foreign, $5.00. Entered as second class matter April 5th, 1926, at the Post Office at New York, 
N. Y., under the act of March 3rd, 1879. Issue 2657, dated May, 1937. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 l 





XUM 








WROUGHT IRON 


e 


ec 


g re 





@ In planning new buildings, leading 
architects and engineers are using 
wrought iron for corrosive and hard-to- 
maintain services. Note the services 
where wrought iron is used in these 
three fine St. Louis buildings. This sound 
policy of specifying materials proved 
in service is in sharp contrast to the 
“accept-our-word-for-it” attitude of 
the sponsors of new pipe materials. 
Permanently recorded in many archi- 
tects’ and engineers’ experience is the 
longer life and greater economy of 






. Triy : ~ —H 





5 iF (Left) 
t | | z 3 @ Byers Genuine Wrought Iron Pipe 
3 H at was specified in St. Louis Maternity 
a i z + + | g : Hospital for main supply, hot and cold 
H : water lines, exposed and concealed 
i a i i i | i 3 2 waste lines, vents, and drains; also 
4 : 5 for heating supply and return lines. 


(Above) 

@ In the Evangelical Church of the 
Messiah, Byers Genuine Wrought Iron 
Pipe was specified for main supply, 
hot and cold water lines. 


(Right) 

@ Byers Genuine Wrought Iron Pipe 
was specified in Beaumont Medical 
Building for main supply, hot and 
cold water lines, exposed and con- 
cealed waste lines, vents, and drains. 


wrought iron. Furthermore, each archi- 
tect’s and each engineer's experience 
is multiplied hundreds of times by the 
experience of his colleagues and much 
of this data is recorded in our files. 
Another aid in selecting pipe mate- 
rial is a study of the present or antici- 
pated corrosive conditions in the vari- 
ous services. We are familiar with such 
research and will gladly cooperate with 
you, in making a 
study of water, 
soil and gases in 





PIPE WELDING FITTINGS 


PLATES SHEETS - O o. TUBES - 


STRUCTURALS BAR IRON 


SPECIAL 
FORGING 


RIVETS 


BENDING PIPE 
BILLETS 


CULVERTS 


AMERICAN 


BYERS 


GENUINE WROUGHT 
IRON PRODUCTS 





ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, 


mm fot hard-to-maintgj,, 
lt of “COITOSion Stug 






















order to determine which material is 
best suited for the various conditions. 
Send your request to our Division 
Offices, or write direct to our Engineer- 
ing Service Department in Pittsburgh. 
Give location of building and state 
briefly the services involved. No obli- 
gation, of course. A.M. Byers Company, 
Est. 1864. Pittsburgh, Boston, NewYork, 
Philadelphia, Washington, Chicago, 
St. Louis, Hous- 
ton, Seattle, San 
Francisco. 





Specity Byers Gen- 
uine Wrought Iron 
Pipe for corrosive 
services and Byers 
Steel Pipe for your 
other requirements. 


MAY 1937 





XUM 


>n- 
on 
ive 
ers 
our 
ts. 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


AND ARCHITECTURE 


CONTENTS 
MAY 1937 


KennetH KinGsLey STowe.t, A.1.A. 
itor 


Henry H. Saytor, A.A. 
Associate Editor 


WALTER SANDERS 
Associate Editor 


Cart Maas 
Managing Editor 


Rocer WapE SHERMAN 
Technical Editor 


TyLer STEWART ROGERS 
Director of Technical Service 


R. F. GarpNer 
General Manager 


T. W. Tow er 
Advertising Manager 


James A. Rice 
Western Manager 


Vol. CL No. 2657 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT (Trade-Mark 
Reg. U S Patent Office), with which is com- 
bined ARCHITECTURE (Reg U S Patent 
Office). Published monthly by Hearst Maga- 
zines Inc, 572 Madison Avenue, New 
York. Other Offices 919 N. Michigan Ave- 
nue, Chicago, General Motors Blidg., Detroit, 
132 Newbury Street, Boston. William Ran- 
dolph Hearst, President, Richard E. Berlin, 
Executive Vice President, John Randolph 
Hearst, Vice President, Earle H. McHugh, 
Vice President, R F Gardner, Vice Presi- 
dent, T W Towler, Vice President; W R. 
Peters, Treasurer, Arthur S. Moore, Secre- 
tary Copyright, 1937, by Hearst Magazines 
Inc. Single copies, $1.00. Subscription: 
United States and Possessions, $3.00 per 
year, Canada, $4.00, Foreign, $5.00 En- 
tered as second class matter, April 5, 1926, 
at Post Office, New York, under Act of 
March 3, 1879 American Architect and 
Architecture is protected by copyright and 
nothing that appears in it may be ,reproduced 
either wholly or in partewithout 
special permission. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


COVER by Norman Reeves. 


TRENDS ... News... Events... Faces... neg 28S . Opinions Comments 


presented in a classified and logical sequ 


THIS MONTH AND NEXT. 


EDUCATION TOWARD CREATIVE DESIGN. By Walter Gropius. Dr. G 

first article written in Ameri 3 arly state pr phy f teaching archite 
HAE ar a SRR SE SAE SSR 

EIGHTEEN HOUSES in various sections of the country show the work of Howe, Mar 
ning & Almy, Emil J. Szendy, John N. Franklin, T. Worth Jamison, Jr., M. Madeleine 
McCoy, John L. Volk, Hays & Simpson, E. M. Tourtelot, Preston J. Bradshaw, Miller & 
Martin, Barber & McMurry, Roland E. Coate, Butler & Rochester, John Normile, R 
Morin, Wi am Wilson Wur Ter Marstor & Mayodury and s nara J. Neut 
BOSTON is the subject for Architectural Overtones. The pictures were tak 
Semuel Chamberlein for The Americen Scone 

EDITORIAL. Futures . . . Who Designs Houses? 


ARCHITECTS AND AVOCATIONS. 


EAST RIVER SAVINGS BANK, GOCREFELLER CENTER, eorvedl YORE. A 
well designed branch bank wt 3 é } , R 


hard & ‘Holeoistan Archite 


STANDARDS OF RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING. By Eugene W. Commery. T 
ing the home has become s en at s not only a utilitarian prot 
definite part of the aesthet heme. 

THE PORTFOLIO. Residential Entrances Without P 

n a series of minor architectural det 

FAVORITE FEATURES. Common problems in every-day 

THE DIARY. The notes and opinions of Henry Say 


pe cn agreed OF THE THEME rows s an interesting analy 
by which Harrison & Fouilhoux, Ar heir solution § 
ina for The New York Wor e) Fair 1939, 


BATHROOMS: UNIT CED . Series No. V... on 


units that are recurrent acti 
TIME-SAVER STANDARDS. Bathroor svatories and dressing ms 
TECHNICAL DIGEST. A review of articles of interest in current 


SMALL HOUSE PRACTICE. 


NEW CATALOGS 


TECHNIQUES. 


AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


26 


31 


49 


57 
58 


59 


63 


73 
85 
89 


91 


95 


102 
106 
110 
121 
124 





PROBLEM No. 7 









What should 
the telephone 


arrangements 
be? 


By all means, built-in conduit or pipe in the walls, leading to telephone outlets at strategic 
points. It’s easy to include in your plans and inexpensive to install while the house is 
under construction. Yet it assures your customers of real telephone convenience over the 
years—avoids exposed wiring and protects against certain types of service interruption. 
1 An outlet in the master bedroom for protection at night and for step- 
CFB 
oS 
guest room for convenience and privacy to visitors. 3 An outlet in the 


living room for family use. 4 C562 CI An outlet for a portable telephone in 






CI An outlet for a portable telephone in the 





saving during the day. 2 


the basement game room to save stair climbing during recreation hours. 


Ae PHONI 
Ker ONE £% 
) 


Sy > 
THIS IS A SUGGESTED APPROACH TO A TYPICAL PROBLEM. OUR ENGINEERS WILL HELP Fy \ 
YOU DEVELOP EFFICIENT, ECONOMICAL CONDUIT LAYOUTS. NO CHARGE. CALL YOUR \ gy 
\Q> Ae 
LOCAL TELEPHONE OFFICE AND ASK FOR ‘‘ARCHITECTS’ AND BUILDERS’ SERVICE.’’ ree 
4 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





XUM 








XUM 


; Tae ORIGINAL LIGHT ALUMINUM 
OR BRONZE WINDOW eece 







OVARY 
4 . \Y ‘ y ) 
Ke: 


SEALAIR 


WINDOWS 





— 
4 


* 






FURNISHED IN A VARIETY OF STANDARD MUNTIN 
ARRANGEMENTS — FOR EVERY TYPE OF HOME 


Mia years of experience in building fine rustless metal 
SEALAIR Windows for public and private buildings, large resi- 
dences, post offices, monumental structures and other important 
projects, preceded the development and introduction of the Kaw- 
neer LIGHT SEALAIR WINDOW .. . the first light 


aluminum or bronze window for the average home! 





WRITE 
TMA Ieaiae = lhat's why LIGHT SEALAIR WINDOWS are so 
DATA simple in design and construction, so easy to in- 


stall and reglaze, so smooth in action at all times, 





so exceptionally weathertight. Sturdily and accu- 
rately fabricated of solid aluminum or bronze, these practical, 
modern, double-hung windows offer common-sense advantages 


it TT no architect, builder, or home-owner can afford to overlook. 


VWVride THE KAWNEER COMPANY, DEPT. A, NILES, MICHIGAN. 


9 FF Ap 

















ES BRANCHES: BERKELEY, CALIF., AND NEW YORK CITY. OTHER 
PRODUCTS: STORE FRONTS, DOORS, ARCHITECTURAL METAL WORK. 
AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 5 








NEWS e EVENTS e FACTS e FACES T R E N D S IDEAS e OPINIONS e COMMENTS 





LEGISLATION 
THE UNITED STATES |S, AFTER ALL, A 
FRIENDLY SORT OF PLACE. ith few 
exceptions, it probably depends as much 
as any other corner of the world on the 
“neighborhood.” Changes, even those for 
the better, frequently cause a nostalgia 
akin to the inevitable that 
“things are not what they were when we 
However, it is only when 


discovery 


were young.” 
the wound touches an economic spot that 
we are prone to do anything about it; 
and it is just such a realization that lies 
behind the proposed legislation of the 
National Association of Real Estate 
Boards. More than two years of study 
and conference have led to the drafting 
of an Act designed to aid in solving one 
of the most difficult problems of present- 
day city growth and land use, that of 
stopping “blight.” 

As time undesirable 
changes may crop up to change the char- 
acter of a neighborhood. More important, 
they affect the security of home owner- 
ship, and the value of land, especially in 
home Billboards, garages, and 
stores tend to discourage home owners. 
They move away as quickly as possible, 
and the result is a blight, threatening mil- 
lions of invested wealth. 

The suggested state Neighborhood Im- 
provement Act would provide communi- 
ties with a means of protecting them- 
it would also furnish them with 
which no present legal 


goes by, many 


areas. 


selves ; 
an instrument 
machinery provides, namely, a means for 
gradual elimination of uses that are un- 
desirable in any area. 

In a foreword to the Act, Herbert U. 
Nelson, Secretary of the National Asso- 
ciation of Real Estate Boards, says, “The 
proposal for a Neighborhood Improve- 
ment Act seeks to attack this problem of 
blight at the most critical point. A neigh- 
borhood is an entity hard to define but 
easily understood. It is not too large to be 
beyond comprehension of the common 
man. Everyone is interested in his own 
neighborhood. The neighborhood must, 
therefore, be the unit upon which effec- 
tive city planning is built.” 

Harland Bartholomew of St. 
city planning consultant to the National 
Association of Real Estate Boards, as- 
sisted in the formulation of the Act. 
Frank Watson, of Purdue University, in 
charge of Purdue’s unique housing ex- 
periments, was the draftsman. The pro- 
posed plan would work through the usual 
and existing machinery of city govern- 
ment and city planning. Hence, it would 
correlate the neighborhood action and 
planning with the general framework of 
the city plan. In addition, it would open 
a way by which property owners might 
initiate action should the city through its 
present general machinery fail to act. 


Louis, 





—ENCOMIUM— 
Our Highest Praise To 
WALTER GROPIUS 


Because, he has helped to un- 
tangle a world of thought in 
which creative ability and manu- 
facturing efficiency have been re- 
volving in separate spheres, car- 
| ing little and knowing less about 
each other. 
| : application of his the- 
| ory that, “the essential factor in 
| architectural education is the 
| unity of its entire structure in all 





| 
: < ; | 
stages of development,” has with-- | 
stood the test of practical applica- | 
tion. 
| ..... his expressed feeling | 
that it is our obligation to work | 
not only for our own good, but | 
to help clear the road for future | 
generations, indicates an unself- 
ish people. | 
... his work reflects the 
simplicity and directness that 
can result only from exhaustive 
knowledge and unhampered 
| thinking. 

..... his influence will be | 
felt in the development of many 
allied arts—particularly those of | 
form—as well as in American | 





|| Architecture. 








Final power of determination is left with 
the city authority. 

Principal provisions of the Act are: 

1. It provides for the definition and 
bounding of neighborhood areas by the 
city planning body with the approval of 
the governing body of the city. As al- 
ready noted, provision is also made for 
such definition and bounding by action 
of a sufficient percentage of the property 
owners within the area, in case the city 
planning body or the city’s governing 
body fails or refuses to act. 

2. It sets forth the machinery for the 
creation of a neighborhood plan, and 
machinery for official adoption of the plan. 

A neighborhood plan as contemplated 
in the Act might provide for: 

(a) Zoning or rezoning. 

(b) Improvement and alteration of 
major and minor streets. 

(c) Creation of parks, playgrounds, 
and public recreational facilities. 

(d) Neighborhood planting and 
landscaping. 

(e) Location of all public utilities. 

(f) Building restrictions. 

(g) Progressive elimination of non- 
conforming uses. 

3. It provides for appeal to the courts 


AMERICAN 


ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, 


by any property owner who thinks he is 
adversely affected. 

4. It calls for execution of the pla 1 on 
the same basis as if it were originally 
adopted by the city ina regular ordinance, 

5. It gives legal status to neighbor- 
which 
ized enables property owners to deal as a 
unit with the city authorities. 

The National Association of Real 
Estate Boards has placed copies of the 
plan in the hands of member boards over 
the country for study and action. In Mis- 
souri a bill embodying the plan has al- 
ready been introduced and similar action 
is under way in several other states. 


GOVERNMENT 
THE GOVERNMENT'S LATEST EXPERIMENT 
IN LOW COST HOUSING has led to the 
that mud is the material to 
use if you want a house that will last 
longer, be cooler in summer, warmer in 
winter, and much cheaper than the or- 
dinary frame bungalow. 

Seven mud houses were recently built 
under the supervision of Thomas Hibben, 
R. A., as part of the New Deal’s commun- 
ity housing project at Gardendale, Ala. 
The cost of a “rammed earth” 


hood associations may be organ- 


conclusion 


house is 
estimated at about three-fourths of that 
for a frame house of the same size. One of 
the greatest advantages comes from the 
fact that the usual building formula 
wherein materials account for about 70 
per cent of the cost, is almost completely 
reversed. In this case, labor amounted 
to roughly 65 per cent of the cost, with 
materials only 35 per cent. The building 
process is simple, and the houses when 
finished resemble the adobe houses of the 
Southwest. 


SECURITIES ISSUED BY FEDERAL AGENCIES 
or by organizations formed at the instance 
of the Federal Government have been in- 
creasing in number, value, and importance 
in recent years, and another group is 
about to make its appearance. The Fed- 
eral Home Loan banks will announce 
soon an issue of debentures which will 
mark the first public financing for the 
twelve regional institutions devoted to 
sound and economical home financing. If 
expectations are realized, these banks will 
float debentures and bonds in growing 
amounts which may eventually rival the 
flotations of the Federal Land Banks. 
John H. Fahey, chairman of the Fed- 
eral Home Loan Bank Board, has pro- 
vided a brief description of the nature 
and function of the twelve member banks. 
“It took years of debate,” says Mr. Fa- 
hey, “before the country appreciated fully 
the necessity for the Federal Reserve 
System, and many conflicts of opinion 
had to be resolved before its creation was 
possible. It has taken an even 
(Continued on page 10) 


longer 


MAY 1937 





XUM 


Real 

the 
over 
Mis- 
> al- 
tion 


MENT 
» the 
il to 
last 
er in 
> OF- 


built 
bben, 
mun- 
Ala. 
se is 
that 
ne of 
1 the 
mula 
it 70 
letely 
inted 
with 
Iding 
when 
f the 


NCIES 
tance 
n in- 
tance 
Ip is 
Fed- 
yunce 
will 
- the 
d to 
o, If 
; will 
wing 
1 the 


>. 
Fed- 
pro- 
ature 
anks. 
_ Fa- 
fully 
serve 
inion 
. was 


mger 


1937 





XUM 









the RIGHT EQUIPMENT 
plus LONG EXPERIENCE 


Who knows most about 
air conditioning? The logical 
answer is: those few companies 
which specialize entirely in this 
particular field . . . those com- 
panies to whom air condition- 
ing is “bread and butter’’ busi- 
ness—not a side line. Such an 
organization is Clarage Fan. 

Clarage is expert in air 
conditioning because Clarage 
designs, builds and markets 
nothing but air handling 
and conditioning equip- 
ment. 

At Clarage Fan, for al- 
most a quarter century, all 
research and development, 
every facility and resource 
have been directed toward 
improvements in methods and 


apparatus for handling (G 
2 
— 


and conditioning air more 
efficiently. 

You are not experiment- 
ing when you come to Clar- 
age. From the varied line of 
units and systems bearing the 
Clarage name can be chosen 
equipment to meet your re- 
quirements exactly. From 
the wealth of experience 
gained on almost every con- 
ceivable type of conditioning 
installation will come valuable 
assistance and suggestions to 
make your job effective at 
lowest possible cost. 

Regardless of kind or 
size, a Clarage installa- 
tion produces results—and 
produces those results eco- 
nomically. 

Your inquiry is invited. 


CLARAGE FAN COMPANY 


Kalamazoo . Michigan 





Sales Offices in All Principal Cities 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 











NEW ! —MULTITHERMS 


Compact units for cooling, 
cooling and heating, or com- 
plete air conditioning. Ideal 
for stores, offices, theatres, res- 
taurants, etc. 968 different 
sizes and arrangements. Easily 
installed. Write for Bulletin 107. 





NEW !—TYPE W FANS 


Designed for highly efficient 
performance at high operating 
speeds, making for utmost 
economy when direct motor 
driven. Suitable for all types 
of ventilation and air condition- 
ing services. Very quiet per- 
formance. Offered in a wide 
range of sizes. Write for Bul- 
letin 112. 


Clarage also builds a com- 
plete line of air washers in five 
types—also many other condi- 
tioning units. 


















“..eAND WIRED FOR FIFTY 


YEARS TO COME...” 
SAYS ——| Oren WW. (OOF 











JAMES W. KIRST, ARCHITECT 
YONKERS, NEW YORK 












ee 
My client, Richard M. Ludlow, President of New Castle Homes, 
Inc., Seven Bridges, Chappaqua, demanded a house equipped with 
a modern G-E Radial Wiring System; a complete General Electric 
kitchen—Dishwasher, Range, Disposall Unit, and refrigerator—and 
a G-E Oil Furnace... and all to come within a total cost of $8,900.” 





‘And here,’ said Mr. Ludlow, ‘comes the joker — this house must 
also have a living room 22! x 13'6"; a thirteen foot dining room; 
a lavatory off the entrance hall; two large twin bed chambers, and 
and the 


SECOND FLOOR 











= a ar ame one smaller one, two baths; a maid’s room and bath 


Kitene 
Poach 


house must be completely insulated.’ 














vig Ra 
. a “After days of figuring we found that all this was actually possible. 
; g g y} 
“> re [ am especially enthusiastic about the Radial Wiring System used 
FIRST FLOOR in this house. It assures freedom from blown-out fuses and gives 


us a house that’s wired for fifty years to come.” 


(signed) James W. Kirst 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





XUM 





G-E RADIAL WIRING 


is planned to make electricity 
easy and economical to use X 
now and in the future —no 

voltage will be lost by small 

wires or long runs. 


PLANNED WIRING FOR BETTER LIVING 


Wrres THIS HOME, modern electrical 
wiring assures comfortable and convenient 
living, now and in the future. Lights burn 
brightly and appliances operate properly. 
Planned wiring — the G-E Radial Wiring 
System — is installed, providing adequacy 
in wire sizes, number of circuits, switches 
and convenience outlets. 

Broad electrical highways, which don't 
give current a chance to loiter, run directly 
to small circuit breakers on the first and 
second floors. Here circuits are controlled 
conveniently — no fuses to be replaced in 
the basement. Current has only a short 
distance to go after it leaves these circuit 
breakers and the radiating wires over which 
it travels to outlets aren’t crowded. Electric 
lamps and appliances receive the full amount 
of current for which they were designed. 

For modern homes, designed for electri- 
cal living, architects, more and more, are 
specifying the planned adequacy of the G-E 
Radial Wiring System. 


HERE’S HELP FOR BUSY ARCHITECTS 


The General Electric Home Bureau was 
organized to serve architects— and their 
clients — with technical advice and assis- 
tance on all home-electrification problems. 
We will check your plans from an electrical 


point of view—prepare wiring and heating 
specifications — scientific lighting plans - 

kitchen schemes — and Radial Wiring lay- 
outs. We can supply you with a wealth of 
valuable data and information on new elec- 
trical materials, methods, and equipment. 
Why not give us a chance to help you on 
your next job. Address: The General Elec- 
tric Home Bureau, 570 Lexington Avenue, 


New York. 





This is the General Electric Oil Furnace which has 
upset all previous ideas about oil heating. Due to 
the exclusive “Econo-Mist” Inverted Flame, it pro- 


vides more heat—uses less oil. 


» & 









be 
om 





Scientific lighting helps prevent eyestrain. The occupants of 
this house will enjoy the sight saving benefits of genuine 
MAZDA lamps made by General Electric . . . the kind 
that stay bright longer. 





A G-E Kitchen can be planned all at once or added to unit 
by unit. Equipment shown includes G-E Sink with Dis- 
posall unit; G-E Dishwasher; G-E Range; and G-E Re- 
frigerator. 


Just Published! A new book on Radial Wiring... the 
most forward step in the planning of the modern home. 
Mail the coupon for your free copy. 


GENERAL ELECTRIC Co. 
Home Bureau, 570 Lexington Ave., N.Y. 


Please send me vour new “Radial Wiring” book. 
Name 


Address 


Ric YEARS A HEAD! 


GENERAL @ ELECTRIC 


RESE ARC H8 K E E P 


GENERAL 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





NEWS e EVENTS e FACTS e FACES T R E N D S IDEAS e OPINIONS e COMMENTS 





»>HOTOS: BOIRON 


Belonging to the "Believe it or not' class are these pictures of the Palace 
of Versailles. The picture above is of the Palace illuminated by floodlighting, 
while that below is the same photograph with a montage daytime sky effect. 


time for us to learn that sound financial 
and economic stability in the nation does 
not depend entirely upon a ‘fully pro- 
tected commercial banking system, but 
that it is equally important to provide 
adequate reserve facilities in the field of 
mortgage finance.” 

Under the law, the Federal Home Loan 
Banks constitute a true reserve system 
of home mortgage finance. The institu- 
tions do not lend money to individual bor- 
rowers, but only to such organizations as 
building and loan associations, co-opera- 
tive banks, homestead associations, insur- 
ance companies, and savings banks. The 
use of funds is carefully controlled and 


directed toward the aim of constructing 
and improving small homes. 

Operating to date entirely with funds 
supplied by the United States Treasury, 
the twelve banks have accomplished much 
toward organization of home mortgage 
financing machinery. Building and loan 
associations have been most ready to take 
advantage of the new facilities, and mem- 
ber institutions already number 3,780, 
with combined assets of more than $3,- 
300,000,000. The twelve banks them- 
selves, in slightly more than four years 


of operations have extended advances of 


$294,388,000, of which $152,697,000 has 
been repaid. 


PRESTON DELANO, GOVERNOR OF THE 
FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK _ SYSTEM, 
recently urged the elimination of ten- 
dencies toward boom psychology in the 
home-building industry and in home fi- 
nancing fields. His remarks that, “the 
nation needs a steady and progressive ex- 
pansion of housing facilities, entirely sep- 
arated from any thoughts of new boom— 
and depressions,” were prompted by re- 
ports from every section of the country, 
indicating that this year would set a new 
home-building record. 

Presidents of the twelve regional FHL 
Banks report, that the demand for home 
financing is running anywhere from 50 
to 400 per cent greater than it was a 


year ago. 


CONSTRUCTION 
WITH STRIKES TO THE RIGHT OF US, AND 
STRIKES TO THE LEFT OF US, it might be 


well to pause for a moment and consider 
the building trades. Mr. A. C. 
formerly chief engineer of the FHA, and 


Shire, 


technical editor of Architectural Forum, 
recently discussed one phase of this in 
the Annals of the American Academy of 
Social Science. He Says of Labor: “The 
Federated Engineering Societies’ study 
blames labor for 21 per cent of the waste 
in building. 
ably higher, even for unskilled workers, 


Daily wages are consider- 


than those in the manufacturing indus- 
tries. Real wages, however, are not near- 
ly so high as the daily wage, because of 
irregularity of employment. Strong labor 
organizations, effective in obtaining 
high wage scales, have also been ef- 
fective in setting up practices which add 
considerably to the cost of building. 

In many cases limitations on work have 
been carried to ridiculous 
Skilled men insist on doing work which 
could be done as well, and more economi- 
cally, by their helpers or unskilled labor. 


extremes. 


Cases are not rare where it has been nec- 
essary to pay hoisting engineers from a 
quarter to a full day’s wages for starting, 
occasionally oiling, and stopping a gaso- 
line-driven pump. Electricians have been 
paid overtime for throwing a_ switch 
which turns on or off temporary light- 
ing for a building operation. The limita- 
tions on the work which any one man 
can perform, while requiring the employ- 
ment of more men, reduces the amount 
of work available to each man, and in- 
creases the uncertainty of employment. 
Realizing this, the nen have no incen- 
tive to do good or speedy work. Men 
coming on the job require time to get 
‘the lay of the land’, and work inefficient- 
ly until they are familiar with the par- 
ticular building operation on hand.” 

It appears from this, and similar in- 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 








new 





‘HL 
ome 
1 50 


rum, 
Ss in 
ly of 
‘The 
tudy 





vaste 
ider- 
kers, 


1dus- 


which makes 


abor it ve Se 
- Ue ed fh a ae all the Difference 
add Al} § ov : j 


What is it which makes some one Company in 


have SB] f Ut We" re os }' et my oy tT! an industry stand out above all others? Is it 
mes. 
hich 


engineering skill? Research facilities? Or is it 
exacting manufacturing standards? One of these 
= features may distinguish the others in the in- 
—« dustry, but never the recognized leader. Rather, 
a : the leader has them all. This leadership is the 
ting, final result of a policy which accepts nothing 
raso- less than the best engineering, research and 
been 
vitch 
ight- THE HERMAN NELSON CORPORATION 
— ; ‘ E General Office and Factories at Moline, Illinois 

= p Sales and Service Offices in all Principal Cities 


manufacturing standards obtainable. 


ploy- 
1ount 
| in- 
nent. 
icen- 
Men 
» get 
“ient- 
parf- 


r in- 



















































































WORK-SAVERS 


Each door and window should be given a 
number on the working drawings because 
it will save time in referring to any par- 
ticular one in specifications, in details, and 
in correspondence after the job gets under 
way. If this is not done both the millwork 
and hardware schedules become wordy, in- 
definite and inefficient listings, causing no 
end of difficulty in checking the delivery 
of the items, and still more in seeing that 
each unit is fitted in its intended location. 
In allotting numbers it is advisable to start 
with the main entrance or one corner of 
the building, and then continue from room 
to room in a methodical manner. 

Geratp K. GEERLINGS. 


12 


A SINGLE comprehensive perspective is usually more valuable to 
a client than a number of separate elevations. Even though it 
be sketchily presented such a drawing is well worth doing. As you 
know, a single comprehensive pencil is all-important to the architect 
and draftsman, for one which can draw light, thin lines, as well as 
black, heavy ones, is more valuable than a range of pencils which 
must be coaxed into action in order to produce a variety of values. 
The sketch above is a case in point, having been entirely drawn with 
a 2B Microtomic Van Dyke Pencil on tracing paper at the repro- 
duced size. The Microtomic Pencils are graded in 18 degrees. 


MICROTOMIC VAN DYKE PENCIL 
<< EBERHARD FABER <*> 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





XUM 





ever 


A PENNY FOR 
MAINTENANCE 


WHERE YOU SPECIFY “JOINED BY WELDING” 





XUM 


\ pe can be sure that your client will have a 


piping system that is permanently leakproof 


if you specify oxy-acetylene welding as the method 
for joining the pipe. Air conditioning ducts, also, 


can be made “‘jointless”” by welding. 


Oxy-acetylene welds have the full strength of 


the pipe or sheet metal. Welds take up less space 
than any other type of joint, look neater and 
involve no additional cost or time for construc- 


tion. Pipe and ducts of all sizes and of any metal 


can be joined by the oxy-acetylene welding process. 

Linde engineers, from their welding experience 
on many millions of feet of building pipe, have 
prepared technical data especially for those in- 
terested in designing and specifying “Piping 
Ask the Linde Office in 


your city for complete details before writing 


Joined by Welding.” 


specifications. The Linde Air Products Company, 
Unit of Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation, 


New York and Principal Cities. 








LINDE OXYCEN © PREST-O-LITE ACETYLENE © OXWELO APPARATUS AND SUPPLIES FRO m 








— 


Everything for Oxy Acetylene Velding and Cutting | 








PRODUCTS OF UNITS OF 


UNION CARBIDE AND 
CARBON CORPORATION 


LUTE sxiee cxnsice 














AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 


1937 13 








agg 


On “i = . a aia ali ut 





-.-the architect specified 
J-M “Shake” Textured 
Asbestos Shingles... 
fireproof, imperishable, 
and weather-resistant... 


Not until you actually touch these 
Johns-Manville Asbestos Shingles, do 
you realize they are not made of wood. 
That’s how faithfully they reproduce 
the charm and texture of old, hand- 
split “shakes”! 

Johns-Manville has recaptured this 
traditional beauty in a modern ma- 
terial . . . asbestos-cement. By the 
very nature of this composition, J-M 
Asbestos Shingles cannot burn, rot or 
wear out, and they require no paint 
to preserve their lasting charm. 
Throughout the years, their virtual 
freedom from maintenance will prove 
an important factor in minimizing 
upkeep on this house. 

If you wish detailed information 
about any Johns-Manville Building 
Materials, write Johns-Manville, 
22 K. 40th Street, New York City. 


* 


| | GIVE SS te OF TRIPLE INSULATION. | Johns-Manville 


The J-M Asbestos Shingles described above are one of the materials 


coed ia. '© Triple-Ineuloted Howes. This ts a J-M development de- JM 
signed to permanently protect homes against fire, weather and ; 

wear. It assures owners of maximum all-weather comfort, minimum ” . 

» maintenance and fuel bills. Triple Insulation involves no new or 4: BUILDING 
untried methods. It is adaptable to any type of house design. j x N 
Simply specify: J-M Asbestos Roofing and Siding Shingles; Ful-Thik MATERIALS 
Super Batts of J-M Rock Wool for insulating attics and sidewalls; Asbestos Roofing and Siding Shingles + Dec- 
J-M Steeltex, the reinforcing plaster base for walls and ceilings. orative Asbestos Wall Boards « Insulating 


Boards « Home Insulation «+ Steeltex « As- 


phalt Tile Flooring, Acoustical Material, ete. 


14 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





XUM 





Fall 


ii 





FOR Colonial Exteriors... paint 


experts advise Eagle White Lead protection! 


— This chemically active pigment gives an elastic paint filin 
; | 

He HAAN yd 

Se aiaaialalal * 

* 

* 

* 








x — doesn't crack or scale 
* 
Camera shows why LEAD . It’s a boom year for Colonial homes... and, as every architect knows, 
x TE * Se ae 
* EAGLE wHl * paint plays a major role in contributing a dignified charm to Colonial 
* : : 
* . stter rotection - - * structures. It must be gleaming white... it must give weatherproot 
* gives ette * 8g & § I 
x * ; 
. Pigment particles (1) act . protection. 
1 ” > 
ss - ut’ when ; P . a : ; ; 
. 1 ally “blossom .? pene * Eagle White Lead in oil meets these specifications perfectly. It is a 
bs ql 7 > is , 
* >. acle White Leac ee + : 
‘ La 
* ; . ch linseed oil (2). This » chemically active pigment—often outwears other pigments by two or 
: with lins , ; § § : 
ret; ; ; : »f lead ane 
— chemical union oF he sur- : three years. 
* +1 anchors deep if the = * ; 
oil anc : cks . : ; ’ : 7 
. tis applied tos See—in photomicrographs—how pigment particles “blossom out 
face 1t 1s h ‘ 
: . It stays toug ; ‘ , . : ; : 
* on like glue. It as ent yd when mixed with linseed oil. The resulting white lead paint film 
* and elastic under the + * ; ; ; 
* prutal weathering doesn * anchors deep in the wood—and is elastic. It stretches with the wood 
ruté race 
ale when surface : , ; _ 
: crack or scale W , 4 as it expands and contracts... doesn’t crack or scale. Eagle White 
* expands or contracts. * R ; ; 
* * Lead wears down by a gradual, even chalking —forms a perfect sur- 
- * - - = 
"e pe . 
* pe AIA AA face for repainting 
* 
* 


You can safely specify Eagle Pure White Lead for all wood exte- 


riors—and for brick and stucco, too. It’s also fine for washable flat or 
semi-gloss interiors. 


EAGLE 
The Eagle-Picher Lead Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


ait ag | Ep 
Eagle PURE White Lead 


GOOD PAINTERS SINCE 


1843 
AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, 


MAY 1937 





XUM 








Crane Neuvogue Bathroom 


Strikingly and beautifully modern—yet without any 
trace of “faddishness’—Neuvogue bathroom fix- 
tures afford the very latest conveniences, plus en- 
during value because Crane builds every part of 
every product. 


CranEfficient Kitchen 


The sink is a Crane “Sunnyday’—scientifically de- 
signed to take the drudgery out of food preparation 
and dishwashing. Swinging spout. Depressed drain- 
boards. Stemware drying ledge. Every feature that 
contributes to ease of use. 


Crane Heating Systems 
Seven types of Crane boilers for hot water, steam, 
vacuum and vapor heating—together with Crane 
Radiators—provide better heating efficiency for any 
structure. 











RANEQUIP 


—to fit the need 


exactly 





@ On this page, you see an architect’s recommen- 
dation of CranEquipment for a typical modern 
dwelling. Had his requirements been different— 
had he been planning another kind of house, an 
institutional or commercial building—Crane 
would have offered him exactly what he needed, 
too: bathroom styles and types for every kind of 
structure, at every price level. CranEfficient kitch- 
ens to fit individual conditions. Laundry equip- 
ment for the large or small home. Crane modern 
heating systems for every kind of fuel. 

The widest possible choice—plus the assur- 
ance of Crane high quality in every product—is 
what the Crane Architect's Catalog offers you to- 
day. Crane kitchen, bathroom and laundry plan- 
ning services are yours to command. Crane 
Display Rooms throughout the country make 
selection easy and accurate. CranEquip for com- 
plete satisfaction. 


Crane has the world’s largest 
and most complete line of 
valves and fittings. CranEquip 
throughout for satisfaction. 





i CRANE: 


S: 836 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO, ILL. 


CRANE CO., GENERAL OFFICE 


Branches and Sales Offices in One Hundred and Sixty Cities 


VALVES, FITTINGS, FABRICATED 


PIPE; 


PUMPS, PLUMBING AND HEATING MATERIAL 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, 


MAY 





1937 





XUM 





XUM 





PRACTICAL BEAUTY 


By combining strict practicality with rare architectural beauty, 
Insulux Glass Block abundantly fulfills the steadily increasing 
demand for greater simplicity, greater economy and greater 
usefulness in industrial, commercial, public and private build- 
ings. For never before in the history of architecture have so 
many important constructional advantages and so many design 


possibilities been assembled in one building material. 


The illustrations on this page show the adroit use of Insulux, 
in small areas, to achieve results that could not be attained 
with any other material . . . diffused light, privacy and arrest- 
ing design. In addition, Insulux resists fire, defies weather, 
retards heat, requires no painting, is impervious to grease and 
odors and is easily cleaned. For details, turn to Section 3-30 
of Sweet’s Catalog File for 1937, or send the coupon. 
Owens-Illinois Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio. 


OWENS-ILLINOIS Culler 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


Address 


Home in Orinda, Calif., designed by 


Fred Confer, {rchitect 
Berkeley, Calif. 


Owens-Illinois Glass Company 
Industrial and Structural Products Division 
316 Madison Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 


Please send me, without obligation, complete details 
about Insulux Glass Block. 


Name 








City State 











NEWS e EVENTS e FACTS e FACES T R E N D S IDEAS e OPINIONS e COMMENTS 





indications of labor inefficiency, that de- 
mands for shorter and still shorter work- 
ing days are quite indefensible, particu- 
larly as they apply to the building trades. 

From the standpoint of government or 
state control, New Dealer Donald Rich- 
berg has pointed out a closely related 
“vicious circle’ that might reasonably 
follow such control. “You cannot,” he 
said, “fix by law all wages of labor with- 
out fixing by law all prices of labor prod- 
ucts. Then it will be necessary by law 
to restrict production so that it will con- 
form to a consumption power which has 
been limited by law. When once we enter 
upon this circle of governmental responsi- 
bilities we will be forced step by step to 
submit our fortunes to the tyrannical con- 
trol of an all powerful state.” 


TO MOST OBSERVERS, CONTEMPORARY 
MEXICAN ARCHITECTURE appears to bea 
renaissance of the great creative talent of 
the Aztecs who, before the Spanish Con- 
quest, built pyramids and temples and 
palaces rivalling those of ancient Egypt. 
In spite of four hundred years of Span- 
ish overlordship, these traditions have 
been kept alive in native handicraft and 
in folk-customs with only slight changes. 

Truman S. Morgan and Thomas S. 
Holden, president and vice president of 
the F. W. Dodge Corporation, have found 
conditions there so interesting that they 
have devoted a major part of the cur- 
rent issue of Architectural Record to pic- 
tures and stories of the new Mexican 
architecture. The Corporation will also 
soon publish a book containing pictures 
and material collected during a nine 
months trip by Ernest and Esther Born. 

The United States has heard of poli- 
tical revolutions in old Mexico, but very 
little has been heard of the revolution 
that has occurred in its building and 
architecture. The rococo Spanish Colonial 
architecture has given way to a style 
which Mr. Holden says has not been in- 
fluenced by either European or North 
American precedent. 

The modern movement in Mexican ar- 
chitecture is estimated to be about ten 
years old, and has thrived in spite of the 
opposition of the government and of tradi- 
tional-minded architects. The leaders in 
the movement, inspired by the bold cre- 
ative work of Diego Rivera in the field 
of mural painting, were Jose Villagren 
Garcia, Juan O’Gorman, and Juan Le- 
garreta. Garcia, as professor in the Na- 
tional Academy, surrounded himself with 
a group of students who have subsequent- 
ly distinguished themselves in contem- 
porary architectural practice. 

FOR THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 3st, 
the average price of real estate bond is- 
sues advanced 1.8 per cent, according to 
Amott-Baker 


Realty Bond Averages, 


based upon 200 selected issues of prop- 
erties in New York, Buffalo, Boston, 
Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and other East- 
ern cities. For March, however, a de- 
cline of 2.2 per cent was indicated, the 
first such decline since April, 1936, when 
the average price fell 2.5 per cent. Dur- 
ing March, forty-seven of the issues in- 
creased in price, forty-nine remained un- 
changed, and 104 fell. 


A NEW CEMENTING MATERIAL, — contain- 
ing magnesium oxychloride cements and 
10 per cent of finely divided copper pow- 
der, has recently been reported by Dean 
S. Hubbell of the Mellon Institute of In- 
dustrial Research. The material, which 
resembles the natural mineral atacamite, 
promises wide utility in the building arts. 
The following excerpts from Dean Hub- 
bell’s report will indicate some of the 
many possible applications: 

“The compositions are colored blue- 
green by the reaction of the copper. How- 
ever, by suitable pigmentation, various 
other colors may be obtained. By form- 
ing a permanent bond to many other ma- 
terials, this new metallic cement provides 
a much needed adhesive, enhanced by a 
high degree of resiliency. For purposes 
of providing a non-skid surface, coatings 
one-eighth to one-fourth of an inch thick 
were troweled onto a smooth concrete 
walk. The adhesion to the concrete and 
its resistance to damage by abrasion and 
water were demonstrated by the perfect 
condition of the walk after seven months 
of constant wetting, during which time 
more than 250,000 people walked over it. 
These same characteristics, plus the fact 
that the consistency of the mix can be 
adjusted for brushing, or 
spraying, makes the material suitable for 
use as stucco, as a coating for a wide 


troweling, 


variety of materials, including impregna- 
ted fiber boards, and as a paint for ma- 
sonry of all kinds. This new material has 
also been useful in the manufacture of 
preformed articles, as pressed or cast floor 
and wall tiles, garden furniture, and statu- 
ary. Here its great strength allows small 
sections and fine detail to be employed.” 


HOUSING 

THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT AS A PEOPLE 
WE ARE COMMITTED TO A POLICY EN- 
COURAGING HOME OWNERSHIP. There 
is also no doubt that, under existing con- 
ditions, the annual carrying charges for 
home ownership impose too heavy a bur- 
den for many responsible American fami- 
lies. Among the discussions centering 
around a solution to this problem, comes 
the following proposal from Herbert U. 
Nelson, Secretary of the National Asso- 
ciation of Real Estate Boards. Its objec- 
tive, of course, is to cut carrying costs: 

“An agency might be created in one 


AMERICAN 


ot the federal departments in which farm. 
urban homes, and apartments 
owned co-operatively might, at the option 


steads, 


of the owner or purchaser, be registered 
as federal homesteads, placing them 
thereby under such stipulation as might 
be deemed essential to conserve their 
value and their character as homesteads. 
To insure the whole plan, it is proposed 
that the registration involve the tem- 
porary transfer of title to the federal 
agency. The owner or purchaser would 
receive back a land contract embodying 
the needed stipulations, and would re- 
cover title to his homestead only at such 
time as the terms of the contract were 
fully completed. Registration should be 
open to all, up to a certain limit of value, 

“The public interest being so safe- 
euarded, registered 
well be given these two conditions: 


homesteads might 


1. As to financing, they might be made 
eligible to mortgage loans up to 90% of 
the value of the property, and be given 
36 to 40 years in which to pay off the 
mortgage. To make this possible, pay- 
ments, as to both principal and interest, 
might well be guaranteed by the govern- 
ment, which has set up the original con- 
ditions of the land contract. 

The rate of interest would be fixed at 
an appropriately low rate, which would 


vary, of course, with conditions. Under 
proper circumstances it might well be as 
low as 3 or 34% 


2. As to tax payments, by agreement 


with the State and local governments the 
registered homesteads might be taxed no 
more than 1% of the appraised value in 
any one year.” 

All of which reminds us of a story. 

It seems that a middle-western boy liv- 
ing in the East was being “ragged” by 
one of his friends for not having a girl. 
He tried to pass it off by saying that he 
couldn’t find an Eastern girl he liked. 
Under pressure, however, he finally ad- 
mitted that the real reason was _ because, 
“the Eastern girls lacked the brains that 
the girls back home had.” After a mo- 
ment’s thought, his friend admitted that 
this might be true, but added that the 
only question in his mind was, “who 
judges the brains of the Western girls?” 

Mr. Nelson’s proposal 
slight question as to just what. the 
government may do by the time it has 
carte blanche on our homes, as well as 


leaves some 


wages and working conditions. 


THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHI- 
TECTS, in collaboration with the Federal 
Home Loan Board and the Federal Hous- 
ing Administration, has developed a plan 
to enlist the nation’s architects in meeting 
a housing shortage which, it is con- 
servatively estimated, will 

(Continued on page 132) 


involve an 


ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


XUM 

















































































































cee 

farm- 

nents 

)ption — — — ——  — o —— 

—_— —_—_—_ -_ —_—_—_— —_—_—_ — —_—_—_— 

tered a. es| :t = Ss Vee 
them | a 9 a _ 

‘ a ————_____—_— 2 —  ——_— 

night — —== — ae ———— 
re —— — a — a 
teads. 

posed 

tem- 

deral 

vould 

lying 

l Te- ——- 

such 

were 
ld be * 
value. = -e ie 

safe- 

a Ir On 1 1oOnin 

made 
eae 

o Ul 
given 
5 2 e * 

pe wins enthusiastic acceptance 

pay- 
erest, 
vern- —_ 

con- HE enthusiastic acceptance given 

Frigidaire Controlled-Cost Air What Controlled -Cost 
ed at Conditioning by architects everywhere Air Conditioning 
1 . 4 

vould isdue notonly tothetechnical excellence Bicenn tn Aockibere 
eae . Ba) . . ivVieans ATC ects 
nder of the equipment itself but to the engi- 
be as neering soundness of the idea behind it. It allows you to specify. 

. - 1. A system that gives tl SITE 
oe Practically no two air conditioning spade eth gives the desired 
ment ’ : ; ; atmospheric conditions — your 
s the jobs are exactly alike... either in the client pays only for what he needs. 
od no amount of cooling action or in the kinds 2. Equipment of exactly the right 
ue in and degrees of conditioning required. size and capacity for your client 

Vier with Feinideine Conteelied Can energy too — which would 
ry. ; ; . 3 A E 7 tg mean unsatisfactory service; nor 
i More and more evidence is piling Air Conditioning, you can specify too large, which would be waste- 
y liv- ee a ; 
” b up daily, pointing to forced warm equipment that will give the exact ful and costly. 
eirl = pn ie i So a amount of cooling any job should have. 3. A method of installation that 
Ss . air conditioning as e pop i. ec ‘. . > » . 
: heati for new h You can specify any degree or kind of suits any building — whether re 
at he ncating System LOf BREW BOMCS. ‘itioni f i i ‘ modeled or new, owned or rented, 
<4 ETN : : nls 7s as 
liked. Thenew Delco Conditionairs, in conc itloning... rom sim] € Coo Ing to therefore controlling the ultimate 
y ad- sizes to fit any house, meet this de- the most precise control of all atmos- coer. 
mane mand perfectly. They air condition a: a . : ; ann Ss 
ause, P : 4 ) =e Ag pheric conditions. 4. More cooling action with /ess cur- 
; they heat! They use either gas or oil. ; . He 
that They cost no more than automatic And, perhaps most important of all, a ee ag a con- 
- % “¢ : “ O1 Over Operating STS. 
- heat alone. you can specify equipment to fit any E ie 
that Andcooling equipment for Sum- and all types of construction. 5. Dependable, proven equipment 
t the mer Air Conditioning can be added ; ld h , for low maintenance cost. 
“who either at the time of installation You shou d have hart h = o- And gives you and your client a 
120 . ee ae 4 ste details ab r — Sj é 
rls? or later, provided ducts are prop ple te details al out this oduct of peceentation of all dhe facts, 90 that 
some erly designed. General Motors”. Write to Delco- you will know and can therefore 
the Frigidaire Conditioning Division, Gen- control the entire cost. 
+ has eral Motors Sales Corp., Day ton, Ohio. 
‘Il as 
.CHI- 
deral 7 
lous- 
plan 
eting 
con- . ea: . — oe 
- The Air Conditioning Division of General Motors 
AUTOMATIC COOLING, HEATING AND CONDITIONING OF AIR 
1937 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 19 





XUM 




























































STORE 





GHT 
———— BASEBALL SCOOF 
DUNEE. ma SWEEPSTAKES #105 ASHE 


D DU’ 





A theatre in Chicago, I1l., remodeled and made more attractive by the use of Pittco Store Front Products. 


Architect... 


pitrco Store Front Products lend them- 
selves perfectly to the design and execu- 
tion of outstanding, business-building store 
fronts. This is a complete line of store front 
products ... all made by the same company 
- including every material needed in store 
front construction. All are of high quality, 
dependable, unusually good-looking and 
adaptable to original and effective treat- 
ments. They go together to form a unified, 
finished front ... because they were origi- 
nally designed to harmonize and supple- 
ment each other. In your store front work, 
take advantage of them. And send for our 


20 


B. Leo Stef. 


new booklet . . . “Producing Bigger Profits 
with Pittco Store Fronts.”’ It contains com- 
plete information, interesting photographs 
of many installations and ideas which you 
can improve and develop for your own uses. 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, 2193 
Grant Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 


IT TCO 


P. ORE FRONTS 
_glass...melal... paint 


AMERICAN ARCHITEC 


CT AND 


HERE’S A 


OF PRODUCTS FOR 


FRONT 


DESIGN 


- Pittsburgh Plate Glass 


Company maintains a nation- 
wide system of branch offices and 
fully stocked warehouses, supple- 
mented by thousands of dealers. 
We are therefore particularly well 
equipped to provide quality paint 
and glass products to meet the 
architect's specifications with ut- 
most promptness and efficiency in 
any part of the country. We invite 
you to take advantage of this 
convenient source of supply. 


© . 


A complete line of Pittsburgh Prod- 
ucts of the following types is available 
through our7 4 branches in leading cities: 





PITTSBURGH GLASS 
PRODUCTS 
Polished Plate Glass 
Pennvernon Window Glass 
Carrara Structural Glass 
Ornamental Glass 
Pittsburgh Mirrors 


PITTSBURGH PAINTS 
Sun-Proof Paint 
Wallhide Paint 
Waterspar Enamel 
Waterspar Varnish 
Florhide Enamel 


PITTCO STORE FRONT METAL 











See Sweet's for complete specifications, 
and for addresses of Pittsburgh Plate 
Glass Company branches. Be sure to 
see the Pittco Store Front Caravan, now 
on a nation-wide tour. Contact our 
local branch for specific information as 
to when it will visit your territory 


Ps f.PITTSBURGH,7/ 


tod PLATE GLASS COMPANY 9” 


pbb 


ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





XUM 








XUM 


aT 


Dishinchive Poors ARE EASY TO CREATE 


WITH ARMSTRONGS LINOLEUM 


oe 








HEN 


floors that are different, Arm- 


your plans call for 
strong’s Linoleum offers you com- 
plete freedom of design. 

With this versatile floor material, 
you can give free rein to your 
creative ability. Any design you lay 
out on your drafting board can be 
faithfully reproduced in the floor. 
You can work with more than fifty 
colors in Armstrong’s Plain, Jaspe, 
Raybelle, and Marbelle Linoleum. 
In addition, 


there are hundreds 


of standard patterns from which 


A 


you may choose interesting floors. 
Armstrong’s Linoleum Floors 
provide all the practical advan- 
tages that clients demand—low 
installation cost, easy and econom- 
ical maintenance, durability, and 
underfoot comfort and quiet. 
Armstrong manufactures the only 
complete line of resilient floors, 
including — besides Linoleum 
Linotile, Accotile, Cork Tile, and 


Reinforced Rubber Tile. As a 
result, Armstrong’s Architectural 


Bureau is in a position to give you 





Entrance Hall, Crown Cork & Seal Co., Bcltimore, 

Md. Floor is Armstrona’s Linoleum with field of No. 

03 Marbelle and Linoset and feature strips of Red 

No. 40 and Yellow No. 48. Lucius R. White, Jr 

irchitect. Armstrong’s Linotile and Corkoustic 20 
were used in this building. 


valuable, unbiased suggestions on 
the type of floor best suited to 
your plans. For full information, 
see your 1937 edition of Sweet's (Sec. 
17, Catalog 54), or write for color- 
illustrated ‘Better Floors for Better 
Business.” Armstrong Cork Prod- 
ucts Company, Building 
Materials Division, 1201 
State Street, Lancaster, Pa. 


1/h 








ARMSTRONG’S ~—Zz 
and RESILIENT TILE 


LINOTILE - ACCOTILE : CORK TILE - RUBBER TILE - LINOWALL + ACOUSTICAL CEILINGS 


FLOORS 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND 


ARCHITECTURE, 


MAY 1937 


21 








TRATIE... 


Pioneer of Five Phase 











Providing warmed and 
circulated air, the Convector 
fits perfectly into any split system 
air conditioning program 

as well as being first choice for 
modernizing and new buildings 
where economical heat delivery 
is required. 














te HUMIDIFYING. Illustrated above is the }¥¥ DEHUMIDIFYING. Trane floor type self- 4% HEATING. Factory heating took long strides 
cabinet Humidifier used frequently in split air contained air conditioner of large capacity forward in efficiency and economy when the 
conditioning systems for residences and office used in many establishments to maintain cor- famous Trane heating coil principle was incor- 
buildings. rect humidity as well as for cooling in summer __ porated in Unit Heaters. 

and suppfying automatically controlled health- 

ful heat in winter. 





22 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 








XUM 


es 
1e 


Air Conditioning, Announces 


a 
New Beauty in Convectors 
for 1937. 52,000 installations ago —Trane announced their first convector 


(in 1926). Each successive year has seen new improvements in economy and design that, accumu- 
latively, are responsible for the Trane Convector being considered the Standard in the field, more 


units having been sold than any other. 


NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR 5. Bring greater cleanliness to wall surface and fur- 
ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS nishings — easier to cleanse. 








1. Anew beauty resulting from softened contours that 
permits a new freedom in harmonious decoration of 
any period. 


2. In concealed form — an indispensable ally of the 
modern compact architectural design. 


3. “Modern” heat delivery of natural air circulation 
that occupants recognize as heat at its most comfort- 
able, healthful best. 


4. Quick response heat —subject to instant control. 


TRANE ..... 


THE TRANE COMPANY —LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN 


Trane Company of Canada, Ltd., Toronto 





¥ COOLING. Trane Coils for cooling have 4% VENTILATING. The Air-O-Vent provides a 
found hundreds of different applications among means of introducing fresh air for auditoriums 
leading architects, contractors, and —— and gymnasiums. 
Complete range of sizes and types for all 

applications. 


6. Increased economy in installation and operation. 
7. New accessibility when interior cleaning or adjust- 
ment is required through the new one-piece top and 
front stamping. 

Cc 





HERE ARE THE FIVE VITAL 
PHASES OF AIR CONDITIONING 


that make Trane Weather Magic 





1. Heating 2. Cooling 
3. Ventilating 4. Humidifying 
5. Dehumidifying 


Major advancements in heating 
are not the only Trane contri- 
butions to weather magic. There 
have followed many achieve- 
ments in the five related fields, 
which have made the Trane 
Company one of the outstand- 
ing factors in the field of air 
conditioning either for com- 
fort or industry. 

A competent field organiza- 
tion of technical advisers in 64 
principal cities of the United 
States trained in each of the 
five phases of air conditioning 
and working constantly with 
the principal engineering con- 
sultants in the profession is at 
the disposal A pe architect, 
engineer or contractor. 








AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 


1937 3 





















































by 
ELEVATOR COMPANY 


OTIS 


Wuat has happened to Two-Speed AC? It has 
been superseded by UMV. Sounds like more 


alphabetical bureaus? Let us explain. 


— 


Two-Speed AC is elevator parlance for an 
elevator machine that operates directly from 
alternating current. Its versatility is limited to 
just two speeds. Its usefulness is restricted to 
slow speed, geared, single-wrap traction. Its maxi- 
mum speed should not exceed 350 feet per min- 


ute. The service it gives is hardly up to today’s 


— 


UMVD is short for Unit Multi-Voltage. Or, in 


standards. 


plain words, an elevator with a direct-current 
motor that receives its power from an individual 
motor generator. This generator changes current 


into ideal 





—regardless of its characteristics 
direct current for that motor. This new, modern, 
and more flexible equipment is available at a 


price comparable to the old Two-Speed AC. 


— 


More important, the Two-Speed AC machine 


now in use can usually be modernized to UMV 


24 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 



































at reasonable cost—because it is no longer neces- 


sary to scrap a large portion of that machine. 


— 


The credits from the change-over are: Smoother, 
faster, quieter service. Less wear and tear on 
the apparatus. Usually a nice saving in power 
consumption. Lower up-keep costs. The only 


debit is the moderate cost of the modernizing. 


This is an important advance in elevatoring, 
because one of the big modernization problems 
has been the geared Two-Speed AC machine. 
And because more and more the available current 


supply, today, is alternating. 


And by the way, the occasion will be rare indeed 
where modernizing to UMV will require more 


machine room than Two-Speed AC. 


UMV opens the road to economical moderniza- 
tion possibilities. Many a building has Two-Speed 


AC that can (and should) be changed to UMV. 





XUM 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


AND ARCHITECTURE 


THIS MONTH 


NEWS OF WALTER GROPIUS coming to Harvard gave additional emphasis to the fact that 
the United States is on the way to being the Mecca for architectural education. Naturally 
anything that Dr. Gropius has to say about training architectural students is significant 
but it is especially so in “Education Toward Creative Design,” his first article written in 
America. 


DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE in so vast a country as ours is naturally extremely varied 
due to climatic conditions, local building materials and precedent. Eighteen houses in 
eighteen different states in every section of the United States give a clear picture of 
the trend in present day house design. 


BOSTON because it will be the scene of the A.I.A. Convention in June, furnishes the sub 
ject for Architectural Overtones. The photographs, part of Samuel Chamberlain's collec- 
tion for The American Scene, are sufficiently diversified in subject to give a feeling of the 
true Boston flavor. 


BANKS are no longer designed in the image of Roman Baths. Clearest evidence of this is the 
new East River Savings Bank branch in Rockefeller Center, New York. Reinhard & 
Hofmeister were the architects. 


THE THEME TOWER should set the pace for subsequent buildings at New York's 1939 World's 
Fair. This is a dramatic presentation of how a modern architectural office arrives at a 
fine solution to a difficult problem. 


LIGHTING is constantly being studied and improved both as a utilitarian and as a decorative 
element of the home. Eugene W. Commery is one of the outstanding men in the home light 

ing field and his well illustrated article. Standards of Residential Lighting, is the last word 
on the subject. 


NEXT MONTH 


INNOVATIONS IN THE ARCHITECTURAL PUBLISHING FIELD are relatively rare. \Ve feel that 
we have one in a 16-page section completely edited by a group of Boston architects. Every 
other month thereafter there will appear a similar section edited by a group of architects 
in a city or a section of the country, representing their viewpoint of what architectural edit 

ing should be. 


INDIAN RESERVATIONS were once upon a time dotted with mediocre, ugly buildings. All this 
has changed. Today the Bureau of Indian Affairs is bending every effort to build 
schools, hospitals, etc., in the various tribal styles. Commissioner John Collier has written 
an article about the why and wherefore of this farsighted move. It is illustrated with some 
splendid work in southwest reservations designed by Mayers, Murray and Phillip, Architects. 


HATCH'S DEPARTMENT STORE in \Vest Palm Beach, Florida, is one of the finest in the 
country. It was done by John L. Volk, Architect. 


THERE WILL ALSO BE a number of other stores and shops of various kinds and sizes. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 25 









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PHOTO: COURTESY MUSEUM OF MODERN ART 


BY WALTER GROPIUS 


HI* profound social revolution within the last generation, 

mainly caused by the invention and development of the 
machine, has cut off slow, genuine growth of creative art in all 
civilized countries. The succeeding gigantic struggle of coming 
to terms with the machine and getting it under control seems 
to have absorbed most of the vitality and creative power of these 
generations. The old conception of the basic unity of all art in 
its relation to life and to the social strata of the community was 
therefore lost and more and more replaced by that shallow 
aesthetic “art for art’s sake’ and the even more dangeroys 
philosophy it sprang from: “business as an end in itself.” The 
common attitude towards the arts turned, consequently, into a 
sentimental longing for historical forms by accepting aesthetic 
“ressentiment” and good taste as a substitute for creative art, 
This fatal obsession, still dominating the general feeling of our 
present generation, needs to be overcome before a true creative 
art, adopting the machine as the medern vehicle of form, may 
permeate again the community as a whole. . 
new art do already exist. 


Str mg roots of this 
They impose a duty to our genera- 
tion of clearing the field for the next, so that it may find again 
the right conception of art by way of better education; but 
improving art education means starting from a clarified aspect 
as to what creative form is. 

The demands which we impose on the expression—that is to 
are of a purely spiritual nature. The 
form is not a product of the intellect, but of human desire, and 
is therefore closely associated with the individual, with the 
nation and with place and time. The history of art contains 
many examples which reflect the struggle between intellect and 
desire, even to the most absurd contradiction between purpose 
and shape. 


say, the form of a thing 


In our mechanical age, however, a new concep- 
tion is beginning to make itself felt. Today we insist upon the 
form of a thing following the function of that thing, upon its 
creator’s desire for expression following the same direction as 
the organic processes in nature, and not running counter to that 
direction. We insist upon harmony again being achieved be- 
tween intellect and desire. We are once again striving towards 
unity in the cultural world around us, out of the boundless 
diversities in which the individual feels himself helpless and 
alone. The age just past, with its 
imitations was, perhaps, merely the reflection of our unconscious 


“isms” and its historical 
desire to probe the secrets of the whole visible world in order, 
in our longing for totality, to overlook nothing of importance in 
a new world. 

The history of artistic education shows that in the middle 
ages a close contact existed between the artist and the working 
life of the people. Craftsmen and artists of all grades had a 
common training ground: the workshop. It was with the intro- 
duction of the academies that the world of production and the 
artist began slowly to drift apart. Meant in the beginning as a 
scholarly supplement for the work done in the so-called “State 
manufactures” of France—a forerunner of our modern factories 
—they gradually became isolated and their relationship to the 


EDUCATIONT 











NTOWARD 


‘ration, 
of the 
‘t in all 
coming 
| seems 
of these 
| art in 
ity was 
shallow 
1gerous 
.” The 
, Into a 
esthetic 
ive art. 
of our 
creative 
m, may 
; of this 
genera- 
d again 
m; but 
| aspect 


lat is to 
e. The 
ire, and 
ith the 
‘ontains 
lect and 
purpose 
CC ynicep- 
pon the 
ipon its 
ction as 
- to that 
ved be- 
towards 
yundless 
ess and 
istorical 
ynscious 
n order, 
tance in 


middle 
working 
s had a 
le intro- 
and the 
ing as a 
| “State 
actories 
» to the 





XUM 


life of the community as a whole ceased to exist. Unfettered 
by practical considerations, they withdrew the artist entirely 
from the workaday world and lulled him in a dream of genius, 
leaving him totally unequipped for the struggle of existence. 
His skill became merely a graphic and pictorial one and was 
therefore doomed to end in aesthetic speculation. Preoccupied 
with the making of the “genius,” the Academy forced the ma- 
jority of her pupils, who could not hold this highest rank, to 
True national art, pulsating through 
every branch of human activity, gradually died. 


HEN, in the last century, the machine-made products 
5 peer to sweep the world, leaving the craftsmen and 
artists in a bad plight, a natural reaction gradually set in against 
the abandonment of form and the submersion of quality. Ruskin 
and Morris were the first to set their faces against the tide, but 
their opposition against the machine could not stem the waters. 
It was only much later that the perplexed mind of those inter- 
ested in the development of form realized that art and production 
can be reunited only by accepting the machine and subjugating 
it to the mind. “The Arts and Crafts” schools for “applied art” 
arose mainly in Germany, but most of them met the demand 
halfway only, as their training was too superficial and technically 
dilettantic to bring about a real advance. The manufactories 
still continued to turn out masses of ill-shaped goods while the 
artist struggled in vain to supply platonic designs. The trouble 
was that neither of them succeeded in penetrating far enough 
into the realm of the other to accomplish an effective fusion of 
both their endeavours. 


become social drones. 


The craftsman, on the other hand, with the passing of time 
began to show only a faint resemblance to the vigorous and 
independent representative of mediaeval culture who had been 
in full command of the whole production of his time and who 
had been a technician, an artist, and a merchant combined. 
His workshop turned into a shop, the working process slipped 
out of his hand and the craftsman became a merchant. The 
complete individual, bereaved of the creative part of his work, 
thus degenerated into a partial being. His ability to train and 
instruct his disciples began to vanish and the young apprentices 
gradually moved into factories. There they found themselves 
surrounded by a meaningless mechanization which blunted their 
creative instincts, and their pleasure in their own work; their 
inclination to learn disappeared rapidly. 

What is the reason for this devitalizing process? What is 
the difference between handicraft and machine work? The dif- 
ference between industry and handicraft is due far less to the 
different nature of the tools employed in each than to sub- 
division of labour in the one and undivided control by a single 
workman in the other. This compulsory restriction of personal 
initiative is the threatening cultural danger of the present-day 
form of industry. The only remedy is a completely changed 
attitude towards work, which arises from the sensible realiza- 
tion of the fact that the development of technique has shown 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


CREATIVE 


DESIGN 


how a collective form of labor can lead humanity to greater 
total efficiency than the autocratic labor of the isolated indi- 
vidual. This does not detract from the power and importance 
of personal effort; on the contrary, it enhances its utility by 
giving it the possibility of taking its proper place in the work of 
the whole. This attitude no longer perceives in the machine 
merely an economic means for dispensing with as many man- 
ual workers as possible and of depriving them of their liveli- 
hood, nor yet a means of imitating handwork; but, rather, an 
instrument which is to relieve man of the most oppressive 
physical labor and serve to strengthen his hand so as to 
enable him to give form to his creative impulse. The fact 
that we have not yet mastered the new means of production 
and, in consequence, still have to suffer from them, is not a 
valid argument against their necessity. The main problem 
will be to discover the most effective way of distributing the 
creative energies in the organization as a whole. The intelligent 
craftsman of the past will in future become responsible for the 
speculative preliminary work in the production of industrial 
Instead of being forced into mechanical machine work, 
his abilities must be used for laboratory and modelling work and 
fused with the industry into a new working unit. 
the young artisan is, 


goods. 


At present 
either to 
descend to the level of a factory-hand in industry or to become 


for economic reasons, forced 
an organ for carrying into effect the platonic ideas of others: 
i.e., of the artist-designer. In no case does he any longer solve 
a problem of his own setting. With the help of the artist he 
produces goods with merely decorative nuances of new taste 
which, although associated with a sense of quality, lack any 
deep-rooted progress in the structural development, born of 
What, then, 


must we do to give the rising generation a more promising 


a knowledge of the new means of production. 


approach to their future profession as designers, craftsmen, or 
architects? What training establishments must we create in 
order to be able to sift out the artistically-gifted person and fit 
him by extensive manual and mental training for independent 
creative work within the industrial production? Only in very 
isolated cases have training schools been established with the 
aim of turning out this new type of worker who is able to 
combine the qualities of an artist, a technician and a business- 
man. One of the attempts to regain contact with production 
and to train young students both for handwork and for machine 
work, and as designers at the same time, was made by the 
Bauhaus, that school of design which I founded in Germany 
in 1919. The Bauhaus aimed at the training of people possess- 
ing artistic talents as designers in industry and handicrafts, as 


sculptors, as painters and as architects. A complete coordinated 


training of all handicraft, in technique and in form, with the 
object of joint work in building, served as the basis. The fact 
that the man of today is, from the outset, left too much to 


traditional specialized training—which merely imparts to him a 
specialized knowledge, but does not make clear to him the mean- 


ing and purport of his work, nor the relationship in which he 


27 














stands to the world at large—was counteracted at the Bauhaus 
by putting at the beginning of its training not the “trade” but 
the “human being” in his natural readiness to grasp life as a 


whole. The basis of its training was a preliminary course, 
introducing the pupil to the experience of proportion and scale, 


rhythm, light, shade and colour, and allowing him at the same 
time to pass through every stage of primitive experience with 


n 
a 
oO 
n 
a 
b 
tl 
ti? 


Age.” 


iaterials and tools of all kinds—in order to enable him to find 
place where, within the limits of his natural gifts, he could 
btain a secure footing. This training, which occupied six 
1onths, was intended to develop and ripen intelligence, feeling 
nd ideas, with the general object of evolving the “complete 
eing’ who, from his biological centre, could approach all 
ungs of life with instinctive certainty and would no longer be 
iken unawares by the rush and convulsion of our “Mechanical 
The objection that, in this world of industrial economy, 


such a general training implies extravagance or a loss of time 


d 


oes not, to my mind and experience, hold good. On the 


contrary, I have been able to observe that it not only gave 


tl 
p 
il 
tl 


ie pupil greater confidence ; but also considerably enhanced the 
roductiveness and speed of his subsequent specialized train- 
ig. Only when an understanding of the inter-relationship of 
1e phenomena of the world around him is awakened at an 


early age will he be able to incorporate his own personal share 


i 


1 the creative work of his time. 


As both the future craftsman and the future artist were 


subject to the same fundamental training at the Bauhaus, the 
latter had to be sufficiently broad to enable each talent to find 


it 


s own way. The concentric structure of the whole training 


embodied all the essential components of design and technique 
right from the beginning, in order to give the pupil an immediate 


insight into the whole field of his future activities. 


The further 


training merely gave breadth and depth; it differed from the 
elementary “preliminary training” only in degree and thorough- 
ness, but not in the essence. Simultaneously with the first exer- 
cises in materials and tools, the training in design commenced. 


tc 


N addition to technical and handicraft training, the designer 
must also learn a special language of shape in order to be able 
) give visible expression to his ideas. He has to absorb a 


scientific knowledge of objectively valid optical facts, a theory 
which guides the shaping hand and provides a general basis 
on which a multitude of individuals can work together harmoni- 


ously. 


This theory is naturally not a recipe for works of art, 


but it is the most important objective means for collective work 


in design. 


It can best be explained with an example out of the 


musical world: the theory of the counterpoint which, though in 
the course of the ages it may have undergone certain changes, 


is 
tl 
sl 


. nevertheless, still a superindividualistic system for regulating 
1e world of tones. Its mastery is required lest the musical idea 


10uld remain lost in chaos ; for creative freedom does not reside 


in the infinitude of the means of expression and formation. but 
in free movement within its strictly legal bounds. The Academy, 


Ww 
it 





hose task it should have been from the Middle Ages—when 
was still a vital foree—to tend and develop this theory for 


the optical arts, had failed because it lost touch with reality. 


Ih 


itensive studies were therefore made at the Bauhaus to re- 


discover this grammar of design in order to furnish the student 


Ww 


tion, optical illusions, and colors. 


ith an objective knowledge of optical facts—such as propor- 
Careful cultivation and 


further investigation of these natural laws would do more to 
further true tradition than any instruction in the imitation of 


ol 


28 


d forms and styles. 


In the course of his training, each student of the Jauhays 
had to enter a workshop of his own choice, after haying 
. . rr . 5 

completed the preliminary course. There he studied simul. 


taneously under two masters—one a handicraft maste1 
other a master of design. 


and the 
This idea of starting with two dif. 


ferent groups of teachers was a necessity, because neither 
artists possessing sufficient technical knowledge nor hand. 
workers endowed with sufficient imagination for artistic prob- 


lems, who could have been made the leaders of the working de. 


partments, were to be found. A new generation whi 


combine both these attributes had first to be trained. 


1 would 
In later 
In charge 

‘(upped 
€ separa- 


technique 


years, the Bauhaus succeeded in placing as masters 
of the workshops former students who were then 
with equal technical and artistic knowledge, so that tl 
tion of the staff into masters of form and masters of 
was then found to be superfluous. 

FTER a three-year training in handwork and design, the 
A student had to submit to an examination both by the mas- 
ters of the Bauhaus and by the “Chamber of Handicrafts” jy 
order to obtain the Journeyman’s Certificate. The third stage 
for those who wanted to proceed was the Building training, 
Co-operation on practical building sites, practical experiments 
with new building materials, studies in draftsmanship and 
engineering led to the master certificate of the Bauhaus. The 
students then became either practical architects or collaborators 
in the industry, or teachers—according to their special gifts, 
The thorough manual training in the workshops served as a 
very valuable equipment for those students who found it im- 
possible to penetrate into the more comprehensive and complex 
task of the architect’s profession. The gradual and manifold 
instruction of the Bauhaus enabled him to concentrate on pre- 
cisely that kind of work which best suited his capabilities. 

The training in handwork given in the Bauhaus workshops 
must not be taken as an end in itself, but as an irreplaceable 
means of education. The aim of this training was to produce 
designers who were able, by their intimate knowledge of 
material and working processes, to influence the industrial 
production of our time. An attempt was made, therefore, 
produce models for the industry which were not only designed 
but actually made in the workshops of the Bauhaus. The 
creation of standard types for the articles of daily use was their 
These workshops were essentially laboratories 


+ 


to 


main concern. 
in which the models for such products were carefully evolved 
and constantly improved. Even though these models were 
made by hand, the model designers had to be fully acquainted 
with the methods of production on an industrial scale and s0, 
during their training, the Bauhaus sent out its best students 
for a time, to do practical work in factories. Inversely, practical 
workers also came from the factories into the 
shops, to discuss the needs of industry with masters and 
students. In this way a mutual influence arose which found its 
expression in valuable products, the technical and artistic quality 
of which were appreciated by manufacturer and customer. 


Jauhaus work- 


HE creation of standard types for every-day goods is a social 

necessity. The standard is by no means an invention of our 
own era. It is only the methods of producing it which have 
changed. It still implies the highest level of civilization, the 
seeking out of the best, the separation of the essential and super- 
personal from the personal and accidental. It is today more 
necessary than ever to understand the underlying significance 
standard”—that is to say, as a cultural title 


“ 


of the conception 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


XUM 





AN 


auhans 
having 

simul- 
and the 
Wo dif- 
neither 

hand- 
iC prob- 
<ing de- 
1 would 
In later 
charge 
(uipped 
separa- 
chnique 


ign, the 
he mas- 
afts” in 
dd stage 
raining, 
riments 
lip and 
s. The 
OTAators 
il gifts. 
od asa 
| it im- 
omplex 
ianifold 
on pre- 
rkshops 
laceable 
TOC luce 
ge of 
dustrial 
fore, to 
esigned 

The 
as their 
ratories 
evolved 
S were 
uainted 
and so, 
tudents 
ractical 
- work- 
rs and 
und its 
quality 
er. 


1 social 
of our 
h have 
on, the 
super- 
y more 
ificance 
-al title 


y 1937 





XUM 


of honou:; —and firmly to combat the shallow catchword propa- 
-h simply raises every industrial mass-product to that 
“standard.” The Baufiaus was primarily devoted to 
hich today is becoming ever more urgent; that of 
mass-product and the home from mechanical anarchy 


ganda \ 
high ran! 
the task 
saving tl 
oring them to purpose, sense and life. 

ollaboration with industry, the Bauhaus 
ortance also to bringing the students into closer 


and of re 

In its attached 
special 
economic problems. I am opposed to the erroneous 
e artistic abilities of a student may suffer by sharpen- 


se of economy, time, money and material consump- 


touch wil 
view that 
ing the s 
tion. Obviously it is essential clearly to differentiate between 
the unres! 
can hard 
completion 
process of inventing a model and the technical process involved 
in its mass-production. Creative to 
order, but the inventor of a model must nevertheless develop 
trained judgment of an economic method of subsequently manu- 
facturing his model on mass-production lines, even though time 


ricted work in a laboratory on which strict time limits 
be imposed, and work which has been ordered for 
at a certain date; that is to say, between the creative 
made 


ideas cannot be 


and consumption of material play only a subordinate part in the 
design and execution of the model itself. 
HE whole institution of the Bauhaus training shows the 
educational value which was attached to practical problems, 
which impel the students to overcome all internal and external 
friction. Collaboration in actual orders which the master had to 
execute was one of the outstanding advantages of handicrafts 
training in the Middle Ages. For that reason, I endeavoured 
to secure practical tasks for the Bauhaus, in which both masters 
and students could prove their work. In particular, the erection 
of our own institute buildings, in which the whole Bauhaus 
and its workshops co-operated, represented an ideal task. The 
demonstration of all kinds of new models made in our work- 
shops, which we were able to show in practical use in the 
building, so thoroughly convinced manufacturers that they 
entered into royalty contracts with the Bauhaus which, as the 
turnover increased, proved a valuable source of revenue to the 
latter. The institution of obligatory practical work simultane- 
ously afforded the possibility of paying students—even during 
their three vears of training—for saleable articles and models 
which they had worked out. 
student with some means of existence. 


This provided many a capable 


The most essential factor of the Bauhaus work was the fact 
that, with the passing of time, a certain homogeneity was 
evolved in all products: this came about as the result of the 
consciously-developed spirit of mutual work, and also in spite 
of the co-operation of the most divergent personalities and 
individualities. 
but rather on the effort to design things simply and truthfully 
in accordance with their intrinsic laws. The shapes which its 
products have assumed are therefore not a new fashion, but the 
result of clear reflection and innumerable processes of thought 
and work in a technical, economic and formal direction. The 
individual alone cannot attain this goal; only the collaboration 
of many can succeed in finding solutions which transcend the 
individual aspect—which will retain their validity for many 


It was not based on external stylistic features, 


vears to come. 

The success of any idea depends upon the personal attributes 
of eee responsible for carrying it out. The selection of the 
right teacher is the decisive factor in the results obtained by a 
training institute. Their personal attributes as men play an 
even more decisive part than their technical knowledge and 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


ability, for it is upon the personal characteristics of the master 
that the success of fruitful collaboration with youth primarily 
depends. If men of outstanding artistic ability are to be won 
for an institute, they must from the outset be afforded wide 
possibilities for their own further development; by giving them 
time and space for private work, also. The mere fact that such 
men continue to develop their own work in the institute pro- 
duces that creative atmosphere which is so essential for a school 
Chis is 


the most important preliminary condition, to which all other 


of design and in which youthful talents can develop. 


questions affecting the organization must be subordinated. There 
is nothing more deadening to the vitality of a design school 
out, to 
best of 


than when its teachers are compelled, year in and veat 


devote the whole of their time to classes. [Even the 


them tire of this unending circle and must in time grow hard- 


ened. Art, in fact, is not a branch of science which can be 
learned step by step from a book. Innate artistic ability can 
only be intensified by influencing the whole being, by the 
example of the design-master and his work. Whereas the 


technical and scientific subjects can be learned by progressive 
courses of lectures, the training in design must, to be successful, 
be conducted as freely as possible, at the personal discretion of 
the artist. The lessons which are intended to give direction and 
artistic incentive to the work of the individuals and ; 


) 

g 
1 
i¢ 


roups need 
by no means be very frequent, but they must provide essentials 
student. The ability ics) 


frequently confused with the ability to produce creative artistic 


which stimulate the draw is all too 


however—no more 
But 
artistic 


designs. Like dexterity in handicrafts, it is 
than a skill, a valuable means of expressing spatial ideas. 
The 
training must provide food for the imagination and the imagina 
An intensive “atmosphere” 
Such a “‘fluidum” can only grow 


virtuosity in drawing and handicrafts is not art. 


tive powers. is the most valuable 
thing a student can receive. 
when a number of personalities are working together to a com- 
mon end; it cannot be created by organization, nor can it be 


defined in terms of time. 


HAVE tried to explain the example of the Bauhaus, as this 
has the advantage of my own practical experience through 
many vears. On the basis of this experience, I should like to point 
out how the ground should be prepared in order to develop 
the 
It is an urgent problem as to how the new 


the arts and architecture by conscientious endeavour of 
whole community. 
generation should be taught and influenced for this common task 
from the beginning and how the State could intervene. 

By its very nature, creative work also cannot be determined 
in advance, no one knows what direction its originator will 
take—often he himself does not know, because he creates out 
of the their 
nature, be decided in each case by the individual alone and not 
by committees. that the State or 
public authorities can do is to concur intelligently in the initia- 


unconscious. Artistic questions can, by very 


Therefore, the very most 
tive which comes from the artists themselves. 

What can the State do, independent of private initiative, to 
bring the artist into closer contact with the life of the whole 
population—particularly with industry? The role which it has 
to play is, indeed, a difficult one. It must exercise the greatest 
circumspection if it is to prove of assistance in achieving the 
goal; in fact, the things which it must refrain from doing are 
Art needs no 
tutelage ; it must be able to develop in complete freedom. The 
direction of art by public authorities, central supervisory organ- 


often far more decisive than its active interest. 


izations and laws are more likely to destroy creative impulses 


29 














than to assist them. The predominating question is: How can 
those gifted with talent be sifted out from the new generation 
as a whole, so as to enable them to receive effective training ? 
This would mean, in the first place, a general basic training in 
art for all, starting with the smallest child, followed by special 
training as soon as necessary, but as late as possible. We need 
a new groundwork for all schools, a preliminary artistic train- 


ing which—differing in degree according to the age of the 
pupils—would enable them to broaden their vision. The suc- 


ceeding trade and professional training should as well undergo 
a certain reformation in its curriculum. It should not implicitly 
impart merely a knowledge of trades and specialized subjects, 
but also things which constitute the most essential condition of 
every kind of creative work, such as spatial perception, power 
of presentation, knowledge of materials and an understanding 
of business and industry and the proper handling of materials 
and ordinary machines. The “how” of the training is therefore 
primarily of greater importance than the “what.” If manual 
skill, the understanding for materials and the power of observa- 
tion and thought are first properly trained, any specialized 
training can be absorbed rapidly and without effort. As in the 
case of all attempts at a reformation, the State will be wise 
first to concentrate on one key-school, in order to determine 
what influence such a school for specially-talented students 
would be capable of exercising on architecture and handicrafts. 
For this experiment, it should get together the best teachers, 
give them far-reaching powers, and leave them at liberty to 
discover in actual practice an elastic form of organization; be- 
cause only in this way can a high level be reached. To main- 
tain this level, only a small number of schools of this kind for 
talented students will be necessary, even at a later stage, but 
the tendency of the training accomplished therein will be able 
to influence other kinds of schools for the artistic and technical 
professions and render them productive. In my opinion, less 
importance attaches to the nature of the organization which 
tradition and local requirements will evolve in these schools than 
to a homogeneous fundamental tendency of the training in all 
schools throughout the country. This, however, can only be 
achieved by the gradual recruiting of personalities that training 
in these schools for talented students will progressively produce. 


HEREAS the ideal is to concentrate these schools for 

talented students at a few centres only, the State should 
by extending all the existing instruction in manual skill and 
drawing, make the general artistic training obligatory in all 
schools. This would be in keeping with experience gained from 
Froebel to Montessori and would bring the whole problem a 
gigantic step nearer to solution. 

I shall try now to suggest an outline for the general artistic 
instruction in all sorts of schools, starting from the conviction 
that each individual is originally capable of producing spatial 
forms if the optical spatial sense is developed early. 

In the first stage—say in the créches and kindergarten—all 
children should draw, paint and model in a very free form as 
in play, to attract the child and stimulate its interest and imagi- 
nation. 

In the second stage, in all public and private schools, the crea 
tive substance in the growing child must be awakened: that can 
be attained by giving simple handicraft instruction for all kinds 
of materials in conjunction with free training in design; by 
bipartite but simultaneous instruction in manual skill and form 
perception; by painting, modelling, building, assembling, free- 
hand and geometical drawing throughout the whole duration of 


30 


the training. But this is important: No copying, no schemes 
no specimens, no elimination of the urge to play: ie, gy 
artistic tutelage. The whole task of the teacher is to keep the 
child’s imagination awake and constantly to stimulate its desire 
to build, model and draw. The children’s drawings and paintings 
must not even be corrected for their power of imagination ig g 
easily irritated by grown-ups. The skill develops by itself late; 
on, if the teacher has succeeded at all in stimulating the child 
So much for the ground work of art education in general schools 


HEE third stage has to deal with the training for more ad. 

vanced pupils in all sorts of technical schools 
local art-and-handicraft for apprentices j 
industry, trade and technical schools of low and high degree 
including all kinds of architectural schools. When pupils com. 
ing from public and private schools start their professiona 
studies in one of these technical schools, they should receiy 
there first a kind of concentrated “preliminary training” jp 
design and handicraft—duration about six months to a year 
This training should be given with a view to sifting out. by 
means of a sort of qualification test, the artistically-talented 
students for further training in a special school of design 
Thereupon, the succeeding last stage of the training should bk 
split up into two different courses of professional training, 

One course would continue the normal trade instruction ir 
all the existing technical schools mentioned before. Their special 
training would be: manual skill for the profession selected, work 
on machines, construction, technical drawing, works technique 
and costing. This course would turn out: trade workers for in- 
dustry and handicrafts, industrial and architectural draughts. 


as state and 


schools, schools 


men, works technicians, works foremen and handworkers. 

The other course—particularly for those pupils who, possess- 
ing artistic talent, have passed the qualification test within the 
first year of their “preliminary training’’—should be offered ir 
a special school of design of high degree and with extensiv 
instructional powers. Subjects of training would be : instructior 
in independent design ; comprehensive hand and brain training 
extensive handwork and machine practice; i.e., a activ 
training which enables the students to discover results for 
themselves and opens the way for their creative powers. This 
special course would turn out independent architects, sculptors 
painters; the men responsible for the experimental and de- 
signing work for industry ; the art teachers, and the independent 
art handworkers. 


ver\ 


HE most essential factor in artistic education is the wnity « 

its entire structure in all stages of development. It can onl 
grow concentrically, like the annular rings of a tree, embracing 
the whole from the beginning and, at the same time, gradual 
deepening and extending it. The dividing up of the training 
into individual sections, carried out separately as regards tim 
and place instead of simultaneously, must destroy its unity. I 
is the sense of coherence in what he learns and not the accumw- 
lation of organically unconnected scraps of knowledge whicl 
makes the adolescent harmonious, far-sighted and productive 
A creative art training such as I have here attempted to outlin 
as an ideal aim would fuse art with technique and _reintegratt 
the artist into the daily work of the nation. 

This new teaching which will resemble the free handicraft 
training of the Middle Ages, except that it will be infinitely 
wider and profounder in its scope, will be able to adapt itselt 
to the spirit of human progress and the changed productive 
machinery of the modern world. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





XUM 








Bu 


be 
He 
wh 


hemes 
&., 0 
ep the 
desire 
intings 
N 1S 0 
If later 
» child, 
chools, 


re ad- 
ite and 
ces it 
degree 
Is com- 
‘ssional 
receiv 
ng” it 
a year 
out, by 
alented 
design 
ould be 
g, 
‘tion it 
special 
1, work 
chnique 
for in- 
aughts- 
ers, 
)OSSESS- 
hin the 
ered it 
<tensivi 
tructior 
raining 
active 
alts for 
. This 
‘ulptors 
ind de- 
pendent 


unity 





‘an onl 
ibracing 
raduall 
training 
rds tim 
nity. I 
accumu: 
e whic 
ductive 
) outline 





Built on a narrow lot, this house logically has its entry at the side. Both the treat- 
ment of the roof and the use of wood coin indicate that the design may have 
been inspired in part by the old Wentworth Gardner house in Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire. Walls are of cedar shingles weathered silver gray. In contrast the trim is 


teorat white and doors and windows a bright green. Roofing shingles are dark gray asphalt 
n eg alt 


dicratt 
finitely HOUSE OF JAMES MORGAN 
ipt itself 
( yductive 


LYNN, MASSACHUSETTS HOWE, MANNING & ALMY, ARCHITECTS 


31 
i937 |] AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 
AY 

















PHOTO JOHN GASS 


HOUSE OF EARL KATZENSTEIN 


CHAPPAQUA, NEW YORK 


32 





rena 
J L 
Ly, 2 


=o 


B= | 


| 
icnssniitings sdene-nenilll 


Cinder block was used for this small French provincial-type house. 
It is painted white with two coats of Portland cement paint. Trim, it 
cluding the casement windows, is natural redwood. The roof of 
shingle on a wood frame is insulated with 2” of rock wool. Walls 


are insulated with metallation. Heating system is air conditioning 


EMIL J. SZENDY, ARCHITECT 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 193/ 






















his h 
vork 

conere 
oor | 


siding. 


Hol 








e house. his house of Beaver : 
‘we ins vork in the western yey ri = and parged with white cement, is inspired by old 
roof of concrete are used for first fl — Foundation walls are 18” thick, junior a “ d 
ol. Walls foor joists. From the second “‘ construction, and the masonry bearing walls support 7 
oor up, walls are frame veneered with 5” of stone or ene 


ws + piding. All trim i 
nditioning 9. trim is whit 
e except for blue-green shutters which harmonize with the sl 
1 e slate roof 


OUSE OF THOMAS J. BRAY, JR 


AMERIC 
AN ARCHIT 
ECT AND AR 
CHITECTURE 
» MAY 1937 














HOUSE OF DR. 


RICHARD W.-.TE LINDE 


POPLAR HILL, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 














Designed in a characteristically colonial Maryland 


manner, this house which seems so small is actual J. 


56,000 cubic feet in size. Built of stone and white 
clapboard, it has a gray slate roof. All trin 


is white except the dark green shutters. Insulation}, 


is 4” of balsam wool in roof and frame walls, Heat 


ing is done by a gas-fired air conditioning system 


ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


- 


T. WORTH JAMISON, JR., ARCHITECT) , 








yarac 


of 4l 


solat 


s of 





XUM 





Aa 
| =~ 6. beni 2 
roe 


pa 


et 


a Ss a 





1 Maryland Old red brick is the obvious material for a house so definitely designed 


li lly ae . aecaat . 

lis a n the tradition of colonial Virginia. In handling the compact plan the 
ite P . 

> and whi garage was skilfully brought into the scheme so as not to mar the old spirit 
trim 

. All tring the facade. Two bedrooms with connecting bath were desired for 


te occupants of the house so that the guest room and bath could be as 


solated as possible. The closet arrangement is also very good. Roofing 


. Insulation 
walls, Hea!: 


i stem ° 
Hing SYST of slate in shades of gray, green and brown. All outside trim is white 


OUSE OF MRS. W. E. MCCOY 


monyenaaeas. VIRGINIA 


37 
19 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY i937 





XUM 




















PHOTOS: FLEET 


MADELEINE MCCOY, DESIGNER 


35 











PHOTOS: SAMUEL H. GOTTSCHO 


HOUSE OF MRS. JOSEPH F. 


PALM BEACH, 


FLORIDA 


Designed somewhat in the image of a ship, this house is ideal for its ocean front setting. A 


“ 


typical Palm Beach construction, consisting of stucco 8” interlocking tile, | air space, 15-lb. fel} 


sheathing 2” x4” studs, plaster on wood lath on the walls and metal lath on ceilings, is usd 


MORAN 


JOHN L. VOLK, ARCHITECT 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 











t setting. A 
e, I5elb. fet 


ings, is use4 


41 TECT 


1937 





XUM 


Situated on a wooded and 
level plateau overlooking the 
Chagrin Valley, this house 
of wood is L shaped in plan. 
It is designed so that all 
living rooms face the view. 
Insulated with rock wool; 


heated with conditioned air 
























PHOTOS: CARL WAIT! 


HOUSE OF VINCENT K. SMITH 


CATES MILLS, OHIO HAYS & SIMPSON, ARCHITECTS 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 37 














ot | Located on the shore of Lake Michigan, all 





tal be 2 principal rooms are placed at the rear to 
TAR ey , » : . 
ahs , - : take advantage of the view. Construction 


» } 7 A, 
' oid 


is brick veneer with slate roof. All windows 


———— 5. : ~ m Se = » , ‘ " 
— im rs rae . are double glazed wood casements, and 
Se EY . = om 

; 4 -\ ‘ : the entire house winter air conditioned 


PHOTOS: HEDRICH-BLESSING 


HOUSE OF ROBERT ZIMMERMAN 


GLENCOE, ILLINOIS E. M. TOURTELOT, ARCHITECT 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 











» 


JITECT 


1937 





XUM 





ST. LOUIS 


AMERICAN 


« v yo ~~ 


— “ 
, , 7 
ex 2 re —_ 
POLO RII Bi ctires me | 
J eg: TStug al as a anv ant 
a“ ree ‘~* ~ 
em - ao 


re 


~ 
al 


Of typical Colonial design in both plan and ele- 
vation, construction is of common brick painted 
white. The roof is of slate in variegated colors, 


and insulated with balsam wool. Heating is 






by a gas burner—air conditioned throughout 


HOUSE OF JOHN E. STEPHENS 
, MISSOURI PRESTON J. BRADSHAW, ARCHITECT 
ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 39 
f 














PHOTOS: GEORGE SMITH 





Advantage was taken of the sharply sloping site to place all main rooms on ofé 


level. The few necessary services were located in a full story basement at fe? 


rear. Construction is of brick veneer painted white. Roof is of asphalt shingle! 


HOUSE OF W. C. O'FERRALL 


BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA MILLER AND MARTIN, ARCHITECTS 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





HC 


Kh 





e 








| 
A= 
3 


ad 
soms on onfOwing to its situation, the porch, living rooms and all bedrooms, except the maid's, are 


. Ei. 


ment at teptt the rear of this house, overlooking a magnificent scene. Veneered with local weath- 


shalt shingled stone on wood frame, this house is thoroughly insulated. Roofing is Vermont slate 


HOUSE OF MARTIN BAKER 


ITECTSKNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE 


( 1937 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





cf ae) Pe? i eg 
ROT toy eRe 








PHOTOS: R_ W. TEBBS 


BARBER & MCMURRY, ARCHITECTS 


4l 

















. 5 le na a . 
tS PAST Seas 















4 


Freely adapted from Greek revival and ranch house precedent, this house has af}, 
identity of its own entirely in harmony with the Texas climate and landscape. Off, 
frame construction, it is finished externally with painted horizontal and vertical board-J... 
ing. Although compactly designed, the use of porch gives it an out-of-door quality.f., 


Walls are insulated with double faced metallation. Air conditioned throughout§. 


TOS: ROBERT YARNALL RICHIE ' 
HOUSE OF BENJAMIN CLAYTON | 
RIVER OAKS, HOUSTON, TEXAS ROLAND E. COATE, ARCHITECT 


AMERICAN MAY 1937 





ARCHITECT 





AND 





ARCHITECTURE, 














has an : : : ; sis wis 
house ha i long horizontal lines keep this house in harmony with its prairie state set- 
d e. r . ‘ ‘ 
, aa ng. Brick veneer in shades of rust to red, pre-stained dark brown roofing and 
arti arc: By . in ‘ ° ° " . ° 
rtica 7 fark brown exterior trim give it a rich quality in color. Windows are of the 
d uality.J. , sas , ‘ 
oor q tasement type. Insulation over ceilings consists of 4” of mineral wool. Heat- 
1 throughoutf. . : pie oe = : . 
9 is warm air conditioning which provides for a later cooling system 


HOUSE IN EASTBOROUGH 


HITECTWICHIT A, KANSAS BUTLER & ROCHESTER, ARCHITECTS 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 














Separation of the service wing from 
the rest of the house and the fine 
view overlooking a lake determined, 
to some extent, the plan layout. Con- 


struction is of brick veneer painted 





white, with all exterior woodwork 
stained brown. Roof is of Ludowici 
tile. The dining room and study are 
walnut plank paneled. Heating is 


warm air, gas heat, air conditioned 


HOUSE OF DAVID S. KRUIDENIER 


DES MOINES, IOWA JOHN NORMILE, ARCHITEC 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 








% ‘a ‘ } 

i 8 

OE 
“a 
VN 


both the irregular terrain falling away sharply from the street and the 
main view to the north influence the irregular plan of this house. Of wood 
construction on concrete foundation, the exterior finish of stucco 


siding is painted white. Heated with oil fire-induced warm air 
PHOTOS: ERVEN jOURDAN 


OUSE OF FREDERICK M. DE NEFFE 





ORTLAND HEIGHTS, PORTLAND, OREGON L. MORIN, ARCHITECT 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 











California ranch house has 
come to be a generic term 
for a remarkably diverse kind 
of domestic architecture based 
on rambling plans, suitability 
for out-of-door living and a 
low-slung character that fits 
into the landscape. In plan 
this house is really four 
small houses tied together by 
porches around a courtyard. 
It is entirely wood construc- 
tion with corner studs only 
and exterior bevelled redwood 
siding painted white. Roof- 
ing is of untreated cedar 
shakes and certain doors and 


shutters are of natural redwood 





HOUSE OF MRS. VINCENT K. BUTLER, JR. 


PASATIEMPO COUNTRY CLUB, SANTA CRUZ, CALIFORNIA 


WILLIAM WILSON WURSTER, ARCHITEC 


46 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND 


ARCHITECTURE, 






















—_ 
_; Built in the characteristic rambling fashion of many one-story Cali- 
5 || fornia houses, the novel use of a sort of dog-trot between the ser- 
vice and the living units makes this plan unusual. Outside walls are 

I ame cement plaster, vertical redwood boarding and brick. All walls, trim, 
‘J sash and doors are oyster white. Weathered cedar shingles and 

2 - green shutters offer a pleasant contrast to the white. Insulated with 


tock wool, this house has a semi-air conditioning heating system 
PHOTOS: GEORGE D. HAIGHT 


HOUSE OF DAVID S. WALTER 








CHITEC] SANTA ANITA OAKS, ARCADIA, CALIFORNIA MARSTON & MAYBURY, ARCHITECTS 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 47 ; 





Unit type timber chassis house with a plaster exterior. It has a smooth putty-finished exterior painted oyster white accented 
by aluminum-painted exterior woodwork. The battery of windows and other horizontal elements tie the house into its 
charming setting. Services are skillfully separated from living quarters by an inevitable California patio. The glass-enclosed 


porch separated by the fireplace wall from the living room seems at the same time to be definitely a part of the living room 


— oS ae 


fF -2-} 


| Tey 


PHOTOS: LUCKHAUS 


HOUSE OF ALBERT RUBEN 


UPLIFTERS CANYON, SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA RICHARD J. NEUTRA, ARCHITECT 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 








TECT 


937 


© SAMUEL CHAMBERLAIN 




















“omnes DOS TON 
OVERTONES 


Faneuil Hall, built and given to the city by Peter Faneuil in 1742, sets 
the leit-motif for the paradox that is Boston. Inseparably associated 
with ringing ofatory for the sacred cause of liberty, its rooms have 
echoed to speeches by early patriots, abolitionists and distinguished 
visitors. Today it houses the armory of the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery, founded in 1637, and in its lower floor, a public market. 
The building in the foreground is Quincy Market, built in 1826. 


ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 



































The golden dome of Charles Bullfinch’s State House (opposite page), built in 1795, 
is as definitely a symbol of Boston as the Common which it faces. This building 
is on the site of a former pasture of the vast Beacon Hill estate of Thomas Hancock. 
(Above) The sun streams down on King’s Chapel and the worn slate tombstones 
of its green graveyard lying in a Crand Canyon setting of high business buildings. 














aX 


! 





According to legend, Ralph Adams Cram revived the pleasant English custom 
of singing Christmas carols in the streets of Beacon Hill. Today there is no 
other place in America where this quaint observance is carried on with the 
same earnest regard for tradition. All traffic is stopped, lighted candles illumi 
nate windows and a gay crowd filis fashionable Louisburg Square (above). 
Acorn Street, on Beacon Hill, is characteristic of that section of Boston 
































ee aetna 
dl . 


St. Stephen’s Church (above), built in 1804, is another example of the work of 
Charles Bullfinch. (Opposite) The Old North Church, built in 1723, is undoubtedly the 
most famous church in America, for from its tower appeared the two lights that sent 
Paul Revere riding through the night to Lexington to make history and a new nation 

















+ 4 
wis Faité, 


he meee, | es “Se 3c Tt aes ei, Seated 
- sk > h : BR. 









y 
; 





wa 
ee 


ca 
‘ 
e | 
; 





| 
| 
















































2 oe 
| - - ee 
——- aera a ae 
f m _en 
| eee « - , - 
| - i - aoe Am. 2 = si 
- — ~ 2 a” 
I 4 BF YS ear OS x - J EE TORE 
| a OLR. arn TR RE f- se . og * a : 
a5 i ee | 
. - 
* 
a 
eee 4 
ens ; 
eS 
] | TRAN Ee ee 

















Paul Revere, besides being a patriot, was a man of extraordinary accomplishments — engraver, 
coppersmith, silversmith, designer, builder of a field gun carriage and workable false teeth. 


His home, built in 1660 and restored in 1908, remains a shrine to a remarkable American. 















FUTURES 


- 


x THIS PERLOD of rapid change in the social, economic 
; and political structure, groups engaged in particular 
work must readjust their thinking and activities to 
meet these changes. Merely hoping that the status 
juo may be maintained is futile. The profession of 
architecture has gained enviable recognition in the past 
fifty years. However, during the last few years the 
problem of survival in the private practice of architec- 
‘ure has become increasingly acute as competition in 
the field of building desion has sprung up from all 
ides. How to meet this competition should occupy 
nuch of the time of the architects assembled at the 
\ I. A. convention. 

The depression has made it necessary for many 
rounger men to devote their services to building design 
rganizations outside of the so-called ‘profession. 
Engineers and builders, industrial designers, real 
state developers and manufacturers have absorbed 
nen who might be practicing as professional archi- 
ects, in their own names. Governmental departments 
national, state and local—have also absorbed these 
:nonymous architects. Well-trained and able designers 
nre thus adding to the prestige of groups other than 


WHO DESIGNS HOUSES? 


HE ARCHITECTS of America design probably 90% 
Toi the houses in America, statistics of contracts to 
the contrary notwithstanding. But the architects do 
it design these houses individually; they design them 
willingly through unauthorized agencies. These selt- 
ippointed proxies are contractors, carpenters, specu- 
ative builders, young draftsmen, plan publishers—in 
fact, anyone with a camera and a more or less facile 
encil. These copyists sometimes have a surprising 
ack of taste, sense of proportion or appreciation of 
‘ither function or beauty. However, the architects 
fiemselves do set the pace—the others copy. Plan 
"0k publishers have been known to photograph exist- 
ng buildings designed by architects, and to devise a 
lan which might fit, to put in their catalogs from 
vhich to sell plans. Architects’ designs appear in in- 





PMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 








the “protessional architect,’ and this necessarily 
to the detriment of the profession. This process 
may continue if the public feels that these other 
organizations are more competently organized to fill 
its demands. We believe that the only advantage these 
organizations have is that of better merchandising, 
better advertising and better publicity methods. Pro- 
fessional ethical standards have frowned upon the 
commercial aspects of architecture, and have thus 
paved the way for others to take the play away from 
the profession in the public mind. 

The problem is not alone one of merchandising and 
publicity: it is a problem of orienting the profession, 
of more accurately defining its functions, of unifying 
its efforts and, above all, of increasing its competence 
in the fulfillment of those functions to which it ad- 
dresses itself. 

The profession cannot accuse others of usurping 
their prerogatives, if it does not define them, is not 
organized to defend them, or is not competent to exer- 
cise them. 

It is thus a three-part problem of direction, organi- 
zation and education. 


numerable magazines and are available to anyone who 
can use them, either intelligently or unintelligently. 
While it is unfortunate that this publicity given to 
architectural work has meant that many have profited 
other than the creators, the effect, on the whole, has 
been to raise the standards of design of small houses 
in this country. In view of these realities, the only 
solution to the small house architects’ problem seems 
to be that of proving to the public that the architect 
can design a house which will cost no more, but which 
will perform its functions better, give more lasting 
satisfaction to the owner than the imitative, jerry-built 
house. The architect might be able to do this by more 
closely integrating his work with the actual construc- 
tion by letting the subcontracts himself and giving real 
supervision. 


Ylwtlh. XMearll 


EDITOR 


57 














Everyone in the profession is familiar with the perennial youth 
of IRVING K. POND (top). He demonstrated it thus on his 
79th birthday and expects to repeat it on his 80th, which is 
approaching . . . MISS GEORGINA P. YEATMAN (center), 
Philadelphia's City Architect, when tired of her ground work, 
takes to the air and looks at the city as through a reducing 
glass . . . ROSWELL F. BARRATT (upper right), New York, 
spends some of his very limited play time pruning the trees 
on his place, Applehatch, in Ossining, N. Y. . . . JOHN 
WELLBORN ROOT apparently finds comfort in abandoning 
the Chicago skyline for hills and dales where the builder's hand 


has never set foot. 


architects 


and avocations 
















, re 
: it i | 
Me 5 


iy 


GS BANK | 





GGLLIIIN 





—s 











PHOTOS: ROBERT M. DAMOKA 












REINHARD & HOFMEISTER, ARCHITECTS 


Until recently most bank directors evidently believed that public confidence in their institutions was 
aroused by buildings designed in the image of Roman baths. This is no longer the rule. As modern 


architecture emerged from the shell of meaningless zig-zag ornamentation the logic of its direct forms 





appealed to precise banker minds. In the design of the new branch offices for the East River Savings 
Bank in New York, the solution of a difficult plan problem (see page 61) served as the basis for a 
recurrent decorative theme. A supplementary work space above the main work space is an economical 
handling which does not interfere with the openness of the main public space. Since fire laws 
required that in certain places, such as housing for the columns and simple cornice, wood must 


be fireproof, the resultant darkening due to this was used as part of the decorative scheme. 





AMERICAN 





ARCHITECT 1937 





AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 





1937 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 




















“cb 


— OY os 3 


EAST RIVER SAVINGS BANK, NEW YORK, REINHARD & HOFMEISTER, ARCHITECTS 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 











V4 


a ae 


Wood-paneled wails are of light teak accented by darker fire- 
proofed and ebonized teak. Terrazzo floors are black with white 
metal strips. The ceiling in the main public space is of plaster 
painted powder blue, while the ceiling in the work space is a 
ventilating, acoustical tile. All metal work is stainless steel ex- 


cept for baked enamel steel equipment in the work space. 


EAST RIVER SAVINGS BANK, NEW YORK 


REINHARD & HOFMEISTER, ARCHITECTS 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY !937 





darker fire- 
with white 
| of plaster 
space is a 
ss steel ex- 


ork space. 


AY 


1937 


Standards of 





RESIDENTIAL LIG 


BY EUGENE W. 


HE newest concept of good residential 

lighting has sprung recently from a back- 
ground of scientific activity. Research has 
established beyond all question that light 
and the associated effort of seeing has a 
profound effect on the human being. It has 
also established the fact that this effect is 
mild or severe in relation to the quantity 
and quality of the light itself. The perfec- 
tion of delicate photometric instruments has 
given a means of measuring light scien- 
tifically in terms of quantity. But the new- 
est concept of good lighting extends this 
measuring technique in terms of lighting 
quality which involve elements of contrast, 
diffusion, location and balance. Quantity 
can be determined precisely. But measure- 
ment of these quality characteristics neces- 
sitates an evaluation of their individual con- 
tribution to a generally-effective lighting 
result. And it is only from a knowledge of 
how these individual elements can be pro- 
vided that standards of good residential 
lighting can be developed. 

Fortunately, it is no longer necessary to 
guess how these required standards can be 


AMERICAN 


ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, 


COMMERY 


met. Science has demonstrated laws _ for 
measuring good seeing and experience has 
adapted the principle to include good feel- 
Quality and quantity of light 


can be made sufficient to serve our eyes 


ing as well. 


comfortably and adequately for any given 
visual task. It remains only to produce light- 
ing arrangements of character that 
this service can be made a pleasant and ap- 


such 


propriate one. 

Research tests have established the fact 
that seeing involves much more than light 
and the eyes. the brain 
and the heart all play a part and react ac- 
cording to the lighting conditions at hand. 
When lighting is inadequate the entire body 
strains unconsciously to see. The Seeing 
Standards set forth in Table I should be 
regarded by the architect as minimum re- 


Nerves, muscles, 


quirements for the lighting of any house, 
for they are today just as necessary a part 


of a modern residence as sanitary plumbing 


or adequate ventilation. 

These quantitative seeing standards will 
vary over a wide range, depending on the 
visual task at hand. It will be noted in 


MAY 1937 


all instances that the upper figures in the 
table are essentially twice the lower figures. 
Each range of values represents a single 
step in the scale of seeing effectiveness. 
This is because a given quantity of light 
must be doubled 
change in the ability 


before a demonstrable 
to see will be pro- 
duced. 
candles of light on a certain plane, value 


increased to 20 footcandles before 


If, for example, there are 10 foot- 


must be 
the next step in seeing effectiveness is 
reached. This, in turn, must be increased 
to 40 and the 40 to 80 for each successive 
step of The explanation of 
these facts is highly technical and involved 
with innumerable tests related to the physi- 
ological mechanics of seeing. The principle 
as a practical 


improvement. 


is well-established, however, 
cuide in the development of good residen- 
tial lighting. 

Quantity alone is not sufficient for com- 
fortable factor of 
comfort is in turn developed from lighting 
contrasts, from diffusion of light to elimin- 
ate unpleasant shadows, from the location 
of the light source itself and from a balance 


seeing, however. The 








Adaptability and Control. Th 


apraseny of ; design gif sourct 

an interior is fixed by its architectural o;] of 

decorative treatment. But the personal jm.] jightit 

STANDARDS FOR GOOD RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING pression of that design can readily e| proda 

‘ changed—as the effect of a sunlit room x4 relati 

INCLUDE THESE FOUR IMPORTANT PARTS 5 alkeg Nit room is relatt 
changed by the passing of a cloud. Sych 4 judici 

a change is obviously not subject to cop. styled 

trol. But through control of artificial light ibst: 

‘ ‘ ° - é IClé ght. | subst 

1. QUANTITY —The level of illumination should never be less than that img, the anpect of a room can be suai fle 
scientifically established as a minimum for comfortable seeing in relation to the through wide ranges. Indeed, the number} mise, 
. and degree of changes is limited +s S 
visual task. ee = ee ed only by] to su 
the expense of obtaining the desired result: Lig 

So extensive are these possibilities, that can 

2. QUALITY — Lighting should be entirely without glare and should be dis- light — be considered as a major instry. J it cat 
— : ment which can enhance or detract from the | wholl 

tributed so that dark shadows and sharp contrasts are eliminated. The ratio be- best considered work of architect or decor, 1 iriba 
tween local and general illumination should be no greater than ten to one. tor. In other words, lighting can easily be | restft 
adapted not only to suit the mood of an in- | ample 

dividual but can be controlled to provide a} ern i 

3. CONTROL — Light sources should be varied in type, located to assure suitable background for any use to which} great 
adequately balanced levels of both general and local illumination and completely a room may be put. And this can and should | ing a 
ee in liahti diti h tiadnen be accomplished within the limits set by § of k 

adapted to variation in lighting conditions when desired. the standards of good seeing already dis} perio 


cussed. Ag 



































. a ee Any impression that artificial li n | ide 
4. USE — The light source itself should be always secondary to the lighting th gee rtihicial light in} ideal 
residences is inherently faulty cannot be } chan 
effect produced. The primary purpose of any fixture, except those which are substantiated. It has developed because use } inter 
purely light sources in themselves, is fo illuminate the objects to be seen accord- of light has been misunderstood and be. J the i 
: h seal and estheti ie desead cause available light sources have been im. § desig 
ing to the practical and esthetic results desired. properly chosen to supply lighting of proper } art. 
quality in adequate amounts. desig 
° ons -. : logic 
Design. Che problem of good residential athe 
lighting as contrasted with work or display 

between quantity and quality of light sources (a) Levels of illumination may be marked- lighting is further complicated by the cur- | ME 
which eliminates disturbing glare and places ly increased for the cost of light has been rent importance of period, or stylistic, de- \e 
each light source in a pleasant relation to repeatedly reduced since the days of candles sign in residential interiors. When charac- | spje 
the entire lighting scheme. Thus, comfort and kerosene ; teristics of such designs are conscientious- equi 
as well as utility has an important bearing (b) Contrasts may be materially de- ly reproduced throughout the house, some port 
on good residential lighting. creased. Dark, obscure corners may be compromise is necessary to achieve proper | and 

“+ - . ° . . a . . . ' a 
In addition, the adaptability of the light- eliminated and the whole brought into a lighting according to modern standards. class 
ing arrangements to the various uses of a harmonious combination of light and shade, It is impractical today to reproduce every } he q 
room is almost as important as the factors high-light and shadow. detail of the particular period to which the ] pina 
of utility and comfort. Without doubt, design of the house is keyed. Present light , 
ge ‘ . ’ - pene 

good lighting in the home could be achieved CHARACTER OF GOOD LIGHTING ead 
with no difficulty whatever in the same way Residential lighting differs from lighting eatieis iad 
vie ss a eee ee : ti i ee ae pee mea A 1— MINIMUM RECOMMENDED atk 
that it is developed in stores or offices, in used in many other types of interiors fot ss 
a : : ee ee ILLUMINATION FOR HOUSEHOLD tect 
theatre lobbies or in restaurants. But the two main reasons. One is that most light- ACTIVITIES meni 
quality of appropriate design would be lack- ing is installed to facilitate certain specific Visual Tasks Footcandies Indi 
ing and there would be no way to adapt activities of work or display within a given Reading _ 
the character of lighting to the varying space. Every square foot of an industrial Ordinary reading, books adil tect! 

° . : , ° ‘ ° ° . maaazine - )) 
uses of the interior. We need comfort and or commercial interior must be ready to mk ena eieilincs Cine ‘taken Gace _ 
utility in residential lighting. But we also serve any arrangement of objects, machines Studying : 20 - 50 = 
need that peculiar attribute called ‘charm or furniture; and to serve all occupants and Writing or typewriting 10 - 20 the 
which can only be achieved by providing areas equally well, high uniformity of light wee 4 playing Z pra k ‘s 00 ite 
the mechanics of good lighting which will is desirable. In the home, the situation is de ae ane wee Pe - 30 nits 
make available a variable eftect proportion- reversed. No such occupancy or space fac- Handicrafts wd 
ate to the type and use of the interior. tor need to be considered. And from the Weaving, knitting 10 - 30 5 
Long association with flames and other psychological standpoint, uniformly distribu- —s uxt 
feeble light sources and familiarity with ted light of high level is associated with “sr ae “4 apse 2 ceil 
. ° e ° . ‘ . | \ on gnt goods = 
the more or less historic forms of domestic work-spaces. Accordingly, it tends to de- Prolonaed, averaae sewina 50 - 100 Sen 
architecture combine to suggest non-uni- stroy the restful domestic character so de- Fine needlework on dark adv, 
form lighting as a means of creating a sirable in any residential interior. PAs 100 or more deg: 
“home-like atmosphere.” Such _ influences The other reason refers to the impor- ‘Chitdren's 10 - 20 the 
e a e . o ae I games, etc. = 
may not be lightly disregarded. A newer tance of varying degrees of light and shade Kitchen work 10 - 20 to t 
concept does not disregard them; but it which have such a profound effect upon Washing and ironing clothes 10 - 20 gra 
does, or should, permit improvement. This architectural and decorative design and con- Shaving, make-up, etc. : 10 - 30 nee 
improvement is mainly effected in two tribute much to the charm and restfulness Walking up and down stairs e-7 to i 
. : : General circulation in rooms 2-5 

ways: of home environment. Wat 
64 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 | 4™ 





XUM 


obviously at variance with those 


sign oj sources al 
ural or} of yesterday; and conseauently modern 
al im. jighting arrangements cannot exagfly re- 


. } - : ‘ > ac 2 
lily be} produce design conditions of the past. But 
en values can be gained through 


oom js relative 
Such | judicious use of proper lighting equipment, 
0 con. | styled to catch the spirit, if not the exact 
l light. substance of both grand or intimate styles. 
altere’ {| Thus, within a frame of technical compro- 
number | mise, it is not necessary to sacrifice design 
nly by} to supply standards of good lighting. 
results Light in itself is an element of design. It 
s, that | can be brash, obvious and distracting. Or 
instru. | it can be unobtrusive, balanced in effect and 
om the | wholly satisfying as a useful thing con- 
decors. 4 tributing an important factor of brilliance or 
sily be | restfulness to the finished work. For ex- 
an in- | ample, built-in lighting is youthful and mod- 
Wide a ern in quality and application. In a room of 
which | great simplicity it creates a fresh, stimulat- 
should { ing and informal effect which is usually out 
set by of key with the studied dignity of early 
ly dis. period design. 
Again, lighting arrangements — should 
ght in | ideally be keyed both in design and me- 
not be | chanics not only to architectural style of 
ise use | interiors but also to the characteristics of 
nd be- | the individuals who occupy them. Lighting 
en im- | design is both an objective and subjective 
proper § art. It must produce a physical harmony of 
design effect and at the same time a psycho- 
logical satisfaction resulting from proper 








dential adherence to technical standards. 
display 
ie cur- | METHODS OF LIGHTING 
ic, de- Accomplishment of these things is pos- 
harae- sible by proper choice of a wide variety of 
nUOUS- } equipment which, categorically, includes 
some | portable lamps, wall and ceiling fixtures, 
proper | and built-in light sources. In all three 
rds. classifications are light sources which may 
every Tbe direct, semi-indirect, indirect or any com- 
ch the binations of these. \ specific choice de- 
t light pends upon the physical environment at 
—— } hand: upon the interest, problems and _per- 
DED sonalities of people with whom an archi- 
D tect has to deal; and upon the financial 
means placed at his disposal. 
sase Indirect lighting provides a large and ef- 
fective light source thereby creating maxi- 
20 mum softness of shadows, low brightnesses 
“ and spread of lighting effect. All light from 
0 the source is directed to the ceiling or ceil- 
10 ing and upper wall areas. Maximum bene- 
100 fits are achieved when light is spread over 
30 the ceiling in the most uniform manner in- 
30 stead of being high immediately above the 
fixture and dim on the remainder of the 
20 ceiling. 
50 
100 Semi-indirect lighting may provide many 
advantages of indirect lighting in varying 
— degrees. Its additional value depends upon 
0 the Proportion of light transmitted directly Good residential lighting is dependent, not upon period styling, but upon type of fixture, 
20 to the side walls and floor. Where the best 4 ay ae 1 illuminati d localized illuminati F 
~ grades of softness and high diffusion are not wa _ an proper sora 2 ee age ! wena ion an ocalize tiumina ng ° 
needed, semi-indirect lighting may be utilized specific areas. General illumination in both illustrations above is adequate and uniform, 
: to increase illumination levels from a given local illumination adequate, without glare. Fixtures are well chosen, light sources being 
—— fj Wattage. As the amount of light primarily 


concealed and sufficiently far from shades to prevent concentrated spots of light. 


1937 PAMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 65 





XUM 





such center fixture for providing uniform] its 
illumination throughout a room oi this size | up 
If, on the other hand, the room was ap- | ge 
proximately Y x 9’, or slightly larger. 
reasonable degree of uniformity could be to 
achieved from the single center fixture. 


ee A 
Localized lighting always introduces jn ap 
a room some areas that are materialh nea 


brighter than others, lor its primary pur. J ql 
pose is to supply higher values of illumina. | ,; 





tion for specific visual tasks. The differeng, “ 

in illumination level between localized ang] er 

general lighting does not introduce unpleas. | ey 

ant or garish effects when an intensity ratj vi 

of local lighting to surrounding general J oe 

lighting does not materially exceed a rati ki 

of 10 to 1. However, this ratio is dependent an 

upon the specific level of local illumination co 

provided. th 

The lighting of any residential interior | ¢o 

usually involves a judicious combination of | fy 

at least two, and possibly three, methods of J ti 

illumination to fulfill conditions of modern] st; 

lighting standards. Provision for general jl- by 

lumination depends somewhat upon the ex- J ~ 

tent of local illumination and is therefore § ty 

more likely to be properly supplied in the wi 

majority of cases from a combination of fix. J re 

ture types. ge 

Dining rooms require even general illumination with a special emphasis of local light upon the table. In the majority of cases, applied wall orf) Ijs 
Above, one ceiling fixture supplies both. Opposite page: upper left, general illumination from indirect ceiling fixtures may provide an economic § ov 
torcheres; upper right, general illumination from well shaded ceiling candelabra and wall fixtures. solution to the problem of the lighting equip- | av 


ment itself. Decorative lighting, which may J ad 
also contribute somewhat to the general il- J st: 
lumination, can be supplied from. built-in} te 


fixtures in the form of coves or luminous 
ceiling or wall panels. Supplementary or} Bi 





directed to the walls and floor is increased, sired and the position which the light source area 
EE ey a eS 2 ’ local lighting is most conveniently supplied | th 
semi-indirect lighting approaches the effects itself occupies. Taig 
: Soe by portable lamps or, depending on the ar- } re 
produced by direct lighting. Bo, CL ie a a 1: ; eee 
: With indirect lighting the ceiling becomes chitectural design and furniture arrange- be 
Direct lighting may provide the greatest the secondary or effective light source and ment of the room, by applied wall fixtures J ce 
level of illumination for a given wattage. the distance between a chosen horizontal or built-in elements. mi 
But in so doing, higher light-source bright- plane and the ceiling is the maximum obtain- A balance between sources of general and J an 
ness is introduced, hardness of shadow in- able. Hence the spacing between indirect local illumination is desirable from both § in 
creases and a garish effect may be pro- lighting fixtures may be the maximum. With technical and decorative points of view. E 
duced. In the most severe form, all light suspended types of direct or semi-direct fix- Both requirements can be fulfilled by first] st 
from the source is directed downward. Lit- tures, the distance from the light source to fixing locations and required quantities oi r 
tle or none strikes the ceiling or walls. a selected horizontal plane and the per- local lighting. On this basis, the general *! 
ee ° . oe ae ; °¢ : ; "7 . a ermine us 
While this creates a theatrical effect, ex- missible spacing of fixtures decreases. lighting of the room can be determined. 
. ° e ° _* TT i ‘ ° ° nr 
pert handling is required for satisfactory Uniformity is rarely accomplished with 
. ° ‘ x ‘ * kias kg A ; A us 
results. Glare is always lurking to defeat fixtures in large residential interiors, al- SELECTION FACTORS OF GOOD 
. P  % ; mi 
the design. though in smaller rooms it is approximately LIGHTING FIXTURES 
an 


Pere oes a effected. To illustrate, a living room 14 x 
General Lighting. An indirect lighting 22’ with an 8&6” ceiling requires indirect 
and semi-indirect lighting fixture may sup- 
ply a greater uniformity of lighting through- 
out a room than a direct lighting fixture. 
Uniformity may be achieved, however, in 


Design in lighting fixtures is a matter F* ce 
over which the architect can exercise af m 
aesthetic discretion. But lighting efficiency J ¢ 
of any fixture is determined partly by the} of 
fixture itself and also partly by the way tt] th 


fixtures spaced on % centers to produce uni- 
form illumination on a plane 30” above the 
floor. This requires two rows of fixtures, 





: : three in a row. As a practical compromise i. een es 
any room without regard to the type of 5 ; : “ is used. mi 
Se a Pe ee ° of an obviously undesirable condition, the ‘ 
lighting fixtures utilized, for it largely de- : 4 : : ial oh , eo c 
5 . , installation can be reduced to one row of Portable lamps are divided into two types 
pends upon dimensions of the room, the ‘ ; ‘ ames us “tity Tight 
; ae 6 three fixtures down its center axis. As a One is primarily for attractive utility light 
height of the ceiling and number of light A ‘ : eee inne eae oe oO 
‘ : cs . : still more desirable compromise, the center ing; the second primarily for decorative} . 
sources. To achieve uniformity, locations ‘ 3 ee ad : weet ES 
aaa A Ss fixture is dropped from the center row. lighting. The first is today well standard ly 
of lighting fixtures are approximately gov- = : : : an nage rLESHED 
P . ‘ Finally, when the two end fixtures of the ized, according to the principles of I. E. - 
erned by the following rule: : a . mi . : antities hw 
Fi center row are omitted and replaced with specifications, to deliver proper quantitie th 
Spacing between fixtures may be one and a single center fixture, the usual type of and a desirable quality of light within givet fo 
one-half times the distance between the installation results. At the same time, the areas for a variety of visual tasks th 
horizontal plane at which uniformity is de- compromises illustrate how ineffectual is any The decorative type of light is just what 
66 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY /9379 aq, 





XUM 





uniform 
this size 
Was ap- 
larger, a 
could be 
xture. 


Ices int 
naterially 
ary pur- 
illumina- 
lifference 
lized and 
unpleas- 
sity ratir 

genera 
d a rati 
lependent 
mination 


interior 
nation oj 
ethods of 
[ modert 
eneral jl- 
1 the ex- 
therefore 
sd in the 
yn of fix 


1 wall or 
economic 
ng equip- 
hich may 
eneral il- 
1 built-in 
luminous 
ntary or 

supplied 
n the ar- 

arrange- 
| fixtures 


neral and 
‘om both 
of view 
| by first 
ntities of 
> general 
nined. 


OD 


a matter 
ercise al 
efficienc| 
y by the 
le way it 


vo types 
‘ity light: 
lecorative 
standard: 
I. Be 
quantities 
hin given 


just what 


AY 193! 





XUM 


its name implies. It should not be relied 
upon to add any appreciabie amount to the 
general illumination nor should it be used 
exclusively to provide adequate illumination 
to local areas. 


Applied wall and ceiling fixtures. Because 
applied wall and ceiling fixtures have so 
long been associated with the use of can- 
dies, oil and gas as illuminants, their tech- 
nical development for electricity has only 
recently reached the necessary point of mod- 
ern efficiency. In their present form, how- 
ever, both wall and ceiling fixtures pro- 
vide a satisfactory means of supplying both 
general and local illumination of certain 
kinds. They are, of course, easily installed 
and easily maintained. So far as design is 
concerned, these fixtures can be almost any- 
thing which the architect desires. The chief 
concern of the architect in selecting such 
fixtures touches upon their lighting effec- 
tiveness and efficiencies. And from this 
standpoint, all wall and ceiling fixtures are 
by no means equal. 

“The diagrams on pages 68 and 69 indicate 
types of applied wall and ceiling fixtures 
which are particularly adaptable for use in 
residences. Notations with each explain the 
general characteristics of these fixtures and 
list acceptable wattages employed with vari- 
ous sizes. The majority of these fixtures are 
available in a variety of designs and are 
adaptable within the technical limitations 
stated to whatever special design the archi- 
tect may desire. 


Built-in lighting is somewhat more costly 
than other lighting fixtures adaptable to 
residential use. Ordinarily two kinds will 
be employed in good residential lighting— 
ceiling coves in continuous strips or inter- 
mittent sections over window or door heads; 
and luminous panels which may be installed 
in the walls, the ceiling or in soffit areas. 
Each have limitations of efficiency and in- 
stallation indicated as follows: 


Lighting from coves and cove sections 
usually involves the ceiling as a matter of 
first importance. Residence ceilings are 
usually low and of single planes. Coves 
must be small to reduce conspicuousness, 
and, due to the limited space between the 


‘ceiling and the door and window openings, 


must be relatively close to the ceiling. These 
conditions usually prevent good uniformity 
of lighting on the ceiling and throughout 
the room—two primary characteristics of 
many well-designed systems of continuous 
cove lighting. 

However, if intermittent or partial coves, 
or other arrangements simulating cove ef- 
fects, are used, and the necessity of an even- 
ly lighted ceiling is not present, the result 
may be entirely satisfactory. In this case, 
the distribution of light will not be uni- 
form either on the ceiling or throughout 
the room. Further, secondary or decorative 

(Continued on page 70) 











Areas for work or play require higher illumination levels at centers of activity. 


Kitchens illustrated above show, at left, independent work lights; at right, combined 
work and general lighting. In game room, general illumination is provided by 


wall brackets, with supplementary local lighting from ceiling and floor fixtures. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 67 


















































Diagrams of lighting fixtures commonly available in a variety of designs 


TYPES OF RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING FIXTURES 


Types A and B. Shallow bowls fitted close to 
ceiling with straight or curved sides. Generally 
available in: J. Crystal etched or frosted glass 
—poor diffusion; produces brilliant harsh ef- 
fects. 2. White opal and ivory, cream or light 
amber opals—excellent diffusion; produces soft 
comfortable effects. In both types bulbs are 
close to the glass and multiple sockets are de- 
sirable to minimize spottiness. Spottiness can- 
not be avoided with crystal glasses, but can be 
virtually eliminated with opal glasses. 

With two sockets pronounced spottiness re- 
sults—two bright areas and two dark areas. In 
the 10” size some spottiness exists with 3 
sockets. In larger sizes 4 and 5 sockets are 
needed to avoid spottiness. Efficiencies of both 
types only fair. 





Suggested wattage schedule: 


Total Wattage Diameter of Glass 


60-75 10” 
75-100 2” 
100-120 14” 
120-160 16” 
160-200 18” 


Type C. Opal glass enclosing globes in shapes 
ranging from cubes through elipsoids to 
spheres—all can be evenly lighted with a single 
lamp except shallow types which show a bright 
spot at the bottom. Efficiencies of these types 
are good. 


Suggested wattage schedule: 


Total Wattage Diameter of Glass 
60 ad 
75 - i 
100 10” 
100-150 i?” 
150-200 14” 
68 


Type D. Wall brackets with full or partial 
cylindrical shapes of crystal etched, frosted and 
opal glass top—For low value decorative light- 
ing or higher value utilitarian services. The 
small sizes produce high, uncomfortable bright- 
ness with all types of crystal etched and frosted 
glass. Brightness can be minimized by using 
glasses having good diffusion and maximum 
permissible diameter. Good utilitarian brackets 
with opal glass have shade diameters of 314” 
for 40-watts and 4” for 60-watts. Double arm 
types may carry desired wattage (80 to 120) 
per fixture for general lighting without intro- 
ducing unduly large single shades since the total 
wattage may be divided between two sockets 
using smaller lamps. 


Type E. Bowls and partial bowls of either glass 
or metal—For decorative lighting or for mod- 
erate values of general lighting. For low sur- 
face brightness desirable in glass types, bowls 
should have higher density than those of types 
A, B, C. Lighting from a 40-watt lamp should 
be classified as decorative. Fixtures with a 60- 
75 and 100-watt lamp may furnish both decora- 
tive and utility lighting in general illumination. 


Type F. Wall or ceiling fixtures for tubular 
lamps—Principal lamps are: 25-watt in two 
lengths, 5%" intermediate base and 55%” me- 
dium base ; 40-watt medium base and Lumiline: 
30-watt Lumiline 18” long; 60-watt Lumiline 
18” long. Lighting effect is enhanced by shad- 
ing lamps with a cylinder of diffusing glass. 
The 25-watt types require a shading cylinder of 
3” diameter; the 40-watt and 60-watt of 2” 
diameter ; and the 30-watt of 1%" to 2” diam- 
eter. The 30-watt white coated Lumiline lamp 


AMERICAN 


ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, 


approaches a satisfactory value of brightness 
when unshaded. 


Type G. Shallow bowls of glass or plastic for 
semi-indirect lighting and of metal for indirect 
lighting—Three, four and five sockets are pre- 
ferred. As with types A and B multiplicity of 
sockets minimizes spottiness of glass or plas- 
tic bowls and also minimizes ceiling shadows 
of chain or center support. 


Suggested wattage schedule: 


Total Wattage Diameter 
75-100 12” 
100-150 14” 
150-250 16” 


Type H. Similar to G except that vertical posi- 
tion of lamp requires greater bowl depth for 
proper concealment of light source. Single lamp 
types provide greater amounts of light for a 
given wattage. For example, four 25-watt lamps 


provide 26 per cent less light than one 100-watt 


lamp due to the higher efficiencies of higher 
wattage lamps. 


Type I. Shallow indirect suspended fixture for 
silvered bowl bulb lamps. Lamp bulb partially 
protrudes through bottom of fixture allowing a 
minimum of vertical fixture depth. Excellent 
spread of light is provided on ceiling from prop- 
erly designed fixtures. 


Type J. Close ceiling fixture semi-indirect and 
indirect—Minimum depth preferred to improve 
efficiency of fixture and to enlarge normally 
small ceiling spread of light. Available in watt- 
ages of 100-150 with shade 12” in diameter. 


MAY 1937 


Type 
ceiling 
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Type K. me-piece glass semi-indirect close 
ceiling fixture. Upper part of shade usually 
crystal, fluted or ribbed; bottom half, white or 
* Lamp bulb should be hidden by 


tinted enamel. 


enameled ide, but should not be too close 
to the bott 

Suggested wattage schedule: 
Total Wattage Diameter of Glass 

60 d 

4 7, 

100 10” 
100-200 12" 
150-200 14 

Type L. \ ultiple-bowl semi-indirect and in- 


direct fixtures with one, three and five sockets. 
Types with shallow bowls supply greater light 
spread and higher efficiencies. When bowls are 
sssentially clear crystal base with applied color 
yr frosting and color, uncomfortable brightness 


with same lamp sizes. Low brightness with 
40-watt lamps is preferable. Single lamp types 
should properly conceal a 60-watt lamp. 


| light — 60 W 
3 light — 120-180 W 
5 light — 200-300 W 


Type M. Metal bow! with glass bottom plate. 
Socket arrangements similar to type G. Glasses 
of varying densities can increase lighting value 
immediately below fixture to produce added 
local illumination within a given area, as a 
dining table. When fixtures are close to the 
ceiling internal lamp shielding is necessary to 
prevent glare through bottom plate with poor 
diffusion. As fixture is lowered, 
shielding may be lessened. 


necessary 


Suggested wattage schedule: 


Type N. Semi-indirect type with high down- 
ward light component for general and localized 
lighting employing essential elements of I.E.S. 


lamp types. Outer shade should come below 
bottom of inner diffusing bowl. Two sizes are 
generally available. Inner bowl with 8” top 


diameter employs a 100-watt lamp. Inner bowl 
with 10” top diameter takes a 100- 200- 300- 
watt three-light lamp. 


Type O. Vertical or horizontal wall fixtures 
for tubular lamps, similar to Type “F”. For 
use particularly at kitchen work counters under 
wall cabinets, over kitchen range, in built-in 
furniture used for reading and writing. Shade 
should be metal, opal glass, or formed of opaque 
materials when built-in, lamps 40-60 watt for 
localized illumination. 


: ; a Total Watt Diamet s , ; : 
s produced with 40 and 60-watt lamps. Diffus- m "5.100 — Type P. Wall bracket with hemispherical shade, 
ng plastics and homogeneous diffusing glasses 100-150 14” usually of opal glass. Same uses as Type “O”, 
vill reduce brightnesses to comfortable levels 150-250 16” lamps 40-60 watt for localized illumination. 




















TABLE Il1— SUGGESTED SCHEDULE OF FIXTURE TYPES, SIZES AND CAPACITIES FOR RESIDENCES 
ROOMS A* & B* c eg Steg F G-H-l-J K a M &N O&P 
10"- 60- 75W 2" 75-100W a 
| Hall 12”— 75-100W 12 -100W 60W 
—— 14”-100-120W Double-arm type 14”-100-150W ght Built-in 
tness Sues »”-120-160W 0 0- ] eld e furniture 
shines J Living Room 18"=160-200W Be TR Naa 16"-150-250W 200-300W 30-40-60W 
Rca 
Penge Built-in 
Lib 14”-100-150W _ > light furniture 
stic tor lorary 16”—150-250W 200-300 W 30-40-460W 
indirect Double-arm type ; 5 take 14”-100-150W 
re pre- Dining Room Be wil 60-100W 200-300W | 16”-150-250W 
icity ot eae : _ each socket 
m ae Built-in 
I plas- 3 light a”_75 : 
hadows | Breakfast Room 120-180w | 12°-75-100W 30-40-GOW 
Center ceiling 
10”"-100W a * I — wall 
. 2”-100-150W 2”-100-150W cabinets 
‘ Kitchen 2 : t 14°-150-200W Over ranges 
iameter : 10-60 
12” Over sink and range 
7"-60W 
14” J} —— 
16” 30W each side P type one 
40-60W of mirrors _— Pairs “- catia 
Bathr m 9"— 75W each side of y*. Fe ae 4 ; ~ 
. = 10”-100W mirrors Usually used with 10”-100W d ie ta 
al posi- Types C and K 
pth for : 3 lick Built-in 
le lamp Bedroom 60-100W 12”-75-100W 1120-180W fone 
tor a ‘ 
t lamps 60W each side p 
0-watt of mirrors airs at mirrors; 
¥ Dressin *10"-60- 75W dressing tables 
higher 8 Room 12”-75-100W Usually used with 40-60W 
Types Cand K 
a - 9" : 75W At work benches, 
ure for Basement General) 10”-100W a 10-60 watt 
artially 2 i Double-arm type 60-100W 
ing ecreati 14”-100-120W 40-60W 
wing a eation Room Poise ace 
ccellent §/—— 
n prop L 10”-100W 
. Nrop- th ee. 
aun 12”-100-150W 
dry 14” 150-200W 
wee - = — At work benches, 
Garage 10”-100W etc.—40-60 watt 
ect and Ga 
mprove i 
srmally Used where ceilings are low; also in small areas. ; 
7 ** When used to create general room illumination of a low or medium value, provide at least four fixtures in balanced pairs on opposite walls. Where the long dimension of room materially 
1 watt- exceeds the short dimension, use balanced pairs on each of the four walls. 
eter. 
1937 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 69 





XUM 








“smn I) 


oT. ad 
F 


LOOK FOR 
FIXTURE 


WHAT TO 
IN A LIGHTING 


s Lamp bulbs must be concealed. Exposed bulbs produce glare. Use metal, 


glass, plastics or other diffusing material or shades to shield lamps from view. 


2. Diffusing material. Glass or plastics must be sufficiently dense to conceal 
the contour or bright spot of the lighted lamp. Where fixture is mounted low 
or in direct line of vision, brightness of diffusing surface should be comparatively 


low in value. Where fixture is mounted high out of line of vision, allowable surface 





brightness can be much higher. 


3. Physical dimensions of fixtures. Fixture should be so constructed as to’ 
carry lamps of size and number needed to produce desired lighting result. For 


example, ceiling fixtures for general lighting should be capable of housing a total Balanced illumination in a living room; wall 


of from 100 to 200 watts (depending upon room size) in single or multiple sockets. brackets and I.E.S. type three-light lamp. 
Wall urns designed for general lighting should carry a minimum of 60 to 100 


watts. 


4. Construction should be such that lamps may be replaced without dis- 
mantling fixture. The portion of the fixture for controlling or redirecting the 


light should be so designed as not to be unduly inefficient. 


5. Simplicity of design is desirable except in cases where the lighting fix- 
ture is a dominant element of room decoration. Fixtures for houses of traditional 
architecture should be designed first for efficient modern lighting, then adapted 
to a form in harmony with the architecture. Good illumination rarely results from 
merely copying fixtures originatly designed for candles, or gas and replacing 


those illuminants with electricity. 














lighting will be provided to complement partment back of the wall line. The latter 





more localized effects of higher levels of 
illumination. For example, concentrated 
light on the dining table may be entirely 
agreeable when supplemented with the par- 
tial or intermittent coves placed over win- 
dows, doors, or even in wall spaces. 

30th continuous and partial coves supply 
the smoothest effect when equipped with 
Lumiline lamps. The 30-watt 18” lamp may 
be placed end to end to produce the effect 
of an uninterrupted source of light. Both 
the 30- and 60-watt lamps may be used for 
this service. The 30-watt lamp is usually 
preferred since the wall brightness imme- 
diately above the cove is kept more nearly 
in order with the most pleasing effect. 

Two principal arrangements of coves are 
practical in the residence. One is applied 
similar to a molding of plaster or metal. 
The other requires a lamp-concealing com- 


may be used to minimize the so-called “back 
splash” of light immediately above the cove. 
In this form the wall below the cove open- 
ing may be in the same plane as the wall 
above where no “back splash” occurs; or 
the lower wall may be set ahead of the upper 
wall to produce directed light on the upper 
wall as well as the ceiling. All cove in- 
teriors should be white to insure good re- 
flecting value. Cove designs which allow 
easy removal of the wiring channel as well 
as the lamps provide a simple interior to 
clean or refinish. Flat metal wire molding 
with built-in receptacles for lamps provides 
one means of achieving this result. 


Luminous panels will normally be placed 
in partitions or in spaces between the ceil- 
ing and the floor above. These two condi- 
tions suggest two depths of insert boxes for 


AMERICAN 


ARCHITECT 


Local lighting in limited space at work area; 


general illumination provided by ceiling fixture. 


Bed lights 


sufficient in 


for reading and properly directed. 


AND ARCHITECTURE, 


intensity 


MAY 


1937 





; 


re bhp 


E 








Sey age 


% 





Three methods of lighting dressing tables, light being concentrated upon person seated before table 
and not upon mirror. Especially important is the elimination of glare. Center installation is best. 


At left, flush ceiling light providing directed or focused illumination, supplemented by portable 
fixture. Center and right, illumination of bathroom areas intended to supplement general illumination. 





At left, general exterior illumination of an entrance is better than small spotty lizhts. Center, a small ceiling bowl 


lights both entrance hall and stairs. Right, closet is lighted by ceiling fixture. Jamb light helps mirror viewing. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 











Stet line will, clear 3lass or 
Open Crouse _ 
Opal Pal 





% 
Sigh line for aval lass 


COVES AT or BELOW LEVEL 


practically all of this work One for use 
in walls could be 4” deep and the other for 
ceilings or soffits could be 9” deep. 

For wall panels in an insert box 4” deep 
centers of lamp bulbs should not be spaced 
more than 5” apart to avoid spottiness. The 
maximum lamp size with which this is pos- 
sible, using double end to end receptacles 
for closest spacing, is the 40-watt lamp. The 
glass width may be five to six inches and re- 
tain evenness of effect. As this width is 
exceeded materially, the sides of the panel 
will dim and other rows of lamps are nec- 
essary to maintain reasonable uniformity. 
For example, a single panel from ten to 
twelve inches square would utilize four 
lamps spaced not more than 54” apart. 

In the above cases, the lamps are placed 
as far as possible from the glass, positioned 
with their long dimension parallel to it. 
Actually a panel with 40-watt lamps would 
ordinarily be unpleasantly bright if used in 
or near the line of vision. For purely dec- 
orative wall lighting, panel lamps can be 
10-watts each to produce a value of about 
30-watts per 100 sq. in. of glass. If used 
overhead with proportionate increase in 





Utlal battles to prever 
Ligfil Spats on wall 


Lamps 





Lumiltne 





COVES OVER 
EYE LEVEL 





panel area, this value could be increased to 
about 60-watts per 100 sq. in. of glass to 
produce lighting of about 10 to 15  foot- 
candles for casual reading or for work 
centers in the kitchen. 

For ceiling or soffit panels, an insert box 
9” deep permits spacing of lamps up to 14” 
although 12” is more desirable. With this 
depth and spacing even lighting is possible 
with a single row of lamps from a glass face 
12” to 14” wide. In a panel 24” square, four 
lamps would be used for evenness. Such 
panels are ordinarily used for localized 
lighting of a specific area beneath them and 
accordingly should supply higher levels of 
illumination. For reasonable brightness and 
substantial values of illumination, approxi- 
mately 60-watts per 100 inches of glass 
surface are required. 

Interior finish of the light box plays an 
important part in the delivered amounts of 
light. Such finishes as porcelain enamel and 
oxidized aluminum and alzack provide both 
high reflecting values and permanence. 

As an indication of the effectiveness of 
well-designed, simple, flush-type units using 
flashed opal glass, a few results of delivered 
































Cove lighting is useful more for decorative effect than 
for general or local illumination except in restricted areas 
unless excessive wattage is employed. Illustrations above 
i are good examples of such decorative lighting. The one 
on the left has built-in lighting strips, one over the bay 
window, the other a decorative strip over the mirrored 
mantel. Drawings illustrate the necessity of concealing 
the light source. Baffles shown serve to reduce glare of 


light reflected from immediately adjacent wall areas 


light are given below: 


Glass Dimensions Number of Size oi 
Length Width Lamps Lamps Footcandles* 
34” i 3 60-watt 15 
ai 8” 5 60-watt 20 


*Value of illumination delivered on a horizontal plane 
48 inches below the surface of the unit. 

The factor of distance is also important 
in relation to illumination value. The rate 
of decrease with distance is indicated in the 
following table for a panel 34 inches long 
and 9 inches wide containing three 60-watt 
lamps properly spaced: 


Illumination delivered 


on object Footcandle 


Distance from glass 
panel to object lighted 


48” { ) 
36” 14 
24” 23 


When moderate amounts of general light 
ing are produced by luminous panels, lov 
brightnesses of glass area result and the 
most pleasing effects are produced. This re- 
sults when 50 to 100 watts are used per 
square foot of glass. Glass areas of consi¢- 
erable size are necessary because efficienc; 
of panel units is usually somewhat less that 
fifty per cent. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY !937 
































ffect than 
ted areas 
ons above 
|. The one 
r the bay 
} mirrored 
concealing 
> glare of 


all areas 


yotcandles* 
15 
20 


ontal plane 


portant 
[he rate 
d in the 
1es long 
60-watt 


delivered 
ootcandle 


al light: 
els, low 
and_ the 
This re- 
ised per 
consid- 
fficienc! 
ess thar 








PORTFOLIOS 


IN PREPARATION — Fléches, 


June . . . Tombstones, July . . . Vertical Sun 


Stele, _——* 


e Editors welco 


AMERICAN 


ARCHITECT 


. Wall-face Dormers, September 


> photoaraphs of these ibiects 


AND 





THE PORTFOLIO 
Residential Entrances Without Porches 


b 
Ai | 





ARCHITECTURE, 


New London, Conn. 
Frank J. Forster 


NUMBER 127 IN A SERIES OF COLLEC- 
TIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHS ILLUSTRATING 
VARIOUS MINOR ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS 











Manhasset, N. Y. 


Scarsdale, N. Y. 
Dwight James Baum 


Roger H. Bullard 


i 


Hackensack, N. J. 
R. C. Hunter & Brother 


Hempstead, N. Y. 


Carleton A. Parker 





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Tenafly, N. J. 


Frederick T. Warner 


* 
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Wallingford, Pa. 


W. Pope Barney 





Locust, N. J. 
Brutus Gundlach 


Larchmont, N. Y. 


Clarence C. Merritt; Urbain G. Turcot 























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Dallas, Tex. 


Westport, Conn. 


Burton Ashford Bugbee Thomson & Swain 



































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Charleston, S. C. 


Dwight James Baum for restoration 


Weston, Conn. 
Coggins & Hedlander 




















N. Y. 


Flushing, N. Y. 
Garden City, 


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Godwin, Thompson & Patterson Roger H. Bullard 


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New Haven, Conn. Newark, N. J. 
Frank J. Forster; R. A. Gallimore Guilbert & Betelle 





























New Haven, Conn. Englewood, N. J. 
Douglas Orr Aymar Embury II 








Portland, Ore. Syosset, N. Y. 


Herman Brookman Morris Ketchum; George W. Kosmak Jr. 








Bedford Village, N. Y. Pelham, N. Y. 
Godwin, Thompson & Patterson Pliny Rogers 





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Garden City, N. Y. Fairfield, Conn. 
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Hollywood, Calif 
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Los Angeles, Calif. Hackensack, N. J. 
Roland E. Coate Wesley S. Bessell 


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Hewlett Manor, N. Y. Colorado Springs, Colo. 
John C. Greenleaf William E. and Arthur A. Fisher 





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Mill Neck 


Newport, R. 
Delano & Aldrich 


Walker & Gillette 





Darien, Conn. 
Daniel D. Merrill 


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Frank J. Forster 








FAV ORI T E FEATURE S§ 


Common problems of design in everyday practice—how the 


results look and how the drafting room detailed them 


n addition to detail drawings of the examples illustrated 
there are included a like number of details that show 


further variations at the junction of wall and floor. 






























































All drawings at 

3 ‘eguals LO un 

less Clherwise 
noted. 


FRANK J. FORSTER 























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AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





XUM 





eo) 

















937 


pittsburgh, Thursday, April 1—Dropped 


in to see Henry Hornbostel’s Allegheny 
County Soldiers’ Memorial to vérify a 


rumor that it had been freshly decorated. 
it has, unier W.P.A. They tell me there 
sre now fifty-six colors on the upper part of 
the main auditorium. I didn’t count them. 

With Ralph E. Griswold, landscape archi- 
rect, who is now director of Pittsburgh’s 
parks and playgrounds, to see what he 
1as been doing with the Phipps Conserva- 
tories. When the first of these was pre- 
sented to the city, in 1893, there was 
mighty little general knowledge and public 
nterest in ornamental horticulture in this 
sountry. We have gone a long way in the 
ast half century. 

They had an exciting time in these con- 
rvatories last February, when a young 
»ornado took much of the glass off the 
‘op and some of the framework, uncovering 
-are old trees and palms that do not thrive 
n snow and wind. However, with an emer- 
vency crowd, plenty of tarpaulin, some 
smudge fires, and the like, most of the rare 
‘ollections were kept alive. 


Friday, April 2—Back in New York after 
raving found both Detroit and Pittsburgh 
iairly active as to the architectural offices. 
Detroit, suffering a 
porary setback and halting of most build- 
ng projects on account of the “sit-down” 
strikes and general industrial unrest. It be- 
comes more and more evident that a disturb- 
nce in any one part of our social frame- 
work immediately affects every other part. 


however, was tem- 


Saturday, April 3—We do not often have 
really heated discussions in the New York 
Chapter meetings, but we had one the other 
lay over the proposed alterations to the 
United States Capitol. Egerton Swartwout 
sketched the long and checkered history of 
the building, and argued for the bill which, 
i day or so ago, passed the Senate, and is 
now to come before the House. Dr. Leices- 
ter B. Holland and Lorimer Rich had come 
up from Washington to take the opposite 
side of the argument. The bill carries with 
it an appropriation of four million dollars, 
and provides “that the central portion of 
the Capitol shall be extended, reconstructed, 
and replaced in substantial accordance with 
either Scheme A or Scheme B of the archi- 
tectural plan” submitted with the Carrére & 
Hastings report in 1905. The debate waxed 
warm, as it usually does on this subject. 
Unfortunately, as is quite frequently the 
case, a comparatively small part of the mem- 
bership attended the meeting—the New 
York Chapter never does succeed in get- 
ting out on any one occasion half of its 
members. For this reason there was a plea 
that the meeting refrain from going on 
record at once, submitting instead a ballot 
to the full membership. In view of the fact 
that the members would not have had the 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 





XUM 


AND ARCHITECTURE, 


THE DIARY 





benefit’ of the argument and_ historical 
record, however, a resolution was eventu- 
ally passed expressing the New York Chap- 
ter’s protest against the alteration of the 
Capitol. The New York Chapter thereby 
falls in line with the Boston Chapter, the 
Washington Chapter, and the Philadelphia 
Chapter, with many other chapters still to 
be heard from. 


Monday, April 5—Dean Cornwell showed 
me his new Raleigh Room at The Warwick 
this evening. large murals, one of 
three panels, recall somewhat the manner of 
the Florentine painters in using gold and 
silver with the color. A series of lunettes 
in silver and dark blue is particularly effec- 
tive, and Cornwell has given an individual- 
ity to the room by 


Two 


adding a _ decorative 
frieze, setting forth the imaginary coats of 
arms of contemporary leaders in New York 
City’s many-faceted life of today. 


Hednesday, April 7.—TI had a preview the 
other day of the New York World's Fair 
Exhibition for the public, on the ground 
floor of the Empire State Building. Mrs. 
Joseph Urban is in charge of it, with its 
many beautiful models showing lighting ef- 
fects by night, larger scale 
models of the buildings already designed, 
and a progress map on which work that is 


day and by 


being done will be recorded from day to 
day. When the Exhibition was opened to 
the public, it was almost impossible to get 
within a block of the place. 


Thursday, April 8.—Pierre Blouke up from 
Washington in his never-ceasing efforts to 
help the architectural profession find a way 
Through 
the constructive influence of the Home Loan 
Bank system, the lending institutions have 
been fairly well convinced that their loans 
should be safeguarded both by good design 
and proper supervision of construction. 
Through lending organizations the 
public will soon learn the same lesson. At 
the moment the architect himself seems to 
be the weak link in the chain. His attempt 
to organize a system of providing archi- 
tectural service in this field has, in many 
localities, been largely abandoned with the 


to serve the small house client. 


these 


MAY 1937 


return of building activities. It is always 
easier to skim the cream off the mixture 
than to take the milk as a whole. It is only 
when depression hits us that the milk looms 
up as a necessity—and then the proper time 
for organization has passed. 


Friday, April 9—K. P. Billner, the engi- 
neer who invented **Aerocrete,” put on today 
in his laboratory a demonstration of a new 
technique in building interior partitions and 
a monolithic roof for low-cost residential 
work. Forty or fifty engineers, builders, 
architects, and housing experts came to see 
what can be done through the simple expe- 
dient of taking the water out of concrete im- 
mediately after the molds have been poured. 
The process is one to be explained more in 
detail elsewhere. In Mr. Billner’s earlier 
demonstrations at Yale and in his own lab- 
oratory here, various applications of the 
vacuum system have been revealed during 
two—each a constructive 
step leading to wider vistas of structural and 
economical possibilities. It strange 
indeed that in all the centuries that concrete 
has been known and used, no one heretofore 
has hit upon this idea, which seems rather 
an obvious desirability: concrete to be de- 
posited must be mixed with a surplus of 


the last year or 


seems 


water, which water certainly weakens the 
product; why not take it out at once rather 
than trust to the slow and uncertain process 
of evaporation ? And the idea, of course, is 
all the more feasible since the application of 
auto- 
matically pressure 
of about ten pounds per square inch to the 


a suction to withdraw the water 


brings an atmospheric 
job of compressing concrete in the molds. 


Saturday, April 10.—The Guggenheim Fel- 
lowship awards were announced the other 
day—sixty-one of them, with a total value 
of $130,000. It is sad to note that those who 
pass upon the merits of applications for these 
Fellowships apparently are not in sympathy 
with architectural research. Some years ago 
there were usually several awarded to archi- 
tects for special study, but the number seems 
to have diminished, until this year there are 
none. The painters, musicians, philosophers, 
geologists, dramatists, astronomers, photog- 
raphers, psychologists, biologists, and an- 
thropologists are recognized generously, but 
apparently the Guggenheim committee of 
selection believes that we have nothing fur- 
ther to learn in architecture. 


Tuesday, April 13.—Off on a flying survey 
by motor with William F. Lockhardt, to see 
what sort of houses people are building in 
Connecticut, Westchester County, and north- 
ern New Jersey. It was an encouraging 
experience, for there is certainly very much 
in evidence a better type of design than we 
have seen for some years. I was particularly 
struck by the ingenuity that has been put 


into the use of concrete or cinder blocks. 


89 








” 


They are not often being used as 8” x 16 
blocks in the hackneyed coursing. Fre- 
quently an ashlar wall results from the use 
of several sizes, but a simpler way of break- 
ing the monotony is to use with 8” x 16”’s 
an océasional course 4” high and sometimes 
high. Frequently the blocks are 
painted with cement paint, but in several 
examples we found evidences of Alfred Hop- 
kins’ notable experiments in producing 
really beautiful block textures. In 
cases he uses an aggregate in the block face 
that contains many small pebbles. The molds 
are removed before the set has become too 


also 6” 
some 


hard, and a spray of water reveals these 
pebbles. Again he tints occasional blocks 
in several slightly differing shades of the 
same color, using a penetrating stain while 
the block is still moist. 

Thursday, April 15—Howard A. Gray, 
director of the Housing Division, P. W. A., 
points out that in the allocation of dwelling 
units at Atlanta, particular 
care was exercised to see that these units 
fell into the hands of those for whom they 
were built. ‘When private enterprise can 
house those families under safe and whole- 
some conditions, we will have absolutely 
nothing to do with them.” Of the first 
twenty-four families signing leases, sixteen 
have incomes of $20 weekly; six have in- 
$22.88; one, $27.80; and the 


Friday, April 16—G. Frank Cordner tells 
me of a curious incident that happened in the 


Techwood in 


comes. of 
other, $30. 


Greenbelt project near Cincinnati. There are 
about 450 family units under construction, in 
various stages. Recently the night watchman 
discovered a fire, immediately ran to put in 
a fire call, and returned to find that the fire 
was out. What happened was this: the heat- 
ing system, being forced to warm up the 
building in preparation for the plasterers, 
ignited some combustible material in the 
cellar, and the fire soon found its way up 
the air space surrounding the chimney. By 
the time it reached the second floor the heat 
was sufficient to melt the solder in a copper 
tube fitting, blowing out a temporary nipple, 
and putting into effect an unpremeditated 
sprinkler system which doused the fire. 


Monday, April 19.—The way to increase 
one’s knowledge is to make a public state- 
ment, and have it refuted or corrected. 
Speaking of the Code Napoleon, as we were 
recently, David R. Brown, a_ Montreal 
architect, tells me some more about it. 

“In 1760, when France ceded to Britain 
that part of Canada now the Province of 
Quebec, French settlers were left in pos- 
session of their laws and customs, the free 
practice of their religion; their own citizens 


90 


were named the Judges of their civil dis- 
putes, and their language made official with 
the rest of Canada—but there was no agree- 
ment in the treaty between the two coun- 
tries that this should be so. 

“The Code Napoleon, which was then the 

law of French Canada, has now been in- 
corporated into the Civil Code of the 
Province, and many of the old clauses still 
remain—amongst them the one holding the 
architect and builder jointly responsible for 
ten years. This has recently been reduced 
to five years. 
Province is the only part of 
Canada in which the architect is held 
responsible, and in time it is hoped that the 
responsibility at least will be divided, the 
architect assuming responsibility for the 
correctness of his plans—the builder for the 
structure.” 


“Quebec 


Tuesday, April 20.—The word “hanging,” 
used in connection with the proper distribu- 
tion of the elements comprising the annual 
Architectural League Show, comes to have 
a sinister and oblique meaning for those of 
us who are saddled with the job. Several 
years ago the men who had undertaken to 
make a presentable showing out of a hetero- 
geneous mass of photographs, mats, frames, 
glass, sculpture, crafts, paintings and all the 
rest of it, drew up some rigid rules. Glass 
was verboten, frames likewise. Photographs 
were limited to a few specific sizes and pro- 
portions, edged in black with passe-partout 
tape. Grouping thereafter was _ brought 
within the range of possibilities without the 
succession of headaches that had beset pre- 
vious hanging committees. 

The rules still hold, but they are not en- 
forced with sufficient rigidity. Someone is 
always sending in a maverick in ignorance 
of, or disregard of, the rules. Hanging com- 
mittees face the necessity of throwing out 
a good subject or blinking at its failure to 
conform. This year’s committee has had 
to do a great deal of blinking—and I’m 
afraid the Show is none the better for it. 
This is perhaps an opportune moment to 
pass out a hint to exhibitors, namely, that 
the material which conforms strictly to the 
rules is likely to go “‘on the line,” crowding 
to sky or floor the items that are not prop- 
erly dressed for the occasion. Verb. sap. 
Wednesday, April 21.—The cherry tree made 
itself felt again today in our national his- 
tory. Having launched George Washington 
upon his legendary march along the path of 
truth, it now turns its influence upon the 
memory of Thomas Jefferson. Three thous- 
and delegates to the 46th D. A. R. Conven- 
tion say that the proposed site for John 
Russell Pope’s Jefferson Memorial will néver 
do, for the cherry trees given us by Japan 
must not be disturbed. 

And the ladies were even more emphatic 
in their protest against spending four mil- 
lion dollars in altering the east front of the 


AMERICAN 


ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, 


Capitol. They “deem it a sacrilege to do 
away with this valuable antique of early 
American architecture” for whic] , 


George 
Washington laid the cornerstone. 


Thursday, April 22.—I'm not at all sure that 
the heading of this department might not 
more properly be set as “The Education of 
An Editor.” 
the observation that Griffith Bailey Coale, jn 


Some weeks ago I wrote dowy 


painting his great murals, never paints over 
another color and keeps his pigments thin, 
This afternoon I went down to his Eleventh 
Street studio, which, by the way, was for- 
merly Daniel Chester French’s workshop, 
and in its towering height spans three fyl] 
stories of the old house on its street front. 
“Safe Harbor,” the three-panel mural for the 
Dry Dock Savings Bank’s new home on Lex. 
ington Avenue at Fifty-ninth Street—Cross 
& Cross, architects—was ready for hanging, 
And the pigment is anything but thin. Coale 
does put his final color directly on the can- 
vas, but he isn’t at all niggardly about 

I hope I shall not be classed with the com- 
mentator who tells, of an architectural 
masterpiece, first, the number of tons oj 
steel therein, and the length of the elevator 
shafts “if laid end to end,” but the fact is 
that Coale has laid on about four hundred 
pounds of lead-and-oil paint in showing the 
old square-rigger slipping in to her quiet 
anchorage under the threat of 
storm. 
architect who has only that dangerously 
small endowment of knowledge concerning 
the sister art of painting. 


24—There has been a 


a following 
And so proceeds the education of an 


Saturday, April 
shower of words for and against subsidy 
in low-income housing. Charles Yale Har- 
rison puts the various arguments into an 
orderly array in “What Price Subsidy!”, a 
little pamphlet published by the New York 
City Housing Authority. It is particularly 
interesting in distinguishing clearly between 
capital subsidy, the deficit subsidy, and the 
interest subsidy. 


Friday, April 30—I am to have 
missed the exhibition of American arts and 
crafts in Chicago, staged by the Index of 
American Design of the W. P. A. Federal 
Art Project. Here, in water colors, draw- 
ings, and photographs were recreated the 


sorry 


everyday arts of a people: wooden figure- 
heads, weathervanes, cigar store Indians, 
coach models, toys, furniture, costumes, sil- 
ver, glass, pewter, textiles, ironware. Holger 
Cahill thinks that most of us Americans 
have had something of an inferiority com- 
plex about our own arts. This collection 
presents evidence that we have many results 
of a national art expression of which we 


may be proud. 


MAY 1937 


Di 


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XUM 





to do 

me THEME TOWER 
«DEVELOPMENT OF THE 
re that ' 3 9 
pn NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR 19 
ion of 

rites W. K. HARRISON AND J. A. FOUILHOUX, ARCHITECTS 
ale, in 
Ss Over 
> thin, 
eventh 
s for- 
kshop, The design procedure for the Theme Tower was as unusual as the results it produced. 
ee full The following pages record the various steps in the solution to this problem. 
tront. 
for the 
n Lex- 
-Cross 
nging, 
Coale 
eC Can- 
out it. 
sacs 
*ctural 
ms of 
evator 
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indred 
ng the 
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erning 
een a 
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York 
cularly 
etween 
nd the 
. have 
ts and 
dex of | AFTER A STUDY of the relationships be- 
‘ederal tween the various elements of the building 
draw- | the architects went to such source references 
ed the ] as are represented by the Church of St. 
figure- ] Marks and the cathedral of Padua. These 
ndians, | were studied merely as compositions; 
es, Sil- ] vertical and horizontal masses in relation to 
Holger } open areas. Research of this type was 
ericans | carried up to and through the abstract, 
y COM> F cubist, and constructivist schools of thought. 
lection taking in the work of such men as Gabo. 
results } Pevsner, Maholy-Nagy, Balachin, and Tatlin. 
ich We ] These proved of great inspirational value as 
may be seen from the accepted design 
1937 TamERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 91 





XUM 





PLAN RELATIONSHIP OF (P) PLAZA, (S) SHOW, AND (T) TOWER 


SECTION RELATIONSHIP OF PLAZA, SHOW, AND Tows 





























, 
T 
: 
. P P 

















Climax sequence 
of mass. 


Tower at focus 


Free relationship— 
of axis. 


Show at grade— 
selected scheme. 


Tower at grade— 
tower elevated. 


Both tower and show 
show elevated. 


elevated, 


SHOW DIVIDED TOWER DIVIDED SHOW AND TOWER COMBINED 





























































































































3 : 
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1 | 4 
——) 4 
PLAN SECTION PLAN SECTION PLAN SECTION 
Independent entrances to all parts — Continuous circulation through show Equal interest from all sides — continuity 
connected above — diffusion of interest. and towers by moving belts or cars. of circulation—no definition of units. ; 
f 
RELATIONSHIP OF PEOPLE TO SHOW VARIATIONS IN CIRCULATION | 
\ 
* | \ 
a | 
= | 
ar | 
= | 
Les 
| = 
+ ¢ —_ 
mts =— 
cz i —*? 
People around ex- Exhibit around Combination — pub- Circulation in straight Moving chain of Spiral ramps— 
hibit — rotary circu- people—dead space lic as part of show line. Entrance from cars — rising plat- many possible 
lation — !ed to and interruption of —lower exhibit ex- below for dramatic form lifted by a variations were 
moving belts. doors. panded. sense of space. balloon. considered. 
THE FIRST STEP in the development of the Theme Tower was the study of relation- 
ships between the various elements of the building in both plan and section, between 
the observers and the building, and the resulting variations in circulation. These 
oa ; . : ‘ i P 
relationships once decided upon merely established an hypothesis, and opened the THEME TOWER, NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR 


way to further study. The collage on the opposite page, a composition by Werner 
Drewes, is typical of the many schemes considered before arriving at the final design. 


92 


AMERICAN 


HARRISON AND FOUILHOUX, ARCHITECTS 


ARCHITECT 


AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





XUM 


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1937 


MAY 


AND ARCHITECTURE, 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 





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TO DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURE properly, two new words 
were coined. "Trilon,"’ a combination of "tri'’ and "pylon’ 
was applied to the obelisk, and ‘Perisphere,'’ implying "about 
all around," was attached to the spherical theme exhibit. 
The final accepted design consists of the Perisphere, 
200 ft. in diameter, and free standing Trilon, 700 ft. high. 
The Perisphere rests on columns rising from a shallow reflect- 
ing pool. The base of the Trilon gives access to escalators 
which convey observers to the two revolving platforms within 
the Perishphere. An elevator and stairway afford vertica 
circulation to an upper level from which there is a connec!- 
ing bridge also giving access to the platforms. A ramp 
leads from this level to the ground, running approxi- 
mately three-quarters of the way around the Perisphere and 
affording a view of the complete fair. 








THEME TOWER, N. Y. WORLD'S FAIR 
HARRISON AND FOUILHOUX, ARCHITECTS 








AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





new words 


id "pylon" 
ing “about, 
ne exhibit. 
Perisphere, 
0 ft. high. 
ow reflect- 
escalators 
arms within 
rd vertical 
a connect- 

A ramp 
J} approxi- 
sphere and 


5 FAIR 
AITECTS 


AY 1937 








Subjects already presented include closets, 
stairs, kitchens and classrooms. In future 
issues hospital rooms and wards,~apart- 


ments, and public toilets will be discussed. 


UNIT 


BATHROOMS 


Text and illustrations by 


HERE exists a vast amount of detail surround- 

ing elements that, in combination, make a bath- 
room. Codes and plumbing practices, fixtures and 
fittings, minimum and maximum dimensions, old 
materials and new—all are involved in the devel- 
opment of a space requiring the most precise 
workmanship of any room in the house. 

Common to all bathrooms, however, are two 
main factors—a clearly defined series of func- 
tions and requirements of space and equipment to 
fulfill them. Obviously these vary in degree ac- 
cording to the desires of an owner or the physical 
and economic limitations involved. But as a con- 
stantly recurring planning problem, residential 
bathrooms are subject to standardization as to 
type and, to a certain degree, to size and shape. 


GERALD K. 


GEERLINGS 


It is therefore practical to regard bathrooms 
as planning units falling into the following three 
main headings. 


1. The Private Bathroom—A space normally con- 
taining a lavatory, water closet and tub, with or 
without shower head. It is primarily for the use 
of a single individual and can be as small as 
necessary clearances for particular types of fix- 
tures allow. 


2. The Utility Bathroom—This may contain only 
the three usual fixtures but is designed for use 
by more than one person. In size and fixture 
arrangement it provides working area above the 
minimum between fixtures for ministering to sick 
needs, etc. 





PLANNIN GeV 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 
AND ARCHITECTURE, 


MAY 1937 ° : ° ° 95 








e BATHROOMS 
UNIT PLANNING 
NUMBER.......5 


Bath of 
Maaten 
Bedroom 




















AMERICAN ARCHITECT 
AND ARCHITECTURE, 


MAY 1937 . s “ - 96 





Fixtures are generally satisfactorily 
Restudy 
lavatory 


located. might have 


placed nearer window. 


3. Bathroom Serving Adjoining Bedrooms— An ar- 
rangement normally for use by more than one 
person that may contain a shower and lavatory 
in addition to the three usual fixtures. Space 
allotments are close to the practical minimum, 
but fixture arrangements may vary widely to 
serve a range of planning conditions. 

Obviously each of these three is subject to 
variance in size, arrangement and equipment. 
However, the most common fixture types and 
arrangements have been presented in the accom- 
panying T1ME-SAVER STANDARDS as a series of 
standard planning units of minimum size. 

In addition to bathroom types, the T1ME-SAVER 
STANDARDS include a series of Toilet Lavatory 
units. These indicate a variation of practical 
fixture arrangement and establish minimum areas 
for such planning units. 

Beyond these unit plans, standardization appears 
impractical in the present development of resi- 
dential bathrooms. Items of equipment and ac- 
cessories are in all cases subject to individual 
choice and may involve problems of installation 
and use equally as important as that of planning. 
The following paragraphs discuss the more sig- 
nificant of these details as they may apply to the 
development of the planning units. 








Wall finish is here used to face 
the recessed tub. Note the useful 
shelf space on all sides of recess. 


I. GENERAL LOCATIONS OF TOILET 
AND BATHROOM FACILITIES 


(A) Minimum provisions for minimum house (one 3- 
fixture bathroom only). 

Where all rooms are on one floor, the bathroom 
will be most economical when backed up against 
the kitchen. For a two-floor house the bathroom 
should be directly over the kitchen. In a small 
house every foot of piping and installation labor 
must be considered in its ratio to the cost of the 
entire house. Where fixtures are limited to one 
lavatory, one water closet and one tub, the closet 
should preferably be in a separate compartment 
adjoining the other two fixtures, as shown in the 
accompanying diagrams and T-S.S. Serial No. 79. 


(B) Single second-floor bathroom (in addition to 
lavatory and toilet on first floor or basement). 
Location should be such that from the entrance 
hall one is not able to look into it. If 
ditions fix a location at the top of the stairs, then, 
at least, fixtures and doorswing should be man- 
aged so that water closet and lavatory are not 
seen. A conveniently central location is desirable, 
with a single door leading to the hall. Where 
there is a single bathroom to serve the whole 


con- 
































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house, it is preferable to place the water closet 
and one lavatory in a separate enclosure with a 
tub and another lavatory in an adjoining com- 
partment. 


{C) More than one bathroom on the bedroom floor. 

At one should be near the stairs and 
accessible from the hall without going through 

If possible, bathrooms should not 
than one door, even when 
The disadvantages of being “locked 
out” of a bathroom because some for- 
gotten to unlatch bedroom doors are all too obvi- 
ous. Accompanying sketches show preferable and 
undesirable plans. 

When a bathroom serves one master bedroom, 
it is better placed between hall and bedroom, 
than at the far end of the bedroom. At the far 
end it cannot be entered from the hall without 
traversing the entire length of the bedroom, thus 
making a semi-corridor out of the bedroom and 
limiting the possibilities of furniture arrangement. 
Also, this location frequently reduces the exterior 
wall exposures from two to one, or from three to 
two. Preferable locations give access through 
the dressing room or from a passage dividing 
dressing room from bathroom. 


least 


a bedroom. 
have between 


bedr« OMS. 


more 


one has 


provide adequate natural light yet maintain privacy. 


e BATHROOMS 
UNIT PLANNING 
NUMBER.......5 


Modern materials intelligently used aid in solving many problems. At right, glass blocks 


At left, large mirror and con- 


venient shelves, plus proper lighting, make the lavatory useful also as a dressing table. 


(D) Three-fixture bathroom on first floor (in addi 
tion to second floor bathroom). 

To be of maximum efficiency, a first floor bath 
room should be off a room which can be used as 


a library, an occasional guest room or, if near 
the front door, as a convenient sick-room when 
necessary. Such a bathroom would include the 


function of a first floor lavatory or “powder room.” 


Hall 


d 
Clos. F |] 
-, TUT 
L de-tol 
T rot Eminamce 
Lanralorvy-Tolet off Veattule 
4 ee - x | 
U 


(E) A single, first-floor servant's bath. 





When access to a servant’s bathroom is from 
the kitchen and through servant’s room, as indi- 
cated in the sketch, use of the bathroom is limited 
to a single servant. Since extra servants 
frequently brought in for special occasions, ser- 
vant’s room and bath should be planned so that 
both may be entered independently from a_ hall 
which also serves rear entrance and kitchen. 


are 








(F) Two-fixture lavatory-toilet near front entrance. 

the medium-sized house this is considered L 
a necessary auxiliary to the coat closet. When 

planned in combination, access to the lavatory- C 
toilet room should be through the coat closet and 
not directly from entrance hall or vestibule. Pri- 
vacy will obviously be greater and the sound of 
running water lessened, if planned as 
the solid sketch. 


In 





Veatibrte 





shown in 












































XUM 





DR. 
oe Maids Bath on Firat Floor 
7 
= Roan AMERICAN ARCHITECT 
| nee nl bak AND ARCHITECTURE, 
Fuut Floor Bathroom | Ganage MAY 1937 97 











e BATHROOMS 
UNIT PLANNING 
NUMBER.......5 
t 
c 
, 
A 
Two examples well though out for convenience and privacy. At left individual compartments for 
tube and water-closet. Note window providing both ventilation and light for latter. At right, 
lavatory with integral towel bars is particularly useful when free wall space is not available. 
ll. LOCATION OF VARIOUS ELEMENTS The stack should be located as near the closet “ 
OF TOILETS AND BATHROOMS as possible, weil wrapped with hair-felt, rock wool if 
or some similar product to reduce sound transmis- : 
(A) Plumbing lines. sion. A cleanout should be in an accessible loca- 3 
fee “om er: ; ‘ tion, a detail frequently overlooked, particularly 
The 3” stack ordinarily used in a residence . : ta 
: 1 ae ; in houses which do not have basements. 
cannot be housed in a 4” stud partition without de 
an offset, but can often be conveniently installed (B) Water closet. 
in the corner of the room and easily concealed When all three fixtures are on the same wall, ag 
by a furred wall at 45°, as shown in the sketch. installation costs are held to a minimum. In such tit 
Such an arrangement is particularly advantageous a case the lavatory is well located between tub sa 
when new lines must be added in remodeling work. and water closet. So placed, if a medicine closet pe 
When 6” studs are used behind the water closet is placed over it with lights on each side, the st 
to accommodate the stack and 4” studs elsewhere, room is equally illuminated from side to side. he 
either a 2” offset results in the bathroom or a 1” More important is the fact that the person using m 
offset develops in both bathroom and the adjoin- the lavatory has elbow room on both sides. Ideally 
ing area. The resulting corners in the wall break the water closet is placed so that it is screened th 
are difficult to surface with practically any ma- when the door is left open. a 
terial except plaster. This should be borne in In medium-sized lavatory-toilets and sometimes cl 
mind when working drawings are being made. in irregular-shaped three-fixture bathrooms (as ( 
Often it is better to sacrifice the 2” gained through under cut-off eaves), it may be advantageous to 
the use of 4” studs, and use deeper ones through- place the water closet in a corner at 45°, particu- 
out the wall which houses the stack. larly in a remodeling job where a new stack must 
° 
Bathroom 
AMERICAN ARCHITECT 
AND ARCHITECTURE, 
may 1937... . 98 Water Chast on am oulaide wall Plumbing Limes un corner : 
L 




















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closet 
- wool 
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At left, closets in adjoining rooms may be planned to permit use of a recessed, decoratively treated 


lavatory, thus increasing apparent floor space in 
particularly in baths serving master bedrooms, 


be run exposed. In a bathroom of medium size 
a door cannot swing inward without interfering 
with one of the fixtures, unless the water closet 
is placed at an angle. In such cases the 45° wall 
should be built up solidly at least to the top of the 
tank. Corner shelves above can be both useful and 
decorative. 

While the practice of placing the water closet 
against an outside wall is not recommended, some- 
times this cannot be avoided. When this is neces- 
sary, the stack is best located in an adjoining 
partition. If it must be in an outside wall, the 
stack should always be thoroughly insulated with 
hair felt, rock wool or some other equally effective 
material. 

In the accompanying T1IME-SAVER STANDARDS 
the clearance in front of the water closet is given 
as 1’-6”. This irreducible minimum should be in- 
creased whenever possible. 


(C) Lavatory. 
In many lavatory-toilets of minimum dimen- 
sions, as well as in some three-fixture bathrooms, 








bathroom. At right, ihe need for two lavatories, 
is often apparent at the “morning rush hour’. 


the lavatory may be directly opposite the water 
closet and on the same axis. An absolute mini- 
mum distance between them is 1’-6”. This dis- 
tance should be increased if possible and if not 
available, some other location sought. Sometimes 
a very shallow lavatory of 15” depth may be used 
to advantage. In other cases it will be found pos- 
sible to use a corner-type lavatory. 

The “‘shelf-back” type of lavatory is often most 
advantageous because of the useful ledge space 
on which to place articles, thus saving on acces- 
sories where wall space is at a premium. It can 
be supplied with legs and towel bars and thus 
can help solve the towel bar problem in cramped 
quarters. 

Where a certain extent of continuous wall space 
exists, a lavatory (or other fixture) should not be 
centered without due consideration, because so 
locating it might render the adjacent wall space 
valueless. A dressing table should not be placed 
too near a lavatory, because the splashing of water 


may Cause damage. 





e BATHROOMS 
UNIT PLANNING 
NUMBER.......5 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


AND 
MAY 


ARCHITECTURE, 


1937 


99 











e BATHROOMS 


UNIT PLANNING 
NUMBER.......5 








AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


AND ARCHITECTURE, 


MAY 1937 100 





(D) The tub. 


3ecause the tub is? the largest of the three 


bathroom fixtures, its position usually influences 
not only the location of the other two, but the 
window and door as well. A modern type of pop- 
up drain makes it no longer necessary to provide 
an access panel from an adjoining room for re- 
pairs or replacements. A tub installation involves 
location of a shower-head. When a lavatory is 
adjacent to a tub, as shown in the sketch, a shower 
head should not be at the lavatory end because 
of several obvious difficulties—unless the tub is 
recessed by a wall next to the lavatory. New 
types of tubs with integral seats are well worth 
consideration as corner or recessed installations. 


(E) Shower stall. 

A shower stall can be either a principal fixture 
in the very small bathroom not large enough to 
accommodate a tub, or an auxiliary one in a large 
bathroom which already contains a tub. It does 
not always have to conform to any specific size, 
for a wide range of sizes are available as stock 
in pre-fabricated types and built-up stalls can be 
of any dimension beyond the minimum that the 
designer wishes. 

It is advisable to locate the shower stall as far 





come JU] 


=I 


Position of, Showen Nead 











Use of bath with 
diagonal tub may assist in 
solving 


square 
unusual problems. 
the seats 
provided both in this type 
and others, 


and 


Very useful are 
some at front 


some at end of tubs 


as possible from the bathroom door. Water acci- 
dentally spattered on the bathroom floor creates 
an unexpected and slippery hazard to those enter- 
ing from the hall. Valves and shower head should 
be near the stall door so they can be operated 
easily from both outside and inside the shower 
compartment. A mixing valve is well worth what 
it costs. 

When a three-fixture bathroom is required but 
there is not sufficient room for a tub, a shower 
stall can generally be substituted without much 
fear of its acceptance. It may often be an advan- 
tage to place shower and lavatory in the same 
room, with the water closet in an adjoining but 
separate compartment, as shown in the sketches. 
Another practical arrangement locates the shower 
stall in its own compartment, accessible from a 
hall with lavatory and water closet in an adjoin- 
ing room. A shower stall may be 2’-6” x 3-0” 
but a more advisable minimum is 3’-0” square. 


(F) Accessories. 

This subject has been fully treated in T1Me- 
SAVER STANDARDS Sheet C8.2.2. In planning the 
bathroom it is important that working draw- 
ings show all accessories in fixed locatiuns 
Otherwise pipe interference on the job may be 

















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the 
tile 


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XUM 


disconcerting. Usually omitted as a detail of 
working drawings is the definite location of 
grounds (unless the accessories are of the tiled- 
in type’. When accessory escutcheons must be 
screwed in after plaster walls are completed, it is 
nearly impossible to ascertain exactly where a 
screw will hold properly. A grab bar can prove 
dangerous if screwed into plaster instead of into 
a wood ground. Grounds should be shown dotted 
and dimensioned on scale details and later checked 
in supervision. 

Where a lavatory is adjacent to a tub having a 
shower, the hook for tying back a shower curtain 
should be at the end of the tub opposite the lava- 
tory to avoid interference of shower curtain with 
lavator) accessories. 

Avoid placing towel bars over the side of 
tub having a shower. It is better to specify 
lavatory with legs and towel bars. 


(G) Windows and doors. 

The best window location is at right angles to 
a lavatory, on either side of one or in clear wall 
space. Often it is difficult to avoid locating a 
window over a fixture in the small bathroom or 
toilet-lavatory. Frequently when a window over 
a fixture is unavoidable, the best place is a high 
location above the water closet. Next best would 
be over the lavatory, providing the medicine cabi- 
net can be conveniently placed. This should be 
installed so that the door will open easily and 
without interference. In custom jobs the door may 
be fitted with a mirror on the inside and opened 
for shaving, etc. Otherwise an adjustable mirror 
on an extension bracket should be installed. 

The least desirable window position is over the 
side of a tub because of water splashing on the 
sash or sill. If a window is absolutely necessary 
there, jambs should be tiled or plastered, the sill 
tiled and a water-resistant curtain installed on an 
overhead rod. It is now possible to obtain window 
curtains of the same material as shower curtains; 
and it is possible to curtain the window-over-tub 
in a practical and attractive manner. Glass bricks 
in a large panel over the tub can admit all the 
necessary light and a small hinged window can 


be installed with them, high enough to be above 
shower spattering, yet low enough to be easily 


reached. 

The ideal location and swing of a bathroom 
door should shield or conceal the closet. How- 
ever, cramped space in the small bathroom often 
makes it impractical for the door to swing in at 





all. Contrary to the accepted practice of swinging 
a door into the bathroom, there is no good reason 
why it should not swing out, provided plenty of 
clearance exists in a hall. 

The ordinary bathroom door need not be more 
than 2’-0” wide because there is no furniture to 
move in or out. In a luxury bathroom containing 
furniture, the door should be 2’-6” wide. It is 
advantageous to use a 5” casing for the door in a 
corner location to allow installation of towel bars 
behind the door. 

Radiators should be checked for projection from 
the wall, because in certain locations they may 
prevent a door from remaining wide open. Ideally 
an adjacent radiator should be recessed if the 
door is to open 90°. 

Swinging doors to bathroom cabinets or closets 
interfere with fixtures on the main door. 
This can be overcome by using sliding doors. The 


may 


added cost for proper hardware will be insignifi- 
cant in comparison to the floor space saved. 


UNIT PLANS AND DATA 


In the following TIME-SAVER STANDARDS, 
typical bathroom plans and details are developed 
in relation to space-planning and fixture layout. 
Plans may be traced directly if the architect so 
desires. It should be borne in mind that clear- 
ances and dimensions shown, being an irreducible 
minimum, should be reasonably increased where 
possible; and that since fixtures are drawn at an 
iverage minimum size, exact dimensions of fixtures 
used should be ascertained before making final lay 
outs. 

Complete information on the many types of bath- 
room accessories, and locations for each, is given 
in TIME-SAVER STANDARD C8.2.2, 
Planning—Accessories,” and on sizes of all types 
of fixtures in TIME-SAVER STANDARD C8.2.1 
“Bathroom Planning-Fixtures,” both of which 
were published in September, 1935. 

Plans illustrated include: (1) Three-fixture 
baths such as are essential for minimum provision 


‘Bathroom 


or for single second-floor bathrooms, containing 
tubs with or without showers, lavatories and water- 
closets; (2) Three-fixture baths with shower 
stalls, omitting the tub, for use as auxiliary baths; 
(3) Utility Baths: (4) Lavatory-toilets, and 
“powder rooms”; (5) More comfortable baths con- 
taining separate compartments for tubs or water- 
closets, or in combination with dressing rooms. 





«BATHROOMS 
UNIT PLANNING 
NUMBER... ....5 








AMERICAN ARCHITECT 
AND 


ARCHITECTURE, 


MAY 1937 101 








AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


TIME-SAVER 


STANDARDS 





_ Serial No. 79 


MAY, 1937 


Details on this sheet will serve as a guide in the develop- 
ment of convenient, well-equipped residential bathrooms of 
any type or size. Plans represent a series of minimum areas 
which provide adequate clearances for use of three major 
fixtures. For minimum plans of two-fixture lavatory-toilet 
rooms, separate compartment bathrooms and plan suggestions 
for combining dressing rooms and bathrooms see T-S.S. Serial 
No. 80 (May 1937). For data on bathroom accessories see 
T-S.S. C8.2.2 (September 1935). 


PLANNING 


Bathrooms containing usual types of three major fixtures 
tub (or shower), lavatory and toilet—fall into three groups: 


1. The Private Bathroom is primarily for use of a single indi- 
vidual. It may occupy only 25 sq. ft. of floor space with 
a minimum-sized stall shower in place of a tub. Space with a 
tub averages about 30 sq. ft. (See Nos. 1, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 12). 


2. The Utility Bathroom provides area above minimum fixture 
clearance for administering to sick needs, etc. Minimum floor 
space ranges from 45 to 60 sq. ft. depending upon type and 
arrangement of fixtures. See plans Nos. 2, 3, 6, 7 and 8; also 
Nos. 9 to 13 inclusive on T-S.S. Serial No. 80 (May 1937). 


3. Bathroom Serving Adjoining Bedrooms is normally for the 
use of more than one individual. Required floor space ranges 
from 40 to 50 sq. ft. This may include an extra lavatory in a 
separate compartment with the toilet. See plans Nos. 6 to 9 
inclusive on T-S.S. Serial No. 80 (May 1937). 


BATHROOMS -Three-fixture 


PLANS 


Two-fixture Lavatory-Toilets occupy about 14 sq. ft. at a mini. 
mum and about 22 to 25 sq. ft. when a dressing table ig jp. 
cluded. See plans Nos. 1 to 5 on T-S.S. Serial No. 80 (May 1937). 


Accompanying plans drawn at 4’’ scale include these com. 
monly encountered minimum arrangements. They may easily 
be adapted to meet varying requirements; but in all cases the 
minimum clearances indicated for fixtures should be observed, 
These refer to commonly specified fixture types and sizes. For 
clearances of other types and sizes, see T-S.S. C8.2.1 (September 
1935). Adjustment in size and arrangement may be advan- 
tageous if tubs as shown are replaced by shower stalls or by 
square tubs for full or corner recesses. : 


DOORS AND WINDOWS 


Doors to private baths, baths serving adjoining rooms, and 
to lavatory-toilet rooms can be 2’ 0’’ in width but for utility 
bathroom, doors should be 2’ 4’’ wide to permit passage of 
furniture as required. Preferably, bathrooms should contain 
only one door. Customarily, doors swing into the bathroom. 
If hall areas are sufficiently large, doors to small bathrooms 
can be advantageously swung out. In-swinging doors should be 
set to allow space for towel-bars or radiators as shown below 


Windows must be large enough to meet local code require- 
ments. Location depends largely upon fixture arrangement 
and location of accessories. When placed over a fixture, mini- 
mum sill heights should be as indicated below. Windows over 
tubs are not recommended. 

















| 




































































































































































Wall finish Studs Mirror on inside of M.C Ventilating 
Tub door or on adjustable Arm Unit__ 
rim. ( When window must be 
over lavatory ) 
Fixed 
Y rZ bower : em Unit | 
D) feet dla mera set cp (LU | 
on UV Tub rim support MC aa— 
fa Teconunenaed ur } interior Trim an < 
au cases, either er Or Ir and So 
by wood block¥ . reved $0 Marble, a 
or patented clips oO le, Cement or & 
3 J WC = similar waterproof +, 
| Yj Nall finish MC —" materia 
Woe 14 Better, though rot a a “a ‘Oo . 
a & be Vanable 2 min un space etal mid + ‘ 
Mastic WINDOWS bo 
TOWEL FREE-STANDG 9 Stud line AT LAV. i Lass 
BAR RADIATOR ss ath 
\ TUB & WALL 4/ gilher ar both =~ WINDOW over WC. WINDOW over TUB 
DOOR INTERSECTN prelerred (MNormal wall lank) Clast resort orly) 
Better, and Space saver ; 
Doors not touching 
Studs etc.notched Insulation and/or bY4 for . = 54 for ZL LLL A 1 SIZES iS 
or Hubs _sound deadening 4°sol__t/ “3” Soil LZ4Y 
= piecben JOBL> For s © 
ry Hub } ‘ —s WALL | 
s ©)- ~ | rw CHASES 
C en Nol -—yw'— STUD OR 
6" rough wall recomunended FURRING 
SOIL VENT SIZE 
size size OD w ww S 
2" | | | | 4 
2'x4 stud J : +4} 
= 5 | 8 ) oe oe 
3 51" 12 6 | 
estates -IN CORNER “ 3° 5% | [13° & | 
A xor4 Sou line carrot be. a bm | 9 —T 
pe wren pag mayne 4 Soil line located as near W.C m7 : or }—_—__-_— 
slid wall due lo fuib projection. as possible, preferably in inside () 3 b/ 4° | 6 | 
ro Insulate in outside walls 4" 4 by" i5"° | b 
ound deadening to be consid- = : 2 — 
sOl L LI NES ered in all locations Reconunended 5 7A | 10 7 











XUM 








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AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


TIME-SAVER 
STANDARDS 


Serial No. 79 


BATHROOMS-—Three-fixture PLANS MAY, 1937 



































D.or W. optional 




















THREE 
FIXTURE 
BATHS 
With Tub 


TUBS 


ACCESSORIES «:2 GROUNDS 





Ss liliiiiill 


























- 








8  sHowERs 























9 
THREE - FIXTURE BATH ROOMS... .With Shower 
= 














AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


TIME-SAVER 
STANDARDS 





Serial No. 80 
MAY, 1937 


On this T-S.S. are minimum plans for a number of two- 
fixture Lavatory-Toilet Rooms, and plan suggestions for bath- 
rooms in which one or more fixtures are contained in a sep- 
arate compartment. The reverse page contains suggested lay- 
outs for bathrooms planned in combination with dressing 
rooms. For plans of minimum three-fixture bathrooms and 
details applicable to development of all types of bathrooms 
see T-S.S. Serial No. 79, May 1937. For data on fixture sizes 
and accessories, see T-S.S. C8.2.1 and C8.2.2 respectively. 


LAVATORIES 


Two-fixture lavatories for living portions of residences may 
vary in size and appointments from the bare minimum to 
luxurious “powder” rooms. However, economical use of space 
generally demands that lavatories be restricted to minimum 
clearances. In the plans given below, alternate positions for 
doors and windows are shown. For data on soil lines, etc., 
see T-S.S. Serial No. 79 (May 1937). 


BATH AND DRESSING ROOMS 


To avoid the excessive humidity common in the usual three- 
fixture bath, tubs or showers may be located in separate com- 
partments, with or without an additional lavatory. This type 
of plan also affords greater privacy for use of water-closets 
Separate doors, possibly with a small entry, are desirable 
Connecting doors between compartments are also possible but 
are not recommended as the only means of access. 

In another type of bath, the water-closet is in a separate 
compartment, affording complete privacy. In even the mini- 
mum-sized bath of this type there is generally room for an 


BATHROOMS-—Lavatory & Dressing Room PLANS 


additional lavatory or dental basin, and the bath proper js 
often enlarged into a combination dressing-bath room. Dregs- 
ing tables may be a combination of lavatory and table or 
individual fixtures. In the latter case, tables should be suff- 
ciently far from lavatories to prevent damage from splashing 
water. 

A still greater expansion of this type provides a 
dressing room 
water-closet. 

In all these more luxurious plans for baths, showers should 
be included, either as stalls or over tubs. Dimensions given in 
the drawings are clearance minima only and should be increased 
wherever possible. Dimensions not given are either matters 
of taste or depend upon other plan factors such as fixture 
sizes, door placement, circulation, etc. Door and window loca- 
tions are discussed on T-S.S. Serial No. 79 (May, 1937) 


FIXTURES AND ACCESSORIES 


In addition to the usual fixtures and accessories indicated, 
all baths with more than minimum equipment should include 
provision for linen storage. This may consist of towel cabinets 
recessed in the thickness of furred walls, either over fixtures 
or as full height cabinets; or may be expanded into complete 
linen closets as shown in T-S.S. Serial Nos. 70 (“Basic Data 
Closet Planning”) and 72 (“Over-clothing and Utility Closets”) 

Dressing room baths may include completely fitted wardrobe 
as outlined in T-S.S. Serial No. 71 (“Bedroom and Dressing 
Room Closets’’). 

Types of fixtures, soil and water supply lines, placement of 
windows and doors, and clearances are fully discussed or 
cross-indexed on T-S.S. Serial No. 79 (May 1937). 


separate 
and connecting bath, with compartment for 





‘'“N. Dreferref 
oN Freferred 






D or W_. 












































TUBS 
ACCESSORIES Door / 
AND GROUNDS optional 5 Sf 














THREE - FIXTURE BATH ROOMS... 








..Tub in Separate Compartment 


— 











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BATHROOMS-—Lavatory & Dressing Room PLANS 









AMERICAN ARCHITECT 


TIME-SAVER 
STANDARDS 


Serial No. 80 


MAY, 1937 











TUBS 





SHOWERS 




















ACCESSORIES 
AND GROUNDS 





\ 
\ 
\ 


Window optiona 12 























BATHS AND 2 
DRESSING ROOM o 
Baths with Three c 
or more Fixtures a 
(Toilet in Separate Compartment) 
COPYRIGHT 1937, HEARST MAGAZINES INC. (AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE) 











TECHNICAL DIGEST 


KEY TO PRESENTATION 


Typical reference: 

15 N'36:14-26 gptv 

This indicates: Issue of November 15, 1936, 
pages 14 to 26 inclusive, presented according 
to the following key: 
d—detail drawing g—graph 
s—section t—text 
Accordingly, gptv means graph(s), plan(s), 
text and photographic view(s) in the article 
mentioned. 


p—plan 
v—photo view 


ACOUSTICS 


Sound-proof windows. (K. M. Constable). 
Architect & Building News. (London). 5 Mr'37: 
293-294 gpt 


National Physical Laboratory tests on 
sound transmission show that the sound 
insulating value of materials forming a 
tight partition is determined almost en- 
tirely by their weight per square foot. 
Thus a window of 21l-oz. glass will trans- 
mit 200 times as much sound as a 4%- 
in. brick wall. 

The influence of double-glazing de- 
pends on the spacing of the panes. If 
the spacing is not correctly proportioned 
the transmission of a double window may 
be greater than that of one of the com- 
ponent windows. A separation of about 
4-in. (for 2l-oz. glass) has been found 
to transmit low frequencies easily. Heavi- 
er glass can safely be spaced more closely. 

It is also recommended that the in- 
terior of the double-glazed space (the 
window frame) be covered with sound 
absorbing material. 


CONSTRUCTION 


More Science for the Builder. (J. E. Burch- 
ard, Jr., from Journal of Applied Physics). 
Science Digest. My'37:5-8 ¢ 


Notes on advances in building science: 
Design of foundations by principles of 
soil mechanics, air conditioning, radiant 
heating, odor measurement, noise reduc- 
tion, school illumination. Final para- 
graphs on application of such advances 
to prefabrication. 


Science & Building Exhibition. Royal Insti- 
tute of British Architects Journal. (London). 
& Mr'37:441-443 ¢ 


A review of a March exhibition rep- 
resentative of the work of all organiza- 
tions performing research in building in 
England. These include the Building Re- 
search Station, National Physical Lab., 
Forest Products Research Lab., Geolog- 
ical Survey & Museum, Fuel Research 
Station, and various industrial research 
associations. 


The exhibits included among other 


things displays of modern methods of 
concrete work, roofing material tests, 
properties of units of building, heating, 
insect damage to timber, illumination, 
acoustics, and wind pressure. 

The inexpensive catalog is really more 
of a handbook on_ building 
research than a list of exhibits. 


reference 


Repairing earthquake damage. (J. E. Byers). 
Engineering News-Record. 11 Mr'37:362-366 tv 


This more technical article is preceded 
by a general one on safeguarding schools 
against earthquakes. A descriptive list 
of seven seismic resistance ratings of all 
existing schools in Los Angeles is in- 
cluded. The method of organizing and 
proceeding with rehabilitation work is 
covered carefully in the text, and five 
different schemes are outlined. There are 
six illustrations of typical earthquake 
damage (Southern California, 1933) and 
methods of reinforcement. Notes on the 
cost of this work conclude the report. 


The Vierendeel Truss. (L. Baes). L'Ossature 
Métallique. (Brussels). Mr'37:125-152 dgst 


Beautifully organized technical paper 
in French (the second on this subject). 
This one applies particularly to the bridge 
of Val Benoit at Liege. Of great inter- 
est to those who are not concerned with 
the calculations will be the excellent 
views of a photo-elastic model. When 
this small scale, transparent counterpart 
of the truss is illuminated with polar- 
ized light, it shows clearly by interfer- 
ence lines the stresses induced by the 
loads indicated. 


A new method of concrete wall construc- 
tion. The Builder. (London). 5 Mr'37:542 tv 


Description of the “Franklin system” 
using a semi-dry mix (1:6) and travel- 
ing forms of light metal. An ordinary 
house requires one cavity-wall form, one 
partition form, two cores, and external 
and internal corners. The set illustrated 
are for a 4-2-4-in. hollow wall. Forms 
are about 3 ft. x 1 ft. 6 in. and can be 
handled by a single man. In one day 
120 ft. of wall 1 ft. 3 in. high can be 
built by three men. (One mixing, one 
handling concrete and one tamping. ) 

Also in Architect & Building News 
(London) 5 Mr.’37 :309 tv 


costs 


Cost analysis of an all-wood house. 
(C. P. Ulmer). American Builder & Building 
Age. Mr'37:138-144 gpstv 


Complete cost breakdowns of Purdue 
Housing Research House No. 5. Gen- 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, 


eral contract $5000. Finished July 1936, 

Summaries and breakdowns include 
labor, material, profit overhead and per 
cent of total cost for each trade. 


FIRE PROTECTION 


Before the Fire Department arrives. (From 
National Safety News). Business Digest. Ap'37: 
34-38 ¢ 


Description of the four principal types 
of fire extinguishers: Carbon tetrachlo- 
ride, Soda-Acid, Foam and Carbon di- 
oxide. This article tells for which classes 
of fire each is appropriate, and its meth- 
od of operation. 
large systems and on the various kinds of 
fire hose. 


There are notes on 


HEATING & AIR CONDITIONING 


How to design a mechanical warm-air 
system. Heating & Ventilating. Ap'37:44-5| 
dgt 

Reprint of Technical Code for de- 
sign and installation recently adopted 
This applies to systems under 250,000 
3tu./hr. at the registers, air volumes not 
over 5500 cfm., and buildings not over 
three stories high. There are clear sec- 
tions on estimating heat loss, selection of 
furnaces, design tempera- 
tures, duct procedure, controls, 
construction details, and tables of prop- 
erties, elbow conversion 
tables, graphs, etc. 


register air 
design 


equivalents, 


Heating and ventilating equipment for 
buildings. (Lecture by F. B. Turpin). The 
Builder. (London). 26 F'37:484-485 ¢ 


Table of recommended 
and air changes for various parts of six 
types of buildings. Various phases of 
heat output and control are discussed. 
Examples of reduction of heat transmis- 
sion coefficients are given for several 
wall and roof constructions. The report 
ends with a description of modern heat 
ing, ventilating and air conditioning 


temperatures 


equipment. 


Handling the Summer load. (V. L. Sher- 
man). American Builder & Building Age. Mr'37: 
100-104 gst 

Article on summer cooling for resi- 
dences. Graphs of typical conditions. 
Section of a typical installation. Descrip- 
tion of operation of plants using ice, 
mechanical refrigeration, and city water. 


Measuring the odors in air conditioned 
structures. (V. A. Gant & H. D. Shaw). 
Heating & Ventilating. Ap'37:40-41 dt 


Abstract from Industrial & Engineer- 
ing Chemistry. Complete air conditioning 


MAY 1937 


XUM 





Grand Ballroom, Hotel Astor, New York. Decorators: The Walter M. Ballard Co. Carpet Counsel: The Bigelow Weavers. 





936. 
lude 





From 
p'37: 


ypes 
‘hlo- 

di- 
SSeS 
eth- 

on 
ls of 





ING 


n-air 
44.5| 


de- 
pted. 
),000 
; not 
over 

sec- 
m of 
er a- 
trols, 


=| Te CA RPE T 0 UN SEL 





+ for iy poi 
the FLOM BY THE BIGELOW WEAVERS 
wie . . » Viewed by Samuel Revness 
f six 
sof ww“ of WALTER M. BALLARD C0., Decorators 
issed. a ’ 
smis- : 
veral 
eport 
heat- . . 
ia Coming from one who knows us as well as Mr. Revness, 
we believe that means a lot. We’ve had the pleasure 
Sher- of working closely with his firm for many years—and 
Mr'37: / 7 a 
on many important projects. To name a few: the 
resi- Astor, Commodore, Raleigh and Copley Square Hotels 
tions. d 
crip- —the U.S. and Munson Lines—the N. B.C. Studios. 
r 408, : : 
vater. Leading architects and decorators from coast to 
—_ coast have found us helpful in finding the right an- 
ed _\ swer to their carpeting problems. When you face one, 
ineer- ; won't you call us in as Carpet Counsel? 
oning . ' . . 
Contract Department, Bigelow-Sanford Carpet Co., 
Inc., 140 Madison Avenue, New York. 
1937 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 107 





XUM 








involves the control of odors but un- 
til this device was developed there was 
no way of checking efficiency of equip- 
ment. Briefly, the 
samples of recirculated, odorous air and 
moisture and then tests the liquid re- 
sulting from melting this frozen smell 
with an osmoscope. This instrument pro- 
portions odor-laden air and fresh air 
according to a calibrated scale. The rela- 
tive intensity of the odor is then judged 


process freezes 


by sniffing at various settings of the scale 
until the point is reached where the odor 
is barely detectable. 

Chemical analysis will trace the sub- 
stances involved if desired but odors are 
often so complex as to make complete 
determination impracticable. 

This abstract tells of tests made with 
air taken from a railroad car of the club 
lounge type. 


LIGHTING 


Report of the Architectural Conference 
on Lighting. The Builder. (London). 26 F'37: 
485 t 

Brief notes on addresses and discus- 
sions. One of the items mentioned was 
ventilation of show-windows with high- 
wattage illumination. It was reported 
that for foodstuffs there are several in- 
stallations of show-window refrigeration 
to overcome this heating effect. One 
speaker told of an American store with 
such intensive general illumination that 
eight times the amount of heat required 
for the main selling space was generated 
by the lamps. This heated air is ex- 
hausted, filtered and circulated to other 
floors at a saving of some $20,000 in 
heating equipment. 


MATERIALS & FINISHES 


Beryllium—Lighter than aluminum, harder 
than steel. Science Digest. My'37:93-94 ¢ 


Relative of emerald and aquamarine. 
Two per cent of this new metallic element 
added to copper forms a ductile alloy 
which can be teased by heating and cold 
working from a tensile stress of 60,000 
to 170,000 Ib. sq. in. This alloy is re- 
ported to have five times the wearing 
resistance of phosphor bronze, great fa- 
tigue resistance, to be highly resilient 
and incorrodible. Tools, springs, switch 
blades, gears and wire cloth are some of 
the applications. 


What is Fresco? (E. Hanson, from Profes- 
sional Art Quarterly). Business Digest. Ap'37: 
41-42 ¢ 

Description of the familiar process of 
painting on wet plaster. Data on time 
element: 190 sq. ft. in 21 days. Endur- 
ing qualities are due to chemical action 
producing carbonate of lime which, how- 
ever, is turned into a weak sulphate in 


108 


an industrial atmosphere such as that of 
London. Frescoes will not stand up in 
such localities. 


What is Lacquer? (G. Klinkenstein, from 
Metal Industry). Business Digest. Ap'37:13-16 ¢ 


Three different types: the shellac made 
from a resinous secretion of Indian in- 
sects; the Oriental finish made from the 
sap of a species of sumac; and the mod- 
ern industrial finish made from _nitro- 
cellulose, an ingredient of explosives. 
This article also goes into the distinc- 
tions between lacquers and varnishes. 

The lacquer industry has developed 
since 1923, when nitrocellulose solutions 
of low enough viscosity were first made. 
The importance of proper formulation 
for the particular surface is emphasized. 
There is a special lacquer for every. kind 
of metal used by industry and for every 
type of surface and service requirements. 
There are no limits to color and it can 
be made perfectly transparent. 


The semi-continuous sheared plate mill at 
Homestead. U. S. Steel News. Ap'37:12-13 
ptv 

Readable description of the process of 
making plate steel from thick and heavy 
slabs. In 1% minutes after heating a 
slab 4 ft. 6 in. x 15 ft. x 9 in. thick 
(weight over 12 tons) it is rolled into 
3g-in. plate 4 ft. 6 in. in width and 260 
ft. in length. 

Data on other sizes are also given, from 
the longest (480 ft.-%-in. thick) down. 
The mill can roll widths from 20 to 93 
in., and thicknesses from ¥% to 3/32-in. 

There is a diagrammatic plan of the 
mill (1890 ft. long), and a fully illus- 
trated report of the various stages of 
the processes. 


Design modernization & cements dominate 
concrete meeting. Engineering News-Record. 
4 Mr'37:340-343 gt 

Report of the N.Y.C. Convention of 
the A.C.I. in Subjects in- 
cluded: progress in European practice; 


February. 


American developments in cements (nor- 
mal Portland, high-early-strength, mod- 
erate heat, and sulphate resistant); use 
of salt water in mixing and curing; Port- 
land-puzzolan cements; tests on cements 
made with fly-ash; concrete repairing; 
vibration of pavement concrete; struc- 
ture design; discussion of the new Joint 
Committee Report to appear late this 
year or early next year. The notes on 
the latter mention briefly its provisions 
for materials, placing, details, stresses, 
theory, beams, slabs and columns. 


The Magic Powder. (Portland cement). U. S. 
Steel News. Mr'37:3-6 tv 


A readable “commercial.” Description 
of the processes of cement manufacture, 
from initial quarrying of limestone, 
crushing and drying materials, weighing, 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, 


grinding, burning, to clinker rinding 
and final packing. A number of curioys 
items await the reader or visitor to q 
mill—such as the huge kilns which are 
the largest pieces of rotating machinery 
in industry, sieves with 40,000 holes to 
the square inch which will hold water 
but not the finely ground cement, and 
finally, sacks which are tied be 
are filled. 


re they 


Wood-destroying insects. (From paper read 
by R. C. Fisher). Architect & Building News, 
(London). 26 F'37:281 ¢ 


Mainly about the Lyctus (“Powder- 
post”) Beetle and the “Death-watch” 
Beetle. Only the sapwood of hardwoods 
is subject to attack by the former insect, 

Coniferous woods are immune. Natur- 
ally starch-free timbers seem also im- 
mune and it has been found possible to 
accelerate the removal of starch from 
green timber by application of heat and 
humidity. 

The Death-watch Beetle thrives on 
warm, moist conditions and the presence 
of decay. It is recommended that the 
ends of timbers be not solidly built-in, 
but that they be ventilated to avoid dam- 
age from this source. 


PLANNING & DETAILS 


Problems of city traffic, etc. (G. Gérres), 
Deutsche Bauzeitung. (Berlin). 3 Mr'37:146- 
148 pst 


Discusses and suggests solutions for 
three problems: (1) The elimination of 
cross traffic on main thoroughfares by 
placing barriers across side streets and 
forcing vehicles to enter them from other 
end; (2) Parking—in interior of 
blocks; and (3) Widening of streets of 
old towns by means of sidewalk arcades 
built into the existing facades. 


Cinemas. (F. E. Towndrow & R. L. Stubbs). 
Design & Construction. (London). Mr'37:182- 
209 pstv 


Brief technical notes on planning and 
acoustics. Illustrations of 28 British ex- 
amples and four in other countries. There 
are also a few details of decoration. 


Furniture and decorative arts of the 6th 
Triennial Exposition at Milan. (Renato 
Pacini). Architettura. (Milan). F'37:65-87 tv 


Brief Italian text and captions for over 
50 photos of furnished interiors, display 
galleries, objects of decorative art, and 
decorative paintings. 


Pavilions for the Paris International Ex- 
position 1937. Kokusai-Kenchiku. (Tokyo). 
F'37:97-106 psv 

Plans, sections, perspectives and views 
of models of structures to 
Japan, Germany, Belgium, Great Britain, 
Austria, Finland, Czecho-Slovakia, Jugo- 
Slavia, Switzerland, Egypt and French 
Africa. 


represent 


MAY 1937 





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h are 
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Water 
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'37:146- 


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'37:182- 


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-87 tv 
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(Tokyo). 


| views 
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Britain, 
, Jugo- 


French 


y 1937 





XUM 


~ Eeaminently suited 


TO FUNCTIONAL DESIGN 















DETAIL BB 





ZA 





SECTION AA 


?WDE+t 
GF 







Visit the PSFS Building the next time 
you are in Philadelphia. In this out- 
standing example of functional archi- 
tecture USS Stainless Steel was used 
with striking effectiveness for en- 
trances, banking rooms, stairways, 
escalators and lobbies. You will find 
this work in USS Stainless Steel as 
new and brilliant today as the day it 
was installed five years ago. 

(Howe and Lescaze, Architects. Genera 
Bronze Corp., Fabricators 


PLAN GG 


ee seis D} 


Ley 






ECAUSE it offers the most de- 

sirable combination of properties 
for countless applications, USS Stain- 
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execution of modern functional de- 
sign. It is not only beautiful. It is 
eminently practical. 

USS Stainless Steel is practical 
because its surface is like the surface because it is strong and tough—one Our new booklet “USS Stainless 
of glass—totally immune to weather of the strongest metals known to Steel in Architecture” gives complete 
with no protective coating or finish. science. It resists abrasion and_ information. Sixteen pages of facts, 
It is easily cleaned of surface soil scratching. Hinges, kick plates and photographs, data and drawings spec- 
with a damp cloth. mop strips of USS Stainless Steel ally prepared for the architect. Write 

USS Stainless Steel is practical wear indefinitely. for a copy for your own use. 


U:S:S STAINLESS STEELS 


AMERICAN STEEL & WIRE COMPANY, Chicago and New York 
CARNEGIE-ILLINOIS STEEL CORPORATION, Pittsburgh and Chicago 
NATIONAL TUBE COMPANY, Pittsburgh 





~/ 


DETAIL FF 


Columbia Steel Company, San Francisco, Pacific Coast Distributors * United States Steel Products Company, New York, Export Distributors 


UNITED STATES STEEL 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 109 











SMALL HOUSE PRACTICE 


Two Years’ Progress in the Concerted Endeavor to Solve Its Complex Problems 


N the spring of 1935 the American Institute of Architects, 

meeting in Washington, endorsed the proposal of the 
Comunittee on Housing to establish, through the assistance 
of the chapters, local groups of architects prepared to furnish 
plans, specifications and individual supervision in the small 
house field. 

Two years have passed since that time, and it seems well 
to look about us to find out just how far we have gone and 
along what road. The progress has been slow, discouraging 
in many particulars, but, as Walter R. McCornack, Chair- 
man of the Committee on Housing, points out in the March 
1937 Octagon, the objective is not to be gained in a moment, 
but possibly over an extended period of experiment and 
organized effort. 

Mr. MeCornack repeats what has been said many times 
but what will bear even more repetition : 

“Unless some action is taken by the architects they will 
find themselves gradually being eliminated from the home 
building field and supplanted by commercial plan services, 
by departments of government agencies, or by industrial and 
financial groups organized to supply plans. It will require 
ability, courage, and patience to make architectural service 
on a professional basis generally available to the small home 
builder on terms he can afford to pay. 

“What will happen if the architects do nothing about this 
problem? The answer is simple and the issue clear. 

“The trend is toward group development in housing. If 
the architects continue to ignore the single house and its 
owner, who too often is the victim of unregulated agencies 
operating on a basis of self-interest, the architects will be 
forgotten when group housing developments come. We spend 
a lot of time trying to eliminate government architectural 
agencies after they have been created. This affords us an op 
portunity to prevent the formation of more of them. 

“Tf the small house problem is solved to the advantage 
of the small home owner, the architectural profession will 
find itself in a dominating position in the home building field 
and will never again be found on the defensive with govern- 
nab agencies, speculative builders or entrenched plan- 
book ‘services which supply good, bad and indifferent draw- 
ings, specifications and supervision through material dealers 
and builders, without regard to the requirements of the in- 
dividual or the community. 

“We find ourselves with an opportunity to co-operate 
with two capably operated government agencies, both sym- 
pathetic toward our viewpoint. The architects can ill afford 
to turn away.” 

Here, then, follows an attempt on the part of the editors 
of this magazine to report the present status of this move- 
ment in detail as observed in many communities where the 
first call of the Institute has been heard and heeded. 


Boston, Mass. 

Almost all of the efforts of Small Architectural 
Associates of Massachusetts have been devoted to publicizing 
the plan to the general public and the banks. This preliminary 
work having been accomplished, in a measure, the group is 
about to make a drive for membership. At present there are 
ten active members and three who would support the idea 


House 


110 


but do not wish 
It is hoped that 
eventually there 
15-mile span on 
the state. 


to have active participation in the service. 
the membership may be increased so that 
will be a participating architect for every 
a radius centering in Boston and covering 


Each member pays $25 initiation fee and a fee of $10 
from each commission obtained through the service. The 
Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston has contributed approxi- 
mately $500 toward the printing of brochures and _ other 
material. \WVith increased membership and a growing use 
of the service by the public, the group expects to be able to 
finance the support of an independent office by these $10 
fees. At present the group is co-operating with the Archi- 
tects’ Small House Service Bureau in a rent-free headquar- 
ters at the Building Arts Exhibit. 

As to particular details of procedure, an architect member 
is assigned to each member bank of the Federal Home Loan 
system in this community, and takes care of all work coming 
through that member bank. Inquiries arising from other 
sources are assigned by a committee to the architect working 
in the nearest territory. He does the supervision and makes 
any necessary changes in the stock designs. 

The Boston group lays stress on the principle that stock 
designs are used in every case unless the owner prefers to 
the customary fuli Up to the 
present, these stock designs have been obtained from estab- 
Architects’ Small House 
Every member, however, agrees to make 


elect architectural service. 
lished agencies, principally the 
Service Bureau. 
at least one design per year, if called upon, to be placed in 
the available portfolio and used on a royalty basis. 

The President of Small House Architectural Associates of 
Massachusetts is Dana Somes, 234 Boylston St., Boston. 


Baltimore, Md. 

The Architectural Service Corporation of Maryland is 
apparently almost inactive. This group's primary difficulty 
has been in securing a sufficient number of designs to build 
up a useful portfolio. The designs with which the group 
started never seemed to provide just the accommodations 
required by the prospective client. 

The opinion among the members is that the successful 
launching of such a venture would require the investment 
of considerably more time and money than can be put into 
it by the average architect. 

For the present, the organization is co-operating with the 
local Federal Housing Administration and the Real Estate 
Joard in sponsoring a “Better Housing Campaign.” 

The President of the Architectural Service Corporation 
of Maryland is FE. H. Glidden, Jr.. 113 West Mulberry St. 
saltimore, Md. 


Birmingham, Ala. 

About a dozen architects in this community have agreed 
to contribute a maximum of $10 each monthly toward the 
\ plan is being con- 
sidered, looking to the support of utilities, and establishing a 
ground-floor office and display room, to be in charge of a 
salaried secretary. It is possible that the group may find 
it necessary to secure further financial assistance, possibly 


expenses of launching the project. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


XUM 





Service, 
so that 
IT every 


overing 


of $10 
‘ec. The 
ipproxi- 
d other 
ing use 
- able to 
ese $10 
- Archi- 
adquar- 


member 
1e Loan 
coming 
n other 
working 
1 makes 


it stock 
efers to 
to the 
1 estab- 
House 
o make 
laced in 


‘lates ot 
Oll, 


land is 
ifficulty 
-O build 

group 
ations 


ccessful 
estment 
yut into 


vith the 
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oration 
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agreed 
ard the 
1g con- 
shing a 
oe of a 
ay find 
yossibly 


Ly 1937 





XUM 


In the above office, Nu-W'ood 
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IMAGINE A HOOP SHIRT HERE! 


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AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 














ee} Re] ieee) ii ceo) k 






that pleases the tastes 


of Future Years 





GREY TODAY - may be charmingly changed 


to White, Green, Brown in Years to come 


@ Women, who so greatly influence the choice of deco- 
rative materials for the home, appreciate original beau- 
ty, but they do like the prerogative of changing their 
minds when it comes to color schemes. There is per- 
petual freedom from color monotony for those who sur- 
face their homes with WEATHERBEST Stained 
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Send for the interesting book, ““‘Homes of Enduring 
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Name 


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112 





by including, in some form of collaboration, material many- 
facturers and dealers. 

The head of the local organization committee is Lawrence 
S. Whitten, an architect in the employ of the Birmingham 
Electric Company. 


Little Rock, Ark. 

This group is in the process of organization. The man- 
ager of the local Home Loan Bank has held several meetings 
for the purpose of explaining to the lending agencies, ma- 
terial dealers and others the need of such a plan. These 
meetings have met with the unanimous approval of those 
represented, and the lending institutions have agreed not to 
lend money for building unless the borrower agrees, at least, 
to the limited service offered by the local architectural group. 

One of the difficulties has been the assembling of a suffi- 
cient number of designs suitable to this climate in the smaller 
house range. 

The head of the organization committee is Frank J. Gin- 
occhio, Jr., Hall Building, Little Rock, Ark. 


Chicago, Ill. 

The Associated Home Architects in Chicago has been 
endorsed by the Chicago Chapter, A. I. A. Ten sketch de- 
signs have been prepared, accompanied by a general specifi- 
cation and estimates of cost. The service offered is of the 
conventional sort, except that the schedule of charges pro- 
vides remuneration in the form of fixed fees which approxi- 
mate 4% of total costs. 

An affiliation has been made with the Hinsdale |*ederal 
Savings and Loan Association, which organization has 
appropriated funds to pay for advertising counsel. A pre- 
sentation brochure has been prepared through this channel. 

It is the group’s intention to expand as rapidly as circum- 
stances permit, enlisting other lending agencies in the sub- 
urban territory. As yet, there is lacking the active endorse- 
ment of the local Federal Home Loan Bank. 

Sketches, descriptive pamphlets and the like are on ex- 
hibition in quarters provided with the Hinsdale Savings and 
Loan Association. An architect member of the group is in 
attendance on Saturday afternoons answering inquiries. A 
design portfolio is supplemented at present by the plan books 
of the Architects’ Small House Service Bureau. 

Earl H. Reed, Jr., is Chairman, Tribune Tower, Chicago. 


Atlanta, Ga. 

The operating group here comprises the chapter, although 
there is a comparatively small number of members who are 
taking active part. It is the present purpose of the group to 
follow the program drawn up by the Home Owners Loan 
Corporation, since it seems to offer the best pattern for 
organization and procedure. 

The Chairman of the group is William J. 
Marietta Street Building, Atlanta, Ga. 


Sayward, 101 


Los Angeles, Cal. 

The Southern California Chapter to date has never en- 
gaged in the operation of a small house plan bureau and it 
is unlikely, in view of the present attitude of its members, 
that the chapter itself will adopt such a service. Conditions 
in this part of the country are thought to be quite different 
from those in the East and other communities, and there are 
many houses in the $5000 class being built with complete 
architectural service. On the other hand, there are a great 
many more being built without such professional service. 
At the present time, the chapter is striving to arrive at some 
ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND 


XUM 





Manu- 


=| am DO THINGS wn n: 


man- 


a For Example—by using this ¥¥ and this % 2 


These 
t those e 
not t you get this 
it least, 

group. 


a suffi- 

smaller 

J. Gin- ® Only about six months ago, Revere introduced 
Revecon, a new system of aluminum extruded 
shapes for holding all types of flat sheet materials 

s been . eee ; 

uch in place. The few months that have followed 

ch de- 

specifi- have seen a fast growing number of architects 

of the using the Revecon System with porcelain enam- 

es pro- . ; 

»proxi- eled sheets, marble, steel and synthetic board typx 


finishes of many kinds to achieve striking results, 


l‘ederal P , , 
; both exterior and interior. 











mn has 
A pre- 
om REVECON 
‘ircum- 
ie sub- ; 
ndorse- B Now, the Revecon System is creating remark- 
able design effects and erection economies with 
on ex- - P . = F 
Ceramic and Markwa, the marble tile. So simple 
igs and 
p is in is the use of Revecon, that any contractor can 
ies. A work with it. 
1 books 
VERSATILE IN ITS APPLICATION 
cago. There is literally no limit to the design possibili- 
ties it offers. Youll want to know more about the 
though Revecon System and its many advantages. You 
sho are — ‘ ‘ 
can learn all about it in your “‘Architects’ Desk 
roup to F 
s Loan Manual of ‘Time-Saver-Standards.’ ” If you do 
‘rn tor not have a copy write us on your own letterhead 
rte ° j é j; ibit pan al ox suggests on ant t j) any fy ts po thle Qt ith Re z¢ 
-d. 101 for the Revere Revecon Technical Handbook. 1 ¢ @*/#6# panel FARGO O08 Of Coe Sy a sag 
“ty 4 ; Here, Markwa, the marble tile, a new product of the Vermont Marble ¢ 
Please address your request to our Executive pany, with Revecon Members 212SF and 216SF, achieve a brilliant eff 
Offices, 230 Park Avenue, New York Citv. Inset shows how the tile is held in place. 
ver en- 
and it . 
~mbers, 
ditions 


FOUNDED BY 


ifferent PAUL REVERE 


=| Revere Copper avd Brass 


a great 


service. INCORPORATED 
it some Executive Orrices: 230 Park Avenug, New York CITY 
y 1937 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 113 














House in Scituate, Mass., Painted with Cabot’s 
DOUBLE-WHITE and Cabot’s Green Gloss 
Collopakes, Architect, Royal Barry Wills, Boston. 


Long-Lasting WHITE 
Non-Fading GREEN 


Architects and builders need no longer fear early fading 
or discoloration when they use white and green—favorite 
color combination of home buyers and home owners. The 
basic causes of these troubles have been eliminated in 
Cabot’s DOUBLE-WHITE and Green Gloss Collopakes. 

.. The pigments in DOUBLE-WHITE are immune 
to chemical reactions with atmospheric gases which soon 
grayish tinge. 


give many whites a dingy yellowish or 





Green Gloss Collopakes contain no filler—chief cause of 


fading in cheap green paints. Use these fast-color paints, 
and your white houses with green blinds will look new 


and inviting year after vear. 


The White Book-FREE 


Write today for Collopake Color Card 
of The White Book. 


It gives full information and contains 


and your copy 





photographs of many prize winning houses painted with 
Cabot’s DOUBLE-WHITE, Old Virginia White, and 
Gloss Collopakes. Samuel Cabot, Inc., 1263 Oliver Bldg.. 
Boston, Mass. 


Cabot’s 


DOUBLE-WHITE 
and Gloss Collopakes 


(COLLOIDAL PAINTS) 








114 





AMERICAN 


solution to what is recognized as a real problem, and a com. 
mittee has been appointed to investigate the possibilities, 
Some of the members believe that the real answer lies per- 
haps rather in group construction as contrasted with indj- 
vidual projects. In group construction the work is done by 
and for one organization in conjunction with planned com- 
munities. Such a program of course would not salvage nor 
safeguard for financial institutions the distressed properties 
in widely scattered areas, but the feeling prevails, at least 
among some of the members, that an architectural service 
for group construction may be the only type which would 
render a real public service without impairing the profes- 
sional standing of the architect. 

Ralph C. Flewelling is President of the Southern Calj- 
fornia Chapter, A. I. A. 


New York, N. Y. 

This group has been learning many things by trial and 
error during the past two years, and these lessons are as 
yet not conclusive in pointing out the best way in which the 
small house problem can be solved for the New York area. 

The group started as Small House Associates, with the 
idea that, through co-uvperative effort, small houses could be 
designed and their construction supervised for a fixed fee 
which would not be prohibitive for that large group of people 
interested in building a house costing between $4000 and 
$8000. Experience soon indicated that such an enterprise 
requires, in this particular locality, a large volume of busi- 
It was felt that the only way this volume could be 
built up is through publicity to teach the public the value 
of architectural service. At present the group is in the 
process of determining more definitely future procedure. 

Henry Otis Chapman, Jr., is President of The American 
Society for Better Housing, Inc., 101 Park Ave., New 
York, N. Y. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

This group is not yet functioning but is completing its 
organization and expects to start operations shortly. Bro- 
chures are being printed and the stock designs available are 
being estimated for costs. At present the group seems likely 
to adopt the plan of organization and procedure as outlined 
by HOLC, 

P. John Hoener, 3605 Laclede Ave., St. Louis, Mo., 
is Chairman of the committee of the St. Louis Chapter, 
A. I, A. during the activity looking toward the formation 
of Small House Architectural Associates of Missouri. 


ness. 


San Antonio, Tex. 

The plan of operation in the minds of a local group of 
architects differs in some respects from the typical one. It 
contemplates the opening of a central office to which, through 
publicity and personal contacts, the prospective builders of 
small houses may come. For the first twenty or thirty clients, 
designs would be developed by the architectural groups to 
fit these individual cases in the regular way, but with the 
understanding that these designs would go into the portfolio 
for use as stock plans. Thereafter these would be publicly 
available—with such changes as might be incorporated in an 
overlay sheet or two. The San Antonio group has little faith 
in the efficacy of stock plans prepared in advance for a 
hypothetical client. These men believe they might design— 
for individual clients—much nearer to the prevailing local 
needs and desires, as well as keeping in bounds as to cost. 
It is felt that many details might be standardized for the 
whole portfolio, and a major part of the specifications. 
ARCHITECT MAY 1937 


AND ARCHITECTURE, 


XUM 





a com- 
bilities, 
es per- 
h indi- 
one by 
1 com- 
ge nor 
Pperties 
t least 
service 
would 
profes- 


1 Cali- 


al and 
are as 
ich the 
< area, 
ith the 
uld be 
ed fee 
people 
X) and 
erprise 
f busi- 
uld be 
- value 
in the 
Ire. 

lerican 


New 


ing its 

3ro- 
ble are 
likely 
utlined 


Mo., 
hapter, 
mation 
i: 


oup of 
ne. It 
1rough 
lers of 
clients, 
ups to 
ith the 
yrtfolio 
ublicly 
1 in an 
le faith 
for a 
sign— 
x local 
0 cost. 
or the 


y 1937 








HARMONY is the word 
for AZROCK 


Due to the many beautiful colors, plain or marbleized, the 
different sizes and the innumerable combinations possible 
therefrom, Azrock Carpet Tile allows the architect to 
execute original floor treatments of the most interesting 
kind that are not only in complete harmony with but, as 
shown in the photograph above, actually emphasize the 
attractive appearance of the surroundings. 


With all its beauty, Azrock Carpet Tile is exceptionally 
durable, manufactured for long life and hard usage. It is 
moisture proof, fire-resistant, will not warp nor check, in- 
sulates against extremes of temperature, is easily cleaned 
(burning cigars or cigarettes leave no permanent stain), 
inexpensively maintained, can be laid at a minimum of 
time over old sub-floors or new, and is gently resilient for 
the reduction of noise and for comfort underfoot. Truly, 
Azrock is the ideal modern floor! 





Write to Uvalde Rock Asphalt Co., San Antonio, Tex., 


for name of your nearest Azrock distributing contractor. 





Sea INNIS RRR AAAS AS AE A TROT SSE 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 115 





discussing this plan with architects of other cities in 
Texas and adjoining territory, it met with a welcome re- 
ception. Moreover, it was felt that an interchange of the 
stock plans might be arranged to mutual advantage. 

Ralph H. Cameron, Majestic Building, San Antonio, 
Tex., is at present attempting the organization of a small 
group, sponsored by the local chapter. 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Two years’ futile effort to establish a weekly newpaper 
page, promoting public understanding of the architect and 
his services, has indicated the need for an authoritative 
agency to which the public might turn for advice and in- 
formative discussion of its home-owning ambitions. 

With a membership of nine architects, each contributing 
$15, the Architects’ Home Building Service was organized 
and, early in 1934, opened an office in a local department 
store. A year’s experience, during which the waaiiedia 


increased to fifteen, made apparent the fact that the location 
O ST IS LW AYS | Was not suited to the success of such an effort. Many visitors 
called, but not one job resulted. 
¢ The organization now numbers thirty, each pledged to 
A ON S IDE RATION a strict adherence to the standards of practice of the A. I. A,, 
and to the maintenance of a 10% fee. The cost of operation 
is borne by the $28 per year paid by the architect members 
in quarterly dues, and by a monthly sustaining fee voted 
by the Northern California Chapter. In addition, the mem- 
bers pay in a fraction of the gross fees resulting from 
Service-originated commissiens. In the year March 1, 1936- 
| March 1, 1937, approximately $220,000 worth of building 
| was originated, and considerable business has gone directly 
| to the architects as a result of visits to the exhibit, to in- 
| formation furnished, ete. 

A considerable factor in the success of the effort is the 
centrally located headquarters, made available at a nominal 
cost above maintenance by the Bank of America. Without 
any advertising, the location itself attracted more than 5000 
definitely interested visitors in the past year. 

The San Francisco group has maintained that only men 














Pharmaceutical Building, Washington, D. C. John Russell on. Archt } of unimpe achable professional reputation we re worth employ- 
| ing as architects, and that the services of such men were un- 

. . . | questionably worth a fee of 10%. Once the potential clien 

Today, as in 1798, cost is an important factor juestionably worth a fee of 10% nce the potential client 


has been made to realize the value to him of sound design, 
and the assurance which competent architectural supervision 
affords his investment, this group has had no great difficulty 
in convincing him of the justice of a 10% fee. 

P. F. McGuire is Director of Architects’ Home Building 
Service, 200 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Calif. 


in decisions on design and materials. 


And today, all factors of upkeep and appear- 
ance favor the use of Marble from our 
quarries. 

This unique stone is remarkably adaptable to pleas- 


ing design and is reasonable in cost. Let us send you 
samples, photographs, details and specification data. 


Columbus, O. 
An organization has been formed, under Chapter guidance, 
with the title, Architects Small House Service, Inc., and 


VERMONT MARBLE CO., PROCTOR,VT. | conforming to the national pattern suggested by HOLC. As 


; ; yet the board of directors and the design committee are 
Branch Offices, New York, Boston, *Philadelphia, Albany, : Dione te, sical 5 
“Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Washington, D. C., *San Francisco, studying t ee  . ; 7 
Los Angeles, *Tacoma, *Dallas, *Houston, Toronto, Ont., | John Quincy Adams is Secretary of Architects Small 
*Peterborough, Ont. | House Service, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio, 55 Lexington Ave. 


*Branch Plants in these cities. Minneapolis, Minn 
’ x 


Architects Home Plan Service has been organized along 
7 | the lines of the national pattern. It has in preparation a 
booklet of designs, most of which were chosen from those 
of the Architects’ Small House Service Bureau. Additional 


designs are being made by the group members. 
Co-operation has been arranged with the local building and 
loan associations who are operating as Federal Savings and 


116 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 























XUM 





°s in 
re- 
t the 


onio, 
small 


yaper 

and 
ative 
1 in- 


iting 
lized 
ment 
rship 
ation 
itors 


d to 

A,, 
ation 
ibers 
voted 
nem- 
from 
936- 
ding 
ectly 
) in- 


; the 
ninal 
ant ut 


5000 


men 
ploy- 
: un- 
client 
sign, 
ision 
culty 


ding 


ance, 
and 
As 
are 


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\ve. 


long 
on a 
those 
ional 


- and 
and 


1937 





XUM 


Lung 8 yt Ii 
yp sowie MOET 
SERVEL ELECTROLUX 


PROVES PERMANENTLY SILENT 
... ECONOMICAL TO MAINTAIN 








PHONE FRANKLIN tone 


Haas CONSTRUCTION ComPany 
SUlLDERS 
130 NomTn Write erecey 
CrHicago 
Servel, Inc. 
Servel Electr 


Evansville, ux Sales Div. 


Ind. 


Gentlemen: 


Eight years ago, lee 





Electrolux 
refrigerators b dees 
i in the Patio 
Apartments, at 58 ‘ se 
one t., of 
wh wa 
er This w the 






first larg t 
t large Stallation of Electrolux in 


Chicago 


Their rec. 
Their record has more than 
fied our fa 


justi- 
it 

ith in buying thea. Today they 
are functi 





oning just as perfectly, and Just 
vay 88 the day they were installed 


rely believe they offer the Most sat- 
isfactory refrigeration available, both in 
Operating cost, and in Satisfaction to the 
owners and tenants. 


/in@- mee 
mS od be 
| ere 


é 


i fee 





Very truly yours, 


The Patio Apartments, 5812 West Lake Street, Chicago, built by Mr. George H. J. Haas 


“Gas Refrigerators still functioning as perfectly as the day 
they were installed,” writes builder of Patio Apartments 


XPERIENCED OWNERS and build- 

ers everywhere are today choosing gas 
refrigeration for their new properties be- 
cause they know it’s permanently silent. 
Because they know it gives continued low 
maintenance cost. Because they know it 
means more years of all-round satisfaction 
for them and their tenants. These advan- 
tages—resulting from Servel Electrolux’ 
different operating method (no moving 
parts in the entire freezing system) —have 


been proved in 8, 9, and 10 years of actual 
service. 

An example of this amazing performance 
record is described in the letter from Mr. 
George H. J. Haas shown above. Mr. Haas 
made the first large installation of gas re- 
frigerators in Chicago more than eight 
years ago. And today he writes, “I sin- 
cerely believe that they offer the most 
satisfactory refrigeration available.”’ 

In hundreds and hundreds of buildings, 


Servel Electrolux has given similar dem- 
onstrations of its lasting efficiency. That’s 
why it’s constantly growing in popularity, 
why it’s now favored by more owners than 
ever before. 

If you want refrigeration that will as- 
sure permanent silence and continued low 
cost, see the new Servel Electrolux models 
on display at your local gas company 
showroom. Servel, Inc., Servel Electrolux 
Sales Division, Evansville, Indiana. 


TUNE IN “THE MARCH OF TIME”’—Colum- 
bia Network—Thursday evenings, 10:30 Eastern 
Daylight Time. Sponsored by Servel Electrolux. 


EXPERIENCED BUILDERS SPECIFY SERVEL ELECTROLUX 


THE GAS REFRIGERATOR 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND 


ARCHITECTURE, 


MAY 1937 


117 















































































































































7 i 
oy Prevents att 


Stoker Seoots 












































T has to do with pull and push 
] Hand-fired boilers have chimney 

pull. Stoker-fired ones, have fan 
push. Fan push is stronger and 
there’s more of it, than chimney 
pull. Has to be, to burn cheaper 
grade coal. That same push speeds 
up the flow of hot gases from fire- 
box to smoke box, sending them 
scooting up chimney. 


Short fire travel boilers are chimney 
scooters. Burnham Boilers’ three 
times back and forth fire travel 
prevents chimney scoots. 


Stokers cut down fuel costs. 
Burnham scooter-proof boilers cut 
down heating costs. Their long fire 
travel makes short coal bills. This shows 


Send for Catalog. Get the full facts. hre travel. 
See for yourself. 


Burnham Boiler Corporation 


IRVINGTON, NEW YORK ZANESVILLE, OHIO 


Representatives in All Principal Cities 
of the United States and Canada 








Segeecerregre 





Architects and their clients are quick to appreciate the 
decorative effectiveness of the new Lightoliers especially 
in view of their sound construction and reasonable cost. 
Available in all periods, at dealers nationally or at our 


showrooms. Write for “The Charm of a Well Lighted 


to help you plan attractive, healthful lighting. 


LIGHTOLIER 


11 East 36th St., New York City 


Home” 


Chicago Los Angeles San Francisco 


118 





Loan institutions. The lending agencies are enthusiastic and 
will help to sell the program to individual borrowers. 

Robert T. Jones is Technical Director of Architects’ Home 
Plan Service, with offices at 1200 Second Ave., South, Min- 
neapolis, Minn. 


Washington, D. C. 

With the approval of the Washington, D. C., Chapter, 
A. I. A., and with the assistance and co-operation of the 
Federal Home Loan Bank, a group has been feeling its 
way along this new form of architectural practice. Through 
the Perpetual Building Association, which afforded space for 
display and consultation purposes, and also a campaign of 
advertising carried directly to the public, the plan has been 
in operation now for more than a year. It is as yet too 
early to report any definite conclusions from this experience. 

E. P. Schreier, 1517 H Street, N. W., Washington, D. C., 
is secretary of the Washington group of Architects’ Small 
Home Service. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

The Buffalo group, which was one of the earliest formed, 
is, we understand, undergoing something of a reorganiza- 
tion, and has nothing at the moment to report. 

James W. Kideney is chairman of the directors of Small 
House Bureau, 505 Franklin Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Twelve local architects are members of the Small House 
Architectural Service, an organization with the make-up 
and general plan of procedure as proposed by HOLC. Some 
fifteen new plans are still in a sketch stage, and in order 
to meet immediate demands, a group of some thirty designs 
has been taken from The Architects’ Small House Service 
3ureau. These plans were reproduced in loose-leaf brochure 
form at the expense of the Federal Home Loan Bank for 
distribution to local building and loan associations which are 
members of the Federal group. 

Co-operation with leading institutions is, up to the present, 
limited to an arrangement with the Railroadmen’s Federal 
Savings & Loan Association, which organization is advising 
its borrowers to avail themselves of this architectural service, 
though such service is as yet not mandatory. 

Meanwhile, through the Railroadmen’s Federal Savings 
& Loan Association, local newspaper publicity and advertis- 
ing is being carried to the public. 

Clarence T. Myers is temporary secretary of Small House 
Architectural Service, and the headquarters are in the 
3uilding Material Exhibit, 333 North Pennsylvania Street, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 


ERRATA 
Editors 
AMERICAN ARCHITECT and ARCHITECTURE: 


In advising you that the landscape work at Chatham Village 
was done by Mr. Ralph Griswold we should also have stated 
that Mr. Theodore Kohankie was directly responsible for the 
work done on the Second Unit, succeeding the original 
landscape architect, Mr. Griswold, when the latter became 
Superintendent of City Parks in Pittsburgh. 


INGHAM & Boyp 


(Signed) Cuas. T. INGHAM. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





XUM 


and 


ome 
Min- 


pter, 
the 
r its 
ugh 
} for 
n of 
been 
too 
nce, 
mall 


ned, 
1iza- 


mall 


ODuse 
e-up 
ome 
rder 
igns 
“vice 
hure 
> for 
are 


sent, 
leral 
ising 
vice, 


‘ings 
Ttis- 


ouse 
the 
reet, 


lage 
ated 
- the 
yinal 
‘ame 


1937 





XUM 









Poh , BUYING fo, ECONOMY 
with no compromise on QUALITY 











““BRICK-TYPE”’ ASBESTOS- CEMENT SIDING 
Rigid Strips—looks like *wire-cut’ brick 








‘Tae Ruberoid-Eternit Building 

Products pictured on this page are 

made from fire-proof, rot-proof as- 

bestos, rock or asbestos-cement. 

Each provides qualities of comfort, 

“TIMBERTEX’’ ASBESTOS - CEMENT SHINGLES safety and protection with reduced 
Weathered wood texture upkeep costs. 


When these qualities are combined 
with beauty—as in the case of Eter- 
nit Asbestos-Cement Shingles and 
Sidings, Newtile Wall Panels, etc.— 
there are double advantages appre- 
ciated by both the architect and his 
client...Write Dept. A.A. 5-37 for 
complete literature. 





““NEWTILE”’ ASBESTOS PANELS 


Lustrous Wall Panels in 
pastel shades 


























“TIMBERTEX’’ ASBESTOS-CEMENT THATCH SIDING 
The beauty of staggered wood shingles 


ASBESTOS PIPE COVERING 


Available with Pyroxylin Finish. Ideal for 
cellar game rooms. 


ROCK WOOL INSULATION 
Loose for packing, or in 
prefabricated bats 


“GOTHIC” ASBESTOS- CEMENT SHINGLES 
Textured like rugged rock 





AU-BER-OID 


ROOFING AND BUILDING PRODUCTS 
THE RUBEROID CO., Executive Offices: 500 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK, N. Y. 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 119 








The Room will now 
Come to Order... 


The architect’s experience has taught him that an executive’s office must be unobtru- 
sively attractive. So he starts with the floor—specifies a hand-laid design of Custom- 
bilt Tile—builds-in quietness, comfort underfoot, lasting cleanliness. He knows that 
walls, furnishings, furniture, and every other detail quickly “come to order” under 


this real decorative leadership, thus providing a genuine air of becoming dignity. 





% Ras ei 


You, too, can plan this pleasing executive-office effect by specifying a hand-laid floor of the new Sloane-Blabon Custombilt Tile 


Sloane-Blabon 2 ces 
STRAIGHTLINE AND MARBLETONE INLAID LINOLEUMS 
C 0 R P 0 R \ T I 0 N GENUINE INLAID LINOFLOR RUGS AND YARD GOODS 


1 
BATTLESHIP, PLAIN AND JASPE LINOLEUMS 
TRENTON, N. J. © PHILADELPHIA, PA. © NEW YORK, N. Y. 
CORK CARPET » CUSTOMBILT TILES 
SERVICE BOND HEAVY RUGS AND YARD GOODS 


CALMAR ENAMEL-SURFACED RUGS AND YARD GOODS 
W. & J. SLOANE, SELLING AGENTS DIVISION - 295 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 


120 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 








XUM 





ile pil ia Ae aniaziln. —  ite 


Tile 


on 


MS 


DS 





XUM 


NORTHERN HARD MA PLE 





This Punishment to Bowling Alleys 






Hard Maple Flooring has 
proved its economy in count- 
less school gymnasiums, 
shops, classrooms, assembly 
halls. Below, block floor, 
heavy-duty-finished, in 
Norwood, Ohio school 





Shows the Way to Million-Dollar Savings in Industry! 


Wham! As so often happens, a 16-lb. ball hits the floor 
at 20 miles an hour. That’s punishment! But look at the 
floor where the ball struck. There’s no split, no splinter, 
no dent! For it’s Northern Hard Maple that ball bounced 
on. Ask the manager. 

“Sure,” he’ll probably say. “Specialists always use Hard 
Maple in bowling alleys—and for the pins. Hard Maple 
is the one material that will stand up under that pound- 
ing year after year.” 

Note where Hard Maple is used in bowling alleys. (1) 
The 12 to 16 feet before the foul line (where the bowler 
runs and slides); (2) From 13 to 16 feet after the foul line 
(where the ball hits the floor); (3) From 4 to 8 feet at the 
end (where the ball strikes the pins) —in other words, 
wherever real wear occurs. 

Industry can make million-dollar savings by flooring 
with Hard Maple—for countless plants have proved 





Shoppers don't tire on Maple 
flooring, and for stores Hard 
Maple affords lowest-cost-per- 
year-of-service, as in factories, 
mills, bakeries, warehouses, 
schools and homes. 





17,000 smashes like this! A 
leading manufacturer guar- 
antees his Hard Maple bow!- 
ing pins not to chip, split or 
splinter for 1,000 games 
average 17 “rolls” each). 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 


that this harder hardwood demonstrates the same stam- 
ina, same economy, under severe industrial use. So 
tough-fibred, so tight-grained, its resistance to indenta- 
tion and abrasion is truly remarkable. Many years of 
service cause no splinters, slivers, or ridges—this harder 
hardwood stays smooth. 

This non-slippery smoothness also means exceptional 
sanitation (no pits to hold dust) — reduced cleaning costs 
(brushing instead of scrubbing)— and speeded-up traffic. 
Further, Hard Maple’s warmth, dryness and resilience 
reduce fatigue and favorably affect workers’ efficiency 
And always, it simplifies alterations and offers low 
maintenance cost. 

Before building or remodeling, be sure to investigate 
MFMA* Northern Hard Maple — the Jongest- wearing 
comfortable flooring — available in strips or blocks. 


MAPLE FLOORING MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION 
1784 McCormick Building, Chicago, Illinois 


See our catalog data in Sweet's, Sec. 17/66. 


Write us for folder on Heavy-Duty Finishes. 


Floor with Maple 


* M F M A — This trade-mark on Maple Flooring 
guarantees that it conforms to the exacting grade 
standards of the Maple Flooring Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation. It protects you against species substitution 
and inferior grade. It assures you of genuine North- 


ern Hard Maple. Look for it on the flooring you buy. 





1937 123 








Want to eliminate the danger of scalding 
in your shower baths 


and stop unexpected 
changes in the water 
temperature? 








@ No more slipping in a 
soapy tub or on a wet tile 
floor while trying to dodge 
a “shot”? of icy cold or 
scalding water—When you 
use a shower bath regulated 
by a Powers safety shower 
mixer the temperature re- 
mains right where you want 
it. You can really enjoy the 
thrill of a comfortable 
shower in absolute safety. 




























Why they’re more economical 
—There’s no loss of time or waste 
of hot or cold water while waiting 
for a shower atthe right tempera- 
ture — Powers mixers cost more 
—They’re worth more. 


Write for circular describing 
ie remarkable shower mixer. 

The Powers Regulator Company, 
2751 Greenview Avenue, Chicago. 
Offices in 45 Cities — see your 
phone directory. 


POWERS £¢74¢e wixens 





JAMISON FOIL FLOODS 


REPORTS from flooded districts: 

“Your door was the only one that worked 
Fb ad-) ain d at- Mn g-0-) o- Me al-Tol-To(-1e MM - © alold al-> antl 1-9 a 
“Completely submerged eight times, your 
doors are as sound as when put in.” 
7. Calo dat-) mem Gol bb alle lolosa-Ma4-Sa-Mbeale) a -Wi-3e4-Toiehia- 
id at-balo} tb alt—30-1-9 Oh a- tb tale (ole) ae 


Superior PERFORMANCE characterizes 


Jamison-Built Doors. Bulletin on request. 


JAMISON COLD STORAGE DOOR CO. 


Jamison, Stevenson, and Victor Doors 


HAGERSTOWN, MD., U.S. A. 


Branches in principal cities 





(See our catalog in Sweet's Catalog File) 
124 


TECHNIQUES 


CONSTRUCTION 
CONCRETE JOIST SPACING SCALES 
A set of twelve concrete joist and rod spacing scales with 
design tables are now available from Universal Atlas Cement 
Chicago. All of the standard spacings for joists-cast- 
in-place over 20-inch and 30-inch wide steel forms are given, 
The depths of the forms vary from 6 to 14 inches, and the 
widths of the joists from 4 to 7 inches. A 16-inch spacing 
is included for a 4-inch wide joist with which 4-, 6-, and 
8-inch depths of 12-inch clay tile can be used as fillers be- 
tween joists. Four standard spacings are provided for use 
with precast concrete joists. Scales are included for rod 
spacings in solid concrete slab construction. The tables on 
these scales show the necessary design data to make com- 
putations of depth of joists and slabs, and the bar sizes re- 
quired for the sections selected. These scales are printed on 
a tough, stiff 150-lb. stock. They are available without 
charge to architects, engineers or general 


contractors. 792M 


HEATING 
AUTOMATIC COAL BURNING BOILER 
Two new models of the 
[deal Boiler No. 21 for 
automatic coal firing have 
just been developed by 
American Radiator Com- 
pany, New York. One 
model, designed with a 
high base and removable 
panel sections, permits 
the installation of a slide 
fired stoker with a mini- 
mum amount of work. 
The second model is 





made with a low base for 
front firing and both are 
designed to operate with 








any standard stoker of 
either the hopper-fed or 
bin-fed types. The 
chrome green enameled 
steel jacket trimmed with 
chromium is lined with 
two-inch air cell asbes- 
tos insulation. Gauge glass and other trimmings have been 
recessed. Equipped with a 100 gallon built-in domestic hot 
water supply heater, the new boiler has a fire chamber pro- 
portioned to provide for complete combustion of fuel and 
maximum heat transfer to the boiler water. The boiler is 
made in four sizes that will handle actual installed radiation 
of from 510 to 1110 sq. ft. for steam, and 815 to 1776 sq. ft. 
for water. Heating surface ranges from 42.3 to 79.5 sq. ft 
as the size of the boiler increases. The minimum coal burner 


capacity ranges from 20 to 42 Ibs. coal per hour. 793M 





AIR CONDITIONING FURNACES 

The Rudy Furnace Company of Dowagiac, Michigan, 
offers a completely new line of coal, oil and gas heat air con- 
ditioning furnaces. Changes are in the nature of refinements 
in mechanical details and casing designs. The Oil Heat Air 
Conditioners are designed in two types; one consisting of 
two units, the heating and humidifying unit, and_ the 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1987 


XUM 





> with 
oment 
~cast- 
yiven, 
d the 
acing 
, and 
's_ be- 
ir use 
r rod 
es on 
com- 
-S Te- 
ed on 
thout 


72M 


vf the 
'1 for 
r have 
od by 
Com- 
One 
ith a 
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work. 
el is 
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h are 
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ed or 
The 
meled 
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with 
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igan, 
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1937 





XUM 


home heatin 


by 





Home OWNERS can't escape heating costs— 
but the amount that must be spent for heating 
depends upon the kind of equipment used. 
For new installations or for modernization, 
Norge has a complete line of heating and air 
conditioning equipment that cuts costs to a 
minimum—sets new standards of efficiency. 

Norge heating units are not manufactured 
as a “competitive” line. They are the result of 
new engineering thinking plus a more ingen- 
ious application of basic principles. Investigate 
today. The heating plant will sell the house if it’s 


Norge heating and air conditioning equipment. 
& é f 


NORGE HEATING AND CONDITIONING DIVISION 
Borg-Warner Corporation, Detroit, Mich. 


NORGE 


Ls Vole Home Appliances. 


See the sensational 
New Rollator Re- 
frigerators, Con- 
centrator Ranges, 
— 3 Autobuilt Washers 
,-_ a 3 and Duotrol Ironers 
7 —the 1937 Perform- 


ance and style 





leaders. 


HC-6 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 


q costs | 





























CUTS HEATING COSTS 
AS MUCH AS 50% 


Exclusive design of heat trans- 
fer unit makes possible a saving 
of up to 50°% in heating costs 
for the average home now using 


old-fashioned equipment. 






WHIRLATOR OIL BURNER 
The Norge Oil Burner operates 


on the exclusive Whirlator prin- 
ciple—clean, quiet, economical. 
For use in the Norge Fine-Air 
Furnace or in modernizing ex- 


isting heating plants. 


NORGE GAS BURNER 


Cuts heating costs as much as 
50°.. Triple-control gives 
economy never before possible 
with gas. Be sure to get full de- 


tails about this amazing burner. 


1937 











NORGE FINE-AIR 
CONDITIONING 
FURNACE 


Filters, warms, humidifies, and 


circulates air in every room of 
the house. Can be adapted 
easily to full summer air con- 
ditioning as well. Delivers as 
much as twice the usual amount 
of heat that old-fashioned fur- 
naces or boilers do from every 


unit of fuel. 


NORGE COAL STOKER 


Gives uniform heat, more heat, 
cleaner heat from cheaper coal. 
Eliminates smoke, soot and ashes 
because it burns fuel perfectly. 
Feeding mechanism of exclusive 
Norge construction — trouble - 
free, dependable. Gears are 


made by Borg-Warner experts. 











Garden Decoration 


and Ornament 
for Smaller Houses 





by G. A. Jellicoe 


The author, who is well known as a town-planner and designer of houses and gardens, 
analyzes in this profusely illustrated volume the structural features and ornaments of 
gardens for small country houses, suburban and town houses. The London Times 
Literary Supplement praised it for its “beautifully chosen illustrations” and spoke of it 


as “of a quality rare in modern garden books . . 


. full of stimulating ideas.” Country 


Life says “it should be of great value to home and estate owners and garden lovers 


all over the world.” 


$6.00 





The 


Supervision of Construction 
by W. W. Beach 


This book is perhaps the first comprehensive treatment 
of the supervision of construction to be published and 
is indispensable to architects, engineers, construction 
superintendents, technical libraries, students and all 
interested in architecture and engineering. Written by 
one of the best-known architect-engineers in the Mid- 
dle West, it is an authentic, up-to-date handbook that 
fills a long-felt need. Within its 488 pages are included 
all the details of the superintendent’s work; there are 
appendices, 20 diagrams and illustrations. $6.00 


Contents 


The Duties of Superintendents 

A Superintendent’s Records 

The First Day on the Job 
Beginning the Work 

Contract Changes 

Foundations and Masonry Materials 
Concrete Form-Work 

Concrete Work 

Concrete Reinforcement and Other Built-in Members 
Waterproofing and Dampproofing 
Finishing Concrete Surfaces 
Roughing-in by Pipe Trades 

Job Progress 

Masonry 

Terra-cotta, Cut-stone, and Pre-cast Stone 
Structural Steel 

Miscellaneous Metal-work 
Structural Carpentry 

Roofing and Sheet-metal-work 
Furring, Lathing and Plastering 
Marble-work and Tiling 

Finish Carpentry 

Finish Hardware 

Glass and Glazing 

Painting and Varnishing 

Electric Work 

Heating and Ventilating 

Plumbing 

Completion and Acception 
Cost-plus Construction 








CHARLES 


SC RIBNER’S 


SONS 











AMERICAN 


ARCHITECT AND 


ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





XUM 


—_—ir> & oom a oer ae «ae 








XUM 


yentilating and air-filtering unit. The other is a complete, 
compact single unit system. The ventilating and filtering ele- 
ments are located directly behind heating and humidifying 
elements, separated from them by an insulated sheet of metal. 
B.t.u. output capacities are 160,000 and 100,000 per hour 
respectively. The Gas Heat Air Conditioner is designed to 
occupy a minimum of space and is in matching units. Heavy 
gauge steel casing of the heating and humidifying unit is 
lined with a 1” asbestos, air-cell insulator. The smaller ven- 
tilating-filter unit may be placed at either side or behind the 
heating unit. The complete unit consists of five major as- 
semblies ; the specially designed cast-iron furnace, the burner 
mechanism, the humidifier, the ventilating element, and the 
filters. All units are finished in a black, baked enamel process 
that produces a semi-lustrous effect called Satin- 

krack, and carry a guarantee of twenty-five years. 794M 
ROOM THERMOSTAT 


A new low thermal inertia 
room thermostat, designed in 
the modern manner in dull 
silver and chromium, has been 
announced by General Con- 
The 
Metrotherm embodies a tiny 
mechanism which allows ad- 
justment of the degree of heat 
acceleration. In this way, the 
thermostat can be “tuned” to 
the type of installation to be 
controlled and to the load 
characteristics—thus said to 
result in maximum sensitivity 
and quick response to small 
temperature changes. Slender pointers in the unit indicate 
both the temperature setting and the actual room tempera- 
ture. Vertical chromium louvers allow for free distribution 
of air, yet completely conceal the inner mechanism. The 
locking device is standard. The unit is also avail- 

able with night switch and timer. 795M 


trols Co., San Francisco. 














CONDITIONING FIREPLACE-FURNACE 


Consolidation of the 
fireplace with the heat- 
ing and winter air con- 
ditioning plant is found 
ina new unit recent- 
ly developed by Hear- 
thaire Company, Cleve- 
land. The unit may be 
installed in a wall of the 
living or other room, 
and may be fueled 
through the open fire- 
plae or preferably 
through a rear center 
hopper-type fire door, 
or through two side or 
rear coal bins located in 
the adjacent room. The 
coal bins hold a total of 
7g ton coal and feed by gravity into the rear of the grate by 
lifting a valve with the poker. The unit has two combustion 
chambers. Smoke from the fuel bed burning on grate passes 
up back of fireshield to the smoke hood through the radiator 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 


1937 











The private swimming pool, an adjunct of this 
Cynwyd, Pennsylvania, residence, is faced on sides 
and bottom with attractive 4 x 4 Sparta Blue Tile. 


for 
RESIDENCES anpb 
SWIMMING POOLS 


Apart from their well advised uses in residences, there 
is a growing recognition of the advantages afforded by 
the use of Sparta Ceramic Mosaic Tiles for lining swim- 
ming pools. 

Quite important is the non-slip feature provided by a 
special surface texture. Sparta Tiles are sanitary, and 
are more rugged than competitive materials. There is 
no glare, for Sparta colors are soft in tone and the tile 
surfaces dull. Many colors and patterns are available, 
affording a rare opportunity for individuality and pleasing 
effects. 

And with all this, Sparta Tiles are low in cost. Installation, 
too, is made more economical, for Sparta Tiles are sup- 
plied mounted in sizes including 4x4, and are set per- 
manently and inexpensively by the floating method. 

We are ready to serve you in any locality with specifica- 
tions, sketches, samples or suggestions. 


Send in Coupon for Sparta Illustrated Bulletin 
SPARTA CERAMIC CO. 


110 East 42nd St. Lexington 2-1618 NEW YORK, N. Y. 
PLANT AT EAST SPARTA, OHIO 





Dee eae ae THIS COUPON 
| SPARTA CERAMIC CO. | 
110 East 42nd St., New York | 
Please send your new Bulletin on School Uses to 

iN TSE oe eee er eT er nee ene 
J Name....sceeeeeecererreresseesseeeeeenees | 
l PR. a canevasness rrrrrrrrrrrriri iter ier iret rr | 
I CA isaccceccnsessocsas SAAS. ccccvcvcorecreced A.A.5 | 
i a cas ees aia cetadgdindichabensedarteinensiaianiniandeeaindaeall 
127 





KELVIN HOME 


All Window and Exterior 
Door Frames are Calked with 


PrECORA 


This Kelvin Home in 


Birmingham, Michi- 





gan, was built ac- 
cording to working 
plans and specifica- 
tions rendered by J. 
Ivan Dise, Architect, 
from the original 
Kelvin Home design 
developed by Kel- 
vinator Engineers. 
Kelvin Home is the 
first moderate cost 
home embodying 
year round air-con- 
ditioning and a com- 
pletely electrified 
kitchen. 

Pecora Calking Com- 
pound is widely used 
for air conditioning projects because of its reliability in not only 
preventing the infiltration of dirt, dust and outside air, but also as 
an important aid in preventing heat losses. 

For further details see Sweet’s Catalogue or write direct to us. 


PECORA PAINT COMPARY 
318 VENANGO STREET PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
Member of Producers’ Council, Inc. 

Established 1862 by Smith Bowen 











ew | oe Tue old fashioned, un- 


sightly sash weight and cord 


have at last given way to the 


N adjustable spring Sash Balance 
—the most radical and impor- 


ADJUSTABLE tant improvement in Sash Bal- 


Ss A SH ances in forty years. 


Fits any window; tension of 


BALANCE the inside coiled spring can be 


adjusted by using an ordinary 
A Hater CENTURY OF PROGRESS . s 
screwdriver on one Adjustable 
Established 1886 z 
Screw. Insures quiet, easy op- 
eration, impossible with any 


other type of Balance. 

Pressed steel construction; light 
q and non-breakable. All working 
parts are forever sealed, to keep 


trouble out. Double-hinge open- 





fm ing completely installed in 10 


L\ adjusting minutes. Pullman Adjustable 
Screen 
Sash Balances are guaranteed 


Patented August 18, 1936 aioe 
a for the life of the building. 


PULLMAN MFG. 


Write for further specifications 





to enter the front of the hood where with the smoke from the 
front open grates, it passes into any smoke pipe to a super. 
imposed or detached chimney. All walls of both combustion 
chambers are direct-fire-contact heating surfaces. Smoke. 
less combustion obtains in the rear combustion chamber. 
Return air is filtered through an “airmaze”’ filter and jg 


forced by circulators or by convection to the necessary 
elements. As it encircles the water pans over the radiator 
the air is properly humidified and passes out through any 
grilles into the room the unit faces, and into any number of 
risers or ducts to adjacent or upper room grilles. An in. 
sulated hearth is used when the unit is set directly over 
wood floor. If desired, any brick, marble or wood 

mantel may be used as a facing. 796M 


a 


ALL-YEAR UNIT AIR CONDITIONERS 

A complete line of unit air 
conditioners built in 3 to 15- 
ton capacities for combined air 
filtering, cooling, heating and 
humidifying, or for heating or 
cooling only, has been an- 
nounced by Fedders Mfg. 
Company, Buffalo. Fedders 





all-copper coil surface, for use with refrigerant, cold water, 
steam and hot water, is used. Tubes are scientifically mani- 
folded for correct distribution. Manifolds are located on the 
outside of cabinet, providing easy access to inlet and outlet 
connections for piping. Humidification is by means of a self- 
cleaning nozzle which ejects a fog into the air stream. Opera- 
tion of the humidifier can be controlled either manually or 


Binowes Puustless Ocreens 


CUSTOM MADE FOR EVERY USE 
“ ” ion : 








For the small house in the country, just 
as in towering public buildings, archi- 
tects are specifying Burrowes Rustless 
Screens. They know that today, as in 
1873, custom-made Burrowes Rustless 
Screens will give trouble-free service 
through the years. 


* (Burrowes Corporation 


72 FREE STREET, PORTLAND, MAINE 


CORPORATION ; 
and details. 
1175 University Avenue 
Rocuester, N. Y. ee 
128 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





XUM 





rom the 
super- 
bustion 
Smoke- 
lamber, 
and is 
‘adiator 
gh any 
nber of 
An in- 
over a 


796M 


unit air 
} to. 15. 
ined air 
ing and 
iting or 
en an- 
; Mig. 
Fedders 
| water, 
y mani- 
on the 
1 outlet 
f a self- 
Opera- 
ially or 





y 1937 











"Life is too precious to endanger it by 
entrusting Plumbing to hands other than 
those best qualified to assure Health Pro- 
tection — the Master Plumber.” 


Horry Ur. Chad. 





Pat. No 


1,844,988 


IN BATHROOMS, TOO! 


NEw FREEDOM of design — new arrangements of fixtures—new styles in decoration 
—have come to the bathroom since “Statdard” introduced the Neo-Angle Bath. 
Never before has a new fixture won such popular approval and offered such un- 
limited opportunities for original planning as this sensationally different square bath. 

The Neo-Angle is only four feet square yet it provides roomy, full-size bathing 
space, convenient seats in two opposite corners and a shower bath. It adds new 
beauty and charm to any decorative effect at the same time providing exclusive 
bathing features that appeal to the whole family. 

Whether your homes are large or small, you can use the Neo-Angle Bath to give 
you distinctive, modern bathrooms that everyone will admire. Consult your 
“Standard” catalogue or write for literature on the “Standard” Neo-Angle Bath. 


Copyright 1937, S. S. Mfg. Co. 


Standard Sanitary ‘Mfg, Co. 


PITTSBURGH, PA. 
Division of AMERICAN RADIATOR & STANDARD SANITARY CORPORATION 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 129 








automatically. Provision is made for adding the humidify- 
ing unit at any time if it is not required on the original in- 
stallation. Centrifugal blowers, driven by V belts, move air 
with a minimum of sound. Motor bracket is provided for 
standard motors. Filter section containing double filter of 
the removable type is protected with access plates 797M 
for easy replacement of filters. 


ELECTRICAL 

SYMMETRICAL ANGLE REFLECTORS 

Westinghouse 250-watt Symmetrical Angle Reflectors are 
designed especially for use with high intensity mercury lamps. 
They provide illumination where intensive local lighting of 
vertical and horizontal surfaces from the side is required. 
The reflector, with diffusing glass cover, is designed to give 
a wide spread of distribution of light horizontally and an 
even distribution of light from top to bottom of the vertical 
surface. The reflector is drawn from 24-gauge iron sheet. 
One ground coat of porcelain enamel is applied all over and 
two coats of white porcelain enamel inside and one green 
coat outside the black bead provide the reflecting surface 
and covering. The acid-etched glass cover is hinged directly 
to the reflector bead, supported at three points. It is re- 
leased by unsnapping two latches. A heavy waterproof felt 
provides a gasket between reflector and lens. These re- 
flectors are manufactured by Westinghouse Electric TQM 
& Mig. Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 
QUINTUPLE-PURPOSE CABINET SHOWER 

Described as a cabinet shower for every member of the 
family, the new quintuple-purpose unit recently introduced 
by Henry Weis Mfg. Co., Inc., Elkhart, Indiana, contains 
a special shower for the growing child, a gentle spray for 


the baby, a shower for the elderly person, and a special foot 
shower, in addition to the conventional shower for the adult. 
A feature of the cabinet is that it has two shower heads. The 
upper head is placed at the normal height of six feet above 
the receptor. The lower is placed four feet above the re- 
ceptor. A diverter valve with indicator permits the bather 
to direct the water at will as desired. A hose spray may be 
attached to the lower shower head fitting for use in bathing 
an infant in the cabinet. For this purpose, the cabinet js 
equipped with a special lightweight canvas shower ham- 
mock. The non-skid receptor is of vitreous porce- 799M 
lain enamel. 


MISCELLANEOUS 


SPRING SASH BALANCE 

A new adjustable device, which 
permits changing tension of the 
inside coiled spring without remoy- 
ing the unit from the window, 
features the new Pullman Unit Sash 
Balance. Adjustment is made by 
turning the screw to the right to 
strengthen the spring and in the 
opposite direction to weaken it, 
This self-contained unit—embody- 
ing weight, cord and pulley—is of 
all pressed steel construction, light 
in weight and non-breakable. It is 
guaranteed for the life of a building, 
and is manufactured by Pullman 


Mfg. Corporation, 
Rochester, N. Y. 800M 

















Stores Offices 


Hotels Banks 
Theatres Apartments 
Hospitals Homes 
Restaurants Factories 


Public Buildings 


CA7~-11 


ATLANTA CINCINNATI DETROIT LOS ANGELES PITTSBURGH SEATTL 
BOSTON CLEVELAND EL PASO General Offices: HARRISON, NEW JERSEY NEW ORLEANS ST. LOUIS oe 
BUFFALO DALLAS HOUSTON NEW YORK ST. PAUL fas 
CHICAGO DENVER KANSAS CITY Representatives in Principal Cities of Foreign Countries PHILADELPHIA SAN FRANCISCO WASHINGTON 
130 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


- More typical examples of 


valuable capacity control features. 


Why not allow a Carbondale repre- 
sentative to discuss your requirements 
and explain these features? 


CARBONDALE 


DIVISION 
WORTHINGTON PUMP AND MACHINERY CORPORATION 








ie 


ARBONDALE equipment for air con- 
ditioning service possesses new and 








XUM 


ial foot 
: adult, 
s. The 
above 
the re- 
bather 
may be 
bathing 
net is 

ham- 


199M 


which 
of the 
remov- 
vindow, 
it Sash 
ade by 
ight to 
in the 
ken it, 
mbody- 
—45. Of 
n, light 
. It is 
uilding, 
-ullman 


800M 


a 
~~) 


ws! 


re- 
its 


AY 1937 





A roof of Barrett Broad Shadow Shingles adds to the appearance of any house . . . and provides the owner with 
years of expense-free, trouble-free roof protection. 

















Combining Low-cost Protection, 


Fire-safety and Enduring Beauty 


The fire-safety, weather protection, low initial cost and low- 
cost-per-year of service of asphalt shingles is well recognized 
by home-owners and architects. In Barrett Broad Shadow 
Shingles these features are combined with unusual beauty. 

These good-looking, modern shingles have a_ built-in 


shadow band which accents heavy shadow lines on the roof. 






Barrett Broad Shadow Shingles are the result of Barrett’s 
I re F > y 83 years of roofing experience “Between the World and the 
S + | N Weather.” Get acquainted with these efficient shingles and 
you'll recommend them to your clients. They are available 
in a wide variety of attractive colors to suit every require- 
ment. 
We will gladly send you illustrated descriptive booklets 
giving full information. Address our nearest office. 


THE BARRETT COMPANY 
40 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. 


2800 So. Sacramento Ave., Chicago, Illinois Birmingham, Alabama 


In Canada: The Barrett Company, Ltd., 5551 St. Hubert St., Montreal 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 131 








TRENDS 


(Continued from page 18) 


expenditure of $12,000,000,000 in the 
next decade. Provision is made for a sim- 
plified mass service, governed by mod- 
erate fees, with no lowering of the pro- 
fessional standards. 

According to Walter R. McCornack, 
chairman of the Institute’s committee on 
housing, ‘‘the objective of this program 
is to make a definite start toward the 
solution of the small house problem, and 





find a common ground upon which the 
architect, lender, and builder can unite 
with government agencies in a wise for- 
ward movement.” Mr. McCornack adds, 
“if the architect continues to ignore the 
single house and its owner, he will be for- 
gotten when housing developments come.” 
THE ACTIVITIES OF TITLE | OF THE NA- 
TIONAL HOUSING ACT camie to an end at 
midnight March 3lst, 1937, after func- 
tioning for two years and seven months 
through the FHA. On the basis of fig- 
ures recently released, a brief summary 


HOUSE OF LEE B. GALLOWAY, Forest Hills 
L. I. William Paul LaValle, architect. Guyon ¢ 
Earle, builder, Forest Hills, L.I. % in. struck joints 


BEAUTY—PERMANENCE 
with Hudson River Common Brick 


New York architects have been pleasantly surprised to discover 
the attractive results they can obtain with Hudson River Brick— 
their local brick. Likewise, architects in other communities will 
probably find their own local product offers equally pleasing pos- 


sibilities. 


Your local brick, if properly manufactured is, after all, an ex- 
cellent facing material suitable for the finest of buildings. Every 
day more architects are discovering the answer to their masonry 
problem lies in their own back-yard. 


For brick information write to 


BRICK 


1716 Grand Central Terminal 
New York 


MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION 


2121 Guarantee Title Bldg. 
Cleveland, Ohio 


228 No. La Salle St. 
Chicago, III. 





HUDSON RIVER COMMON BRICK 





132 


of its work is offered: From the begin. 
ning of operations, 1,419,453 moderniza- 
tion and repair notes were insured 
amounting to $542,808,055, with returns 
still incomplete. Nearly one and one-half 
million properties were improved or mod- 
ernized by insured loans, the majority of 
which went to people in very modest cir- 
cumstances. Over a half billion dollars 
was divided among the building and al- 
lied industries, stimulating their activity, 
Through March 20th, insurance claims 
paid under Title I, less collections, re- 
possessed properties and net amounts due 
on notes reinstated amounted to a loss ra- 
tio of less than 1 per cent. This amount 
is further decreased in consideration of 
the increased revenue flowing into the 
national Treasury from taxes paid by cor- 
porations and individuals, formerly “in 
the red,” who derive their incomes di- 
rectly or indirectly from the revived con- 
struction industry. 


SHOWS AND FAIRS 


WHAT WAS ANNOUNCED IN JANUARY 
AS A SHOW OF EXTRAORDINARY SIZE 
AND EXHIBITION RANGE, appears now to 


be America’s first million dollar housing 
show, as well. We refer, of course, to the 
event being staged under the rules of the 
Manutacturers Housing Promotion Coun- 
cil, in co-operation with the FHA, to be 
held at Madison Square Garden from 
May 12th to 23rd. 

Extremes in housing will be furnished 
by the ‘House of Tomorrow,” costing an 
estimated $100,000, and the $2,150 low 
cost home designed by the FHA. In ad- 
dition to the housing exhibits, there will 
be replicas of the present New York City 
Housing Authority projects under gov- 
ernment supervision, the Williamsburg 
and Harlem River slum clearance devel- 
opments; and exhibits by the leading 
manufacturers of building materials, 
equipment, furnishings and air-condition- 
ing; and by real estate brokers. 


THE NEW INTERNATIONAL AMPHITHEATRE 
IN CHICAGO will house another one of 
1937’s expositions, from October 4th to 
9th. Attendance at the Chicago Exposi- 
tion of Power and Electrical Engineer- 
ing will be representative of one of the 
largest industrial areas in the United 
States. Executives, engineers, and opera- 
tives in practically all of the technical 
fields look upon such expositions as a 
market place for ideas which they can 
utilize with immediate results. These 
shows offer, too, an opportunity for the 
technical audience to calculate the direc- 
tion of future trends. 

The Exposition will bring to the mid- 
dle West a comprehensive gathering of 
machinery, apparatus and_ instruments 
used in the generation, control, transmis- 
sion and use of power. The principal 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


XUM 





- begin- 
lerniza- 
insured, 
returns 
me-half 
r mod- 
ority of 
lest cir- 
dollars 
ind al- 
ictivity, 
claims 
ms, re- 
ints due 
loss ra- 
amount 
ition of 
nto the 
by cor- 
tly “in 
mes di- 
‘ed con- 


IRS 


ANUARY 
RY SIZE 
now to 
housing 
=, to the 
s of the 
n Coun- 
\. to be 
n from 


irnished 
sting an 
150 low 

In ad- 
ere will 
ork City 
er gov- 
umsburg 
S devel- 
leading 
aterials, 
ndition- 


THEATRE 
| one ot 
- 4th to 
Exposi- 
ngineer- 
» of the 
United 
1 opera- 
echnical 
1s as a 
hey can 

These 
for the 
e direc- 


he mid- 
ring of 
ruments 
-ansmis- 
yrincipal 


y 1937 











», 0 ore ky 


ALL-IN-ONE 


QUIET MAY 


HEAT-AN-AIRE 


OMPLETE in 
the QUIET 


Aire” 


ONE cabinet, 
MAY “Heat-an- 
Conditioner eliminates the 
difficulties of matching an oil bur- 
ner to an unrelated furnace and air 
conditioner. 

It is engineered for efficiency 
and ease of control. It offers the 
fullest modern range of services 
...a minimum of 180 gallons per 
of tankless 


hour domestic hot 


water; heat and conditioned air 
under controlled, foreed cireula- 
tion in winter; filtered controlled 
cool air circulation for summer... 
in a single, foolproof investment. 


It can supply warm air to some 


CONDITIONER 


rooms, steam radiation to others 
in the same building if desired. It 
is adaptable for installation in 
either existing homes or in new 
construction. 
This QUIET 


appeal too. 


MAY unit has eye- 
Its French gray and 
ebony cabinet will fit harmoni- 
ously into any basement or recrea- 


tion room plan. 


Write for the complete details 
of this precisely-engineered unit 
as presented in time-saver form in 
our illustrated folder, ‘‘All Lines 
Point to QUIET MAY.” Factory en- 
gineering cooperation on any plan- 


ning if desired. 


V Quiet May (S Quality Made 
MAY OIL BURNER CORPORATION 


BALTIMORE, 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


MARYLAND 


133 








GET THIS 
Lote) 4 


WEBSTER sy 


RADIATION 


CONCEALED - LIGHTWEIGHT - Pag teeny Pete, 
: S te 
ATING 


ANEW rg Arup 


System 
Steam Heating 


“ANKE Wee 


Keawiqned 1898 + Ths Pbomats Bt thee 








Concealed Radiation for 
Convection Heating 


If youcontemplate building or modernizing 
you will want this book about concealed 
Webster System Radiation. It shows “ out- 
of-the-way” concealed radiators to modern- 
ize interiors, harmonize with decorative 
schemes and increase available floor space. 
It tells how Webster System Radiation 
provides balanced heating service, elimi- 
nates “cold corner” rooms. Read about this 
feature of Webster Systems of Steam Heat- 
ing. This fully illustrated book is yours for 
the asking. No obligation, naturally. 





If you are interestedin heating new buildings, 
or in improved heating service and lower 
heating cost in your present building, address 
WARREN WEBSTER & CO,, Camden, N. J. 
Pioneers of the Vacuum System of Steam Heating 
Representatives in 60 principal U.S. Cities—Est. 1888 


134 





classifications of exhibits will include the 
following: Combustion, electric power 
generation and transmission, hydraulics, 
control, insulation, mechanical power 
transmission, materials handling, plant 
maintenance, and prime movers, includ- 
ing steam, gas, oil and Diesel engines. 

Charles F. Roth, Vice president of the 
International Exposition Company under 
whose management the Exposition will 
be held, will be its general manager. All 
matters of contract and arrangements will 
be under his personal direction. 


ART 
DR. ROYAL FARNUM BAILEY, Director of 
the Rhode Island School of Design, sug- 
gested to the twenty-eighth annual con- 
vention of the Eastern Arts Association, 
recently, that they instruct their delegates 
to the 1937 Art Congress in Paris to an- 
nounce indorsement of a proposal for the 
European governments to pay part of 
their war debts by the creation of art 
scholarships. The plan was originally 
offered by Dr. Bailey, who said that it 
might provide 15,000 scholarships of 
$2,000 each. It was estimated a billion dol- 
lars could thus be repaid in thirty years. 


AT THE FORMAL DEDICATION OF THE 
NEW MELLON INSTITUTE, in Carnegie Hall 


on the afternoon of May 6th, addresses 
will be given by three Nobel prize-win- 
ners, according to an announcement by 
Dr. Edward R. Weidlein, Director of the 
Institute, who will preside. Dr. Irving 
Langmuir, chemistry; Dr. H. C. Urey, 
physical chemistry; and Dr. W. P. Mur- 
phy, medicine, will speak, and brief ad- 
dresses will be given by Andrew W. Mel- 
lon and Richard K. Mellon, representing 
the Founders. 

The Trustees’ dinner will be held in 
the evening of the same day, among the 
speakers being Dr. Benjamin T. Brooks, 
Dr. Karl T. Compton, and Dr. F. C. 
Whitmore. A. V. Dacis, chairman of the 
board of the Aluminum Company of 
America, will be the toastmaster. 

The new building of the Mellon In- 
stitute, which has taken six years to com- 
plete, is to be dedicated to science and hu- 
manity in honor of Andrew W. and Rich- 
ard B. Mellon, founders. Visitors from 
many parts of the world are expected to 
attend the exercises because of the high 
position which the Institute has won in 
pure and applied research, and because of 
the unusual character of its new home, a 
truly modern workshop of science clothed 
in classic beauty. 


SCHOOLS AND SCHOLARSHIPS 
THE SIDEWALKS OF NEW YORK HAVE 
BECOME HISTORY BOOKS for the stu- 


dents of the New York University School 
of Architecture, under the terms of a 
prize competition sponsored by Mrs. Wal- 
ter N. Rothschild and Aymar Embury IT. 
They have posted $250 in four prizes 
in a competition to encourage the study of 


architecture of given periods as exempli- 
fied by buildings in New York City. 

Each contestant must submit sketches 
and comments on historically correct ex- 
amples of Greek, Roman, Romanesque, 
Gothic, Italian Renaissance, English 
Georgian, and American Colonial archi- 
tecture. The sketches must indicate the 
characteristics of the period, its individual 
motives and ornaments. They must also 
comment on the character, accuracy, and 
aesthetic feeling of each of the copies, 
Prizes of $100, $75, $50, $25 will be 
awarded by jurors who are not connected 
with the school. 


COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY HAS JUST COm. 
PLETED a series of slides to be used in 
the regular lecture routine on housing, 
The slides were made from the large 
WPA portfolio of photographs and floor 
plans of various types of housing in coun- 
tries all over the world. 

It was also announced that the Crea- 
tive Home Planning Division of WPA 
will further contribute to school educa- 
tion through the inauguration of a spe- 
cial service to high schools and colleges, 
by supplying them with measured draw- 
ings of period furniture, to supplement 
courses in interior decorating. 


THE APPOINTMENT OF PROFESSOR LEO. 
POLD ARNAUD as dean of the Colum- 
bia University School of Architecture 
was announced on April 11th by Dr. 
Nicholas Murray Butler, president of the 
University. Professor Arnaud, who has 
been acting dean for more than a year, 
succeeds Joseph Hudnut, who resigned 
to become Dean at Harvard. 

Under Professor Arnaud and his asso- 
ciates the Columbia School’s educational 
program has undergone extensive devel- 
opment. The teaching plan has been re- 
organized, new fields have been opened 
in University Extension, and town plan- 
ning, with Sir Raymond Unwin in charge 
of a studio, has become a major activity. 
Steps have been taken to widen oppor- 
tunity for architectural training, empha- 
sizing creative design and sound science. 

Professor Arnaud was born in New 
York City on March 2, 1895, and was 
educated at the Lycee Janson de Sailly, 
and the University of Paris, from which 
he was graduated in 1914. During the 
World War he was an artillery officer in 
the Rainbow Division. Later, as first 
lieutenant he served on the staff of Gen- 
eral George Allen. Returning to his ar- 
chitectural studies after the war, he was 
graduated from Columbia in 1919, and 
received a diploma from the French Gov- 
ernment in 1924. From 1924 to 193], 
Professor Arnaud was engaged in archi- 
tectural practice in New York. In 1927 
he began teaching in the University Ex- 
tension at Columbia. He received the de- 
gree of Master of Science from Colun- 
bia in 1933. 


AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


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ketches 
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nglish 
archi- 
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ividual 
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The General Electric Light Meter mea- 
sures light as simply as a thermometer 
measures temperature. The face of the 
meter is marked to indicate illuminations 
for different types of seeing tasks. Costs 
only $11.50. 


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HERE’S a new technique in home 

lighting today . . . a technique that 
completely outmodes older types of light- 
ing and lighting fixtures because it is based 
on a new idea, the Science of Seeing. 
The new technique is “‘measured lighting.” 
It is lighting accurately specified for safe 
seeing by actual measurements with a 
Light Meter. It is styled for decorative 
beauty, and it provides plenty of electrical 
outlets for future as well as present needs. 
Good lighting of this kind helps eyes see 
more easily and lessens the danger of eye- 


This li ffusiné impe 
50-watt an inne yal jyd-walt . 
ts each contain 


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strain. In addition, it meets modern deco- 
rative demands for good taste and brings 
out unsuspected beauty in rugs, furniture, 
and draperies. 

Your local lighting company will gladly 
cooperate with you in planning “‘measured 
lighting”’ for the homes you are designing. 
To obtain a better idea of what “‘measured 
lighting”’ is and how it can be built into 
modern homes, write to General Electric 
Company, Dept. 166, Nela Park, Cleve- 
land, Ohio for a free copy of the Home 
Lighting Issue of MAGAZINE OF LIGHT. 


GENERAL @ ELECTRIC 
MAZDA LAMPS 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 


135 





INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 


This index is an editorial feature, maintained for the convenience 
of readers. It is not a part of the Advertisers’ contract and 
American Architect and Architecture assumes no responsibility 
for its correctness. 











Aomevican Brass G0, TRE. occkccccicccscscise eee. 200d Cover 
Pumas SE Te Te Ci ain ac 6s onic seis scisicsisin wcdissare.e 109 
PN WN I NE, OR yc oars. 0 16's Gre Niaisinie.a dearer sa eie a 
Po a a ra er 21 
PE OS Ng ios nici wes be SOAR als erperesienmeas 13] 
Bivelow-Santord Carpet. G0. ..0c.s .ccccccccscneccsces 107 
Brick Mianutacturers Assti......05060600000% Soeur terens 132 
Pee. DOOM SOE... nao 6c ck wsinwonsas casisaswcene 118 
RUC SCRE, WEN on 5.0.6 cea. vsies wksise Wa biiaies Sea aiale ere 128 
AR RIE ok ce iera om ainig sus BUG Kie so RNs eels 2 
OO I ca ius gdh Sr elin entail 114 
CAPPDINIERE  BEBCOINE GOOD. ooo oicc csc hee cca cneeees 130 
Carpe Tilemaes Sel COPi econ. sais kn koe kk dies ceeces 109 
NI RN one oar Sag erie aah SK Rcecelardrasw.dsky esa ges Back Cover 
OS ea 136 
NE Ne ee ee ae 7 
SNR SEEM SINR hci hav eoipapens Sb, one, SKS cekec ere laid since wisineie 109 
NE I ois a brihk bie Slanke spa rete eue aranbremadnseae 16 
STARTS Delco Frigidaire Conditioning Div., General Motors 
oe RR ee REP ee 19 
WITH Fagle-Picher Lead Co. Pete eee eens tense eee e eens eeeas 15 
Pbermmrd: Ramer TRC CO. s66vs cc cisisicicses ceiewiwecowee 12 
ee Ce | 1 
Re CO Eien ca cneaime nium awe ewaeweue 135 
A General Electric Company (Home Bureau Div.)....... 8, 9 
a | Jamison Cold Storage Door Co.......... - 124 
ee ete On rl Ser ay ae eee ee 14 
Zane 4 & T es ea | errr PAO eR eA 3 
SUN ADIN oa rh ee st oh sive da cee 138 
NIE Sexe eee os cea et AS Th Eso aie grabiiaie meee 118 
T alae Linde Air Products Co., The...........2..seceeeeeee. 13 
HERE ARE no limits placed on your decorative abilities when you plan ; 
bathrooms around CHURCH SANI-SEATS. From the wide range of col- Maple het Mfrs. 2 ce 123 
ors in which they are furnished, select the seat you prefer. Key the May Oil Burner Corp................-. alate s+ 19 
other appointments to it. Then you'll achieve true harmony in bathroom ee a en en ee ree 109 
color and design. And consider this: Your clients will like these seats SNGIROEL, ER OTURGS AOR 06 05:5:4:0:670 eins «0: viens '0:ainiewie sidie sieieie 1] 
for the practical advantages they offer—Low first cost. Durability. Norge Heating & Conditioning Division............... 125 
Absolute sanitation. Ease of cleaning. Ihe BNA RIN a ss Seba ee ergy Sor wrrecava os shay ecb ics Sed sale) ars dou 24 
CPrera— See SHINO Sis og i ccicinc cans cc Sancdndsawss 17 
CHURCH SANI-SEATS are available in a wide range of colors in J : 
pearl or plain finish. They are sheet covered—will not crack, chip, or Pecora Paint Co. tibet tenet een eee ee ee eens oa ca, Ee 
: ; Pittspuren Piste Gish CO... 6 cs cciiciciiswices suiciceacces 2 
peel. Soap and water keep them immaculate. Powers Regulator Company, The............. 2% 
On your next job, build the bathroom around a CHURCH SANI- Peers DN I 5 5.5. 005. 9.0.8 610% ose ss a 
SEAT. Famous CHURCH quality and workmanship are present in even revere Copper & Brass, Fae. ..i..so5 ccc cccecscccsces 113 
the lowest priced seats. Send today for the catalogue showing the ERMINE FOSS, FRM arias cas asic niidon baw naeen ee 
complete line and for the new consumer booklet “Bathroom Magic” Sermenet ’s Sorts, CO MCICS sé 5.5.56 :0sic ects caeedceevesecus 12¢ 
containing valuable suggestions on interesting bathroom designs. Write EME, FM asa c cigs aweccnceesanescennvensenesevess 117 
Dept. K5, C. F. CHURCH MFG. CO., HOLYOKE, MASS., Division of Sloane-Blabon Corp settee eee ees vette eee ees vane a 
American Radiator & Standard Sanitary Corporation. opera ; —_—— CO. eee eee eee teen eee e eee seen ees se» 127 
picasa: ~eemseary DAtC. 66. ose s ccncc caso edacedeacee 129 
CHURCH SHEET Tar & Chemical Div. of Koppers Co............... Jee | hom 
COVERED SEATS for Tiane Co. The >> 93 
apartments, botels, ofc. FMS Naira abies een eater E Acie asereie tk ro Oe arn 5a WE 
modeetes | beiced: Union Carbide & Carbon Corp.........0...c.s000- 13 
RJ. Shy SME NE 0 vias noone sie ans ele ogni s-dareelere's 109 
CHURCH SANI- walde Hock Aspialt (Ci... oicccos ccc0a cee wane ree 
BLACK SEATS for 

offices, factories, stores; fo a Sr re oShke a 
oe ce ag ae sng Vitrolite Div., Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Co....Third Cover 
Warren Werster B CG. o6sccci cde ccecccccccesesaseus 134 
4 Weatherbest Corp. .............. ee ee ; .. ie 
[ et HT ® { K Can 4 a f | 5 Williams Oil-O-Matic Heating Corp.................. 137 
PO ree 
Wood Preserving Corp., The.................. 00000. 138 

136 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 





XUM 





128 


1 2¢ 


117 





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ae 





A GREAT NEw 


> a A 4 WILLIAMS | 
Za iLomatiC, 
Kf, oe 2 ‘ | 


packet 









HEATING 


Listed As 
Standard By 
Underwriters 
Corporation 
Laboratories 





em WILLIAMS 
| OIL BURNER 


FEATURES 


a He" is a great new oil burner that architects everywhere are 
sh lik Diciens btiinaaien ened already acclaiming! It is a new low priced oil burner—built to 
ne cabin inlerierenoe meet the needs of architects and builders. It has features unobtain- 
% 1/10 h.p. motor—very low cur- able in other high pressure oil burners costing far, far more. 
nll entiennae It is a Williams product... in other words, quality engineered ... 
ad cienane ote eee and with an acceptance built up through years of consistent adver- 
—constant flame tising of the famous Williams Oil-O-Matic. Home owners want a 
* Exclusive anti-carbon nozzle e Williams Product. So—look into this great new Williams Oil 
* Burns low cost No. 3 fuel oil % Burner. Compare it with comparable products. Comparison will 
* Silent as a whisper f. show you it is the peer of any high pressure oil burner regardless 
* Williams engineered throughout of price! 
% Easy payments— 12-36 months to 


pay ii WILLIAMS OIL-O-MATIC HEATING CORPORATION 


Dept. 511, Bloomington, Illinois 





AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 137 








Provides phe eservin 

Pitch and (as in nese wis 
t 77 * Ss e 

puilt with Koppers Coal Tay ating units attack and Soeur 

ul . 


roof 
¢ smaller po be P mped © the : 
Vater 


& Corporati 
and timber, Pore @ Koppers moras 
°0F joists and h Sure treated With >sidiary, 
Oring and these 24¢rs) or With salt Creosote 
© uprights) to resist swtiOns 
€rmite 


Koppe 
ts Tarm 
of heavy tr. ac, @ Coal t i 
: -traffic hi ‘at Paving use 
ing surface for peeway, 1s also the ae thousands of mil 
here. Koppet Omical, too, © drives, walks, parkigetecturally pleas: 
tact with water: %» Parking ar pitas. 


roof, as 
Cas, etc, Eco. 


the 
e sprayed of ed con 

... the water mayrected by this prolons 
ngs @ . 
Roofi & a 


KOPPERS 


Sure Source of Supply 
for a Thousand Needs 


Most of your best clients are men of affairs. Most of 

them know Koppers as the producer of machinery, 

builder of great plants and supplier of hundreds of 

aw products. The Koppers name in your speci- 

so tnes of wate cation means a lot to these men. 

, ept cool by keeping 0 ‘evaporation of 

Unnge sesh mere: Thre selects HEP pex ound of W™EE) 2 KOPPERS DIVISIONS - SUBSIDIARIES AND AFFILIATES 

the water Ass : 
American Hammered Piston Ring Division... Bartlett Hayward 
Division . . . Engineering and Construction Division . . . Gas 
and Coke Division ... Tar and Chemical Division ... Western 
Gas Division . .. Boston Towboat Company . . . Eastern Gas 
and Fuel Associates... The Koppers Coal Company ... Koppers- 
Rheolaveur Company ... The Maryland Drydock Company ... 
Mystic Iron Works . . . Mystic Steamship Company ... New 
England Coal and Coke Company ... The White Tar Company 


of New Jersey, Inc. . . . The Wood Preserving Corporation. 


THE KOPPERS CATALOG IN SWEET: 


KOPPERS COMPANY, Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Please send me information about C1 Roofing; 0 Dampproofing and Waterproofing; O Treated 
Timber; 0 Tarmac Paving Tars; 0 Lumino Bituminous-base Aluminum Paint. 


0 Send me Roofing and Waterproofing Specification Book. 


gh 
, ot leaks throu: OC Send me Don Graf Data Sheets. 
Waterproofing wa ews used on a plaza 
Koppers Membrawete — 1 Here it 1S 

d conc = 
masonry 0 * nd passase- 

grou 

over an unde 














t of 
ery, 
s of 
eCi- 


c Treated 






























LIBBEY-OWENS-FORD 


VITROLITE 


f Cp , 
Lolo 





Le oe hh 











In creative hands beautiful, glass-hard Vitrolite is as pliant as a modeler’s clay. 

Its wide range of smart colors, combined with sand-blast effects, unique in- 
lays and metal trim, gives inventive genius full sway in the matter of modern 
design and color. Glamorous Vitrolite thrives in the changeable atmosphere of kitchen 
or bathroom. A damp cloth will keep its brilliance undimmed—its gleaming surface im- 
maculate as long as the building stands. And don’t forget that very smart furniture and 
fixtures, of which brilliant Vitrolite is a conspicuous part, add further thrills to its place 
in modern kitchen and bathroom design. 

Perhaps you have a remodeling or new building assignment now in which Vitrolite 
might help you do an outstanding job. Why not mail the coupon for practical suggestions? 

Make certain your Vitrolite installation is made by a L-O-F authorized dealer. 





For windows, specify L-O-F quality glass. For interiors, mirrors of L-O-F polished plate glass, 
clear or in colors, offer unlimited decorative architectural possibilities. 


Vitrolite Division LIBBEY *e OWENS * FORD GLASS COMPANY, 1307 Nicholas Bldg., Toledo, O. 


VITROLITE DIVISION, LIBBEY: OWENS: FORD GLASS COMPANY AA-$ 
1307 Nicholas Building, Toledo, Ohio 


Please send me Vitrolite chart of complete color range and surface 
effects, and new literature for 


() Bathrooms and Kitchens CJ Construction Details 


Wh Struclural tla 









ABBEY LIBRARY 
St. Benedicts College 
ATCHISON, KANSas 





SEE HOW CELOTEX ON BOTH SIDES 
OF THE FRAMEWORK LEAVES 
“BREATHING SPACE” IN THE WALL 


See _s : a. - 
> a Le 
yee = ot pha 





OUTSIDE THE FRAMEWORK Celotex Vapor- 
seal replaces ordinary sheathing—provides 
moistureproofed insulation and strong wind- 
and-weather-tight walls, adds enduring 
strength to all the structure 


INSIDE THE FRAMEWORK Celotex Lath insu- 

lates— provides a strong foundation that 

holds plaster smoothly and firmly, prevents 

ugly lath marks, assures permanently beau- 
tiful walls and ceilings 


tr 


Ig Sat SP ARR EES Oe 


. CELOTEX IS GUARANTEED 
to Maintain Insulating Efficiency for 
the Life of the Building! 


. CELOTEX IS GUARANTEED 
to provide Structural Strength! 


. CELOTEX IS GUARANTEED 


to give Lasting Fuel Economy! 


. CELOTEX IS GUARANTEED 


against Destruction by Termites! 


. CELOTEX IS GUARANTEED 
against Destruction by Dry Rot! 


. CELOTEX IS GUARANTEED 
to be Water Repellent! 


. CELOTEX IS GUARANTEED 


to Reduce Noise! 


. CELOTEX IS GUARANTEED 
not to Settle away from the 
Framework! 


. CELOTEX IS GUARANTEED 
against Loss of Insulation Efficiency 
upon Painting or Plastering ! 


. CELOTEX IS GUARANTEED 
to meet Dept. of Commerce Com- 
mercial Standards and U. S. Federal 
Specifications! 


The Celotex Written Life-of-Building Guaran- 
tee, when issued, applies only within the boun- 
daries of Continental United States 


Jol , 


For lifetime insulating efficiency, specify 
Celotex Insulating Cane Board in the 
homes you create. It assures the lasting 
comfort, structural strength, permanent 
fuel savings and seven other important 
building advantages your clients want. 
Mail coupon now for full particulars about 
Celotex—the insulating sheathing and lath 
that builds better homes. 


THE CELOTEX CORPORATION AA 5-3 
World’s Largest Manufacturer of Structural 
Insulation - 
919 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 
_ Without obligation, please send me full par 
ticulars about Celotex Vaporseal Insulating 
Sheathing and Celotex Insulating Lath. 


Name