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ats of 
er 15, 
ter 19 

in his 
in the 


as so 


OCTOBER, 1880. 


(“ Liquor Acidi Phosphorici,” “Liquor Acidi Phosphorici Comp.”) 

By James T. SHINN. 

In the Philadelphia ‘* Medical Times,” Aug. 14th, 1880, is a paper 
by Dr. Wm. Pepper on the administration of Phosphoric Acid, in 
which the use of Horsford’s Acid Phosphates is spoken of and its 
stated composition given, and two other preparations, with titles as 
above, are recommended as worthy of extended trial. Their com- 
ponent parts are mentioned, but not the manipulation in preparing them. 
The formulas are as follows: 

* Liquor Acidi Phosphorici (without Iron). 

R Calcii phosphat., grs. iii; or for Oi, 384 grains. 
Magnesii phosphat., gts. ii; “256 
Potassii phosphat., iss ; “192 
Syrupy phosphoric acid, MV; 640 minims. 
Aquz, q. s. ft. fZi; pint. 
Liquor Acidi Phosphorici Comp. (with Iron). 

R Calcii phosphat., gts. iii; or for Oi, 384 grains. 
Magnesii phosphat., gr. 64 
Potassii phosphat., gr. 43 sa 32 
Ferri phosphat., gr. 64 
Syrupy phos. acid, m vi 3; 816 minims 
Aqua, q. s. ft. pint 

The syrupy phosphoric acid used contains about 60 per cent. of 
glacial acid, and is furnished by the chemists and druggists for manu- 
facturing purposes. 

As some pharmacists may have calls for the preparations in limited 
quantities and might not have all the phosphates in stock, a ready pro- 
cess by which they can be made in any apothecary shop is desirable. 
The bone phosphate of lime is not entirely soluble in phosphoric acid, 
and can readily be made from the carbonate: in 156 parts are 72 parts 
phosphoric acid and 84 parts lime, which latter are equivalent to 150 

of a 
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482 Acid Phosphates. im, 

parts carbonate of calcium. The phosphate of magnesium consists of 
72 parts acid and 60 parts of magnesia in every 132 parts of the phos- 
phate. In 175°4 parts of phosphate of potassium are 72 parts acid 
and 94°4 parts caustic potash=138°4 of carbonate. The officinal phos- 
phate of iron, which is always kept on hand, is freely soluble in diluted 
phosphoric acid, and may be added direct. From these proportions the 
following formula for a pint of each solution is deduced: 

Liquor Acidi Phosphorici. 

Carbonate of calcium, 369 grains (156:150::384: ote) 
Magnesia (calc.), 116 60::256:116) 
Carbonate of potassium, 
665 in combination: 
Syrupy phos. acid (60 pr.ct.)1721 { m, free. 

Water, sufficient to make 1 pint. 

Liquor Acidi Phosph. Comp. 
Carbonate of calcium, 369 grains (156: 150:: 384: 369) 
Magnesia (calcined), 29 (132: 60:: 64: 29) 
Carbonate of potassium, 25 “ (175°4:138'4:: 32: 25°2) 
Phosphate of iron, 64 * 
Syrupy phos. acid(6opr.ct.)1705 
Water, sufficient to make 1 pint. 

Mix the acid with half a pint of water, add the phosphate of iron and 
stir until dissolved (for liq. ac. phos. comp.), then add gradually the 
carbonates of calcium, stirring until effervescence ceases and the freshly- 
formed phosphate is dissolved, and finally add the magnesia and car- 
bonate of potassium; stir until dissolved, and make up the measure to 
one pint with water. On standing for several days a slight precipitate 
occurs, which may be prevented by slightly increasing the amount of 

The whole can be prepared in half an hour, less time than required 
to send to another druggist for it, and at a cost of less than 40 cents a 
pint, while Horsford’s Acid Phosphate, at $4.00 a dozen, will cost 
about go cents per pint. Besides securing a larger profit, the phar- 
macist will have the satisfaction of dispensing a preparation of whose 
composition he is sure and of his own production, and the physician. 
will get what he prescribes. 

These preparations taste about as acid as Horsford’s, and do not vary 
much in specific gravity, liq. acid. phos. being 1° 170% liq. acid phos. 
comp., 1°125 and Horsford’s 1°121. 

In Dr. Pepper’s calculation as to the comparative otdlep between 


. Pharm. 

ists of 
is the 

1 and 
e to 
it of 

its a 




Glycerole of Cinchona. 

his solutions and dilute phosphoric acid he seems to have overlooked 
the fact that a minim of the syrupy acid weighs much more than a 
grain, its specific gravity being about 1°700; and taking one ounce of 
glacial acid in 12} fluidounces of diluted acid as the basis of calcula- 
tion, it will be found that his preparations really contain rather more 
free phosphoric acid than similar volumes of the officinal dilute acid, 
though the difference will be probably of no importance in practice. 

By Frep. Loos., Jr., Pu.c. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

Although there are numerous liquid preparations of the cinchona 
barks there appear to be none which, for any length of time, remain 
perfect and reliable; they become more or less turbid, and in most 
cases a precipitate forms. 

As this deposit is generally that extractive portion of the bark which 
contains a large percentage of its alkaloids, and therefore the part 
which is most sought after in medicine, it is evident that a large pro- 
portion of its active qualities are lost, and what the physician supposes 
is doing his patient the most good is ornamenting the sides of the 
“shop bottle” in some modern “palace of pharmacy.” It seems that 
the solvents used in making the officinal preparations of the cinchona 
barks have not the power to hold in solution the above-mentioned 
principle, and on that account in a short time the liquids lose their 
transparency, and become cloudy. 

Glycerin is not only an excellent solvent and preservative, but its 
blandness and agreeable taste render it acceptable in many cases where 
an alcoholic or vinous preparation is objectionable. By using glycerin 
I find that a beautiful preparation of cinchona can be made, which 
effectually holds in solution the extractive portion of the bark, and its 
clearness or quality is not affected in the least by age. In this respect 
I think it surpasses the present Extractum Cinchone Fluidum of the 
U. S. P., for in it there is invariably a very heavy deposit. Therefore, 
this fluid extract, which should and could be a very good one, has 
fallen almost entirely out of use. 

The same complaint can be made of tinctura cinchonz and tinctura 
cinchone comp., so much used at present and prescribed by physicians 


\ 4 > 
; | 

484 Glycerole of Cinchona. a. 

The glycerole of cinchona, of which I am now about to speak, is a 
dense but very clear liquid, each fluidounce of which represents a troy- 
ounce of the bark; and, as there is not the slightest deposit of any kind, 
it contains all the virtues of the bark, coupled with those of the glycerin, 
The glycerole of cinchona rubra is a very dense liquid, of a rich, deep 
garnet color, while the glycerole of cinchona calisaya is considerably 
lighter in color and not so dense; this is evidently on account of the 
much greater quantity of extractive matter in cinchona succirubra. 

As the process for making the glycerole of either cinchona succi- 
rubra or cinchona calisaya is exactly the same, one formula will suffice. 

Take of Cinchona bark, in moderately-fine powder, . 16 troyounces 

Mix the liquids, and macerate the cinchona for five days, then pack 
in a conical glass percolator and displace with a menstruum composed 
of two parts of alcohol and one of water. Collect first twelve ounces 
and set aside, then continue percolation to exhaustion. Distil off the 
alcohol, or evaporate until reduced to 43 ounces, and when cold mix 
with the first 12 fluidounces; allow to stand a few days, and filter. 

As stated above, each fluidounce of this preparation represents one 
troyounce of the bark, and therefore each teaspoonful represents 60 grains. 
Sixty grains of cinchona bark being rather a large dose, and one which 
is seldom prescribed, 1 have made a glycerole just half the strength, 
and find it equally as fine and much more convenient for prescribing. 
The process is the same as the one previously given, with the excep- 
tion that in this case only one-half the quantity of cinchona bark is 
used, and therefore each teaspoonful ‘represents but 30 grains of the 
bark, which is much nearer the average dose than the former. 

The glycerole of cinchona is so intensely bitter that I have endeav- 
ored, by the use of licorice and several aromatics, to make a com- 
pound which, to some extent at least, would be pleasing to the taste; 
and, by compounding this with an equal bulk of the glycerole of cin- 
chona, quite an agreeable mixture can be made. 

Aromatic Glycerole of Licorice. 

Take of Licorice root, in fine powder, ‘ - 2 troyounces 
Cinnamon, in fine powder, ° 1 ad 
Cloves, anise and caraway in fine powder, sulle 2 drachms 
Glycerin, ‘ 4 troyounces 

Am isto." } Absorption of Moisture by Glycerin. 485 

Oct., 1880, 

Mix the drugs, and having moistened them with the glycerin and 
quantity sufficient of the diluted alcohol, pack in a conical percolator 
and displace with a menstrum of dilute alcohol; set aside the first three 
ounces, and continue percolation until exhausted. Evaporate until 
reduced to one fluidounce, and when cold mix with first percolate, and 

Aromatic Glycerole of Cinchona. 

Take equal bulks of glycerole of cinchona and aromatic glycerole of licorice ; 
mix them, and filter if necessary. 

Any of the above-mentioned glyceroles can be reduced to any desired 
strength by diluting with a menstruum composed of two parts of alco- 
hol and one of water. Should the reduced preparation show any inclina- 
tion to precipitate, it is advisable to add a small portion of glycerin to 
the menstruum used in making the dilution. 

From an Essay on the Uses of Glycerin. 

An excellent toothwash containing glycerin is made as follows: 

Take of Soap bark, ground, 402. 
Glycerin, 3 oz. 
Diluted alcohol, - sufficient for 2 pints 

Oil of gaultheria, oil of peppermint, each, 20 drops 

Macerate the soap bark in the mixture of g vcerin and diluted alcohol 

for three or four days, and filter through a little magnesia previously 
triturated with the volatile oils. 

Thus made, a much better preparation is obtained than by macerat- 

ing the bark in the dilute alcohol, and adding the glycerin afterwards. 

By Georce PH.G. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

The property possessed by glycerin of absorbing moisture is well 
known. To determine its rapidity under different circumstances the 

following experiments were undertaken : 

‘See also “ American Journal of Pharmacy,” 1879, p. 313 and 513. 

is a 
CCi- | 
is | 

486 The New Antidote to Arsenic. {A™- 

I. 100 grams of glycerin, spec. grav. 1°25, were placed in each of 
four vessels of about the capacity of 200 cubic centimeters and of the 
diameters given in the table. These vessels were placed in the damp 
atmosphere of the cellar, September 1st, and weighed monthly. 

Weight. Monthly Increase. 

Diameter. — ~ 
Oct. 1. Now. 1. Dec. 1. Jan.1. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan, 

2°5cm. 102 gm. 103'7gm. gm. 10471 gm. 2°0 ‘1 perct. 
570: 116 118° 119°25 122° 2°75 

7°5 135 138.5 142°7 147°5 35° 35 42 48 

10°0 150 152°7 155°25 158°5 50° 3°25 3°25 

2. 100 grams of glycerin, spec. grav. 1°25, in a vessel 5 cm. in 
diameter and of 200 cc. capacity, and 100 grams of distilled water in 
another vessel of the same size and shape, were placed in a large jar 
which was then closely covered. On weighing the vessels monthly, 
the glycerin had increased and the water decreased, as shown by the 


‘Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. 
Glycerin, 108 gm. 132° gm. 114° gm. 115°7 gm. Increase,8° 4° pret. 
Water, 90 82°5 75°5 68°3 Decréase, 10° 7°5 7° 7°2 

By Puit. Hocian, Pu.G. 

In the Journat for August, p. 430, a formula is given for the pre- 
paration of the hydrated sesquioxide of iron, which Dr. McCaw recom- 
_mends in preference to all others for two reasons, viz.: it forms the surest 
antidote, and the ingredients are always accessible. By consulting the: 
formula the reader will see that the second reason is plain, and it was for 
the purpose of testing the accuracy of the first reason that the following: 
experiment was conducted. I prepared the antidote as directed by mixing 
the bicarbonate of sodium and the water and adding the tincture of iron;. 
the mixture was placed on a filter and allowed to drain for a short time 
when a thick magma was left. A small quantity of this magma was. 
mixed with a solution of arsenic containing half a grain and, after 
stirring the mixture and filtering, not a trace of arsenic could be discovered 
in the filtered liquid by sulphuretted hydrogen, or by Marsh’s test, thus 
demonstrating that the formula in question produces an antidote, which 

is among the surest, if indeed, not the surest of all antidotes, 

<< Pharmaceutical Notes. 487 

While on the subject of antidotes to arsenic, I was induced to try 
the efficacy of the hydrate of magnesium recommended as an antidote 
by Bussy, though disapproved by others (U. S. Dispensatory, 14th ed., 
p. 30). The National Dispensatory, 2d ed., p. 887, states: ‘* As an 
antidote to arsenious acid freshly precipitated magnesia ranks next in 
value to freshly prepared sesquioxide of iron.” I dissolved about an 
ounce of sulphate of magnesium in a little water, gently warming the 
mixture. Water of ammonia was then added in slight excess and the 
mixture placed on a filter -and allowed to drain. A portion of the 
magma left on the filter was mixed with a solution of arsenic; as in 
the experiment with the sesquioxide of iron, after stirring the mixture 
and filtering, Marsh’s test gave not the slightest evidence of arsenic in the 
filtered liquid, thus showing that the hydrate of magnesium freshly 
prepared is an excellent antidote to arsenic, and possesses also the 
advantages claimed by Dr. McCaw for the sesquioxide of iron, viz.: that 
the ingredients, epsom salts and hartshorn are not only on hand in the 
apothecary shop but are frequently kept in the family, thereby insuring 
the preparation of the antidote in time. 

Newcomerstown, O., August 20th, 1880. 

By R. F. FarrTHorne, Pu.G. 

Duboisina, Eserina, Pilecarpina.—Thinking that perhaps a concise 
account of these alkaloids, derived from various journals, persunal 
observation and other sources, might be of some interest, I have col- 
lected as much information as I could concerning them. 

Duboisina is obtained from an Australian tree-like shrub of the 
natural order solanacez, an order furnishing several powerfully poison- 
ous and narcotic active principles. It bears a close resemblance to 
atropia and hyoscyamia, yet differs from them in several particulars. 
According to Mr. Gerrard it possesses greater neutralizing power than 
atropia and is more soluble in water. When heated with strong sul- 
phuric acid a disagreeable odor results, resembling butyric acid, whilst 
atropia treated in the same manner yields a pleasant aroma. The sul- 
phate is the salt most used and is deliquescent. The alkaloid as obtained 
at present is a viscous extract-like mass, apparently uncrystallizable. 
Its therapeutic effects are similar to those of atropia, but more quickly 
appear and disappear. Dilation of the pupil is quickly produced by 


488 Pharmaceutical Notes. 

solution of the sulphate of duboisina, and a solution containing 4 grains 
to the ounce has been known to produce dizziness in a few minutes 
after application to the eye. Like the active principle of the belladonna, 
duboisina also has the power of arresting or controiling profuse per- 
spiration, and can be used with decided effect for this purpose when 
injected hypodermically, ,; of a grain being usually sufficient. 

_ Eserina is obtained from the Calabar bean and appears to represent 
the active principles of that substance. It is obtained by treating the 
powdered beans with alcohol, acidulated with tartaric acid, evaporating 
the solution to an extractive consistence, dissolving this in cold water, 
filtering to separate resinous substances, agitating with ether, removing 
the ether and adding bicarbonate of potassium in slight excess to the 
aqueous solution, agitating again with ether, which will now take up 
the liberated eserina and upon spontaneous evaporation will yield the 
alkaloid. When pure it crystallizes in thin rhombic plates, nearly 
white, or of a slightly rosy tint. The sulphate is very deliquescent. 
Its solutions are characterized by becoming red upon addition of an 
alkali, or if heated with ammonia and evaporated to dryness a beauti- 
fully blue coloring substance is produced, which is very soluble in water. 
It to this an acid is added a dichroic liquid is produced, being violet by 
transmitted light and carmine red by refracted light. Eserina sulphate, 
in solution, is used as an application to the eyes and produces contrac- 
tion. The strength of the solution is generally 1 part to 1,000 or to 
800, and as it rapidly alters, soon becoming red, it should be made only 
in small quantities. A solution in glycerin might possibly keep better. 
The physiological action of eserina is antagonistic to belladonna. The 
alkaloid has been used with success in cases of poisoning by the latter 

Pilocarpina, the active principle of jaborandi, is obtained by adding 
an alkali to an aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract, agitating with 
chloroform and evaporating. It appears to be uncrystallizable, is an 
oily, light-yellow liquid. It forms, however, crystallizable salts with a 
number of acids; composition, according to Kingzett, C,,H,,N,O,. 
The salt most used is the hydrochlorate, which occurs in white, feath- 
ery crystals and is very deliquescent. Solutions of this salt generally 
produce contraction of the pupil when applied to the eye, unaccom- 
panied by irritation, on which account it may replace the use of eserina 
in some cases. Hypodermically injected in doses of from } to }a 
grain it produces profuse perspiration and salivation, and can replace 







‘Am. ‘our. Pharm. The Resin of Leptandra. 489 

Oct., 1880. 

the administration of jaborandi by the mouth with the advantage that, 
when thus used, it does not cause nausea. Its action on the skin is 
more prompt and certain than that of the piant, owing probably to 
varieties of jaborandi containing variable proportions of the alkaloid, in 
the same manner that quinia is found more reliable than Peruvian bark. 
Pilocarpina is antagonistic in effect to atropia and corrects the dryness 
of the throat and mouth, which occurs when preparations of bella- 
donna are used. One peculiar effect it possesses is that, when its 
solutions are applied to the eye, only near objects can be observed. © 
Dried Salts—The inconvenience attending the dispensing of such 
salts as contain considerable proportions of water, when prescribed in 
the form of powders, has led me to dry several of such as are in most 
common use, namely: Sulphate of magnesium, sulphate of sodium, 
phosphate of sodium and sulphite of sodium, which were dried below 
120°F., and after being kept near that temperature for four or five days 

and finding that they ceased to lose weight I found that 
400 grains of sulphate of magnesium were reduced to 355 grains. 

400 sodium = te * 
400 phosphate of sodium “ om. 

Therefore, if 40 grains of sulphate of magnesium is called for in 
powder, they can be replaced by 354 grains of the dried salt, 40 grains 
of phosphate of sodium by 23% grains dried; 40 grains of sulphate of 
sodium by 18 grains dried, and 40 grains of sulphite of sodium by 22 
grains dried. Having so often met with difficulty in reducing the 
undried salts to fine powder I thought that the above information might 
be of some service to others. 

By J. U. Lioyp. 

Read at the twenty-eighth meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association at 
Saratoga, and communicated by the author. 

Leptandrin of commerce varies in appearance from two reasons : 

1. Different fineness of powder. 

2. Difference in composition. 

If an alcoholic tincture of Leptandra Virginica be evaporated to the 
consistence of a thick syrup and this be poured into cold water a black 
tarry substance separates. This, if washed with pure cold water, 
finally becomes tasteless, and, if it be dried, constitutes the article 

80, | 
arly | 
‘he | 
an | 
na | 

490 The Resin of Leptandra. 

above named. This has a deep black color and breaks with a shiny 
fracture. It resembles much in appearance asphaltum. The powder 
produced from it varies in color in accordance with its fineness, becom- 
ing of lighter shade as comminution progresses. This is the main 
reason for the difference in the color of the resin (by resin is understood 
the precipitate before mentioned), and it may cause powders from the 
same lump to vary considerably.’ 

Sensible Properties.—If the precipitate of which I have been speaking 
were “ Leptandrin of commerce” there would be no very remarkable 
difference in the appearance of the various lots. The odor would be 
the same and all specimens tasteless, or nearly so. There officinal 
process for making ‘“ Resin of leptandra.” There is no preparation 
recognized by the Pharmacopoeia under the name of J/eptandrin. The 
question arises: Is leptandrin of commerce the powdered resin- to 
which article the name was originally applied by Wm. S. Merrell? In 
my opinion the majority of physicians who use ‘“ leptandrin” do not 
recognize the resin as the active principle of the root. Why should 

we take it for granted that manufacturers prepare the articie, labeled 
leptandrin, by precipitation of the resinous substances? Prof. John 
King did not make his original preparation from the root of Leptandra 
Virginica in this manner. He informs me that he forms his opinion of 
the therapeutical value of Leptandra Virginica from the use of a mix- 
ture, dried of aqueous and of alcoholic extracts. | 

Resin (?) of Leptandra, or \eptandrin, was discovered by Wm. S. 
Merrell about 1850. We may well suppose that the value of podo- 
phyllum resin (podophyllin) and the object of improvement led Mr. 
Merrell to the precipitation of the resin of leptandra and to the suppo- 
sition that it (the resin) would prove to be the medicinal principle of 
Leptandra Virginica. This latter is admitted to have been a mistake, 
for very few eclectic physicians desire the resin, and the best authorities 
have decided against it. 

1 am of the opinion, furthermore, that very little of the ‘* Leptandrin 
of commerce” is the resin, and that the difference in ‘* sensible proper- 

ties” of various lots may be ascribed to difference of composition. 
Manufacturers desire to prepare the best representative of the root, and 
as the resin fails to answer, they seek for other principles and other 

1Seven samples, powdered from one piece and sifted through sieves of different 
fineness, were exhibited. 

The Resin of Leptandra. 

means of manipulation, and label the result “‘ Leptandrin.”? Thus, F 
conclude that: **The Leptandrin of commerce” varies much in 
appearance and in “sensible properties” from the fact that it is of dif- 
ferent degrees of fineness and of various compositions. 

“ What is the best process for the preparation of the resin?” Resin of 
leptandra exists as such to the extent of six per cent. (average of 3,000 
pounds) in well dried root of not less than one year’s age after collec- 
tion. It is a recognized fact, that the yield of resin increases with the- 
age and exposure of the root after collection where water, simply, is- 
employed as a precipitant, and for this reason the root of two or more 
years of age is desirable. If the powdered root be percolated with 
alcohol and the percolate evaporated to a syrupy consistence, and this. 
be poured into a larger quantity of cold water, a semi-solid substance 
settles. This, when well washed and dried, is the so-called resin. If 
the water which was used as a precipitant of the resin be examined it 
will be found very bitter, in consequence of the presence of the bitter 
principle, first noticed by Prof. E. S. Wayne (1856) and afterwards by: ~ 
Prof. F. F. Mayer (1863). The latter gentleman ascribed to it the 
properties of a glucoside, and I think his views will be supported. If 
five per cent. of sulphuric acid be mixed with the precipitating liquor 
after decantation from the resin, and the mixture be permitted to stand’ 
some weeks, the bitterness disappears, and a quantity of resin, similar 
in appearance to the original precipitate, is produced. If, however, the 
sulphuric acid and the precipitating liquid be mixed and then boiled to- 
gether from thirty to sixty minutes, the reduction takes place at once, 
the bitterness disappears and resin results as one product.” 

This would indicate that the bitter principle is a glucoside,.and that 
the resin is a product of its decomposition, although I have not experi- 
mented regarding the corresponding production of glucose. That this. 
resin is thus formed in a considerable amount may be seen by specimen. 
shown, which is (12 lb.) the result of a 1,000 pound batch of leptandra. 
In making this lot the overlying liquid was simply decanted from the 
precipitate and it may have contained a small amount of mechanically 

1 Leptandra is valued by many for its laxative properties. The principle which. 
imparts to the root this effect has never been identified. L. 

? This cannot be taken as conclusively pointing to the formation of the resinous 
substance from the bitter principle. It may be that the resinous matter is held in a. 
state of minute suspension by the liquid, or even is in actual solution. The subse- 
quent manipulation with the acid solution may simply throw it down. _ L. 

be | 
to | 
f | 

492 The Resin of Leptandra. { Am. Jour. Pharm. 

divided resin which refused to settle. From the foregoing it would be 
obvious, that if the object be to obtain the greatest possible yield of 
resin the best process will be to obtain resin from the glucoside also. 

Formula.—Extract the root of leptandra (properly powdered) by 
means of alcohol. Evaporate the percolate to the consistence of a 
thick syrup, and pour the result, with stirring, into ten times its bulk 
of cold water; decant the supernatant liquid, add to it 5 per cent. of 
sulphuric acid, boil until the bitter taste disappears, and then wash 
separately the two resins with water and dry them, after which mix 
and powder them. To dry the precipitated resin, place in a vessel and 
expose, with frequent stirring, to a steam bath until it is of such a con- 
sistence as to break when cold; then break it into small pieces, and 
finish the drying by exposing to the air. The resinous substance 
obtained by means of sulph:uric acid may be dried by simple exposure 
to the air. According to many authorities resin of leptandra is inert. 
i am decidedly in favor of a dried alcoholic extract, although such must 
‘contain a considerable amount of glucose, which exists in the root in 
large amount, and is extracted by alcohol to a considerable extent. 
The trouble experienced in drying an alcoholic extract (recorded by 
Dr. T. L. A. Greve) without the use of foreign substances, and with 
full preservation of its characteristics, renders its preparation by ordi- 
nary methods tedious and somewhat difficult. I have no trouble with 
leptandra when I pursue the following process : 

Extractum Leptandra Alcoholicum.—Precipitate the evaporated alco- 
holic extract by means of water in the manner before directed, and 
evaporate the liquid to the consistence of a thick solid extract. Dry 
the resin, powder it, and stir this powder into the solid extract and 
thoroughly incorporate them. The thick mass is then to be picked 
into small pieces, spread in layers in a drying closet and dried by a cur- 
rent of warm air, then powdered. From the foregoing preparation the 
full effects of leptandra root may be expected. 

It will be noticed that I use the dry resin as an absorbant instead of 
carbonate of magnesium or other extraneous substance. This, or a 
similar preparation, might well be recognized by our Pharmacopczia. 
The preparations which are sold under the name of leptandrin con- 
stitute an important article of commerce, second, among the so-called 
resinoids, only to resin of podophy!lum (podophyllin). Dried alcoholic 
extract of leptandra differs to such an extent from the precipitated resin, 
which was named “leptandrin” by its discoverer, Mr. W. S. Merrell, 

am jour. } Chemical Notes. 493 

as to forbid their substitution for each other, If the resin be rubbed 
with distilled water, and the mixture be then poured upon a filter- 
paper, the filtrate will be colorless, almost tasteléss, and free from bit- 
terness. Under the same conditions the filtrate from the dried extract 
is dark colored and very bitter. 

Resin of leptandra will never run together at ordinary temperatures 
nor in any atmosphere. On the contrary, extract of leptandra upon 

_exposure to a moist atmosphere, or if not well dried, will run into a 

hard lump. The yield of dry extract, made by the process I suggest, 
will average 10 per cent. of the weight of the root employed. 


By Pror. Samue P., Pu.D. 

Inorganic Chemistry.— On the Atomic Weight and General Charac- 
ters of the New Elements Ytterbium and Scandium.—Nilson, the dis- 
coverer of the latter of these two claimants for recognition as elements, 
has worked up some 9} kilograms of the rare mineral euxenite, and 
has extracted therefrom the mixed oxides of the rare earths. He con- 
siders that there are seven of these earths, viz.: Scandia, ytterbia, 
thulia, erbia, terbia, a new earth provisionally designated by Soret as X 
(holmia), and yttria. Prof. Cleve, the discoverer of thulium and, inde- 
pendently with Soret, of holmium, extracted these mixed earths at the 
same time from 15 kilos of gadolinite, so that the two investigators. 
had 6 to 7 kilos of the rare earths to divide between them, which 
was done by Prof Nilson undertaking the study of ytterbium, scan- 
dium and holmium, while Prof. Cleve retained the earths erbia and 
thulia. After a long and tedious purification of the ytterbia he was 
enabled to get it perfectly free from other earths and determined the 
atomic weight of the element. The mean of seven determinations 
was 173°01. Ytterbia, Yb,O,, is a white, very heavy and infusible 

‘powder, which is slowly attacked by acids in the cold or at a gentle 

heat; at a boiling temperature, however, is readily dissolved by dilute: 
acids. Its solutions are colorless and show no absorption spectrum. 
Its sp. gr. is g°175. Its solutions have a very sweet and yet astringent 
taste. It gives no flame coloration, but the spark spectrum of its 
chloride contains a large number of characteristic lines. 

Four determinations of the atomic weight of scandium were made, 
the mean of which was 44°03. Scandia, Sc,O,, is a white, loose 

| : 

494 Chemical Notes. 
powder, infusible and possessing much similarity to glucina or magnesia, 
‘The earth has a sp. gr. of 3°864. It does not impart any color to the 
flame, although the spark spectrum of its chloride is particularly fine, 
containing more than 100 bright lines. A number of its salts have 
been prepared and are described by Nilson.— Berichte der Chem. Ges., 
xili, pp. 1430 and 1439. 

On the New Elements Thulium and Holmium.—Cleve has studied the 
thulia, extracted from the mixture of rare earths, sufficiently to be able 
to describe it more fully. Both the oxide and its salts are uncolored, 
like those of ytterbium, but its solutions show in the spectroscope two 
absorption rays, which do not appear in the spectrum of pure erbia. 
The atomic weight of thulium is approximately 170°7 if we accept for 
the oxide the formula Tm,O,. Soret has studied and figures the spec- 
tra of the several rare earths of the yttria group. Besides erbium he 
identifies the earth first noted by himself, under the designation X, and 
afterwards independently discovered by Cleve, and named by him hol- 
mium, which name Soret now accepts, an earth designated as Y/ by 
Marignac, and independently discovered by Lecoq de Boisbaudran and — 
named by him samarium ; and lastly didymium.—Comptes Rendus, No. 
91, pp. 328 and 378. 

Organic Chemistry.— Crystallized Oxalic Acid.—A. Villiers describes 
the preparation of crystallized anhydrous oxalic acid. It may be 
obtained by dissolving 1 part of the ordinary acid in about 12 parts of 
warm concentrated sulphuric acid, and allowing the solution to stand 
for several days. The anhydrous acid is deposited in remarkably trans- 
_ parent, voluminous crystals of the form of the octahedra, with a rhom- 
bic base, generally modified by the face p of the primary prism, with 
a cleavage parallel to this face. When exposed to the air the crystals 
take up two molecules of water and fall to powder.— Four. Chem. Sac., 
August, p. 544. 

Behavior of Starch with Glycerin.—Sulkowsky records the observa- 
tion that starch is dissolved with ease by hot glycerin, and hereby 
becomes changed into the soluble condition. If some 60 grams pul- 
verized starch are stirred in 1 kilogram concentrated glycerin and the 
whole heated in a porcelain dish, with continued stirring, there occurs 
at first a strong swelling up of the starch granules, After some steam 
has escaped and the mass is heated to 130°C., the consistency increases 
$0 considerably that the stirring requires considerable exertion. The 
starch granules have changed mto an amorphous mass, and a trans- 


Am. Jour. Sharm. Chemical Notes. 495 

parent paste results. When the temperature is raised to 170°C. the 
mass becomes quite fluid again and the starch is entirely dissolved. At 
a temperature of 190°C., when the glycerin begins to escape in thick 
fumes, the starch is almost completely changed into the soluble modi- 
fication. If this glycerin solution, when cold, be poured into water, 
what unchanged starch remains separates as paste and can be filtered off 
from the solution of the other modification. From this filtrate strong 
alcohol will precipitate the soluble starch. The author finds that while 
potato-starch is changed quite easily into the soluble modification ; 
wheat-starch requires an hour’s heating to 180 to 190°C., and rice-starch 
even at the end of that time is only incompletely changed.—Ber. der 
Chem. Ges , xiii, p. 1395. 

Action of Zinc Chloride upon Monobromated Camphor. —Schiff finds that 
if a mixture of zinc chloride and bromated camphor be heated to about 
150 to 160°C. in an oil-bath streams of hydrogen bromide escape, and 
if after the reaction is ended the mixture be distilled over the naked 
flame a fluid is obtained, which consists chiefly of two substances—a 
hydrocarbon and a phenol. These can be easily separated by shaking 
with potash solution. The hydrocarbon boils at 137°6°C., and analysis 
shows it to be a hexahydro-xylol, C,H,,. 

The phenol possesses the formula C,,H,,O and is a colorless viscid 
fluid. It boils at 231 to 233°C., and appears to be a liquid thymol and 
indeed the same as that obtained by Kekule by the action of iodine upon 
camphor. It is formed according to the following reaction : 

C, H,, BOO — HBr = C,, H,,O 
Bromated camphor. Thymol. 
—Ibid., p. 1407. 

Investigation of Picrotoxin (from Menispermum cocculus).—Barth and 
Kretschy have separated by fractional crystallization from benzol and 
afterwards from water three constituents of picrotoxin, viz.: Picrotoxin, 
picrotin and anamirtin, and in the relative proportions of 32: 66: 2. 
Picrotoxin has a fusing-point 201°C., reduces silver nitrate, especially 
on addition of ammonia and Fehling’s solution, when heated. It is 
exceptionally bitter and very poisonous. The result of numerous 
analyses gives as its formula C,,H,,O+H,O. Picrotin is more difficultly 
soluble in benzol, fuses at 250 to 251°C. ; shows nearly the same pro- 
perties, but is not poisonous. Its composition is C,,H,,O,,, with vary- 
ing amount of water of crystallization. Anamirtin is founa in the 
mother-liquors of the pure picrotoxin when crystallized out of water. It 





am : 

496 Chemical Notes. 
-has a neutral reaction, does not reduce ammoniacal silver solution, nor 
Fehling’s copper solution, has almost no bitter taste and is not poi- 
sonous. ‘I’he analyses correspond nearly to the formula C,,H,,O,, — 
Ibid., p. 1243. 

Resin from Rosewood.—Terreil and Wolff have studied the resin from 
rosewood. It has a brilliant black color with a brown reflection, a 
vitreous fracture and a balsamic odor ; its sp. gr. at 15°C. is 1°2662, 
and it melts at g5°C. It dissolves in all proportions in alcohol, but is 
less soluble in ether, chloroform and carbon disulphide and _is insoluble 
in water. 

Soda and potash dissolve the resin, forming brown-colored solutions, 
from which it is again separated in brown flakes on adding an acid; on 
boiling the solution an odor resembling benzaldehyde and hawthorn is 
evolved. Sulphuric acid also dissolves the resin with a blood-red color ; 
by adding water the resin is precipitated without alteration. When 
treated with nitric acid it yields an acid of an urange color, crystallizing 
in needles. On distillation white vapors are evolved at first, having an 
odor resembling those from gum-benzoin, but containing no benzoic 
acid, then an essential oil passes over and finally tarry matters. Its 
analysis corresponds with the formula C,,H,,O,; it forms salts with 
lead and barium. By extracting other colored woods, such as amaranth 
wood, iron wood, ebony, etc., with alcohol, resins resembling that from 
rosewood are obtained, but not in so large a proportion; rosewood 
yields 35 per cent. of its weight of resin.— Four. Chem. Soc., August, 
P- 559- 

Technical Chemistry.—Fa/se Vermilion.—A German paper cautions 
the public against a false vermilion placed extensively on the market, 
which may be detected as follows: The false vermilion has too bright and 
brilliant a color, and consists chiefly of red lead with a very small per- 
centage of eosine. This last color may be extracted by means of strong 
alcohol and the red lead remains.— ‘Jour. of App. Science, August 2, p. 
4 New Substitute for Ivory, etc.—A new substitute for ivory, coral, 
leather, caoutchouc, etc., lately patented in England under the name 
of vegetaline, is prepared as follows: Cellulose (woody fibre) from any — 
source whatever is treated with sulphuric acid of 58°B. (=sp. gr.1°676), 
at 15°C. (=59°F.), then washed with water to remove excess of acid, 
dried and converted into a fine powder. This is mixed with resin soap in 
a mortar, and the soda of the soap is removed by treatment with sulphate 


Am Jour-gsa | Pill Coating at the Dispensing Counter. 497 

of aluminum. The mass is now collected, dried again and pressed into 
cakes by hydraulic pressure. These cakes are then cut into thin plates, 
which are shaped by again subjecting them to pressure. By adding 
castor-oil or glycerin to the mass before pressure the product may be 
made transparent. Colors may be imparted by the use of vegetable 
coloring agents. Facts respecting the strength‘and elasticity of this 
product are wanting.—Jbid., August 2, p. 123. 


By W. B. THompson. 

If the pharmacist would be rescued from the thraldom imposed by 
the manufacturer, and rise again from the grade of a peddlar to the 
dignity of a factor aud compounder, he must, by his own ingenuity, 
devise the means to remove his present abasement. In order to regain 
his prestige, instead of being the mere vendor of the products of others, 
he must originate and present his own. The manufacturer has ruth- 
lessly invaded the domain of the pharmacist, and despoiled him of much 
that should characterize the importance and dignity of his calling. The 
pharmacist should invoke to his aid his natural allies, the physician and 
the public, and all who are’ conscientiously interested in the freshness, 
purity and integrity of medicine, to enable him to banish from his 
slielves and repositories the degenerate coated pill, with all its numer- 
ous congeners in diversified shapes, which have insidiously effected an 
entrance into the realm of modern pharmacy. So long as fashion 
demands a4 coating upon pills let it be of the least objectionable char- 
acter, and let such coating be applied extemporaneously, and let the 
material to be thus enveloped be likewise prepared extempvraneously— 
at the time it is needed for use—never before—and let the virtue of 
medicine in pill-form be characterized by its utility, and not, as is now 
too often the case, be exposed to the risk of failure and worthlessness 
in order to serve the pecuniary interests of those manufacturers who 
have, by means of a credulous medical profession and a confiding pub- 
lic, succeeded in successfully reaching the pockets of the people through 
those avenues of trade which legitimately belong to the dispenser. 

The extemporaneous coating of pills at the dispensing counter must 
come quickly into vogue if the dispenser be intelligently alive to the 
demands of the medical profession, to the needs of his patrons and to his 
own interests; and he who is ready with a practicable process and suit- 


nor | 
| poi- 
mn, a 
ut is 
uble | 
n is | 
lor > : 
g an | 

ket, | 
» | 
any | 
D in 43 
jate | 


498 Pill Coating. jou. pharm. 

able mechanism for the accomplishment of this will be a benefactor to 
the suffering sick, and to his fellow-craftsmen as well. 

From the openly-expressed opinions of a large number of members 
of the medical profession, as well as his own somewhat extended obser- 
vation and experience, your correspondent believes that the prepared 
pills of the day, after extended opportunity, have failed to secure, to 
any considerable extent, the confidence of physicians, of the public and 
of pharmacists, and that now is an opportune time to return to original 
principles in prescribing and compounding, and to resist further inno- 

The sole and single object of this paper is to suggest to pharmacists 
everywhere the importance of this subject, and to point to that direc- 
tion in which ingenuity and thought may be wisely, as well as profit- 
ably, exercised. | 

A careful scrutiny of that pharmaceutical literature, which is acces- 
sible to us all, on the subject of a material for the coating of pills, 
seems to concentrate upon some of the forms of gelatin as being best 
adapted to the purpose. Ina recent number of the “ Journal of Phar- 
macy ” an ingenious formula was offered by a contributor for the coating 
of pills) This, in the hands of the writer (after gaining some experi- 
ence in the dexterity of manipulation), appeared to very nearly answer 
the desired purpose. The desideratum to be sought is a coating, at all 
times ready, possessing such quick solubility, tenacity and rapidly- 
drying property as shall at once adapt it to a want which is manifestly 
needed, and which once attained will quickly revolutionize at least one 
branch of the dispensing business. 

Philadelphia, Sept. 25th, 1880. 

_ From two communications contained in the Australian supplement 
to the Chemist aud Druggist, April, 1880, p. 97, we extract the follow- 
ing directions : ; 

I. I may say that I have tried chalk, gum, starch, isinglass, sugar, 
French chalk, gelatin, mucilage, glue, simple syrup, albumen and 
arrowroot. In some instances I have used the above separately, and in 
others combined them, but obtain the best result as follows: Dissolve 
one drachm isinglass in one and a-half ounce simple syrup; pour a 
small quantity whilst warm upon some pills that have been made, say, 


Am rise} Use and Analysis of the Cockroach. 499 

a few weeks, and become hard. After shaking them about for a short 
time sprinkle over some French chalk ; place them in a flat-bottom 
tin and apply a gentle heat; keep them continually rotating, adding 
more chalk, if necessary, until dry. I find that the coating neither 
cracks, nor does it peel off. I had no guide in my first attempt to 
sugar-coat pills, and if any correspondent is in possession of a better 
method, maybe he will kindly enlighten his brethern. 

II]. Make a solution of tolu in ether, nearly saturated (the refuse 
from making syrup of tolu answers equally well, and is more economi- 
cal); put the pills into a jar and moisten thoroughly with the solution ; 
then throw them into French chalk contained in the pill-coater, and 
after rotating in the usual manner expose for a short time to allow the 
coating to dry ; then coat twice in succession as follows: Mix equal 
parts of fresh mucilage of acacia and water, add two drops of this to 
each dozen pills, and throw them into French chalk as before ; finally 
remove all the chalk from the coater and polish the pills by rotating 
them for some time in the coater. 

The object in first coating with the solution of tolu is to prevent the 
discoloration of the coating, which invariably follows if this is omitted. 

During an experience of thirteen years I have never found the least 
objection to the use of tolu. 

French chalk, or lycopodium, will be found the best for dusting the 
pills when rolling, as liquorice and such-like powders adhere to the 
pills, increasing their size and otherwise interfering with coating them 



Translated from Bulletin Général de Thérapeutique, 1880, Aout 30, p. 168. 

The cockroach has become a popular remedy in Russia. Dr. 
Bogomolow regards it useful, when reduced to powder, in the dose of 
3 decigrams in dropsy of the heart, of the liver and of the kidneys; 
it is also prescribed in Bright’s disease. Dr. Unterberger had on several 
occasions treated scarlatinous dropsy, and one case of morbilious dropsy, 
which were cured by giving 18 to 30 centigrams of cockroach three 
times daily Dr. Koehler states that he obtained the same results from 

the use of this remedy. 
It seemed to me interesting to search for the principle to which we 

arm . 
r to 
red | 
ng 3 
ly | 

our. Pharm, 
t., 1880, 

500 Report on the Aconite Alkaloids. 

must attribute the action of the cockroach. The cockroach (Blatta 
orientalis) is an insect which is found in all parts of Europe ; in France 
it infests the baking-room of the bread bakers, the hot-room of the con- 
fectioners, the kitchen of the restaurants. The food it likes best is 
flour. To procure cockroaches I have employed the following trap: 

Pour some beer in a bowl] ; to facilitate the ascension place from the 
floor to the top of the bow] a small board or a piece of linen; arrived 
at the top the insect falls into the dish and is drowned. If cockroaches 
are caught by the hand put them into a bottle containing a few drops 
of sulphuric ether. 

The dried and powdered cockroaches were treated with cold water, 
with water rendered alkaline by carbonate of sodium, with sulphuric 
ether and sulphide of carbon. The infusion with cold water was evapor- 
ated to dryness. The residue was not large; it was divided into two 
parts; one of it thrown on burning coals did not produce deflagration. 
The other part was put into sulphuric acid without producing any vapor 
which had any effect on guaiac paper. The soap obtained with alkaline 
water was decomposed by sulphuric acid, then treated with appropriate 
reagents showed the absence of alkaloids. 

To which ingredient, to which cause, should we attribute the medi- 
cinal action of the cockroaches? I do not know it. Let us hope that 
another experimenter will be more successful than I have been. With 
sulphuric ether and sulphide of carbon a fatty body of a fetid odor is 
obtained. To get rid of these importunate and disgusting guests I 
have advised the use of phosphorus paste, which is thinned by water 
and spread with a brush; also used for filling the cracks in the floors 
and walls of the place occupied by them. H. C. C. M. 


By C. R. ALperR Wricut, D.S.C. (Lond.), Lecturer on Chemistry in St. Mary's 
Hospital Medical School, and E. H. Rennie, M.A. (Sydney), D.S.C. (Lond.), 
Demonstrator of Chemistry in St. Mary’s Hospital Medical School. 

The alkaloids contained in 300 lbs. of fresh aconite herb (4. napel- 
lus), grown at Foxton, in Cambridgeshire, were isolated by the methods 
described in last year’s report, viz., crushing, maceration in alcohol, 
expression of extract, evaporation toa smaller bulk, and treatment of 
the liquid (weighing about 59 Ibs.) with suda and repeatedly shaking 
with ether. A quantity of alkaloidal matter was thus readily dissolved 


. ¥ 

am. Jour. Pharm. Report on the Aconite Alkaloias. 50! 

out, a small portion remaining permanently dissolved in the alkaline 
fluid, in a form difficultly soluble in ether; the alkaloidal matter thus 
retained yielded nothing crystalline on precipitation with mercuro-iodide 
of potassium and treatment with sulphuretted hydrogen, and appeared 
to be all but destitute of the characteristic physiological action of aconite, 
producing little or no tingling of the lips when applied thereto; it 
greatly resembled the corresponding substance similarly obtained from 
the extract derived from the various kinds of aconite roots examined in 
previous reports, consisting of a mixture of amorphous bases of lower 
molecular weight than aconitine, some of which differ therefrom mark- 
edly in being readily soluble in caustic and carbonated alkalies, and in 
being only imperfectly removed from such solutions by ether. 

The alkaloidal substances dissolved out by the ether treatment, 
being mixed with a large quantity of greenish soft resin, were separated 
therefrom by agitation with tartaric acid solution and separation of the 
tartrate solution thus formed; on treating this with sodium carbouate 
and ether about 15 grams of alkaloids were finally obtained by the 
spontaneous evaporation of the ethereal solution. No artifice employed 
was successful in making this product either crystallize or yield crys- 
tallized salts of any kind; it appeared, however, to contain a notable 
amount of aconit ne, producing an energetic action on tne lips when 
cautiously applied thereto, though it was by no means so powerfully 
active as pure aconitine. On combustion it yielded the following num- 
bers, indicating, as did also its physical properties, that it was substan- 
tially the same mixture of alkaloids as that occurring in 4. napellus 
roots, only differing therefrom in containing a smaller percentage cf 
aconitine, the quantity of uncrystallizable bases being relatively much 

(1.) *2845 gram of substance, dried at 110°, gave °6735 CO, and 
-217 H,O. 

459 gram of substance, burnt with soda lime, gave ‘01222 N. 

A portion of the substance was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid, 
and the sclution precipitated by slow addition to a dilute solution of 

1 Tt would seem to be highly probable that the presence in excess of non-crystal- 
line bases, preventing crystallization of what aconitine is present, is the main cause 
of the difficulty which we understand is sometimes experienced in isolating the crys- 
tallizable alkaloid from A. napellus roots in the process of manufacture on the large 



latta | 

st is | 









ith | 



ed | 

our. Pharm, 
Ct., 1880. 

500 Report on the Aconite Alkaloids. 

must attribute the action of the cockroach. The cockroach (Blatta 
orientalis) is an insect which is found in all parts of Europe ; in France 
it infests the baking room of the bread bakers, the hot-room of the con- 
fectioners, the kitchen of the restaurants. The food it likes best is 
flour. To procure cockroaches I have employed the following trap: 

Pour some beer in a bowl ; to facilitate the ascension place from the 
floor to the top of the bow] a small board or a piece of linen ; arrived 
at the top the insect falls into the dish and is drowned. If cockroaches 
are caught by the hand put them into a bottle containing a few drops 
of sulphuric ether. 

The dried and powdered cockroaches were treated with cold water, 
with water rendered alkaline by carbonate of sodium, with sulphuric 
ether and sulphide of carbon. The infusion with cold water was evapor- 
ated to dryness. The residue was not large; it was divided into two 
parts; one of it thrown on burning coals did not produce deflagration. 
The other part was put into sulphuric acid without producing any vapor 
which had any effect on guaiac paper. The soap obtained with alkaline 
water was decomposed by sulphuric acid, then treated with appropriate 
reagents showed the absence of alkaloids. 

To which ingredient, to which cause, should we attribute the medi- 
cinal action ot the cockroaches? I do not know it. Let us hope that 
another experimenter will be more successful than I have been. With 
sulphuric ether and sulphide of carbon a fatty body of a fetid odor is 
obtained. To get rid of these importunate and disgusting guests I 
have advised the use of phosphorus paste, which is thinned by water 
and spread with a brush; also used for filling the cracks in the floors 
and walls of the place occupied by them. H.C. C. M. 


By C. R. ALpeR Wricut, D.S.C. (Lond.), Lecturer on Chemistry in St. Mary's 
Hospital Medical School,and E. H. Rennie, M.A. (Sydney), D.S.C. (Lond.), 
Demonstrator of Chemistry in St. Mary’s Hospital Medical School. 

The alkaloids contained in 300 lbs. of fresh aconite herb (4. napel- 
lus), grown at Foxton, in Cambridgeshire, were isolated by the methods 
described in last year’s report, viz., crushing, maceration in alcohol, 
expression of extract, evaporation to a smaller bulk, and treatment of 
the liquid (weighing about 59 lbs.) with suda and repeatedly shaking 
with ether. A quantity of alkaloidal matter was thus readily dissolved 


Report on the Aconite Alkaloias. 501 

out, a small portion remaining permanently dissolved in the alkaline 
fluid, in a form difficultly soluble in ether; the alkaloidal matter thus 
retained yielded nothing crystalline on precipitation with mercuro-iodide 
of potassium and treatment with sulphuretted hydrogen, and appeared 
to be all but destitute of the characteristic physiological action of aconite, 
producing little or no tingling of the lips when applied thereto; it 
greatly resembled the corresponding substance similarly obtained from 
the extract derived from the various kinds of aconite roots examined in 
previous reports, consisting of a mixture of amorphous bases of lower 
molecular weight than aconitine, some of which differ therefrom mark- 
edly in being readily soluble in caustic and carbonated alkalies, and in 
being only imperfectly removed from such solutions by ether. 

The alkaloidal substances dissolved out by the ether treatment, 
being mixed with a large quantity of greenish soft resin, were separated 
therefrom by agitation with tartaric acid solution and separation of the 
tartrate solution thus formed; on treating this with sodium carbouate 
and ether about 15 grams of alkaloids were finally obtained by the 
spontaneous evaporation of the ethereal solution. No artifice employed 
was successful in making this product either crystallize or yield crys- 
tallized salts of any kind; it appeared, however, to contain a notable 
amount of aconit ne, producing an energetic action on tne lips when 
cautiously applied thereto, though it was by no means so powerfully 
active as pure aconitine. On combustion it yielded the following num- 
bers, indicating, as did also its physical properties, that it was substan- 
tially the same mixture of alkaloids as that occurring in 4. napellus 
roots, only differing therefrom in containing a smaller percentage cf 
aconitine, the quantity of uncrystallizable bases being relatively much 

(1.) *2845 gram of substance, dried at 110°, gave "6735 CO, and 

‘459 gram of substance, burnt with soda lime, gave 01222 N. 

A portion of the substance was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid, 
and the sclution precipitated by slow addition to a dilute solution of 

1Tt would seem to be highly probable that the presence in excess of non-crystal- 
line bases, preventing crystallization of what aconitine is present, is the main cause 
of the difficulty which we understand is sometimes experienced in isolating the crys- 
tallizable alkaloid from A. napellus roots in the process of manufacture on the large 


502 Report on the Aconite Alkaloids. 

sodium carbonate; the flakes thrown down after collection and wash- 
ing, gave these numbers: 
(2.) gram gave *694 CO, and ‘195 H,O. 

*387 gram gave ‘00993 N. 

Carbon, 64°56 65°26 
Hydrogen, 8°47 7°47 
Nitrogen, . ° - 266 2°57 

The sodium carbonate’ solution contained about a gram of a soft 
alkaloid, readily soluble in alkalies, and, for the most part, soluble in 
water, and but sparingly soluble in ether, doubtless therefore consisting 
largely of aconine, either produced by the saponification of aconitine 
during the process of working out the bases present in the herb, or else 
originally present therein. 

The above numbers and general results are practically identical with 
those obtained from the mixture of aconitine and uncrystallizable alkaloids 
accumulating in the mother liquors from which the aconitine from 4. 
napellus root (described in report 1877, p. 461) had separated by crys- 
tallization, two samples of them giving the following numbers: 

Carbon, . 65°80 65°46 
Hydrogen, 7°78 7°58 
Nitrogen, 2°71 3°05 
Benzoic acid formed by saponification,  14°4 

On boiling up the mixture of alkaloids (1) above benzoic acid was 
formed to a somewhat greater extent than with these two samples; 2°227 
grams gave of purified acid, by tritration *3904 grams, by direct weigh- 
ing (including a minute amount of resinous matter), *397 gram. 

By titration, 17°5 By weighing, 17°8 

The benzoic acid produced melted at 120°. It gave no trace of 
coloration with ferric chloride after fusion with caustic potash at 250°, 
acidulation and treatment with ether; whence, evidently, no veratric 
(dimethylprotocatechuic) acid was present, and therefore no pseud- 
aconitine was contained in the herb employed. 

Hence, it results that the quantity of active alkaloid contained in the 
aconite herb is probably somewhat less than that contained in the roots, 
reckoned on the dry substance: for a quantity of roots was found 
(Report, 1876, p. 539) to contain about ‘07 per cent. of total bases, of 
which aconitine constituted so large a proportion that about two-fifths 
of the total alkaloid was obtained as pure crystallized aconitine. Admit- 

Am. jour. Pharm Report on the Aconite Alkaloids. 5293 

» 1880, 

ting the 300 Ibs. (or about 135 kilos) of fresh herb to represent one- 
fifth of that amount of substance in the same state of dryness as the 
roots (an estimate probably in excess of the truth), the total yield of 
alkaloids readily soluble in ether being about 15 grams, this would 
represent about ‘os per cent. of total ‘alkaloids contained in the dry 
herb; the percentage of aconitine in this amount of total alkaloids 
being much less than that in the root alkaloids, so that the relatively 
large amount of non-crystalline bases wholly prevented crystallization. 

It can, however, hardly be concluded from these two cases that it 
is a general rule that aconite roots are richer in crystallizable aconitine 
than the dry herb, for we are informed by Mr. John Williams that it 

has sometimes happened in his factory that no crystallizable aconitine’ 

at all, but only non-crystalline bases could be isolated from batches of 
roots worked up on the manufacturing scale in precisely the same way 
as other batches which readily yielded crystals; whence it would seem 
that the roots occasionally are either poorer in aconitine or richer in 
non-crystalline bases than those described in the Report for 1876; and 
it is therefore much to be desired that further experiments should be 

made as to the quantity of crystallized aconitine that can-practically be * 

isolated on the manufacturing scale from roots of various ages, and 
grown in different soils and climates, etc. Such experiments as these, 
like the analogous questions as to what precise method of manipulating 
and what menstrua will best suffice on the large scale to separate 
aconitine economically from the non-crystalline alkaloids accompanying 
it, cannot readily be carried out by the scientific chemist working in his 
laboratory on a comparatively small scale; but they are indispensable 
in order to put the economical production of crystallized aconitine on 
a sound commercial footing. 

At the present moment the pharmaceutical aspect of the production 
of aconitine is as follows: Prior to the last eight or ten years the 
term ‘faconitine” was applied to an amorphous alkaloidal substance 
extracted by processes investigated by Von Planta, Geiger and Hesse, 
and other chemists, from 4. napellus, and probably mixtures of that 
and other species. During the last decade the experiments of 1. B. 
Groves and Duquesnel, together with those carried out by the aid of 
the Pharmaceutical Conference grants by Alder Wright and collabor- 
ateurs, and described in the series of reports of which this is the con- 
cluding one, have demonstrated that the active alkaloid of 4. napellus 
(to which for some years the name “aconitine” has been restricted) is 

j 3 

504 Report on the Aconite Atkaloids. {9™9".¢0"™ 

a definite crystallizable substance occurring naturally intermixed with 
larger or smaller quantitics of amorphous bases of much less highly 
active characters, and is readily split up by various chemical reagents 
into benzoic acid and a base (aconine) comparatively speaking inert. 
The want of uniformity in physiological action of the product obtained 
by processes such as those employed by the older chemists being due 
partly to the presence of variable quantities of the natural amorphous 
alkaloids co-existing with aconitine, and partly to the decomposition of 
a large portion of the aconitine originally present by the action of the 
particular chemicals and mode of treatment employed during the extrac- 
tion operations. Further, the relationships of this aconitine to other 
analogous aconite alkaloids derived from other species (e. g., pseud- 
aconitine from 4. ferox), and to organic bodies generally, have been 
attentively studied. 

As a consequence of these experiments, a demand for pure crys- 
tallized aconitine has sprung up, more especially in America, the object 
being to replace the amorphous unreliable preparations generally met 
with in the market by the pure uniform alkaloid; but at the present 
moment this demand is, toa great extent, unsatisfied, because whilst 
the supply of 4. napellus of American growth is too limited to enable 
American drug manufacturers to prepare the pure alkaloid themselves, 
its manufacture in Europe has not yet been carried out to any con- 
siderable extent; from whence it results that, whilst the Committee of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association on the Revision of the U. 
$. Pharmacopoeia is desirous that the forthcoming new edition of that 
pharmacopoeia should exclude the amorphous preparations, and should 
detine aconitine solely as the crystallized uniform body C,;H,NO,,, 
described in detail in former reports to the Pharmaceutical Conference ;' 
yet it appears at present somewhat doubtful whether it will be prac- 
ticable for this desire to be carried out, simply because this pure article 
is not to be found in the market, at any rate, to an extent at all com- 
parable with the demand for it.—Phar. Four. and Trans., Sept. 11, 1880. 

1For an epitome of the characters (physical and chemical) of aconitine and other 
allied aconite alkaloids, vide ‘“‘ The Pharmaceutical Journal,” July 3, 1880, and 
following numbers, in which some points connected with the practical economical 
side of the question are discussed, the origin of these communications being an 
application to the subscriber by Dr. Charles Rice, chairman of the Revision Com- 
mittee of the U. S. Pharmacopeeia, for a précis of the characters of aconitine and 
other information concerning it for the guidance of the committee.—C. R. ALDER 



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Am. Jour Ashy Ingredients in Codtiver Oil. 505 

By Proressor E. A. VAN DER Bure. 

In the first part of the ‘* Scheikundige Onderzuckingen,” by G. J. 
Mulder, Dr. L. J. de Jongh says, on page 479 of his ‘* Chemical 
Investigation of the Composition of Cod Liver Oil”: ‘ No less differ 
the series of inorganic ingredients which we have discovered in codliver 
oil from those mentioned by others.” Further on, on page 480, line 
10: ** The reason why Marder, who, to our knowledge, has been up 

to the present time the only one that makes special mention of the- 

inorganic ingredients of the cod liver oil, has found no phosphoric acid, 
is that he has not tried to find it. In declaring this, viz., the reasons 
why the results of our investigations on this point differ from those of 
others, we believe we have done no more than our duty. If we now 
look on the different results of our own investigations of the three 
sorts of cod liver oil we may state that the light-colored oils contain 
more inorganic ingredients than the dark-colored.” 

Dr. Jongh also tells us that his investigations led him to the discov- 
ery that in the former the quantity of phosphoric acid is nearly double 
and that of lime more than double what is found in the latter. 

Considering that hardly any incombustible matter is found in the 
light-colored oil, it may be of importance to know how Dr. de Jongh 
got those figures. 

To determine the phosphoric acid and the sulphuric acid a certain 
quantity of the oil was saponified by the admixture of potassa caustica. 
The soap which was obtained in this way was decomposed with hydro- 
chloric acid. After the removal of the fatty acids the phosphoric acid 
in the filtered liquor was determined as phosphas forvious and the sul- 
phuric acid as sulphas barycus. 

In order to see how much calcium, magnesia and soda the mixture 
contained a Certain quantity of it was carbonized, the caibon digested 
with hydrochloric acid, and the phosphoric acid removed from the acid 
liquor as phosphas ferri. After filtration the calcium was determined 
as oxalas calcis, and after this had been removed the magnesia was pre- 
cipitated as phosphas ammonico-magnesicus. The filtrate was now 
mixed with sulphuric acid, evaporated in a platinum cup, incinerated 
and weighed, and as no potash was found the weight was taken acccunt 
of as sulphas sodz. 

In this manner the author found in light-colored sod liver oil the 
following percentages : 

t a 
- 4 
it 3 

Analysis of Iodine-Iron Codtiver Oil, {*™ dor 

0°09135 Phosphoric acid 
0°07100 Sulphurie acid 

000880 Magnesia 
0°05540 Soda 

Total 0°37805 per cent. inorganic matter or 
0°32265 per cent. incombustible ingredients, if the soda, 
which may be volatilized as chloric natrium, is not counted. 

What was, however, the result of a direct experiment, the burniug 
in a platinum cup? Nothing more or less than this—a quantity of no 
less than 35 grams of light-colored cod liver oil left no weighable quan- 
tity of ash. 

These experiments have often been made with the light-colored 
Lofodin cod. liver oil of Draisma Van Valkenburg, and generally 
crowned with the same success. 

Likewise other sorts of cod liver oil produced the same results. For 
instance, 23°867 grams of an English oil that was very pure, left 0°0005 
gram of a light brown ash, in which iron, but hardly any calcium, 
could be distinguished ; accordingly 0002 per cent. 

22°408 grams of Dr. de Jongh’s oil, which is darker than the two 
sorts mentioned above, left 0002 gram of ash, in which iron and cal- 
cium were distinguishable ; accordingly 0°009 per cent. 

Hence it may be safely stated that light-colored cod liver oil con- 
tains hardly any or no incombustible matter. 

How, then, are the results of Dr. de Jongh’s experiments to be 
accounted for? Inasmuch as this phosphoric acid, calcium, etc., have 
really. been found in an analysis, they can only have originated from 
the vessels or the reagents that were used, a warning example, no doubt, 
that one cannot be too scrupulously accurate in ascertaining the recti- 
tude of the results that one has acquired through analysis.—/Pharm, 
Four. and Trans., Sept. 4, 1880. 

By Proressor E. A. DER Bure. 

From the above it is evident that the light-colored cod liver oil after 
combustion leaves no weighable quantity of ash. The quantity of iron 
may be found by burning at least 20 grams in a small porcelain or pla 
tinum cup, and weighing the iron oxide that is in that way produced. 

! The method of making this preparation is described below. 

| | 



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am. Jour Analysis of Iodine-Iron Codliver Oil. 507 

ct., 1880, 

This weight multiplied by 0°7 gives the quantity of iron in the oil. If 

the oil is of the right kind there should be 0°27 per cent. of iron. One 
has to be very careful in burning the oil, as it is very combustible, and 
the experiment consequently liable to fail. 

The vessel—I always use one of platinum—should be filled for no 
more than one-sixth. It should be heated by a gas flame under the 
chimney. The oil will be observed to lose the violet color and become 
brownish-red. As soon as the color of the oil has changed in this way, 
there will be a sufficient quantity of combustible vapor, that may be 
ignited by a flame, and will keep burning for some time. At that 
moment the gas flame should be removed, and the combustiun, that 
heretofore took place in a very great flame, will keep on quietly. As. 
soon as the flame is extinguished, the vessel should be heated anew, and 
again some inflammable vapors will appear. When the oil is com- 
pletely carbonized, a beginning should be made with a total combus- 
tion of the carbon. This last process may be quickened a good deal, 
if every now and then a drop of water is poured on the cooled carbon, 
and after a slow and careful evaporation of the water the carbon is 
ignited afresh. The red ash may be determined as pure. iron oxide. 
Should further proof be wanted, the ash may be dissolved in hydro- 
chloric acid, reduced by zinc, after which the iron may be easily 
determined by the ordinary titrated solution of potassium permanga- 

To find out the iodine, 5 grams of the oil is sufficient. This should 
be saponified with an alcoholic solution of potash (which must contain 
no iodine, of course), by heating it for an hour or two, in a porcelain 
cup on a water-bath. After this the soap must be completely carbon- 
ized in the same cup by careful heating, and the carbon treated with 
water, until it ceases to have an alkaline reaction. As a test that the 
combustion has taken place in the right manner, the solution must be 
totally colorless. The clear liquid must be rendered a little acid by 
admixture of hydrochloric acid and precipitated by a solution of palla- 
dium. The precipitate may be weighed now, or as palladium metal, 
after heating. If the preparation has been of the right composition,, 
5 grams will produce about 0°087 gram of iodetum palladiosum, or 
about 0°025 of palladium.—/Jbid. 


508 Preparation of lodine-Iron Codliver Oil. {*™ 


Being invited by the Rotterdam Department of the Dutch Pharma- 
ceutical Society to make the manner in which I prepare my iodine-iron 
codliver oil public, a thing which I had often thought of, but different 
circumstances had up till now prevented me from carrying out, I here- 
with present to the public the following prescription: 

R Iodii, ° part 1°25 

The iodine is thrown into a vessel filled with codliver oil, and by 
constant, stirring or shaking for some days made entirely to dissolve into 
it, so that the liquid when left for some time to itself has a specific 
weight of 0°932 to 0°937 at 13°5 to 21°C, 

The solution is now poured in a vessel which is hermetically shut, 
and brought into contact with iron by shaking or stirring it with this 
ingredient for some four hours until it gets a purple-violet color, and 
after a due shaking with solution of iodetum kalicum and diluted starch 
has lost the power to produce a reaction on free iodine. 

The liquid must now stand quietly for twenty-four hours (the vessel 
must be carefully shut, and nearly fuli), then shaken again for an hour 
at least till it has been proved, after again shaking with a little iodetum 
kalicum amylum solution (also after twenty-four hours) that the pre- 
paration is wholly exempt from free iodium, may easily be made an 
emulsion, and consequently remain constant. The m:xture must now 
stand till it appears clear, and one must make sure by specific weight 
and analysis that the desired combination has taken place. 

The oil should be conserved in well-corked bottles, filled to the top 
and of yellow-colored glass, which must have as little surface exposed 
to the air as is possible. 

The bottles are supposed to be emptied in five days; scrupulous 
investigations have brought to light that in this space the air can produce 
but a very trifling change in the oil. 

The mixture must be of a purple-violet color, and should have a 
specific weight of 0°937 to o'940 at 8 to 13°. It should contain 1°23 
per cent. of iodine and about 0°27 per cent. of iron, both in a chemi- 
cally combined condition. The mixture will become of a darker 
color and the quantity of iron greater, as the air has had more time to 
form iron oxyiodide. Nothing of an iodine reaction must be observed 

| n 
| th 
| di 









Am. jour '} Preparation of Iodine-Iron Codliver Oil. 509 

when the mixture is shaken with diluted starch, not even if to the 
latter should be added a solution of kalium iodide. The addition of 
kalium iodide, which seizes the free iodine that might be in the oil, 
greatly enhances the sensibility of the amylum reaction. 

I prepare my codliver oil in quantities of 800 to 1,000 liters in a 
vessel that is provided with a stirring apparatus, and several cocks 
placed in gradual elevations. The vessel must be of iron, and capable 
of being shut hermetically. During the preparation, samples of the oil, 
of the iodine solution and of the iodine-iron solution are sent to Prof. 

Vanderburg, and not before he has tested them is the operation pro- 

ceeded with. 

In large quantities French iodine is, in my opinion, to be preferred 
above English iodine. The latter is finer and consequently mixed 
itself easily with the oil to a tough mass, which cannot be resolved 
again but with great difficulty. In small quantities the solution of the 
iodine may be considerably quickened by pulverizing the iodine in a 
mortar. A long shaking with iron ought not to be omitted in this case. 
Though apparently all the iodine is dissolved to a clear liquid, close 
investigations have shown that, especially with large quantities, small 
parts of a dark colored matter will adhere to the bottom of the vessel, 
from which no shaking or stirring can remove them. This matter is 
insoluble in ether. It may be nearly completely burnt. The eye, with 
the aid of a microscope, can detect no crystallization. This circum- 
stance probably explains why the iodine-iron codliver oil is of a finer 
taste and odor than the original oil. 

That the mixture, after its purity has been tested, shows a free 
iodine reaction when it has stood for 24 hours, finds its explanation in 
the fact that a small quantity of ferrid-iodide seems to have been pro- 
duced, which soon decomposes itself into ferro-iodide and iodine. The 
violet color owes its origin to the small particles of ferrid-oxyiodide, 
which can hardly be avoided but by a very careful removal of the air 
during the shaking with iron. 

A preparation that should be #ota/ly free of ferrid-oxyiodide is not the 
thing that is desired. Then, being a little darker colored than the 
oil which was used, it obtains immediately after it has been brought 
into contact with the air the peculiar dark violet color, and may be 
used as a sensible characteristic reagent for oxygen. Without taking 
this precaution, the quantity of the oxyiodide combination will amount 






our. Pharm, 

510 Aromatic Products of the Animal Body. {4™ §o".32 

to very little (though sufficient for the color) if the preparation has been 
gone through with due care. Analysis will sufficiently show this. 

The oxydizable properties of the mixture will become evident if a 
drop is exposed to the air on the lid of a cup. At once the color will 
change, while at last the liquid will have a color little darker than the 
original oil. If the drop is made to spread by strongly blowing upon 
it, the above reaction will appear much more quickly, on account of 
the higher temperature as well as the vapor of water of the breath. 

It is very remarkable that water will spoil the mixture. We once 
had to ascribe the loss of about 10 tuns to this cause. This influence 
ot water may be easily shown. If 1 drop of water is shaken up with 
about 10 grams of the oil in a well-corked bottle, great changes will 
soon be observed in the color. The water seems to rob the oil of the 
ferro-iodide for some part, and for the other to decompose it by mutual 

It is still noteworthy that the quantity of iron was larger than was 
absolutely necessary, because this quickens the combination. Exact 
investigations, made expressly for this purpose, have clearly shown that 
the codliver oil which is prepared with the due observances remains 
constant.—Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Sept. 11, 1880 

By E. BauMANN. 

Hydroparacoumaric acid being the first, and under the conditions 
given by the author, the final putrefaction product of tyrosin, putre- 
fection affords a convenient method of preparing it. 
tyrosin thus yield 12 grams of hydroparacoumaric acid. Salkowski 
has shown that when it occurs amongst the decomposition-products 
of albumin, it is also derived from previously-formed tyrosin. 

The homologous parahydroxyphenylacetic acid is also generated dur- 
ing the digestion of albumin, and may be detected in the ur:ne by 
evaporating 5 to 10 cc. with hydrochloric acid to remove phenols, and 
extracting with ether. With Milton’s reagent the ethereal extract 
gives the red color characteristic of hydroxy acids. The acid may be 
prepared by evaporating 25 liters of urine to 1} liters, strongly acidify- 
ing with acetic acid and shaking with ether, « little alcohol being added 
to decompose the emulsion which frequently forms. The extract, 
freed from acetic acid, is again dissolved in water and exhausted with 

20 grams of 

| as 
| bu 




| si 

Am. Jour geo} Aromatic Products of the Animal Boay. gil 

ether. The portion of this second extract, soluble in water, gives with 
basic lead acetate a precipitate of lead parahydroxyphenylacetate, from 
which the acid may be liberated by sulphuretted hydrogen, and purified 
by crystallization from water and benzin (m. p. 148°). About } gram 
of crude acid is thus obtained. Hydroparacoumaric acid (m. p. 126 to 
127°) is occasionally obtained from the urine by the same process; it 
separates more slowly and incompletely from hot benzin than its 

Parahydroxyphenylacetic acid might be supposed to owe its origin to 
an amido acid, C,H,NO,, homologous with tyrosin, especially since 
Schiitzenberger has detected numerous amido‘acids of the fatty series 
amongst the decomposition-products of albumin; the author shows, 
however, that tyrosin alone is produced when horn-clippings are boiled 
with dilute sulphuric acid. . 

In order, if possible, to detect some of the transition-products 
between hydroparacoumaric acid and phenol, 5 grams of the former 
were administered to a man in whose urine hydroxy acids and phenols 
were normally present only in minute quantities. On subsequently 
examining the urine it was found that the greater part of the acid had 
been destroyed ; a small part (‘8 gram) was obtained unchanged ; and 
a still smaller quantity had been converted into a phenol, obtained as 
an ethereal sulphate. Parahydroxyphenylacetic acid could not be 

That portion of the ethereal extract from urine, obtained as above 
described, which was sparingly soluble in water, contained oily acids 
which reacted with nitric acid like indole, and on prolonged contact 
with putrescent substance yielded a considerable amount of skatole, 
but no indole. These nitrogenous acids dissolve in hydrochloric acid, 
and are resinified when boiled with it. They are probably the sources 
of skatole and indole in the urine and in decomposed albumin; since 
after either has been boiled with hydrochloric acid and the precipitated 
resins removed, the basis are no longer obtained by putrefaction: and 
putrescent albumin, not so far decomposed as to contain indole after 
being agitated with ether, does not yield indole on further putrefaction, 
whilst the ethereal extract, when neutralized with sodium carbonate and 
diluted with water, yields that base on standing in the incubator for 
six days. — Four. Chem. Soc., Sept., 1880, p. 648. 

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512 Minutes of the College. eo 


PHILADELPHIA, September 27th, 1880. 

The semi-annual meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this 
day, at the College Hall. Dillwyn Parrish, President, in the chair. Twenty-four 
members in attendance. | 

The minutes of the last stated meeting were read, and, on motion, adopted. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for July, August and September were 
read by Mr. C. Bakes, Secretary of the Board, and, on motion, approved. 

Alonzo Robbins, Chairman of the Delegation to the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, read the following report, which, meeting with approval, was referred 

for publication : 
To the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy: 

The delegates elected to attend the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., respectfully report that the meeting was 
held at the time and place appointed, and was an occasion of much interest, from 
the great number in attendance, the large addition to the list of members, and the 
variety of interesting papers presented. 

The sessions were hela in Congress Hall concert-room, and an eloquent address of 
welcome was delivered by Mr. Charles F. Fish, of Saratoga. 

The social entertainment consisted of a reception in the parlors of Congress Hall 
Hotel, a carriage ride to the various medicinal springs and other points of interest, 
a grand hop in the ball-room and a banquet at the hotel; all of which passed off in 
a pleasant manner. 

The exhibition was held in the roller skating rink, and was very large and com- 
plete, over fifty different individuals and firms contributing to it; most of the reme- 
dies lately introduced into medicine, and many drugs in the original packages were 
shewn ; the exhibition is a valuable and attractive adjunct to the meetings, and well 
deserves the continued recognition of the Association. 

A very important change was made in the method of transacting the business of 
the Association ; an Executive Council was elected to take the place of the present 
Executive and Business Committees; this change is expected to greatly facilitate 
the business at future meetings. 

The balance required to complete the Centennial fund was collected during the 

This College was honored by our fellow-member, Mr. James T. Shinn, being 
elected President of the Association for the ensuing year. 

One hundred and sixty-eight new members were elected; this is probably the 
greatest increase of membership ever obtained at one meeting, and is largely due to 
the Committee on Membership appointed at the meeting in Indianapolis. 

The Association adjourned on Friday morning, Sept. 17th, to meet at Kansas 
City, Mo., on the fourth Tuesday of August, 1881. 

On Friday afternoon a party of over eighty made an excursion to Au Sable Chasm, 
arriving there the same evening; after spending, on Saturday, an hour or two in exa- 
mining this remarkable natural wonder, about half of the party returned, the others 
remaining until Monday. The return was by railway, along the bank of Lake 
Champlain to Baldwin, then down Lake George by steamboat to Caldwell, and 
then by stage to Glenn’s Falls, where the railway was resumed, to Albany, at which 
place the party separated. This excursion will be long remembered with delight by 
all who were so fortunate as to participate in it. 

Respectfully submitted. ALONZO RoBBINs, 

CuHarLes W. Hancock, 
Rocer Keys, M. D., 
CuHar_es A. HEINITSH, 
Delegates in attendance. 

September 27th, 1880. 

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Am. Jour | American Pharmaceutical Association. 513 

Prof. Maisch, on behalf of the Delegates to the Convention of Teaching Phar- 
maceutical Colleges read a report, which was also referred to the Secretary for pub- 
lication : 

To the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy: 

The undersigned, in behalf of the delegation to the Conference of Schools of 
Pharmacy, respectfully reports as follows : 

Two of the three delegates were present at Saratoga, A meeting had also been 
called by the Committee of Revision of the U.S. Pharmacopeeia, of which your 
two delegates are likewise members; and, deeming the latter at present of greater 
importance, they were not present at the first session, and the undersigned was the 
only representative of this College at the second session of the Conference. 

At the first session an organization for the current year was effected by re elect- 

ing Dr. Chas. A. Tufts, of Dover, N. H., Chairman, and Prof. J. M. Maisch, of | 

Philadelphia, Secretary. At the second session the recognition by the various 
Pharmaceutical Examining Boards of the diplomas of the Colleges was discussed. 
It had been suggested that the Boards should examine all applicants for registration, 
including Graduates in Pharmacy ; but all members present were averse to this sug- 
gestion, and regarded a College diploma, based upon a term of apprenticeship and 
an examination before the College, as better evidence of qualification, and entitled 
to recognition throughout the United States. 

The value of a written thesis, as a requirement for graduation, created an anima- 
ted discussion, several delegates being in favor of discontinuance, because, it was 
asserted, many theses were merely copied from published works ; the time devoted 
for writing the thesis could be better spent in studying ; and most of the theses pre- 
sented to the Colleges were without any real value. On the other hand, it was sug- 
gested that the quality of the theses could be improved by requiring them to be on 
subjects of original investigation; by conferring a special title as an equivalent for 
a meritorious original thesis; and by stimulating original investigations by the offer- 
ing of prizes and otherwise. It was further insisted by your delegate that, even if 
original dissertations were not required, the wiiting of an essay on a well known 
subject should be regarded as a means of study and acquiring knowledge trom the 
investigations of others and from the critical examination and sifting of facts. 

A resolution was finally passed, making the subject for discussion at the next 
Conference the advisability of discontinuing the writing of a thesis as one of the 
requirements of graduation. Joun M. Maiscn. 

A letter from M. Kratz, of Germantown, to the Secretary, was read, conveying 
the information of the death of John Butler, a member of the College, which took 
place in February, three years ago. 


First Session, Tuesday Afternoon, Sept. 14th. —The twenty-eighth meeting 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association convened in the spacious concert room 
of Congress Hall, at Saratoga, N. Y., and was called to order at 4 o'clock P.M. by 
President Sloan, who introduced the Local Secretary, Mr. C. F. Fish, by whom an 
address of welcome was delivered. A Committee on Credentials, consisting of 
Messrs. Whiting, of Massachusetts; Gordon, of Ohio, and Luhn, of South Caro- 
lina, was appointed, and the President then proceeded to deliver his annual address, 
in which, after referring to some business transacted during the past year, and to 
others claiming attention at the present meeting, he discussed the changes in vege- 
tation produced by vaiious influences, and dwelt more particularly upon the dis- 


harm 3 
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Am. Jour. Pharm, 
{ ct., 1880, 

514 American Pharmaceutical Association. 

nppearance of medicinal plants in consequence of the destruction of our forests, 
which demand attention in this aspect as well as in other important particulars; an 
excellent suggestion of the very instructive address was the recommendation to 
State Pharmaceutical Associations to confer with State Boatds of Agriculture in 
regard to the more systematic cultivation of medicinal and other useful plants. 
The address was well received, and was referred to a committee consisting of 
Messrs. Scheffer, of Kentucky; Ingalls, of Georgia, and Robbins, of Pennsylvania, 
to report upon such suggestions as may require action on the part of the Associa- 

Invitations were received and accepted to attend the dramatic readings of Miss 
A. Detehm, and to visit the Saratoga County Cabinet, containing collections of 
geology, mineralogy, paleontology, archeology, etc., of the county. Invitations 
to attend the sessions were extended to the medical and pharmaceutical protessions 
of Saratoga, and to the members of the Committee of Revision of the U. S. Phar- 
macopeeia present. 

The Executive Committee reported 141 applications for membership. On roll 
call, 137 members were found to be present at the opening session. 

The Committee on Credentials reported having received and examined creden- 
tials from 36 societies, namely from the Colleges of Pharmacy at New York, Wash- 
ington (National), Chicago, Boston, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, 
Montreal, Ontario, Louisville and Baltimore; trom Alumni Associations of the 
Cincinnati, Massachusetts, New York, St. Louis, Louisville and Philadelphia Col- 
leges of Pharmacy; from Pharmaceutical Associations of the States of Wisconsin, 
New Hampshire, North Carolina, Connecticut, South Carolina, Vermont, Iowa, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Kansas, Ohio, Georgia and Kentucky, and 
the Province of Quebec; and from the King’s County, N. Y., and Newark, N. J., 
Pharmaceutical Associations, and from the Society of German Apothecaries of 
New York. 

The Committee reports were handed in, and laid upon the table, when the Nom- 
inating Committee was appointed, consisting of one member of each of the thirty- 
six delegations, and of the following gentlemen from the Association at large: J. 
G. Thibodeaux, of Louisiana; W. B. Blanding, of Rhode Island; W. J. Morley, 
of Texas; E. Martin, of Indiana, and E. Bocking, of West Virginia. A Com- 
mittee on Exhibitiun was appointed, consisting of Messrs. E. H. Dalrymple, of 
New Jersey ; C. Huston, of Ohio; Win. Blaikie, of New York; P. C. Candidus, 
of Alabama, and Geo. H. Schater, of lowa. 

Professor Remington read the report of the Committee on By-laws, contemplat- 
ing the organization of a Business Council, the consideration of which was made 
the special business of the second session after the transaction of the regular busi- 
ness. An adjournment was then had until 9 o’clock the next morning. 

Second Session, Wednesday Morning, Sept. 15th.—After the reading and 
approval of the minutes of the first session, the fullowing officers and ‘committees 
were placed in nomination: President, Jas. T. Shinn, Philadelphia. Vice-Presidents— 
Geo. H. Schafer, Fort Madison, Ia.; Wm. S. Thompson, Washington, D.C.; Wm. 
Simpson, Raleigh, N.C. Treasurer, Cnas. A. Tutts, Dover, N. H. Permanent 
Secretary, J. M. Maisch, Philadelphia. Reporter on Progress of Pharmacy, C. L. 
Diehl, Louisville, Ky. Executive Committee—G. W. Kennedy, Pottsville, Pa. 


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Am. jour American Pharmaceutical Association. £15 
Chairman ; A. W. Miller, Philadelphia; Chas. Huston, Columbus, O.; Thos. Doli- 
ber, Boston, and the Secretrary ex-officio. Committee on the Drug Market—Louis 
Lehn, New York, Chairman; Jas. G. Steele, San Francisco; I. L. Lyons, New 
Orleans ; Thos. Whitfield, Chicago; J. P. Muth, Baltimore. Committee on Papers 
and Queries—J. U. Lloyd, Cincinnati, Chairman; S. H. Ambler, New York; W. 
W. Bartlett, Boston. Business Committee—H. J. Menninger, Brooklyn, N.Y., Chair- 
man; Chas. L. Eberle, Philadelphia; E. H. Heinitsh, Columbia, S.C. Committee 
on Prize Essays—C. L. Diehl, Louisville, Chairman; J. F. Judge, Cincinnati; E. 
Scheffer, Louisville. Committee on Legislation—J. M. Maisch, Philadelphia; J. W. 
Rankin, Atlanta, Ga.; S. A. D. Sheppard, Boston. 

The nominees were balloted for and elected. Credentials were received from the . 

Nova Scotia Pharmaceutical Society and the accredited delegate was, on motion, 
admitted. Messrs. Saunders, of Canada, and Ebert, of Illinois, conducted the 
president and vice-presidents elect to their chairs, and short addresses of thanks were 
made by the new officers. A ballot was had for the candidates for membership 
reported at the first session and they were unanimonsly elected. On motion of Mr. 
Kennedy a committee consisting of Messrs. Eberle, Diehl and Ebert was appointed 
for the purpose of raising at this meeting sufficient funds so that the Association 
may come into possession of the Centennial Fund. 

The report of the Executive Committee was read, and permission was granted to 
add obituary notices of several deceased members. The report was accompanied 
by that of the Permanent Secretary, which gives an account of the expenses of his 
ofice and of the property in his charge. : 

The Treasurer reporteda balance on hand amounting to $1,561.61, which includes 
$370.00 received for life-memberships ; $49.32 interest from the Ebert Fund and 
$1,585.00 yearly contributions for the current year. The report and books of the 
Treasurer were placed into the hands of an auditing committee consisting of Messrs. 
Gordon of Ohio, Dalrymple of New Jersey, and Sloan of Indiana. 

The introductory part of the annual report on the Progress of Pharmacy was 
read, and the whole report referred for publication. The report on the Drug Mar- 
ket by M. L. Lehn, gives valuable and interesting information on many drugs and 
chemicals, but mainly such which have been recently introduced or revived as reme- 
dial agents. ‘The Committee on Prize Essays reported that no award had been made 

for 1878 and 1879. A verbal report was reccived from the Committee on Legis- 
lation, and ordered to be completed and printed. 

The report of the Committee on Membership stated that more than two-thirds of 
the applications acted oa this morning were replies to the efforts of the committee. 
Sixteen additional candidates were proposed for membership. 

The committee charged with the publication of last year’s report on the revision 
ot the Pharmacopoeia reported that that duty had been attended to, and that from 
the tunds collected for the purpose, a surplus of $78.79 had been paid over into the 
Centennial Fund. The committee appointed early in the same session reported that 
it had succeeded in collecting the entire balance required for that fund. 

The special business of the morning session was then taken up and the report on 
the organization of a business council was considered in detail and adopted as pro- 
posed. The council consists of the eight officers of the Association, ex-officio, and 
of nine members, three of whom are elected for one year, three for two years and 
three for three years, and hereafter three councilors are elected annually for the 
term of three years. Ihe Council elects its own chairman and secretary and three 
committees on membership, finance and publication, The Executive and Business 

in Ss 
jay q 
J. 7 

{ Am. Jour. Pharm 

516 American Pharmaceutical Association. 

Committees are discontinued and their duties transferred to the council. Applica- 
tions for membership are made to and examined by the council and reported to 
.the Association, and if no objection is made, the applicants are elected by the coun- 
cil. All actions of the council are subject to revision by the Association. 

The Nominating Committee was directed to present nominations for nine mem- 
bers of the council, and the Executive and Business Committees were requested to 
continue in office until the close of the present meeting. The Association thea 
proceeded in a body to the exhibition room for the examination of the exhibits and 
then adjourned until the following morning at 9 o'clock. 

Third Session, Thursday Morning Sept. 16th.—The minutes of the second 
session were read and approved. A telegram conveying greetings from the California 
College of Pharmacy was read and received with applause. Invitations were 
extended to the Association from the following places : Cincinnati, Chicago, Kansas 
City, Mo.; Asbury Park, N. J.; Washington, D. C.; Peoria, Ill.; and Milwaukee, 
Wis. The invitations were referred for consideration and report to a committee 
consisting of Messrs. Markoe of Massachusetts, Lilly of Indiana, and Luhn of 

. South Carolina. 

Dr. Squibb proposed an amendment to the by-laws, referring to the appointment 
of the Nominating Committee, in such a manner that the delegations coming from 
one State appoint one member only (instead of one member for each delegation). 
Dr. Roberts moved a substitute, favoring the nomination of the officers by the 
council, with the exception of President and Vice Presidents, who were to be 
nominated and voted for at the second session of each annual meeting. The propo- 
sitions were laid over for consideration to the next session. 

Prof. Oldberg read a paper on the nomenclature of the Pharmacopaia, which was 
accepted with thanks and referred for publication. The paper is not adapted for a 
brief resumé, the most important part being the arguments advanced in favor of the 
proposed changes. 

Mr. Fish read an able paper, illustrated by sketches and tables, on the mineral 
waters of Saratoga, which was accepted with thanks and referred for publication. 

The Committee on the Next Annual Meeting reported in favor of Washington, 
D.C. A telegram just received from the Kansas Pharmaceutical Association urged 
Kansas City tor holding the next meeting. Further consideration was deferred until 

the afternoon session. 

Prof. Dieh! read his third report on fluid extracts, giving the results and compari- 
sons of numerous experiments, and accompanied by many specimens. The aim of 
the report was to throw light upon the relation of strength of fluid extracts made so 
that a definite weight of drug should be made into fluid extract of the same weight 
or of the measure holding an equal weight of water. 

Prof. Markoe read a paper on the preparation of ferric hydrate, showing that 
when made from strong ammonia and iron solutions, there is no difficulty in wash- 
ing out the ammonia salts from the precipitate, if care is taken to break up the 
lumps of the latter previous to the addition of the wash water. 

Mr. Kennedy read a paper on Pharmaceutical Preparations of the Bark of Rhus 
Purshiana, proposing a fluid extract with a mixture of ‘13 volumes of alcohol to 7 
volumes of water; also an elixir, made with a similar menstruum, containing in the 
pint 3 ounces of the bark, the same weight of glycerin, and flavored with oil of 
orange gtt. vi, and oil of cinnamon gtt. ii. 

A paper by Mr. Candidus on the increase of bulk by dissolving solids in liquids, 
reports the increase to be, for 
20 grams Acid, citric, - 32 Ce. 10 grams Potass. citras, + 7033 ce. 

5 Acid, oxalic, . 03 3 Potass. permangan., ‘ol 
10 Ammon. nitras, . 3 Quinid. sulphas, . ‘024 

5 Barii chlorid., ‘O12 10 Sodii bromidum, - 
10 Calcii chlorid., - 1043 10 Sodii hyposulphis, . ‘05 
10 Ferri et potas. tart., 5 Sodii sulphocarbolas, 
10 Ferri pyrophosph., . ‘05 10 Zinci sulphas, a) 

Mr. Kennedy read a paper on the rhizome of Aspidium marginale, stating that it 

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Am Jour American Pharmaceutical Association. 517 

can be readily obtained, and agreeing with the view previously expressed, that its 
substitution for Filix mas should be recognized by the Pharmacopeeia. 

Mr. S. L. Coffin’s paper on the exhaustion of lupulin by aromatic spirit of ammonia 
reports that the menstruum proposed does not appear to be superior to alcohol, 
either in the quality or therapeutic properties of the preparation. 

In a communication by Mr. C. M. Miller on Cologne water, the adoption by the 
Pharmacopoeia of a formula for such a preparation was urged, but no formula was 

. The final report of the Committee on the Centennial Fund was read by the Chair. 
man and accepted, when the Association adjourned. 

Fourth Session, Thursday Afternoon, Sept. 16th —Vice-President Schafer pre- 
sided. The minutes of the preceding session were read and approved. The amend- 
ments to the by-laws relating to the formation ot the Nominating Committee were 

discussed at length, and after repeated votings and ballotings on motions pertaining ° 

thereto, not adopted. 

The sixteen applicants, announced before, were duly elected. 

The Auditing Committee reported the accounts of the Treasurer and of the 
Committee on the Publication of the Pharmacopceia report to be correct. 

The report of the Committee on the President's Address, read at the third ses- 
sion, was considered, and the Executive Committee (Council) empowered to employ 
a suitable person for preparing an Index of the Proceedings for the last decade. 
Resolutions favoring the repeal of the stamp tax on medicines, perfumery, etc., 
were, after considerable discussion, laid on the table. 

A paper by Prof. Lloyd on Leptandrin (see page 489) was read; it was accom- 
panied by numerous handsome specimens of the product described. 

Dr. Power read a paper on the volatile oil of Asarum Canadense, giving its 
chemical composition, etc. We hope to find room in our next number for publish- 
ing this essay. A vote of thanks was tendered to the author. - 

The Executive Committee reported the names of eight applicants for member- 
ship, who were subsequently elected. 

The report of the committee on the next annual meeting was called up,and after 
a lengthy discussion it was finally decided to meet next year in Kansas City, Mo., 
on the third Tuesday of August. The date way subsequently reconsidered and the 
Fourth Tuesday of August adopted as the time of the next meeting. 

Fifth Session, Friday Morning, Sept. 17th.—After the reading and approval of 
the minutes of the preceding session, Mr. A. G. Voge'er read a paper on syrup of 
liquorice root, advocating its preparation by exhausting cight troyounces of the cut 
root by a mixture of one ounce ammonia water and 4% ounces water, agitating the 
percolate with four drachms of magnesium carbonate, filtering, evaporating to 16 
fluidounces, straining, and dissolving in the liquid 48 troyounces of sugar.' 

The resolution favoring the repeal of the stamp tax was taken trom the table and 
then passed after inserting the words “‘ except proprietary medicines.” 

Mr. R. W. Gardner read a lengthy paper on Elixirs and their preparation, and 
exhibited a number of samples. The paper contains a large number of formulas 
for preparations which, in our opinion, are far better prescribed by physicians, as 
needed, perhaps with the aid of one or two pleasant vehicles that might be made 
officinal, but under a more appropriate name than “ elixir.” 

Mr. Louis Dohme contributed a lengthy paper entitied observations on some of 
the iron preparations, in which modifications for certain processes are proposed, with 
the view ef attaining greater accuracy in the results. 

A paper by Mr. Chas. Caspari, Jr., on Pyrophosphate of Iron was read, recom- 
mending the substitution of sodium citrate for ammonium citrate as yielding a 
stable and uniformly soluble compound. Seven fluidounces of solution of tersul- 
phate of iron are precipitated by 2,242 grains of crystallized pyrophosphate of iron 
at a temperature of 50°F., the washed precipitate is dissolved with the aid of 2 troy- 
ounces of citric acid and the solution neutralized by the addition of 720 grains, or a 

1There is evidently a clerical error in the figurese—Epitor A. J PH. 

as 4 
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our. Pharm. 

518 American Pharmaceutical Association, {4™ 

sufficient quantity, of dry carbonate of sodium, then evaporated and scaled in the 
usual manner. 

Mr. A. G. Vogeler contributed a paper on fruit syrups, giving the results of his 
experience with various methods of their preparation. 

The following nominations were reported by the Nominating Committee: Local 
Secretary, Wm. T. Ford, Kansas City; Business Council, for three years, H. J. 
Menninger, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Jos. P. Remington, Philadelphia; Geo.W. Kennedy, 
Pottsville, Pa. For two years, Thos. Whitfield, Chicago; Wm. Saunders, London, 
Ont ; S. A. D. Sheppard, Boston. For one year, W. J. M. Gordon, Cincinnati; 
John Ingalls, Macon, Ga.; Jos. Roberts, Baltimore. The nominees were duly 

On motion the Committee on New Membership appointed last year was continued 
and increased by the appointment of seven additional members. 

Resolutions of thanks were passed to the Committee on Membership, the Local 
Secretary and Local Committee, and the names of five candidates for membership. 
reported, who were afterwards elected. 

The Association then adjourned until 11.15 A. M. 

Sixth Session, Friday Morning, Sept. 17th.—‘The minutes of the fifth session 
having been read, resolutions of thanks were passed to the proprietors of the Sara- 
toga Mineral Sjrings and of Congress Hall ; also to the aera officers, 

The Committee on Exhibition was granted permission to finish their report for 
publication within thirty days. The Committee on Queries reported a number of 
subjects accepted for investigation by members. Unanswered queries, the continu- 
ance of which is not requested, were ordered to be dropped. 

The Association finally adjourned to meet in Kansas City, Mo., Aug. 23d, 1881. 

Entertainments and Excursions.—On the evening of Sept. 14th, an informal 
reception of the members and their ladies took place in the parlors of Congress 
Hall. On the following afternoon a iarge number of vehicles conveyed the party to 
the various mineral springs of Saratoga, extending over an area several miles in 
length, and after a drive through Woodland Park the party returned to the hotel to 
make preparations for the grand hop which took place in the evening in the large 
concert room. On Thursday many ladies and some of the members made an 
excursion to Saratoga Lake and enjoyed a sail on this handsome sheet of water. On 
Friday afternoon, after the final adjournment, a party of about 80 members and ladies 
proceeded by rail in two palace cars to Port Kent, where stages were in waiting to 
convey them to the Lakeview House, about three miles distant;.and the same evening, 
in bright moonlight, a visit was paid to the Falls in the neighborhood. On the fol- 
lowing morning the weather was cloudy and for awhile a drizzling rain fell, which, 
however, did not deter the tourists from visiting Au Sable Chasm and taking a boat 
ride on the river to the head of the lower rapids. During the forenoon about one- 
half of the party returned with the view of spending Sunday on Lake George or on 
Manhattan Beach. The party remaining at the Lakeview. House over Sunday took 
a drive by stages to Auger and Butternut Ponds, where a splendid view of a portion of 
the Adirondack mountains was obtained ; they revisited the ever interesting chasm, 
spent some time at Alice Falls and the rapids of Au Sable river, and on Monday re- 
turned via Lakes Champlain and George to Caldwell, where some remained over night, 
the others passing on by stage to Glenn’s Falls, to obtain a view of the Falls of the 
Hudson, such as could be had with the low state of water in the river. All that 
were present at the meeting will doubtless long remember it as one replete with interest 

and genuine pleasure. 


The British Pharmaceutical Conference has marked the seventeenth year of its: 

existence by extending its travels to the Welsh p:incipality, the only portion of the 

British Islands previously unvisited by it in the course of its annual meetings. And 

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Am. Jour British Pharmaceutical Conference. 519 

although do.:btless the attendance was unfavorably influenced by the difhculties 
which lie in the way of reaching Swansea from many parts of the kingdom, as well 
as the fact that neither the town itself nor its hotels present attractions which would 
tempt a tired pharmacist to spend a portion of his hard earned holiday in breathing 
a smoke laden atmosphere, there was, nevertheless, sufficient in the hearty welcome 
given by the local committee and in the interest of the business done to repay well 
those who did make the venture. 

At the commencement of the proceedings, August 24th, a tolerably long list of 
delegates from various societies was read over, but unfortunately very many of those 
named were conspicuous only by their absence. The Pharmaceutical Society of 
Great Britain was represented by the President, Vice President and three other mem- 
bers of Council, but neither the Secretary, the Assistant Secretary, nor—with the 
exception of Professor Attfield—the Professors of the School of Pharmacy put in an 

appearance. The Pharmaceutical Society of Ireland was wholly unrepresented.’ 

American pharmacy, however, was for a time represented by Professor Maisch; 
but having, as Secretary of the American Pharmaceutical Association, to be pres- 
ent atthe coming meeting at Saratoga, he was compelled to take his leave before 
the termination of the Conference. 

The report on the state of the finances shows a balance of over five hundred 
pounds, a kind of white elephant apparently, since only one application has been 
made during the year for a money grant in aid of research. Whether or not it be 
by reason of the opening up of other and more fertile hunting-grounds for the 
seekers of grants in aid that the funds at the disposal of the Conference are thus dis- 
regarded we cannot say, but it is evident that some five hundred pounds is now 
going a begging, and that there is an opportunity for some one to devise a means by 
which it may be applied to a purpose useful to pharmacy. 

The death of Mr. Stoddart was naturally referred to in feeling terms in the report, 
not only by reason of his helpful connection with the Conference fronr its inception, 
but also because he had so highly distinguished himself in various ways as to make 
his loss a special matter of regret, requiting expression in the manner unanimously 
agreed to by the meeting in accordance with the proposal of Mr. Reynolds and Mr. 

The retirement of Professor Attfield from the position he had filled so long and 
so ably was another regretful feature, which contributed to make the report of the 
Executive Cummittee more than ordinarily gloomy. 

The Presidential Address is this year a deviation from the course usually followed 
on such occasions; and though it cannot be said that the address presents any very 
obvious utilitarian features, it affords material for thought, and at a time when 
pharmaceutical affairs are in such a high state of tension, when the future of a large 
section of the trade is, to say the least, so unpromising, it was probably expedient to 
abstain as far as possible from the discus-ion of trade interests and from stirring the 
troubled waters of pharmaceutical politics. 

The first paper read formed the conclusion of the series of reports on the investi- 
gation of the aconite alkaloids, carried out by Dr.C. R. Alder Wright with the aid of 
grants from the Conference. In this instance the material operated upon was the 
fresh herbaceous portion of Aconitum napellus, grown at Foxton, in Cambridgeshire, 
the method of operating being the same as that described in last year’s report. The 
alkaloid obtained by evaporation from the ethereal solution could not be made to 
crystallize or yield cr alias salts, though trom its activity it appeared to contain 
a notable amount of the alkaloid which Dr. Wright regards as true aconitine. 
Judging from analysis, its composition was inferred to be substantially the same as 
that of the mixed alkaloids obtained from the roots of A. mapellus. The uncrys- 
tallizable character of this mixture of alkaloids was ascribed to the larger amount of 
amorphous bases preventing crystallization. The experiments made by Dr. Wright 
appeared to show that, though the dry herb did not contain very much less total 
alkaloid than the equally dry root, the percentage of aconitine in the alkaloid 
obtained from the herb was much less than in that obtained from the root. This 
result, however, cannot be regarded as representing the invariable,proportion of the 

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520 British Pharmaceutical Conference. {™ 

alkaloids, since it is inconsistent with the observation of Mr. Williams, that some- 
times no crystallizable alkaloid is to be obtained in operating upon the roots. This 
apparent variability would appear to show that it is desirable to make further experi- 
ments with a view of ascertaining how far the amount of crystallizable aconitine 
may be influenced by differences in the age of the roots or by differences in the soil 
and climate in which they are grown. Dr. Wright considers that experiments of 
this kind, as well as those necessary for ascertaining the precise method of treat- 
ment and the menstrua best suited for separating crystallizable aconitine economi- 
cally on the large scale from the non-crystallizable alkaloids associated with it, can- 
not be readily carried out by the scientific chemist in his laboratory. It appears, 
therefore, that this investigation still leaves unsatisfied the want which, on a previous 
‘occasion, we pointed out as being the most pressing, namely, a means by which the 
peculiar substance possessing powerful physiological activity can be practically 
separated from the less active substances associated with it. Until this is done there 
is no prospect of being able to satisfy the demand that exists for a more definite 
form of aconitine for medical purposes. 

In Professor Fliickiges paper on the Essential oil of Buchu Leaves, he pointed 
out that the oil contains a crystalline substance analogous to carbolic acid, to which 
he gives the namé “dios-phenol.” The liquid portion of the oil, chiefly distillin 
between 205° and 210°C., possesses an odor very like that of peppermint. This o1 
is destitute of rotatory power, and has a composition approximately represented by 
the formula C,,H,,O. It also appears, from some experiments made by Dr. Power, 
that this compound is contained in the oil in the form of a compound ether. Pro- 
fessor Fliickiger did not find that the specimen he operated upon contained salicylic 
acid. In connection with nt ae it may be mentioned that in 1865 Mr. Umney 
pointed out, in a paper read before the Students’ Association at Bloomsbury Square, 
the existence in the oil of Barosma betulina of a crystalline s ibstance, of which he 
obtained 500 grains from 20 fluidounces of the oil. It is to this substance that the 
greenish coloration of the oil with ferric chloride is to be ascribed. . 

Dr. Power then read a paper by Professor Fliickiger and himself on the Consti- 
tuents of Peppermint Oil. In operating upon Mitcham oil, obtained trom Schimmel 
& Co., of Leipsic, which had been deprived, by repeated rectification, as completely 
as possible of menthol, about 10 per cent. of an oil was separated, which had not 
before been investigated. The greater portion of it distilled between 165° and 175°C., 
and had a composition intermediate between the formule C,,H,, and C,,H,,.. When 
purified by distillation over metallic sodium it was divided into two fractions of 
specific gravity, “859 and “856. By the distillation the peppermint odor was lost, 
and gave: place to that of freshly distilled oil of turpentine. A small portion of the 
oil, of a somewhat viscid character, was distilled over at a higher temperature, and 
is considered to be represented by a multiple of the simple formula C,,H,., probably 
C,;H,,- According to these results the liquid portion of Mitcham peppermint oil 
would appear to consist of isomeric and polymeric terpenes. J! he authors were 
unable to isolate the substance which forms a crystalline compound with alkaline 
bisulphides when some samples of peppermint oil are operated upon in this way. 
It is considered as probably having a boiling point approximating to that of menthol, 
and to be the cause of the remarkable color reaction and fluorescence displayed by 
fresh oil of peppermint when left in contact with a few drops of nitric acid (1°20), 
since this reaction is not given by the terpenes nor by menthol. In the discussion 
that followed, attention was directed tothe necessity of ensuring in investigations 
of this kind that the material operated upon is free from any kind of adulteration, 
and in illustration of the fact that it was not always sufficient to purchase what is 
represented to be the best commercial article, Mr. Reynolds referred to the gloves 
mentioned by Mr. Southey, whose worst gloves were distinctly known as ‘‘ best,” 
and who had four other kinds, which he called “ better than best,” “better than 
better,” “best of all,” and “real best.” Mr. Umney also pointed out that from the 
crude manner in which the distillation of oil of peppermint is carried out, it was to 
be expected that even genuine samples would contain more or less empyreumatic 
materials, unless they were again carefully rectified by distillation with water. 

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Am. Jour harm.) British Pharmaceutical Conference. 521 

In the paper upon the Discoloration of Syrup of Iodide of Iron Mr. T. B. Groves 
dealt with the inconvenience arising from this liability to alteration, which so fre- 
quently gives arise to doubts whether medicine containing this preparation has baen 
correctly dispensed. Mr. Groves illustrated this by stating that he had been found 
fault with for supplying a colorless and flavorless article to a customer who had pre- 
viously been furnished with a discolored syrup, though for no better reason prob- 
ably than George the First’s cooks were complained of for not supplying the royal 
table with oysters so high in flavor as those to which His Majesty had been accus- 
tomed in Hanover. As a means of remedying this inconvenience, Mr. Groves 
suggested that a minute trace of phosphoric acid should be added in making the 
syrup, in order to insure the action formerly pointed out by him in the ‘* Pharma- 
ceutical Journal” (vol. ix, 2d series, p. 421); and though, as he remarked, this plan 

would be considered hateful and unorthodox by some, many will be glad to learn . 

how of two evils to choose the lesser. In the discussion. that followed the reading 
of this paper, attention was chiefly directed by a remark from the President to the 
importance of the character of the sugar used for making syrups. It was shown 
that the greater part of the sugar met with in English commerce is beet-root sugar, 
which will not do for the manufacture of syrup of iodide of iron. In reference to 
the difference between the sugar from beet-root and that from the cane, Mr. 
Andrews stated that he knew it as a fact that they differed in solubility, and that he 
had commenced a series of experiments upon the subject. The contamination of 
beet sugar wich ultramarine was also referred to by Dr. Symes, who was of opinion 
that by proper treatment it could be rendered as fit for use as cane-sugar. Upon 
Protessor Attfiéld’s suggestion, it was understood that Mr. Andrews undertook to 
follow up the subject experimentally, and therefore we may now ‘ook forward to 
having this difficulty removed. 

At the conclusion of the discussion following Mr. Groves’ paper the Conference 
was adjourned until 2.30, and in the interval the members partook of Tunch in the 
garden adjoining the institution. 

The next paper read, on resuming the business proceedings, was contributed by 
Dr. De Vrij, whose valuable services in connection with the introduction of the cin- 
chona tree into India and the manufacture of “Indian quinine” have recently been 
recognized in the conferring upon him the dignity and distinction of a Companion 
of the Star of India. It described.a method tor the detection of amorphous alkaloid 
in citrate of iron and quinia, based upon the solubility of the oxalate of that base in 
water and the consequent yellow coloration to be observed when an adulterated 
sample is operated upon as described in detail in the paper. A somewhat discursive 
discussion tollowed the reading of this paper, in the course of which it was pointed 
out by Mr. Umney and others that the amorphous alkaloid sometimes found in 
citrate of iron and quinia may be due to the alteration of quiaia during the manu- 
facture of the preparation. By some it was also considered that this result arose 
from the defective nature of the Pharmacopoeia process. Mr. Fletcher recommended 
the plan of tasting the preparation as being, in his opinion, a convenient method 
of detecting the presence of amorphous alkaloid by its peculiarly unpleasant 

In Dr. Symes’ paper on New and Unofficinal Preparations attention was drawn to 
the practical inconvenience arising from the want of any authoritative formule for 
the novel preparations which are now so trequently employed by medical men. By 
reference to the various strengths of tincture of gelsemium and hydrobromic acid 
he illustrated the embarrassment that may be caused in dispensing, and he suggested 
that the formule for such preparations should be regulated by the decision ot some 
such authority as the Medical Council. Although the removal of uncertainty by 
the adoption of such a plan would be very desirable, it cannot be overlooked that 

there are considerable difficulties to be encountered. As stated by Mr. Greenish, ~ 

many of these preparations are too insignificant and too ephemeral in their applica~ 
tion to merit any such official cognizance, and if the merits of new articles of 
materia medica and new preparations are to be decided by experience, it is precisely 
during the intervening period that the difficulties referred to by Dr. Symes would 

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{ Am. Jour Pharm, 
Oct., 1880. 

$22 British Pharmaceutical Conference. 

remain unprovided for. Possibly some conjoint action of members of the medical 
profession and representatives of the Pharmaceutical Society might be devised that 
would ensure that prescribers ordering new preparations would have their wishes 
carried out, and that at the same time dispensers should be at no loss to ascertain 
what those wishes were. At any rate the question is one that deserves attentive con- 
sideration on both sides. 
_ Ina paper on the Cultivation of Calisaya Mr. J. E. Howard described compara- 
tively the conditions under which this tree is grown for the production of cinchona 
‘bark in Java, Ceylon, the continent of India and South America, and brought for- 
ward statements of various authorities to show the extent to which the supply of 
rich quinia-yielding bark might be expected to increase. As introductory to this, 
Mr. Howard described the examination of a small tree of Calisaya Anglica, which 
had been killed by canker in his conservatory, after attaining in eight years a height 
of seven or eight feet. He considers the source of mischief to have been situated 
in the root, but was not able to learn anything very definite respecting it. In Java 
where the Ledgeriana grows so well and yields such rich bark there is no canker; 
but it appears that there are few parts of Ceylon where this tree can be grown so as 
to yield bark in alkaloids, while on the Neilgherries the bark is of excellent 
— and commands a high price, although the trees grow bushy and spindly. In 
olivia, again, where calisaya has been cultivated in its native Jocality, at the sug- 
gestion of Mr. Ledger, within the last thirty years excellent results have been 
obtained. Mr. Howard, however, thinks that none of this bark, as imported into 
London, had the appearance, or was so rich in alkaloid as the true Ledgeriana, pos- 
sibly in consequence of the seed not having been selected with such skill as that 
collected by Mr. Ledger's servant Manuel. For this reason, therefore, the cultivation 
of calisaya in Bolivia cannot be expected to yield such remarkable results as it has 
done in Java especially. The same circumstance also points to the importance of 
selecting superior sorts in establishing or extending plantations in India. Effectual 
drainage and high cultivation are also essential conditions to be provided for. In 
Ceylon as in Java it has been found that the Ledgeriana surpasses all other kinds in 
yielding bark containing a large amount of quinia. On the whole, therefore, Mr. 
Howard thinks that true calisaya, as introduced by Mr, Ledger, will continue to 
assert its supremacy there as elsewhere. But he also pvuints out that, according to 
Mr. Mclvo1, Ceylon is wanting in the deep rich soils to be found in India, and that 
since, according to the same authority, cinchonas are very liable to canker when the 
roots get down to the subsoil, there is for this reason less promise of future results in 
Ceylon than there is on the Neilzherries. 

It is indeed to this cause that Mr. Howard ascribes the death of the calisaya tree 
grown in his greenhouse, and perhaps it is not going too tar to infer that Mr. 
Howard's mention of the death of that tree, and his conjecture as to the cause of it, 
may be intended to operate in some degree as a check upon the enthusiastic expec- 
tations entertained as to the future results of the cultivation of calisaya in Ceylon. 
In reference to these prospects M. Howard quotes the calculations of Mr. Dobree, 
published in the “ Ceylon Observer” of last June, which pvint to an annual production 
of about ten million pounds of bark in about « years’ time, and predict that the total 
production of cinchona bark will in 1885 exceed the total demand in 1876-78 by 
nearly eleven million pounds. Mr. Howard thinks these calculations far too san- 
guine even as regards quantity. and in any case, he thinks that one feature more 
likely to become manifest in 1885 is that the representatives of quinia manufacturers 
attending the sale rooms at that time will distinguish with the pencil-note ‘ rubbish” 
many of the consignments of Cevlon bark. 

Closely connected with the subject of the foregoing paper was the exhibition, by 
Dr. Paul, of a peculiar kind of cinchona bark, with the object of showing that it is 
now no Jonger possible to arrive even at an approximate conclusion as to the value 
of a sample of bark from a mere visual examination. Leaving out of account the 
fact that the officinalis, or crown bark now coming from India, contains a large 
amount of quinia, while that hitherto known as “ crown bark,” or ‘ Loxa bark,” 
from South America seldom contains much, if any; it is also to be noted that 

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amongst the bark derived from South America it is equally impossible to judge of 
the value of a sample from its outward appearance alone. The old landmarks are 
no longer sufficient for indicating whether a bark is worth only a tew pence a pound 
or the same number of shillings. Thus, for instance, the official * yellow bark,” or 
“ flat calisaya,” of the present day is rarely what it used to be, but, on the contrary, 
seldom contains much or any quinia at all, and only a little cinchonia. On the 
contrary it often happens that bark of unusual or novel characters comes into the 
market containing an amount of quinia and other alkaloids that renders it intrinsi- 
cally very valuable. In the case of the specimen exhibited this fact was well shown, 
for to all appearance it was of little or no value. It represented a somewhat con- 
siderable parcel of bark that was imported in June, 1879. It did not recommend 
itself for making pharmaceutical preparations, and quinia manufacturers were disin- 
clined to buy it at any price. However, the analysis of the bark gave it a different 
character, showing that in addition to mere traces of quiridia, cinchonidia and cin- 
chonia it yielded nearly 2} per cent. of sulphate of quinia, so that for either or both 
of the purposes above referred to it was an excellent bark, notwithstanding its 
unfavorable appearance. 

The last paper, read at the second sitting ot the first day’s meeting, was on 
Ipecacuanha wine, by Mr. J. B. Barnes, in which he recommeuded, as an improve 
ment in the preparation of ipecacuanha wine, a modification of the plan proposed 
by Mr. Carteighe for the preparation of an oxymel of ipecacuanha. Mr. Barnes 
evaporates the acetic extract of ipecacuanha to dryness, digests the residue in a 
proper proportion of sherry for forty-eight hours and filters. By this means he 
obtains a rich brown solution, which has been kept for eight months without throw- 
ing down any of the unsightly muddy sediment which is well known to be formed 
when the ipecacuanha wine of the Pharmacopeceia is kept for a few weeks. 

The meeting was then adjourned until half-past 10 on Wednesday morning, and 
in conformity with notice given by Mr. Grose, the local vice-president, most of the 
meinbers present assembled at half-past six on their way to inspect first the Hafod 
copper smelting works and mills of Messrs. Vivians & Sons, who make, besides 
ingot and sheet copper, sulphuric acid and artificial manures, and then the Landore 
tin-plate works. In both these establishments every attention was shown to the 
visitors and every possible opportunity afforded for seeing the details of the 

On the reassembling of the members, on Wednesday, Mr. Brady, after apologiz- 
ing for his departure trom the generally observed rule of producing a written paper, 
proceeded to give an account of his experiences of pharmaceutical interest during @ 
recent journey to Ceylon and > One of the points to which his attention was 
directed was the cultivation of cinchona in the former island, and some of the con- 
clusions he arrived at were very different from the statements that had been pub- 
lished, although it must be admitted that these were based upon later information. 
In reference to the cultivation of cinchona he observed that mossing is not carried 
out in Ceylon, for the reason that it promotes the destruction of the trees by ants, 
and he did not enter upon the consideration of the profitable nature of cinchona 
cultivation, because that had already been done in a much more commercial paper. 
The cultivation of vanilla was next referred to, and one case mentioned in which 
the rows of plants had an extent of no less than three miles. It may here be noted 
that the development of this business seems likely to be more rapid than profitable, 
tor while the price of vanilla, not long ago, was 70s. per pound, it is now down as 
low as ros. Assam tea and Liberian coffee were two other products mentioned as 
being successfully grown in Ceylon ; but the cultivation of ipecacuanha was descibed 
as affording less promise. Mr. Brady then proceeded to give an interesting account 
of ‘the cinnamon cultivation in the island, stating that he had been quite unable to 
trace the origin of the three different kinds of cinnamon bark met with in this 
market. In the course of his inquiries he was informed that there were not only 
three, but no less than fifteen varieties. The distillation of cinnamon oil was 
described as being carried on in a most primitive manner. One of the prominent 
features of Ceylon vegetation was the occurrence of cocoanut palms, which always 

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524 British Pharmaceutical Conference. a? 

grow freely near human habitations, a fact that was explained to Mr. Brady as being 
due to the promotion of their growth by smoke; and if that alone were a sufficient 
explanation it might be worth while to make an experiment in the cultivation of 
cocoanut palms in and around Swansea., The extraction of oil from the cocoanuts 
was described as having been carried to a high degree of perfection; and, although 
some considerable degree of mystery appears to be maintained as to the way in 
which this done, the result would seem to be merely a natural consequense of the 
rational use of suitable machinery. Mr. Brady mentioned that, though cocoanut 
oil is habitually known to us as a solid fat, it was never met with in Ceylon in any 
other than the liquid form, which it was impossible to persuade the native Cinghalese 
was any other than its invariable condition. This striking effect of the difterence 
in the physical chatacter of a material produced by the influence of climate hada 
parallel in an experience of the speaker in Algeria as to the local idea of water, 
where on telling a native that in England it was possible to walk across the water in 
winter, his statement led to the remark, “If these Franks will tell you this no won- 
der they come here with the Bible.” Among the points of interest that Mr. Brady 
came across in Japan was an ingenious torm of still for making peppermint water, 
a figure ot which will be given in a future number. In the discussion that followed 
Mr. White ineftectually endeavored to open up the question of the profit arising 
from cinchona cultivation, and Mr. Wootton as ineffectually sought to interest the 
meeting in the subject of the obstacles alleged to be presented by the Japanese to the 
importation of chemicals from this country. It was evidently felt that there were 
two sides to this latter subject, and that it would be wise to leave it to be dealt with 
by those who were more specially interested. In reference to the distillation of cin- 
namon oil in Ceylon, it was suggested by Mr. Umney that taking as a precedent the 
extraction of cocoanut oil, it would be desirable that the Ceylon growers imported 
a distinguished pharmacist to distil the cinnamon oil, or at any rate some one who 
would understand how to do it. 

Mr. Greenish, in a note on Indian Henbane, pretaced his remarks by stating how 
desirable it was that the numerous vegetable products introduced from tropical and 
other countries should be thoroughly examined in order to ascertain whether or not 
they contain any active principle. Having regard to the growing scarcity of bien- 
nial henbane leaves, he had undertaken the examination of a sample of Indian hen- 
bane leaf, which had a very intense persistent odor. Having only a very small 
quantity he had prepared a tincture, and was inclined to think that India would 
possibly supply this therapeutic agent of more valuable character than that of home 
growth. In commenting upon this paper, Mr, Reynolds referred to the introduction 
of hyoscyamia by Merck, mentioning that it was usually made from the leaves, 
and that what was made trom the root was often disappointing in its effects. Mr. 
Umney expressed the opinion that this product was really obtained from the leaves 
of the annual henbane and that the direction of the Pharmacopeeia to use the bien- 
nial variety was “mere moonshine.” Incidentally Dr. Symes remarked that he 
claimed the opinion just expressed by Mr. Greenish as a support of the suggestion 
he had already made that new drugs deserved careful attention. Mr. Gerrard com- 
plained that the products obtained in this way were too often only curiosities and 

‘not commercial articles. 

Mr. A. H. Allen communicated some turther motes on petroleum spirit, describing 
some methods which he considered calculated tor distinguishing between true petro- 
leum spirit and the analogous volatile liquid vbtained from shale oil. 

Mr. Greenish exhibited a sample of cayenne pepper, possessing all the external 
properties of true cayenne as grown and ground in Natal, but having an oily 
appearance that seemed artificial and communicating to the paper in which it was 
folded a greasy stain of a reddish-yellow color. It was moreover quite destitute of 
pungency. In this respect it seemed very much to resemble, as pointed out by Mr. 
Brady, the mild capsicum commonly used in Hungary as a spice under the name of 

Mr. Naylor then followed with some notes upon the green Extracts of the Pharm- 
acopaia, the details of which were too copious to admit of special reference to them 

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Am. Jour | British Pharmaceutical Conference. 525 

here beyond stating that Mr. Naylor is in favor of the production of these extracts 
by evaporation in vacuo. 

Mr. Fletcher then called attention tothe presence of arsenic in the tincture and 
solution of perchloride of iron, and other articles in the preparation of which hydro- 
chloric acid is used. He also described an indirect method for the gravimetric 
estimation of minute quantities of arsenicum, which consisted in treating the sub- 
stance to be examined in such a way as to convert any arsenicum that it might con- 
tain into arsenietted hydrogen, passing the gas through’ solution of nitrate of silver 
and weighing the reduced silver. Mr. Fletcher gave the preference to this method 
over those of Levol and Herapath, because the weight of the silver to be weighed is 
about nine times as great as that ofthe arsenic to be determined. Some doubt, 
however, appears to exist as to whether the whole of the arsenic in any substance 
to be examined would be converted into arsenietted hydrogen by the action of zinc 

and hydrochloric acid, although the figures given by Mr. Fletcher as representing - 

the results obtained when operating on very small quantities appeared to show that 
the process is trustworthy. 

In Mr. Gerrard's paper on emulsions, he recommends the use of powdered gum 
acacia as the emulsifying agent, and gave practical illustration of his mode of opera- 
tion, as well as formula for the preparation of various emulsions. 

A paper by Mr. Thresh on the determination of the strength of alcoholic solutions 
of chloroform was then read, as well as a report on commercial specimens of sal 
volatile and chloric ether, in which the results of the application of his method were 
detailed. After showing the wide differences between the preparations supplied and 
used under the names sal volatile and chloric ether, Mr. Thresh dwelt upon the 
desirability of observing greater uniformity; and, in the discussion that followed, 
the need of establishing some kind of authority that would be recognized and that 
would be effectual in attaining such a result was generally admitted. 

Mr. Woodland’s report on the strength of commercial specimens of-aqua lauro- 
cerasi was essentially a reiteration of data published by Mr. Umney in this journal 
in the year 1869. ‘They showed that this preparation is uncertain in every way, and 
is so thouroughly unsatisfactory that it is high time it was expunged from the British 

The concluding paper, also by Mr. Woodland, was a report on the strength and 
purity of the alkaline solutions of potash and ammonia met with in pharmacy. 

The next busmess was the discussion as to the place of meeting in 1881, and as a 
matter of course the choice fell upon York, from which city a formal invitation had 
been sent by Mr. Ralph Dawson, and was personally supported by Mr. Clark. The 
new president proposed by the Executive Committee was Mr. Richard Reynolds, of 
Leeds, and the new vice presidents were Professor Attfield, Messrs. Davison, of 
York, and Umney, of London; as General Secretary, Mr. Michael Carteighe, of 
London, and as Local Secretary, Mr. Joseph Sowray, were nominated, and all were 
elected by a unanimous vote. Various votes of thanks were then passed. One of 
them, on motion of Mr. Brady, seconded by Mr. Savage, expressing appreciation of 
the services so kindly rendered by the Local Committee, and especially by Messrs. 
Grose, Hughes and Williams, in provididg for the reception and accommodation 
of the members. Another, proposed by Mr. Chipperfield, and seconded by Mr. 
Hughes, who was unable to resist the temptation of addressing the meeting in the 
Welsh language, recognized the ability and courtesy with which Mr. William 
Southall had conducted the business of the meeting. ' 

The general business of the Conference having been thus brought to a con- 
clusion, shortly after five o'clock Mr. Schacht, at the request of the president, pro- 
ceeded to the presentation of the testimonial to Prof. Attfield on retiring trom the 
position of honorary secretary, which he had filled since the organization of the 
Conference. The testimonial consisted of about five hundred works of general 

In the course of the evening, at the invitation of the Local Committee, some of 
the members went for a marine excursion round the Bay. 

On Thursday morning those pharmacists who bestirred themselves sufficiently 

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$26 Editorial. 

early, and could, unaided by the spectroscope, descry the sun through the sulphurous 
mist that invariably overhangs Landore, east of Swansea, were unanimous in decid- 
ing that although the Local Committee in its wisdom had abandoned the idea of an 
excursion by water, still there was every prospect that more or less of that fluid 
might persist in accompanying them and their friends. These forebodings, how- 
ever, deterred but few, and the members, accompanied by many of the fairer sex, 
made a start at 11 from the Royal Institution. Coaching westward through the 
town, and passing the pretty villa residences that line the road they soon fancied 
themselves away from the devastating effects of copper smoke. Within a quarter of 
an hour a full view of the Mumbles was obtained, passing through Sketty Village, 
where abundance of honeysuckle skirted the road. A view of the bay was followed 
in quick succession by the pretty valley in which is the railway station of Killa 
No sooner, however, was an attempt made to cross Fairwood Moor than the rain 
descended in such quantity as co obscure the clear-sighted vision of the guide, Mr 
Grose, and to effectually prevent him from pointing out the grouse in the surround- 
ing heather. Nothing daunted, the journey was continued; the old castles of 
Kilvrough and Pennard were passed, and upon reaching Penmaen the sun once 
more shone, and the rain disappeared for the day. From the coach road a fine view 
was obtained of Three Clift Bay, Cefyn Bryn and Oxwich Burrows. Penrice 
Castle, the seat of Mr. Talbot, M. P., was reached about two, and the excellent 
enrichments of the mosaic mantlepieces and the pictures were much admired. Here 
the botanists enjoyed their favorite pursuit, and found during their ramble through 
the park to Oxwich beach Origanum vulgare, Lappa minor, Centranthus ruber, Men- 
tha rotundifolia, Campanula Trachelium, (Enanthe crocata, Cichorium Intybus, Epi- 
lobium hirsutum, Menyanthes trifoliata, etc. . 

Through the kindness of tue Rev. Mr. Jenkins, Vicar of St. John’s, luncheon 
was served on his lawn, and his church on the edge of the beach was visited by 
many. ‘The parties here divided, the ladies coaching, others walking for a mile or 
two along the beautiful sandy beach, while the more robust wended their way 
thro gh the wood. All, however, arrived at the Gower Union House, which had 
been kindly placed at the disposal of the committee by the guardians and here the 
whole party appreciated a very excellent “high tea’’ and indulged in humorous 
speeches, some in Welch, complimentary of Messrs. Hughes and Grose and other 
local friends. At dusk the excursionists retraced their way and arrived safely at 
Swansea soon after 10 o'clock, much pleased with their trip.—Pharm. Journ. and 
Trans , August 28, 1880. 


To our Readers.—During the past spring and summer the Editor paid a visit to 
Europe, leaving the JOURNAL in charge of the Publishing Committee, and the edi- 
torial labors in the hands of his friend, Thos. S. Wiegand. The letters addressed 
to the Editor were in all cases promptly answered ; but on his return he fo::nd quite 
a number which require his personal attention and will receive the same without 
turther delay ; we ask the kind indulgence of our correspondents for this unavoid- 

able delay. 

The removal from this city of our friend Mr. Louis von Cotzhausen has deprived 
our readers for a few months of his valuable contributions from the German jour- 
nals, which for some time past appeared regularly under the title of ‘ Gleanings.” 
Arrangements have been made tor the continuance of these abstracts and transla- 
tions in the future. The material upon our table has accumulated so that it will be 
necessary for enlarging our next issue to 64 instead of 48 pages. 

We also desire to inform our subscribers that a general index of the ten volumes, 
fourth series, of the JOURNAL, is in preparation and will be published with our 
December number, and furnishd to subscribers free of charge. 







Am, Jour. Pharm. Edstortal. 527 

Physicians and Pharmacists in Council.—In answer to a call issued by the 
Medico-legal Society of Phiiadelphia a number of physicians and pharmacists met 
in the hall of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. Mr. W. B Thompson was 
called to the chair, and Dr. Stretch requested to act as Secretary. 

The discussion was opened by Dr. Swayze in a lengthy discourse, in which he 
more particularly referred to the display of signs, the recommendation and selling 
ot patent nostrums, to the selling of homceopathic specifics, the collusions between 
physicians and pharmacists, to the unauthorized renewal of prescriptions and to the 
unnecessary prescribing over the counter by pharmacists, The subjects were dis- 

cussed separately, and in rezard to patent medicines a resolution was passed request- 
ing the Philadelphia Medico-legal Society to send a committee to all respectable 
pharmacists in the city for the purpose of ascertaining their willingness to place out of 
sight all patent medicines and to thus discourage their sale. In our opinion the 
request might very properly go farther and include also the discarding by pharma- 
cists of all signs and circulars relating to and recommending patent medicines. It 
seems curious to us that the prescribing by physicians of specialties, many of which 
are protected by trade mark, and the working formulas and, in many cases, the cor- 
rect composition of which are withheld by the manufacturers, was not alluded to. 
Can the line between these and the common nostrums be distinctly defined ? 

The sale of homceopahthic specifics by pharmacists in Philadelphia was stated to 
be quite insignificant, and the subject was dropped. 

The percentage compact between certain physicians and pharmacists created con- 
siderable discussion, in which prescriptions written in cipher were alluded to. No 
action was taken upon this subject, the difficulty being to reach the evil. On the 
subjects ot prescribing over the counter, and the renewal of prescriptions, the views 
seemed to differ consideratly. It was evident that prescribing over the counter is 
not encouraged by those present .t the meeting, and as to the renewal of prescrip- 
tions it was thought by some that a printed request upon the prescription not to 
renew it without special order wont not always meet the case. The abuse of 
dispensaries and other charities by able and even wealthy persons was likewise 
alluded to. 

We trust that in the discussion of whatever grievances may exist, or be supposed 
to exist, a liberal spirit may prevail which does not shut the eyes against its own 
shortcomings. The misdoings of the grasping, illiberal and ungenerous in either 
profession should not be burdened on the protession, but on the individual where it 
properly belongs ; and we apprehend that dark spots will not unfrequently be found 
in places where least expected. 

The End of two Bogus Colleges.—On September 30th replications were filed in 
Court of Common Pleas No. 3, to answers submitted by the “‘ Eclectic Medical 
Coliege of Pennsylvania” and the “ American University of Philadelphia.” The 
answers of the defendants set out that they claimed to -exercise their rights, privi- 
leges, franchises, etc., by virtue of an Act of Assembly, dated Mar. 26, 1867, in- 
corporating the latter college, and an Act of February 25, 1850, incorporating the 


It was to these answers that counsel tur the Commonwealth filed replications. 
They aver that the above corporations have forfeited their charters, because ot first, 
the conferring ot degrees upon persons not possessing the qualifications such as are 
prescribed by their charters. Second, the sale of diplomas; third, the granting of 
degrees of Doctor ot Medicine and antedating sucn diplomas, in order to make it 
appear that the recipicnts had the mght to practice medicine; and fourth, the is-uing 
ot diplomas with forged signatures. After the replications were filed, counsel for 
both of the defendants contessed judgment of ouster in favor of the Commonwealth, 
and filed as a part of the record a letter from Dr. Buchanan, authorizing him to do so. 


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Reviews, ete. 


Proceedings of the California Pharmaceutical Society and College of Pharmacy, and 
Report of the Eleventh Annual Meeting, held at San Francisco, Jan. 9, 1880. 
It contains the valedictory addresses delivered at the commencement exercises, 

November 16, 1879. 

Proceedings of the Connecticut Pharmaceutical Association at the Fourth Annual Meet- 

ing, held in New Haven, Feb. 4, 1880. Pp. 75. 

Among the papers read at the meeting and published we notice two lists of medi- 
cinal plants of Connecticut, which supplement each other. In one of the lists we 
find Angelica archangelica mentioned as growing in fields and damp places; we 
suppose that Archangelica atropurpurea, Hoffm., is intended, which is indigenous to 
New England and Canada. 

Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the Texas State Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, held in the City of Galveston, May 13 and 14, 1880. 
The reports of officers and committees are of general interest to the pharmacists 

of the State. 

Proceedings of the New York State Fharmaceutical Association at the Second Annual 
Meeting, held in Syracuse May 19 and 20, 1880. Pp. 146. 
A brief account of the proceedings has been published on page 37g of the pre- 
sent volume. The pamphlet contains the stenographic report of the discussions. 

Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the New Fersey Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, held in Jersey City, May 19 and 20, 1880. 
The pamphlet contains some interesting papers; in one, giving a list of medicinal 
plants, we notice an error, the botanical name of American jalap being given as 

Ipomeea jalapa instead of Ipomoea pandurata. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association at its Third Annual Meet- 

ing, held in Allentown, June 8 and 9, 1880. Pp. 74. 

An account of the transactions will be found on page 379. The pamphlet con- 
tains a copy of the report of the Committee on the Revision of the U. S. Pharma- 
copoeia, covering 30 printed pages. This is the only report presented to the Conven- 
tion at Washington by a State Pharmaceutical Association. A very good likeness 
of the first President of the Association, Mr. Chas. A. Heinitsh, is published with 

the “ Proceedings.” 

Proceedings of the Wisconsin Pharmaceutical Association. First Annual Meeting, held 
in Madison, July 14 and 15, 1880. 
We congratulate our friends in Wisconsin on the organization of their State soci- 

ety. It is pleasing to observe that one State after another is wheeling into line, and 
before long every State in the Union will have its pharmaceutical association, with 
annual reunions for the furtherance of the cause of pharmacy.