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November, 1955 

Number 2 

Volume XIX 

Published by 
The Association for the Study of 
Negro Life and History, Ine. 

1538 Ninth Street, N.W. 
Washington, D. C. 

PURPOSE: To inculcate an appre- 

ciation of the past of the Negro and 

to promote an understanding of his 
present status. 

Albert N. D. Brooks 
Nerissa L. Milton 
Jessie H. Roy 
Gertrude P. McBrown 
Geneva ©, Turner 
Marguerite Cartwright 
Vernell M. Oliver 

Phe subseription fee of this periodica 
is $2.00 a year or 25 cent A copy 
Bound volumes numbers | to 12 sell for 

$3.15 each; numbers 13 to 18 sell for 
$5.00 each 

Published monthly except June, July, 
August and September, at 1538 Ninth St., 
N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Advertising rates on request 

Entered as second class matter October 
31, 1937, at the Post Office at Washington 
D. C., under the Act of March 3, 1879 

Copyright) Nos 1955 by the Association 
for the Study of Negro Life and History 
Incorporated: 1538 Ninth Street, N  W., 
Washington, D. C 


Baown SKIN AND Leas 
Tue Necro ws rok Tonacco 
Ry Sidney Kaplan 4 
The Conner 
fn Essay on Gwendol 

Ry Ja queline Crockett 
Tne Youne Prorir’s Conner 
Fairy Horses 
Ry Jessi¢ H Roy 
A on roe Fain Name 
or Kansas—By C. Ford 

Some Wrirens ano Soctat Wonnes 

By Marguerite Cartu } 
Mary MeLeop Beruuns 

By illiam Brewe 

THe Necro History BULLETIN 


THURGOOD MARSHALL, Director-Counsel of the N.A.A.- 
C.P. Legal Defense and Educational! Fund, Inc., and Special 
Counsel for the National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People. 
Born: July 2, 


1908, in Baltimore, Maryland. 

Baltimore local public elementary and 


Graduated from Lincoln University, Pennsylvania, Febru- 
ary 1930. 

Attended Howard 
D. C, 1980-1933. 

Appointed Student Assistant Librarian during his second 
and third years at Howard. 

Graduated from Howard in June, 1933 as ranking student 
with degree of LL.B. 

Received honorary degrees of Doctor of Law from the fol- 
lowing institutions: 

University Law School, 


Lincoln University June 3, 1947 
Virginia State College May 31, 1948 
Morgan State College June 2, 1952 
Howard University June 4, 1954 
Grinnell College June 6, 1954 

Admitted to the Bar in the State of Maryland, October 
1933, and immediately thereafter to the U.S. District Court for 
the State of Maryland. 

December, 1939, admitted to the U.S. Supreme Court and 
to the U.S. Cireuit Court; the U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeals 
for the Fourth Circuit, Fifth Circuit and Eighth Circuit and the 
U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana. 

Entered private practice in Baltimore, Maryland, and con- 
tinued until 19386. 

Became counsel for the Baltimore City Branch of the Na- 
tional Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 

Appointed Assistant Special Counsel for the National As- 
ociation for the Advancement of Colored People in 1936. 

Appointed Special Counsel in active charge of legal cases 
to secure and protect full citizenship rights for Negroes in 1938. 

Marshall is the chief legal officer of the N.A.A.C.P.. Since 
then he has appeared before the Supreme Court of the United 
States and the Federal and State Courts for most of the states 
of the South. 

In the U.S. Supreme Court Mr. Marshall has argued or 
prepared briefs with the cooperation of NAACP lawyers in all 
NAACP cases affecting constitutional rights of Negroes from 
1938 to the present time He has appeared fourteen times be- 
fore the United States Supreme Court, Winning eleven and losing 

Among the most significant victories were: 

A. The right for Negroes to vote in the Democratic pri- 

maries in the South; 

B. The right of Negro passengers to travel freely inter- 
state, released from restrictions of state or loca] jim 
crow statutes. 

(. The racial restrictive covenant cases which established 
the principle that covenants restricting the use, rent 
or sale of property to Negros 

were not enforceable. 

(Continued on Page 39) 




aa. ‘tts 

THe Necro History BULLETIN 


The Story Of The Negro’s Role In The Tobacco Industry 


A craftman, according to Webster, 
is one who “applies skill, patience, 
and artistic inclination to his trade.” 
You have to be a craftsman in every 
sense of the word to work in the 
complex processes of tobacco: manu- 
facture. . .for no two tobacco crops 
are alike, yet every Old Gold cigratte 
must be so precisely like every other 
as to defy detection. And patience, 
skill and artistry are the contribu- 
tions that Negro workers have 
brought to the tobacco industry for 
eight generations, 

It’s interesting to note that the 
earliest known illustration of tobacco 


manufacturing in the colonies, dated 
1615, showed unsupervised Negro 
workers handling every operation of 
a Jamestown, Va. yard. 
Negro workers were employed at 
America’s first tobacco plant—the 
New York plant where Pierre 
Lorillard began manufacturing snuff 
in 1760. Down through the years, 
from generation to generation, 
Negroes have learned and passed 
along the delicate skills of grading 
the bright leaf, aging it to just the 
right stage of mildness, and blend 
ing it to perfection. Today, Negroes 
are the core of the tobacco industry's 
skilled labor force. Some 34,000 

Negroes are employed in tobacco 

factories throughout the nation, of 
which 31,000 are working in’ the 

And today more than two-third of 
the employees of P. Lorillard are 
Negroes. . .skilled specialists in a 
dozen or more phases of tobacco 
manufacture. In terms of their pro- 
portion in the population, Negroes 
truly have a full share in the manu- 
facture of top quality cigarettes like 
Old Gold and Micronite filter-tip 
Kents; Muriel cigars, Briggs tobacco, 
and the many other famous P. 
Lorillard products. All these em- 
ployees have the benefit of on-the- 
job training programs unsurpassed 
in the industry; departmental senior- 


Skilled Negro workers like Bannie Hawthorne of Richmond, Va., who became specialists in the curing 

and processing of tobacco were employed in America’s first tobacco factory operated by P, Lorillard 

Company in 1760. The makers of Old Gold cigarettes reveal these facts in “Brown Skin and Bright 
Leaf” the story of the Negro’s role in the tobacco industry. 


ity; the right to bargain with man 
agement through uniot 

Quite a few, consequent! have 
risen from the labor ranks to 
skilled and supervisory positior 

deseribe the entire tobac manu 
lacturing process here, these are a 
few of the exacting jol performed 
by Negroes at P. Lorillard ¢ mpany 

plants throughout the nation 



When the nation linest tobacco 
arrives in huge jogsheads at the Old 
Gold Branch at Jerse (it 
Negro and whit WOrkKET unload 
them and send the huge cylinders of 

tobacco on their way to be 

up ind placed on conve 1} 
comes the careful assembly-line 
blending of many types of tobacecos 

a skilled systematic process for 
all Old Golds must have uniforn 
richness and flavor \ll moisture is 
next removed by ‘a steam-heated re 
drying machine, where Negro and 
white workers keep irelul check 
on temperatures of more than 200 

degrees and a arelully controlled 

amount of moisture is then re-added 
At this point a erew of Negro and 
white loaders repack the bundles in 
hogsheads for ageing Special 
Inspectors both Negro and white 
constantly sample ind check these 

hopsheads for moisture 

content an inspection procedure 
that is repeated at many later stages 

in Cigarette manufacture 

Lisewhere in the same building the 
center ribs are being removed from 

tobacco leaves by a proce known as 

“preen-stemming lor only certain 
tobacco we best when the | 
is left intact At Larillard’s 

Muriel Cigar plant in) Richmond, 
Va., where 
an important Operation, you ll most 
likely find a Negro woman perform 

ing this precise task with a special 

‘yreen-stemming is also 

machine. She is a careful, conscien 
tious worker, for if stem removal is 
not neat and complete the resultant 
tobacco will) be loos ind coarse 
Her work is thoroughly in pected, as 

is the operation of her compleated 

ae ile machine, many time dail 

Lorillard cigarette factories, 
reen-stemmed tobacco tor must 

bh dried cooled re-moistened and 

wed before the next stage of manu 

\nd a particular hogshead may 
rest in storage, ageing gradually like 
hne wine, for several years 

of aged tobaeco mak 
! up the final blend is next put 
eperatel through stean 
ing chambers to be ltened 

\ many as four or fi 

lates may be represented a ources 
each Ly pe (Bright Burley 
Maryland. Turkish) thus. an Old 
(hold with blend exactly like that 
every other Old Gold Cor 
tain the products ol oa ma i 
eventeen state ihe final 
blend mace Negro workers 
operating cutting machines cut the 
tobacco to the exact size for fine 

cool burning, and others add precis« 
amounts of flavor for added aroma 
Then another worker 
fluffs the tobacco into a light silken 
texture on a special machine ad it 

Is read to proceed to the Maki 

mid bouquet 

Department where cigarettes take 


In the rooms housing the cigarette 
makin machines temperature ind 

humidity are constantly checked hb 
skilled workers, who may ot na 
Negroes Another worker 
dart in and out. testin tobacco 
samples to be sent to the laboratory 
for a double check At the cigarette 
making machine itself are two work 

ers working as a tean perhap i 
white man and a Negro irl. or vice 
versa the man an operator who 
constantly checks the delicate 
balance of the machine's rear ind 
lever the girl, the “catcher” who 
receives the finished cigarette 

carelully watches the machin« coop 
up the familiar finished product as 
fast as th machine feeds tobacco 
folds paper around it in a eylir 
nd Old Gold 

intervals, and cuts the continuous 

eylinder into individual cigarettes 

Pact iN¢ 

blsewhere factory white 

ind ¢ red d 
unpacked nspected ma measured 
P. Lorillard’s shipments of fine white 
igarette phane ind metal 
tol ih Pack ! Jepartment i 
k d 

marvelous machine that recei\ es 
ivarette it one end paper and 
Federal re ue stamps at the othe 
ind cor ine the t i familiar 

Other workers at other machines 
test the | wkages seal them | ick 
them 10 te i cartor ind put the 
cartor nto case for shipment 
ill over the | 

At eve stave of th tupendous 

production line inspect must he 
made ehecks and rechect riust be 
ordered for the ik quality ec 

trol md Negro mad 
whit workers alike periorm ill of 
these inspecting functions it idditior 

to the duties listed above 

Workers of all races and national 
ties at P. Lorillard plants are proud 
ol ther { product ned 
share i by nging them to the public 
Dake particular packi specialist 
for example who ts ple isant 

skinned man whose lace does not 

reveal his years, he'll tell you that 
| et th PL 

to be associated with a nopan of 
Lorillard reputation that he 
had five important promotions. 
laborer to oiler to machis idjuster 
to mechanic to packin specialist 
of th Old Gold plant's most 
respected employees he one if 

these rare workers found only at the 

most fair-minded companies i 
strong union man who ilso a firn 
supporter of management You'll 
listen to him and you'll come away 

convinced that he’s typical of the 
the Neg members { the oldest 
tobacco family in America 

ptlimisty workers who are 

Eprror’s Nort Chapter VI Ver 

of Decis which revea Vevroes 
moh hy merit and ah fy have at 
la n the na rer fol 
th fustt a ple 







{ssistant to the Productior Foreman 
Be Be f the Old Gold plant at Jersey Cit 

Pera 2 | 

Necro History BULLETIN 

“Production reports on the Otd 
Gold Making Department? 
Youll have the 
to the Production Foreman”! 
“What that wage-scale 
clause in the Vuriel 


lo see {ssistant 
neu Cigar 
factory unton 

Call the 

this meeting! 

labor representative 

“You want the latest sales ficures 

lor a Philadelphia district? 

Get area salesman the 

The fact that these 
Negroes has little to do 

men are 

with their 
kor they 
reached the place where 
is th 

and has a direct effect on the position 


place in this ory 

factor that counts, 

ability only 

of tobacco on the Ameri an scene, 

Men of Decision in 

the tobacco industry 

.ad the position of P. Lorillard Com- 
pany among tobacco manufacturers. 
in the P. 
Lorillard family occupying sensitive, 

They are men olf decision 

posit ions in. sales, 

production and labor-management 

old Horatio 

the Old 
of ‘decision 

is the 
Alger-America’ success 

story of 

come true——with an added final 
twist. It began twenty-six years ago 
Negro hired on as a plant laborer at 
the Old Gold branch of P. Lorillard 
in Jersey City. It 
the title of 


when slender Alabama-born 

finds him today 
Assistant to the 
the same 
a long title that simply means 

Foreman at 

formance of 

he is answerable for the per 

more than a hundred 

employees and as many machines in 

today ix 

Maleolm Yelverton, right, 



most exact phase of cigarette 

He is the 

Vegro in the nation to hold such a 

also only 


A typical day in this responsible 
run like this 
Karly in the morning he arrives at 

man’s life may 

the plant and distributes time ecards 
to a dozen or more employees. If 
the group, he 

“pep talk”, 

introduces them around, familiarizes 

new workers are in 

gives them a_ brief 
them with the machinery, and helps 
them to get a good start on their 
Soon after he'll make the first 

of his many daily tours of inspection, 


to check the output and accuracy of 
dozens of making, packing and seal 
ing machines. He'll stop and observe 

running in a 

the workers at their note the 

machinery is smooth 

fashion, answer a dozen phone calls 

Assistant to the 

duction Foreman at the Old Gold cigarette branch of P. Lorillard Company in Jersey City, NS. J. 

Featured in “Brown Skin 

d Bright Leaf,” 

try, Mr. Yelverton supervises nearly every operation in the 1 

Old Gold's story of the Negro’s role in the tobacco indus 
yt exacting phase of 

cigarette ifue 

1 turing. He is the only Negro known to hold such a position in industry. am ! 


from the office upstairs After lunch 

with his boss and close friend, he ll 
stop and talk to workers at their 
lunch break, then join in a production 
conference with the manager of the 
plant. A little later the operators 
supervisor, may come to him with a 
personnel problem. One of the girls 
a good but erratic worker, has defied 
4 request to observe the re yul ir lunch 
hours. So the production trouble 
shooter and the operators’ supervisor 
will enter the department's head's 
office again for a brief conferences 
A call from a shipping clerk brings 
him hurrying to inspect the latest 
shipment of paper“bobbins” to be 
fed into the making machines be 
runs a practised eye and hand over 
the ruge rolls containing paper for 
65,000 Old Gold cigarettes, nods his 
approval and hurries off to a bank of 
making machines lo supervise 
another worker who supplies tobacco 
for the machines. Its quilting time 
for the others, but he jeads back to 
his office to knock off a few 
production reports and smoke a re 
laxing cigarette—Old Gold, of course 

beiore going home to dinner with 
one of his two sons and four 

At home his 20-year-old son re 

ports on his job at the plant which 

is helping to finance his civil 
engineering education The young 

est of two grandchildren, there for 
a Visit, presents a new tooth for the 
Lorillard production chief's 
inspection. At home he is a quiet 
modest man, with the dignity that 
COTES of deep religious conviction 
the assurance that rows with 
achievement, and the deeply indented 
forehead that comes inevitably with 
years of responsibility And if you 
should approach this Lorillard man 
of decision at this time and ask him 
to talk about his job or his family 
youd find him warm, relaxed, 
thoughtful, and sincere com 
pletely unaware that every day of 
his life he is making history 

In P. Lorillard’s Muriel Cigar 
factory in Richmond, Va.. a certain 
labor-management man is definitely 
among the men of decision. Thirty 
five years of tobacco « xpereimce have 

mellowed this employee Unsurpa sed 

knowledge of tobacco people, their 
jobs, their idiosyncrasies, and what 
nakes them function at top efficiency 
No labor-management bargaining 
meeting can get underway without 
the presence of his slim. erect figure 
ind the contribution of his quick 
witted advice on the steps that must 
be taken to achieve harmony be tween 
the two groups. Of course. as he'll 
tell you its easier when you work 
lor a company like this— here all of 

us, white and colored. are working 
together for the same things.” Yes, 
if youre interested in problems of 
world government, labor manage 
ment relations, or racial understand 
ing you might find definitels 

worth your while to spend a half 
hour talking with this veteran Negro 
employee who is union steward and 
a head labor representative for P 
Lorillard’s Ric hmond plant 

Then there’s the third question 
posed at the beginning of | this 
article the question of sales. Who's 
the man who moves Old Gold and 
Kents from the factory carton to the 
dealer's shelf? Who keeps the deal 
ers supplied with promotional 
material and market information: 
who checks the quality and quantity 
of his displays; who sends constant 
sales reports to the main office by 
mail phone, and telegram 7? Ob 
viously a pretty alert intelligent, 
personable and all-around-able guy. 
In Philadelphia, he’s a Negro 

\ graduate of Xavier University 
in New Orleans, the handsome. soft 
spoken repersentative is a leading 
example of what makes Old Gold 
alesmen successful He's a solid 
citizen, married, four children mem 
ber of leading civic, religious and 
fraternal groups. And on the job 
he’s a dynamo of energy-—calling on 
dozens of tobacconists, helping them 
with thei problems, encouraging 
them to improve their sales. Until 
recently two Negro women, one in 
Philadelphia, the other in New York 
City were outstanding stars of P 
Lorillard’s sales force 

The lady from Philadelphia. a 
dynamic feminine personality with a 
background in social work and 
dramatie parked sales promotion 
lor Old Golds throughout the Middl 

Tue Necro History BULLETIN 

Atlantic States, appearing at con- 
ventions, visiting dealers, disseminat 
g information about P. Lorillard 
and its products. The New York 
City representative, a former public 


relations worker. rapidly rose to the 
position of Middle Atlantic Field 
Supervisor of Old Gold sales pro 
motion, a position she held until ill 
health forced her resignation 
Interestingly, P. Lorillard was the 
first national tobacco manufacturer 
to employ Negro women in sale 
promotion and promote them accord 
ing to merit to responsible posts. 
The Philadelphia salesman and the 

New York City Saleswoman have 

counterparts the P. Lorillard 
amily in most major American 
cities If vou want to know P. 

Lorillard’s sales position in Chic ago. 
call on the Phi Beta Sigma man: 
youll probably find him in a meet 
ing with the nation’s largest Negro 
tobacco jobbers. the Woods 
Brothers. If you're interested in the 
cigarette picture in) Washington, 
D. C.. get to know the personable 
Omega Psi Phi « hapter official. If 
you want to know how Old Golds and 
Kents are moving in New York City, 
call the salesman plac ed by the Urban 
League who is a local Elks’ officer 
or the Kappa member: if you are in 
Detroit or in Baltimor you ll meet 
two Ipha Phi Alpha fraternity 
brothers All of thes people will 
meet you with the same infectious 
enthusiasm that makes them such 
successful members of P. Lorillard’s 
sales force convincing enthusiasm. 
because it stems from a firm belief 
in the quality of the products they're 
selling and in the integrity of the 
company that produces them 

kprror’s Nove: Chapter VII—“An 
Eloquent Spokesman” which reveals. 
Vegroes in sales and advertising: 
first Negro saleswomen: advertising 
and public relations efforts featuring 



Farmi teaching, researe h. study. 
a lo history, a dozen different 
manufacture all this 
activity must hy coing some 

a0 | 

THe Necro History BULLETIN 

u here. 

You're absolutely right it goes 
to the millions of smokers who buy 
P. Lorillard products. 

Who buys tobacco, and why, and 
how to influence them to prefer a 

particular brand, is the business of 

P. Lorillard many-faceted 
advertising. merchandising and 
public relations programs. 

And this is where Negroes, as 
loquent spokesmen, have to 
play an important part in the final 
link of the tobacco. story the 
advertising and promotion which 
introduces P. Lorillard tobacco 
products to the many-hued American 

Advertising takes many forms. 
As one of the nation’s largest rank 
ing advertisers, P. Lorillard uses all 
of them to an impressive degree. On 
television and radio, Old Gold- 
sponsored talent shows demonstrate 
the fact that outstanding talent exists 
among all racial fproups and per 
form, we believe, a fine service in 
educating the public to that fact. 
Inspiring success. stories have 
emerged from these programs. \ 
recent example is when a teen-age. 
wlliowy, pops singer whose debut on 
an Old Gold TV show marked the 
beginning of a rapidly rising enter- 
tainment careet In every case, P. 
Lorillard sponsorship of quiz pro- 
grams has resulted in the frequent 
appearance of Negro guests and con 
testants. Cash prizes, scholarships 
and contracts reward successful per- 
formers like the Negro pops singer 
and delighted audiences smile and. 
perhaps, reinforce their satisfaction 
by reaching for another Old Gold. 

In prominent places in most of 
\merica’s large cities, the winsome 
tace of a Negro model smiles down at 
thousands of passersby, encouraging 
them to emulate her choice of Old 
Golds. The appearance of Negro 
and white personalities on Old Gold 
posters is part of a continuing cam- 
paign to influence the brand prefer- 
ence of smokers of all racial groups 
and national origins. 

Special events too, find P. 
Lorillard products in the spotlight. 
whether they are held in Negro, 
white or mixed communities. 

Recently, for example, when The 

Courier, a large weekly Negro news- 
paper, presented awards to the win- 
ning entertainers in its annual 
Theatrical Poll, P. Lorillard acted as 
host at a party afterward to pay 
additional tribute to the winners in 
several categories, And, at both 
Negro, white and mixed colleges 
throughout the nation, selected  stu- 
dents help finance their educations 
and prepare for business careers as 
Old Gold campus representatives. 
Likewise, numerous conventions 
Negro and white civic, cultural, 
professional and business groups are 

universally attended by Old Gold 

And so it goes. To put it simply, 
an examination of VP. Lorillard’s 
employment, sales, advertising, public 
relations and professional program 
will show that it applies to both 
majority and minority groups with 
out qualification. kor P. Lorillard’s 
philosophy on these matters might 
be stated this succinctly It necessi- 
lates the teamwork between people 
of every race, religion or national 
origin. . .whether. 

employ Ce, 

Customer or the 

Youthful Negro stage-screen and television star Diahann Carroll, who received 
her “Chance of a Lifetime” on the Old Gold cigarette sponsored TV program, 
is the entertainer featured in “Brown Skin and Bright Leaf.” Old Gold’« storys 
of the Negro’s role in the tobacco industry. Miss Carroll, currently co-starring 
with Pearl Bailey in the “House of Flowers” stage production, is another 
dramatic example of how P. Lorillard Company, makers of Old Gold cigarettes, 
is serving humanity by helping others to push forward in the world. 


many hued American publics to 

enhance the economi fe and e| 
being of this nation and its citizens 
Epirorn’s Note: ¢ hapte rVill 
End of the Rainbou 


which reveals, 
Wwe ll 
end of 
America’s rainbow oj racial hues 

Road” is a 

leading to security and 

hy tobas CO 

be the pot of gold at the 
why “Tobacco treet 
ood living 
for a large percentage of America’s 
15,000,000 Newroes 



There's a pot of gold at the end 
ihe rainbow, 

Nowhere has this simple folk belief 

been translated into more solid fact 

than in this country’s tobacco indus 

Termed the 
“Brown Skin 
industry, Negro 


tobacco industry's eloquent 
and Bright 

tr vhere the contributions of a 



rainbow comple xioned working 

products for a 
public has put considerable cash into 
the por kets of worker 

alike And, 

system. the 

and manu 
under the 

gold has 


American rain 

bows pot ol long-rang 

implic ations meaning equality 

under the laws of economics 

lobacco’s rainbow is a two-sided 

coin for the impartial observer who 

must consider both its implications 

for the workers and farmers who 

make up the Negro masses and its 

implications for the Americar 

ness scene 

Consider the statistics on farming. 

lor example In the land poor 


sharecroppers once struggled without 

South, where impoverished 

any hope of improving their status 

spokesmen in 
Leaf.” the story of the 

like June Ballard 


role in the 

important part in introducing the products of manufacturers like P. 

Necro History BuLLetin 

Negro tobaceo farmers now receive 
18% of the total cash receipts from 
the gigantic farm tobacco crop——as 



much as 2" in the 

tobacco-prod ucing states 

Negro farm rs 

dollar is close 

share of the 
to two hundred million 
dollars— an figure that is 
mightily every day In a 
state like North 
example Negro 
of the wash 
tobacco marketing 

Carolina. for 


farmers home 



being re 

Small wonder therefore, 

sharecroppers cabins are 

placed by prosperous 
that elder Negro 

hundred acre 
larms farmers are 
going back to learn 

and girls are re 

school to 

scientific farming techniques 

young farm hoys 

sisting the te mptations of the city to 

stay down on the farm and woo a 

Gold cigarette’s 
play an 



Sta) | 

THe Necro History BULLETIN 

living from the golden land. They 
have faith and hope in the future of 
the land 
will eventually mold it in the form 

and their enlightened labor 

of their dream. 

When it comes to the manufactur- 
ing end of the tobacco industry, Yr. 
Lorillard Company, the nation’s old- 
est tobacco manufacturer, presents a 
history with bright threads of obliga- 
tion woven into its fabrics. Being 
conscious of its responsibility to the 
public that buys its products, 
Lorillard began and continued with 
the manufacture of tobacco products 
which would make and maintain the 
Through the 
pattern run strands which represent 

( ompany’s reputation. 

fair dealings and relationships with 
the 3200 suppliers of the tobacco 
product and the skilled hands and 
minds that turn it into finished 
wares—with those who advertise 
them and market them—with all 
who play their part in an old and 

successful enterprise. 

A business honorably and efhicient- 
ly conducted contributes to a na- 
tion’s greatness welfare in 
pioneering ideas, by the taxes it pays, 
in the work and services it gives, and 
by enjoyment of its goods, 
Lorillard Company, maker and seller 
of the best and finest tobacco pro 
ducts for nearly two hundred years. 
conducts just such a business. 

Another strand in the Lorillard 
fabric is this centuries-old and un- 
told story of the Negro’s role in the 
tobacco industry. 

To the keen observer, “Brown 
Skin and Bright Leaf” is self-evident 
that the end of the rainbow is al- 
ready visible on the horizon—as 
prices at tobacco auctions, as Negro 

Negro farmers command 
researchers in tobacco produce new 
discoveries’ in college laboratories, 
as Negroes fill positions of distinction 
in manufacturing and on_ labor- 
management teams, as Negro sales- 

men and personalities spark the sales 


American Beauty of Song, Dorothy Dandridge’s latest appearance is on this 
colorful Old Gold cigarette poster which is featured in “Brown Skin and Bright 

Leaf,” Old Golds story of the Negro’s role in the tobacco industry. 

As cloquent 

spokesmen, Negro celebrities like Miss Dandridge play an important part in 
introducing the products of P. Lorillard Company, 

‘trend is this work 

of the tobacco industry's products to 
all markets. And, like everything 
else, another sign of the growing 
in recognition of 
the Negro’s achievements in tobacco. 

To you, the ultimate consumer, all 
of these people play an important 
part in introducing the products of 
P. Lorillard Company. For you are 
the person that all these people have 
worked diligently to satisfy. 

As you enjoy your next smoke 

from America’s first family of 

cigarettes——Old Gold. . .regular size 
.. king size... . filter kings or a 

famous Kent cigarette. . .king size or 
regular with the exclusive Micronite 
filter remember that. 

Just as all the shades of tobacco, 
from the great tobacco producing 
states enter into the satisfying blend 
all the shades of 
skin known to the human race have 

of your cigarette, 

entered into the greatness of this 
country’s tobacco industry. .and 

into the success of a great company 


Negro History 

EPPSE, Meri R.: ‘A Guide to the Study of 
the Negro in American History An 
integrated outline of valuable material 
on the Negro from Africa to the pres 
ent Over six hundred carefully selected 
references properly placed at each and 
of twelve topics thoritative quide 
for High Schoo College and inter 
racial group study 

(12 Mo) Paper Cover, 18épp 1953 $2 00 

EPPSE, Merl ® “The Negro Too in 
American History.” An integrated and 
correlated textbook of the Negro in 
American History from Africa to the 

present Designed especially for High 
School and College use. The whole 
role of the evolution of American cul 

ture is kept in place and time thruan 
Balanced and sanely treated free ef 
prejudice and opinion 

Buck (8vo) 643pp. 1949 $3.75 

EPPSE, Meri R. & Foster, AP “An Ble 
mentary American History with Contri 
butions of the Negro Race Same a 
above, but more simplified For use 
nm elementary eche 

Buck (8vo) 410pp 1953 $2.78 
Discount for School Adoption 

National Publication 

P.O. Box 445 Nashville 2, Tenn. 





¢ Soy ‘= 


Blyden Branch 
Norfolk Public 
1346 Church 

March 22, 1955 
The Editor 

find a 


you will picture 

here at 
Blyden Branch Library during Negro 
History Week and proved to be quite 
he local Negro 

pauper carried our di play and yave 

of a display that wa 

successful, new 
us a very nice writeup the week fol 
lowing Negro History Week, viz 
thirtieth annual celebration of Negro 
History Week, Feb. 13-20, was ob 

served at Blyden Branch Library on 

Church Street, with a display of 
hooks pictures and periodicals by 
and about Negroes This display 
pictured above was arranged by 
Mrs. D, R. Curtis, librarian, assisted 
by Miss Armitta Bell This vear’s 

theme, “Negro History A Contribu 

tion to America’s Intercultural Lift 

placed emphasis upon music, litera 

ture, art and sports. 

Mareniaus Usep 

Background black cover board 

Poster white, size 22” x 28 raised 
and hoxed in vith white 

poster hoard, 
rhe caption is stenciled and cut out 
which consists of Our Contribution 

to America’s Intercultural Life. 

Red crepe paper is scotch tap. d | 
A red light 

hind this caption 

placed in rear of caption 
dands out quite prominently 

he photo on poster is that of Carter 
(;. Woodson who is the founder of 
Negro History Week 

Phe letters for 

music, literature, 

sports and art were stenciled and 
cut out of white construction 
paper These letters were raised 

with straight pins, 
The book stands are tops of catalog 
card and date due hoxes painted 
black with tire black and placed 
on background with magic mend. 
Appropriate pictures, magazines, and 
colorful books were used 
Letter used in main caption are 
Halleraft perfect, die-cut Display 
Letters No, 350. 
I would be most happy if you are 
material in one of 
Negro History 
I feel that it might prove 

planning future displays, and groups 

able to use this 
issues of the 

heneficial to 

librarians in 

or classes who have projects pertain 

ing to the Negro. 

Please return the same in the 
evert you are not able to use it 
Thanking vou. | am 
Very sincerely yours 

(Mrs.) D. R, Curtis 
Branch Librarian 

Tue Necro History BULLETIN 


In her autobiography of 1850 So 
journer Truth printed three letters 
written on hoard 

ship Done of Nantucket 

from her son Peter 

the whaling 

Capt. Miller, master in 1840 and 
164) These letters, she said. were 
the last she ever got from Peter. 
(Narrative of Sojourner Truth 

Vorthern Slave 


Boston. 1850. X11. 

Apparently, by the time of 
the second edition of the 
she had 
hoy Carter 
these letters 

Vind of the 


with the 


W oodson 


made no 

change in his 
Vegro as Reflected in 
Written during the Crisis 
( Washington. 
Arthur Huff 
used them in his biography of So 
Truth, God’s Faithful Pil 
grim (Chapel Hill, 1938.) 

On the basis of Sojourner’s hand 

and Fauset later 


ling of the letters, Fauset wrote quite 
plausibly that she “believed that he 
had corrected his bad habits and had 
gone to live peacefully in some dis 
tant land.” 
that the boat foundered at sea 
that Peter drowned, 

What eventually happened to Pet 

er is so far 

Fauset then speculates 


unknown, but it is cer 
tain that his ship did not founder 
His whaler was not the Done but the 
Zone; his captain not Miller but Hil 
ler (The 


ones—were made. no doubt, in put 
ting the letters into print). The 
Zone sailed from Nantucket some- 
time in 1839 and returned from the 
Pacific Ocean on May 8. 1843 with 
2.061 barrels of whale oil—a good 
load, as Peter had written to his 

mother Whether 
the rest of the 

it may well be that he “had corrected 

he debarked with 

crew is unknown, but 

his bad habits and had gone to live 
peacefully in some distant land.” 
(i haline Vasters New Bedford 

1938, 159: Catalogue of Nantucket 
Whalers from 1815 to 1870, Nan 
tucket, 1876. 33.) 

Sidney Kaplan, University of 



' | 

THe Necro History BuLLetin 



Negro History project in North Carolina. 

The accompanying picture shows 
the interest taken in Negro History 
by the Women’s Auxiliary to the Old 
North State Medical Society. 
ly responsible for this interest has 
been Mrs. J. J. Hannibal of Kinston. 
North Carolina. 

The following letters will explain 
both the nature of the club activity 
and the leadership of Mrs. Hannibal 


in promoting interest in Negro His- 
tory in the Kinston area. 

Nortu State Mepicar Society 
Box 924, Kinston, N. C. 

Dear Mr. Brooks and Co-Workers: 

Here are the photographs of our 
Carter Woodson Reading Room that 
| promised to send. Ours is a rather 
typical southern rural town on the 
threshold of 
problems of integration. 

The reading material which your 
Association makes (it) possible to 

urbanization and the 

be available to the public is certain- 
ly a most worthy addition to the cul- 
tural growth of our community. 

We held 
November to 
Week and again in February in 
honor of Negro History Week. 

One corner (not pictured) has on 
West basket craft, 

native dolls, coral coconuts, a stuffed 

open house during 

observe Education 

display Indian 

baby alligator and other tropical 
items of particular interest to chil- 
dren. African animals, shown on the 
map (picture no. 2) are hand-carved 

We are particularly proud of the 
Home Merit 

Award (upper right wall picture no. 

Women’s Companion 
2) won by our auxiliary in March, 
1954 for community service and im- 
The Woodson 
Reading Room was one of the pro 
which the 

provement. Carter 

jects upon award was 
Thank you and your staff for every- 

thing you have done to make the 

dream of seme concrete method to 
combat prejudice and racial fear due 
to ignorance, reality here in 

Most sincerely, 

A. Hannibal 

Carter G. Woopson 

Box 924, Kinston, N. ¢ 
Dear Mr. Brooks, 

Just received a letter from the edi 
tor of Women’s Home Companion, 
informing me that the Kinston W. A 
to the Old North State Medical 
Society has again been named one 
of 250 Honor Clubs. of 
An Honor Club Award certificate ac 


companied the letter “in 
of your club’s continued distinguished 
service to your community” (We 
were so honored last year.). 

The May issue of the Companion 
will list the clubs on the 

Companion Honor Koll and carry a 


feature story of clubwomen and their 
community service, 

Since the Carter Woodson Reading 
Room was our pet project, we hope 
favorable recognition by such a fine 
magazine will encourage other organ 
izations to form similar information 

Without the wonderful encourage 
ment and assistance from you and 
your staff, we could not have accom 
plished as much as we did, 

With appreciation, 
A. Hannibal 

1887 1953 

In Gassing a college, « student, his 

parents anc advisers should give 
thoughtful consideration to its program 
of education, its character-building po- 
tentialities, ite intellectual atmosphere, 
the scholarly standing of its faculty, the 
beneficial effects of its student life and 
student activities, and the opportunities 
available for education leadership and 
social action CENTRAL STATE 
LEGE offers all of these opportunities 
to its students in the largest measure 
tional, interdenominatione! and inter 
racial in its opportunities and purposes 
For information Write: 

Registrar, Central State College 

} BY, 


Negro Originates New Ad Service 

for Firms Seeking Race Patronage 

Business firms seeking the patron Mr Hinton examined the markets 
ape of Negroe are noy in a po tion th il miyorne considered de velopin 4 
to do a more effective idvert neg job ind yndicating mat = service that 
at less cost, as the result of the re ould ‘be illustrated by Negro mod 

sourcefulness of James | 

Hintor ind ce igned specifically to the 

Tue Necro History BULLETIN 

himself a member of the ra hie nterest of the Negro people 
for more than 20° year has heer The project was no brainstorm as 
manager of the Special Services Di far as Mr. Hinton was concerned 
panment of Metro Associated Sery Growth of the Negro market and ri 
Ices, Ine., of New York ny purcha ng power of member 
Metro is the world’s largest pro of his own race prompted him to en 
ducer of advertising mat services sage in research which led Metro to 
considered essential tools in the ad ‘ive him the green light in proceed i 6 ' 
vertising department of dailies ne with the planning of the service JAMES E. HINTON 
weeklies, and retail store Vietro Mr. Hinton selected models to 
numbers literally thousands of news portray Negro housewives. busines tisers ho had pre rh ips never before 
papers around the world among it men, workers, glamor girls. and chil considered what they were missing 
regular clientele, dren in poses appropriate to adver Now. firn eeking the patronage 
Mat services provide newspapers — tising requirements. They were pho of the Negre race have access to ad 

and stores with dramatic illustratior 
which might otherwise be prohibi 

newspaper advertising more iltrac 

orld calls 

iphed in Metro's studios and the vertising I] 

picture were converted hy Metro’ 
tively expensive, with which to make irtist into what 

attention compeller 

iMrations created espe 

cially for this purpose, eliminating 
the advertising 

heavy expense involved in making 

their own pieture and cuts, 

tive and more effective. Because the From this activity emerged the Mr. Hinton is widely known in 
services are syndicated, they are 0 first syndicated advertising mat sery race circle His is a familiar face 
economical that newspaper sub ee especially designed for use in at Neoro Ne wspaper Conventions 
scribing to them are able to offer creating advertising directed to the Mr. Hinton was born in Norfolk 
their accounts free acce to the Negro race The service is called Yjpoi, a He attended St. John’s 

hundreds of advertising illustration 

they contain 
Though these services have been imong 

in existence almost since the begin paper 

Atte ntion Ple ase ni 
Pre public ation 

ind almost equally as high 
ning of the century, it was not until imong other newspapers and 

University ind the Nev 

School of 

interest ran high Social Research. He has been active 

of Negro me the 

movement to combat juvenile 

ind also in religious ed 

delir quency 

ucation for youth 

Mary McLeod Bethune 

(Continued from Back I 

speak out with a vengeance like that of Henry 
Highland Garnet against racial discrimination 

In the field of interracial relations, which 
has too often been a no-man’s land of publicity 
and fortune seeker White and Negro, Mary 
Bethune was a woman that indulged no guile 
of or accepted any patronizing She spoke 
the unadulterated truth in public and in eon 
ferences behind closed door “carefully 
selected Negroes” still whitewash grievances 
of their people for personal aggrandizement 
The genuflecting traducers are counterparts of 
“Negro slave-drivers of old” that cracked the 
heads of cane, cotton, and tobacco field-slaves. 
Mary McLeod Bethune in contrast was a leader 
that rose from the strength of her great ability 
and the unquestioned choice of those whom she 
inspired and led as all leaders worthy of their 


high commission have done She was states 
manlike, long before she laid down her sword 
and shield, to pass her torch to others capable 
of keeping ever burning 
for othe In day ahead 

Unlike Walter White, W. E. B. Dubois. and 
some others of her crusade Marv McLeod 
Jethune did not reduce to writing the records 
of her abundant life and great work. Her 
papers will in time reveal much more of her 
colorful performance great journey. 
Catherine Owen Peare’s Mary McLeod Bethune 
(1951) isa partially definitive biography which 
portrays very much (not all) of the steward- 
ship and career of thi Her true 
story awaits biographers and historians of the 
future that may well integrate Mary Bethune’s 
role in Southern historv that is being rewritten 
It is sufficient now to know that she lived and 
labored before her God and in rare consecra- 
tion to all mankind. Her crown reserved for 
the righteous and valiant is won. 

brightly to light ways 

noble woman. 


Tue Necro History BuLLETIN 



Central State College, W ilberforce, Ohio 


‘To write the lives of single per 
is then 



a commendable under- 

when by it moral 

benefit is designed to 
Those strikingly 

ten by an 

rich phrases, writ 

extracted in part from the opening 

annonymous are 
lines of Frank Patterson's biography 
of John Milton, the English 
Although it is far from my 
endeavor to compare the subject of 

my discourse to John Milton. she is 


recognized by too few as one eminent 

in this generation and one whose 

character and 

broadened the avenues for the Negro 
Although I am a col 

majoring in 

poetic genius 
in literature. 
lege student Literature 
I knew nothing of Gwendolyn Brooks 
until | began to study Negro History. 
like me 

Because there must be many 


| believe other 

might result 

appre rate 
of my study, 

Miss Gwendolyn Brooks. a young 

By Jacovetine Crockert 

Junior Central State College 

poet ry, espe 

Negro poetess, reigns as one of 
masters in the field of 
cially if one considers the fact that 
she was the recipient in 1950 of one 
of the most distinguished honors any 
American in the field of 
the Pulitzer 
Through — the 

Negro, | feel it is an honorable and 


can receive, Prize for 

Poetry. eves of a 
encouraging experience to read of a 
contemporary Negro who, ina world 
of strenuous competition and staunch 
criticism, even dares write, moreover 


Gwendolyn Brooks has written such 

consider publishing her work, 

rich and elorious works that she was 
hailed by Madamoiselle as one of the 
ten most the 

outstanding women of 

These are just two of a number of 
conferred upon her. Perhaps we 
look back at the life of this 

woman who is likewise an outstand 

year in 

awards and honors have been 


ing figure in Chicago civie affairs, 

At the Atlanta University Luncheon honoring Miss Gwendolyn Brooks, Pulitzer 

prize winner. 

(Left to right) Dr. Bell I. Wiley of Emory University: Miss 

Brooks, Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune, and Dr. L. D. Reddick. 

we can final a deeper 

and her works 

Gwendolyn Brooks was born on 
1917 in Topeka, Kansas, to 
David Anderson and Keziah Corrine 
Brooks After 
Ivn’s month old birthday, the Brooks 
Chicago There 

inspired by hes 

apprect ihion 

for her 

June 6 

celebrating Gwendo 

family moved to 

she grew up and 
an to form little 

After praduat 
ing from Englewood High Sehool in 

1934, Gwendolyn pursued her 

nursery rhymes, beg 

rhymes of her own 

further, completing her two years of 


college al Junior (olleve nm 


read the little 

verses she had put tovether and hay 

Her teachers having 

ing noticed the great potentialities in 
this little 

write poetry As a re 

encouraged her to 

ult of this en 

couragement Gwendolyn received a 

great thrill when at the ave of four 
teen she read a poem she had written 
in American Childhood. She 

onfidens and 

treat help from her 
likewise filled with 

while her 

family who was 

artistic inclination mother 

ilso an artist 

COM post d 
Was employed in a music house 
They encouraged 

“read and think 

formative interest in 

Raymond wa 
Gwendolyn to 
thus enriching hes 
Having graduated from Wilson she 
began working on a newspaper, a 
and still remain 
allliated with the 
Community Art 
There she 
Boulton with contributing 
of poetry, 

magazine, and doing veneral 

today, actively 
South Side 

in Chicago. 

She became 

accredits Inez 
to her sue 

cess in method 

tee hinique 

In 1943 she received a great recog 
nition for her rare quality when she 
Poetry Workshop 


was prest nied the 


during the urmmer at 

University I 

received the 

thus being hailed again as having an 

4 : 
é 4 5 

unusual excellence in 
Her works hegan lo 
Poetr y 

magazines a 
of Literature: Harper 

Saturday Revi 

azine, The 
erature and other 

In 1945 A 
Wa published It 

lection of poetry to be pul 

and Wiis received triumphar 
the critics. She was hailed a 

Virginia Kirku 

ind authent 

poet and as 
‘Gifted, pas 


Successively in 19146) and 
Miss Brooks received the Gu 
Fellowship for Creative Writit 

thousand doll 
Academy of Art ind 


was awarded a 
the American 
Letters, and in the same year 
received a grant from the National 
Institute of Arts and Lette 
Vadamoiselle said of her in 
“One collected 


impression of every 

her idelibl 

day life ‘ 

realistic and original 

Her volume 
titled Annie Allen was pub 
1949 In May of the 

was announced as the 


next vear hie 
Poetry as a result of this 
is a col 
refleetin thre feel 
woman as daughter fe 
This book received the 
praises, and i aid by 


winner for 
lection of poem 
ings of a 
and mother, 
highest of 
a Chicago Sun critic to by i 
Pract il 

avainsd the 

ondage with 

magnificent speech 
inequality which is in | 

On September 17 195 
Brooks had become the of 
Henry Lowington Blakely Phe 
couple has resided in Chicags inet 
and has one son, Henry Lowingeton 
Blakely, IIL. Mrs. Blakely i mem 
ber of the Board of Directors of the 
South Side Community Center 

In March of 1951 the Negro Digest 
carried an article by Miss Brook 
entitled “Why Negro Women 
Home.” It might be 

read and note 

interesting to 
some of her reason 

First of all she seemingly feels that 

a man whose wife ha in Income 

sulle red 

As a compensation for 

equal feels his manhood ha 
a detraction 
this fact he 
tries to insist where his wife's money 

makes le s ellort and 

be spent, (household bills, clothes 

the children, coal for the winter 

Secondly imerference of in-laws 
the couple's affairs can sometimes 

Luise lone separations as 

hitter one \ third 
do ith incompetence or 
homosexuality on the of the 


reason has 
the unveiling of male 
that is 

money \ 

old diggers men who en 
Union merely for 



tered into the 
i] ike ol 


from year to year 
ome of it 

the hu hand 
with other 

cems to lose popularity 

linke d 




1 Street in Bronzeville is a beauti 

ful and poet social document hor 
perhaps no reason at all we begin a 
down that 
Bronzeville We 
i small apartment, and our 
make their 
and “yesterday s 

the hall. We 


unnamed treet in 
readily begin life 
dreams must way 
h onion fumes 
ripening int 

hecome acquainted with the 
neighborhood, the 
the corner, and all of the 
Bronzeville We see that 

Calumet” and 

the tavern on 

denizen of 
‘cool chick 
down on Sadie and 
the ot 


It is distressing as we near 

was murdered 
We hear the 
music from the restaurant and se 
Minnie the hairdresser, the fight be 
Mo Bell Jackson and her hus 
and the vulear unshameful 
Mame. The 
collection is entitled 
It reads as thus 
And still we wear our 
The cracked ery of the bugles 

ind brush 

vhere Pere y 


hy ind 
dancing of 

final poem 

in the ‘Pro 

tt s 


Our pride and prejudice, doctor the 

Initial ardor, wish to keep it fresh 

Still we applaud the President's voice 
and face 

Still we remark on patriotism, sing 

the flag, thrill heavily 

| death of who too saluted 


Salute rejoice 

But inward grows a sobernes 
A fear. a deepening hollow through 
the cold 
For even if we come out standing up 

How shall 

and how 

we smile, congratulate: 

THe Necro History BULLETIN 

Settle in chairs’. Listen. listen. The 

Of iron feet again. And again 

{ Street in Bronzeville is not only 
a relaxing collection of poems, hut 
it is amusing and provides the stimu 
vivid and 

lant for a imaginery pic 

ture of Bronzeville. It is a typical 

street, and a typical neighborhood 

characterizing so excellently the 
Bronzeville Negro in any city. 

{llen is 

the world of poetry, 

{nnie a valuable gift to 
It is as rich as 
it is intense. and filled with glowing 

the book J 

Saunders Redding said it is “as artis- 

warmth In reviewing 

tically sure, as emotionally firm, and 
as esthetically complete as a silver 

Cellini Nor is 

incongruous as it 

figure of the com 

parison so seems. 
tarily held in a delicate static poise, 
that Cellini informs the 

pieces in Miss Brooks’ work.” 

same liquid lyricism, momen 

informs a 

The book is divided into three sec- 
life: child 


tions or crossroads of 


Most interesting to me is the section 

virlhood, and 

on birth in the narrow and pinch 
The new babe is taught early 

thanks to God 

the beauty of 


Ive that let her see so far. 

For throat enabling her to eat 

Her Quaker Oats 

For tongue to tantrum for the penny. 

and Cream-ol 

For ear to hear the haven't any, 

For arm to toss, for leg to chance. 
For heart to hanker for romance. 
said earlier America’s 

The title of the book has 

critized, but not to 

{nnie is easy reading and as 

| have won 
been somewhat 
the extent of damaging the value of 
thought the 

beautiful of the poems was the final 

the collection. I most 

one. The opening lines read: 

Men of careful turns. haters of forks 
in the road, 

The strain at the eye, that puzzlement, 
that awe 

Grant me that | am human, that | 

This gifted young woman has been 

As a 

poetess we 

I can ery. 

successful in all her attempts. 

mother, a wife, and a 
ought to look upon her, read her 

poetry and recognize her unquestion- 

| | 
: “| = 
woot hu 
ly b 

Necro History BULLETIN 

her honors. 

She gained 

ably as worthy of all 
Phyllis Wheatley 
American Negro poetess. 

Was our vreal 

fame among the people ol her 
but Gwendolyn Brooks has become 
our greatest twentieth century poet 

ess, and we a¢ain can he proud and 

cognize another genius. 

Pictures From 
College Corner's 
October Story 

Yung Ok Kim, of Seoul, Korea, now 
a student at Central State College (Sc« 

October Issue of the Bulletin). 


(Continued from Page 26) 

D. Was in the 
campaign to outlaw segregation 
in the field 
of education, culminating in the 
May 17. 1954, in 
which the supreme court held 

no place n education. 

In 1951 Mr. Marshall went to 
Japan and Korea to make a first-hand 
investigation of courts marshall cases 
Negro Mr. Mar 
shall’s organizational afhliations are: 

4. A Thirty-Third Degree Mason 
Hall Affiliation) 
8B. A member of the National Bar 


charge of entire 

and discrimination 

decision ol 

“separate but equal” has 

nvolving soldiers. 


(. His Greek letter fraternity ts 
Alpha Phi Alpha 

D. A member of the New York 
County Lawyers Association 

The following are some of | the 

honors he has received: 

1. Was placed on the 1944 Honor 
Roll of Race Relations for the 
Schomburg Collection. 

2. Was awarded in 1946 the fa- 

mous Spingarn Medal awarded 
each year by the Special Spin- 
garn Committee of the National 
Association for the Advance- 
ment of Colored People to the 
Negro making the greatest con- 
tribution to the advancement of 
Negroes in American life. 

Was 1949 the Na 
tional Newspaper Publishers As- 
Russwurm Award” 
possible a_ richer 

awarded in 

in making 


conception of democratic prin 
ciples and in tribute for up 

holding these highest traditions 

considered as the ideals of the 
American way of life.” 
Received National Bar Associa 
tion Award September 17, 1948 
Received Baltimore Afro-Amert 
can’s National Honor Roll A 

Received Achivement Award 

from Omega Psi Phi Fraternity 
for 1951. 

( hicago Defenders 

Robert S. Abbott Memorial A 
ward, May 8, 1954 
Cited Chapters of the Bonai 

vrith Lodge 

Legal Defense and bduca 

tional Fund. Ine 
107 West 43rd Street 

New York. New York 

—— 44% 
‘ gt? 

THe Necro History BULLETIN 


DIGGS, JR. of Michigan before the 
on Thursday, March 31, 1955 

MR. SPEAKER The principle 
of justice for all is deeply rooted 
the American way of life and guaran 
teed by the Constitution Yet the 
guarantee becomes a gigantic fraud 
unless our civil rights are fully pro 
tected against a powerful antagonist 

There is a new eclipse which ha 
begun in Mississippi ind the alread 
limited light of liberty in that ignoble 
state is growing dimmer and dim 
mer Just as darkne ordinarily 
produces feat so th unprotected 
whether they be inarticulate or vocal 
tremble and sweat in anx 

eern, Just as darkness ordinarily 

provides cover for those who would 
exploit the unprotected so they grow 

holder and bolder in the absence of 
governmental action 

In the March 22, 1955 edition of 
LOOK magazine, the distinguished 
Pulitzer Prize-winning editor of th 
Greenville, Mississippi Delta Demo 
cratic Times, Mr. Hodding Carter 
graphically lays before te world, for 
all to see, one of the. most revolting 
pictures ever portrayed on the Amer 
an scene It tells the story of so 
called Citizens’ Councils, which have 
been germinated in’ Mississippi to 

cireumvent the Supreme Court) ban 

in segregation in public schools. 
describes — the leadership these 

Councils as otherwise intelligent men 
who are generally respected in their 

community, but who are seriously 

dedicated to racially eparated 
theory supported for generations by 
most white southerners Their only 

redeeming feature thus far is a non 
violence pact seeking to forestall hot 

As these Councils expand, how 
ever, the burning question ts whether 
they can keep the hotheads out or 
under control, As the foundation 
of the segregation wall cracks and 

crumbles under the weight of its 

own stupidity; as the forces of the 

pro-segregation movement instinct 
ively stiffen its resistance; as they 

witness the failures of their mortar 
and cement to re strengthen the base 
in consideration of the combustible 
material that is being used. the 
parks of freedom can ignite a flame 
that will light up almost every strect 
ind countryside in Missi sippi and 
spread its hot fingers into other like 

In the meantime pro-segregation 
ists are resorting to a diabolt illy 
clever plan ol economu polite il 

ind social reprisals against all who 

dare oppose Or expose them They 
have compiled a notable array of 
victories They were the principal 

lobbies in the Mississippi Legislature 
for constitutional amendments to fur 
ther stifle the Negro vote by requir 
ing mol stringent qualifications 
ind to permit the abolition of the 
State’s public school system to coun 
teract the eventuality of integrated 
education They have withdrawn 
from and refused credit’ privileges 
based on usual good security. to so 
called obstinate Negroes, resulting in 
i long list of individual hardships 
The ) have threatened esper ially 
those who are known to be artis 
in the National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People 
iid the Mississippi Regional Council 
of Negro Leadership until many are 
fearful for their very lives and are 
forced to use plain envelopes when 
corre pondin to keep from 
ingled out for financial ruin, and to 
he cautious about telephone calls 
especially in areas where a dial sys 
tem is notin us 

In addition, the Mississippi Legis 
lature recently passed resoluton 
which jeopardizes a basic Constitu 
tional guarantee by barring anti-seg 

regationists from spe iking at any 

state supported educational institu 
fron Thes incidents plus a score 
more, cause us to believe that the 
Citizens’ Councils and their counter 
parts certain other states not 
withstanding their non-violence 

pledges, are at thte gatepost figeting 
nervously and prepared to ride agai 
like their Ku Klux Klan predecessors 
kicking up clouds of terror dust. 

If their amazing successes con- 

tinue unabated: if they continue to 
silence most vocal opposition, drunk 
with power they will undoubtedly 
hee ome more daring and can bee ome 
instruments of interracial violence. 
As Hodding Carter states. “The in- 
gredients are there lhe incentive 
ind the incendiary spark are lacking 
o far. If and when these should ap 
pear I say. soberly and in warning, 
that the men in white robes will seize 
control Call it exaggeration if you 
wish, but these apprehensions are 
founded upon sad past experiences. 

| agree with Mr. Carter that we 
cannot be blind to the dilemma of 
the South today, but that the Coun- 
cils’ way 1s not the right way, that 
it is not American to bully the near 
defenseless and the minority of dis- 
senters, that it is not American t 
invoke the doctrine which recognizes 
the existence of a master race. The 
kederal Government by its. silence 
however, is abdicating its responsi 
bility for the protection of the vie 

tims of these aforementioned repri 


As an immediate solution, the Ex 
ecutive Department can al the 
diretion of — the President, and 

through the Attorney General and 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 
indicate strongly — the Administra 
tion's intolerance of these nefarious 
practices by a sweeping investigation 
of the fast growing anti-Negro Citi 
zens’ Councils in the South, begin 
ning in the State of Mississippi. ‘The 
Congress of the United States should 
make a separate inquiry These a 
tions alone may be an effective deter 
rent to further misdeeds 

As a long range solution, I am 
certain that the examination of facts 
will inspire them to support various 
proposals before Congress designed 
to strengthen the protection of civil 
rights. We must recognize that the 
national security and general welfare 
of our country call for more ade 
quate safeguards of individual rights. 
As informed people have continually 
stated. our actions in this area are 
reflected in the esteem in which 
America is held by the preponderant 
darker peoples of the earth. 

(Continued on Page 47) 





Necro History BULLETIN 

By Jessie H. Roy 

Close to the shore where big rocks 
shelter it from the dashing waves of 
the ocean; and the seaweeds grow in 
a beautiful underwater garden, there 
Its waters are clear 

is a quiet cove. 

and peaceful you can see 

almost anything lives in the 

Big fish and little fish gambol and 


play and chase each other. 
and clams cling to the soft 
of the bay. Crabs amble awkwardly 
along looking for their 
Why. I am sure you may be able to 


see even some fairy horses, swishing 

alone. hitching themselves now and 
then to a shady clump of seaweed, 

Fairies don’t live under the water. 
sav?) Oh. There 
are water fairies Any- 


you yes they do. 
arent there? 
at all could 

way, if anything 

these horses | am talking about, it 

would have to be a fairy. Evervy- 

thing else would be much too hig; 
for these are the tiniest horses in all 
the world. 

They aren't horses to tell 
the truth. But their little heads are 
shaped so much like those of real 
that call them sea 
horses because they live in the sea. 
They little 
with great big eves and long. 




are fish tiny. bony fish 



If vou could settle yourself ever 

sO quietly at the edge of the water 

and could keep just as still as a 
stone. you could watch these little 
horses and see how they live. They 
are such timid creatures that they 

keep out of sight as much as pos 
sible. So you couldn’ make a sound 
or they wouldn't come near you. 

You know 

coming if the water 


fish around: and 

would when they 

was very 
if there were no hig 
vou could hear a gentle swish, swish. 

The swish ould 
tails which thev use 

swish. made by 
the little horse’ 
to help them through the water as 
well as to anchor themselves when 
they are tired or in danger. 

As long 

for food. 

they can feel safe. thes 

But the minute a bigger 

swish around a while 


fish comes near, these tiny wild 
horses hunt for something to hide 
under. When they have found it. 

they curl their tails around the object 
and stay very still and quiet until 

all danger is past. Sea horses are 
not extra good swimmers: so they 
do not travel very far at a. time. 

They stay still as much as they can: 
and try to find sheltered places with 
plenty of food. This is heeause they 
have no way of defending themselves 
Only by keep 

ing out of sight can they remain alive 

against their enemies. 
very long. 

How do sea horses know when hig 
ger fish are coming? They have 
more than one way of finding this 
out. They either hear them or they 
see them not by turning their heads 
to look for them, but by rolling their 
around in direction 

big eves every 

like searchlights on a tower, 
Sometimes, when they are too tired 
to swim, or they wish to get to some 
place without having to pass other 
will take a 

will cling head 

“Cu hor scs 


sea creatures 
That Is, 

down to a bit of drifting seaweed and 


be carried along with it. Some days 

they ride around like this much of 
the day. 

The family life of the sea horse is 
very simple but very odd in one way 
a helpful 
Sea Horse from the dime the egys are 
laid until hatched All 
Mother Sea has to do is to 

lay the eggs. 

Father sea horse is such 

fellow that he baby sits for 

they are 

Then Father Sea Horse 
deposits them in a sack which he car 
ries under his tummy and from there 
The babies do not 
have to be cared for, but start right 

they are hatched. 

away looking out for themselves 
You small the 

babies are when Mother and Father 

Sea Horse don't get to be more than 

Some kinds 

can imagine how 

a couple of inches long! 

grow a little bigger, but not much 
Now you know why | called them 
bairy Horses. And do you know 
something, | think maybe of 
you can see some of these tiny crea 
tures for yourselves at the zoo) in 
your town Anyhow, it won't hurt 
to look next time you are there 

His Exeeclleney Momolu Dukuly, 

Secretary of 


State (acting), Republic of 

Liberia, on an informal visit to the office of James C. Evans, Civilian Assistant 

Secretary of 

to the Assista 

Pentagon, Washington, D. C., May 1955. 

(Manpower and Personnel) the 
Left to right: Secretary Dukuly, Me. 

Evans, and Major Albert J. Parker, Executive to the Civilian Assistant. 

( al ar, 



veryone casually a quainted with 

the history of the United 
ing the 
War has 

admission of the state into 

precedi the Cuvil 
undoubtedly heard of the 
Kansas Days It was 

strugy le ceding th 



bloody pre 
to decide whether it should be admit 

The fa 


ted as a slave or free state 

mous John Brown of Harpers 
was the leader of the free-soil people 
Quantrill, a  bushwhacking 

from Missouri, was the 

raider leader 
of the One of th 
fiercest battles of the time was waged 
Little villave ol | i 
where the 

slave element 

in the 

is now located. 

state University 
It was a quiet pleas 
ant morning when Quantrill and his 
descended without 

band of raiders 

town livery 
treet wa hot down 

and most of the 

warning on the 
citizen on the 

without merey 
buildings were burned to the ground 

The ould 

put an end to the free-soil movement 

raiders thought that thi 
but it only aroused the determination 

ke d 


of the free-soilers and they succes 

bringing Kansas into the union as a 

in the course of a 
Kansas had always heen 
proud of the fact that it had been a 
had known. the 

slay ery 

free state. 

free state and never 
curse of human 

In the Litth 
my college course ther 
Negro church, It held its Sunday 
school on Sunday afternoons. Word 
me that this 
litthe church needed help in its Sun 


a small 

town where | 


reached my friend and 

and, as Sunday 

in the 

day school; our 
school wis held 
had the 
decided to offer 

little church, and we 

morning, we 

Sunday afternoons free so 

our services to the 
were accepted 
We carried on thi york 

throughout the school year and be 


came well acquainted with the Negr« 
people in the town and came to have 
a high for most of them 
\fter and | 
from college, 1 attended a Thee 


my friend raduated 
cal Seminary and my friend 

a professional school in another city 


Deleware Ohio 

When he graduated from the 
sf hool he 


came back to 
started the practice of his profession 


city because 


of th 

cities in and 
mention the name of the 

the citizens were 

oughly disgusted with what hap 
pened there, and they took steps to 
ee that it never happened agai: 

\ couple of years after my friend 
began to practice in the city, a ter 
rible told me 

that a white woman had been raped 

event occurred. He 

and beaten to unconsciousness and 

he never regained consciousness 
young Negro 
that of the 

city where the crime was committed 

enough to identify her attacker 
suspicion le on a 

man who lived in part 

arrested and 
One evening 
was coming back 
call he had to 

and he 

ind he was put in the 

flimsy city jail when 
my friend from 
i business pass by 
that a 


the city noticed 


crowd was gathering around 

building He 

was going to happen. 

paused to sec 
Soon a crowd 
of several hundren men gathered and 

commenced to cry “Lynch him 

Hang him.” and some cried “Burn 

him The crowd soon worked itsel! 
up to such a pitch that they broke 
down the door to the jail and broke 
into the cell where the Negro was 
confined The crowd led him out of 
the building and then there were a 
yreat more cries “Lyne h him 




“Burn him.’ 



alive friend said 

was incomprehensible 
about the psychology of a mob. He 
tion of the mob, and yet he was held 
force to 
crowd in it 
followed the 
behind, to 
that part of the city where the crime 

had Near by 

i pile of logs which a resident had 

was not sympathetic with inten 
wretched invisible 
follow the 

but some distance 

by some 
remain and 
been committed. was 
planned to saw up and use for fire 
took these 

logs, sunk a 

one of 
the log in it up 

the crowd 
od sized several 

feet deep and set 

PHe Necro History BuLLerin 

though he 


they took 

continued to 

right man, 
him to th 


and chained 

upright log and and 
other inflamable material about him 
soaked all in kerose ne 
to it The then 

around the 

and set fire 

mob danced and 
until he 

1 asked my 
friend to take me to the spot where 

shouted victim 

was entirely consumed 
the burning had taken place, though 
three weeks the 

out of the iutomobile 

it was two or after 
event | ot 
and walked over to the upright log 
only about half consumed 
which there were piles ol 
ashes As | looked down 
hes | sa t blackened 
half-burnt object about the size of a 
baseball 1 kicked it with foot 

and that it was the 
one of the 

whic h was 

among the i 


then discovered 

partially burnt joint of 
left: in 

to the automobile 

victims legs | and 
went back 


and we 


friend's home. 
I asked 
guilty of the 


as we drove along 
replied that th 
It had 

even mn 

the man 
of the woman He 
Negro wa 
the city the 


that h 

night the crime 

proven wasn t 
Was Com 
very vreat cause has had its 


Christian church in 

Stephen was stoned to death, many 


its early many martyrs 

Christian hoth men ind women 

were thrown to the wild beasts for 
the amusement of the Roman crowds. 
and the kimperor Nero soaked many 

them for 

Chri tian in oil them lo 


ation at 


Negro people is a 
too has had its 

of which was this man 

and burned 

his garden parties 
advancement of 
yreat cause and it 
martyrs, one 

described It is a great 

step in 
and that the recent de 

advancement Ivnching 

largely gone out of practice in 
last few years 
cision of the 
ruled that 

schools is 

Sevregation in 

Supreme has 
publ ia 
unconstitutional It 
1 jov to that Kansas 
of the first states in the 
a ! i to the 


learn was one 
union to send 
President of the 
that the e of the 

trietl obeyed and 
that he 1 

to Kansa 

further thought 


THe Necro History BULLETIN 


The first novel by John 9. Killens, 
find of the 
the Afro- 


the indigenous literary 

vear was described by 

American reviewer as 
Entitled “Youngblood,” it was also 
called “the autobiography of a race.” 
It is a story of a Negro family 
named Youngblood who live in the 
southern industrial town of Cross- 
roads, Georgia, in the late twenties 
are the major 

Killens. Yet he states. “If 

| had preached a sermon, no one 

and early Negro-white re- 

lations corcern ol 
would ever read it. . . I’ve tried to 
tell of two children 
the the 
places on their parents. 
Negroes feel for white people, but at 

up in 
. | wanted 


south, and burdens 

to show deep distrust most 
the same time Negroes as a whole 


stand ready to grasp hands 

honest-to goo d ness 

with g 


exposed to many of the expernences 

Macon, Georgia, he is almost totally 

Though fiction has been 

he describes in his Born in 
southern educated, having attended 
kdward Waters College in Jackson- 
Florida, Morris Brown in 
Atlanta, Howard. and Terrell Law 
School in Washington, Later, 
making his home in New York, he 

attended Columbia. 


Prior to his writing career, he 
worked for the NLRB. He is 
ried and has two children. 




author an 

other import. 

arriving in country 
He attracted wide 
attention in the 
the appearance of his first UL S. 
published novel “In the Castle of My 
Skin” (McGraw-Hill, 1954). 

This, first 

possible by a 

from London where he haz 
since leaving the West Indies. 
land of his birth 

literary circles on 

his visit, was made 

generoues grant re- 
ceived by him from the Guggenheim 
Foundation. His plan is to remain 
i \ear. visiting as much of the ecoun- 
Iry as he can, and reporting cn his 

impressions in various English jour- 


By Marcurrire CARTWRIGHT 


nals and later publishing them as a 
the Barbados 


wholly in 
schools, according to released 
is of English- 
Here he lectured iw knglish 

by his publishers,—-he 
African ancestry. He Barbados 
to teach in a boarding 
and French to students largely from 


went to London where he mace his 

four years of teaching, he 
home until coming to the lS. He 
appeared regularly on the BBC, and 
was selected to be one of these who 


the West 
Abbey, he reported tie ar- 
rival of the Royal family. and finally 
the great moment, the arrival of the 
Queen herself. 
, “Castle.” his first \meerican- 
published book. he describes thusly: 

broadcast to world 

attendant on coronation, 
tioned at entrance ol 


have assembled a certain num- 
ber of situations, many of which are 
The book 
on the 
It operates on 


based on historical occurrences 
turned them into fiction. . 
is an account of village life 


island of 

two levels one 


level Um trying to show an individual 
in the process of discovering new 
depths in himself by speculating on 
his relations with the society tn which 
What finally, 
think, is oa 

he lives, eer ees 



study in 

individual consciousness ihe nook 
is not one of those “about the race 



havdsome young author has 

the early part ol his visit’ as 

the guest of his publisher Ldward 
Aswell,'who lives in a 

N.Yos Westchester 

a former teacher, the 

wank part 

iuthor has 

made his visit a busmans holiday 

lene al 

whenever possible, 

his publisher: “I 

Visiting schools and colleges 

leaving London, he wrote 

have seen life at 

many different levels and this is the 

material whic h | lo work inte 
in them 

my books. kvents are not 

selves important. It is the subjes 

tivity of experience that matters It 

is what your consciousness. doe 



Frank Pereira of 850 Mani- 

da Street, Bronx 59, New 
York, is looking for a teach- 
ing position in a college or a 
university. He 
B.A. from Brooklyn College 
(1949) and a MLA. from How- 
ard University (1955). He 
at present working on a Ph.D. 
in history at New York Uni- 
versity. He can teach 
elementary French, freshman 
English, social science survey 
courses and social studies, 

POsscsses a“ 


In addition, he possesses a 
Certificate of African studies 
from the Institute of Political 
Studies (of the University of 
Paris system). 

He is at present available 
and eager for a teaching posi- 
tion, though, to date, he has 
had no paid experience. 









Without question wi have 
George Lamming litera: figure 
who adds much to th \nerican 
“ene His new novel f mii 

grants,” which is scheduled to appear 
in the Spring and has alrea heer 

published in England, is ecagerl 



Long ago, when we were kids in 
Boston, we always called him 
‘Young Bill to 

from his father, who had th une 
name, This was certainl the ony 
reason for this partie ular «le riptive 
adjective,—for, even when he wa 
very small till Worthy wis a 
grave, sober, serious lad, at times 

even moody, 

He was the last and only male 
child of Dr. William Worth our 
family physician | recall hearing 
my parents say Mable (his mother) 
kept trying until she had a ho 

brilliant student 
his family by gaining adniission t 

the austere Boston Latin | He 

he leliohted 

did w enough hi | ul 
tudies, but, even then, he was at 
tracted more to the social ences 
and journalism He took oun 

usual interest in’ the dowia-trodden 
and, though himself the m of a 
doctor, was sympatheti 1 worker 
out on strike, and, more than once 
joined them in them pick 

As he grew older on ition 

rather than gay social parti was 


his mayor concerns At bates, he 
became the center of a dedicated 
little group of pacificists who con- 
idered violence and war the greatest 
When World War 

ll broke out, he continued to refuse 

evils of our time 

recognize any authori! higher 
than his own conscience and, as a 
erentious objector to the horror 

of his family paid the price, 
In 1948 he hecame the press secre- 

tary of Phil Randolph, who has so 

often sought out and given recog 
nition to vourg talent and Jeader 
ship In this role. with Grant 

Reynolds, the late Charles Houston 
ind Randolph himself, Bill Worthy 
met with Pres. [Truman over segre 
ition in the armed forces, where 
i “heated and protracted conference 
is held when the matter of civil 
disobedience was first broached 

Between June of ’51 and October 

he spent two years in lLurope 
ind nearly a year in Asia As a 
lree-lance Journalist he literally 

il ed to write his way around 
the world with articles translated 
nto ten languag’s and ippearing 

hewspapers and pub- 
lished in 19 countries ile was in 

Korea during the true-signing. and 
hha ost recently, written a sertes of 
irticle on how repatriated Negro 

POWs from Korea fared since their 

clease from prison 


THe Necro History BULLETIN 

[ once asked Bill how many 
loreign periodicals he cou'd recall 
writing tor He was, of course, not 
able to complete the list, but it 
included “New Statesman and Na 
tion London), “Verdens Gang” 
Oslo) Morgon-Tidningen” (Stock 
holm), ‘Die Welt” (Hamburg), 

\rbeiter-Zeitung” (Vienna), 

Volksrecht” (Zurich). “Het 

Parool” Amsterdam). Hindustan 
[ime New Delhi) Singapore 
Standard” (Singapore) Daily 
Mirror” (Manila), “Mainichi” 
(Tokyo) . and others 

In preparing to do this piece, I 
wrote him for a photograph. His 
reply ranting my request was 
Ly pu Here is the only picture | 
have. It was taken in Jakarta, for 
travel purposes. Until recently one 
needed about a dozen photos to get 
into Indonesia, and another dozen 
I almost literally 
landed on their equivalent ol our 

lo get an exit visa 

ellis Island hecause I arriy d aboard 
a Dutch steamer from Singapore, 
with the wrong kind of entry visa. 
It’s the birth pangs of a newly free 
country, and | certainly don’t hold 
it against the government or the 

Three Top Social Workers 

It is the same story, almost a re 
“we need trained people, 
More more more, 

This is the story of three of the 
country s te p so¢ ial workers all of 
whom have one thing in common. 
When the big chance came,—they 
were ready. 

New York Crry Depr. or WELFARE 

Without exception every New 
York daily carried the stery: Mrs. 
\minda Wilkins top social worker 
for New York City’s Department of 
Welfare. had become its $8,000 a 
year executive secretary. 

This wa top news, for 4 meant 
that the attractive Mrs. Roy Wilkins. 

had been selected for an exe: utive 

known to her friends a 

post which involved the dispensation 
hundred seventy 
million dollars a year-——-New York 
City’s relief bill Just one of 
Harlem's Weliare Centers recently 

of over a 



i} . 

Lx | 

a | 

fue Necro History BULLETIN 

built at a cost of one million six 
hundred thousand dollars, pays out 
a monthly allowance of rearly a 
million and a half.) 

Mrs. Wilkins, who is secretary of 
the entire department, has been one 
of its high ranking members since 
1933, working in various administra- 
tive capacities. 

She entered the city service with 
an exceptionally rich background in 
experience as Disaster 

group and family work, 
having had 
Relief Case-worker in the American 
Red Cross, and later with the St. 
Kansas City 

Association, where she was also a 

Louis and Provident 
case worker. For a time, she was 
with the Kansas City Urban League, 
where she organized its Ne'ghbor- 
hood Group Work Program cover 
ing several city areas. 

Karly in her professional career, 
she was employed as a teacher of 
recreation in St. Louis, but she left 
this to accept assignments with the 
aforementioned case work agencies. 

Her early experience in the Wel- 
fare Department included 
vision of the Bureau of Information 


and Inquiry. In recent years, she 
has been special assistant and con- 
sultant to the Commissioner in their 
Central Office. At the time of her 
appointment, she had been in charge 
of the 

tubercular relief clients. 

Department's program for 

Without question, one of the best 
informed and leading people in the 
welfare field, she works quietly, with- 
out fanfare, and obviously considers 
herself first as the wife of Roy 
Wilkins. NAACP executive, 

and only secondarily an outstanding 


career woman in her own right. 

Indefatigable community worker, 
her accomplishments have been 
many, both in and out of the Depart- 
ment. At the time of her appoint- 
ment, the Commissioner spoke in 
superlatives of her many contribu- 
“The City Adny nistra- 
point with pride to its 

tions, adding: 
tion can 

career promotions 


I recall that when I prepared to do 


Audre Delany | 
should like to havc an 

this story about 
said: “I 
attractive picture of Mrs. Delany.” 
Then it occurred to me that it would 
be quite difficult to find anything but 
an attractive picture of Mrs, Dealny, 
whose marked resemblance to Lena 
are also about the same age, but 
here the similiarity stops, ‘cr while 
Lena was being born in Brooklyn, 
Audre was being born in Chicago, 

Horne has so often bee noted. 

where her parents were  iiving 

temporarily. She was then to spend 
years in Omaha. where 

she attended school. 

her early 

When Lena Horne was rehearsing 
at the Cotton Club, Audre was 
beginning her studies at the Lniver- 
sity of Minnesota. However, this 
was interrupted by the illness of her 
mother, and she transferred to the 
University of Nebraska, which was 
nearer home. 

B. A. degree. 

Her father had wanted his only 

Here she received her 

child to be a lawyer, but the starry- 
eyed young hitched her 
wagon to a career in social work. 
Returning to the University of 
Minnesota, she took the gradwvate 
course in this field, and recived the 
professional Master, of Social Work 

A udre 

She was then swooped up by the 
Family Welfare 


Association in 
the first Negro woman 
to become supervisor of an all-white 



of a long list of firsts, for profession 

But this was just the beginning 
ally she was, as the saying goes, 

In 1939, 

Riverdale Children’s Association was 

when the century-old 

seeking a director for its Boarding 
Hom: Department, it was felt that 
the search should be centered «n the 
most able, competent, persor who 
could be found, without regard to 
color or sex, The long arm of the 
Association stretched all the way out 
to Minniapolis and Audrey 
the bid. 
the director of the agency, the first 

Later, in 1946, she became 

woman and the first Negro to re- 
ceive this assingment. 

However, this was only one of the 
wing with the integration of pro 

changes that had come about 

fessionally trained Negro workers, 

instead of an all-white staff, repre- 
sentative Negro membership was 
selected for the Board of Directors, 
The change from institutional care 
to the cottage plan had previously 
heen one big step. 
of this, the foster 

was set up, and in 1946 they began 

As an outgrowth 
family program 
to function solely as a placement 
service. This was then followed by 
the inclusion of children of all races 

Commenting on the progress that 
had been made thru the years. Mrs. 
Delany made it clear that her pre 
Henry Murphy, and the 
excellent board should receive much 
of the credit. “The ground work 
had been laid for many of the 
present advances,” she said 


It is not easy to get Mrs, Delany 
to speak of herself. Arriving in 
New York with Phyllis. her only 
daughter (by a previous marriage) 
she was wooed and won by one of 
New York's most sought-after and 
dentists.-Dr. B. 
Delany, one of the fabulous Delany 


As to her beloved Riverdale, she 
states that she would ilke to see 
more young people enter the social 
work field,—her goal,—to continue 
in their pioneering efforts to “help 
children who are not wanted,—to 
always remain ready to change, and 
meet community needs as they arise, 
in short . the devlopment of the 
best possible services for children.’ 




“Write about our sehool, not 
about me,” said the youthtul dean of 
Atlanta’s School for Social Work 

I found myself trying to ciate 
the athletic-looking young man with 
other deans | had known hen fol 

lowed the disquieting thought that 
d by 

he was very good looking 
ly disposing of this irrelevan 

plained that had been re sse 

something he had authored He had 
“Many of us are discovering that 

accepted values must be re ippiat ed 

W have been worshippin the pods 

of science and material advancement 
until now we see oursely ilinost 
trapped by the monstrou weapon 
we have devised We are learned 
in the art of war, ignorant in_ the 
art of peace 

Whitney Young is a serious man 

with unparalleled zeal and dedication 

to the responsibility he has assumed 
He firmly rejects references to his 
youth—-actually he is not so young 
(33), though perhaps young for a 
dean. Nor is he too responsive to 
references to his distinzuished 
parents. He just wants to speak of 
his job, his school, his hopes and 
aspirations for the future 

But I resolved not to let him get 
away with it. Who was this capabl 

young man, chosen to follow in the 

footsteps ol pioneet orre ter 
Washington as leader of one of 
the country’s foremost schools of 

social work? Of one thing | was 


ability, no 

certain was 
ce of 
id that a boy 
wes some 
had He 
Kentucky, the middle 
on of the State Supervisor of Negro 
His mother was the first 
the United 

general ace ept 

been sent to do 

his one 
man s 



information | 
was born in 

child and only 

Negro postmistress in 

\s might have been expected, he 
as given the best possible educa 


a good sche lar. he 

de the most of his advantages. 
beginning at Kentucky State, his 
military service took him to MIT, 
ithode Island State and finally. on 

completing 4 years of active military 
rvice in the luropean theater, he 
was honorably discharged from the 
Army and took the professional 
Master of Social Work Degree at the 
lniversity of Minnesota 
He taught at the 


By James R. Howarp, 

University of 

The odds are probably million 
to one against the chances of a young 
lady starring in a high school play 
in the Nation’s Capital and sme day 
ben ipplauded by the president 
of Twentieth Century Fox Film In 
dustry then shake the hand that 
ipplauded her But that dream act 
ually came true for lovely Olga 
James sensational Lyric Soprano 

ind star of CinemaScope’s “¢ 

der ful produc tion. 


after completion of this won- 

That was a moment big enough to 
fill the lifetime of any but for 
Olga, who overcame more than a fair 

sh ire 


of obstacles, it will always be 
a moment of partic ular pride 

After completing her high school 

education at the famed Dunbar in 
Washington, D.C., she entered the 
Juliard School of Music to study 
voice and to undertake a study of 

Still not sure of 
herself, she then made an appoint- 
ment with Phil Moore, noted arran 
ind advisor of such stars as Lena 
Horne, Dorothy 

many others, to 

various languages. 

Dandridge, and 

in delivery and showmanship 
will never forget Mr. Moore, because 
he introduced her to reality and 

Tue Necro History BULLETIN 

Nebraska, the first Negro to do so, 

and worked with the Omaha Urban 
League. He rolled up an enviable 
list of other “firsts” and honors 

among them membership in the 

Junior Chamber of Commerce. 


present post, and further recognition 

came his appointment t his 

in the role of top-notch younger 
Negro leadership. 


Young has been married 

years and is the father of two 

gave me permission to linger and 

The dean had no more tine 

make some notes. I glaaced at a 
book which I had taken from his 
desk to write on. It was auto- 

graphed by Judge Kenneth Johnson, 
Dean of the N. Y. School for Social 
Work. It “To 

dean, and one in whom we 

said my favorite 
are well 

pl ased 

| somehow felt pretty general 
agreement on this. 

made her the star she is today. 

Mme. Abranelli, 
foremost theatrical coach and direct- 
or. It was through Mme. Abranelli 
she obtained the role of ‘Cindy Lou.’ 
the role of 

she portrayed a country girl, but in 

credit is due to 

Playing ‘Cindy Lou,. 

reality she is a very beautiful girl 
and possesses a lovely porsonality. 

Incidentally she is assisted by Joe 
Harnell at the Baby Grand and man- 
Abe Saperstein, creator of 
famous Harlem Globe 

At the present time she is appear 

aged by 
the Trotters. 
ing at some of the nations top niter- 
ies and theatres and receiveing raves 
for her lovely voice. 




3 | 

Tue Necro History BULLETIN 

Negro Congressman 
(Continued from Page 46) 


In view of the current controversy 
over segregation and discrimination 
in the National Guard, Congressman 
Charles C. Diggs, Jr. (D-Mich.) 
asked Secretary of the Army Robert 
T. Stevens for the 

proposed basic training course for 

clarification of 

12,000 Guardsmen, which was to be- 
gin July 1. 

A copy of the telegram to Secre- 
tary Stevens was sent to Secretary 
Designate of the Army Wilber 
Bruckner because. the Congressman 
said, in the interim before the Secre- 
tary Designate takes office, he felt 
he ought to be apprised of any pro- 
posals to change the policy of his 
“Honorable Robert T. 
Secretary of the Army 
Department of the Army 
The Pentagon 
Washington, D. C, 

nouncement of a program beginning 
July 1, 1955 providing for 12,000 
National Guard troops each year to 



have noted an official an- 

basic training at active army 
installations. The announcement in- 
that these National Guard 

enlisted men will be integrated with 

other trainees. | am. of course, as- 
suming that this includes complete 
as is now charac- 

racial integration 
teristic of all 

‘l seek 

garding the 

active units in 
information, however, re- 
discriminatory — basis 
upon which the National Guard re- 
cruits come forward for this training. 

“In many states, the Negro citizen 
is denied enlistment in the National 
on the basis of race. 

(Gjuard, solely 

It is announced the National Guard 
Bureau will provide all funds neces- 
sary to support the program except 
those required for installation main- 
tenance and training. 

“This indicates to me that here we 
have another case of the use of fed- 
eral funds for aiding and extending 
procedures for discriminating against 
fostering through the back door the 
objected to by the 
proponents of the 

citizens because of their race 

very practices 


amendment to the proposed new re- 
serve bill, 

“To be specific, may | be informed 
as to ‘how an individual Negro citi- 
zen of the United States and of 
Louisiana, a veteran of the Korean 
conflict, and decorated, can arrange 
for inclusion among the 180 citizens 
of Louisiana who are to receive this 
active duty each year at 
Camp Chaffee, Arkansas. 

“It is encouraging to know that all 


training will conform to Army doe- 
trine and that the trainees will be 
required to conform to all Army 
orders and directives. 

“I hope, therefore, that | may re- 

ceive in prompt reply assurance that 

this program beginning July 1, 1955, 
will be opened to all citizens other- 
wise eligible, without regard to race, 
creed, or color.” 

Charles C. Diggs, Jr. 

Member of Congress 

Aims at Standard Oil— 
Diggs Readies Action 
Against Mississippi Bias 

Congressman Charles C. Diggs, Jr. 
(Democrat, Michigan) is back in the 
speech against racial discrimination 
13,000 people in Mound 
Bayou, Mississippi. Already he has 
taken into immediate 

northern biased firms whose southern 

Capitol making a stirring 


to put 
retaliatory measures against 
branches practice segregation. 

Diggs has written the Interstate 
Commerce Commission — protesting 
discrimination against Negroes in air 
port restaurants and waiting rooms. 
He assailed the existence of separate 
toilets and water fountains in south- 
ern air terminals as an indication of 
“a newer mode of transportation fall- 
ing into the old pattern of segrega- 
tion.” In this letter, a copy of which 
was sent to presidents of every major 
the Detroit 
also pointed out the lack of regular 


air line. representative 

and from 

airport for Negro travelers. 

limousine service to 

letter directed to the 
president of the Standard Oil Com. 

pany. Congressman Diggs has asked 

In another 

that the franchise of a Mississippi 

Standard Oj! station be revoked be 

cause of the owner’s cruel treatment 
of a Negro school teacher who used 
facilities. Diggs 
signed affidavit from the teacher who 
that jerked off the 
toilet seat, cursed and slugged, 

The letter to Standard Oil's presi 
dent further demands that Negroes 

his toilet has a 

says she was 

he allowed to use rest rooms in the 
firms stations throughout the south. 
If no attempt is made to adequately 
this Diges 
stated that he will initiate a nation 
which he will begin by cancelling the 
the House of Diggs 
funeral home in Detroit which buys 

correct condition, has 

wide boycott against 

account of 

over worth of gasoline 
monthly from the Company. Al 
ready the NAACP has filed a 
against Standard Oil for using dis 

criminatory practices while holding 

a federal contract. 

Congressman Diggs also mailed a 
report of the Mississippi situation to 
President the 

president that mounting tension in 

Kisenhower, warning 
lead to the na 
In the 
report Diggs stated that he “felt cer 
tain that the appearance of federal 

the south can easily 

tions most severe race riot, 

investigators in Mississippi will put 
a stop to southern fear tactics and 
that the means 
business.” This Diggs 
says, is being studied by the White 

House staff, 

show rovernment 



Two cash prizes will be award 
ed students submitting the best 

“The College 
the year Dr 

articles to Cor 

ner” during 
William M. editor of 
the Journal of Negro History 
will be chairman of the commit 


tee of judges, 

Students should send 

double spaced papers to 
Vernet. M 





Mr. Stevens 

niversity Microfilms 

313 N. First St. 
Ann Arbor, Mich, 

The Association for 
The Study of Negro Life and History, Inc. 

The Negro History Bulletin 
1538 Ninth Street, N. W. 

Washington |, D. C. 
Entered as second class matter October 31, 1937, at the 
Post Office at Washington, D. C., under Act of 
March 3, 1879 


By Wittiam M. Brewer 

The death of Mary McLeod Bethune May 
18, 1955 as she approached her 80th birthday 
removed a courtly capable, and colortul figure 
in Negro life and history. She was born July 
10, 1875 near Mayesville, S. C. and her parents 
were Samuel and Patsy McLeod, ex-slaves that 
purchased the farm on which they reared their 
17 children. The opportunities of the commu- 
nity and environment were very little removed 
from slavery, but a Presbyterian missionary 
school enabled young Mary to complete the 
rudiments of learning at the age of 12. A small 
scholarship carried her to Scotia Seminary, 
Concord, N.C., an excellent secondary school, 
where she spent seven vears and graduated in 
1894. Her ambition then was to go Africa as 
a missionary and she spent the next year at 
the Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, Ill. in prepa- 
ration, but she was on graduation in 1895 re- 
fused the opportunity by the Presbyterian 
Board of Foreign Missions. 

At Scotia Seminary she largely and gladly 
worked her way. Her training there in the 
fundamentals of English and the Bible was quite 
similar to that of Booker T. Washington at 
Hampton Institute under exacting Yankee 
teachers. She had innate gifts in music and 
public speaking in addition to rare ability and 
personality. These were refined through vo- 
luminous contacts in later life where she re- 
ceived her larger education. Her enunciation 
and pronounciation, for example, could and did 
surprise many people who had the advantage 
of training in belles lettres. She believed pas- 
sionately in God and as ardently in Mary Me- 
Leod Bethune. These cardinal ideals and prin- 
ciples heartened and inspired her for accom- 
plishments in spite of handicaps through Ite 
as she rose to the heights as a leader in many 
causes which she so nobly served. Among 
them was the Association for the Study of Negro 
Life and History in which she was a life mem- 
ber and president 1936-1951. Although she 
did not contribute materially, she linked this 
organization with Negro women who are today 
rock and oak in continuing the cause. A suc- 
cessor in office, Vivian Carter Gaines, president 
of the National Council of Negro Women, is 
now a member of the Association's Executive 

Failing to realize her ambition to serve in 

Africa, Mrs. Bethune joned the late Lucy Laney 
at Haines Institute, Augusta; Ga. and there 
worked briefly with that great teacher. Later 
she went to Florida where, perhaps, her great- 
est work was accomplished. There she founded 
Bethune-Cookman College, Daytona, Fla. start- 
ing with resources of $1.50, faith in God, and, 
of course belief in Mary McLeod Bethune. 
Although she never had the advantage of col- 
lege training, she developed an institution now 
of accredited standng and possibly her most 
enduring monument. Colleges and universities 
felt honored to award her with their highest 
degrees and and organizations bestowed upon 
her citations and prizes for distingushed serv- 
ices. President Frankln Roosevelt called her 
to honors and responsibilities in the National 
Youth Administration during World War II 
and she was a delegate to the San Francisco 
conference which founded the United Nations. 
Few if any causes in the public life in her times 
coneerned with welfare of Negroes failed to 
solicit and secure the support and participation 
of Mary McLeod Bethune. She was as ardent 
in fighting for civil rights as she was devout in 
sponsoring spiritual and moral improvement 
among disadvantaged from whom she rose to 
fame never forgetting the plights of share- 
croppers in her South Carolina which she often 

Mary Bethune was about the last of stal- 
wart leaders of American colored people. She 
lived and labored in an era after the dark period 
of despond between her childhood and the end 
of the century. True, discrimination and pro- 
scriptions in jimcrowism reached their zenith 
in her time, but they were also accompanied 
by steps of change. The N.A.A.C.P. in whose 
councils she served, was launched and the new 
day of Negro militancy gradually began to 
dawn. Previously Negro leaders (too often 
then as now not of their people’s choice) were 
timid and squeamish, but never Mary McLeod 
Bethune! She tolerated no truck with umele 
toms and attacked discrimination wherever its 
hydra-head She demonstrated by pre- 
cept and example that there was genuine Ameri- 
can respect for Negroes who demanded their 
rights, and she held in contempt Negroes who 
bartered their fellows down the river. Her 
deep spirituality often afforded inspiration to 

(Continued on Page 36) 


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