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Full text of "Coal Age 1911-10-28: Vol 1 Iss 3"

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jLy 





AG 























Vol. 1 


NEW YORK, OCTOBER 28, 1911 No. 3 





“Aff agin, on agin, 
Gon agin, Finnegan.”’ 


Such an oft reiterated story as the one given 
under the above title hardly needs repeating. 


Some years ago when railroad equipment left 
the rails, with frequency because of—well, because 
there wasn’t any provision to keep it on, the rail- 
road authorities called for reports from the road 
foremen. 


Some of these, being neither machinists nor 
engineers, and having no great skill in the writing 
of essays on track mismanagement, resented the liter- 
ary effort demanded of them, though it must be con- 
ceded that they knew a lot about mishandled track; 
in fact, it might be succinctly stated that they didn’t 
know about any other kind of track, for mismanage- 
ment ruled the day. 


There was one, Patrick O’Finnegan, who firmly 
believed ‘“‘the divil put the cars aff and ’twas Patrick 
put them on agin” or incinerated them if they were 
beyond salvage. 


Said Patrick had a derai!ment on his section; 
he retracked the cars, wetted the point of a pencil 
and proceeded to write his version of the wieck 
on the elaborate form provided by the company, 
in the exact language of the heading of this article, 


And Pat. was satisfied, believing his last duty 
was done; he was surprised, therefore, when the 
“White Shirts’ in New York returned his reply 
for further elaboration. The cars were off, he had 
them back on the track, and “divii a bit was there 
then to be said.” 


as detantlnc sis ———0—_—__—_- 


Now if Pat had been working underground, not 
years ago, but today. it’s probable that not only 


Pat, but the ‘‘White Shirts’’ in the main office would 
have felt all was done that should be done. 


Derailment in the mine rarely takes a life, but 
it does destroy the track and cars and wastes valu- 
able time. Again and again it will occur at the self- 
same place, and the foreman says it can’t be helped, 
puts the cars back on the track with a pry, a few 
blocks, much grunting and a pinched finger or two. 
“Well, they’re on again,’”’ and when he sees the super- 
intendent, he explains his loss in tonnage by saying: 
“Another wreck. I'll do better tomorrow.” 


an —QO- — 


There’re too many Finnegans in charge under- 
ground who ought to be sextons in cemeteries or jani- 
tors in county court houses. There’s no job in the 


mines where they’re needed. 


Be sure, Mr. Foreman, you inquire where, why 
and how that car was detracked and remedy the evil. 


You say you have too many miles of track to 
watch. Perhaps you have; probably that’s your fault. 
But I doubt if you’ve got so many it wouldn’t pay to 
have them clean, ballasted, lined up true, free of 
humps, with even joints, perfect gage and no sharp 
curves. 


Look at your equipment. Have you heavy, well 
spiked rails, supported by good ties, joimed by fish- 


plates? Are all the unnecessary frogs and switches 
ripped out? : 


Do they run on three wheels and 
Are they 
Have 


And the cars. 
carry the fourth like a pointer on a hunt? 
prone to knuckle up or down, right or left? 
they straight axles, true wheels and correct gage? 


Oh! by the way, hang this colliery note in your 
den, ‘ DERAILMENTS—A PREVENTABLE DISEASE.” 





68 


COAL AGE 





October 28, 1911 


Electrical Machinery for Coal Mines 


When electricity was first applied to 
the working of coal mines, continuous- 
current, or direct-current apparatus, as 
it is often termed, was employed, be- 
cause it was the only apparatus on the 
market. In those days, although alternat- 
ing currents were in use for town light- 
ing, it was only single-phase currents 
that were employed, and the single-phase 
motor was not then suitable for mining 
work. The single-phase motor has been 
enormously improved during the last 15 
years or so, and at the present time 
there is a keen struggle between it and 
the continuous-current motor, in regard 
to the driving of electric locomotives for 
urban and inter-urban traffic. 

It is claimed by the advocates of the 
single-phase motor that it is more 
economical, and possesses certain other 
advantages over the continuous-current 
motor. On the other hand, it is very 
much more complicated in construction 
than either the continuous-current motor 
or the three-phase ‘alternating-current 
motor that has come largely into use for 








Fic. 1. CONTINUOUS- 
CURRENT MoToR 


coal-mining work; and so far as_ the 
writer is aware, no attempt has yet been 
made to adopt it in mining work of any 
kind. It may be mentioned, by the way, 
that the single-phase alternating-current 
motor is merely a modification of the 
continuous-current motor. It is a con- 
tinuous-current motor, having the fami- 
liar commutator and also a special ar- 
rangement for delivering alternating cur- 
rents to the coils of the motor, and 
special windings which enable it to per- 
form, with single-phase alternating cur- 
rents, the service ordinarily required of 
continuous-current motors. 


RECENT GAIN IN POPULARITY OF THREE- 
PHASE A. C. Motors 


During the last 10 to 15 years, three- 
phase alternating-current apparatus has 
been gradually displacing continuous-cur- 
rent apparatus. There are several rea- 
sons for this, but the principal one is the 
absence of the commutator which forms 
such an important part of the contin- 


Fic. 2. THREE-PHASE 
INDUCTION MoTOoR 


By Sydney F. Walker* 








The shunt-wound con- 
tunuous-current motor and 
the three-phase «induction 
machine are described and 
compared. Particular ref- 
erence 1s made to their 
government and speed reg- 
ulation in connection with 
various classes of colliery 
work. 























*Bloomfield Crescent, Bath, England. 
uous-current motor and generator. The 
modern forms of continuous-current and 
three-phase alternating-current motors, 
are very similar in outward appearance. 
In each of them there is an outer con- 
taining cylinder, sometimes of magnetic 
steel, sometimes of wrought iron, some- 
times of cast iron as shown in Figs. 1 
and 2. 





In the continuous-current motor, the 
electro-magnets which create the mag- 
netic field in which the armature re- 
volves, project radially inward from the 
containing cylinder, as shown in Fig. 3. 
Their cores are constructed usually of 
laminated iron, held in various ways to 
the containing cylinder, sometimes cast 
in the cylinder, sometimes held by other 
mechanical means. The coils contain- 
ing the wires which create the magnetic 
field, are slipped over the cores of the 
field magnets, as they project inward, 
and crescent-shaped pole pieces are 
attached to the inner ends of the cores. 
These pole pieces more or less com- 
pletely inclose the cylindrical space in 
which the armature revolves. 

In the three-phase alternating-current 
motor, there are a number of thin disks 
of either wrought iron, or mild steel, or 
some form of iron or steel that will 
readily receive and give up magnetism, 
built up on the inside of the containing 
cylinder, so as to form a drum. Slots 


Fic. 3. VERTICAL SECTION 
THROUGH FIELD OF D. C. MoTorR 


are made in the disks before they are 
placed on the inside of the cylinder, to 
hold the wires which carry the alternat- 
ing currents. The drum formed by these 
disks incloses the cylindrical space in 
which the rotor, which corresponds to the 
armature of the continuous-current ma- 
chine, revolves as shown in Fig. 4. 


SIMILARITY OF D. C. ARMATURE AND 
A. C. ROoToR 


The armature of the continuous-cur- 
rent motor, and the rotor of the three- 
phase alternating-current motor, are also 
very similar up to a certain point. Each 
is built up of a number of thin disks of 
either soft iron or steel, material that 
will receive and give up magnetism 
quickly. The disks are slotted for the 
reception of the wires, which will cause 
the revolution of the armature or rotor, 
when the machine is working. The disks 
of the armature, the rotor, and the stator, 
as the drum inside of the containing cyl- 
inder of the three-phase alternating cur- 
rent motor is called, are all insulated 


COALAGE 


Fic. 4. SECTIONAL 
View A. C. Motor 


from each other by being dipped in an @ 
insulating varnish before being strung 
together. 

In both the continuous-current arma- 
ture, and the three-phase alternating- 
current rotor, wires are laid in the slots. 
In the case of the continuous-current 
armature, however, the wires are in cer- 
tain lengths and the ends of adjacent 
lengths, or coils, are connected to the 
segments of the commutator. The coils 
are all of the same length, are all placed 
in the slots and on the drum in the same 
way, and are insulated from each other, 
and from the iron in the slots of which 
they lie. This is shown in Fig. 5. 

In the three-phase alternating-current 
rotor, there are two arrangements of the 
wires or conductors, known respectively 
as the squirrel cage and the wound rotor. 
In the squirrel-cage rotor, the conductors 
which lie in the slots of the iron or steel 
drum, are usually bars of copper, some- 
times laminated. The bars are insulated 
from the iron and from each other, and 











October 28, 1911 


they are connected at each end to a 
ring of copper; the whole arrangement 
of the conductors, when viewed free of 
the iron drum, being similar to the well 
known cage in which squirrels are made 
to perform. Fig. 6 shows a section of 
such a rotor. 

In the wound rotor, the conductors are 
usually smaller, more of them are laid 
in the slots, and they are wound on very 
much the same lines as the armature 
coils of a continuous-current motor ex- 
cept that there are three sets of coils 
instead of one set. The special feature 
of the wound rotor is the arrangement 
that is made to insert electrical resist- 
ances in the circuits of the coils, during 
the starting period. For this purpose, 
rings of copper are carried on the rotor 
shaft; carbon brushes bear upon the rings, 
and the arrangement is such that during 
the starting period, a connection is made 
between the coils of the rotor and cer- 
tain resistances provided for the pur- 
pose. These resistances are cut out as 
the machine gets up speed, and when the 
speed is normal, the brushes are thrown 
off and the arrangement of the coils be- 
comes practically the same as that of 
the squirrel-cage rotor. Fig. 7 shows a 


Laminated 
 lron Cores 
=. 

Commutator Copper 
{Segment 











Fic. 5. SECTIONAL VIEW OF CON- 
TINUOUS-CURRENT ARMATURE 


longitudinal section of a wound rotor 
with slip rings. 


OPERATION OF THE TWO TYPES OF MoTorRS 
COMPARED 


The working of the two machines is 
quite different, though the effect is the 
same. In the continuous-current motor, 
brushes bear upon the commutator. The 
commutator is a cylinder built up of 
segments of copper, insulated from each 
other by mica; the individual segments, 
as explained above, being connected to 
the ends of adjacent coils on the arma- 
ture. The coils of the armature are so 
arranged that there is a continuous path 
or, as it may be termed, a continuous 
loop through all the wires by way of 
their connections to the segments of the 


commutator. 

When the continuous-current motor is 
running, current is delivered from the 
electrical service to the brushes, 


from 








COAL AGE 


them to the segments of the commutator, 
and thence to the armature coils. Cur- 
rent is at the same time delivered to 
the coils surrounding the field magnet 
cores. The two sets of currents, that pas- 
ing in the armature coils and that pass- 
ing around the coils of the field magnets, 
create magnetic fields in the cylindrical 
space in which the armature revolves, of 
such a nature that attractions and repul- 
sions are set up between the two and 
the result is that the armature turns in 
a certain direction, and continues to turn 
in that direction, as long as the current 
is flowing. 

In the three-phase alternating-current 
motor, the slots in the drum formed on 
the inside of the containing cylinder, 
carry coils which receive the three-phase 
currents from the electrical service. 
There are three sets of coils, each set 
of coils receiving current from its own 
conductor, representing a particular 
phase. The delivery of the currents to 
the coils in the stator, as it is termed, is 
so arranged that currents are induced 
in the coils on the rotor, whether it be 
of the squirrel-cage or wound-rotor form, 
in such a direction that attractions and 
repulsions are set up between the two 
sets of magnetic fields, those created by 
the currents in the stator coils, and those 


69 


In the three-phase alternating-current 
motor, there are several magnetic fields 
created by the currents passing in the 
stator coils, and there are several mag- 
netic fields created by the currents in the 


rotor coils. As mentioned above, there 
are three sets of coils, and three sets of 
currents in the stator. Each set of coils 
receives its currents in succession. Those 
connected to, say, No. 1 phase, receive 
their currents first; a little later those 
connected to No. 2 phase; and a little 
later again those connected to No. 3 
phase receive their currents. In each set 
of coils, the currents are rising and fall- 
ing and reversing, and all of these opera- 
tions are taking place in succession in 
each set of the coils; the result is that 
what has been termed a revolving mag- 
netic field is created within the cylin- 
drical space in which the rotor revolves. 

An eminent American electrical engi- 
neer has compared the action to that of 
a cat chasing its tail. A magnetic field 
of a certain strength arises at different 
points all round the cylindrical space in 
which the rotor revolves; the strength of 
the magnetic field so arising gradually 
increases, then gradually decreases, dies 
away and then reverses. Meanwhile the 
currents of the next phase commence to 
create another field just in front of the 


IronCores., Coppers 











Fic. 6. SECTIONAL VIEW OF 
SQUIRREL-CAGE ROTOR 


created by the currents in the rotor coils, 
so that the rotor commences to revolve in 
a particular direction, and continues to 
revolve as long as currents are supplied 
to the stator coils. 


DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE MAGNETIC 
FIELDS 


The broad distinction between the mag- 
netic fields created in the cylindrical 
space in which the armature of the con- 
tinuous-current motor revolves, and those 
created in the cylindrical space in which 
the rotor of the three-phase induction 
motor revolves, will be noted. In the 
continuous-current motor, there is one 
magnetic field, of definite strength and 
of definite direction, created by the cur- 
rents in the field magnet coils. There 
is another magnetic field created by the 
currents in the armature coils; and the 
motion which is given to the armature is 
due to the interaction of these two fields. 





Fic. 7. SECTIONAL VIEW 
OF WOUND ROTOR 











COALAGE 
Fic. 8. SECTIONAL 
View OF D. C. Motor 


first, which increases in strength to 2 
maximum and dies away just as the 
first did; then the third set of currents 
takes up the running, creates another 
field in front uf the second, and so on. 
The currents which arise in the coils 
of the rotor are really due to the same 
cause as in the static transformer. It 
is the rise and fall and reversal of the 
currents in the stator coils, which induce 
currents in the opposite direction in the 
rotor coils. These currents rise and fall 
and reverse in exactly the same order. 


SIMPLE CONSTRUCTION OF THE SQUIRREL- 
CAGE MOTOR 


It will be seen that the squirrel-cage 
form of the three-phase alternating-cur- 
rent motor, is simplicity itself. There is 
only the containing cylinder, the stator 
drum with its coils on the inside of the 
cylinder, and the rotor with its shaft and 
coils. There is nothing in the nature of 





i 
I. 





tt ee 


i 
i 
L 
1 
I 





a commutator; there is no electrical con- 
nection between the rotor and the stator. 
The question of starting squirrel-cage 
rotors will be dealt with separately; but 
when the squirrel-cage motor is running, 
there is, or should be, nothing to get out 
of order. 

On the other hand, with the contin- 
uous-current motor, the commutator and 
the brushes require frequent attention, 
With modern machines the attendance is 
very much less than was required in the 
early days, but nevertheless, the commu. 
tator is a solid disadvantage, when com- 
pared with an apparatus of the squirrel- 
cage type, which has no commutator and 
nothing that can be compared to one. 


DISADVANTAGES OF THE COMMUTATOR 


The commutator may be said to have 
two disadvantages. Even the best forms 
of the latest construction require truing 
up from time to time, and brushes re- 
quire renewing and regulating. The 
more serious objection, in the case of 
toal mines, is the possibility that an ex- 
plosive mixture may be present in the 
neighborhood of the commutator. From 
experiments which have been made, it 
would seem that it is not easy to fire 
an explosive mixture at the commutator, 
but such a thing may happen, and at 
many collieries this possibility has led 
mining engineers to look askance at com- 
mutating motors for driving coal-cutting 
machines, etc. In the coal-cutting ma- 
chine, the motor is necessarily inclosed, 
the commuutator being out of sight, 
while at the same time it is difficult to 
prevent coal dust finding its way to the 
surface of the commutator and where 
coal dust is present, it may lead to wear 
of the surface of the commutator, and 
to sparking. 

There is also another and perhaps 
more serious danger in this connection. 
The brushes are held upon brass spindles 
attached to some part of the framework 
of the machine. It is necessary that the 
spindles shall be insulated electrically 
from the framework, or whatever they 
may be attached to. If they were not in- 
sulated, a short circuit would be created 
from the positive to the negative brush, 
and no useful work could be done by the 
motor. The insulation consists usually 
of rings of various materials, micanite 
being a favorite. In the early days of dy- 
namos and motors, vulcanite and vul- 
canized fiber were used. Whatever the 
substance may be, there is always the 
danger of a deposit of coal dust, of car- 
bon dust from the brushes, and of copper 
dust from the commutator, forming upon 
the surfaces of the insulating rings. A 
film of dust formed in this way, may lead 
to a dangerous arc. Nothing usually 
happens until a certain quantity of dust 
has been deposited, and then suddenly 
when the current is switched off, or when 





COAL AGE 





the motor, a spark may pass across the 
surface of the insulating ring, burning up 
the dust and causing a flash, which may 
possibly be followed by an arc. 


THE INDUCTION MoTorR ALSO HAs 
DISADVANTAGES 


On the other hand, the three-phase in- 
duction motor has certain disadvantages. 
In the ordinary squirrel-cage form, with 
heavy copper bars, the starting torque, 
that is, the effort which the rotor is able 
to exert at starting, is small, and hence 
it is necessary to start upon no load, or 
to provide special arrangements, which 
tend to complicate the machine. In the 
case of coal-cutting machines, for in- 
stance, it frequently happens that heavy 
starting torque is required. With bar and 
disk and chain machines alike, it is more 
convenient if the machine can be made 
to start up in the cut. The ordinary 
squirrel-cage motor will not do this. 

In addition, it often happens when cut- 
ting along a coal face, that a piece of 
very hard strata is met with. The con- 
tinuous-current motor will exert practi- 





Fic. 9. SECTIONAL VIEW OF INDUCTION 
Motor 


cally any amount of power that may be 
required. It is a good natured horse, and 
will go on striving to deal with the load 
in front of it, even to the point of burn- 
ing itself up. With the three-phase in- 
duction motor, a certain amount of ad- 
ditional work may be got from it by 
slowing up, and it necessarily slows up 


when faced with additional resistance, - 


but there is a limit beyond which the 
motor will not go. It is an open ques- 
tion whether this is an advantage or dis- 
advantage. It is very annoying to have 
the machine stop just when it is most 
wanted to put forth its best work. On 
the other hand, it is very annoying to 
have the machine put forth its best 
work, and to be useless afterward, as 
the continuous-current motor may be. 


THE NECESSARILY SMALL AIR GAP A 
DISADVANTAGE OF INDUCTION MOoTORS 


There is a further drawback to the 
use of the three-phase induction mo- 
tor. In order that a high efficiency may 





a large portion of the load is thrown off 





October 28, 1911 


be obtained, that is, in order that the 
largest possible proportion of the elec- 
trical energy delivered to the motor shal! 
be obtained as mechanical energy at its 
axle, it is necessary that the rotor shall 
run very closely indeed to the stator drum. 
With every class of motor, whether con- 
tinuous-current or alternating, it is an 
advantage for the moving parts to run 
very close to the stationary parts; but 
with continuous-current apparatus, the 
result of allowing greater space between 
the fixed pole pieces and the moving 
mass of the armature has not such a 
great effect upon the efficiency, as has 
a similar clearance between the stator 
drum and the rotor of an alternating- 
current machine. 

With the continuous-current motor, a 
clearance of 1/16 in. is quite common, 
3/32 in. is also often employed, and I 
much prefer as much as & in. With the 
three-phase induction motor, 1/32 in. is 
as much as can be allowed. This means 
that a very trifling wear of one bearing, 
or both bearings on one side, owing 
to a tight belt, for example, will cause 
the rotor to rub upon the iron of the 
Stator, with the result that the machine 
is broken down. Figs. 8 and 9 show 
the difference between the clearance in 
a continuous-current motor and a three- 
phase motor. 

In subsequent articles, I propose to 
deal with other points in connection 
with this subject. 








Immunizing Coaldust by Wa- 
ter and Ground Rock 


A brief -report of the conclusions of 
the Comité Central des Houilléres de 
France from experiments at the Liévin 
gallery, printed in the Annales des Mines, 
September, 1910, page 227, contains 
among observations which are, by this 
time, trite reflections of mining men, a 
few important considerations. 

A naked flame or electric arc, in the 
absence of firedamp, is less likely to 
Start an explosion than a blown-out shot 
of a non-permissive explosive. 

The amount of water needed to render 
coal-dust inexplosive is a weight of the 
former equal to the weight of the dust 
which it is designed to render immune 
from explosion. When it is purposed to im- 
munize by the use of powdered rock, not 
less should be used than half as much 
rock as of coal dust, which it is desired 
to render inert. The dust of coal as re- 
ferred to in the above is defined as be- 
ing all fine coal, 2 mm. (0.078 in.) in 
diameter or finer. The dust for immuniz- 
ing should be of extreme fineness and in 
estimating it, the ash of the coal should 
not be considered, as its action is un- 
certain. To stop an explosion in a wet 
zone, the admixture of water should be 
four times the weight of the coal dust to 
be rendered inert. 
























October 28, 1911 


COAL AGE 


71 


Preparation of Anthracite Coal 


In this section of the anthracite field 
the dominant factors in the preparation 
of coal are the presence of a large quan- 
titiy of rock, in pieces often running up 
to as high as 800 Ib. in weight, and 
comparative freedom from “bone” in the 
coal as it comes from the mines. The 
high proportion of big rock in the run of 
mine coal is responsible for a style of 
breaker construction which does not ob- 
tain in the northern and middle fields. 
The low proportion of “bone” practically 
reduces the problem in many instances to 
one of eliminating the rock. 

In general, the preparation plants here 
consist of two distinct buildings: The 
head house and the breaker proper. The 
function of the head house is to remove 
all the large pieces of rock and as 
much small rock as possible down to and 


By M. A. Walker 











Methods the 


Panther Creek region where 


used in 
there 1s much large rock 
present in an otherwise 


singurlarly pure coal. 




















taken as representative of the locality. 
It has a demonstrated capacity of 1350 
mine cars per day from which it prepares 
about 3500 tons of coal with 118 men 
at a labor cost probably not exceeding 
10c. per ton. From 10 to 12c, a ton is 


passes off is broken down in the crushers 
H to steamboat size and smaller. Steam- 
boat size is removed by the shakers F 
which have a 4%-in. round mesh, and is 
subsequently rebroken. All of this stream 
goes to that one of the two conveyers 
which is devoted to cleaned coal. 

Following next the second stream, 
which consists of everything passing 
through the 6-in. mesh of the platform 
screens, it is found to be led over the 
shakers E, having a 4'4-in. round mesh. 
The steamboat coal thus made is hand 
picked, then crushed and taken to the 
clean-coal conveyer. Everything pass- 
ing through the mesh of the shakers E 
is led directly to what is known as the 
“dirty’’ coal conveyer, to distinguish it 
from its partner. 























Fic. 1. COALDALE BREAKER, LEHIGH COAL AND NAVIGATION COMPANY, COALDALE, PENN. 


including that of steamboat coal size; 
also to render the coal of suitable size 
and condition for reception into the break- 
er. The head-house product is carried to 
the breaker as a rule by conveyers of 
either the scraper or carrier type. These 
are often inclined in order to gain the 
necessary hight at the breaker end and 
frequently 250 to 300 ft. in length. All 
jigging, final sizing and picking of the 
coal is confined to the breaker. 


A TYPICAL PLANT 


Fig. 2 is a diagram showing the run 
of coal in a scheme of preparation typical 
of this region. Tables 1, 2 and 3 are 
compiled from data relating to the Lehigh 
Coal and Navigation Company’s breaker 
at Coaldale, Penn. This is a modern 
plant which has been in successful oper- 
ation for nearly two years and may be 





an average labor cost for this region 
which compares with 6 to 8c. in the 
Wyoming region, where large rock is not 
a factor. 

It will be noted from Fig. 2 that the 
scheme of preparation in the head house 
is in general as follows: A disposition 
of the mine rock is made, when neces- 
sary, at the dump by means of a by-pass 
gate A in the bottom of the dump chute. 
The coal streani from the dump is passed 
over the platform shakers C having 6- 
in. round mesh, and a consequent sep- 
aration made into two streams, one of 
Iump size, the other of mixed steamboat 
and smaller sizes. Following first the 
lump-coal stream, it is seen to descend 
to the picking tables D, which are about 
20 ft. long and have a pitch of 2 to 2% 
in.in 12inches. Here all the rock is re- 
moved and the cleaned lump coal which 





PREPARATION IN THE BREAKER 


There are thus two streams of coal 
passing up to the head of the breaker; one 
cleaned, the other not cleaned, and both a 
mixture of broken and all smaller sizes, 
except when it is desired to ship steam- 
boat size, which is done by omitting to 
break down that size in the head house. 
The clean-coal stream is usually sized 
over two sets of shaking screens similar 
to those listed in Table 1, and is passed 
from them directly to the pockets with 
more or less examinatron in the chutes. 

The dirty-coal stream is sized over four 
sets of shakers, or as a rule, double the 
number used for the clean coal, similar 
to those listed in Table 2. Broken size 
from these screens is usually cleaned by 
spiral pickers or some other mechanicai 
device, supplemented more or less by 





72 COAL AGE October 28, 1911 


hand picking; occasionally it is jigged. The disposition of refuse is a particu- in pieces of great size and also because 
Egg, stove, chestnut and pea sizes are larly important part of the subject in this the topography of the region makes it 
usually led directly from the screens to locality for the reason that, as already necessary to deposit all this material on 
the jigs. It is the practice in some break- 
ers, however, to spiral or otherwise me- 
chanically pick these sizes on their way Anita ites 
to the jigs, and it depends a great deal o- Sees big maindl 
on local conditions whether or not a = Picking Platform 
= Steamboat Shakers 
profitable percentage of pure coal can 7 yo 
thus be deflected to the pockets. Buck- onan ee 
wheat size is jigged in a number of Cleese Goal Stdhars 
cases, but more often it passes directly ny ” 
from the screens to the pocket, as do E | = eon nee 
also the rice and barley sizes. e ' 

Table 3 gives data relating to jigs of 
the “Lehigh Valley” plunger type, shown 
in Fig. 3, which are replacing other styles 
in a good many instances. The jigged 


: Elevator 
coal is thoroughly examined and oc- Dirty Coat _(——— >. 
casionlly resized before passing to the 


a8 ai) 
me { 
pockets. The usual provisions are, of 
course, made for breaking down the ma- - . fl he 
ra Broken 
L 


wieuws 


reyer 





Cean Coal Com 


XL 


Clean Coal 














terial rejected at the jigs and various 
picking places and for resizing and 
cleaning the same. 





REHANDLING CONDEMNED COAL 


Rejected Coal 


- 





There is today a very marked tendency 
toward more rigid standards of inspec- 
tion at the collieries and a consequent 
prominence to the subject of rehandling 
condemned coal. Exact figures of general 
interest in this connection are hard to ob- 
tain, but it may be easily observed that 
rehandling condemned coal is liable to be 
a very expensive operation unless it is Fic. 2. DIAGRAM SHOWING RUN OF COAL 





Mechanical Picking 


Chestnut 


Rejected from Picking Places 











oken Coal to Pochet 





sn Hand Picking 


Buch wheat Coa 40 Pocket 





Br 











the mountain sides, frequently at a con- 
TABLE NO. 1. PURE COAL SCREENS siderable hight above the breaker. 

At one plant the head-house rock and 

Size Coal Round Total Area, Tons per Sart. ood Revolutions the breaker refuse are brought together by 

Number {Passing Over Mesh Sq.Ft. Hour —_jof Cam Shaft conveyers to a pocket which loads a skip 

in. dia. 90 28 | 0.070 hoist or “gunboat.” This travels on an in- 











mm ho Oo 





ed ae 


aes 


150 to 165 


oo 4 clined plane and discharges into a pocket 

in. dia. 90 

in. dia. 120 

ge of dump cars. The latter are then con- 
: - LO ; . 

= dia, | =. 9 035 veyed by a steam locomotive along the 


in. dia. 90 

at the top from which are loaded trips 
in. dia. 120 

summit of the rock bank and dumped. 





NNNNMNN ht 


Barley... 


a, 








TABLE NO. 2. MAIN SCREENS DisPosiTION oF Rock 





Size Coal Round Total Area Tons per Sart et Revolutions pag sy : s ment seniiie 
Number Passing Over Mesh Sq.Ft. ; ( Hour of Cam Shaft ~ to omit one or more links in this series 
and the usual plan for handling refuse is 
to have two large rock chutes in the head 
house, each of a capacity sufficient for at 
least a half-day’s run, and discharging 
into dump cars which travel to and from 
the rock bank. It may or may not be 
necessary to elevate these cars to the 
summit of the rock bank; in case it is, 
this is usually accomplished by an in- 
Tons per clined plane and “barney” car. The 


Hour per 


Size Perforations| Total Grate | Revolutions | Tons per Sq.Ft. of break i i 
Number Size Coal in Grates Area Plunger Shaft eur Grate Surface pBrisigueties analy Gelivered to the 


oes —— ern same dump cars that take the head-house 
Rt per Ze “- ;aa rock by means of a conveyer discharging 
} 112 ot 20 69.01 0.616 through a loading pocket. In general 
Bok. a So. a. 64 sq ft. 100 52 75 0 824 the disposition of refuse adds a labor 
charge of from 3 to 4c. to each ton of 


coal shipped. 


A matter which is probably receiving 
more attention than any other one thing 





Broken. . .| 34 in. dia. 180 
Egg... .| 25 in. dia. 180 
Stove... 2 in. dia. 180 
Nut.. : £ in. dia. 180 
a ee *; in. dia. 240 
Buck . : 5 in. dia. 240 
Rice... : ; in. dia. 240 
Barley gs in. dia. 240 





150 to 165 














TABLE NO. 3. JIGS 






































possible to pass it through the breaker observed, there is a large quantity of rock 
while at the same time working on coal in the coal as it comes from the mines, 


from the mines. of which a very considerable portion is in connection with the subject of coal 


















October 28, 1911 


preparation in this district, as well as in 
other parts of the anthracite field, is the 
prevention of breakage in the chutes. 
Nearly all of the larger companies are 
continually experimenting on different 
forms and styles of chutes with various 
results and varying degrees of success. 

One of the chief difficulties in connec- 
tion with the building of a permanent 
chute, is the fact that the quality of the 
coal is likely to vary from wet to dry and 
from clean to dirty, in the sense that a 
large proportion of fine coal constitutes 
dirt as well as a large proportion of im- 
purities. The same pitch of chute is not 
suited to both conditions, and in conse- 
quence the clean, dry coal is liable to go 
down with a bang, while the wet, dirty 
coal lags on the way. 

To a limited extent, this difficulty has 
been overcome here, as_ elsewhere, 
through the use of retarding chutes, 














COAL AGE 


Steel Belt Conveyers 


After several years of experimenting, 
a Swedish steel company has succeed- 
ed in manufacturing a steel-belt conveyer, 
which has given most satisfactory service 
in various plants of northern Sweden. 

These steel-belt conveyers are made 
in lengths of 100 m. (328 ft.) and are 
200 to 400 mm. (8 to 16 in.) broad, and 
1 to 1% mm. (0.04 to 0.06 in.) in thick- 


ness. To obtain a special length or 
width, two or three of these standard 
sizes are riveted together. They are 
made of high-grade charcoal steel, 


possess a high résistance against wear 
and tear and are extremely flexible. 

These conveyers are used for trans- 
porting all kinds of material, and it is 
said are cheaper to manufacture and 
install than high-grade belts of other ma- 
terial. 











Coal Regulating 
Gate | 








Coal Conger y 








ee 











ri 














—_ 
i | 
} ~ \ 
r= \ 
di 
% 
























































COAL AGE 


Fic. 3. “LEHIGH VALLEY” TYPE OF PLUNGER JIG 


which operate on the principle of allow- 
ing the pieces of coal to expend their ac- 
quired momentum at frequent intervals 
by sliding up a slightly adverse pitch. 
These chutes are constructed in zigzag 
fashion, with comparatively short straight- 
away runs, and when built with enough 
pitch on the straight runs to suit the slow- 
est coal likely to traverse them, they have 
here been giving excellent results within 
certain limits of application. 








The modulus of elasticity of a hoist- 
ing rope varies during its working life, 
being small at first and afterward in- 
creasing to nearly the value of the 
modulus of the wire itself. If the rope 
is kept in use long enough, it will de- 
crease. When this decrease is observed, 
the rope is deteriorating. 





Fewer IDLERS USED 


An important item is the possibility of 
using relatively few supporting pulleys 
or idlers, in comparison with the number 
required for other forms of belt con- 
veyers. This reduction in the number of 
idler wheels diminishes considerably the 
amount of power required for oper- 
ation. The maintenance cost of these 
conveyers is low, and repairs are easily 
made by riveting on a new piece of the 
required size. 

A troughing of the belt itself is im- 
practicable, and it is made to run in a 
guide channel or trough, which may be 
of steel, or wood covered with steel. 
The sides of this trough should be in- 
clined at a slight angle to the plane 
of the belt. A longitudinal elevation 
of these conveyers as they are in- 





73 





stalled shows the upper or carrying run 
to be slightly convex. This is done to 
keep the belt in the guide trough in the 
event of material piling up along the con- 
veyer. 

Ordinary wooden pulleys, the faces of 
which are covered with a %-in. to %- 
in. layer of rubber, give excellent service 
as driving wheels. When cast-iron 
wheels are used their faces should also 
be covered with rubber. The bearings of 
the tail wheel must be made adjustable, 
each side independent of the other, and 
a range of 4 to 6 in. is usually found 
sufficient. 

The distance between supporting pul- 
leys or idlers is made about 32 ft., and 
the last one of these is kept not more 
than 10 ft. away from the driving wheel. 
These idler pulleys are made of cast iron, 
or preferably wood, and have a diameter 
of 16 to 20 in. The various belt pieces 
are riveted together with lap joints, us- 
ing two rows of %-in. rivets, 1% to 1% 
in. apart; the end connections are usu- 
ally lapped about 2% in. The inside, or 
pulley side, of the belt is given a thor- 
ough coating of paint. 


UsuAL SPEED AND POWER REQUIRED 


The usual speed of these belts is 164 
ft. per min. or thereabout. They may, 
however, be run at a considerably high- 
er velocity. The proper breadth of the 
belt is governed by the character of the 
material to be carried. For boards, logs 
and other materials of great bulk, one and 
one-half times the average width of the 
stream should be allowed for the belt. For 
coal, ore, etc., the breadth should be suffi- 
cient to allow carrying the material without 
having it come in contact with the sides 
of the guide channel or trough to any 
great extent. 

The amount of power required for run- 
ning these conveyers, of course, depends 
on the material transported, inclination 
of the conveyer, and to some extent on 
weather ard other conditions. At one in- 
stallation a belt 394 ft. long, center to 
center of turn wheels, and 16 in. wide, 
which is carrying 1766 cu.ft. of charcoal 
per hour at the rate of 164 it. per min., 
requires, including gearing, about 3.6 
electrical horsepower when running 
empty, and 5.1 h.p. when running full 


capacity. Of this amount 2.1 h.p. are 
consumed by the motor and gearing 
alone. : 


Another installation consisting of two 
12-in. belts, 492 ft. center to center of 
turn wheels, running parallel, carries 
3500 cu.ft. of charcoal per hour, at a ve- 
locity of 164 ft. per min., and when run- 
ning empty requires 6.3 h.p., against 9 
h.p. when running full capacity. 








The best results are obtained from a 
shaker screen when the ratio of the 
length of the hanger to the travel of 
the eccentric is from 14 to 15 to 1. 


| 
| 


Reva 


rane 


ak Ceara 


74 


COAL AGE 


October 28, 1911 


Oil Engines in Coal Mines 


At first sight it would appear that the 
underground working of a coliiery is 
hardly the most appropriate place for an 
explosion engine, but, as a matter of 
fact, such engines have been adopted for 
locations of this description, and have 
proved in practice most useful and safe 
prime movers for the work which they 
have to do. In Europe, and particularly 
in Germany, the practical development 
of the gas and oil engine has proceeded 
with amazing rapidity in recent years, and 
there appears to be no end to the useful 
applications of these engines. Promin- 
ent among the firms who have partici- 
pated in this progressive movement is the 


Special Correspondence 








European expertence 
javors the use oj oil motors, 
not only for haulage but 
also for general power pur- 
poses within the mines. 
No objectionable gases enter 
the mine air and the prac- 
tice of using oil as a prime 
mover is on the increase. 




















are those of quick starting, attendance 
by one man only, no consumption of fuel 
when not running, no supervision of boil- 
ers, no risk of fire or explosion, no smoke 
nuisance, less dead weight to be car- 
ried than with steam locomotives, which 
require a large supply of coal and water, 
and, in combination with high efficiency, 
a small cost of upkeep, on account of 
economical consumption and the little at- 
tention needed. 

Compared with the electric locomotive 
taking the current direct from overhead 
mains, the oil-driven locomotive secures 
independence of a central station; it is 
not subject to interruptions through ab- 


UNDERGROUND Holst DRIVEN BY OIL ENGINE, AMBERG, BAVARIA 


Gasomotorenfabrik Deutz, of Cologne, 
who are now building oil engines of both 
the stationary and the locomotive types 
for mine work. 


O1L Motors FoR MECHANICAL HAULAGE 


It is a well known fact that an appro- 
priate mechanical motive power for the 
conveyance of small loads at moderate 
speeds has been wanted until recent 
vears. This deficiency, which is espe- 
cially troublesome in the working of 


mines, induced the firm mentioned to 
design a locomotive driven by an internal- 
combustion engine, as had been sug- 
gested bv members of the mining indus- 
try. The trials made proved at the outset 
that the locomotive offered considerable 
advantages over other means of convey- 
ance from an economical point of view, 
and the firm has already produced over 
630 locomotives, aggregating 7000 h.p. 
As compared with steam motors, the ad- 
vantages of the oil-driven locomotives 


sence of current; the first cost of the 
plant is considerably smaller, and there 
is no risk from contact with non-insu- 
lated overhead mains. Again, as com- 
pared with the electric locomotive driven 
by accumulators, time is not wasted in 
recharging, there is lighter weight, lower 
first cost, and less depreciation of im- 
portant parts. For these reasons, the oil- 
engine locomotive has won for itself a 
definitely useful place in German mine 
practice. 














October 28, 1911 


The attention of mining engineers 
has, during the past year or _ two, 
been focussed largely on the relative 
merits of steam-driven and electric wind- 
ers for collieries, but for capacities up to 
at least 20 h.p., the oil engine appears to 
have a good case. The illustration shows 
a 12-h.p. hoist driven by an oil engine 
at work underground, which was installed 
by the Royal Mining Administration of 
Germany, at Amberg, in Bavaria. The 
oil engine used is of the horizontal type 
in which an explosive mixture of liquid 
fuel and air is sucked through a conduit 
into the working cylinder on its suction 
stroke, the oil being introduced, intimate- 
lv mixed with the air, in the form of a 
spray. At the end of the suction stroke, 
the valves are closed, the mixture is com- 
pressed on the return of the piston and 
ignited or expanded on the third or power 


stroke, the subsequent return motion 
scavenging the cylinder. 

As the engine works on the Otto 
cycle, the cylinder is closed at one 
end only. Ignition is effected by 
means of a magneto. The drive 


from the engine to the winding drums or 
windless is effected through gearing, the 
engine and winder being mounted on an 
iron-frame bedplate, common to both. 


OPERATIONS CONSOLIDATED BY ONE MAN 


The spur-wheel transmission is seen in 
the figure, and note must be taken of the 
bevel gearing and rods and of a hand- 
wheel, which is fixed in the driving posi- 
tion, by the combined means of which 
the starting and reversing of ‘the 
drums is effected through the med- 
ium of friction clutches. When these 
clutches are in their mid-position, 
both drums are free and at rest, the 
engine running light. A movement of the 
handwheel in either direction throws one 
or the other of the drums in gear. he 
brakes, which consist of a steel band 
passing around either drum as shown, are 
operated in this case, directly by. foot 
pedal. although a handwheel and spindle 
may be utilized for the purpose. All the 
operations are under the control of one 
man, who need not move from his posi- 
tion either to attend to the engine or the 
winder. In some cases these gears have 
been fitted with the Koepe pulley, which 
is so often used in German mines. 


It was at first conjectured that oil 
engines working underground would 
cause an offensive smell from the ex- 


haust, but the waste gases in the Deutz 
machine are condensed so as to eliminate 
smell, and it is not found that any incon- 
venience is caused from this cause. For 
small underground haulages, either on 
the level or on gradients, these engines, 
from their self-contained character, ap- 
pear to develop a new field of possibility 
which deserves careful attention, more 


especially as crude benzol or tar oil, pe- 
troleum, alcohol or gasolene can be util- 
ized as fuel. 





COAL AGE 


Coal Mine Inspectors and 
Their Appointment 


In the various coal-mining States of 
America, it has frequently been urged, in 
the interest of safety and to make the in- 
spectorate attractive to high-grade tech- 
nical men, that the mine inspectors shou‘d 
be appointed in a manner similar to that 
used in Great Britain. In order that the 
question may be considered in its true 
bearing and from a point of view strictly 
uptcedate, it may be appropriate to set 
forth the scheme of examination revised 
last month (September) by the Home 
Secretary with the advice of the Civil 
Service Commissioners. 

The appointments are filled after a 
competitive examination, limited to candi- 
dates nominated by the Home Secretary. 
Applications for nomination should be 
accompanied by testimonials based upon 
persona! knowledge of the candidate, in- 
dicating what experience he has had in 
mines, and giving information as to his 
character and fitness for the appointment. 
In their own interest candidates are par- 
ticularly advised rot to scek political cr 
social influence, which will prejudice 
rather than assist their candidature. 

In addition to the chief inspector and 
the electrical inspector, there are divi- 
sional inspectors (salary £750 to £1000) ; 
senior inspectors (£500 to £700); junior 
inspectors (£300 to £450). The divisional 
end senior inspectorships are filled by 
promotion, and vacancies for new ap- 
pointments arise only in the ranks of the 
junior inspectors. 

Evcry candidate must hold a first-class 
certificate under the Coal Mines Regula- 
tion Act, and must, within five years pre- 
vious to his application, have been em- 
ployed for two years aS manager or un- 
der-mancger of a coal mine or in some 
other responsible capacity, requiring reg- 
ular attendance underground in a coal 
mine. Practical knowledge and experi- 
ence of metalliferous mining and quar- 
rying is also taken into consideration. 
Candidates must be between 23 and 35 
years of age at the time of examination. 

An inspector upon first appointment is 
subject to two years’ probation. He must 
zive his whole time to the official duties 
ssigned to him. His tenure of office, in- 
crements of salary, promotion and pen- 
sien, are dependent on good conduct and 
efficient service. Inspectors may be called 
upon to retire at 60 years of age, and re- 
tire in any case at 65. 


72 


™ 


NATURE OF THE EXAMINATION 


Already in possession of a first-class or 
colliery manager’s certificate, the candi- 
date is required to undergo examination 
in the following subjects: 

English —Includes composition, the 
writing of reports and precise writing, but 
does not include indexing. Attention is 








= 
‘ 


ot 





paid to handwriting and spelling in this 
as in other subjects: 

Elementary Mathematics—Will include 
arithmetic, algebra to quadratic equations, 
plane geometry, and plane trigonometry 
to the solution of triangles. 

Elementary Geology—Outlines of phy- 
sical geology, including the physical 
characters, chemical composition and de- 
scription of rocks; elements of strati- 
graphy with special reference to the 
British isles; the construction and_ in- 
terpretation of geological maps and sec- 
tions; the occurrence of coal, stone and 
metalliferous minerals. (In this subject 
there will be a laboratory test in addi- 
tion to the written one.) 

Coal Mining—Theoretical and _ practi- 
cal; includes systems of sinking and 
working, methods of supporting roofs and 
sides, mechanical engineering as applied 
to coal mining, theory and practice of 
ventilation, surveying and making of 
Flans, use of explosives, mine gases and 
their analysis, prevention of accident, res- 
cue work, and the restoration of mines 
after explosions and fires. Mining hy- 
giene. 

Ore and Stone Mining—Theoretical and 
practical, including methods of sinking 
and working, methods of supporting ex- 
cavations, mechanical engineering ap- 
plicd to ore and stone mining, ventila- 
ticn cf metalliferous mines, prevention of 
accidents. Ore dressing. Mining hy- 
giene. 

Electricity in Mines—Installation and 
use of eleciricity in mines, including the 
practical units of measurements and the 
use of simple measuring instruments; 
transmission and use of electricity by al- 
ternating and direct currents; the con- 
struction of cables and the jointing and 
testing of cables; earthing; the rules as 
to the use of electricity in mines and the 
prevention of accidents. 

Law Relating to Mines and Quarries— 
Knowledge of the Coal Mines Regulation 
Acts, the Metalliferous Mines Regulation 
Acts, the Quarries Act, and the Rules and 
Orders made thereunder. 

Oral. Examination—Questions may be 


asked on coal mining, ore and stone 
mining and electricity. 
Chemistry'—The principles of  inor- 


ganic chemistry and the study of the oc- 
currence, modes of preparation, end 
froperties of the principal elements and 
their more important compounds. Ques- 
tions may be given on the chemical! prin- 
ciples involved in the commercial pre- 
paration of important inorganic sub- 
stances. Elementary organic chemistry. 
(Also a laboratory test which will in- 
clude the preparation and analysis of 
inorganic substances. ) 
Physics'— Will include heat. light, 
sound, electricity and theoretical and ap- 
plied mechanics. (Also a laboratory test.) 


1Chemistry and physies are optional: the 
applicant may take either one. 


re SEG Seat eee 


a nn tne = 
Saenditinnagl sinamrtee! be eas! ah mee ere 


ee 





pS a 


Sheer ee 


abe 


Sa en ee 


ON Unde wo 


a 


Snes 
ee 


76 


COAL AGE 


October 28, 1911 


Anthracite and Bituminous Mining 


The Western-Middle anthracite-coal 
basin lies in Schuylkill, Columbia and 
Northumberland counties. It is 36 miles 
long, by four to five miles wide. For 
comparison with the deposits before de- 
scribed, there is incorporated a typical 
cross-section of this basin, from which it 
will be noted that the measures are dis- 
torted and the margins of the basin 
turned up so that the coal beds generally 
stand on steep pitches. This cross-sec- 
tion is taken from the second geological 
survey of Pennsylvania. 

On account of the geological forma- 
tion, the methods of attack, development 
and operation in this field are practically 
the same as in the Lehigh region, with 
such modifications as local variations 
have made necessary. Most of the older 
developments in this field were by slope 
on the coal bed from the outcrop, such 


Shenandoah Anticlin 


Shenandoah 


MammothBed 
Facker No.3 Colliery 
Packer No.4 Colliery 


s 
yy 
9 
SS 
8 
S 
é 
= 





By Eli T. Conner * 








In the western -middle 
and southern anthracite 
coalfields, the inflow of sur- 
jace water from extensive 
caving makes mining ex pen- 
sive. The coal of the south- 
ern field 1s friable and ex- 
tensive briquetting may re- 
sult. The third of a series 
oj articles by Mr. Conner. 




















*Consulting engineer, Real Estate Trust 
building, Philadelphia, Penn. 


THE MAMMoTH BeEpD Is IN Many SPLITS 


In the easterly half of this basin, the 
Mammoth seam is similar to the same 


D 

a 

Q 
| 


“i 


> 


Ko 

1 Seven Foot + 3 
+ 
Las) 


% 
Ss 
\ 
A, 
7° Q 
Q 
% 


3 


4 
S 
= 


WL &S 
Ss 
yVSels 

‘¥en 

Mammoth Bed 


William Penn Collie 
4 Bear kid 


‘Mammoth Bed 


Little Orchard Bed 
+ Skidmore » 


Primrose Bed 


| 


\ 


Orchard Bed 
A\ Holmes Bed 


y Shenandoah Creek 


e Noe Coll: 


Buck Mocntain Bed 


é TY 


beds of coal, a better average yield from 
a given area is attainable than where 
the Mammoth seam is found all together, 
in one bed, 30 to 50 ft. thick. 

The mining methods.in this field being 
quite similar to those of the Lehigh re- 
gion, they need not be further described, 
but I would like, in this connection, to 
call attention to the excellent paper by 
D. Bunting, on “Chamber Pillars in Deep 
Anthracite Mines,” Bull, Am. Institute 
Min, Engrs., September, 1911; p. 739. 

In this region, as in the Lehigh, the 
difficulties of operation and the conse- 
quent cost have been greatly enhanced by 
reason of the enormous crop fall, caused 
by the mining in the Mammoth seam, and 
by the running of chambers through to the 
surface at the outcrop. These tremen- 
dous surface openings admit large quan- 
tities of water to the mine workings, dur- 
ing the wet season, and necessitate the 


R iage 


Ss 


Mahanoy Anticline 
y 


7 


” 


Mahanoy Basin 


even FootBed 


“~ Skidmore 


Re) 


-BuckMountain Bed 

~Mammoth » 
--Stanton Collie 
~Holmes Bed 
“Frimrose ” 


Draper Colliery 
‘Mammoth Bed 
%: “Buck Mointain Bea 


SM -Shidmore : 4» 
\ ©-Severn Foot» 





Aers Valley Cog ped 





f 
Ss 


‘y- 
% 
8 
RY 
/* 


N 
% / 
Ny 


Centralia 


Buck Mt. Bed 

r Overturn 

~ Buck Mt. Bed 
A ~Centralia 

; Colliery 

‘Mammoth Béd 
Hazzel bell Collie 
Mammoth Bed 


— 


Locust Mountain 
Anticline 


o) 

S\ 

ea 

hy 
| 


Bearin 


) 


” 


10th Bed 


Borehole 

Projected 

Projected 
Mammoth » 
Holmes 
Primrose 


Borehole 


Germantown V 

Overturn Basin 
Bast Colliery 
Skidmore Bea 


M Vy 


| 


SZ 


Germantown Anticline 
Locust Mountain 


Tunnel! C olliery 


Mahanoy 
Basin 


Orchard Bed 


Holmes Bed 


Mahanoy Creek , - 
\ Mammoth Bed 


Primrose Bed 





1000'above Tide-~ 


Borehole 
Proje cted 


Tide Level 


4 


\ 
\ 
\ 


*% 
\ \ 
\ \ 
\ \ 


all 


ac Sia AS, <a s ) 


/ | fh 


i wha 





1000' below Tide 





Coal 


Slate Sandstone 


: | 


er ROE | 
Conglom erate 


CROSS-SECTION WESTERN-MIDDLE ANTHRACITE COAL BASIN 


as heretofore described, but on account 
of the cost of maintaining slopes in the 
Mammoth bed, there have been some no- 
table departures from earlier develop- 
ments by sinking shafts of large area 
and capacity at or near the center of 
the basin, and it is probable that future 
developments for the winning of the 
deeper lying coal must be by shaft. 


seam in the Lehigh region, but west of 
Mt. Carmel, this great bed of coal is 
found split into three and sometimes into 
four distinct and separated beds, which 
vary in thickness from 4 to 12 ft. This 
splitting of the seam, I believe, is a de- 
cided advantage, for if the workings are 
properly projected, and care is exer- 
cised to columnize pillars, in the several 


installation of large pumping plants. 
There have been many instances of the 
drowning out of collieries in which large 
amounts of money were invested. 


LARGE INFLUXES OF WATER DURING 
FLoops 


A notable experience of this character 
was in December, 1885, and January, 














October 28, 1911 


1886, when there was a long period of 


excessive rainfall, following a heavy 
snow. At that time I was superinten- 
dent of the Harleigh colliery, two miles 
north of Hazleton. On account of the 
terrific floods nearly every colliery in the 
Lehigh region was drowned out in the 
lower levels, and Big Black creek, which 
has its source near Eckley, flowing west- 
ward over the center of the coal basin, 
became such a raging torrent that its 
banks were overflowed on the Harleigh 
property, and the whole stream flowed 
into a crop hole leading from a chamber 
in the Mammoth bed. At that point, the 


East Fine Knot Colliery 









COAL AGE 


nected by holes through the barrier pil- 
lar, were drowned. The continued rain 
in January caused a second break in 
the canal before mentioned, letting 
enough water into the mine to drown the 
pumps at both collieries. These two 
mines filled with water, and it was 
deemed impracticable to unwater them 
by ordinary methods. 

The land owners and Messrs. G. B. 
Merkle & Co., operating the Jeddo collier- 
ies, who acquired possession of the prop- 
erty (Harleigh and Ebervale collieries), 
constructed from Conyngham valley a 
drainage tunnel about five miles in length, 

































77 


eral others of lesser importance have 
been constructed. At the present time, a 
long and expensive drainage tunnel is in 
course of construction by the Lehigh Coal 
and Navigation Company, for drainage of 
its Panther Creek collieries. 


WATER HOISTING IN SELF-DUMPING 
TANKS 


In the Western-Middle field, within 
recent years, several large shafts have 
been sunk by the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing Coal and Iron Company, the Lehigh 
Valley Coal Company, and mining com- 
panies under the control of the Pennsyl- 
















— e 


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‘—~ = Anticline y S POTTSVILLE s 3St2y2- 
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CROSS-SECTION OF SOUTHERN ANTHRACITE COAL BASIN AT POTTSVILLE ~~~~-------- <n 


(The lower section is a continuation of the upper) 


center of the basin is overlaid by a con- 
siderable depth of marl and sand, so that 
in a remarkably short time the stream 
had cut a channel 20 or 25 ft. deep, at the 
edge of the crop hole. 

Strenuous efforts were made to direct 
the creek into a partially completed canal, 
constructed for the purpose of carrying 
this stream away from the coal basin, but 
before this was accomplished, the lower 
levels in Harleigh colliery and in Eber- 
vale colliery, adjoining, which were con- 





which tapped the workings in the Mam- 
moth bed, near the basin on the Ebervale 
property. This tunnel has since furnished 
drainage outlet, not only for the two col- 
lieries originally drowned out, but also 
for the Jeddo collieries to the eastward. 

Similar drainage projects have been 
completed at other points in these two 
coalfields, notably, at Beaver Meadow, by 
Coxe Bros. & Co.; at Centralia, by 
the Locust Mountain Coal and Iron 
Company and leasing landowners. Sev- 














“~~. 77 COAL AGE 


vania railroad, for the sole purpose of 
handling water concentrated from several 
connected collieries. In these shafts, the 
water is hoisted in tanks by first-motion 
steam engines of large capacity located 
at the surface. This method of handling 
large volumes of water in the flood sea- 
son presents advantages that strongly 
recommend it, under certain conditions, 
but detailed comparisons between the 
hoisting and pumping systems would be 
out of place here. 


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It will be apparent from what has been 
said that the continued successful op- 
eration of collieries in these two fields 
means the investment of a large amount 
of capital, greatly in excess of what was 
necessary in the earlier days of the in- 
dustry, when most of the operations in 
this field were developed by comparative- 
ly small companies and individual opera- 
tors. 

It is probably true that there are many 
collieries, which, considered purely as 
mining propositions, are unprofitable, and 
were it not for the freight profit accruing 
to the transportation companies control- 
ling these collieries, they could not be 
continued in operation. 


ELIMINATION OF ROCK AND PREPARATION 
OF COAL 


In the matter of preparation of the 
coal for market, after it has reached the 
surface; while the principles are the same 
in the southern field, as further north, the 
plant and equipment necessary differ ma- 
terially. On account of the excessive 
pitch of the coal beds, most of the refuse 
in the seams of coal, together with roof 
rock that may fall, must be loaded into 
the mine car and brought outside. To 
handle this large quantity of rock, ample 
facilities must be provided at the head 
of the breaker. Recent new plants con- 
structed by some of the large companies 
include a capacious head house provided 
with large platforms where preliminary 
separation of rock from coal can easily 
be accomplished, before sending the coal 
to the main breaker. 

The Lehigh Coal and Navigation Com- 
pany constructed a new breaker on these 
lines about two years ago, which has 
shown exceptionally good results and 
which is fully described in a paper pre- 
pared by the mechanical engineer of the 
company, Charles A. Straw, for publica- 
tion in the transactions of the American 
Institute of Mining Engineers. 

On account of the conditions described. 
and the manner in which the coal must 
be handled before it reaches the mine 
car, in these two fields, the average col- 
liery produces much less prepared or 
domestic coal and a greater percentage 
of the low-priced steam sizes, than is 
produced in the Northern anthracite 
field, and consequently the average 
price realized for the total marketable 
product is lessened. In addition to this, 
by reason of what I have before said, 
there are many operations where from 40 
to 50 per cent. of the raw product reach- 
ing the breaker is waste, either in the 
form of rock, slate, bone or culm. 

It is obvious that it costs as much per 
ton to handle all this waste material 
as though it were a marketable product. 
All the cost of this refuse must naturally 
be charged against the going output. The 
conditions described largely account for 
the fact that the cost of production and 


COAL AGE 


consequently the operating profit in the 
Lehigh and Schuylkill regions cannot be 
as satisfactory as the average in the 
Northern anthracite field. 


THE SOUTHERN ANTHRACITE FIELD 


This is usually known as the Pottsville 
basin, and extends from Mauch Chunk, 
on the Lehigh river, nearly to Dauphin 
on the Susquehanna, a total length of 
about 70 miles, with a maximum width 
at the widest point of about seven miles. 
It consists of a number of connected 
basins, which increase in depth from 


October 28, 1911 


While it is true that there have been 
many developments made in this region, 
there is a larger reserve here relatively 
to its area, than in any other of the an- 
thracite fields. 

On account of the great distortion of 
the measures in this basin, it is frequent- 
ly found that the coal is so crushed and 
soft as to produce in preparation an ex- 
cessive amount of steam sizes, and culm 
waste, with a correspondingly small yield 
of prepared or domestic sizes. This is 
notably true at all of the collieries that 
have been developed under Sharp moun- 








gestern 
WORTHERN 


BASIN 








Map OF ANTHRACITE COAL 


north to south, culminating along the 
foot of Sharp mountain, in deep and 
greatly contorted measures, as will be 
noted from the cross-section herewith, 
which is taken from the second geologi- 
cal survey of the State of Pennsylvania. 
While this basin is usually termed the 
Schuylkill region, or Pottsville basin, the 
eastern end from Tamaqua to Mauch 
Chunk, controlled by the Lehigh Coal 
and Navigation Company, is generally 
classed as in the Lehigh region. The 
large number of coal beds underlying this 
basin and its great extent indicate an 
enormous quantity of untouched mineral. 


BASINS IN PENNSYLVANIA 


tain. This condition has been the cause 
of the commercial failures of a large 
proportion of the operators who have 
made developments along the southerly 
side of the Pottsville basin, from Tama- 
qua westward. 


THE EASTERN PART OF SOUTHERN FIELD 


East of Tamaqua, the character of the 
beds is somewhat better in regard to 
softness and friability of the coal. The 
same remarks, relative to the mine rock 
and refuse coming to the surface in the 
mine cars, apply in the major port of this 
field, as in the Western-Middle and the 














October 28, 1911 


Lehigh regions, but there is a larger per- 
centage of culm in most instances, and 
consequently a lower yield of market- 
able sizes. Many operations in this field 
produce as low as 40 to 45 per cent. of 
domestic sizes, as compared with 55 and 
over in the two other fields and 65 and 
over in the Northern anthracite field. 

It would appear then, that the only 
way to make profitable such operations 
as described, is either to secure a bet- 
ter average price for the output, or to 
find some means of converting the large 
amount of culm produced, into a market- 
able product. 

To accomplish the latter, means must 
be found of burning dust in the form of 
a jet, which has been attempted by many 
people, but up to the present without 
marked success. Another solution will 
be found in briquetting the culm. This 
method has been perfected and two or 
three successful plants established, with- 
in recent years. The Lehigh Coal and 
Navigation Company has conducted ex- 


A 


a 
16 
£ 
® 


Breast sg 
7 


yHeading 


~) 
a. 
Hi 
qi 
ee 
‘ 





METHOD OF WORKING PITCHING COAL 


tensive experiments, at Lansford, and 
recently completed a briquetting plant 
which is accomplishing good results. This 
plant is well described in an article by 
Charles Dorrance, Jr., which has been 
published by the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers. 


BRIQUETTING COAL DusT IN ALBERTA 


In connection with the subject of bri- 
duetting anthracite dust, I was privileged 
while professionally engaged by the 
Bankhead Mines, Ltd., of Bankhead, AI- 
berta, to inspect thoroughly a briquetting 
Plant which has been in service there 
for several years. This company has 
developed several beds of anthracite coal 
which, in geological condition, strongly 
resemble those found in the Pottsville 
basin. The coal is so soft that when pre- 
pared in a breaker, quite similar to those 
of the Pennsylvania anthracite regions, 
only about 22 per cent. can be recovered 
in sizes larger than chestnut, and only 
about 50 per cent. of the raw product of 








COAL AGE 


the mine will pass over a 3/32-in. round 
mesh, so that it will be seen that there 
is a large quantity of dust to be wasted. 
To utilize this material, and avoid the 
commercial failure of the proposition, a 
briquetting plant was installed, which, 
when I visited the operation, was pro- 
ducing about 500 tons per day, I was in- 
formed that some difficulty had been ex- 
perienced in finding a market for the 
product, but these difficulties have been 
overcome, and all that can be produced 
is readily disposed of, at prices somewhat 
less than realized for prepared sizes of 
coal, but yet sufficient to make the bri- 
quetting plant a profitable operation, af- 
ter paying to the mine S1 per ton for 
the dust, and bearing a cost of $1.75 per 
ton, of finished product, for the pitch 
used as a_ binder. 

From these observations, I am _ con- 
vinced that such culm as is going 
to waste or being flushed into the mines 
in the anthracite fields of Pennsylvania, 
should be made into briquets now, or 





WITH EXTRACTION OF REFUSE 


so deposited upon the surface, that it can 
in the future be utilized for this purpose. 
It would probably be impossible to find 
a market for all that could at present be 
produced, but as the culm banks depos- 
ited on the surface in the past are rapid- 
ly becoming exhausted, the market for 
briquets can, in all probability, be stead- 
ily developed. 


SUBSTITUTION OF SAND FOR CULM 


I think it is an economic mistake to 
flush culm into the mines where it cannot 
thereafter be recovered. The benefits of 
flushing for the recovery of pillar coal 
and the support of the overburden, 
should be secured by the use of other 
flushing material, as before mentioned. 

In connection with the ultimate re- 
covery of pillar coal, especially in basins 
where valuable improvements have been 
erected on the surface, and where it is 
found profitable to strip the outcrop of 
the coal beds, I think that instead of 
depositing the earth and rock at consid- 








79 






erable expense on spoil banks, this ma- 
terial should be pulverized and flushed 
into the mine workings. 

By this means, if properly deposited, 
the remaining pillars will be recoverable 
without serious rupture of the overlying 
strata, providing that as each pillar is ex- 
tracted, the space from which it is re- 
moved is immediately filled with sand 
as has been customary with culm. 








Water to Take the Place 
of Coal 


INDIANA CORRESPONDENCE 


_A prediction that water power may 
come into extensive use in Indiana, to 
take the place of coal, is made by W. M. 
Tucker in the 35th annual report of the 
State geologist, which came from the 
printer recently. Mr. Tucker is engaged 
in a State survey of the water power de- 
rivable from rivers in the State of In- 
diana for the State Geologist Edward 
Barrett. He says that if fuels in Indiana 
and the country at large become exhaust- 
ed as soon as it would appear from the 
rapidity with which they ere disappear- 
ing, the lowlands along White river, the 
Wabash river and other streams will be 
condemned and used for storage basins 
from which water power will be devel- 
oped for use throughout the State. 

Mr. Tucker dilates on the problem of 
fuel supply in this and neighboring 
States, and shows how water power even- 
tually may be necessary. He asserts 
that only about 10 per cent. of the water 
power of the State has been utilized by 
commerce. 


ENORMOUS SAVING POSSIBLE 


The State geologist asserts that if the 
State of Indiana could substitute steam- 
driven engines rated at 50,000 h.p. by 
water turbines of equal capacity, it would 
result in a saving of 500,000 tons of coal 
per year, in addition to a reduction of 
$12 for each horsepower saved by the 
substitution. 

Water power is inexpensive and per- 
petual and requires less attention than 
any other power, when it is once in- 
stalled. A proper development of the 
water power of Indiana would bring 
about several other important results. 
The navigation facilities would be 
greatly increased; the increased stor- 
age would tend to purify the streams 
and the reservation of water in the stor- 
age basins would tend to lessen the dam- 
age wrought by floods. The three prob- 
lems—-water power, navigation and pro- 
tection from floods—-are closely related. 
The great problem in each case is to 
bring about a regular stream flow. Im- 
mense reservoirs could be constructed in 
Indiana, and the water utilized for power, 
thus saving a large tonnage of coal each 
year. 





Se ee ee ee i 














i RE es eae 
bes 


| a ar se 
i ae 


80 


COAL AGE 





October 28, 1911 


Electrical Details at W. Va. Plant 


Recent additions to the electrical 
equipment of the McKell Coal and Coke 
Company, Glen Jean, W. Va., are two 
new substations and an electrically driv- 
en fan. One of the substations, that at 
Tamrey, is similar in general construction 
and equipment to the previous installa- 
tion. 

At Kilsyth is an underground substa- 
tion in the Kilsyth mine, about a mile 
and a quarter in on the main entry, and 
approximately 350 ft. underground. The 
high-tension lines to this substation are 


carried overhead to a shelter which is. 


shown in Fig. 1. At this point a 6-in. 
hole was bored directly down into the 
airway just outside the substation. This 
bore hole was then fitted with an iron 
pipe approximately 3 in. in diameter, 
through which the cable was lowered. 
The interesting feature of this installation 
is the simple method employed for sup- 
porting the cable. 

There were no means of supporting the 
cable in the pipe, and it was deemed 
necessary to arrange it so that it could 
be readily withdrawn at any _ time. 
The cable consists of a 10,000-volt, three- 
conductor No. 4 stranded wire, insulated 
with varnished cambric covered with lead 
5/32 in. in thickness, and armored with 
No. 4 gage galvanized wire, the whole 
weighing 266 lb. per 100 ft. To sup- 
port the cable, an iron ring made of 
metal 1 in. in diameter was slipped over 
the armor, the armor then bent over this 
ring, firmly wrapped about the cable and 
tied so as to form an annular branch 
near its end, and thus support the weight 
entirely by the armor. 

The cable was then threaded through 
a hole in a steel plate 6x18x2 in. in di- 
mensions, the hole being approximately 
2% in. in diameter, and large enough 
to allow the cable and the wrapping after 
it has gone around the ring, to fit snugly 
into it, so that the entire weight of the 
cable is carried by this steel plate, which 
in turn rests upon a concrete pier, as 
shown in Fig. 1. This enables the entire 
cable to be easily supported and readily 
removed. 

At the top of this conductor, are 
installed the lightning arresters and 
choke coils to protect it and_ the 
machinery in the substation underneath. 
The method of bringing in the high-ten- 
sion wires is more distinctly shown in 
Fig. 2, which is the layout for the wiring 
and the motor foundations at the fan, the 
second item of interest. 


THE FAN INSTALLATION 


The fan installation is of interest, be- 
cause of the use of a special type of 
motor, and also possibly because of the 
use of a chain drive. When the question 
of the installation of this fan came up, it 





By Henry D. Jackson* 

The motor described was 
devised for driving a mine 
ventilating fan from a high 
voltage power circuit. In- 
teresting features of the 
wiring installation at the 
plant of the McKell Coal 
Company are also des- 
cribed. 


























*Consulting engineer, 8S Broad street, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 
was carefully considered whether it would 
be advisable to use an induction motor 
of sufficient capacity to handle the fan 
















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rian. 
Fic. 1. SHELTER OVER BorE HOLE AND 


during the early stages of the mine de- 
velopment, and increase the size of the 
motor as the development of the mine 
necessitated; or put in a motor which 
would be capable of handling the fan at 
its maximum capacity, varying the speed 
of the fan as conditions required, by 
means of changing pulleys. 

The conditions at the plant were such 
that the power factor of the system as a 
whole was low, and it therefore seemed 
wise, if possible, to install a synchronous 
motor of a capacity equal to the capacity 
of the fan, utilizing the excess capacity 
of the motor during the early stages of 
the mine’s development as a condenser, 
and thus raise the power factor of the 





entire system, improve the regulation and 
incidentally, a very important item how- 
ever, obviate any necessity for installing 
an additional engine and generator in the 
main power plant, as the low power fac- 
tor and the addition of the two new sub- 
Stations and the proposed fan would 
bring the current load on the generator 
considerably over its rating although 
the load on the engine was by no means 
up to its capacity. 

The ordinary synchronous motor has a 
very slight starting torque, only sufficient 
to start itself without load, and owing 
to the generally severe operating condi- 
tions in coal mines where the employees 
are by no means well trained or careful, 
it was deemed unwise to use a clutch be- 
tween motor and fan, as there would be 
always a possibility of wrecking the 
clutch or stopping the motor by too sud- 
den application. This consideration, then, 


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Coa. AGE 





a 
Detail X. 


DETAILS OF SUPPORT FOR HANGING CABLE 


required a permanent connection between 
fan and motor, and made it imperative 
that the motor should be capable of start- 
ing the fan and bringing itself up to syn- 
chronous speed, thus requiring a type of 
motor which up to this time had not been 
successfully built. 

It was quite possible to reduce the 
total load on the fan moter when start- 
ing, to approximately 75 per cent. of its 
full load power, by means of closing the 
inlet and outlet doors of the fan; but 
even this load was far beyond the ca- 
pacity of any previously built self-start- 
ing synchronous motor. Further, the 
conditions of the installation were such 
that it was necessary to limit the starting 














f 








October 28, 1911 


current on the motor to not over 2% 
times normal current at full load. This 
in itself is a condition which is rarely at- 
tained in the best designed types of in- 
duction motors. 

It required a great deal of corres- 
pondence, much urging and a number of 
interviews with the salesmen of the elec- 
trical manufacturers, to convince them 
that such a motor could be built, we feel- 
ing that there was no good reason. why a 
combination motor could not be built 
which would have the characteristics of 
a high-resistance rotor induction motor, 
and a synchronous motor in one machine. 
The alternating-current side of the ma- 
chine could be the same as for a syn- 
chronous motor, and the two windings, 








COAL AGE 


3 and 4, it being a 250-h.p., 25-cycle, 
6300-volt, 500-r.p.m. machine, provided 
with induction motor windings on the 
rotor, for starting. 

The motor is started by means of two 
switches; the main-line switch when 
thrown upward connects the motor to 
half-voltage taps from the auto trans- 
formers; when the machine reaches full 
speed at this voltage, the second switch 
is opened, throwing an inductance in ser- 
ies with the machine. The first switch 
is then thrown down, sending the full 
line voltage on to the machine with the 
inductance in series, these inductances 
preventing a great rise in the current. 
When the motor reaches full speed un- 
der these conditions, the second switch 








Disconnecting fi! 8 


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YWITCH - 7 











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b 





“h-Auto Transformers 








81 









that the load came on as the square of 
the speed. Under the conditions of oper- 
ation, that of driving a fan, the load 
would come on as the cube of the speed. 

The installation of this motor proved 
very satisfactory. The power factor was 
raised approximately 30 per cent., bring- 
ing the total load on the main plant con- 
siderably under the generator’s rating and 
improving the operating conditions to a 
marked extent. 

Owing to the limited space at the lo- 
cation of the fan, a belt drive was out 
of the question; and the idea of gears. 
was eliminated on account of the noise, 
so that a chain drive was installed for 





the work. The final installation will re- 
quire a chain 16 in. in width, and a 

















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Wiring Elevation i 

















Main leads 


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Section E-F 


Fic. 2. Motor Room oF FAN House, SHOWING WIRING DETAILS 


those of the induction motor and the field 
windings of a rotary field synchronous 
motor, placed upon the same shaft. Fur- 
ther, we felt that the marked poles of 
the synchronous motor field would act as 
anchor points, as it were, to hold the 
synchronous motor in synchronism at 
intervals during, the rotation of the rotor, 
while acting as an induction motor. 


A UNIQUE Type OF MACHINE 


Two companies only would bid upon 
the work, these being the General Elec- 
tric Company and the Westinghouse 
Company. The contract was awarded 
the Westinghouse Company, who built 
the motor shown in the illustrations, Figs. 


was carried through a fixed resistance, so 





is closed, short-circuiting the inductance, 
and leaving the machine on full voltage. 
The field rheostat is then adjusted to the 
excitation desired, and the machine auto- 
matically locks in step or synchronism. 

During the test at the Westinghouse 
works, this motor pulled 95 per cent. of 
its full-load rating into synchronism, and 
the instantaneous current rise was less 
that 2% times normal full load run- 
ning current. It is to be noted that 
this test at the Westinghouse works 
was somewhat less severe than would 
be the condition under actual oper- 
ation, as the test load was a direct-cur- 
rent generator, the current from which 





speed of the fan of 210 r.p.m. The pres- 
ent installation uses a chain 4 in. in 
width and a fan speed of approximately 
50 r.p.m., the power being approximately 
30 kilowatts. 

Under these conditions, if an induction 
motor had been used, the power factor of 
the system would have been approxi- 
mately 55 per cent. At present, the power 
factor is between 85 and 90 per cent. 

The success of this motor has led to 
the building of a large number of motors 
of similar character by both the Westing- 
house and the General Electric compan- 
ies for work of a similar nature. It is a 
type of motor exceedingly well adapted to 
coal-mining installations, inasmuch as it 





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entirely obviates the necessity for 
clutches, and allows of the power factor 
on the alternating current circuit being 
kept high and the regulation of the sys- 
tem made good, a condition of affairs 
which cannot be accomplished where in- 
duction motors are used entirely, unless 
the moters are loaded to their full ca- 
pacity. 

It is well known that a motor of this 
type is likely to give more or less trouble 
in case of an accident to the prime mover 
or a short circuit on the line, owing to 
the fact that the inertia of the air in 
the mine and the inertia of the fan will 
keep the motor moving, and the motor, 
because of its exciter, will then act as a 
generator, turning back power into the 
line and supplying current to apparatus 
which the generator originally supplied 
before its circuit breaker opened. This 
sudden reversal from’ motor to generator 
may pull the motor off its foundation, un- 


COAL AGE 


a brass cap, which weighs approximately 
3 Ib. The wires are brought di- 
rectly to this cap. A solid brass rod is 
screwed into the bottom of the cap and 
extends down through the hole in the in- 
sulator. This rod is fastened to a three- 
way connector, as shown in the drawing. 
In order to increase the sparking distance, 
this rod is covered by a porcelain tube, 
which extends well up into the hole in 
the insulator. This method of installa- 
tion has proved very satisfactory, and al- 
lows the wires to be brought in without 
the necessity of open places, which would 
allow birds and insects to fly in and out 
of the substation and motor-house. 








Exhaust Steam Turbines 


The recovery of power from exhaust 
steam, by means of exhaust-steam tur- 
bines or mixed-pressure turbines is a 
subject which has come prominently for- 





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A 
ys 





. he 


i 


gee 








Fic. 3. SELF-STARTING SYNCHRONOUS Motor AT MCKELL:PLANT 


less means are taken to prevent such an 
occurrence. In the present installation 
this is accomplished by means of a re- 
verse current relay, which, immediately 
upon reversal of the direction of current 
in the line, opens the switches and cuts 
the motor off the line. 


METHOD OF BRINGING WIRES INTO MOTOR 
HOUSE 


It may be of interest to note the 
method of bringing in the high tension 
wires to this motor. This is shown quite 
distinctly in Fig. 2. The main wires are 
brought to a dead end at an anchor pole, 
and then are dropped to the insulators, 
which are cemented into the concrete roof 
of the fan house. These insulators are of 
the strain type, and therefore have a hole 
directly down through the center. The 
top of this hole is covered by means of 


ward during the past few years. The 
success which has attended the introduc- 
tion of such turbines into various manu- 
facturing and other industrial plants has 
led to their recent installation in con- 
nection with a group of English collieries. 

Heretofore engineering effort in con- 
nection with extracting the energy from 
exhaust steam has been directed chiefly 


toward the use of condensers and feed- 


water heaters. The application of these 
to engines having rapidly fluctuating and 
intermittent loads has often been attend- 
ed by marked difficulties, and as a result, 
the majority of colliery hoisting engines 
and large haulage engines are still ex- 
hausting into the air. 

The scheme of the English installation 
referred to was based on an existent 
grouping of eight pit centers or mine 
openings within an area consistent with 


October 28, 1911 


electrical distribution. At three of these 
centers were large hoisting engines hav- 
ing possibly 500 kw. in exhaust steam 
going to waste, and the conversion of this 
into electrical energy for distribution 
amoung members of the group, and there- 
by eliminating small isolated boiler 
plants, was the object sought. 

It is claimed in this connection that 
even were the application of condensers 
to hoisting engines a comparatively easy 
and commercialiy safe matter, the tur- 
bine would still possess decided advan- 
tages as an extractor of power from 
exhaust steam. 








Two Constituent Compounds 
in Coal 

Recent experiments by M. J. Burgess 

and R. V. Wheeler, regarding the volatile 

constituents of coal, lead the experi- 

menters to believe that coal can be sep- 

arated mechanically into two distinct sub- 


Fic. 4. SwITCHBOARD, MCKELL CoAL Co, 


stances, and they hope to compare the 
results of destructive distillation of these 
substances, as regards both their liquid 
and gaseous products, with those pro- 
duced by the action of heat on cellulose 
and its derivatives, because they feel just- 
ified in assuming that one type of com- 
pound in coal is a degradation product of 
cellulose. 

Their experiments have already shown 
that two more or less distinct compounds 
exist in coal; one decomposes easily at a 
comparatively low temperature and yields 
the paraffin hydrocarbons; the other more 
stable compound is found to decompose 
rapidly at a temperature between 700 and 
800 deg. C., and yields principally hy- 
drogen, together, possibly, with oxides of 
carbon. The latter and more important 
compound they hope to identify as cellu- 
lose or one of its derivatives. 











Oetober 28, 1911 








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CIRCULATION STATEMENT 


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This journal is interested solely in mat- 
ters relating to the fuel industries, and is 
designed to be a medium for the free in- 
terchange of ideas, the detailed descrip- 
tion of coal-mining practice, and the ex- 
pression of independent thought calcu- 
lated to benefit both operator and miner. 








Contents esiie 
HGEGWOME (o5 cas. csc cess oes sce ce eenenes 67 

Electrical Machinery for Coal Mines. 
Sydney F. Walker 68 

Preparation of Anthracite Coal. 

U. A. Walker 71 
Steel Belt CaOnvevers. <6... cvcesc cas 73 
Oi) Bngines in Coal Mines....2..0...%.. 74 


Coal Mine Inspectors and Their Appoint 
ment 


Anthracite and Bituminous Mining. 
Ali T. Conner 76 


Electrical Details at West Virginia Plant. 


Henry D. Jackson SO 

Wehavnet Steam ‘Turbines. .<...c600s005 0% 82 
Two Constituents Compounds in Coal. . 82 
Editorials : 

Birenroot- Breakers: « .. 0 6h cnc dcwacs 83 

Limitations of Shaft Output.......... S84 

Cre Bice EWG eos 1c ela bo ort ere cecctwree 84 
Colliery Notes and Comments........... 85 
Inquiries of General Interest: 

Working Coal tm DHDS..< «6.6 coin e eee S86 

Size of Shaft and Fan Required....... 86 

Anchoring Gravity Planes............. S87 
Discussion by Readers: 

Electric Lamps in Mine Rescue Work.. S88 

Siphon vs. Gravity Drainage.......... 8s 

Government Coal Mines.............. 89 
Sociological Department : 

Liquor Problem in Mining Communities 90 

Birst Ald’ MGVeMOene. ots. ssc ceric cece 90 

NNR car's, Saree ere ws ook oe are a 91 

Mine Safety Demonstration........... 91 
Examination Questions and Answers..... 92 
Cant and Coke: NEW. <6 dic v6 cdeacccas 94 


Cont Trade Reviews... «<2... 6. s.cccewce 97 





COAL AGE 


GOAL AG 





83 














Fireproof Breakers 

That anthracite breakers should be of 
fireproof construction if at all compatible 
with the expected life of the colliery, is 
a conclusion which has been definitely 
reached, to judge from the best of the 
recently completed and proposed new 
construction. 

Over 20 years ago, Eckley B. Coxe 
built the Drifton breaker of cast 
In recent years 


and 
rolled metal throughout. 
the Reading, the Delaware, Lackawana & 
Western, the Erie and the Lehigh Valley 
companies have all erected breakers of 
fireproof or partially fireproof construc- 
tion. The only valid objection is expense. 
Whether or not the additional 
justified is a matter that must usually be 


cost is 


worked out for each case on its individ- 


ual merits; however, for new _ plants 
which have an expected life of 20 vears 
or more, fireproof construction should 
be preferred. 

Opinions differ considerably, however, 
as to whether steel, reinforced concrete, 
or a combination of concrete incasing steel 
members is the best medium for secur- 
ing this result. Of structural steel it 
may be said that it is a well known quan- 
tity. Those familiar with its use can pro- 
portion a framework to its loading with 
an accuracy which practically eliminates 
that waste of material so often met with 
It makes 
possible a which 
takes up a much smaller proportion of 
the housed-in space than either concrete 


and while not so elastic as 


in heavy timber construction. 


light, strong frame 


or timber, 
timber, it is immensely more so than 
concrete. 

On the other hand a steel frame has 
comparatively little mass, and unless 
given ample weight and a liberal supply 
of diagonal bracing, is liable to be ser- 
iously affected by vibrating machinery of 
the kind found in most breakers. In 
this connection, however, it may be re- 
marked that much can yet be done to- 
ward reducing vibration by the proper 
balancing of the machinery. Some ap- 
prehension must also be had in regard 
to effectively protecting steel against the 


action of acid water. Certain special 
paints have given good results in this 
respect, but they must, of course, be fre- 
quently applied and the structure de- 
signed with this fact in view. 

Reinforced concrete is a quantity not 
quite so well known as steel, and for a 
lines of the 


likely to 


structure built along the 
usual wooden breaker, it is 
Some of 


the advantages of this type of construc- 


prove exceedingly expensive. 


tion are those which pertain to a rigid 
monolithic structure of sufficient mass to 
absorb the shock and vibration brought 
to it from the supported machinery, but 
unless so designed as to unquestionably 
secure this result, the outcome seems to 
have a rather dubious aspect. 
Another advantage of concrete con- 
struction is its great durabiliy and con- 
On this 
score, as with steel, apprehension need 


sequent low cost for repairs. 


only be had regarding the effect of the 
acid water. Ordinary concrete is easily 
permeated and itself more or less dis- 
integrated by such water, and the danger 
consequent upon acid attacking the in- 
closed steel is immensely increased by 
the fact that it cannot be kept under ob- 
servation. There are on the market cer- 
tain waterproofing compounds which may 
be ‘able to give adequate protection in 
this respect at a price which is not pro- 
hibitive, and others are likely to develop, 
but so far the effectiveness of none has 
been finally demonstrated under the con- 
ditions which obtain in most breakers. 

In regard to a steel framework pro- 
tected by incasing with concrete, it may 
be said to offer an admirable and conser- 
vative, albeit expensive, type of con- 
struction, in which the known strength and 
reliability of steel is combined with the 
mass and durability of concrete. But 
unless the fact is indubitably established 
that the inclosing concrete will effect- 
ually protect the steel against the pos- 
sible inroads of acid water, this type of 
construction should scarcely be consid- 
ered for wet breakers. 

On the whole these several types of 
fireproof construction all have their spe- 


84 


cial advantages, as has also that of 
heavy timber, the prevailing type at 
present in breaker construction. One 
thing obviously to be avoided in the de- 
sign of new work is coming to an un- 
alterable decision upon any one certain 
type of construction, and then merely for 
the sake of building something “all steel” 
or “all concrete,” as the case may be, 
sticking to it even to the extent of using 
such construction in places for which it 
is absolutely or comparatively unsuited. 
Concrete has its field in this work ap- 
parently close to the ground, where mas- 
sive construction is easily possible and 
particularly desirable. Steel is admir- 
ably suited for the superstructure, and 
there are numerous places where noth- 
ing will do quite so well as a few sticks 
of timber or a plank flooring. In short 
it would seem that the desired end of a 
suitable breaker structure of fireproof 
character will best be attained by com- 
bining these various materials of con- 
struction in such way that each will con- 
stitute that part of the completed build- 
ing to which it is peculiarly adapted. 








Limitations of Shaft Output 

The constant demand for greater out- 
puts from shafts is met with a blunt non- 
While 4000 tons is frequently 
reached from easy slope- and drift-open- 
ings, such a tonnage is well-nigh im- 
possible from a shaft. When a large out- 
put is desired, two or more hoisting shafts 
must be sunk and even then such ton- 
nages as have been mentioned are diffi- 
cult te obtain. The cars must be increased 


possumus. 


in size and two cars must be caged end 
for end. There are obvious objections to 
both these methods of circumventing the 
dilemma. Large cars demand large and 
high roadways and wide gage. Two cars 
set tandem, if not of equal weight, are 
said to put the cage so appreciably out of 
balance that it crowds the guides. Deck- 
ing the cage involves stoppages which 
are undesirable in deep shafts and which 
render decking useless in shallow ones. 

The tendency in mine haulage is toward 
the endless rope, traveling continuously 
in one direction. Slow speeds are pos- 
sible with large tonnage where the haul- 
age is not reciprocating because the out- 
ward flow of coal is not obstructed by the 
inward travel of empties. 

But it is in shafts that reciprocation 
reaches its limit. Each car or pair of 
cars must be caged, the signal be given 


COAL AGE 


to raise, maximum speed be reached and 
almost immediately reduced. Then the 
cars must be landed and empty cars caged 
or else the cage must stop the length of 
time necessary for self-dumping, however 
short that may be. The reciprocation in- 
volves engines of great power acting only 
a small percentage of a full day and 
wasting much available energy in brake 
friction. 

We may never see the abolishment of 
cages in shafts where coal is fragile and 
the market disposed to call for large 
lumps. But with the increasing sale for 
small sizes, there may well be a time 
when the demand may come to produce 
coal regardless of dimension. Even now 
small coal is preferred where it is pro- 
duced for coking purposes, and in at 
least one field, the size of the fuel is not 
regarded as affecting its sale. 

It is possible, then, that in a few years, 
we may see conveyer lines raising con- 
tinuously up a shaft, buckets, skips, or 
even whole cars of coal, and dumping 
them automatically. It is easy to point 
out difficulties. There never was an in- 
novation which did not involve them. 
But modern progress in conveying ma- 
chinery will hardly fail at some time to 
solve these problems. There is still too 
much uncertainty in conveyer machines, 
especially in places where they are sub- 
ject to corrosion from mine air, mine 
water and atmospheric moisture. 

Furthermore, the weight of the coal to 
be kept in motion will be considerable and 
will furnish some difficulties. But the 
chief difficulty is to be found in the weight 
of the lengthy conveyer chains or ropes, 
yet even this is not insuperable. A Ger- 
man inventor by the name of Schwidtal 
in Silesia, has patented the interposition 
of sprocket-wheels in between the head 
and foot sprockets of a conveyer drive. 
These sprockets actuated by separate mo- 
tors would serve to relieve the links and 
sprocket teeth from any weight except that 
of the chain, the buckets and bucket loads 
between one sprocket and the next below. 








Coal Land Laws 

No single detail of the coal-mining in- 
dustry has received the national attention 
given the formation of adequate coal- 
land laws. The unfortunate Alaskan epi- 
sode, together with Mr. Roosevelt’s pro- 
mulgation of an active conservation pol- 
icy, has brought this topic home to all 
coal men generally. 


October 28, 1911 


The hue and cry is for laws favorable 
to the “poor prospector,” and the exclu- 
sion of corporate interests. Few people 
appreciate the fact that in the West, as 
a rule, only the largest corporations are 


in the coal business—and these com- 


panies only because they are forced into 
it. The large railroads and metal-mining 
corporations are compelled to maintain 
their coal departments for the reason 
that there is not sufficient coal in the 
open market to meet their requirements. 
A cursory examination of a list of 
Western coal operators will show that 
small percentage of coal is 
mined by interests not connected either 
directly or indirectly with the large 
corporations. The obvious conclusion is 
that Western coal mines have not, as a 


only a 


rule, proved to be a profitable invest- 
ment. To one familiar with the Cre- 
taceous coals, also the geology and the 
topography of some of the Rocky Moun- 
tain States, this needs no explanation. 

A law to be effective to the interests of 
the man of moderate means must be 
something on the order of the leasing sys- 
tem. To acquire a section of land at, say, 
$50 per acre (an average or even low 
price for land available to transportation 
facilities) requires an almost immediate 
expenditure of $32,000, not to mention 
the cost of prospecting and developing. 
Under these conditions the ordinary pros- 
pector must immediately enlist the aid of 
capital, thereby sacrificing a large share 
of his interest. 








More Daylight 


It is said that a sailor will build him- 
self a house like a ship’s cabin, but it 
would probably be considerably over- 
shooting the mark to suggest that the 
coal-mining fraternity build their surface 
structures in simulation of conditions be- 
low-ground. Nevertheless, there are cer- 
tainly some breakers, dark enough, dirty, 
damp and devious enough to give body 
to the idea, and nearly all colliery build- 
ings suffer to some extent from the lack 
of light and space. 

It is well to remember that daylight is 
usually about the cheapest thing that can 
be put into a building and has a wonder- 
ful earning pewer. Space, it is true, is 
likely to be expensive, but so is the neces- 
sity for having men climb, crawl, duck 
and dodge about their work instead of 
going easily, directly and corfidently. 











October 28, 1911 


COAL AGE 





Practical Hints Gathered Here and There, and 
Condensed to Suit the Busy Reader 












{J} 





English authorities are inclined to fa- 
vor a stoppage of the fan after an ex- 
plosion, so that poisonous gases are not 
spread through the mine. 


Explosives should not be taken into 
the mine in a frozen condition as they 
are then very susceptible to shock and 
require extra care in handling. 


A long exposure to humid conditions, 
it has been found, renders coal dust moist 
and inert, but the presence of moisture 
in the air at the moment of explosion is 
not sufficient to prevent an explosion; 
that is, not enough moisture is carried 
hy the mine air to reduce materially the 
temperature of the flame. 


It has been ascertained that fuses hav- 
ing a normal rate of burning of 27 sec. 
per ft. may, under the influence of pres- 
sure alone, burn as fast as 8 sec. per 
ft. On the other hand, conditions of 
temperature may cause it to burn as 
slowly as 70 sec. per ft. It is suggested 
that accidents may arise owing to the 
liability of explosives to exude nitro- 
glycerin from cartridges. 


The advantages of the endless-rope 
method of haulage are regularity of de- 
livery and low speed. This latter need 
not exceed 2 to 214 mi. per hour, which 
means fewer runaway cars and other ac- 
cidents, reduced cost in wear and tear on 
the road bed, longer life of the rope (four 
times that in main and tail haulages), and 
not so much power required because the 
empties can be run in by gravity. 


Pine and red or black oak commonly 
used in mines, each have their own de- 
structive fungi. Fomes .annosus .at- 
tacks pines and Polystiaus versicolor is 
confined to the oaks. The germs may 
enter the timber before or after cutting, 
but usually decay is contracted in the 
mines from nearby decayed timbering; 
hence the importance of removing tim- 
ber as soon as it shows signs of decay. 


When it is desired to secure an ap- 
proximate idea of the movement or ve- 
locity of an air current that appears al- 
nost stagnant, and if an anemometer is 
unavailable for immediate use, a heavy 
rag, or a piece of brattice cloth charged 
with dust will prove a ready means of 
making the test. A rap of the hand on 


the rag or cloth will raise a cloud of dust 
which the air current will carry away, al- 
lowing the observer to form an estimate 
of the velocity. 








The fumes from colliery waste banks 
may constitute a danger to the crops of 
surrounding farms and fields. For in- 
stance, the fumes from a waste bank, in 
Yorkshire, were blown on to a field of 
turnips. The effect of the fumes was to 
cause sulphuric acid to settle on the 
ground, kill the bacteria in the soil and 
stop the growth of the crops. The crop 
of turnips was short by ten tons and the 
farmer sued the colliery company, which 
was fined and made to pay costs. 


At the Whitburn colliery, in Durham 
county, the mine ponies are fed with a 
mixture of 35 per cent. chopped hay, 29 
per cent. crushed oats, 27 per cent. 
crushed maize and 9 per cent. crushed 
beans. At the week end they have oc- 
casional bran mashes. Each stableboss 
looks after an average of 15 ponies, and 
each pony is provided with a separate 
set of harness. During the week, a 
stableboss is on duty in the stables dur- 
ing practically the whole of the 24 
hours. 


The only absolute cure for what is 
known as the “clinkering” of a poor coal 
is said to be low-temperature combus- 
tion. This clinkering is due to the pres- 
ence of calcium, iron and sulphur. It has 
not been definitely ascertained in what 
proportion these elements may be pres- 
ent without causing clinkering, but 
Brost’s formula is generally applied, 
namely, the fusion temperature rises as 
the alumina increases, and falls with the 
increase of the other elements, but it 
cannot be relied upon for any particular 
ash. 


The native miner in India is usually 
accompanied by his wife, who conveys: 
the coal from the working place to the 
main road where the cars are kept. The 
man cuts the coal and the woman carries 
it out in a basket on her head. The Hin- 
doo will not work in a mine where he 
cannot stand straight up with a basket on 
his head. Some of the seams in the 
Iharia district are 30 ft. thick, and in the 
average working day a man and his wife 
will fill two cars. The rate of pay is from 
10 te 12c. per car, and a man can keep 
his wife and family on about one-third 
of his earnings. 


Nystagmus is a disease common among 
miners. It is claimed that it is much in- 
creased with the increased use of safety 
lamps. The miners put this forward as 
an argument against the use of the 











safety lamps, maintaining that these 
should never be used while it is possible 
to so thoroughly ventilate the mines that 
naked lamps can be employed without 
danger of explosions. This indicates one 
of the difficulties which have to be con- 
tended with in introducing safety ap- 
pliances in the mines. In some cases, 
English miners are paid from 2 to 4c. a 
ton more when they use safety lamps. 


Speaking from a practical point of 
view, R. R. Smith considers that its ex- 
cessive speed is an objection to the tur- 
bine pump in collieries, especially in 
the event of a breakdown occurring. 
Makers claim that a turbine pump can- 
not break down, but motors can, and it is 
very necessary to be in a position to 
put on another motor quickly. Motors, 
however, are not often made for the 
higher speeds of from 1500 to 2000 
r.p.m., and he, therefore, considers that 
gearing or a belt drive should be ar- 
ranged so as to allow of a low-speed 
motor being used. 


A memorandum of the Manchester 
Steam Users’ Association explains that 
dense smoke indicates either that a boiler 
is overworked, that the draft is insuffi- 
cient, or that the stoking is badly done. 
Light smoke indicates efficient stoking. 
With poor draft the fires should be 
kept thin and level by firing frequently 
and at one side of the grate at a time. 
If necessary, keep the air grids in the fire 
doors slightly open just after coaling, but 
a continuous admission of much air is 
wasteful; it spoils the draft and mere- 
ly dilutes the smoke. When low water is 
discovered, cool the furnace plates from 
both sides as quickly as possible. 


The average life of a pony underground 
varies a good deal. At the Harton collier- 
ies, in Durham county, it is slightly over 
Six vears, but in many cases the actual 
working life is very considerably more. 
The general manager of these collieries 
says that ponies under four years old 
are not sent underground. Recently three 
ponies were drawn out of these. pits, 
which had been at work below ground 
for 15, 17 and 22 years, respectively. The 
one which had been at work 22 years 
was still fit and fresh and had both 
his eyes, but he was getting a bit stiff. 
To the foregoing we may add that in July 
at the New Hawne colliery, Worcester- 
shire, a pit pony died which had worked 
in coal mines for 40 years, during 12 
of which it never saw daylight. 
























a ates 





Working Coal in Dips 


In a certain butt heading there is a 
continuous dip from the top of the hill 
at A to the bottom of a small basin at B. 
The dip to the basin is so steep and the 
measures are so saturated with water, 
that from the top of the hill to the cen- 
ter line of the basin, the rooms when 
started would have to be widened to the 
left. The roof is very weak. How 
should the coal be worked so as to pro- 
vide for adequate drainage for the rooms 
and for the safety of the men in drawing 
pillars? It is assumed that the ordinary 
room-and-pillar system has been adopted 
up to the point marked A. 

MINE 


It is assumed that, as the roof is weak, 
a break can be secured anywhere so that 
it is not necessary to carry on the break 
obtained in the first rooms of the heading. 
It is permissible, therefore, to lay plans 
to obtain a new break in rooms near 
the dip. The rooms should be marked 
off, on the heading rib from the last al- 
ready turned to the end of the heading. 
The first of these rooms so marked off 
should be set at the regulation distance, 
plus the standard widening of a room, 
added to 10 ft.. so as to permit of a re- 
versal in the widening of that room and 
an increase of pillar width in order that 
a skip may be taken off one side of it. 
All the other rooms down to the dip 
should be regularly spaced, but in the 
bottom of the basin the width between 
two of the rooms should be reduced 
by the amount of widening of one room. 

The rooms should be started first at the 
bottom of the dip and in due order other 
rooms should be opened to the left and 
right of the same. Those to the left of 
the dip should be widened to the left; 
those to the right should be widened in 
like manner to the right. It is assumed 
that the roof in the first section has al- 
ready broken down. When the last room 
in the dip section on the left, marked for 
recognition as Room 8, is driven half 
way up, a track should be laid through 
a crosscut to the next room (Room 7), 
and a skip taken off the side of that room 
all the way up to the face. 

The accompanying illustration shows 
the status of the working, when the skip 
is just commenced. 

The pillars of the rooms at the bottom 
of the dip should be first attacked, fol- 
lowing with those to the right and left. 
The order of progress in starting and 
drawing the room pillars should be a 


FOREMAN. 


COAL AGE 


ae to Those dhe want a een All icnaiicaiie 
_Inust be Accompanied by the Name and Address of Inquirer 





continuous recession from the center of 
the dip. The room made out of the skip 
off Room 7 should be drawn back when 
its turn comes. The figure following il- 
lustrates the manner in which the pillar 
drawing should proceed. 

This method of work only satisfies min- 
ing conditions where the roof is weak. If 
the rooms up to and including No. 7 had 
not caved well, the skip could not be 
taken with any safety, for it would be 
involved in the ultimate fall of the first 
seven rooms. If, again, a large area was 
being upheld, because fracture did not 
occur, it would be wrong to attempt to 
try to create another fracture at Room 
7, because the pillars between rooms 7, 


6 7 
| 


FOSS 


COAL AGE 


“ine og QMp 





BEFORE ROOMS ARE DRIVEN 


Sa mye pe iene 
AL, 
a 


DRIVING OF Rooms AND SKIP 


een Ley Bre tf ai AL 


| ae | sae ee 


Com AGE 





“Nee f 


We a Ds 


PILLAR DRAWING 


8 and 9 would probably be lost, if more 
were not involved. As a general rule, 
where the roof is good, it is not well to 
arrange to use such strategy that pillars 
have to be drawn between two falls. 
Moreover, where the roof is sound and 
gives plenty of warning of its caving, 
some variance from accepted method can 
be safely permitted. It is customary in 
strong roofs to drive rooms 40 to 50 ft. 
wide, with a road on each side. The min- 
er, who is removing the coal on the side 
nearest the fall, whether that fall be 
actual or anticipated, is situated in what 
would be considered a very perilous po- 
sition, were the roof weak. On the other 
hand, if the roof be weak, especially if it 


October 28, 1911 





be also broken, the system set forth in 
the illustrations would necessarily be 
used to safeguard the miner. 








Size of Shaft and Fan 
Required 


We have a 1500-acre tract of coal land 
underlaid with a 5-ft. seam of bituminous 
coal, gaseous and lying flat. If a ca- 
pacity of 2000 tons per day is desired, 
what should be the size of a double-com- 
partment shaft, and what size of fan 
would be required to furnish the air for 
this mine, in accordance with the Penn- 
sylvania bituminous-mine law ? 

PENNSYLVANIA OPERATOR. 


This is a large daily output to obtain 
from a shaft with one car to a cage and 
working only 10 hours per day. Prac- 
tically, the size.of the hoistways is de- 
termined by the necessary dimensions of 
the mine cars, which again are deter- 
mined by the required output per hour, 
the speed of hoisting, -and the conditions 
in the mine with respect to the thickness 
of the seam or the available headroom 
and width of mine roads. 

In the absence of actual data, it may 
be assumed here that the coal (5 ft. 
thick) is overlaid with an 18-in. draw- 
slate, which is allowed to fall, a few feet 
behind the face. The total hight in the 
passageways and rooms is then 5 X 
12 + 18 = 78 in. Using 18-in 
car wheels and allowing 12 in. for 
ballast, ties and road; 3-in. car axles, 
and 13'% in. for crossbars, clear- 
ance and creep, gives 78 — (12 + 9 + 
14 + 13%) = 42 in. for allowable 
depth of coal in car, including topping. 

Assume the track gage is 4 ft. Calcu- 
late the cross-section of the mine car 
as follows: g = 4 ft., d = 18 in. Then: 
Lower section, 42 « 9 = 378 sq.in.; mid- 


56 + 42 


dle section, s T= S43 sein: 


upper section, 56 [42 — (7 + 9)] 
1456 sq.in. Total sectional area = 2177 
sj.in. = 15.12 square feet. 

To find the length of the car it is neces- 
sary, first, to find the weight of material 
per hoist and the cubic contents of the 
car; thus, assume, for this depth of shaft, 
that the maximum speed of hoisting is 40 
ft. per sec., and allow 30 sec. for starting 
and stopping each trip and — car. 


~~ + 30 


Now, allow 30 ae ii un- 


The time of hoisting one trip = 


= 40 sec. 


avoidable delays each day of 10 hours, 
making the actual time of hoisting coal 




















October 28, 1911 


10 ~ 60 — 30 = 570 min. The total 
: , pat 6 
number of hoists per day is then sa = 


— 855 hoists. The weight of material 
per hoist is then 2000 + 855 = 2.34 tons, 
or 2.34 « 2000 = 4680 Ib. Average bi- 
tuminous coal (run-of-mine) may be es- 
timated as occupying 40 cu.ft. per short 
ton (2000 lb.) The cubic capacity of a 
mine car, including topping of coal, must 
be, then, 4680 — 40 = 117 cu.ft. To have 
this capacity the inside length of the car 
musi be, in this case, 
117 X 144 
2177 
Allowing, say 21 in. for end-boards and 
bumpers and 18 in. for clearance at the 
two ends, the necessary width of the 
shaft should be 11 ft. The inside width of 
the car is 4 ft. 8 in., and allowing 2 in. 
for side of car, 4 in. clearance, 4 in. 
for exposure of guides, 8-in. buntons, 
and a pumpway and manway 6 ft. wide, 
makes the length of the shaft 20 ft. in 
the clear. The size of the shaft is, there- 
fore, 11x20 ft. inside dimensions. 
It is only right to add that as miners 
in the bituminous parts of Pennsylvania 
work only eight ‘hours, with considerable 


=i Ae. OF ft Siem. 











CAPACITY CF MINE CAR 


deductions at both ends of the day, coal 
heing relatively scarce in the early morn- 
ing and late at night, it is not well to 
lock for a production of 2000 tons from 
a single shaft with a one-car cage, even 
if the hoisting should continue 10 hours. 

On many days the delays will much 
exceed an aggregate of 30 min.; also holi- 
days, their approach and their aftermath, 
cut a wide swath on the exact results 
of mathematical calculation, for even if 
men are plentiful, the absence of a few 
will disturb the balance arranged between 
headings and diminish tonnage. The 
problem, however, excludes a larger car 
than that proposed and does not seem to 
warrant a five-compartment shaft with 
two hoisting engines, nor a double-deck 
cage carrying two cars on one deck. It 
would seem better to meet a problem in- 
volving only 1500 acres of 5-ft. coal by 
preparing an equipment which might pro- 
duce 2000 tons, but which might fail 
to reach that tonnage by a few hundred 
tons. . 








COAL AGE 


In regard to ventilation, the revised 
bituminous mine law of Pennsylvania re- 
quires the circulation of 200 cu.ft. of air 
per min. for each person employed in 
a gaseous mine. The records of the past 
nine years show that the average daily 
output of coal per man employed under- 
ground is as follows: 

Fittshurge Coal Company.........<.. 3.4 tons 
EG. 6vick - Company... «<0 cence. 6.2 tons 
Monongahela River Consolidated Coal 


sng. Coke CGmpang... 2c... ces es 4:2 tons 
Berwind-White Coal Mining Company 3.5 tons 


Average +.4 tons 

Taking this average as a basis of cal- 
culation, the number of men employed 
below ground in a mine putting out 2000 
tons of coal a day would be 2000 — 4.4 — 
454 men. It would, therefore, be amply 
sufficient, as far as the mine law is con- 
cerned, to estimate on air for, say 500 
persons, or a circulation of 500 x 200 


= 100,000 cu.ft. per min. However, the 
practical needs of this mine, which is 
may 


gaseous, require, in emergency, 





87 


would be increased to about 5.5 in, This 
would require about 360 i.h.p. The fan 
for this service should be 15 ft. 10 in. 
diameter, 5 ft. 7 in. wide, with a cen- 
tral opening 8 ft. 11 in. diameter. This 
makes the radial depth of blade 3 ft. 5% 
inches, 








Anehoring Gravity Planes 


I have much trouble with a steep grav- 
ity plane which is always washing out; I 
cannot keep the ties in place. Please 
recommend a cheap remedy. 

ROADMAN. 

Your best plan is to lay a line of tile 
on one side of the track with properly 
cemented joints. All the water you can 
divert from the head of the plane should 
be passed down this drain. Several wyes 
should be put in the line and 6-in. 
branches run from these under the track. 
These branches should be cemented on 
the under half. The upper half should be 











Buried Sewe 
\\\N3 





























Haulage 


DRAINING A GRAVITY PLANE AND SECURING IT By HAULAGE ROPES 


more than double this quantity of air; 
and the normal working of the mine may 
even require more air than the law de- 
mands. 


ESTIMATING SIZE OF FAN 


For this reason, in estimating the size 
of fan required for the proper and safe 
ventilation of the mine under all condi- 
tions, it should be designed to pass, sav 
156,000 cu.ft. of air per min. against a 
2-in. water gage, at a moderate speed of, 
say 100 r.p.m., requiring for this ser- 
vice an indicated horsepower of the en- 
gine of, say 80 h.p. This would be the 
rormal working condition. The engine 
driving the fan, however, should be ca- 
pable of increasing the speed to 190 
r.p.m., at which speed the fan would de- 
liver about 250,000 cu.ft. of air, and, for 
the same mine conditions, the water gage 





left uncemented so as to drain the road- 
bed. Cover the ditches in which the 
branch pipes are laid, with broken stone. 

Some planes are laid with anchored 
wood-sills into which the cross-ties are 
notched. The notching results in speedy 
rotting of the timber and the expense of 
such a method is considerable. The use 
of long ties common to both tracks is to 
be recommended, but perhaps the best se- 
curity and the cheapest is the use of a 
spiked haulage rope at the end of ties se- 
cured to a heavy timber, masonry or con- 
crete support at the head of the plane. 
If the plane is long, two or three of these 
may be necessary so as to divide up the 
expansion from heat. Old, disused ropes 
will do, and a heavy coat of tar will pre- 
vent them from rusting away, this coat 
being applied before and after their at- 
tachment to the ties. 






Y 





Electric Lamps in Mine 
Rescue Work 


The use of portable electric lamps in 
mines is rapidly becoming general. In 
gaseous mines, the portable electric lamp 
has been used effectively in so many in- 
stances to replace the ordinary so called 
safety lamp as to call properly for its 
classification as a safety lamp. 

In the meaning of the anthracite mine 
law an electric lamp is not-a safety lamp. 
Indeed, the law needs revision in this re- 
spect. When the present law was passed 
there were only two general types of 
safety lamps in use, the Davy lamp and 
the Clanny lamp. These laws, however, 
are now obsolete in respect to many pres- 
ent methods of mining anthracite coal, 
and we can but hope that the new law 
when drafted will provide effectively and 
intelligently for these changed conditions 
of mining, and treat specifically the new 
methods and new devices introduced 
since the old law was made. 

Not long ago the government rescue 
car visited our coalfield, and trained men 
in the use of electric lamps in gassy 
mines, in connection with rescue appar- 
atus. In the strict meaning of the mine 
law the electric lamp is not a safety lamp. 
I firmly believe in the electric lamp as 
the !aimp that can be most effectively used 
in mine-rescue work; because where this 
lamp is carefully used the chances of ig- 
nition of gas are reduced to a minimum, 
and because the lamp gives a good light, 
which is very necessary. 

A short time ago there occurred a 
heavy cave, in a mine, along the gangway 
road, in a steep-pitching (80 deg.) seam. 
An entire pillar of coal came down on the 
gangway, as shown in the accompanying 
sketch. Two men were working in the 
face of the gangway at the time of the 
cave, and their escape by that road was 
completely cut off. The ventilation was 
also cut off by the cave, and gas began 
to accumulate rapidly in the workings be- 
yond. Soon a fireboss with an ordinary 
safety lamp reached the point marked X 
on the airway, but could go no farther. 
At this point, the gas was so thick that 
it extinguished the light. There was no 
way to reach the entombed men except 
through the airway or monkey heading 
above the gangway. Two ladders were 
brought in and placed in the manner 
shown in the sketch. Two men, each 


provided with rescue apparatus and elec- 
tric lamps, traversed the fall by means 
of the ladders, and reached the entombed 








COAL AGE 


SSION by READERS 


Canc Criticism and Debate upon Previous Articles, 
and Suggestions from the Experience of Practical Men 





men in the gangway. These men were 
found in a very weak condition, at the 
point marked X X. The two rescue men 
were unable to take them out, so one res- 
cuer returned for help while the other 
stayed with the men. The man who went 
out brought in another rescue man and 
two sets of rescue apparatus, which they 
put on the unfortunate men. The three 
rescuers then took the men out, one at 
a time, thereby saving these two men 
who were almost at the point of death. 
They would have perished had the elec- 
tric lamps not been used. 

This incident illustrates one case where 
the electric lamp was used effectively in 
saving life, under conditions that ren- 
dered the ordinary safety lamp useless. 
The question may be asked here, how- 
ever, if anything. had happened to the 
rescue party or the men through the use 
of these lamps, would those responsible 
for their use in a gaseous mine have 
been held accountable to the mine law ? 

Should not the electric lamp be classed 
in the mine law as a safety lamp? The 
true aim of the law is to protect lives and 
property, but when a law becomes ob- 
solete it is then a menace rather than a 
safeguard, and should be changed to meet 
the changing conditions. 

A RESCUE FOREMAN. 


[Epitor’s NotE—The term safety lamp 
is a misnomer, and too often misunder- 
stood by miners; particularly by those 
who are unacquainted with the use of 
the safety lamp. This misunderstanding 
may and often does lead to serious acci- 
dent, because the one using the lamp has 
the idea that it is safe under all condi- 
tions, and cannot pass flame or cause 
trouble. 

This is a grave error. The so called 
safety lamp is safe only when properly 
used by one who understands the principle 
of the lamp and the properties of mine 
gases, as well as the dangers to which 
fe exposes himself and others by a care- 
less use of the lamp. As a matter of 
fact, no lamp, however well protected, is 
safe under every condition of mining, and 
therefore, care and intelligence are neces- 
sary on the part of the person using the 
lamp. 

Our correspondent has drawn attention 
to a very important point and one that 
is growing in importance every day. Port- 
able electric lamps are rapidly coming 
into general use in the mines. We think 
the day is not far off when they will en- 
tirely displace the lamps and torches now 
in use. Mining law should take cogni- 


October 28, 1911 





zance of this fact and special reference 
should be made to the use of such lamps. 
The electric lamp, has the same right 
to classification as a safety lamp, as the 
present types of so-called safeties now 
in use. 

The determining feature of the safety 
lamp is the more or less complete isola- 
tion of the flame of the lamp from the 
surrounding atmosphere. In the incan- 
descent lamp the carbon filament of the 
lamp is more completely isolated from 
the outside atmosphere than is the flame 
of any oil-burning safety lamp. The 
glass globe of the incandescent lamp 
needs to be protected, but is not so apt 
to be broken as the glass cylinder of the 
mine safety lamp is liable to be cracked 
and broken by the heat of the flame and 
gas burning within the lamp. 

The disadvantage, thus far, of all elec- 
tric lamps, for mining use, is the fact that, 
as constructed at present, they do not re- 
veal the presence of gas. It is to be 
hoped, however, that even this difficulty 
may be overcome and that some device 
will soon be found that will supply this 
lack.] 





ee 








Siphon vs. Gravity Drainage 

The accompanying sketch shows a mine 
in skeleton, with the elevations of the 
rail and ditch above tide. When the 
mine was first opened, there was much 
water at A, which was handled by a small 
hand pump, but later this water drained 
through crevices in the limestone measure 
below and no more trouble was experi- 
enced till the workings in the headings 
beyond B and C were reached. The fur- 
ther developments gave so much water 
that a sump was established in a low- 
lying rooni, as shown, and the water was 
removed by a siphon, much dissatisfac- 
tion resulting from its irregular service. 
It might be noted that the drawing is 
more of a diagram than an actual plan. 
This was necessary to avoid making too 
large a drawing. The obvious criticisms 
that it would be better to shoot the dip 
and to disregard the accumulation of 
water to the right of the drift mouth 
would not be obvious nor even applicable 
to the actual mine. 

The following method was suggested 
for improving the drainage system: 

By drawing a dotted line on the map, 
representing all the area in the mine 
above the elevation of the highest point 
of the drainage ditch, we obtained the 
area which could be drained if we con- 
structed another ditch in the mine fol- 






























October 28, 1911 


lowing that line, with ditches leading 
leading thereto. It was apparent in the 
early development work that all water 
originating below that line would pass 
away through the creviced substrata. 
What originated above the dotted line 
could, for the most part, be led to the 
several adjacent headings and run down 
to points D and E and piped from those 
points to the surface, by stringing pipes 
from D and E to the siphon line at A and 
connecting thereto. This suggestion was 
followed. The flow of water then de- 
pended not so much on the vacuum at 
the summit F as on the pressure of the 
water in the pipe, driving it forward and 
eventually upward to its own level. The 
custom of leading all water immediately 








~ 


Gs 


psi 
ad S 
we mat mS 


COAL AGE 


stored at D and E, in order that it would 
not be necessary to drain the upper part 
of the mine continuously. 

Preparations were made for using the 
eld siphon, priming it with the water in 
the higher part of the mine. A valve H 
was put in the water line just above 4, 
where the siphon line and the high-level 
branch join. A valve was located at the 
point of discharge J. By closing the 
valve J and removing the plug at F, all 
the air could be driven out at that high 
point. When the plug F was replaced 
and the valve H closed in the order 
named and the valve J opened, then as 
both legs of the siphon were fully primed, 
the siphon began working and continued 
to pass the water through the line till the 


























89 





For 12 months inquiries and investiga- 
tions have been in progress to determine 
the best sites for the shafts and, in July, 
Mr. Edden obtained permission to intro- 
duce a bill giving legislative authority to 
acquire lands and establish mines. 

The scheme is to have a mine in the 
north, one in the west and another in the 
south, one of the proposed shafts to be 
in the neighborhood of Lithgow. When 
successfully launched these three mines 
will supply all the requirements of the 
government railways, street railways, 
brickworks, steam vessels, etc. Any 
surplus coal will be sold to private con- 
sumers. 

At present the railway department has 
contracts with 24 collieries from which it 














Tt 
| ] 
\ ! 
‘ { 
‘CO ' 
‘9 ! . 
1 ee | | 
\S i 
‘SQ A fas 
‘< ‘S 
/ Sl}. 2 
v ~ EL. 1537.06 SEVEN. 1524.52 
F ditch, E1.1540.0 
El.1542.05 
Ditch, El. 1539.70 s 
s ‘\ 
S S at) re we 
~ Sb 
my | ym Ss 
aS 4 |S& 
ZY S wz S 
pp bs “yy | & 
i 1S AW COAL AGE 
& Discharge Valve 


SYSTEM OF DRAINAGE WITHOUT U 


to a common sump situated at the lowest 
point in a mine and thence _labori- 
ously lifting it out is a common and de- 
plorable source of waste of energy. A 
check valve was placed at G to avoid 
the discharge of water into the original 
sump. The water was accelerated in the 
pipe by occasionally opening the plug in 
what was once the high spot in the 
siphon, viz., F. When the flow of water 
was reasonally continuous, no air accum- 
ulated at that point. 

Later, the crevices in the floor proved 
insufficient to drain the area below the 
contour line 1540, partly because of leak- 
age from higher levels, the drainage of 
which could not be controlled after the 
pillars were drawn. Provision was then 
made so that water could be temporarily 


6 Discharge Valve 


SE OF SIPHON 


low-level sump was empty. As soon as 
that occurred the valve H was reopened 
and the drainage of the upper area con- 
tinued as before, for the check valve G 
prevented any water running down to the 
low-level sump. The siphon, being rap- 
idly and efficiently primed under that sys- 
tem, gave better satisfaction and had less 
water to handle than it did before. 
Chicago, III. A. O. Burt. 








Government Coal Mines 


Coat AGE readers may be interested 
in a plan of the Minister for Mines in 


New South Wales. He has in hand 
a project by which the government 
there will supply all its own coal 


requirements from its own _ collieries. 


SYSTEM OF DRAINAGE BY BOTH GRAVITY AND SIPHON 


obtains approximately 840,000 tons of 
coal per anum. The Minister of Mines es- 
timates that by owning its own collieries 
the state will effect a saving of half a 
dollar on each ton of coal, or roughly 
$420,000 on the total yearly supply. 

The idea of state-owned coal mines is 
not a new one. New Zealand and Vic- 
toria own mines with, it is claimed, sat- 
isfactory financial results. It may also 
be recalled that in Germany, France, Rus- 
sia and Belgium the various governments 
have their own mines for railway pur- 
poses, and in the United States and Canada 
certain large private companies have 
found it a paying proposition to own and 
run their own coal mines. 

R. L. BERESFORD. 
Sydney, N. S. W. 











COAL AGE 


October 28, 1911 








ee 





Liquor Problem in Mining 
Communities 
By G.. 1, Fay" 


One of the curses of the mining town 
is the “beer wagon.” A superintendent 
of one of the large anthracite companies 
said recently: “It would be a forward 
_ step if we could stop the sale of intoxi- 
cating drinks which are hauled in by 
teams and peddled through our ‘Patches.’ 
It is against the law and if it could be 
stopped, I believe good would result. If 
the men had to order liquor or go after 
it, they would not use nearly as much as 
when it is hauled to their doors. In the 
‘Patches’ where the beer wagons do not 
visit there is the least trouble, and the 
men do not lose so much time from 
work.” Quoting further: “At one of our 
collieries, I never saw a beer wagon enter 
and I have never had complaints from 
there regarding quarreling or fighting; 
at one of our other mines, they are never 
without drink and the people are al- 
ways in a ‘scrap’ about something-—one 
lawsuit after another—there the women 
drink almost as much as the men.” 

Another official of the same company 
says: “Some time ago I went with the 
paymaster on payday and saw the beer 
wagons standing on the public roads sell- 
ing beer at Sc. per bottle, or six bottles 
for 25c. I am told they do not do this 
now, but that they sell it by the case right 
from the wagon, which also is a violation 
of the law.” 

The “speak-easy” reveals the fact of 
the need of law enforcement. 

In one county, officials in a position to 
speak with authority, say that there are 
as manv illegal selling places in the coun- 
ty as there are licensed saloons. 

In the last issue we saw the outcome: 
Here we have an illustration of an inter- 
pretation of law preventing an industry 
from minimizing the drink evil and here 
also we have a lack of enforcement of 
law, which permits the increase of liquor 
consumption to the detriment of an in- 
dustry which is the support of the com- 
munity. 

While both the interpretation of the 
law and lack of law enforcement may act 
as obstacles to dealing with the liquor 
problem on the economic basis, there are 
also local conditions that add to the dif- 
ficulties. 


; *Secretary, Coal Mining Institute of Amer- 
ica, Wilkes-Barre, Penn. 

Note—tThis is the third 
the above subject. 


article discussing 


ntsc nc 


ABureau Devoted to the Welfare of Miners Everywhere, 


YYW MW le 





Stock FOR MORAL SuPPORT 

A mine superintendent, in discussing 
this phase of the problem, said that the 
brewing company in his district offered 
him a block of: stock in the brewery 
svndicate at 50 per cent. less than par 
value. He did not accept the proposition 
and the stock was then offered to him at 
25 per cent. cf par value. Again he re- 
fused the offer. The agent of the brewery 
then told him that he (the superinten- 
dent) was a “key man” in that district, 
and that the brewery syndicate desired 
bis good will, and that they would make 
him a present of the block of stock. The 
superintendent again refused to accept 
the offer. One of the chief officials of 
that brewing syndicate told me that the 
same year they paid a dividend of 66 
per cent. on every dollar’s worth of 
stock 

Surely a tempting 
mine superintendent or foreman. But 
when officials of coal companies hold 
stock in a liquor syndicate and that stock 
pavs large dividends, effective measures 
to reduce the sale of liquor in the com- 
munities thev control will be out of the 
question, even though the coal company 
may lose in tonnage every month. 

But the industries are asking, “How 
shall we deal with the problem?” and 
that is significant. In the meantime, be- 
fore a satisfactory answer is given, sev- 
eral large operating companies are pro- 
jecting various plans in an effort to 
mitigate the demoralizing conditions. 

One of the largest holding companies 
in West Virginia has written into all leas- 
es to operating companies the following 
article: “The lessee shall not sell or 
knowingly permit the sale or introduction 
of any intoxicating liquors upon _ the 
above described tracts or parcels of land 
or any lands adjacent thereto.” 

In a letter dated Sept. 28, 1911, the 
general manager of one of the largest 
railroads in this country says: “In our 
book of rules and regulations governing 
emplovees. we have the following rule 
with reference to the use of intoxicants, 
etc. ‘The use of intoxicants by employees 
while on duty is prohibited. The habitual 
consumption or the frequenting of places 
where intoxicants are sold is sufficient 
cause for dismissal.’ It is the duty of our 
division officials to see that this rule is 
enforced. 

“Our 


BREWERY 


investment for a 


superintendents, trainmasters, 


master mechanics, road foremen of en- 
gines and other officials, whose duties re- 
quire them to be on the road a consider- 
able part of their time, are in a position 


‘time for minimizing 


eciall 





to observe whether or not the employees 
are violating the rule, and when they dis- 
cover a case of this kind it is the usual 
practice to caution the. offenders and give 
them good advice; then if they persist 
in violating the rules, the penalty is en- 
forced by dismissing them from the ser- 
vice. 

“While, of course, with the large num- 
ber of men employed on a railroad it is 
impossible to get at every case, we be- 
lieve we are fortunate on our road in 
keeping the infraction of this rule down 
to the minimum, as the number of men 
dismissed for intoxication, is a small per 
cent. of the total.” 


A Law 


As society progresses, the leaders of 
any period may discover the conditions 
that ought to be maintained in society 
and industry. Such leaders are a law 
unto themselves—and by making con- 
quest and planting their flag on the ad- 
vance line, they gradually draw other 
leaders to that line, then the law is 
brought up to the same mark and the 
law brings up the mass. 

When society and industry demand an- 
other forward step, leaders blaze the 
way till finally a new advance line is 
establisned. Again the law is gradually 
brought to that line, causing the masses 
te struggle toward that new advance 
line and thus the wheels of progress go 
round and round, but what a “sprag” in 
the wheels is nonenforcement of the law! 

Enforcement of law reveals its strength 
or weakness, whether good or _ bad, 
whether or not it is equal to the needs 
of the times and the demands of the pres- 
ent advance line of progress. 

In the succeeding article on _ the 
“Liquor Problem in Coal-Mining Com- 
munities,” I will describe what is, per- 
haps, the best method in operation at this 
the drink evil in 


Unto THEMSELVES 


mining camps. 








First Aid Movement in Hard 
Coal Region 


During the past six weeks the First 
Aid Corps of the mines which have or- 
ganized these helpful institutions have 
been holding contests throughout the an- 
thracite regions, and remarkably inter- 
esting and instructive these have been. 
The contests have now become annual 
events in most mining localities in north- 
eastern Pennsylvania. The men who are 
engaged in these contests take a personal 














October 28, 1911 


pride in the efficiency of the corps to 
which they belong. 

During the time that these contests 
have taken place, exhibitions have 
been given in various centers, gen- 
erally in the vicinity of Scranton, Wilkes- 
Barre, Pottsville, Shamokin, Mahanoy 
City, Carbondale and occasionally in 
the neighborhood of mining settlements. 
The contests are not competitions in the 
conventional sense. Although medals are 
sometimes distributed among the winners 
of a contest, the men are for the most 
part indifferent to the honor conferred by 
these, and to their intrinsic value. Indeed 
they seem almost to deprecate their in- 
stitution as awards. 

About two hundred corps have taken 
part in these contests during the time 
that they have been in progress. It 
is no exaggeration to say that first aid to 
the injured, scientifically administered, is 
now as much a part of the machinery of 
the anthracite mines as any other depart- 
ment of the executive administration of 
the colliery. Each mine with a first-aid 
corps has its dispensary at the foot of the 
shaft, fully supplied with such appliances 
as are immediately needed in any ordi- 
nary emergency. 

While distributing medals at one of 
these contests recently an old clergyman 
declared, with considerable truth, in the 
presence of the men and officials of the 
two collieries between which the contest 
was held, that within his own  recol- 
lection, some 35 or 40 years ago, 
the lives of the mules in the anthracite 
mines were much more carefully guarded 
than those of the miners, it being ac- 
cepted as a managerial axiom that the 
less of a mule was estimated at S3 a day 
for the period of its working life, while 
the life of a miner was of no economic 
value, no material difference in the profit 
and loss account of the working of the 
mine resulting by his accidental death. 








Marriage 
By F. A. Boac 


The conditions of the gold-mining 
camps of the West are being duplicated 
in the coal camps of the country, near 
and far. The unrestrained wildness of 
the erstwhile inhabitants of the gold dig- 
gings was due mainly to abnormal earn- 
ngs, the lack of home restraint and the 
ibsence of the matrimonial curb. True! 
he earnings of the miners do not appear 
xtravagantly large to Americans, though 
ney are larger than is commonly sup- 
rosed. But to peasants from Central 
“urope they seem so bounteous that to 
pend the balance after their frugal ap- 
etites for food are appeased, demands 
‘requent carousals. The new environ- 
nent acts as new wine in exciting their 
spirits. But more obvious than all is 
the effect of the lack of family ties. 

The same adventurous spirits of a like 
‘eople went to the Dakotas and to Colo- 





COAL AGE 


rado. But the Oregon adventurers were 
quiet homemakers, were married and 
peaceable. The Colorado men, on the 


other hand, prided themselves on their 
wildness and wooliness. They had, no 
less than their neighbors, the qualities of 
good citizenship, but the rewards being 
high and the restraints weak, a wild pe- 
riod intervened between settlement and 
steady development. The governors and 
mayors of the West have not been un- 
mindful of the strife-assuaging virtues 
of marriage and have from time to time 
sought to restore the uneven balance of 
male and female by assisted or encour- 
aged immigration of the latter. More- 
over, today, a trip west to the region of 
the Rockies of an Eastern maid almost 
invariably spells matrimony, usually 
under the most favorable auspices. 


Two Ways To MEET PROBLEM 


There is but little question but what 
marriage would make a healthy improve- 
ment in the foreign population of our 
mining villages. The difficulty is to find 
a way to increase it. The immigration 
authorities, dreading the already too great 
advance of the white-slave traffic, would 
not favor any activity toward increasing 
the immigration of females even if the law 
permitted it. There are two ways by 
which the difficulty might be met: The 
operator can always discriminate in favor 
of married men, and Congress, which is 
always discussing the restriction of im- 
migration, might provide for the exclu- 
sion of unmarried foreigners who did not 
meet certain other important require- 
ments, leaving the bars a litle lower for 
married men. 

Occasionally we read of a lifelong ro- 
mance. An Italian peasant girl comes to 
America to marry an acquaintance of 
boyhood days, on money furnished by her 
future husband. Such accounts furnish 
good headlines, but, as a matter of fact, 
the Italian laborer unable to find a coun- 
trywoman in his new home, and too un- 
desirable to be able to cross the race 
line for a wife, recails an unmated girl 
acquaintance of earlier days and sends 
for her. Without thought of love, she 
recalls the fact that there is a living for 
her in America, a chance to escape an en- 
forced diet of polenta, with hard stone- 
picking and burden-carrying in the fields, 
and joyfully she comes over to meet her 
promessi sposi! 

BRAWLS, THE OUTCOME OF CELIBACY 

One does not wonder that an Ameri- 
can-barn Italian woman is in many cases 
a chattel for profitable sale and barter, 
so many are the would-be husbands, so 
few the would-be brides. Nor can we 
wonder at the fights and jealousies en- 
gendered when five kegs of beer and one 
woman are together in a house where 
there are as many as 14 boarders; for 
though statistics prove that the Southern 
European is more chaste than the Amer- 
ican or Briton, his lust for revenge and 





91 


the temptations of liquors to which he is 
unaccustomed, more than overbalance his 
other moral qualities. 

It sometimes appears to me that more 
urgent than a reduction of white slav- 


ery, is the need for a _ suppression 
of white lawlessness in the mining cen- 
ters. It is a need, moreover, deeply 
felt that, more and more, Europeans 
who come here should be naturalized 
and stay, leaving their wages here, not 
sending them abroad. Furthermore, we 
desire to be saved from the trouble of 
nationalizing continually new influxes of 
strangers who come, develop a little and 
leave, to be replaced by others equally 
needful of the action of the American 
“melting pot,” to quote [srael Zangwiil. 
farriage is the hobble that will effectu- 
ally hold such men. Without marriage, 
life is essentially incomplete and the lack 
of it always makes man a wanderer. 








Mine Safety. Demonstration 

The National Mine Safety Demonstra- 
tion takes place Monday and Tuesday, 
October 30 and 31, at Pittsburg, Penn., 
the board of managers comprising H. M. 
Wilson, representing the Bureau of 
Mines; Dr. M. J. Shields, the American 
National Red Cross Society; S. A. Taylor, 
the coal operators of the United States; 
Francis Feehan, the United Mine Workers 
of America; John Laing, the State mine 
inspectors; and Thomas B. Dilts, the in- 
dustrial department of the Y. M. C. A. 

On October 30 a meeting, commencing 
with an address of welcome by Director 
J. A. Holmes, at 9 a.m., will be held at the 
arsenal grounds. Following the address 
the visitors will be shown the varigus build- 
ings and the nature of the work being 
conducted in them. 

For the afternoon an inspection is ar- 
ranged, at the Bruceton mine, followed by 
an explosion in the same with a further 
inspection later. 

The Tuesday meet is to be held at the 
Forbes field, beginning with ten first-aid 
problems open for solution to teams 
from all over the United States. Then 
will follow tests in a dust gallery, where 
similar experiments will be made to those ~ 
made at the arsenal on the previous day, 
but with coal dust present and with gas 
entirely absent. A demonstration of the 
action of afterdamp on birds will be a 
feature of this meet. 

The prizes for first-aid work will be 
presented by President Taft and addres- 
ses given by John K. Tener, governor of 
Pennsylvania, Walter L. Fisher, Secretary 
of the Interior, of whose department the 
Bureau of Mines is a part,,and Miss Ma- 
bel Boardman, of the American Red Cross 
Society. 

A parade of 19,927 miners, each of 
whom represents one of the 19,927 men 
killed in the coal mines of the United 
States in the last twenty years, will im- 
press on the spectators the terrible toll of 
life taken by the coal industry. 





92 


COAL AGE 





October 28, 1911 


ATION QUESTIONS and ANSWERS 


To Encourage, Assist,and Instruct Those Preparing for Firebosses, Mine Foremen, 
and Inspectors Examinations, Selected and Original Questions Are Carefully 
Answered And Fully Explained 





Suggested Questions 
STRIKE, DIP AND PITCH 


Ques.—Explain the meaning of the 
terms strike, dip and pitch, as they relate 
to coal seams or “veins.” 

Ans.—These terms all describe cer- 
tain lines or directions in inclined seams. 
For example: The strike of an inclined 
seam may refer to any level line in the 
seam, or it may refer to the direction 
of such a line. The strike line, or the 
line of strike, is always a level line, and 
may have any position in the seam. The 
outcrop of an inclined seam on a level 
surface is a line of strike. The term dip 
relates to the inclination of the seam. 
Any line drawn in the seam at right 
angles to the strike is a line of “full dip” 
or “full pitch” according as it is drawn 
to the rise or to the dip of the seam. The 
terms full pitch and full dip of the seam 
describe the same lines drawn in op- 
posite directions. Any line in a seam 
drawn in a direction oblique to the strike 
or to the full dip of the seam has a dip 


or a pitch less than that of the seam. By. 


the dip or pitch of a seam is meant its 
full dip or full pitch. 


DIRECTION OF SLANT ROAD 


Ques.—In what direction must a slant 
road be driven in a seam having an in- 
clination of 5 deg. in order that the road 
shall have a grade of 3 per cent.? The 
direction of the full dip of the seam is 
S 34 deg. 30 min. E.: 

Ans.—In an inclined seam the ratio 
of the tangent of the grade angle of a 
road driven across the pitch, to the 
tangent of the angle of full dip of the 
seam, is equal to the cosine of the angle 
the road makes with the line of pitch. 
Calling this angle a, in this case, 


0.03 0.03 
aie tan. 5 deg. 0.08749 
and a = 69 deg. 57 min. Therefore, 
the angle between the road and the full 
pitch of the seam is 69 deg. 57 min. But 
the direction of the full pitch of the 
seam is N 34 deg. 30 min. W, and since 
the required slant road may be driven 
either to the right or the left of the full 
pitch, its direction may be either N 35 
deg. 27 min. E, or S 75 deg. 33 min. W. 





==0;2428; 


VENTILATION IN ANTHRACITE MINES 


Ques.—How is ventilation produced in 
mines in the anthracite region ? 

Ans.—In the anthracite mines of Penn- 
sylvania, ventilation is most commonly 


produced by mechanical means. The 
larger mines are mostly equipped with 
different types of centrifugal fans. Many 
mines are still operating the old style 
of 14-ft., open-running fan; and some 
disk fans are in use. The modern type 
of mine ventilator, however, now being 
generally installed, is the large centrifu- 
gal fan inclosed in a spiral casing, and 
having its blades curved to conform to 
the conditions at the mine. This type 
of mine fan when designed to run nor- 
mally at a fairly moderate speed of, say 
150 r.p.m., gives the best service and 
the highest efficiency. In case of need 
the speed of the fan can then be in- 
creased at will to supply a larger volume 
of air. 


MINE VENTILATORS COMPARED 


Ques.—What are the comparative 
merits of the several appliances for 
producing ventilation in the collieries of 
the anthracite coalfield? Give reason. 

Ans.—The mine ventilator that is de- 
signed to meet as far as possible all the 
conditions that are liable to arise in the 
operation of the mine is the ventilator 
having the greatest merit. Owing to the 
widely varying conditions in mines, no 
absolute rule can be given. There is, 
however, a growing preference among 
mine operators for the large centrifugal 
type of fan, designed to run normally 
at a speed that can be increased or de- 
creased as the requirements of the mine 
may demand. Such a ventilator possesses 
a greater margin of service than the 
small, high-speed types of fan, which are 
better adapted to the work of blowing air 
against a considerable water gage. 

The open-running type of fan, still 
in use at some mines, is very inefficient, 
because it discharges the air at a high 
velocity all around the circumference of 
the fan, which means a great loss of en- 
ergy. Closed fans having a tight-fitting 
casing are also inefficient, because the 
air is only discharged from a small por- 
tion of the fan-wheel at one time. The 
spiral casing, on the other hand, permits 
the discharge of air almost completely 
around the circumference. 

The disk fan is not an efficient type of 
mine fan, except for the ventilation of 
small mines. It is a convenient form of 


ventilator, however, when it can be used, 
for the reason that it admits of reversing 
the air-current in the mine, simply by 
reversing the engine driving the fan. The 
necessity for reversing the air in a mine 
frequently arises. 


BLOWING VERSUS EXHAUST FAN 


Ques.—Give your opinion as to the 
advantage, if any, of a forcing fan over 
an exhaust fan working under the same 
conditions. 

Ans.—Both of these types of fan are 
equally advantageous under the particu- 
lar conditions to which each is adapted. 
The blowing or forcing fan is adapted to 
the ventilation of a non-gaseous mine 
where the main-return airways can be 
made the haulage roads. In a gaseous 
mine, however, haulage must generally 
be performed on the intake airways to 
avoid the danger of the ignition of gas 
by the lamps of the drivers. In this case, 
in order to avoid the use of doors on 
the main haulage roads, at or near the 
shaft bottom, it is necessary to adopt the 
exhaust system of ventilation and use an 
exhaust fan. 

This much is offered in explanation of 
the proper use of the exhaust fan. For 
the same conditions, however, the forcing 
fan is the more efficient ventilator, be- 
cause it is operating on the cooler out- 
side air and under the mine water gage 
or pressure, whilegthe exhaust fan is 
operating on the generally warmer mine 
air and under atmospheric pressure only. 
The forcing fan, therefore, by virtue of 
its position in the air-current is always 
operating on denser air than the exhaust 
fan, which gives it a higher efficiency 
under like conditions in the mine or air- 
way. 

In the mine, the forcing or blowing 
system of ventilation possesses a greater 
advantage over the exhaust system, be- 
cause the gases generated in the old 
abandoned workings of the mine are 
forced out, in this system of ventilation, 
through any crevices or openings extend- 
ing to the surface. They are not drawn 
into the mine as they are necessarily in 
the exhaust system. If there is a break- 
down, however, and the fan must be 
stopped suddenly when the men are in 
the mine, there is greater danger of the 
outflow into the mine airways, of the 
gases accumulated in the old workings, 
in the blowing system than in the ex- 
haust system of ventilation. 


OPENING A COLLIERY 


Ques.—It is proposed to open a col- 
liery on the following workable seams: 
Buck Mountain, 10 ft. thick; Skidmore, 
8 ft. thick; and Mammoth, 25 ft. thick, 
pitching respectively 30 deg., 35 deg. and 
38 deg. On which seam would you sink 
your slope; where would you place your 




















October 28, 1911 


fan; and what kind of a fan, in your 
opinion, would give the best results, a 
forcing or an exhaust fan? 
Ans.—Assuming that the conditions on 
the surface, at the outcropping of these 
seams, are equally favorable for locating 
the plant and for the loading and ship- 
ping of the coal, it would be generally 
preferable to drive the main-haulage 
slope in the thickest of these seams; 
namely, the Mammoth seam. This will 
give a good roof of solid coal while pro- 
viding all the headroom desired in the 
slope. It would also afford easy access 
to the largest supply of coal. The other 
seams would be reached by driving 
cross-tunnels from the Mammoth seam, 
at the different levels. An exhaust fan 
should be located at the mouth of an air- 
way driven in the middle or Skidmore 
seam. This main-return airway should 
be large enough to ventilate both the 
Buck Mountain and the Mammoth seams. 


BALANCE POINT OF TILTED CAR 


Ques.—If the tilting of a car through 
an angle of 40 deg. puts it into balance 
on the front wheels so that no force need 
be applied to hold it in place, how far 
is the center of gravity located above the 
plane of the axles when the wheel base 
measures 2 feet. 

Ans.—The accompanying figure shows 
a car tilted on the rails 40 deg. 
and the point marked C shown there- 
on is the arbitrarily chosen position 











BALANCING OF TILTED CAR 


that is to be found. A line is drawn 
joining the centers of the two axles B 
ind D and then from C a vertical is 
lropped to intersect B D in A. Join CB. 
While the car stood on both wheels 
n a level track, CA was perpen- 
licular to that track. Now CB is per- 
endicular to it or else the vertical line 
hrough the center of gravity must pass 
) the right or the left of the center of 
upport (which is, of course, the axle of 
‘e car and the wheel tread beneath it). 
‘tf it pass to the left, the car will fall 
ack on the track, for there will be a 
ravity moment to replace it. If it pass 
0 the right the car will fall forward, for 
iere will be a gravity moment to upset 
But the terms of the question de- 
lare that at 40 deg. uptilt the car bal- 
ances. Hence C B must be perpendicu- 











COAL AGE 


lar to the track when C is rightly located. 
As the car has tilted 40 deg., AC, the 
original vertical, must form an angle of 
40 deg., with C B the new vertical. A B, 
being half the wheel base, measures 1 
foot. 


AC = AB X cotangent 40 deg. = 
ix LW= Te oe me 


Thus the center of gravity of the car, 
when standing on the track, must be 
1 ft. 2'%4 in. above the plane of the axles. 

Example—-A car has its center of grav- 
ity situated 9 in. above the plane of its 
axles, and has an 18-in. wheel base. As- 
suming that the car is symmetrical, how 
many degrees must it be tilted to balance 
on its front wheels? 

Answer—45 degrees. 





mt eee 
a 


Glen Jean, W. Va., Ex- 


amination 
JANUARY 11-12, 1911 
FIREBOSS QUESTIONS 


Ques. 1—What are the qualifications 
and duties of a fireboss as required by 
law? What other qualifications should 
he possess which are not defined by law ? 
State fully. 

Ans. 1—The West Virginia mine law 
requires that a fireboss shall be a citizen 
of this State and have such knowledge 
of firedamp and other dangerous gases 
as to be able to detect the same with the 
use of safety lamps, and shall have a 
practical knowledge of the subject of the 
ventilation of mines and the machinery 
and appliances used for that purpose, 
and be a person with at least three years’ 
experience in mines yenerating explosive 
gases. 

In addition to the qualifications re- 
quired by the mine law, the “fireboss” 
should be sober, reliable and a man of 
good character. 





SAFETY LAMPS 


Ques. 2—(a) State in your own words 
the principle of safety embodied in the 
safety lamp. (b) How are safety lamps 
usually constructed? (c) Why are they 
usually made in a cylindrical form and 
within certain limits as to size and 
shape? (d) Under what conditions do 
they become unsafe? (e) What consti- 
tutes a good safety lamp? (f) Name six 
essential features of a good safety lamp 
for general work. (g) Are there any 
conditions under which the flame will 
pass through the gauze of a safety lamp ? 

Ans. (a) The safety lamp depends 
for its safety on the cooling effect of the 
metal gauze on the flame when an ignition 
of gas takes place within the lamp. 

(b) They are usually constructed with 
an airtight glass surrounding the flame, 
the gauze being above it, in the upper part 
of the lamp. Where the air supply to 
the burner is brought into the lamp below 
the flame, there is usually a gauze below 
the glass also. The bottom of the lamp is 





93 





usually the receptacle for oil, wick, ig- 
niters, etc. 

(c) They are made in cylindrical form 
so that when an ignition of gas takes 
place in the lamp, the wires are all equi- 
distant from the center or hottest part of 
the flame and all equally absorb, conduct 
and radiate the heat generated. It has been 
determined by experiment that if the diam- 
eter of the gauze is too great, the wires 
at the top of the gauze have more than 
their proportion of heat to dissipate, and 
for this reason a gauze cap is sometimes 
used, making, at the top, a double thick- 
ness of gauze. 

(d) A safety lamp becomes unsafe, 
when an ignition of gas takes place in 
the lamp, and when it is allowed to stay 
in a gaseous mixture until the wires 
of the gauze are heated up to such a 
degree that they will ignite the gas out- 
side the lamp, or, when the glass is 
broken, the gauze dirty, or the lamp un- 
locked or damaged in any way, or when 
a heavy current of air deflects the flame 
against the gauze. The safety lamp is 
also unsafe when it is placed in the hands 
of an ignorant, inexperienced, incompe- 
tent or uninstructed person. It should 
be constantly guarded against the possi- 
bility of breakage. 

(e and f) Six essential features of a 
good safety lamp for general work are: 

1. It must give good light and the 
glass should be of good quality and clear 
so as to make the utmost of the illumina- 
tion. 

2. It should contain oil enough to last 
a whole shift. 

3. It should go out in a gaseous mix- 
ture. 

4. The gauzes should be protected by 
a metallic shield. 

5. The lamp should be strongly con- 
structed. 

6. It should have a lock that cannot 
be tampered with and the lock should 
show when it has been meddled with. 
The size of the lamp should be such as 
to admit of its being placed as near the 
roof as possible. 

(g) The flame of a gas ignition will 
pass through the gauze of a safety lamp 
when the wires are sufficiently heated or 
when the lamp is placed in currents of 
high velocity. 


OuTBURST OF GAS 


Ques. 5—If a large outburst of gas 
took place in your mine when all your 
men were at work, what would be your 
first consideration to prevent an explo- 
sion? Explain fully. 

Ans. 5—All open lights should be ex- 
tinguished and the men gotten out as 
rapidly as possible, through the intake 
airway. No one should be allowed to 
travel the return airway. The fan should 
then be “speeded up” so as to increase 
the quantity of air circulating in the mine 
as much as possible without causing a 
breakdown or disabling the fan. 











Editorial Gomes from our own Representa same in Variouw 
Important Mining Centers,and a Record of Legislative and Other Action 
Affecting the Coal Industry 





Washington, D. C. 


The Court of Commerce has begun 
consideration of the Hillsdale coal-car dis- 
tribution case which has come up to it 
from the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, and already has had, on Oct. 11, an 
important hearing. In this case is in- 
volved the question of the distribution of 
cars to those coal companies which al- 
ready own private cars. 

The Pennsylvania railroad has had a 
rule that any company owning private 
cars should be given all its own cars 
available and that the number of these 
should be subtracted from the previously 
determined allotment to which the com- 
pany’s business entitled it. The Inter- 
state Commerce Commission not long ago 
established a rule that private cars should 
be considered as railroad property. Thus 
in some cases the private cars of a mine 
would be taken away from it and given to 
another mine. Hence arose opposition on 
the part of the Pennsylvania company 
and of various private-car owners. 

In the argument before the Court of 
Commerce it has been contended that the 
rule of the commission did not hurt the 
railroads and was intended to prevent 
discrimination as to the time and avail- 
ability of coal cars at the mines. The 
railroad lawyers have argued that the 
commission had no right to establish a 
condition under its rulings, whereby cars 
would be taken away from their owners 
at any time and turned over to other 
competing operators for their use in 
shipping coal. It is believed that the 
Court of Commerce will attempt to deal 
with this subject at an early date. 


REPORT FROM BUREAU OF CORPORATIONS 


The Bureau of Corporations has just 
issued its complete report on the first 
section of its investigation of the iron 
and steel industry in the United States. 
In the course of the discussion of the 
United States Steel Corporation and its 
subsidiary concerns, considerable atten- 
tion is paid to the question of coal hold- 
ings and coal values. 

The purchases of coal made by the 
corporation are carefully surveyed. Since 
its organization, some substantial addi- 
tions to its holdings of coal and coke 
property have been made. In December, 
1901, it secured a lease of 50,000 acres 
of desirable coking-coal and fuel-coal 
property in the Pocahontas region. 

Other important additions have been; 
the coal property of the Union Steel 


Company; 2650 acres in Fayette county, 


COAL AGE October 28, 1911 





Penn., taken over with the Clairton Steel 
Company in 1904; 1200 acres of coking 
coal in the Connellsville region and 1072 
beehive ovens originally belonging to the 
Hecla Coke Company; and 1766 acres 
variously acquired in the same region. 


CoAL HOLDINGS OF TENNESSEE COAL AND 
IRON CoMPANY 


In 1907 an enormous addition to the 
coal property of the corporation and an 
important addition to its coke property 
were made through the acquisition of the 
Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Com- 
pany. These properties are very exten- 
sive. The 1904 report of the company 
placed the total tonnage of coal at over 
1,600,000 tons. The 1906 report stated 
that the coal reserves were, aS com- 
puted by competent authorities, estimated 
to be 2,000,000,000 tons. 

More careful estimates were made sub- 
sequently by agents of the Steel Cor- 
poration. The estimates of these agents 
grouped the resources in three classes, 
namely, “proven,” “probable,” and “pos- 
sible.” Their estimate of the coal prop- 
erty of the company follows: 











mates its coal property at about S47,- 
000,000 more than does the Bureau of 
Corporations. 








Alabama 


Bessemer—Coal mines are again active 
throughout this district. Operators do not 
concede that there will be a falling off 
in production in Alabama this year. 

Birmingham—On account of the in- 
creased demand for coal and coke, the 
Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Com- 
pany has started up the No. 6 Blue Creek 
coal mine, which has been idle for the 
last year. 

The Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad 
Company has ordered from the General 
Electric Company eight motor-driven air 
compressors of the reciprocating type for 
its coke ovens at Corey. These will be 
used to raise and lower the coke-oven 
doors by remote control with compressed 
air. 








Colorado 


Denver—The sale of the Northern Coal 
and Coke Company to the Rocky Moun- 
tain Fuel Company, which has been pend- 








Probable | Possible | 














| Prove n Total 
ae c ons Tons Tons Tons 
Coking | ee eT ee 217,000,000 90,000,000 | 1. 50,500 ,000 457, 500 ,000 
Steam and domestic coal........... 68,000,000 3. 51800, 000 | 5 20,000, 000 | 939. 800 “000 
NOUNS ice ee sien are see Cree reraees 285,000, 000 i 441,800,000 670,500,000 1,397 300,000 











In 1909 and 1910 the Corporation ac- 
quired extensive coal properties in II- 
linois and Indiana. An exceptionally im- 
portant addition was made in June, 1911, 
through the purchase from the Pittsburgh 
Coal Company of about 7000 acres of 
coking-coal property, known as_ the 
Colonial Coke Company tract and also 
about 9000 acres of virgin or unimproved 
tracts of coal rights owned by the 
Monongahela River Consolidated Coal 
and Coke Company, the control of which 
is held by the Pittsburgh Coal Company. 
The total consideration was reported at 
approximately $17,800,000. 


VALUE OF THE STEEL CORPORATION’S 
CoAL PROPERTIES 


The value of the original investment in 
coal and coke properties is estimated by 
the Bureau of Corporations as $80,000,- 
000, although an estimate originating from 
a private source places it at $99,915,000. 
It is stated that the value of the coal 
lands has been materially increased by 
concentration of ownership. In conse- 
quence the Steel Corporation now esti- 


ing for some months, has been announced 
here. The consideration was close to 
$2,000,000. 

The sale included all the Northern Coal 
and Coke Company’s mines, both in 
northern Colorado and in the southern 
part of the State. 

As a result of the sale the Rocky 
Mountain Fuel Company will increase its 
stock to 58,000,000. 

The American Fuel Company, with a 
capital stock of $1,000,000, has been 
formed to control eight mines in the 
northern fiélds with more to be taken 
over in the near future. The eight mines 
already controlled are in the vicinity of 
Louisville, Lafayette and Frederick. 














Illinois 


Peoria—The five self-appointed direc- 
tors of the Wolschlag Co6perative Coal 
Company, who have for the past few 
months managed the affairs of the com- 
pany, were ousted from their offices by 
the ruling of Judge Puterbaugh, Oct. 13, 
and the regular directors were reinstated. 


























October 28, 1911 


Belleville—-Nearly all the operators in 
the St. Clair county field appeared before 
the board of assessors recently and 
claimed a reduction in assessments, on 
account of the past unprofitable year. 


Harrisburg—Eight miners were killed 
and eight others temporarily overcome by 
an explosion in O’Gara No. 9 mine, Oct. 
23. The dead and unconscious were re- 
moved from the mine by rescuers, three 
»f whom were overcome by gas, but were 
later resuscitated at a hospital. 

The explosion occurred as the shifts 
were changing, and only 16 men were in 
the north entry, where it originated, al- 
though 360 had reported for work, but 
had not gone into the workings. 

Two men were instantly killed, and 
six others, sent to the surface, died 
within an hour. 








Indiana 

Linton—The dullness of the coal mar- 
ket has caused the shutting down of 
Nos. 2, 4 and 21 of the Van- 
dalia Coal Company. There are nearly 
1000 men out of employment in _ the 
mines here. The strike at the Chicago 
and Indianapolis mine is still unsettied, 
the men having failed to arrive at a sat- 
isfactory agreement with the mine oper- 
ators. 

The Shirley Hill Coal Company is 
installing at its No. 3 mine a washer to 
ciean coal for the market just as eastern 
coal is cleaned. This is the first attempt 
of the kind in the Indiana coalfield and 
the experiment is being watched with 
much interest by the other operators. 

Brazil—Work on the new tipple at the 
Schrepferman Coal Company’s' mine 
south of this city has been completed and 
the mine will resume operation. 

M. H. Johnson, who was appointed re- 
ceiver for the Treager Coal Company, 
some time ago, has sold the mine and 
mining equipment to Oscar Schlatter and 
son. The new owners will begin opera- 
tions at once. 

A fire in the No. 8 mine of the Brazil 
Block Coal Company, Oct. 20, threatened 
the lives of 100 or more men. A rescue 
party, amounting to two cage loads, was 
organized and finally succeeded in ex- 
tinguishing the fire. One member of the 
party was killed by a fall of rock; this 
was the only fatality. 

Terre Haute—The Deep Vein Coal 
Company recently leased to the Deep 
Fourth Vein Coal Company the mine 
known as Deep Vein mine for a period 
of five years. The consideration speci- 
fied is 10c. a ton for all coal mined and 
the lessee agrees to mine not less than 
2000 tons of coal per day. 


_ North Dakota 


New Salem—tThe new machinery in the 
plant of the Dakota Coal Products Com- 
pany at this place has been installed and 
is now in working order. ‘ The building 


nines 








COAL AGE 





and the mine are lighted by electricity. 
the first electric-power coal-cutting ma- 
chine has been placed in use. 








Kentucky 


Louisville — The Consolidation Coal 
Company, of Baltimore, has under ad- 
visement the opening of two additional 
coal mines in the Miller’s Creek dis- 
trict at an approximate cost of $600,000. 


Barbourville—Two new coal mines are 
being opened on Brush creek. The Brush 
Creek Coal and Manufacturing Company 
is making an: opening near Jones’ trestle, 
on the Cumberland railroad. The incline is 
being graded and a siding put in. The 
Gibson-Carr Company, of Middlesboro, is 
putting in a plant on the Croley lease on 
Tye fork, and both companies expect to 
be shipping coal by the first of the year. 

The Interstate Coal Company still re- 
tains the Brush Creek coal plant, which it 
leased some months ago and closed 
down. 

The Greasy Creek Coal Company is 
opening a new mine on Greasy creek, 
near the Knox-Bell county line. A long 
extension track is being added to the 
Bell-Jellico railroad. The Continental 
Coal corporation is running all of its 
fourteen mines in Bell and is calling for 
more miners. 

The Martin’s Fork Coal Company has 
been organized recently in Bell county 
and will develop land heid by it near the 
town of Harlan. 








Ohio 


Columbus—The tipple, power house 
and other buildings of the Black Dia- 
mond Coal Company at Amesville are 
nearing completion and when _ finished 
will make one of the best equipped mines 
in the country. All buildings are of 
reinforced-concrete construction, and per- 
fectly fireproof. The management hopes 
to be mining coal by the first of Novem- 
ber. 

The Big Run Mining Company, of Bel- 
laire, has been incorporated with a cap- 
ital of $150,000 to mine and sell coal. 

As a result of the agitation against the 
wholesale stealing of coal from the cars 
of the Big Four railroad while passing 
through Columbus several changes have 
been made lately in routing coal. The 
Norfolk & Western is now turning its 
cars for local business over to the Big 
Four at Urbana while the Hocking Val- 
ley is switching at the Mound Street 
crossing. 








Pennsylvania 
BITUMINOUS 
Pittsburg—lIt is reported that a merger 
of the interests of the Pittsburg Coal Com- 
pany, Monongahela River Consolidated 
Coal and Coke Company, H.C. Frick Coke 
Company and the Ellsworth Collieries 
Company, owned by the Lackawanna 


Steel and Iron Company, is being ar- 






ranged, and that thése interests will be 
taken over by the United States Steel 
Corporation. 

Government representatives are at 
work in the Irwin coal-mining field, glean- 
ing information regarding the recent 
strike there which lasted 18 months and 
involved over 18,000 miners. They will 
make a report of their findings to Con- 
gress when it convenes in December and 
it is expected that some action will be 
taken by that body regarding the indus- 
trial struggle. 

Engineers of the H. C. Frick Coke 
Company have made preliminary surveys 
of the coal and coke properties in Wash- 
ington county. purchased recently from 
the Pittsburg Coal Company and the Mo- 
nongahela River Consolidated Coal and 
Coke Company, preparatory to building 
additional ovens. 

The Crucible Coai Company of Pitts- 
burg is erecting 250 coke ovens and con- 
templates building 350 ovens additional 
at its mines and docks at Rice’s Landing. 
A contract has also been awarded for 
the construction of three eliptical re- 
inforced-concrete shafts, each 150 ft. in 
depth, two coal shafts and one air shaft. 
There will also be two railroad and one 
river tipples, the structural steel for which 
will be furnished by the American Bridge 
Company. Five new tow boats and 90 
steel barges are in course of construc- 
tion, which will be utilized in transporting 
coal from the company’s mines, to Mid- 
land, Penn. 


ANTHRACITE 


Wilkes-Barre—Carelessness on the 
part of an employee is given as the cause 
of a fire in the No. 9 colliery of the Le- 
high & Wilkes-Barre Coal Company, at 
Sugar Notch, on Oct. 14, shortly after 
the men had left the mine. The fire was 
found within a short distance from the 
mule barn, and for a time it was feared 
that the blaze would develop into a ser- 
ious mine fire. 

Scranton—Work has been completed 
on the new concrete breaker of the Lack- 
awanna Coal Company, at Taylor, and 
the officials are making plans for its 
opening within a few months. 

The first meeting of the Pennsylvania 
State Anthracite Mine Cave Commission 
since its organization late last June, was 
held recently in Scranton. W. J. Rich- 
ards, of Pottsville, presided, and George 
M. Davies was secretary. 

The next meeting will be held the sec- 
ond week in November. It will be prob- 
ably several months before the commis- 
sion will have completed enough of its 
labors to interest the public, for much 
detail work must be done before any- 
thing definite as to remedial legislation 
can be formulated for the next legisla- 
ture. 


Pittston—The discovery of an expected 
cave-in on the tracks of the Delaware & 
Hudson railroad, saved a train from 





96 


plunging into a hole on the curve below 
the Cork Lane station. Officials of the 
Erie company had previously notified the 
Delaware & Hudson company that they 
were going to remove the pillars under 
the tracks and that a settling was inevit- 
able. 








Washington 

Seattle—There seems now some pros- 
pect that the valuable deposits of anthra- 
cite discovered some years since in the 
neighborhood of Glacier, in Whatcom 
county, may at last be utilized in this 
State, where such a coal is imperatively 
needed. It is believed that the forestry 
service will consent to patents being is- 
sued to half a dozen claims. If this is 
done, a tramway four miles long will be 
constructed from the mines to the Bel- 
lingham Bay and British Columbia rail- 
road at Glacier, and the coal can then 
be put upon the market. — 


There is apparently no doubt that 
the coal measures are large and un- 
broken. The coal itself is of good qual- 
ity. It is the only workable deposit of 


hard coal of the kind in the State so far 
discovered, and the coal is badly needed 
here, where even the local soft coals are 
constantly advancing in price, with pro- 
duction never fully equal to the demand. 








West Virginia 

Fairmont—Fifty four-room brick houses 
have recently been built at the Annabelle 
mine of the Four States Coal and Coke 
Company, near Worthington, W. Va., and 
now are ready for occupancy. This is 
one of the best drained, ventilated and 
equipped mines in the State. 

Grafton—The Maryland Coal Com- 
pany, with mines located at Windell, has 
been reorganized, and a new board of di- 
rectors and new officers have been elected. 


Canada 


Cape Breton, Nova Scotia—The Glace 
Bay mines of the Dominion Coal Com- 
pany have this summer had the best sea- 
son in their history. The company has 
now 12 collieries in full operation, and 
four in course of development. In the 
month of August the output was 387,927 
tons, about 16,000 tons in excess of any 
previous monthly production. For Sep- 
tember the output was 324,311 tons, mak- 
ing the total output for this year 2,973,- 
791 tons, compared with 2,607,591 tons 
at the end of September, 1910. 

The two years agreement which the 
Dominion Coal Company has with the 
Provincial Workmen’s Association expires 
at the end of this year. 

Alfred, Ontario—The mines depart- 
ment of the Canadian government has 
now about 1000 tons of peat fuel manu- 
factured at its demonstrating plant, which 
will he disposed of at $3.50 per ton. The 








experiments have shown that in order to 
manufacture this fuel on a commercial 


COAL AGE 


scale, hand excavators will have to be 
replaced by mechanical excavators. The 
present cost is abcut $2 per ton. 








PERSONALS 


S. K. Smith, formerly with the Vinton- 
dale Colliery Company,  Vintondale, 
Penn., has opened an office in St. Louis, 
Mo., as a mining and consulting en- 
gineer. 

Dr. C. W. Hayes, who last Saturday 
resigned as chief geologist of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, has left Washington 
for Tampico, Mex., to assume his new 
duties as first vice-president and general 
master of the exploitation department of 
the Compania Mexicana de Petroleo “El 
Aguila,” at a salary of $25,000 gold per 
annum. For two years he has been in 
charge of the exploratory werk of these 
oil interests, having taken leave without 
pay two months each year for this pur- 
pose. He, therefore, goes to his new 
work having a complete familiarity with 
the conditions under which oil produc- 
tions must be carried on in Mexico. 

In transmitting to Secretary Fisher the 
resignation of Doctor Hayes, Director 
George Otis Smith, of the Geological 
Survey, paid him high tribute, saying in 
part: 

“I deem it my duty to bring to your 
attention my estimate of the loss which 
the public service sustains. As his as- 
sociate for 15 years I know and ap- 
preciate the scientific attainment and the 
administrative thoroughness with which 
he has devoted himself to the Geological 
Survey, first as a field geologist, and later 
as its chief geologist, a contribution that 
has meant much in bringing the geologic 
work of the Survey up to its present high 
degree of efficiency. Doctor Hayes’ 
standard of the highest attainable ac- 
curacy and his policy of absolute fidelity 
to scientific truths, whatever the conse- 
quences, have won for himself the re- 
spect of his associates, and for the work 
under his charge the confidence of the 
public.” 








Obituary 


Eugene Nelson, for a number of years 
prominently identified with the coal trade 
of Boston and New England, died Oct. 
16, at his home in Malden, Mass. Mr. 
Nelson was vice-president and sales agent 
of the Metropolitan Coal Company of 
Boston. 

John R. Walsh, banker, publisher and 
railroad owner, died at his home in Chi- 
cago, Oct. 23. He was an important 
financial power in Chicago and the Mid- 
dle West until 1905, when speculations in 
Indiana coal lands and railroads brought 
abeut a collapse of all his interests end 
led to his subsequent sentence to the Fed- 
eral penitentary for misappropriating the 
funds of the bank of which he was at 
the head. 





October 28, 1911 


Recent Coal and Coke 
Patents 
UNITED STATES 


Mine-car stop; George W. Jenkins and 
Edward Lowry, of Nelsonville, Ohio. No. 
1,004,652. 

As shown in the sketch, Fig. 1, this de- 
vice consists of two cams, mounted on 
shafts which lie parallel to and just out- 
side of the rails. A spring tends to keep 
the cams in a vertical position where they 
act as car stops, ‘the inside face of the 
cam being curved to suit the car wheel. 




















Fic. 1. MINE-CAR STOP 


The cam shafts extend out into an ele- 
vator or cage way, and their projecting 
ends are given a right-angled bend. When 
the cage descends to a level with the 
landing, projections on it engage the 
bent-out portions of the cam shafts and 
throw the cams down toward a horizontal 
position, releasing the car. 

Rail and rail-tie plate; Harry E. 
Haight, Marshfield, Wis. No. 1,004,778. 

Signaling system for mines; Edgar M. 
Johnson, Hancock, Mich., assignor of 
one-half to Ross D. Blackburn, Hancock, 
Mich. No. 1,004,879. 

Axle lubricator; George C. Benjamin 
and John C. Benjamin, Barre, Vt. No. 
1,004,972. 

Tie and rail fastener; William G. Lu- 
cas, McKeesport, Penn. No. 1,005,050. 


GREAT BRITAIN 


An improved apparatus for quenching, 
screening and loading coke from byprod- 
uct coke ovens; J. Mackenzie, Middles- 
brough, England. No. 24,086 of 1910. 

Improvements in coal-washing machin- 
ery; A. Sheppard, Bridgend, Glamorgan, 
Wales. No. 29,307 of 1910. 








Trade Publications 


Jeffrey Manufacturing Company, Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, Catalog No. 26-A, Mine 
Fans, 6x9 in., 36 pp., contains numerous 
illustrations and_ engineering formulas. 

Roberts & Schaefer Company, Chi- 
cago, IIl., bulletin No. 24, Modern Coal 
Washing Plants, 6x9 in., 42 pp. A large 
number of coal-washing installations are 
described and illustrated. 


Ingersoll-Rand Company, New York, 
pamphlet 6x9 in., 12 pp., descriptive of 
class “N E-1” power-driven single-stage 
air compressors. 

Yarnall-Waring Company, Philadelphia, 
catalog 714x9™% in., 12 pp., descriptive 
of “Lea” water-flow recorders. 














October 28, 1911 


COAL AGE 








snare 


AB BALES 


Current Prices Coal and Coke and Market 
Conditions in the Important Centers 





General Review 


The condition of the coal market is 
slowly improving as the season advances, 
ind coal men generally appear to have 
optimistic views for the winter trade. The 
late season has no doubt seriously af- 
fected the market in most sections, but 
the tonnage reports of the large carriers 
are equal to or greater than those for the 
same period last year, which is encourag- 
ing. 

In the Eastern market, trade is reported 
good almost without exception. While 
there is little demand for spot coal, con- 
tract is moving well and strike talk may 
cause an unusually active market this 
winter. The Lake shipment from Buffalo 
has been far in excess of any previous 
season, and demands for anthracite are, 
i some instances, becoming urgent. 

Lake shipments in the middle East are 
about finished, and no improvement has 
appeared in the Pennsylvania market, es- 

‘pecially the coke trade, which is unusually 
heavy. The demand for Ohio and West 
Virginia coals is increasing, with a con- 
sequent steadying of prices, and the ton- 
nage report of the Chesapeake & Ohio 
railroad for August shows an increase of 
14 per cent. above that for the same pe- 
riod last year. 

The smallest car surplus, since Nov., 
1910, is reported at Chicago, and it is 
said some mines on the Illinois Central 
have been unable to get cars because of 
the strike on that line. Trade contin- 
ues unusually poor in Indiana, with ap- 
parently no hopes of improvement. 

In the Rocky Mountain States the mar- 
ket is reported normal or active. The 
strike situation on the Harriman lines re- 
mains unchanged, and there is a serious 
car shortage as a result of which many 
mines are behind with their orders. The 
mild weather on the Pacific coast has left 
conditions unchanged with the market 
rather dull. 











Boston, Mass. 


Tidewater prices on bituminous are up, 
so far as deliveries alongside and on cars 
are concerned, but the net figures at the 
mines do not yet show the hoped for im- 
provement. This is due to the volume of 
coal that is being applied on contracts, 
and to the continued shortage in water 
transportation. Current sales of cargoes 
are so few as to be negligible in amount, 
and the sharp advance in marine freights 
has not yet been made apparent to buyers 
less closely ia touch with the market. 





There is generally, however, a better 
tone than last week, and while the 
weather has been continuously rainy and 
mild, it is felt that we are now facing the 
seasonable demand that is always so wel- 
come to the wholesaler. Inquiry for in- 
land shipments is active and we shall 
soon be settling into a November market. 
With wise prophets pointing to the thick 
feathers on the birds, and salesmen mak- 
ing knowing remarks about strike pros- 
pects, it is fair enough to say that the 
fall season will be a good one, both in 
anthracite and bituminous. 

The demand for anthracite is getting to 
be urgent, and there is delay with almost 
all the shippers. Barges have been mov- 
ing very slowly along the coast, there 
having been just one day during the past 
week when there was any considerable 
tonnage arriving. With no longer any in- 
ducement in prices for anticipating their 
needs, many of the smaller dealers had 
postponed placing orders, with the result 
now that they are all insistent on prompt 
delivery. 

All-rail bituminous is looking up, and 
prices are slightly better for spot coal. A 
good tonnage is coming forward on con- 
tracts. Georges Creek is being held at 
$1.50 to $1.60 at the mines, with the bet- 
ter brands of Cambria county, South Fork 
district, selling at from 10c. to 25c. less. 

Pocahontas and New River have been 
advanced, on cars, Mystic wharf, Boston, 
and at other points in proportion, to $3.43 
and $3.53, more nearly the level at which 
the spring prices opened, but these fig- 
ures are really no better, from a coal 
standpoint, than were the prices of a 
fortnight ago, at 20c. less, that amount 
representing the recent advance in water 
freights. Coal, f.o.b. Hampton Roads, re- 
mains at or around $2.50, or $1.10 at-the 
mines, less the selling commission, not 
by any means a remunerative figure for 
some of the mines. 

Marine freights from the Virginia ports 
are now firm at 75c. to 80c., 2500 tons 
and upward, with very little tonnage of- 
fering. It rather looks as if there 
might be a still further advance, and if 
there is we are likely to see a more ac- 
tive bituminous market. 








New York 


Although there is no letup in the de- 
mand on contract, the standing tonnage 
at the New york piers is today somewhat 
above the amount of the normal supply, 
and the spot market shows some signs 








of weakness. As there has been no car 
shortage to restrict the output, and with 
the railroad movement prompt, coal is ar- 
riving here faster than most shippers are 
prepared to dump it. 

There is scarcely any new business 
coming into the market at this time, and 
the trade has to look to contracts for 
disposition of accumulations. Contract 
business is heavy enough to keep the 
better grades of steam coal moving ahead 
of demurrage, but inferior steam coals, 
which are not contracted to any extent, 
are not in so fortunate a position, and 
shippers of these grades are experiencing 
difficulty in avoiding detention penalties. 
At some of the piers where accumula- 
tions have been heaviest, those shippers 
who have brought down more coal than 
they could readily provide disposition for, 
have been embargoed. 

On the other hand, while the market 
is se weak for the lower grades of steam 
coal, it is noticed that some of the ship- 
pers of fancy grades of Pennsylvania 
steam coals are having all they can do 
to take care of the deliveries required 
of them on their contracts, and in some 
instances consumers buying of them 
have supplemented their supply by pur- 
chasing on the market. 

Prices, except for free coal on demur- 
rage, show little, if any, change from 
those ruling for the past two or three 
weeks, ranging from $2.35, f.o.b., for 
West Virginia steam coals; $2.55 for or- 
dinary Pennsylvanias; $2.65 fair-grade 
Pennsylvanias, and $2.75 to $2.85 for the 
better grades. 

All-rail business in the territory adja- 
cent to New York City is moving in good 
volume on contract, but as in the tide- 
water market, there is but little, if any, 
spot inquiry, owing, no doubt, to the fact 
that consumers are receiving from their 
regular suppliers all the coal needed for 
immediate use. 








Buffalo, N. Y. 


The demand for soft coal improves 
slowly from week to week and is now in 
a volume to be fairly satisfactory to the 
trade except for the low prices, which 
will hardly be likely to advance this fall 
unless there is a stir in iron, which is 
not looked for. Many iron manufactories 
are reporting a good run of trade, and 
this is enough to satisfy a very fair de- 
mand. 

The complaint of poor business in soft 
coal is almost entirely on account of the 





98 


small margin of profit to the jobber and 
still smaller profit to the operator. There 
is much building on the expectation that 
the stocking-up demand, against expected 
labor troubles next spring, will begin soon 
after the first of the year. This keeps 
all members of the trade eager to main- 
tain their present tonnage in order to be 
in close touch with the consumer the 
moment he begins to lay in a stock to 
hold till the labor difficulties are adjusted. 

The prices of bituminous continue 
rather weak at $2.50 for Pittsburg three- 
quarter, $2.40 for mine-run and S2 for 
slack, with Allegheny Valley 15 to 25c. 
lower. There is no improvement in coke, 
which is quotable at former prices, $4.25 
for best Connellsville foundry, down to 
$3.50 for stock coke. 

The anthracite circular prices remain 
without change, but such is the natural 
demand for chestnut in excess of pro- 
duction that independent mine owners are 
already sending out notices that they ex- 
pect to ask a premium for that size in 
a short time. At present the shortage 
is almost entirely in the stove size, with 
egg verv plenty. 

The Buffalo city market for soft coal 
helds up well, and there is a steady im- 
provement in the demand for hard coal, 
though the activity of the natural-gas 
companies is cutting in on the anthracite 
trade, especially in the residence dis- 
tricts, where the extension of gas mains 
is going on at a rapid rate. 

The heavy movement of hard coal by 
lake continues. With about 300,000 tons 
in excess of any former season to date 
shipped, the average loading is still more 
than 100,000 tons a week, which will con- 
tinue till either the lake season closes 
or room on the upper-lake docks is ex- 
hausted. There is considerable delay in 
unloading coal at most of the docks on 
Lakes Michigan and Superior, but it is 
much more serious in the soft-coal trade 
than with hard coal as yet. 

The movement of soft coal from the 
mines, which was somewhat interrupted 
by freshets, has been resumed fully. As 
a rule the filling of orders is much more 
prompt than it used to be, for which 
reason the consumer is carrying only a 
light supply as a rule, confident that he 
is in close enough touch with the mines 
to make this course quite safe. 








Philadelphia 

There has been practically no change 
in the retail situation since our last re- 
view. All the dealers report good busi- 
ness for the various sizes of coal. Stove 
is getting to be quite scarce, and dealers’ 
orders are not filled as promptly as they 
would like. The past week, while not at 
all cold, at the same time has been 
damp and gloomy, and a small fire in the 
furnace has been necessary to keep the 
house in a good, dry condition. Taking it 
all in all, the anthracite trade is good. 


COAL AGE 


In the wholesalers, the same cptimistic 
spirit still prevails. All sizes of coal are 
moving off promptly, and the companies 
report large increases over their tonnage 
for the corresponding period of last year. 
Chestnut coal is moving in such large 
quantities that if the demand keeps up, 
stocks will soon be depleted, and the in- 
dividuals will be asking a premium for 
their product. Prices, egg and stove, $3.75 
at the mines; chestnut, $4; pea, $2; buck- 
wheat, $1.50; rice, 90c. This last size 
is going to be very ‘scarce this winter, 
from the present outlook, and it is under- 
stood that the companies are very chary 
about making any new obligations. 

There is a slight improvement in bi- 
tuminous circles, particularly with certain 
coals. It is understood that some coal 
was on demurrage at this point, and quite 
a sacrifice had to be made to move it 
off. However, this may be only an in- 


idividual case, as most of the bituminous 


operators insist on having their orders 
in hand before shipping the coal down 
to tidewater, rather than taking a chance 
on placing the coal in the open market. 








Pittsburg 


Bituminous — Manufacturing demand 
for coal has shown no improvement, al- 
though at this season there is usually a 
slight increase in the movement, for the 
purpose of increasing stocks. Industrial 
conditions in this district are hardly as 
good as they were a month or two months 
ago. The domestic trade has also been 
slack, dealers buying with a great deal of 
reserve. 

Lake shipments have been greatly cur- 
tailed. Instead of the spurt toward the 
close of the season, which has long been 
expected, the season is closing unusually 
early. Less difficulty in securing vessel 
room is being encountered than was ex- 
pected, as the iron-ore movement is hold- 
ing out quite well. Prices continue ir- 
regular, and the regular season prices are 
being uniformly shaded, sometimes to an 
extreme degree. Slack has not shown the 
strength which usually occurs at this time, 








October 28, 1911 


Connellsville Coke—Purchases of odd 
lots of prompt furnace coke continue ar 
the unchanged price of $1.50, which has 
represented the market for several weeks. 
The total turnover in the past fortnight ir 
prompt furnace coke has been somewhat 
in excess of 5000 tons. Nothing has been 
done in contract coke, there being very 
little uncovered consumption for the bal- 
ance of the year, and this being com. 
mitted to purchases of prompt coke from 
time to time. The matter of contracts 
for the first half or all of next year has 
not been taken up yet. Furnaces are in 
no mood to buy, and producers are in 
ne hurry to sell. They realize that it is 
practically impossible to secure any great 
advance over the present spot market, 
and some of them also appreciate that a 
continuance of anything like present 
prices will mean financial embarrassment 
te some of the operators. It is impos- 
sible to exist on $1.60 1.65 coke if the 
coal acreage is carried at the prices 
which some operations have paid, and in 
many cases a large proportion of the 
acreage price paid is carried in bonds. 
The situation has been growing serious 
and the outcome is not easy to foresee. 
There is no influence apparent to put up 
the price and there is no contract price 
quotable. Operators would like to ob- 
tain about $1.75 for first half, but buy- 
ers will not close in the near future at 
such a price. Foundry coke has been 
quiet, and remains quotable at $1.80@ 
1.90 for prompt and $2@2.25 for con- 
tract. 

The Courier reports production in the 
Connellsville and Lower Connellsville re- 
gion in the week ending Oct. 14 at 
310,205 tons, a decrease of 4000 tons, and 
shipments to Pittsburg, at 3728 cars, 
4690 cars to points west, and 1059 cars to 
points east, a total of 9477 cars, which 
is a decrease of 150 cars. 








Columbus, Ohio 


The lower temperature which prevailed 
during the past few days had the effect of 
making the domestic trade in Ohio more 











Anthracite coal, short tons 
Bituminous coal, short tons....... 
RSE URONS MAIER. 6% oo! cure aes ene 





January 1 to 
September } Increase or |September 30.) Increase or 
1911 Decrease 1911 Decrease 
839,754 » 35,540 8,489,450 450,173 
3,629,042 101,838 30,504,343 183,350 
918,294 13,671 7,880,607 2,311,406 
5,387,090 123,707 46,874,400 1,677,883 




















owing to decreased production through 
the curtailment in shipments of 34-in. 
in the lake trade. We quote ordinary 
market prices, which are below the nomi- 
nal figures, but are sometimes shaded 
further: Nut, $1@ 1.05; mine-run, $1.05 


@1103; 34-in., $1.15@1.20; 1%4-in., $1.25 
@ 1.30; slack, 40@50c. per ton at mine, 
Pittsburg district. 


active and brought the market out of the 
slough into which it was forced several 
weeks ago by the continued warm 
weather. As a result orders from deal- 
ers are better and the general tone of 
the market has improved. 

The lake trade is continuing active and 
the records compare very favorably with 
those of the corresponding period in 1910. 











vighiei ays s 








Seana iay Sip 
ie 


October 28, 1911 


the upper lake ports but not sufficient to 
seriously affect the trade in this State. 
Up to the present time the New Pittsburg 
Coal Company has about equaled its lake 
record of last year, when about 560,000 
tons were shipped, and the Sunday Creek 
Company, is moving slightly more than 
last year. The Hocking Valley docks at 
Toledo have loaded 2,058,000 tons since 
the opening of navigation. 

The steam business continues steady 
but there is nothing to indicate an im- 
provement. Many factories are taking 
only a small amount of fuel and there 
is no disposition to stock up for the fu- 
ture. The demands for railroad fuel are 
not very great as the freight movement 
is comparatively light at this time. 

Operations in the various Ohio fields 
have been fairly active during the past 
week, the production being about 80 per 
cent. of the average. In the strictly do- 
mestic fields, considerable activity pre- 
vails, and in the fields supplying lake coal 
there is a good production. 

Retail trade is a little better with prices 
ranging from $3.25 to $3.50. The heavy 
rains of the past few days have made it 
difficult to make deliveries and there is a 
disposition on the part of the large users 
to wait until later to place their orders. 








Chicago 


Chicago coal dealers predict a severe 
cut in car service. The current report of 
the American Railway Association shows 
that the total car surplus amounts to 48,- 
854 cars. This is the smallest surplus re- 
ported since November 23, 1910. During 
the two weeks ending Oct. 2 the tota! 
car surplus decreased 9528 cars. 

The Illinois Central strike situation is 
still an important factor in the coal trade. 
Despite statements issued by the com- 
pany to the effect that business is being 
handled in the usual way, coal dealers 
declare that they are not getting the same 
service that was furnished prior to the 
strike. It has been learned that some 
mines located on the lines of the Illinois 
Central have been unable to move any 
coal. Before the strike was called Spring- 
field coal was quoted at $1.25 in Chicago 
and $1.40 in the country. The minimum 
now is $1.40 with a tendency to add 10c. 
aton. As a result of the strike the mar- 
ket has been so strengthened that the 
country and city prices have reached a 
parity on the higher level. 

Prices direct from the mines in net 
tons to retail dealers and steam users on 
spot shipments are as follows: 


Clinton: Chicago F.0.b. Mines 
Domestic lump.... $2.17@2.27 $1.40@1.50 


Steam lump...... 2.00@2.10 1.25@1.35 
Mine-run........- 1.77@1.82 1.00@1.05 
Screenings........ 1.22@1.32 0.45@0.55 
Pocahontas and New 
River: 
Mine-run......... $3.00@3.05 $0.95@1.00 
Lump and egg.... 4.05@4.30 00@2.25 








There is some congestion at the docks of 








COAL AGE 


Spr*ngfield: 


Domestic lump... . $2.22 $1.40 
Steam Jump...... 1.92@2.02 1.10@1.20 
MANG-TUD . 066 550 1.82@1.87 1.00@1.05 
Screenings........ 1.22@1.32 0.40@0.50 


Sullivan County: 


ete lump.... $2. 662-4 acini: 3h 
-40 


1 Ae pre 2.25 
Steam lump...... 2.10 1.25 
Screenings........ 1.22@1.32 0.35@0.45 
Coke: 
Connellsville . $4.50@4.65 
Wise county...... 4.50@4.65 
By _. egg and 
nL Cee 4.95 
By eh SA nut. 4.55@4.65 
Gas house........ 4.95 








Cincinnati, Ohio 


The coal situation here is improving. 
The coal men are picking up orders in 
larger volume than heretofore, and the 
indications are that, while slow, there is 
a general bettering of conditions. The 
most backward are the fine coals for 
steam purposes, while the best is in do- 
mestic lump, which has revived consid- 
erably. This, despite the fact that there 
has not been the cold weather that is 
usual at this time of the year. 

The only authoritative change in prices 
recently has been the circular drop in 
Pocahontas lump from $2 and $2.10 to 
$1.90 and $2. It is said by some who 
were opposed to this change in prices that 
it was unwarranted by existing conditons, 
excepting internal matters which have 
come to the surface in spots. In con- 
nection with this, it may be said that an 
official announcement concerning Poca- 
hontas matters of wide importance, would 
not be surprising within a few days. 
About Nov. 1 is the date now set, al- 
though it may not become effective until 
the new year. 








Charleston, W. Va. 


There is some feeling of activity in the 
coal trade over that of last week, due to 
the increase in demand for winter ship- 
ments. This increase is general—the east 
and west sharing almost equally. Prices, 
too, it is claimed, have received a slight 
boost, but as usual it is almost impossible 
to ascertain just what the prices are, since 
there is little attempt at uniformity along 
that line. 








Indianapolis, Ind. 


The present condition of the coal- 
mining business of Indiana is best illus- 
trated by the thousands of empty flat cars 
on side tracks in the mining districts. As 
a rule at this season of the year, there 
is always a fight for empties and charges 
of partiality and discrimination freely 
made. Every side track of the coal- 
carrying railroads has its capacity taxed 
by empty coal cars, while during pre- 
vious years the miners have worked 
nearly steadily during this month. 

Viewing the field over, there has been 
little in the way of diversity in Indiana to 





99 








Stimulate the coal trade during the past 
week. The operators, however, are op- 
timisitic and maintain the prices at the 
mine in the face of a small demand. 
There is apparently no foundation for re- 
port that the operators are restricting the 
output for the purpose of controlling 
prices. Compared with prices at this 
period last year, it is claimed that present 
ones are a shade lower for all grades of 
coal. With sufficient cars the operators 
could overship the market, but they nat- 
urally have no wish to do so as they are 
confident there will be a revival of busi- , 
ness generally after the first of the year. 


St. Louis, Mo. 


The higher-grade coals from the Stand- 
ard field are bringing from $1.75 to $2.25, 
with the demand slightly increased over 
that of last week. The middle-grade coals 
from the standard field, such as Mt. Olive 
and Staunton, are bringing from $1.15 to 
$1.35 at the mines, for domestic lump and 
other sizes are bringing what the market 
will pay. 








Ee Is (at S98 RCo ea tees $1.05@$1.15 
Si NEN PRIN 6, oo 6 6 orercerace hu oa oeenae 0.95@ 1.00 
aera MUNG Eo: a4. 6 0 a: caererasaeenl wea ane tg 0.95 
REI odo: oho de ila's decloiar occas 0.7 

WONGRIIINS So chic nc wckede ween ease 0. 5@ 0.30 


There is very little Springfield coal 
coming in, and some from Saline county. 

The Carterville prices are as follows, 
f.o.b. the mines: 


Gin. lim... ode. oe ces ov SEAORELS 
TC Oa age a A a cet) 1.40@ 1.50 
MR TIRE goo ide as wee elewe wns 1.15@ 1.25 
IIE NNR sd i's oan a esd ale eel ails 1.02@ 1.15 
NNR NI oo ia cerca ca eater ae 1.00@ 1.10 
UE Fong: col ocsicw aaa oscars bra 0.35@ 0.45 


Franklin county coal is selling at the 
following prices: 








Cis NR eos ois ce cc cvens + GSEs 

DUMGGMN Sc cee nrg edacaeads 1.55@ 1.65 

Wee ON iiic 8 users ho tae wowns 1.35@ 1.45 

10 GET Serene ae 1.15@ 1.20 

MENON So Go etn id Maaco aes 1.10 

PONGGM IIE 4 66.56 wos ween eceaces 0.50 
Colorado 


The lump and nut grades advanced 25c. 
per ton, Oct. 1. The increase has not 
tended to lessen the volume of trade, as 
it is evident current shipments are being 
sold from the cars and not placed in 
stock. The quantity of storage coal in the 
territory is comparatively light, and espe- 
cially in the southern portion is this fea- 
ture most pronounced. A high percentage 
of the orders for early delivery are trace- 
able to this district. 

The car situation shows no improve- 
ment. Available cars are barely adequate 
to fill orders placed by the mines work- 
ing on the present basis. Some delay 
has been reported chargeable directly to 
car shortage, but of trivial consequence. 

Steam orders show a slight gain over the 
previous week, due generally to the sea- 
son’s advance. However, renewed activity 
in railroad and industrial traffic is obvious. 
The sugar-beet plants are now operating 
and a good many alfalfa mills have al- 





100 


ready opened this year’s campaign, which 
wili provide a market for considerable 
steam coal. 

No change is perceptible in the coke 
demand, which is considered normal at 
this time with prices firm. 


Salt Lake City, Utah 


There is no relief promised from any 
source except the weather man, and he 
has been doing very well for us the past 
few weeks. The mines are still operating 
on reduced time, due to a shortage of 
cars. On Oct. 18, but one mine in the 
state operated, and that only half a day. 
Cold weather in Idaho and Montana has 
increased the demand on Wyoming mines, 
and they are about 30 days behind orders. 
This means that Utah will get but little 
coal from that source. 

Local retail trade is consistent with the 
weather. Stocks are diminishing gradually 
and a cold snap would be serious. Lump 
ceal at the Utah mines is $2.40, nut $2.15 
and slack $1.25. Wyoming lump costs 
$2.50, nut $2.25 and slack $1, f.0.b. mines. 
There are rumors of an advance both 
wholesale and retail, but nothing defin- 
ite has developed. 














New Mexico 


The New Mexico mines show but little 
change in the volume of business over 
previous week. A slight depression in 
railroad orders is observed, which is 
counterbalanced by an increased require- 
ment of commercial coal. Western New 
Mexico is operating full time with an oc- 
casional delay, due to short car supply. 
The prices in this district advanced 25c. 
per ton, Oct. 1, and remain firm with a 
constant demand. 


Portland, Ore. 








This week brought almost sum- 
mer skies and summer — sunshine; 
hence the consumers are not giv- 


ing serious thought to the fuel problem 
as yet. Prices remain the same as last 
week and there is no indication of an 
immediate change. Only a severe and 
long cold spell will have the effect of 
driving values high this winter, for much 
fuel has been put in during the summer. 
No new cargoes have been reported as 
listed for this port at Australia, the num- 
ber of vessels on the board reported as 
heading for this port being only three or 
four. 

Following are the prices asked here, 
per ton, including cost of-delivery to 
points within the city proper: 


ce cccccccce $7.50 


Tapanese 


Washington lignite... $7.00@ 7.50 
DAIBETRONOR 66646 sen woe 10.00@10.50 
Rock Springs, Wyo 10.00@10.50 nut $9.50 
TMiamond, Wyo....... 10.00 
Carbon Hill, Wash., 

LS ae ere 10.50 
Carbon Hill, steam... 7.50 
Newcastle, Wash..... 


Seaver -Hill, Ore..... 
Blacksmith coal 


eevee 


COAL AGE 


San Francisco 


The arrivals of coal for the past week 
by water are as follows: 


British Columbia 
Newport News (fer U. 8. 

Total 

Market conditions have not changed 
during the past week, and _ continued 
warm weather, the warmest of the year, 
has caused a decrease in domestic con- 
sumption. Retail dealers, taking advan- 
tage of the fair weather, are stocking up 
for their winter supply. 

The effect of the railroad strike of 
shopmen is, as yet, scarcely felt in the 
coal market. Coal, being an imperish- 
able article, would be one of the first com- 
modities to be sidetracked in case of lack 
of motive power or other equipment, but 
up to time of writing it seems to be com- 
ing through on regular time. 

Prices for the week remain unchanged, 
and are as follows, per short ton: 


EY Se ee 1850 tons 
. 5768 tons 


7618 tons 





O + 6-6 06; 6.8:'0 0 0D 08 67886 e 8 O88 e 


Wellington—clean .........-......--- $8.00 
Wellington—average ..........-+-.--- 7.50 
Meaegtralian—-CllAN oocsccciesic vs ciesccees 8.00 
Australian—average ........+.-eeeeee- 7.50 
PN —eMPIND i corso 6 wae eis RH oo 6.50 
RNR AIBN: 5 ays .gseis 4 ois 4 orks Cee ao 5.00 


Utah, Wyoming and New Mexico—clean 





October 28, 1911 


The inquiry for steam coals remained 
quiet, and with supplies of both large 
and small still in excess of requirements, 
prices tend to further easiness. A com- 
parison of exports for 1910 and 1911 
shows but little change. Quotations are 
approximately as follows: 


Best Welsh steam coal...........000.% $4.02 
PIININ © 605) erquinl scae eralavene 4-6/e: Raia Rare eters 3.72 
NRE MAM S's S6so. Gh Oo vraa Ware teehenetal Soke ede 8eslste 3.66 
RN MA ines io raion oa Roxas) ow wignao-oalanes 4.08 
SORE UOPTIOUUHENITO: oy. ose 5.0 0S cose ws 3.72 
WN NNNN i502 515.a)-4: oh scik eaves nici o wier eee a ae 3.60 
Best Cardiff small steam coal......... 2.10 
RES AAS RR eS de ee Ee ge eae e 1.86 


The above prices for Cardiff coals are 
all f.o.b. Cardiff, Penarth or Barry, while 
those for Monmouthshire descriptions are 
f.o.b. Newport, both exclusive of wharf- 
age, and for cash in 30 days, less 2% 
per cent. 

For prompt loading admiralty steams 
fully maintain their position, while the 
cheaper classes of large, in view of a 
better inland demand, are now firmer. 
Smalls of all classes are, however, ex- 
ceptionally weak. 

For forward delivery business is dif- 
ficult to arrange in view of the possibility 
of further labor troubles. 




















(for domestie use only)............ 8.15 Total exports of coal from Great Brit- 
Pennsylvania anthracite ............. 15.00 ain for September with comparative state- 
SN hc | ta a See tee er rere” 13.50 t i Sentai | 
Colorado and New Mexico anthracite... 12.50 Ment wi eptember of last year was 
Cumberland—smithing ............... 12.50 as follows: 

SEPTEMBER First 9 MontTHs 
1910 1911 1910 1911 
lek CAIRN 6.5 oss ns cos cases 215,595 217,319 1,812,352 1,762,204 
MUstRNISUONTR So. bc oe kee conc enGee 4,096,835 4,289,349 33,831,913 34,735,081 
og ss Gael ee 1,012,224 918,305 7,714,341 7,743,871 
eG nN Eero 157,690 124,479 1,118,538 1/098'581 
GEN IEE BOEES 33665 5 5 se ees Oe a eee 228,762 238,198 2,050,733 2,278,953 
Mptals'...:.%<;- eee ee arn nee 5,711,106 5,787,650 46,524,877 47,618,690 
Total of coke exported.............. 87,409 94,403 658,378 711,697 
Total patent fuel exported.......... 101,402 118,799 1,139,144 1,236,582 
Total coal, coke and patent fuel... 5,899,917 6,000,852 48,322,399 49,566,969 
Coal, bunker, for foreign trade........ 1,789,126 1,681,507 14,528,745 14,346,947 




















British Coal Market 


There are many causes which made the 
condition of the British coal industry 
rather a disturbed one. There is a short- 
age of railway equipment, an inadequate 
supply of shipping tonnage available, the 
labor outlook is uncertain and there is 
still a sudden and sharp demand for 
house coals. The last feature of the 
market is growing less as the public 
needs are supplied, but manufacturers 
and industrial concerns are still stocking 
against emergencies. 

On the whole the markets are much 
firmer, the output big and future prices 
are considerably enhanced as compared 
with the prices ruling a year ago; there 
is an advance of about 48c. per ton all 
around. Patent fuel and coke trades are 
practically stationary, as they have been 
for some time past, while pitwood is very 
irregular. 


German Coal Trade 


Coal production of the German Empire 
for the eight months ended Aug. 31, is 
reported as follows, in metric tons: 





1910 1911 Changes 

Coal ......... see. 99,719,729 106,176,645 +6,456,916 
Brown coal...... 43,948,178 46,897,544 +2,949,366 
Total mining.. 143,667,907 153,074,189 -+9,406,282 
Coke tradé....... 15,373,605 16,631,800 +1,258,195 
Briquets trade... 12,593,688 14,044,936 +1,451,248 


Of the briquets reported this year 10,- 
760,172 tons were made from brown coal 
er lignite. 

The foreign coal trade of Germany for 
the eight months ended Aug. 31 is re- 
ported as below, in metric tons: 





Exports Imports Excess 
Coal........+++- 17,340,092 6,981,230 Exp. 10,358,862 
Brown coal.... 38,478 4,544,188 Imp. 4,505,710 
MPO ickawsincene 2,965,933 402,626 Exp. 2,563,307 

TOCAR secs 21,942,389 12,068,744 Exp. 9,873,645 


The exports this year included 8161 
tons of coke to the United States.