Skip to main content

Full text of "Coal Age 1912-04-27: Vol 1 Iss 29"

See other formats

NEW YORK, APRIL 27, 1912 No. 29 

So far as unionism in coal mining is concerned, 
Illinois is the star performer of all states in this country. 
Last year, in compliance with the check-off system 
in force in that commonwealth, coal operators paid 
more than $650,000 into the treasury of the mine 
workers. Practically every one of the 70,000 colliery 
employees in Illinois is a member of the union. In 
the anthracite field, where the ‘‘check-off’’ has not 
heen forced on the operators, a recent report of the 
U. M. W. of A. showed an enrollment of only 14,000 
out of 170,000 hard-coal miners. 

It is evident therefore, why the leaders of united 
labor desire anthracite recognition, such as would be 
conceded in the proposed check-off system. The 
difference to them is a matter of increasing their 
annual income in the hard-coal regions from $130,000 
to more than a million and a half. What could they 
not eventually accomplish if provided such a sum 
to work with? 

The anthracite operators have the Illinois mine 
owners set before them as an example of what will 
happem when labor gets the upper hand. Conditions 
in [linois have become such that John Walker and 
his lieutenants practically dictate the policy of the 
industry in that state. Men cannot be discharged, 
inachinery introduced, nor improved methods inaugur- 
ated unless the act is labeled with a union endorsement. 

Illinois has 850 mines, operated by 260 companies, 
and it is this condition that has brought about a policy 
of “every man for himself, and the devil take the 
lindmost.”” As a result, mine owners have lacked 
ulity of purpose, and coal mining in that state has 
wen brought to a deplorable pass. The union is adding 
to the present burden of the operators little by little, 
not seeming to realize that by hampering and weak- 
ning the employer, the laborer himself will fail to 
prosper. With highest wages and most favorable 
working conditions, the Illinois miners receive less 
per vear than do coal hewers in many other fields 
where the rights and welfare of the men are supposed 
to be less properly safeguarded. 

Unlimited success, therefore, is the danger rock on 
which the niners’ organization and the labor move- 
iment as a whole will dash itself to pieces. Human 
nature is very much the same in the average of man- 
kind. Just as the good swimmer, glorying in his 
superb strength and skill, goes furthest from shore 
wud perishes through overestimating his own power, 

experimental ground. 

so capitalism through the abuse and misapplication 
of wealth became top-heavy and tumbled from its 
apparently safe foundation. In like manner, labor 
unions are piling success on success, using each victory 
as a stepping-stone to a new demand, until at last the 
structure built with so much pride and hope will 
collapse because the architects bungled the plans 
and ignored the necessity of observing established 
economic facts. 

No matter what color glasses we look through, 
everyone must recognize that wages cannot be larger 
than the product of a man’s labor; in fact, they must 
always be less than the product—big enough to give 
the capitalist his due returns and the employer his 
living profics. When workmen, acting individually 
or collectively, attempt by force to refute this certain 
principle of wages, the result can be no more successful 
than would be an effort to overthrow the law of gravity. 

Production will ever be the only true measure of 
a workman’s pay, and in accord with this idea, the 
wages-class are entitled to the immediate benefit of 
every improvement in science and art, every discovery 
of resources in nature, and every advance in their own 
industrial character. However, the doctrine of Laissez 
faire, Which teaches that the spontaneous action of 
individuals, each seeking his own interest on his own 
instance, will attain the best results, is mischievous, 
and only applicable in special cases. Acceptance of 
such a principle is certain to bar the way to advances 
in the industrial condition of mankind; in brief, such 
a rule, like fire or water, is a good servant but a bad 

In conclusion, therefore, we uphold the unionization 
of workingmen when they combine to prevent indus- 
trial degradation, and to better their condition in 
life, but we deprecate the unwise exercise of great 
power, such as caused the head of a powerful labor 
organization to declare in New York this week, that 
unless the demands of his union be granted, he would 
shut off the food supply of our greatest city in less than 
seven days. If labor leaders could only discern that 
the chief danger to their cause lies in the errors of 
their own wavs, the future of the wage earner would 
be brighter and safer than it is today. 

Continuing this line of thought, next week we shall 
deal with compulsory arbitration, and the recent advances 
made by workingmen in New Zealand, the world’s social 



Vol. 1, No. 29 

The Sheridan, Wyo. Coal Field 


The property of the Carney Coal Co. 
is on the northerly side of Tongue River, 
embracing 2600 acres of patented land 
owned by the company and 640 acres 
of leased land. The Carney bed, as 
it is locally known, has been developed 
here to the greatest extent of any point 
in the district. The mine is opened by 
two drifts in the river bluffs, about a 
quarter of a mile apart. The surface 
plant is one of the most complete in 
the Sheridan field, comprising two tip- 
ples, one of which is of steel and con- 
crete throughout; the other tipple is of 
frame construction and well equipped. 
The coal is worked by undercutting with 
electric chain machines, and broken down 
io a shale parting which gives a thick- 
ress of approximately 10 ft. of clean 

coal. The plant has a maximum ca- 

By Jesse Simmons * 

This is the second and con- 
cluding article describing ope- 
rations in this field. The Car- 
ney Coal Co., one of the proper- 
ties dealt with, has a mine with 
a capacity of 4000 tons per 8-hour 
shift. A detailed account of the 
Acme Coal Co.’s plant will follow 
at an early date. 

*Deadwood, S. D. 
ning water from a system maintained at 
the power plant. C. B. Seymour, Car- 
neyville, Wyo., is general manager. 
Peter Kooi, of Kooi, Wyo., is the owner 

and manager of the property bearing 
kis name, near the western extremity 

main parting, from whence a tail-rope 
haulage system is used to transport it 
to the tipple. From the pit mouth jn- 
ward for a distance of 150 ft. the pitch 
is 4°¢, and from that point the entr 
follows the seam on a pitch of about 
1.5%. The tail-rope haul is 1500 ft, 
in length, with a Flory engine for furn- 
ishing the power. 

A Norwalk 24x24-in. compound, 2- 
stage, air compressor furnishes air for 
the 7 Herrison punchers which are used 
for undercutting the coal. Some modifi- 
cations are now being made, following 
the adoption of electric power secured 
from the Sheridan Electric Light & 
Power Co. The mine has a capacity 
of 2000 tons per day during the winter, 
and Mr. Kooi is proud of the fact that 
he has done this with a total of 102 

mine cars. 


pacity of 4000 tons in an 8-hour day. The 
mine is worked in 30-room panels, rooms 
being driven on 45-ft. centers to a length 
of 300 ft.; electric haulage is used. 
The camp, known as Carneyville, in- 
cludes 163 houses, which were con- 
structed by the company, and are leased 
to the employees at a nominal rental, 
a church, store, office building, etc. Every 
room in the village has electric lights, 
and every home is supplied with run- 

of the Sheridan field, on the southerly 
side of the Tongue River, two miles 
west of the Monarch mine. The Mon- 
arch seam is mined, the bed showing 
practically the same thf¥ckness as in the 
Monarch property, which has been de- 
scribed, and the coal is mined on the 
same system. 

Horses haul the coal from the rooms 
to the sub-partings, and a Westinghouse 
6-ton electric-locomotive takes it to the 

THE MopeEL Coat Co. 

Between the Acme and Carney mines, 
the Model Coal Co. is opening and 
equipping a new property on the Carney 
seam, the only shaft mine in this portion 
of the district. The opening is made 
by a shaft 12x24ft. and 123 ft. deep. 
The shaft is timbered with 12x12-in. and 
10x 10-in. square timbers, backed by 
4-in. lagging. In addition a sump 12 ft. 

\pril 27, 1912 

depth has been put down below the 
An electric hoist of 100 hp. using 
-ernating current at 440 volts, will be 
i to hoist the coal. A 12-ft. Guibal 

operated by a 35-hp. alternating 
rrent motor, will furnish air. Electric, 

‘rtwall, chain machines will be used 


Mine water will be 

for undercutting. 
handled with a motor-driven pump. A 

re-screening plant will be erected to 
prepare the smaller sizes of coal, and 
trackage, scales, etc., for handling 1000 
tons per 8-hour day are being instal- 
led. The transformer house will contain 
transformers for stepping the power 

DODD sanrerreree ae 



* CoacAe - 



down from the line voltage to 440 volts, 

and a 1000-kw. motor-generator set, 
developing a 250-volt current for the 
mining machines, etc. Power is pur- 

chased from the Sheridan Electric Light 
& Power Company. 

The Model Coal Co. is incorporated 
under the laws of the state of Wyoming. 
The property is leased under a royalty 
per ton of coal extracted. The president 
is Frank W. Smith, Detroit, Mich.; treas- 
urer, John Peters, Williamsport, Penn.; 
general manager, Stewart Kennedy, Ca: 
neyville, Wyo. 


The Acme Coal Co. operates two prop- 
erties, the Nos. 1 and 2 openings, which 
are on a tract of land near the western 
edge of the field, and the No. 3 opening, 
which is at the present time the most 
northeasterly development in the district; 
the properties are about three miles 
apart. Nos. 1 and 2 are operating in the 
Carney seam, and the No. 3 workings 
are in the Monarch. No. 3 is a new prop- 
erty, and a splendid plant is being rapidly 
completed and put in shape to make an 
excellent grade of coal for years to 
come, while the ultimate end of opera- 
tions at Nos. 1 and 2 can be but a few 
years distant. 

No. 3 is a drift mine, the entry being 

made in the northerly bluffs of the 
Tongue River. The coal is mined by 
undercutting with Jeffrey mining ma- 

chines, of both breast and longwall types, 
operated by 250-volt direct current. The 
coal is hauled from the main partings 
to the yards, which are a quarter of a 
mile from the pit mouth, by Jeffrey elec- 
tric-locomotives. Here the cars are 
picked up by a cable-haul and delivered 
to a second cable-haul which takes them 
up an incline approach to the top of the 

tipple, 49 ft. above the yard tracks, 
where they are dumped in a crossover 

The coal, dumped from the mine cars, 
enters a bin with a movable bottom, by 




which it is fed to a shaker-screen of 
3000 tons per 8-hour day, capacity. 
This screen has both lateral and longi- 
tudinal motion—something new to the 
Sheridan district—and makes a _ very 
clean product. From this screen coal 
may be loaded into either open- or box- 
cars, an Ottumwa loader being used for 
loading the latter. Covering the screen 
with steel plates makes it possible to 
dump mine-run. 

The screen has 6-in. circular openings 
and the product passing over it is the 
standard lump of the Sheridan district. 
That portion passing through is either 
loaded into open cars or carried on a 
30-in. belt-conveyor to the re-screeniny 
plant. This plant contains a revolving 
screen 24 ft. long and 6 ft. in diameter. 
For one-half of this length it is sur- 


rounded by a section 7 ft. in diametes. 
The screen openings are as follows, 
reckoned from the upper end: 1-in. for 
the first 12 ft.; 2-in., for 6 ft., and 3%4- 
in. for the remaining 6 ft. The 12-ft. 
section of outer screen surrounds the 
inner section of equal length having 1-in. 
apertures, and has '»-in. openings. The 
screen is approximately 65 ft. above 
the ground, and underneath are bins with 
a capacity of 500 tons. On this screen 
are made slack, pea, nut and egg. The 
latter product is the portion coming from 
the main tipple which passes over the 
largest openings in the revolving screen. 
The entire tipple and re-screening plant 
is operated by electric motors. 

Power is secured from the Sheridan 
Electric Light & Power Co. whose plant 
is a few rods away from the tipple. This 

Vol. 1, No. 2: 

plant is equipped with 3 Heine wate 
tube boilers having Roney stokers, and 
Westinghouse Parsons turbines, each ¢: 
1250 kw. capacity generating a 230. 
volt, 60-cycle, 3-phase, alternating cu; 
rent. The current is stepped up to 22 
000 volts for transmission to the cit 
of Sheridan and surrounding mines. 
The product from Nos. 1 and 2 mines 
is dumped over a frame tipple, sit- 
uated covenient to both openings; both 
are drift mines. Electric undercutting 
and electric haulage are used. The plant 
has a capacity of 1000 tons in 8 hours. 
Here, also, a well built camp has 
sprung up to afford accomodation for the 
employees. A. K. Craig and Ora Dar- 
nall are the owners of the capital stock 
of the Acme Coal Co., both making 
their headquarters at Acme, Wyoming. 

Mine Regi 

At the mines of the Internationai Coal 
& Coke Co., at Coleman, Alta., Canada, 
all the underground men are hired by 
one person, who, on engaging a man, 
gives him a slip, directed to the time- 
keeper, showing his name, occupation and 
the time at which he is to start work. 
The timekeeper then registers the new 
employee in the “Mine Register,” which 
is required to be kept in accordance with 
the Canadian coal mines act. The regis- 
ter at this particular mine is in the form 
of a louse-leaf ledger, allowing a leaf to 
each man. When the leaf is filled in, 
it is inserted in the binder alphabetically. 
This of the form shown in 
Fig. 1. 

If the workman can write, he is re- 
quired to sign the form himself and the 
balance is filled in by the timekeeper. 
The record is almost self-explanatory. 
“Dependents” and ‘Dependents’ Address” 
are recorded for convenience in case of 
serious accidents and for information re- 
quired in connection with the workman’s 
compensation act, which is in force in 

The employee is next given an alum- 
inum check with a number on it, called 
the “identification number.” He is in- 
structed to carry this check at all times 
and is told that it will be necessary for 
him to present it on pay-day before re- 
ceiving his pay. and to return it on leav- 
ing the emplov of the company; also that 
if lost he will be held responsible for it. 

When the man leaves the employ of 
the company, the date of his time slip 
is marked on the register and the leaf is 
removed to a separate binder, kept for 
that purpose. If, at any time, the man 
should be rehired. the leaf is again in- 
serted in the “mine register,” and, if 
possible, the same “identification num- 
ber” is given him, the date of reémploy- 
ment being marked on the leaf. 

record is 

stration and Checking 

By W. A. Davidson * 

At the Coleman mine of the 
International Coal & Coke Co., 
a loose-leaf record is kept of all 
employees, past and present, and 
a most satisfactory system of 
checking the menin and out of 
the mines has been installed. 


registration and checking 
the check board, and 
methods of operation are here 

described in detail. 

*Superintendent and mine 
International Coal & Coke Co., 


The identification numbers are given 
out in rotation, and are assigned to the 
outside men as well as those working in- 
side, but the “pegging-in’ board or check 
board is used only for the inside men. If 

Date Tdentiicatio; Vo. 
Name Signature 
Nationality. 2.6.03. 
Married or single 
Dependents : 
Dependents’ address 
Mine No. or seam. 
Where last employed 
Previous experience 
Date of time check 
te-hirec ete ee aoe ae ee em aie, oie eeepc 

Time at Which 
shift Com- 
menced to 
be Admitted 
DATE | to Mine 


Time at Which} 
Shift Com- 
menced to | 
Return from 


Worked in 
Excess of 

a “company man,” the new employee al- 
se is given a brass check with a number, 
called the “company number.” 


In this province, a law, commonly 
called the eight-hour law, is in force. 
This limits the hours of work under- 

ground to eight hours and makes it com, 
pulsory to keep a register showing the 
times of ascent and descent of each shift. 
It is essential, therefore, to have some 
good reliatle checking system that will 
show at all times the number of men in 
the mine and will record at the comple- 
tion of a shift the number of men, if 
any, left in the workings. A system of 
this kind is of great value, especially in 
the case of serious accidents, when there 
is so much confusion and when reliable 
information is so essential. The form 
of record in use at the Coleman mine is 
shown in Fig. 2. 

The check board, on which is kept a 
record of the men at work, is made of 
l-in. kiln-dried pine, free from all knots 
or blemishes and straight grained. The 
accompanying illustration, Fig. 3, shows 
a part of the board used at Coleman and 
is almost self-explanatory, but in order 
to make it as clear as possible a de- 
scription may be given as follows: 

The left side of the board is devoted 
to keeping track of the No. 2 Seam con- 
tract miners. The contracts are numbered 
from 1 to 60, and opposite each number 


Hours | 
Cause of Time 
Being Worked 

Time in Excess of 
Fixed by That Fixed ’ 




= ik andi 

April 27, 1912 

-re holes for 10 pegs, which amply pro- 
de for the men on each contract. 
\longside the contract numbers on the 
ard, room is left to tack a small piece 
celluloid on which can be printed the 
‘ocation of each particular contract. When 
ne working place is finished, the cellu- 
id can be cleaned off easily and the 
ew place marked on. 

Above each line of holes, a light piece 
of cardboard, divided into ten parts, is 
Jipped through three or four common 
staples. Each division corresponds to a 
hole on the board, and on this cardboard 
the men’s names are written. If a man is 
shifted from one contract to another, this 
record can easily be changed. 


On the lower left-hand side of the 
board (not shown in Fig. 3), the same 
arrangement is followed out for contract 
miners working in No. 4 seam, and the 
contract numbers here run from 101 to 
160, inclusive. This arrangement is nec- 
essary because there are two seams be- 
ing worked, No. 2 and No. 4. 

On the right side of the board is kept 
a record of the company men, the No. 2 
men on top and the No. 4 men below. 
Practically the same system is followed 
here as for the contract miners, except 
that the company men are divided into 
the various classes of inside labor, such 
as bratticemen, trappers, firebosses, 
transportation men, trackmen, chute load- 




3 je101 2102 2103 2104 2105 Je 2107 2108 2109 ello 
o emen oo ° ° ° o + 90 
} 0 ° > 2 ° 
jele - ‘ - ‘ 
° ° ° ° ° 
ce a 6 0 0 
° + ° ° ° 
° ° ° 
° ° 
° ° 
=) ° ° 
| ° ° ° ° 
| ° ° ° ° 
| ° ° ° 
| ° ° ° 
| ° ° ° 
| ° ° ° ° 
| ° ° 
° ° ° ° 
° ° ° ° ° 
° ° ° © 
} ° 
| ° 
| a - ° 
|. ° ° 
| ° ° 





Pit Con. 
Bosses Miners 

Open Link 





ers, timber packers, laborers and develop- 
ment men—the latter including all men 
employed on new work, such as driving 
rock tunnels, etc., and work chargeable 
to capital account. 

Each hole on this side of the board is 
given a number (company number). The 
No. 2 men are all given numbers begin- 
ning with 2, and the No. 4 men, num- 
bers beginning with 4. This gives am- 
ple room for expansion, 1000 numbers 
for each seam thus being available. A 
piece of cardboard, bearing the names 
of the men, is slipped through staples 
above the holes in the manner previously 
noted. The number on the board corres- 
ponds to the number on the company 
check, which is given to a man when he 


When a contract miner enters the mine, 
he cails his name and contract number 
and a peg is put in under his name. When 
he comes out, he calls out the same in- 
formation and the peg is removed. A 
company man simply calls his number, 
es, for instance, 2262; otherwise the pro- 
cedure is identical. 

Some of the advantages of this check- 
ing board are as follows: When the shift 
has passed, going out, if any pegs are 
left in the check board, it becomes known 
immediately that someone is still in the 
mine, and the board tells who it is and 
where he was working. Similarly, when 
the shift is going on, the board at once 
shows the absentees and their working 
places, which can be filled from the 
“open links.” The working time is trans- 
ferred directly from the board to the 
books. All surface men who go into the 
mine temporarily to do repair work, have 
their names placed on the board and are 

Com- . ee 
ber pany or Brat- Chute| ; Horse Track 
Chute Rock | Help- Labor- Fire tice Trap- Load-  Engi- Brake- Driv- Lay- 
Repairs Miners ers ers Bosses Men — pers ers neers men ers ers ivi 





required to check in and out in the same 
way as underground men, so, as stated 
before, the board shows at all times the 
men actually below ground. 

In addition to booking the time, a daily 
record is kept of each shift, showing the 
number of men employed. This is ob- 
tained by simply counting the pegs on 
the board after the shift has passed, and 
the result is entered on the form shown 
in Fig. 4. The classification of labor on 
this sheet is the same as on the board. 
Such a record is of immense value to the 
mine manager, as can be understood with- 
out further explanation. 


When twe shifts overlap, as in the case 
of one shift starting at 7 o’clock and an- 


other at 9 o’clock, a different style of peg 
is used for each shift. In this particu- 
lar case it has been found necessary to 
use only two kinds of pegs. The common 
brattice nail, along with the ordinary 3- 
in. spike, cut off somewhat, serve the 
purpose well enough. The 3-in. spike, 
being a little brighter and slightly longer 
than the brattice nail, makes the distinc- 
tion quite evident. For conditions more 
complicated, different colored pegs could 
be. used. 

A person standing centrally in front 
of the board can easily reach all parts 
of it, and the pegs can be worked quickly, 
as are the keys of an instrument, so that 
if all the men of a shift follow one an- 
other closely, the board can be cleared 
accurately in two minutes. 

Vol. 1, No. 29 

At this mine there are two checkine-in 
stations, No. 1 and No. 2. No. 1 is the 
main station. Exactly the same sys:.m 
is followed at Station No. 2 as at No |, 
but the board is not quite so large, 'e- 
cause the board at No. 1 includes the reo- 
ord for No. 2. After the men check in 
at No. 2, the result is telephoned to No. 
1 and their pegs are also put in No. | 
board. At the end of the shift, No. | 
station is informed whether or not No. 2 
is clear, so that the board at Station No. | 
covers the whole mine and shows at 2 
times the total number of men below 
ground. This system has been found to 
be entirely satisfactory, and there is no 
reason why any number of stations could 
not be worked in the same way—each 
reporting to No. 1. 

The Jamison Coke Plants,Greensburg 

The subject of the utilization of the 
waste gas from coke ovens has been so 
much discussed and yet so little com- 
paratively has arisen from the discussion 
that it is thought that the following 
article may be of value to those who still 
retain the old bee-hive oven methods. 
There is no question but that the waste- 
heat boiler has come to stay wherever 
coke is made in bee-hive ovens and the 
problem is now what is to be done with 
the excess heat after all the needs of the 
colliery as regards power production are 

Those who have studied the use of 
waste heat are convinced that the logic of 
the situation favors the installation of 
means to utilize it at least to a degree 
sufficient to meet the full demands of the 
colliery where the ccke is made. The 
sale of excess power is a larger ques- 
tion. It is to be hoped that some means 
may be found enabling the operator to 
sell this power, which costs him nothing 
except a comparatively small initial out- 


The Jamison Coal <end Coke Co., John 
M. Jamison, president, and W. W. Jami- 
son, vice-president, at their Greensburg 
operations, mine approximately 2,500,000 
tons per annum. They also have large 
interests in West Virginia, but the mat- 
ter of this article is confined to a con- 
sideration of three coke-oven plants cf 
the following names, locations and equip- 
ments: No. 1 at Luxor with 401 ovens, 
No. 2 at Hannastown with 516 ovens and 
No. 4 at Crabtree with 492 ovens, a total 
of 1409 ovens. The coal mined is the 
Pittsburg and runs from 7 ft. 6 in. to 8 
ft. thick in this section. 

When the coal comes from the mines, 
all which passes through a 4-in. screen is 
shipped. The balance is washed after 
crushing and made into coke. the an- 
alvses of the materials at the various 

StU G>e Kaing ae f llowece 
stages CDeing as rollows: 

By R. Dawson Hall 

These plants make only 72- 
and 96-hour coke. Ovens are 
now supplying waste gas to two 
boiler plants. Over 20 horse- 
power is supplied by each oven 
and no coal is fed to the boilers 
even on Mondays. The coke 
made by the waste-gas ovens 
is superior to the ordinary bee- 
hive coke, being free from black 
butts and a trifle lower in sul- 


sul- Mois- Mat- Fixed 
Ash phur ture ter Carbon 
Screened coal 7.45 1.28 0.70 32.95 58.90 
Washer slack. 10.00 1.40 
Washed coa! 7.00 1.30 
Cone. ¥.30 0.53 1.00 SY.U4 

It may be noted, though it is a trite 
observation, that the slack, which at 
these plants goes to the washer, is not as 
good as the coal which is shipped to 
market. This is always the case, the 
bulk of the impurities being found in the 
disintegrated coal. 

The slack is washed in Stein-Boericke 
and Luhrig jigs and the cleansed product 
is discharged into one of two large tanks. 
These tanks at plant No. 2 are of iron, 
lined with brickwork, the joints being 
filled with cement. At the other plants 
they are of reinforced concrete. They 
are filled on alternate days. Elevators 
remove the slack from one tank at a time 
and empty it into bins for charging into 

By this means the washed coal is ren- 
dered comparatively dry before charging. 
This drying not only avoids an important 
waste of heat. but practically extends the 
coking period one hour and as it resu!ts 
in the heat of adjacent ovens not being 


April 27, 1912 



absorbed unduly by ovens newly charged, 
ir provides for an oven temperature 
suitable for the manufacture of the 
strongest and densest coke. It is proba- 
ble that some sulphur leaves the coal 
during the interval of storage, because 
the water drawn off is quite strongly im- 
pregnated with sulphuric acid. The 
pyrites can be entirely robbed of its 
sulphur by oxidation and solution, whereas 
the heat of the oven can only drive off 
50 per cent. of it. Consequently it would 
seem that a leaching process, which is 
not carried far enough to destroy the 
coking power of the coal, should be ad- 
vantageous. I have not seen any data on 
the subject, but it would appear to be a 
fertile field for investigation. The gen- 
eralized symbol for pyrites is FenSn+1 
and that symbol still remains applicable 
ifter heating the mineral. The factor n, 
however, progressively becomes so great 
that it practically equals n+ 1and Fe 
S.. after being strongly heated, becomes 

ro Oo. 


The Jamison plants aim to make 
othing but foundry coke. Instead of 
harging each oven every alternate day 
xcept Sundays and drawing furnace 
coke four days in the week and foundry 
coke on Mondays and Tuesdays, each 
ven is charged but once in three days, 
‘nd if Sunday intervenes the coa! re- 
nains in the oven four days. So all the 
vens are producing either 72- or 96- 
lour coke. Three grades are made, A, 
> and C, the first, A, is No. 1 foundry, 
8 is No. 2 foundry and C is furnace 
coke. There is a large amount of the 
product sold on a guarantee that the sul- 
phur content shall be less than 0.90 per 

The following are the input and out- 
put of 72- and 96-hour charges: 



Good foundry coke. 

Good foundry coke 


Per Cent. Per Cent. 

) of of 
Pounds | Charge | Output 

15,680} 100.00 132.09 
9,52) 60.76 80.27 
1,706) 10.88 14.37 
636) 4.06 4.356 
L1L.S70 Far. 40 100.00 


Per Cent lPevcend, 
of of 
?ounds | Charges | Output 

| | 

17,655 10).00 130.42 

10,330 58.51 49.82 
| 2 O44 11.58 15.79 
SOS 3.2) 1.39 

2,942 tax00 160.00 


A 96-hour charge stands about 40 in. 
deep in the oven, and after coking it 
will be found shrunken to about 28 in. 
When coal is taken direct from the 
washer to the ovens, without the delay in 
the tanks, of which mention has been 
made, it is two hours before it begins to 
coke; but as a result of the opportunity 
the coal has to drain off, the time at the 
Jamison works is reduced to one hour. 
The door of the oven, which is only bui!: 
about half way up to the soffit of the 
arched opening, is after this hour raised 
almost to the full height, the bricks being 
plastered with wet loam to exclude all 
air, except such as can enter above the 
coal. This prevents wasteful oxidation 
o: burning of the charge. 

The bricks forming the door are wet, 
to the full height of the slack bed, due 
to the dampness of the charge. As cok- 
ing takes place, the bricks gradually dry, 
and when the coking reaches the oven 
floor, the entire door ceases to show evi- 
dences of moisture. This requires about 
36 hours. Such coke, however, is light 
and weak, and the additional time given 
the process completes the driving off of 
the volatile matter and makes a heavier 
and stronger product. It may be noted 
that there is a deposit of carbon on those 
parts of the coke through which the ris- 
ing gases eScape, and the amount of this 
deposit varies from 3 to 5 per cent. The 
ccke ovens at plant No. 1 are not at 
present in operation, and No. 2, though 
producing the best of coke, does not em- 
body all the latest features of coke-mak- 
ing economy. Steam locomotives are 
used for hauling the larries to the oven 
and no use is made of the waste gases. 
It is the intention, however, to make the 
coke ovens supply the heat for operating 
this plant and the change will be made 
without delay because the test at No. 4 
nas shown that the waste-heat coke oven 
is a gilt-edged investment. 


938 COAL AGE Vol. 1, No. 29 
Oe ee | 
Ki j 8 . 
—= Aire urse Aircourse ~—. =the: v 
-- Dampers 

bee 8” > 
Sy LGBT hail 


Showing Location of 

Third Rail, 



aie __ ae \ 

| a 3g 
5 DIT = 


Section of 

Part Cross 




At plant No. 4, seventy ovens are sup- 
plying all the heat needed for the opera- 
tion of four 400-hp. boilers. In order to 
shorten the flues leading to these, there 
are two boiler houses set just back of 
the line of ovens, each house being con- 
nected with 35 ovens. By these arrange- 
ments a more even draft is secured for 
each oven, than if the boiler houses were 
combined and set at one end of the long 

One man attends to all four boilers 
and watches the fan engine. He does 

not have much to occupy him physically 
or mentally and a high-priced man is not 
needed. Liberal allowances for interest, 
depreciation and repair leave a margin 
of about $20,000 over the coal firing. 
The cost of installation, including flues, 
boilers, steam lines, water lines complete, 
was approximately S250 per oven. 

It will be seen that each oven provides 
about 22 hp. It not thought that 
the continuous making of foundry coke 
changes the heat output in any material 
degree. It is true that the ovens are less 
frequently charged but, at the same time, 
larger charges are used and thus the 
conditions are not so unequal as might at 
first appear. 


Over Seat EL GIB 


Coal AGE 

Section through Small 
Flue, Airway Underneath 

l2"Fa// ane : 
el I SNR x j 2 
= 5 S {> 
S 7 YU 
Oven, Tracks and Yards 


An oven operating on the regular cycle, 
but of like diameter to those at the 
Jamison plants (12 ft. 6 in.), is charged 
every week with two chargings of about 
five tons each. and on Friday or Satur- 
day with 6'. tons, a total of 16 tons 

per week. It will be seen that the 
amount fed to the ovens at the Jamison 
plants with a two-charge system is 16°; 
tons. So that on the whole. there is no 
reason to believe that the three-charge 
system with its smaller charging loads 
will not give almost equivalent results. 
In fact it has been the experience of the 
H. C. Frick Coke Co., and the Ellsworth 
Coal Co., that 20 hp. is to be expected 
from a single coke oven. 

The method of utilizing the waste 
gases has been developed by several ex- 
periments during the last few years. The 

heated gas is taken from the trunnel- 
head. This head can be covered by a 

large firebrick lid. When this is closed 
the gas passes through a conduit built on 


et ea 


April 27, 1912 

a slightly descending grade toward the 
»ain flue. When first installed the small 
tues were covered by the slope of the 
bank of earth by which the main flue was 
srotected, but it was found later to be 
4 better plan to leave them uncovered as 
: the sectional elevation shown, because 
‘he intense heat did not then have as 
creat an effect on their firebrick arches. 


The large brick flue at the back of the 
even leads the gas away to the nearest 
boiler house. Should it be desirable to 
clean any boiler or to shut. it off for re- 
pairs, a damper provides the means and 
a cross-flue between the flue to the right- 
hand boiler and that to the left permits 
the gases from one flue to be sidepassed 
trom the boiler they normally heat to that 
which under ordinary conditions is 
heated by the adjacent stack of ovens. 

CoaL AGE. 


It is, of course, possible to overheat 
an oven, and this is not desirable, as the 
coke is thereby rendered brittle and 
valueless. But if the temperature be too 
low, the coke has black butts near the 

oven floor and is discolored in other 
places. As this half-coked coal and soot 
are undesirable, a_ sufficient heat to 

eliminate them and make them into a 
solid, shining body of coke is needed. 
Moreover, an intensely heated oven will 
eliminate somewhat more sulphur than 
one of lower temperature. But the 
Present arrangement with a chimney 
about 130 ft. higher than the oven bed 
gives somewhat too much draft if not 
regulated, and reduction in height is pro- 
posed as remedy for this condition. 

In conclusion, the ovens are giving ex- 
cellent results, the coke made by them 
is better than that of ovens without pro- 
vision for the use of the waste gases. 
The coke is brighter and harder and 


somewhat lower in sulphur. The suc- 
cess attained is evidenced by the fact that 
some of the ovens at plant No. 2 are to 
be made over. It is believed that the ex- 
pense for maintenance where this system 
is installed will not be heavy. The main 
flue has stood two years without needing 
any repair. 

It may be noted that the third-rail 
system of transmitting power is adopted 
and electric larries built by the Scottdale 
Foundry and Machine Co., are used to 
convey the coal from the washery bins, 
an ordinary 16-lb. rail, set with its upper 
surface 4 in. above the track rail being 
used for transmission purposes. The 
voltage is 250 volts. The electrical 
equipment was furnished by the West- 
inghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co. 

The writer is indebted to Edward Sop- 
pitt, general superintendent Pennsyl- 
vania district; C. E. Cowan, chief engi- 
neer, and John McClarren, general fore- 
man of the coke yards, for information 
and assistance in preparing the article. 

Diamond Vale Disaster 

The explosion which occurred at Mer. 
ritt, B. C., was given a short notice in 
CoAL AGE in the issue following the un- 
happy event. The report of the coroner’s 
jury being now at hand, a further state- 
ment seems timely. Merritt is situated in 
the Cariboo District of British Columbia, 
on the Nicola River, a branch of the Fra- 
ser, and is one of the stations of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway. 


The conclusion reached by the jury was 
that the seven men who were killed “met 
their death by the explosion of gas com- 
bined with coal dust coming in contact 
with a naked light.” This statement is 
easy to understand despite its ill expres- 
sion. The jury finds that the manage- 
ment was guilty of gross negligence in 
not having provided efficient equipment 
and that the company showed a disposi- 
tion to evade the requirements of the 
Coal Mines Regulation Act. The inspec- 
tor, Morgan, was also censured for not de- 
manding a more careful compliance with 
the law. In addition to the seven men 
killed, two were injured, out of the 18 
men working in the mine. 

It appears that the development was 
new and was regarded more or less as a 
prospect rather than as a working mine. 
The equipment was such as suited an 
operation of little importance and one of 
which the future was in doubt. This was 
the excuse of Benjamin Browett, the su- 
perintendent, when taxed with the inade- 
quacy of the plant. He stated that he 
did not think the mine was at such a 
state of development as to make it subject 
to the law and that he thought he could 
not be held to be amenable to its pro- 
visions without formal notification from 
the inspector. 



It was said, but denied by the engineer, 
that the fan could not be kept running 
when the haulage engine was working be- 
cause the power provided was insufficient 
to actuate both at one and the same 

The fireboss, Henry Grimes, one of the 
victims, was not a certificated man. He 
went into the mine at 6.45 a.m. and the 
men entered at 8. It was asserted that 
he had plenty of time to make an inspec- 
tion of the limited area under operation 
The fireboss was in the habit of stationing 
himself where the men would pass him on 
entering and he would notify them if their 
places were in an unsafe condition. He 
did not write his report till he came out 
of the mine at dinner time. He seems to 
have been a well meaning man and sev- 
eral witnesses among the miners com- 
mented favorably on his efficiency. 

Evidently the mine generated gas. 
Open lights were used but safety lamps 
were carried by some of the men. Some 
carried both, using the former for test- 
ing purposes when gas was suspected. 
One man was waiting to tell the superin- 
tendent of the presence of gas when the 
explosion occurred. It seems as if the 
fireboss was active enough in the dis- 
charge of his duties but did not’ have a 
clear comprehension of the dangers to be 
avoided in a gaseous mine, nor was he 
Strict enough in controlling those who 
would carelessly brave them. 


James Ashworth, Fleet Robinson, the 
Dominion mineralogist and Chief Inspec- 
tor Thomas Graham made a report stating 
that there was no explosion, but merely 
an inflammation of the gas foliowed by 
a burning of the coal dust. Mr. Ashworth 
testified that in his belief the temperature 
resulting from the combustion did not 
exceed 900 deg. F. He stated that in 
case of an explosion the temperature 
would have been 3000 deg. In support 
of his conclusion he brought samples of 
coal dust, caked but not burned, and the 
cap, which was worn by William Herd, 
one of the deceased, at the time of the 
accident. This was charred a little on the 
outside but the paper on the inside was 

However, it must be questioned 
whether gas could ever have burned so 
generally through the mine without an 
explosion. In fact there was evidence 
given that sufficient force was developed 
to turn over a car, damage the return 
airway and “blow out the fan.” More- 
over, most of the surviving men heard the 
explosion, though all said the noise was 

As to deductions from temperatures, 
these are unsafe because the intensity of 
heat is not equal, especially when the ex- 
ploded gases are small in quantity. 




1, No. 


Accidents in Anthracite Coal Mines 

In order to understand fully the acci- 
dent problem in coal mining, it is neces- 
sary to consider the bearing of particular 
causes in their relation to the number of 
persons employed. Separating at the 
commencement of such an inquiry, the 
inside from the outside employees, 
marked contrast in accident liabilities cart 
be shown. This result suggests the in- 
adequacy of general fatality rates, since 



By Frederick L. Hoffman * 

Tabulations showing the num- 
ber of persons killed and injured 
and the nature of the accidents 
occurring in each inspection dis- 
trict of the Pennsylvania anthra- 
cite region from 1906 to 1910. It 
is shown that a great difference 
exists between districts and that 
a general average does not give a 
true idea of any one section. 

it will be readily seen that the rate fo: 
accidental death and injuries is differen: 
in the northern fields from that in the two 
lower areas. Moreover, the accidents ar 
different not only in number but also 
in nature—the character of the life haz- 
ard varying from field to field. 

The most marked difference in the 
fatality rates, as calculated for various 


PENNSYLVANIA, 1906-1910 1906-1910 
*Statistician, Prudential Insurance Co. 
of America, Newark, N. J 
Rate | Rate | Rate | Rat 
per NOn- | per | ; | per | Non- per 
| Fatal | i009 fatal | 1000 the proportions of inside and outside | M Fatat 1000 | fatal 1000 
Im- Acci- |] Em- | Acci- |) Em- 4 Em- Acci- | Em- | Acci- km 
Year plovees | dents |ploye’s! dents) ployvees employees may vary substantially for Year Ployees | dents ‘piove’s; dents | ployees 
| ; . . . al i 
— different mining fields. —— aici 
INSIDE ACCIDENTS In the northern anthracite coal fields ENSIDE ACCIDENTS 
ane ee of Pennsylvania, for illustration, the ee aaa 
1906 67.852 90 1.23 IS% S05 r ° ee ; 1906 |} 17,146 166 | 3.52 i16 8.82 
1907 69,459 85 | «5.54 699 10 06 average proportion of inside employ ees 1907 } 48,390 216 1.46 $50 9.30 
1908 72 S47 366 $49 605 8.25 ic 7&9 4 ° * 1908 | 50,886 230 {52 | 6.90 
Se bo oo i 39 26 = 11 IS (0.2 per cent., and of outside em 1909 | 19,296 v4 3.53 B28 | 6.65 
1910 72,993 | 337 | 4.62 105 «6.92 ployees 24.8 per cent., against 65.4 per 1910 18,549 172 | 3.54 379 || 7.8] 
Total. 357.627 | 1604 4.74 2022 S 17 cent. and 34.6 per cent., respectively, for = Total.) 241.267 9 958 3.92 | 1924.1 7 SS 
_ the combined middle and southern fields. 
Ovrsipe ACCIDENTS Obviously, the fatality rates, to be trust- OUTSIDE ACCIDENTS 
= | ~ worthy, require to be corrected for this | 
1906 21 148 t } 2.03 107 143 : als : 1906 27,029 oo | 1.92 102 Bee 
1907 24046 55/229 116) 4 so €lement of error, which may, more or 1907 | 26,879 521.93] 104 3.87 
1908 23,889 19 | 2.05 109 L Sti ss. j i stw j 1908 26,381 g3 | 1.20 105 3.98 
1909 23,108 ot | Tar on | 4.34 less, impair the trustworthiness of all 1909 | 24°815 aise a. | oe 
1910 | 22,523 1 13 74 24 general fatality tables. Unfortunately, 1910 24,110 62 | 2.57 92 | 3.82 
Yotal.. 117.714 | 2101178 | 504 ; os the number of inside and outside em- Total. 129211 249 193 | 485 3°75 
ae: —= _____~— plovees of many states is not separately 
SS Sr ay re a oa rae a ae may make the distinction, but of course, 
1906 92,009 339 | 3.68 694 7.54 4 : s 1906 74,175 iis) 2 94 518 6 9S 
1907 $05 | #40/ 4.71 | $15 | $.72 Without the required numbers of em 1907 75,269, 268 3.56] 554 | 7.36 
1908 115, 1 4.27 714 vee h ployees under and above ground, the = a =~ . » 456 5.90 
1909 343 | 3.53 624 6.43 : cate 90S (4, oe 3.02 5.53 
1910 367. BOSd Bea. | 16.54 data are of no practical utility. 1910 72,659 | 234 | 3.22 | 471 | 6.48 
Votal.| 475,341 | 1904 4.01 | 3426) 7.21 Looking over the many items in the = yotal 373.481 1207 3.23 | 2409 | 6 45 
Rely. - |_| =—=—~—s«svarious tables accompanying this article, We Sack 
| Boil- Other Total 
Rate per Rate per} er | Rate per Rate per} Suffo- | Rate per[ Out- | Rate per} Out- | Rate per 
1000 Ma- 1000 hix- 1000 | Flee-| 1000 | cated | 1000 side 1000 side | 1000 
'm- chin- Em- plo- Iim- tric- I-m- in k'm- Acci- Em- Acci- km- 
District kemployees Cars ploved eT} ploved [sions | ploved ity ployed |Chutes| ployed dents pioved dents ployed 
Northern coal 
l 10,762 9 ) S4 i I 1.02 i 0.37 24 ye 
2 13,118 14 L.07 } 0.30 1 0 OS 3 0.23 22 1 68 
3 11,450 j 0.35 6 0.32 ; 2 0.37 12 1.05 
} 10,743 5 0.47 ! 0.37 1 0.09 ] 0.09 2 0.19 t 0.37 17 1.58 
5 [331 7 0 62 ! 0.35 3 0.26 6 0.58 20 Rute 
6 12,618 11 0.87 6 0.48 2 0. 16 6 0.48 s 0.63 30 {| «32.62 
7 12,455 s 0 64 3 0.24 ] 0.08 S 0.40 17 1.36 
s 11,572 7 0.50 c 0.60 ] 0.09 6 0.52 24 1.51 
8) 12,072 3 0.24 | 0.33 6 0.50 13 1.08 
10 11,593 15 1 29 7 0.60 a 0.78 31 2.67 
Total Zz 117,714 ; S35 0 71 5) 0.48 4 ) OP 3 0.038 1s O11 58 0.45 210 je as. 
Middle and 
Southern coal 
fields: - 
1] 19,962 17 QO.O85 14 0.70 l 0.05 11 0.55 1:33 2.15 
4 12,472 7 0 56 Ss 0.64 Rene 4 O32 19 1 Re 
13 16,181 12 0.74 13 0.80 2 0.12 7 0.48 34 2.40 
14 10,569 9 0.85 rf 0.66 l 0.09 5 0.47 22 2.08 
15 12,468 7 0.56 7 0.56 4 1 | 0.08 / 0.32 19 1.52 
16 11,660 5 0.43 ! 0.34 ] 0.09 boa 1 0.34 l4 1.20 
17 11,108 11 0.99 9 0.81 } 0.36 s 0.72 32 2.88 
IS 12,049 14 1 08 ) 0.39 1 | 0.08 10 0.77 30 y aes 
19 12,862 12 0 93 ; 0.23 ae ia 0.54 22 SG. 
20) 8.983 8 0 89 2 | S@.22 ! 0.45 14 1.56 
_ — — 7 -_ ao | comes a —_—— | — = — ee 
Total 129,214 102 0.79 70 0 54 ] 0 01 12 0.09 64 0.50 249 1.93 
Grand total! 246,928 185 0.75 126 0.51 3 0 01 3 0 01 25 0.10 117 0.47 159 1 S86 

April 27, 1912 





serhern coal field: 


le and southern coal 

Grand total 


Northern coal field: 

iddle and Southern coal 



Grand total 




tate per 

Falls of 
Coal or 

J tone mm Sete 

Crushed Rate per 



Rate per Rate pe Ex- Rate per Rate per Ex- Rate per Rate per 
1000 1000 [plosions 1000 | Suffo- 1000 [plosions 1000 Prem- 1000 
Im- Mine Iim- of Gas Iim- cated Em- fof Pow- Em- ature kim- 

ployed Cars ployed jor Dust ployed |by Gas ployed |der, etc. ployed | Blasts — ployed 
2 57 23 0 71 a) ao49 9 0.28 
2.95 21 0.50 13 0.31 3 0.07 25 0. 60 
2.49 27 0.67 6 0.15 38 0.95 
2 48 27 0.78 14 0.41 t 0.12 25 0.72 
2? .64 Is 0.58 l 0.038 l 0.038 1 0 03 a 0.16 
» 60 20 0.56 21 0.59 » 0.06 10 0.28 23 0.64 
2 63 15 I 2% 19 0.54 9 0.25 10 ) 28 >| 0.59 
2.73 P| 0.79 20 0.59 2 0.06 BS 0.09 IS 06.33 
2.47 26 0.68 6 0.68 9 0.2 5 0.13 17 0.44 
2.10 26 0.76 21 0.61 iS 0.44 } 0.12 16 0.47 
2.46 260 0.73 135 0.38 38 O.11 52 0.45 197 0.55 
1 64 28 oO. 75 » 0.05 | 0.08 ‘a 0.19 19 0.5! 
2 24 17 0 66 7 0.27 1 0 O4 t 0 16 is) 0.59 
1.65 17 0.67 10 0.39 1 0.16 13 0.51 5 0.20 
| ee 7 a O.41 Z 6.22 1 0 06 2 0.12 5 0.29 
1.86 15 0.54 ia 0 46 | 0.04 i 0 Lt 17 0.61 
F 29 Iv 0.50 I 0 O04 1 0 O4 } 0.17 10 0.42 
0.89 15 0.74 5 0.25 3 0.15 9 0 44 6 0.30 
1.S9 17 0.71 10 0.42 10 0 42 9g 0.38 11 0.46 
1.54 4 0.18 é 0 31 | 0 O04 10 0.44 
1.19 16 O.SO 2 0.10 7 0.35 } 0.26 
1.66 148 0 61 ae 0.23 24 0O.10 60 0.25 102 0.42 
2.43 10S 06S 192 0.82 62 0.10 112 0.19 299 0.50 
tae i ge ee pee ti : sti eg ok I - 

Rate per tate per Rate per] Other Fotal [Rate per 
1000 Kicked | 1000 Me- 1000 1000 Inside | 1000 Inside 1000 
Iim- v kim- chin- Em- hlec- im Acci- Em- Acci- I-m- 
ploved | Mules ployed ery ploved | tricity) ploved dents ployed | dents ploved 
= | EE | Sey Seen SS es = ae eas 
| | 
>» | 0.06 3 0.09 ae 6 63-98 
1 | @.02 $ 0.10 169 1.03 
2 | 0.05 l 0.02 3 0.07 183 1.56 
2 | 0.06 1 0.03 2 0.06 2 0.06 169 | 1.90 
1 | 0.03 2 0.06 | ree MHS {| S.70 
tL | 0.68 9 0.25 186 5.20 
1 0 03 12 0.34 211 5.96 
! 0.038 2 © 06 € | @:2) 179 5.26 
2 0.05 S 0.21 178 $.65 
l 0.03 > 0.06 1 0.03 9 0.26 77 | 65.16 
12 0.03 7 0.02 6 0.02 ae 0.16 1694 $1.74 
0.038 2 | 0.05 ! 0.03 10 0.27 129 3.73 
) 16 oe | 6 0.23 120 4.69 
Darel l 0.04 13 0.51 106 £47 
Oo: 2 ‘ | t 0.23 15 2 .63 
1 |} O.O4 6 ees. 111 3.96 
0098 | 1 0 O4 93 3.89 
0.05 t @.20 5 0.23 15 0.74 S4 $14 
O08 2 0.08 9 0.388 121 5.07 
6 0 26 70 3.09 
0.05 l 0.05 9 O45 69 3.43 
0.05 10 0.04 7 0.038 79 O. 32 Q5S8 3.92 
0.02 pep 0.04 7 0.01 13 0.02 136 0.23 2652 $41 



Northern coal field: 


GAS Et he 



dle and Southern coal fields: 

inployees Cs 

1] 19,962 
Be ene Ola rere eae E2472 
Wate oe eee ee alae: 16,181 
Ie eee sorts ee ar, 10,569 
BO eeeetiencn serene encores 12,468 
LRRD aay Sra tere el oe Ber 11.660 
ihe a Sere yar ea ae 11,108 
| 5: gMPNOANG oe geri Os arc oPeky ey Rearne 12,949 
| ft" Raperargn deer aes cuca a anon arts ae 12,862 
vas Penta ee rere a 8,983 

ROU ochis aes 129,214 


SS es 
me OUI 


Rate per 



Rate per? er Rate per Rate per 
Ma- 1000 ix- 1000 Klec- 1000 
chin- 1000 plo- Iim- tric- Iim- 
ery ploved [sions ployed itv ploved 
9 O.S4 
t 0.30 
10 0.87 ; 
a 0.47 l 0.09 1 0.09 
6 0.53 
| 0.95 
13 1.04 1 0.08 
13 t.12 | 
a 0.25 2 0.17 ! 
1] 0.95 : 
S86 0.73 1 0.03 l 0.01 
223 1.10 | 
6 0.48 | 
16 0.99 
16 1.51 | 
is 0.56 | Per 
y O:77 1 | 0.09 
} 0.36 ed 
12 0.938 2 0.15 
8 0.62 i 
9 1.00 | 
109 .S4 3 0.02 
195 0.79 7 0 03 ] 0.00 




Rate p Out- 
1000 side 
Jc1n- \cci- 
ploved dents 
1.67 5 
0.84 32 
1.48 iO 
| Pe 29 
1.0 15 
2.46 62 
2 .¢ 71 
Jal 60 
1.99 10 
2.59 70 
1.84 504 
2.20 107 
0.24 15 
3 15 
2.46 53 
0.80 23 
L..é2 13 
2.07 42 
2.93 71 
0.93 34 
2.42 §2 
1.65 {S85 
1.74 989 

Rate per 


tCrde Coto ul 


causes, are in the accidents due to falls 
of coal and roof. The respective rates 
were 2.46 per 1000 of inside employees 
for the northern coal fields, against only 
1.66 for the middle and southern fields. 
In none of the other causes are the dif- 
ferences of enough importance for record, 
except possibly explosions of gas or dust, 
the rate for which in the northern coal 
field was 0.38 per 1000, against 0.23 in 
the middle and southern coal fields. 

The returns of non-fatal accidents, in 
table IV are of doubtful accuracy and 
completeness and are limited probably 
to the more serious injuries causing ex- 
tended incapacity for work. The marked 
differences in the non-fatal accident rates 
between the northern field and the middle 
and southern coal areas, are probably 
due more to methods of reporting them 
than to actual differences in the true 
non-fatal accident liability of inside em- 


find a marked difference in the non-fatal 
accident rate due to mine cars, which 
was 2.14 per 1000 for the northern coal 
fields and only 1.35 for the other two. 
In contrast, the non-fatal accident rate 
due to explosions of gas and dust was 
only 0.90 per 1000 in the northern, 
against 1.52 in the middle and southern 
coal fields. 

Although the non-fatal accident re- 
turns are more or less untrustworthy, the 
data have some value if only to empha- 
size the fact that in all probability only 
the more severe accidents are at present 
reported. There can be no question of 
doubt that if a drastic workmen’s com- 
pensation act were to be adopted by the 
State of Pennsylvania, and applied to the 
mining industry, the results would be the 
same as observed in England, namely, 
that the non-fatal accident rates would 
increase largely on account of the fact 

Vol. 1, No. 29 
every injury, however, trifling, which 
resulted from an accident incidenta! to 
mine work. 

This comparison clearly emphasizes 
the local incidence of fatal and non-f.:a] 
accidents in anthracite coal mining, a>4 
the method is applicable to every co 
field of North America. Fora full under. 
standing of the underlying causes respon- 
sible for the occurrence of fatal ana 
non-fatal accidents it is of the utmost 
importance that the correct incidence 
should be localized as much as possibic 
and that attention should be directed to 
specific facts rather than to widely gen- 
eralized conclusions. 

The non-fatal accident rate in the 
northern anthracite coalfields is reported 
as 7.21 per 1000, the highest rate being 
for the eighth district, where it was 10.85 
per 1000, and the lowest for the second 
district, where it was 4.69 per 1000. 

ployees. It is suggestive, however, to that complete reports would be made of The highest and lowest non-fatal acci- 
| Explo- | Explo- 
Falls of tate per Rate per | sions of Rate per | sions of Rate per Prema- Rate per 
Coal and 1000 1000 Gas or 1000 Powder, | 1000 ture 1000 
District Employees Roof Employed | Mine Cars Employed Dust | Employed ete. Employed] Blasts © Employed 
Northern coal field: 
1 32,324 123 3.81 63 1.95 , Ss 0.25 14 0.045 
2 $1,902 91 He leg 67 1.60 11 0.26 5 0.12 26 0.62 
3 40,159 102 2.54 79 1.97 15 0.37 4 &..12 38 0.95 
} 34,492 124 3.60 73 3.12 8 0.23 10 0.29 17 1.36 
5 31,043 100 Se 58 1.87 13 0.42 ry) 0.29 re 0.68 
6 35,739 103 2.88 75 2.10 68 1.90 12 0.34 35 0.98 
7 35,381 103 2.91 101 2 85 37 1.05 12 0. 34 30 O.S5 
8 34,049 125 3.67 113 S| ae 73 2.14 25 0.73 53 1 56 
9 38,246 78 2.04 70 1.83 7S 2 O4 10 0 26 20 0.52 
10 34,292 92 2.68 67 95 19 0.55 3 0.09 20 0.58 
Total 357,627 1041 » Ql 766 > 14 ID 0.90 99 0.28 04 0.85 
Middle and Southern 
coal fields: 
11 37,266 122 ss year 62 1.66 16 1 28 24 0.64 45 ea 
12 25,596 38 1.48 15 0.59 31 1.23 11 0.43 9 0.35 
13 25,450 03 2.08 19 0.75 34 1.34 Ss 0.31 13 0.51 
14 17,125 12 2.45 34 1.99 35 2.04 7 0 41 6 0.35 
15 28,003 26 ).93 19 0.68 ! 0.14 { O14 10 0.36 
16 23,900 107 4.48 12 1.76 38 1.59 19 0.79 22 0.92 
17 20,267 16 0.79 23 ee Re 17 + 32 6 0.30 16 0.79 
18 23,862 8s 3.69 51 2,14 62 2.60 1] 0.46 $2 1.76 
19 22,678 42 1.85 20 0.88 57 2 ob S 0.35 10 O44 
20 20,120 64 3.18 15 2.24 17 O.S4 11 0.55 9 0.45 
Total 244,267 598 | 2.45 330 1.85 371 1 52 109 0.45 182 0.75 
Grand total 601,894 1639 | Pps pi) 1096 1.82 693 L.&5 20S 0.35 186 0.81 
Falls Rate per |Crushed) Rate per Rate per Rate per Rate per} Other Rate per] Total Rate per 
Into 1000 at |} 1000 j;Kicked 1000 Ma- 1000 10Q0 Inside 1000 Inside 1000 
Shafts, km- Bat- | Em- by E-m- chin- Em- Elec- I'm- Acci- 'm- Acci- km- 
District ete. ployed | teries ployed | Mules ployed ery ployed | tricity ployed | dents ployed | dents ployed 
Northern coal field: 
‘ 7 0.22 1 0.03 ay 0.65 O37 fees: 
2 10 0.24 1 0.02 15 0.36 226 539 
3 8 0.20 a4 0.52 268 6.67 
} ! 0.03 11 6.32 6 0.17 25 ae fe 305 8.84 
5 2 0.06 Z 0.06 17 0.55 222 72 ko 
6 l 0.038 4 0.11 2 0.08 28 0.78 329 9.21 
7 1 0.08 8 0.23 1 0.03 44 ] 24 337 9.52 
8 13 0.38 2 O15 28 0.82 435 12.78 
9 5 6.13 1 0.03 19 1.28 311 8.13 
10 8 0:23 ] 0.03 r 0.20 35 1.02 252 7.30 
Total 11 0.03 l 0.00 15 0.21 19 0.05 1 0.00 283 0.79 2999 S17 
Middle and Southern coa! 
11 7 0.19 1 0.03 3 0.08 39 1.05 349 9.3 
12 l 0.04 1 O O4 10 0.39 116 1.5 
13 5 0.20 1 0.04 19 0.75 152 TR, 
14 } 9.23 12 0.70 7 0.4) 1 0.06 16 0.93 164 9.58 
15 2 0.07 | 1 0.8 1 0.04 16 0.57 83 2 Mt 
16 1 0.17 Pa 0.08 3 0.13 17 0.71 254 10.65 
17 16 0.79 4 (9.25 1 0.05 2 0.10 21 1.04 153 7.Be 
1s 16 0.67 3 0.13 32 1.34 305 12.43 
19 2 0.09 1 0.04 ; 0.13 19 0.84 162 eo 
20 19 0.94 yd 0.10 3 0.15 16 0.80 186 o.2 
Total es 0.31 20 0.08 23 0.09 
Grand total 0.16 4846 

April 27, 1912 

| Sent rates do not coincide by districts 
| vith the corresponding fatal accident 
sates, which were highest in the seventh 
“istrict and lowest in the fifth. 
The average non-fatal accident rate for 
‘he middle and southern coalfields was 
6.45 per 1000, the rate having been high- 
st in the eighteenth district, or 10.21 per 
‘000, and lowest in the fifteenth district, 
. 2.62 per 1000. The highest non-fatal 
ccident rate coincides with the highest 
fatal accident rate in the middle and 
outhern anthracite coal fields, but there 
no complete conformity in the rates, 
vhich, of course, may be due to local 
sonditions rather than to defects in the 


PENNSYLVANIA, 1906-1910 

|Rate per 
Fatal 1000 
| Acci- Iim- 
District Employees dents ployed 
Sorthern coal | 

1 43,086 151 3.50 

> 55,020 191 3.42 

3 51,609 195 3.78 

4 45,255 186 4.11 

5 42,374 135 3.19 

6 18,357 | 219 4.53 

7 17 S36 228 4.77 

8 | 45,621 200 1.38 

9 50,318 191 3.80 

10 45,885 | 208 4.54 

Vota} 475,341 | 1904 4.01 
‘Middle and | | 
Southern coal | | 
fields: | 

11 57,228 | 182 3.18 

12 38,068 139 3.65 

13 41,631 i140 aan 

14 27,694 67 2.42 

15 40,471 | 130 aves 

16 | 35,560 107 3.01 

LZ 31,375 116 3.70 

18 36,811 151 4.10 

19 | 35,540 92 2.59 

20 29,103 83 2.85 

C0: 373,481 1207 3.23 

Grand total. . 3111 3.67 

$48,822 | 

PENNSYLVANIA, 14906-1910 

| Rate per 
Fatal 1000 
} Acci- Em- 
istrict Employees { dents ployed 
Northern coal | 

1 292 6.78 

Zz 258 4.69 

3 308 5.97 

} 334 7.38 

o | 267 6.30 

6 | 391 8.09 

7 108 8.53 

8 | 195 10.85 

9 351 6.98 

10 322 (Ct 7.03 

BOTA «4-6. 3426 | 7.21 
liddle and | | 
Southern coal | 
fields: } | 

1 | 87,228 456 | 7.97 

12 38,068 131 3.44 

13 | $1,631 197 4.74 

14 | 27,694 PAY 4 7.84 

15 | AD ,471 106 2.62 

16 | 35,560 297 8.35 

17 31 .o¢5 195 6.22 

18 36,811 376 10.21 

19 35,540 196 5.51 

20 29,103 238 8.18 

otal 373,481 2409 6.45 

Grand total. .. 848,822 5835 “82 


Mine Trolley Harp and 

Probabiy no single piece of machinery 
in use around the mines is liable to more 
hard knocks and general abuse than the 
trolley of the average mine locomotive. 
With well known frequency its wheel 
leaves the wire and bangs up against the 
roof for a distance, catching, perhaps, 
on timbers, beams and other obstacles. 
No little ingenuity has been displayed 
by various manufacturers in designing 
trolley poles, harps, etc., in an effort to 
minimize mishaps of the nature indicated 
and one of the most recent designs of 
harp and wheel is that of the Ohio Brass 
Co., shown in the accompanying illus- 


A special feature of the harp is the 
provision made for rotating it by hand, 
thus enabling the motorman to guide it 
easily through frogs and over partic- 
ularly uneven places in the trolley. The 
pivot bolt, fastened to the harp casting, 
passes through the pole-end casting and 
is provided at its lower end with an eye 
which rotates with the harp. A stick or 
strap, attached to this eye, enables the 
operator to control the harp at all times. 

In addition to the feature of manual 
operation, the harp is designed to work 
automatically; the center of the wheel 
axle is set back from the pivot point so 
that a trailing action is imparted to the 
wheel, causing it readily to follow ir- 
regularities in the trolley wire and take 
sharp curves without pulling from the 

A rib on the top of the pole-end cast- 
ing prevents the harp from catching on 
overhead I-beams in case the wheel 
leaves the wire. It is made either en- 
tirely of malleable iron, Sherardized, or 
with bronze harp casting and malleable 
iron pole-end, and will take all standard 
4-in. mine trolley wheels with 4x1%-in. 

The wheel is designed to give maxi- 


mum wear, having heavy flanges which 
will resist bending and a heavy section 
of metal at the bottom of the groove 
where the wear is greatest. Lubrication is 
provided for by an oil reservoir, in addi- 
tion to a Bound Brook type bushing, with 
graphite inserted in grooves in the special! 
bearing metal of which it is made. The 
bushings are 14 in. long and \%-in. bore 
and the wheel will fit any standard harp. 

Lamp Efficiency 

Every mining man is familiar with the 
dirty, greasy and neglected incandescent 
lamps commonly found in some obscure 
part of breakers, fan-houses or mines. 
To those who are responsible for this 
condition, the following excerpt from an 
article on “Upkeep of Shop Lighting 
Systems,” in the American Machinist, will 
no doubt prove a revelation: 

The serious loss of light when globes 
and reflectors are allowed to go for long 

periods without cleaning, is shown in 
the accompanying figure. This set of 

curves resulted from a test on a glass 

Curves SHOWING Losses DUE TO UN- 

reflector (commonly called a shade) used 
with a tungsten lamp. The one curve 
shows the value of the light given by 
the lamp at different angles when the 
lamp and refiector are clean, while the 
smaller curve shows the enormous re- 
duction of light after the lamp and re- 
flector had been in service for about 
four months without being cleaned. 

In this particular case, which is a typ- 
ical one, the loss of light at the end of 
the four months amounted to nearly 50 
per cent. The cost of electrical energy in 
the shop where this test was made was 
such that the loss of light during the 
four months amounted to about 12c., 
while the total cost of taking down, 
washing and replacing this reflector 
amounted to about 3c., so that the econ- 
omy of a fairly frequent attention to the 
cleaning of such reflectors, even if the 
improved condition of the light in itself 
be ignored, is at once apparent. 

When handling coal in a breaker great 
care should be taken to reduce breakage 
to a minimum. Sloping chutes should 
be curved:to prevent the coal going too 
fast; all corners should be rounded so 
there are no sudden drops or sharp 
angles; perpendicular chutes or shafts 
should be constructed shelf-like to de- 
flect the coal from side to side, thus 
overcoming the straight drop which is a 
great source of breakage. 



I. No; 

The Consolidated Fuel Co. of Uta) 

Up to three or four years ago, one of 
the least known coai fields in the United 
States was that lying south of the town 
of Price, Carbon County, Utah. For many 
years past, the Utah Fuel Co. has been 
operating on the northern edge of this 
field, at Sunnyside, and on the western 
edge, at Castle Gate, Winter Quarters 
and Clear Creek. The southern body of 
the coal, however, lies in a very rugged 
country, and engineering difficulties con- 
nected with the railroad construction, de- 
terred investigators from attempting the 
opening up of this field. In fact, the op 
erators first occupying the field claimed 
that all the available coal was controlled 
bv them, and that no new mines could 
be opened up. 


Soine five or six years ago, Arthur A. 
Sweet, of Salt Lake, a promoter of great 
ingenuity and daring, entered the field, 
bought up several thousand acres of coal 
land in Miller Creek Canon, and started 
the construction of what is now the South- 


Fic. 1. Some HeEAvy WorK ON THE 
Geavity PLANE 
ern I/Jtah R.R. Encountering many un- 

foreseen difficulties, both in engineering 
and financing, he surrendered the man- 
agership of the company to his brother, 
Fred A. Sweet, also of Salt Lake, who had 
just successfully completed the construc- 
tion of the American Falls Canal, in 
Idaho. Under his guidance the railroad 
was pushed through, and the development 
of the Consolidated Fuel Co.’s Hiawa- 
tha mine was carried through to its pres- 
ent state of completeness. 

By careful location, the railroad, 16 

miles in length, from Price to Hiawatha, 
was built, with a maximum grade of 4 
per cent., and this only for a short stretch. 

By Benedict Shubart* 

A description of a character- 
istic mountain coal operation 
and some of the difficulties en- 
countered. A gravity plane, 
nearly two miles long, is in use, 
the grades on which are so light 
that the data given form a valu- 
able addition to the technical 
literature on this subject. The 
tipple is equipped with a gravity 
rotating dump and has a capacity 
of 3000 tons per 8-hour day. 

*Boston Building, Denver, Colo. 

The railroad, having no grade against the 
loaded trains, is capable of handling a 
large tonnage. 

Geologically, the seam now being 
worked is a continuation of the Sunnyside 

seam. It lies almost level and varies 

oe a. penn aa Pion Mee a ae : ee we 

tems will swing its line south, to inte; 
the field. 


While not the first independent op 
tor on the Sunnyside seam, the Cons 
dated Fuel Co. is the first to open up : 
southern portion. The tipple is situa: 
at the southern end of the railroad 
the mine is two miles farther up Mi}! 
Creek, and is connected with the tipp 
by means of a gravity plane. 

The flatness of this plane makes 
worthy of consideration. With a tota 
length of 10,400 ft., starting with a 4 
per cent. grade and ending up with a 
per cent.. it has been found thorough 
practicable to operate and land the trip 
witheut difficulty upon the tipple. Or 
course, in order to secure these results 
on such flat grades, it was necessary to 
construct a track of the highest quality 
to use very etticient and frictionless 
sheaves, and pit cars with very low roll- 


in thickness from 17 ft. to 35 ft. The 
coal is quite clean, has a fine. glossy 
fracture, and stands handling better than 
anv Western coal I have ever examined. 
The coal east of the circle defined by 
Sunnyside, Castle Gate, Clear Creek, Hi- 
awatha and Mohrland has been eroded. 
The southern boundary has not been thor- 
oughly determined, Ult the field is so ex- 
tensive that its exhaustion is a matter 
of many vears. 

The next five vears will probably see 
immense developments in this field. Rail- 
road lines are being surveyed to give an 
outlet to southern Utah, and it is decid- 
edly prohable that one of the large sys- 

ing friction. A special design of rolle: 
bearing wheels, made by the Watt Minin 
Car Wheel Co., is used, and the first d 
sign tried was found to require a consi 
erable amount of correction. Sm 
troubles cropped out, and it was only att 
a great deal of patient work that the co 
pany evolved a satisfactory and succes 
ful roller bearing. The rope rollers a! 
of manganese steel, very light, 2 
mounted on Hyatt roller bearings. 7! | 
gravity sheaves were specially design: 
by the Denver Engineering Works © 
The magnificent roadbed of this grav 
plane is shown in the accompanying ha’ 
tone, Fig. 1. Running through a canon © 

April 27, 1912 

rugged as can well be imagined, this 
tramway was completed with only two 


As the seam is intercepted by the 
canon, two mines have been opened up, 
the No. 1 at the left and the No. 2 at 
the right, as will be seen in Fig. 3, 
which shows the head of the incline with 
the hoist house and the transformer 

The mines were originally opened up 
on the double-entry system, but are now 
heing changed to a four-entry system. 
The coal is mined by the room-and-pillar 
system, with pillars about 55 ft. thick, 
and rooims about 25 ft. wide. A bench of 
about 9 ft. of coal is taken down first, 
and the balance of the roof coal, together 

with the pillars, will be brought back 
later when the rooms on the entry are fin- 

The ventilation is obtained by a 7'-:- 
tt. Stevens fan, belt driven by a Ridg- 
way variable-speed motor; the variable 
speed gives great flexibility to the air sup- 
A 6-ft. Jeffrey propeller fan is used 
unti! the two mines are con- 

to assist 
The entire haulage in the mine is done 
by electric motors, 6-ton Goodman being 
used for gathering the coal, and 10-ton 

Fic. 3. THE Tor oF 


Gcodman locomotives being used for the 
main haulage. The trips are delivered by 
the locomotives to the head of the in- 
cline, from which point they are handled 
hy means of auxiliary hoists and the 
main gravity sheave. 

All machinery is, as far as possible, 
electrically operated. In the power plant. 
shown in Fig. 2, are two 200-kv.-a., 220- 
volt, three-phase, 60-cycle, Ridgway al- 
fernators, direct-connected to Ridgway 
engines. These furnish the power for the 
entire mine. All the tipple apparatus is 
Operated by means of three-phase, Gener- 
al Electric motors. In the hoist house, 
at the head of the incline, are two 200- 


hp., motor-generator sets, which furnish 
250-volt current for the mine. These 
were furnished by the General Electric 
Co. and the Ridgway Dynamo & Engine 


The tipple, which was designed by the 
Link-Belt Co., presents a number of in- 
teresting features. Instead of using the 
old style crossover dump, a gravity rotat- 
ing dump is used. The coal is discharged 
into a 20-ton hopper, from which it is 
automatically fed in an even stream on to 
the shaking screen. The results obtained 
with this feeder are so good that when 
running at the rate of 3000 tons per day, 
practically all the under size is taken out 
on the first 6 ft. of the screen. The 
slack is rescreened in a revolving screen, 
so no dust is shipped. 

In order to prevent undue breaking of 
coal, a special apron is used for the lump 
screen. It takes the form of an adjust- 
able, shaking chute, which is practically 
a continuation of the shaker screen. The 
delivery end can be raised, lowered or ex- 
tended, so that open cars or box cars can 
be loaded with a minimum drop of the 
coal. This is necessary, due to the mixed 
character of the cars obtainable. The 
railroad furnishes anything from a 30,- 
000-lb. to a 100,000-lb. gondola car, 30,- 
000-Ib. box cars to automobile cars, and 
it is often necessary to load hopper-bot- 
tom cars with sides as high as 10 ft. 6 in. 
above the rail. 

The mine has now been in operation 
for 18 months. Its daily production is in 
excess of 1800 tons, and with the equip- 
ment now on hand, 3000 tons per 8-hour 
day can easily be handled. It is interest- 
ing to note that over the two-mile incline, 
in spite of the flat grade, coal has been 
repeatedly run for several hours at a time 
at a rate in excess of 4000 tons in eight 

Report on the Landslide at 

Frank, Alberta 


On Apr. 1903, a landslide occur- 
red at Frank, Alberta, causing the loss 
of 70 lives in the town and the destruc- 
tion of much property, including 7000 ft. 
of the Crows Nest Ry. The slide oc- 
curred on the north side of Turtle Moun- 
tain, which is due south of the town. As 
it appeared quite possible for further 
sliding to take place, which might not 
only destroy the town, but shut off the 
coal mines west of Frank and perhaps 
permanently close the Crows Nest pass, 
a commission was appointed by the De- 
partment of Mines, of Canada, to make 
an investigation. The report’ of the com- 

Note—From the 
Mining Journal.” 

‘Memoir No. 27, Canada Department of 

“Engineering and 

mission, which consisted of Reginald A. 
Daly, W. G. Miller and George S. Rice, 
has recently been published and recom- 
mends the abandonment of the Frank 

The geological profile of Turtle Moun- 
tain shows that the foot on the northern 
side is made up of beds of sandstone 
interbedded in shale. The beds dip to- 
ward the west at a steep angle. These 
beds are hounded on the north by a 
thrust plane dipping westward at an 
angle of about 50° and which is the plane 
of contact of the shale-sandstone beds 
with the limestone that forms the major 
portion of the upper part of the moun- 
tain. The limestone dips to the west at 
an angle of about 50° and lies uncon- 
formably on the shale. A short distance 
above the thrust plane the limestone 
pdeds are contorted in what are known 
as the contorted zones. The limestone is 
jointed, the joints running at right angles 
to the dip and continuing to the thrust 

Two coal mines are operated along the 
foot or east base of Turtle Mountain. 
The seam is nearly vertical and is in the 
shale series. Both mines are the property 
of the Canadian Coal Consolidated, Ltd., 
and formerly belonged to the Canadian- 
American Coal & Coke Co. The strike 
of the seam is north and nearly parallel 
to the long axis of Turtle Mountain. 
Mining was started in 1901 and prior to 
Apr. 29, 1903, the walls of part of the 
worked out portion of the southern end 
of the seam had caved. The joints in 
the limestone appear from the profiles 
prepared hv the commission, to dip 
directly toward. but not to continue as 
far as, the main coal seam. The slide 
seems to have taken place in a direction 
approximately parallel to these joints. 

The commission regards the slide as 
having been caused by natural conditions 
and by the mining operations in the coal 
seam. Excepting at the places known 
as the North Peak block and South Peak 
block and the fissured ground between 
them, the commission is not of the opin- 
ion that the danger of more heavy slides 
into the Frank Valley is imminent, but 
states that it is impossible to deny the 
existence of danger in certain places. 
The course of future slides would prob- 
ably be in the already mined and now 
uninhabited area covered by the 1903 
slide. It has designated a certain area 
of the coal seam as lying within a zone 
of danger from further landslides, and 
on account of the unstable condition 
from natural causes, has recommended 
the abandonment of the townsite of 
Frank whether the coal seam is worked 
in the danger zone or not. 

Dispatches from Frank on Mar. 30 
state that serious slides are taking place. 
Much alarm is being felt in the town and 
many people are reported to be moving 
out of the danger zone. 



Current Coal Literature 

The Best Thought Culled from Contemporary Technical Journals, Domestic and Foreign 

Anthracite Coal Freights 

The following abstract is made from 
a series of editorials on the anthracite 
freight situation, appearing in the Scran- 
ton Times, of recent date: 

It is difficult to conceive of a more de- 
sirable class of freight than anthracite 
coal as it comes to the railroads which 
center in this region. General freight is 
delivered to the railroads in boxes and 
bales, largely in less than carload lots. 
If it does not constitute a complete car- 
load, it must usually be handled by the 
railroad at both termini. Much of it is 
perishable or fragile and subject to dam- 
age by accident or wreck. The average 
carload of freight weighs only 22 tons. 

Anthracite coal, on the contrary, comes 
to the railroads, not in part or full car- 
loads, but in sufficient quantities to make 
up the burden of a full train. The coal 
is loaded and unloaded at no charge to 
the railroad. It requires no station at- 
tention. It is neither perishable nor fra- 
gile. Even if there is a wreck and the 
cars are reduced to kindling wood, the 
maximum loss on the coal is the labor of 
shoveling it into another car. The aver- 
age carload weighs about 40 tons. 

And yet this easily and cheaply handled 
commodity, originating in such quantities 
as to form the major portion of the traffic 
of, at least, five railroads, the Lacka- 
wanna, the Reading, the Delaware & Hud- 
son, the Central Railroad of New Jersey 
and the Lehigh Valley, suffers the imposi- 
tion of a high rate, if not the highest rate 
charged for any commodity. 

According to the reports we have, the 
most extortionate freights on anthracite 
coal are charged by the Reading railroad, 
which imposes a tariff of $1.70 a ton on 
prepared coal from Pottsville to Philadel- 
phia, a distance of 93 miles, or 1.83c. per 
ton-mile, while some of the roads of this 
country carry bituminous coal at one-fifth 
of that ton rate. We are disposed, how- 
ever, to tell of the conditions of anthra- 
cite coal] transportation between the Lack- 
awanna Valley and New York, because 
we have at hand a recent publication giv- 
ing accurate figures on the subject. In 
large part they are from the freight 
schedules of the railroads themselves. 

From this we learn that the rates for 
transporting coal from Scranton to Ho- 
boken are: 

Coal Sizes Rate F.o.b. 
Prepared coal.......... ... $1.58 Hoboken 
is. J C. | er , 1.43 Hoboken 
le 0 | ee .28 Hoboken 
COS ESE ere eer 1.35 Hoboken 
Lackawanna ave rage on 

smaller sizes... . Se 1.13 Vessel 

The operators tell us that 60 per cent. 
of the coal mined is of prepared sizes 
2nd 40 per cent. steam sizes. The rate 
on prepared sizes, Scranton to Hoboken, 
is 1.089c. per ton-mile. It is shrewdly 
surmised that the percentage of prepared 
sizes is greater. But taking the word of 
the railroad men for it, the average tariff 
of anthracite coal per ton-mile is 0.837c., 
while the average tariff on all other mer- 
chandise is 0.696c. The cheapest and 
most easily handled freight is, therefore, 
rated 25 per cent. or more above the cost- 
lier freight. which requires greater care 
and attention. 

The relative earnings of a trainload of 
coal and a trainload of general freight 
have been estimated as follows, figuring a 
31.50 rate for prepared coal and $1.30 for 
smaller sizes. The load of a coal train is 
1670.7 tons, and of a general freight train 
504.44 tons, which includes coal loadings 
of 40.8 tons per car, as compared with an 
average loading of 22 tons. The haul is 
145 miles. 

60 per cent. of 1670.7 tons = 1002.42 
40 per cent. of same = 668.28 

Hence for a coal train: 
1002.42 tons@$1.50 per ton = $1,503.63 

668.28 tons@$1.30 per ton= $68.76 
Total earned per train of coal $2,372.39 
For a general freight train: 
504.44 tons hauled 145 miles @ 
£0.00696 per ton-mile....... $509.08 
Coal earnings per train load excee od 
merchandise earnings. .... $1.863.31 

It will thus be seen that ee Lacka- 
wanna company earns over four times as 
much on a train of coal from Scranton 
to Hokoken as on a train of general 
freight. And the cost of handling is less. 

But the discrimination is more mark- 
edly shown when comparing the charges 
for carrving coal and other commodities 
between Scranton and nearby towns. 

All small towns suffer from discrimin- 
atory rates, as may be noted from the 
instances cited above. The most flagrant 
instance, however, is Montrose, only 49 
miles away from Scranton, which pays a 

freight rate of $1.65 a ton on anthracite, or 
7c. more than Hoboken, which is 145 miles 


| | Dis. | 
| tance, 

Freight | From To Miles’! Rate 
Prepared | ' | 

coal....| Seranton Moscow | 12 $1.15 
Sand.....| Moscow | Scranton | 12 0.40 
Prepared | | 

coal. | Scranton | Nicholson | 1.50 
Wall stone, Nicholson |} Scranton 0.40 
Prepared | 

coal....| Taylor | La Plume! 16 1.25 
Manure...} Taylor La Plume | 16 | 0.56 
away. It may be noted here that no inde- 

pendent operator may sell at points along 
the line. He consequently does not profit 
in those high prices, being given 65 per 
cent. of the tidewater price as his sole 

It is quite generally conceded, except 
by anthracite railroad officials, that the 
work entailed in the hauling of anthracite 
coal is about as great as in performing 
the same service with regard to bitumin- 
ous coal. But the railroads hauling the 
latter exact a much lower tariff, as will 
be seen by the table at the foot of this 

One has only to compare the rate per 
ton-mile in this table with the rate on 
anthracite coal te appreciate the wide dis- 
parity between the two. 

We do not even have to go to the rates 
on bituminous coal to prove the discrimin- 
ation which the coal roads are enabled 
to iinpose upon anthracite between the 
mines and tidewater, by reason of their 
control of the business. It was only re- 
cently that the Pennsylvania R.R. had a 
rate of 0.520c. per ton-mile on prepared 
coal from the heart of the anthracite coal 
regions to Hoboken, against the Lacka- 
wanna’s rate, 1.089c. per ton-mile for a 
similar service. When anthracite coal 
goes beyond the limits of the railroads 
which produce it, it loses its preferential 
rate, foregoes the fancy prices and is car- 


; ’ Cents per 

Region Railroad Destination Distance Rate Ton-mile 
Mvyersdale CAL 0 a oer Baltimore... } 215.0 $1.18 0.549 
Mversdale ce B. x SRA Eat ee Philadelphia... ; 310.8 1.25 0.402 
Mvyersdale 1 ARMS os coc ws oes st. George..... | 390.6 1.55 0.396 
Pocahontas PUAPMICONN, (mab 25 be ersears Norfolk...... Bs i OF ek 1.40 0.371 
Thurmond-New River.|C. & O............. Newport News 418.0 1.40 0.335 
Handleyv-Kanawha....|/C. & O..... er: Newport News 457.0 1.50 0.328 
Marrowbone- Kentucky |C. & se ee jNewport News 673.0 1.70 0.253 
Beach Creek ‘+ .¢ ©2828... |Port eee 308.0 1.55 0.503 
Beach Creek i a ae P. & R.....!Philadelphia . 229.0 1.25 0.546 
Clearfield. . aie nnsy "a aon . aes + + of IOIMMORe. ..... 242 .2 1.18 0.487 
Clearfield. ../Pennsylvania......../South Amboy...}| 322.5 1.85 0.481 
Clearfield. -/PORRSYIVANIA.. . ....... Philadelphia . - | 262.2 1} ..25 0.477 

April 27, 1912 

ried at a rate quite as low as bituminous 
This is proved by the following 
table, showing rates from Buffalo west- 







Cleveland. . 
Terre Haute 
Ft. Wayne.. 

It has been truly said that there has 
never been an increase of wages by which 
the coal-carrying companies do not profit. 
The passing along to the consumer of the 
cost of a 10 per cent. advance in wages 
will add to the public coal bill about 
$25,000,000 a year, of which about S15,- 
000,000 will go to the miners and 3$10,- 
000,000 to the big corporations, to swell 
present satisfactory gains, if the pres- 
ent system continues to prevail. 

The statements which follow show not 
only how prosperity has accrued to the 
anthracite coal roads since 1899, but how 
this prosperity has not been duplicated 
in other Eastern roads not participating 
in such traffic. 


Mar- Mar- 
ket ket 
Value Div. Value’ Div 
1899 1899 1912 1912 
Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western. 194 rive 560 20% 
Delaware & Hudson. 125 7% Vy 9% 
Lehigh Valley...... 30 0% 186 10% 
HOGGING: «2c ke nes 25 0% 164 6% 
Central of New Jer- 
SGV 2 2 wee enmeees 126 40 357 12% 
Lehigh Coal & Navi- 
LTS Sia a 91 4% 180 8% 
Value Div. Value Div. 
1899 1899 1912 1912 
Pennsylvania... <<. 142 6% 123 6 % 
New York Central. . 145 5 % 110 5 % 
N. ¥.,.N. He & E... 222 8% 136 8 % 
Boston & Maine.... 215 61° 1003 5 % 
Baltimore & Ohio... 85 2% 106 6% 
Boston & Albany... 282 83° 220 83% 

It will be readily admitted that the 
railroads above mentioned‘ are standard 
roads, operating in the same part of the 
country as the coal roads, and most of 
them touching more and larger towns 
with better chances to get more general 
freight and passenger traffic than the coal 
roads. Yet with a single exception the 
quotations for shares are very much low- 
er in 1912 than they were in 1899, while 
the coai shares have made a marvellous 
increase. The one exception in which the 
quotation of shares of the other roads is 
greater than in 1899 is the Baltimore & 
Ohio. Its prosperity may be attributed to 
the tact that in the yéar 1903, the Balti- 
more & Ohio purchased more than $30,- 
000,000 of the stock of the Reading R.R., 
when it ranged in price from 33 to 50, 
and has ever since been enjoying a return 
approximating 18 per cent. on its cash in- 


vestment. So that even this showing of 
prosperity comes from anthracite coal. 
Perhaps a table showing the value of 
these great properties in 1899, and their 
value in 1912, as shown by the stock quo- 
tatiens, together with the increase be- 
tween these two years, will more impres- 
sively bring to the average reader an idea 
of the magnificent gains that have come 
to those fortunate owners of anthracite 
coal and the railroads which transport it. 
It will be seen that, though, during the 
last 12 vears there have been mined from 
the iands of these companies some 700,- 
00,000 tons of coal, which is gone for- 


Delaware, Lackawanna & Western... 
Delaware & Hudson. . eae atin 
Lehigh Valley 
Central of New Jersey . . : 
Lehigh Coal & Navigation. . 

Totals... : : ore Sareea. 

ever, and on which the corporations have 
their profits, the aggregate value has in- 
creased more than threefold. The Lacka- 
wanna R.R. is looked upon as a phenom- 
enon, but it has increased in value only a 
little more than threefold, while the Read- 
ing has increased sixfold and the Lehigh 
Valley ninefold. The Central Railroad of 
New Jersey shows almost a threefold in- 
crease. The only new money put into 
any of these corporations is 520,000,000 
into the Lehigh Valley and something ov2r 
$2,000,000 into the Lehigh Coal & Navi- 
gation Company. 

The amount of dividends paid by these 
corporations during the 12 years from 
1899 to 1912 is also a matter of interest 
in connection with this subject. The cash 
dividends only are shown in the following 


Per Total 
Railroads Cent. Dividends 
Delaware, Lackawanna «& 

A CO Cr eee ea 213 $57,500,500 
Central Railroad of New Jer- 

CON pe ORE Eine a aR ae 100 27,436,800 
Delaware & Hudson...... 92 39,008,000 
Lehigh Valley......... a 53 23,450,473 
TROON oo oy ce nk bike 314 44,100,000 
Lehigh Coal & Navigation.. 723 13,775,000 

Total... $205,270,773 

This does not include the stock divi- 
dend of 15 per cent. declared by the Lack- 
awanna in 1909, nor the stock dividend by 
the same company in 1911 of 35 per cent. 
in stock of the Lackawanna Railroad of 
New Jersey, nor of the recently author- 
ized issue of $12,000,000 additional stock 
which will probably go out as a stock 
dividend. It does not include the S2,- 
000,000 of stock of the Lehigh Coal & 
Navigation Co. issued at par, nor the 15 
per cent. scrip dividend of the same com- 
pany convertible into stock. Nor does 
it include the valuable right to stock- 
holders of the Lackawanna and the Le- 
high Valley to subscribe at par for S6,- 
000,000 stock in the respective coal com- 
panies, worth more than S200 a share, 


and yielding 10 per cent. dividends. With 
these included, the total would be consid- 
erably sweiled. 

Electricity in British Mining 

In a paper on the use of electric power 
in the working of coal mines, read before 
the Manchester (England) Geological and 
Mining Society, Charles D. Taite said 
that the aggregate horsepower supplied 
to collieries in Lancashire by the Lan- 
cashire Electric Power Co. is at present 
about 3000, and this will shortly be in- 
creased by work in hand to about 4000. 

Value 1899 Value 1912 
$ 50,828,000 $169,551,200 
53,000,000 74,200,000 
12,000,000 112,720,880 
Reels 35,000,000 229,600,000 
Se a 34,569,363 97,749,376 
17,290,000 $7,804,210 


$202,687,363 $731,625,666 $528,938,303 

For some reason Lancashire has been 
slower to adopt electrical methods than 
other colliery districts. To the mines 
around Newcastle three power com- 
panies are supplying electrical energy at 
the rate of over 55,000,000 units per 
annum. In South Wales 12,500 hp. is 
being taken from the power company’s 
mains, and a further 3500 hp. is con- 
tracted for. In the Clyde Valley district 
about 8500 hp. is either connected up 
or arranged for, while in Yorkshire the 
Present connections deliver 4000 hp., 
with an additional 2000 hp. contracted 
for. Among other machinery using this 
energy are three electric hoists and three 
more are to be installed. Possibly the 
greater age of the shafts has something 
to do with the backward condition of 
Lancashire collieries electrically, com- 
pared with other British mine installa- 
tions, but where coal is most difficult 
to extract the most modern methods are 
essential in order that the costs may 
be kept at the lowest possible figure. 

The temperature of maximum weak- 
ness in a burning briquet is located be- 
tween the melting point of the binder and 
the caking of the coal. For use with 
coals that cake at a high temperature 
binders must also have a high tempera- 
ture melting point if they are to give 
good results when burning. Non-caking 
coals must be mated with non-melting 
binders. Starch gives the best burning 
results with such coals, but it is not wa- 
terproof. Soluble binders mean soluble 

Shooting off the solid in bituminous 
mines is a dangerous and wasteful pro- 
ceeding; dangerous, in that it is pro- 
ductive of windy or blowout shots which 
often cause dust explosions, and wastefu! 
because it greatly increases the slack 
and fine coal, which is useless except 
where it can be used for coking purposes. 


Who’s Who—in Coal Mining 

Devoted to Brief Sketches of Prominent Men, Their Work and Ideas 

Famed as the home of Joe Cannon, 
bounded on the north by Lake Michigan 
and largely underlaid with 6 ft. of fairly 
decent commercial coal, is the great State 
of Illinois. Forty per cent. of the en- 
tire population staked out their homes 
on the lake front in a large community 
called Chicago, which latter town was 
created solely to supply Marshall Field 
with a dry-goods market and to furnish 
consumers of coal for Francis Peabody’s 
City Fuel Co. 

More than 800 Illinois coal mines have 
been opened by some 250 operating com- 
panies, which corporations are conducted 
in the interest of John Walker and 70,- 
099 other miners who have contracted to 
relieve the owners of all responsibilities 
in the way of management of the prop- 
only requiring that the operators 
working deficits, and be 

make good all 

liable in case of accidents due to neg- 
ligence on the part of an employee. 
Out in this broad, flat, Middle West 

country, it originally cost about as much 
to Open a coal mine as it did to start a 
corner grocery, and nearly as many 
people devoted their money and atten- 
tion to mining as to selling canned goods 
and fresh vegetables. All the Coal 
Barons could remember how once upon 
a time a certain fellow made money 
mining coal in Illinois, and everyone 
latored on in the belief that the golden 
era would return. 

Even the miners caught the fever, and 
four or five dozen codperative coal com- 
fanies were formed to develop that field 
lying across the river from St. Louis. 
However, when the supposedly huge 
profits that had been flowing into the 
coffers of the individual owners were 
divided up among the “producers of the 
wealth.” there wasn’t enough to go 
around, and failures came with greater 
regularity than dividends. But hope dies 
hard, and always there were those who 
were willing to repair the wreck and 
benevolently carry the work forward. 

It is from great ruins that noble struc- 
tures rise, and before many vears have 
passed the coal industry in Illinois will 
be placed on a sane and _ satisfactory 
basis, and owner, miner and consumer 
will profit thereby. One of the men who 
will help bring about the new order of 
things is C. M. Moderwell, of Chicago, 
rresident of the United Coal Mining Co., 
and a man of force and vigor. 

Mr. Moderwell is a native son of Il- 
linois, having been born in Geneseo in 
1868. His early training was secured 

Coat AGE 

in the high school of his home town. 
Following this preliminary education, he 
went to Wooster, Ohio, where he finished 
a general course in the 
Wooster, a Presbyterian school. 

Having completed his theoretical train- 
ing, Mr. Moderwe!l secured employment 
in Chicago, working for a railway 
seciation and devoting his attention and 


time to the Bureau of Joint Rate In- 
spection. In 1892 “C. M.” became con- 
nected with the coal business, serving 

as a clerk in the office of the Montana 
Coal & Coke Co., a West Virginia con- 
cern controlled by the Watsons of the 
latter state. Three years later he was 
appointed Western agent for the 
West Virginia company, and served in 
this capacity until, in 1902, he en- 
tered business for himself, forming the 
National Coal & Coke Co., a corporation 
designed principally to do a jobbing busi- 

In 1905, when H. B. and W. P. Utley, 
partners in the business, retired from the 
firm, Mr. Moderwell formed the C. M. 
Moderwell Co., still doing a jobbing busi- 
This same year he obtained op- 
tions on a considerable coal acreage in 
Franklin County, Illinois, and commenced 
cperating this tract under the name of 
the United Coal Mining Co. At the same 
time the C. M. Moderwell Co. continued 
to handle other coals than those pro- 
duced by the United company, until at 
the present time “C. M.” has built up and 



University of 

supplies a market of considerable 

A new mine that has just been opened 
by the United Coal Co. at Christopher. 
Ill., is properly conceded to be one ot 
the most modern and best equipped prop- 
erties in the state. The same company 
also has a small mine in Indiana, at 
Mecca in Parke County. 

Although Mr. Moderwell does not con- 
trol a great number of mines and an 
unusually large production, he certainly 
“cuts a lot of ice’ in the councils of the 
Illinois coal operators. At the recent 
meeting of the Mining Congress in Chi- 
cago he and Carl Scholz were the lead- 
ing spirits in effecting arrangements for 
the conference, and the success of this 
most recent meeting was largely due to 
his efforts. 

Mr. Moderwell firmly believes that 
conditions in the coal industry in Illinois 
are certain to get very much worse be- 
fore they finally improve. Like other 
men who are well informed as to 
true Situation in that state, he attributes 
present unsatisfactory conditions to 
lack of a united front and common 
understanding on the part of mine own- 


ers. “C. M.” points out that consolida- 
tion is the probable cure, and cites the 
case of Indiana where six companies 

control about 75 per cent. of the output. 

Due to suicidal competition, Illinois 
last year worked only 182 days, 
and there is. little hope of a betterment 
in the situation until a few powerful in- 
terests have secured control of affairs. 
The miners themselves, notwithstanding 
the fact that they have forced greater 
concessions from owners in Illinois than 
from operators in any other state, have 
failed to profit through their 
victories, for last year the average wages 
of each mine employee working in one 
of the collieries of the state was 
than S600. 

As to sociological work among the 
miners, Mr. Moderwell holds ideas that 
are ultra-modern, and he firmly believes 
that mine owners are often prevented 
from carrying out a definite plan of we!l- 
fare work by the unnecessary suspicions 
of the men themselves. It frequently 
occurs that an operator is prevented from 
effecting an improvement at his mines 
because of the belief on the part 0! 
many employees that there is a “nigge: 
in the woodpile.” War has been waged s: 
tong in Illinois that the miner cannot real- 
ize that the “enemy” may have an unsel- 
fish interest in his erstwhile foe. 



¥pril 27, 1912 

Issued Weekly by the 

Hill Publishing Company 
Joun A. HILL, Pres. RoB'T MCKEAN, Sec’y. 

505 Pearl Street, New York. 

Monadnock Blds., Chicaze 
London, BE, € 
es eae 

6 Bouverie Street, 

Unter den Linden Ti—Berlin. 
FLoyp W, Parsons, Editor. 

Correspondence suitable for the col- 
umns of CoAL AGE solicited and paid 
for. Name and address of corres- 
pondents must be given—not neces- 
sarily for publication. 

Subseription price $5 per year in 
advance for 52 numbers to any post 
office in the United States or posses- 
sions, and Mexico. $4 to Canada. 
$5 to any other foreign country. 

Subseribers in Great Britain, Europe 
and the British Colonies in the East- 
ern Hemisphere may send their sib- 
seriptions to the London office. Price 
21 «shillings. 

Notice to discontinue 
written to the New York 
every instance. 

Advertising copy should reach New 
York office by Thursday of week prior 
to date of issue. 

Entered as second-class matter. Oc- 

should be 
office in 

tober 14. 1911. at the post office at 
New York, New York, under the act 
of March 3, 1879. 

Cable Address, ‘*Coage,”? N. Y. 

Of this issue of Coal Age, we will print 
7500 copies. No copies will be 
regularly. There will be no back 
bers. The figures shown here each week 

represent live, net circulation. 

sent free 


This journal has a direct aim—a single 
purpose—which is to help advance the 
coal-mining industry. Its creed embodies 
the dissemination of knowledge and the 
free interchange of ideas among its read- 
ers, all of whom are invited to become 
regular contributors. 


BGR WONG A Song no ora sincere Weharne a mrelenass 

‘The Sheridan, 

Jesse Simmons 952 
Mine Registration and Checking. 

W. A. Davidson 934 
The Jamison Cok Piants, Greens- 

PRE RE fot Rete casersreien skate R. Dawson Hall 936 
Diamond Val DGS SCER Ss oi aiete nae eons O58 
Accidents in Anthracite Coal Mines. 

Frederick I. Hoffman 940 
Mine Trolley Harp and Wheel....... 9435 
Lamp Bmeieney «64 «se qrte estes 945 
The Consolidated Fuel Co. of Utah. 
benedict Shubart 944 
Report on the Landslide at) Frank, 

SUR OICS oho arate tne dare enpre oe easter. 945 
Current Coal Literature: 

Anthracite Coal Preishts.......<. G46 

Electricity in British Mininge...... 947 
Who’s Who-—In Coal Mining: 

Sketch. of C. M. Moderwell.. ..2... 94s 

Mining Methods and Labor 949 

The Ptittshbure Rate Case......... Gu 
Comtery INGEGS: .ci-5 essen oh He eee es N51 
Discussion by Readers: 

Spontaneous Combustion ......... 952 

Testing for Gas with a Normal 

Flame in the Wolf Lamp.......- 952 
Trquiries of General Tnterest: 

Motive Column and Velocity...... 953 

Thick Vertical Coal Seam......... 953 

Direction of Carbon Monoxide Gas 

Pie RONG RR o.5, cles s ava etna ee eta 9538 
Examination Questions and Answers 954 
Coal and Coke News... 2260605 es de 955 

Coal Trade 





Mining Methods and Labor 

There is but little opposition today to 
the introduction of machinery in coal 
mines. The American workingman takes 
quite a sane view of its use, and realizes 
that it increases his earnings and lightens 
his toil. It is remarkable the change in 
view which has taken place even in the 
last decade, for there are few workmen 
at present who seriously entertain the 
foolish notion that machinery impover- 
ishes labor. Yet a certain amount of edu- 

cation on the attitude of labor to ma- 
chinery is reeded, and it is not unreason- 
able to hope it will be effected if sober 
counsels prevail. 

The average miner who works with or 
after machinery has altogether too much 
The work 

but it is 

nard lifting and pushing to do. 
referred to is not continuous, 
hard. The machinery is cumbersome and 
not much of it is equipped so as to be 
A common type of ma- 


chine has to be loaded on a truck, 
perhaps a board, flexible hose and other 

paraphernalia. It has to be pushed to the 
face of a long room and disembarked. 
The board is placed and the machine 

dragged onto it and a sumping cut is 

made. After a few straight cuts are com- 
pleted, the machine and board must be 
pulled back across the face and re- 

loaded, and the truck with its load pushed 
down the room and up along the head- 
ing to the next chamber, ready for cut- 
ting. Then all the work detailed has to 
be duplicated in another room. With ma- 
chines of other types, the methods are 
but little different and are often still more 
laborious. It is to be hoped for the sake 
of the miner that much of this hard work 
will be eliminated. 

All these difficulties are faults, not of 
the machines but of our disjointed meth- 
ods of mining. In many cases, they are 
the outcome of the room-and-pillar meth- 
od. This latter plan never was a thor- 
oughly satisfactory system, and the ad- 
vent of the machine has only made it in- 
creasingly undesirable. The more a sin- 
gle cutter will accomplish, the more un- 

desirable it is to provide such meager 
opportunities for its action. 
Gradually we are learning how the 

many roadways needed for approaching 
a multitude of working faces makes it 
hard to maintain any one road in proper 
shape. Little by little we are grasping 
the idea that more powder is consumed 
and more danger incurred when shooting 
in a tight place. Slowly it dawns on us 
that the multiplicity of roadways excludes 
the use of a large car in a thin bed. We 
that this old 

method makes necessary excessive super- 

are beginning to realize 
vision and much work for shotfirers, rib- 
hosses and timbermen. 

Moreover, we are commencing to see 
how hard it is to ventilate the ragged line 
along which the coal is attacked. Valu- 
able fuel is being lost and the difficulties 
of drainage and general development are 
multiplied. We are feeling our way to a 
point where we shall deplore the inabil- 
ity to use machines for shoveling and 

Hampered in every direction, as in the 
distribution of power (knowing that one 
machine will work only from one-third to 
one-half time), we buy grudgingly, enough 
cutters to mine the needed coal, but we 
rarely arrange for sufficient power to op- 
erate all the machines at the same time. 
At least we do not purchase pipes or 
leads large enough to permit of synchron- 
ous working of the machines. So now and 
then we find a scarcity of power. 

But if the machines could cut all the 
time on a longwall face, this difficulty and 
all the others would disappear. Our terri- 
torv would be more compact, more read- 
timbered, piping 
and wiring costs would be lessened, the 

ily supervised, better 

ventilation would be better, the coal more 
easily shot, new types of machinery could 
be used, large cars loaded and more work 
done per man emploved. Drivers and 
motormen would not be delaved by the 
transference of machine trucks along the 
haulage roads and larger coal would be 

obtained. Moreover, in thin beds, which 

now have wide rooms, a double shoveling 
of coal would be unnecessary.. It is true 


that the longwall workings of English 
mines have the disadvantages of high 
timbering costs and of that increased ex- 
pense which results from continued road 
renewals, but the retreating-longwall-by- 
panels system, now in use in a few Amer- 
ican mines, should not involve any of this 

However, if the wage rate to the cutter 
per ton undermined is to be as high on 
several small working faces as on a long 
cutting face, if the payment of the loader 
per ton removed is to be the same wheth- 
er much or little powder is consumed, and 
whether conveyer machines are used or 
not, then every change which benefits la- 
bor is to be at the entire expense of 
capital, and the latter will make no move. 

There must be on the part of labor a 
desire to hasten the introduction of every 
form of machinery and a willingness to 
share fairly in the product of lessened 
effort. The worker must be willing to 
concede a fair proportion of the advan- 
tages of a scheme which lightens his la- 
bor and makes possible a greater output 
per day, seeing that the improvement will 
be brought about by the expenditure of 
no little money. The miner should be 
ready to welcome the opportunity afforded 
him, not only to make a greater daily 
wage, but also to work less hard and 
should not wish to monopolize the just 
wise the cutter, scraper and loader will 
continue to act as boosters and as mules, 
and will be delayed and harassed in their 
work by ill adjusted conditions. 

As conditions in unionized districts now 

dues of commercial enterprise. 

exist, it does not seem advisable to adopt 
elaborations requiring expensive machin- 
ery of unusual type, and a reconstruction 
of the mines with a sure increase of dead 
work and extra day labor, if the share 
of the operator in the proceeds is only 
what can be obtained from the use of a 
somewhat larger car and the obtaining of 
somewhat less broken coal. Where coal 
is weighed before screening, the obtain- 
ing of large lumps might alone justify 
the new methods of working and the in- 
troduction of machinery appropriate 
thereto, hut where payment is based on 
the screened product, it is hard to see 
what important gain the operator could 
make unless he received a concession in 
wage. The use of the face conveyor in- 

volves the hiring of car loaders, machin- 
ists, engineers and firemen, and as these 
men all assume a part of the work of the 


loader, it is but right that a reduction of 
loading price, not necessarily proportion- 
ate, however, should be conceded by 
him; but always, on the condition that 
under the new arrangement he shall 
be assured a chance to earn a better wage 

than under the old régime. 

The Pittsburg Rate Case 

We have refrained from commenting 
on the decision of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, rendered in the Pitts- 
burg-Lake rate case, until a careful an- 
alysis of the text of the verdict could 
be made. This decision, in its effects 
on the coal industry, is by far the most 
important ruling yet made by this court. 
It is broad in scope, conclusive in its 
results, conservative to a fault and, most 
important of all, will become effective 
almost immediately without further liti- 

We are firm advocates of an equable 
geographical distribution of the coal mar- 
kets, and believe that any principle by 
which the railroads attempt to increase 
their tonnages or excite unprofitable com- 
petition by the 
tariffs, is directly contrary to the basic 
intent of our Constitution. In the opin- 
ion of the Commission it was the 
tention of the railroads to promote such 
advancing the 

imposition of unfair 


conditions by gradually 
Pittsburg rate, “not to bring it up to 
the level which the carriers might have 
regarded and defended as_ reasonable, 
but to let certain competing coal fields 
into the lake trade.”’ This disposition on 
the part of the railroads to be the ruling 
factor in the destiny of any coal field 
is a distinct imposition on the industry 
and one long resented by it. 

The ruling provides, in brief, for a re- 
duction in the Pittsburg rate of 11 per 
cent. and an increase in rates from the 
Thacker and Pocahontas fields averag- 
ing 9 per cent., making a differential on 
the existing schedule of approximately 
20 per cent. What the real material 
benefits, accruing to the Pittsburg op- 
erators will amount to, is problematical. 
As is known, the Fairmont and 
Kanawha fields are th@ most important 
competitors in the lake trade and no 
revision in rates from these districts has 
been made. On the other hand, it is 
estimated, on the basis of past shipments 
from the Pittsburg district, that the re- 
duction will effect a direct saving to the 


Vol. 1, No. 29 
operators of over a million dollars an- 
nually. Aside from this, many mines 
heretofore unable to ship profitably to 
the lake market will now be in a posi- 
tion to compete actively in this trade. 
That the ultimate effect will be a marked 
change and a radical readjustment in 
long established channels of commerce. 
is hardly to be questioned. 

A careful analysis of the findings of 
the Commission shows a decided (and 
commendable) leaning toward conser- 
vatism. While the court is of the opinion 
that on the basis of a ton-mile rate, the 
differential should be even greater, it 
says, in part: 

When we consider the disturbance in 

established differentials, the possible de- 
flection in the currents of coal trade and 

the effects on the carriers directly in- 
volved, we are forced to the conclusion 
that a rate lower than this would not 
be just. 

And from the further fact that the 
ruling is made effective only over a per- 
iod of two years, shows the tentative way 
in which the Commission regards its 
finding, and the possibilities of a reversal 
should it fail to bring forth the desired 

Dissatisfaction with the decision of the 
Commission has been expressed in some 
quarters. There are those who point to 
the Pittsburg rate of 5.5 mills per ton- 
mile as compared with the Kanawha rate 
of 2.4 mills and believe that the re- 
vision should be made on this basis. 
Railroad tariff is a question which has 
eccupied the attention of some of the 
keenest intellects in the country, and a 
solution of the problem along these lines 
has been generally conceded impossible. 
When it 
on a carload of steel plates from Pitts- 
burg to Chicago is nearly double that on 
a carload of pianos from New York to 
Chicago, the utter absurdity of such a 
contention is at once evident. 

is remembered that the rate 

The foreman is the chief factor in the 
prevention of mine accidents. On his 
personality depends the discipline of the 
mine. In order to fulfil all the require- 
ments of the ideal foreman a man should 
have had practical experience in mining, 
good judgment, enough initiative and 
strength of character to stand by his ideas 
and make others respect them. He 
should possess sufficient tact and know!l- 
edge of human nature to control the men 
under him, and be temperate and truthful. 

April 27, 1912 



Colliery Notes and Comments 

Practical hints gathered here and there, and condensed to suit the busy reader 

The Appalachian coal field is the rich- 
est coal deposit in the world. It pro- 
duces nearly one-third of the world’s 

Lethbridge and the Pass district pro- 
duced over 6,000,000 tons of coal last 
year. Fifteen years ago the same region 
produced less than 200,000 tons a year. 

A succession of small shots is much 
better than a few large ones. Holes 
should be drilled so that advantage may 
be taken of all partings. Load the coal 
out before firing a second charge. 

A Scotch device for removing dust 
from coal mines consists of electrically- 
worked air-jets and a _ suction-device 
which simultaneously raise and withdraw 
the dust. 

Experience has shown that the wet 
zone method of preventing the spread of 
an explosion is not to be depended upon. 
With very intense heat, thoroughly wet 
zones, 150 ft. long, have been crossed by 
the flame, 

A method of removing carbonic dioxide 
sometimes employed in English mines, is 
to spray the mine with hypochlorite mix- 
tures in liquid form. The hypochlorites 
of the alkalies have the property of ab- 
sorbing carbonic dioxide when such is 

Experiments made in France have 
shown that watering thoroughly for 10 
yards in front of shot holes in dusty 
mines will greatly reduce the dangers 
resulting from blowout shots. While 
ignition was not always prevented, it in 
no case extended more than seven or 
eight yards. 

Precautions to Prevent gob fires are: 
(a) So far as is possible, withdrawing all 
timber from the gob; (b) stowing the 
waste with all the dirt available; (c) 
giving great attention to the building of 
gate-side pack-walls; (d) leaving no 
pillars or ribs of coal; (e) keeping the 
workings cool by means of ventilation, 
but excluding the air from the gob. 

Leaders of rescue corps should bear 
in mind that while rules and regula- 
tions are desirable for intelligent action, 
it is impossible to lay down hard 
and fast rules for rescue work at ex- 
plosions and mine fires, as circumstances 
vary and each mine and each fire or ex- 
Plosion furnishes a different problem in 
itself, and nothing can replace individual 
intelligence and decision on the part of 
the leader of the corps. 

Developments in mining, in Alberta 
province, Canada, during the past five 
or ten years, have produced great 
changes. Seven large and well equipped 
collieries now dot the plains, and some 
of these are said to have the most up-to- 
date steel tipples in the world. There 
has been, in this time, a vast development 
of coal areas in the ‘“‘Pass,” known bet- 
ter as the Crows Nest Pass, on the C. P. 
Ry., and on the line dividing the provinces 
of Alberta and British Columbia. 

Pure calcium chloride will absorb 
as much as 1.15 times its weight of water. 
When intended for use on dusty road- 
ways, gobs, or floors of entries, it should 
be bought in the granulated form as it 
is then much easier to spread evenly 
and is more effective than when either 
in the solid or dissolved form. But for 
use on ribs, roof, and timbers five or six 
pounds should be dissolved in 100 Ib. 
of water and this mixture sprinkled 
by means of the water car and hand 


Discussing the types of available 
breathing apparatus, Mr. Blackett says 
there are two forms from which to choose, 
namely, (a) that which maintains its sup- 
ply of oxvgen from steel cylinders con- 
taining the gas compressed to, say, 120 
atmospheres, and which has the expired 
carbonic-acid gas absorbed by such a 
substance as caustic potash, and (b) that 
which depends upon liquid air boiling off 
and being discharged into the surround- 
ing atmosphere, instead of being, as it 
were, regenerated. 

Spontaneous combustion is now recog- 
nized as the greatest problem to be over- 
come in connection with the storage of 
bituminous coal. One good method of 
detecting an incipient fire is to have all 
storage bins fitted out with temperature 
tubes, using 4-in. galvanized pipes, about 
20 ft. long, set in the floor of the bins in 
such a manner as to project upward into 
and through the coal pile. Each tube 
should be provided with a thermometer 
which is capable of indicating tempera- 
tures over 150 deg. F. Run a circuit from 
each of the tubes to an alarm bell in the 
office of the yard superintendent so that 
if the coal is heating an alarm will at 
once be sounded. 

Great Britain has no law touching the 
kind, or length of service of hoisting 
ropes. The law limits itself to holding 
the mine owner personally responsible 
for any mistake he may commit which 

results fatally, but so far as the law is 
concerned any kind of rope may be 
used and may be kept in use as long 
as the mine management desires. Super- 
intendents are obliged to report all rope 
breakage regardless of whether any per- 
sons were either killed or injured. In the 
last 10 years Great Britain has had 
only 38 fatal accidents due to the break- 
age of hoisting ropes. Only a few British 
mines test their ropes themselves; the 
tests are made by the rope manufact- 

urers. It is far less customary to test 
the finished rope than the individual 

Prussian mining authorities prescribe 
the following tests for hoisting ropes 
used in shafts where men are lowered 
and hoisted. Each rope must be sub- 
jected to tensile and bending tests per- 
formed on a 40-in. length cut from the 
rope. The tests must be applied to each 
wire in the rope, except the core wires of 
the several strands and of the entire 
rope. Each wire must be loaded to its 
breaking point and its limit of flexion 
must be ascertained by bending it through 
an angle of 180 deg., on a 5mm. (0.2 in.) 
radius until it breaks. The number of 
bends must be counted. Each test for 
flexibility is carried out by bending 
the wire alternately from right to 
left, through an angle of 90 deg. from 
the vertical to the horizontal position and 
on to the vertical position. The car- 
rying power of the whole rope is cal- 
culated by adding together the weight 
required to break each individual wire, 
with the exception of the cores, leaving 
out of consideration all wies whose 
carrying strength is 20 per cent. below 
the average of the whole. Ropes made 
of wire, other than plain section must 
have their carrying power determined by 
straining the whole rope or whole strands 
to the breaking point. All hoisting ropes 
must be tested at least once every three 
months. When the strain on the rope is 
light, longer intervals may elapse be- 
tween testings, by cutting off at least 10 
feet from the end attached to the cage, 
above the capping; 40 in. of the top part 
of the cut-off portion must be tested for 
tensile strength and resistance to flex- 
ion in the same manner as prescribed for 
new ropes. Every hoisting rope must 
exhibit at least a margin of safety of 6, 
referred to the maximum toad carried 
when hoisting animals. When hoisting 
men the weight on the cage must not 2 
more than '™% the weight carried when 
hoisting coal. 


Vol. 1, No. 29 

Discussion by Readers 

Comment, Criticism and Debate upon Previous Articles, and Letters from Practical Men 

Spontaneous Combustion 

Under the above caption much has 
been written and said by many experts 
and scientists. Yet it seems there are a 
few practical things picked up in a life’s 
experience around mines, that might be 
said. The reason some coals ignite with- 
out the application of fire, and others do 
not. is as mysterious and paradoxical as 
the coking qualities of coal. 

Most writers agree that iron pyrites 
(FeS) is the principal cause of spon- 
taneous combustion, but I do not agree 
with this theory. Although the bisulphide 
of iron is always found in gob fires, I 
have always understood that no fires have 
ever taken place in coal piles or gobs ex- 
cept where proto sulphides were also 
present, as for example in the Yorkshire 
and South Wales tests. This is true at 
least, in all cases where these gobs and 
coals have been subjected to ultimate 
analysis. Also, quite a number of ex- 
perts do not seem to distinguish between 
the gases that compose the coal and those 
occluded in it. 

Furthermore, few people have con- 
sidered the nature of these occluded 
gases sufficient to thoroughly understand 
the origin of the gob fire. Most writers 
seem to infer that the temperature of 
spontaneous combustion is quite high, 
about 700° to 1000° F.; to this again J 
cannot agree. Many men _ who _ have 
traveled over gobs and the waste in 
abandoned workings have no doubt noted 
the extra heat of the top coal, slack and 
bituminous slates. 

This, I understand, to be spontaneous 
combustion in its initial stage; it may be 
as low as 80° F. or so hot you cannot 
hold your hand on it, yet the actual fire 
is not yet due by many degrees. It seems 
possible that, in the disintegration of the 
coals, enough heat is generated to throw 
off one S from the FeS:, thereby form- 
ing the proto-sulphide FeS and SO.. At 
any rate I am positive, there is plenty of 
this sulphurous oxide generated long be- 
fore any glowing fire appears. 

Your correspondent stated that water or 
vapor helped the combustion and it may 
be the HO is given off, and with the free 
S forms the SO.. However, I do not 
think so, as it always has been my ex- 
perience that the drier the gobs the more 
liable they were to fire, and I have never 
seen a fire in a wet gob. But to return to 
the temperature, I believe that when com- 
bustion has advanced enough to produce 
large quantities of SO, it may be stopped 
and the temperature made normal. 

I firmly believe that, if waste work- 
ings were thoroughly ventilated, there 
would be no gob fires. At our mines here 
four years ago we holed a butt heading 
out to daylight. On the rise side of this 
heading was old workings about 2000 ft. 
by 1500 ft., all abandoned; through this 
heading we hauled the coal from an- 
other mine by electric motors. The mine 
inspector and I had often noticed tne dry 
SO: coming along this haulageway in the 
suction of the trip; there was enough to 
make you cough and sneeze. Beyond 
these workings there was a large blocx 
untouched, which it became necessary t9 
develop. We discharged into the old 
workings 35,000 cu.ft. of air per min., as 
per the state mine inspector’s report. The 
result is that the pungent odor is gone, 
and the old entry that once fatigued you, 
and made your eyes ache in a 1000-ft. 
travel can now be traveled with impunity. 

Therefore, my firm opinion is, that the 
cause of the most of the spontaneous 
ignition in mines is principally the lack 
of proper ventilation. I have such faiti 
in the theory that I have recently sug- 
gested a plan to ventilate coal stock-piles. 


Plymouth, West Va. 

[Our correspondent has presented some 
interesting, and we believe original theo- 
ries, on this much discussed question. 
He has, however, evidently been misin- 
formed or been referring to unreliable 
authorities. The most recent investiga- 
tions on this subject are embodied in a 
paper presented by permission of the Di- 
rector of the U. S. Bureau of Mines at 
a joint meeting of the New York sections 
of the American Chemical Society, Amer- 
ican Electrochemical Society and the So- 
ciety of Chemica! Industry, New York 
City, Nov. 19, 1911. On the subject of 

spontaneous combustion this paper says: | 

Oxidization (probably in the main an 
absorption of oxygen by unsaturated 
chemical compounds) begins at ordinary 
temperature in any coal, attacking the 
surfaces of the particles and slowly de- 
veloping heat. In a small mass of coal 
this heat can readily dissipate itself by 
radiation and no rise in temperature re- 

sults. If radiation is restricted, however, 
as in a large pile densely packed, the 
temperature slowly rises. Now, the 
curve of oxidation rates, plotted against 
temperature, rises with Breat rapidity, 
and when the storage conditions are 
such as to allow the temperature of 

about 100° C. to be exceeded, the rate 
of oxidation is great enough ordinarily, 
so that the heat developed overbalances 
the heat radiated. Then the tempera- 
ture rises to the ignition point if the air 
supply is adequate. 

According to this hypothesis, sponta- 
neous combustion is accelerated by the 
exclusion of air until the temperature of 
100° C. is reached, after which combus- 
tion is aided by the admission of air. We 
would be pleased to hear from other 
readers on this very important subject.— 
EpbiTOor. | 

Testing for Gas with a 
Normal Flame in the 

Wolf Lamp 

In my experience with a Wolf lamp 
burning naphtha, I have observed that 
when a ‘4-in. or normal flame was used 
for testing purposes the lamp would not 
give any indication of the presence of 
gas, except that the flame became some- 
what smoky. In one instance, recently, 
there was a uniform mixture of 3'4 to 4 
per cent. of marsh gas in the air at the 
time of making the test. In using the 
normal flame, I could get no indication of 
gas. When the flame of the lamp was 
reduced, however, to what may be called 
a standard or capping flame, a 3%-in. to 
'4-in. cap was formed. I would like to 
know if others have had the same experi- 
ence in the use of the Wolf lamp. 

After studying the matter, I came to 
the conclusion that the air or mixture of 
air and gas, which entered the lamp 
through the gauze ring below the flame, 
was only sufficient to support the flame 
and burn a very small amount of gas 
that acted to keep the height of the flame 
constant. My idea was that when a 
larger flame was used, the air entering 
the lamp was not sufficient to produce 
complete combustion, which fact caused 
the smoky appearance of the flame; and 
this, together with the brightness of the 
large flame, obscured the cap. It is a 
common practice among some firebosses 
to test for gas with the normal flame in 
the Davy lamp; but this lamp has a large 
intake area providing a better circulation 
in the lamp than is true for the Wolf 
lamp. When using the normal flame in 
testing for gas, to obtain reliable results 
the flame, in gas, should reach to the top 
of the globe, in the lamp, or nearly so. 
To determine the percentage of gas, how- 
ever, a reduced or standard or capping 
flame should be used. 


Johnstown, Penn. 

[In this connection, the article “Esti- 
mating Gas Percentages,” Coat AGE. 
Dec. 2, p. 250, is of interest—EbITOR. | 

\pril =/, 1912 


Inquiries of General Interest 

All Questions Must be Accompanied by Name and Address—Not for Publication 

\lotive Column and Velocity 

| want to ask (a) what will be the height 
f motive column produced by the differ- 
-nce of temperature in two shafts of 
-gual depth and area, the depth of each 
haft being 700 ft.2 The temperature of 
the downcast is 40° F. and that of the 
ipcast 65° F. (b) What would be the 
velocity of the air current 


(a) The height of motive column de- 
pends only on the difference of tempera- 
ture in the two shafts, the density of 
the air and the depth of the shafts. The 
area does not affect the motive column. 
[he upeast air being the lighter, a mo- 
tive column of this air will be longer. 
for the same conditions, than a column of 
the heavier downcast air. 
Downcast air 

: 65 — 40 700 X 25 

lf = 700 X — =-* ~ == 334 jt. 
460 + 65 525 

Upceast air 

: 05 Oo TOO: KX 25 ? 

i == 700 * = a SCs 
460 + 40 500 

(b) The theoretical velocity due to the 
head of air column in either case is given 
by the formula 

x 32.16 X 35 

Foe y 2 

= 47.4 + jt. per 
This, however, has no practical bearing, 
here, as it represents the rush of upcast 
dir into a vacuum only; and has nothing 
vhatever to do with the velocity of the 
upcast current in the shaft. 

Thick Vertical Coal Seam 

I was greatiy interested in the in- 
juiry of Chas. M. Sherman, Coat AGE. 
\pr. 6, p. 851, asking for a discussion of 
he best method of developing a vertical 
oal seam, 16 ft. thick, 1000 7t. deep and 

. nd ] 


COAL VEINS 6°15’ Gre®0 _— 
oa etw. “ ” 
‘ Fe 

yi ’ & 


= COAL VEINS 6-15’ bet 
Sor _ Heavy Bedded Yellow 


one mile long. This is a pertinent ques- 
tion and one we also would like to see 
discussed, inasmuch as we are facing a 
similar proposition here, having just 
opened a vein that could be described in 

the same words. At the present writing, 
we have sunk a 5x8 ft. prospect shaft, 
110 ft. deep, and from the bottom of this 
shaft have driven entries, each way, 300 
ft., in the coal. The seam measures 16 
ft. thick and stands at an angle of about 
87°; it extends downward fully 1000 ft, 
and has a width of 2 miles on the prop- 

We shall watch with much interest the 
replies to this question. We inclose a 
sketch showing the cross-section of the 
formation here, taken from the report of 
the Geology of Colorado Coal Fields. 

W. B. House, GENL. Mcr. 
The Rooney White Ash Coal Co. 
Denver, Colo. 

Detection ot Carbon Monoxide 
Gas in Mines 

Among the questions answered in CoAL 
Ace, Mar, 9, p. 720, I notice one asking 
how to detect mine gases, or rather, to 
describe the effect of the different mine 
gases on the flame of a safety lamp. 

I would like to ask if the manner in 
which this gas is commonly described, es- 
pecially with regard to its action on the 
flame of a lamp, is not a dangerous and 
misleading way of putting it. All text 
books, in speaking of carbon-monoxide 
gas, refer to the lengthening of the flame 
in the gas and add, the flame burns more 
brightly in this gas than in air. This must 
be true since a/l books on mining say the 
same thing; but they do not give the per- 
centage of gas necessary to produce this 
effect. My question is, does not this 
statement lead the miner to depend upon 
his lamp to show this gas and often cause 
him to lose his life in the attempt to res- 
cue friends, after an explosion ? 

If I am not mistaken, it takes 3 per 
cent. of CO to show this effect; but '% of 
! per cent. of this gas is fatal to life. 
If this be true, a man would die before 
nis lamp would reveal the danger. I do 
not wish to be understood as a critic, but 
I have seen foolish men lose their lives 
in the manner stated, depending on the 
light to show this gas. It may have been 
because of the books they had read; but 
! think this matter should be made clear 
by an article on this gas alone, especially 
2s so few miners understand the danger 
to which they are exposed in its presence. 


State College, Penn. 

Our correspondent has drawn attention 
to an interesting and important point. 

While it is probably true that more has 

been written, of late, drawing attention to 
the dangerous character of this gas than 
can be said of any of the other mine 
gases. much of what has been written is 
misleading in the daily practice of min- 
ing, because undue emphasis has been 
placed on the phvsical properties of the 
gas, the effects of which, in most cases, 
are not understood by the ordinary miner. 

The answer to the question to which 

cur correspondent refers, however, in 
Coat AcE, Mar. 9, p. 720, distinctly 
states: ‘However, it is unsafe to rely 

wholly on these indications for its (CO) 
detection. Other means should be used, 
as the blood test or the canary or mouse 
test.” The answer to the question im- 
mediately preceding this one draws atten- 
tion to its dangerous character, which is 
due chiefly to the fact that lamps “con- 
tinue to burn brightly in the presence of 
this gas”. 

In regard to the percentage of gas re- 
quired to produce the effect described, 
it is impracticable to say; because, the 
gas being combustible, its presence in the 
air surrounding a flame adds to the com- 
bustion and maintains a higher tempera- 
ture over the surface of the flame. A 
very smal! percentage of the gas in- 
creases the brightness visibly, and the ef- 
fect is greater as the percentage of gas is 
higher. Just at what point the effect 
becomes appreciable depends on the 
quickness of the observer to detect the 

Furthermore, the presence of fine coal 
dust floating in the mine air will produce 
the same effect, lengthening and bright- 
ening the flame, when no carbon monox- 
ide is present except that which may be 
generated by the burning of the dust in 
contact with the flame. On the other 
hand, the presence of blackdamp destroys 
the effect of carbon monoxide on the 
flame more or less completely, while it 
does not, to the same extent, destroy the 
toxic effect (effect on life). 

For these reasons the effect produced 
by this gas on flame, as commonly de. 
scribed, though true for even low per- 
centages, must not be taken as a safe 
guide or test. The same remarks apply, 
though less forcibly, to the detection of 
firedamp, the flame test being modified 
here also by the presence of other gases. 
A dangerously explosive mixture of 
marsh gas, carbon dioxide and air (flash- 
damp) is frequently mistaken for a harm- 
less body of gas or overlooked entirely, 
because the cap only appears as a mo- 
mentary flash on the lamp and is gone. 



Vol. 1, No. 20 

Examination Questions 

Selected from State Examinations, or Suggested by Correspondents 



Ellsworth Mining Institute, 

Ques.—Describe, in a general way, the 
duties of mine foreman, superintendent 
and all other employees inside of a mine. 

Ans.—The mine foreman is the re- 
sponsible man in the operation of a mine. 
He has full charge of the mine, its 
equipment and supplies. His duties are 
to direct and supervise the entire work 
of the mine, examine and control its 
ventilation, inspect all machinery and the 
inside workings, provide the necessary 
supplies and receive the daily reports of 
the men in his charge. He must person- 
ally superintend the prompt removal of 
all known dangers or order the men to 
withdraw from the mine. 

The superintendent plans the work, re- 
ceives and files all daily and monthly re- 
ports, fills all orders for supplies made 
by the mine foreman, inspects the mine 
maps, time sheets and all bills of ex- 
pense, directs the loading and shipment 
of coal, and regulates the output to meet 
the demand. 

The fireboss examines the mine for gas 
and to discover any dangers or unsafe 
conditions before the men enter the mine 
in the morning and during the day while 
the men are at work in their places. He 
should place danger signals where such 
are needed, give all necessary instruc- 
tions to miners, regarding the use of 
their lamps, the drilling of holes for 
blasting, charging and firing shots, and 
the timbering of their places, loading of 
cars, and whatever may be necessary to 
safeguard life and property. 

The boss driver directs the other drivers 
in the work of transporting the coal from 
the working face to the parting or shaft 
bottom. The timbermen and trackmen 
look after the timber and track -in all 
roadways, take down loose rock and lay 
room switches as these are required. 

It is the duty of miners to carefully in- 
spect their own working places and set 
any timber that may be required before 
Starting any other work. All employees 
should report promptly any dangers they 
may find to the mine foreman or his 

Ques.—What quantity of air is passing 
in an airway 5x7 ft. when the velocity is 
250 ft. per min., and what record should 
be made in the mine-record book of such 
measurements ? 

Ans.—The area of the airway is 

a=z=S5x7= SM oak. 

The quantity of air passing is then 
q=@q=-= Bx = 
8750 cu.ft. per min. 

The date of the observation, sectional 
area of the airway, anemometer read- 
ings, velocity of the current and the 
calculated quantity of air passing should 
all be promptly recorded in the book 
kept for that purpose and the entry 
signed by the one who made the observa- 

Ques.—What is meant by splitting the 
air current in a mine, and what effect 
has it on the total volume of air in circu- 
lation ? 

Ans.—By splitting the air in a mine is 
meant dividing the air current into two 
or more separate currents. By this 
means the total volume of air is in- 
creased, assuming the power produc- 
ing the circulation remains unchanged. 
Owing to this increased volume of air 
having to pass through the fan, the 
shafts and the main airways, its velocity 
in each of these is increased in propor- 
tion to the increased volume of air, but 
the velocity in each of the splits is de- 
creased somewhat. However, owing to 
the number of splits the total quantity of 
air in circulation is always increased. 

Ques.—If a current of 30,000 cu.ft. of 
air is passing into a mine and you find 
only 5000 cu.ft. at the working face, how 
would you account for this loss and how 
can it be prevented ? 

Ans.—The loss in the volume of air 
that reaches the working face is due to 
leaky stoppings, doors, air bridges and 
brattices used to conduct the air through- 
out the mine. If these are not made air- 
tight the current or a certain portion of 
it will be short-circuited at such points 
and pass into the return, thus failing to 
reach the face. It can be prevented by 
repairing or rebuilding all stoppings, 
doors, brattices, etc., that leak air. 

Ques.—If an airway 2000 ft. long and 
6x8 ft. in section is passing 50,000 cu.ft. 
of air per minute, and another airway of 
equal size is added, what will be the total 
quantity of air passing per minute in the 
two airways, the pressure remaining con- 
stant ? 

Ans.—The question ¢ a little indefinite 
as to its meaning. Assuming, however, 
that the airway added is another and 
separate split affected by the same pres- 
sure as the original airway, the total 
quantity of air will be doubled, since 

each airway will then pass 50,000 cu.ft. 
per min, 

On the other hand, if the new airwa 
is an extension of the original airway 
whose length will thus be doubled, the 

quantity of air that will then pass 
through this long airway will be de- 
creased. For the same pressure pei 

square foot the quantity varies inversely 
as the square root of the length. More 
simply, for the same pressure, the quan- 
tity ratio is equal to the square root of 
the inverse-length ratio (the cross-section 
of the two airways being the same). 
Thus, the length ratio in this case being 
2, and calling the required volume of 
ct ee 

V O:5 = 0.707 

x = 50,000 x 0.707 = 35,350 
cu.ft. per min. 

Ques.—What provision should be made 
inside a mine to insure its being properly 
ventilated ? 

Ans.—All stoppings, brattices, doors 
and air bridges must be made air-tight. 
Doors must be substantially built and 
hung so as to close with the gir. Double 
doors must be used at all main points 
separating the main intake and return 
airways. Other doors on haulage roads 
where much coal is passing should be 
trapped. All air crossings should be 
built as overcasts and not undercasts. 
Airways and crosscuts should be kept 
free of all obstructions of any nature; 
empty or loaded cars should not be stood 
in airways, but in the mouths of rooms or 
on partings where they will not obstruct 
the flow of air. The air current should 
be distributed so as to proportion the 
quantity of air in each split to the 
requirements therein. Special brattices 
should be used to make the air current 
sweep the face of each working place. 
The velocity of the current, at the face. 
should always be sufficient to sweep 
away all gases and prevent their accumu- 
lation in any void or abandoned places. 
The velocity in the workings should not 
exceed 480 ft. per min. 


The answer to the last question, 
Pumping Calculation, Coat Ace, Apr. 13, 
p. 887, made the actual discharge greater 
than the theoretical discharge, which, o! 
course, is wrong. The answer shoulc 

(b) Actual discharge, 

G = 0.85 x 705 = say, 600 gal. per mir 

April 27, 1912 



| oal and Coke News 

i From Our Own Representatives in Various Important Mining Centers 

Washington, D. C. 

The House Committee on Mines and 
\lining has reported favorably on the 
Foster bill, which provides for the crea- 
tion of a Commission of Mining Industry, 
vith power to undertake a general investi- 
cation of mining conditions throughout 
the country. The commission is to be 
composed of 11 persons, as follows: Two 
members from the Senate and two from 
the House, two representatives of the op- 
erators, two representatives of the min- 
ers. two engineers and a representative of 
the Bureau of Mines. 

It is to be the special duty of this com- 
mission to inquire into labor conditions 
in the mining industry and to seek to dis- 
cover and point out the underlying causes 
of dissatisfaction, also to inquire into min- 
ing methods with regard to their safety 
and efficiency, and the general conserva- 
tion of mineral resources. 


A decision by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission in the case of the Nebraska 
State Railway Commission vs. the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy R.R. Co. 
et al. explains that in the application of 
rates on coal from the Walsenburg dis- 
trict of Colorado to numerous points in 
Nebraska the defendants provide a rate 
of S3.50 per net ton to one group of sta- 
tions and a rate of $3.75 to a second 
group. The complainant, in substance, 
asks that certain points now taking the 
53.75 rate be included within the $3.50 
rate group, and the certain points taking 
the $3.50 rate be divided into two new 
eroups to which shall apply rates of S3 
ind $3.25, respectively. The rates in- 
volved have been considered, and it is 

(1) That the defendants suhject Min- 
len “K” to undue and unreasonable prej- 
udice in charging a higher rate than ap- 
plies at Minden, and that for the future 
the rate to Minden “K” should not ex- 
ceed the rate contemporaneously main- 
tained to Minden. 

(2) That, under the readjustment re- 
quired by this finding, the rate to Minden 
“K" should not be exceeded at the inter- 
mediate stations of Keene, Wilcox, 
Ragan, Huntley, Alma, Orleans, Carter, 
ind Sacramento. 

The Commission further explains that: 

A careful analysis of the reports filed 
with the Commission by the defendants, 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R.R. 
Co., the Colorado & Southern R.R. Co. 
and the Denver & Rio Grande R.R. Co. 

shows that the operating expenses per 
ton-mile over these lines is so high that 

we hesitate to make changes in the rates 
now under investigation other than 
those noted. 


Birmingham—The coal operators of 
Alabama are making an advance in 
wages, effective May 1, amounting to 
2’4c. per ton mine-run for pick mining 
in the Pratt seam of coal, which is the 
basing seam for the state. This will ad- 
vance the Pratt pick-mining rate from 
52!'2c. per ton to 55c., and other seams 
will be advanced in proportion. The 
yardage and day rates will be advanced 
about 5 per cent. 

Tests have been made recently by 
Chief Mine Inspector Nesbitt to de- 
termine the percentage of gas in the air 
of several Alabama mines. The ap- 
paratus used was that installed here 
lately by the government. The samples 
were taken largely from the Flat Top and 
Indio mines and, in most cases, showed 
less than one-half of 1 per cent. of ex- 
plosive gas. 


Denver—A proposed increase of 35c. 
per ton in the freight rates on coal from 
the Walsenburg district in Colorado to 
points of destination in Kansas, Okla- 
homa and Texas, was suspended, Apr. 
10, by order of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, until Aug. 12. The new 
rate was to have become effective 
Apr. 14. 

By a recent decision, the Interstate 
Commerce Commission has ordered a re- 
duction in freight rates on coal from the 
Walsenburg field to points along the 
Burlington road as far east as Oxford 
Junction, Nebraska. A reduction of 25c. 
per ton is anplicable to the stations of 
Ragan, Huntley, Wilcox, Sacramento and 
Minden. The following stations between 
Minden ard Superior must continue to 
pay the old rate: Superior, Edgar, Clay 
Center and Harvard. 


Chicago—The Illinois United Mine 
Workers have voted to accept an increase 
of approximately 5c. per ton of screened 
coal and to return to work May 1. 

Mount Vernon—The Chicago Coal Co., 
of Chicago, has procured options on 
3000 acres of coal land in Jefferson 
County, and it is reported that the pur- 
chasers expect to open a number of 
mines during the present year. 

Coal City—The head works of mine 
No. 3, at Tower Hill, were blown over 
by the storm, Apr. 21, which did great 
damage in this vicinity. 

Belleville—One hundred and twenty- 
eight miners have brought suit against 
the Royal Coal & Mining Co., the Wil- 
harmil Coal & Coke Co., and. R. W. 
Ropiequet, for $12,800, wages due them. 

Columbia—The East St. Louis-Colum- 
bia- Waterloo Electric Ry. has obtained a 
permit to extend its line through East 
St. Louis, to enter St. Louis over the 
Eads bridge. The line will extend from 
East St. Louis to Waterloo, and will tap 
coal fields that at the present time, have 
no freight facilities. 

Peoria—The scale committee and ex- 
ecutive board of the Illinois United Mine 
Workers arranged to meet the Illinois 
cecal operators, including those from the 
Fifth and Ninth districts, in conference 
here on Apr. 23. Differences between 
the miners and operators will be dis- 
cussed and any agreement which may be 
reached will be submitted to a referen- 
dum vote of the miners of the state. 

Articles of incorporation were recently 
issued to the Mid-Valley Coal Co., which 
iS capitalized at $80,000, with offices in 
Peoria. The new company has purchased 
500 acres of coal land four miles north 
of Chillicothe and will begin operations 
as soon as the suspension of work in the 
coal mines is over. 

Hillsboro—It is reported on good au- 
thority that the New York Central R.R. 
has purchased, or is about to purchase, 
15,000 acres of coal lands in and around 
Ohlman. The field is that optioned a 
few months ago by Harry S. Hargrave, 
and sold to St. Paul coal-land men. The 
mining conditions at Ohlman are more 
like those at Pana than at Hillsboro, and 
therefore are not quite as good as con- 
ditions here. The vein is about 7% ft. 


indianapolis—The completion of the 
work of the tellers of the United Mine 
Workers shows that the bituminous min- 
ers have ratified the Cleveland compro- 
mise agreement, governing Illinois, Indi- 
ana, Ohio and western Pennsylvania, by a 
vote of 109,709'4 to 32,139%.. Thus 77 
per cent. of the 141,849 miners who voted 
at the referendum balloting, Apr. 10, fa- 
vored the agreement. Not later than 
May 1, it is said at the international head- 
quarters, the 240,000 bituminous miners 


will be back in the mines. Approximately 
150,000 of these are idle at the present 
time. The formal signing of the contract 
which is to bind operators and miners in 
the four-state field until Mar. 31, 1914, is 
expected to take place this week. In only 
one district in the country was the ma- 
jority of votes cast against the agreement. 
That was in the Kentucky field, where a 
total of 1220 votes was cast, 566 of these 
being for and 654 against the agreement. 
Of the miners in the districts in Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, the 
four states governed by the contract, 82.- 
066 voted for the agreement and 23,300 
against it. 

Brazil—The Crawford Coal Co. has be- 
gun the work of sinking a new mine 
northeast of this city, along the Chicago 
& Eastern Illinois R.R. When com- 
pleted it will employ 200 or more miners. 
This enterprise will prove a big help to 
Brazil, commercially. The new mine ‘s 
in the Clay County block-coal field and 
bids fair to run for many years. 

Bloomington—Although Monroe County 
has never been known as a coal produc- 
ing district. John H. Koontz, who owns 2 
large farm 8 miles west of Bloomington, 
has found a 4-ft. vein of bituminous coa! 

of excellent quality on his land. It is 
announced that a company is being 
formed to develop te find. 

Terre Haute—The convention of the 

Indiana United Mine Workers, which ad- 
journed early in March, pending the 
interstate conference at Cleveland, re- 
assembled here Apr. 17. The scale com- 
mittee has prepared a contract to be sub- 
mitted to the operators at a joint confer- 
ence. A mutual casualty-insurance agree- 
ment will be discussed by both bodies. 
The operators offered to take up the mat- 
ter several vears ago, but the miners 
then believed they would succeed in ob- 
taining a state law similar to the one in 


Whitesburg — The Consolidation Coal 
Co. has bought 76 acres of coal lands 
near Jenkins for 319,700. This is at the 
rate of a little more than 5250 an acre— 
perhaps the largest price ever paid for 
mountain coal lands. 

Louisville—While a final settlement o? 
the difficulties between the union miners 
and the operators of western Kentucky 
has not been reached, the only points et 
issue now are minor questions in regard 
to working conditions. The wage scale 
agreed upon has been submitted to a 
referendum vote. The union miners of 
southern Indiana have refused to raise 
funds to be used in an endeavor to or- 
ganize the non-union territory of western 

The entrance of the Norfolk & Western 
into the eastern Kentucky coal fields is a 


development of interest. It will make the 
move through the Williamson & Pond 
Creek R.R., which was recently organ- 
ized. This road will be built from Wil- 
liamson, W. Va., along Pond Creek to a 
point near Elkhorn City, which is the 
center of the new coal territory now un- 
der development. It is largely for this 
reason that the Norfolk & Western is re- 
building its bridge over the Ohio at 
Kenova, W. Va., as it expects to handle a 
large tonnage of coal as soon as its new 
connection is built. The Carolina, Clinch- 
field & Ohio is building from Dante, Va., 
to the Elkhorn field, while the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio is also entering that dis- 

Henderson—-The Keystone Mining & 
Manufacturing Co. has filed a_ suit 
against the Louisville & Nashville R.R. 

Co., in which damages of 350,000 are 
asked. The company’s claim is that the 
road failed to furnish it with cars and 
to quote reasonable rates on the shipment 
of coal from the mines to the city of 
Henderson, and that as a result it was 
found necessary to close down the mines. 

Madisonville—An explosion of gas in 
the Coil Co.’s mine near this city, the 
night of Apr. 21, set the mine on fire and 
probably caused the death of Joseph 
Hallowell. a mine foreman, and four ne- 
zroes. Flames-were found issuing from 
the entry and one of the cages was blown 
out by the explosion. The mine is a new 
one, about 200 ft. below the surface and 
only about half a mile long. Only the 
five men were in the mine. 

Greenville—J. W. Lam, Greenville, 
has purchased the coal mine of the Dovey 
Coal Co. at Mercer. The purchase price 
was 375,000. Mr. Lam is one of the 
creditors of the company, which is in 
bankruptcy, with liabilities of 5100,000. 


Kansas Citvy—A sub-committee of six 
members, representing the coal operators 
and the miners, respectively, in the fields 
of Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri and Ar- 
kansas, began negotiations, Apr. 16, for 
the writing of a new two-year contract. 
The conferences were held in the offices 
of the Central Coal & Coke Co. An early 
settlement of the differences between the 
two sides is expected. The miners by a 
referendum vote have approved the 
Cleveland agreement, and it only remains 
now to.agree on the contract. The only 
serious obstacle in writing the contract 
pertains to the arbitrator in matters of 
dispute. The miners desire to eliminate 
this clause and the“operators desire to 
retain it. 

St. Louis—The freight traffic officials of 
the various railroads entering St. Louis. 
have practically decided upon a new coal 
arbitrary, making the rate on all coal the 
same to St. Louis as to East St. Louis. 

Vol. 1, No. 
Zanesville—Fire broke out, Apr. 1s 
the shaft mine No. 302, near Co; 

Ohio, in which 400 miners were emp} 
until the suspension of work on Ap; 
A hundred men at once started to 
in an effort to check the ffames, 
several of the fire fighters were overc: 
by the 
The annonucement was made recent 
in Columbus, that capitalists of that ci: 
have leased 8000 acres of coal lands bf. 
tween Durant and Blue Rock. This | 
one of the biggest coal deals in the his 
tory of this section of the state. It was 
further announced that the old Stone 
mine at the mouth of Coal Run will soon 
be purchased and operated. 
Columbus—Figures given out from In- 
dianapolis, show that the proposition ot 
remaining at work in accordance with the 
Cleveland agreement was ratified by the 
United Mine Workers in western Penn- 
svlvania, Ohio, Indiana and illinois. The 
vote against the proposition was unex- 
pectediv large. and hard to account for. 
The Hocking Valley field is expected to 
ve one of the first to resume operations, 
as everything is in readiness for resump- 
tion. The eastern Ohio field will also re- 
sume work soon, and the same is true of 
the Pomerov-Bend field. It may be a 
little time before operations are resumed 
in the Massillon and Crooksville fields. 
According to the Cleveland agreement 
there should be mo difficulty in working 
out the district rulings. The agreement 
provides that nothing shall be changed to 
make the cost of mining greater, and, on 
the other hand, nothing shall be changed 


to decrease the earnings of the miners. 
The Symmes Coal Co., of Ironton, 

has been ordered by Judge Corn, of the 
cemmon pleas court of that district, to li- 
quidate claims amounting to 
within the next 45 davs. Failure to comply 
will result in a sheriff’s sale of valuable 
coal lands, owned by the company in 
Lawrence and Gallia Counties. Of the 
indebtedness, 3706.000 is for outstanding 
honds and the balance for notes and cour 
Bridgeport—President John Moore, 

the Ohio,miners, with the subdistrict 0! 
ficials, on Apr. 16, visited the towns < 


Bradley, Piney Fork and Plum Ru 
where serious riets occurred recent! 
when pumpers and other repair m 

working in the idle mines were assault: 
by foreigners. 

Coshoecton—A 5-ft. seam of coal 
uncovered recently in the new entry 
the Locust Grove Mining Co.’s mine, } 
south cf town. A number of additio: 
men will be emploved as soon as the en' 
is put in shape to start operations. 

St. Clairsville—It is not believed 
mines of eastern Ohio will resume op: 
tions before Mav 1. While the ret 
from Indianapolis announcing the me 
itv in favor of returning to work, wi! 



\ L 







ning per net ton, 64.29c.; machine load- 


ing per gross ton, 42c.; 


T . 




urticularly in regard to dead work. 

mber of mules were burned 

ns posted, Apr. 17, 

sri! 27, 1912 
he miners to proceed toward making 
acts. vet it is believed the operators 
rot desirous of resuming. 
is is due to reports that none of the 
consumers is out of coal and also 
ase many of the markets are still 
tocked. Should the mines resume 
ce the operators would be unable to 
1e normal price for their coal. With 
pening of the Lake trade, however, 
expected al] the 17,000 miners in 
astern Ohio field will resme work 



tishurg--The annual convention of 
rict No. 5, United Mine Workers, 
e up in disorder and a “rump” meet- 
Apr. 18. The 50,000 idle miners in 
stern Pennsylvania will return to work 
It was announced that notifi- 


tions had been sent to the various locals 

have the men return to work. 

Dubois—The joint scale committee of 
strict No. 2, United Mine Workers, 
er two weeks of deliberation, reached 
agreement, Apr. 20. The scale is some- 
than the miners demanded, 
igned for two vears and is as follows: 
ton, (2.5 pick 


mining per gross 

machine loading 

net ton, 37.23 cents. 

fire, on the morning of 
12, destroved the large outside barn 

the Merchants’ Coal Co.’s mine,-and a 

to death. 

loss, including damage to a nearby 
clling, is estimated at 53500. 
rarleroi—-In accordance with instruc- 

nearly all the mines 
the Monongahela River Consolidated 
& Coke Co.. the Vesta Coal Co. and 
other smaller companies with 
s along the Monongahela River, re- 
ied Operations Apr. 18. This ended a 
ension lasting since Apr. 1. 
ownsville—-The Knob mine of the 
mngahela River Consolidated Coal & 
_ Co., idle since Apr. 1, resumed op- 

on, Apr. 19. The Albany and 
nouni mines of the same company 
med work, Apr. 22. About 1500 men 

mnellsville—The Connellsville coke 
is in the unfortunate position of not 

: able to supply the demand because 
1adequate and uncertain labor condi- 
While labor has been coming into 
‘oke region slowly, it has not come 
ufficient volume to meet the require- 
is of the situation. Production for the 
k ending Apr. 13 fell off 52,175 tons, 
ompared with the week before, the 
being 363,289. The decrease was 

ily divided between the furnace and 
‘chant ovens, that of the furnace ovens 

' 26.356 tons, their total being 230,- 


732, while the merchant ovens fell off 25,- 
819 tons, their total being “132,913. 


Scranton—Following a conference with 
the board of directors of the Scranton 
Board of Trade and a committee from the 
West Scranton Board of Trade, the city 
council recently received a resolution di- 
recting the city solicitor to prepare an 
ordiriance putting into effect the police 
powers of the city to prevent mine caves. 
The resolution was referred to a commit- 
tee and will probably be passed at the 
regular meeting of council. 

A pumpman at the Moosic Mountain 
colliery, near Jessup, was shot from am- 
bush while on his way to work, Apr. 16. 
The attack was made near the point 
where the railroad tracks were dynamited 
some days ago. This workman had been 
sticking to his post during the suspen- 
sion, in accordance with the arrangement 
between mine workers and operators. It 
thought that some of the miners re- 
zvarded him as a strike breaker. 

More than 300 men and women, 
gathered at the Raymond colliery at the 
“Ridge.” Archbald, at 6 o’clock in the 
morning of Apr. 20 to enforce the sus- 
pension order. When the men began to 
report for work the crowd chased home 
every workman except pump-runners, en- 
gineers, stable men, firemen and neces- 
sary repairmen permitted to work under 
the suspension order. There was no riot- 
ing or lawlessness, the crowd simply 
asking the workmen to go home and the 
workmen obeying the request. 

Wilkes-Barre—-The Plymouth Coal Co. 
has complained to the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission of the rates on anthra- 
cite cual in carloads from the Dodson 
colliery and the Black Diamond colliery 
and other points on the line of the Penn- 
sylvania R.R., to South Amboy, N. J. The 
commission was asked to reduce these 
rates and award reparation to the com- 
plainants. . 


The committee, which is conducting the 
negotiations between anthracite miners 
and operators, reconvened in New York, 
Apr. 16, and has since continued its de- 
liberations in that city. Up to the pres- 
ent writing, no definite news has been 
given out concerning the progress made 

by this committee toward reaching an 
agreement. It is currently reported, how- 

ever, that the discussion of all questions 
has been fully and freely entered upon, 
and that an amicable settlement of pres- 
ent diffculties is expected. As has been 
anticipated, it is said that the demand of 
the miners for recognition of their or- 
ganization forms the chief obstacle in th> 
way of reaching a settlement. 

Mt. Carmel—A miners’ accommodation 

car on the Reading railroad, near the 
Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Co.’s 

Alaska shaft, was blown to nieces, Apr. 



17, by dynamiters. A passenger train 
had passed the siding on which the car lay 
one minute before the explosion occurred. 
A detai! of coal and iron police are hunt- 
ing for the dynamiters. 

West Virginia 

Moundsville—An injunction was 
granted here, Apr. 16, restraining mem- 
bers of the United Mine Workers from 
interfering with the operation of the 
Mound coal mine, where a strike has 
been in progress for some time, following 
the refusal of the company to recognize 
the union. A renewal of the rioting, in 
which nine men were injured, is antici- 

Charlesten—Only about 40 of the 15 
mines in the Kanawha district are now 
working, as a result of the failure of the 
miners and operators to agree on a wage 
scale, and hetween 8500 and 9000 miners 
are on a strike. The final disagree- 
ment came when the operators refused te 
grant more than the agreement called for 
last year, while the miners demanded an 
unlimited check-off. 

The mines closed down include ail 
those along the Kanawha & Michigan 
R.R. in West Virginia. This takes in sev- 
eral thousand miners in Fayette County 
and a similar number in Kanawha 
County. Also, all mines are closed along 
the Chesapeake & Ohio in the Kanawha 
district, and along the branch lines, with 
the exception of those on the Cabin 
Creek branch, and the Coal River exten- 
sion of the Cabin Creek branch, about 40 
in number. 

The Kanawha district has about 13.- 
500 miners, so that the number now out 
represents approximately two-thirds. As 
far as it has been possible to learn, none 
of the: mines are closed in the New River 
district nor in the Norfolk & Western dis- 
trict, but it is reported that a number of 
those in the northern section of the state 
are shut down. 

Fuirmont—The Consolidation Coal Co. 
has received an order to ship 50,000 tons 
of coal to Egypt to be used on the state 
railways. This is the second such order 
this company has received recently. The 
company is still shipping coal to England 
in spite of the fact that the coal strike 
there has been declared off. The order 
for Egypt will be shipped within a short 
time frum Baltimere. 


Palouse—A. E. Sever, president of the 
Palouse Coal & Oil Co., M. M. Waters, 
and C. E. Allen, who was engaged durinz 
the last winter prospecting on the land 
of the Palouse Coal & Oil Co., have se- 
cured a lease on ground in the vicinity of 
Glenwood, where indications of the exist- 
ence of coal seams have recently been 
found. It is the intention of the lessees 
to prospect the new fields at once. 


M. M. Bardwell, general manager of 
the North Jellico Coal Co., of Louisville, 
Ky., is at Atlantic City, recuperating 
from a recent illness. 

Robert Lake, of Jackson, Mich., presi- 
dent of the Michigan-Ohio-Indiana Coal 
Association, was a recent visitor in Co- 
lumbus, where he called upon a number 
of coal men. 

J. C. Colsom, coal operator and presi- 
dent of the Indiana Operators’ Associa- 
tion, is seeking nomination as a candi- 
date for state senator from Vigo County 
to the next Indiana legislature. 

C. W. Adams, vice-president of the 
St. Paul & Western Coal Co., a sub- 
sidiary of the Sunday Creek Coal Co., of 
Columbus, was recently a caller at the 
office of the parent company. 

C. R. Leake and H. A. Turner, engi- 
neers and coal experts of Birmingham, 
Ala., recently made an examination of 
the coal-land holdings of the Cullman 
Coal & Coke Co., at Bremen, Alabama. 

Congressman Bowman, of Pittston, 
Penn., has been elected vice-president of 
the Roden Coal Co., of Marvel, Ala., of 
which company his son-in-law, B. F. 

Roden, is president and general manager. 
A. W. Fleugel, superintendent of the 

Island Creek Coal Co.’s docks at Duluth 
and Superior, recently returned from a 
trip to Milwaukee and other points, 
where he inspected various dock proper- 
ties and equipment. 

J. D. O'Neill, president of the United 
Coal Co., of Pittsburg, Penn., in com- 
pany with W. S. Kuhn and W. E. Moore, 
large stockholders in the company, re- 
cently made a trip of inspection to the 
plant of the Merchants Coal Co., at Bos- 
well, Penn., a subsidiary concern. 

Chester W. O’Neill, for the past five 
years general sales agent of the Inde- 
pendent Coal & Coke Co., at Salt Lake 
City, has been appointed general West- 
ern sales agent for the company and 
will open permanent offices in San Fran- 
cisco. Mr. O’Neill will be succeeded in 
the Utah-Idaho-Montana field by William 
Gorton, who hitherto has been located at 
the company’s mines in Kenilworth, Utah. 

Morris H. Bush, general superin- 
tendent of the Woodward Iron Co., has 
succeeded A. H. Woodward as a member 
of the mine casualty and mining insti- 
tute committee of the Alabama Coal 
Operators’ Association following the 
election of Mr. Woodward to the execu- 
tive committee of the association. Ben- 
jamin F. Roden, of Marvel, Ala., has suc- 
ceeded C. P. Ludwig, general superin- 
tendent of the Alabama Consolidated 
Coal & Coke Co. on the mine-casualty 
committee, on account of the withdrawal 
of the Alabama Consolidated Co. from 
the association. 



Edward Avery, aged 78, president of the 
Avery Coal & Mining Co., with mines in 
the vicinity of Marissa, IIl., died at his 
home in St. Louis, Apr. 10. 

Charles Clark, a capitalist and one of 
the founders and directors of the Kansas 
& Texas Coal Co., died in St. Louis Apr. 
18. Mr. Clark was 80 years of age. 

George F. Huff, former congressman, 
banker, coal operator and philanthropist, 
of Greensburg, Penn., died at his wintcr 
residence in Washington, D. C., Apr. 18, 
after a lingering illness. 

Mr. Huff was born July 16, 1842, at 
Norristown, Penn. He attended the pub- 
lic schools at Norristown until he was 
17 years old and then the family moved 
to Altoona. At the latter place he en- 
tered the repair shops of the Pennsyl- 
vania R.R. and learned the trade of a 
car finisher. At the age of 20 years, he 
entered the banking house of Julian M. 
Lloyd & Co., Altoona. With his employer 
he organized a bank at Ebensburg, Cam- 
bria County. He was successful, and 
two years later came to Greensburg and 
organized a banking house, known as 
Lloyd, Huff & Co. Later this company 
was changed to the Greensburg Deposit 

During the years Mr. Huff was engaged 
in the organization of banking houses ne 
became interested in coal lands. He was 
president of the Keystone Coal & Coke 
Co. at the time of his death. The Key- 
stone Coal & Coke Co. is composed of a 
number of coal companies, all of which 
originally were organized by Mr. Huff. 
They are the Greensburg Coal Co., Alex- 
andria Coal Co., Mountain Coal Co., Mu- 
tual Mining and Manufacturing Co., 
Manor Gas & Coal Co., Madison Coal 
Co., Salem Coal Co., Latrobe Coal Co. 
and the Carbon Coal Co. 

Mr. Huff organized and constructed the 
Southwest Pennsylvania R.R., which oper- 
ated lines from Greensburg to the various 
coal towns in Westmoreland County. He 
also organized and _ constructed the 
Greensburg Electric Street Ry., the 
Greensburg Electric Light Co. and the 
Westmoreland Light and Heat Co. 

Mr. Huff began his political career in 
1881, when he was elected as a national 
delegate to the Republican convention at 
Chicago. In 1884 he was elected state 
senator and in 1888 he was elected Con- 
gressman, from the district which con- 
sisted of Westmoreland, Indiana, Arm- 
strong. and Jefferson counties and was 
re-elected in 1890 and 1893. In 1894 he 
was chosen Congressman-at-large. He 
was elected to Congress again in 1904, 
1906 and 1908, and refused the nomina- 
tion in 1910. 

Mr. Huff spent his summers in Greens- 
burg, where he owned an estate of 500 
acres, and the winters in Washington. He 
is survived by his widow and four 

Construction News 

Brownsville, Penn.—Two hund 
ovens are being installed at th: 
mines near here, owned by W. H. }: 
of Pittsburg. 

Willmar, Minn.—The Harmon C. 
of Chicago, contemplates buildine 
a large coal-storage and _= distrib) 
plant of 500,000 tons capacity. 

Lonaconing, Md.—Louis Stanton. 
Frostburg, Md., has purchased the Pp 
erty of the Georges Creek Coal Basi), 
for $20,000 and will open a new min 

Crewe, Va.—-The Southern Timber ( 
is organizing to develop 10,000 acres 
coal land and will install equipment f. 
2000 tons daily capacity; contracts ; 
yet awarded. 

Philadelphia, Penn.—The Pennsylvan. 
R.R. Co. will construct a new coal pic: 
at Greenwich Point. Estimated 
$200,000. Alexander C. Shand, Philadel- 
is chief engineer. 

Philadelphia, Penn.—The Philadelphis 
& Reading Ry. Co. plans making exten- 
improvements to its coal pier at 
Richmond. W. Hunter, Philadel- 
is chief engineer. 




Burgettstown, Penn.—Smith «& Lewis. 
engineers, Oliver Bldg., Pittsburg. 
receiving bids for the erection of build- 
ings fcr the Atlas Coal Co., Burgetts- 
town: also for piping and othe 


Williamsburg, Ky.—The Proctor Coal 
Co. is opening new mines at Red Ash, 
in Whitley County, near here, and is 
purchasing equipment. Charles Finley, 
Williamsburg, is president and general 

Pine Hill, Ky.—The Kentucky 
land Cement & Coal Co., Munsey 
Baltimore, Md., will develop 1200 
of coal land for daily capacity of 
tons; cement plant and coal mine equip- 
ment to $900,000, 

Maben, Ala.—Improvements  contem- 
plated by the Sloss-Sheflield Steel & Iron 
Co., Birmingham, Ala., for the 
mine, at Maben, include two new boilers, 
increasing the boiler capacity 400 hp., 
also one air compressor. 

Columbus, Ohio—The Provident Coal 
Co. is prepared to let contracts for con- 
struction work in connection with open- 
ing its new mine at Fairpoint. Contracts 
will be awarded for grading, laying 
tracks, mine openings and concrete con- 





Barbourville, Ky.—The Knox Coul 
Mining Co., of Louisville, Ky., recently 
incorporated with $1,000,000 eapitil 
stock, will develop 40,000 
land and will soon be open for bids 
mining machinery and plant. Addr 
company at Barbourville. 

Coeburn, Va.—H. F. Whitehead, 2 
eral superintendent, Virginia Iron, (: 
& Coke Co., contemplates various 
provements at its coal mines, doubl 
their capacity. It is proposed to eg 
the mines with new motors, erecting 
steel tipple near Sexton and Thelma 2: ‘i 
to build dwellings. 

Harlan, Ky.—Contracts are now b: 
let by the Harlan Coal Co., which is : 
veloping a tract of 10,000 acres of «| 
lands near here. A 5-mile extensivo! 
the mines is being built by the Lo 
ville & Nashville Ry. Machinery at 
plant will be electrically operated. Kk 
neth Meguire, of the Snead & Mest 
Coal Co., Louisville, Ky., is one of 
officers of the company. 


acres of coi! 


Coal Irade Reviews 

Current Prices of Coal and Coke and Market Conditions in the Important Centers 

General Review 

Readjustments in market conditions 

ve advanced to a point where the 

je is again in an approximately nor- 

| condition. Some uncertainty is still 
felt over the anthracite situation, but 
it is the general belief that an agreement 

i| be effected at an early date. The 
continued and apparently harmonious sit- 
tings of the wage-scale committees sub- 
stantiate this belief. Bituminous mines 
resumed operation under curtailed capa- 
city, Apr. 22, as was expected. Con- 
sumers are not in the market for much 
tonnage, aS most large steam users were 
prepared for a 30-day suspension, and 
it will be two weeks before production 
is brought up to normal. 

Wholesalers in the East are reluctant 
to see the market drop back to normai, 
as many still have considerable high- 
price speculative coal on hand. Com- 
paratively little fuel is coming forward, 
but even these small arrivals are dif- 
ficult to dispose of, as the trade is 
apathetic with little or no demand at full 
circular prices. Only about 50 per cent. 
of the mines in the Pittsburg district 
have resumed operations and production 
will not be up to full rated capacity for 
two or three weeks. West Virginia mines 
are supplying what little demand there 
is in Ohio, the trade there being quiet 
in every respect. Interest is now cen- 
tering on the lake trade and coal fleets 
are preparing to sail. 

Supplies in the Middle West have held 
out well, and the market is heavy and 
low. The speculative coal, with which 
Chicago was swamped a few weeks ago, 
1as been cleaned up, and there is some 
emand in screenings. The farge ton- 
ages, stored on the ground in anticipa- 
on of a strike, are being loaded, and a 
-w shipments of Kentucky coals are 
ming in. There is a perceptible evi- 
ence of hesitancy in the trade generally. 

Boston, Mass. 

There has been little change in the 
larket this week. Wholesalers are 
aturally reluctant to drop back, but 
“ade in bituminous is fast settling down 
0 an everyday basis. Cargoes from 
iampton Roads are still arriving with 
igh-priced coal and heavy demurrage 
harges, and in most cases where there 
‘re unsold balances thev are hard to 
‘ispose of. The buyers have little in- 
crest in a receding market. 

Georges Creek is being freely shipped 

but Pennsylvanias are getting heavy. 
Aside from shipments here and there 
to relieve those who were unable to get 
supplies earlier, or more likely to fill 
orders entered on a “panic” basis there 
is relatively little coal coming forward, 
and sales are few. On contract there 
is some inquiry but apparently it will 
be difficult to get spirit into the trade 
until the season is further advanced. The 
Virginia loading is improving rapidly, 
and Pocahontas and New River are 
quoted at near normal prices. 

Freights are dull and on tonnage from 
Hampton Roads individual charters are 
matters of barter. On Long Island Sound 
from New York the market is off to the 
summer basis of 45@ 50 cents. 

Soft coal, all-rail is coming through 
in large quantities, probably a clearing 
up of last month’s mining. Speculators 
are having difficulty in placing this coal 
and since buyers are more fussy about 
quality than they were a month ago 
some low prices are heard. 

Anthracite seems to be marking time. 
Large premiums are no longer paid, and 
a good volume of stock coal, especially 
in egg and chestnut, is being let into 

the market. The spring weather makes 

the retail demand light. Prevailing prices 


Clearfields, f.o.b. mines....... $1.20@1.40 

Clearfields, f.o.b. Philadelphia 2.50@2.75 

Pocahontas, New River, f.o.b. _ 
Hampton Roads ....ccccess 2.75 @ 2.80 

New York 

The extent to which storing was carried 
on in anticipation of a protracted shut- 
down at the mines is now becoming evi- 
dent by the total absence of buyers. Ar- 
rivals here so far this month have been 
much below normal, but there is scarcely 
any demand, and while prices are fairly 
strong, there are few transactions. 

In bituminous the consumers appear to 
be heavily stocked, and there are few or 
no requests for spot coal. The railroad 
movement is good, water freights easier, 
and the arrivals steadily improving with 
the general resumption at the mines. Con- 
trary to reports from West Virginia, the 
larger companies here say there is no 
labor shortage at the mines. Ordinary 
grades of bituminous are quoted at 52.80 
f.o.b., with the better grades bringing 
$3.25, but there are few transactions and 
prices fluctuate rapidly. 

It is now evident there will be no re- 
sumption at the anthracite mines by May 
1, and it is generally believed it will be 
May 15, and possibly later, before the 

tines are again in operation. Work at 
present is confined entirely to keeping the 
mines unwatered; some of the larger 
companies in transferring coal from one 
colliery to another, created the erroneous 
rumor that they were again shipping. 

There is little activity in the anthracite 
market at present, but it is believed the 
supplies are now pretty well exhausted 
and another week will show a decided 
tightening of the market. Wholesale an- 
thracite quotations, f.o.b. New York, are 
as follows: 

iC | Eee Ree eee 


Philadelphia, Penn. 

After almost four weeks of idleness 
at the mines, the anthracite industry in 
this city still continues in rather an 
apathetic condition. All dealers report 
that what business they are doing comes 
in one- and two-ton lot orders, and care- 
ful inquiry elicits the information that 
nearly all the dealers are in fairly good 
condition as regards their supply of the 
domestic sizes. In fact, many of them 
have considerably more than they want, 
when there are rumors that an adjust- 
ment of the difficulty between the miners 
and operators seems to be nearing a 
conclusion, and they are all hoping that 
the suspension will continue until they 
have worked off most if not all of the 
high-priced coal. 

It almost goes without saying that 
there wil be some reduction in prices by 
the wholesale operators in the event of 
an early settlement of the present diffi- 
culty, but even if they do reduce the 
prices, it does not necessarily follow that 
the retailers will do the same; it might 
be a matter of protection to the deal- 
ers to continue present prices until their 
stocks of winter coal are disposed of. 
However, no action has as yet been taken 
by either one or the other, the trade as 
a unit waiting the final settlement of 
the labor controversy. 

Our previous prediction that mining 
would not be resumed until the middle 
of May seems to be confirmed, as any 
arrangements looking to settlement dur- 
ing the coming week, would hardly be- 
come operative until about that time. 

Very little anthracite coal is coming to 
this market, just small odds and ends, 
which some of the little washeries in the 


regions are able to turn out, and there 
is not a particularly good market for it. 
Dealers are looking askance at coal now 
at the full circular prices ruling during 
the winter months, and unless they are 
in actual need, are not disposed to buy. 
Steam coals, of which there is little of- 
fering, seem to fare better, but ¢he 
amount is so small that it hardly de- 
serves mention. 


Bituminous—The Cleveland wage scale 
adjustment was accepted by the miners 
and arrangements completed for open- 
ing the mines Monday, Apr. 22. The 
opening, however, was far from general, 
as demand for coal was so light. Large 
consumers had laid in stocks to carry 
them fully 30 days, and dealers were also 
fairly well stocked, so that there has not 
only been no pressure to obtain coal, but 
even an absence of the normal current 
demand. Probably less than one-half the 
capacity of the Pittsburg district has 
been put in operation, but production is 
expected to increase steadily, and to reacn 
normal proportions within two or three 

Shipments in the lake trade will begin 
nominally May 1, when the reduced rate 
of 78c., against 88c. last season, goes into 
effect. They will hardly be large at the 
start, but the season as a whole is ex- 
pected to make a new record. As far as 
can be learned no regular selling has 
been done in the lake trade. 

There is no demand, but producers are 
naming prices on a basis 7'.c. higher 
than last year’s regular or official basis. 
as follows: Mine-run and nut, 51.22 
Mein. S1,32%*% I%-in, S147 
82'.c. These prices constitute the quot- 
able market at the moment, but whether 
they wili hold is another matter. Last 
vear’s prices, based on 51.15, were shaded 
during the major portion of the season. 

Connellsville Coke-—The market is 
quiet, but prices are not easier as coke is 
scarce. We quote: prompt furnace, 52.60 
«2.65; prompt foundry, 53; contract 
foundry, 52.65 2.75. 

The Courier reports production in the 
Connellsville and lower Connellsville re- 
gion in the week ending Apr. 13 at 363.- 
289 tons, a drop of 52,000 tons. This 
was due to celebration of the Easter holi- 
days by the foreign workmen. Some in- 
terests in the trade estimate that the ac- 
tual decrease was larger than shown in 
the figures quoted, pointing out in addi- 
tion that the Courier figures show very 
little greater drop in the lower Connell!s- 
ville region than in the upper. whereas 
the lower Connellsville labor is almost 
entirely foreign, and in the upper region 
a large percentage is American. Ship- 
ments were reported at 4210 cars to 
Pittsburg, 5477 cars to points West and 
1346 cars to points East, a total of 11,- 
033 cars, a decrease of 1300 cars. 



Baltimore, Md. 

Although some of the larger companies 
are still doing a fairly active business 
the majority of the operators report the 
Baltimore coal market heavy during the 
past week. The demand was not near 
as good as in previous weeks, and, of 
course, prices took a further drop. A 
careful survey of the situation here 
shows that operators have, in most in- 
stances, not been able to get any better 
price than they obtained early in January 
or late last fall. 

The general belief in Baltimore is that 
the coal trade will not show much life 
again until there is a more decided im- 
provement in the business world. With 
the large industries running full time, 
the demand for coal would be increased, 
and as Baltimore usuaily holds its own 
in a competing market, when there is any 
business to compete for, local operators 
would probably obtain their share. 

There are indications that this improve- 
ment in general business conditions will 
take place. The steel mills, which are 
large consumers of coal and coke, are 
operating at a greater capacity, and as 
steel may be said to reflect the general 
business condition, it would apepar that 
a gradual improvement in trade is tak- 
ing place. Operators believe that in- 
quiries for coal will be increased shortly, 
and that these inquiries will develop 
into deliveries. 

The Consolidation Coal Co. is ap- 
parently not suffering any ill effects be- 
cause of the slow market. During the 
past week, this well known concern for- 
warded 5000 tons of fuel to Egypt. for 
use on Egyptian Railroad. The entire 
contract closed in this country, calls 
for a delivery of about 50,000 tons. The 
Consolidation has numerous large orders 
on hand, and business is about as active 
now with this company as it was three 
or four weeks ago. 

The Davis Coal & Coke Co. is 
preparing to begin shipments on its con- 
tract with the Bethlehem Steel Co., and 
the first delivery will probabiy take place 
some time in June; the contract runs 
for 20 years. In order to supply the 
necessary fuel to the Bethlehem com- 
fany, the Davis coinpany has opened up 
three additional mines in the vicinity of 
Themas, W. Va. 

Complaint is still heard of a shortage 
of miners in West Virginia. It was 
stated in local coal circles during the 
week that the operators in that state could 
easily use 1500 additional men. 


Buffago, N. Y. 

The demand for bituminous coal is 
light and matters are about as badly un- 
settled as ever, with very little prospect 
of any immediate change for the better. 
The operators are not anxious for an 
early resumption and are net at all 


Vol. 1, N 

pleased to find that quite a per 
of the mines in the Pittsburg dist; 
already in operation. There is 
Prospect that this new-mined co 
be on the market before there 
demand for it. 

There is not much mining in ¢! 
legheny Valley; a great part of the 
closed on the first of April and 
of the others shut down on Apr. 15. 
miners have been holding meeting 
the valley and have issued a lone 
of demands, but the operators will 1 
no further concessions than were jp 
at the rate meeting at Cleveland 

There was to have been a meeting 
the Allegheny Valley Operators’ Assox 
tion at East Brady on Apr. 19, bur 
was postponed. The fact is that if these 
mines are opened now there will be no 
market for the product and it is pretty 
close to that now. For this reason there 
will be no haste to get the men back to 
work, though there is no great expecta- 
tion of saving the trade from the !o*, 
prices of last year. 

Buffalo operators in the tidewater trade 
claim it would be suicidal to make any 
further concessions to the miners, for 
they find the West Virginia product al- 
ready commanding that market. If the 
demands of the miners were conceded. it 
is said that the cost of mining would 
be increased more than 30c. a ton. 

As in recent seasons the Buffalo bituini- 
nous market will acceovt the prices inice 
by the Pittsburgh Coal Co. as a basis, 
though it may be a hard matter to ob 
tain them sometimes. The prices nained, 
with freight to Buffalo added, are $2.07 
for Pittsburg select Jump, 
three-quarter, $2.47 for mine-run 
52.10 for slack, with Connellsville coxe 
as strong as ever and best foundry ad- 
vanced to SS. 

The lake fleet is preparing to sail at 
the end of the week, but it may be de- 
layed by ice. There is soft coal for ship- 
ment from Erie and the Ohio ports, 
nothing from Buffalo and none to 
lcoked for at present. 

There is so little demand for antira- 
cite that dealers are getting a local sup- 
ply, but shipping agents are receiving "0 
regular amount. It now looks as though 
the anthracite miners would be idle of 
some time. 

Cleveland, Ohio 

The coal business continues pract 
at a standstill, because the mine! 
still out and also because .of the 
stocks the consumers acquired in 
pation of a strike. There is a littl 
coming to Cleveland from _ the 
mines which remained at work aft 
agreement expired, but this is vers 
to dispose of. By the time the 
resume operations and get in ful! 
ning order, it is hoped the suppl 


bal | 

April 27, 1912 

nearly exhausted, but nothing heavy 
expected until about the first of June, 
+ which time the stocks on hand should 

e used up, and the large tonnage going 
p the Lakes will put the market in a 
ormal condition. 

It is rumored that a large number of 
ne Pittsburg operators will resume work 
n Apr. 22, and this coal will come to 
he Lake ports for shipments north as 
oon as boats are available. It is gen- 
erally conceded that a very heavy ton- 
iage will be shipped north this summer. 
On account of the extreme winter they 
have exhausted all the supplies on the 
jocks, and will not only have to meet 
-urrent demands, but will also have to re-, 
stock the docks, which in the past few 
years they did not have to do. 

Columbus, Ohio 

The coal trade in Ohio during the past 
week has been quiet in most respects. 
There is not much demand for tonnage, 
»yen When all the mines have deen closed 
down, and what demand there is has been 
taken care of by jobbers with West Vir- 
ginia connections. Prices are ruling 
rather soft, which is difficult to explain. 
as tne amount on hand is not considered 
very large for this season of the year. 

The prospects are bright for a general 
resumption in all of the Ohio fields by 
May 1, and possibly there will be some 
coal mined before then. Operators are 
taking advantage of the suspension to 
place their mines in good condition, and 
they will be in a position to produce a 
large tonnage from the start. 

Consumers of steam grades, who 
stocked up previous to Apr. | in fear of 
an extended suspension, are not renew- 
ing contracts. Many of the consumers 
seem to prefer taking chances on secur- 
ing fuel in the open market and probably 
a number will not make contracts at this 

The outlook for the future is consid- 
ered good, and preparations are being 
made for a renewed activity in every line 
when the miners resume. The matter of 
prices is still a question of conjecture, 
ind it is believed that quotations will rule 
rather low for some time. Prices which 
seem to prevail in Ohio fields are: 
Hocking Valley 

Domestic lump = $1.50 
-in. ; Pao 
NU. .. 1.25 
WIIG STUEIN bce ce. to teers oueud cto teaheters 1 10 
Nut, pea and slack. aoc . & 86 
Coarse slack 0 70 
Pittshurg No.S 
-In : ee sits eae $1 20 
\Mine-run. ; : Adee os 1 05 
Coarse slack... .. ; Gideon Geman 
Pomeroy Bend 
Domestic lump at coarser ay as $1 55 
| | aes ie - ve : 1 35 
NERC fei crcte AR PRE ate OPI eter 1.25 
Mine-run. .. : 1 20 
NUS, Des and SIAGK. «2c. cnc cas ; 0.80 
Coarse slack ee rarer 07 
Domestic tump ease aan eon awerae at $1 50 
‘-in : Sc Pron ee 1.35 
Mine-run ....... im ieee 1.10 
Slack... : er re 0 75 



The present indications are that the 
miners will not return to work Apr. 22, 
and possibly not on May 1, pending the 
final ratification of the wage scale. The 
operators may ask it, but the men will 
censent only on certain conditions, which 
are not likely to be accepted. The op- 
erators say they are not in need of coal 
at present, as the supply in storage is 
large enough to last until late in May 
at the present rate of consumption. Two 
years ago the men asked certain condi- 
tions, which were granted, and they 
worked for two months while a joint 
committee arranged the details of the 
final contract. At that time the Illinois 
miners were idle, and the operators had 
a large demand for coal from customers 
of the Illinois operators. 



Market conditions in Chicago have 
been exceedingly slow, buying being quite 
irregular. There was a slight increase in 
the demand for screenings, and indica- 
tions are that all speculative coal has 
been disposed of. 

It is expected that the buving of screen- 
ings will come first from the small us- 
ers and a very fair demand is expected 
soon. Two of the largest concerns in the 
Pittsburg district have entered into com- 
Petition in the Northwest with a cut price, 
and a sharp scramble for business is al- 
readv under way. Whether the contract 
Price on smokeless coal will hold 
throughout the vear is a matter of spec- 
tiation, and depends, dealers say, upon 
the turn of events in the anthracite field. 
No new shipments of anthracite are being 
received and business is dead. The mar- 
ket tor coke is fairly steady. 

Prevailing prices at Chicago are: 

Sullivan County: 

Domestic himp. ....<.4..«.. <2.62@2.87 
Daa tera wie dure cde are wel rea 2.5002 .75 
StGane WMP. 2.5 <0... 2. he 
SORCONINES soo 0k Ske veer eer nees 1.67@1.82 
Domestio lima: . sss essen $2.57@2.82 
SPGSIEP NUNN: 5% ohne okra ya 
NERHGCMRN 3 coo atele-d'a 9.< ereinte:s 1.97@2 07 
WICTCOCINIMS Ss oo cy eo ee eee are 1.67@ 1.82 
Domestic lump Dr enarAi sxc reern $2.52@2.77 
steam lump oweee Pe Y' 
Mine-run... Seen eerie 1.97@2.07 
Screenings... . ee rer 1 67@1 77 

Pocahontas and New River: 
Mine-run , es 2: 
Lump and egg ; 105 
Coke—Prices asked for coke are: Con- 

nellsville and Wise County, 54.85; by- 

product, egg and stove, $4.95; byprod- 

uct, nut, $4.75; gas-house, S5. 


Minneapolis—St. Paul 

The unanimous opinion of coal men in 
the Twin Cities is that business in this 
market has never before been as quiet as 
at the present writing. Every branch of 
the coal trade seems to be in a state of 


hesitancy as wholesalers are still waiting 
for prices on which to place contracts and 
very little coal is coming this way for 
sale. Some steam users overstocked quite 
heavily in-view of the strike and whole- 
salers report that a number of them are 
trying to back out of coal contracted for 
prior to Apr. 1. This has caused prices to 
drop considerably as some of these steam 
users resold coal at big losses and buy- 
ers looking for spot coal have had little 
trouble purchasing at low prices. 

The rate case against the coal carriers 
in Pennsylvania before the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, having resulted 
in an order from the Commission reduc- 
ing the rail rate on Youghiogheny coai 
from mines to Lake Erie points, 10c. per 
ton, has been announced in circulars is- 
sued by the Dock companies Apr. 15. 
Youghiogheny lump and nut sizes are 
quoted at 53.40 f.0.b. docks or $4.30 on 
track Twin Cities; dock run, $3.10 at 
docks or S4 at Twin Cities; Youghiogheny 
screenings, 52.40 dock or 33.30 track 
Twin Cities. Contracts are being let on 
Youghiogheny quite freely and whole- 
salers are anxiously waiting prices’ on 
which to base other coals. 

The anthracite proposition is not caus- 
ing very much excitement in this territory 
as it is generally well along in the sum- 
mer before stocks arrive and by that time 
everything will mosi likely be adjusted. 
The retailers are the only ones who are 
uneasy as the consumer in the North- 
western territory has been educated to 
buy early during the summer and is now 
inquiring for prices from the retailer. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

The coal market in St. Louis is prac- 
tically at a standstill. There are perhaps 
a dozen cars a week of Kentucky coal 
coming in, and the Illinois mines are 
loading the coal that was dumped on the 
ground previous to the shut down, when- 
ever there is a demand for any. How- 
ever, the demand is very small, and all 
grades of Standard coal have been prac- 
tically a drug on the market. 

There is still some Carterville coal 
being offered as low as 31.40 for lump 
and egg at the mines, and screenings at 
Sl. Standard lump has been offered as 
low as $1.15 and screenings at 75c. At 
the present time there is no market in 
St. Louis for anything in the wavy of 

Portland, Ore. 

Coal dealers in Portland are having 
no trouble filling orders as it is the time 
of year when the demand is light. Cool 
weather is prevailing at this time, how- 
ever, and the demand may be strength- 
ened a little should it continue for a 
couple of weeks. 

A topic of much interest here is the 
question of the policy to be followed in 


regard to the coal lands of Alaska, the 
sentiment here being in favor of throw- 
ing them open for development. Cheaper 
coal here would have a tendency to stimu- 
late many industries, and the establish- 
ment of large coal bunkers in Portland 
harbor is being given serious considera- 
tion by the Port of Portland Commis- 
sion. The arrival of coal from foreign 
destinations has been very light here 
since the first of the year. 

Production and Transportation 

The following table sows the surplus 

shortages of cars on 169 roads on 


Apr. 11 

Surplus Short. Surplus 

9,646 7.970 



Other kinds 

Total 94,943 

Only section to report a decrease in 
idle cars was Montana, Wyoming and 
Nebraska, where a total of only 336 idle 
reported, compared with 1551 
before. Increased demand 
was the cause. 

ears Was 



for cars 


Washington, D. C.—Bids are asked by 
the Paymaster-General, U. S. N., Chief 
of the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, 
Navy Department, Washington, D. C., for 
furnishing bituminous and semi-bitumin- 
ous coal, to be delivered in such quanti- 
ties and at such times as may be requirea 
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1913. The coal is to be 2240 Ib. to the 
ton, and is to have an analysis indicating 
quality not lower than the following: 

Moisture, “‘delivered coal,” 3 per cent.; 
ash, ‘dry coal,” 10 per cent.; volatile mat- 
ter, “dry coal,” 22 per cent.; sulphur, 
“drv coal,” 134 per cent.; “B. t.u.,” “dry 
coal,”’ not less than 14,200 per pound. 

Schedule 4492, opening 10 a.m., 
May 14: 

Class 1, 1300 tons bituminous coal, for 
delivery at the naval powder depot, Lake 
Denmark, Morris County, N. J. 

Class 2, for delivery at Navy Yard, 
Philadelphia, Penn., 18,000 tons semi-bi- 
tuminous coal. 

Class 3, for delivery at the Naval Aca- 
demy, Annapolis, Md., 12.000 tons bitum- 
inous coal for steaming purposes. 

Class 4, for delivery at the Naval En- 
gineering Experiment Station, near An- 
napolis, Md., 1500 tons bituminous coal. 

Class 5, for delivery at the Naval Hos- 
pital, Washington, D. C., 2500 tons semi- 
bituminous coal, best quality. 

Class 6, for delivery at the Navy Yard, 
Washington, D. C., 30,000 tons bitum- 
inous coal, to be standard grade New 
River, Pocahontas or Georges Creek coal, 
and to be crushed so that it will pass 
through a ring two inches in diameter. 


Class 7, to be delivered at the Navy 
Yard, Norfolk, Va., 15,000 tons, semi-bi- 
tuminous coal. 

Class 8, to be delivered at the Naval 
Hospital, Norfolk, Va., 2500 tons semi- 
bituminous coal, best quality. 

Class 9, to be delivered at the Naval 
Training Station, North Chicago, IIl., 13,- 
500 tons bituminous coal. 

Bidders are required to state: The 
commercial name of the coal, name of 
mine or mines, location of mine or mines, 
name or other designation of the coal bed 
or beds, British thermal units per pound, 
percentage of sulphur in ‘‘dry coal,” per- 
centage of ash in “dry coal,’ percentage 
of volatile matter in “‘dry coal,” moisture 
in coal as received, and to furnish sam- 
ples for test. 


Comparative statement of bituminous 
shipments over the principal Ohio rail- 
roads, for February, 1911-12, in short 

Hocking Valley .... 
Toledo & Ohio Cen- 
Baltimore & Ohio.. 
Wheeling & Lake 
Cleveland, Lorain & 
Zanesville & 
Toledo Division, 
Pennsylvania Co.. 53,: 6 
Lake Erie, Alliance 
& Wheeling 643 
Marietta, Columbus 
& 408 942 
Wabash Pittsburgh 
Terminal ,432 





& Michi- 

1,196,697 2,398,927 



The following is a comparative state- 

ment of water shipments of coal and coke 

to California during the last three years 
in long tons: 


British Columbia . 
Great Britain. . 
NORMOIABD 5 6 50ii6's <5. 

16,940 50,342 

Washington... . < 
69,696 101,265 

Eastern.... 80,338 


Total. . $86,385 

Great Britain. 

Washington. . d : 

2 500 

74,759 = 74,438 93,816 


The following is a comparative state- 
ment of the British fuel exports for the 
first three months of 1911-12, in tons: 





Other sorts... .. 0660s 

Patented fuel 

Bunker coal 

Totals . 

4,051 302 




Vol. 1, No.. 29 


In the East Kootenai district of Brit- 
ish Columbia there was a falling 
off curing the year of 1911 of 605,. 
000 tons of coal and 40,000 tons of coke 
as compared with the production in 1910, 
and the total coal shortage for the whole 
province was 365,000 tons. Much loss 
was sustained by the various mineral 
smelters, due to the coal strike, and the 
shutting off of the coke supply. 


The imports of coal into Dutch ports 
during 1911 showed an increase over the 
previous year’s figures to the extent of 
nearly one million tons, the total being 
11,344,981 tons, as against 10,347,138 
tons. In 1910 a similar increase over 
1909 was recorded. The exports last 
year amounted to 4,330,282 tons, show- 
ing an increase of 314,353 tons over the 
4,015,929 tons exported in 1910. 

Financial Notes 

The New York Stock Exchange 
listed $960,000 additional first and 
ond, 40-year, 5° bonds of the Consoli- 
dation Coal Co., due 1950, making the 
total amount listed $13,960,000. New 
bonds are issued for additions and im- 

The Delaware & Hudson Co.’s 
and .bond holdings increased from 
967,687 in 1910 to $27,014,189 at the close 
of 1911. The gain was almost wholly 
accounted for by the increase in Hudson 
Coal stock from $100,000 to $2,500,000. 
This served to settle the account owed 
by the coal company to the railroad com- 
pany. The change in bonds held by the 
company’s treasury was under $500,000. 

Annual report of the International 
Coal and Coke Co. shows disbursements 
for last year as follows: Dividends, $56,- 
073.38: maintenance, $77,554.28, and im- 
provements, $47,029.61. The company is 
capitalized at $3,000,000 and owns mines 
in Alberta, British Columbia. Operations 
were suspended during eight months of 
last year because of strikes. It 
lieved the company will make a bette) 
showing during the current year. 

United States District Court for north- 
ern district of Ohio, in the case of pro- 
tective committee for Pittsburgh, Wheel- 
ing & Lake Erie Coal Co. 4% bondhold- 
ers vs. Wheeling & Lake Erie Railroad 
Co. and others, held railroad company is 
obliged to pay off $200,000 prior lien ob- 
ligations of coal company. Decision es- 
tablished that where corporation is or- 
ganized and managed simply as adjun¢ 
to another corporation, principal corpor- 
ation is liable for debts of subsidiary. 

Chairman Tavlor, of the Pittsbur: 
Coal Co., gives the following details o! 
the deals with the H. C. Frick Coke Co 
and the stockholders of the Monong:- 
hela River C. C. & C. Co.: The compat! 
sold about 7000 acres of coking coal land 
with improvements, at $1450 per acre ‘¥ 
the Frick company. The final settlemen 
will bring the proceeds up about $10,000.- 
000. A payment of $9,561,000 has been 
made in H. C. Frick Coke bonds, whic! 
were sold at par, less 1 per cent. com- 
mission, and with the proceeds $8,600,000 
Pittsburg Coal bonds were purchased at 
110 and interest. 




is be-