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Vol. 1 

PTNHE eves of the world have been watching the 
.... phases of state activity in New Zealand, 
hoping to learn something that might be used 

in the social reform of other nations. Having become 
the sociological experiment station of the universe, 
she is rather expected to try out all radical ideas for 
the benefit of humanity. The country is remote, has 
a homogeneous population of intelligent, well edu- 
cated people who have a high standard of public virtue; 
the climate is healthful and the soil fertile, so that im- 
portant conditions are favorable to the work in hand. 

If in any country, therefore, the ideals of Utopia 
could be realized, surely New Zealand affords the 
‘hance. But has the aim been accomplished? Let us 
briefly analyze the results the government has secured 
irom having established Old Age Pensions, Parcels 
Post, Savings Bank, Fire Insurance, Life Insurance, 

system of Telegraphs, Telephone Exchanges, and 
rom operating Coal Mines. 

To receive a state pension the citizen must be 65 
cars old, sober and reputable and 25 years a resident. 
is income must not exceed $300 annually, and his ac- 
mulated property must ngt amount to $1300 or over. 
ie full pension of $130 a year is reducible by $5 for 
ery $5 of income over $170. Thus when the 
plicant’s yearly income reaches $300, the right to 
\ pension is lost. Likewise, a reduction of $5 is 
de for every $50 of accumulated property. 

As to state insurance, state ownership of mines, 
i government management of railways and other 
lic enterprises, the plan of conducting all such 
ivities on sound business principles has lately been 
pted. This policy prevails not only where the 
‘¢ is competing with private effort, but in govern- 
it monopolies, where lack of competition tends to 
© expensive management, obsolete methods and 
casonable concessions to public clamor. The 
sent aim is to make each business pay at least 
-rest on the capital invested. 

(he most recent reports at hand show that the 
iual profits of the Post and Postal Telegraph 
“partments are approximately $500,000. The State 
val Mines netted the government another $100,000. 
‘© railways showed a deficit of $1,030,000, while 

NEW YORK, MAY 11, 1912 No. 31 

the net profits to the state from 5 per cent. loans 
made to settlers was $325,000. 

Telegrams and telephone service are cheaper than 
in the United States. Railway fares are practically 
the same (2c. per mile). The price of coal is higher 
than when the government first went into the busi- 
ness. Wages, as compared with the cost of living, are 
slightly lower than in this country, and the net public 
debt of New Zealand ($329,000,000) amounts to 
$340 per head, which forms a striking comparison 
with our net debt of $10 per head. The enormous 
net debt of New Zealand, however, does not seem so 
great when compared with the total private wealth 
of the country, which is $1628 per head, a greater per- 
capita wealth than that of any other nation. 

It would be unfair to say that the mild form of 
socialism prevailing in New Zealand is a failure. But 
has it improved conditions? Of 1,000,000 inhabitants, 
130,000 are directly dependent on the state. Poverty 
has not been abolished, for there are just as many 
paupers in the towns of New Zealand as in American 
cities. Also the distribution of wealth is not much 
more equal, since statistics show that 1 per cent 
of the families in that country own 35 per cent. of 
the wealth, a condition but little better than that 
which exists in the United States. 

Strange to say, socialistic legislation has had an 
effect that certainly was not socialistic. Discon- 
tented and land-hungry laborers, through state aid, 
have been converted into prosperous citizens, strong 
supporters of the freehold and ardent advocates of 
the sanctity of private property. 

There is still a discontented class, who, having 
little to tax and nothing to lose, desire to exploit the 
rich, regarding the capitalist as a goose to be kept 
for the sake of its golden eggs. We should study 
New Zealand’s scheme of compulsory arbitration and 
her system of old-age pensions. Also, if it will make 
our coal industry more stable, we would like to see 
Uncle Sam operating a few mines of his own, but 
to believe that results so far attained in this far-off 
country point a way out of the tangled woods of 
social unrest is hardly justified by the facts that exist. 



Vol. 1, No. 31 

The Acme Co.’s Plant in Wyoming 

The mines of the Sheridan, Wyo. coal 
field are operating on seams that have 
been designated by the Geological Sur- 
vey as sub-bituminous, but are more 
commonly known locally as_ lignite. 
Whether this coal is a true lignite, in 
the common acceptance of the term, is a 
question the Survey men evaded by giv- 
ing the new name. The coal differs 
from the ordinary lignite in that it con- 
tains less moisture and far less ash. 
In color it is black instead of brown, 
and it has a high gloss, almost as bright 
as the best grades of anthracite. It 
burns freely to a clean, light ash, hav- 
ing a resemblance to wood ash. 

Because of the fact that it is mined 
from large clean seams and nearly all 
of the mines leave a coal roof, the re- 
sulting product is exceptionally clean. 
It contains barely more than traces of 
sulphur. For steam purposes it is a 
good fuel, and is used in large quan- 
tities by the C. B. & Q. R.R. As a 
coai for domestic use it is in some ways 
superior to the ordinary bituminous, as 
in burning it leaves almost no soot, and 
for this reason, as well as its freedom 
from clinkers and sulphurous gas, it 
derives merited popularity. 

Of the several mines in the Sheridan 
district the newest and one of the best 
equipped, as well as one of the largest, 
is the Acme Coal Co.’s property. This 
company is but two years old, and owns 
three mines. Mine No. 3 is operating 
in the top seam of the district, which 
is known locally as the Monarch. Mines 
1 and 2 are working in the Carney, or 
second seam, the Monarch being eroded 
at this point. Mines 1 and 2 are on a 
property comprising about 300 acres, 3 
miles west of the 1100-acre tract on 
which Mine No. 3 is located. The for- 
mer property is operated under a short 
term lease, and the latter under a ninety- 
nine-year contract. All three openings 
are made in the bluffs of the Tongue 
River, by drifts having a slight inward 


The main entry of the Acme No. 3 
mine is in the bluffs of the Tongue 
River, on the northerly side of the 
stream. From the pit mouth the track, 
which has a 42-in. gage, and is laid 
with 45-lb. rails, both on the surface 
and in the main haulageway, follows 
the bluffs westerly, and crossing a steel 
bridge, enters the yards. At a point 
25C ft. from the foot of the inclined 
approach to the tipple, the electric loco- 
motives are uncoupled and the cars 
picked up, one at a time by a eable 
haul. The essential features of this 

haul are a 114-in. steel cable to which 

By Jesse Simmons * 

A detailed description of one of 
the largest and best equipped 
plants in the Sheridan, Wyo., 
field, a general description of 
which was recently published in 
COAL AGE. An unusual refine- 
ment in sizing the coal is attained 
by the use of a shaking screen 
with both a lateral and longitud- 
inal motion; this is one of only 
four or five such screens in use 
in this country. 

*Deadwood, 8S. D. 

are attached 4-wheel trolleys, equipped 
with dogs which engage lugs on the car 
axles, the trolleys running on _ 16-lb. 
rails. The haulage is controlled by a 
friction clutch, making it possible to give 
the proper feed to the cars going up 
the incline. 

important advantage over other types. 
It is one of four or five in this coun- 
try, but it has been extensively and suc- 
cessfully used in Germany. 

From this screen coal may be diverted 
into either open or box-cars, a stand- 
ard Ottumwa box-car loader being used 
to load the latter. By cutting out the 
screen, which is done by covering it 
with movable steel plates, mine-run may 
be loaded direct into the cars. As a 
further precaution in the preparation of 
lump, the coal before entering the rail- 
way cars passes over grizzlies, thus re- 
moving the last vestige of slack and 
dust which might have been carried to 
this point. 


The coal passing through the shaker- 
screen may be either diverted to open 
cars on the slack track, or to an ele- 
vator boot from whence it is conveyed 
by a 30-in. rubber-belt conveyor, 265 


NS “os 


At the foot of the incline the cars 
are picked up by a cable haul similar 
in detail to the one described, which 
takes them to the top of the tipple. The 
top of the incline is 49 ft. above the 
yard tracks, and has a grade of 15 deg. 
The cars are dumped over a crossover 
dump, and automatically transferred by 
means of a double track system, down 
the approach, and madé up into trains 
for return to the mine. 

When the coal is dumped from the 
mine cars it enters a large bin provided 
with a movable bottom, or feeder plate, 
arranged to be operated at varying rates 
of speed. This delivers the coal to a 
shaker-screen of special design having 
a capacity of 3000 tons per day and 
openings 6 in. in diameter. Having both 
longitudinal and lateral motion, the 
makers of this screen claim it has an 

ft. long, to a revolving screen 65 
above the ground, at the top of wha 
is known as the re-screening plant. Th 
screen is 24 ft. in length, and for on 
half of the length an outer screc” 
7 ft. in diameter surrounds the ma’ 
screen, which is 6 ft. in diameter. b 
ginning at the upper end, the openin 
in the main, or 6-ft. screen, are 
follows: 1-in., for the first 12 ft.; © 
a 6-ft. section with 2-in. openings, Ww '~ 
the remaining 6 ft. has 3'%-in. oF 
ings. The outer screen has '4-in. or’ 
ings, and surrounds that portion of the 
inner screen having 1-in. openings. 
The following grades of coal can big 
made at this plant: At the main tir’ ©. 
lump, mine-run and slack; at the 
screening plant, slack, pea. nut and eg 
The slack is that portion passing through 
the 14-in. opening; the pea size drops 



May 11, 1912 

1rough the 2-in. opening; the nut 
rrough the 31%-in. screen, and the egg 

that product which has passed through 
he 6-in. screen in the tipple and over 
ie 3%-in. The regular grades may 

e dumped into their respective bins at 
rie re-Screening plant, or the product 
ray be mixed if desired, making not 
only the four sizes of coal as originally 
prepared, but a combination of these sizes 
to meet special market conditions. 

The bins into which the coal is 
screened are made entirely of steel, and 
are of latest modern construction. In 
order to prevent any breakage of the 
coal after having been prepared in the 
revolving screen, it is conveyed to the 
bottom, or coal level, in the bin by 
means of special chutes, constructed as 



and the tipple, the slack is picked up 
by screw conveyors, 6 in. in diameter, 
and delivered to bucket elevators housed 
in steel, which returns the material to 
the screens. This eliminates consider- 
able hand labor and keeps the loading 
tracks free from accumulations of coal. 

At the re-screening plant the bins are 
provided with hoppered chutes over the 
center track, for loading open cars. The 
two tracks at the side are equipped with 
chutes for loading box-cars only. The 
hoppers over the center tracks are 
equipped with improved clam-shell de- 
livery gates. The entire plant is operated 
by electricity, power being secured from 
the Sheridan Electric & Power Co., 
whose plant is close to the tipple, as 
shown in the illustration. Westinghouse, 
alternating current, 3-phase, 60-cycle 
motors, having a capacity of 2300 volts 
are used for driving the tipple and 
screening plant, one 60-hp. motor being 
used at each place. The electric loco- 
motives and coal cutters are driven by 
250-volt direct current. 


The machine and blacksmith shop is 
a reinforced concrete building, 40x60 ft., 
with a steel roof, and equipped with the 
machinery for making all necessary re- 
pairs to cars, mining machines, etc. A 

Dan mrage: So eee 1 na aa 


fo ws: The chute proper is a steel 
b standing nearly vertical and pro- 
\\ 4d with a series of sloping steel 

sh es. The-.coal in passing down the 
c pursues a zig-zag course from 
Si to shelf, and finally arrives at the 
c level in the bin without having 
di sed at any time, a distance which 
Wo. cause it to break. This scheme 
is ely followed in the anthracite terri- 
to. as being the best method of handl- 

inc .oal with minimum breakage. 
neath the storage bins, which have 

a acity of 500 tons, are three rail- 
Way tracks, where coal may be loaded 
fror. the bin. The mouths of the load- 
ing chutes are provided with grizzlies, 
Similar to the equipment at the tipple, 
for removing slack. At both this point 

side track runs into the shop and over 
a pit, giving easy access for a man 
to work under the cars in making small 
repairs. A steel tank with a capacity 
of 75,000 gal. on a steel frame 75 ft. 
high, supplies the miners’ cottages, etc. 

The tipple, re-screening plant and 
bridge across the Tongue River are all 
constructed of steel, resting on heavy 
concrete pillars. The work was done 
under contract, by the Ottumwa Box 
Car Loader Co., of Ottumwa, Iowa. The 
plant was designed by the manager of 
the Acme mines, A. K. Craig, of Sheri- 
dan, and machinery and equipment has 
been purchased from a number of manu- 
facturers, it having been his endeavor 
to secure the best in each particular 


The Acme No. 3 mine started produc- 
ing mine-run coal, for railroad use, in 
February 1911, and during October the 
new tipple was put in operation. The 
re-screening plant will go in com- 
mission at an early date, and this mine 
will then be equipped to produce 3000 
tons of coal per day—and a coal that 
will have as good a preparation as any 
produced in the field. 

At this mine Jeffrey mining machines 
are uSed exclusively, both breast and 
longwall types; they are operated by a 
250-volt direct current. A-Sullivan high 
speed fan, motor-driven, furnishes the 
ventilation, the 30-hp. motor’ on this ma- 
chine being driven by a 2300-volt, al- 
ternating current. Jeffrey electric loco- 
motives are used for haulage. At the 
present time the camp includes a few 
temporary shacks, and 20 employes’ cot- 
tages, completed or under construction; 
a large building, combining a boarding 
house, offices, etc., is also being built.’ 
As fast as necessary additional dwel- 
lings will be erected, and when a store, 
school, church, etc., are completed the 
camp will be quite an imposing one. 
The mine is about one-half mile from 
the main transcontinental line of the 
C. B. & Q. R.R., the grade being almost 
level for this distance. 


In a recent report made by Jno. K. 
Seifert, the workable coal in the 1100- 
acre tract of the No. 3 mine, is placed 
at a thickness of at least 35 ft. This 
is contained in two seams, the Monarch 
or upper seam, having 26 ft., 4 in. of 
workable coal, and the Carney or sec- 
ond seam, about 9 ft. of workable coal. 
The present openings on this property 
are made in the Monarch seam, the 
Carney, which is 42 ft. below, being 
held in reserve. The workable coal 
in this track is figured at 38,500,000 tons. 

Owing to the thickness of the Mon- 
arch seam, the ordinary methods of min- 
ing cannot be followed to advantage. 
There is about 23 ft. of absolutely clean 
coal in this seam, which can be mined 
without touching any kind of rock, bone 
or inferior material. In general it 
has been found that the room-and-pillar 
method, driving the rooms 10 to 12 ft. 
high, and later drawing the pillars, 
bringing down the roof, gives a high 
percentage of recovery. The panel sys- 
tem is used, as it is found necessary to 
stop up abandoned workings, since the 
disintegrated and dirty coal has a ten- 
dency to ignite from spontaneous com- 
bustion if left too long- exposed to the 

Manager Craig, of the Acme mines, 
has devised a system of mining which 
is about to be patented. He claims for 
this system a higher recovery of the 
workable coal in these large seams than 


is possible by any of the methods now 
in use at the various mines. As stated 
he is about to apply for a patent, having 
practically completed all of the prelim- 
inary work and experimentation. 


The mines of this district are particu- 
larly fortunate in that they have abso- 
lute freedom from many of the dis- 
advantages which mark coal operations 
in other districts. The mines are free 
from gas, probably due to the fact that 
the veins are found not far below the 
surface, while the superimposed strata 
is largely sandstone or other porous 
rocks. In mining with a coal roof very 
little, in fact almost no, trouble is ex- 
perienced with caves or falls of rock 

which would injure workmen. 
The Acme mine is typical of the 
district as regards freedom from acci- 
2°8x6Exl8 ” 
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dents; during the two years that this 
mine has been open there has not been 
a single fatal accident, and no serious 
accidents of any kind. The freedom 
from gas makes ventilation a fairly sim- 
ple problem, in fact the fan equipment 
at these mines would be totally inade- 
quate were there any gas present. The 
fans are practicaliy used only for the 
purpose of blowing out powder smoke. 

The one drawback. which is not se- 
rious if anticipated and properly guarded 
against, is danger from fire. The slack 
coal, especially if mixed with dirt and 
rock where the roof has come in, in 
some abandoned room, is very likely to 
ignite from spontaneous combustion. 
Knowing this the operators use the panel 
system of mining, usually running about 
30 rooms to a panel. Thus, when a 
30-room panel has been worked out, it 
is only necessary to stop two openings 
in order to completely close up the sec- 


tion. These stoppings are ordinarily 
made with concrete. 


The following analyses were made by 
the Commercial Testing & Engineering 
Co., Chicago: : 

Sample top to bottom of 8-ft. seam, 
Acme No. 1: 

PAE Seis wi hw § wcle itis woes 17.83 
PRMANN I Fer ceterrc ic ayn ata rine pita eoeie) Cee eee 4.11 
Volatile matter ..... 58.20 
Fixed carbon ....<:. 19.86 

WE ko te ee ore ...-100.00 

ESS ch Te Pa ame Norge ceria Mea AN rage 9950 
RUNERBMN ERT 552-5 oni wt saa bas a eRe erro 0.24 

Lower 12 ft. of Monarch seam Acme 
No. 3: 

BUI MI On oo Sv ae ae wR ae 17.92 
PRUNE cei ewe aie i e350) eee 9 we lendcas ede alah anna 3.58 
We IIe BBICOT oc ow 0 ow wee es 44.81 
ie oe Te Fg CC smal em aoe reer IS ne coe 33.69 

2 LTC) ("> MRR dee tere eer ene eraser ae een 100.00 
WRN has is a aeons, 3s a SIG Se OAR ee 10,247 
1G OE ee Deeeneaieaerreee pagenrayere ic ee. coe 0.39 

This quality of coal would make a 

A " 

Die pene 
Beaded Ceiling 

splendid fuel for use in gas producers, 
probably as good, or better than the high 
class Virginia bituminous coal. These 
analyses are typical of this section, and 
when it is considered that this coal 
is mined absolutely free from foreign 
material (both the floor and roof being 
coal) it at once marks this district as 
unique in the coal industry. 

ACME Nos. 1 AND 2 

The coal from the A@me Nos. 1 and 2 
mines is dumped over a single frame 
tipple; both mines are drifts, with slight 
inward dips. The coal is mined from 
the Carney seam, the thickness varying 
from 9 to 12 ft. Like the Acme No. 3, 
the room-and-pillar method, combined 
with the panel system, is used. Rooms 
are 16 ft. wide and 200 ft. long, leaving 
15-ft. pillars. Four Jeffffrey short-wall 
machines are used for undercutting. The 
miners drill and blast their own coal, 

Vol. 1,-No. 31 

which work, as well as undercutting an. 
loading, is done on a schedule per to 
made with the local Miners’ Union 
These Unions are affiliated with the 
United Mine Workers. 

Two 5-ton Jeffrey electric locomotives; 
are used in bringing the coal from th: 
main partings to the tipple; horses are 
used in the rooms. The mines are elec- 
trically equipped, power at 22,000 volts. 
3-phase, 60-cycle, alternating current be- 
ing obtained from the Sheridan Electric 
Light & Power Co. This current is 
stepped down in three, 75-kv.-a., West- 
inghouse transformers to 2300 volts, and 
then drives a motor generator set, com- 
posed of a 220-hp., Allis-Chalmers 
motor, direct connected to an Allis- 
Chalmers, direct current generator, pro- 
ducing at 1130 r.p.m., a 250-volt, 545 
ampere current; this current is used for 
the undercutting machines, locomotives 

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Coat AGE 


and tipple. In addition to the ab 
equipment, the transformer house ¢ 
tains a small transformer for stepp 
the current down to 110 voits for ° 
lighting circuit, used both in the m 
and town. As at present operated 
plant is capable of producing 1000 ' 
of coal in 8 hours. 

With the three mines mentioned 
Acme Coal Co. is a strong compe! 
for the business of the Sheridan 
and the completion of the plant at 
3 will place the company in sp! 

position. The Acme Coal Co. is 0 

by two men, A. K. Craig and Ora 

nell. The former is the practical or 
and the latter the selling head. th 
are well qualified for the work they ~‘¢ 
undertaken, having had long exper. ‘°° 
in the coal business. To both of em 
the writer desires to acknowled:- bee 

courtesies which have made it Pp‘ 

to secure the data for this ariicl 


May 11, 1912 


In keeping with the equipment of the 

ne, the company is erecting a group 
dwellings for the housing of em- 

oyees which will bear comparison with 

)se of any mining camp in the country. 

ie plan of house No. 3, which is re- 

oduced herewith, is typical of the vil- 

se which is being buit. House No. 3, 
a as it is designated in the specifications, 
has four rooms besides a bath room, 
pantry and two closets; the conveniences 
‘elude a front porch extending the width 
of the building, electric lights, running 
water, sewer connections and hard pine 
floors. The extreme dimensions of the 
outside walls give the house a width of 
2? ft., 8 in. and a length of 27 ft., 6 in. 
The foundation is of concrete, with 
courses of concrete blocks laid 



studding and lath, plastered with two 
coats and finished hard and 
Chimneys rest on concrete piers which 
extend from the solid ground up to 
the floor level, taking the weight off 
the floors. A house of this description 
rents to an employee for S20. per month, 
including water, light and coal. 

House No. 1 contains two rooms, a 
living room, 12x13-ft., and a_ kitchen 
9x10-ft., besides a bathroom, pantry and 
closet. House No. 2 contains three 
rooms, a living room 12x12-ft., bed 
room 9x12-ft. and a kitchen 11 ft., 6 in. 
x12 ft., also a bathroom, pantry and 


The Sheridan Electric Light & Power 
Co. has a most uptodate power plant 


ears KRG. : 
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40°16" Top Light | “P24 VW 
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a +; 
| ror] Porch j 
I > oo 
Coat Ace (iccieencccnieall 


e the ground line; upon the founda- 
and butting upon the blocks, are 
the floor joists, and upon these the 
1 floor is spiked and the studding 
i. After the studding is raised and 
outside weather boarding put on, 
nside of the exterior walls is board- 
> with rough lumber and into the 
thus formed, between the ship 
ind sheathing, concrete is poured 
vell tamped. After the wall thus 
‘ucted, and .nto which pipes carry- 
ie electric wiring have been intro- 
as the work progresses, the in- 
rough boarding is removed and 
‘all pointed up with rich concrete. 
it of alabastine or whitewash com- 

> the interior wall. 
side from this innovation in construc- 
the house is completed in the usual 
\.:kmanlike manner, good plumbing be- 
used, and a heavy coating of paint 
Protecting the woodwork. Partition walls 
aie of the usual construction, 2x4 

on land belonging to the Acme Coal 
Co., having the surface right under a 
50-year lease. The location is 9 miles 
from the city of Sheridan, a place of 
10,000 inhabitants, which is served by 
its pole lines. The coal mines of the 
Sheridan district are close at hand, the 
most distant operating mine, the Kooi, 
being only a little over 3 miles away. 

An interurban electric road is build- 
ing from Sheridan to the coal mines, and 
has contracted for power generated at 
this plant. From these details it will 
be seen that the plant has a convenient 
location for the generation of power for 
the city of Sheridan, and is advantage- 
ously situated to give service to the 
mines and electric railway. 

The plant is located about 200 ft. 
from the Acme No. 3 tipple, and it is the 
intention to install a conveyor for trans- 
ferring the coal from the tipple to the 
boiler room of. the plant. The boiler 
room contains three, Heine, water-tube 

smooth. ° 


boilers, one of which is being overated 
under a test with a Roney stoker; should 
this machine prove successful in the 
handling of lignite slack, a large field 
for its use will be opened up. There is 
demand for a stoker which will fire 
the slack coal from the Sheridan mines, 
as dozens of steam plants in Wyoming, 
South Dakota, Nebraska, etc., are using 
coal from this field, and a very large 
proportion of them are using hand firing. 

The superheated steam from these 
boilers is fed to two, Westinghouse- 
Parsons turbines, direct connected to 
Westinghouse alternating current .gen- 
erators, which at 3600 r.p.m., produce 
1250 kw. of 2300-volt current. Further 
equipment in the engine room includes 
transformers which take the 2300-volt 
current and step it up to 22,000 volts, 
which is the line pressure. Some of 
the 2300-volt current is used at the ad- 
joining coal property, and a motor gen- 
erator set, in the same room, is driven 
by this current. This set comprises 
an Allis-Chalmers, 220-hp. motor, 
actuated by 54 amperes of alternating 
current, 60-cycle, 3-phase, at 2300 volts, 
direct connected to an Allis-Chalmers, 
direct current generator, producing cur- 
rent at 250 volts no load, 275 volts full 
load, 545 amperes; the set operates at 
1130 revolutions per minute. 

Exhaust steam from the turbines is 
taken through a Leblanc condensing sys- 
tem. Water for this system is taken 
from the Tongue River, on the banks of 
which the plant is situated. 

Annual Banquet of Mine Off- 
cials at Pittsburg 

Superintendents, mine foremen, assist- 
ant foremen and fire bosses of the seven- 
teenth bituminous inspection district of 
Pennsylvania held their first annual ban- 
quet at the Monongahela House, Pitts- 
burg, on Saturday evening, April 13. One 
hundred and fifty-four mining men of the 
district were in attendance. 

W.H. Pratt was elected toastmaster and 
with a few appropriate remarks called 
upon the following, to address the gather- 
ing: J. I. Pratt, mine inspector of the 
seventeenth bituminous district; David 
Young, mine inspector of the fourteenth 
bituminous district; J. B. Johnston, editor 
of the Coal and Coke Operator; R. H. 
Heath of Homestead, Penn.; Hugh Gibbs, 
inspector for the Pittsburg-Buffalo Co., 
Canonsburg, Penn.; H. D. Thompson, su- 
perintendent of the Pittsburg Coal Co., 
Willock, Penn.; and Dr. McKnight, of 
Willock, Penn. David Young, of Free- 
port and T. A. Jackson, of Curtisville, 
were invited guests. 

It is intended to make these meetings 
an annual affair and much credit is due 
John I. Pratt for bringing the mine offi- 
cials together to discuss various mine 
problems of the day. 



Vol. 1, No. 31 

Water Purification for Collieries 

When water which is possessed of 
temporary hardness, is boiled or brought 
near the boiling point, carbonic acid gas 
is given off and carbonates are precipi- 
tated. This treatment suffices if there 
is no permanent hardness or other im- 
purity to be dealt with but when per- 
manent hardness is present, the water 
must be chemically treated. In the 
heater-softener, made by the Eriths’ 
Engineering Co., of London, the use of 
lime is dispensed with and the arrange- 
men of the apparatus is as shown in Fig. 
1. The supplies of cold water and soda 
solution are delivered together into a 
trough near the top of the upright por- 
tion of the apparatus, whence the water 
overflows onto removable trays, and 
finally falls into the settling chamber. 
At the same time, exhaust steam is de- 
livered through the oil separator in the 
upper part of the shell surrounding the 
trays, and any excess of exhaust steam 
that there may be, escapes through a 
vent in the top of the shell. 

Steam at atmospheric pressure is capa- 
ble of heating the water up to about 
210 deg. F., and the air and carbonic 
acid gas in the water are driven off 
through the vent pipe, a large proportion 
of the carbonates and precipitates being 
delivered at the bottom of the settling 
chamber. Moreover, the soda ash solu- 
tion, which removes the sulphates, chlo- 
rides, and acids, has an accelerated ac- 
tion due to the heat. The water from 
the settling chamber passes upwards 
through a horizontal filter. 

At the side of the settling tank will 
be seen a water space in which is lo- 
cated a float for controlling the admis- 
sion of cold water and soda. The sur- 
face of the water in the settling chamber 
is occasionally flushed over in order to 
remove the scum due to oil from the 
oil separator. This is accomplished by 
admitting an excess of cold water and 
the portion thus flushed off passes into 
a trap or water seal. It will be seen 
that back pressure cannot occur with 
this arrangement and there is no danger 
of choking from deposits. The travel of 
the water after passing over the trays 
still gives plenty of opportunity for pre- 
cipitation, and the low cost of soda ash, 
which is the only reagent used, makes the 
process inexpensive. 


The Paterson Engineering Co., Ltd., 
have a large number of water purifica- 
tion machines working in connection with 
coal mining plants and the majority of 
these are arranged for the utilization of 
exhaust steam from hoisting engines, 
haulage engines and other steam driven 
auxiliaries. Fig. 2 shows a type of ap- 

paratus in which the supply of hard 

Special Correspondence 

Water softeners which make 
use of waste heat, and combined 
preheaters and softeners are fre- 
quently installed. Iron salts re- 
quire special apparatus for their 
removal. Aluminum possesses 
remarkable properties in connec- 
tion with the softening of water, 
which are not, as yet, thoroughly 
understood. The third of a se- 
ries of articles on water-purify- 
ing processes and apparatus. 

water is controlled by a float in the 
feed-pump suction tank and is led 
through a chemical regulating apparatus, 
which measures it continuously by means 
of a narrow vertical discharge weir. 

A large float controls the position of 
two tapered valves discharging the soft- 

by driving off the carbonic acid gas an. 
precipitating the lime salts. 

For the removal of the permanen: 
hardness, sodium carbonate is necessary, 
and this is added through the Paterson 
measuring gear in accurate proportion to 
the amount of water passing. The heatec 
and softened water passes into the pre- 
cipitating chamber where the bulk of the 
impurities settle out, final purification be- 
ing effected by double filtration through 
wood fiber. One objection to the open- 
type exhaust heater is the contamina- 
tion of the feed water by oil. This is 
overcome in the Paterson apparatus by 
the addition of sulphate of alumina 
which coagulates the oil and fine sus- 
pended matter into tangible masses, read- 
ily arrested by the filtering medium. 


Reference was made in a previous 
article to the removal of iron salts from 

ener reagents. The level of these valves is i as 
is kept constant by ball cocks connected | 
to the chemical storage tanks. The hard | - 
water and reagents are thoroughly mixed a ean 
in a mixing tray before passing through — 
a water seal into the heating chamber. iE | | 
The exhaust steam passes through - Cold Hard | HF 
ae P aie and Water Inlet SS Exhaust 
liminary grease separator (where the oil <a § ——-ae Inlet 
p >» =} al, 
: 7 | ° a Hi 
Automatic keguletor ’ i | 
for Water and Soda rn] i 
= ——— oe —= |"! >| ——SapaS|E|]|]|]|]|]|-=-===—= S 
2 Ra jo ——s 3s 
oe | eee eee oy = SSS iN 
Se = Le ee =a-- = = =Skimmer—' & 
+2 re 2 Seas | i eee VY 
=z oeg ee ae coe cee we as Core ae eare ae Tone S 
\ ogee | | eeu eee wensebee é 4. Water 
2 oon = ey a Bene ————- = - 
EI , - OF Y _ f ’ ///// —— 77 


from the engines is removed) to the 
heating chamber. Here it passes througn 
the trays in a counter-flow direction, 
finally escaping to the atmosphere. 
The heating trays are constructed of 
light sheet steel and are easily with- 
drawn for cleansing purposes. The water 
falls from the distributing box into the 
center of the top tray. Owing to the 
great length of the tr@ the water over- 
flows the edges in exceedingly thin films, 
which cling to the underside and drop 
from the center into the middle of the 
tray immediately below. After working 
its way to the edges of the second tray 
it again overflows onto the underside and 
drops into the middle of the third tray 
and so on. By this method exhaust 
steam comes into contact with the films 
of water and the temporary hardness is 
removed without the aid of chemicals, 

mine water. The plant referred to, \ 
an automatic self-cleansing filter erec: 
by Messrs. Royles, Ltd., at the Tyldes' 
colliery for removing ochre colored : 
purities due to the presence of i: 
compounds in the water, a clear efflu 
resulting. Messrs. Royles have also 
veloped a special type of eliminator 
underground waters containing bicar 
ate of iron which as soon as it is 
posed to air is changed into iron 0. ~ 
causing the water to assume a res. 
brown color. Deposits of such sedin 
are apt to choke pipes and tubes 
water thus affected is hardly suitab: 
either boiler-feed or for bathing 
cleansing purposes. A brief note 
cerning this iron eliminator will t'ere- 
fore be of interest to colliery engiicers 
who have to deal with this particular 
form of impurity. 


May 11, 1912 

The device is illustrated in Fig. 3 
nd consists of a spraying tank A, coke 
‘ower B, and a gravel filter which is 
seriodically cleansed by means of air. 
“he untreated water flows into the spray- 
ag tank, the bottom of which is perfor- 
ted with small holes that allow the 
water to pass through onto the coke bed 
veneath, in the form of a fine shower. 
Water and air are thus thoroughly mixed 

Filling up Pipe 


the filter is then maintained for a few 
minutes and the muddy water is drawn 
off through the mud valve. 


Mention was made also of the re- 
markable action of aluminum on water, 
in connection with preventing hard scale 
in boilers, and some reference should be 
included to the Neff-Brandes apparatus 



Hard Warer & 


lo Bi ile rs 

Storage Tank-->F 

Chermical Supply 


Wood Fibre Strainer: 

Precipiraring. Chamber 


~~ Studge Outlet --~ 

Chemical Supply 





‘he absorption of oxygen causes the 
Proipitation of iron oxide. This pre- 
c: ‘ition is continued throughout the 
ze of the water in fine streams over 
f ‘oke, as the sides of the coke 
are perforated to admit more air. 
ting of iron oxide speedily covers 
oke, and this accelerates the sepa- 
Te’ -@ action. ; 

‘om the coke tower, the water passes 
ine form of a fine shower onto the 

g filter where the iron oxide re- 
Mc "ing in suspension is arrested and 
fin’ 'y the water is delivered at the point 
D ‘. a purified condition. When the 
filty has to be cleaned, the mud valve E 
iS onened to the drain, and the air blower 

P ‘orces in a supply of air at the same 
time that water is admitted to the lower 
Sicc of the filter. Energetic flushing of 

which has been installed in Kainscht, 
near Meseritz, Germany. The boiler at 
this plant, used for driving air-pumping 
engines, was supplied with water from 
a ditch running over a neighboring mine. 
This water was of a particularly hard 
quality, the scale formed on the boilers 
being excessive. The Neff-Brandes ap- 
paratus, when installed, not only de- 
stroyed the adherent boiler scale, leaving 
in its place a scanty gray powder, the 
greater part of which was completely 
removed from the boiler by flushing out, 
but the pressure of steam was there- 
after maintained with ease, and the 
boiler plates were kept in good condi- 
tion. Dry steam of a bluish tint was 
obtained instead of steam having a gray 
appearance, indicating excessive moist- 


The Neff-Brandes apparatus has been 
brought to England under the name of 
the “Luminator” treatment. The opera- 
tion consists solely in running the water 
down the channels of a steeply inclined 
corrugated aluminum plate, and the water 
after this treatment is passed directly 
into the boilers. No reagents of any 
sort are added. The action of the pro- 
cess, so far as at present can be de- 
termined, is as follows: 

The surface of the aluminum plate, 
being kept clean and active by occasional 
scrubbing, slowly disintegrates and forms 
an extremely fine powder of aluminum 
in the colloidal state. This fine powder 
is washed off the surface of the plate 
by the water passing over it at a high 
velocity and is carried with the feed 
weter into the boiler. In the. boiler, 
these extremely minute metallic particles, 

Inlet | =\ 
Ss » 
Coke Tower 
> 2, B 

Fic. 3. 


which remain in suspension in the water, 
form nuclei for the evolution of carbonic 
acid gas and also for the crystalization of 
the carbonates in the water. This crys- 
talization thus occurs on the aluminum 
particles instead of on the boiler sur- 
faces and there is finally deposited a 
soft and non-adherent mud. 

When the water contains permanent 
hardness the effect on the sulphates is 
not definite. The sulphate crystals form 
in the ordinary way but are separated 
from one another by the non-adherent 
carbonate mud, and are thus prevented 
from forming a close scale. This is 
briefly the theory of the operation of 
the process, although there are undoubt- 
edly other actions occurring which have 
not yet been fully demonstrated by ex- 



Vol. 1, No. 31 

Review of lowa Mine Explosions 

From the inquiries I have received of 
late it seems that the Iowa method of 
slowing down the fan at firing time is 
receiving considerable attention in other 
states. In the discussion relative to the 
advocacy of this method the following 
questions have been frequently asked: 

(1) What is the practice, in lowa 
mines, regarding the speed of the fan at 
firing time ? 

(2) Has the slowing down of the fan 
at firing time put a stop to explosions and 
windy shots in Iowa mines where this 
practice has been observed ? 

(3) Does experience in Iowa mines 
show that the slowing down of the fan at 
firing time reduces the danger, or the 
probability that an explosion will occur? 

(4) Does experience in Iowa mines 
show that the slowing down of the fan at 
firing time lessens the force of an ex- 
plosion and makes it less destructive 
should one occur ? 

My answers to the above questions are 
deduced from the official reports of Iowa 
explosions, and from my own personal 
observation and experience. They are 
as follows: 

(1) The genera! practice in this state 
has been for the past several years and 
is today, in all new mines or mines not 
extensively developed, to stop or slow 
down the fan, a little before or at firing 
time. In practically all our more de- 
veloped mines, however, the fan is al- 
lowed to run at its usual rate of speed; 
that is to say, there is no change made ia 
the speed of the fan, at firing time. 

After the Pekay and Cedar mines ex- 
plosions the people of our state were 
in a receptive mood to adopt any practical 
measure that promised to diminish the 
danger of an explosion, or make it less 
destructive should one occur. Some of 
our leading mining men at the time 
strongly advocated the slowing down of 
the fan at firing time as a measure of 
protection; and, inasmuch as the remedy 
proposed was an easy one to carry out, 
entailing no expense to the operator or 
loss of wages to the miner, it was not 
long before some mines adopted the plan 
suggested. By the end of the year 1902 
the practice of slowing down the fan at 
firing time had become quite general 
throughout the state, and has been ad- 
hered to ever since. Whether right or 
wrong the belief in its protective value 
is such that it would be almost impos- 
sible to secure shotfirers in new mines, 
especially during the cold season, unless 
the fan is stopped or slowed down at fir- 
ing time. 

(2) I can positively answer this ques- 
tion by saying that it has not. It is only 

fair, however, to say that no one, in this 
state, claims that it does. 
(3) To this question I shall not reply 

By R. T. Rhys* 

Answers to numerous inquiries 
received in regard to the Iowa 
practice of slowing down or stop- 
ping the ventilating fan previous 
to firing shots in coal mines. 
Brief review of mine explosions 
in Iowa: First, in mines in which 
the ventilation was not reduced 
when firing; and second, in mines 
where the ventilation was so re- 
duced. Comparative results and 


Mine Inspector, District 



either in the affirmative or the negative. 
I am seeking for and ready to receive 
proof either for or against the practice 
in this state. I think I am correct in say- 
ing that should I or some one else 
answer “yes” or ‘‘no” to this question it 
would only be a matter of opinion. No 
one yet, to my knowledge, has been able 
to show positive proof that the practice of 
slowing down the fan at firing time has 
prevented a single explosion, in this state, 
or that the practice has caused one. 

(4) To compare explosions in lowa 
with those in other states. even though 
there be a similarity of conditions, may 
often lead to wrong deductions. It seems 
to me that to arrive at right conclusions, 
Iowa explosions that have occurred in 
mines under one practice of ventilation at 
firing time, should be compared with 
those that took place in Iowa mines un- 
der a reversed practice of ventilation at 
firing time. In other words, to prove which 
of these two methods is the best and 
safest practice, comparisons should be 
confined to Iowa mines, under the two 
practices. When we do this the claim 
that explosions in mines where the fan 
was kept running at the usual speed and 
the usual quantity of air was circulating 
at firing time have exhibited greater force 
and were more terrific than those that oc- 
curred in mines where the fan was 
stopped or slowed down at firing time be- 
comes a questionable one. 


(a) The first explosion in Iowa, caus- 
ing loss of life, was in Pekay mine, Nov. 
8, 1892, when three men were killed. The 
official report of this expiosion shows 
that there was evidence of great force. 
The fan was running to within a few 
revolutions of its usual speed; and prac- 
tically the usual current of air was circu- 
lating at firing time. 

(b) The explosion in the Cedar mine, 
Feb. 14, 1893, where eight men lost their 

lives, took place when the usual volume 
of air was circulating at firing time; and 
although the number of lives lost was 
greater than in the Pekay explosion, yet 
the extent of the explosion was limited 
and the damage done to the mine was 
small. All the men killed were on the 
entry, going home, and were caught by 
the blast not far from the seat of the 

(c) The Jack-Oak mine explosion took 
place Nov. 27, 1894, at a time when the 
usual volume of air was circulating. One 
person was killed. The area traversed 
by the explosion was small and practi- 
cally no damage was done to the mine. 

(d) The explosion at Buxton, mine No. 
13, took place March 5, 1907. One shot- 
firer was killed. This mine was an ex- 
tensive one, and the fan was not slowed 
down at firing time. The explosion 
traveled only a short distance and did but 
small damage. 

(e) The explosion at Lockman, mine 
No. 3, took place Jan. 4, 1910. One shot- 
firer was badly burnt. The usual cur- 
rent of air was passing at firing time. 
The extent of the explosion was small and 
no damage was done to the mine. 

I have thus named every explosion of 
importance recorded in the biennial re- 
ports of the state mine inspectors that 
have occurred in mines where the usual 
current of air was passing at firing time. 
From these reports it is plain to the im- 
partial reader that the Pekay explosion 
was the only one that exhibited evidence 
of great force. Also, in comparing these 
explosions it should be remembered thi: 
in the Pekay explosion five and one-ha!! 
kegs of powder were exploded, whic! 
added greatly to the force of the explc 
sion. This, everyone must admit, was . 
great factor in extending the area an. 
augmenting the force of the explosion. 


I shall now give a list of all the | 
portant explosions that have taken plu 
in the mines of this state, where the : 
was stopped or slowed down before fir. 

(f) The explosion at Cleveland, 0 
No. 4, Jan. 5, 1901, when two shot! 
were killed, was marked by evidenc 
intense heat at the point of origin, an 
initial force was great. Large 
weighing several hundred pounds 
picked up and carried quite a dis‘ 
The force of this explosion extende. 0%! 
along the main entry to the hoisting ~' 
through which it ejected dense volume 
of smoke and dust to the surface. 
fan in this case was running at @ > 
rate of speed at firing time. 

(g) A second explosion occurred 
Cleveland, mine No. 4, Feb. 5, 190!. The 


May 11, 1912 

two shotfirers were found in an uncon- 
scious state by the rescuing party but 
recovered after being removed to pure air. 
This explosion originated at a point less 
than 50 yd. distant from the explosion of 
jan. 5. The explosion left scarcely any 
sign of great heat, and created no unu- 
sual disturbance in the vicinity of its ori- 
cin. Its initial force apparently was less 
‘han the first explosion named; but it 
; sathered strength and became more de- 
structive on its way out. Doors and 
stoppings that the former explosion failed 
:o damage were destroyed by this ex- 
plosion. A larger volume of smoke and 
dust was ejected from the hoisting shaft; 
and, while no life was lost, it was an ex- 
plosion that exhibited tremendous force. 
much greater than the first one named. 
The fan in this instance also, had been 
slowed down at firing time. 

(h) The most disastrous mine explo- 
sion in the history of Iowa took place at 
Lost Creek, Jan. 24, 1902. Twenty lives 
were lost. No explosion in this state has 
ever exhibited as great a flame as this 


one. It was a terrific explosion, and yet 
the fan in this case also was running at a 
slow rate of speed at firing time. 

(i) Two shotfirers lost their lives in 
the Hocking-mine explosion, Feb. 18, 
1902. I am not able to state the extent 
and the force of this explosion; but am 
informed that it was the practice, in this 
mine also, to slow down the fan at firing 

(j) The explosion at Foster, Jan. 25, 
1904, when two shotfirers lost their lives, 
was a light one, and the force of the ex- 
plosion was comparatively small. The twe 
shotfirers had undoubtedly erred in the 
manner of lighting the shots and also in 
the selection of a proper place of safety. 
The fan was stopped at firing time. 

(k) The fan was stopped at the Demp- 
ster mine, when, on Nov. 1, 1906, the force 
of the blast of an explosion blew both 
cages up the shaft and against the sheave 
wheels, killing two men. 

(1) The fan was stopped at Buxton, 
mine No. 15, when one shotfirer was 


killed by the force of an explosion, Feb. 
25, 1910. 

(m) At the explosion at the Regal 
mine, Jan. 15, 1912, when two shotfirers 
lost their lives, the fan was running at a 
very slow rate of speed at firing time. 
While no great damage was done to the 
mine, yet I doubt if any explosion in this 
state has showed evidence of a greater 

This completes the list of all the princi- 
pal explosions that have taken place, 
under both practices, in'the Iowa mines, 
from the first serious explosion in 1892, 
up to the present time. In -.comparing 
these explosions I have named, first, those 
that occurred under one practice, and 
then those that took place under the op- 
posite practice. I think every unpre- 
judiced reader will agree with me that so 
far as the records of mine explosions, in 
Iowa, are concerned, the claim that slow- 
ing down the fan at firing time lessens the 
force of the explosion and makes it less 
destructive is not sustained, but is de- 
cidedly against this theory. 

Explosion at Merritt, B.C. 

Nc. 3 Mine, operated by the Diamond 
Vale Collieries, Ltd., is located about one 
mile east of the town of Merritt, on the 
Nicola Valley branch of the Canadian 
Pacific Ry. The coal seam is about 4 ft. 

in. thick and contains two bands of 
ock. The first band, about 12 in. from 
the floor, is 6 in. thick. The second, 

bout 33 in. above the floor, also meas- 
res about 6 inches. 

Two slopes have been driven from the 
itcrop directly to the dip, and at a point 
: ft. down. a left level has been turned 

The bed at this point is dipping at 

angle of about 40 deg. About 50 ft. 
ther down, another level has been 

ven to the right, and still further down 
second level to the left has just been 
lhe number of men working in the mine 
normally only 20 at the time of the 
osion, for the mine was not fully de- 
ped. Of this number, 18 miners were 
‘ally at work on the date of the disas- 
six in the first left level, one in the 
nd and the remainder in the right 
The six miners in the left level 
the fireboss, who was traveling along 
same heading, were killed; all the 
-Ts escaped. 
‘ie mine was worked on the room- 
-Dillar system, with rooms 40 ft. and 
36 ft. wide. The room necks 
‘ec double and about 20 ft. long. The 
x from the coal was packed in the 
ter of the room and just filled the 
‘ce between the chutes, which were 
igs along each rib. The roof is of a 

nird sandstone, and usually stands with- 
out timber. 


By Chas. Graham* 

Mixed lights and a single-en- 
try system sufficiently explain 
the Merritt explosion. The flame, 
checked by a lack of fuel in the 
4H intake airways, was unable to 
travel more than a few feet along 
the right-hand split, with the re- 
sult that eleven men were saved. 

*Superintendent, Nicola Valley Coal & 
Coke Co., Middlesboro, b. C. 

The explosion occurred at about 9:45 
a.m. on the morning of Mar. 7, 1912. A 
dense cloud of black smoke issued from 

the mouth of both slopes, and the tipple 
man, working at the mouth of the haulage 
slope was blown a short distance by the 
force of the explosion, but escaped in- 
jury. The fan, which was situated in 
the mouth of the drift, was blown about 
25 ft., and the driving belt about 200 
ft. The smoke-stack on the boiler was 
also blown down. 

The explosion originated in chutes 13 
and 14 of the left level, which were the 
last openings in this heading. These 
chutes were connected, but no connection 
had been made with chute 12. The air 
was carried by brattice cloth along the 
level to the mouth of No. 14. 

The explosive force generated was not 
great, and there was little damage done 
to the mine, the greatest evidence or 
force being afforded bv the action of the 

ock Pack Wall 

3 Baxte 
=~ 2 46 



: = eM ‘\ 
4/51 617 39 10} ia 13) 114 
x = eae = - 
e Se 3 4—>5 “Brattice 
g ss «4 & 
. Ss = yy 
; S am § : e 
Left xr ~ 
0’ 100’ 200’ 300’ eval R 




fan, which was blown out of the mouth 
of the return airway. The tops had also 
been blown off the packs in the rooms. 


Gas had evidently been found in 
chutes 13 and 14, for the two miners in 
this room had been provided with safety 
lamps. These lamps were found hanging 
on props in their respective chutes. The 
miners had apparently been using their 


first one being that of H. Grimes, the 

There was a certain amount of natural 
ventilation and the level seemed clear. We 
returned to the slope, took off the appar- 
atus and got together a number of men 
and went along the left level and brought 
out four bodies. A fifth was found on 
the slope below that level. An attempt 
was made to recover the two remaining 
bodies up the chutes, but the party was 


naked lights on the heading, and one of 
them had evidently gone up along the 
chute and taken his naked light with him. 

The explosion confined itself to the first 
left level and the main slope. The flame 
turned down the main slope toward the 
right level, for the rope rider and a 
pusher who were on the siding were 
severely burned. There is much water on 
the floor at this point, and the flame did 
not travel anv further. All the men 
who were working in this level escaped 
uninjured, with the exception of the two 
men mentioned. These men recovered 
from their burns. 

The cause of the explosion was un. 
doubtedly an ignition of the gas in chutes 
13 and 14 of the left level by a naked 
light. The explosion was extended in some 
degree, however, by coal dust. No pow- 
der is used in the mine, but much dust 
is found, especially in the chutes, due 
to the breakage of coal as it descends 
the steep pitch. 


Notice of the explosion was telephoned 
to the office of the Nicola Valley Coal & 
Coke Co., at Middlesboro, about two 
miles distant. I immediately got together 
a crew of men and loaded the Draeger 
apparatus on a switch engine. My party 
taken over to the Diamond Vale 
mine. In the meantime, Supt. Browitt, of 
the Diamond Vale Collieries, Ltd.. had 
gone into the mine and was endeavoring 
to reach the men. Upon my arrival. Mine 
Foreman D. Brown, Thomas Archibald, 
of the Nicola Valley Coal & Coke Co.’s 
staff, and I went into the mine with the 
apparatus on. We proceeded along the 
level and located three of the bodies, the 


Vol. 1, No. 31 

Safeguarding the Use of 

Electricity in Mines 

Investigations of great moment to mine 
workers and operators, looking to the 
elimination of explosions, and _ conse- 
quently the saving of human life, are 
being conducted by the Electrical Section 
of the Bureau of Mines at its experi- 
mental station in Pittsburg. It is known 
that the results attained so far have been 
important, although the details have not 
been made public, as it is the policy of 
the government not to divulge such infor- 
mation prior to its appearance in the 
regular bulletins and monographs of the 

Investigations are being made along 
the lines of determining the danger of 
igniting gas by the indicators of inclosed 
fuses and by incandescent lamps when 
broken in gaseous atmospheres. Tests 
are also being made of explosion-proof 
apparatus and of the insulation of elec- 
trical conductors. Furthermore prepara- 
tions are being made to investigate the 


driven back by the afterdamp. Stoppings 
were repaired temporarily, and it was not 
until the following afternoon that the 
remaining bodies were found and brought 
out. All of the men who escaped, came 
out of the mine unaided. 

In the mine plan, the double lines 
show where dirt stoppings were erected; 
single lines, which cross Dpenings, denote 
curtains. Crosses show where the bodies 
were found, and the open circles show 
where the men worked. It is clear that 
several of them tried to escape after the 
explosion and fell dead on their way out. 
The black dots show where those men, 
who were not killed, were working when 
the explosion occurred. 

A cheerful disposition may brighten 
the day underground even though it 
cannot bring real sunshine. 

action of electric sparks and arcs in the 
Presence of coal dust; the danger 0! 
using electricity in the vicinity of ex- 
plosives; and to make examination 0 
electrical shot-firing devices, and device 
for the protection of trolley wires. 
According to H. H. Clark, who is i 
charge of the Electrical Section at Pitts 
burg, a great many explosions in co: 
mines are due to electricity, and man 
more explosions originate from 
source in the United States than in Er 
land, for instance, where strict le: 
regulations hedge in the use of electric 
in coal mines. Mr. Clark points out t).' 
the equipment of mines involves a © 
tinct branch of electrical engineer 
The conditions underground are quite ¢ 
ferent from those on the surface. ‘ot 

*P, O. Box 73, Forbes Station, Pil's 

burg, Penn. 

May 11, 1912 

only is it here more difficult to install 
and properly maintain electrical appara- 
tus, but, unless suitable precautions are 
observed, the presence of such equip- 
ment in mines adds danger to a calling 
already hazardous. In addition, danger 
to electrical installations comes from falls 
of roof, coal and rock, and from the fact 
that acid waters and dampness make in- 
sulation difficult. The need of only tem- 
porary installations, thus limiting the in- 
vestment, further adds to the risks to life. 
Moreover, many mine workers are prone 
to ignore the rules made for their benefit. 

The three principal dangers arising 
from the use of electricity in mines are: 
shock, explosions and fires. The chied 
sources of shock are trolley wires and 
other bare conductors. Many explosions 
result from sparks and arcs occurring in 
in atmosphere of inflammable gas or 
dust. Sparks big enough to ignite gas 
are produced when a motor is started 
rapidly or operated under a heavy load: 
er when a circuit, carrying current, is 

opened, or becomes grounded. It re- 
quires a much larger spark to ignite 
bituminous coal dust, but such flashes 

might be caused by short circuits on con- 
ductors carrying a large current, as in 
the event of a trolley wire falling. 

Tests are being made by the bureau 
to determine how small a flash will ignite 
gas or coal dust, the temperature of the 
spark being the crucial factor. 


There are at Pittsburg two galleries 
testing electrical equipment in the 
fresence of gas. The smaller is in the 
soratory and consists of a boiler-iron 
with connections for admitting gas 

ni air, and having heavy plate-glass ob- 
s-rvation windows, and openings for re- 
‘eving the pressure of an explosion. A 
| motor-driven centrifugal fan mixes 
cas and air and causes the mixture to 
‘late. Devices are installed for de- 
ining percentage of gas. In this gal- 
smali sparks and lamps are tested. 

‘he larger testing gallery is a tube de- 
sed to simulate a section of mine 
It is of boiler iron, 30 ft. long and 

in diameter, and is horizontal, being 

<<" In a concrete bed and partly filled 
concrete to form a floor upon which 
ratus can be set up for tests. Seven 
yne-half feet from either end, a 
iragm of heavy paper may be in- 

to relieve the pressure from an 

¢ sion before it becomes dangerously 
Entrance to the shell is made 
t ch a manhole between the heads. 
Ho. \ plate-glass windows are set in the 
Ss of the gallery. A fan mixes the 
fas ind air and an indicator is provided 

ti \w the amount of gas present. In 
‘is gallery explosion-proof motors and 
Swiches and other large apparatus are 

tested. A special tube is being built for 


In testing lamps, these are placed in a 
gas-tight receptacle, filled with a mixture 
of gas and air combined in proportions 
most sensitive to ignition. The lamps are 
lighted and the filaments brought into 
contact with the gaseous mixture in three 
ways. First, by smashing the bulbs, thus 
bringing the mixture in contact with the 
broken filaments. Second, by snipping 
off the tips of the bulbs, which usually 
does not break the filaments, as the 
velocity of the entering gas is less than 
in the first method. Third, by puncturing 
a small hole in the neck of the bulb, 
which prevents the entering gas from im- 
pinging directly upon the filaments, and 
therefore rarely breaks them. 

Explosion-proof motors and switches 
are tested in much the same way, as it is 
the flame-proof quality of the casing that 
is in each instance the point at issue. 
The atmosphere provided outside the cas- 
ing is a combination of methane and air 
most sensitive to ignition. 

The experiments relating to the action 
cf acid mine waters upon the insulation 
of electrical conductors have for their 
Purpose the standardization of methods 
for future tests. The action of such 
water is determined by means of insula- 
tion-resistance measurements, and by 
high potential tests. 

In making tests of inclosed cartridge 
fuses in explosive gas, a representative 
of the manufacturer of the fuse may be 
present. Those fuses passing the tests 
are listed for the benefit of the state mine 


Among the various recommendations 
made by the Bureau as to installation of 
electrical equipment may be mentioned 
the following: All high- and medium- 
pressure lines and apparatus should be 
marked at frequent intervals “Danger.” 
and the voltage given. Low-pressure or 
lighting wires should be marked “Cau- 
tion.” and the voltage stated. Machine 
terminals should be protected. Lightning 
arresters should be placed on transmis- 
sion lines from the generator stations to 
the mine entrance. High-pressure lines 
in underground roadways should be lead- 
covered cables, armored or unarmored. 
Insulation should be non-hygroscopic and 
as acid-proof as possible. Trailing cables 
for portable motors should be especially 
flexible and well protected. Automatic 
trolley switches and danger signals 
should be used. 

One important recommendation is: 
Before any coal-cutter motor is in opera- 
tion more than a half hour, the mine roof 
should be examined unless otherwise 
specified by the mine foreman. 

Current and power circuits should not 
be used for shot-firing. Gaseous mines 
should be examined daily by firebosses 
before work is started, the gas to be de- 
lamps under normal 
If gas is found in dangerous 

tected by safety 


quantities no current should be turned en 
any circuit for at least 24 hours. 

All main cables should be kept away 
from explosive gases. The switches and 
fuses should be inclosed in explosion- 
proof boxes and break under oil. The 
current-carrying parts of direct-current 
motors should be surrounded by ex- 
plosion-proof casings unless the motors 
are in rooms separately ventilated: by in- 
take air. The carrying of tools near 
wires and the placing of powder near 
conductors should be _ prohibited, or 
guarded against. a 

The Bureau deplores the absence of 
uniformity in the installation of electrical 
equipment in mines, but affirms that the 
various states are taking a lively interest 
in an effort to secure suitable regula- 
tions, although an admirable set of rules 
was rejected by the Pennsylvania legisla- 
ture two years ago. 

Coal of Southern Nigeria 

In regard to the deposits of coal in 
Southern Nigeria, West Africa, Consul 
William J. Yerby reports that the gov- 
ernor, in his recent annual address said 
that the work of the mineral survey dur- 
ing the year has been concentrated on the 
further examination of the extensive de- 
posits of coal at Udi, which are found to 
stretch more than 50 miles to the north 
of that place. The tests and analyses 
carried out by the government have 
proved that the surface samples give re- 
sults equal to two-thirds that of the best 
Welsh coal. It is reasonable to expect 
that if the seams are worked the coal 
that has not been exposed to the weather 
will be of still better quality. 

The question of the construction of a 
railway to connect this coal field with the 
river port of Onitsha is under considera- 
tion. It is hoped that sanction for the 
construction of this line may be given, as 
the importance of cheap fuel to the two 
Nigerias is great, their combined railway 
syetem being already over 800 miles in 
length. Besides the railway requirements, 
there is urgent necessity for coal to sup- 
ply river and ocegn shipping. 

The lignite deposits to the west of the 
Niger ere also valuable and in at least 
one locality vary from 10 to 15 ft. in 
thickness. The total trade of Southern 
Nigeria in 1910 exceeded $55,000,000. 
wheregs it was scarcely over $20,000,000 
in 1900. 

The possibilities of profitable mining 
and export of coal from the Federated 
Malay States is referred to favorably bv 
the chief secretary of the government in 
his annual report, just submitted. The 
deposits of coal are extensive and con- 
venient, the serious question about the 
matter being with respect to quality. A 
satisfactory coal supply in those States 
would be welcomed by shipping in that 
portion of the world. 



Vol. 1, No. 31 

Colliery Mine Car Construction 

With the advent of large corporate in- 
terests into the coal industry, involving 
extensive investments and heavy ton- 
nages, the mine-car expense item is being 
more carefully studied. The attention 
of trained and capable engineers has 
been concentrated on this feature, and 
important strides in the design and con- 
struction of cars have been made in the 
last decade. 

As a result of the keen competition ex- 
isting in the coal industry today, it is not 
unusual for a difference of one cent per 
ton in the cost of mining, to determine 
whether a mine may work, and in reduc- 
ing operating expenses to a minimum the 
mine manager will doubtless put his fin- 


Single Flare 

ger on the mine-car expense account first. 
Not only must this be considered from 
the standpoint of first cost, but in up- 
keep as well. The expense, incident to 
continued oiling, and the wear and teal 
(an item of particular importance in mine 
cars) are the first points to consider in 
the well designed car. 

It is the purpose of this paper to dis- 
cuss only the composite, frame cars, and 
to confine the discussion more particu- 
larly to the features of interest to the 
active colliery engineer. 

The steel car is coming rapidly to the 
front and may even in time entirely super- 
sede the wooden car, but that cars of this 
tvpe have serious disadvantages for work 
of this character is generally conceded. 
Thus, for example, the results of a runa- 
way on a heavily pitching slope may be 
eonsidered with both types of cars. An 
accident of this kind, on a slope laid with 
good track, will probably result in the 
more or less comvlete destruction of the 
entire trip, especially if the cars are 

With the wooden car a certain amount 
of salvage will be possible, as the indi- 
vidual pieces of the iron framework are 
comparatively easy to recover and re- 
shape. In the case of the steel car the 
problem will not be so simple. since the 
average mining plant is not equipped 
with proper facilities for handling work 
of this character*. 

*For further discussion of this point 
the reader is referred to Coal Age, 

p. 379. 


By A. T. Shurick 

This is the first of a series of 
articles which will appear on 
neglected subject. 


this much 
The present paper 
the general conditions for deter- 
mining the proper shapes and 
sizes, and includes a few prelim- 
inary remarks on car wheels. 
The second installment will fol- 
low at an early date. 

rt Ta 

3 , a 

a ->4 COAL AGE 
Double Flare 

i= = === -- 49" ~--------> 

Fe ~ 

oh ee . 
> my 



Single Fla K 


es Sms Vv 


Rules, formulas, etce., for the propor- 
tioning of material, as in machinery de- 
sign, appear to be entirely unknown here. 
Many companies design and assemble 
their own cars, ordering the different 
irons as required. The ultimate and fin- 
ally accepted design in, such instanees is 
often only arrived at after years of ex- 
perimenting on the “cut and try” method, 
but that this eventually gives a thorough- 
ly practical car is hardly to be questioned. 
A superintendent working along these 
lines finds for example, only after a num- 
ber of vears, that a certain iron is too light 
and revises his design accordingly. 

That a method such as this would be 
productive of apparent inconsistencies 
and freak designs was inevitable. Thus for 
example may be noted the open derision 
expressed by a well known mechanical 

engineer, because of the excessive ma- 
terial (according to his views) used in 
a coupling at a certain colliery. This 
coupling had been evolved from 12 vears’ 
experience, and had he known the number 
of wrecks, due to runaway trips, costing 
from S500 to $1000 each, not to mention 
the delay to the mine, which had been re- 
quired to bring about its adoption he 
would have been less abrupt in his criti- 


The first problem confronting the mine 
car designer is fixing the general overall 
dimensions and shape. The shapes may 
be roughly classified as belonging to one 
of two types, the single or double-flare, 
as shown in Fig. 1 herewith. In addition 
to these there is the square, box type, 
now confined almost entirely to the an- 
thracite field. 

Referring to Fig. 1 the overall width 
A will of course be determined by the 
minimum widths of the haulageways. The 
overall length E is limited by the track 
curves and to a certain extent by the 
wheel-base F. The bottom width B is 

dependent entirely on the track gauge 2 
the overall height will be determined 
the thickness of the seam. 

The choice of the single or dow! 
flare type is mostly a matter of taste « 
is a subject still open for discuss 
There are, however, certain features \ 
should be considered in this connec’ 

When the seam is high, providing 
ple head room with no additional 
the square box type anthracite car 
be used to an advantage because 0’ © 
simplicity of construction. The do -° 
flare type is adapted more practic: 
a soft, friable coal having few 11" 'Ps 
while with a coal making numerous |<" PS, 
these can be used to build up arouns ‘he 
sides and ends, thus eliminating th¢ 
cessity of the extra vertical board. 

To one who has ever helped lift a singl£- 


May 11, 1912 

lare car on the track by the usual method 
»f placing the back and shoulders under 
he flare-board and later tried the same 
vith the double-flare type there will re- 
nain no question in his mind as to the su- 
seriority of the single-flare car. In ad- 
{ition to this the extra space on the out- 
side of the single-flare car greatly facili- 
ates spragging, particularly in a narrow 


The variety of cross-sections for cars 
is unlimited and selection of the proper 
shape is governed entirely by the physi- 
cal conditions of the seam to be worked. 
Eliminating all designs of a “freak” na- 
ture the principle and typical cross-sec- 
tions of mine cars are given herewith. 
The examples selected show the maxi- 
mum and minimum dimensions as to 
height and width of accepted designs of 
cars; the designs are in every case of cars 
which have demonstrated their practica- 
bility by a number of years of service. 

Two types of low vein cars are shown ° 

in the lower part of Fig. 2. On the left 
is a single-flare car only a little over 4 ft. 
wide, and with a maximum height of body 
of but 15 in. This is an extreme exag- 
geration of this type and may be likened 
much to the sled used in some parts of 
Europe for conveying coal along the face 
to be dumped into the mine car. The 
flare board comes out nearly flat, com- 
pletely covering the wheel, which would 


of the double-flare type, having a short 
6-in. vertical board around the top, which 
of course adds materially to its carrying 
capacity. The broad, flat flare of 16 in. 
on each side would, in this case, prove 
a very serious hindrance to spragging. 
The difficulty of providing adequate sup- 
port for this flare, to insure its retaining 
its proper shape under the everyday con- 
ditions of hard usage around mines, 
would be another objection. An illus- 


on the medium, or medium-small cars in 
the bituminous fields. The single flare 
with its rather acute angle, makes the 
car easy to sprag and handle under all 
working conditions, and at the same time 
adds appreciably to its capacity. On the 
upper right-hand side is shown a rather 
large, double-flare car of good capacity. 
This car has an overall width of 6 ft., and 
a body height of nearly 3 ft. While the 
rroad, flat flare adds appreciably to the 




Cok se 


spragging difficult, although in a car 
if z such an obviously small capacity 
's, the necessity of spragging would 

- SO urgent. ‘ 
the lower right hand side of Fig. 2 
is -own a type of low vein car over 6 ft. 
~ and less than 2 ft. high. This car 
‘<5 Af enormous capacity, comparatively 
Peexting as regards low vein cars gen- 
“rally, but would be adaptable only where 
best roof conditions prevail. It is 

tration of a typical low vein car is shown 
in the accompanying halftone, Fig. 4. 
The two upper sections in Fig. 2 are 
examples of the typical medium sized 
cars, and an illustration of the same 
type is shown in the halftone, Fig. 3. 
On the left of Fig. 2 is shown the 

single-flare type having a width of 
nearly 5 ft. and an overall height of 
body of about 2 ft. 4 in. This sec- 

tion is one of the most popular in use 

capacity of this car, as already stated, it 
is much more difficult to handle, for which 
reason it does not commend itself so 
readily to the practical man. 


The larger size bituminous and one of 
the smaller anthracite cars are shown in 
Fig. 5. The bituminous types here shown 
are probably more extensively used than 
any other class of car, since they are 
readily adaptable to a 6-ft. or thicker 
seam, which is probably the average for 
this country. An illustration of the typ 
cal single-flare car of this class is shown 
in the halftone, Fig. 6. The anthracite 
operators claim conditions in their mines 
cannot be compared with the bituminous, 
and they continue to adhere to the 
Straight box form as shown. 

The single-flare bituminous car, shown 
in Fig. 5, has a maximum width of a 
trifle less than 4 ft., and a body height of 
a little over 3 ft. This car has a capa- 
city of 2'4 or more tons of coal, depend- 
ing on the height to which it is “built up.” 
Larger cars than these are found at times, 
in fact some districts using them to the 
exclusion of all others. The opponents to 
the larger capacity car claim that the dif- 
ficulty experienced in handling them 

under the adverse conditions in the mine 
more than offsets the advantage gained 


bv the increased tonnage, so this stil] re- 
mains an open question. 

The beginning of the flare in these cars 
may be at any point, providing it is suffi- 
ciently high to clear the flange of the 
wheels, which commonly fit fairly snug 
against the side of the car. The height 
should be made such that some commer- 
cial size of board will fit, without further 
trimming, as for instance, 6, 8 or 10 in.; 
this rule should be followed in the layout 


and the manufacturers have attained a 
high degree of refinement in this respect. 
To insure the best results the chemical 
analysis of the iron must be exact. Vari- 
ations of one-tenth of 1 per cent. in the 
content of some of the ingredients may 
entirely ruin the wheel, and since no two 
carloads of pig iron analyze the same, 
the purchaser of wheels should investi- 
gate this feature thoroughly. 

Not only must the chemical analysis of 


of all the straight lines of the bands when 
it can consistently be done within reason. 


The heavy tonnages handled at the 
modern plants of today necessitate large 
trips and a comparatively high-speed 
haulage. In addition to this most of the 
power required at the mines is usually 
consumed by the haulage appliances in 
one form or another. The importance of 
this subject is, therefore, at once evi- 
dent, and in no single detail of haulage is 
it possible to effect greater economies 
than by the provision of a suitable wheel. 
This fact has long been appreciated by 
both the engineer and the manufacturer, 
and has resulted in a keen competition 
among the latter until an unusual refine- 
ment in design has been attained. 

Were it possible to use straight tracks, 
the mine-car wheel would no doubt be 
fitted tight to an axle revolving in boxes 
attached to the car. The sharp curves, 
essential in all mines, obviously make 
this impossible since the travel on the 
cuter rail of a curve is so much longer 

than on the inner that the wheel 
on the former would have to slide 
in order to keep up. The _ advant- 

ages of the tight wheel were too great, 
however, to be completely ignored. and 
some manufacturers finally evolved the 
combination tight and loose wheel, there- 
by overcoming the difficulty due to 
curves, and making the use of one 
tight wheel practicable. 

But even under these conditions it is 
still evident that one loose wheel must 
be used, and since the other presents no 
difficulties in construction, the discussion 
of wheels here will be confined entirely 
to the loose-wheel type. 


The first requisite of a good car wheel 
is the selection of the proper material, 


Vol. 1, No. 31 

The Mannesman Steel Mine 

The Mannesman steel pit prop used in 
England and on the Continent consists 
of an outer and inner tube, telescoping 
within each other. The outer tube is 
provided with a clamp, twhich, when 
loosened, permits drawing out the inner 
tube to give the required length to the 
prop. It is then tightened by means of 
a spanner. 

This prop, fitted out with an ordinary 
cap, is driven into position under the 
roof with a sledge hammer. It is pro- 
vided with a ratchet lever and rod by 
which the clamp is loosened, enabling 
the miner to withdraw the prop without 
danger. The safe load for this prop is 
16 tons; they neither bend, break or 
collapse, but in case the load is over 
16 tons the prop telescopes until the 
pressure is removed. 

Though the first cost of these props 


the material be perfect, but the method of 
casting as well. All wearing surfaces 
must be, hard to insure the wheel hav- 
ing a long life. These hard surfaces 
are attained by means of “chilled cast- 
ings,” in which the sand in the mold 
is replaced by iron “castings adjoining 
the surfaces to be chilled, the depth of 
which latter is regulated by the thick- 
ness of the iron. While it is a compara- 
tively simple problem to chill the rims, 
it is not so easy to accomplish this at the 
same time in the hub. The chemical reac- 
tion of the chilling process embodies sim- 
ply the intimate combinations of the car- 
bon with the iron, forming iron carbide. 
The result is a product of such hardness 
that it will cut glass, 

is high, about 30 times that of woo- 
props, they can, under normal 
ditions, be used and withdrawn 60 ti 
before repairs are necessary, SO 
in the end the cost is really about |: 
that of wooden props. The average 
of the prop is about five years. 

The first cost of steel props is so. =! 
that their use at the working f: 
economical only where every PI: 
withdrawn and rone lost. They - 
best suited to a moderately har: oF 
strong roof which comes down | 
and breaks in large masses, as this 
a good opportunity for their rec’’ 
They are, however, quite unsuitab 
use with a soft, shaly roof, or with 
clay, which breaks easily. 

May 11, 1912 


Current Coal Literature 

The Best Thought Culled from Contemporary Technical Journals, Domestic and Foreign 

The Cement Gun 

The cement gun has been advocated 
by mining experts for use in the mines 
to fill up crevices in the strata and to 
make a smooth surface on which the 
coal dust cannot rest. In the French 
mines several thousands of feet of con- 
creted galleries have been constructed by 
ordinary methods of concreting. The 
ease with which they are kept clean of 
dust is an argument in their favor. But 
concreting with the use of forms is ex- 
pensive and the cement gun methods are 
preferable. It is needless to point out 
that the cement gun has numberless uses 
in other building construction around the 


At a meeting of the American Society 
of Engineering Contractors, William A. 
Jordan recently gave a description of the 
machine and its modus operandi, from 
which the following is abstracted: 

The cement gun was originally con- 
ceived by C. F. Akeley, a taxidermist of 
Chicago. He desired to build the forms 
over which the skins of elephants and 
hippopotami might be stretched. 

Mr. Akeley was also a member of the 
Field Museum Committee, and in that 
capacity sought to remodel and make 
permanent, one of the old World’s Fair 
buildings in Jackson Park, Chicago. 
vhich had been presented to the Field 
Museum Association. An appropriation 
\f modest proportions had been made for 
that purpose, and Mr. Akeley conceived 
the brilliant idea of remodelling the ce- 
ment gun for that purpose. 


The gun consists essentially of a 
opper A into which the dry mixed ma- 
rials to be used are introduced, 
hrough a valve C. This valve is closed 
nd compressed air is admitted. Then 
ie¢ valve D is opened, and the ma- 
rial drops into the cylinder B. The 
se of the second cylinder is simply for 
‘ie purpose of permitting continuous ac- 
on. An air motor shown in the front 
the wagon drives a_ feed-wheel L 
‘Irough the intermediate gears R, Q and 
Through the pipe F air is admitted 
which blowing through the feed-wheel 
“ta pressure of 35 lb. per carries 
‘he mixture through a flexible rubber 

nose which may be as long as 200 ft. 
‘he exit from the machine is by way 
ot the goose-neck over the axle of the 

rear wagon-wheels. The mixed materials 
are perfectly dry and not wetted until 
they reach the nozzle held in the hand of 
the operator. A separate hose carries 
water to the nozzle at a pressure some- 
what greater than that which propels the 
mixture. The water in the form of a 
fine spray mixes with the cement so that 
it issues from the gun ready for deposi- 
tion and traveling at a speed of 300 ft. 
per sec. 


The velocity at which the mixture is 
propelled serves several purposes. It is 



sufficiently great that all unnecessary 
water is driven out. The pressure as- 
sures that the concrete will be deposited 
compactly and hence, with the minimum 
of porosity. It is not remarkable then 
that its permeability varies from three- 
quarters to one-eighth that of hand-made 
concrete and that the latter will absorb 
from 1.4 to 5.3 times as much water. 
Any sand which is not coated with ce- 
ment rolls off the surface and hence 
does not remain to weaken the aggregate, 
and this fact together with the greater 
density explains why the cement gun 
gives a coating of cement concrete from 
1.2 to 3.6 times as strong in tension as 
hand-made mixtures of the same con- 
stituents. In compression the ratio of 
strength of gun-mixed to hand-mixed 
mortar vary from 1.2 to 8.2. The gun- 
work is relatively more successful in de- 
positing the less rich mixtures of con- 
crete. The voids in gun-made concrete 

are volumetrically 0.52 to 0.75 of those 
in the hand plastered material; the ad- 
hesive strength is from 1.01 to 1.42 tinies 
as great. So that the use of the cement 
gun is not only a cheap and quick way of 
coating surfaces, but also assures a coat 
of unusual strength in proportion to the 
cement used. 

It may be added that the cement gun 
is manufactured by the General Cement 
Products Company of 30 Church St., 
New York City. In the cement work of 
the Woolworth Building as much as 417 
cu.ft. have been deposited with a double 
nozzle gun in an 8-hour day despite 
some delays in moving the machine 
about the building. 

Men Versus ‘‘Melons’’ 

The president of the Plymouth Coal 
Co., John Haddock, has addressed a letter 
tc the anthracite operators, of which the 
following is an abstract: 

We believe and contend that a just and 
reasonable reduction of existing trans 
portation rates for anthracite would en- 
able the coal companies controlled by rail- 
roads to increase the wages paid to their 
employees without advancing the prices 
on prepared sizes. Nor would the wage 
increase work any hardship on the inde- 
pendent operators, if a corresponding ad- 
vance were made in the unduly small pro- 
portion of the selling price now ascribed 
to them. 

The existing rates of transportation are 
notoriously exorbitant. These rates are 
so excessive that the Reading mining op- 
erations, with a large annual production, 
with a great variety of anthracite, with an 
advantageous and profitable market, both 
local and coastwise, with operations 
which are managed with conspicuous skill 
and ability, and we believe with absolute 
honesty, showed during the period of six 
months a mining profit of 3c. a ton! 
Surely the patient mining Peter might ask 
and demand that the opulent transporta- 
tion Paul give him a square deal. Poor 
Peter has spent many years of his life 
raising “melons” for Paul, and now in 
his later days he and his neighbors would 
like for the future to receive as adequate 
compensation a small slice of the luscious 
“melons,” which are a result of his en- 
terprise and industry. 


By the excessive transportation charges 
mentioned, practically the entire earnings 
of a subsidiary company have been con- 


fiscated, the unjustifiable charges of the 
railroad for carriage of the coal being re- 
garded as a primary and paramount obli- 
gation. But this method of bookkeeping 
might well be looked upon as a device 
of no public interest or concern, did it not 
have a far-reaching influence on the in- 
dependent operator. Unfortunately for 
him, the arbitrary ratio assumed to exist 
between producing and shipping costs is 
made to apply to his coal, and it is there- 
fore pertinent for him to consider the 
justice of transportation rates. 

On this very point we have a recent au- 
thoritative opinion of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. It reads as follows: 

It requires no extended argument to 
sustain the proposition that the mainte- 
nance of an unreasonably high rate 
operates to the advantage of the Lehigh 
Valley R.R. Co. as a dealer in coal. The 
record shows that the only line of de- 
marcation between the Lehigh Valley 
R.R. Co. and the Lehigh Valley Coal Co. 
is one of bookkeeping. Asswaning for 
the purposes of illustration that the cost 
of mining anthracite coal is $2 per ton 
and the cost of carrying it to tidewater 
is $1 per ton, it follows that the cost of 
coal at tidewater would be $3 per ton; 
and if the published rate were $1 the in- 
dependent operator and the railroad coal 
company would be on a fair competitive 
basis, so far as the cost of mining and 
transportation are concerned. But as 
between the railroad company and its 
coal company, it matters not whether the 
profit comes from mining or transport- 
ing the coal. 

So, therefore, if, instead of the $1 rate 
above mentioned the railroad company 
were to establish a rate of $1.50 per ton, 
the railroad and its coal company could 
still sell at tidewater for $3 per ton, 
standing a deficit of 59c. per ton in the 
mining price and taking an equal profit 
in the transportation price. But the in- 
dependent operator cannot recoup him- 
self in this manner, and the best price 

that he could make at tidewater would 

necessarily be the mining price of $2, 
plus the carrying charge of $1.50, or 

$3.50; and he would enter the market at 
a disadvantage of 50c. per ton as com- 
pared with the railroad and its coal com- 

It is obvious that such an advantage 
would enable the railroad company and 
its alter ego, the coal company, to 
monopolize the field of production and 
the selling market. Whatever the means 
employed, it is a fact that the railroad 
coal company has monopolized the coal 
field served by it. In 1901, 47 per cent. 
of the defendant’s coal tonnage to Perth 
Amboy was controlled by it and 53 per 
cent. by independent operators: while in 
1908 the defendant controlled 95 per cent. 
of the anthracite tonnage over defend- 
ant’s line to Perth Amboy and the in- 
dependent operators 5 per cent. 


The exhaustion of the anthracite coal 
supply was offered by the Lehigh Valley 
R.R. Co. to justify maintenance of the 
then existing transportation rates to tide- 
water. On this point, the commission 

As to the kindred subject, namely, the 
exhaustion of anthracite coal supply, 


counsel in their brief thus state the re- 
sult of the testimony of W. F. Dodge, an 
expert mining engineer, introduced as a 
witness on behalf of the defendant: 

“The total future shipments from the 
Wyoming Division, starting with the 
year 1909, will amount to 91,230,000 tons. 
The lives of the various collieries will 
vary from 5 to 50 years. The annual 
output is estimated for the first five 
years to be 19,395,000 tons, and will 
diminish gradually until from the 25th 
to the 30th year, the annual output is 
estimated at only 7,055,000 tons, dwind- 
ling down in the period between the 45th 
and 50th years to 500,000 tons per annum. 
At the end of 25 years, according to the 
testimony of Mr. Dodge, the output of 
the Wyoming region will be less than 
half what it is now, and at the end of 
50 years will cease altogether. 

On the other hand, the following more 

optimistic view of the situation appears 
from the report of the Anthracite Coal 
Strike Commission, rendered to the Pres- 
ident of the United States, Mar. 18, 1903, 
_ What is of some importance, however, 
in connection with the discussion of the 
past production is a_ consideration of 
what is to be expected in the future in 
the way of production and the probable 
duration of the anthracite coal supply. 
The original deposits of the anthracite 
coal field have been ascertained with a 
reasonable degree of accuracy. 

According to the estimate of the Penn- 
sylvania geological survey, the amount 
of workable anthracite coal originally 
in the ground was 19,500,000,000 tons. 
The production to the close of 1901, as 
previously stated, amounted to 1,350,000,- 
000 tons, Which would indicate that there 
remained still available a total of 18,- 
150,000,000 tons. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, for every ton of coal mined and 
marketed 1% tons, approximately, are 
either wasted or left in the ground as 
pillars for the protection of the work- 
ings, so that the actual yield of the beds 
is only about 40 per cent. of the con- 
tents. Upon this basis the exhaustion 
to date has amounted to 3,375,000,000 
tons. Deducting this from the original 
deposits, the amount of anthracite re- 
maining in the ground at the close of 
1901 is found to be, approximately, 16,- 
125,000,000. Upon the basis of 40 per 
cent. recovery, this would yield 6,450,- 
000,000 long tons. The total production 
in 1901 was 60,242,560 long tons. If this 
rate of production were to continue 
steadily, the field would become _ ex- 
hausted in just about 100 years. ; 

Mr. Wm. Griffith, in a series of articles 
contributed to the “Bond Record” in 1896, 
considers that the estimates upon which 
the foregoing computations have been 
made were too liberal. His estimate of 
the amount of minable coal remaining at 
the close of 1895 was 5,073,786,750 tons. 

In the six years from 1896 to 1901, in- 

clusive, the production has been, ap- 
proximately, 308,570,000 tons, which 
would leave still available for mining 

4,765,216,750 tons. This supply, at the rate 
of production of 1901, would last a little 
less than 80 years. If we can assume 
the annual production will have reached 
its maximum limit at between 60,000,000 
and 75,000,000 tons, and that the produc- 
tion will then fall off as gradually as it 
increased, we may expect anthracite min- 
ing to continue for a period of from 200 
to 250 vears.—(Report of Anthracite Coal 

Defendant claims the right, to earn 

enough out of its coal rates to provide 
for a return of the princi$al of the in- 
vestment in that part of the railroad 
company devoted to the carriage of coal, 
when and as this principal becomes re- 
duced and extinguished by exhaustion of 
the coal. We have noted the estimate 
of defendant’s witnesses to the effect that 
shipments of anthracite coal over the 
railroad will practically cease in 50 
years, and we have quoted the opinion 
expressed on the same subject by the 
Anthracite Coal Strike Commission to 
the effect that production may last for 
250 years. Probably the truth lies some- 
where between the two extremes. Dur- 

Vol. 1, No. 31 

ing the years 1903 and 1910, the Lehigh 
Valley R.R. Co., under the rates in con- 
troversy, succeeded in accumulating an 
unappropriated surplus of $27,219,780. 
If the company could accumulate this 
sum for every eight-year period during 
the next 30 or 40 years, it would have a 
surplus in the neighborhood of $125,000,- 
000. It seems, therefore, that the pres- 
ent rates are more than required to meet 
defendant’s conception of what consti- 
tutes an annual income sufficient to pro- 
vide for the return of the capital when 
that part of the railroad devoted to the 
carriage of anthracite coal loses its 
earning capacity through the exhaustion 
of that commodity. 

As to the cost of carrying coal to tide. 
water, in this same opinion, reference is 
made to the testimony of the officers of 
Coxe Bros. & Co. and the Delaware, Sus- 
quehanna & Schuylkill R.R.—the “Coxe” 

Prior to the sale of the interests of 
Coxe Bros. & Co. to the Lehigh Valley 
R.R. Co., the former owned and operated 
the Delaware, Susquehanna & Schuylkill, 
a road about 28 miles in length, which 
reached their different collieries and con- 
nected with the Lehigh Valley R.R. They 
had trackage contracts with the “Valley” 
covering the delivery of coal to tidewater. 

The testimony of Mr, Pennington, sup- 
erintendent of motive power, showed that 
the cost of moving coal to Perth Amboy, 
in cars of 100,000 lb. capacity, from the 
Coxe collieries, was 62.4lc. per ton, 
which figure includes not only the return 
of empty cars to the mines, but also the 
profit of the Lehigh Valley R.R. Co. on 
its trackage charge and the profit in ship- 
ping of 12c. a ton at Perth Amboy. 


Certainly, this cost of 62c., as related 
to the charge of $1.55, the tariff on pre- 
pared sizes of anthracite, might and does 
suggest a large and fertile “melon” patch. 
In the efforts to combat this testimony, 
the Lehigh Valley R.R. Co. tried to show 
that the average cost of carrying anthra- 
cite from the Wyoming region to Perti 
Amboy was $1.49. An exhibit filed 5) 
this company shows that its average re- 
ceipts per gross ton of anthracite 2! 
Perth Amboy for the ten years endins 
June 30, 1908, were $1.46. Its busines: 
under that testimony, during that period 
would show a loss of 3c. a ton, yet at t+ 
close of its fiscal year in 1908 the “\:-- 
ley” had a surplus available for distri). 
tion of $20,722,871. After making c-r 
tain deductions for dividends, impro‘e- 
ments, sinking fund, etc., there was 
an unappropriated balance of $16,510. 
904. At the close of its fiscal year 
1910, this unappropriated balance 
amounted to $27,219,780. 

“Alice in Wonderland” might sussest 
that if the loss in carrying anthracite 
had been 6c. a ton instead of 3c., te 
“Valley” might have increased, if no 
doubled its surplus! 

May 11, 1912 

Storage Battery Electric Loco- 
motives for Tunnel 

Industrial storage-battery electric loco- 
motives, designed for carrying the load 
on the locomotive itself, have been on the 
market some few years, but the pioneer 
locomotives of the storage-battery type, 
which are built for hauling trailing loads 
in tunnel work, have only recently been 
rut into service. They are now being 
used in the New York aqueduct, which is 
being constructed for conveying the 
Catskill water supply into the city. Lo- 
comotives impelled by storage batteries, 
find application at present specifically for 
short-distance hauls at low speds, where 
it would not be possible or feasible to in- 
stall the trolley system, as, for instance, 
over industrial tracks in and around fac- 


motives. Trolley locomotives were out 
of the question because the tunnel 
headings would not permit their en- 

trance. The operation of the locomo- 

tives employed has proved efficient and 

economical, and has permitted laying the 

tracks without filling, which hauling by 

mules would have required. 


The locomotives in use are illustrated 
in Fig. 1 and conform to the following 

Type of motor (single motor)..G.E.-1022 
EMAMIGEEH WENGE: ooo oe eck od ts wee eels 22 in. 
UN NGl Gs Bt RNR ORR a cratic deer ox trem eben mv hare Sree 36 in 
SROGRUSNE Es WEGNER ING eo 6. cee. 4 oie oe ewes 7500 Ib. 
Lengel OWVCrSIE 6.26 6k eee ws ¢ £t. 10 in. 
Freight over batteries... ccc cc cccewe 4 ft. 
"PERO MRO cei wie Cece ee sae knee 
Speed at rated Ts Be ...2.¢+.-+.5 Wh pe De. 

The batteries are of the 44-cell, 21- 
plate type and have a 45-amp. six-hour 
discharge capacity. The locomotives are 

OC ee eee 

es Pe es Se a 


tory buildings, or in places where con- 
tinual changing of the trolley could not 
be avoided. 

The section of the aqueduct tunnel in 
which these locomotives operate is about 
11 ft. in diameter, concrete lined, and is 
‘eing driven through solid rock from 250 
to 300 ft. below the street level. A series 

* six shafts has been sunk, each ap- 
proximately a mile apart, for expedi- 
tious operation, and the excavated ma- 
‘erial is transported to the mouths of the 
shafts on cars drawn by the locomotives, 
hence it is hoisted to the surface. Thus 
cach locomotive has a maximum load 
haul of a half a mile per trip. 

Smith, Hauser, Locher & Co., who are 
executing this contract for the city, re- 
cently placed in operation six storage bat- 
‘ety electric haulage locomotives, manu- 
factured by the General Electric Co., 
and have just ordered six additional loco- 


equipped with an ampere-hour meter. 
headlight and gong. 

Latest modern practice has been fol- 
Icwed in the mechanical design. The 
frame consists of two steel channel sides 
and steel-plate ends carefully fitted at 
the joints and held rigidly together with 
bolts and steel angles. A coupler suit- 
able to the type of cars employed is at- 
tached at the rear end. Cast-steel ped- 
estal jaws, which carry the journal 
boxes, are bolted to the lower web of 
the channel-side frames. 


The motor used is of the automobile 
type, designed especially to operate from 
batteries, and has characteristics that ef- 
fect the maximum possible economy in 
the use of battery current. It has high 
efficiency, large overload capacity and 
practically sparkless commutation. 


The motor is compactly designed, yet 
readily accessible for inspection and re- 
Fair. It is dust and moisture proof, and 
is mounted in a cast-steel suspension 
cradle, one side of which is supported on 
bearings on the axle, while the other side 
is spring-suspended from the locomo- 
tive frame, in accordance with standard 
locomotive practice. 

The motor drives the rear axle through 
double-reduction gearing, and an inter- 
mediate shaft, supported in the bearing 
heusing, which is cast integral with the 
suspension cradle, carries the intermedi- 
ate gearing. As slow-speed service is 
ordinarily required of a storage-battery 
locomotive, the use of double-reduction 
gearing permits such speeds without un- 
due losses in the rheostat, and, because 
of the large gear reduction from the 
armature shaft to the wheel tread, high 
tractive efforts are obtained at compara- 
tively small current inputs to the motor. 

Combating Miners’ Diseases 

The following is an advance extract 
from the report of the director of the 
Bureau of Mines, for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1911: 

“An arrangement has been made with 
the Public Health and Marine-Hospital 
Service by which one or more surgeons 
connected with that service will carry on 
jointly for that service and for the Bu- 
reau of Mines investigations looking to 
the improvement of mine conditions. 
These inquiries and investigations have 
already shown the prevalence of tuber- 
culosis and hookworm as miners’ diseases 
in a number of different localities in the 
United States. It is important that this 
work should be extended more rapidly, 
because of the fact that the health con- 
ditions, as well as the risk of accidents, 
may be influenced by conditions suscepti- 
ble of easy improvement. Furthermore, 
the large and continuous influx of 
foreigners into the mining regions of 
the United States will “ring to an in- 
creasing extent the hookworm and other 
diseases that abound in mines inparts of 
certain European countries. 

“Various questions that concern the 
health of workers in mines, quarries and 
metallurgical plants cannot be answered 
finally without investigations and _ in- 
quiries that are national in scope. Among 
such questions are the most efficient 
methods of preventing the diseases pe- 
culiar to certain industries, the most ef- 
fective sanitary precautions to be ob- 
served in and about coal mines and metal 
mines, and the relative healthfulness of 
occupations pertaining to mining and 
metallurgical industries. The investiga- 

tions and inquiries that are essential to 
the gathering of reliable information on 
these questions can be undertaken by 
the Bureau of Mines, in connection with 
its collection of accident statistics, in a 
prompt and efficient manner and at mini- 
mum expense.” 


Vol. 1, No. 31 

Who’s Who—in Coal Mining 

Devoted to Brief Sketches of Prominent Men, Their Work and Ideas 

All of the recent advances in coal-min- 
ing practice haven’t been effected by time- 
worn Methuselahs with gray beards, false 
teeth and furrowed brows. A whole raft 
of sane ideas, new theories and improved 
methods have originated in the fertile 
minds of the “‘second generation.” 

Time was when a man had to lose his 
hair, contract rheumatism and be grand- 
daddv to half a dozen humans before he 
could hope for recognition as a compe- 
tent and practical mine engineer, but we 
have come to realize that ability to sit 
tight in a canoe and drift with the cur- 
rent is not as great a virtue as being 
able to paddle straight to the desired 
landing. Results accomplished merit 
greater approbation than time consumed. 

No young man engaged in coal mining 
today has traveled faster or been of great- 
er benefit to the industry than Harry M. 
Warren, electrical engineer for the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna & Western company. 
He handles electricity like a Southern 
darky does a watermelon—goes’ to the 
center first, and then eats his way out. 
Some day, not so far distant, the D. L. 
& W. wen’t need anybody in the coal de- 
partment but Harry, for he will be able 
to throw on a switch, which will be all 
that is necessary to mine, prepare and 
ship his company’s coal to tidewater. 

Mr. Warren was born in Worcester, 
Mass., in 1875. Graduated from the 
Worcester Polvtechnic Institute in 1896, 
taking a P. G. in ’97. Following his grad- 
uation from college, ‘“H. M.” started in 
contracting work at Montclair, N. J., 
changing from this work a few months 
later to the testing department of the 
General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 
On leaving the General Electric, in 1900, 
Mr. Warren was made electrical engineer 
for the D. L. & W. Co., and he and they 
have stuck together like a porous plaster 
on a lame back. 

When Mr. Warren took up coal mining 
12 years ago, there wasn’t much electric- 
itv used in or about the collieries. Some 
of the companies employed main haulage 
locomotives, but there were no gathering 
motors in use. A number of mines had 
electric hoists on slopes and planes un- 
derground, but no electric hoists at shafts. 
Electric plunger pumps were about the 
only style used, and there was no elec- 
tric power in the breakers. Practically 
all the current was “direct,” and power 
was generated by engine-driven genera- 
tors at each individual colliery. 

One of the earliest and most important 
developments of the past decade was the 

Harry M. WARREN 

gathering locomotive. Following close on 
this improvement came centrifugal pumps. 
Concerning the latter, Mr. Warren 
is an ardent advocate of this style of 
pump in all cases where large bodies 
of water have to be handled, and this 
recommendation he makes regardless of 
head. Bronze pumps are his choice when 
bad water is encountered, and it is his 
idea that the best way to use centrifugal 
pumps, on a slope, for instance, is to op- 
erate them in series, placing the pumps 
at intervals, so that each will operate 
on a 100-ft. head. He says that when 
a centrifugal pump falls down in the 
handling of a large quantity of water, 
its failure is due, in nearly every case, 
to the machine being of improper design. 
The advantages of centrifugal pumps are 
their ease of handling, and the fact that 
they can be placed in a cramped space. 

Both direct and alternating current are 
used to drive pumps, but Mr..Warren rec- 
ommends the latter for station pumps, be- 
cause, (1) it permits the use of high volt- 
age; (2) gives advantages of an induc- 
tion motor; (3) eliminates trouble from 
variation in speed. He suggests the use 
of direct current for movable pumps. 

Mr. Warren says that his company at 
present is operating a large number of 
hoists driven by alternating-current mo- 
tors. The present maximum capacity of 
these hoists is 200 hp., but he is firm in 
the belief that before very long, similar 

equipments of 600 hp. will be installed. 
As to the advantages of alternating-cur- 
rent over direct-current hoists, he says 
that the chief advantage is in the trans- 
mission of power, especially as to the size 
and cost of wire. 

One of the most interesting of Mr. 
Warren’s views is in reference to the use 
of electric hoists for shafts. He believes 
that it does not pay to operate a shaft 
hoisting equipment by electricity, when 
the shaft is located at a colliery where 
a boiler plant is necessary for other pur- 
poses. This is particularly true if the ex- 
haust steam can be used to advantage 
in a low-pressure turbine, or otherwise 
be utilized. Although a steam hoist is 
less efficient than an electrically operated 
plant would be, the initial cost of a steam 
operated installation is so much less than 
for an electrical hoisting-station equip- 
ment that the initial saving is sufficient 
to overbalance any reduction in operation 
charges that results from the use of an 
electric hoist. 

In this connection, it is necessary to re- 
member that at all anthracite collieries, 
where the coal has to travel through a 
breaker, a boiler plant is required to sup- 
ply heat in the breaker, and to keep the 
water that is used in preparation of the 
coal from freezing. All the saving from 
an electrical equipment results from 
economy in the use of coal, and, there- 
fore, the higher the price of coal, the 
more favorable is the proposition to the 
use of electricity. “H. M.” ‘is ready to 
concede that the electric hoist permits 
better control and occupies less space. 

_In breakers, he advocates the use of 
motors because, (1) they eliminate coun- 
tershafts, pulleys, belts and ropes; (2) 
afford greater flexibility, in that each indi- 
vidual equipment can be located with ref- 
erence to any other part, insofar as the 
drive is concerned. 

In conclusion, “Harry M.” believes that 
all power used in a mine, where practic- 
able, should be electric power. He sug- 
gests, however, that the poor steam econ- 
omy at most collieries is due principa!!\ 
to the losses from radiation and drips 
when the equipment is not in operation 
The ability to burn small sizes of coa! 
at a high rate of combustion has recent!! 
been given much attention by his depar' 
ment, with the result that today he find: 
it possible to burn barley coal and de- 
velop at least 60 per cent. over-rating, 
while a few years ago it was difficult to 
operate normal rating with the samile 
grade of fuel. 

May 11, 1912 

Issued Weekly by the 

Hill Publishing Company 
JouN A. HILL, Pres. RoB’rT MCKEAN, Sec’y. 
505 Pearl Street, New York. 

Monadnock Bldg., Chicago. 
6 Bouverie Street, London, E. C. 
Unter den Linden 71—Berlin. N. W. 7, 

FLOYD W, Parsons, Editor. 
Correspondence suitable for the col- 
umns of COAL AGE solicited and paid 
i for. Name and address of corres- 
| pondents must be given—not neces- 
sarily for publication. 

Subscription price $3 per year in 
advance for 52 numbers to any post 
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$5 to any other foreign country. 

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Notice to discontinue should be 
written to the New York office in 
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Advertising copy should reach New 
York office by Thursday of week prior 
to date of issue. 

Entered as second-class matter, Oc- 
tober 14, 1911, at the post office at 
New York, New York, under the act 
of March 3, 1879. 

Cable Address, ‘*Coage,’”’ N. Y. 

Of this issue of Coal Age, we will print 
(900 copies. No copies will be sent free 
zularly. There will be no back num- 
The figures shown here each week 
epresent live, net circulation. 


This journal has a direct aim—a single 
purpose—which is to help advance the 
coal-mining industry. Its creed embodies 
the dissemination of knowledge and the 
free interchange of ideas among its read- 
all of whom are invited to become 
‘egular contributors. 


Contents _— 
OMEN WOMERS «ards ar atari siewahare eaiaeat aavarelatale 997 
Acme Co.'s Plant in Wyoming. 
Jesse Simmons 998 
nual Banquet of Mine Officials at 

PUESIIRS o.oo ecerel oid ecaswoeso vieceeiaeck 6 1001 

ter Purification for Collieries... 1002 

view of Towa Mine Explosions. 

R. T. Rhys 1004 

plosion at Merritt, B. C. 

Chas. Graham 1005 

»guarding the Use of Electricity 

RUPEE ook oc icar sc) d: crak arenenel aterine pie # Blane 1006 
l of Southern Nigeria... cncccs 1007 
iery Mine Car Construction. 
A. T. Shurick 1008 
Mannesman Steel Mine Prop... 1010 
ent Coal Literature: 
CeEmeme Gis ic oo ose eges os 1011 
Versus “Melons” «<4 c6.0.08cces 1011 
ige Battery Locomotives for 
Mrnel Ela wlaee 0k sce sake sors 10138 
bating Miners’ Diseases....... 1013 
‘'s Who—In Coal Mining: 
‘tech of Harry M. Wartfen...... 1014 
e Leaders and the Led........ 1015 
WSU INUION,<. o cans iss eeceeleneaces 1015 
1.e Mine Surveyor..... Ree eer 1016 
CSENnU Dave Waste. os csce sien cde 1016 
ission by Readers: 
el Nine Tlesics... nesses wesserers 1017 
atering vs. Sprinkline......... JOLT 
lucing Ventilation When Fir- 
Eh det arent hau unten ema ce ek eaten Sule ai ee ee eke 1018 
Pittsburg Rate Case........ 1018 
! ‘ries of General Interest...... 1019 
ination Questions and An- 

WW SE es alana teu ateenic avers elev eleel a eek ee 1020 

logical Department: 

‘iman Element in Coal Mining 1021 
_' ue Care of Mine Mules......... 1021 
cal and Coke News oc .c as vase nee 1023 
Coal Trade Reviews.......-- ersvece LORE 


The Leaders and the Led 

Rapid changes have taken place in the 
anthracite strike since the members of 
the joint committee appointed by the 
United Mine Workers refused to accept 
the settlement of the subcommittee. As 
that smaller body was not invested by 
either party with plenary powers to ef- 
fect a settlement, it is easy to understand 

why the larger body felt justified in 
refusing to accept it. 
Yet it must be remembered that the 

members of the subcommittee while 
meeting behind closed doors had plenty 
of opportunity to confer with their con- 
and doubtless did so during 

The events showed that 

every recess. 
the body of mine workers refused to 
stand back of their representatives and 
abide by their decisions. Nevertheless, 
it must be admitted that 
of George F. Baer were undiplomatic, 
and it was not well advised to hold the 
joint committee to any other action than 
that to which they stood committed by 
the words of their reference. 

On the other hand, the miners will have 
to learn that they must give plenipcten- 

the remarks 

tiary powers to their executive officers. No 
success can attend them if all their pour- 
parlers are mere waste of time, and 
some irritability in the opposing parties 
with whom they thus treat so irresponsi- 
bly is but natural under the circum- 
stances. We do not think that the 
operators have acted wisely in attempt- 
ing to load even a small quantity of coal 
while the opportunity to settle the strike 
is still so favorable. Such attempts can 
only irritate the men. 

The English-speaking miners 
shown a desire for peaceable methods. 
The rioting up to date has been confined 
almost entirely to the Southern fields, 
where foreign labor predominates. The 
Northern district, which is inhabited prin- 
cipally by Americans, has preserved the 
peace, except in one or two localities. 
The English-speaking miners have shown 
a politic disposition and view with no 
little regret that the foreign element is 
pursuing un-American methods of set- 


tling the dispute, and injuring the in- 
struments by which their livelihood is 

We think that the operators cannot 
accede further demands weak- 
ening their position in the market, and 


as far as a recognition of the union is 
concerned, the miners have been granted 
than seemed likely 
when the strike started. What recogni- 
tion the union has received was con- 
the operators believed 

more concessions 

ceded because 
that the miners’ organization would be a 
“eliable body with which to conclude an 
If the 
is nothing, can do nothing, and stands 

United Mine Workers Union 

powerless to meet socialistic violence 
and the machinations of foreigners, then 
there will be no value in recognition. 
The Mine Workers are proving that the 
early contention of the anthracite opera- 
tors was true, and that the elements op- 
pesed to the union and opposed to law 
and order will not be bound by anything 
the union will agree to do. 

It is time for the American element 
in the union to declare that their federa- 
tion stands for order, and will approve 
what has seemed acceptable to its repre- 



We always supposed the coal miner 
was healthy, and statistics favoring that 
belief only confirmed us in that view. 
But we see that the Bureau of Mines and 
Marine Hospital Service would not have 
it so and have combined to decimate the 
ranks of the miner with phthisis and 
hookworm. If the coal miner is to be 
thus menaced, we wish to protest. The 
U. S. Government every ten years gives 
him a clean bill of health, and Samuel 
G. Dixon, the Commissioner of Health 
of the State of Pennsylvania, showed in 
his report of 1908 that the miner was but 
little subject to consumption. 

We quote, however, as a corrective of 
all false notions, the words which the di- 
rector of the Bureau of Mines hopes to 
incorporate in his report to the Presi- 
dent, and which we include today in our 


pages: “Inquiries and investigations have 
already shown the prevalence of tuber- 
culosis and hookworm as miners’ dis- 
eases in a number of different localities 
in the United States.” 

The report of the Health Department 
of Pennsylvania, to which reference has 
been made, shows the following figures 
for tuberculosis, giving the percentage 
of deaths from that disease to those from 
all causes for all occupied males, and 
for miners and quarrymen. 

All Occupied 


and Quarrymen 
Percentage Percentage 
30.9 b. 
24.3 11.8 
14.4 11.6 
7.6 12.8 
first period of 10 years, con- 
is particularly deadly among 
and gas fitters, 42.9 per cent. 

the second 


tuberculosis. In 
period the compositors, print- 

dying of 
ers and pressmen show the largest death 
percentage from that disease; to wit, 
49.2 per cent. In the next ten years the 
mill and factory (textile) workers have 
the highest figure, 17.5 per cent., and in 
the final period domestic servants have 
the greatest proportion of deaths from 
this malady, 13.0 per cent. 

But it may be objected that the miner 
probably has a high death rate from 
all causes, especially from that of 
physical violence. This would account 
for the low percentage of deaths from 
consumption compared with those from 
all causes. But neither the statement 
nor its deduction is sustained so far as 
the sormewhat restricted investigations of 
the Census Bureau in 1900 extend. The 
miner lives a fair span of life. To quote 
the exact words of the report on Vital 
Statistics, published in 1902 by that bu- 
reau: “The table” of miners’ mortality 
“shows that the death rate of miners and 
quarrymen was much less than the aver- 
age rate in this class.” Totalling the 
government table, we find that while 
only 882.1 miners died in every 100,000 
from all causes, 1298.5 occupied males 

in the same number succumbed tto all 
manner of diseases and accidents. The 
mining and the quarrying class_ has, 

therefore, a distinctly lower death rate 
as far as the Census Bureau’s figures 

Moreover, according to the same Vital 
Statistics, only 120.9 miners died in every 
100,000 from tuberculosis, whereas of 
all occupied males 236.7 individuals died 
per 100,000 from that disease. 


Such tuberculosis as is to be found 
among miners is largely confined to those 
men who work in metal mines. An ac- 
curate count of the coal diggers would 
doubtless show a comparative immunity 
among men working at the coal face. 

The Mine Surveyor 

State or governmental laws regulating 
the practice of mine surveying is one of 
the many serious problems confronting 
the coal industry today. Great Britain has 
finally adopted a definite policy in this 
respect by prescribing certain qualifica- 
tions for mine surveyors, but there ap- 
pears to have been such active opposition 
to the passage of the act that the ulti- 
mate result has been a relatively weak 
and ineffective compromise. Thus a cer- 
tificate of competency may be obtained 
either from the Board of Mining Examin- 
ations, an approved educational institu- 
tion, or will be issued on application to 
all holders of a first-class manager’s cer- 

We seriously question the assumption 
that the college man, devoid of practical 
experience, is competent to assume re- 
sponsibie charge of extensive surveys. 
Nor do we believe that the qualifications 
of the surveyor should be determined en- 
tirely by mental examinations in mathe- 
matics, surveying, etc., since it is not at 
all improbable that a well posted drafts- 
man, who has never been in a mine, could 
successfully stand such an examination. 

Those familiar with colliery-engineer- 
ing departments appreciate the value of 
a conscientious and thoroughly reliable 
transitman, and know that such men are 
found only among the experienced and 
well seasoned members of the profession. 
Any of the older engineers, looking back 
on the time they served as surveyor, can 
doubtless recall new shortcuts, checks 
and possible causes of inaccuracies which 
they continually were discovering. 

Should state or government interven- 
tion along this line begattempted, it is to 
be hoped that the practical side will not 
be ignored entirely, as is too often the 
case. Errors in mine surveying frequent- 
ly result, not only in heavy monetary 
losses, but in numerous fatalities, and 
if we are to have laws, let them be ef- 
fective. “Running” a transit might be 
likened to running a locomotive, in that 
no experienced engineer would any more 
consider engaging an instrumentman on 

Vol. 1, No. 31 

his inental attainments alone, than a rai’ 
road superintendent would think of hirir, 
a locomotive engineer on like qualifica 

Present Day Waste 
The conservationists have discussed 
the good of posterity so much that con- 
servation has now a bitter smack of 
priggishness, like several other wel! 
meaning words—institutional work,  wel- 
fare, altruism, uplift, benevolence and 
the rest of the drab sisterhood. But 
there is nothing benevolent about most 
forms of conservation, though the least 
hopeful and most remote forms have 
the loudest and most insistent ‘“barkers.” 

Unfortunately, the figures for the days 
worked in mines of the United States in 
1909 are not yet published, but in the 
five years preceding the year 1911, ex- 
cluding the year aforesaid, the anthra- 
cite mines in Pennsylvania lost 507 days. 
excluding Sundays. The bituminous 
mines of the United States lost in the 
Same period 498 days. This loss of pro- 
ductivity must have resulted in raising 
all the costs of producing coal. 

Of course, miners are often absent 
from mines during the days when coal 
is being dumped, but, on the other hand, 
not a few work when the mines are of- 
ficially declared idle, so that perhaps 
the productivity of a mine is normal], 
to be gaged by the number of operating 

The idleness increases the cost of coal, 
makes capital meanwhile unproducti\:. 
involves losses for upkeep and pumpin: 
and results in the loss of tonnage. 

In fact, it is possible that if by a co 
bination of operators, this lost time co’ 
be reduced, there might be a reduct 
in the cost of coal, which would gra’ 
consumers and make conditions 
for owners and miners alike. The ¢ 
lic must in the long run pay fo: 
time during which the miner folds 
arms or saunters casually down 
or to the commissary. 

The British Royal Commissio’ 
Mines has recommended the este 
ment of a lamp-testing station for 
vestigation of the velocity of exp. 
currents which different types of §.:iPS 
can withstand, together with their \lu- 
minating ‘power and sensitiveness in ‘cst- 
ing for mine gas. An excellent sucs¢es 

tion for our Bureau of Mines. 

May 11, 1912 


Discussion by Readers 

Comment, Criticism and Debate upon Previous Articles, and Letters from Practical Men 

Steel Mine Ties 

Steel mine ties have been used to ad- 
vantage in some districts. The accom- 
panying Fig. 1 shows the latest, best 
and cheapest form of steel tie made. 
It is but 14 in. thick as compared to the 
4 in. or more of a wooden tie, and this 
means a corresponding saving in the 
height to which every pound of coal 
must be lifted to be loaded into a mine 
car. The bolts used in the tie are the 
same as those in the rail-splice bars 
and no sledges, gages, spikes or spike 
pullers are needed for either laying or 
taking up ties. The only tool required is 
the wrench that is used for the rail- 
splice bolts. 

ies oe go”. 
Hole 4x in Long Bar 
vy 2'Diam. 11 Short Bars 

randards Track Bolt 2-L 


in. bolts so that the track will be flexible 
and easily shifted sideways to enable 
it to be laid on considerable of a curve 
and yet not spring back but stay where 
it is put. The amount of flexibility de- 
pends on the length of the rails and the 
shorter they are the greater is the flex- 

Ties of this general form have been 
known for years, but the particular im- 
provements that this tie possesses and 
which make it superior to other types, are 
the use of loose-riveted clips that cannot 
get lost, and of washers to make thickness 
enough so that the same track bolts can 
be used as for the splice-bars. A fur- 
ther advantage is that the clip is easier 
to make because it is straight. The bolt 

--Track Gage -9 RS os Sea eo 
/~Barl3x3% (Track Gage +72) 
of at IZKx 3x , 
%» C-Washers 4 Thich/s sg.or Found 
J a= } \ ee 
C + = rvs [ oe a 
a A f 
met shy aor wads and a fia: ae GR a ae nl i ah akc ~ ; 

Fit 10 20 Ib. Fail 


Countersunk Bottom Side 
to swivel easily 

Neeser Rivet ‘. 


When these ties are used approaching 
the working face, short-length rails can 
be used with them, cut the same length 
as the depth of undercut made in the 
coal, in any particular mine. As the 
rail rests right on the floor but one 
tie, per rail length of 6 ft., or less is re- 
quired. Since the gage is rigidly cor- 
rect there is less trouble experienced 
irom cars running cff the track than 
vhen wooden ties are used; and there 
s less obstruction to travel for a mule, 
orse or man and less chance of injury 
) them through getting a foot caught 
r stumbling. The number of times that 

wooden tie can be laid or taken up is 
mited, but there is no limit to the 
umber of. times this steel tie can be 
sed. If bent it is easily straightened. 

Each rail should have a pair of splice- 
irs loosely riveted on one end, so as 

insure having splices where and when 
ney are wanted, and to save labor in 

‘ying track. The splice-bars will have 

‘vO Of their holes already used, and 
Putting down a length of track simply 
“leans putting in two bolts in each tie 
and two in the splices. 
in the rails should be 

The bolt holes 
3% in. for “%- 

hole in the tie is oblong to suit the dia- 
mond-shaped head end of a track bolt 
so that it cannot turn while the nut is 
being tightened or loosened, particularly 
the latter; because after a tie has been 
down a while the nut rusts the same as 
it does in the rail splice. The same 
track is good for outside use, for slate 
dumps and other temporary tracks. The 
first cost, per tie, is twice that of wood, 
but since not more than half as many 
are required, per foot of track, the total 
cost is no greater, while the steel ties 
are cheaper to lay and take up and are 
longer lived than wooden ties. 

Bevel same as. 
, flange of Rail 

Ca Yro7 


In making these ties in an ordinary 
blacksmith shop, the holes are first 
punched or drilled by gage, then the bar 
to be bent is heated and a tool like that 
shown in the accompanying Fig. 2, is 
placed on it for a form, over which the 
bent end is quickly shaped by a few 
blows of the hammer. All parts are 
thus made to the same gage. The bot- 
tom head of the rivet is countersunk, as 
shown in Fig. 1, because it is easier to 

beat down such a head than it is to 
use a rivet set. 
Elisworth, Penn. F. D. BUFFUM. 

Watering vs. Sprinkling 

Referring to coal dust in mines, the 
Royal Commission, appointed some time 
since to investigate coal-dust explosions 
in mines, based their conclusions, if I am 
not mistaken, on the following points: 

First. The best way to deal with coal 
dust is to see that all dusty entries 
and rooms are kept “watered,” not 
“sprinkled.” There is a difference in the 
meaning of these two words, watered and 
sprinkled. There is, I think, too much 
sprinkling and not enough watering done 
in our mines. In mines where the roads 
are dusty, the fireboss should be em- 

powered to order that all roads be 
watered—watered, not sprinkled. In some 
mines, this watering is done with a 

watering car, which is, in my opinion, 
the best method to employ. In other 
mines, sprinkling is done by means of 
pipes laid on the roads and airways. 

I will confess that the use of the water- 
ing car may often prove a disadvantage, 
especially in mines where there is a large 
output of coal. Nevertheless, we must 
consider the lives of the bread-winners 
and the wives and children dependent 
upon them. The watering car is often 
considered an unnecessary item of ex- 
pense, as it requires the employment of 
one or two extra drivers and as many 
mules. If, however, this method would 
save the lives of even ten men, in one 
year, in the United States, I am sure that 
would counter-balance the extra expense, 
with interest added. 

It has given me great pleasure to read 
the comments of James Ashworth, in 
Coat Ace, Apr. 20, p. 917. Mr. Ashworth 
gives his veiws on the watering of dusty 
mines, which I know wiil be greatly ap- 
freciated by many readers. I hope to see 
further discussion of this important ques- 

Terre Haute, Ind. FIREBOss. 


Reducing Ventilation When 

I have followed with much interest the 
discussion of this subject in Coat AGE, 
and must say that the contributions have 
furnished many valuable hints. Stress 
has been laid upon the dangers attending 
a strong draft, rapidly moving currents 
of air, and of fine dust carried in sus- 
pension in the mine air. There is, no 
doubt, some wisdom in reducing the ven- 
tilation when firing shots in a mine. Per- 
haps, however, the most interesting phase 
of the subject has not yet been touched. 
No doubt, some readers can recall having 
heard old superintendents say there were 
never anv serious dust explosions in their 
particular sections of the country before 
mining laws made larger fans and greater 
volumes of fresh air compulsory. The 
popular demand was for fresh air for the 
miner, and that is the cry today in open 
light mines, where gas is never found. 

But there is another side to this im- 
portant question. The close analytical 
study of mine air is now beginning to 
change many long standing ideas con- 
cerning ventilation. There was a time 
when physicians tried to diagnose a pa- 
tient’s disease by looking at his tongue 
and timing his pulse. Today, a sample of 
the blood or waste product is taken and 
examined under the microscope, or chem- 
ically anaiyzed before the patient’s true 
condition can be known. 

In like manner, we are beginning to 
learn what kind of mine air is neces- 
sary to maintain health, also the kind of 
air in which it is possible to start a dust 
explosion. The chemist has suggested 
tnat the best method for the prevention 
of dust explosions in mines is to reduce 
tne oxygen content of the air to 20 per 
cent., and for the most dangerous mines 
to 19 per cent., with a little carbon diox- 
ide present. Such air, it is stated, is 
now breathed by men working at the coal 
face, in most mines, which is given as 
the reason why dust explosions seldom, 
if ever, traverse the working face. 

We are told that with an atmosphere 
containing less than 17'% per cent. oxy- 
gon (or 1713 per cent. with a little car- 
bon dioxide, say 34 of 1 per cent.), it is 
not only impossible to start a dust ex- 
plosion, but also with this percentage of 
oxygen in the mine air, firedamp mixed 
itt any proportion will not ignite when a 
flame is applied to the mixture. It is also 
further stated that with this depletion of 
oxvgen in the air, a fire of wood or coal, 
in the roads, cannot be started. 

Someone recently wrote Dr. Haldane, 
Suggesting the feasibility of treating the 
intake air of a mine with furnace gases, 
and he replied, in relation to the depletion 
of the oxygen of the air by this means: 
“I can see no physiological difficulty in 
reducing the oxygen to 17% per cent., 


provided you can eliminate the difficulties 
with carbon monoxide, also the lighting 

But in many mines, especially where 
carbon dioxide is given off by the coal, 
artificial treatment of the ingoing air will 
not be necessary to produce certain air 
conditions in the working places where 
shots are fired. 

Perhaps this phase of the problem is 
worthy of extended discussion by read- 
ers. I will hazard the opinion that in 
the near future we shall regularly take 
samples of the mine air, and depend more 
upon the chemical analysis of such air 
when regulating ventilation than upon 
the anemometer. And all modern mines 
will be equipped with air-sampling and 
analyzing apparatus, as well as ane- 
mometers. Our ventilation laws will also 
be modified. 


Delagua, Colo. 

[A practically insurmountable difficulty 
in regard to any sampling and analyzing 
of the mine air is that which has always 
rendered useless such tests; namely, the 
conditions in the mine are constantly 
changing, and any such test can only have 
a local value, which will probably be of 
no avail by the time the results of the 
test are known.—EbpiITor. ] 

The Pittsburg Rate Case 

While I have no interests whatever 
in the Pittsburg rate case, I have been 
following this matter closely, and cannot 
see wherein any of the Pittsburg oper- 
ators are benefited, as you seem to infer 
in your editorial on this subject in the 
Apr. 27 number. We are advised that the 
rate on coal to the lakes from the Fair- 
mont and Kanawha fields has been re- 
duced 10c., thus putting these rates on 
practically the same basis as heretofore. 
We do not have copies of the tariffs 
showing this reduction, but we were in- 
formed from reliable sources that such is 
the case. 

In another place in the same issue, you 
state that the Pittsburg operators have 
increased their prices on coal to over- 
come the advance given the men. It has 
been true for the last several years that 
the Pittsburg operators increase their 
prices on coal, but they have -never main- 
tained these, and I venture the asser- 
tion that the prices on c@al will be as 
low, if not lower, this year than last 

There does not seem to be any ques- 
tion but that the increased development 
in the coal fields is more than the in- 
creased consumption, and, moreover, the 
railroad companies are in better position 
to move this commodity more quickly 
and they are furnishing a greater car 
supply than they have ever furnished 

Vol. 1, No. 31 

This letter may sound pessimistic, but 
it is not written with that idea. I be- 
lieve that there should be an adjustment 
of the various freight rates, and your 
article with reference to the anthracite 
coal freighters bears this statement out. 
If the various companies and trade pa- 
pers would follow this up it would 
surely help considerably. 

S. A. Carson, 
General Manager. 

So. Connellsville Coke Co., 
Uniontown, Penn. 

[Our correspondent in stating that the 
rate from the Fairmont and Kanawha 
fields has been reduced 10c. has evi- 
dently misinterpreted our editorial or 
been misinformed. Quoting from the 
editorial: “As is well known, the Fair- 
mont and Kanawha fields are the most 
important competitors in the Lake trade, 
and no revision in rates from these dis- 
tricts has been made.” In the cases of 
the Baltimore & Ohio, the Chesapeake & 
Ohio and the Kanawha & Michigan lines, 
the decision was that the present rates 
from the Fairmont, Kanawha and New 
River fields of 9634¢., 97c. and $1.12 a 
ton respectively were fair and just, the 
proposed rates of $1,$1.06' > and $1.21', 
not being justified. While no increase in 
these rates was made, there was not, on 
the other hand, any reduction, as our 
correspondent seems to infer, although 
the fact that no increase was granted 
acts indirectly as a decrease. 

With reference to Mr. Carson’s as- 
sertion to the effect that the price on 
coal would be as low, if not lower this 
year than last year, and questioning our 
statement that the Pittsburg operators 
have increased their prices to overcome 
the advance given the miners, we be- 
lieve in the former instance that such 
may quite probably be the case. We 
presume that he is referring to the state- 
ment in the first column on page 960, 
which says: “There is no demand but 

‘producers are naming prices on a basis 

of 7'4c. higher than last year’s regular 
or official basis.” Further along in the 
same paragraph it says: “These prices 
constitute the quotable market at the 
moment, but whether they will hold is 
another matter. Last year’s prices based 
on $1.15 were shaded during the major 
portion of the season.” It will be noted 
here that we give these figures as the 
quotable market at the moment and ques- 
tion ourselves whether they will hold. 
And we further note that last year the 
quoted prices were shaded during most 
of the season. Our correspondent is 
thoroughly justified in his belief that th: 
present circular prices will not be main- 
tained throughout the season, as has beer 
amply proved in previous years, but since 
these are the prices being quoted at the 
present time, they are obviously of valuc 
to the trade.—EpiTor.] 

May 13, 1912 




Inquiries of General Interest 



All Questions Must be Accompanied by Name and Address—Not for Publication 

Will a Carbide Lamp Burn 
in Carbon Dioxide? 

Kindly answer the following questions 
in CoAL AcE: Will a carbide lamp burn 
in carbon dioxide? What is the chem- 
ical formula for calcium carbide and 
the equation that expresses its reaction 
with water and shows the resulting gas 
that produces the light? Is it true that 
the chief mine inspector of Ohio will not 
permit carbide lights to be used in the 
mines in that state 7 

Night Foreman. 

Sunnyside, Utah. 

[The question is often asked, “Will a 
carbide lamp burn in blackdamp ?” and 
the answer is, ‘‘Yes.”” There is, how- 
ever, a great difference between black- 
damp and carbon dioxide. The former 
is a variable mixture of one or more 
extinctive gases and air. It therefore 
contains some available oxygen, which 
supports the flame of the lamp. On the 
contrary, carbon dioxide (CO.) contains 
no free or available oxygen; and, for 
this reason, no flame dependent on oxygen 
for its combustion can burn in this gas. 

It is often asserted and the idea has 
become quite prevalent that a carbide 
lamp will burn in an atmosphere of car- 
bon dioxide; that it is not dependent for 
its combustion on oxygen or air; and 
this argument has been used, at times, to 
press the claims of this lamp for mining 
us Both statements are wrong. The 
id. probably grew out of the fact that 
| common for mining men to call 
bi.ckdamp, carbon dioxide. But, as just 

ined, the two are widely different; 

while the carbide lamp will burn 
in olackdamp that will extinguish most 
O'ocr lights, it will not burn in pure 
Cirson dioxide, because that gas con- 
tues no free oxygen. 

e acetylene flame of the carbide 
l..., like the hydrogen flame, is extreme- 
|, ‘cnacious. While a candle and other 
\..--fed flames are extinguished by about 
i r cent. of carbon dioxide added to 
air (artificial atmosphere); or by 
3 to 4 per cent. of carbon diox- 
id in a residual atmosphere, where the 
flac is inclosed in a confined space and 
avowed to burn till it goes out; the hy- 
drocen flame is only extinguished, in an 
artificial atmosphere, when the latter con- 
tains practically 58 per cent. of carbon 
dioxide; and the acetylene flame is almost 
€qually tenacious. 
lt is important, however, in this con- 

nection to state that, owing to this prop- 
erty of the acetylene flame, the carbide 
lamp fails to indicate the presence of 
blackdamp in the mine air, with sufficient 
promptness to avoid danger, since 18 per 
cent. of CO., in an artificial atmosphere*, 
may produce fatal results if breathed but 
a short time. The lamp is not a safe lamp 
to use in mine workings generating much 
blackdamp, any more than the electric 
lamp is safe in mines generating marsh 

The chemical formula for calcium car- 
bide is CaC.. The chemical equation ex- 
pressing the reaction of this carbide with 
water is: 

carbide Water hydrate 
Cae, 2 HO = Ca: (OH), + CLE. 
The equation that expresses the combus- 
tion of the acetylene gas in oxygen is: 

lene vapor 
2 ¢.H, 2 HO 

The Ohio mining law, as revised June 
11, 1910, and again the following year, 
1911, prohibits the use, in any coal mine 
in that state, of “any fish oil or other 
luminant whatever, other than those spe- 
cifically provided for’ in the section 

The chief mine inspector, June 5, 1911, 
issued a circular drawing attention to the 
new law and notifying all mine foremen 
in charge of mines, in the state, that they 
would be held responsible for the use of 
any illuminant, in their respective mines, 
other than oils of the standard required 
by law. 



Acety- Oxy- 

5 O. = 

Safety Lamps, Types and Con- 

struction, Relative Safety 
lease explain the essential differences 
and the construction of the Davy, Clanny 
and Wolf lamps. Which of these is the 
safest lamp to use in a gassy mine; and 
in what does this safety consist ? 

Altoona, Penn. 

The Davy lamp has no glass but a full 
gauze chimney surrounding the flame, 
which permits a free circulation of air 
passing in and out of the lamp. While 

*The term artificial atmosphere as 
here used, means an atmosphere contain- 
ing a normal percentage of oxygen, the 
COz being added; in distinction to a 
residual atmosphere, which is the atmos- 
phere resulting from the burning of a 
lamp, or some other form of combustion, 
by which the oxygen content has been 
depleted. Practically, all mine atmos- 
pheres containing blackdamp or other 
gases are artificial atmospheres, except 
the afterdamp of an explosion, which 
may } residual. 

this free circulation of air renders the 
Davy more sensitive to gas than is the 
case with other lamps, the same fact 
makes it an unsafe lamp for general work 
or to place in the hands of the ordinary 
miner. The lamp, because of its sensi- 
tiveness, “flames” readily in gas. When 
this happens it requires much presence 
of mind and self-control to avoid making 
a sudden movement that may force the 
flame through the gauze and fire the gas 
outside of the lamp. 

The Clanny lamp differs from the Davy 
in having a glass cylinder surrounding 
the flame and which forms the lower half 
of the chimney; the upper half being 
gauze the same as the Davy. This’ im- 
proves the light, which is not obstructed 
by the gauze mesh. The air enters the 
Clanny lamp through the lower portion 
of the gauze, above the glass, and must 
therefore descend to the flame. There 
are, thus, two conflicting air currents in 
the Jamp, which gives all Clanny lamps 
a tendency to smoke. This lamp is not 
as sensitive to gas as the Davy lamp, but 
affords greater protection of the flame 
against strong air currents. 

The Wolf lamp is an improved type 
of Clanny lamp, having a glass cylinder 
surmounted by a gauze chimney. It dif- 
fers from the Clanny in the fact that the 
air enters this lamp through a gauze ring 
below the glass, which gives a better cir- 
culation in the lamp and improves the 
light. The Wolf lamp is particularly de- 
signed to burn naphtha, a highly volatile 
and explosive oil. The oil vessel of the 
lamp contains a specially prepared cotton 
that is used to absorb the oil and reduce 
the danger of explosion in the lamp. Ow- 
ing to the ease with which the naphtha 
flame is extinguished, the Wolf lamp is 
supplied with a special igniter for relight- 
ing the lamp when accidentally extin- 

No so called safety lamp is safe unless 
properly handled, and kept in good con- 
dition. Its safety depends on the isola- 
tion of the flame from the outside air, 
by means of a chimney of wire gauze, o1 
glass and gauze combined. The cool wire 
forming the mesh of the gauze allows the 
free passage of the air and gas, but kills 
the flame by absorbing its heat whenever 
the flame approaches the wire. If the 
gauze becomes heated, or is imperfect or 
dirty, or the lamp is exposed to a strong 
air pressure, the flame may pass through 
the mesh of the gauze. In other words, 
under these conditions, the lamp may 




1, No. 31 

Examination Questions 

Selected from State Examinations, or Suggested by Correspondents | 

Sundry Examination Questions 
(Answered by request) 

Ques.—What must be the sectional 
area of an airway 5000 ft. long, in order 
that it wili pass 10,000 cu.ft. of air per 
under a water gage of 1.7 inches? 

Ill. Exam. 

Ans.—In order to solve this question it 
is necessary to know the shape of the 
cross-section of the airway, so as to be 
able to reduce the two unknown quantities 
(perimeter and area) to a single term 
(diarheter or side). 

The formula for unit pressure, in terms 
of the airway and quantity of air, is 

p= 3 
in this case, the values are all given ex- 
cept the perimeter (0) and area (a); 
a® _ 0.00000002 X 5000 X _ 10,0007 
"alle 29K a7 
== 9030.22 
For circular airway, 

a (wrr?)? wr 75 


= 4.9348 r® 

aaa i gd 

Ps r= fy 
The diameter of this airway, to meet the 
requirements in the question, must 
be practically 6 ft., and its area is then 
0.7854 « 6? = 28.27 sq.ft. 
For square airway (side = d, area = 

230.23— 2.06, say: 3 ft. 

a® (d?)* 5 
d—y] 4 ‘XX 1131.22 — 5.384 ft. 
Area -= 5.384" = 29 sq.ft. 

For a rectangular airway (height = 
a, width == b), perimeter = 2(a + Db); 
area = ab. 

Assume b = na; then, 
Perimeter = 2(a + na) =2a(n + 1) 
Area = xX me = 
a* (ne*)* n° . 
0. 2a(n+1)  2(n- a 

Suppose the width of the airway is 

double its height; then, n = 2; and 
oe 2" ‘— 
0 2(244 1) ° ois ed 


a=} 0.75 X 1131.22 = 3.85 ft. 
Db. == 2) X2389' — 4B 

The airway, in this case, is 3.85 x 7.6 
ft.; its area is 3.85 x 7.6 = 29.26 sq.ft. 

It is thus seen that a circular airway 
requires the smallest area; the square 
airway the next; and the rectangular the 
largest, to pass a given quantity of air 
under a given pressure. 


Ques.—Of two airways, one 7 ft. wide 
and 6 ft. high, the other 14 ft. wide and 3 
ft. high, which will pass the greater quan- 
tity of air, other conditions being equal; 
and why ? 

Tenn. Exam. 

Ans.—The areas of these airways are 
equal: 7 + 6 = 42 sqaift., and 14 x 3 = 
42 sq.ft. Assuming the airways have the 
same length, the one having the smaller 
perimeter will have likewise the smaller 
rubbing surface, and will pass the greater 
quantity of air, for the same pressure or 
power on the air. 

The perimeter of the airways, in this 
case, are, respectively, 
6x7 -ft. airway, 2(6 + 7) = 26 sq.ft. 
3x14-ft. airway, 2(3 + 14) = 34 sq.ft. 

The 6x7-ft. airway will therefore pass 
more air, under the same pressure or 
power, than the 3x14-ft. airway. The 
ratios of the quantities are as follows: 

Equal pressure. 

qi 3077 = 1.1474 
q2 4d 4 

Equal power, 

:' | 
: — 

ties is to say, for each 10,000 cu.ft. of 
air in the 3x14-ft. airway, under equal 
pressure, the 6x7-ft. airway will pass 11,- 
400 cu.ft.; or, under equal power, 10,900 

1.3077 = 1.09-+ 


Ques.—What is the formula for calcu- 
lating the percentage of gas from the 
height of flame cap observed? What per- 

centage of gas is indicated by a 34-in. 
cap 7 4 
Ans.—When using the unbonneted 

Davy lamp, the percentage of gas is given 
by the formula 


Or, for a 34-in. cap 

J=WP 36 x 0.75=  27= 3% 
When using a bonneted Davy 


Or, for a 34-in. cap 



J= P70 X075=¥ 52 


Ques.—(a) If 10 hp. is producing a 
circulation of 60,000 cu.ft. of air, in a 
mine, what is the water gage? (b) What 
quantity of air and what water gage will 
be produced in this mine, when the 
horsepower is increased to 25 hp. ? 

Ans.—(a) The water gage is 

2 10 x 33,000 __ 
— ™ 5.2 X 60,000 _ 

(b) In any given mine or airway the 
quantity of air circulated is proportional 
to the cube root of the power producing 
the circulation. Or, in other words, the 
quantity ratio is equal to the cube root of 
the power ratio. Then since the water 
gage (or pressure) varies as the square 
of the quantity, the water-gage ratio is 
equal to the cube root of the square of 
the power ratio. Hence, for the quan- 

q 25 3 
a a 245 
60,000 10 

= 60,000 X 1.357 

q = 60,000 ? “2 

= say 81,400 cu.ft. per min. 

For the increased water gage due to 25 
—om age ee 
wg. = 1057 7% 6.25 = 1.057 X 1.84 
== 1.947 41. 
Ques.—What is meant by the term 

coefficient of friction, as used in mine 
ventilation? Give an example showing 
hew such coefficient is used. 

Ans.—For a full explanation of the co- 
efficient of friction and its use in mi: 
ventilation, see CoAL AGE, Feb. 24. * 


Ques.—If 20,000 cu.ft. of air per ™! 
is circulated in a certain mine, by a wate! 
gage of 3.5 in., what water gage wil! 
required to increase this quantity to 
COO cu.ft. per min.; in other words 
double the circulation ? 

Ans.—For the same mine or airy 
the pressure or water gage varies as + 
square of the quantity of air circi’ 

In other words, the water-gage ral 
then equal to the square of the quanity 
ratio. In this case, calling the required 
water gage x, 

2 aa (2000) 22 = 

3.5 20,000 
x—= 35 x 4 = 14 in. 

May 11, 1912 


Sociological Department 

For the Betterment of Living Conditions in Mining Communities 

Human Element in Coal 

During the last 25 years, we have had 
experience in mines of all kinds from the 
crudest, dug in the side of a low hill, to 
mines approached by deep shafts and 
as nearly perfect as human thought and 
effort can make them. And our experi- 
ences have driven home, like reiterated 
siedge-hammer blows, the conviction that 
perfection is far from being attained 
when the finest installation, mechanically 
speaking, has been completed. 

No mine, no matter how costly may 
have been its development, no matter 
with what almost excessive care it may 
have been planned and its construction 
executed, is safer than the most careless 
employee permits it to be. The mine is 
always at the mercy of an illiterate and 
reckless foreigner, or of an  over-am- 
bitious, output-crazed mine foreman. The 
whole chain of caution, mechanical per- 
tection and provision snaps at its weak- 
est link, the human element. 


arge capital is adopting improved 
chines and systems, the former more 
readily than the latter, but we face a 
i! culty which new mechanism and im- 
ed mining practice cannot over-bal- 
The apex of our former labor 
fF omid has become its base. While the 
grants, who poured into our coal- 
his, in the seventies and eighties num- 
‘ nine of British, German or Scan- 
d ‘an nationality to one from other 
( ries, now there is but one man from 
countries to eight or nine Italians, 
( .s and Slavs. 

juote the mine reports of the State 
‘ansylvania in reference to under- 
d labor: 

rmation received from 98 per cent. 
Operators shows that 40 per cent. 
employees are of the English 

s ‘ng races, while 60 per cent. are 
nglish speaking. Of those killed, 
‘ Der cent. were of the latter class, 
ly 26.388 per cent. were Americans, 
‘h, Seotch, Irish and German. If 
cidents among these people had 
proportionate to the total number 
h class employed, 102 of the latter 

‘-~ of men would have been killed in- 
rE OF Ge 

“Vittsburg-Buffalo Co., Marianna, Penn. 


It is plain, therefore, to the most cas- 
ual reader that the men in charge of 
mines where such conditions exist are 
working under a natural disadvantage, 
regardless of all the aid which may be 
given to the managements by generous 
mine owners. It will be seen at once 
that mining officials have a more difficult 
proposition than confronts any other men 
in charge of employees working in extra 
hazardous occupations, 

James E. Roderick may be 


Legislation of the proper kind would, 

no doubt, bring about a reduction of 
fatalities, but the most prolific cause, 
which is carelessness on the part of mine 
officials and employees, can be removed 
only by greater discipline, discipline 
which will enforce obedience to those 

laws and rules which have been framed 
to give a greater degree of safety, dis- 
cipline that will mete out severe punish- 
ment to the man in charge, and to the 
employee alike, who, by their careless- 
recklessness, place the lives of 
the mines in constant 

ness or 

the men in 


The other day a suggestion appeared 
which is more humorous and decidedly 
less practicable than that quoted. It was 
made at a meeting of the American So- 
ciety of Mining Engineers. In brief it 
was to the effect that the men in charge 
of mines should learn the languages of 
the different classes of workmen so that 
they could instruct every employee in 
his native tongue, regarding the rules of 
the mine and the observance thereof. 
The idea is good, very good indeed, 
doubtless too good to be generally car- 
ried into action in the great gas-coal 
fields. Evidently the speaker was never 
much nearer the average gas-coal mine 
than an office on Broadway or some such 
street in a large city. 

If he had been, he would have under- 
stood that the foreman of an uptodate 
mine in a gas-coal region hardly has the 
time to express himself properly in Eng- 
lish, certainly not in all the tongues of 
southern Europe. Unless he had learned 
the several languages when a miner, or 
while yet a boy in common school, he 
could scarcely hope to find such an easy 
berth that he would have sufficient time 
left in each 24 hours to become an effi- 
cient linguist, unless he could procure 
his education in this respect by a cash 

If this be possible, we readily ac- 
quiesce in the proposition advanced, and 
think that in view of the chaotic condi- 
tion of mine labor it would be a profit- 
able investment for every mine operator 
to purchase an assorted dozen of linguis- 
tic proficiencies ready for use in each 
large mine, as many a foreman or su- 
perintendent in the gas-coa! country 
could use them all, with the possible ex- 
ception of Hebrew and Chinese. 

The Care of Mine Mules 

The mule has never been supposed to 
possess any surplus brains, while, on the 
other hand, I believe it has never been 
given full credit for the intelligence it 
sometimes displays. Mules vary in their 
temperaments and dispositions, much as 
men do. Some are docile and tractable, 
others lively and spirited, and some are 
very refractory and even vicious. Occa- 
sionally, we have known them to lie in 
wait craftily for days and even weeks, 
seeking an opportunity to kick drivers 
who have mistreated them, and they 
sometimes accomplish their purpose with 
fatal results. But, on the whole, in my 
experience with mules, I have found that 
they readily respond to kindness, and 
are amenable to good treatment. 


As to care of mules, the first essen- 
tial is a clean, comfortable and sanitary 
stable, with plenty of headroom, sufficient 
ventilation and good drainage, and an 
abundance of pure water, rather than the 
foul, ill-smelling and disease-breeding 
quarters in which mules are stabled in 
some collieries. The fact that the animal 
survives any length of time in some of 
the stables we have seen, despite the 
hard and severe toil, it is called upon to 
perform, is a remarkable tribute to its 
hardiness and endurance. 

It is gratifying to note that during ihe 
last year, prompted by legislative enact- 
ment, a notable change has taken place 
along these lines. The mule is coming 
to his own, even though the reform is ac- 
tuated more from fear of fire and its con- 
sequent results, than from any regard 
for the poor beast’s comfort. But the 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R.R. 
Co. began improving its inside stables 
many years ago, before there was a hint 
of legislative compulsion. 

There are four or five classes of 
workmen in our collieries, who come into 
personal contact with the mule. Upon 


their inteliigence, good judgment and 
exercise of common sense, its usefulness 
and efficiency, largely depend. These are 
the barn boss, the driver, the driver boss 
and the shoer, and we might also add, the 
car runner. The barn boss must feed 
the mules judiciously, and if an inferior 
grade of hay and grain is furnished, he 
should promptly report that fact. 


The barn boss should be responsible 
for the proper preparation of a mule for 
work, see that it is properly cleaned, for 
which purpose curry combs and brushes 
must be provided. Sufficient time must 
be spent in cleaning and harnessing each 
mule. The barn boss must give special 
attention to the fit of the collars and thus 
prevent shoulder galls, which are caused 
in most instances by the collar being 
either too large or too small. Drivers 
should not, under any circumstances, be 
allowed to change collars. It is the duty 
of the barn boss to clean the collars every 
night, and for this purpose he should 
provide himself with scrapers. Next in 
importance to the collar is a well fitting 

On all harness, the trace chains must be 
equal in length, about 8 ft. long,composed 
of 4-in. links of 3¢-in. iron. To secure 
this when a trace is sent for repair, its 
mate must be sent with it. Leather chain 
pipes and special pads for the protection 
of the mule should be used when needed; 
also a strong leather cap piece on the 
bridle to protect its head. 

The barn boss should be on hand 
every night to inspect the mules when 
they return from work and to see that 
no injuries have been received during 
the day. All injuries must be given 
proper attention at once. If _ the 
barn boss suspects the injury to be the 
result of carelessness or abuse, he should 
promptly report the matter to the mine 
foreman for investigation. 

The tarn boss must keep the barn dry 
and in good order. The stables should be 
cleaned every day and lime sprinkled on 
the floor every other day. Water troughs 
in front of the mules should be cleaned 
at least two or three times each week, and 
the food boxes cleaned regularly each 
day. Mules should be given fine ‘salt 
twice a week, not mixed with feed, but 
placed in a little box provided for it on 
the manger. Stables should be lighted 
by electricity. 

Mules should not be allowed to work 
for two consecutive shifts, except in 
cases of extreme necessity. Their hoofs 
should be kept in good condition, and 
each mule should be shod on all four 
feet once a month. When a mule is taken 
sick, the barn boss should immediately 
administer the proper medicine, of which 
a sufficient supply must be kept on hand. 
Cases of severe injury, accompanied with 
loss of blood, must receive prompt at- 


tention until the bleeding has ceased and 
the animal made comfortable. In addi- 
tion to medicines, the barn boss must 
keep on hand other articles and supplies 
appropriate in emergency cases, such as 
oakum, cotton, bandages, antiseptics, etc. 


Another important person in connec- 
tion with the care and welfare of the 
mule is the driver. We cannot fail to 
realize this, when we consider that both 
are closely associated, as a rule, for about 
10 or 11 hours each working day. Drivers 
should not drive their mules faster thana 
walk, either when working them or in go- 
ing to and from the barn. Asa rule, drivers 
are in a bigger hurry to get to the barn 
than to leave it, and are prone to compel 
the mules to trot and hurry, which se- 
verely tries them after a hard day’s work. 


When leaving mules, drivers should 
first tie them in a safe place, out of dan- 
ger from moving cars, or other sources 01 
injurv. On descending grades, mules 
should alwavs be unhitched from the 
trip and walked down behind it. They 
should always be led, never driven, 
through narrow places, for the instant 
they feel pressure in a narrow passage, 
they fear danger and make a sudden 
spring forward. I have known mules to 
receive Serious injury in this manner. 

When shifting cars into chambers, 
mules must not be driven beyond the 
last point at which they can turn easily, 
nor driven over loose coal lying on of 
beside the track. The practice of breast- 
ing cars into the chambers should be 
strictly prohibited. The summits of all 
grades, toward which mules are used to 
haul cars, should be furnished with safe 
and reliable headlocks, to prevent the 
cars from running against the mule. In 
fact, headlocks should be placed wher- 
ever necessary to prevent accidents. 
When ascending grades, drivers must 
have drags in place on the rear car of 
each trip. 

Mules should not be allowed to pass 
under charged electric wires, and in re- 
turning to the barn, they should always 
be accompanied by the driver. The driver 
must also watch the feet of his mules, 
and, when shoes are lost, have them re- 
placed at once. Mules must not be 
worked unshod. 

DRIVER Bosses 

The driver boss should confer and 
work in harmony with the barn boss in 
all matters relating to the care, protection 
and general welfare of the mules; and 
in order to do this, he should be in the 
barn every morning in time to see that 
every mule is properly cleaned and pre- 
pared for the day’s work. He should 
also see that all haulage roads in his 
section are kept smooth and level with 

Vol. 1, No. 31 

ashes or dirt and free from coal, rock and 
timber, and properly drained where nec. 
essary. Where headblocks or drags are 
required for the safety and protection 
of the mules, he should see that they 
are provided. 

The driver boss and the barn boss 
should confer with each other and be 
careful when making up a team tto se- 
lect mules which will mate well. The 
quick and the slow, the dull and the ner- 
vous, the weak and the strong, should not 
be placed in the same team. This is an 
important matter, and cannot be given 
too much thought and consideration. 

Where biocks and chains are used, the 
chains should be four feet long, and it 
should be borne in mind that, “no chain 
is Stronger than its weakest link.” The 
driver boss should never allow a miner 
to repair a broken chain with wire. In 
all cases where a block and chain is used, 
a drag shouid be attached to the rear 
of the car. Wherever two rails form an 
acute angle, into which a mule is liable 
to thrust its hoof, it should be properly 
wedged and blocked. The driver boss 
should also see that all trace chains and 
spreader sticks are of proper length. The 
dimension of the latter is dependent on 
the track gage, the standard lengths be- 
ing 31 and 32 inches. 

No side hitching should be allowed un- 
less there is ample room to do so with- 
out any danger of injury to the mule. 
Mules should not be changed from one 
working place to another without sufficient 
reason. A change may be necessary some- 
times, in order to lighten their work. 

Great care should be exercised in hand- 
ling a green mule. It should be first 
placed in charge of an experienced driver 
given light work, and gradually broken 
in, until trained and fitted for the regula: 
and mere difficult work. Overloading or 
overworking a mule cannot be too strong 
ly condemned. After the mules have le! 
the barn, the driver boss should spend 
as much time as possible near them anc 
their drivers, and insist that the form 
receive good treatment and a square dea’ 

My sympathy is with the poor anim 
which is compelled to perform har 
grinding toil, in more or less dust a! 
smoke, for nine or ten consecutive hours 
without even a drink of water or a gra 
of food. At little expense, '4-in. or 
in. pipe line could be laid to central | 
cations, through which water could 
conveyed to a trough, and at noon tie 
mules could be watered with little os» 
of time. 

Every driver could be furnished wt 
a canvas nose bag, containing a sms: 
quantity of grain or corn for the mule 0 
eat while the driver is having his ow" 
dinner. The renewed vigor with which 
the mule would attack its work and (he 
resulting gain in efficiency would, in 
my opinion, amply repay the loss of time, 
if anv, and the expense incurred. 

May 11, 1912 



Coal and Coke News 

From Our Own Representatives in Various Important Mining Centers 

Washington, D. C. 

Dr. J. A. Holmes, of the Bureau of 
Mines, has made a statement before the 
House Committee on Appropriations con- 
cerning the investigations of the bureau. 
This has just been made public. He asks 
for arrangements that will concentrate 
the work more largely in Washington and 
will render it more efficient. 

Dr. Holmes states that the work now 
being done outside the bureau offices and 
laboratories is as follows: At the Uni- 
versity of Ohio, a study of clays is be- 
ing made in connection with general quar- 
ry or mineral products; at Princeton, 
chemical work is conducted in relation to 
mine accidents. This should go partly 
to Pittsburg and partly to Washington. 
At New Hampshire College, work rela- 
tive to mineral wastes is being carried 

“We get the supervision of the univer- 
sity men free,” he adds, “but we have 
a man at the University of Ohio, for ex- 
ample, in our own employ, whom we 
want to bring here. There is great ad- 
vantage in having all these men and their 
work brought to Washington; but unless 
the bureau can get the increase in space 
asked for, it will be compelled to send 
other men out to such institutions as will 
give us space rent free. We are study- 
ing clays and other products from the 
quarries examined, in connection with 
the quarry methods, and the action of 
clays and various mineral substances, on 
coal and ores, and other substances of 
that kind.” 

It is expected that the changes thus re- 
quested will be made. With further ref- 
etence to the need of new quarters, Dr. 
liolmes says that when the present build- 
ng was arranged for, only about 33 per- 

‘ns were connected with the work of 
he Bureau of Mines in Washington. At 

le present time, the building is occupied 
’ between 90 and 100 people. “So the 
‘tuation today is that the Bureau of 
‘lines is exceedingly crowded in its work, 
ind cannot continue its’ work efficiently 
‘ithin the limited space of this building.” 


The Senate has had printed as senate 
-ocument No. 573, a partial report of 
e proceedings of the fourteenth annual 
-onvention of the American Mining Con- 
cress, under the title “Alaskan Prob- 


It is interesting to note that the 
Problem which figures most prominent- 

iy in this document is the mining and 
transportation of coal. 

Special attention is given to papers on 
this subject and notably to a discussion 
of “Coal Transportation in Alaska.” In 
this paper, great stress is laid upon the 
question of a market for the coal, stat- 
ing, in part, that: 

It is doubtful if there is a market for 
much Alaska coal outside of Alaska. 
Eastern people and those of the Middle 
West do not appreciate that there is 
plenty of coal on the Pacific coast, much 
accessibly located than that of 
Alaska, besides fuel oil in abundance, 
and the most marvelous hydro-electric 
power inthe world. Even in Alaska the 
Treadwell mines and the Copper River 
R.R. are being operated by California 
fuel oil, and it is evident that Alaska 
steaming coal has little demand upon 
the Pacifie coast of the United States in 
the face of such competition. A market 
will ultimately be made for some Alaska 
anthracite, and the Alaska coking coal 
will be of great importance, especially in 
the treatment of the low-grade copper 
ore along the Alaska coast. The United 
States Navy, which is now importing 
coal from West Virginia, might save the 


price of a battleship in a few years by 
using Alaska coal, but the Alaska fields 
really have little bearing upon the 
great question as to the future policy for 
the disposition of coal lands upon the 
public domain of the United States. 
Some new system must be adopted in 
Alaska, however, and consequently this 

subject has been given mature consider- 
ation. Two methods have been sug- 
gested: One a leasing system, and the 
other, government operation of the coal 


B-:rmingham—An explosion took place 
in the third right heading, bottom slope, 
of the Roden Coal Co.’s mine at Mar- 
vel, Bibb County, Ala., at approximately 
10 a.m., Apr. 30. This resulted in the 
injury of eight men. None of them was 
seriously burned, although one was near- 
ly dead when rescued, from suffocation. 

At every mine in the Cahaba coal 
field there is more or less gas. In the 
Marvel mine, gas has only shown up on 
four out of 28 headings, and in very 
small quantities. The explosion was 
caused by a driver carrying an open 
lamp by a room in which men, employed 
by the company, were fanning out the 
gas to make the room safe for working 
the next day. That the amount of gas 
was small is evidenced by the fact that 
there was very little concussion, merely 
a sheet of flame, which lasted only a 
few seconds. The force of the explosion 
was not felt on the surface and in but 

few of the other working places. The 
news was telephoned to the top; and im- 
mediately a rescue party was organized. 
All the air was thrown from the top 
slope to the bottom slope, giving it 
double the usual quantity. 

Helena—It is generally rumored here 
that the Wadsworth Red Ash Coal Co. 
is negotiating for a lease of the old No. 
2 mine, from the Tennessee Coal, Iron & 
R.R. Co. It is also stated that the Red 
Ash company will purchase the Otto 
Marks property which adjoins the No. 2 
mine. The properties lie about two miles 
from Helena and if the negotiations are 
successful it is expected that operations 
will begin at once. 


Denver—Coal operators in the south- 
ern Colorado district have consented to 
recognize the check weighing system and 
hereafter this system will be in use at 
the Green Canon, Suffield, Royal, Shaft 
and Empire mines. Union weighmen 
have been reinstated in all mines in the 
Aguilar district. The men also have 
been granted a “checkoff” of the check- 
man’s wages. This recognition has been 
the direct result, it is claimed by union 
labor leaders, of the efforts of the United 
Mine Workers’ organization in this state. 

Pueblo—By a compromise effected be- 
tween the federal land office and the 
Denver and Rio Grande R.R., 8465 acres 
of coal lands in Colorado, having a mar- 
ket value of $1,755,750, held by the Atlas 
Utah Fuel and the Calumet Fuel com- 
panies, subsidiaries of the railway sys- 
tem, have been conveyed back to the 
United States government and will be 
thrown open to purchase. The lands are 
situated in Gunnison and La Plata coun- 
ties and comprise some of the best bi- 
tuminous coal deposits in the west. The 
largest tract is in La Plata County and 
embraces 5385 acres of unpatented and 
640 acres of patented lands. Close to 
the city of Pueblo is a tract of 400 acres 
and the remaining 840 acres are in Gun- 
nison County. The last named acreage 
is the most valuable, there being 8 
seams, which have a total thickness of 
70 feet. 


Panama—An explosion in the mine of 
the Shoal Creek Coal Co., recently killed 
two men who had been left in charge of 
the mine, which was idle at the time 


Other men who were in the mine es- 
caped without injury. 

Canton—The tipple of Star mine, No. 
2, burned to the ground recently before 
help could arrive to extinguish the flames. 
The fire is supposed to have been started 
by lighting, but the blaze did not break 
out until about half an hour after the 
storm. The tipple was built 5 years ago 
and will probably be rebuilt inmmediate- 
ly as there is still much good coal on the 

Republic—The Interurban Electric Co., 
which operates an electric line between 
Carterville and Herrin, Ill., has been re- 
organized by officials of the National 
Light & Power Co. of St. Louis, who 
have arranged to extend the service to 
the coal-mining district of southern 
Illinois. St. Louis capital will finance 
the proposed extensions. The present 
plan is to extend the line from Herrin 
through the towns of Craneville and 
Reeves, and to supply power for the 
operation of the coal mines, of which 
there are about 60 in the territory 
reached. The present headquarters of 
the Interurban company are at Carter- 
ville, Ill. 


Terre Haute—Indiana coal operators 
and members of district No. 11 United 
Mine Workers, after three sessions of 
the joint wage conference, which opened 
at Terre Haute, Apr. 30, were no near- 
er an agreement than they were at the 
beginning of the conference. The ques- 
tion of resuming work at the mines pend- 
ing a settlement of all differences and 
demands was the principal contention, 
and a motion advocating resumption 
made by Mr. Penna was promptly voted 
down by the miners. It now looks as 
though there will be weeks of parleying 
before an agreement will be reached and 
work resumed. This is unfortunate and 
disappointing because the demand for 
coal is becoming persistent. The oper- 
ators charge that the miners are going 
beyond their sphere in trying to set the 
price of powder, the selling price of coal 
and in making other demands. Some of 
the demands made by the men are: 

A weekly pay. A reduction in the 
price of blacksmithing to %e. on the 
dollar on the gross earning for pick 
miners and nothing for machine miners. 
A charge of $1.25 a keg for powder. 
That when a part of a mine is shut 

adown the men so affected shall be en- 
titled to their share of work in the parts 
of the mine that continue at work. That 

a reasonable price for house coal be 

charged from those working in or 
around the mines. Reasonable price not 
to exceed 5 per cent. of actual cost. That 
where a company wrongfully stops a 

man’s turn such company shall remun- 

erate him for time so lost. 

A deadlock likewise has been reached 
by the scale committee of District No. 8 
meeting at Brazil, and there is no indi- 
cation of an early settlement. The matter 


has been referred to a supd-committee 
composed of four miners and four oper- 
ators. The operators refuse to even con- 
sider the clause which provides that they 
shall not discriminate in the employment 
of men on account of creed, color or 
their activity in matters affecting the 
miners’ union. The operators declare that 
they have a perfect right to consider the 
kind of men that they employ, and under 
no circumstances will they sign the scale 
containing a clause which provides for 
the employment of men in the order in 

which their cards are deposited. The 
miners insist that this clause must 


Pittsburg—Two new coal companies 
have recently been organized to conduct 
stripping operations in this vicinity. 
These are the Nesch Coal Co. and the 
Pittsburg-Scammon Coal Co. The latter 
concern is allied with the Pittsburg Brick 
Co. and will not place its product on the 
market to any great extent. 


Louisville—Failure to agree upon an 
interpretation of the Cleveland wage- 
scale compromise which was to be the 
basis of settlement between the miners 
and operators of western Kentucky, led 
to a proposition on the part of the West- 
ern Kentucky Coal Operators’ Associa- 
tion to submit the matter to arbitration. 
The wages offered by the operators will 
be submitted to a referendum vote of 
the miners. The mines affected have 
been idle for more than a month pend- 
ing a settlement of the questions at issue. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission 
has suspended, until Nov. 1, tariffs of the 
Louisville & Nashville R.R., advancing 
rates on coal and coke from points on its 
line to points on the Big Four. The rates 
were to have become effective May 1. 

Providence—The coal mine and other 
property of the Fairmount Coal & Mining 
Co., of Providence, will be sold at pub- 
lic auction May 22 Glenn R. Fudaley, of 
Madisonville, Ky., is trustee in bank- 
ruptcy for the company. 

Whitesburg—The Schoberth Syndicate 
of Philadelphia, has purchased 5000 
acres of coal and timber land along 
Carr’s Fork and Beaver Creek in Knott 

Henderson—Thinking he. was hoisting 
a load of coal the engineer of a mine 
at Clay, Ky., recently ran the cage up 
hastily and dumped it, dropping a miner 
100 ft. to the bottom of the shaft and 
killing him instantly. Two others were 

Ashland—A new company has been in- 
corporated in Kentucky by officers of the 
Norfolk & Western Ry. Co., to build a 
line from Williamson, W. Va., to Pike- 
ville, Ky. It will be 20 miles long, with 

Vol. 1, No. 31 

branches, and is to be completed by June 
1, 1913. 


Kansas City—Conferees representing 
coal miners and operators of the South- 
west have renewed their agreement that 
there shall be no suspension of opera- 
tions while negotiations for a new con- 
tract are pending. This provision of the 
old contract expired May 1. It is said 
that the sub-committee which is con- 
sidering the arbitration clause of the new 
agreement is making good progress. 


Missoula—After a thorough examina- 
tion, the Butler Creek Coal Co. is about 
to commence active development work on 
its properties located between La Valle 
Creek and Butler Creek, about seven 
miles from Missoula. A shaft is now 
being sunk to a coal seam having a thick- 
ness of between 5 and 6 ft. The coal is 
a lignite of the miocene formation and 
carries only about 4 per cent. of ash. 
It is particularly adaptable to briquetting, 
and with this treatment its fuel value 
will be increased materially. It is pro- 
posed to install a briquetting plant in the 
near future. 


East Liverpool—Six thousand acres of 
valuable coal land, north of East Liver- 
pool and Wellsville have been taken 
over by the West Point Coal & Coke Co. 
Confirmation of this deal, the most ex- 
tensive in some years, was secured re- 
cently from J. L. Francis, president of 
the company. The deal involves an im- 
mediate outlay of from $100,000 to 
$150,000. It is conjectured that the pur- 
chase means an early beginning on the 
construction of the proposed Ohio River 
& Northern R.R. from Midland, Penn., 
past East Liverpool and Wellsville and 
thence to West Point. Mr. Francis stated 
that the newly acquired coal lands for 
the most part face the railroad right of 
way. The opening of this coal territory 
means direct delivery to the Crucible 
Steel company’s plant at Midland, Penn. 
This company is spending over $5,000.- 
000 in improvements. The exact bound- 
aries of the property acquired by the 
West Point Coal & Coke Co. have not 
been announced. However, it extends 
from about three miles back of Wells- 
ville, north for a distance of five miles 
to West Point. 

Columbus—A ruling by the State Pub- 
lic Service Commission makes the Hock- 
ing Valley R.R. Co. liable for a numbe: 
of damage claims on short weights. 4 
test case was brought, to determine 
whether or not the practice of underbill- 
ing coal 1000 Ib. to the car, released tlic 
carrier from shortage claims when a car 
arrived at destination with contents un- 

May 11, 1912 

er the weight called for by the shipper’s 
ll of lading. Underbilling has now been 
‘one away with, but the case was filed 
under the old system. Other claims that 
have arisen will-now be pressed. The 
railroad company will probably carry the 
atter into the courts. 
Massillon—A committee representing 
e operators and miners of subdistrict 
No. 3, of district No. 6, United Mine 
\‘orkers, met here May i, to draw up a 
wage contract for the next two years. 
The cost of supplies, such as oil, powder, 
and house coal promised to be the prin- 
cipal bone of contention. The commit- 
tee have no power to change the basic 
scale of S1 a ton and proportionately in- 
creased wages for other kinds of work, 
fixed by the Cleveland conference in 
March. They will deal exclusively with 
questions arising out of conditions that 
exist in this sub-district. 


Pittsburg—Maintaining that the reduc- 
tion of 10c. a ton in the freight rate on 
coal from Pittsburg to the lakes, re- 
cently ordered by the Inter-State Com- 
merce Commission, does not grant them 
the relief desired or necessary to enable 
them to compete with West Virginia, the 
Pittsburg coal operators, through John 
W. Boileau, with the Pittsburg Coal Co. 
intervening, have filed another petition 
asking for a further reduction in the rate. 
hey want the rate reduced to 50c. a ton, 
ie figure named in the original petition; 
it whether this is granted or not, they 
hold that the Inter-State Commerce 
Commission should further modify the 



'|'aynesburg—Josiah V. Thompson and 
issociates of Uniontown have closed a 
deo! by which they have sold to Edward 
H. Jennings of Pittsburg 2896 acres of 
ci ind 220 acres of surface located in 
\\-hington township, Greene County. It 
is “sported that $780,000 was the amount 
p The land is on Ruff Creek. It is 
Ww \f the holdings of the Emerald Coal 
Co ind is bounded on the north by hold- 

I of the Westmoreland Coal Co. 
T ‘Ss Ross of Washington township, 

Gr one County, sold to Thompson, 370 
ac of coal land om Ruff creek, for 
“11000. The purchase of the Ross 
Pr-.ty gave Thompson possession of 
Me tract which amounted in all to about 

3 .cres, 

Di Bois—Reports from the locals of 
dis t No. 2, United Mine Workers, in- 
dic that the referendum vote of the 
men will ratify the wage-scale agree- 
ment which was reached at a confer- 

ere several weeks ago. 
The contention between the Cascade 

= any and their Sykesville miners over 
me taking in and out of cars has been 
ag and the mine resumed work re- 

after a suspension of over a 


month. Not all the men returned to work 
at once, as it will require some time to 
get the big plant in full operation and the 
entire 600 miners and cokers back at 

The coal mines at Savan, Indiana 
County, which have had a hard time of 
it, financially and otherwise, are at last 
to be opened up and put in active oper- 
ation. Work was commenced recently 
on a new tipple and also on a new open- 

Brockwayville—According to reports, 
the Shawmut Mining Co. is preparing to 
open up a coal field in the Shawmut val- 

ley that has hitherto remained unde- 
veloped. The main opening will be in 
the vicinity of former operations at 

Shawmut which have been closed down 
for several months and sufficient terri- 
tory will be tapped at once to insure the 
employment of a large number of men. 


Scranton — Women were the lead- 
ers in a riot in the Scranton district May 
7, leading a force of men in an attack 
upon repairmen at the Dickson shaft of 
the Delaware & Hudson Co. at Green 
Ridge. Forty repairmen were routed by 
500 men, women, and children. Four 
of the 40 fell in their tracks, and two of 
them were seriously injured. The riot- 
ers gathered at the colliery as the 40 men 
reported for work, which the union had 
said they were privileged to do. The 
mob was made up of foreigners, but 
many English-speaking people joined in 
the attack because they were led to be- 
lieve that some wrong had been com- 
mitted, and that they were justified in 
taking the law into their own hands. 

Wilkes-Barre—At a conference of the 
general scale committee of anthracite 
miners and operators, held in New York, 
May 2, the representatives of the miners 
refused to accept the terms of the agree- 
ment which was reached by the sub- 
committee of four operators and four 
miners on Apr. 25. A general conven- 
tion of mineworkers of the three an- 
thracite districts has been called to meet 
in Wilkes-Barre, May 14 and the ques- 
tion of ratifying the proposed agree- 
ment will be decided at that time. The 
operators decline to enter into a further 
discussion of the matter, insisting that 
the men should endorse the work of their 
committee. In the event of the miners 
refusing to do this the proposition of the 
owners to refer the controversy to a 
strike commission still remains as a basis 
of negotiations. 

Mayor John V. Kosek has notified the 
various coal companies with mine work- 
ings under the city, to send maps of their 
mines to the city clerk. The action of 
the mayor followed a mass meeting of 
the citizens of North Wilkes-Barre, who 
have taken steps to protect their homes 
from surface subsidences. 


Shenandoah—Serious riots took place 
here and at Mt. Carmel on May 6, and 
some trouble of the kind was also ex- 
perienced at Mahanoy City. The rioters 
were Italians. They went armed upon 
the highways and clubbed and stoned 
workmen, overran two collieries, and 
prevented union men from reporting for 
work, which the union had declared per- 

At Mt. Carmel, the rioters took up 
positions along the road leading to the 
Richards colliery of the Susquehanna 
Coal Co. Four union men were stopped 
and the rioters beat them until they were 
helpless. The rioters then marched to 
the Sayre colliery of the Lehigh Valley 
Co. and stretched ropes across the road- 
way, refusing to permit workmen to leave 
the colliery, and refusing admittance to 
those who wanted to work. 

At Shenandoah the rioters’ started 
marching early. They went to a stripping 
and drove away the men and then went 
to the William Penn Colliery of the 
Susquehanna Coal Co. and the Shenan- 
doah City Colliery of the Reading. Pump- 
men, engineers and firemen were driven 
from their posts and the rioters refused 
to allow anyone to work. The sheriff 
sent to Pottsville for a squad of state 
troopers and they charged the rioters 
and drove them from the highway. The 
police remained upon the scene and are 
patrolling the highway. 

West Virginia 

Clarksburg—The mine of the High 
Grade Coal Co. at McWhorter, near here, 
was placed under a heavy armed guard 
Apr. 27, following threats of striking 
miners to blow up the mine with dyna- 
mite. The situation in the coal fields be- 
came so menacing that calls were mo- 
mentarily expected to be made on Gov. 
Glasscock for state militia. 

Charleston—The miners and operators 
who have comprised the subscale com- 
mittee in conference here formulated a 
wage agreement on May 1 which was 
ratified immediately by the miners in 
convention, while the operators now 
have the proposition under discussion. 
Under the new agreement the Kanawha 
miners will receive one-half of the in- 
crease stipulated in the Cleveland wage 
scale and the semi-monthly payday will 
be restored. The miners abandoned their 
demand for the check-off system. 

Wellsburg—About 600 acres of coal 
land, the tipples, cars and equipment of 
the La Bell Coal Co. have become the 
property of the Lewis Finley Co. and it 
is expected that the new concern will 
greatly increase the coal output of this 

Welch—Contributions to the Jed relief 
fund asknowledged by H. N. Eavenson, 
Gary, W. Va., secretary of the com- 
mittee, up to May 2, amounted to $12,- 



E. L. Sternberger, of the E. L. Stern- 
berger Coal Co., Cincinnati, recently 
made a business trip to Chicago, Cleve- 
land, Toledo and other Lake cities. 

Carl Scholz and W. H. Skaggs, both of 
Chicago, Ill., are prospecting a large area 
of coal land, presumably in the Corona 
Seam, in Walker and Fayette Counties, 

William Monay, superintendent of the 
Central Coal & Coke Co.’s coal mines, at 
Rock Springs, Wyo., has accepted a posi- 
tion as assistant general manager of the 
Kemmerer Coal Co., and will enter upon 
his new duties at once. 

Frank H. Crockard, vice-president of 
the Tennessee Coal, Iron & R.R. Co., has 
returned to Birmingham from New York, 
where he attended a meeting of the rail 
committee appointed by Judge E. H. 
Gary, of the Steel Corporation, to discuss 
the betterment of steel rails. 

C. P. Collins, civil and mining engineer, 
of Johnstown, Penn., has been appointed 
mining engineer of the Berwind-White 
Coal Mining Co., with headquarters at 
Windber, Penn. Mr. Collins has leased 
his engineering business in Johnstown to 
S. E. Dickey, preparatory to taking up 
his new duties. 

A. B. Jessup, mining engineer of the 
Lehigh Valley Coal Co., Wilkes-Barre, 
Penn., has resigned, effective May 1, to 
become general manager of the J. B. 
Markle coal properties, at Jeddo, Penn. 
Mr. Jessup was tendered a banquet by 
the employees of the Lehigh Valley com- 
pany, on May 4, and will take up his resi- 
dence in Jeddo in the near future. 

C. P. Ludwig, general superintendent 
of the Alabama Consolidated Coal & Iron 
Co., and S. B. Sheldon, of New York, 
representing a large number of men 
financially interested in the properties of 
the Southern Iron & Steel Co. and the 
Alabama Consolidated Coal & Iron Co., 
were in Birmingham recently, inspecting 
the properties of the two companies. 

E. Kelly Rothstein, formerly vice- 
president and general manager of sales 
for the Davis Coal & Coal Co., has be- 
come manager of the Messrs. B. Nicoll 
& Co.’s coal and coke department, with 
offices in the Singer Building, New York. 
The latter company has been appointed 
sales agent for the Davis Coal & Coke 
Co. in all territory except New England. 

William L. Martin, for several years 
assistant superintendent of Pratt No. 1 
division of the Tennessee Coal, Iron & 
R.R. Co., who, on Apr. 1, this year, was 
engaged by the State of Alabama as sup- 
erintendent of the Banner mine, has re- 
signed this position, effective at once. The 
Banner mine is being operated with con- 
vict labor bv the state for the Pratt Con- 
solidated Coal Co.. cf Birmingham. 


Chronology of Coal Mining 
for April 

Apr. 2—Complete suspension of work 
at anthracite mines of Pennsylvania and 
at a large proportion of bituminous mines 
in central competitive field—Wage in- 
creases granted in southern Colorado 

Apr. 6—Coal strike in Great Britain 
officially declared at an end. 

Apr. 10—Bituminous miners ratified 
Cleveland wage-scale agreement by a 
referendum vote of 109,709'!5 to 32,- 

139',.—Conference of anthracite oper- 
ators and miners opened in Philadelphia. 

Apr. 18—Fifty thousand miners in 
Pittsburg district returned to work. 

Apr. 20—Central Pennsylvania oper- 
ators and miners agreed on a two-year 

Apr. 21—An explosion of gas in the 
Coil coal mine, Madisonville, Ky., killed 
six men. 

Apr. 25—-Two-year bituminous wage 
contract formally signed at Indianapolis. 

Subcommittee of anthracite operators 
and miners reached wage-scale agree- 

Apr. 30——Explosion in Hokkaido Coal 
Co.’s mine, Yubari, Japan reported to 
have entombed 283 men.—Miners_ in 
southwestern field agreed to remain at 
work pending the signing of a contract. 
—Explosion in Roden Coal Co’.s mine at 
Marvel, Ala., injured 8 men. 

Book Review 

PLOSIONS. By Geo. <A. Burrell. 
Technical Paper No. 11, Bureau of 
Mines, 1912. Paper Covers. 15 pp., 
6x9 in. No. illus. 

This is a valuable monograph, but as 
it contains, to all appearance, nothing 
new, there would seem, therefore, no 
reason why it should depart from the 
announced purpose of the bureau to 
make these technical papers easy for the 
average miner to understand. How, for 
instance, he would stumble over the 
words, “physiologically indifferent,” on 
page 7, is not clear. The bulletin con- 
tains a complete account of the prop- 
erties and sources of carbon monoxide 
and the dangers to be apprehended from 

It discourages the prevalent idea that 
a small percentageg of monoxide will 
form a cap and will warn the miner of 
danger. Mr. Burrell declares that less 
than 2 per cent. of carbon monoxide 
cannot be detected by the use of a lamp, 
a percentage which would kill a man in 
a few seconds. Some short remarks are 
made on the chemical tests used for de- 
termining the presence of the gas. The 
last section treats of the action of 
monoxide on birds and mice and of their 
use in exploration of mines after an ex- 

Vol. 1, No. 31 

Construction News 

Viper, Ky.—The Kelley Coal Co. is con- 
sidering the construction of a coking 
plant at Viper. 

Nanty-Glo, Penn.—The Estep Coal Co 
has under consideration the complet: 
electrification of the Nanty-Glo mine and 
contemplates making an additional 

Salt Lake City, Utah—The Castle Val- 

ley Coal Co. has increased its capital 
stock from $5,000,000 to $7,500,000, to 
provide a new tipple at Mohrland and 
make other improvements. 

Boswell, Penn.—The Merchants Coal 
Co. contemplates opening a new mine 
and making necessary improvements to 
tracks, yards, etc.; $25,000 will be ex- 

pended on the erection of miners’ houses 

ted Ash, Ky.—The Proctor Coal Co 
will develop several additional mines to 
a total daily output of 2000 tons. Ma- 
chinery will be electrically 9 driven. 
Charles F. Finley, Williamsburg, Ky., is 

St. Paul, Minn.—The [Pittsbure Coal 
Co. has taken out a permit for the eree- 
ticn of a coal elevator on East Eighth 
St., to cost, with machinery, about $4000 

The building will have a storage capac- 

ity of 2500 tons of hard coal. 
Morgantown, W. Va.—Mine No. 7, of 

Elkins Coal & Coke Co., is now being 

opened up, two miles southwest of Bretz, 
is estimated that the min- 
will be under way within 
months. <A tipple, houses, 
ete, are to be built. 

The Kentucky 
Coke has purchased a 
in this city and plans the’ immediate 
construction of a large coking and by- 
product plant. The the 
will total $900,000, it is stated. The tract 
was ! 
Iron Co 

und it actual 
ing of 




Ky.- Selvay 

bo-acre site 

cost of plant 


has been secured 
Ashland Coal & 

which pur 

from the 

Birmingham, <Ala.—A. H. Woodward, 
Vice-president and general manager of 
the Woodward Tron Co. has’ announced 
that $2,000,000 will be spent on improve- 

ments to the company’s properties. — It 
is estimated that $1,000,060 of this will 
be applied to the mining properties, but 
no definite plans for this work have been 

Shamrock, Ky.—The Climax Coal vo 
has organized with Edward L. Douglass. 
vice-president and general manager, ani 

has taken over the Edgewood Consoli- 
dated operation at Shamrock. It is mak- 
ing numerous improvements. Shak: 
screens, a washer and other mod 
equipment are to be installed. The Hiz- 
nite seam will be opened. 

Louisville, Ky.—The Oliver Chilled 
Plow Works, of South Bend, Ind., is re- 

ported to have purchased 15,000 acres of 
coal and timber land in Harlan County, 
Ky., for immediate development. The 
land was purchased from the Wisconsin 
Steel Co., a subsidiary of the Interna- 
tional Harvester Co. The steel company 
now has several hundred coke ovens in 
operation in Harlan County. 
Cincinnati, Ohio—The Reliance Coal & 
Coke Co. has determined to expend about 
$20,000 in modernizing the property 
formerly occupied by the Cincinnati (as, 
Coke, Coal & Mining Co., recently pur- 
chased by Julium Fleischmann and is- 
sociates, at the southwest corner of 
Blair Ave. and Weatherhead St., Avor- 

dale. A new system of overhead trestles, 
bins and a modern stable will be [- 
stalled, the work to be started in the 

near future. 

May 11, 1912 


Coal Trade Reviews 

Current Prices of Coal and Coke and Market Conditions in the Important Centers 

General Review 

The opening of the Lake trade and the 
unexpected deadlock in anthracite have 
steadied the market up materially. Hard- 
coal supplies are down to a low point, 
and the unprecedented action of the min- 
ers in rejecting the scale fixed by the 
sub-committee is causing considerable 
apprehension among consumers. This has 
also had a stimulating effect on bitumin- 
ous and tended to check a further de- 
cline in this branch, which has about 
held its own during the past week. The 
outlook in soft-coal is not, however, so 
bright, as there are still evidences of 
strike surpluses, and some difficulty ‘s 
experienced in placing the new arrivals 
which are again about normal. 

The Eastern bituminous market is set- 
tling down to the usual spring dullness, 
although fairly active and with a satis- 
factory movement. The arrivals are most- 
ly on contract and are naturally slow, 
due to the heavy shipments in March and 
April. Very little anthracite is coming 
in, but there is as yet no evidence of 
any particular distress over the shortage 
in this grade. Production in the Pitts- 
burg district is increasing, but is still 
low, probably only about 50 per cent. 
capacity. The new circular of the Pitts- 
burg operators has not been severely 
tested as yet, but there is already tangi- 
ble evidence that it will not hold. 

The Ohio mines in the Lake trade are 
starting up and operators are anticipating 
1 banner season in that market this year. 
Production in West Virginia has eased 
off some, but the tonnage dumped at the 
Virginia piers during April was the high- 
est on record. The union mines in the 
western Kentucky fields are still closed, 
and the demand is light, although a good 
season is expected. In the Middle West 
there is a fair buying movement, princi- 
pally from the railroads and large steam 
users, and the market is somewhat 

Boston, Mass. 

The bituminous market is settling down 
(0 the usual spring dullness. Prices 
are easy on only a slightly higher basis 
than last year, but buyers are not show- 
ing the interest that was expected. The 
few cargoes of Southern coals that ar- 
rive are mostly on contract and for the 
largest consumers. Inland trade is well 
Supplied for the present and it will take 
lower prices than now prevail to induce 
any buying, ahead of actual needs. 

Reading transportation is still avail- 
able for bituminous out of Philadelphia 
and a fair tonnage is coming from 
Pennsylvania in that way. All the ship- 
pers are in a position to clear boats 
promptly. Transportation generally is 
easy, with rates from Hampton Roads 
at 70c. or less for large boats. 

Shipments all-rail are rather slower 
than usual for this season, due to the 
heavy volume moving in March and early 
April. Few contracts are reported placed, 
and those only by large concerns, and at 
prices little if any in excess of last 

The news of the disagreement in the 
anthracite scale conferences, following 
the meeting May 2, came as a surprise. 
If negotiations are much further ex- 
tended the dealers will be getting ap- 
prehensive again. There is practically 
no premium coal offering, and so far 
as the trade goes, hard coal is at a stand- 

In Boston retail contract prices on 
soft coal are $4.50 to Oct. 1, and $4.75 
from Oct. 1 to Apr. 1, net tons de- 
livered, or 25c. higher than last year. 

Wholesale prices are about as follows: 
Clearfields, f.o.b. mines...... $1.10@1.35 

Clearfields, f.o.b. Philadelphia 2.40@2.60 
Pocahontas, New River, f.o.b. 

Hampton Heads... .. ce. 2.70 @ 2.80 
Georges Creek, f.o.b. Balti- 
FROG” co oloue vec ene eee 2.60 @ 2.70 

New York 

The refusal of the anthracite miners’ 
full committee to ratify the agreement 
reached by the subcommittee, resulted in 
a decided stiffening in the hard-coal mar- 
ket here the early part of the week. 
While the larger companies continue to 
quote their regular circular, they concede 
that there is little or no coal available 
at these figures, and that there are pros- 
pects of an acute shertage should the 
lockout continue. Coincident with the 
announcement of a break in the wage- 
scale conferences, the dealers withdrew 
the low prices put in effect May 1 on the 
supposition that this matter had been set- 
tled, and domestic is now back to the full 
March circular. 

The bituminous trade, in sympathy with 
the anthracite, developed some strength 
during the past week, in that no further 
decline was in evidence, as has been the 
case during the past month. Spot quo- 
tations are slightly higher than last week, 
the lower grades being quoted around 
$2.65, f.o.b., with the better grade Penn- 
sylvanias about $3.05. Some demurrage 

coal was disposed of at $2.50, .but this 
cannot be considered the market. Tie 
trade reports plenty of fuel available, and 
the large operating companies say the 
mines are working well up to capacity 
and normal tonnages for this period are 
coming in. 

The anthracite companies do not ex- 
pect operations to be resumed at the 
mines before June 1. While buyers in 
the open market find it necessary to pay 
substantial premiums, the companies con- 
tinue their regular circular as follows: 



Eee and stove. 
Chestnut Sarat 
| oC) i Sey ee arene alo Pans eee 


Bituminous—There has been a slight 
increase in activity at the mines in the 
Pittsburg district, but production is still 
far below normal and hardly amounts to 
more than one-half capacity. The stocks 
accumulated by consumers are still in 
evidence, so that buying is light. Ship- 
ments in the lake trade were started May 
1 but have not yet reached important 
proportions, little coal being loaded since 
navigation is only getting started. Only 
a few vessels started last week on the 
down trip from the head of the lakes, 
ice having interfered to a much later 
date than usual. The new season prices 
have not been seriously tested as yet, 
but there is already tangible evidence 
that they will not hold universally. -We 
repeat them, however, as there is no 
other basis for quotation: Mine-run and 
nut, $1.22'4; 34-in., $1.321%4; 1%-in., 
$1.4714; slack, 82'4c. per ton at mine, 
Pittsburg district. 

Connellsville Coke—Production is back 
to normal, about 400,000 tons weekly, 
and the prompt furnace market has 
grown still easier. There is little coke 
offered, but demand is almost equally 
limited. There have been negotiations 
on second-half contracts for furnace 
coke, but none appear to have reached 
a head yet. There is no reason to be- 
lieve the recent report that a contract for 
the second half has been made at $2.35. 
Foundry coke continues in fair demand. 
We quote: Prompt furnace, $2.40@ 2.50; 
contract (nominal), $2.25; prompt foun- 
dry, $2.75; contract foundry, $2.40@ 
2.50, per ton at ovens. 

The Courier reports production in the 
Connellsville and lower Connellsville re- 
gion in the week ending Apr. 27 at 401,- 


494 tons, an increase of 5000 tons, and 
shipments at 4313 cars to Pittsburg, 
6281 cars to points West and 1288 cars 
to points East, a total of 11,882 cars, or 
an increase of 228. 

Philadelphia, Penn. 

The unexpected developments of last 
week entirely changed the situation in the 
anthracite trade. It was confidently ex- 
pected that it was a mere matter of form 
for the general committees to confirm the 
findings of the subcommittees of the op- 
erators and miners, but opposition devel- 
oped which will more than likely post- 
pone operations at the mines for at least 
a couple of weeks. The first of June is 
now the prediction for a resumption of 
work at the mines, and this entirely de- 
pendent on the attitude of the convention 
ta be held on May 14, at Wilkes-Barre. 

The idleness of the mines is not, how- 
ever, causing any particular stress up to 
the present time. There seems to be a 
fairly plentiful supply of coal for domes- 
tic purposes, and the storage supplies 
acquired by the manufacturing interests 
and other steam users early in the spring, 
seem to be holding weil. Of course, some 
sizes are very short, notably pea coal, 
and this seems to be the rule rather than 
the exception, although there are a few 
dealers who are fairly well stocked on 
this size, and claim that they have suffi- 
cient to carry them for a month or so. 

Spasmodic arrivals of anthracite are re- 
ported, some domestic sizes and a little 
buckwheat coming in, but most of the 
dealers are doing very little beyond look- 
ing forward to the announcement of 
prices and the resumption of work at the 
mines. Nothing definite has been an- 
nounced as yet regarding prices or what 
the policy will be, and the operators are 
noncommital when asked as to what 
changes, if any, are likely to be made. 
The invariable reply is that prices will 
not be discussed until there is a definite 
understanding with the miners, and until 
this takes place, it is useless to specu- 

Baltimore, Md. 

A strike among the laborers employed 
at the coal piers of the various railroads 
in Baltimore, arose during the past week, 
which seriously interfered with business 
in the local market. For two days matters 
were simply at a stand-still at both the 
Curtis Bay pier of the B. & O. R.R., and 
the Port Covington piers of the W. M. 
ky., and as the differences between em 
ployers and employees have not yet been 
settled, there is no telling just how long 
present conditions will continue. The 
laborers employed to unload at the piers 
have been receiving 20c. per hour, while 
the coal trimmers, who handle the fuel 
after it is loaded on the steamers, have 
been paid 25c. per hour. The men have 
Struck for an increase of 5c. an hour, 


and recognition of their union. The rail- 
roads will probably act together in any 
settlement which might be made. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

The bituminous market sagged slowly 
all the week, till there came news that 
the anthracite miners might not go to 
work right away, when there was a vis- 
ible stiffening. After two or three days 
it again locked as though there would not 
be a strike, which left the market weak 
again. There is plainly more bituminous 
coal mined than is needed, even though 
a good inany mines returned to work only 
partially, or to meet business in sight. A 
week ago the reports made by the bear 
members of the trade that they could get 
Allegheny Valley mine-run for 95c. at the 
mines was stoutly denied by operators, 
but there appears to be much truth in 
the statements now, though some mines 
are refusing such offers and would close 
rather than accept them. 

All that can be dene in the line of quo- 
tations is to repeat former figures, which 
some are getting and some not, as fol- 
lews: Pittsburg three-quarter, $2.87'2; 
mine-run, $2.47!4; slack, S2.25, with Al- 
legheny Valley about 25c. lower. Coke 
went too high and is now suffering a re- 
action, being down to $4.50 for best Con- 
nellsville foundry. 

There seems to be plenty of anthracite 
in Buffalo and none of the consumers 
have so far complained, but there is none 
for Lake shipment, though the demand in 
that branch of the trade is urgent. It now 
looks as if it would be impossible to meet 
that demand this season, even if mining 
should begin very soon. The anthracite 
operators always take care of the Eastern 
trade first and regard the Western trade 
as a sort of an overflow. 

Columbus, Ohio 

Within the past week, mines have 
started up in both the Hocking and east- 
ern Ohio fields; this activity is confined 
largely to the lake-shipping companies. 
Though the ice in the upper channels 
makes it uncertain as to when the first 
fleets will be able to move, cargoes are 
being taken on by boats in their winter 
quarters at the Ohio ports. Coal will 
also be loaded on cars and held at the 
mines ready for movement to the docks 
as soon as navigation is fairly under way. 

Aside from the Lake trade, the market 
is lifeless and mines might remain idle 
for several weeks to come without incon- 
venience. Stocking of fancy domestic 
coals, which usually sets in early in May, 
is slow, as dealers seem inclined to take a 
breathing spell after an exceptionally 
busy winter and spring. The prospects, 
however, are for an excellent business 
along this line. Owing to the increased 

cost of mining, producers will attempt to 
hold summer domestic prices well up to 
the formal circular of $1.50, although 

Vol. 1, No. 31 

this figure will probably be subject to 
some shading at the outset. 

Fine coal is on the down grade with re- 
spect to price, because of the large ton- 
nage that will soon accumulate as a by- 
product of lump in the Lake trade. The 
average selling price has dropped to 75c. 
and there is only a fair demand, Railroad 
fuel and mine-run for general industrial 
purposes is suffering from a period cf 
readjustment, many big consumers still 
having storage on hand. This is having 
a bad effect on the closing up of con- 
tracts. Many large steam users seem in- 
clined to take a chance on the open mar- 
ket for the coming year’s requirements. 

Hampton Roads, Va. 

While there appears to be a lull in 
the market, coal has been moving quite 
freely through Hampton’ Roads this 
week, and prices are still good, though 
probably from 10 to 25c. less than last 

Shipments here during the month of 
April set up an enviable record, reaching 
the high mark of 1,213,164 tons, and ex- 
ceeding any previous for a month’s load- 
ing at this port. These figures exceed 
by 94,014 tons the shipments during the 
month of March, which hitherto had 
been the record month, and is at the 
rate of 14,557,968 tons a year. 

Both the Norfolk & Western at Lam- 
berts Point and the Chesapeake & Ohio 
at Newport News, broke all their pre- 
vious records. The Virginian Railway at 
Sewalls Point fell considerably below its 
usual dumping and was the only rai! 
road that did not have a big month, which 
was due to washouts and other troubles. 

Lamberts Point easily led the others, 
having a total dumping of 571,187 tons 
during the month, or an average of 
21,968!» tons a day for the 26 working 
days. Newport News was second with a 
total dumping of 475,801 tons, while 
Sewalls Point was last with 166,176 tons. 

From present indications the 
railroads at Hampton Roads are enter 
ing upon the greatest prosperity in their 
existence. While a great part of the in 
crease in shipments from Hampton Roads 
was caused by the strike in England 
considerable of the business will be held 
The English strike was the opening weds: 
for Pocahontas and New River 
shipped from Norfolk and Newport Ne 
into ports heretofore supplied by We!- 
coal exclusively and it has proved =<" 
satisfactory that new and steady !) 
kets have been opened. 

Charleston, W. Va. 

Practically all the mines in the \%- 
nawha district are again in operat, 
after about two-thirds of them had Sven 
idle for a month, owing to the failure of 
the operators and miners to get toge!h<? 
on the wage question. The settlement of 
the difficulty late last week was due (0 


May 11, 1912 

the miners waiving the check-off and the 
operators granting an increase of one- 
half of the Cleveland scale. This means 
an increase ranging from 3c. to Sc. per 
ton. an increase in all other labor, and 
the two weeks’ pay. Many of the opera- 
tors had been willing for some time to 
give a small increase, providing the 
check-off was waived, but all efforts 
earlier in the contest failed because the 
miners were willing to concede everything 
as a compromise, providing the operators 
would agree to the check-off. The latter 
concession, however, the operators of the 
district absolutely refused to grant under 
any condition, 

It is expected that before long, many 
of the cars that have been used in this 
section will be returned to the roads 
which loaned them, and that West Vir- 
ginia will then again suffer through a 
lack of cars. 

Birmingham, Ala. 

The Birmingham coal market main- 
tains a satisfactory firmness with bright 
prospects for the year. The most vital 
factor affecting the market during the 
week has been the advance in the wages 
granted a large percentage of the Ala- 
bama miners. The advance was 2!c. 
per ton, effective May 1, for all opera. 
tions on what is known as the Pratt 
seam. Practically all mines were com- 
pelled to follow some of the leaders who 
agreed to make the advance. 

Contracts for domestic coal which 
have been pretty well concluded for the 
year, were negotiated at a slightly better 
price than last year. In the Alabama 
market, domestic coal contracts are 
largely covered during April and steam 
contracts date from July 1. 

The commercial coke plants are run- 
ning full capacity in Alabama with a 
ready market at firm prices, The Ala- 
bama coke producers have not followed 
Pittsburg and Virginia in coke advances, 
for the reason that Alabama’s general 
prices are higher than in Pennsylvania 
and Virginia and local labor conditions 
have not operated against production 4s 
1 the more northern market. Standard 
‘2-hour foundry coke is very firm at 
*2.2502.50 per net ton at Alabama 
vens, with retort grades quotable at 
from $2.75@2.85 per ton at ovens. 

Nashville, Tenn. 

The union operators in the west Ken- 
tucky field on the L. & N. R.R. and I. C. 
have not as yet effected a settle- 
nent and their mines are still idle. There 
nave beenmanyconferences held between 
the operators and miners in Louisville 
ior the past six weeks. A meeting was 


neld last week in which the operators 
delivered their final ultimatum and this 
‘s t0 be acted upon this week by a refer- 
endum vote of the miners in this dis- 

It seems as though the principal 


contention has been to get a correct in- 
terpretation as to the meaning of the 
Cleveland agreement. 

The nonunion mines in this field, lo- 
cated both on the I. & N. and I. C., have 
been supplying all the coal from this 
district. As the demand is light they 
have been able to do this very easily, 
and at the same time it has given them 
an unusually good tonnage for this sea- 
son of the year. There is very little re- 
quest for any coal except the finer 
grades, which are in great demand at 
high prices. 

It looks as though better prices will 
prevail on contract coal for the coming 
year and a rather good season is looked 
forward to by the mining interests in this 


While coal dealers are not inclined to 
make predictions, it is regarded as cer- 
tain that the present buying movement 
will absorb a very substantial amount of 
coal during May. It is expected this will 
increase in vigor during the latter part 
of the present month. At present the 
buying comes principally from the rail- 
roads, although there has been a certain 
amount of Lusiness coming from the 
users of steam coal who recently found 
themselves at the end of their resources. 
This enables the commercial mines to 
continue doing some business, but it is 
not expected these minés will have a big 
market until toward the end of May. 

The coke market is active and spot 
business in furnace and foundry coke 
is fairly good at firm prices. The supply 
of Indiana and Illinois coal is not suf- 
ficient now to warrant any fixed market 

Prevailing prices at Chicago are: 
Sullivan County: 

Domestic: WMD... 6.4.5. s.<5:00:20 01 $2.62@2.87 
3 GA DARE UR a Rare Rare eee cccar ie 2.50@2.75 
Steam lump..............-.-- Zu 
SGIGGIS 650k -s ec cob aceos 1.67@1.82 
DOMeSte MUM Disc ke cc ce viesicwes $2.57@2.82 
SUCGHWEIUEIEN.. ... cccicesccee cee. ye 2 
MEIIG-FUN cc cece ceeecceevees 1.97@2.07 
SGRCGMINNG. «voc. ccavecceeecess 1.67@1.82 
Domestic lump. .......+-++++--- $2.52@2.77 
Slane AUR. «5 sk ccecseneceus 2 moke 
NEMO MUIBI ns octane ce ceea snes 1.97@2.07 
GROOMS eo wo cereale weterercrerene’s 1.67@1.77 
Pocahontas and New River: 
VES 11) Oa Reercc circa react oe ones Le 
Lump and egg : Sa $3.30@3.55 
Coke—Prices asked for coke are: 

Connellsville and Wise County, 54.75; 
byproduct, egg and stove, 54.55; bypro- 
duct, nut, $4.55; gashouse, 54.75. 


There is nothing particularly encour- 
aging about the coal-mining industry in 
this state. Both operators and miners 
are greatly disappointed because the 
mines have not resumed work. The op- 
erators say that orders are piling up and 
the scarcity of coal in localities is be- 


coming acute. Public institutions and 
manufacturing plants are borrowing coal 
of railroads fortunate enough to have 
some in storage. 

When the joint conference of oper- 
ators and miners meets again, it will be 
to hear a report from a policy committee 
composed of Kelsheimer and Stewart for 
the miners, and Hewitt and Gould for 
the operators. The operators, notwith- 
standing their desire to open the mines. 
seem determined to refuse to enter int) 
negotiations until the men return to work, 
and the men are as determined to obtain 
some of their demands first. It is said 
that President Walker, of the Illinois 
United Mine Workers, has promised 
money to aid the Indiana miners during 
the prolonged deadlock. 

Minneapolis—St. Paul 

Coal trade in the Twin Cities and the 
Northwest is still very inactive, and the 
majority of coal men look for another 
month of quietness before business will 
be normal again. Prices have been re- 
ceived on Pocahontas Smokeless, Splint, 
Hocking and Youghiogheny Coals, and 
contracts are being let at 10c. per ton 
less than circular prices prevailing last 
year on all these coals. Contracting this 
year has not been quite as heavy as last, 
owing to the fact that the shipper has not 
known where he was at in the way of 
prices, but of late many contracts have 
been signed and it is rumored several 
of the larger ones have been made at a 
low price. 

Franklin County and Harrisburg coal 
is being quoted at S2 and $2.10 on lump, 
egg and nut sizes at mines, screening 
from $4.10 to $1.30, and Carterville and 
Springield district coals are quoted at 
from S#:75 to S2 for lump and egg, f.o.b. 


mines. The retail business is very quiet 
and will probably continue so. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Mining has been partially resumed in 
Illinois, although on a very small scale. 
Mines in practically all the districts in 
southern Illinois are working, but in some 
sections there are but two or three that 
have started up. 

There is absolutely no demand, and that 
produced is sometimes held at the mine 
for a couple of days until a market is 
found. It is evident from the prices 
quoted that several operators are not fig- 
uring the new insurance feature. The 
casualty companies are asking approxi- 
mately S12 on each S100 of the payroll, 
as they claim it is impossible to do busi- 
ness under the recent Illinois law at a fig- 
ure less than that. 

There would be a good demand in St. 
Louis for anthracite, were it possible to 
get any, and smokeless is not as lively 
as it might be. The same applies to coke, 
both byproduct and gas house. There 
is nothing to indicate that the market will 


pick up on any of the fuels in St. Louis 
in the immediate future, and it opened 
the earlier part of the present week, as 

6-in. lump and 3x6 egg inthe anew 
v4. « 1 | rae 1.35 
Screenings. . 1.00 
PEAS TUG 5 oo ods. c oes < 1,10 
2-in. lump... Kateri cho Sees 
3 in. sc ‘eenings. ; ‘ 0.90 
Mine-run. 1 00 
A ; 0.95 

Portland, Ore. 

While oil is being substituted for coal 
in a good many instances, it is also true 
that coal is taking the place of wood, 
particularly in sections where the forests 
have been thinned out. It is pointed 
out that could coal be obtained at a little 
less cost it would soon make a heavy in- 
road on the demand for wood fuel. 

The coal trade in Portland is not very 
active at this time of year because spring 
is well advanced, but dealers report busi- 
ness this year about equal to the average 
for May. There has been no change in 
quotations here and it will probably be 
another month before storage prices are 
put into effect. 

Receipts of coal are light in that the 
stocks are pretty full and it is not ex- 
pected there will be any heavy shipments 
again until next fall. 

San Francisco 

For the past two or three weeks the 
local trade has been very quiet and the 
movement far from brisk. On the other 
hand, deliveries of domestic have been 
exceedingly meager, and as a _ conse- 
quence the stock on hand has not de- 

The arrivals up to nearly the close of 
last month consisted of 4971 tons of 
Australian and 4593 tons of Wellington. 
The U. S. Government has received three 
cargoes of Pocahontas for the Navy, ag- 
gregating 16,683 tons, and the Pacific 
Coast Co., 4524 tons of steam coal from 
its Washington collieries, for use on the 
coast steamers. 

The receipts of Rocky Mountain coal 
have been fairly good, considering pre- 
vailing conditions. 

Prices to the trade are as follows per 

Wellington (British Columbia)... $8.00 


Pelau Main (Australian)......... 8.00 
ele eae LOTT Ue) El ae eer irr 8.50 
Anthracite (Lehigh) 5.00 
Cumberland ..... 2.50 

Production and Transportation 


Increases in number of idle coal 
cars were most noticeable through the 
Middle Atlantic States and Middle West. 
In the Middle Atlantic territory the car 
surplus jumped from 22,500 to almost 
50,000. and in the Middle West the in- 
crease during the fortnight exceeded 100 

per cent. Both of these sections have on 


large number of 
present surplus 

hand a comparatively 
idle cars, although the 
of cars in the Middle West is not as 
large as the surplus at this time last 
year. In the Northwest there was about 
a normal number of freight cars idle. 
While the increase in the box-car sur- 
plus was not as marked as the gain in 
coal cars, it was by no means confined 
to any particular section of the country. 
There was a better demand for box cars 
in Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, and on 
Canadian lines, but not sufficiently large 
to reduce the total surplus in those ter- 
ritories ’ 

The following table shows the surplus 
and shortages of cars on 169 roads on 
Apr. 25 last: 

Surplus Short Surplus 
RN 5 aiigt cierecoreiane 19,583 6,152 13,431 
LUN SR eras 6,857 1,673 5,244 
Coal, gond. and 

hopper ..... 94,692 2,144 92,548 
Other kinds... 30,054 2,396 27,658 

DOUBL 4544555 151,186 12,305 138,881 


The following is a comparative state- 
ment of the fuel movement over various 
railroads, rivers and canals for February, 

Railroads 1911 1912 
Baltimore & Ohio?....... 2,187,226 3,397,088 
Buffalo, Rochester & 

Pittsburg? i 612,341 790,801 
Buffalo & Susquehanna®. . 157,031 167,375 

Chesapeake & Ohio? * 1,530,710 1,337,216 

Erie 37,734 721,481 
Huntingdon «& Broadtop 

Mountain? 4 83,127 136,811 
New York Central & Hud- 

eon River®........ 632,564 706,573 
Norfolk & Western? *. 1,402,765 I 922°: 225 
Pennsylvania (east of 

Pittsburg & Erie)? >.... 4,646,198 6,217,396 
Pittsburg & Lake Erie? © 1,023,056 1,476,748 
Pittsburg, Shawmut «& 

Northern? jie ae 114,239 202,137 
Southern* 358,917 451,081 
Virginian? °.. 162,343 294,041 

Western Maryland... 192/284 255,063 
Rivers and Canals 

Canals and Falls at Louis- 

ville 239,173 18,050 
Chesapeake & Delaware 

Canal 8,193 2-9 
Davis Island Dam. 448,160 101,245 
Green River, Lock No. :. 2,202 1,356 
Kanawha River... 93,580 78,320 
Kentucky _ River, Lock 

iS: eee . 6,100 4,600 
Monongahela River 1,005,461 450,352 

‘Figures throughout this table have been 

reduced to a uniform basis of short tons 
2Includes coal received from connecting lines. 
Includes company’s coal. 
‘January figures. 

®Does not include company’s coal hauled free. 

Foreign Markets 

production of the 
Donetz district for 1911 was 16,607,600 
tons, as compared with 14,013,390 tons 
for 1910 and 14,952,745 tons for 1909. 
Production of anthracite in 1911 was 2,- 
903,870 tons, aS compared with 2,398,- 
000 tons in 1910 and @;546,300 tons in 
1909. The production of coke was 2,- 
705,000 tons in 1910, as compared with 
3,292,000 tons in 1911. 



The imports of coal into France during 
the first two months of this year totaled 
2,751,400 tons, as compared with 2,906,- 
000 tons in the corresponding period of 
1911. The imports of coke for the same 
period of 1912 were 388,900 tons, as 

Vol. 1, No. 31 

compared with 446,200 tons in 1911, 
while the imports of briquettes were 204,- 
300 tons, as against 207,000 in 1911. 
The exports of coal during the first two 
months of 1911 were 192,736 tons, as 
compared with 356,209 tons for the same 
period of the current year. Coke ex- 
ports during this same period of the 
current year were 27,831 tons, as 
against 30,488 tons in 1911. 


During 1911, 10,872,928 tons of coal 
were imported into Austria-Hungary, as 
compared with 9,864,462 tons in 1910 
and 10,482,264 tons in 1909. The im- 
ports of coke in 1911 totalled 702,707 
tons, aS compared with 670,089 tons in 
1910, and 701.281 tons in 1909. 

Exports of coal during 1911 were 609,- 
737 tons, as compared with 615,082 tons 
in 1910, and 633,253 tons in 1909. Coke 
exports for 1911 were 299,915 tons, as 
compared with 230,735 tons in 1910, and 
198,313 tons in 1909. 

Financial Notes 

The Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co. has 
listed $3,000,000 collateral trust 4%% 
gold power bonds, due Dec. 1, 1921, and 
$1,750,000 collateral trust 4%% gold 
bonds due Nov. 1, 1930, on the Philadel- 
phia Stock Exchange. 

Although comparatively speaking the 
Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Co.’s earnings 
are small, 8% has already been paid on 
the preferred stock, the issue amounting 
to $1,030,000. In 1909 a common stock 
dividend of $1,000,000 was. distributed, 
which increased the total outstanding to 

It is estimated that the Pittsburg Coal 
Co. will benefit to the extent of $1,160,000 
a year by the ruling of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission in reducing the 
freight rate to lake ports 10e. per ton, 
but this will be offset to some extent by 
the increase of 5c. a ton in wages to min- 
ers. The net advantage to the company, 
however, will be about $600,000 a year. 

The Delaware & Hudson coal opera- 
tions during 1911 included the mining of 
7,280,939 tons of coal, an increase of 
633,280 tons. Gross revenue from the 
coal mining department was $13,355,014, 
an increase of $1,548,126 over 1910: gross 
expenses amounted to $13,238,304, an in- 
crease of $1,790,077, leaving a net rev- 
enue for this department of $116,710. 
decrease of $241,951 for the year. Con- 
struction and betterments included 
the coal department expenses amounted 
to $823,654, as against $766,673 in 1910 

In the year to June 30 last, the Phila 
delphia & Reading Coal & Iron Co.’s in- 
come account wound up with a loss of 
$103,316. For 1910 the loss was $71,5'0 
and fer 1907, $71,482, an aggregate d°- 
ficit for the three fiscal periods of $24%.- 
298. In 1909 and 1908 profits of $66,973 
and $207,523, respectively, were shown, 
or $274,496 in total. Thus the net pro- 
fits for the five years were $28,198. This 
only partially measures the unprofitabie- 
ness of Reading’s coal business, as the 
foregoing balances make no allowance 
for full interest on capital invested in 
coal lands.