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Vol. 1 





NEW YORK, JANUARY 6, 1912 





No. 13. 





One mine manager recently took exception to 
a statement we made that coal mines throughout the 
country were operating at “such and such’”’ per cent. 
of their capacity. Because a local boom had struck 
his camp, he thought equally favorable conditions pre- 
vailed everywhere. 


So it is with many people—they think only as far 
as they can see, and since each one’s horizon is the 
limit of his vision, the conclusions arrived at by an 
individual are often wrong because they’re based en- 
tirely on a local view. For this reason, it is neces- 
sary to consult figures rather than the man when we 
are wanting to know the nation-wide condition of an 
industry. 


There’s no denying that every other person we 
meet today is complaining of slack business—sort of a 
depression, etc. Yet, one thousand industrial com- 
panies in 1911 paid $410,000,000 in dividends, which 
is $30,000,000 more than was paid in 1910 and $90,000,- 
ooo more than was paid in 1909. If that doesn’t in- 
dicate a healthy growth, then we’re justified in the 
belief that prosperity is indicated by reduced net 
income. 


And how can we dispute that coal mining has re- 
ceived its fair proportion of the business advance of 
the age? In 1825 the United States produced 100,000 
tons of coal; in 1850 it was seven million; in 1875 we 
mined 50 million ;in 1900 the production was 270 million, 
and in 1911, the coal output of our country totaled ap- 
proximately 500 million tons, or about 40% of the 
world’s production. 


If prices are low and general conditions unsatis- 
factory, let’s not blame business, but more properly 
recognize that the trouble is within rather than with- 
out. An external application of salve on the stom- 
ach won’t cure pimples on the nose; it’s necessary to 
swallow something that will reach the spot, cure the 
indigestion and purify the blood. 


We've heard for years that our summers are get- 
ting hotter and: our winters milder, but the mercury 
makes a new low record for some particular day each 





year; most every fortnight someone discovers that elec- 
tricity will furnish all needed heat as well as power, 
but he forgets to tell us how he’s going to gener- 
ate electricity without burning coal; then we are dis- 
turbed by the fellow who has a scheme to pierce the 
depths of the earth and furnish us heat; still consump- 
tion increases, and it’s safe to conclude our children’s 
children will be using more coal in their. homes and 
factories than we ever dreamed could be mined. 


Therefore, viewing the industry in the light of fact, 
what is there to be discouraged about? ’Tis true wages 
have steadily increased and the cost of timber and 
other materials essential. to mining has likewise ad- 
vanced to new high prices, but similar conditions have 
prevailed at the same time in other great businesses, 
and still profits in the aggregate have grown each 
year. The rule of success today is, ‘‘For each added 
charge, there must be an added improvement,” so if 
props cost 2c. more per ton of coal output, the cutting 
machines at the face, the haulage, the hoist, or some- 
thing must be operated to effect an offsetting economy. 


One operator recently showed me a cost sheet 
which read: Total mining, 0.4612; other costs, 0.0401; 
royalty, 0.05; handling, putting on cars, etc., 0.053; 
total cost per ton, 0.6043c., and it’s needless to say he 
wasn’t a pessimist on the situation. His philosophy 
was, that the chief advantage to be derived from the 
application of advanced methods and the adoption 
of improved machinery is not so much the immediate 
bettering of output and lowering of costs, as to 
place and keep your mine in position to profit in full 
when the periodic boom arrives. , 


Don’t forget that in 1904 the wail of coal men 
was, ‘‘How can we remedy this overproduction?” in 
1905 and1g06 the plaint had changed to, ‘‘Where can 
we get cars and men?” The pendulum is still swing- 
ing—a new year and likely a new era have dawned. 
People. won’t wear white diamonds on their bosoms 
till they’ve plenty of black ones in the cellar. Unless 
aman is ready for the chance, the opportunity will 
do him no good. 








398 


COAL AGE 


January 6, 1912 


The World’s Coal Production 


A bluebook on colonial and foreign 
statistics, prepared by the British chief 
inspector of mines, and issued by the 
Home Office Department, supplies what 
are perhaps the most complete statistics 
in one volume, relating to persons em- 
ployed, output and accidents at mines 
and quarries throughout the world. The 
volume was issued in September and 
gives the statistics for 1909, but owing 
to the want of adequate official data the 
figures in some cases have merely been 
estimated from the records of earlier 
years; those for the leading coal-mining 
nations are, however, fairly complete. 


PRODUCTION 


It is seen that at the mines and quar- 
ries of the world, 6,004,928 persons were 
employed, and of these the inspector 
shows that more than one-half were en- 
gaged in mining coal alone. Great 
Britain employed over 997,000; the 
United States, 660,000; Germany, 688,- 
000; France, 190,000; Russia (1908), 
174,000; Belgium, 143,000; Austria, 
134,000, and India, over 119,000. 

These are impressive figures, and we 
further learn that the coal produced was 
1,113,308,386 metric tons, possessing a 
value estimated at nearly 400 million 
pounds sterling, or, say, two billion dol- 
lars. These figures show an increase in 
production for the year of 45 million 
tons but a decrease in value of 46 
million dollars. The three leading 
coal-producing countries are the United 
States, with over 418 million tons; 
Great Britain, with over 268 mil- 
lion, and Germany, with over 217 million. 
These countries are followed by Austria- 
Hungary, France, Russia and Belgium, 
in the order given, representing the seven 
nations having a production of 20 million 
metric tons or more. Japan comes next 
on the list with 15,058,113 tons; India, 
with 12,060,550 tons; China, with 11 
million tons, and Canada, with 9,526,784 
tons. 

MORTALITY STATISTICS 


Taking the coal mines for which the 
figures are fairly complete, it is shown 
that the death rate per thousand persons 
employed in the United Kingdom was 
1.43; the British Empire, 1.48; Austria, 
1.13; Belgium, 0.95; France, 1.17; Japan, 
3.51; Germany, 2.30, and for the United 
States, 3.35. The death rate for coun- 
tries outside the British Empire general- 
ly was 2.48. 


COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA 


The Commonwealth produced 8% 
million metric ‘tons of coal in 1909, 
nearly 86 per cent. of which was fur- 
nished by New South Wales. In this 


state, excluding lignite and seams of 
the Triassic age, it is computed that the 


Special Correspondence 











A brief synopsis of the 
latest available statistics 
concerning the world’s pro- 
duction, together with notes 
on the different fields. The 
total extraction is over one 
billion metric tons, having 
a value above two billion 
dollars. More than six mill- 
ton persons are employed. 




















*Abstract of report issued by the Brit- 
ish Home Ofhce Department. 
main coal-bearing rocks extend over an 
area of 24,000 to 28,000 square miles 
around the seaport of Sydney. 

As yet, Tasmania supplies less than 
70,000 tons per annum, although there 
are abundant seams of marketable coal 
in the country. These belong to the 
Carboniferous and Mesozoic periods, and 
vary from 20 in. to 12 ft. in thickness, 
while brown coal and lignite occur all 
along the North Coast. 

The state of Victoria contributed 130,- 
230 tons. Since November, 1909, this 
state has owned its own coal mine on the 
Powlett River, the output of which to 
Sept. 7, 1910, was 93,431 tons, valued 
at the mine at $203,883. At that date 
coal was being raised at the rate of over 
1000 tons per day and over 900 men 
were employed in the mine and on the 
various development works. 

The following figures show the main 
sources from which the fuel supply of 
the world for 1909 was obtained, with 
the value in pounds sterling and the 
increases or decreases on 1906: 


belongs to the Cretaceous age, and is 
derived from collieries at Nanaimo, Ex- 
tension, and Comox in Vancouver Island. 
The thick seams of bituminous coal, 
which exist in the vicinity of the Crow’s 
Nest Pass, are now being worked on an 
extensive scale, and a large quantity of 
the coal mined is converted into coke 
for use in the smelting industry in 
British Columbia. All these coals are of 
Cretaceous age. 


NATAL 


In this colony in 1909 about 9000 
persons were engaged, the coal pro- 
duced being 1,815,253 metric tons, valued 
at $3,229,400. There were 25 electrical 
coal-cutters and 97 worked by com- 
pressed air in operation, nearly 62 per 
cent. of the coal being obtained by ma- 
chine-mining—perhaps the highest per- 
centage for any single country in the 
world. 

New ZEALAND 


The output here was 1,941,918 tons, 
valued at 55,055,000. The most important 
collieries are situated near Westport, on 
the West Coast of the Midland Island. 
More than one-third of the total output 
is brown coal or lignite, and many of the 
workings are open-cut. The coal from 
the West Coast bituminous fields is of a 
high class and used by the Admiralty. 
From the Point Elizabeth State coal mine, 
207,450 tons were produced, and the 
amount from the Seddonville State mine 
was 74,180 tons during the year ended 
Mar. 31, 1910. The profits of both 
State mines during the fiscal year 
amounted to $23,900. 


AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 


In Austria the principal workings for 
brown coal are in the Brux-Dux-Teplitz 











MAIN SOURCES OF WORLD’S FUEL SUPPLY 























QUANTITY VALUE 
Increase or Increase or 
Country Metric Tons Decrease on Dollars Decrease on 
1906 1906 
WOMOE ONES ow 5% 6 oo ei ers $48,038,000 + 40,788,000 554,503,000 + 22,571,000 
Oo ce eee 268,007 ,000 + 2,282,000 517,187,000 —50,241,000 
ONRUR MRI 5. x. nce.4is oie Gisis 6-5 217,446,000 +2,159,000 | 413,214,000 —1,119,000 
Austria-Hungary.......... 18813000 —153/000 |  74/314/000 + 1/684;000 
PEMMEBINN Sait ghee daa) hes ney 37,840,000 : + 456,000 | 112,110,000 —3,197,000 
LON eee ae praaned ne 24,455,000 | —1,448,000 | (not stated) Ps ok oka 
Belgium Sees 23,518,000 | —40,000 | 65,775,000 —%8,307,000 
| 








CANADA 


The oldest coal fields in Canada which 
have been largely developed, are situated 
on the seaboards of the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans. On the Atlantic side of 
the continent, bituminous coal is being 
mined from thick seams of true Car- 
boniferous age at the Sydney (Cape Bre- 
ton), Picton, Inverness and Cumberland 
coal fields, in Nova Scotia. The coal of 
the Pacific Coast, generally bituminous, 


and Falkenau-Elbogener basins. In the 
former, seams of Miocene age occur up 
to a thickness of 98% ft. (30 m.), while 
in the latter, seams of Miocene and 
Oligocene* age are worked. In _ the 
Schalltal district there is a seam which 
in places is over 100 m. (328 ft.) in 
thickness. 


*The Oligocene is the transitional pe- 
riod between the Eocene and the Miocene 
of the Tertiary.—Editor. 














' 
} 


January 6, 1912 


Austria produced 13,713,042 metric 
tons of coal in 1909, nearly one-half of 
vhich was obtained from the Upper 
Silesian coal basin which is a continua- 
iion of the Prussian and Russian coal 
field. In this basin there are numerous 
rich seams of excellent coking coal. 


BELGIUM 


In this country, coal mining is the most 
important mineral industry, and there 
are six different regions; the most pro- 
ductive is the Charleroi district, yielding 
about one-third of the total output. The 
average production per underground 
worker in 1909 was only 228 metric tons, 
due probably to the small size of the 
seams, which on an average are only 2 
ft. 1.59 in. (65 cm.) thick. In Belgium 
the average daily wage per underground 
worker is less than a dollar a day. 


GERMAN EMPIRE 


Deposits of brown coal are found in 
more or less abundance over nearly the 
The deposit 


whole of North Germany. 





COAL AGE 


JAPAN 


The coal-bearing formations of the 
Japanese Islands range from Mesozoic 
to Tertiary. The coal, which occurs in 
43 of the 49 prefectures, is mainly 
bituminous and most of the seams belong 
to the Tertiary period. The principal 
coal fields may be divided into five 
groups as follows: Kyushu, Hokkaido, 
Honshu (the main island), the Southern 
Islands and Karafuts. More than two- 
thirds of the total output is produced in 
the island of Kyushu. In 1874 the out- 
put was less than a quarter of a million 
tons, and in 1909 it reached over 15 
millions. A large part of the coal pro- 
duced in Japan goes to supply the 
Chinese markets. 


PERU 


All the different varieties of fuel exist 
in Peru, viz., peat, lignite, coal and an- 
thracite. Lignite is found in the Tertiary 
rocks on the coast and at the summit 
of the Cordillera at Cajamorca. The 
true coal and anthracite are found in the 











RUSSIA 


The most productive coal region of 
Russia is the Donets basin in the 
province of Ekaterinoslav, which covers 
an area of 16,000 square miles, the seams 
varying in thickness from 1 to 7 ft. The 
output of this basin in 1909 was 17,779,- 
863 metric tons. Next in importance 
comes Poland, with an output of over 

% million metric tons of true coal and 
brown coal. The Dombrowa Basin, in 
Poland, is a continuation of the great 
Silesian coal basin. Coal is abundant in 
Siberia, both east and west, and even 
along the line of the Trans-Siberian Ry., 
but the quality is poor. In the island 
of Saghalien, coal is worked by Russian 
convicts; the present output is small 
and is used by steamships. 


SERVIA 


Most of the coal in Servia lies near 
the Danube;- the workings of chief im- 
portance being at Dobra. The coal oc- 
curs in the Liassic formation, which be- 
longs to the lower portion of the Jurassic. 


* Coal Act 


In Many EvropeaAN Mines, Girts ARE EMPLOYED IN THE SCREEN Houses TO PusH CARS AND PICK SLATE 


of Vorgebirge near Cologne in the 
Rhine Province consists of a large, con- 
inuous bed extending about 25 km. 
(15% miles) from north to south with an 
average width of 6 km. (534 miles). A 
Preparation called Kaumacit has _at- 
tracted some interest. It is brown coal 
rendered transportable and imperishable 
by a process of dry distillation, reducing 
the coal to from 35 to 50 per cent. 
Kaumacit. The process yields an ad- 
citional 3 per cent. of tar, 17 to 26 Ib. 
of ammonia, and. 2500 cu.m. of gas, per 
load of 10 tons. 

There are three principal coal-mining 
districts in Prussia: (1) The Lower 
Rhine and Westphalian Basin, by far the 
most important; (2) Silesia, and es- 
pecially Upper Silesia; (3) the Rhen- 
ish district in the neighborhood of 
Saarbrucken and Aix-la-Chapelle. Most 
of the coal is derived from seams of 
the Carboniferous age; near Hanover 
there are extensive workings in the 
Wealden beds. In 1909 Germany ex- 
Ported 23,350,730 metric tons of coal. 


Cretaceous rocks in various places, and 
a solid hydrocarbon which is neither coal 
nor anthracite occurs in veins, and is 
likewise worked and sold as mineral 
fuel. There are large areas of coal in 
the department of Ancachs, in the Santa 
Valley, at Jatunhuasi, near Jauja, in the 
department of Junin, in the neighborhood 
of Cerro’ de Pasco, and in the depart- 
ments of Huanuco, Cajainarca and Lib- 
ertad. The bulk of the output is ob- 
tained from the province of Cerro de 
Pasco. 
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


Coal occurs in the Tertiary shales and 
sandstones on nearly every island, with 
the greatest development in the Visayas. 
The most promising coal fields at pres- 
ent are situated in the provinces of AIl- 
bay, Cebu, Tayabas, Sorsogon, Mindovo 
and Moro. Four coal seams have been 
found in Cebu having thicknesses of 2, 
5, 10 and 13 ft. The total output in 
1909 was obtained from two mines on 
the island of Batan in the province of 
Albay. 


True coal, said to be almost as good as 
English coals, occurs and is worked in 
the Timok Valley, near Urska Tschuka. 
In the Boljevac district a coal basin ex- 
tending over a large area has been dis- 
covered. Servia is rich in mines of 
brown coal and thick beds of Tertiary 
brown coal occur at Senje, Sisevac, 
Resava, Jelasnica, Koaljevac and _ in 
many other parts of the country. The 
revenue from the state mine at Senje in 
1909 was $183,000 and the expenditure 
$180,000. It is explained by the Mining 
Department that 60 per cent. of the total 
production from the state mines is de- 
livered to the Servian State Ry., and 
charged at their own cost price; other- 
wise the working of the mines would 
result in a large profit. 


SWEDEN 


All the Swedish coal obtained in 1909 
was produced from the provinces of 
Malmohus and Kristianotad in the south- 
ern part of the kingdom. The seams, 
which are of Rhodanian age, are inter- 





400 


stratified with beds of fireclay, and the 
two minerals are worked together. The 
thickness of the coal seams, including 
the partings of shale, varies from 3 to 5 
feet. 
ITALY 

In this country the development of the 
deposits of fossil fuel, which mineral 
is stated to be abundant in the provinces 
of Arezzo, Pisa and Grosseto in Tuscany, 
is hindered by the cheapness of im- 
ported coal from the United Kingdom. 
The total output in 1909 was only 555,- 
073 metric tons, of which 552,136 tons 
were lignite, 2055 tons anthracite and 
882 tons bituminous shale. Most of the 
lignite came from Tuscany; the anthra- 
cite from the provinces of Cagliari (Sar- 
dinia) and Turin, and the bituminous 
shale from Vicenza. 

TURKEY 


Although coal is known to occur in 
nearly all the provinces of the empire, 
the only mines deserving mention at the 
present time are those at Eregli. Im- 
portant deposits of lignite or brown coal 
exist in the region of Lebanon, and near 
Lampsacus on the east side of the 


COAL AGE 


Dardanelles. Coarse lignite has been 
found in several places near Sparta, 
Karaman, and in the Bulghar Dagh which 
may prove useful for smelting purposes. 
Coal deposits are known to exist in the 
Van district in the province of Erzeroum. 


SUMMARY 


The tabulated statement in the next 
column shows the separate outputs, in 
1909, of the various coal-producing coun- 
tries of the world, as given in the report 
of the British Home Office. The figures 
for Brazil, China, Korea and Mexico are 
estimated from those of the previous 
year, and, in the case of Peru, Romania 
and Bulgaria, the totals given are for 
1908. 

It will be noted that the United States, 
with an output of 418 million tons in 
1909, produced something over 37% per 
cent. of the world’s coal for that year, or 
1% times the amount mined by Great 
Britain and 1.9 times that produced by 
Germany, the two countries ranking sec- 
ond and third, respectively, in point of 
individual output. The annual production 
of coal in the United States has since 
increased by nearly 75 million tons. 





January 6,. 1912 


WORLD’S PRODUCTION OF COAL 


Country Metric Tons 
Great Britain and Ireland........ 268,007 ,257 
COT RE ae ea ei res enor 3316452 
SSTIGIN THOTEDO.. 56s ck sees 127,944 
RMUEMIN Gc iairc-ig' at 5-6) 406) Sic. a eater ole 8-5 9,516,784 
Nn REE CCE Te 93,695 
Re cone Wig ac ncalig duane) ecererarecaiens 12,060,550 
Natal (including Zululand)........ 1,815,253 
a vere 1,941,918 
OT nee 426,913 
MIN a6 0 hic c sp ig a ees itera e 155,032 
SS a a a eae gee ce 3,287,328 
PUSETAR-EAUTGBTY . oo ccc cee eee 48, "812! 901 
Bosnia and Herzegovina.......... ,114 
MOONE a8 oir sie sowie Sacaiwis ara wie o ers 23,517 "550 
MEET ike an aig x anielc eater ctatate weakens 15,000 
PUNE os oo hes corks Gara ee areas 162,992 
RSS eens Creme remie ee ea ce 898,971 
SUS 6.0 oy AG ch cht cE 11,000, ~ 
Tose ion bcs Wea A eee a eels 
ci ec vbr rat nice Sate Saha Aer 37,840, 086 
ON eee eee eee "384. 053 
ASOPINAT TONIPITS . ww. see ees 217,445,656 
are Branly a Ree erg tee 3,873 
RUE 227.2005. fee Fa ener g eg ssienne 1,120,852 
Dutch East Indies ee ees 08,771 
ho ee Bae ee ee 555,073 
RES eecrcie noite Gs hu ent, ees ee 15,058,113 
NEMS, 52h Greece canna saya stacanarete 183,412 
MING 5 ioe i ao ee a RO 60,000 
—_— 1 SN Dae ec eee gL AD ee en 919,338 
eC en ee en aR en Or eee 313,122 
Philippine ¥ ee ea eer ee 30,336 
Portugal . reese See at ees ae 6,274 
Roumania te CE tee eter ot rome aS 160,783 
MMMM CGR oo susok aas eis eos ok bation 24,455,340 
<BR Arora rarer erica 213/308 
Spain. .....- Beer agnen he tere een 4,125,894 
a re ree 2,316 
REIN fo cre rearal porte eae 246,808 
Switzerand.........5. Sra caeeemtees 5,000 
INN Socks vnloreuis aw uerence ars 771,203 
APRN PEBORS co ok oo ok codes ne Se 418,038,117 
Total for the world. «24.066 66056 1,113,308,386 








Coal Mine Mortality Statistics 


The production of 514,392,000 short 
tons of anthracite and bituminous coal 
during 1910 involved the loss of 3051 
lives in 21 states and provinces of the 
United States and Canada. The loss of 
life exceeded that for the corresponding 
period in 1909, when, according to the 
corrected returns, there were 2417 fatal- 
ities. The actual excess of deaths during 
1910 over 1909, was, therefore, 634, 
showing an increase of 26.23 per cent. 

The fatality rate for 1910 was 4.18 
per 1000 persons employed, against 3.39 
for 1909. The fatality rate for 1910 was 
therefore, 0.79 per 1000 higher than dur- 
ing the preceding year, an excess equiva- 
lent to 23.3 per cent. The rate for 1910 
was the highest on record during the last 
decade, the nearest approach thereto hav- 
ing been 1907, when the rate was 4.15 per 
1000. 


BUREAU OF MINES CONTRADICTED 


This comparison of the record for 1910 
with 1909 is upon the basis of the offi- 
cial returns furnished by the mine in- 
spectors of the different states. The facts 
derived from trustworthy sources, there- 
fore, contradict the statement made in the 
program of the National Mine Safety 
Demonstration under the auspices of the 
U. S. Department of Mines that: 

The coédperation of inspectors, miners, 
mine owners and the Bureau of Mines in 
the effort to reduce loss of life has re- 
sulted in a decrease of 25 per cent. in 
fatal accidents in 1908 and 1909, the last 
two years for which figures are avail- 
able, and with continued earnest codéper- 


By Frederick L. Hoffman* 








Carefully compiled and 
accurate statistical data on 
the death rate in North 
American mines. The 
rates are computed on the 
basis of the number of men 
employed, and show an 
almost continual advance, 
being especially rapid dur- 
ing the past decade. 














*Statistician, Prudential Insurance Co., 
Newark, J. 


ation it is hoped that the succeeding 
years will show a still further lessening 
in loss of life, and a corresponding in- 
crease in efficiency in mining methods 
and mineral utilization. 























































































































iN 
T rT ae ii 
° - 
Ss L nae f 
b 
a3 
\ | 
& HHA Ne 
a a a} 7900 1905 10 
Years Con, noe 
INCREASE IN MORTALITY RATE 
1886-1910 


It is true, of course, that the rates 
during 1908 and 1909 were lower than 


during 1907, when the rate was materially 
increased by a number of disasters of ex- 
ceptional magnitude. The decrease, how- 
ever, did not justify the assumption that 
-the reduction was the result of the co- 
operation of inspectors, miners, mine 
owners and the Bureau of Mines, except 
in certain well defined and strictly limit- 
ed directions, which do not require to be 
considered at this time.- The chief object 
for calling attention to the glaring incon- 
sistencies of the statement referred to, 
and the facts which are a matter of of- 
ficial record, is to emphasize the lament- 
able truth that whatever has been done 
during recent years to bring about a re- 
duction in the fatality rate does not justi- 
fy the belief that measurable results of 
material importance have been thus far 
secured. 


As is well known, the year 1907 was 
an exceptionally disastrous one in Amer- 
ican mining. A comparison of 1908 and 
1909 with the record of 1907 is obviously 
misleading when it is assumed that the 
lower fatality rate during these two years 
was brought about by deliberate meas- 
ures for accident prevention. Compar- 
ing 1908 with 1907, there was an actual 
reduction in the number of accidents 
equivalent to 22 per cent., and compar- 
ing 1909 with 1907, there was a reduction 
of 23 per cent. But comparing 1909 with 
1908, the actual number of accidents was 
almost the same, and the reduction in 
the rate, making allowance, of course, for 
the number employed, was only 12 per 
cent. 





ira eee 








POOR R EEE SY RIN 


a 





Re ate ee ee 























en ape 











January 6, 1912 


Comparing the record for the last two 
years with every other year in the his- 
tory of American mining except 1907, the 
actual loss of life has been greater, and 
the corresponding fatality rate has been 
in excess of the rate for any other year. 
The record for the two years, 1908 and 
1909, is not one to be proud of, or to be 
referred to as showing evidence of a 
material reduction in the loss of life as 
the result of deliberate efforts or co- 
operation between existing agencies for 
that purpose. The loss was exceedingly 
high actually and relatively, and the de- 


COAL AGE 


of fact, in the fatal accidents due to 
powder explosions, missed shots, etc. 
(which are particularly subject to reduc- 
tion by education, improved methods of 
shot firing and handling of explosives), 
there was an increase from 73 in 1908 to 
108 during 1909. 

We may, therefore, take the two groups 
of causes, which are especially related 
to the present-day efforts toward accident 
reduction. According to the official sta- 
tistics, as published by the U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey, there were 469 deaths from 
these two groups of causes during 1908 


(TABLE 1) 





401 


on the other hand an actual increase in 
the deaths from falls of roof of 111, 
equivalent to 10.3 per cent. It requires 
to be said that there was a reduction 
in the miscellaneous causes. This may 
or may not have a relation to the efforts 
to reduce casualties in mining; only the 
detailed analysis could bring out the 
facts. 


FATALITIES DURING 1901 To 1910 


The number of persons killed by acci- 
dents in the coal mines of North Amer- 
ica during the decade ending with 1910, . 


NUMBER OF PERSONS KILLED IN THE COAL MINES OF NORTH AMERICA, 1901-1910 




















































































































1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 : - 1909 1910 1901-1910 
PE ODER Te ere 41 50 57 84 185 96 154 108 129 238 1,142 
COMMER Sits coat cc eee 55 73 40 89 ' 60 88 99 61 99 319 983 
ED xv oe eae nGede con 99 99 156 |. 157 199 | 155 165 183 213 406 1,832 
pi ener ere rete rarer area 24 24 55 34 47 31 53 45 50 51 
NA aor oc katete tic oO eres sets 27 55 21 31 24 37 35 38 28 39 335 
PR ARMMME Sos sie aes chcte eke. wie ote cant 10 30 36 16 (a) 36 30 52 31 35 25 301 
fC eee core yA | 19 25 19 31 40 32 40 33 84 344 
SE ARIREN 555.0 'o co 06.9 gic teres eee we 12 11 16 12 16 13 5 12 19 17 133 
pp Re aA ccuret creer 6 6 8 7 8 q 6 9 6 69 
MGINIDE . g arawis cee ete ce meee 15 10 Ay | 11 11 16(b) 8(a) 10 21 16 135 
MEGRIGHE 2.2 s cece csee cess 7 12 5 9 8 é 14 21 12 13 114 
I gion on alec gh wens 9 17 17 15 5 9 31 34 18 14 169 
Me eich vowed ci asenndeuk 72 81 124 118 114 126 153 112 5 162 1,177 
EE SOIR E PTC rete _44 60 33 30 44 39 32 44 23(b) 46 395 
Wen GWURTACHC .... 6s csc ets 513 300 518 595 644 557 708 678 567 601 5,681 
Penn. bituminous ............-- 301 456 402 536 479 477 806 572 506 539 5,074 
MNGTIPRRAES 50 e oi oiace sro cio eee ae 44 226 26 28 29 33 31 34 31 38 52 
TRIN, oie gine ya aie kGie chore 8 wie 0e 019 0 9 8 7 9 t 7 8 8 16 15 94 
WHAGRINRION cc 5 6c ccc se ctecsieces 27 34 25 31 13 21 (i 25 39 43 295 
WOME WERISSIIN  5n ecco cres die ns 134 120 159 140 194 269 356 625 364 320 2,681 
British Columbia ......62ssccces 102 139 42 37 12 15 31 18 57 28 481 
INOWR COUT «oes sacle toc ws mee 14 9 31 19 20 28 35 39 33 31 269 
TOQUE ccc cescasc Nerusece Gor wat 1,586 1,849 1,820 2,027 2,186 2,106 2,852 2,744 2,417 3,051 22,638 
(a) Six months only. 
(bv) Eight months only. 
(TABLE ITI) 
FATAL ACCIDENTS IN THE COAL MINES OF NORTH AMERICA, 1901-1910 
RATE OF PERSONS KILLED PER 1000 EMPLOYED 
1901 1902 1908 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1901-1910 
NAIA. arses 5501058 6) en arais 2.90 2.79 2.94 4.77 10.75 5.2% 7.61 5.75 6.40 10.81 6.15 
GOI oes shenre cavers sus-sieiseere 6.88 8.11 3.89 8.26 5.05 7.32 7.67 4.25 7.53 21.60 8.39 
pS er rior reac 2.24 2.15 3.13 2.87 3.36 2.49 2.47 2.58 2.93 5.44 3.05 
RIE, oo balicewcitae ache. 1.98 1.83 3.64 1.92 2.63 1.58 2.7 2.36 2.64 2.41 2.38 
ONE <0 aioe 6 ciel ree Gein esa 2.05 4.2% 1.59 1.90 1.36 2.20 2.05 2.20 1.56. 2.17 2.09 
pT cere cei 1.05 3.22 3.61 3.09 4 2.97 2.95 4.35 2.74 2.83 2.26 2.92 
WGA. 56 sic cis cick aches 2.15 1.58 1.85 37 2.06 2.39 1.8: 2.15 1.76 3.97 2.19 
WII 66. srocciee eee 2.23 1.89 2.82 2.12 2.57 2.10 0.85 2.00 3.34 2.93 2.28 
BEIGE. kon sce sas eee ees 3.26 4.24 2.54 2.58 2.16 2.83 2.43 1.94 3.04 2.43 2.62 
pO ere oor 1.63 1.09 1.85 1.09 1.06 1.65 b 1.70a 1.06 2.31 1.55 1.48 
REIN, 56 sao ci eie sg arereceere 3.24 6.19 2.92 3.59 3.67 5.43 5.12 6.68 3.11 3.16 4.19 
INGO) WEORIOG. occ secccwss 4.81 10.11 7.26 7.61 2.35 3.82 10.13 9.26 5.57 4.89 6.71 
CTT SE geek Porter arerarat a 2.15 2.16 3.00 2.57 2.58 2.71 $.2 2.23 2.45 3.32 2.66 
CNRE ONO 5c. 6 «6. o:6 os 6 6 0-5, sc0ke 8.35 9.62 5.42 3.63 5.76 4.81 4.15 3.02 2.78b 5.43 4.90 
Penn. anthracite ......... 3.47 2.03 3.41 3.69 3.83 3.35 4.19 3.89 3.31 3.57 3.49 
Penn. bituminous ........ 2.56 3.36 2.65 3.44 2.90 2.76 4.40 8.15 ~ ake 2.79 3.09 
"ROTMGHECE voc cece ceteses 5.23 25.80 2.69 2.81 2.76 3.07 ®.T 3.06 2.62 3.40 5.03 
WIRE pits crn ewasoes ca5c 5.06 3.24 3.21 4.06 3.57 3.69 3.07 2.99 5.36 4.38 3.89 
WISGRINZION oes ices cise 5.59 7.83 5.13 6.69 2.61 4.08 6.05 4.68 6.81 7.15 5.67 
West ViRgimin ....62cc0%. 4.14 3.41 4.03 3.08 3.88 5.20 6.33 10.35 5.85 5.00 5.39 
British Columbia ........ 25.67 34.65 9.85 8.31 2.72 3.12 5.12 2.95 8.88 3.61 9.21 
Nova. Bcotim ..ccscccscves 1.83 2.36 2.79 1.63 1.86 2.31 2.89 3.02 2.49 2.82 2.46 
PCO, 66 56s iietee ce $.2! 3.48 3.16 3.33 3.40 3.20 4.15 3.84 3.39 4.18 3.56 
a Six months only. 
b Eight months only. 
tails do not furnish proof of a perceptible against 449 in 1909, or an actual reduc-- is shown in detail in Table I. The table 


influence as the result of the agencies re- 
ferred to in the quotation. 


COMPARISON OF ROOF FALL AND 
EXPLOSION FATALITIES 


It is true that, comparing 1909 with 
1908, there was a decrease in the num- 
ber of deaths due to gas or dust explo- 
sions. This decrease was from 396 to 


341, but it may have been purely acci- 
dental and not the result of the codper- 
ative efforts referred to. 


As a matter 


tion of 20 deaths, equivalent'to only 4.26 
per cent. The corresponding facts for 
1910 are not as yet available. 

Far more significant than the forego- 
ing comparison is the fact that, while in 
1908 there were 1080 deaths due to falls 
of roof or coal, the number of deaths 
from this group of causes during 1909 
was 1191. So the actual reduction in 
fatal accidents due to explosions, etc., 
during 1909, as compared with 1908, was 
only 20, or 4.3 per cent., while there was 





‘has been corrected for previous years 


and is, therefore, not strictly comparable 
with the table published in the Engineer- 
ing and Mining Journal for Dec. 31, 1910. 
Such corrections are inevitable in the 
present state of mine inspection and the 
methods which prevail in giving public- 
ity to the facts. 

All tabulations of this kind are !m- 
paired by the lack of precise definitions 
of terms. What is considered a fatal 
accident in one state is not necessarily 





402 





considered as such in another. A uniform 
definition of a fatal accident on the part 
of all the mining bureaus is desirable. It 
should not be difficult to come to an un- 
derstanding on this point and secure, if 
necessary, the required changes in the 
mining laws of the several states. It 
would seem a reasonable compromise to 
insist that all mine accidents terminating 
in death within one week after their oc- 
currence should be returned as fatal, 
since a longer period would involve many 
uncertainties which would tend to further 
impair the accuracy of the results. 
During 1910 there occurred 3051 fatal 
accidents in the coal-mining operations of 
North America, against 2417 during the 
previous year. 
have been 22,638 fatal accidents in coal 
mining during the decade ending with 
1910, or an average of 2264 a year. 


In the aggregate there 


COAL AGE 


West Virginia with 320, and Colorado 
with 319. 


FATALITY KATE PER 1UUU DURING 1901 
To 1910 


Table II shows the fatal accident rate 
in coal-mining in the United States and 
Canada, calculated in the usual manner, 
upon the basis of the average number of 
persons employed in mining operations. 
For certain purposes it would perhaps be 
more useful to calculate the fatality rates 
upon the basis of the avérage number 
employed underground, but since this 
would require a separation of under- 
ground and outside fatalities, an element 
of uncertainty would be introduced in the 
calculations which is eliminated by the 
use of the returns as a whole.* 

During 1910 the fatality rate was 4.18 
per 1000 against an average rate of 3.56 


(TABLE III) 
FATAL ACCIDENTS IN THE COAL MINES OF NORTH AMERICA 
COMPARISON OF 1910 WITH THE FIVE PREVIOUS YEARS 


























Number of persons Increase or 
killed Rate per 1000 Decrease of 
Yearly Average Employed Rate 
1905-1909 1910 1905-1909 1910 

UII © isc is ainus elon ee ote 134 238 7.09 10.81 + 3.72 
PIED « wa ariaew sed oes saa 81 319 6.33 21.60 +15.27 
SED cc LGaa cies Sis eisse a aS oe 183 406 2.76 5.44 + 2.68 
fo ae eee 45 51 2.39 2.41 + 0.02 
ey EoGbesihes Sane aoe ee 32 39 1.87 y Hee le g + 0.30 
PN a. aS eine a ois bias 37 25 3.18 2.26 — 0.92 
ee rr a 35 84 2.03 3.97 + 1.94 
MIMEWENE!. o54404saw ce ~ekas 13 1% 2.4% 2.93 + 0.76 
SS Se eer | 6 2.44 2.43 — 0.01 
CS ERR ares pret 13 16 1.52 1.55 + 0.03 
DEINE soca Weeies se O20 < Gate 14 13 4.75 3.16 — 1.59 
ON MREEOD ois. sie 59.06 6 4 Wee 19 14 6.71 4.89 — 1.82 
ED 4s bss wish iw e858 124 162 2.63 3.32 + 0.69 
UE MINIRD Is Neus va iis fe him 0s so 36 46 3.93 5.43 + 1.50 
Penn., anthracite .......... 631 601 Sate 3.57 — 0.15 
Penn., bituminous .......... 568 539 3.20 2.79 — 0.41 
SES SAS er 32 38 2.86 3.40 + 0.54 
LS EE eR naar ee 9 15 3.79 4.38 + 0.59 
Co ae eer 27 43 4.94 7.40 + 2.21 
WVOGRE WEPRIOIR oo oc ssicces sie 362. 320 6.44 5.00 — 1.44 
Brizish Columbia .......... 27 28 4.79 3.61 — 1.18 
eS ery ia 31 31 2.58 2.82 + 0.24 
OPO oop nis sens aes 2,461 3.051 3.60 4.18 + 0.58 














These totals do not exactly correspond to 
the figures published by the Bureau of 
Mines, since for certain states, in the 
present tabulation, the returns are by 
fiscal years and not by calendar years. 
The recommendation frequently made, 
that the returns should all be for cal- 
endar years, may be repeated, for unless 
the returns are made on a monthly basis 
it will be impossible to secure an ac- 
curate and complete annual tabulation. 
It is a significant fact that, during 
1910, the number of reported fatal acci- 
dents in the twenty-one states and prov- 
inces is, for the first time in our mining 
history, in excess of three thousand. The 
highest previous records had been for 
1907, when there were 2852, and 1908, 
when there were 2744 deaths. On the 
basis of actual numbers, the loss of life 
was greatest in the Pennsylvania anthra- 
cite region, where 601 deaths occurred, 
followed by the bituminous region of 
Pennsylvania with 539, Illinois with 406, 





for the decade. The highest previous rate 
occurred in 1907, when it reached 4.15 
per 1000, and the lowest rate occurred 
in 1903, when it was 3.16. Even the 
minimum rate is decidedly above the av- 
erage fatality rate of foreign countries, 
which, during the ten years ending with 
1908, was only 1.53 per 1000. 

During 1910 the highest rate prevailed 
in Colorado, where it attained to the ex- 
traordinary proportion of 21.6 per 1000. 
The only higher rates reported for any 
one state and year of the decade under 
review were for British Columbia, 25.67 
for 1901 and 34.65 for 1902; and for 
Tennessee, 25.8 for 1902. Next to the 
State of Colorado the highest rate dur- 
ing 1910 is reported for Alabama, where 
it attained 10.81 per 1000. Other states 
with rates above the average for the 
year were: Illinois, with 5.44; New 





*For an extended discussion of fatal 
accidents in coal mining, by occupa- 
tion, nativity, causes, ete, see Bulletin 
No. 90 of the Bureau of Labor, Washing- 
ton, D. C., 1910. 














January 6, 1912 


Mexico, with 4.89; Oklahoma, with 5.43; ° 


Utah, with 4.38; Washington, with 7.15; 
and West Virginia, with 5 per 1000. The 
lowest rate for the year was reported 
for Missouri, or only 1.55 per 1000. The 
States with the next lowest rates were: 
Iowa, where the rate was 2.17; Kansas, 
with 2.26; Indiana, with 2.41; and Michi- 
gan, with 2.43. 

The highest average fatality rate for 
the decade ending with 1910 was for 
the province of British Columbia, or 9.21 
per 1000, followed by the State of Colo- 
rado, with an average of 8.39. The low- 
est averages were reported for Missouri, 
where the rate was only 1.48 per 1000, 
followed by Iowa, with a rate of 2.09. 


(TABLE IV) 
TWENTY-FIVE YEAR RECORD OF THE 
FATAL ACCIDENTS IN THE COAL MINES 
OF NORTH AMERICA 1886-1910 























Rate per 
Number of Number 1000" 
Employees Killed Em- 
ployed 
1886 222,029 514 2.32 
1887 230,834 514 2.2 
1888 278,175 659 2.37 
1889 278,361 681 2.45 
1890 301,295 853 2.83 
1891 326,684 . 959 2.94 
1892 343,564 883 2.57 
1893 384,249 970 2.52 
1894 394,146 962 2.44 
1895 404,553 1,061 2.62 
1896 409,320 1,123 2.74 
1897 409,830 956 2.33 
1898 407,536 1,056 2.59 
1899 421,489 1,250 2.97 
1900 464,235 1,507 3.25 
1901 494,287 1,586 3.21 
1902 530,624 1,849 3.48 
1903 576.365 1,820 3.16 
1904 609.001 2,027 3.33 
1905 613,225 2,186 3.40 
1906 658,880 2,106 3.20 
1907 686,460 2,852 4.15 
1908 715,355 2,744 3.84 
1909 712,550 2,417 3.39 
1910 30,707 3,051 4.18 
1886-1890 1,310,694 3,221 2.46 
1891-1895 1,853,196 4,835 2.61 
1896-1900 2,112,410 5,892 2.79 
1901-1905 2,853,502 9.468 3.32 
1906-1910 3,503,952 13,170 3.76 
1886-1910 11,633,754 36,586 3.14 





RATE FOR 1910 COMPARED WITH THE 
PREVIOUS FIVE YEARS 


Table III exhibits the fatal accidents in 
coa] mining in 1910, compared with the 
average for the preceding five years, both 
upon the basis of actual numbers and 
the rates per 1000 employed. Many of 
the states and provinces show an increase 
in the rate during 1910 over the average 
for the preceding five years, the excep-: 
tions being Kansas, Michigan, Montana, 
New Mexico, Pennsylvania (anthracite 
and bituminous), West Virginia and Brit- 
ish Columbia. 

The net increase in the rate during 
1910 was 0.58 per 1000 over the average 
rate for the five years ending with 1909. 
The record shows that the rate increased 
in 13 out of the 21 states and provinces, 
but this increase was largely the result 
of a few disasters of exceptional magni- 
tude. However, the record for nearly all 
of the states and provinces is not one 








is 3 
ag 




















January 6, 1912 


which warrants the assurance that ma- 
terial progress is being made in the re- 
duction of the preventable loss of life in 
coal-mining operations in the United 
States and Canada. 


STATISTICS FROM 1886 To 1910 


Table IV affords a means of convenient 
comparison of the fatality rate in coal 
mining during 1910 with the correspond- 
ing rates for the previous 24 years. The 
quarter-century review is extremely inter- 
esting and peculiarly suggestive, in view of 
the unwarranted assertions that the rates 
during the last few years have consider- 
ably declined, due to the intelligent co- 
operation of government and state offi- 


COAL AGE 


cials, mine managers, miners and ‘others 
interested in the subject. 

The accompanying profile shows graph- 
ically the fluctuations in and gradual in- 
crease of the death rate during this per- 
iod. It will be noticed that the low rate 
in 1887 of 2.23 per 1000 has never since 
been even closely approached, with the 
exception of 1897, when it dropped to 
2.33. Immediately after this the profile 
shows a rapid and uniform increase, 
crossing the 3 per 1000 line for the 
first time in 1900, since which date it has 
never been below this point. The com- 
paratively level line during the period 
1900 to 1905 may have given rise to false 
hopes, which were, however, quickly dis- 


403 


pelled by the most abrupt and erratic 
fluctuations yet in evidence, during the 
period 1905-1910. During this time the 
rate has twice crossed the 4 per 1000 
line, and the general average has been 
higher than for any previous existing 
record. 

The total number of lives lost, as far 
as reported, during the 25 years ending 
with 1910, was 36,586. If allowance is 
made for accidents not reported, and 
for the small mining states not included 
in the present review, it is safe to assume 
that during the last 25 years not less than 
40,000 lives have been lost in coal-min- 
ing operations in the United States and 
Canada. 











American vs. English Mine Fatalities 


Numerous comparisons have _ been 
made, from time to time, during the past 
few years, of the fatalities of coal min- 
ing in this and other countries. These 
comparisons have, in many instances, 
shown a comparatively high death rate 
in the United States. In other instances, 
in spite of the modifying influences that 
operate to increase the death rate here, a 
comparatively lower rate of fatality has 
been shown. - 

Briefly stated, some of the more im- 
portant influences at work in this country 
and which all will admit are peculiar to 
the United States, are as follows: the 
large influx of foreign labor seeking em- 
ployment in any capacity; the unprec- 
edented demand for coal, incident to a 
new and rapidly growing country of large 
area and resources; the rapid develop- 
ment of the coal industry in the United 
States within less than half a century. 
Other conditions might be mentioned that 
imperil our mining and require the most 
thoughtful consideration on the part of 
all, in order to reduce the list of fatal- 
ities in mines to a standard that will com- 
port with our aims and aspirations as a 
nation. 

For the purpose of this article, how- 
ever, the conditions named— influx of for- 
eign labor; demand for coal; and rapid 
development of mines—are sufficient. We 
desire to be fair and make no unjust 
claims for ourselves; but we feel, right- 
ly, that much has been spoken and writ- 
ten, in this regard, tending to cast unwar- 
ranted reflections on American mine man- 
agement. 

American institutions have always em- 
bodied the highest ideals, sought out the 
widest knowledge and experience, and 
Studied to adopt the most approved meth- 
ods. American mine management has 
supplemented its own careful study of 
mining conditions here and elsewhere by 
calling to its aid mining men of other coun- 
tries, hoping to glean from their observa- 
tions in our mines some enlightenment on 
the questions mining men, the world over, 





By J. T. Beard 


| Conditions affecting death 


rate peculiar to American 
mines. Two methods of 
estimating death rate. Es- 
timation on a tonnage basis 
more nearly approximates 
what death rate should 
show. Pennsylvania death 
rates, 1908-1910, lower than 
those of Great Britain. 
Output per man double 
that in England. 




















are studying today. Some have sharply 
criticized this action as undignified and 
productive of no practical good, inasmuch 
as conditions in American mines differ 
widely, not only from conditions prevalent 
in foreign mines, but in mines in different 
paris of our own country. 


The study of concitions must ever be 
supreme in the solution of all important 
mining problems. The broadest and most 
capable minds will always study closely 
not only the conditions of their own en- 
vironment, but that of others. History is 
the only sure interpreter of the future 
when the application of past experience 
to present conditions is made intelligent- 
ly. To consult others and study their ex- 
perience does not imply that the student 
or inquirer has no experience of his own, 
or that such experience is any less valu- 
able than that of others. It rather shows 
wisdom and intelligent foresight with a 
desire to improve. 

But to return to the question of com- 
parative death rates in mining, it has long 
seemed to me that the manner of estimat- 
ing the fatalities per 1000 men employed 
is not an equitable basis. It would seem 
that in order to make a full and equitable 
comparison of the fatalities incurred in 
mining, the estimation should be based 
on the number of men employed in the 


mine, the number of hours employed, and 
the degree of danger, which varies, being 
different in different mines, and for which 
the mine management is in no way re- 
sponsible. 

A little reflection will make clear the 
injustice of classifying in the same cate- 
gory a mine in which 350 inside men are 
putting out 1000 tons of coal each work- 
ing day, with another where twice that 
number of men produce but 800 or 900 
tons a day. At once the question is 
asked: “Wherein lies the difference; are 
not these mines equally dangerous?” 
According to the present accepted basis, 
the mine last named, employing more 
men and producing less coal, would show 
a lower death rate on the number-of-em- 
ployees basis, but a higher death rate on 
a tonnage basis, for the same number of 
fatalities, than the first mine where fewer 
men put out more coal. 

It will be generally conceded that, for 
the same efficiency of mine management, 
the number of fatalities may naturally be 
expected to depend on three principal 
factors; namely, number of men in mine, 
number of hours worked, and degree of 
danger to which the men are commonly 
exposed in the particular mine in ques- 
tion. The number of fatalities would in- 
crease with the number of men and hours 
of employment and the danger. The last 
named factor—the particular danger of 
the mine--though dependent on physical 
conditions that are impossible to fore- 
cast, may be gaged more or less correctly 
by the output per man per hour, varying 
inversely as such unit output or tonnage. 
The hours of employment will evidently 
vary as the tonnage of the mine and in- 
versely as the number of men, or as the 
tonnage per man. 

Writing these factors out, or expressing 


‘their relation algebraically, they reduce 


as follows: 
Fatalities vary as (men) x (hours) 
x (danger) 
tonnaae of mine 
men employed 





Hours vary as 








404 


tonnage of mine 
men X hours 





Danger varies inversely as 


or 
Danger varies directly as ne Rote = 
tonnage 
men — tonnage __ . 
° tonnage men 
Hence, 





t 
ee) . 


Fatalities vary as (men) ( men 


= tonnage 


If the foregoing analysis can be taken 
as representing with a fair degree of ap- 
proximation the relative number of fatal- 
ities that may justly be expected in mines 
operated under various physical condi- 
tions beyond the control of the manage- 
ment, it would follow that the degree of 
efficiency with which the mines are man- 
aged would be properly represented on a 
tonnage basis. In other words, the death 
rate should then be expressed as the ratio 


COAL AGE 


former being practically double the latter. 
This item alone serves to emphasize the 
urgency of the demand for coal in Amer- 
ican mines, or the tendency of the miner 
to increase his tonnage, as it cannot be 
assumed that any physical condition op- 
erates in both the hard- and soft-coal 
mines here to increase the average output 
per man so as to make it double that in 
English mines. * 

It is also interesting to note, after what 
we have remarked in reference to the 
true basis for estimating the death rate in 
mines, that, in the table, the English 
death rate per 1000 men employed is 
lower, for each year, than the correspond- 
ing rate for the same respective years in 
Pennsylvania. On the other hand, the 
English death rate per million tons of 
coal mined is higher, year by year, than 
the corresponding rates in the American 
mines. The question naturally is sug- 
gested, which of these is the proper rat- 


of the number of fatalities to the tonnage ..ing as indicating the relative efficiency 








TABLE SHOWING PRODUCTION OF COAL, NUMBER OF MEN EMPLOYED, FATALITIES 
AND DEATH RATES, AND AVERAGE ANNUAL OUTPUT PER MAN 1908-1910, 
INCLUSIVE, PENN. ANTHRACITE, PENN. BITUMINOUS AND GREAT BRITAIN 
























































EMPLOYEES DeatH RATE 
Average 
Per Annual 
1,000,000] Output 
Production ; ; Total |Per 1000] Tons of | per Man 
Year (tons) Inside Outside Total Fatalities} Men Coal (Tons) 
PENNSYLVANIA ANTHRACITE 
1908.... | 83,543,243 | 124,233 50,270 174,503 678 3.88 8.12 672 
1309......} 80,223,833 | 123,272 47,923 171,195 567 3.31 7.07 651 
|): ‘ 83,683,994 121,542 46,633 168,175 601 3.57 cone 689 
| 
PENNSYLVANIA BITUMINOUS 
1908..... | 114,937,375 152,536 29,304 181,840 572 3.15 4.98 753 
1909.....| 136,205,695 152,424 33,497 185,921 506 > Me 4 3.72 893 
_') Uae | 148,770,858 159,671 33,817 193,488 539 2.78 3.63 932 
| GREAT BRITAIN 
i er | 261,512,214 796,329 191,484 987,813 1,306 | 1.32 | 5.01 | 329 
1909.. ..| 263,758,562 818,381 195,617 | 1,013,998 1,453 1.44 5.51 323 
1910... ..| 264,292,588 848,381 201,026 | 1,049,407 1,769 | 1.68 6.69 | 314 











of the mine, and not to the men em- 
ployed. This seems to me a more fair 
basis of comparison. 

The following table is interesting as 
showing the production, number of men 
employed inside and outside the mine, 
total number of fatalities, and the death 
rate, per 1000 men employed below and 
above ground and per 1,000,000 tons of 
coal mined, besides the average annual 
output per man in the mine, for the past 
three years, 1908-1910, inclusive, in the 
anthracite and the bituminous mines of 
Pennsylvania, as compared with the same 
data in the mines of Great Britain, as 
compiled from the mining report of the 
Department of Mines of Pennsylvania, 
1910. 

Referring to this table it is inter- 
esting to note the large average annual 
cutput per man in the Pennsylvania 
mines, both anthracite and bituminous, as 
compared with that of English mines, the 


of the mine management; for that is 
what we expect the death rate to show. 

Taking the tonnage basis as the prop- 
er method of estimation, which I believe 
iS a nearer approximation to what it is 
desired to show, the death rates for these 
years are lower in the American than in 
English mines. It will be observed also 
that the death rate, on this basis, has 
uniformly decreased in Pennsylvania 
during this period, year by year, while 
in English mines the rate for the same 
years shows a uniform increase. 








Electric cables for mine use should be 
incased in iron pipes or well tarred 
wooden troughs. All jointing should be 
most carefully done or serious accidents 
resulting in loss of life may follow. Wrap 
all joints with tape and ram in with bi- 
tumen. In gaseous mines all electrical 
machinery should be inclosed so as to be 
flame-proof. 


January 6, 1912 


Leased and Owned Coal 
Lands 


A preliminary statement of the statis- 
tics of tenure of coal lands by operators 
in the United States for the year 1909 
was recently issued by Director Durand of 
the Bureau of the Census of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor. 

In regard to these statistics, it should 
be noted that they cover the holdings of 
none but coal-mine operators, and for 
these operators include no acreage but 
that of mineral lands, that is, other acre- 
age held by operators, some of which 
may or may not contain coal, and the 
surveyed lands of nonoperators are not 
included in these figures. The total num- 
ber of acres controlled and the total an- 
thracite holdings of the United States 
and of Pennsylvania are exclusive of 
10,975 acres of anthracite coal land sub- 
let by operators to each other and re- 
ported twice. 

It is significant that the only increase 
in the acreage of anthracite lands has 
been made in the division of lands owned 
by the operator, while the number of 
acres of land developed under lease has 
decreased. This is explained by the fact 
that the larger producers of anthracite 
bought large areas of coal lands several 
years ago to hold as reserve supplies. 
Since royalty must be paid continuously 
on coal land held under lease, whether 
coal is mined or not, the leased lands are 
not conserved, but are mined out stead- 
ily. This, in part, accounts for the de- 
crease in the acreage of anthracite lands 
held under lease, and it is in part ac- 
counted for by some occasional pur- 
chases of leases by large operators, 
thereby changing the form of tenure from 
held under lease to owned property. 
The increase in the number of acres of 
mineral land reported as owned is due 
not only to lands acquired, but also in 
part to the classification as mineral lands 
of lands previously held by large pro- 
ducers, but not determined as coal-pro- 
ducing areas. 





COAL LANDS OWNED AND LEASED ‘BY 
OPERATORS IN PRINCIPAL COAL- 
PRODUCING STATES DURING 1909 











Acres 

Held 
Acres Acres Under 

Controlled | Owned Lease 


United States.|(?) 6,906,088] 4,782,170] 2,134,893 











Anthracite..|(2) 274,870} 183,144] 102,701 
Bituminous. 6,631,218] 4,599,026] 2,032,192 
Pennsylvania. |(?) 1,927,829} 1,509,425] 429,379 
Anthracite. .|(2) 274,010) 183,044 101,941 
Bituminous. 1,653,819] 1,326,381] 327,438 
West Virginia. 1,147,527} 590,885} 556,642 
Alabama..... 612,026} 538,122 73,904 
Illinois. ...... 553,711] 398,090} 155,624 
= 408,413} 260,423] 147,990 
TnGianea...... 141,272} 104,938 36,334 














(1) Exclusive of 10,975 acres of anthracite 
lands reported twice in totals for acres owned 
and acres held under lease. 











ae! 











January 6, 1912 


COAL AGE 





405 


Reviews of Coal Industry for I9I] 


The coal industry during the year now 
closed is remarkable rather for what 
did not occur, than because of any new 
features developed. No important de- 
partures in the science of mining or in 
mining appliances have been made, nor 
has the country been visited by such 
an extended series of holocausts as 
caused a veritable reign of terror in 
several previous years. That it has met 
with many troubles and disappointments 
cannot be denied, but it has acquired 
confidence in meeting and overcoming 
these and has gathered new strength. 

In common with a number of recent 
years, 1911 witnessed further consoli- 
dations of corporate interests in which 
the coal industry figured prominently. 
The economies possible to effect by 
such consolidation are fully appreciated 
by capital and the ensuing years will 
no doubt bring forth larger and stronger 
combinations along these lines. An en- 
tirely new development, in this direction, 
has been the organization of a National 
Coal Operators’ Association, only yet in 
its infancy. 















Reports from state mine 
inspectors, special corres- 
pondents and others with 
estimates of the year’s pro- 
duction and outlook for 
1912. 











! 


In production, this year has been a 
good one, since the output has nearly 
equaled that of 1910, but this, unfortun- 
ately, does not bespeak an entirely satis- 
factory business, because of the low 
coal prices that prevailed. It is true also 
that general industrial conditions are 
all below normal, and the heavy ton- 
nages, thrown on an already weakened 
market, have produced a condition bor- 
dering on demoralization. With the pro- 
ductive capacity of our mines far in ex- 
cess of the average normal consumption, 
such conditions will continue to pre- 
vail until some system of regulation is 








inaugurated, and it is such problems as 
these that have made necessary the 
operators’ organization. 

The export shipments for the year 
show an unprecedented increase which 
is, however, hardly normal because 
largely due to the labor troubles in 
British Columbia. That the United States 
is forging to the front as a fuel exporter 
is becoming clearly evident, and that this 
may eventually become an outlet for 
our over-production seems reasonable to 
believe. 

Labor troubles during the year of 1911 
have amounted to practically nothing. 
During the present year, however, the 
industry will face the most important 
wage conference in the history of the 
country, when the present agreements 
all expire simultaneously April 1. 

The present year will inherit some of 
the problems of the old one, and no 
doubt develop new ones of its own, but 
the confidence gained in overcoming the 
difficulties of 1911 will do much to en- 
gender a spirit of optimism in the coal 
industry. 











Coal Industry of Alabama in 
1911 


SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE 


The production for the year 1910 was 
16,139,228 tons, but is not expected to 
go so high in the present year, the chief 
mine inspector estimating it at about 
14,500,000 tons. 

The labor supply has been fair all 
year, with the exception of a temporary 
shortage toward the latter part of the 
summer when mines which had been 
closed down were started up and other 
mines put in more regular operation. The 
year has been free from strikes or other 
disturbances of like nature. 

The production of coal was low during 
the spring and early summer as the 
market conditions were not as good as 
during that period of .1910, for during 
that year, strikes in the coal fields of Illi- 
nois and Oklahoma helped conditions 
here greatly. Also furnace requirements 
have not been as large this year as in 
1910. 

In regard to the labor supply, it should 
be said that as far as actual numbers 
on the rolls are concerned, there is little 
or no difficulty. We have usually had a 
sufficient number of men enrolled to op- 
erate our plants, but many of these are 
inefficient workmen, who work, so irregu- 
larly that it is impossible to rely on them. 
Mining is rendered hazardous by the em- 
Ployment of a shifting force of men, and 
Profits are curtailed when tite daily out- 
put is liable to be reduced by the unfore- 
Seen absence of some of the men. 


Colorado Coal Industry in 
1911 


By JAMES DALRYMPLE* 


The coal business in Colorado for the 
year 1911 has not been quite so lucrative 
as it was in 1910, although the output has 
been normal and satisfactory, all things 
considered. 

The larger production of last year was 
due to the demand from markets which 
were affected by the miners on strike in 
Illinois, Kansas, Arkansas and Oklahoma; 
the needed supply being drawn from the 
Colorado fields. 

Then, too, the adverse financial con- 
dition and business lethargy of the en- 
tire country have had considerable bear- 
ing on the coal industry. The disturbed 
industrial condition in Boulder and Weld 
counties where lignite is mined has con- 
tinued uninterruptedly since last year, 
with no prospect of an immediate settle- 
ment. Otherwise coal production has 
been steady and found a brisk market. 
Prices have advanced from 25 to 50c. per 
ton on domestic coals. 

Operators have had to cope with the 
usual shortage of cars in the last four 
months of the year, which always hamp- 
ers the production materially and retards 
the meeting of the market’s demands. 
The working force for 1911, which was 
13,813, shows a reduction of 955 men, as 
compared with 1910, when 14,768 men 
were employed. There is a decrease in 
the tonnage of coal produced during 1911 
of 2,029,026 tons. 





*Inspector of coal mines, Denver, Colo. 





The death rate is low, being 6 per 1000, 
which compares favorably with other 
years in Colorado. The nonfatal accidents 
number 248, as compared with 146 in 
1910. Surface fatal accidents numbered 
six, and underground fatal accidents 
totaled 82. 

A dust explosion, augmented by pow- 
der, occurred at the Cokedale mine, own- 
ed by the Carbon Coal & Coke Co., of 
Las Animas County, on February 9, 1911, 
in which seventeen lives were lost. This 
was the only catastrophe during the year. 

The mining laws of Colorado are 
faulty, but after the Governor appointed 
a commission to amend and improve the 
present laws, which commission worked 
faithfully for five months, the Governor 
felt it incumbent upon him to veto the 
bill, as it was mutilated beyond all 
recognition. 


The following is a summary of the coal 
production in Colorado in 1911: 


SUMMARY OF THE COAL PRODUC- 
TION OF COLORADO IN 1911 
Number of mines in opera- 
GREROMAC gcc ain ceca oe wre ew aeaere a 158 
Tons of lignite coal pro- 
UOC 65a sc. oe wiulnkowweiwe ots 1,676,975 
Tons of semibituminous coal 
LOS CCUG TR Seine pees 761,526 
Tons of bituminous’ coal 
PROQUCOU 5.6. Sek eewomcee 7,502,981 
Tons of anthracite coal pro- 
CU CO: DE een ee rials 64,379 
Tons of unclassified coal 
produced, estimated....... 70,000 
Total number of tons 
PEOdUCER . 6 ccc es awe. 10,075,861 
Deerease tn t908.... «20%. 2,029,026 
Total number of tons of coke 
DWUQGGCOS 656s eres ic eccteces 946,284 
Total number of coke ovens 
WH OPGPACION: 2. 6c kc cc ccucs 2,764 
Total number of employees 
in and about the mines.. 13,813.3 
Total number of days 
WIOSNGO@ Fic ociess cs cdewcwas 188.7 





406 


COAL AGE 


January 6, 1912 


The Illinois Coal Industry in 191I 


Special Correspondence 











The fiscal year which ended June 30, 
1911, showed only 53 counties producing 
coal in Illinois as against 55 in the previ- 
ous year. The number of mines and 
openings had also reduced from 881 to 
845, a drop of 36 mines. In the fiscal 
year 184 mines were newly opened or 
reworked, but in the same time 217 were 
closed or abandoned. Though there was 
a slight reduction in mines working, the 
whole tonnage produced rose from 
48,717,853 tons in 1910 to 50,165,099 in 
1911 or 2.97 per cent. There was a re- 
duction of only 3 shipping mines in 1911. 

Of the mines operating 458 engaged 
in local trade only. There were 33 less 
of these mines operating in 1911 than in 
the year before, the tonnage from them 
declining from 1,492,652 to 1,406,442. 
The total tonnage shipped in railroad 
cars was 44,578,400 tons as against 
43,007,015 tons in 1910, but this gain was 
not equal through the range of sizes. 
Thus the amount of mine run gained 
largely. In 1910 only 10,220,456 tons 
were shipped; in 1911 the tonnage was 
13,025,663 tons. There was. conse- 
quently a loss in many of the sizes 
of screened coal. Lump coal declined 
from 20,769,930 to 19,588,409; nut, from 
2,845,693 to 2,425,712 tons; slack, from 
1,372,038 to 1,131,784. On the other 
hand, two sizes much shipped from IIli- 
nois mines showed increased use. Egg 
mounted from 3,334,059 tons to 3,725,073 
tons, and pea coal similarly from 
10,174,677 to 10,268,458. 

The locomotive tender trade as sup- 
plied to the tenders at the mines fell with 
the decreased railroad business from 
886,217 tons to 877,793 tons. The local 
trade also fell from 2,867,871 to 2,617,- 
977 tons. There were consumed or 
wasted at the plants 2,090,929 tons 
whereas in 1910 the amount reported 
aggregated only 1,956,750 tons. The 
average operating days of shipping mines 
declined from 179 to 169 and all mines, 
shipping and domestic averaged pnly 
165 days of work as against 171 days 
on the previous year. 


PRICE LITTLE CHANGED BY WAGE 
INCREASE 


The price per ton rose from an average 
of $1.016 to $1.101, or $0.085. The gross 
selling value at tipple totalled $56,064,494 
as against $50,204,207, an increase of 
11.7 per cent. Motor haulage took a fur- 
ther advance. There are now 316 motors 
used, whereas in 1910 there were but 229, 





Note—From report of State Mining 
Board. 


a significant increase of 38 per cent. 
Mining machines were used in 126 mines, 
whereas in 1910 there were 114 mines in 
which they were to be found. The min- 
ing machines accordingly increased in 
number from 1289 to 1430. The number 
of tons undercut by machines was 19,- 
998,259, whereas in 1910 it was 18,176,- 
254 tons. In 1911 the number of tons 
hand-mined declined from 30,541,599 
tons to 30,166,840 tons. 


MEN EMPLOYED 


In 1911 the miners employed num- 
bered 39,912, having increased since 
1910, when the number was only 39,069. 
In Illinois the number of other employees 
underground is large. In 1911, 30,052 
persons other than miners worked in 
the mines and the number increased 
more than the number of miners. In 
1910 there were but 28,137 not actually 
engaged in the mining of coal. The 
number of boys working underground 
dropped from 1154 to 1009. Above 
ground the boys employed rose from 47 
to 71. The number of other employees 
above ground in 1911 was 6366; in the 
previous year there were 6227 of such 
operatives. The total number of em. 
ployees above and underground increased 
from 74,634 to 77,410 persons. Thus 
the employees may be divided up as fol- 
lows roughly: Miners, 51.6 per cent.; 
other underground adult employees, 38.8 
per cent.; boys underground, 1.3 per 
cent.; boys above ground, 0.1 per cent.; 
adult employees above ground, 8.2 per 
cent.; total, 100 per cent. 

Of the whole number of adult em- 
ployees, 74,508 were employed at ship- 
ping mines in 1911, and 71,520 in 1910. 
The local mines employed 2902 in the 
last fiscal year. In 1910, 3114 men were 
thus employed. There were 70,973 work- 
ing below ground in 1911 and in the year 
before, 68,360 were thus employed. The 
corresponding number for workers above 
ground in the coal mining industry of 
the state were 6437 and 6274. 


MINING RATES AND CONSUMPTION OF 
POWDER 


The average rate for hand-pick min- 
ing in the shipping mines per gross ton 
was $0.627, an increase over the year 
before of three cents. Machine mining 
also cost 3.2 cents more, the price so 
advanced averaging $0.494 per gross ton. 

The number of kegs of powder used 
for coal blasting was 1,240,293; in 1910 
1,254,095. Powder was used for other 
purposes to the extent of 3568 kegs last 


year; in the previous years, the use 
reached 3128 kegs. Permissible ex- 
plosives were used to the extent of 243,- 
099 Ib. 


FATALITIES AND INJURIES NOT 
DECREASING 


The Cherry mine disaster was so ab- 
normally severe that it does not seem well 
to include it in making comparisons be- 
tween the two last years. That disaster 
is omitted therefore from the 1910 cal- 
culations. Last year 157 men were ac- 
cidentally killed, 7 men more than in the 
previous year. Of these 149 men were 
killed inside and 8 outside the mines. 
The deaths made 87 wives, widows, and 
left 245 children, fatherless. Injuries 
entailing the loss of a month or more 
totalled 709. In the previous year such 
accidents were more numerous, 742 men 
being so incapacitated. There were 319,- 
523 tons mined for every life lost. In 
1910 the record was a trifle more favor- 
able, 324,786 tons. The number of em- 
ployees per life lost was 493, whereas 
in 1910 the number was 498, so that if 
it had not been for the Cherry mine 
disaster, 1910 would have had a little 
better record than the past year. 

For convenience in figuring, it may 
be well to add that deaths per thousand 
men employed ran 2.03 in 1911, and 
2.01 in 1910, with the reservation re- 
ferred to. In 1911, 70,754 tons were 
mined for every man severely injured 
and in 1910 only 65,657 were produced 
at the same loss and suffering. Out of 
every 109. men last year one man was 
injured. In 1910 that proportion was 
only 101 to 1. The number killed for 
each million tons produced was 3.1 in 
both the years considered. The number 
injured for every thousand men em- 
ployed was 9.9 in 1910 and 9.2 in 1911. 
It will be observed that the figures for 
tonnage, activity and injuries, fatal and 
otherwise, are not materially changed. 
The compensation to labor has increased 
5 per cent. for hand-pick work and about 
6 per cent. for machine work. 

The increase in the price of coal is 
probably due to the conditions obtaining 
after the strike and that price may de- 
cline in the following fiscal year. It will 
be seen that the operator made an in- 
creased gain of about 5c. on an increased 
product of 2.97 per cent.; not such a bad 
record for the year 1911, which has not 
appeared bright in other states. More- 
over, improved haulage methods and in- 
creased machine mining should have 
added largely to that profit. 


A i ac 














January 6, 1912 


COAL AGE 





407 


Indiana Coal Industry in 1911 


— 


By Frank I. Pearce* 








——— 


Beginning with January, and slightly 
before, the demand for coal became less 
brisk and many of the mines that had 
been operating nearly full time, previous 
to and for a considerable time after the 
settlement of the strike in Illinois, were 
unable to work more than half time dur- 
ing January, February and March. 

With the approach of milder weather, 
market demands grew weaker, compe- 
tition stronger and selling prices took a 
drop. As a result of this condition many 
mines that had been working about half 
time were unable to operate more than 
one or two days a week and a number 
were closed down indefinitely, or to make 
repairs. 

This condition continued through April, 
May, June, July, August and the first 
half of September resulting in consider- 
able suffering among hundreds of idle 


employees depending upon the mines for 
their livelihood, and in many instances a 
considerable outlay of money to the com- 
panies to keep their mines in repair. 
Even where this was done property in 
many instances suffered a certain de- 
preciation in value, that is, a fixed loss. 


DEMAND FOR COAL IMPROVED 


The latter part of September the de- 
mand for coal began to improve some- 
what and from this period until Dec. 15 
the mines averaged about half time, and 
a number that were closed down earlier 
in the year resumed operations. Market 
conditions grew a little stronger and sell- 
ing prices advanced. 

The coal production of any state is 
governed by the demand, number of days 





*Deputy Inspector of Mines, Indianapolis, 
Ind. 


worked and number of persons employed. 
The demand for coal has been poor for 
the year 1911 as compared with 1910 re- 
sulting in a greater loss of time, a larger 
number of employees being idle, and the 
production proportionately reduced. 


PRODUCTION 


The condition of the coal trade being 
somewhat similar to that of the year 
1909 the production will be about the 
same, or possibly 14 million short tons, 
slightly in excess of what it was that 
year. However, this is only an estimate 
as the state’s production has not yet been 
compiled for the year. 

There were a number of strikes during 
the year but most of these occurred at a 
time when the demand for coal was such 
as to not seriously affect the state’s out- 
put. 








Coal 


Industry in 


By L. E. Stamm * 


lowa 





nn ——— 





— ——— 





In reviewing the coal industry of this 
state for the year just drawing to a close 
I am pleased to note that the conditions 
for the most part have been good and 
that the tonnage has reached the highest 
mark in production since coal mining first 
began in this state during 1840. In re- 
cent years the annual coal production of 
Iowa has increased steadily, except in the 
years 1908 and 1910, when a slight fall- 
ing off in the production was rfeted, 
caused possibly by a suspension of the 
mines for a period of thirty days during 
each of those years, pending an agree- 
ment between the miners and operators 
relative to a wage agreement. 


LARGEST TONNAGE EVER PRODUCED 


Under the laws of the state of Iowa, 
statistics relating to the production of coal 
in the state are gathered for the fiscal 
year ending June 30. These statistics 
gathered for the last fiscal year show a 
production of coal amounting to 7,574,919 
tons. This is the largest tonnage ever 
produced in this state, and while these are 
figures for the fiscal year, it would be 
safe to say that they will approximate 
those for the calendar year. In the pro- 
duction of the tonnage noted above, 16,- 
571 persons, both miners and others, were 
employed in and around the mines, and 
the work of mining was fairly good dur- 
ing most of the year. The coal industry 
of Iowa, while not of such magnitude as 
in a number of states, still has much 





————= 


to do with the general prosperity of the 
state. 

Coal was first discovered and mined in 
Iowa in 1840, and at that time was mined 
in but one other state west of the Miss- 
issippi river. Only 400 tons were pro- 
duced in 1840, while in 1857 the produc- 
tion had reached 1,231,547 tons. In 1882 
it had reached 3,920,000 tons, while for 
the year 1899 more than 5,000,000 tons 
of coal were mined. Since then the out- 
put has steadily increased. As stated 
above, the tonnage for the fiscal year of 
1911 was 7,574,919 tons. 


COAL MINED IN 22 COUNTIES 


Coal is mined in 22 counties in Iowa. 
The product is bituminous and of good 
quality. Some coal is shipped from this 
state into Nebraska, Minnesota and the 
Dakotas, but most of the coal produced 
is consumed within the borders of the 
state. Its manufacturing industries pro- 
vide a market for most of the coal pro- 
duced in Iowa, and on account of the ab- 
sence of friction between the miners and 
operators of the state the coal industry 
has made a steady growth. Owing to the: 
mild weather which has prevailed in 
Iowa from September onward, the coal 
production has not been quite so good as 
is usually the case at this time of year, 
but with the coming of cold weather we 
look for a steady demand for coal; one 





*Secy. to Mine Inspectors, Des Moines, 
Towa. 


that will keep the mines of the state 
running on a fairly steady basis. 

Owing to the extension of the Rock 
Island System from Des Moines south, a 
new coal field will be developed in Ma- 
rion County during the coming year. Al- 
ready the Rock Island company is starting 
the development of a new mine near Dal- 
las, Marion County, and this mine will be 
equipped for a daily capacity of two 
thousand tons or more. Other mines will 
be developed in this section, so the out- 
look for the year 1912 seems at this writ- 
ing to be bright for an increased coal 
production. However, the coming April 
marks the time for a new agreement be- 
tween the operators and miners of the 
state and, judging from past years, there 
is likely to be a suspension of mining 
for thirty days or more at that time. This 
will affect the output for the coming year 
to some extent. 


BuT Few Lasor TROUBLES 


There have been but few labor troubles 
affecting the production of coal in Iowa 
during the past year. A few local strikes 
have occurred, caused by a difference of 
opinion as to the terms of agreement be- 
tween the operators and miners. For the 
most part these disagreements or strikes 
were of short duration, and did not affect 
the coal output to any great extent. Judg- 
ing from past years, it would seem at 
this time that there will be an increase 
po the coal production of this state in 
1912. 








408 


Coal Production of Kansas 1911 
By LEoNn BESSsON* 


The coal production for the year 1911 
will be approximately six million tons. 
It will be greater for the year 1911, than 
it was for the previous year, owing to the 
fact that in the year 1910 there was a 
long suspension of work, extending from 
April 1 to Sept. 22. On the other hand 
there have been few local labor troubles 
in the present year, and these not of any 
importance. An average of about 11,- 
500 men were employed in the mines 
of the state. There have been a few 
mine explosions this year, causing the 
death of five shot-firers and two rescuers. 
I am of the opinion that the coal pro- 
duction will be steadily on the increase, 
for there is a tendency to go back to coal, 
as natural gas seems to be approaching 
exhaustion. 


Maryland Coal Statistics 
for 1911 


By J. H. DONAHUE+ 

From all the available data at hand, 
it appears that the coal production of 
Maryland for the year just closed will 
show an appreciable falling off. The 
production for 1911 as estimated, will be 
4,500,000 short tons, as compared with 
nearly 5,000,000 tons in 1910 and 4,524,- 
112 tons for 1909. 











*State mine inspector, Pittsburg, Kans. 
{Chief Mine Inspector, Frostburg, Md. 


COAL AGE 


Maryland was particularly fortunate 
during the past year with respect to labor 
troubles, having experienced no incon- 
venience from this source whatever. It 
is estimated that the average days worked 
will be about 240, and the number of 
fatal accidents during the year will not 
total more than 15. The non-fatal acci- 
dents have not yet been reported. 








North Dakota Lignite in 


1911 
By J. A. Buiss* 


During the year 1911 there were nine- 
ty-eight coal mines in operation in North 
Dakota, producing about 395,000 tons 
of lignite. Over a thousand men were 
employed during the busy season which 
begins in October and closes in January. 
During the summer months the demand 
for lignite falls off, and as a result part 
of the mines are closed down. North 
Dakota mines are entirely free from ex- 
plosive gases, and the list of fatalities 
and injuries has been low during the 
past year. 

The demand for lignite is gradually in- 
creasing and several new mines have 
been opened up, while some of the larger 
operating mines have added to their 
equipment. Although the estimated 
amount of lignite within the state exceeds 
that of any other state in the Union, the 
demand for it is largely of a local nature, 


*Asst. Mine Inspector, Bismarck, N. D. 


January 6, 1912 


and because of its abundance the selling 
price is so low that the margin of profit 
is small. 

The question of timbering the mines is 
a serious one, as dependence has to be 
placed on timber shipped in from Minne- 
sota, largely, though some is obtained 
from the Western states. 

The state legislature has wisely seen fit 
to lend active support to the furthering of 
its lignite industry, and all public insti- 
tutions are required to use coal mined 
within the state. An appropriation has 
been set aside for the purpose of estab- 
lishing and maintaining an experiment 
station. This has been located at Heb- 
ron, where a mine has been purchased 
by the state and an excellently equipped 
building erected. This station is under 
the direction of the State School of Mines 
at Grand Forks, and its efforts are largely 
directed toward perfecting the briquet- 
ting process and of making commercial 
use of the volatile gases which run high 
in all lignite. 

The successful development of a pro- 
cess of briquetting on a commercial basis 
and of making use of the volatile gases 
for illumination, heat and power would 
create at once a demand for lignite and 
open a large field for investment. 

The recent advent of several new 
branches of railroad in the western part 
of the state has made accessible a new 
portion of the coal fields, and a greater 
gain in production is anticipated for the 
ensuing year than heretofore. 








Montana Coal Industry in 19Il 


Montana is the third largest state in 
the Union and contains more square 
miles area, than New York, New Jersey, 
New Hampshire, Maine, Massachusetts, 
Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
Delaware and Vermont combined. It is 
underlain with coal, ranging in quality 
from lignite to sub-bituminous, semi- 
anthracite and anthracite; the latter has 
not,been found in workable quantities. 


PRODUCTION FOR 1911 

Legislative action, in creating the 
county of Musselshell out of portions of 
Fergus, Meagher and Yellowstone Coun- 
ties, has not decreased the production of 
coal, but Fergus and Yellowstone are, for 
a time, reduced from large producers by 
the change of county lines. 

The following is the production by 
counties in short tons for year ending 
Cet. 31, 41011: 

PRODUCTION BY COUNTIES 


Tons 
SRP. iiss Howe keaweseeee 1,226,783 
RNID 5325s ce iw otin > arme eeeee 948,823 
LE LS | a a ee ea 643,648 
Ll ae ere eee eee 54,760 
RUEMESERD:. iig:4 60 G59 BW nis) recat ewe leeleta 14,127 
RUERMUREERED, 2 6.5 lalip orp, wie o's 406! revit wee 10,801 
ENE. ice eG tered 6ie ws Oi SURVRlS Ae Oe 6,670 
PED Sikes oib-o woe enews wise 5,044 
MUM,” 6-sr5:b:5 4&5: gts- sam tele wis-otelecelons 2,741 


GRAS). ccesnesc3 O NK hek eee 2,913,397 


By J. B. McDermott * 








The capacity of Mon- 
tana’s mines has been ma- 
terially increased during 
the year now closed. The 
first coal dust explosion in 
the history of the state oc- 
curred and important laws, 
governing the operation of 
mines, were enacted. 




















*State Coal Mine Inspector, Helena, Mont. 


The new county of Musselshell, in- 
cludes the rapidly growing camps, Round- 
up and Klein. This county is now the 
third largest producer in Montana. 

There has been an apparent dullness 
in the Montana coal trade during the 
year just closed due to a heavy increase 
of capacity and consequent overproduc- 
tion. At Stockett, in Cascade County, the 
Great Northern Ry. Co., coal department, 
have installed independent haulage en- 


gines for each of their new Nos. 5 and 
6 mines. The Northern Pacific Ry. Co., 
at Red Lodge, in Carbon County, have, 
under their new management, increased 
their output from 1500 tons per day to 
5000 and have even reached as high as 
6000 tons. In Musselshell County, the 
Republic Coal Co. have increased the 
capacity of their No. 2 mine at Klein 
from 1500 tons, the record last year, to 
2000, now their average daily run; this 
mine is now sufficiently developed to pro- 
duce 3000 tons in 8 hours. In this same 
county, at Mine A, of the Roundup Coal 
Mining Company (subsidiary of the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Ry. Co., 
at Roundup, the production is now 1500 
tons per day. Mine B of. the Davis Coal 
Co. is producing from 500 to 700 tons 
per day. Mines in the Bearcreek dis- 
trict are also doing considerable develop- 
ment in anticipation of a heavy future 
output. 


Dust ExPLOSION 


The first dust explosion in the history 
of the Montana coal industry occurred on 
Apr. 15, 1911, at the No. 2 mine of the 














January 6, 1912 


Republic Coal Co., Klein, Musselshell 
County. 

The coal seam here is between 5 ft. 9 
in. and 6 ft. thick, has a hard sandrock 
roof, and the coal is friable and frozen to 
both the roof and bottom. An average 
analysis of the coal is: Moisture 12.7 per 
cent.; volatile combustible, 28.7 per 
cent.; fixed carbon, 50.9 per cent. and 
ash, 7.7 per cent. 

Mining is paid for on the mine-run 
basis and is mined by shooting off the 
solid, tamping being done with fine coal 
and slack. The mine generally is wet, 
although dry in places, and fuses are 
used in both wet and dry holes. Shoot- 
ing is restricted generally, although not 
entirely, to the periods between shifts. 

The trouble occurred in a series of five 
rooms, in three of which there had been 
no crosscuts driven. From the testi- 
mony offered, there appears to have been 
about 50 in. of black powder fired at 
practically the same time in these five 
rooms. In the No. 3 room one shot had 
been laid parallel to the face of the room 
and pointed toward the left-hand rib, and 
another on the right-hand rib, parallel 
with the room pillar, and directly op- 
posite the mouth of the other hole. It 
appeared that both holes were over- 
charged and the result was that windy 
shots occurred. 

After the explosion No. 3 room was 
the only one which could not be entered 
until some provision was made for re- 
moving the smoke and gases. The flame 
burned the sight-strings in front of all 
five rooms, and also scorched brattice 
cloth on the entry further out, travel- 
ing against the intake air current some 
500 ft. Fortunately, the brattice between 
the intake and the return (a board-stop- 
ping) gave way which short-circuited the 
flame into the return airway where con- 
ditions for propagation were less favor- 
able. 

No one was seriously hurt, although 
some where scorched slightly. The prop- 
erty damage was practically nothing, al- 
though this cannot be credited to good 
judgment or management. At present all 
the miners use their own discretion as 
to the placing of their holes, the number, 
and the amount of powder to use. Will 
we, like many other mining states, re- 
quire the usual disaster and consequent 
loss of life, to force us into the adoption 
of safe laws for the blasting of coal? 

Labor troubles in Canada proved of 
considerable help to Montana operators 
during their usually dull season in the 
spring and summer. Some coal was also 
Shipped into Canada later in the season. 


ACCIDENTS IN 1911 


During the year just closed there have 
been 13 fatal and 50 non-fatal accidents 
in the Montana coal mines, as follows: 








COAL AGE 





TABLE OF MINE ACCIDENTS 
Causes of accidents Killed Injured Total 


Falling roof ...... Bede ceus uc BES cs ckG3 
Ballina COG) .cciccecevces yore +. Sean © 
MGOVIN@ CAFE ccccccesccscs G.. 1c. DNS 
Powder burned and blasted 0... 5. S$ 
All other causes ......... t: 7; 


OCCUPATIONS OF VICTIMS 


Occupation Killed Injured Total 
PIGh TINGE nc ce occeuewe ce 12... OR. «483 
BIMVOE. Scsicacawene, wesees« err: Sears (! t 
Be CRONE Beccckctsnwoennss Pee 8G a ROE 


During 1911 the Montana State Legis- 
lature enacted a law providing a fund 
for the relief of miners injured in coal- 
mine accidents. The law required all 
operators to contribute one cent per ton 
of gross tonnage mined toward the sup- 
port of this fund. Due to the fact that 
the miner, besides deriving the benefits 
from this fund, also retained privilege 
of bringing action at law for additional 
damages the act was declared uncon- 
stitutional by the Supreme Court of the 
State. ; 

The growing sentiment in favor of 
some form of compensation for the de- 
pendents of those injured or killed in 
mine accidents, has made desirable the 
enactment of some such law, and it is 
with regret that we record its failure. 
From the inquiries received, applications 
for copies and comments made upon this 
law, together with words of commenda- 
tion spoken at different institute meetings 
I have attended in Scranton, Chicago and 
Charleston, W. Va., I feel that this law 
would have come nearer filling the bill 
than any previous efforts along this line. 

In common with all new departures, 
the law met with opposition from both 
operators and miners, which was, I think, 
due to a misunderstanding of its pur- 
poses. The funds were to be handled by 
the State Auditor, who, on proof of death 
or total disability, was required to make 
payment of $3,000; loss of eye, arm, leg, 
etc., was compensated for _ propor- 
tionately. 


EXAMINATION OF MINE OFFICIALS 


Since the law requiring the examina- 


. tion of mine. foremen and firebosses be- 


came effective (in the year of 1909) 
there has been issued 62 certificates. 
Twenty-six of these were issued without 
examination to parties presenting like cer- 
tificates issued by competent authorities 
in other states. Forty-five were given 
service certificates without examination 
for having served continuously in the 
capacity as foreman for one year prior to 
the enactment of the law. 

Prior to the meeting of the twelfth 
session (1911) of the Montana State 
Legislature, the operators and miners, at 
a joint meeting, agreed upon what laws 
they wished enacted. They were passed 
as presented and have now become a part 
of our statutes. 

It is interesting to note that fully 20 
per cent. of the coal produced in Mon- 
tana during 1910 was mined on a royalty 








409 


basis. The prices varied from 5 to 25c. 
per ton. In some of the Western States, 
as for instance Colorado, large revenues 
are obtained from this source. During 
the last two years Colorado has derived 
$50,000 annually from approximately 
18,000 acres. 








Review of Coal Trade in 
Ohio 


The coal trade in Ohio during 1911! 
was not as active in many ways as that 
of the previous year which was the best 
in the history of the Buckeye State. 
Advance reports from the several mining 
districts indicate that there will be a de- 
crease of from three and a half to four 
million tons in the year’s production as 
compared to that of 1910. In some of the 
districts the loss was oniy slight and may 
even be turned to an increase but other 
districts have to report a suspension of 
from four to six months. 

While there was a decrease in the ton- 
nage mined, the most important feature 
of the coal trade was the unsatisfactory 
and unremunerative prices which pre- 
vailed during the greater part of the past 
twelve months. Prices as a whole were 
unsatisfactory and did not respond to the 
influence of weather as much as in 
former years. The large tonnage of 34,- 
424,951 in 1910 was partially caused by 
the long lay-off in Illinois and the in- 
creased demand for lake tonnage. Tak- 
ing it all in all the tonnage of about 31,- 
000,000 in 1911 was not a bad output 
and if it had not been for the low prices 
that prevailed would have been fairly 
profitable to the operators. 


DoMEstic GRADES 


During the year, prices did not advance 
above the $1.50 mark for domestic grades 
excepting in rare instances. Of course, 
the prices in the Pomeroy Bend district 
were higher because of the differential 
in freight rates but in that district $1.75 
@1.85 was the highest point reached. 
Generally speaking the circular figure re- 
mained at about $1.50 during the entire 
time but: this was not well maintained 
during the late winter and early spring 
months. The year opened with prices 
rather firm( somewhere about the $1.50 
mark) but they remained at that point 
only a short time. 

Under the influences of warm weather 
and poor steam trade,prices slumped soon 
after the first of the year and it was not 
until the middle of July that they were 
again pretty well maintained at the cir- 
cular quotations. The stocking period 
produced considerable business for a 
short time and then followed another pe- 
riod of inaction during the fall months 
although prices did not slump to any 
great extent. 

During the winter period weather con- 
ditions were not at all satisfactorv. Up 











410 


until Christmas there was no cold 
weather to cause a flurry in the trade with 
the possible exception of one week. It 
has been a sort of a hit and miss proposi- 
tion during the greater part of the year 
and will continue to be so unless con- 
ditions change to a radical degree. The 
Chicago market has not been such as to 
absorb any great amount of coal and 
this has had the effect of causing con- 
gestion in the domestic trade. 


RETAIL BUSINESS, 


Retail business has not been as active 
as formerly. Dealers stocked up con- 
-siderably early in the fall and the first 
run of orders was fairly satisfactory. 
Second purchases were not as numer- 
ous as usual and this caused the dealers 
to cancel their orders with the oper- 
ators and jobbers. Good roads in the 
country districts of the state have had 
the effect of steadying the retail trade 
because farmers are enabled to haul 
coal at almost any time during the winter 
and consequently need not buy in large 
quantities in the fall. 


COAL AGE 


The steam trade has been rather quiet. 
Requisitions on the part of manufactur- 
ing establishments were not as large as 
usual and business conditions in man- 
ufacturing circles have not been the best. 
There was a falling off in fuel require- 
ments for iron and steel plants and also 
in fact in many other lines. However, 
prices on steam business have probably 
been more satisfactory than in any other 
branch of the trade and renewals of con- 
tracts have been made at about the same 
figures that have prevailed for some time. 

In the department of railroad fuel the 
worst situation is seen. Railroad con- 
sumption fell off hundreds of thousands 
of tons from previous years. One large 
producing company reported a drop of 
over 400,000 tons in railroad fuel alone. 
Neither have prices for railroad fuel 


been satisfactory, as one large contract’ 


was taken at 85 cents, an extremely low 
figure. 


LAKE TRADE 


The lake trade was fairly active al- 
though a number of things interferred 
with an increased activity in that direc- 








January 6, 1912 


tion. The slack ore movement caused a 
falling off in lake shipments early in the 
season, which had opened auspiciously. 
This feature had the effect of making 
the boat supply rather short and later 
a freeze-up in the early fall caused 
many boats to put in for the winter 
sooner than usual. But on the whole the 
tonnage was rather satisfactory even if 
the prices were not the best. Congestion 
on the docks of the upper lake ports also 
interfered with a free lake movement. 

In the fine-coal market peculiar con- 
ditions prevailed. The removal of de- 
murrage charges on track storage cars 
permitted Ohio operators to hold up the 
prices to a considerable extent. The low- 
est price of the year was probably 30c. 
and the average was above that figure. 
The active lake season caused a large 
production of the small sizes. 

The outlook for 1912 is not particu- 
larly promising. The one great un- 
certainty is the renewal of the wage 
scale which expires April 1, 1912. Bus- 
iness conditions generally are not bright 
and the tonnage will probably remain 
comparatively small. 








— 
——— 





The Ohio Coal Industry for 1911 


According to advance reports from the 
various coal-mining districts of Ohio for 
the year just ended, the production in 
this state will be materially reduced as 
compared with that for the year 1910, 
which reached a total of 34,424,951 tons, 
the greatest amount ever recorded in the 
history of the state mining department. 

While there are no official figures at 
hand on which to base a correct estimate, 
it is believed the year’s tonnage will 
show a decrease of from 3¥% to 4 million 
tons. Although the loss may not be so 
great as at present indicated, it is true 
that in many districts work was unusually 
light during the year, while in others 
there was a suspension amounting to 
from 5% to 6 months. Several causes 
led to the large tonnage in 1910 that will 
not obtain for this year, notably the long 
strike in the state of Illinois and the sus- 
pensions in other districts; also, the in- 
creased demand for lake shipments. 


DisTRICT OUTPUT 


The tonnage of the Hocking Valley dis- 
trict as a whole, will fall off about 15 per 
cent. as compared with 1910, and that of 
eastern Ohio will probably show a loss 
of 10 per cent., or a total decrease of 
about 1,000,000 tons. The loss in Jack- 
son County will be about 40 per cent.; in 
Meigs County, the same; in Mahoning 
County, 10 per cent.; Columbiana County, 
20 per cent.; and in Tuscarawas County 
the decrease in tonnage will amount to 
about 200,000 tons, this being due to the 
enforced idleness of from 5% to 6 
months on account of the 1910-1911 


strike. 


By George Harrison* 











The year’s production 
will fall several million 
tons short of that for 1910. 
A substantial decrease is 
reported in the number of 
fatal accidents. The new 
state mining laws are in 
successful and satisfactory 
operation. 























*Chief mine inspector, Columbus, Ohio. 
LABOR AND WORKING TIME 


No, shortage of labor has been noted 
during the year; in fact, it will probably 
develop that the number of men em- 
ployed was smaller than during the year 
1910. While the decrease in the number 
of employees may not be particularly 
evident, the average working time per 
man will be seen to have been perceptibly 
reduced, with a consequent loss in earn- 
ings. The larger coal-producing counties 
will show no appreciable loss in the time 
worked, although the splendid record for 
the year 1910 will by no means be 
equaled. Other counties will show the 
working time as being about two-thirds 
and in some cases only one-half of that 
for the previous year, while in the dis- 
tricts of smallest production, the work- 
ing time will scarcely reach half of that 
for 1910. 


Prices for Ohio coal during the year 
were not particularly high and were sub- 
ject to considerable fluctuation. A short- 
age of cars was reported on the Toledo 
& Ohio Central Ry. in the Hocking Val- 
ley. This is, however, usually the case 
during the latter months of the year when 
there is an increased demand for fuel. 
The lake trade for the year, it is be- 
lieved, will not compare favorably with 
that for 1910, when the greatest tonnage 
ever shipped to the Lakes was recorded. 


ACCIDENTS 


The number of fatal accidents in Ohio 
will show a great decrease as compared 
with the preceding year. In 1910, 161 
accidents were recorded, while up un- 
til Dec. 15, only 107 accidents have been 
reported for this year. Of this number 
81 were due to falls of roofs; 10 to falls 
of coal; 7 to mine cars; and 3 to elec- 
tricity. Particularly gratifying is the not- 
able decrease in the number of persons 
killed by mine cars, from 19 in 1910 to 
7 in 1911; also the decrease from 97 to 
81 in the number killed by falls of roofs, 
and from 7 to 3 in the number killed by 
electric shock. So far no fatal accidents 
have been reported from the use of min- 
ing machines since the new law has re- 
quired that the machines shall be proper- 
ly shielded and has imposed a fine as 
penalty for removing such shields. 

Belmont County reported the greatest 
number of fatal accidents, 36 in all, of 
which 32 were due to falls of roof; Jef- 
ferson County reported 21, of which 16 
were due to the same cause. In these 
two counties the No. 8 seam of coal is 




















January 6, 1912 


worked. This seam has a dangerous top, 
and in many instances the miners become 
careless and neglect to take it down; the 
result is seen in the large number of 
deaths from this cause. Guernsey County 
reported 16 killed, 10 deaths being due to 
falls of roofs. Three other counties each 
reported only two fatal accidents. Seven 
counties had but one fatality apiece, and 
‘thirteen counties reported no accidents at 
all which resulted fatally. 


VIOLATIONS OF MINING LAws 


The number of violations of the mining 
laws shows a decrease from 52 cases in 
1910 to 37 in 1911. This latter number 
includes two prosecutions which were not 

‘reported to the state mine inspector’s office 
last year until after the year’s record had 
been closed; it also covers one case car- 
ried to a higher court and disposed of 
during the year. So far as it is possible 


COAL AGE 


to learn, all the prosecutions instituted 
both by the state mining department and 
employers of labor, have resulted in con- 
victions. These results seem particularly 
favorable in view of the fact that the new 
code did not go into effect until June, 
1910, and it required some considerable 
time for all persons connected with the 
mining industry to familiarize themselves 
with its provisions and the penalties for 
non-compliance. On the whole, operators 
and miners alike show a commendable 
disposition to respect the laws. 


PROSECUTIONS WERE UNDERTAKEN 


The fines for violations of the state 
mining law amounted to $400 and prose- 
cutions were undertaken for the follow- 
ing causes: Burning impure oil, 10; em- 
ployment of a minor, 1; violation of the 
breakthrough law, 5; not properly shield- 
ing a mining machine, 2; crossing a 
danger signal placed by a fireboss, 2; 





411 


entering a mine before it was examined 
by a fireboss, 2; entering a mine gen- 
erating firedamp, with an open light be- 
fore mine was examined by a fireboss, 1; 
failure to supply sufficient ventilation, 1; 
failure to provide safety catches on a 
mine cage, 1; using acetylene lamps, 2; 
failure to supply proper timber to min- 
ers, 2; riding on haulage trips, 6; and 
selling inferior oil, 1. 


OUTLOOK FOR YEAR 1912 NOT PROMISING 


The outlook for the year 1912 is not 
considered to be particularly promising, 
and it is not expected that any material 
improvement of conditions will be shown 
over the present year. One reason for 
this is the expiring wage contract, which 
will have to be considered. and renewed. 
Nevertheless there seems to be no rea- 
son why 1912 should not be a reasonably 
prosperous year for both employer and 
employee. 








The Coal Industry of Oklahoma, 1911 


Oklahoma’s coal deposits are exten- 
sive, but the state has labored for many 
years under serious difficulties in. connec- 
tion with the production of her natural 
resources. The coal-mining industry has 
been retarded for a number of reasons, 
and the first among these is the fact that 
practically all the mines of the state are 
worked under lease from the Federal 
Government. For several years past the 
Interior department has refused to lease 
any coal land in the belt segregated by 
the U. S. Government, and consequently 
there have been no new developments in 
the Oklahoma field, except such as have 
taken place on an extremely small scale, 
where coal has been discovered on the 
lands allotted to the Indians. These lands 
have, in some cases, been leased by in- 
dividuals or small companies, and, in the 
aggregate, have added materially to the 
total output. 


MINING CosT AND COMPETITION 


The coal in Oklahoma outcrops on the 
prairies with a pitch of from 5 to 45 
deg. The seams are usually worked by 
slopes in the vein and where development 
was Started a number of years ago these 
slopes have, in many instances, now 
reached such a depth that mining has be- 
come much more expensive than it was 
when carried on closer to the surface. 
Along with this condition, coal produc- 
tion has been retarded by the competition 
of cheaper fuels, such as oil and natural 
gas, of which there seem to be inexhaust- 
ible supplies in this state. The only 
system by which Oklahoma coal can be 
put on the market at a price to meet the 
competition from adjoining coal fields 
and other fuel supplies, involves sinking 
shafts to reach the vein which is being 
worked at present. These shafts would, 


By Ed. Boyle* 








Suspension of work, 
competition and other in- 
fluences have combined to 
restrict the year’s produc- 
tion in Oklahoma to less 
than half what it normally 
should be in view of exist- 
ing developments. The 
coke industry is at a stand- 
still. Accidents are grati- 
fyingly few. 




















*Chief mine inspector, State of Okla- 
homa, McAlester, Okla. 
in many instances, have to run down to 
a depth of 500 or 600 ft., and, under 
present conditions, the coal operators do 
not feel disposed to undertake any meas- 
ures which will require so large an out- 
lay of money or capital as would thus 
be involved. 


CoKE INDUSTRY 


There are a number of seams of coal 
in Oklahoma, varying in thickness from 
24 to 72 in., which are of exceedingly 
good quality. Some of this coal makes 
an excellent grade of coke and a large 
number of ovens have been built in this 
field. At one time large quantities of 
coke were supplied to the smelters of 
Mexico, but this trade has been lost on 
account of the prohibitive duty, since im- 
posed by the Mexican government. It 
has been found unprofitable here to at- 
tempt to manufacture coke in competi- 
tion with the Colorado field for furnish- 
ing this grade of fuel to smelters 
throughout the West, and, therefore, the 


coke ovens of Oklahoma now stand idle 
almost without exception. 

The total coal production of Oklahoma 
for the year 1911 will reach approxi- 
mately 2,800,000 tons, which is an ex- 
tremely small output for this field. If 
there was a market for the coal, the pres- 
ent openings and development should be 
producing, with steady work, 6,000,000 
tons per year, but it seems that during 
a suspension of work in 1910, the oper- 
ators lost most of their contracts to com- 
petitive fields and have been tunable to 
regain them up to this time. 


WASTEFUL METHODS 


The system of mining in general use 
in Oklahoma is criminally wasteful. 
Leases have usually been secured with 
but one object in view, which is that of 
getting out the cheapest coal and leaving 
the balance to go to waste. It is now time 
that the people should become aroused 
over this unwarranted waste and demand 
mining methods and conditions which will 
conserve the resources of the state. 

Mining conditions in this state differ 
from those found elsewhere, chiefly by 
virtue of the peculiar character of the 
roof. This contains a large proportion 
of limestone, which is easily slacked by 
the air current and requires great care 
and an unusual amount of timber to 
keep it secure. Nearly all the mines of 
this field are generating large quantities 
of gas and have to contend with a par- 
ticularly combustible form of dust, but 
thanks to competent management and 
supervision and a strict enforcement of 
the mining laws, there has been a great 
decrease in the number of fatal accidents, 
which is especially gratifying when com- 
pared with the number reported in other 
fields operating under similar conditions. 








412 


COAL AGE 


January 6, 1912 


Bituminous Mines, Pennsylvania, 1911 


There has not been a large amount of 
development in the bituminous regions 
during the past year owing to the small 
profits in recent mining. The great ad- 
vances of the past few years have been 
in the center of the state, where large 
developments have ben made in Indiana 
and Armstrong Counties. ; 

The Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburg 
Railway has not been slow to realize that 
the depletion of the resources in Jeffer- 
son and Clearfield Counties must be met, 
and more than met by developments else- 
where, in order to provide traffic for the 
road on which they are continuing to 
make large and expensive improvements. 
These developments, their allied interests 
have sought to make in Indiana, where 
the same beds which they have 
mined in the past, to wit, the Lower and 
Upper Freeports are situated so far be- 
low the water-level, that the area they 
cover is almost co-terminus with the 
boundaries of the County. These coals 
are situated about 75 ft. apart, and are 
therefore both workable, the extraction of 
the one not interfering with the later ex- 
traction of the other. 

This year large developments have 
been made at the Lucerne plant including 
the placing of steam turbine generators, 
and the erection of a large steel tipple, 
capable of handling several thousand tons 
a day. The mines are in the Upper Free- 
port, as are those also at Ernest, but at 
both mines it is the intention to sink to 
the lower bed, so that a large tonnage 
will be available. A branch has been 
built to Jacksonville, and a big mine is 
under development at this point. 


ARMSTRONG COUNTY DEVELOPMENT 


The receivership of the Buffalo & Sus- 
quehanna Coal and Coke Co., has pre- 
vented any important developments, and 
the main interest has been centered 
around the abandonment of a_ well- 
equipped shaft at Onondaga near Big 
Run. The Allegheny River Mining Co., 
has profited by the extension of the 
Pittsburg Shawmut & Northern R.R. from 
the village of Knoxdale in Jefferson 
County to the Allegheny River. This ex- 
tension has a low gradient for a road 
which crosses several summits and it is 
well fitted for handling a large tonnage. 
The Allegheny River Mining Co., an al- 
lied corporation, has two mines locally 
known as Oakland and Tidal Mines. The 
latter is ready for operation and has been 
renamed Chickasaw. The Oakland opera- 
tion will also soon be shipping coal. 

The extension of the “Shawmut” line 
down to Nicholson Run below Kittan- 
ning, has been largely graded and can 
easily be prepared for traffic. Several 
mines have been opened and much work 


Editorial Correspondence 








The operators of the 
northern part of the bitum- 
inous coal field are being 
driven southward by the 
rapid depletion of lands in 
Mercer, Tioga, Elk, Jeffer- 
son and Clarion counties, . 
and have invaded Indiana 
and Armstrong. 

Improved extraction 
methods are not spreading. 
New mining law subjected 
to much criticism. 























done on Limestone, Brunner and Nichol- 
son Runs. It is understood that what 
little work remains to be done to com- 
plete the extension to Nicholson Run will 
be completed, to the end that a large 
acreage of coal lands lying adjacent tu 
the proposed route, and owned by the 
Allegheny River Mining Company may 
be developed. It is proposed to erect a 
large central power station at Glade 
Run for the use of these mines. A line 
of road has been surveyed toward But- 
ler, and if this line is completed a large 
undeveloped part of Butler County may 
be open for operation. 


ALONG THE ALLEGHENY RIVER 


Travellers passing along the Allegheny 
Valley by the Pennsylvania R.R., for- 
merly the Buffalo & Allegheny Valley 
Ry., have long wondered that the left 
bank of the stream was well developed, 
while the right bank showed few houses 
and no mines. The work of the “Shaw- 
mut” interests give assurance that the 
right bank will now be well occupied and 
even more prosperous than the other, be- 
cause the mines will be in the hands of 
larger and more adequate financial con- 
cerns, having a steady market for their 
coal. 

From Parkers Landing southward, the 
coal measures are continuous, yet to the 
point (Kiskiminetas), where the West 
Penn R.R. crosses the Allegheny River, 
no shipping mines were formerly to be 
seen, though just over the ridge rear Red 
Bank an exception might be found in the 
mines of the Great Lakes Coal Company 
at Caylor, these mines being tributary to 
the Allegheny and Western R.R., an ex- 
tension of the Pittsburg, Bessemer & 
Lake Erie R.R. 


CHANGE OF WORKING SEAM 


The bituminous area under operation 
will soon be measurably constricted un- 


less coal is discovered in the Kittanning 
measures over a large area where it is 
now believed to be of little value 
But little coal remains in Elk County. 
The two principal holders of coal in that 
county, the Shawmut Mining Company 
and affiliations, and the Northwestern 
Mining & Exchange Company, have both 
made their more recent extensions in oth- 
er counties, owing to the restrictions in 
their home .county. Clearfield County 
may hold its own for a while, and per- 
haps even increase, but this increase will 
largely come in the lower measures espe- 
cially in the Lower Kittanning Bed in 
which—and in a lower seam—nearly all 
the operators along the Moshannon and 
its branches are now working. 

The Lower Freeport Bed, the stand-by 
seam of Jefferson County, and an impor- 
tant seam in Elk, Clearfield, Clarion and 
Armstrong is marked by extensive 
“wants,” sometimes reaching a width of 
two miles. These wants which are 
erroneously called faults, and which are 
the channel beds of streams existent in 
the carboniferous period, have reduced 
the available area of Freeport coal con- 
siderably. As the beds lie high on the 
hills, modern erosion has combined with 
ancient to make the area to be mined 
limited. In Elk County, no Freeport coal 
is being mined, and in Clarion County 
but few mines are working it. In Jeffer- 
son County the depletion is very rapid 
and exhaustion is drawing near. In Arm- 
strong and Butler Counties a _ large 
amount still remains. 

The ratification of the plan by which 
the Pennsylvania Coal and Coke com- 
pany was reorganized promises a new life 
for that company in Cambria and Clear- 
field counties. The slack watering of the 
Allegheny River beyond the mouth of 
the Mahoning, as recommended by Major 
H. C. Newcomer, if completed, will en- 
able coal to be loaded in barges and 
shipped south from many mines, which 
have so far been tributary entirely to 
the Buffalo market. This overstocked 
mart should feel this relief, should the 
much desired plan ever advance beyond 
the Newcomer report. 


METHODS OF COAL EXTRACTION 


Though as far as the United States is 
concerned, careful and conservative meth- 
ods of coal extraction originated in the 
Connellsyille region of Pennsylvania, yet 
it cannot be said that Pennsylvania is 
leading other states in this matter. Other 
sections seem prepared to let Connells- 
ville have proud preeminence, and min- 
ing is generally by the primitive ad- 
vancing room-and-pillar methods pro- 
viding a great number of short, unre- 
liable lines of root fracture. There does 














January 6, 1912 


not seem any. disposition to improve 
methods except in the leaving of larger 
_ pillars and in more speedy pillaring. In 
the Freeport beds there seems to be no 
great loss apparent from such primitive 
methods,: because the roof breaks easily 
and the cover is light. But in the Lower 
Kittanning mines, the roof is quite strong, 
and the cover heavier. The coal and 
development lost in this bed is often 
large, and in Cambria county an attempt 
has been made to avoid this by strength- 
ening the weak spots which, unfortunate- 
ly, may be expected to occur in headings 
on that side where the rooms are turned 
off. This is effected by driving rooms with 
long distances between centers, in fact 
double the ordinary distance, other rooms 
being started from the cross cuts out 
of these first rooms as soon as a suffi- 
cient pillar, of about 100 feet, has been 
left to support the heading. Thus every 
room approaching the heading serves as 
the roadway of two other rooms. 


First Costs OF COMPLETE PLANTS 


Operators have, for many years, been 
of the opinion that as coal was cheap 
there was but little economy in saving 
steam by any of the approved methods 
recommended where coal costs $5 per 
ton delivered. Till recently all econ- 
omies have been directed solely to saving 
labor by the use of coal-feeding de- 
vices at the furnaces with the commend 
able idea of reducing labor costs ana 
making-steam with inferior coal. Some 


COAL AGE 


still argue volubly for the belief that 
coal which is a drug on the market, as 
is slack most of the year, should not 
be saved at the expense of any outlay 
on equipment. 

For this cause, uncovered pipe lines, 
leaky furnaces and bad pipe joints re- 
main unregarded at small plants, Even in 
larger plants, noncondensing and recipro- 
cating engines still hold their own. But 
there is gradually working the idea that 
it is cheaper to conserve fuel not for 
its own sake, however cheap it may be, 
but because the conservation saves la- 
bor in firing, makes a better plant, and 
above all one that costs no more. It 
is an undesirable practice to increase 
boilers and engines in size and number 
of units above the call of prudent neces- 
sity, when with economy in using steam 
by means of superheaters, feed water 


_heaters, turbines, condensers, electrical 


high pressure transmission, and careful 
upkeep of details the plant could be 
kept down to normal size. It is being 
realized that a good plant burns less 
and poorer fuel, gives a steadier power 
delivery, saves labor the year around 
and costs at the first outlay but little 
if any more because the price of eco- 
nomical devices is offset by the reduc- 
tion in size and in number of the large 
units. These factors, whilst they do not 
make great headway at the older plants 
are receiving more consideration where 
new mines are opened. The older mines 


413 





must eventually be reequipped and it is 
not infrequent to find the dates of power 
development marked plainly by the new 
mechanical designs in the power house. 


THE New MINE LAW 


The new Pennsylvania Bituminous 
Mine Law was approved June 9 of th's 
year. It has occasioned no little un- 
favorable comment. Before it was final- 
ly framed a vigorous protest was made 
to all the new provisions, but at length 
the law was enacted and the whole 
Code fills 136 pages. It is one of the 
most complete mining codes on record. 
Its principal fault is its obscurity. There 
is evidence of the stress of conflict out 
of which it emerged, but it is probable 
that the conflict alone is not responsible 
for its illogical arrangement. Article XI 
is entirely new. It deals with the in- 
stallation of electricity in the mines at 
length, devoting 24 pages to the subject. 
The uncertainty of the meaning of the 
law made some operators make the dec- 
laration that they would remove their fire- 
bosses from the mines. This was per- 
haps not stated in real earnestness. But 
the Chief of the Department of Mines 
wrote a strong letter to them urging the 
retention of all the firebosses employed. 
It remains to be seen whether a code 
specifying exactly what shall be or shall 
not be done is as good as one leaving 
larger power of control in the hands of 
the inspectors. 








The Pittsburg District in 191] 





By B. E. V. Luty* 








The financial results of the year 1911 
in the Pittsburg district coal trade were 
unsatisfactory. Demand was lighter than 
in the previous year, but with ample car 
supply and increased capacity the pro- 
duction was only a few per cent. less 
than in the previous year, with the re- 
sult that prices suffered throughout the 
year, 

In 1910 the $1.15 price for mine-run 
was maintained practically throughout 
the year, but there was an advance to 
$1.20@1.25 after the wage increase ac- 
corded for the biennial period beginning 
Apr. 1. In 1911, on the other hand, the 
$1.15 price scarcely prevailed at any 
time, and was frequently shaded by as 
much as 10c. per ton on important con- 
tracts, while occasionally odd lots forced 
on the market brought less than a dollar. 
Large operators were slightly helped in 
their year’s average, however, by the ex- 
istence of long-term scale contracts, based 
on the mining rate. These, while on the 
whole calling for low rates gave a fixed 
Price equal to that of the last nine 


months of 1910, and above that of the 
first three months of that year. The 
average realized price on all the coal 
mined in the district probably fell be- 
tween 5c. and 10c. below the average of 
1910, which with a slight decrease in 
the total tonnage made the year an un- 
satisfactory one. 

Definite steps were undertaken in the 
year to improve the position of the Pitts- 
burg district in the lake coal trade, the 
case of the 88c. rate from the Pittsburg 
district to the lakes being brought forci- 
bly to the attention of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission. The contention 
was based on a comparison of ton-mile 
rates with West Virginia.and other dis- 
tricts having much longer hauls but only 
slightly greater total rates to the lakes. 
A reduction to 50c. was asked, and the 
Commission is expected to order some 
redress, though hardly as great as asked. 

Early in June the United States Steel 
Corporation purchased the entire coke 


*Bessemer Bldg., Pittsburg, Penn. 


operations and coking coal holdings of the 


Pittsburg Coal Co., involving about 7000 
acres and 956 ovens, paying a flat price 
of $1450 per acre. Making allowance 
for the value of ovens and other im- 
provements the price was computed at 
about $1,000 per acre for the coal land 
alone. At the same time the steel cor- 
poration purchased the coking coal of 
the Monongahela River Consolidated Coal 
& Coke Co. paying $850 an acre for 
about 9000 acres of undeveloped land. 
In each case payment was made by bonds 
on the properties, guaranteed by the steel 
corporation. These operations put the 


.Pittsburg Coal Co. in position to retire 


some of its debt, at the same time under- 
taking to absorb the outstanding stock of 
the River Coal Co., in which it had 
previously owned only a controlling in- 
terest. The intention is probably to ulti- 
mately absorb the properties and divert 
much if not all of the output to the rail 
instead cf the river trade. 

Production of coke in the Connellsville 
and lower Connellsville region was 
abeut 16,000,000 net tons, a decrease of 











414 


about 15 per cent. from the preceding 
year and of 20 per cent. from the record 
year 1906. This was partly due to de- 
creased consumptive demand, due to les- 
sened output of pig iron, but it was also 
due in part to development of other fields, 
and in part by reason of the adoption of 
byproduct ovens. The Connellsville re- 
gion shows no indication of ever adopt- 
ing byproduct practice, though if has 
rapidly been making improvements in re- 
cent years by the adoption of the rectan- 
gular push oven, involving a slight de- 
crease in cost of operation. 

Coke prices in 1911 were altogether 


COAL AGE 


unsatisfactory. The market price for 
spot furnace coke occasionally ranged 
above $1.50 at ovens, but as frequently 
below, and an average of monthly quo- 
tations indicates an average for the year 
of $1.50. Contracts made for the year, 
chiefly in December, 1910, were mostly 
at from $1.55 to $1.65, a number of scale 
contracts (coke to be settled monthly at 
a stated fraction of the prevailing price 
of pig iron) being made with minima of 
ebout $1.60, the minimum prevailing 
throughout the year. Contracts for 
1910 had been made quite largely dur- 


January 6, 1912 


ing the boom in the closing months of 
1909, and showed a much higher average. 
The monthly prices for Connelisville 
coke during the year just closed were as 
follows: 
PRICES OF CONNELLSVILLE COKE. 


Furnace. Foundiy. 


0 eG era eee erat as, 8 $2.60 $3.05 
MMMM 6.20 ioe: glocc ie siecaie! «Roi 2.25 2.75 
LS Reema ae anna amar 2.00 2.60 
ot SERS aa rae eae eerie 1.80 2.40 
AE are 1.70 2.25 
RS lanes Px. Ge Reales 1.65 2.20 
tend eee He menses 1.65 2.15 
MNES eso: o-4. 3-0 nasin 8s ote os auaere 1.65 2.15 
IST) ar rae 1.60 2.15 
a ee ree an 1.55 2.10 
DIOVOIRDET 6. occ cece sows 1.45 2.00 
POGGRTANER . oc oc 6 os ac css 1.50 2.00 











Coal and Lignite in Texas 


By William B. Phillips * 











The production of coal in Texas will 
be about the same as last year and 
may be taken at a million tons, an equal 
amount of lignite also being produced. 

The coal producing counties are: 
Erath, Jack, Palo, Pinto, Parker, Wise 
and Young in the North Central coal 
field and Maverick and Webb in the Rio 
Grande coal field. The north central 
coal field is of the Carboniferous and 
the Rio Grande coal field of the Upper 
Cretaceous or Tertiary period. 

Most of the coal mined in Texas is 
for railroad purposes, not much of it 
being sold for domestic use. The total 
coal area is probably about 13,000 sq. 
miles, with an original supply of 8 bil- 
lion tons. As a rule the seams of coal 
are comparatively thin, less than 30 in., 
and the usual ash content is 16 per cent., 
with sulphur 2 per cent. The heating 
power of these coals is, on the average, 
11,000 B.t.u. and the weight per cu.ft. 
87.5 pounds. 

LIGNITE 


The production of lignite will be about 


one million tons, or nearly the same as 
last year. Workable beds of lignite oc- 
cur in 43 counties and the total area 
is about 60,000 sq. miles, or one-half 
of the total known lignite area in the 
United States. The deposits run in thick- 
ness up to more than 15 ft., and every 
variety of lignite is represented. 


PRODUCTION OF GAS FROM LIGNITE 


There is now much interest being taken 
in the production of gas from lignite, 
especially for power purposes. There 
are 56 gas producers in Texas and 47 
were in active operation during the year. 
some of them, however, only intermit- 
tently. There are 23 establishments mak- 
ing producer gas from lignite and the 
consumption of lignite for such pur- 
poses is about 80,000 tons a year. 

In this state 11,490 engine horse 
power is derived’ from lignite gas. Most 
of these installations are of small size, 
as two establishments alone represent 





*Director Bureau Economic Geology and 
Technology, Univ. of Texas. 


7,700 horse-power. Producer gas made 
from lignite is in successful competition 
with natural gas. No briquets are made 
in the state and there seems to be but 
little interest in this matter. Some of 
the Texas lignites make an excellent 
briquet without artificial binder. 


A CENTRAL POWER STATION 


Certain interests have considered the 
practicability of making producer gas 
from lignite at some central station, near 
regular supplies of this fuel, and trans- 
forming the power into electric current 
for distribution to cities and towns. In 
this direction there might be opportunity 
for a considerable business, as the price 
of lignite, at the mines, is about SQc. a 
ton. From a ton of good lignite there 
can be produced from 60,000 to 70.000 
cu.ft. of producer gas, with a heating 
power of from 125 to 150 B.t.u., per cu- 
bic foot. As byproducts, there would be 
tar and ammoniacal liquor, the former 
yielding light oils and paraffin, the latter 
yielding sulphate of ammonia. 








Utah Statistics for 1911 


By J. E. Pettit* 

The production of coal for this state 
for 1911 is 2,501,472 short tons, a de- 
crease of 24,622 tons when compared 
with production for 1910. The reason for 
decrease is attributed first to the open 
winter of last year and the falling off 
of orders during the first three months 
of the year. Later during the fall a con- 
tinual shortage of railroad cars has been 
experienced. 

The production of the hydrocarbon 
mines is 37,050 tons, an increase of 9501 
tons over 1910. The production of coke 
was 212,368 tons, an increase of 66,304 


*State coal mine onpenier. 501 Dooly 
Block, Salt Lake City, Utah. 


over 1910, attributed to the fact that the 


Utah Fuel Co. secured some of their old 
- contracts from the Amalgamated Copper 


Co. that were rescinded two years ago. 


The amount of explosives used was: - 


Black powder, 398,285 lb.; giant powder, 
301,792 lb., which includes Monobel, 
Bental No. 2 and other permissible pow- 
ders, a total of 700,067 lb., or one pound 
of powder for every 3.57 tons of coal 
mined. This shows a decrease in the 
amount of black powder used during the 
year, and a corresponding increase in 
the permissible powders. 


NEARLY 4000 MEN EMPLOYED 


The total number of men employed in- 
side and outside in both the hydrocarbon 
and coal mines and coking plants was 


3798, an increase of 499 over the preced- 
ing year. The average number of days 
worked at the various mines was 252, 
and the average amount of coal produced 
per man was 712 tons. 

There were 84 accidents in and around 
the coal and hydrocarbon mines, of 
which 16 were fatal, 18 serious and 50 
nonserious. There was one fatal accident 
occurred outside of the mine. Seven wives 
were left widows and 21 children father- 
less. The per cent. of fatal accidents for 
the year 1911, both inside and outside, 
was 4.21 per 1000. 

The amount of coal mined for each life 
lost was 156,342. The causes of the fatal 
accidents were: Falls of rock, 4; falls 
of coal, 8; runaway cars, 2; boiler ex- 
plosion, 1; loaded trip of cars, 1. 





sented 's ieee ian hie 








<a 


q 
é 
a 
z 


ht ome ies = 








January 6, 1912 


Virginia Coal Output in- 
creasing 

Coal mining in Virginia has made im- 
portant increases within the past genera- 
tion. Although not a great coal State 
Virginia produced over six and a half 
million tons in 1910. The State is one 
of the earliest producers, the figures of 
the United States Geological Survey 
showing a small output as far back as 
1822. In 1850 the production was 310,- 
000 tons and at that time only two States 
stood above Virginia. While other States 
were forging ahead the increase in Vir- 
ginia was slow until about 1895, when 
1,368,324 tons were produced. In 1900 
the production was 2,393,754 tons; in 
1905 it was 4,275,271 tons; and in 1910 
it was 6,507,997 short tons, the greatest 
in the history of the State. 





Washington State Coal 


Statistics 
The table shown below gives the de- 
tailed statistics of the coal industry in 
Washington for the fiscal year ending 


COAL AGE 


Coal in West Virginia 


With the close of the present year and 
the coming of a new one the coal men of 
West Virginia find conditions greatly im- 
proved over those of a year ago. In fact, 
it was only at the close of the year that 
conditions changed and brought hope for 
better things. The spurt in prices, of 
course, is the real blessing the holiday 
month brought, and even something a 
little better is predicted for the months of 
January and February. 

For the calendar year the output has 
been above that of any previous year, but 
it is believed that statistics will show that 
the cost of production will be greater 
than previous years, while the price re- 
ceived for coal has been exceedingly low. 
These estimates are based on facts as 
found by some coal men in their own op- 
erations and are believed to hold gen- 
erally throughout the state. With the 
increase in the price of smokeless and 
the expected increase in other coals, the 
new year presents a cheerful outlook as 
compared with the beginning of the one 








415 


Imports of Coal in i911 


The total imports of coal for the first 
ten months of the year just closed 
amounted to 998,795 tons, as compared 
with 1,628,111 tons for the same period 
in 1910. The total’ estimated imports 
for the current year will be about 1,198,- 
500 tons as compared with 1,991,943 tons 
for 1910. By far the largest percentage 
of this coal comes from Canada, only 
about one-tenth being imported from 
other countries, of which Australia and 
Tasmania are the leaders. The imports 
are confined almost entirely to bitumi- 
nous coal, no anthracite being imported 
in 1910 and only 42 tons during the first 
ten months of 1911. 

Because of labor troubles in the Brit- 
ish Columbia field, the figures for 1911 
are not representative of the normal con- 
dition of this trade. Canada is by far 
the largest exporter into the United 
States and the shut-down of the Brit- 
ish Columbia mines during two-thirds of 
the year, has made an appreciable dif- 


June 30, 1911: 


now closing. 


ference in these figures. 














COAL STATISTICS FOR THE STATE OF WASHINGTON, FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1911 
Compiled by D. C. Botting, State Inspector of Coal Mines, Seattle, Wash. 
















: Days Inside Outside 
; Tons of Coal} Sold to Used for | Total Coal | Oper- Em- Em- 
Name of Company Name of Mine Town Shipped Employees} Power Production | ated ployees ployees 
Kine County 
Carbon.vtoal and Clay Co.jCarbon Boyne 13,058 207 1,416 14,681 128 28 31 
Carbon Coal and Clay Co.|Daly : Boyne GAM To Sbeewee (IE | cen ee eee 15,062 150 34 
Central Coal Co......... Grand Ridge Issaquah 17,472 614 1,242 19,328 114 29 19 
Denny Renton C.and C.Co.}] Kummer mummer Ff vccecese 59 1,630 ,689 119 3 1 
Denny Renton C. and C. Co./Renton Co | A Sere Mare 12,825 12,825 150 20 2 
Denny Renton C.and C.Co.|/Taylor mavige. i £§ sccscecs 1,102 41,679 42,781 148 60 8 
Fleet Coal Co........... Fleet Cumberland FAO f ocecas Pf ccenee E 1,400 22 2 1 
May Creek Coal Co...... Coalfield 550 252 675 1,477 140 8 7 
Northwestern Imp. Co. . .|Ravensdale Ravensdale 85,670 1,078 5,712 92,460 127 223 58 
North Coast Colliery Co.. .|Danville Ravensdale [| .ese--.. | sooese | -eeees fae Pere or Sn Serre 14 
Occidental Coking Coal Co.|No. 1 Occidental 5,216 69 235 5,520 60 45 13 
Pacific Coast Coal Co... ./Gem Franklin 19,965 319 2,507 22,791 98 70 15 
Pacific Coast Coal Co... ..|B. Black Diamond MRCRD EL Saeeces 51 1,667 171 16 6 
Pacific Goast Coal Co... .|/No. 11 Black Diamond p31 © eee er 10,055 124,069 129 240 91 
Pacific Coast Coal Co... .|No. 12 Black Diamond Wee) ccenean 60 502 163 14 13 
Pacific Coast Coal Co... .|No. 14 Black Diamond 61,679 1,633 2,992 66,304 135 145 29 
Pacific Coast Coal Co... .|New Castle New Castle 111,895 419 5,821 118,135 132 128 8 
Rose Marshall Coal Co.. . Cumberland ,638 79 505 10,212 126 32 19 
Superior Coal and Imp. Co.|/Superior Issaquah 2,443 107 122 2,672 6 13 9 
The Independent C. and C. 
Mg cot ere, sete eke Gre era eo PEA EWECAMINGEER cSaceces | «casas | sstenca Do eaceees. cea, (E caceus 2 
Seattle Electric Co.......]Renton Renton 70,218 2,305 5,456 77,979 134 234 51 
Krrrtas County 
Busy Bee Min.and Div.Co.|Busy Bee Beakman 9,500 304 110 9,914 188 30 13 
Northwest Coal Co.......| Lakeside Pager b. ckeoue. § tictoues 1,454 61 10 
‘Northwestern Imp. Co. . .|Cle Elum : Cle Elum 91,471 1,868 5,248 98,587 81 328 39 
Northwestern Imp. Co.. .|No. 2, 6 and Dip. Roslyn 114,608 3,902 8,015 126,525 74 429 92 
\orthwestern Imp. Co...|No. 3 Roslyn 76,254 234 1,331 77,819 76 285 13 
‘\orthwestern Imp. Co... .|No. 5 Roslyn 71,997 151 1,495 73,643 78 211 20 
rthwestern Imp. Co. . .|No. 7 Cle Elum 79,554 287 1,813 81,654 78 293 15 
-lyn Cascade Coal Co...|Patrick McKay Ronald 28,318 138 188 28,644 73 55 31 
os yn Fuel Coal Co..... Buckman Slope 1 Roslyn 119,015 520 3,067 122,602 144 181 45 
Kosiyn Fuel Goal Co... .. Beekman 2 Beekman 645 Gel waceaes 42 te 13 
Lewis County 
East Creek Coal Co...... No. 3 Ladd 30,745 69 904 31,718 129 64 15 
Mendota Goal andCoke Co.|No. 1 Mendota 22,988 79 714 1781 7 53 11 
Superior Coal Co........ No. 2 Cheholis 1,181 2,228 336 3,745 138 7 6 
Wilson Coal Co.........- Wilson Kopiah 19,603 104 1,455 21,162 114 7 27 
Carbon Hill Coal Co..... Carbon Carbonado 161,373 756 10,612 172,741 149 368 216 
Coast Coal Co........... 7-10—-11-12 Spiketon 26,31 161 635 27,112 153 143 84 
Northwestern Imp. Co. . .}Melmont Melmont 36,172 379 1,448 37,999 142 7 21 
Pacific Coast Coal Co... .|Burnett Burnett 63,145 615 2,800 66,560 121 204 55 
Tacoma Smelting Co..... Fairfax Fairfax 1,449 156 119 16,178 149 39 33 
Wilkesan Coal and Coke 
620 GA eRe ae Wilkesan 27,145 162 1,810 46,979 91 130 105 
West Tacoma Coal Mine : 
OD org cre terse gers Gale Creek Wilkesan 12,797 218 2,072 15,087 131 44 13 
THURSTON COUNTY 
Washington Union Coal 
1 ili AN All A Hannaford Tono 19,761 110 463 20,334 79 38 18 
Wuatcom County 
Whatcom Co. Coal Co....|Blue Canyon Blue Canyon 3,345 | ...... 48 3,393 141 15 4 
2,549,174 20,781 137,666 1,739,927 | 4,772 4 418 1,366 





































































NorEe—21,688 tons of coke were produced in Pierce county. 














416 


COAL AGE 





January 6, 1912 


West Virginia during 191] 


West Virginia has at least made prog- 
ress m three directions during the past 
calendar year—in production, in price of 
coal and in the methods of mining with 
a view to the greater safety of men and 
property and a reduction of costs. In 
other words, the practical side of mining 
has been sought and practiced, where for 
years the mining department of the state 
has struggled in vain to change policies. 


PRODUCTION AND New DEVELOPMENTS 


The new development during the year 
was, briefly, the establishment of 18 new 
coal plants, the construction of 55 new 
power plants, the erection of 25 mine 
fans, 15 tipples and about 25 additional 
openings to old mines. This, however, 
does not mean that the above number of 
mines have been added to the number 
that existed on Jan. 1, 1911. On the 
other hand, a number of mine openings 
have been closed. In fact, a much great- 
er rumber were closed than were opened, 
so that the number of mines, or openings, 
is much less at the end of the calendar 
year of 4911 than at the beginning. 

The official statistics in the office of 
the Department of Mines show the total 
net ton output for the calendar year of 
1910 was 60,099,239. While it is not 
possible, at this time, to get the exact 
tonnage for the calendar year 1911, the 
department of mines has sufficient infor- 
mation to form the belief that it will 
be at least 60,500,000 net tons, or an in- 
crease over 1910 of something like a half 
million tons. The fiscal year in the mine 
department in this state ends on June 30, 
and therefore to secure the calendar-year 
Statistics it is necessary to go into the 
statistics of two years, and to the fact 
that the mine year does not end with the 
calendar year is doubtless due the many 
conflicting statements relative to the sta- 
tistics in this state. 


EARLY STATISTICS 


The first statistics on mining in West 
Virginia began with the year 1863, when 
the output was 444,648 net tons. Since that 
time there has been an increase in output 
e\ery year, with the exception of the 
years 1876, 1881, 1895, while the output 
in two years is given as the same—it 
not being possible to secure the exact 
tonnage. The biggest advance, however, 
came in 1910, when the output increased 
from something below 50 million to a 
little over 60 million net tons. 

The output for the first six months in 
1911 was not encouraging, when com- 
pared with the last six months in 1910, 
as a decrease of a little over three million 
tons was found to exist, but the output 
the last six months has been so great 
that the decrease was wiped out and an 
increase shown. 


Special Correspondence 
= saiead 


The production of the 
West Virginia mines for 
1911 will probably exceed 
60 million short tons, the 
largest output the state has 
known. Conditions gener- 
ally have been satisfactory. 























PRICE IMPROVEMENT 


One of the greatest improvements in 
conditions is the increase in price. Al- 
though small, and most of it due to the 
increase during the last month or two, 
it indicates a better outlook for 1912. 
The authority for this statement is the 
present head of the mining department, 
John Laing. Speaking about output and 
price, he said: 


I think the output for 1911 will reach 
54 million gross tons, provided the Christ- 
mas holidays do not make a greater de- 
duction than usual. The price of coal, 
f.o.b. cars at the mines, from such in- 
formation as we are able to gather will 
be 96c. a short ton, on the mine-run 
basis, which is about one cent better 
than for 1910. 

While the production of coal in this 
state is rapidly increasing the prices at 
the mine stand about the same, which 
shows conclusively that the quality of 
West Virginia coal is superior to that 
of our competing states which are more 
favored in the question of freight rates. 
The difference in freight rates for West 
Virginia coal, you might say, is added 
to the cost of coal to the consumer, or, 
in other words, our competing states 
receive practically the same price that 
West Virginia receives. I believe the 
price of coal to West Virginia operators 
has gone as low as it will ever go and 
I can see no reason why it should not 
gradually increase until it reaches what 
we might call a fair return for our pro- 
duct. The operators of West Virginia 
are not receiving the same interest on 
their investment as the operators of 
other industries on theirs and at the 
same time the coal business is re- 
sponsible for other industries in West 
Virginia. 


The production of coke has decreased 
about 50 per cent. during 1911, and will 
not greatly exceed two million tons. The 
operators find it almost impossible to 
manufacture coke at the present market 
price, especially while the price of West 
Virginia coal is near normal. The ovens 
are gradually being closed all over the 
state. The price of coke this year has 
been about $1.80, net, at the mines, 
against $1.83 in 1910. It is the belief 


of Mr. Laing that if all the ovens in the 
state were closed, the production of coal 
would not show any considerable fall- 
ing off. 


The state has been free of labor 
troubles during the past year. Several of 
the mines had trouble with their men, but 
the difficulties lasted but a few days. In 
fact, these occurred at only four or five 
mines. The statistics show that about 
72,000 men were employed in and arourfd 
the mines, exclusive of superintendents, 
mine foremen, managers, store and office 
forces. 


ACCIDENTS 


Unless there should be additions for 
the closing days of December, of which 
the mine department has received no in- 
formation, the total fatal accidents for 
the year will be 325—a slight. decrease 
over 1910. The nonfatal accidents 
totalled 770—also a slight decrease over 
1910. The state had two explosions dur- 
ing the year. At the Ott mine, of the 
Davis Coal & Coke Co., at Thomas, 20 
lives were lost, due to a gas and dust ex- 
plosion. At the Bottom Coal & Coke 
Co.’s mine, at Vivian, 18 lives were lost, 
caused by men entering an abandoned 
section with open lights. In 1910 there 
was but one, causing the death of three 
men. Speaking of the accidents in mines, 
Chief Inspector Laing said: : 

I regret that reports received by this 
department show that 80 per cent. of the 
fatal accidents were caused by careless- 
ness on the part of workmen themselves 
by going in dangerous places after be- 
ing warned not to do so. 

One thing that entered into, and prob- 
ably made possible the increase in output 
in 1911, was the supply of cars. There 
was, in fact, no serious shortage of cars 
at any time during the year—a condition 
that has never before prevailed in West 
Virginia, in the opinion of some of the 
oldest miners. The railroads have made 
great improvements in equipment and fa- 
cilities for handling coal, and their inter- 
est in trying to handle the output has 
received codperation from the operators, 
and instead of.being at “outs,” the opera- 
tors and railroads have been -working in 
harmony and friction was little known. 

One of the greatest changes in the in- 
dustry has been in requiring every mine 
foreman and fireboss to hold a certificate 
obtained at an examination held under 
the supervision of the chief of the De- 
partment of Mines. These examinations 
have been held during the year, and be- 
ginning with Jan. 1 no mine was per- 
mitted to be operated that did not em- 
ploy a mine foreman and fireboss (if 
one was necessary) that did not hold a 
certificate. The department has also laid 
down other important rules in mining, all 
leading to the one thing—efficiency of the 
persons holding responsible positions— 
and the operators have agreed to co- 
Operate with the department in carrying 
out the instructions. 














January 6, 1912 


COAL AGE 





417 


Coal and Coke Exports in 1911 


According to the Bureau of Statistics 
of the Department of Commerce and 
Labor, the coal exports from the United 
States have trebled in value in the last 
dozen years. The total value of the coal 
exported in the year of 1911 is in round 
numbers, 80 million dollars, as compared 
with 65 million for 1910. 

The United States now ranks third 
among the coal exporting countries of the 
world, being exceeded by the United 
Kingdom and Germany, who exported in 
1910, 179 million and 104 million dollars 
worth of coal respectively, while the 
United States exported only 45 million, 
exclusive of bunker coal. However, the 
growth of the United States export trade 
is increasing much more rapidly than that 
of any other country, as may be shown 
by comparing the export figures of 1900 
and 1910. During this period the export 
coal trade of the United States has in- 
creased practically 100 per cent., Ger- 
many 60 per cent., while that of the 
United Kingdom has suffered a slight de- 
crease. 

The principal destination of our ex- 
port coal is to‘Canada, as shown by the 
figures for the first ten months of 1911, 
during which period our total exports 
of bituminous were valued at $28,732,888, 
of which $21,510,604 was shipped to 
Canada. Because of the strike of about 
eight months duration in the British Co- 
lumbia fields our exports to this trade 
have been abnormal during this period. 
The next four important export markets 
are Cuba, Mexico and Panama, each 
taking between one and two million dol- 
lars worth annually. 


As compared with our other exports, 
coal now ranks seventh in importance, 
being exceeded by cotton, iron and steel, 
meat and dairy products, copper, wood 
manufactures, wheat and flour. 


QUANTITIES OF ExPORTS 


The total exports of anthracite for the 
irst ten months of 1911 were 3,016,127 
tons, aS compared with 2,483,413 tons 
for the same period last year, showing 
an increase of approximately one-fifth. 
This trade is almost entirely with Canada, 
only a very small portion going to other 
countries. An approximate estimate of 
the total anthracite exports for the year 
of 1911 places this tonnage at about 
3,620,000 long tons, as compared with 
3,021,627 tons for the year of 1910, 
showing an increase of nearly one-third 
in the export anthracite trade. 

The total exports of bituminous coal 
for the first ten months of the year just 
closed were 11,643,931 tons, as compared 
with 9,105,787 tons for the same period 





Editorial Correspondence 


| The export tonnage of | 
the United States is in- 

creasing rapidly as com- 
pared with that of other 
countries. During the past 
12 years this trade has treb- 
led in value and for 1911 
will amount to more than 
80 million dollars. Exports 
are largely to Canada. 


Alaska is buying more coal 
each year. | 


in 1910. These figures do not include 
bunker or fuel coal laden on vessels in 
the foreign trade which aggregate 
5,578,497 long tons for this period in 
1911. 


Of the total bituminous exports, 
8,933,044 tons were shipped to Canada, 
and, for the same period last year, this 
amounted to 6,432,632 tons, showing an 
increase of approximately one-third in 
this trade alone. 


The total export bituminous trade for 
the year of 1911 is estimated at about 14 
million long tons, as compared with 
10,784,239 long tons for 1910. The total 
bunker or fuel coal laden on vessels in 
the foreign trade will be approximately, 
6,700,000 long tons, as compared with 
6,445,593 long tons in 1910. 


























Gross ESTIMATES FOR 1911 


The total shipments of both bitumi- 
nous and anthracite coal, including that 
laden on vessels in the foreign trade 
will, for the year 1911, be approximately, 
24,320,000 long tons, as compared with 
20,251,459 tons for 1910. 

The total exports of coke for the first 
ten months of 1911 were 777,861 tons, 
as compared with 715,196 tons for the 
same period in 1910, showing a material 
increase in this department. The total 
exports of coke for the entire year are 
estimated at 933,400 tons, as compared 
with 879,073 tons for the year of 1910, 
showing a material increase in the coke 
trade for the year just closed. 


While the figures in our export trade 


for the year now closed show heavy in- 
creases all along the line it should be re- 
membered that conditions have not been 
normal during this period. The British 
Columbia mines during about two-thirds 
of 1911 were practically closed down and 
since Canada is the destination of fully 
three-fourths of our export coal this has 
necessarily caused a heavy increase in 
shipments to that market. 


ExPORTS TO PANAMA 


As a natural result of the activity at 
the Panama Canal, exports of fuel to 
that trade has shown a steady and heavy 
increase during the last few years. 

In 1908 the total exports to Panama 
amounted to 345,464 tons valued at 
$909,512. In 1909 this trade increased 
materially, the total tonnage for that 
year being 427,462 tons valued at 
$1,168,774. An increase was still evi- 
dent in 1910, but not of such proportions 
as that for 1909. The total tonnage for 
1910 was 497,316 tons, valued at 
$1,321,378. The total tonnage shipped to 
this trade for the first ten months of 1911 
was 417,476 tons, valued at $1,071,494 
end it is estimated that for the year of 
1911 these exports will amount to 
slightly over a half a million tons. 


PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


For the first time in a number of years 
no coal has been exported to the Philip- 
pine Islands. In 1909 there were ex- 
ported to this point, 155,655 long tons 
and in 1910 the exports amounted to 118,- 
389 tons, while for the present year the 
Islands are apparently drawing on their 
own supply. 


Exports TO Porto RICO 


Our Porto Ricoan export trade is not 
well established yet and a review of this 
market over the past three years shows 
considerable fluctuation in tonnages. In 
the main, however, this trade appears to 
be on the increase. In 1908, the total 
shipments of both bituminous and an- 
thracite to Porto Rico amounted to 
88,624 tons. In 1909 this trade fell off 
to 75,927 tons, valued at $232,679. In 
1910 another heavy increase was ex- 
perienced, the total exports for that year 
being 108,105 tons, valued at $333,547. 
The total exports for the first ten months 
of 1911 were 86,745 tons, and the total 
tonnage for the year is estimated at 
104,000 tons, or about 4000 tons less than 
for 1910. 

ALASKA 


Exports to Alaska, while compara- 
tively light, continue to show an almost 
uninterrupted increase. 

For 1908 the total of both coal and 
coke amounted to 21,509 tons valued at 
$137,567 and for the year following the 
tonnage was 29,684 tons valued at $191,- 
420. During 1910 the tonnage fell off 
slightly amounting to only 28,833 tons 
valued at $177,127. 

The total shipments for the first ten 
months of 1911 were 28,277 tons valued 
at $158,224. For the entire year it is 
estimated the shipments will total niore 
than 30,000 tons the largest tonnage yet 
recorded. 


418 


COAL AGE 





January 6, 1912 


Coastwise Trade Conditions in 191] 


In New England, 1911 was a year of 
large tonnages. Receipts at the port of 
Boston were well in excess of 1910, both 
in anthracite and bituminous, and had 
soft coal yielded better prices, the 
dealers generally would have called it 
a fairly good year. The early months 
were favorable to coal consumption, and 
were followed by a prolonged dry season 
cutting down the supply of water power 
for the mills. Then in August began 
the most unusual succession of fogs 
and gales that prevailed through the fall 
months and sent freights up to more than 
double the summer figures. 


THE BITUMINOUS TRADE 


The bituminous trade has been the 
despair of the larger agencies. A weak 
situation early in the year gave little 
hope for fair prices, but for a time it 
seemed the West Virginia operators 
might settle their differences. All ef- 
forts, however, proved futile, for no 
sooner had the season opened strong 
with a contract price of $2.70 f.o.b. 
Hampton Roads, Va., or $3.63 gross tons 
weighed on cars at Boston for inland de- 
livery, than an open cut was made March 
31, to $3.30 on cars for the year, a price 
based on the water freights then cur- 
rent and netting less than $1 at the 
mines for the best brands of Pocahon- 
tas and New River. 


MARKET SETTLED INTO DULLNESS 


For awhile the low values of 1909 
looked certain to be duplicated, but at 
length, after all sorts of efforts to save 
the season, the market settled into a 
summer dullness at a range of $2.40 to 
$2.50 f.o.b., less selling commission, and 
$3.10 to $3.20 on cars at Mystic Wharf. 
Buyers were encouraged to hold off 
until minimum prices were to be had, 
and all the shippers were not cnly long 
on coal, but most of them were forcing 
supplies on the market rather faster than 
they could be absorbed. This con- 
dition held until late in August or Sep- 
tember whcn large consumers began to 
worry over the slow movement of water 
transportation and pressed for deliveries 
on their low-priced contracts. 

Bottoms were making but three trips 
when normally they would have made 
five and six, and with several heavy losses 
besides, by wreck and partial damage, 
a serious shortage became apparent late 
in September. Water freights advanced 
on big vessels, Virginia pcrts to Boston, 
from 60c. to $1.25 within a few weeks, 
and at the end of the year there was 
only a slight recession to $1.10 and 


$1.15. Coal at the loading ports is now 
reported to be in short supply, and for 


By J. J. Wolkins* 





_——S!2 





Coastwise tonnages for 
the year have been unusu- 
ally heavy, particularly in 
anthracite. Some new 
high rates on water freights 
were recorded. | 

















*50 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 


spot shipment would command a higher 
price than was secured on any contract 
business the year through. Current 
prices on cars Boston are around $4.00, 
and most of the shippers have been 
obliged to buy outside at present prices 
in order to tide over customers until 
they could make deliveries of their own. 


A LEssON TO WEST VIRGINIA OPERATORS 


The year’s experience should be valu- 
able to the West Virginia operators for it 
must have shown how easily a big ton- 
nage can be thrown away, with no ade- 
quate return. In a word, the trouble 
has been an over anxiety on the part of 
too many sales agencies to place ton- 
nages in this market, without apparent 
regard to the returns that would have to 
be made later. If there was one feature 
worse than another, from April to July, 
it was the practice of sending cargoes 
here unsold, and them hammering prices 
to attract small buyers. So long as 
“protection” is guaranteed the buyer, 
the slow season can never be improved 
until the “auction hazard” is eliminated. 

The principal Georges Creek shippers 
have apparently enjoyed a satisfactory 
year. They have an advantage of 15c. 
in rate to tide over West Virginia mines, 
and with an ample fleet of steamers, tugs, 
and barges have been able to live up 
to contract obligations and have coal for 
sale besides at lucrative figures. 

Bituminous all-rail hes been heavy 
all the year. The low prices at tide 
diverted a large tonnage that would or- 
dinarily be railed from the Pennsylvania 
districts, and it was to be expected that 
the mines with less well established sell- 
ing connections would suffer most. The 
better known shippers have had to make 
low prices to keep up anything like 
a normal output, and prices have ranged 
down to 85c. on coals higher in ash and 
volatile. The better grades from Somer- 
set and Cambria counties have lately ad- 
vanced from $1.20 to $1.35, in response 
to a slightly better demand. 

At tide-water most of the Pennsyl- 
vania shippers have been in straits all 


the season. When Southern prices moved 
up in October there seemed an opening 
for a large tonnage from Philadelphia, 
but rates were soon advanced for ship- 
ment in anthracite transportation in 
sympathy with, those from Hampton 
Roads, and a promising outlook faded 
away. The retail price of bituminous 
in Boston was advanced from $4.25 to 
$4.50, net tons, Dec. 1. 

Generally, the 1912 prospect is good 
for bituminous. The mills and corpora- 
tions all over New England are -enjoy- 
ing fair business, and each year seems 
to mark requirements up to a new high 
figure. 

ANTHRACITE 


The year of 1911 was a record one for 
anthracite. The cold easterly weather 
from January on made stocks unusually 
light when the shipping season started 
and the months from March to June a 
very heavy tonnage was taken on. The 
usual April demand, both at tide and all- 
rail, lasted well into the summer, and 
there was a notable shortage of free 
stove and hard egg. Indeed the com- 
panies are still behind on orders for 
stove, and there was no apparent slack-: 
ening in the demand at the end of the 
year. Early in September a cool wave 
brought in an extra business and it was 
not long before the anthracite com- 
panies had requests for prompt ship- 
ments on all sizes. The slow movement 
of barges had the effect of shortening up 
supplies and during October, November, 
and December the shippers were swamp- 
ed with orders and there has been any- 
where from three to six weeks’ delay. 


THE SITUATION GREW ACUTE 


In December the situation grew really 
acute; for the first time in years certain 
of the producing companies allowed their 
Eastern storage depots to go practically 
bare of stock, and with no early replen- 
ishing in sight. Warm weather before 
Christmas relieved the situation some- 
what but the last days of 1911 saw the 
big cities in the market again and eastern 
shipments as slow as before. Chestnut 
size has continued in strong demand all 
the year, and the 25c. advance over the 
usual circular Apr. 1, has been easily 
maintained. 

The end of 1911 saw another an- 
nouncement, this time a similar ad- 
vance in the contract price of broken 
coal, to $5.00 alongside. These advances, 
together with those in pea and the steam 
sizes within a year or two leave stove and 
egg the only sizes that have not been ad- 
vanced since 1903. The anxiety over 
strike possibilities in the spring no doubt 
accounts in part for the increased ton- 





uy 
* 







January 6, 1912 


nage in this section, but that does not 
deprive 1911 of its position at the top 
of recent years in anthracite. 


A LARGE CONTRACT 


The latest “big news” in 1911 was the 
purchase by the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford R.R., through its Boston of- 
fices, of about 3,400,000 tons of steam 
coal for delivery during five years for the 
New England lines of the so-called “Mel- 
len System,” including the New Haven 
Road proper and subsidiary companies 








COAL AGE 


like the Boston & Maine and the Maine 
Central. The contract was made with 
the Virginia Iron, Coal & Coke Co. of 
Bristol, Va.-Tenn., operating mines on 
the Clinch Valley Division of the Norfolk 
& Western Ry., as producer, and the 
Coastwise Transportation Co. as carrier. 

The bigges. steam collier in the trade, 
the “Suffolk,” has been chartered to bring 
part of this coal to Boston and to Port- 
land, and it is understood that the Coast- 
wise Transportation Co. will at once 
build a sister ship to the “Suffolk” to 


419 


assist in carrying the coal. It is believed 
that the construction of such ships as 
the “Suffolk” and the “Newton,” launch- 
ed in September, carrying upwards of 
7200 tons, and making quick and regular 
trips, means the passing eventually of 
the large sailing vessels that have hither- 
to had most of the coastwise carrying 
trade. There are now seven of this larg- 
est type of steam collier, and some of 
them have made four round trips from 
Hampton Roads to Boston within a cal- 
endar month. 








Review of Year’s Coal Trade 


The coal tonnage in the United States 
for 1911 will nearly equal that of 1910, 
which was slightly more than 500,000,- 
000 tons, or about 10,000,000 tons in ex- 
cess of the entire production in this coun- 
try from the time the first ton of coal was 
taken from the earth up to and including 
the year 1871. Not more than 60 years 
ago, the yearly production of the country 
did not exceed 7,000,000 tons; comparing 
this with the more than 500,000,000 tons 
of 1911, will give some idea of the won- 
derful strides which the coal industry has 
made and is making. That the production 
in 1911 has not shown a decrease over 
1910 is accounted for mainly by the fact 
that while many of our largest manufac- 
turing plants have not operated as fully 
as in years past, there is a steady in- 
crease in the use of coal for gas making, 
the production of electricity, railroad fuel 
and domestic consumption. 


PRODUCTION OF COMING YEAR TO BE 
LARGE 


While the production in 1911 has been 
rather unsatisfactory, 1912 will show 
(from present indications) the largest 
production in the history of the coal busi- 
ness, with an increase of from 10 to 20 
per cent., or a total of from 550,000,000 
to 600,000,000 tons. This, of course, will 
come from a simultaneous increase in 
other lines of industry. That increase will 

\rought about by the willingness of the 

st corporations to comply with the 
| and their desire to codéperate with 
fhe government to bring about better busi- 
ness conditions by legislation which will 
eliminate as far as possible the discontent 
on the part of capital caused by the at- 
tacks which have been made from time 
to time. 

! think we should urge upon the gov- 
ernment the appointment of commissions 
to settle such questions as monetary and 
tariff conditions, and, moreover, urge the 
establishment of a federal corporation 
law, which would be regulated in such a 
manner that capital would have a fair 
return upon its investments and at the 
Same time the consumer be assured of 


the lowest possible prices for his pur- 
chases, 





By John H. Jones* 








Coal production in 1911 
while reduced by industrial 
depression is upheld by in- 
creasing domestic uses. 
Advanced legislation is fav- 
ored in order to clean the 
slate and give capital, assur- 
ance of stable conditions. 
Present liability law in case 
of a severe explosion with 
proved liability, would fail 
because of bankruptcy of 
the corporation involved. 




















*President, Pittsburg - Buffalo Co.; 
Pittsburg, Penn. 

The lake tonnage from all districts, for 
the 10 years ending 1911, is as in the 
following table: 

LAKE TONNAGE FROM ALL DISTRICTS 
Pittsburg Ohio W. Va. 
District District District Total 
1902 4,704,093 2,689,974 965,769 8,359,036 
1903 6,092,047 2,458,265 1,539,435 10,089,747 
1904 6,058,383 2,138,247 1,279,876 9,476,506 
1905 7,443,883 2,062,692 2,109,262 11,615,637 


1 
1906 9,287:272 2°560,906 2°743.732 14,591,910 
1907 10,549,993 4,074,296 3,420,941 18,037,232 
1908 8,700,000 3,600,000 3.450.000 15,750,000 
1909 8,687,305 3,002,815 3,874,570 15,364,690 
1910 11,911,900 4,297,300 6,629,500 22,838,700 


1911 10,611,941 4,019,544 7,151,200 21,782,685 

Employers of labor and their employ- 
ees should endeavor to get closer togeth- 
er. Union labor should not be criticized 
for the acts of certain of its officials. 
The labor unions should discourage, col- 
lectively and individually, violence by 
their members. They should select from 
their ranks the most conservative and effi- 
cient leaders. Capital and labor must 
recognize that their interests are mutual. 
Where treating with union labor, capi- 
tal should insist that the union offi- 
cials be honorable and intelligent men, in 
order to deal honorably and intelligently 
with them. Where labor is not organized, 
capital should get closer to the men and 
treat them, as is already done by a large 
number of companies, in the way it would 
like to be treated. Capital should do 
everything possible to disarm labor, 





whether union or nonunion, of the belief 
that it is its desire to make every dollar 
possible from its toil, regardless of its 
welfare. This is certainly not true of 
capital in most cases. 


THE EQuiTy OF A COMPENSATION LAW 


A compensation law, which will provide 
for a man and educate his family in case 
of accident or death, will be a step in the 
right direction. Let us hope that Congress 
will recommend to the several states that 
such a law be passed. Let us also hope 
that no state will hesitate to pass a law 
which will bring about conditions which 
mean so much to the workingman and 
his family. A compensation law which 
means individual liability for the differ- 
ent companies, to be recovered through 
the courts of our country, is simply an 
encouragement to “ambulance chasers,” 
and only pays compensation to the work- 
ingman where it can be proved beyond 
doubt that it was not through his own 
negligence that the accident happened. 
Why not pass a law which will pay a 
fixed amount to those families as long as 
they are dependent upon the income of 
the injured or deceased employee? For 
instance, in coal mining there are not 20 
per cent. of the companies engaged in 
business today who would be able to pay 
the required indemnity under the liability 
law in case of a serious accident, requir- 
ing them to pay from $100,000 to $1,000,- 
000. In connection with this liability law, 
the strictest kind of laws should be 
passed by the states to minimize the 
number of industrial accidents as much 
as possible and protect the lives of the 
workers. 

More tonnage will be moved in the 
early part of 1912 than has ever before 
been moved in the history of the country. 
Consumers have been postponing the 
buying of necessities as long as possible, 
and supply houses have been postponing 
the stocking of their warehouses. They 
are now ordering ahead, and the mills 
and manufactories have orders to keep 
them going for the first six months of the 
vear. The possibilities of the last six 
months will depend to a large extent upon 
the political situation. 








420 


COAL AGE. 





January 6, 1912 


Baltimore and Vicinity in 1911 


By Leslie Rawles * 





The year 1911 has been one of reduced 
sales and small profits for Baltimore 
operators. Yet when an impartial view 
is taken of conditions as a whole, and 
the depression which has existed in so 
many industrial lines throughout the en- 
tire twelve months is considered, the Bal- 
timore dealers feel they have no cause 
for complaint. 


MARKET CONDITIONS 


It is true that when the present year 
made its advent, the hopes of the coal 
trade in Baltimore ran high. There was 
every evidence that there would be a 
general revival of business the country 
over. Operators had visions of pro- 
longed activity in the steel industry, 
which would necessarily bring about a 
constantly increasing demand for their 
product; they saw an unprecedented traf- 
fic for the railroads, and these same rail- 
roads purchasing freely, thus stimulating 
the trade of the car manufacturing and 
supply companies, and adding zest to the 
coal market. 

These hopes have not been realized to 
the extent that Baltimore operators had 
expected. Among the overly enthusias- 
tic ones, the disappointment over the 
failure of the coal market to exhibit the 
life that was expected of it, is keen. But 
the conservative view taken by the trade 
here as a whole is that the year has been 
as good as one could expect in the face 
of the adverse business conditions which 
prevailed. 

The steel industry did not have the 
boom expected and as these industries 
are looked upon as large consumers, the 
coal trade has felt keenly, the lack of 
orders which usually come from this 
source. The railroads in the East, and 
especially those which are closely as- 
sociated with the business at this port, 
have had a fairly good year, but their 
policy of purchasing equipment and steel 
rails has been what might be termed a 
hand-to-mouth one and consequently the 
equipment and car specialty manufactur- 
ing concerns have been idle a greater 
portion of the time. 

As a result of such conditions in the 
business world, the coal trade has been 
depressed. It is true that during some 
of the months of the year, coal has 
moved freely, representing shipments 
made under contract by Baltimore opera- 
tors. And it might be said that nearly 
all the coal shipped in the past few 
months was called for under contract, 








*Baltimore, Md. 


Apr. 1. 


but under slightly reduced prices when 
compared with last year. In this section, 
renewals of contracts take place around 
When this time arrived, some of 
the consumers came in under prices 
quoted by operators. Others did not, 
preferring to hold out and take their 
chances of getting the product cheaper 
by spot purchases. Later they did agree 
to take coal under contract, but, 
according to authentic reports succeeded 
in getting a slightly lower price quoted. 


THE Spot MARKET 


The spot business, which plays so 
prominent a part in the Baltimore mar- 
ket, has been extremely disappointing. 

In January this was somewhat brisk, 
and again in February, operators reaped 
satisfactory profits from this business. 
There was an easing off in the demand 
for coal in March, and during the com- 
plete slump which followed, the spot 
business disappeared. Contract ship- 
ments also eased up. 

The early spring and summer months 
brought no improvement in the demand 
for coal. Inquiry at many of the offices 
elicited the information that consumers 
were entirely out of the market, and in 
many instances, operators disposed of 
coal at a price below the cost of mining 
it. Such stagnant conditions prevailed 
until the advent of October, when there 
was a slight improvement, as evidenced 
by the freer movement on the railroads 
over which Baltimore operators ship their 
product. The latter part of October 
found the demand not quite so brisk, and, 
while considerable coal moved in Novem- 
ber, it was mostly under contract. The 
spot business was lacking, and the 
market bordering on stagnation. 

Operators predict that the tonnage from 
Maryland and West Virginia mines op- 
erated by local companies will probably 
reach 19 or 20 million tons for next year, 
providing trade conditions get no worse. 
The opinion is that business is going to be 
better, and that the coal trade will share 
in the’ general improvement. . 


NEw DEVELOPMENTS 


The improvements which are to make 
possible this increased output of coal, 
were, for the most part, started during 
1911. Probably the biggest development 


inaugurated by any company through- 
out the United States, was that of the 
Consolidation Coal Co. in the Elkhorn 
Valley of Kentucky. This company owns 
a tract of 100,000 acres of high-grade 
coal, and is spending millions of dol- 


lars in developing their property. It be- 
gan the opening up of between sixteen 
and twenty mines at various locations 
on the tract, and expects to begin min- 
ing coal within the next two or three 
months. In addition, the Cé6nsolidation 
has practically completed the construc- 
tion of the Sandy Valley & Elkhorn 
Ry., from the Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. 
at the mouth of Shelby Creek to Jenkins, 
Ky., the new town built by the company. 
It is expected that the Consolidation will 
be shipping 1500 tons of coal daily from 
this property by April first. 

The Consolidation also started con- 
struction work on its big electric power 
station at Hutchinson, W. Va., which is 
to supply electric power to all the com- 
pany’s mines in West Virginia. It is to 
be one of the most modern plants in the 
world, and will have three, 1500 h.p. en- 
gines driving three 1000 kw. generators. 
It will be constructed so an addition 
equal to one-third of the original plant 
may be added. 

The Davis Coal & Coke Co. did con- 
siderable work in the way of opening up 
additional mines in the Davis vein ter- 
ritory at Thomas, W. Va., four in all be- 
ing opened. These new mines will be 
operated under the contract which the 
company has with the Bethlehem Steel 
Co., and which runs for 20 years. De- 
livery of coal under this contract will be- 
gin May 1, 1912. An additional mine 
was also opened up -by this company at 
Dartmoor, W. Va., in the Beaver Creek 
district. 

Three mines were opened up by the 
Georges Creek Coal Co., Inc., in the 
Tyson vein in Allegheny County, Md. 
This company was formerly controlled by 
the Georges Creek Coal & Iron Co., of 
Baltimore. The headquarters of the con- 
cern are now at Lonaconing, Md. 

Of particular interest to Baltimore is 
the construction of the Buckhannon & 
Northern R.R., which was begun this 
year, from Rivesville, W. Va., to the 
Pennsylvania state line. This road is 
owned by the Baltimore & Ohio, the 
Pennsylvania and the Pittsburg & Lake 
Erie R.R., a subsidiary of the New York 
Central system. When completed, the 
new line will tap about 60,000 acres of 
coal land which heretofore had no rail- 
road facilities. The Little Kanawha 
Syndicate, which is controlled by these 
three roads, owns 60,000 acres of coal 
land to be traversed by the new line, 
and will open it up for development. It 
is expected that a large portion of the 
coal mined on this property will be ex- 
ported through Baltimore. 








PO a 





January 6, 1912 





COAL AGE 


River Shipments at Pittsburg 


Special Correspondence 








Figures compiled by the United States 
Engineers for the first 11 months of 1911 
of the amount of coal arriving in the 
Pittsburg harbor and also that shipped 
to down-river points, indicate a banner 
year in the river-coal business of the 
Pittsburg district. The estimate for De- 
cember has not yet been completed but 
already a record breaking shipment has 
been sent on its way to Southern ports. 

Were it not for the fact that during 
the summer the down-river boats were 
forced to tie up on account of low water, 
the coal shipments through Davis Island 
Dam this year would have greatly ex- 
ceeded those actually made. During the 
summer of 1910 good stages of barge 
water prevailed at frequent intervals and 
the effect of thiS on the river shipments 
can be seen by glancing at the tables 
given below. But in spite of all this, 


taking the shipments for the first 11° 


months of 1910 and comparing them with 
the same period for 1911, it is found the 
shipments for 1911 are greater by 485,- 
638 tons. When the December shipments 
have been tabulated this figure will be 
yet larger. 

The .table in next column shows ship- 
ments for the first 11 months of 1910 
and 1911 in short tons. This table indi- 
cates a total tonnage of coal handled 
through the Pittsburg Harbor for the 
first 11 months of 1910 of 10,374,055, and 
for the same period of 1911 of 10,- 
859,693. 

The aggregate of the coal tonnage on 
the Monongahela River is arrived at by 
taking the coal shipped up through Lock 


No. 1, plus the amount shipped down 
through Lock No. 3 and to this sum is 
added the amount mined and shipped in 
Pools 1 and 2 on the Monongahela River. 
The river tonnage on the Ohio River is 
obtained by adding the amounts shipped, 
both up and down that river, passing 
through Davis Island Dam. 


to local points. An example of such a 
company is the Jones & Laughlin Steel 
Co., operating mines near California, 
Penn., in the Fourth Pool of the Monon- 
gahela River. Most of the coal mined 
and shipped by this concern is used at 
its mills in the Pittsburg Harbor, al- . 
though of recent years much has been 








OHIO RIVER SHIPMENTS, 1910-1911 























1910 1911 
Monongahela Ohio | Monongahela Ohio 

MN Se ome ashig ire ate haararaecs 796,046 451,350 973,861 574,170 
WAGNIMURIR ooo 5 eee cei cde uo) Supe se wl ee oes 902,832 138,680 1,005,741 448,160 
WRN 8 5c cedar ran a Drab rele wiere-e acer eal 1,083,251 245,150 1,010,871 271,210 
PE sa ie ee Cia as ai eae taal 34,884 61,950 814,724 430,090 
WME Cr or churesal teh eta cree hi te ne ena fare So a 936,308 102,275 826,093 102,320 
tis,” CUR aA Saigo ae RON, it gee Prem tee, Saeco ere §89,343 378,280 481,412 55,040 
CRUMNII eet igh ea ee ie ree oleracea ca a HES 867,504 80,520 486,752 27,865 
To OTe Sele ern eee rete | 763,262 47,940 556,413 160,930 
Bo 0 ee ret re rere e arene 754,130 36,770 610,985 157,955 
GIN Io3 2 onc ep ei dies piaper tee eke Re wane | 701,713 37,380 727,113 159,530 
ARR ENONI So. cr cr cere etch eo eo keri ag 684,287 80,200 811,588 166,870 
NINO o nce A re rie a Ga tena genase 759,275 BEGeet! csccssoes | lendcesae 
| 9,472,835 1,774,760 | 8,305,553 2,554,140 

MOOTANG@N 0:6) oe aioe ee 6 le rk SON 759,275 BEG 2G fo wc cecesic > Ph ceewweves 
No cece oa ibenues | 8,713,560 1,660,495 8,305,553 2,554,140 














Less than 10 per cent. of the coal 
shipped and mined on the Monongahela 
River is sent South, the larger portion of 
it being used in the local steel and other 
mills. According to the Monongahela 
River Consolidated Coal & Coke Co., one- 
third of all the coal they mine is shipped 
to the Southern trade, one-third to the 
Pittsburg Harbor for local consumption 
and one-third by rail to the Lakes and 
the Northwest. However, this company 
is the largest coal shipper to the South, 


most of the others confining their trade 


sent through Davis Island Dam to its 
new plant at Aliquippa, Penn., on the 
Ohio River. 

‘Despite the fact that the Monongahela 
River is slack-watered almost to its head- 
waters, the frequent stages of low water 
on the Ohio River, preventing continuous 
navigation, reacts on the former stream. 
This is caused by the inability of the 
operators to bring back the empty barges 
and coal boats to the local harbor, event- 
ually resulting in a shut down at the 
mines. 








The Missi 





ssippi Val 


By E. J. Wallace* 


ley in 191] 








ith the close of 1911 the operators of 
Illinois have put the year down as one 
of the most unsuccessful in their his- 
tory. At no time during the past year 
has the price of Illinois coal gone be- 
yond normal, and for the greater por- 
tion of the year the actual selling price 
of coal was around and below the cost 
of production. 

The principal reason for this is the 
fact that the strike of 1910 caused much 
business that heretofore came to the IIli- 
nois field to be diverted to other fields, 
Principally Indiana and West Virginia, 
and the Illinois operators have been un- 
able to recover this lost ground. | Again, 
the production of Illinois coal is grow- 





“The Dealers’ Fuel Co., St. Louis, Mo. 


ing twice as fast as a logical market for 
it is being developed, and the result is 
that today Illinois can produce twice as 
much coal as there is any natural demand 
for in its territory. The development of 
new mines has not been as extensive in 
the northern field as it has in the south- 
ern, where several new mines have been 
started or completed in the counties of 
Williamson and Franklin, and also in that 
great coal field adjacent to East St. Louis, 
including the counties of Madison, Ma- 
coupin, Montgomery, Bond and St. Clair. 
In contrast to this a few mines have 
been abandoned, but they were of small 
tonnage, and the closing up of these did 
not affect the market in the least. The 
operators in the Illinois field have been 
hampered considerably by the taking up 





in a serious way by the miners of petty 
grievances, and perhaps one important 
change that would help better conditions 
was the effort made’ to use a new explo- 
sive in the mines of Franklin County in 
place of the ordinary black powder. In 
some mines the operators were success- 
ful, and in other instances strikes were 
local and long. 


CosTs AND PRODUCTION IN ILLINOIS 


The cost of coal in the Franklin County 
field has been increased considerably on 
account of the operators taking the pre- 
caution to guard against coal dust ex- 
plosions by installing sprinkler systems, 
and by putting on additional fire runners 
to guard against fires after the shot firers 
are through. The “wild-cat” sinking of 








422 


“= 


mines has been put a stop to by the law 
that went into effect over a year ago, 
which requires all shafts and air shafts to 
be constructed of concrete, and this has 
had a tendency to stop almost entirely 
the promotion of speculative mines. In 
the coal field adjacent to St. Louis there 
has been no change of note during the 
past year, unless it be that the operators 
are poorer as a result of trying to do bus- 
iness in a shrinking market. 

In the central- and northern-Illinois dis- 
tricts there has been no ‘great develop- 
ment to any extent, and the tonnage here 
as in the southern field has always ex- 
ceeded the demand. The low coal in this 
section offers many serious problems that 
are usually met with locally. 

The production of Illinois coal for 1911 
will not exceed, it is believed, the produc- 
tion of other years, under normal con- 
ditions. It is true that at the present time 
the state of Illinois, without opening an- 
other mine, can produce fully 100 mil- 
lion tons, while the market for Illinois 
coal cannot absorb more than 50 million 
tons. It is figured that Illinois coal, dur- 
ing the year 1911, brought between 3 and 
5c. per ton less than in the previous 
year. There are no complete figures at 
this time to show what the tonnage for 
the year 1911 has been, but it is esti- 
mated at between 50 and 65 million tons. 
There is practically no coke produced in 
the state of Illinois, excepting at two or 
three points, and this production is in- 
significant when compared to the produc- 
tions of other states. 


COAL AGE 


Missouri 


The year 1911 marked the beginning of 
the downward trend of coal operations in 
Missouri. There have been practically no 
new mines sunk in the state and several 
of the small older mines have been 
abandoned. As a whole, there were few 
mines in the state that made expenses, 
as the demand for Missouri coal is lim- 
ited, as well as its market. This, chiefly 
on account of the higher grade coals pro- 
duced in the other states surrounding. 
The Missouri coal market has been lost 
chiefly to coal from the Carterville and 
Springfield districts in Illinois, and there 
seems to be no hope of recovering this 
lost ground. 

There is a feeling against the develop- 
ment of any more coal lands in Missouri 
on account of the low vein, and the high 
mining scale, and it is expected that from 
now on every year will show a lower 
figure in the coal production for this 
state. No coal produced in the state of 
Missouri reaches the St. Louis market, 
although a fair tonnage from the central 
western portion gets in to Kansas City 
and St. Joseph, and the market in the 
former city is limited on account of the 
use of natural gas. 


ARKANSAS 


The situation in Arkansas is a peculiar 
one, and it has developed so during 1911. 
In the semi-anthracite field of Arkansas 
there has been a good demand for the 
coal, and the market has been widening 
to some extent. This coal is gradually 


January 6, 1912 


growing in favor on account of its su- 
perior quality, although it is produced 
under difficulties that are experienced in 
but few other mining sections. However, 
the cost of production is so great that 
only by the aid of favorable railroad 
rates can this coal compete with the 
higher-grade coals of other fields, but 
where these rates are practically the 
same, Arkansas coal is almost eliminated. 

In the bituminous mines there has 
been no notable increase in the produc- 
tion as this coal is not of that superior 
quality where it can win its way into 
foreign markets. However, as the state 
of Arkansas is developing fast it will 
continue to create a growing market, 
which will no doubt take care of the pres- 
ent tonnage for the next few years, but 
if further development of the coal is con- 
templated, the condition in Arkansas will 
be much the same as it is in IIlinois. 
During the past year three of the largest 
cities in the state have practically aband- 
oned the use of coal, for natural gas and 
oil. Every city and town on the main 
line between Little Rock and Texarkana 
are now using natural gas from the 
Louisiana fields, and the same condition 
exists at Pine Bluff. In sections iso- 
lated from the gas mains the steam 
plants are looking with favor upon fuel 
oil, and there is nothing promising for 
future steam-coal production in this state. 
The encroachment of oil and gas, while 
affecting Arkansas production, is also 
hurting the operators of Illinois and to a 
greater extent in the southeastern portion 
of Missouri, and northern Louisiana. 








Great Britain’s Coal Industry, 191] 


Special Correspondence 


—_——— 





— 





The British coal industry was con- 
siderably affected during the past year by 
labor troubles, especially in South Wales, 
and by the recent railway strike. Yet 
in spite of these difficulties, the pessi- 
mistic utterances of the president of the 
British Association, and the lamentations 
of the statisticians, to the effect that coal 
mining is not profitable below a certain 
depth, the industry, as a whole, is cheer- 
ful at the beginning of the year 1912. 


YORKSHIRE 


The various coal fields are producing 
up to their maximum output except in 
Yorkshire, Nottingham, and a mine or 
two in South Wales. It has been re- 
ported during the year that Yorkshire is 
underlaid by a vast coal field which was 
previously unknown and that in the 
course of several years 40,000 miners 
would be given employment in this re- 
gion. But such is not the case. On the 
contrary, signs are not lacking to in- 
dicate that the remarkable development 


begun in South Yorkshire in 1900 has 
already reached its climax. This fact 
is due to the geological conditions that 
make shaft-sinking extremely expensive; 
the coal measures being overlaid by 
Permian and Triasic formations which 
contain quicksands and large volumes of 
water. 

At Thome colliery as much as 
$1,250,000 has been spent the past year 
in sinking two shafts to a depth of 600 
ft. each, owing to the fact that it was 
necessary to pump out 9000 gal. of water 
per min. The ultimate depth of these 
shafts is to be 2760 ft. At the Halfield 
main colliery, near Doncaster, the ‘‘Fran- 
cois” system of injecting cement into the 
strata as a preliminary to shaft-sinking 
was tried for the first time in Great 
Britain. 


THE MIDLANDS 


During 1911, six new colliery compa- 
nies started shaft-sinking in the Midland 
coal field, each mine being designed for 


an output of at least 1,000,000 tons per 
year, and altogether there are now 12 
shafts being sunk in this locality. The 
increase of production in the Midlands 
has overtaken and exceeded the export 
trade with the result that a number of 
the older mines closed down when the 
newer and better equipped operations 
dumped their surplus output on the mar- 
ket. The erection of large central power 
plants and the consolidation of various 
groups of collieries in this region have 
both been in evidence during 1911. 

In the Lancashire coal field, at Astley 
Green, the deepest colliery shaft in Great 
Britain is expected to be completed early 
in the coming year. This shaft will have 
a depth of 3360 feet. 

During November, this year, much in- 
terest was aroused by the discovery of 
coal at Calvert, in Buckinghamshire, 


about 50 miles north of London. The 
geological conditions are here similar 
to those in Kent, yet owing to the thin- 
ning out of some formations, the coal 

















January 6, 1912 


measures were found about 540 ft. from 
the surface, and three small seams have 
been encountered. 


Coat MINE BILL 


The coal mines bill for 1911, although 
a non-party measure, has been discussed 
even more than the Eight Hour act of 
1908, which latter is now giving satis- 
faction. The chief discussion has cen- 
tered around the use of electricity in 
gaseous mines, the abolition of naked 
lights, employment of female laborers on 
the surface, the provision of baths and 
wash houses and in connection with the 





COAL AGE 


rescue and ambulance equipment. The bill 
was not opposed in regard to its provi- 
sions for insuring the safety of mines and 
miners, but because of the increased cost 
which will devolve on some of the older 
collieries as a result of its being passed. 

The Great Central Railway has just 
completed at Humber, a coal dock which 
is said to be the largest in the world. 
This dock has a capacity of 12,000,000 
tons of coal per year on the basis of 
working 12 hours a day. Its eight hy- 
draulic hoists can each handle 320 loaded 
cars a day. The cost of handling is much 
less than was heretofore possible. 


CoAL OUTPUT 


The output of coal in 1910 was 264,- 
337,786 tons, and for 1911 will prob- 
ably exceed 270,000,000 tons. The num- 
ber of workers employed in the mines 
has passed all previous records, -and 
shows an increase over 1910. In 1851 
nineteen persons were killed for every 
1,000,000 tons of coal mined in Great 
Britain; in 1910 the death rate was 6.37 
per million tons, whereas for 1911 
the rate has been reduced below 6, 
there having been no serious explo- 
sions. 








Chronology 


JANUARY 


Jan. 3—Explosion and fire at the Syd- 
ney No. 3 mine of the Nova Scotia Steel 
& Coal Co. killed 8 men. 

Jan. 4—Strike of 12,000 coal miners 
in Belgium was declared. 

Jan. 10—A cave-in occurred at the 
Natia mine, Castro Urdiales, Spain; 190 
men were entombed and 40 killed. 

Jan. 20—An explosion and fire in the 
Casimir mine at Sosnowice, Russian Po- 
land, killed 40 miners——The Executive 
Council of the American Federation of 
Labor granted a charter to the Western 
Federation of Miners on the same basis 
as to the United Mine Workers of Amer- 
ica. 

Jan, 25—Explosion at the Hughestown 
No. 10 colliery of the Pennsylvania Coal 
Co. at Pittston, Penn., killed 6 and in- 
jured 5 men. 


FEBRUARY 


Feb. 6—Three men were killed at mine 
of Independent Coal & Coke Co., Kenil- 
worth, Utah, by Greek miners on strike. 

Feb. 9—Explosion at Cokedale Mine 
of American Smelting & Refining Co., 
near Trinidad, Colo., killed 15 men. 

Feb. 17—Ninth annual meeting of 
western branch of Canadian Mining In- 
Stitute. 

Feb. 26—Fire was discovered in the 
Hazel mine of the Pittsburg-Buffalo Coal 
Co., near Cancnsburg, Penn. 


MARCH 


March 9—Lehigh Coal & Navigation 
Co., announced plan to build large elec- 
tric plant at mines in Pennsylvania for 
high tension distribution of power over 
extensive area. 

March 18—Explosion in Mine No. 16 
of Missouri, Kansas & Texas Ry. Co., at 
West Mineral, Kansas, killed 6 men. 

March 22—Fall of roof in Hazel Mine 
of Pittsburg-Buffalo Coal Co., East Can- 
onsburg, Penn., killed 9 men. 


APRIL 
April 1—Coal miners of Crows Nest 


of Coal Mining tor 191] 








A record of important 
happenings arranged for 





ready reference. Also inci- 
dents and events of more 
than passing interest. 




















Pass region of British Columbia and AIl- 
berta inaugurated strike. 

April 3—U. S. Supreme Court upheld 
commodity clause of Interstate Com- 
merce Law which prevents a railroad 
from owning stock in a coal corporation 
shipping over its lines. 

April 7—Fire in the Throop mine of 
the Price-Pancoast Coal Co., Lackawan- 
na County, Penn., killed 73 men.— 
Miners in British Columbia and Al- 
berta agreed to submit wage dispute 
to arbitration. 

April 8—Explosion at Banner mines 
of Pratt Consolidated Coal Co., Jef- 
ferson County, Ala., killed 128 men, 
mostly convicts. 

April 11—U. S. Steel Corporation 
opened $5,000,000 coke-oven plant at 
Gary, Ind. 

April 24—Explosion in Ott mine, No. 
20 of Davis Coal & Coke Co., near Elk 
Garden, W. Va., killed 10 men. 

April 28—Gypsy Grove breaker of the 
Pennsylvania Coal Co., at Dunmore, 
Penn., burned down, killing 2 men and 
seriously injuring four. The total loss 
was $50,000. 


May 


May 11—Fire at the Boston colliery 
of the Delaware & Hudson Co., Larks- 
ville, Penn., suffocated 5 men. 

May 12—Mine tipple and buildings of 
the Pierson colliery near Jasonville, 
Ind., were destroyed by fire. 


JUNE ™ 
100th meeting of the 


June 6—The 


American Institute of Mining Engineers 
opened at Wilkes-Barre, Penn. 

June 19—Summer meeting of the West 
Virginia Coal Mining Institute opened 
at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va. 

June 21—Dissolution of the E. T. 
du Pont de Memours Powder Co. was 
ordered on account of violation of the 
Sherman anti-trust act. 

June 28—Summer meeting of Coal 
Mining Institute of America opened af 
Indianna, Penn. 

JULY 

July 6—Suit was filed by the U. S. 
Government against the Lehigh Valley 
R. R. Co. under the commodities clause 
of the interstate commerce act. 

July 15—Explosion in the mine of the 
Cascade Coal & Coke Co., at Sykesville, 
near Du Bois, Penn., killed 21 men. 

July 17—U. S. Government filed suit 
to compel separation of the Reading R.R. 
from the Reading Coal Company. 

: AUGUST 

Aug. 1—Explosion in the mine of 
the Standard Pocchontas Coal Co., at 
Shannon, W. Va., killed 3 men. 

Aug. 4—Suit was filed by the Govern- 
ment at Columbus, Ohio, against 6 rail- 
roads and three coal companies charg- 
ing combination in restraint of trade. 

Aug. 10—A four-deck cage dropped 
in the Krupp-Hannibal mine near Bo- 
cum, Germany, killing 25 men. 


SEPTEMBER 


Sept. 8—Death of F. B. Robbins,’ for 
sometime president of the Pittsburgh Coal 
Co., and of the Monongahela River Coal 
Company. 

Sept. 9—Merger effected at Cleve- 
land of several independent steel com- 
panies into the Great Republic Steel 
Co.; Capitalized at $36,000,060. 

Sept. 16—First-aid meets were held 
at Shamokin, Penn., Inkerman, Penn.. 
and Trinidad, Colo. 

Sept. 21—Death of John Bond Atkin- 
son, president of Kentucky Mining In- 
stitute. 





424 


Sept. 30—H. C. Frick Coke Co. se- 
cured title to about 16,000 acres of cok- 
ing coal from Pittsburg Coal Company, 
and Monongahela Consolidated Coal 
Company, the transaction involving about 
$18,000,000. 

OCTOBER 


Oct. 3—Fire destroyed the Fast Bos- 
ton breaker of the Payne Coal Co., near 
Wilkes-Barre, Penn. Loss $100,000. 

Oct. 5—Fire destroyed the Cuckoo 
mining plant of the South Chandler Coal 
Co. near Canon City, Colo. , Loss $25,- 
000. 

Oct. 6—Cage fell 80 ft. at the Pea- 
body mine, Nokomis, IIl., injuring 8 
men. 

Oct. 10—Control of the Monongahela 
River Consolidated Coal & Coke Co. was 
absorbed by the Pittsburg Coal Co.— 
The 101ist meeting of the American In- 
stitute of Mining Engineers opened in 
San Francisco. 

Oct. 14—Reorganization of Peoples 
Coal Co., of Scranton, Penn. was ef- 
fected.—Small fire occurred in the No. 9 
mine of the Lehigh & Wilkes-Barre Coal 
Co. at Sugar Notch, Penn. 

Oct. 18—Explosion in coal mine, Bar- 
dot, France, killed 26 men. 

Oct. 20—Fire in the No. 8 mine of 
Brazil Block Coal Co. threatened the 
lives of more than 100 men. 

Oct. 23—Explosion in O’Gara mine, 
No. 9 at Harrisburg, IIl., killed 8 and in- 
jured 10 men. 

Oct. 24—The 14th annual conven- 
tion of the American Mining Congress 
opened at Chicago. 

Oct. 30—The National Mine Safety 
Demonstration opened at _ Pittsburg, 
Penn. 

Oct. 31—The tri-district convention of 
the United Mine Workers of America, 
opened at Pottsville, Penn. 


NOVEMBER 

Nov. 9—Explosion in the Adrian mine 
of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh 
Coal & Iron Co. near Punxsutawney, 
Penn., killed 8 men. 

Nov. 10—Reorganization of the Penn- 
sylvania Coal & Coke Co. was effected 
with a capitalization of $7,500,000. 

Nov. 15—Freight reductions went into 
effect between Salt Lake City and Mis- 
souri River points. 

Nov. 17—Canadian coal strike was 
settled by agreement signed at Hosmer, 
B. C., under which miners returned to 
work, Nov. 20. 

Nov. 18—Explosion in mine of Bottom 
Creek Coal & Coke Co., at Vivian, W. 
Va., killed 18 men. 


Nov. 20—Serious cave-in occurred at 
‘Scranton, Penn.—Coal Miners of British 
Columbia and Alberta resumed work. 

Nov. 21—Hearing of Pittsburg-Lake 
coal rate case was started by Interstate 
Commerce Commission. 


COAL AGE 


Nov. 28—Non-union Miner was shot 
at Louisville, Colo., in conflict with 
strikers. 


DECEMBER 


Dec. 4—Winter meeting of West Vir- 
ginia Coal Mining Institute opened at 
Fairmont, W. Va. 

Dec. 9—Explosion in Cross Mountain 
Mine No. 1, of Knoxville Iron Co., at 
Briceville, Tenn., killed 84 men, 5 en- 
tombed miners being rescued alive. 

Dec. 11—Mid-winter Meeting of Ken- 
tucky Mining Institute opened at Lex- 
ington, Ky. 

Dec. 12—Fire destroyed the top works 
of the Northern Central Coal Co.’s mine 
at Higbee, Colo.—The United Mine 
Workers of America balloted for their 
national officers. 

Dec. 13—Eastern Ohio Coal Operators 
Association entered complaint before the 
Interstate Commerce Commission against 
three railroads, regarding freight rates to 
Lake Erie ports. 

Dec. 18—American Federation of Bi- 
tuminous Coal operators was organized 
at Chicago. 

Dec. 19—Mid-winter Meeting of Coat 
Mining Institute of America opened at 
Pittsburg. 

Dec. 23—Pit of Cross Tetley Coal 
Mine at Wigan, England, was flooded and 
the lives of 200 miners endangered. 

Dec. 23—Six miners were killed by 
firedamp explosion at Teutoburgia col- 
liery, Dortmund, Germany. 

Dec. 24—Ohio and _ Pennsylvania 
operators declined to enter into inter- 
state agreement with Illinois and Indiana 
operators. 





Lake Tonnage for 1910 and 
1911 


According to the reports of the Hock- 


ing Valley docks at Toledo for the lake 
season of 1911 there was an increase of 
175,455 tons over the amount handled 
by the docks in 1910. During the season 
of 1911 the docks handled 2,253,069 tons 
as compared with 2,077,614 tons in 1910. 

The tonnage secured for the lake trade 
from the various mining districts in Ohio 
and West Virginia was as follows: 
Hocking district; 662,388 tons as com- 
pared with 666,218 tons in 1910; 
Kanawha & Michigan district, 886,405 
tons as compared with 885,562 tons in 
1910; Chesapeake & Ohio district, 651,- 
205 tons as compared with 492,101 tons 
in 1910; Kanawha & West Virginia dis- 
trict, no tonnage as compared with 12,239 
tons in 1910; Coal & Coke district, 816 
tons as compared with 13,449 tons in 
1910; Norfolk & Western district, 50,781 
tons as compared with 6367 tons in 1910; 
Wellston district, 1443 tons as compared 
with 1678 tons in 1910. 





January 6, 1912 


Coal and Coke Production in 
the United States 


The following table has been compiled 
largely from data communicated by the 
several state mine inspectors, estimates 
having been made only where no such 
statistics were available, but in all cases 
upon the basis of good information: 








PRODUCTION OF COKE IN THE 
UNITED STATES 











; 1910, 1911, 

States Short Tons | Short Tons 
BIGDOIOD «6 555 6 oe 00% 3,249,027 2,784,880 
Colorado . ...} 1,190,901 946,284 
NONI. 660s eee 0 08 ,000 25,000 
RE Sas. kca o ais tea.cvets 390,000 375,000 
Sere 10,000 10,000 
WOGROUCKY 0 65 ees seis 58,700 60,000 
CS 5,000 5,000 
SS ee eee 58,200 52,300 
New Mexico......... 510,000 450,000 
a ae Pe ere 260,000 240,000 
Oklahoma........... 30,000 30,000 
Pennsylvania........ 22,875,000 | 19,403,750 
‘SOMMCHBEE . . .. 2. aes 240,000 210,000 
REGIS Sea 141,050 140,000 
pee 1,264,300 901,000 
Washington.......... 40,000 35,000 
West Virginia........ 3,803,881 2,200,000 
Other states......... 1,890,000 1 *470, 000 
MNOS: baked wees 36,056,059 | 29,338,214 




















PRODUCTION OF COAL IN THE 
UNITED STATES 

















1910, 1911 
States Short Tons | Short Tons 
Bituminous: 
Alabama. ...... 16,139,228 14,500,000 
Arkansas...... 1,870,000 |(a) 1, :700, :000 
California...... 10,000 5,000 
Colorado...... 12,104,887 10, 075, 861 
Georgia....... 180,000 68 ‘000 . 
Hino... ... .. - 47,064,500 |(a) 48, rite 000 
Indians. ....... 18,125,244 4 /070, 000 
ee 7,260,000 |(b) 7,574, "919 
OTS eee 5,100,450 ,000 
Kentucky..... .} 14,750,092 {(a) 15,000,000 
Maryland....... 5,009,600 4,500,000 
Michigan....... 1 '620.000 1,500,000 
Missouri........ 2,980,700 {(a) 3,000,000 
Montana....... 3,050,000 |(d) 2,913,397 
New Mexico.... 3,616,665 3,440,022 
North Dakota... "385, 882 395,000 
MOIS svec0 6-5. 6-060 33,876,400 30,500,000 
Oklahoma...... 2; 840, 000 2,800,000 
OPBRONR ... <6... 6: 000 50,000 
Pennsylvania. ..} 148, 47 1 '826 143, 978,671 
Tennessee. ..... 6.750.000 5 9: 50,000 
Ji ar 1,940,000 1,875,000 
Lo) rarer 2,526,094 2,501,472 
WaPEIID 53 so 3: «is 5,750,041 5,490,000 
Washington., ...|(b) 2 yee 047 (db) 2, 371, 481 
West Virginia...| 59, 690 ,300 60,500, ‘000 
Wyoming....... 7,469,452 7,027,000 
Total bituminous; 411,126,408 396,296,823 
Anthracite: 
Colorado....... 70,586 64,379 
New Mexico.... 8,000 |(a) ,000 
Pennsylvania...) 82,591,649 86,823 686 
Totalanthracite.| 82 670,235 86,896,065 
Grand total...| 493,796,643 483,192,888 








(a) Estimated. 


(b) Fiscal year ending June 


30. (c) Includes output of byproduct coke for 
Massachusetts, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, 
(d) Year ending Oct. 31. 


Michigan, Wisconsin. 








The State of Indiana produced 18,125,- 


244 tons of coal in the year 1910, an in- 
crease of 4,433,155 tons, or 32 per cent. 
Of this total 17,249,785 tons was bitum- 
inous and 875,459 tons was block coal. 
The proportion of machine-mined coal 
was 10,888,367 tons, while 7,236,877 tons 
was mined by hand. 









January 6, 1912 











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CIRCULATION STATEMENT 


Of this issue of Coal Age, we will print 
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This journal is interested solely in mat- 
ters relating to the fuel industries, and is 
designed to be a medium for the free in- 
terchange of ideas, the detailed descrip- 
tion of coal-mining practice, and the ex- 
pression of independent thought calcu- 
lated to benefit both operator and miner. 








Contents _ 
PORGWORO oo ics Rihat wero ce wneeees 397 
The World’s Coal Production........ 398 
Coal Mine Mortality Statistics. 

Frederick L. Hoffman 400 
American vs. Fatali- 


English Mine 
ties J. T.. Beard 403 
Reviews of Coal Industry for 1911: 


PRUE Sg.c 5 wisi ohh orsse we oo Came ee eres 405 

CONSUR GE 65a ciicais so meee melee eues 405 

DERE seal oic is aco a hawt ee a Soe mead 406 

ENMGREIDIGE, 5. 65-056) oes se ice erelale cares 407 

BOW coer arc srek rial arin @ econ Gitta pias Hcie area 407 

NEC cs coer esearene. «ores cere ererem ene ate 408 

MERU RIAE correc ket ae canewneecnee 408 

NGPth DOHOUS ccs nnn caceseswras 408 

ROUSE co ele ceri eos ol wmewe we enees 408 

CURERONE os occa cu advo) ara 6) iat aver) ends Oa: Si he cee TO RS 409 

CHES ORME ore Siig cd palin wisieu wh orclaet 411 

PONNAVEGANIG. 6.6. ce cc neeteee esses 412 

OR are oa 0'6) cheer viel ond Beer w ewes 414 

NVSIGHIMSROR 55. < 5 occ cuinsisine ame eer 415 
. WHORE WHERE Gs ooo. e: 5 cinema ave es.siere!s 416 
Coal and Coke Exports in 1911..... 417 
Coastwise Trade Conditions........ 418 
Review of Year’s Coal Trade. 
ae John H. Jones 419 
Baltimore and Vicinity. 

: Leslie Rawles 420 
i EE HR 421 
The Mississippi Valley.............. 421 
Great Britain’s Coal Industry, 1911.. 422 
*hronology of Coal Mining for 1911. 423 
Coal and Coke Production in U. S... 424 
mortal: 

eG RN AL Ut fino 0h 5 alse icrat si eteverericars 420 

BIRO GIN oc cc 5) osc os 6 «cid pdiwrerce 426 
_Reversing Ventilation ........... 426 
Examination Questions and Answers 427 
Inquiries and Answers.............+ 428 
Jiscussion by Readers.............. 429 
Coal Trade Reviews................ 431 





COAL AGE 


L 


425 











AG 








The Year 1912 


The year just commenced is likely to 
prove an eventful one to coal men. 
Notwithstanding the much talked of hesi- 
tation and caution that is supposed to ac- 
company each presidential year, there are 
good indications that the wheels of in- 
dustry are beginning to turn a little faster, 
and it is posible the coming 
months will be a period of marked pros- 


twelve 


perity. 

Much heralded events seldom fulfil ex- 
pectations. We have been told so often 
that 1912 (presidential year) is to be a 
time of lethargy in business due to the 
activities of politicians who desire to 
manufacture campaign material, that 
companies and individuals have prepared 
to withstand a siege, and repulse any at- 
tack that may be precipitated. 

The past two years of curtailment in 
business expansion has healed many sore 
spots. Weak links have been eliminated 
and the commercial chain is stronger than 
ever before. Best of all we have entered 
a period of growth based on no less 
solid foundation than the provision of 
necessities for a rapidly increasing pop- 
ulation. We have been taught that pros. 
perity does not necessarily mean inflation, 
and that the utterances of a few rich men, 
who temper their words according to the 
state of their indigestion, cannot block the 
advance of the great body of industrial 
workers in America. 

As a nation, we have unlimited natural 
resources, great visible wealth, and the 
willing hands and restless brains nec- 
essary to the development and increase of 
these valuable assets. Too many people 
mistake the meaning of an occasional 
drawing-back; they think it is a retreat, 
when it is but a preparation for another 
and greater leap ahead. 

There has been no unusual advance in 
coal mining this last year, but the growth 
has been healthy. Innovations have been 
rare, however, more attention than usual 
has been given to perfecting present 
methods and to safeguarding the men un- 
derground. Prices have been rather un- 


satisfactory, but most operators have 





made both ends meet, and have brought 
their mines to a point of efficiency that 
will enable them to take advantage of 
the coming upward swing in business. 

Legislation, especially with reference to 
employer’s liability, will occupy the prin- 
cipal attention of coal-mine owners in 
1912. It is also to be hoped that the 
year will witness a closer understanding 
between operators, not only in each dis- 
trict, but in each State. Competition is 
to be desired, but not a business war 
that will destroy all and fail to benefit 
even the consumer. 

That consolidations are to be desired is 
proved by the distory of recent events. In 
1904 and 1905, mines in several states 
were organized into a number of large 
companies and the beneficial result was 
clearly shown in an immediate bettering 
of conditions for the men; an improve- 
ment in mining methods, and the install- 
ation of modern machinery. The large 
companies were able to do things the 
small fellows could not attempt. Coal 
does not grow like fruit or grain and a 
pound wasted is a pound lost forever. 

The talk of an extended strike in April 
should not be taken too seriously. The 
men will, of course, demand an increase 
in wages, shorter hours, etc.; however, 
there is little likelihood but that a fair 
settlement of differences will be reached. 
A strike will probably occur, but we hope 
and expect it will be of short duration, 
and be more in the shape of a temporary 
suspension that will injure no one. 

By April 1, anthracite operators will be 
well stocked with coal. Mines in West 
Virginia, Alabama and other unorganized 
states will be able to supply fuel to meet 
any deficiency. Last and most import- 
ant, coal miners are already receiving 
wages higher than ever before in the his- 
tory of mining, and the slack between the 
“increase in the cost of living” and “an 
equal advance in wages” has been taken 
up. The chief labor leaders do not de- 
sire a serious conflict, knowing from late 
history that the time is inopportune, and 
the few minor officials who have assumed 
a belligerent attitude will probably be 
overruled. 








426 


Blackdamp 


Many nontechnical words have an in- 
definiteness which serves a useful pur- 
pose for a while. And this commendable 
breadth of purview is often their com- 
plete undoing because they are liable 
later to be submitted to a narrow defini- 
tion covering only a part of the ground 
they formerly. covered, and thus their 
meanings become uncertain and obscure. 

Those scientists who cater to the un- 
scientific will try in vain to save the life 
of the word “blackdamp” as a specific 
scientific entity, though it might be left 
to live a long and useful life as a roughly 
generic word. It would be well con- 
stantly to revert to the fundamental 
meaning of the word. When a light is 
brought into an atmosphere in which it 
tends to expire or when a light in an un- 
ventilated atmosphere dulls in the air 
it has befouled, then blackdamp is pres- 
ent. The light deadens or actually dies 
out and the black darkness resulting 
causes the agent of that darkness to be 
termed appropriately “blackdamp.” 

This definition seems satisfactory. It 
is not technical and we need a non- 
technical word which will cover the con- 
dition in a noncommittal manner, leaving 
it open to later investigations perhaps 
to determine what the nature of that 
particular blackdamp may be. 

But blackdamp has not been permitted 
to remain the name of a flame-extinguish- 
ing gas per se. It is said that afterdamp, 
though it may dull or quench flame, is 
not blackdamp because carbon monoxide 
is present. So, according to some defin- 
ers, we cannot distinguish blackdamp un- 
less we know either the cause of its ex- 
istence or its analysis and the term be- 
comes needlessly exact and by that token 
less useful. 

Some years ago blackdamp was de- 
clared a nontechnical term for carbon 
dioxide. A new use of the colloquial 
word was advocated as that word was 
less technical in appearance’ than that 
which indicated the definite chemical 
combination. But this twist i:. the recog- 
nized meaning of a familiar word nearly 
destroyed its value, because it was soon 
discovered that an extinctive natural at- 
mosphere, which is a true “blackdamp,” 
was always depleted of free oxygen 
whether rendered extinctive by the burn- 
ing of lamps, the respiration of animals, 
or by the action of the mine walls. 


COAL AGE 


So blackdamp has been twisted a sec- 
ond time to mean the mixture of carbon 
dioxide with an excess of nitrogen and 
its allied gases dbove their standard 
presence in common air. But this is 
clearly a technical definition; it does 
not represent an actual, existing gas nor 
even the full sum of the impurities of 
any actually existing gas, nor yet the 
change due to a certain single chemical 
or physical action. 

It is a fact that “air” is still “air” and 
will be styled “air” though we now know 
it contains argon, krypton, xenon, helium 
and neon, as well as carbon dioxide and 
a little hydrogen. Nevertheless, the mean- 
ing of the word “air” is still definite be- 
cause it includes all normal elements and 
gas compounds in an existing mixture— 
the atmosphere. But blackdamp only in- 
cludes, we are now told, part of a mix- 
ture, to wit—carbon dioxide and nitro- 
gen. Some would say moisture, if pres- 
ent, might be accounted a part of the 
blackdamp. 

But some would declare that if methane 
is present, it cannot be considered a part 
nor can carkon monoxide or hydric sul- 
phide. Yet others might even permit 
methane to be rated as blackdamp if the 
oxygen were low in percentage because 
a large percentage of methane extin- 
guishes flame. All air vitiated by seclu- 
sion in the mines contains methane. And 
secluded air is the most common form 
of blackdamp, of which methane might 
under a new definition be said to be a 
part. If the word discussed is to be 
limited by all the artificial restrictions 
by which technicists would hedge it, it 
has become a narrow term, which only 
a technical man can use aright and which 
we may confidently assert many tech- 
nical men of long training are grievous- 
ly misusing. Hence the need to retain 
the word in its pristine value, neither 
adding nor subtracting from the original 
definition. 

The word “blackdamp” as _ recently 
constrained, redefined and newly con- 
ceived by Dr. Haldane, is the excess of 
inert gas above that in normal terrestrial 
air. The suggestion occurs that we 
abandon the “blackdamp percentage” of 
Dr. Haldane and describe the natural 
air as containing 79.1 per cent. of inert 
gas; then graduate his tube for “testing 
hlackdamp” so as to give not “blackdamp 
percentage,” so called; but the “gross 


January 6, 1912 


inert-gas percentage” in the air of the 
mine. 

And this is advocated because it is a 
chemical device almost unheard of here- 
tofore to group part of a constituent of 
a mixture under a different heading to 
that under which another part of the 
same constituent in like condition and 
of like qualities in the same mixture is 
grouped. And as it is true that the 
action of moisture and carbon dioxide by 
volume is not exactly equivalent to the 
action of nitrogen by volume, would it 
not be well to replace the words “gross 
inert percentage” by a more indefinite 
expression which would not indicate that 
the percentage was definitely indicated. 
We would suggest that this form of 
words should run “chemical index of 
inertia” or conversely ‘oxygen index,” 
leaving the word “blackdamp” to express 
an atmosphere depressive of flame. 

In conclusion it may be truthfully as- 
serted that chemists of light and lead- 
ing, do not know how to define black- 
damp and will ascribe it to entirely dif- 
ferent concepts in the course of a single 
Sometimes it will be an inert 
diluent of air. Sometimes it will be the 
diluted air itself. Even the context will 
be no guide. Nothing but the good judg- 
ment of the reader can follow the vagaries 
of the text. 


article. 








Reversing Ventilation 
Though the advisability of reversing 
the air current after an explosion or mine 
fire is a hotly debated question in this 


country, the English mining men seem’ 


definitely to favor that reversal. The 
Royal Commission of Mines as far back 
as 1906 considered the matter of such 
importance that it strongly recommended 
the provision at every mine, of means 
whereby the reversal of the air could be 
effected. The commission quoted several 
instances both of explosions and under- 
ground fires, wherein many lives might 
have been saved had it been possible to 
reverse the air without delay. 

In this connection were instanced the 
fires at Hamstead, Whitwick, and the ex- 
plosions at the Thornhill and Great West- 
ern collieries. Since then the explosions 
at the West Stanley and Whitehaven 
mines have strengthened the former con- 
clusions. As a result, the new coal mines 
bill, which has just received the ap- 
proval of both Houses of Parliament, re- 
quires that all fans shall be reversible. 





hie eee 





woe 









January 6, 1912 


COAL AGE 





427 















Examination Questions 


Selected from State Examinations, or Suggested by Correspondents 

















Some Pennsylvania Questions 


BLASTING IN GaAssy MINE 


Ques.—In what way is blasting dan- 
gerous in a mine giving off marsh gas? 
Explain fully. 

Ans.—The flame of the blast may ig- 
nite a body of gas that has accumulated 
in some pocket in the roof or in a void 
place in the gob and escaped the notice 
of the fireboss. The explosion of this gas 
may stir up and ignite the dust and cause 
a disastrous mine explosion. A windy 
or a blown-out shot is always more dan- 
cerous in a gassy mine, because even a 
small percentage of gas greatly assists 
the ignition of the dust that is thrown 
into the air by the force of the blast, and 
the result is more apt to be a mine ex- 
plosion. The firing of a shot in a gassy 
mine is unsafe unless the place is first 
carefully examined for gas, and reported 
safe. 


COAL-MINE GASES 


Ques.—(a) What are the gases pro- 
duced in coal mines? (b) Where are 
they to be found? (c) What are their 
relative weights ? 

Ans.—(a) The common _ coal-mine 
gases are marsh gas (CH,), carbon mon- 
oxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO:), hy- 
drogen sulphide (H.S), and olefiant gas 
(C:H,). Hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, 
though occurring, at times, in mines, are 
not classed as mine gases; the two last 
named occur chiefly as air. 

(b) In a well ventilated mine, outside 
of the return air current, these gases 
when present will be found at or near 
the place where they are generated. 
Marsh gas, being lighter than air, tends 
to accumulate at the roof or in rise work- 
ings at the face of steep pitches, where 
the air current is not sufficiently strong 
to sweep away the gas. Carbon monox- 
ide is but a trifle lighter than air. It is 
principally found in close or poorly ven- 
tilated places, where shots have been re- 
cently fired or where combustion (oxi- 
dation) in some form has been taking 
Place. Carbon dioxide, being half again 
as heavy as air, tends to accumulate at 
the floor or in dip workings, in swamps 
or other low places in the mine. Hydro- 


‘gen sulphide is somewhat heavier than 


air, but does not occur in large quantities 
in coal mines. It would be found mostly 
'n seams where pyrites occurs in the coal 
or the underclay, in low wet places or 
Swamps where the air is dead. Olefiant 
£as never occurs in large quantity as a 





separate gas, but is often associated with 
marsh gas and found under similar con- 
ditions. 

(c) The relative weights of these gases 
are shown by their several specific grav- 
ities. They are as follows: Marsh gas, 
0.559; carbon monoxide, 0.967; carbon 
dioxide, 1.529; hydrogen sulphide, 
1.1912; olefiant gas, 0.978. 


SAFETY LAMPS 


Ques.— (a) What is a safety lamp? 
(b) Where and by whom should they be 
used ? 

Ans.—(a) A safety lamp is any lamp 
in which the flame is surrounded by a 
gauze or glass-and-gauze chimney in 
such a manner that it is completely iso- 
lated from the outside atmosphere sur- 
rounding the lamp. 

(b) Safety lamps should be used at 
the working face and in all parts of a 
mine generating marsh gas in dangerous 
quantity. The condition of the mine 
with regard to dust, and the inflammabil- 
ity of the coal will determine the relative 
danger and the percentage of gas that 
may be considered as safe for open 
lights. In many bituminous mines 1 per 
cent. of gas, in the mine air at the face, 
would demand the use of safeties; while 
in hard-coal mines open lights are used 
with safety in 2 per cent. of gas; and 2!% 
and even 3 per cent. cause no particular 
alarm, in many cases. 

Safety lamps should only be intrusted 
to those fully acquainted with their use 
and who know how to handle them. A 
safety lamp is very unsafe when handled 
in gas by an inexperienced person. 


IMPROPER USE OF SAFETY LAMPS 


Ques.—What are the dangers arising 
from the improper handling and care of 
safety lamps by workmen? 

Ans.—When a safety lamp is tipped 
or canted to one side so that the flame is 
directed toward the glass or gauze chim- 
ney, the glass may be cracked by the heat 
or the gauze become hot and the lamp 
pass flame. When the lamp is allowed 
to smoke continually or the gauze not 
thoroughly cleaned after each shift, or 
exposed to dust and dirt falling from roof 
and timbers, the mesh may become clog- 
ged so that the lamp is unsafe in gas. 
When a lamp is swung or allowed to fall 
or exposed to a strong current of air or 
the force of a heavy blast or carried rap- 
idly against the air, the flame is liable to 
be blown through the gauze and ignite 
any gas that may be present. When a 





lamp is improperly put together, or any 
of its parts omitted or the lamp not prop- 
erly examined, cleaned and trimmed in 
the lamp room, there is danger in its use 
in gas. When a lamp is exposed too 
long to gas or is allowed to flame badly, 
especially if moved quickly at the time, 
the flame may pass through the gauze. 


QUALIFICATIONS OF A FIREBOSS 


Ques.—What qualities, moral, mental 
and physical, are or should be considered 
essential in a fireboss? 

Ans.—The moral character of a good 
fireboss must be unquestionable; he must 
be sober, honest, conscientious and fully 
trustworthy. Mentally, fe must be ob- 
servant and possess good judgment, alert 
to what is going on about him and quick 
to decide and act. He must be physical- 
ly strong and possess in a marked de- 
gree the senses of hearing, seeing and 
smelling. 


SAFETY-LAMP SHIELDS 


Ques.—What are the advantages of 
having safety lamps shielded ? 

Ans.—tThe shield of a safety lamp is 
a small piece of sheet metal attached to 
one side of the lamp to protect the lamp 
flame better against a strong air current. 
The shield is sometimes fixed, but more 
often is movable and arranged to slide 
up and down, according to need. It has 
the advantage of giving added protection 
to the lamp when required without ob- 
structing all of the light. It is very use- 
ful when traveling an airway with an un- 
bonneted Davy or other lamp. The bon- 
net of a safety lamp is sometimes im- 
properiy called a shield. 


DANGER SIGNALS IN MINES 


Ques.—-When, where and by whom 
shall danger signals be used ? 

Ans.—The_ revised bituminous-mine 
law requires the fireboss to place a dan- 
ger signal across the entrance to every 
working place or other place where ex- 
plosive gas is discovered or any danger 
found to exist. The law requires that the 
superintendent furnish the signals, at the 
request of the mine foreman, and that 
they shall be uniform and of a design 
approved hy the Chief of the Department 
of Mines and kept in good condition and 
distributed by the mine foreman or his 
assistant to points in the mine convenient 
for the use of the fireboss. Danger sig- 
nals must be placed immediately on the 
discovery of the danger. 





428 


COAL AGE 





January 6, 1912 











Inquiries of General Interest 


All Questions Must be Accompanied by Name and Address—Not for Publication 

















Is Carbon Dioxide Black- 
damp? 


Will you kindly explain what carbon 
dioxide is, and whether it is the whole of 
blackdamp or only a part. Please ex- 
plain fully, as this question is the result 
of a discussion of five first-grade mine 
foremen and three firebosses located at 
the Eclipse mine, Elco, Washington 
County, Penn. I have claimed that car- 
bon dioxide is not blackdamp, but is a 
part of it. I am taking CoAL AGE. 

CuHas. C. CRAWFORD. 


Newell, Penn. 

In early mining, when little was known 
of the nature of mine gases, and much 
less of their properties and composition, 
miners called all mine gases by the gen- 
eral term “damps,” derived from the 
German dampf, meaning vapor. Later, as 
the different natures of the gases became 
known, the terms “firedamp; whitedamp; 
blackdamp; chokedamp, or stonedamp; 
stinkdamp; afterdamp, etc.,” came into 
general use by the miner. 

Still later, as mining conditions have 
been carefully studied by chemists and 
other scientific men it has been found that 
what miners have been calling firedamp 
is any inflammable mixture of gas and air 
that gives a flame cap. Before the use of 
the Davy the cap was observed on the 
open candle flame. 

What was called whitedamp, in the 
mines, was found to be carbon monox- 
ide (CO). The term blackdamp, like- 
wise, was found to refer to any unknown 
mixture of gases that dimmed or ex- 
tinguished a light and caused headache, 
nausea or suffocation. 

While this mixture generally consisted 
largely of carbon dioxide (CO.), it was 
found, in many cases, to contain much 
nitrogen and naturally the oxygen con- 
tent was below the normal percentage in 
air. 

Mining textbooks, based largely on the 
early writings of Atkinson, Fairley and 
other pioneers in mining literature, have 
been prone to describe blackdamp as 
carbonic acid gas (carbon dioxide, CO.). 
The error of calling blackdamp carbon 
dioxide is therefore pardonable; but in 
reality the term, as. used in the mines, 


refers to variable mixtures of carbon - 


dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen, the two 
last-named gases being a residual at- 
mosphere resulting from the various 
forms of combustion (oxidation), both 
_ slow and rapid. 


Use of Brattice Cloth in 
Mines 


What is brattice cloth and how is it 
used in mines? Is it used as much in 
metal mines as in coal mines? 

New York. KA C.AG. 


Brattice cloth is any heavy canvas used 
as a curtain or a temporary wall or par- 
tition, in a mine airway or passage, for 
the purpose of directing the air current 
or deflecting it from its natural course, 
so as to ventilate certain rooms, head- 
ings, or void places that would not other- 
wise be reached by the air. The plain 
canvas or duck is frequently treated with 
tar, creosote or other preservatives to 
lengthen its life or render it incombusti- 
ble. The canvas is furnished in rolls by 
mine-supply houses, or in larger quanti- 
ties by commercial dealers in ail kinds 
of asbestos cloths and packings, canvas, 
etc, 

Brattice cloth finds its most important 
use in development work in mining, and 
in recovery work for reaching lost coal, 
or in mine-rescue work after a cave-in 
or an explosion. It is much used in driv- 
ing prospect entries or headings or push- 
ing rooms or chambers, for a time, ahead 
of the air. 

The demand for brattice cloth is not 
as great in metal mining as in coal, only 
because the question of ventilation in 
metal mines is of minor importance. 
There is little or no gas, in these mines, 
that would prove a hindrance or a menace 
to the work. 








Percentage of Grade 


(a) I have two slopes, one dipping at 
an angle of 44 deg., and the other at an 
angle of 48 deg.; what is the per cent. of 
the grade in each slope? (b) How is 
the per cent. of grade determined for 
any angle of dip? .(c) What is the 
angle of dip or pitch corresponding to a 
grade of 100 per cent. ? 

H. B. 


Burgettstown, Penn., Dec. 4, 1911. 

(a) The per cent. of grade, referred to 
the horizontal, in each slope, is as fol- 
lows: 

1. 100 x tan 44 deg. = 100 x 0.9657 
= 96.57 per cent. 

2. 100 x tan 48 deg. = 100 « 1.1106 
= 111.06 per cent. 

(b) The per cent. of grade, referred to 
the horizontal, for any dip or pitch, is 
always 100 times the tangent of the 


angle of inclination. If, however, the 
grade is referred to the pitch distance in- 
stead of the horizontal, as is the custom 
of some engineers, in steep pitches, the 
sine of the angle of inclination must be 
used in place of the tangent. 

(c) To find the angle of dip or pitch 
corresponding to a given percentage of 
grade, referred to the horizontal, divide 
the given percentage of grade by 100, and 
find the angle whose tangent is this 
amount. For example, the angle of in- 
clination corresponding to a grade of 
100 per cent., referred to the horizontal, 
, a 
is the angle whose tangent is o—- 
or an angle of 45 degrees. 








Ventilation of Airway 


In an entry 7 ft. 6 in. wide and 
6 ft. 8 in. high, the air is traveling at the 
rate of 120 ft. in 12 seconds. (a) What 
is the quantity of air passing per min- 
ute? (b) If the water-gage reading is 
2.5 inches, what is the horsepower on the 
air? 

Pittsburg, Penn. RR. FA. 

(a) The sectional area of the air- 
way is 7.5 x 674 = 50 sq.ft. The ve- 
locity of the air current is 

120 X 60 
£2 
The quantity of air passing is then 50 x 
600 = 30,000 cu.ft. per minute. 

(b) The ventilating pressure due to a 
2.5-in. water gage is 2.5 x 5.2 = 13 Ib. 
per sq.ft. The horsepower on the air is 
then 


== 600 ft. per min. 


30,000 X 13 — 11.818 hp. 
33,000 








Weight of Motor Required to 
Haul Trip up Incline 


What weight of traction motor will be 
required to haul a trip of 10 loaded cars, 
weighing 3 tons each, up a grade, the 
tangent of the grade angle being 0.02619, 
and assuming a coefficient of friction of 


‘ 0.03, and a coefficient of traction of 0.18. 


South Fork, Penn. B. H. 
The weight of the loaded trip is 
10 x 3 x 2000 = 60,000 Ib.; and the 


weight of the motor car required, under 
the assumed conditions, is calculated as 
follows: 


0.03 + 0.02619 
0.18 — (0.03 + 0.02619) 
= 27,230 lb. 


w= X 60,000 

















January 6, 1912 


COAL AGE 














Discussion by Readers 


Comment, Criticism and Debate upon Previous Articles, and Letters from Practical Men 

















A Speedy Coal Dump 


The readers of CoaL AGE may be in- 
terested in the coal dumps much used in 
the Georges Creek field. The amount of 
coal dumped over them is remarkable. 
The dumping device, as shown in the ii- 
lustration, consists of a movable plat- 
form which stops and supports the car 
as it tips over for dumping. There are 
two stationary guide plates on either side, 
outside the rails. These plates are of 
3xl-in. iron, mounted on _ longitudinal 
timbers. Two lengths of 40-lb. T-rail are 
bent to form horns for engaging the car 
wheels on each side and just outside the 











the dump has a capacity of at least 
6000 long tons (6700 short tons) when 
the coal is kept ready on the sidetrack all 
day long. The following records have 
been made: Nine long tons per minute 
for 10 hours, 934 long tons per minute 
for two hours, 11 long tons per minute 
for one hour and 16.9 long tons per min- 
ute for short periods. The approaching 
grade is 3 per cent. 

The mine cars, with uormal topping, 
carry a net load of 2 tons 2 cwt. to 2 
tons 6 cwt. (4704 to 5152 Ib.) The di- 
mensions of the cars are as follows: 
Length inside, 8 ft.; width inside at 
bottom, 25 in.; height inside, 2 ft. 10 



































._ Center _ Line 








” a“ 

3x/ ODE 
as Yer 
aed 
iS 
© 
Ss 
~ 

Seiad eect conti ccna a ine Des centage 











COAL AGE 


SPEEDY MINE-CAR DuMP USED IN THE GEORGES CREEK DISTRICT 


rails, 1x4-in. roller bars are carried by 
the same plates, which act as spreaders 
for the rails. 

In operation the carriage is held to its 
Oroper position by tapered studs which 
oroject from the guide plates and engage 

orresponding holes in the rollers. The 

orce and the angle of the tip is so great 
iat the car is pitched forward until the 
‘ind wheels leave the track, the car bal- 
incing on its front wheels. This com- 
plete tilt makes the car clean itself rap- 
idly of all its coal. 

The dumps are set close up to the 
Switch of thé track for empty cars, so 
that the car on being dumped immediately 
Switches out of the way of the approach- 
ing loaded car. The distance of the heel 
of the rocker from the point of switch is 
2 ft. 2 in. and the lead of the switch is 
9 ft. 4 in. As much as 5403 long tons 
(6061 short tons) have been dumped in 
10 hours over one tipple of this sort, and 


in.; length over all, 9 ft. 6 in.; width out- 
side at top, 36 in.; height over all, 4 ft. 4 
in. Running to the dump at a good speed, 
they would jerk the tipple considerably 
were it high or long, but this is not the 
case at any of these tipples; they are all 
low and short. The tipple shown in the 
accompanying illustration (Elkhart mine) 
is in every way typical, though it hap- 
pens to be one of the oldest in the dis- 
trict. I am indebted to R. A. Walter, 
chief engineer, Consolidation Coal Com- 
pany, for this information and cut. 
Chicago, III. R. O. Burt. 








Mine Workings Contiguous 
to Oil Wells 


A gas or oil well may be considered 
one of the most dangerous features of 
its kind encountered in the operation of 
acoal mine. The ordinary dangers of the 


most gaseous mine do not compare with 
that which would result from workings 
tapping a producing gas well. 

It is even possible that a serious acci- 
dent could happen in working a mine 
some distance away from a well due to 
gas escaping through cracks, crevices or 
fissures in the coal seam. I have known 
oil to seep through pillars of solid coal 
when the nearest well was from 50 to 80 
ft. away. It is also reasonable to assume 
that when drawing pillars, cavities or 
reservoirs of gas are formed which any 
disturbance of the overlying strata may 
force out with disastrous results. 

In development work, when approach- 
ing a gas well, a pillar of solid coal equal 
to one-third of the thickness of the over- 
lying strata should be felt for protec- 
tion. In a mine, where pillars are being 
drawn, much more coal should be left 














= 





TIPPLE IN GEORGES CREEK FIELD 


and the same rule applies to a mine that 
is subject to a squeeze or creep. If the 
well is surrounded with old workings, I 
would suggest that a 12-in. hole be drilled 
into these workings at a distance not to 
exceed 15 ft. from the well; this will 
tend to relieve the rock pressure incident 
to the accumulation of any large reser- 
voirs of gas. The pipes should be raised 
at least 10 ft. above the surface in order 
to allow any gas, which might be liber- 
ated from the workings, to readily escape. 

No doubt we all can recall instances 
where havoc has been wrought in homes 
and business houses through a small leak 
in a gas line. So we can readily under- 
stand that it would not require the en- 
tire production of a gas well to cause a 
serious destruction of life in a mine. The 
gas pressure in houses varies from 2 or 
4 oz. to 1 Ib. per sq.in., while rock pres- 
sure, as recorded in wells in the Mc- 
Donald and Oakdale oil and gas fields, 





430 


varies from 25 to 600 Ib. per square inch. 

The term rock pressure, as used in 
connection with oil or gas wells, signi- 
fies the force which the confined gas ex- 
erts in an effort to free itself. We have 
no guarantee that the casing itself will 
prevent the escape of gas, and even if it 
did, the life of the casing will not, in all 
probability, be equal to the life of the 
well. 

To determine the size of pillars that 
may be depended upon, one must rely 
on his own personal observation and 
judgment. The following notes, however, 
should be carefully considered: (A) 
the thickness of the overlying strata; (B) 
the nature of this strata; (C) the char- 
acter of the bottom; (D) the thickness 
and nature of the coal seam, whether 
hard and compact or soft and brittle, 
and (E) the inclination of the measures. 

C. C. Mac. GREGOR. 

408 Main St., Carnegie, Penn. 








Narrow Work vs. Wide En- 
tries—Relation to Operat- 
ing Expense 
I notice, in your issue of Dec. 23, page 
354, a superintendent of mines, Marion, 
Ill., is interested in the opinion given rel- 
ative to the driving of wide and narrow 
entries in mines; and the comparative 
expense of paying more yardage and get- 
ting less coal per yd. of narrow-work 
driven, or having to bear the lasting ex- 
pense caused by roof falls and the tim- 
bering of wide entries, as long as the 
mine is a mine. Of course, much de- 
pends on the kind of roof you’ have to 
support. Some roofs will not allow you 

to drive anything but narrow entries. 

I will state some facts that I have seen 
proven beyond a doubt, in regard to this 
matter. First, while top may be good at 
the start, it often gives way later, some- 
times even years after the time of driv- 
ing the entry. The cause may be due to 
a slight movement of the roof, owing to 
the removal of the coal in the rooms 
driven off the entry or the extraction of 
the coal in nearby workings. In some 
cases, there are peculiar roof conditions 
and the overlying slate or stone seems to 
give way suddenly from no apparent 
cause whatever. 

Under such conditions as these, if the 
entries have been driven narrow, the ex- 
pense of maintaining the entries is re- 
duced to a minimum, as narrow-work al- 
ways stands better than wide openings. 

The Ohio-Valley coal seams are mostly 
all hard and the roof and coal, alike, are 
not badly affected by the action of air 
and moisture. Crossbars can be put over- 
head, in narrow entries, by hitching one 
end of the bar into the coal straight and 
making a sliding hitch for the other end. 
This method when it can be used saves 
much timber, as no legs, or only short 
ones at the most, are required for timber 
frames. 


COAL AGE 


Narrow-work also does away with the 
heavy timbers that would be necessary on 
wide entries in order to avoid the setting 
of center posts in the entry, under the 
collars. Center posts not only increase 
the cost of timbering, but are dangerous 
to drivers and persons who must travel 
the entry. They are liable, also, to be 
knocked out and cause a heavy fall of 
roof in case a car jumps the track, which 
is by no means an uncommon occurrence 
in a mine. 

My experience in overcoming a heav- 
ing bottom by driving narrow entries when 
opening a shaft mine, in a region new to 
me, at Cleaton, Ky., in 1905, was valu- 
able. I found on investigation that quite 
a few of the mines in that region were 
troubled with heaving bottom, which ne- 
cessitated the continu.! lifting of bottom 
on the roads and its removal from the 
mine. This work, in that region, was ab- 
solutely necessary. 

It occurred to me that the difficulty 
could probably be overcome by driving 
only narrow entries with heavy entry 
pillars and making the room-necks about 
five times as deep as had been the custom 
there. The result of adopting this system 
was that I never had any heaving bot- 
tom. It saved the company many thous- 
ands of dollars. Another bad feature in 
regard to heaving bottom on entries is 
that it makes much mud in wet entries, 
and if the entry is dry it causes quantities 
of dust. 

E. W. tieet. 


Central City, Ky. 








Danger Periods in Mines 

Regarding your recent editorial about 
“Danger Periods in Mines,” will say that 
there are undoubtedly such periods both 
in a general and specific sense, but I 
cannot believe that seismic disturbances 
are responsible for the occurrence of 
mine explosions. It seems to me that 
the problem is perplexing enough with- 
out indulging in speculation as to whether 
the Courriéres explosion caused the sub- 
sequent Formosa earthquake or whether 
the latter was responsible for the prior 
disaster in France. 

I believe the reason why mine explo- 
sions, and especially dust explosions, are 
as yet so imperfectly understood is largely 
due to the fact that the laws governing 
them have not been established. A mine 
cannot be successfully ventilated unless 
the laws relating to mine ventilation are 
properly applied; neither can the dan- 
ger from explosions be_ successfully 
averted unless the underlying principles 
regarding them are thoroughly known 
and understood. It may be said that dust 
explosions are erratic and subject to no 
law, but it can be readily proved that this 
is a mistake and that the occurrence and 
action of these explosions are controlled 
by well defined laws. 

I do not know anything definite about 
conditions in the Briceville mine, but I 





January 6, 1912 


am confident you will find when all the 
facts are known that the mine was not 
only well ventilated, but that draft facili- 
ties in it were exceptionally good, highly 
favoring what Mr. Hall terms “the ad- 
vance (of air and dust) toward the cen- 
ter of the disturbance.” According to 
the brief statement in the Dec. 16 issue 
of CoAL AGE it appears that the air shaft 
was located in an ideal spot on the sum- 
mit, nearly in the center of the mine; 
the main entries for at least 4000 ft. 
were exceptionally high (8 to 14 ft.); 
while at least one other opening to the 
surface besides the main entries and air 
shaft is mentioned and probably others 
exist leading either to the surface or into 
adjacent mines. Furthermore, I think it 
will be found that butt entries were 
more or less connected by rooms being 
driven through and that butt headings, 
not connected with others or with the 
surface or adjacent mines, will be found 
the least affected by the explosion. 

The facts regarding conditions in the 
Briceville mine will also show that the 
conclusions presented in my article on 
“Towa Mine Explosions,” which you ex- 
pect to publish in one of your January 
issues, are fairly sound. 

JOHN VERNER. 

Chariton, Iowa. 

[If Mr. Verner will read carefully 
paragraphs 5 and 6 of the editorial 
he will see that we have merely drawn 
attention to the periodicity of both 
these phenomena, and their clearly evi- 
dent synchronism in numerous instances. 
—EDITOoR. ] 








Danger in Gassy Mines 


For the benefit of some of the fwre- 
bosses, I send you the following note 
showing the danger that may be caused 
by sudden fall of roof or open door in a 
gassy mine. 

Suppose, for example, there is a cur- 
rent of 50,000 cu.ft. of air passing per 
minute, in a certain section of a mine, 
and the safety lamp shows % of one 
per cent. of gas on the return current, in 
this section. The quantity of gas given 
off is then % (0.01 x 50,000) = 250 
cu.ft. per min. Suppose now a door is 
left open on the airway, so as to short- 
circuit the most of the air-current; or 
suppose a cave-in occurs on the main in- 
take, so as to block the circulation and 
reduce the current to, say 3000 cu.ft. 
per min. This will render the return air- 
current highly explosive, and only the 
prompt and decisive action on the part 
of the fireboss will avert a serious cat- 
astrophe. 

Red Ash, Va. A. T. WADE. 

[The percentage of gas in the return 
air would be, in this case, 


250 
= ° x 100 = 84 per cent. 

3000 
which is not far from the maximum ex- 


plosive point.—Ep!Tor.] 











January 6, 1912 


COAL AGE 











Coal Trade Reviews 


Current Prices of Coal and Coke and Market Conditions in the Important Centers 




















General Review 


The new year has opened with the coal 
trade stronger than it has been at any 
time during the present season. More 
seasonable weather has appeared and 
brought with it heavier domestic con- 
sumption and a general improvement all 
along the line. 

The market in the East has been rather 
quiet as a result of the holiday cessa- 
tion of. the industrial plants. While 
not active it has, however, been steady, 
with heavy movements on contract, and 
some demand for spot. The possibility 
of a shut down next April is being al- 
ready anticipated in some instances by 
storing. Colder weather is reported 
from the South but as yet not of suffi- 
cient duration to effect conditions or 
prices. 

The middle West has experienced it’s 
first heavy blizzard of the season and 
there is a decided improvement in market 
conditions there. This trade has been 
on the verge of complete demoralization 
and the drop in temperature has appre- 
ciably strengthened the market, and 
checked any further shrinking in prices. 

Trade in the Rocky Mountain states 
continues active and heavy tonnages 
are being moved. On the Pacific Coast 
the weather is mild and the market 
heavy. 








New York 


Business has not been as active this 
week as last. The market however, is 
steady as contract movement continues 
in excellent volume and although there is 
only a limited spot demand the tonnage 
noving on contract is sufficient to ab- 
sorb the coal arriving at the piers with- 
‘ut much delay. Railroad movement has 
seen unusually prompt for this season of 
‘i€ yeaf which has resulted in a good 
supply of coal at the piers so that ship- 
ders have been able to take care of their 
obligations with less difficulty than has 


often been experienced in the past, at 


this season of the year. 

Strike talk is beginning to have con- 
siderable effect on consumers and ship- 
Pers report that many of their customers 
‘re cognizant of the possibility of labor 
‘roubles in the spring and that those con- 
Sumers who are in a position to stock 
up in anticipation of a suspension in the 
mining regions are making arrangements 
‘0 store as much coal as is practicable. 





Marine transportation is still short and 
vessel freight rates are up. 

Spot prices for steam coal f.o.b. New 
York are unchanged from those reported 
last week, West Virginias being quoted 
at about $2.40; ordinary Pennsylvanias 


$2.55@2.65; best grade Pennsylvanias 
$2.80@2.90. No accumulations at the 


piers of demurrage coal are reported. 








Hampton Roads, Va. 


The year closed at Hampton Roads un- 
usually active in the coal business. Never 
in the history of the port has there been 
so great a tonnage put over the three 
coal piers. In round figures it may be 
reliably stated that ten million tons have 
been dumped at Hampton Roads during 
1911. Official figures place it at 9,981,- 
431 tons, divided among the three rail- 
roads as follows: Norfoik & Western, 4,- 
393,353; Chesapeake & Ohio, 3,585,592; 
Virginian, 2,002,486. The optimism does 
not cease here, but it is predicted by those 
in close touch with large interests in the 
coal business that this figure will be 
boosted to 15,000,000 tons within the 
next three years. The exporting of coal 
from this port has risen from the exper- 
imental stage and is today a factor worthy 
of serious consideration. The prospects 
along this line for 1912 are unusually 
bright. 

Owing to the customary let-up in min- 
ing in the New River Pocahontas fields 
between Christmas and New Years, the 
tonnage moving to tidewater is rather 
light. Nevertheless, the heavy shipments 
made in anticipation of the shut-down 
during the holidays is arriving and is be- 
ing promptly dumped. There is practically 
no free coal at Hampton Roads this 
week, but that on hand is more evenly 
divided than it was last week. Prices 
are firm, possibly the best they have 
been throughout the year. Vessels appear 
to be more plentiful and rates are some 
easier. 








Louisville, Ky. 

This vicinity was visited by a belated 
cold snap within the past few days and, 
as a result, there is a better feeling 
among the dealers. Retail business im- 
proved, to an appreciable extent, al- 
though the increased trade was not suffi- 
cient to cause any change in the prices, 
which have prevailed locally for about 
three weeks. As it looks now, there 
will be little change before March, when 


*a drop will come. 


In Louisville, and 
throughout Kentucky and southern In- 
diana the worst winter weather comes 
usually after Jan. 1. As a rule, how- 
ever, most of the coal is ordered in ad- 
vance of the new year, at the prices pre- 
vailing when the orders are given, and 
this accounts for the quotations fluct- 
uating but little during January, Febru- 
ary and early March. 

One dealer is queting Bannar lump 
at $3.25 per ton of 2000 tb. New 
River smokeless is quoted at $4.50 per 
ton and Pocahontas smokeless at $4.75. 
Reports from the mines are rather pes- 
simistic, the producers insisting that the 
demand is not nearly what it should be 
at this time, and the prices hardly as 
good as last year. 


Nashville, Tenn. 


There is practically no change in the 
coal situation in this district. The usual 
dullness prevailed ‘over the holidays, 
which together with the spring weather, 
made everything extremely quiet, although 
there is a good demand for screenings, 
which is always the case when orders are 
slack on domestic lump. 

Prices are unchanged, as most of the 
shippers realize that cutting in order to 
get business, accomplishes little. It does 
not help moving the coal and has a tend- 
ency to place prices back to a low level. 

The strike situation for the coming 
spring is being watched closely over 
the nonunion field, for it takes just 
such conditions as this every two years to 
keep a great many of our mine opera- 
tors from going into bankruptcy. 

Prices as quoted by the majority of the 
operators at present are as follows per 
short ton: 2%4-in. lump, $1.50; nut, $1@ 
1.10; pea and slack, 30@35c.; mine-run, 
90c.@$1. 














Chicago 

An upward trend is noticeable in the 
Chicago market. A cold wave, accom- 
panied by snow and a general cleaning 
up of surplus stock, have tended to 
strengthen the position of coal dealers 
and to check the recent fall in prices. 

A closing down of the Illinois mines 
for several days also had its effect. 
Smokeless coal, which was at 80 to 90c. 
for mine-run, is now established on a 
basis of $1, and higher prices are looked 
for. Some observers predict that the 
same. price for mine-run as is being ob- 
tained in the East—$1.20—will soon be 
secured. Lump and egg is firm at $1.75. 





432 


Prices direct from the mines in net 
tons to retail dealers and steam users 
on spot shipments are as follows: 


Sullivan County Chicago F.0.b. Mines 
Dom stic Jump.... $2.35@2.50 $1.50@1.65 
IO sn nce o'eis 6s i806 2.30@2.40 1.45@1.55 
Steam lump...... 2.10 . 1.25 
Screenings........  1.37@1.52 0.50@0.65 

Springfield 
Domestic lump.... 2.07@2.32 1.25@1.50 
Steam Jump......  1.92@1.97 1.10@1.15 
Mine-run......... 1.82@1.87 1.00@1.05 
Screenings........ 1.32@1.42 0 50@0.60 

Clinton 
Domestic lump.... 2.12@2.27 1.35@1.50 
Steam lump...... 2.00@2.20 1.25@1.45 
MESON... 05-00-00 1.82@2.02 1F.05@1.25 
Screenings........ 1.42@1.52 0.65@0.75 

Pocahontas and New River 
Mine-run......... $2.95@3.05 $0.90@1 .00 
Lump andegg’... 3.65@3.90 1.60@1.85 
Coke—-Coke is quoted at: Connells- 


ville, $4.500@4.65; Wise County, $4.50 
4.65; byproduct, egg and stove, $4.95; 
byproduct, nut, $4.55@ 4.65; gas house, 
$4.85. 








Minneapolis—St. Paul 


The coal business this past week has 
greatly improved over the previous weeks 
of this month. The weather turned cold, 
beginning on Christmas day, and has 
beer hovering around the zero mark all 
week, ending with a good old-time bliz- 
zard. Abundant snow has fallen and has 
changed the Indian summer into real win- 
ter. Better sleighing could not be wished 
for. Wholesalers claim that the reason 
domestic trade from the country has been 
so slow this month is due to the fact that 
the dealer has been well stocked up, and, 
that the farmer has not been able to haul 
any coal home with him on his return 
from town, owing to the bad condition of 
the roads. 

During the last week in December the 
average maintained was as much as any 
week during the record-breaking month 
of November. This 
weather was largely responsible for the 
heavy movement into the country during 
that month. It is quite probable that the 
final figures will show that the tonnage 
for December, 1911, will be greater than 
for the same month in 1910, although the 
shipments will be less than for Novem- 
ber. Dock men report that about 40,000 
carloads of coal were removed from the 
head of the Lakes last month, and it is 
not probable that the December shipments 
will’ exceed 30.000 carloads. From now 
on till spring the market in this territory 
will be a weather proposition. 

Prices on mostly all grades of coal 
have stiffened up and with continued fa- 
vorable weather there is no reason why 
list prices should not prevail. Youghio- 


gheny dock screenings are scarce, only’ 


two or three docks reporting any supply. 
Illinois prices are a great deal better 
than formerly. The dealer trade in the 
Twin Cities is reported as good and re- 
tailers are rushing out all orders while 
the sleighing is favorable, as teams are 
not any too plentiful. 


indicates that the- 


COAL AGE 


The new briquetting plant of the Ber- 
wind Fuel Co., at the head of the Lakes, 
will soon be in operation and shipping 
briquets. They are also building an ex- 
tension to their dock, which will give it a 
storage capacity equal to any of the 
other docks. 


St. Louis, Mo. 

With the first of the year came a 
change for the better in St. Louis prices. 
As a matter of fact, the demand has been 
considerably better than several antici- 
pated, both for the city and country. A 
great many of the stocks that were run 
down are being replenished, and factory 
stocks that were slim, on account of the 
year-end inventory, are being laid in to 
the fullest capacity. 

However, with this increased demand 
prices are not what they should be un- 
der present conditions. Two years ago 
this time, with the threatened strike, lump 
coal of Carterville grade sold for $2 per 
ton. 

The chances are, however, that from 
this time on the coal market will continue 
to improve unless abnormal conditions 
set in 
rather open and predictions are that from 
now on the weather will be more severe, 
and this, of course, will stimulate the 
demand. St. Louis prices are: 
Franklin County 








.40@1.50 


BAIN ORO WE god 6 65sec $1 
SES ener 1.25@1.35 
bike) a On ean te ares 1.20@1.30 
RUE MMME S555 5 (Stas 1e55s pico aie ies 1.05@1.15 
DAN, POPOOMINGY., 6.5 os eis sects 0.65@0.75 
Carterville 
Biro V2: 2 eae $1.25@1.35 
RN Meh ot G Sci o!e vis aio bree 1.15@1.20 
OEE a ee ena aree 1.05@1.10 
Eg RR Se rena eer nee ere ee 0.90@0.95 
LT eo eee 0.60@0.65 
NURSERIES cece iG aisSis's @ wis Ses are ais 0.95@1.00 
rhs er MMR 5 wana! soca. s 523 0.5078 1.60@1.75 
CLOSE 2 a a meee ee 1.30@1.40 
ES ES a ean eee eee 1.20@1.39 
BO St oe a h.k 6s ucwiia eng. cecaues 0.80@0.85 
BND; PTE eis nie! save gi e'sinisio at 0.40@0,.45 
Standard 
Wea iS La ... $0.985@1.00 
BRERA ONNENEEND <a 5 ac, bis 9.4 aisia-oncee 0.90@0.95 
ee MINN aig ooo sisiein Wal siacaige'e 0.80@0.85 
OS DS i a ee 0.70@0.75 
OS aera Srna se 0.60@0.65 
SR INII 5 56.6 5 25's sls sce ier ere 0.40@0.45 
Mt. Olive 
MR MNINES se 673.0 cso s:rrecoa aisle wate $1.35 
ONS Seen nese 1.25 
INNIS 8h hcl gh ie atasale. WOR 1.00 
a), ee etna eer yaar. $0.85@0.90 
BE NG sone d oa G oo oe oceisienues . 0.75@0.80 


There are no other coals coming into 


the market from the Illinois field, with 
the exception of Big Muddy, which is 
strong at $2.20 for 6-in. lump. High- 
grade coals from the inner district, such 
as Trenton, etc., are in good demand at 
about $2 per ton. Since the first of the 
year there has been a fair demand for 
anthracite of all sizes, principally chest- 
nut, at the current circular. 

There is also an increased demand for 
smokeless, which retails lump and egg at 
$6, f.o.b. bins, St. Louis. A fairly good 
volume of byproduct and gas-house coke 
is moving at $4.75 for the byproduct and 
$465 for gas house. 


The winter thus far has been - 





January 6, 1912 


Spokane, Wash. 


The prices for coal in Spokane and 
the surrounding territory have remained 
unchanged during the past week, and al! 
indications are that there will not be any 
material changes until spring. The prices 
for the week ending Dec. 27 are as fol- 
lows: 


Kind Wholesale Retail 
WRB SOTHIGS. «<< 5s .6s 55. bh oiare $7.20 q 
MTC So neces. 5 oie) aheig arate 7.20 = 
err ecrers es 7.20 9.00 
NUMRIIMN soi ni05. cine YotscveracNviel Gea leke es 6.70 8.50 
SE eer 6.35 8.25 
MROGIGR SECA. 4.6 o:5:65:60% 005:0.0 5.25 6.25 
Canadian steam.............. 5.25 6.25 


The cold snap, which has been prev- 
alent for the last week, is drawing on 
the supply of coal in the local yards, but 
the supply is being continually replen- 
ished by shipments from the Canadian 
mines, and is equal to any demand that 
might come. 








Portland, Ore. 


Christmas trade was fine in all lines 
excepting fuel and the reason for the 
poor fuel trade was mild weather. Coal 
dealers look for no great volume of bus- 
iness until colder weather sets in. Jan- 
uary, February and March are the cold- 
est months in this territory. It is ex- 
pected, however, that if cold waves sweep 
over the country for a couple of weeks 
during these months the rush for fuel 
will be so heavy that it will be difficult 
to fill orders promptly. The mild weather, 
while not making a heavy demand on the 
fuel stocks, has a tendency to make 
people forget that colder weather may 
follow and if it comes suddenly many 
will find their supplies short. A large 
number live here as in many of the 
larger cities, from a paper bag. 





Foreign Markets 


GREAT BRITAIN 

The labor outlook is regarded with 
much anxiety in view of the ballot of 
members of the Miners’ Federation, of 
Great Britain, to be taken about Jan. 10. 
If further efforts to effect a settlement 
prove abortive and the result of the bal- 
lot is favorable to a strike, the men are 
to come out at the beginning of March, 
provided they observe their contracts and 
give one month’s notice. 

With the Xmas holidays at hand, the 
market is very quiet. Quotatlons are ap- 
proximately as follows: 


Best Welsh steam coal............0....- ¥t.20 
RRRPER Re cc ova co cart ot pak ara era Gvalar onsen 4.02 
NINN Sa a. Ge Aas SaaS oiais ee Rte A arelelens 3.78 
PE Pe OE, kn... Sse eae nk es OOS COS 4.02 
Best Monmouthshire........ bias aleve ansvecie ye .-o 
OS RRR eae ere mien aren ier. Cerner eer .60 
Best Cardiff small coal...... Bieta shah cracls 3.16 
a eco hen AR A 1.92 


The above prices for Cardiff coal are 
all f.o.b. Cardiff, Penarth or Barry, while 
those for Monmouthshire descriptions are 
f.o.b. Newport, both exclusive of wharf- 
age and for cash in 30 days, less 2' per 
cent. discount. 














January 6, 1912 


COAL AGE 














Coal and Coke News 


From Our Own Representatives in Various Important Mining Centers, Affecting the Coal Industry 

















Washington, D. C. 


An important joint meeting of the 
American Economic Association and the 
American Association for Labor Legisla- 
tion was held here on Dec. 30, 1911, 
during sessions of the conventions of the 
two bodies. The U. S. Bureau of Mines 
had prepared an exhibit of mine rescue 
apparatus containing the familiar equip- 
ment usually on view at the Bureau of 
Mines itself and this was available for 
the inspection of the members and guests. 

Secretary Fisher opened the meeting 
with a general discussion of the condi- 
tions under which the Bureau of Mines 
has been organized and the work it is at- 
tempting to do. He outlined the policy of 
the United States with respect to mining 
and the safety of miners in substantially 
the same way that he has on former oc- 
casions. Ex-President John Mitchell of 
the United Mine Workers who had been 
expected, was unfortunately detained 
away so that his address was not pre- 
sented. 


DISEASES OF THE MINE 


Dr. S. C. Hotchkiss discussed the 
general subject of occupational diseases, 
gave the results of work he has been 
doing for the Bureau of Mines on that 
topic, and reviewed such questions as 
diseases of the lungs due to damp and 
cold, and diseases like the hook-worm 
malady due to the presence in the soil of 
parasites which are probably propagated 
by faulty methods of disposing of excreta, 
etc. He then turned to the question of 
preventing such diseases and showed 
what had been done in Europe and what 
might be done here. 

Dr. Holmes gave an interesting outline 
of the work of the Bureau of Mines 
and pointed out the particulars in which 
there should be an extension of activity. 
He said that the Bureau of Mines has 
been in existence one and one-half years. 
During that time its most important work 
has related to the causes and prevention 
of coal-mine disasters. This work con- 
cerns some 30,000 coal-mine officials, and 
more than 700,000 coal-mine workers, the 
majority of these latter being unfamiliar 
with the language, the laws, the institu- 

- tions, or the policies of this country. 


AN INTERSTATE MINING CoMMISSION 

Dr. John H. Haynes, of Los Angeles, 
in his address, urged the establishment 
of an Interstate Mining Commission with 
Power to enact and enforce regulations 
for the protection of the 700,000 coal 


miners now working in the privately 
owned coal mines of the United States, 
and to have direct charge of the coal 
lands owned by the nation, whether oper- 
ated by the government or under private 
lease. 

He showed that the national regulation 
in European coal mines had enormously 
reduced the percentages of fatalities in 
the last 18 years: in Prussia from 2.54 
deaths annually per 1000 miners em- 
ployed, to 1.94; in Great Britain from 
1.49 to 1.29; in France, from 1.07 to 
0.84; in Belgium, from 1.40 to 0.94; 
while under state regulation in the 
United States during the same period, 
the rate has steadily increased from 2.67 
in 1895 to 4.86 in 1907. 

The death rate in the several states, too, 
has varied all the way from 2.25, the 
average rate in Illinois for a term of 
years, to the frightful figures in the case 
of ‘Colorado for the year 1907, when 21 
out of every 1000 miners lost their lives 
in the single year, more than 20 times 
the rate of fatality for Belgium or France. 


STATE VS. FEDERAL CONTROL 


Continuing, Dr. Haynes said that the 
national government has saved the lives 
of thousands of railroad employees by 
enforcing the use of automatic couplers 
and other safety appliances; why should 
it not protect the lives of coai miners by 
enforcing in the case of mines producing 
coal for interstate markets such regu- 
lations as have been proven efficient in 
the saving of life? State regulation has 
failed wofully in the past; and it is al- 
together unlikely that it will improve in 
the future, for the following reasons: 1. 
Each state fears to impose regulations 
upon its own coal operators more burden- 
some than those to which their com- 
petitors in other states selling to com- 
mon markets are subjected. 2. Each in- 
dividual state cannot for itself make the 
scientific investigations, or maintain a 
body of experts, of the efficiency easily 
attainable by the national government. 3. 
State ‘inspectors owing to political in- 
fluences are notoriously less efficient than 
federal inspectors. 

According to Dr. Haynes three Eu- 
ropean experts, invited by our national 
government to inspect our mines, agree 
that American mining, now so fatal, can 
be made as safe as any in the world, and 
at a small increase, if any, in the 


cost of production. Even if the last state- 
ment is called in question by coal pro- 
ducers, no broad minded and humane 


operator will object to efficient safety 
regulations, provided, of course, they 
shall apply equally to all of his com- 
petitors, including those of other states; 
so that the increased cost of production, 
if any, can be charged up to. the general 
cost and added with other expenditures 
to the sales price. 








Alabama 


Birmingham.—The Pratt Consolidated 
Coal Co., with headquarters in Birming- 
ham, will open an office in Mobile about 
Jan. 1. This company is one of the 
largest coal companies operating in the 
South, owning its mines and having a ca- 
pacity of 10,000 to 12,000 tons a day. 
Offices have just been opened in Pensa- 
cola, Fla., also. The purpose of the 
establishment of these two branch offices 
is to develop the bunker and export coal 
business. The step is regarded as sig- 
nificant of the bearing that the opening 
of the Isthmian Canal is expected to have 
on the Alabama coal trade. 

It is the genera! understanding that the 
underwriting of $2,600,000 of the pro- 
posed bond issue for the merged Ala- 
bama Coal & Iron Co. and Southern Iron 
& Steel Co., has been definitely. arranged 
for, and that the way is now compara- 
tively clear for the early announcement 
that the merger and reorganization plan 
is in effect. This will probably come 
when Cecil Greenfell returns from Eng- 
land. 








Colorado 


Denver—A plan to unionize the 
200,000 miners of Mexico was consid- 
ered by the executive committee of thc 
Western Federation of Miners which met 
here Jan. 4. 

If the state land board incorporates a 
clause in its coal leases that was dis- 
cussed recently and probably wiil: be 
adopted, all danger of any combination 
of coal operators controlling the price of 
coal in the state will be forever done 
away with, for the clause will provide 
that the lessee shall sell all coal mined 
from state land at a certain price. With 
thousands of acres of coal still in pos- 
session of the land board, this clause will 
be sufficient to regulate the price of coal 
in every industrial center in Colorado. 

Walsenburg.—The reports that a 
strike is imminent in the southern coal 
district are branded as being absolutely 








434 


false by B. P. Manley, of the Colorado 
Fuel & Iron Co. in a recent interview. 


Central City—The coal dealers of Cen- 
tral City and Black Hawk are unable to 
get any coal from the Routt County 
fields, claiming that the Colorado & 
Southern R.R. will not bring up coal de- 
livered to it by the Moffat road. Sev- 
eral cars have been turned over to the 
Colorado & Southern road, but that road 
has ordered them returned. 





Illinois 


Springfield—Turning out 4,200 tons 
of coal a day, a force of 500 miners em- 
ployed in mine No. 3 of the Superior 
Coal Co. at Bend, is straining every 
minute of the day to maintain that aver- 
age and beat the record of a same 
amount for 1314 days held by miners of 
the Livingston mine at Livingston. The 
record established by the Livingston 
miners was made recently when for 13% 
days the output of the mine averaged 
4,200 tons a day. The Superior mine is 
one of the best equipped in the state and 
the miners are confident of being able to 
beat the record. 

Returns from the recent state election 
of the Illinois Mine Workers indicate 
that John Walker of Danville has been 
returned to the presidency of the or- 
ganization by a large majority over 
Groce Lawrence of Herrin and Joseph 
Pope of Bellville. 


The new coal washer which the Chi- 
cago, Williamson & Vermilion Coal Co. 
has been building at Thayer is now com- 
pleted and will soon be put in operation. 

Peoria—The state mine inspector has 
strongly advocated a yearly service for 
the Fulton County mine inspector, be- 
cause of the extent to which coal in- 
terests in this county have developed. 

Belleville-—Work has been resumed by, 
the Star Coal & Mining Co. and the St. 
Clair Coal & Mining Co., which operate 
mines south of Belleville. Both mines 
will employ a full force of men. 


Edwardsville.—Parties whose identity 
has been concealed have been making 
large purchases of coal lands northeast 
of Edwardsville. Recently options on 
2300 acres in Olive Township, Madison 
County, were closed. All the land lies at 
the junction of the Illinois Central and 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois tracks. 











Indiana 


Terre Haute.—Attorneys of the coun- 
ties within the Indiana coal field have de- 
cided to appeal to the United States Su- 
preme Court from a decision of the In- 
diana Supreme Court which held that the 
law imposing a tax on unmined coal is 
invalid. 


COAL AGE 


The Indiana Coal & Land Co. recently 
filed options on about 500 acres of land 
in Otter Creek township. The price to 
be paid is $50 an acre if the options are 


followed by purchase of the coal rights. . 


Indianapolis.—In an effort to obtain a 
reduction in the price of anthracite coal, 
J. V. Zartman, secretary of the Indiana 
Manufacturers’ and Shippers’ Association, 
has authorized Alexander G. Cavins, at- 
torney for the association, to file a peti- 
tion with the interstate commerce com- 
mission attacking the freight rate on an- 
thracite shipped from the Pennsylvania 
field to Indianapolis. 

Brazil—tThe American Coal Co. with 
headquarters in Brazil, has been buying 
land and taking options in the vicinity of 
Bicknell through its representative, Dr. 
Asbury of Clay City, until now it controls 
nearly everything between that city and 
the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern R.R. 
at Wheatland. Most of this distance of 
about eight miles has been leased, but 
under some of the farms the coal has 
been purchased outright. As fast as the 
options expire they are renewed. The 
coal company will begin sinking a shaft 
on these lands early in the spring. 








Kansas 


Mineral.—It is rumored, from a reli- 
able source, that the Mayer Coal Co. has 
purchased 120 surface acres and 200 
acres of coal in what is known as the 
Wisewell tract a half mile northwest of 
town and near Mayer shaft No. 6. It 
is said the money consideration was 
$32,000. 








Kentucky 


Whitesburg.—It is given out in rail- 
road circles that the Chesapeake & Ohio 
has completed arrangements for the 
early construction of a 25-mile branch 
line of road from Harold, on the main 
line of the C. & O., up Beaver Creek to 
the border of Letcher and Knott coun- 
ties, to tap a rich coal and timber dis- 
trict owned by the Consolidation Coal 
Co., the Beaver Creek Coal Co. and the 
Northern Coal & Coke Co. 

Sebree.—The sale of the mining prop- 
erty and coal rights of the Southern Coal 
& Transportation Co. at Robards was 
held by the Master Commissioner of 
Henderson County on Jan. 1. The coal 
and coal rights under 85.46 acres in Web- 
ster County and the surface coal and 
mineral rights under 64 acres in Hen- 
derson County and the coal and mining 
rights only under 7796 acres in Hender- 
son County were sold. 

The Kentucky River Consolidated Coal 
Co., composed of eastern capitalists, own- 
ing some 50,000 acres of choice coal and 
timber lands in southern Letcher and 
Perry Counties, along the line of the 


January 6, 1912 


Lexington & Eastern R.R., makes the an- 
nouncement that it will soon take steps 


looking to the development of the prop-, 


erty.:: It will .be necessary to:build spurs 
out from the Lexington & Eastern R.R. 
to reach the property. 

Barbourville——The Harlan Town Coal 
Co., which is preparing to operate a mine 
on its property about a mile east of 
Harlan, in Harlan County, will soon have 
a town of its own in Kelly Bottoms. 
Many houses are already completed and 
others are going up or are contracted for. 

Harriman.—The Harriman & Morgan 
R.R. Co., recently chartered, has elected 
officers as follows: C. E. Hendrick, presi- 
dent; J. N. Baker, vice-president; Robt. 
B. Cassel, secretary and treasurer.. In- 
dications are that this road is to be built 
north from this city and will tap new and 
rich coal fields in the Lone Mountain and 
Brimstone Mountain sections of Mor- 
gan and Scott Counties. It is backed by 
the same interests that have constructed 
the Harriman, Knoxville & Eastern from 
here to Oliver Springs. 








Missouri 


St. Louis—-The supreme court of Mis- 
souri has just handed down a decision 
which is of far more than local interest. 
When Gov. Hadley was attorney general 
of the state he instituted suit against the 
Missouri Pacific R.R. for violating that 
section of the state constitution which 
forbids a corporation from engaging in 
business other than that expressly 
authorized in its charter. Now Mis- 
souri’s highest judicial tribunal decides 
that a railroad has a legal right to own 
coal mines or stock in coal mining com- 
panies, for the reason that “coal is nec- 
essary in the operation of trains.” The 
court adds that “no one could contend 
for a moment that a railroad cannot buy 
a mine and dig its own fuel supply.” 

Moberly.—It is reported that Mine No. 
11 of the Northern Central Coal Co. at 
Higbee, that some time ago sustained a 
great loss by fire will again be ready for 
operation in a month’s time. 


Ohio 

Columbus.—Charges of discrimination 
in coal carrying rates were made Dec. 26 
to the Ohio Public Service Commission 
by the Central Ohio Operators’ Associa- 
tion against the Baltimore & Ohio and the 
Pennsylvania railroads. The association 
alleges that the tariffs of those roads for 
coal carrying from the Tuscarawas dis- 
trict are unjustly discriminatory and asks 
that the commission investigate at once 
and compel a readjustment. 

Suit to foreclose a blanket mortgage 
for $834,500, given in July, 1901, was 
brought in the United States court Dec. 
27 by the Bankers’ Trust Company of 




















January 6, 1912 


New York against the Pittsburg, Wheel- 
ing & Lake Erie Coal Co., the Wheeling 


and Lake Erie Coal Mining ''Co. ' and™ 


M. A. Hanna & Co., consisting of Dan R. 
Hanna, Robert L. Ireland and Matthew 
Andrews of Cleveland. The mortgage 
was given on 16,000 acres of Jefferson 
County coal lands and $200,000 was to 
have been paid by July, 1911. The 
Bankers’ Trust Company asks that the 
Jefferson County property be disposed 
of to satisfy its claim. 

Cincinnati—The American Briquetting 
Co., which is a $1,250,000 Arizona cor- 
poration, was organized at Dayton, Ohio, 
recently, with C. L. McCrea, of that city, 
president and Thomas R. Morgan, of the 
Pocahontas Coal Co. here, as vice-presi- 
dent. The company will convert the lig- 
nite deposits of North Dakota into fuel 
briquettes at a plant to be built at New 
Salem, N. D. H. H. Hayes, the loca! 
representative, says that the company 
can produce the briquettes at $3.50 a 
ton at the mines, and will cut the retail 
price of coal in half in the Northwest. 

Wellston—An excellent grade of No. 
2 coal, 3% ft. thick, has been discovered 
on the Kessler farm, near Hawkes 
Bridge, east of here. A favorable report 
having been received from the chemist 
to whom the samples were sent for analy- 
sis a shaft will be sunk to the coal, with 
a view to placing it on the market. 





Pennsylvania 
(BITUMINOUS) 


Bellefonte-——The coal mining , opera- 
tion of Atherton & Barnes, at One Mile 
Run, one of the most important in that 
section, has resumed work after a pro- 
longed idleness. Upward of 150 men 
are again given employment. 

Altoona.—Supreme Court Justice 
Bijur of New York has vacated an in- 
junction obtained by the James Kerr Se- 
curities Co., holder of $500,000 bonds of 
the Pennsylvania Coal & Coke Co., to 
restrain the reorganization committee 
from executing a lease of the company’s 
coal lands. 


Indiana.—Development of the Brush- 
valley field which runs along the Black- 
lick near Josephine does not now seem 
as near at hand as it did a short time ago. 
Upward of $30,000 have been expended 
during the past year in drilling and pros- 
Pecting and the tests have proved the 
coal to be some of the best in Indiana 
County. The sudden halting of proceed- 
ings is causing much comment, but sev- 
eral of the owners of the land, take the 
matter optimistically and fully expect 
final developments within a short time. 


California—Three men were burned 
to death in a poolroom and rooming 
house, at Daisytown, a mining hamlet, 
near here at midnight, Dec. 29. The men 








COAL AGE 


were employed by the Monongahela 
River Consolidated Coal and Coke Co., 
at Daisytown. 

Latrobe.—Two miners are dead and 
four persons injured as the result of a 
dynamite explosion in a miners’ board- 
ing house near New Derry, Dec. 25. 
One miner, was blown to atoms. The ex- 
plosion shook the town and was heard 
for several miles. 

ANTHRACITE 

Scranton.—Reduced freight rates on 
coal from the mines to points in New 
York state are scheduled to go into ef- 
fect Jan. 20 on the Lehigh Valley, Phila- 
delphia and Reading, and Delaware, 
Lackawanna & Western. Rates were re- 
duced on the New York, Ontario and 
Western, Dec. 15, 1911. 


Wilkesbarre.—For fear of damaging 
the county court house and the resi- 
dences along the banks of the Susque- 
hanna River, Mayor John V. Kosek has 
vetoed a bill introduced in Council to 
sell the coal underlying the river com- 
mon. 

Employees of the Hadleigh colliery of 
the Pittston Coal Co., at Sugar Notch, 
went on strike recently because they were 
paid by check instead of in money. 
Sugar Notch has no bank and the checks 
caused the men considerable incon- 
venience. 

Pottsville——The drainage tunnel which 
was begun nearly three years ago by the 
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Co., at a 
point a short distance above Nesquehon- 
ing Junction, and has been driven from 
there in a southwesterly direction, will 
soon reach No. 1 shaft above Nesquehon- 
ing, four miles from the beginning. Two 
sets of men are working toward each 
other, one from the entrance and the 
other from No. 1 shaft, and it is said that 
they are now only about 800 ft. apart. 

Shamokin.—Preparations are now un- 
der way by the Philadelphia and Read- 
ing Coal Co. for driving a tunnel to cut 
the rich Buck. Mountain vein, at the 
“Horseshoe” curve, near Glen Carbon. 
The Reading company has_ extensive 
coal operations all through that valley 
and the vein has been proven and fol- 
lowed for several miles east, along the 
Broad Mountain, showing a profitable 
thickness. The mammoth vein is to be 
worked from this locality as far as Frack- 
ville, a distance of eight miles. 








Tennessee 

Knoxville—The regular monthly meet- 
ing of the Southern Appalachian Coal 
Operators Association was held Dec. 22. 
A feature of the meeting was a paper 
and discussion on workmen’s compensa- 
tion for accidents. The actions of cer- 
tain law firms in connection with the re- 
cent Briceville disaster were vigorously 
denounced. 





Texas 


Strawn—aAfter a suspension of work 
for nearly six months, the Mt. Marion 
Coal Mining Company has _ resumed 
work. 








Utah 

Salt Lake City—The Elk Coal Co., a Car- 
bon County concern, which recently 
went into the hands of assignees, wiil 
probably be reorganized, according to an 
announcement made by the stockholders’ 
committee, which has been investigating 
the company’s affairs. The raising of 
$300,000 is contemplated to satisfy cer- 
tain claims, and of this about $100,000 
has been secured. The property is esti- 
mated to be worth several times the 
amount of the indebtedness. George 
Buckley, E. A. Lesser and L. Walker form 
the committee, which is looking after the 
interests of the stockholders. 








Virginia 

Bristol—The Virginia -Iron, Coal & 
Coke Co., which has two large plants in 
Bristol, has made the largest coal con- 
tract ever made by a southern mining 
company. It has contracted to furnish 
the Boston & Maine R.R. with 66 cars of 
coal per day, for a period of five years. 
The amount involved is in excess of 
$9,000,000. Under the terms of the con- 
tract the coal is to be delivered to the 
tracks of the Boston & Maine R.R. in the 
city of Boston. The coal will be mined 
in what is known as the Toms Creek 
mines of southwest Virginia and will be 
shipped out over the Virginia & South- 
western and Norfolk & Western. This 
coal has heretofore been supplied from 
western Pennsylvania. 





—— 
— 





West Virginia 

Morgantown.—The entire 200 ovens 
belonging te the Preston County Coke 
Company at Cascade are now in blast 
and the plant is working at full capacity. 
One hundred of the ovens have been 
fired during the past two months and be- 
tween 300 and 500 men are now given 
employment. 


There has been little change in the 
operations of the Elkins Coal & Coke 
Co. since No. 6 mine was opened. 

Wheeling.—Ejectment proceedings in- 
volving more than 1000 acres of coal 
land in Webster and Randolph Counties 
recently came up before the United 
States circuit court of appeals. The Up- 
per Elk Coal Co. and Christian Seybold 
both claim to own the property. } 

Weston.—Dr. D. P. Kessler is having 
a coal tipple built at his mines at Arcola 
and is making preparation to ship coal 
at an early date. 








436 


Canada 


Montreal—The Dominion Coal Co. 
predicts a big increase in the output for 
1912. Mr. Alexander Dick, the general 
sales agent says: “If everything turns 
out as we expect during the season of 
1912, we will have a record-breaker, as 
the output will not be less than 4,000,000 
tons, or a half million in excess of this 
year’s figures.” He also reports an im- 
proved situation at Springhill, where the 
output is between 30,000 to 35,000 tons 
a month, or around 400,000 tons a year. 

Twenty-seven independent coal-mine 
operators of Alberta and eastern British 
Columbia voluntarily increased the wages 
of their workmen by 8 per cent., on Dec. 
21, thus bringing the scale up to that of 
the mines employing union labor. 








England 


London.—The miners’ federation has 
decided to take a vote on the question of 
national stoppage of the work in the 
mines, based on the question of a mini- 
mum wage. If a two-thirds majority” of 
the members of the federation vote to 
stop work, the strike will be ordered for 
the end of February. 

Another evidence of the labor unrest 
in the United Kingdom was manifested 
recently when 200 colliers, employed in 
the mines at Treorchy, Wales, went out 
on strike as a protest against the em- 
ployment of non-union labor. 








Personals 


Frederick Gillmore, until recently with 
the Gulf Transit Co., has been given 
charge of the new branch office of the 
Pratt Consolidated Coal Co. at Pensa- 
cola, Fla. 

C. M. Riker, formerly manager of the 
West Kentucky Coal Co. has been ap- 
pointed assistant to W. B. Kennedy, 
presicent of the Nortonville Coal Co. at 
Nortonville, Ky. 

Bart Murphy, for 20 years in the em- 
ploy of the H. C. Frick Coke Co. and for 
a number of years foreman at the Stand- 
. ard shaft, has accepted the position of 
genera! inspector for all the mines of the 
Rainey Coal & Coke Co. 


John Randolph Haynes of Los An- 
geles was recently appointed special com- 
missioner, representing California, by 
Governor Johnson, for the purpose of in- 
vestigating coal mines, and especially 
coal mine accidents throughout the 
United States. The commission issued 
by the Governor will furnish a sufficient 
entrée for Mr. Haynes in carrying on 
his investigations, and he will prepare a 
detailed report on the subject. 

A committee of prominent mining and 
electrical engineers, which has been en- 
gaged in studying mining conditions in 


COAL AGE 


England, Germany and other countries, 
conferred recently with the officials of the 
Bureau of Mines, at Washington, D. C. 
Members of the committee are George S. 
Rice, chief mining engineer of the Bu- 
reau of Mines; Erskine Ramsay, of the 
Pratt Consolidated Coal Co., of Birming- 
ham, Ala.; A. B. Jessup, of the Lehigh 
Valley Coal Co., of Wilkes-Barre, Penn.; 
HK. M. Warren, of the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western R.R. Co., of Scranton, 
Penn.; G. B. Hadesty, of the Philadelphia 
& Reading Coal & Iron Co., of Pottsville, 
Penn., and John Bart, of the Berwind- 
White Coal Co., of Windber, Pennsyi- 
vania. . 





= 


Obituary 


George M. Davis, aged 67, one of the 
best known coal men in western Ken- 
tucky, died, recently, at his home, in 
Madisonville. Mr. Davis was manager 
of the St. Bernard mines, at Morton’s 
Gap. 

Capt. Levi Rinehart Doty, aged 64, for 
many years one of the best known men 
in Columbus, Ohio, died recently in Chi- 
cago, where he has been locaied for the 
past year. Capt. Doty was engaged in 
the coal business for nearly a third o7 a 
century. He served as president ot the 
former New England Coal Co. and of the 
Northern Fuel Co., and also for a time as 
vice-president of the Pittsburg Coal Co. 
He was president of the National Tripoli 
Co. When he left the coal business, he 
became associated with the Ralston Steel 
Car Co. and for a year has been inter- 
ested in the manufacture of cars at 
Chicago. 











laideeaal Notes 


Announcement is made of the organi- 
zation of the Bonnyman-Norman Coal & 
Iron Co., of Birmingham; James Bonny- 
man, president; James A. Norman, vice- 
president; A. H. Andrews, secretary. The 
new company will be the sales.agent for 
the Brookside-Pratt Mining Co., and will 
handle coal and coke, and other industrial 
products in which the officers of the con- 
cern are interested. 

The Ridgway Dynamo & Engine Co., 
Ridgway, Penn., announces the opening 
on Jan. 1, 1912, of a new district office 
in Room No. 1417, Oliver Building, Pitts- 
burg. This move has been made in order 
that the company may better serve its 
many friends in the district and to facili- 
tate the handling of its various well 
known lines of steam engines and elec- 
trical apparatus. J. F. Rodgers, who is 
a native of Pittsburg, and enjoys a wide 
acquaintance among the mine, mill and 
manufacturing interests of the city and 
vicinity, has been secured as local man- 
ager. Mr. Rodgers will be glad to wel- 
come his friends and all friends of the 
Ridgway Dynamo & Engine Co. at its 
new office and to render any possible ser- 
vice on its behalf. 


January 6, 1912 


New Publications 


FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF LABOR 
STATISTICS FOR THE STATE OF ViR- 
GINIA, 1911. 193 pp., 6x9%4 in. Pub- 
lic Printer, Richmond, Va. 

Coal and ¢@oke production statistics are 
accorded three pages. 


TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY. 
Proceedings of the Congress of 
Technology, 1911. 486 pp., 614x913 
in., illustrated. $3. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., New York. 

Some 70 pages are included in this vol- 
ume and in all form a valuable and upto- 
date record of the present state of in- 
dustrial science as well as a presentation 
of some of its problems and their prob- 
able solutions. The six sections into 
which the congress was divided are repre- 
sented by papers on: “Scientific Investi- 
gation and Control of Industrial Pro- 
cesses,” “Technological Education in its 
Relations to Industrial Development,” 
“Administration and Management,” “Re- 
cent Industrial Development,” “Public 
Health and Sanitation,” “Architecture.” 


ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS IN MINES. THEIR 
CAUSES AND PREVENTION. Miners 
Circular 5. By H. H. Clark, W. D. 
Roberts, L. C. Ilsley and H. F. 
Randoiph, 3 illustrations, 16 pp., 
octavo. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, 1911. Free on request. 

It is a pleasure to commend this little 
booklet on the avoiding of electric shock 
and on the rescue work in connection 
therewith because we are sure that of all 
the people who have read and will read 
it, the authors will be the least appre- 
ciative. It is a book such as no tech- 
nical men, immersed in advanced studies 
desire to write, but which they o..ly un- 
dertake because they know that suct 
books are needed by a public which can- 
not study and know the subject in a tech- 
nical way. The authors are to be con- 
gratulated on the simplicity of tneir lang- 
uage, on their selection of essentials and 
on the: fact that they have managed to 
write down a lot of practical information 
in a manner that will rot fail to be of 
value to every miner or tnine official who 
may read it. The booklet is for free dis- 
tribution on request. 





= 


Tesle ‘Publications 


Hyatt Roller Bearing Co., Newark, 
N. J. Catalog, Section No. 604D, Hyatt 
Roller Bearings as Applied to Mine and 
Industrial Cars. i6 pp., 7x10 in.; illus- 
trated. 

The Goulds Manufacturing Co., Seneca 
Falls, N. Y. Bulletin 107, Deep-Well 
Triplex Pumps. 12 pp., 734x10 in., illus- 
trated. 

Bulletin No. 108, Deep-Well Working 
Heads. 12 pp., 734x10 in., illustrated. 

Bulletin No. 109, Pumps for Special 
Services. 20 pp., 734x10 in., illustrated. 








I