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JANUARY, 1955 





“What is most important . . . is the ground swell of 





(Minneapolis Tribune Photo—Boham Cross, Photographer) 

opinion among all people everywhere against segregation.” 


“There is no doubt that racial segre- 
gation in the United States is dead.” 

So began the speech of Clarence 
Mitchell, Director of the Washington 
Bureau, National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People, given 
in Jackson, Mississippi recently. 

There were two important milestones 
in 1954, Mr. Mitchell said: 

1) The integration of the armed 
forces and 

2) The decision of the Supreme Court 
that segregation of schools is unconsti- 

Individual instances of awakening to 
the injustice of segregation, says Mr. 
Mitchell, are important. But, “What is 
most important ... is the ground swell 
of opinion among all people everywhere 
against segregation.” 


Mr. Mitchell points out that backers 
of a private school system in the south 
are victims of local convulsions which 
cannot last. He says these same backers 
fail to point out that seven million Fed- 
eral dollars will be lost to Mississippi 
schools alone if the public school sys- 
tem is abandoned. The economy of 

most southern states couldn’t sustain 
this loss. 


But the real pressure for integration 
in the United States comes from out- 
side rather than inside our country. It 
is a world pressure, says Mr. Mitchell. 
It comes from the knowledge that there 
are two main forces in the world— 
democracy and totalitarianism. 

“In one of these camps,” said Mr. 
Mitchell, “we find the United States 
and her allies. In the other camp, there 
are the iron curtain countries and all 
other nations that place the interests of 
the state above the welfare of the peo- 


“A great many of the world’s peo- 
ple are trying to decide which of those 
camps they will join. Some of these 
people may be found in India where 
an ancient nation has again come to 
the fore as a world power. Some of 
these are in Africa where new nations 
are being born. 

“Many of them are in Europe where 
they still shudder at the words ‘Master 
Race.’ All of these look with suspicion 
on a country that preaches democracy 
but practices segregation on the basis 
of race. 

“The wise leaders of the United 

States understand the importance of 
convincing these old and new nations 

that there is vitality and strength to 
our democracy. 


“Sometimes, as in the case of Ethio- 
pia and Liberia, it is because we wish 
to have the right to place an air base 
within the borders of that country. 
Sometimes, it is because there are vital 
products which must be purchased 
from those whose friendship we seek 
and desire. 

“Sometimes, it is because we wish to 
maintain a market for our products in 
a non-white country. But the overriding 
consideration is the knowledge that in 
our modern world we cannot afford to 
be an isolated white island in a sea of 
colored nations. 


“The task of winning converts,” con- 
tinued Mr. Mitchell, “to democracy is 
no longer a theoretical venture in good- 
will. It is now a task that must be ac- 
complished if we are to survive. It is 
becoming increasingly clear that democ- 
racy is the most valuable product that 
we can export to the rest of the world. 
We also know that we cannot export it 
if we do not have it at home.” 

The pressure of this knowledge, along 
with the awakening American con- 
science, make it possible to say as 1955 
begins, “There is no doubt that racial 
segregation in the United States is 


Friendship House 

Friendship House is looking back and 
assessing the work of 1954 and making 
plans for work in 1955. St. Peter Claver 
Center has begun a survey of the Na- 
tion’s Capital to determine what are 
the most pressing local needs for inter- 
racial justice. At a special staff meeting 
this month, they will discuss the inter- 
views with other organizations in the 
District. Then they will plan the work 
of Friendship House in this area in 

Two training programs, one for the 
staff and a six weeks’ course for vol- 
unteers have been started. These will 
stress a study of the Friendship House 
Vocation and the Christian Social Or- 

(Continued on Page 6) 


(p. 7) 

(p. 4) 

SCHOOLS (p. 8) 

A Louisiana Catholic 
Paper Stands Pat 

“Many so-called good Catholics and even some priests do not 
follow the stand of the Church on... social justice questions.” 

ATHOLIC ACTION OF THE SOUTH, the Catholic paper of three Louisiana and 

one Mississippi dioceses ceased local publication recently. Many issues enter into 
the decision, of three of these dioceses to affiliate with The Denver Register. The 
story of the paper’s struggle to influence Louisiana Catholics to see the immorality 
of segregation and of “right to work” laws is clearcut however. 


The paper took a stand against three proposed Louisiana bills to thwart inte- 
gration. The three bills proposed the following measures to maintain segregation 
by police power: 

1. Public or private schools would be denied approval by the state board of 
education if they attempted integration. 

2. Free text books, lunch programs, and all state funds would be denied. 

3. Each parish (district) superintendent would assign each child in his area 
to a specific public school. 


Archbishop Joseph Rummel of New Orleans, and M. F. Everett, Editor of Cath- 
olic Action of the South protested vehemently... In editorials the paper pointed up 
the totalitarian aspects of denying the God-given right of parents to choose the school 
where their child will be educated. The bills would have outlawed the minor and 
major seminaries in the archdiocese, both of which have Negro students. 

NE OF THE MOST DANGEROUS provisions would have made it possible to 
place a $1000 fine or six months’ imprisonment on anyone encouraging a suit 
against the segregation law. The paper pointed out that this would kill freedom of 
the press and freedom of speech. Another provision made it possible to disbar an 
attorney associated in a suit protesting the law. The paper pointed that this would 
deal a mortal blow to justice and legal procedure. 

The bills were finally amended to exclude private institutions. The State Bar 
Association protested and the section concerning attorneys was dropped. 


What reaction did this stand on the part of the paper get from Louisiana Cath- 
olics? The bills were passed with only eleven Representatives and two Senators 
voting against them, in a legislature which has a good Catholic representation. 

One letter Mr. Everett received was not atypical. Written by a man who claimed 
to be a “practical Catholic” it said, “If you and the supporters of this movement 
think Martin Luther gave the Church a rough time, well you haven’t seen anything 
yet.” Mr. Everett states that opposition to the Church discipline (not dogma) on the 
part of the laity has been part of an anti-clerical influence in the history of the 
Church in Louisiana. . 


As to what effect this stand for social justice had upon the changing of the pa- 
per, the editor, Mr. Everett, wrote to us: 

“IT cannot honestly say that our stand has made a great difference in circulation, 
for comments have been both pro and con. I have received a number of bitter let- 
ters, also a warning by phone to leave town; but I have also received many fine 
letters of thanks and commendation. The ratio in communications that came to me 
personally was about five favorable to one against.” 

The New Orleans archdiocese paper has affiliated with Our Sunday Visitor. Mr. 
Everett says, “We’ll have a modest editorial page and maintain the same stand, 
speaking out strongly when necessary.” 

The crux of the issue in Louisiana, for Mr. Everett, is that Catholics do not take 
a Catholic stand. “Events here showed that many who have the faith are not well 
instructed; others who are well educated and devout in many ways are willing to 
dispute the authority or discipline of the Church. 

“Many so-called good Catholics and even some priests do not follow the stand 
of the Church on these social justice questions. I frankly was appalled at the atti- 
tude uncovered here, not only a disputing of Papal teaching on such matters but 
often of the RIGHT so to speak. I have found the attitude elsewhere, but never so 

sharply displayed.” 

Readers Write 

Dear Editor: What’s happened to the paper? | look all through it for the chit-chat about the 
kids | know in the Friendship Houses and | can’t find it. That’s the only thing | used to read. 

College Girl 

Dear Editor: It’s a joy to see the new emphasis in the paper. | am not a Catholic and do not 
know any of the people in the Friendship Houses. Frankly, | used to feel that you devoted too 
much space to just gossip about people very few of your readers knew, and too little space to 
the real issues involved in your work. | especially found your article on unemployment and how 
it affects the Negro very helpful. That's just the kind of information | need when I’m talking 

to some of my prejudiced friends who won't hire Negroes. 
Business Man 


Dear Editor: | notice you have an article on ‘’Science Speaks on Race’’ in your last issue. Why 
don’t you take the space and devote it to Catholic principles on race. Why do we have to know 
what science says in order to put Christian principles to work? It’s just a waste of time as far 

as | can see. . . . And you’d have to have a Bachelor of Science degree to understand it any- 


Catholic Critic 

Readers Write—(cont.) 

Dear Editor: Why can’t we have more of the kind of thing you do in your Science Speaks on 
Race in the Catholic press? Sometimes | think we Catholics are so busy stating our doctrine 
we don’t take time to appreciate the fact that truth is one. We fail to see that the truths which 
science gives us are simply another, and very valuable tool, in working toward human unity. 

. . . My wife and | like the broad scope of the paper. 

(Ed: What are YOUR OPINIONS?) 

Catholic Father 

Book Review 

Fire and Honey 


translation of the encyclical “Doc- 
tor Mellifiuus,” issued in 1953 by Pope 
Pius XII to commemorate the eighth 
centenary of the death of Saint Ber- 
nard. Thomas Merton, in obedience to 
his religious superiors, provides a leng- 
thy preface to supply a backdrop for 
the life and times of the “Doctor whose 
teaching is as sweet as honey.” In ad- 
dition he presents a commentary on the 
encyclical and the vast writings of the 

Although the book is most attractive 
in format as well as rich in scholarship 
and style, the result is vaguely disap- 
pointing. The encyclical itself is so 
clearly written that explanatory com- 
ment seems superfluous and the occa- 
sional fragments of biographical data 
given by Father Merton seem insuffi- 
cient for those who have never read 
the life of Bernard of Clairvaux. Per- 
haps these brief glimpses of the holy 
Abbot may tempt people to examine 
more closely the career of one who is 
described in rapid succession as a 
preacher of crusades, an adviser to 
kings, hammer of heretics, the restorer 
and promoter of the Cistercian order, 
and, finally, the founder of a new school 
of spirituality, of which the principal 
monument is the IMITATION OF 
CHRIST. Admittedly he was an amaz- 
ing figure. Even Calvin and Luther 
wrote admiringly of him. Alas, in this 
little study of the man, the pieces never 
quite fit together. 

The Sacred Scriptures and the Early 
Fathers were Bernard’s chief sources 
of meditation and study. From them he 
drew his inspiration and their influence 
permeates his manuscripts. Many of his 
compositions have found a place in the 
liturgy of the Church because, our Holy 

Father tells us “. . . they were redolent 
of heaven and breathe forth the fire of 



TITY was the special love he 
bore for Jesus as our Divine Saviour. 
Under that inspiration he penned the 
profound passages which still inspire 
ardor in the hearts of those who read 
them. Who does not feel his devotion 
enkindled by these beautiful words 
“. . . What can so enrich the soul that 
reflects upon it (the holy name of 
Jesus)? What can... fortify the vir- 
tues, engender good and honorable dis- 
positions, foster holy affections? Dry is 
every kind of spiritual food, which this 
oil does not moisten. Insipid, whatever 
this salt does not season. If thou writ- 
est, thy composition has no charms for 
me, unless I read there the name of 
Jesus. If thou disputest or conversest, 
I find no pleasure in thy words, unless 
I hear there the name of Jesus. Jesus 
is honey in the mouth, melody in the 
ear, a cry of joy in the heart. Yet not 
only is that name light and food. It is 
also medicine. Is any amongst you sad? 
Let the name of Jesus enter his heart; 
let it leap thence to his lips; and lo! 
the light that radiates from that name 
shall scatter every cloud and restore 
tranquility. Has someone sinned, and is 
he, moreover, abandoning hope, rushing 
in desperation towards the snare of 
death? Let him but invoke this life- 
giving name, and straightway he shall 
experience a renewal of courage... . 
Whoever, when trembling with terror 
in the presence of danger, has not im- 
mediately felt his spirits revive and his 
fears departing as soon as he called 
upon this name of power? .. . There is 
nothing so efficacious as the name of 
Jesus for restraining the violence of 
anger, repressing the swellings of pride, 
healing the smarting wound of 

—Monica Durkin 


Harlem Friendship House 
43 W. 135th St., N.Y.C., 37 

Friendship House 
1525 Milam, Shreveport, La. 

Chicago Friendship House 
4233 S. Indiana, Chicago 15, IIl. 

Blessed Martin Friendship House 
3310 N. Williams, Portland, Ore. 

St. Peter Claver Center, 814 7th St., S.W., Washington, D.C. 

LIBRARY for 1955—$1 a year—Bundles Se a copy. 



Volume 14 


Assistant Editor ................... 
Circulation Manager ....... 

JANUARY, 1955 

Number 8 
TEL. OAKLAND 4-9564 

Betty Schneider 
aevosesoesesesx Re: GORGE? 
wee Delores Price 

Associate Managers—Frank Broderick, Larene Graf and Gene Huffine 

The Catholic Interracialist is owned and operated by Friendship Houses at 4233 South Indiana Ave., 

Chicago 15, Ill.; 43 West 135th St., New York 37, N.Y.; 814 7th St., S.W., Washingt 

m 24, D.C.; 3310 

on 24 
North Williams St., Portland, Ore.; and 1525 Milam St., Shreveport, La.; and petened monthly 

September through June and bi-monthly July-August, by Frieneenip House, 
Ave., Chicago 15, Illinois. Entered as second-class matter December 13, 
ew York, under the Act of March 3, 1879, Re-entered as second class matter Septem- 

New York, 

South Indiana 
, 1943, at the Post Office of 

ber 16, 1948, at the Post Office of New York, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Re-entered 

as second-class matter December 18, 1950, at the Post Office at Chicago, I 
in Post Office at Appleton, Wisconsin, govember 4, 1954—Pend- 

March 8, 1879. Additional re-entry 

linois, under the Act of 

ing. Subscription price, $1.00 a year. Foreign, $1.25 a year. Single copies 10c. 



Friendship House Vocation 

The Lecturer-A Bridge 


“ HY DO THEY have to move into 

our neighborhood? Why should 
police be taken away from here to 
guard a whole area for one family who 
should have stayed where they came 
from? Why don’t they keep up prop- 
erty? Why do they want to live all 
crowded together? They don’t make 
good converts because they like night 
life too much.” 

We (two staff-workers from Friend- 
ship House) were speaking at one of 
Chicago’s South Side high schools, 
within a two-mile radius of the Trum- 
bull Park area. The nuns and the pas- 
tor, realizing the attitudes of some of 
their students, had asked us to talk on 
the Christian’s approach to the racial 


The deluge of questions came from 
the more vocal of the all-white student 
group, and I began to know that it was 
not only Christian principles that we 
must give. It was more than statistics 
or scientific findings that were needed 
to help clear the highly charged atmo- 
sphere. The task was to help a group 
of normal, fairly average teenagers 
catch the positive challenge from their 
community and act on it. 


The pattern of what was happening 
to the kids was all too clear. Excite- 
ment had begun in their neighborhood 
when a Negro family moved into the 
Trumbull Park housing project. A fight 
had begun, and sides had to be taken. 
From parents, from friends, from al- 
most every neighborhood source, they 
heard stories of how homes and prop- 
erty values were being threatened by 
Negroes, who were about to “invade” 
the community, who would move in in 
droves, who would rob and rape on 
their streets at night. 

It was not surprising to find, as we 
learned later, that students in the group 
had been party to beating up Negroes 
who enter their area, or to stoning cars 
Negroes were driving down their 
streets. It was something to do. Per- 
haps it falsely catered to a bit of youth- 
ful idealism. At least it was more ex- 
citing than anything else they could 

* ee * 
Family Missionary Apostolate «0: ic ix: moni 

By Joseph and Theresa Shelzi 
and Arthur and Emilia Vigil 


The father of the average family who 
is willing to work ten or twelve hours 
a day at honest, hard labor (and their 
number is great) finds that he has not 
raised his family’s level of living at all 
by the end of the year. In many cases 
he is right where he started or has slid 
back some. We feel it essential that the 
impact of the Church’s social teachings 
be made felt, for in these teachings lies 
the answer to the economic problem 
which is so closely interwoven with the 
spiritual problem—lack of hope. In this 
light a number of projects have been 

1. We’ve helped the people to organ- 
ize a credit unit. It has been in opera- 
tion over a year and a half. It is now 
worth over 10,000 pesos and has made 
45 loans to members. There are 90 
members. Interest from loans goes to 
members as dividends. 


2. The “aljibe”, a 260,000-gallon cis- 
tern, was built under Arthur’s super- 
vision to meet the critical need for 
drinking water during the dry season 
(February to June). It was opened dur- 

JANUARY, 1955 

find to do—these youngsters who had 
time on their hands to loiter at the 
corner and talk things over with the 

We faced a barrage of “theys”—‘“they 
move in because the Urban League is 
trying to help them take over neigh- 
borhoods. They steal. They carry 
knives. They are so noisy.” 

I mentally compared this student 
group to the students at St. E.’s, the 
high school in our predominantly Negro 
parish. The two groups had so much in 
common; love of excitement, of sports; 
the same desires for being accepted, for 
being popular, for being part of the 


I tried to tell them of the numbers 
of hard-working people I knew who 
are forced to pay abominable rents for 
meager facilities, because of unaccept- 
ing attitudes like the ones they seemed 
to have. I wanted to make them be- 
lieve that there are thousands of par- 

ents like their own, in the Negro area 
of Chicago, who are concerned because 
they want their children to have good 
recreation and a chance to go on to 


I wished that I could take them to a 
school dance at St. E.’s, a nicely run 
party, where there was concern, too, 
that the wrong kind of teen-ager (a 
“they”’) didn’t crash the dance to damp- 
en a good evening’s fun. And, at the 
same time, I tried to show them with 
words, the kind of home I live in in the 
“forbidding” 43rd Street area. A home 
that no doubt compares favorably with 
their own, where daily Mass, attendance 
at devotions, Council of Catholic Wom- 
en and other parish activities are part 
and parcel of living. 

I don’t know how well we succeeded 
that day. I’m certain the most adamant 
weren’t converted. I’m sure we didn’t 
give any of the students a good idea 
of what living Christ’s truth in their 

neighborhood would mean in day-to- 
day actions. But, a part of the job of 
Friendship House became clearer to me 
in that session. 


Building a bridge of understanding 
through lectures is a step toward help- 
ing all see Christ in their brothers. 

Learning and suffering the truth of dis- 
crimination firsthand from knowing 
friends and neighbors who are forced 
to live hemmed in by the prejudiced 
attitudes of those on the outside are a 
beginning in the Friendship House task. 

Sharing that truth, which takes on 
flesh and blood as it is seen in the lives 
of people, is its continuation. It is a part 
of the work of bringing, as our pre- 
amble states, “the spirit of Christ’s jus- 
tice and love to bear on the matter of 
interracial relations.” 

—Betty Schneider 

Betty Schneider addresses a group of boys while on a lecture tour. 

ing Passion Week with a simple bless- 
ing. Father got in the way of the first 
few squirts of water with the result 
that we also had a “baptism”. Incident- 
ally, much of the money to build this 
cistern came from friends in the United 
States. We are constantly obliged from 
the nature of things to rely on the do- 
nations of our friends until local re- 
sources and leadership are developed. 


3. A corn cooperative has been or- 
ganized to solve another of the “mil- 
pero’s” problems. He sweats out his 
harvest and ends up selling his corn 
for less than it costs him to take it to 
market because there is so much on 
the market at the time and he needs 
the money to pay bills that have been 
mounting since the last harvest in some 
cases. When he goes to buy it back six 
months later to feed his hungry fam- 
ily he has to pay three to five times as 
much as he sold it for. 

The corn cooperative was begun to 
pay the farmer a just price for his corn 
and later to resell it as a service to the 
community. It has been in operation 
since November, 1953 and bought this 
past season 27,500 pounds of corn from 
the farmers. It paid 50 per cent more 

than the price at harvest time. The 
corn was resold here at 33 per cent less 
than the price of corn at the present 
time. We now have to bide our time for 
the Co-op to build itself up. The farm- 
ers, due to their circumstances, can’t 
save very much money. To begin our 
co-op we borrowed $500 from a credit 
union in the United States. The profit 
made by the corn co-op is distributed 
among the members after expenses are 

4. The Territorial Government has 
given the use of two farm tractors, a 
disc harrow and a set of cultivators to 
help the agricultural program which 
Shelzi is working out. One of the trac- 
tors-runs the town’s light plant, while 
the other is used for farm purposes. On 
May 26 we went out to Don Herculana’s 
“milpa”, along with the “Professor”, 
our local teacher; and “Primero”, who 
is our mayor, chief of police, judge and 
head of the army all wrapped up in 
one; and other townsmen who are in- 
terested in our project of raising the 
agricultural standards of the people. We 
all participated in the blessing of the 
first plot of cultivated ground in the 
Territory of Quintana Roo, and helped 

finish clearing the land of stumps. Then 
we were served some delicious hot 
“tamales” and “atole”. 

5. Within the next few weeks we 
will start on the woodworking shop 
that we mentioned in our last report. 
Mexican customs officials have told us 
that we can export ready-made furni- 
ture at a very slight cost. Small indus- 
try of this kind is badly needed. May- 
be it is one answer. 


Slowly we see the people becoming 
more friendly, coming to us with their 
problems of a hundred different kinds. 
A sign of this friendliness can be seen 
every month when many of the fam- 
ilies of the pueblo come together at the 
Banquet Table on Family Communion 
Sunday. The number has grown stead- 
ily and the social get-together in the 
afternoon with its spirit of warm joy is 
a great reward for our labors. The num- 
ber, too, at weekly Mass and the sacra- 
ments grows. The age-old indifference 
born of being without a priest for over 
a hundred years is leaving our pueblo. 
The people are beginning to hold their 
heads a little higher and are learning 
to lean on God and plan ahead. Yes, 
what was lacking is being replaced and 
we thank God that He has seen fit to 
send us to help with the most neces- 
sary work among His children. 


75% African Students in U. S. Lose Faith 


are a strange contradiction. At the 
same time that they help to convert 
Africans by their contributions to mis- 
sions, they help to stamp out this very 
faith by prejudice. Father Denis J. Slat- 
tery, S.M.A., a Nigerian missionary, 
said that seventy-five per cent of the 
Catholic students who return to Nigeria 
from western universities no longer 
practice their faith. 


What happens to an African Catholic 
student when he reaches the United 
States? He comes from a city or village 
where he has been active in parish or- 
ganizations, where he has a full, happy 
social life with fellow Catholics. In the 
United States fellow Catholics ignore 
him. He becomes aware very soon of 
the difference between Catholic doc- 
trine and Catholic practice. 

People will send donations to have 
him converted, but they will not ask 
him into their schools, hospitals, or 
homes. Prejudice stings him all the 

more since he has never experienced it 
before. He grows bitter and feels that 
all the doctrines the missionaries taught 
him so fully, not just with their lips 
but by the way they lived, are so much 
hypocrisy. He drifts toward irreligion. 


The leftist groups, according to Fa- 
ther Slattery, welcome the lonely Af- 
rican student. He is not treated as a 
second-class citizen by them. And so 
he often returns home an apostle of 
Marxism. The Christian leadership he 
could have provided is absent from 
Africa at just the time when she is es- 
tablishing responsible native govern- 

By their actions, white American 
Catholics are helping determine the at- 
titude toward Christianity of millions 
of Africans. They are helping to kill 
the seeds of Christianity in future Afri- 
can leaders. They mistakenly think that 
a donation to a foreign missionary dis- 
penses them from acts of personal jus- 
tice and Christian love. 

Police Brutality in South 

N SHREVEPORT, LA. police brutal- 

ity has gone on for a long time. It 
affects both Negroes and whites, but is 
more commonly aimed against Negroes. 
A Negro minister recently told of an 
incident in which he was judged by a 
policeman on the street, rather than 
being taken to the courts for judgment. 


The minister was driving along one 
of the streets in Shreveport when he 
failed to see a detour sign. He was 
stopped by a policeman. The officer 
cursed him, and threatened to use a 
pistol on his head (his actual words 
were “skin your head”). Finally he let 

In South Africa 

the minister go with more abusive talk. 


A member of the legal staff of the 
N.A.A.C.P. has seen many people im- 
mediately after they have been brutal- 
ized. Usually the victims are placed in 
jail after being beaten. One man came 
immediately to the N.A.A.C.P. mem- 
ber’s home after release. He was se- 
verely bruised, and his head was swol- 
len almost twice its normal size. 

In an effort to put a stop to this bru- 
tality, a group of citizens have present- 
ed a petition to the police department. 
No formal written answer was sent to 
the signers. 

Trend Toward Segregation 

HE ELECTION of a new South Af- 

rican Prime Minister to succeed 
white supremacist, Dr. Daniel F. Ma- 
lan, offers little hope for relief of ra- 
cial tension. The new Prime Minister, 
Johannes G. Strijdom, has taken no 
pains to hide his racial bias. In a speech 
before Parliament, the unsmiling, wild- 
ly vehement 61 year old Strijdom once 

“Coloreds (meaning people of mixed 
white and Negro blood) who are on 
the common roll with Europeans today 
must be separated and given separate 
representation, and Negro representa- 
tives in this house (the Assembly) must 
be eliminated. The Indians must be re- 
garded as outsiders who cannot enjoy 
political favor in South Africa.” 

Several times Mr. Strijdom has said 
in Parliament that “South Africa can 
only remain white if the vote remains 
in the hands of the dominant section— 
the Europeans.” 


It isn’t only the Negroes, Asians and 
“colored” who have something to fear 
from Strijdom’s government. The Brit- 
ish take second place in the Dutch- 
descended Afrikaner’s dream of self- 
government. A leader of the United 
Party Opposition said, ‘Nationalists 
(Dutch-descent) have elected as leader 
and Prime Minister an uncompromis- 
ing extremist and apostle of a Repub- 
lic completely and finally divorced from 
the British commonwealth.” 


Like Dr. Malan before him, Strijdom 
will continue to unite the country’s 
10,000,000 non-whites—Bantu Negroes, 
Asians and people of mixed blood— 


against his white supremacy. Since Dr. 
Malan came to power in 1948 a real 
police state has come into being in 
South Africa. Some of its consequences 

@ Marriage between the races was 

@ Curfews for Negroes were tight- 

@ An act for dividing the country 
into segregated living areas for each 
race group was passed. 

@ Defiance of Malan’s government 
meant barring from political life. 

@ National race registers were start- 
ed classifying everyone from Afrikaner 
at the top to Negro at the bottom. 

@ The police force was enlarged. 
Many jails were started. 


The world looks to South Africa with 
apprehension. Street riots have become 
more common. Police and non-whites 
have engaged in armed battles. It seems 
a question of time how long 10 million 
non-whites will tolerate oppression by 
one and a half million Afrikaners. 

The New York Times had this to say 
of the country since the advent of Dr. 
Malan and followers: 


LONELY NATION — hated by 
non-white peoples, unpopular with 
Americans and Europeans. The United 
Nations threw its prestige against Ma- 
lan by formally indicting aspects of 
his race policies.” 

Those who don’t censure Malan and 
Strijdom on moral or religious grounds, 
still look upon this new fanaticism as 
pathetic political burgling in a desper- 
ate attempt to cling to the past. 

Job Discrimination Urged in Britain 


behind the recent statements of a 
British labor union leader. “I’d sooner 
have a little trouble now than a great 
deal later on,” said Jim Leask, organ- 
izer for the Transport and General 
Workers’ Union. “Nobody wants a col- 
or bar, but there would be bitter racial 
feeling if, say, a colored hand is kept 
on while white workers are fired.” 


Using this questionable logic, as a 
start, Mr. Leask made four proposals 
at a weekly union meeting: 

1. Colored workers should not be 
promoted to supervisory jobs over 
white men. 

2. Colored men should not be em- 
ployed in jobs for which white workers 
are available. 

3. Union and management represent- 
atives should consult together before 
colored men are hired. 

4. Colored workers should be the first 
to be fired in the event of a recession. 


We would like to save Mr. Leask 
both a “little trouble” now and “a great 
deal” later. We’ve tried his plan over 
here and it just doesn’t work. It isn’t 
economical. it isn’t efficient. It isn’t 
psychologically sound for the nation. 
We might add it isn’t human, it isn’t 
moral, it isn’t democratic and it cer- 
tainly isn’t Christian. To Mr. Leask, we 
say: You will save your country two 
or three hundred years of “trouble” if 
you will just start in NOW to hire the 
man who can do the job, regardless of 

“They’re Not a Good Credit Risk!” 

HIS IS THE TUNE sung by banks, 

finance and real estate companies 
when Negroes try to buy anything from 
a washing machine to a home. It is a 
source of great discouragement to a 
Negro father trying to finance the 
building of a new home for his family 
to be refused the credit afforded to his 
white fellow workers. 


The Chicago Defender, recently be- 
came concerned about one type of un- 
ethical legal practice which damages 
the credit rating of the Negro. Un- 
scrupulous lawyers watch the munici- 
pal court records, or keep friendly con- 
tact with paymasters in industrial firms. 
“If they know a man will soon receive 
a wage assignment,” says a Defender 
editorial, “a judgment note or an over- 
due credit note, they will call him in 
and offer to settle all his debts through 


1954 made a change in this boy’s life. ‘The ‘Su 

Some lawyers encourage this even 
when the sum is quite small. Recent 
arrivals from the South are an espe- 
cially easy prey. It looks so easy. De- 
clare bankruptcy and all your debts are 
wiped out for just the fee of the law- 
yer. But only later does the uninformed 
client realize that his credit is also 
wiped out, and he has helped damage 
the credit of all other Negroes. 


The Cook County Bar Association and 
the Chicago Defender have organized 
a legal clinic to help people who are 

facing legal difficulties involved in pay- ° 

ing their debts. Each Wednesday night 
from 7:30 to 9:30 lawyers will be avail- 
able to give free advice. Armed with 
sound legal knowledge, Negroes will no 
longer be an easy mark for lawyers 
who do not scruple to ruin the credit 
standing of a whole class of persons, 
so long as it brings an easy buck. 


eer rhs 


preme Court has given him a chance for a really” equal 

of the townspeople will determine who his cla 


3 « 
~ - 
. é 
¥ “ 
>. * 

Shreveport at End of First Year 

Anne Foley and Mary Doian, first staff workers in Shreveport Friendship House, 
seen at work in their combination library, lecture hall. 

By Mary Dolan 
that “fresh start” feeling. So we 
are thinking and planning for 1955 in 
the Shreveport Friendship House and 
the South in general. 

Looking over the general picture, we 
find two groups that are working on 
problems concerning race throughout 
the South and working with consider- 
able effectiveness —the Southern Re- 
gional Council and the National Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Colored 


George S. Mitchell, executive direc- 
tor of the Southern Regional Council, 
spoke at Shreveport Friendship House 
in December. Undoubtedly one of the 
most competent persons working in ra- 
cial matters in the South (as well as 
one of the most delightful), he gave us 
a fascinating analysis of the South and 
emphasized the importance of bringing 



eally’* equal educ 

ation with the other children in 
who his classmates will be in the next few years. 

* Sage 4 
Ce ee Oe 

ee fae 

JANUARY, 1955 

whites and Negroes together. 

He divides the South into four re- 
gions, roughly four bands curving 
across the southeastern section of the 
country. From top to bottom the bands 
are: Mountain, Piedmont, Plantation 
(including Shreveport), and Coastal 
Plains. Each has a different history and 
culture: each has different needs and 
different rates of progress. 

In the relatively “healthy” Piedmont 
area, for instance, where political and 
economic democracy are furthest ad- 
vanced, the solutions of segregation are 
beginning already. We can expect the 
rate of integration will be slowest in 
the Plantation area. 


“Every community in the South,” 
Dr. Mitchell emphasizes, “needs a group 
of Negroes and whites meeting to- 
gether. Meeting in full dignity and 
equality —no sham, no patronage. It 
will probably be some brave church 

(Minneapolis Tribune Photo) 

ladies who will start it off. (That 
the South’s racial conscience has been 
moved along by the church women, is 
one of his favorite theses.) 


“They’ll meet together to look over 
the local picture. The first few meet- 
ings will be pretty uneasy and stiff, but 
never mind. As they begin to look at 
the schools, for instance, Mrs. White 
will realize that the colored children 
in her end of town who now have a 
right to go to school with Mary and 
Billy White aren’t nameless, faceless 
‘niggers.’ They are Mrs. Brown’s Jim 
and Sue and Joe. 


“These ladies will begin to evolve a 
plan for school integration. Word of 
their plan will get to the school super- 
visor; very likely he won’t be interest- 
ed. And then one day the local schools 
will have a suit slapped on them for 
failure to comply with the Supreme 
Court ruling. The first cry will be: 
‘Where are those ladies!’ ” 

Very likely the obliging suit-bringer 
will be the N.A.A.C.P. The state organ- 
ization in Louisiana claims it has 21 
lawsuits in readiness on schools. 


Shreveport chapter of N.A.A.C.P. has 
actions “in process” which will carry 
over into 1955. One is a lawsuit on 
Clarke Terrace homes; a hearing in late 
December was expected to settle tech- 
nical points and establish the questions 
on which the suit will be tried in the 
coming months. 

A bit of background on this suit. 
Clarke Terrace is the 248-house devel- 
opment for Negroes, started a year ago. 
Contracts for houses were sold to a 
number of Negroes. Then whites living 
near the Clarke Terrace site objected. 
Under this pressure the developer 

changed it to a “white” project. At least 
two Negroes refused to turn in their 
contracts; they with N.A.A.C.P.’s help 
have brought suit against the developer 
to build the homes for which they con- 


Meanwhile the houses have been 
completed and whites are occupying 
them. If the suit is won, it will mean 
Clarke Terrace will be an interracial 
community of new homes—the only 
one in Shreveport. 

A second action of N.A.A.C.P. was 
that of presenting a petition to the lo- 
cal school board last fall, asking the 
board to begin plans for desegregating 
schools and offering to help. The school 
board “filed” the petition without com- 
ment. Whether the Association’s next 
step will be another request to the 
board or a suit against it remains to be 
seen. At any rate, we look for follow- 
through action by N.A.A.C.P. in 1955. 


We of Shreveport Friendship House 
have been studying and discussing and 
working on our plans for 1955. We will 
concentrate on the particular function 
of Friendship House . . . pointing up, 
clarifying, emphasizing the moral ques- 
tions involved in segregation, and en- 
couraging and organizing Shreveport 
people who make a moral judgment to 

The central emphasis we have de- 
termined; the details have yet to be 
worked out. We have the outlines in a 
few sentences from the pamphlet on 
Friendship House Staffworkers, which 
apply equally to all who work for the 
Friendship House movement: 


“The life and work (of each of us) 
should be the expression of his love for 
Christ. This love of Christ is sustained 
and deepened by daily prayer and med- 
itation, the daily offering of Mass, spir- 
itual reading, and spiritual direction.” 


Trend Toward Integration 

OUR EVENTS have taken place in 
the past two months affecting the 
progress of integration in schools. 

1. Briefs on how desegregation should 
proceed were handed in to the Supreme 
Court on November 15. These were filed 
both by attorneys for the Negro princi- 
pals in the segregation cases and by 
the states affected. 

2. President Eisenhower made a 
statement to the press that he under- 
stood the court would take into con- 
sideration the great emotional and 
financial problems in desegregating 
Southern schools. He said he thought 
the court would find some decentralized 
method of desegregation. 

3. The Supreme Court delayed the 
oral debates until after a new Judge 
has been seated to take the place of 
late Associate Justice Robert H. Jack- 
son. The President has nominated 
Judge John Marshall Harlan of New 
York but Senate action on the nomina- 
tion must wait until at least January. 

4. The Justice Department filed a 
brief with the court urging that the 
lower courts be allowed to handle de- 
segregation in each state. 


The press throughout the country ex- 
pressed varying reactions. There was 
some fear that allowing the states to 
administer the ruling might mean no 
action at all. On the other hand one 
Southern paper sees little hope for 
dodging the issue this way. It especial- 
ly notes Attorney General Brownell’s 
statement that “racial segregation ... 
will have to be terminated as quickly 
as feasible, regardless of how much it 
may be favored by some people in the 
community.” And also that Mr. Brown- 
ell recommends regular reports from 

lower courts to the Supreme Court, 
stating the progress toward integration 
in that district. 

The opinion of the northern press 
was split. Some papers felt that piece- 
meal integration would only increase 
tensions; that a deadline was needed to 
overcome Southern resistance. Others 
felt that a moderate approach was the 
only way to keep down tensions. 


The Greensboro (North Carolina) 
Daily News remarked: “What may be 
a solution in one locality will not be 
possible in another; what may be pos- 
sible in a certain locality a year or two 
from now may not be possible today. 
When law comes in conflict with the 
customs, feelings and will of the people 
in a community, an extremely difficult 
situation is created.” 

The paper proposed that moderate 
white and Negro leaders meet on a 
local level to talk over problems. An- 
other North Carolina newspaper, the 
Lexington Dispatch, suggested that a 
step toward peaceful integration might 
be the appointment of more Negroes 
to school boards. 

The opinions may be conflicting, but 
the trend in the country is unmistake- 
able. Whether it will be immediate or 
eventual, integration of the public 
school system will one day be a reality 
throughout the United States. 



DONATE one-half day or one eve- 
ning a month for the. cause of 


President Eisenhower confers with N.A.A.C.P. officials Clarence Mitchell (center) 
and Walter White. It was his appointee, Chief Justice Warren, who handed down 
the momentous decision barring school segregation. 

(Continued from Page 1) 



Friendship House 

Chicago Friendship House has been 
making a special effort to work at do- 
ing away with the causes of discrimi- 
nation in 1954. At a spring study week 
three committees were appointed to 
work: 1) in housing; 2) in employment, 
and 3) in hospital integration. Each 
committee has one full-time staff work- 
er or two half-time staff workers. Sev- 
eral things have been done in each of 
these committees in 1954 and several 
things are planned for 1955. 

Housing Committee 

Housing is Chicago’s number one 
problem. It is certainly the area where 
discrimination has done its worst dam- 
age. There is no existing program 
which will provide even near adequate 
housing for Negroes in 1955 or for a 
long time to come. 


Areas where 60 to 100 thousand peo- 
ple are kept jammed into one square 
mile by the wall of prejudice around 
them, breed terrible tension, disease, 
break-down in family life, juvenile de- 
linquency, etc. The Housing Committee 
would like to chip away at the preju- 
dice which makes these conditions pos- 

Private builders in the Chicago area 
have given no indication of opening 
their homes to both Negroes and whites, 
to relieve this tension. Only the Chi- 
cago Housing Authority will do a small 
part to meet the need for integrated 
housing, by opening approximately 
1,800 new public housing units in 1955. 

William E. Kean, Executive Director 

..of CH.A. has stated that, “The C.H.A. 
will continue its policy of integration 
in all its projects despite the protests 
of certain bigotted groups.” 

Chicago Friendship House has plans 
for work in 1955. The Housing Commit- 
tee will continue to visit families in 
Trumbull Park, as it has in the past 
year, letting them know of our concern 
over the inhuman conditions under 
which they must live. It will continue 
to attend the meetings of other groups 
interested in integrating Trumbull 


The Housing Committee will begin 
work in changing neighborhoods where 
there is tension. It will attempt to lec- 
ture to parish groups, or offer the local 
pastor whatever assistance Friendship 
House can give. 


The Committee is now making plans 
for week-end work camps. They hope 
to have people from tension areas and 
also from suburbs where vacant land 
exists, come to Friendship House for a 
day or a week-end. In the morning the 
group will do manual work on some 
home in the neighborhood which needs 
repairs. In the afternoon it will meet 


(Chicago Defender Photo) 

to discuss the facts of overcrowding in 
a Negro neighborhood. It is hoped that 
these people will eventually be a force 
for integration in their own commu- 
nities, and so help relieve the over- 

Employment Committee 

The Employment Committee has in- 
terviewed several people in organiza- 
tions in the city working for integra- 
tion in employment. Some of the sug- 
gestions of these men for Friendship 
House projects in 1955 were: 

1) The Mayor’s Commission on Hu- 
man Relations would like to have 
Friendship House refer cases of dis- 
crimination to them for further action 
with the employer. 

2) The American Friends Service 
Committee suggested that Friendship 
House interview Catholic employers, 
stressing as the Friends do in inter- 
views, first the moral-religious argu- 
ments and then the good business argu- 
ments for fair employment. 

3) The Bureau of Jewish Employ- 
ment Problems suggested we refer dis- 
crimination complaints to them, espe- 
cially when a company having a gov- 
ernment contract is involved. 

4) The Urban League suggested we 
work in employment counselling for 
Negro students, informing them through 
lectures of what fields will be open to 
them, what fields it would be futile to 
train for because of discrimination, and 
what fields might open up in the near 

(In line with this last request, the 
teen-age counselors have thought of 
getting some boys in their group to go 
around to the schools and tell what hap- 
pened to them when they quit school 
early. They would try to impress upon 
other students how necessary training 
is, especially for Negroes, if they hope 
to earn a living wage later.) 


In addition, Friendship House as a 
whole will be working with the Coun- 
cil Against Discrimination to help in 
the passage of an Illinois equal job op- 
portunities bill. We have offered our 
staff room for a temporary office, and 
will try to interest groups in our com- 
munity to donate time for office work. 

Hospital Committee 

The Hospital Committee will con- 
tinue to encourage hospital administra- 
tors in the city to end discrimination. 
Through interviews with administrators 
it will attempt to understand the prob- 
lems involved in integrating a hospital, 
and urge that a just solution to them 
be found. 

The Committee will help the Cath- 
olic Interracial Council in whatever 
way it can in the planning of their 
second annual Conference for Catholic 
Hospital Administrators. 


It will also continue to work with the 
Committee to End Discrimination in 
Medical Institutions in Chicago. In con- 
junction with the Council Against Dis- 
crimination the Committee is working 
on two pieces of legislature, one for 
the city and one for the state. If passed, 
these laws will tend to raise the health 
standards of the whole community by 
insuring equal use of medical facilities 
by all people, regardless of race or 



The biggest problem in Portland in 
the field of human relations is the prob- 
lem of minority housing. In this respect 
Portland is typical of many large 
Northern cities. 

The economic situation of non-whites 
has improved considerably over the 
past few years. This improved economic 
status has accentuated a problem that 
has always existed. As more non-whites 
have become capable of purchasing 
their own homes, the demand for non- 

white housing has not only emphasized ~ 

the acute shortage of such housing, but 
the patterns of thought and action 
which affect the non-white housing 
market have become more clearly de- 


In Portland, according to the 1950 
census there are about 13,000 non- 
whites. The same census lists a total 
of 3,269 non-white dwelling units. Non- 
whites are living in 61 of Portland’s 
63 quarter sections. However, half of 
the Negroes were concentrated in the 
two sections which encompass the Wil- 
liams Avenue Community. These facts 
show that Portland has a lot of poten- 
tial toward becoming an integrated city 
in the foreseeable future. 

Yet, according to Urban League sta- 
tistics, non-whites do not have equal 
access to the housing market in Port- 
land. There has been practically no 
new housing available to non-whites, 
whether financed with F.H.A. guaran- 
tee or with private funds. 


(Defender Photo) 

In 1954 Marian Anderson became the 

first Negro to sign a contract with the 

Metropolitan Opera Company. It is a 

symbol of hope to Negro opera aspir- 


Racial prejudices on the part of in- 
dividual home owners, restrictive sales 
practices, erroneous ideas on property 
values, or on what constitutes a “good” 
neighborhood have all been factors in 
maintaining the present non - white 
housing shortage. Real estate interests 
have contributed to this housing short- 
age by working along with the factors 
listed above, and often aiding and abet- 
ting them. 

The Urban League in Portland is cur- 
rently conducting a study to determine 
the effect on residential market prices 
of non-white purchases. During the 
course of this study several real estate 
men have been interviewed from vari- 
ous parts of the city. 

These men could not accurately define 
the non-white areas in Portland nor 
were they consistent in their opinions 
as to what percentage of non-whites 
in an area make it non-white. Some 
thought 50 per cent non-white occupa- 
tion, some thought one family in a 
neighborhood was enough to classify it 
as non-white. Various other percent- 
ages were also given. 

No real estate man had any factual 
data or studies to support his opinions 
concerning the effects of non-white en- 
try into a neighborhood on property 


When these real estate men were 
asked about possible solutions to the 
problem, opinions varied. One thought 
that non-white areas ought to be de- 
veloped, another believed that the 
problem would take care of itself over 
the years, and still another believed 
that education would solve the prob- 

It is hoped that this study in Port- 
land will help to dispel the persistent 
myths about property values which 
make it difficult for non-whites to pur- 
chase decent housing. Ed Hark 

Around The 


The gremlin who disrupts Friendship 
House files has finally been found. Al- 
though Elizabeth Teevan—now in Port- 
land—-is the nearest in size to a grem- 
lin, we never even supected her. But 
she finally confessed recently that she 
has been saying the following prayer 
for years in her best Scots-Irish brogue: 
“To you, O Lord, be honor and glory; 
To us shame and confusion.” 

Has that prayer been answered!!! 


Ed Hark writes from Portland: 

“We here in Portland Friendship 
House are talking about revolutioniz- 
ing our diet. It seems that a cup of 
wheat germ and a glass of milk will 
provide all the necessary vitamins and 
proteins that the human system re- 
quires. It’s not only a healthier diet but 
think of the time saved in eating, cook- 
ing, dishwashing, and shopping. 

“We told our plan to Wayne Keith, 
FH volunteer at large, who pops in 
every once in a while. Wayne protest- 
ed violently, insisting that the best way 
to get vitamins is through huge steak 
dinners. Oh well! I guess every house 
has its reactionary vols. 


Every other week a Great Books 
group meets at Friendship House in 
Portland. It is reported one of the best 
groups in the city. “Anyway,” writes 
Ed Hark, “we seem to consume less fuel 
on the nights it meets here.” 


Loretta Butler writes from Washing- 

We have three new staffers here— 
Roger St. Pierre from Canada, Tom 
Steiner from Michigan, and John Reaux 
from Louisiana. Don’t say we don’t 
have a wide appeal here in D.C. 

And we have lots of new vols—Tom 
Schworles, former Chicago volunteer 
who has become campus coordinator 
at Catholic University for St. Peter 
Claver Center. Joan Fahy came for 
Thanksgiving holiday from Dunbarton 
College; Bobby Bullock and Sandy 
Flannagan, student nurses at Catholic 
University, have been regular helpers. 
Larry McCarthy and Marie Hammas are 
both a big help with the children’s pro- 


Diane Zdunich wrote from Shreve- 
port that she doesn’t know WHAT to 
do on buses. It seems no Negro can sit 
in front of a white person on the buses, 
even if that’s where the only vacant 
seats are. Diane tries to sit near the 
back of the bus to protest the segrega- 
tion, and she tries to sit with a Negro 
if possible. She did this the other day, 
but when five or six Negroes got on 
later they went and stood behind her 
instead of taking seats in front of her. 
She didn’t know what to do then. Fi- 
nally, rather than go to the front of the 
bus, she got off and walked down town, 
more determined than ever to fight this 
humiliating custom. 


NR ne a RS 

hm ee te 


mm res 


ation or 

Carmen Jones-High Class Minstrel Show? 


VOLTAGE stuff at the box office, 
but she blows a fuse in U.S. race rela- 
tions. Aside from Legion of Decency 
objections because of suggestive cos- 
tuming and situation, there are objec- 
tions to the film because the characters 
involved in these scenes of immorality 
are all Negroes. 

Because of segregation, the average 
white moviegoer probably knows few 
Negroes personally. He has probably 
rarely visited with a Negro family, 
gone to church with Negroes, or been 
at parties with Negroes. He forms his 
impressions of the Negro from hearsay, 
stories in the newspapers, and perhaps 
more importantly, the movies. 


What kind of impression of the Ne- 
gro does the white movie-goer, already 
more or less prejudiced, carry away 
with him from Carmen Jones? He sees 
a caricature of the Negro race, on a 
more sophisticated level than a minstrel 
show, but equally as damaging to the 
reputation of Negroes. 


for the same reason that minstrel 
shows are all wrong. If we all knew 
Negroes well, if we really had a chance 
in our everyday lives to meet a fair 
cross section of Negroes—the intellec- 
tuals, the housewives, the lawyers, the 
shopkeepers — then we wouldn’t take 
the ludicrous stereotype of the Negro 
presented in minstrel shows as anything 
but what it is. Then minstrel shows 
wouldn’t be so dangerous. 

But for many people, the illiterate 
“darky” of the minstrel shows is the 
only impression of the Negro they get. 
And ever after, all Negroes are thought 
of as happy-go-lucky performers who 
aren’t too bright. 

Carmen Jones is just another carica- 
ture of the Negro. No cross section of 

What is Race? A Review 

Negro society is attempted. This 
wouldn’t be so bad, again, if there were 
200 or 300 movies a year released which 
had other segments of Negro society 
depicted. But Carmen Jones is probably 
the ONLY picture showing Negro so- 
ciety which most white movie-goers 
will see this year. The caricature will 
be taken as fact by them. 

The movie, with its story of a young 
G.I., Corporal Joe, who is vamped away 
from his duty and his sweetheart, Cindy 
Lou, by the tempestuous Carmen Jones, 
is set in the southern United States and 
later in Chicago. After Carmen’s love 
cools she deserts Joe for the prize fight- 
er, Husky Miller. For this, Joe kills 


Some of the aspects of the film which 
are meat for prejudice are: 

@ The violence of some of the 
scenes. The fight between Carmen and 
her fellow worker in a parachute fac- 
tory will just feed the notion that sav- 

agery is part of the Negro heritage. 

@ The diction of some of the songs. 
For some reason it was thought neces- 
sary to sprinkle “dese” and “dats” and 
“QO Lawd’s” into the lyrics of singers 
whose spoken diction was highly lit- 

@ Looseness of morals on the part 
of all but Cindy Lou. Again, this is 
thought to be typical of Negroes. 

@ Loyalty based on lust or the size 
of a man’s bank account. 

@ Gaudy dress. Only Cindy Lou 
dresses the way most of the Negroes 
we know dress. 


It’s almost as though the makers of 
the movie sat down and asked them- 
selves, “What kind of a Negro does the 
public want?” And then all the players 
adjusted their masks and set to work 
creating just the right mixture of vio- 
lence, loose morals and gaudiness. 

The result is a lacquered product, 


Lacquered, brilliant and cold. 

brilliant and cold. It is impossible to 
have any real feeling of empathy for 
anyone but Cindy Lou who managed 
to come through as a real person. The 
moral downfall of Joe is not felt as a 
tragedy—it isn’t felt at all. 


The implications of an “All-Negro” 
cast would be fruit for another full- 
length review. William H. Mooring, Mo- 
tion Picture Editor for the Los An- 
geles Catholic Tidings had this to say 
about the casting: 

“If Hammerstein, Preminger and 
some others interested in this movie 
stand opposed to . . . segregation as a 
social principle—as I assume they do— 
how come they accept and present it in 
the most powerful medium yet known 
for the communication of ideas?” 

For the price of a movie, Americans 
can get an hour’s entertainment AND 
a reinforcement of some of their pet 

vee) vs ¥ 
(National Screen Service Corp. Photo) 

The old classifications of Negroid, Mongoloid, 
and Caucasoid are “something of a fiction” 

By Jerry Hickey 

The title to this UNESCO pamphlet 
is, at a glance, a seemingly simple ques- 
tion. But in recent history we have 
witnessed the importance of an answer 
based on real knowledge. The world 
has always needed such an answer but 
never as much as now. When we say 
“world” we mean not only the world 

-that history deals with but the world 

of our own community as well. 


The results of some of the answers 
given to this question are constantly 
with us. The Nazis in their fanatical 
belief that they were racially superior 
produced “studies” to prove this and it 
served to justify their actions against 
the rest of humanity. White suprema- 
cists also answer the question in the 
same terms of superiority and inferior- 
ity and we know all too well the re- 
sults of their thinking. For those deal- 
ing with these ideas and theories in the 
contest for justice, it sometimes seems 
impossible that these notions can exist 
on such a large scale after so many 
years of thinking and scientific re- 
search on the subject of race. 


If we examine what actually has been 
done in this respect, perhaps the recent 
gains in the fight against racism can be 
attributed in part to the recent gains 
that have been in the study of race it- 

JANUARY, 1955 

self. The traditional approach in phys- 
ical anthropology was to collect exten- 
sive data on physical measurements 
from all over the world—head indices, 
nose indices, etc. Taking this and other 
data on external features—hair type, 
skin color, eye-color, etc., the races 
were. classified according to all these 
characteristics and, of course, in their 
geographical framework. 

We are all familiar with the general 
breakdown of negroid, mongoloid and 
eaucasoid, for the major stocks, and 
then all the smaller racial groups—Nor- 
dic, Celtic, Alpine, Mediterraneans, etc. 
Classifications gave rise to more classifi- 
cations with the ultimate hope that cor- 
relations with other things — climate, 
diet, etc. would lead to an understand- 
ing of race. The classifications were all 
based on types and described in ideal 
types—blond hair, blue eyes, long head- 
ed, etc., for the Nordic and so on for 
the other groups. 

One basic criticism of this approach 
is that the types are something of a 
fiction since they do not fit everyone 
in the population and they may not, 
in some cases, be representative. Obvi- 
ously not all the people in Scandinavia 
are blond and blue-eyed. Consequently 
there is really less to these schemes 
than meets the eye. Beyond that it was 
an approach that could be used by 
those who wanted to dress up their own 

prejudiced ideas with gems of “scien- 
tific proof.” Invalid correlations of race 
and culture, race and intelligence were 
the result. Those who were trying to 
prove their own theories for their own 
ends, could use the classifications and 
supply their own “knowledge” and 

The new approach to the study of 
race is based on genetic research and 
seeks to understand the process and 
formation of races. The UNESCO book- 
let called WHAT IS RACE gives an ex- 
cellent outline and basic understanding 
of this approach. It graphically explains 
the underlying genetic principles and 
brings the latest findings up to date..- 

This is research that is moving ahead 
very rapidly, especially in the blood- 
type studies and it would require a new 
edition every three years to really keep 
it current. The people of a given geo- 
graphical area are studied as a popula- 
tion and they are described in terms of 
their genetic make-up. This requires 
great research on the study of genes 
and heredity to find out why physical 
variation comes about and what the dif- 
ferences are related to. 


Unlike the old approach, the correla- 
tions here must be worked out in the 
laboratory as well as in the field. It 
covers everyone in the population so 
from the viewpoint of statistics, it is a 
100 per cent sample. The authors of 

this booklet are some of the best in the 
field of genetic and race studies and 
its method of explaining the somewhat 
complicated ideas are precise and writ- 
ten for all to understand. 

The only criticism that can be made 
of the booklet is that the editors have 
bothered to include the chart classifica- 
tions in the traditional view:-With the 
approach and material included in the 
booklet, this is incongruous, not to say 
intrusive. There is no need whatsoever 
to refer to traditional classifications. 
The new approach doesn’t require it. 

Outside of this, however, the booklet 
is excellently done and is indispensable 
for those who want an acquaintance 
with the thinking and research that is 
approaching the most valid and per- 
haps final answer to the question, 
“What is race?” 

(TERMS: Physical anthropology—The 
study of the origin and historical devel- 
opment of man’s body. 

Genetic make-up—tThe inheritance of 
genes from our parents. Genes are often 
pictured as small beads on a string. At 
conception the child receives half of his 
genes from each parent. They help de- 
termine his physical characteristics, 
such as color of eyes, size of heart, 
length of fingers, etc.) 

(This beautifully illustrated, simply 
written, booklet can be obtained for 
$1 from UNESCO, Dept. of Mass Com- 
munication, United Nations Building, 
New York, N.Y. We strongly recom- 
mend it for teachers.) 

Future of Catholic Education in South 

Father John McShane and his rectory. The ground floor is a garage. 

CIALIST is indebted to the ST. JO- 
SEPH MAGAZINE for the reprint of 
the following interview of California 
mewspaperman, Ted LeBerthon, with 
Father John McShane, S.S.J., rector of 
St. Lucy’s Church, Houma, Louisiana. 
At St. Lucy’s, Father McShane has built 
a church, an elementary and a high 
school, and a convent for the Presenta- 
tion Sisters who teach there. He faces 
a future darkened by the prospect of 
losing many of his students to the new 
high school for Negroes. Louisiana is 
belatedly building these new public 
schools, in hopes of forever staving off 
the recent court decision by creating a 
school system that is really “separate 

. but equal.”) 


Q. Father McShane... how about 
this last ditch effort Southerners are 
making to avoid mixed schools? .. . Is 
it true Negro students are flocking to 
these modern public schools? 

Ans. In three Texas cities—Galves- 
ton, Houston and Beaumont—new pub- 
lic schools have forced Catholic high 
schools to close their doors. 

Q. That really answers the question. 
But Father, surely good looking build- 
imgs . . . do not outweigh a Catholic 
education in the minds of the Negro 
Catholic parents? 

Ans. Catholic parents here are as 
loyal as Catholic parents anywhere.... 
But Northerners need to realize that an 
overwhelming majority of the parents 
of Negro pupils down here are Protes- 
tant. Why, only three per cent of all 
Negroes in United States are Catholic. 

Q. What is the enrollment of Prot- 
estant pupils in St. Lucy’s? 

Ans. We have 532 pupils presently 
enrolled in our elementary and high 
schools combined. About two-thirds are 
Protestant. Of the 185 pupils who are 
Catholics, only 33 were baptized as in- 
fants... . 


Q. Would there be an economic fac- 
for in Negro parents sending their chil- 
dren to the public schools? ... 

Ans. Definitely. The fathers of most 
of our pupils earn bare subsistence 
wages. Many are sugar-cane cutters, 
living in sagging old shacks on planta- 
tions. In order to maintain St. Lucy’s 
elementary school, we have to charge 
a tuition of 25 cents a week. The fee 
for St. Lucy’s high school students is 
$1.00 a week .. . it is a whole lot to 
the average Southern Negro breadwin- 
mer. ... 

@. The Church then faces a really 
critical situation? 

Ans. A desperately critical situation 
that Gan undo much that we have done 


Q. What is going to be the strategy 
ef Catholic schools in the face of this 

Ans. ...I daresay many will do 
what I’ve long been doing and am go- 
ing to continue to do... . We will have 


to launch the strongest appeals . . . to 
our always increasing number of North- 
ern benefactors. Our missionaries in 
this overwhelmingly Protestant South 
will continue to secure most of their 
funds from Northern Catholics. 


Q. Can‘t you get support of Negro 
schools from Southern Catholics? In 
Louisiana aren't there many Cathol’<s? 

Ans. Louisiana is forty per cent 
Catholic. Here in southeastern Louisi- 
ana along the bayous and in New Or- 
leans proper there is an over-all sixty- 
seven per cent Catholic population... . 
But race prejudice is just as virulent 
here as in other Southern states... . 

Q. Then Southern white Catholics 
won't help the cause of Negro educa- 

Ans. Southern white Catholics 
haven’t been much help in the past, 
but, in fairness to them, many factors 
have to be considered. Many of them 
are not as well off financially as the av- 
erage Northern Catholic. . . Some 
Catholic leaders still want to keep Ne- 
groes “in their place” and most still 
refer to them as “niggers.” They also 
fear that if Negroes are “over-educat- 
ed” they’ll no longer want to cut sugar 
cane and do menial domestic work. 


Q. Are white Catholics antagonistic 
to the work of the Church with Ne- 

Ans. We Josephite priests are often 
called “Yankee” priests. . . . Whites 
often deplore that Southern - born 

priests aren’t pastoring Negro missions. 

Q. Aren’t they? 

Ans. The Southern-born white sec- 
ular clergy of the archdiocese of New 
Orleans—and this would hold true for 
virtually any Southern diocese or arch- 
diocese—are engaged almost exclusive- 
ly in ministering to the whites. 

Q. Father McShane, isn’t it true that 
you have met critical situations . . . at 
St. Lucy’s, and have handled them suc- 

Ans. I suppose it’s true. When I 
first came to Houma, less than one per 
cent of all the Negroes were practicing 
the Catholic faith. . . . Thousands of 
Negroes in Houma over the years had 
defected from the Catholic faith that 
had been their ancestors’ when Louisi- 
ana was under Spanish and French 
rule. As late as 1940, some 350 Negroes 
in Houma were still practicing Cath- 
olics but when I came in 1944 there 
were only ten left. The others had be- 
come Baptists, Methodists and Pente- 
costals. A few went to no church at all. 


Q. Why such wholesale falling away 
from the Church? 

Ans. Why? Because Negroes did not 
like having to occupy rear pews marked 
“for colored only” in St. Francis de 
Sales Church in Houma. They did not 
like being excluded from societies and 
sodalities or having to go up to the 
Communion rail only after all the 
whites had received. 

Q. Hasn't that type of segregation 
been abolished in this diocese? 

Ans. Yes it has. Archbishop . 
Rummel of New Orleans in 1947 or- 
dered the “for colored only” signs re- 
moved and said that Negroes were wel- 
come to sit anywhere in any Catholic 
church in the archdiocese and to join 
any society or sodality. 

Q. You were called to Houma, 
weren’t you, because the ten Negro 
Catholics wanted a church of their 

Ans. The three Negro men called on 
me at St. Luke’s .. . in Thibodeaux, 
sixteen miles from Houma. They were 
hoping I could come over to Houma 
and say one Mass... . Archbishop Rum- 
mel gave me permission and I secured 
free the rather shabby assembly hall 
of a wooden public school for Negroes 
as my first “church”. 

Q. How were you able to build all 
that (church, schools, convent) in ten 
years, Father McShane, with no assets? 

Ans. We had four building cam- 
paigns. My poor parishioners contrib- 
uted less than three per cent of the 
funds. Better than 77 per cent came 
from Northerners. 


Q. Father, will the example of Arch- 
bishop Lucey of San Antonio, who abol- 
ished segregation in the Catholic schools 
of his archdiocese, soon be followed by 
other archbishops and bishops? 

Ans. I think the Supreme Court de- 
cision of May 17 answers that. Further- 
more, the building of separate Catholic 
schools and churches for any racial 
group, including Negroes is only per- 
mitted by the Holy See under a special 
dispensation . . . since 1893. . . at the 
request of the late Archbishop Janssens 
of New Orleans... . 

Q. In other words, the Church has 
only obeyed civil racist statutes and 
conformed to Southern customs? 

Ans. ... Legalized segregation was 
unknown wherever Catholics colonized 
in the Western Hemisphere... . Protes- 
tant denominations by first setting up 
separate churches ... entrenched Jim 
Crowism.... Few... including Cath- 
olics, understand this. They think the 
Church in the South has approved seg- 


Q. Then an ending of segregated 
schools, both Catholic and public, 
would resolve the crisis now being 
faced by St. Lucy’s and others? 

Ans. An integration that would 
have to be accomplished as soon as pos- 
sible... . It is going to take a long 
time to change Southern white hearts 
and minds. I hope we can soon welcome 
into our schools any child regardless of 
race, creed, or poverty. But if the arch- 
diocese of New Orleans and our Jo- 
sephite superior-generai would tell us 
tomorrow that we could invite white 
pupils to enter our schools, I don’t think 
very many would come... . 

Q. Even with integration, St. Lucy’s 
would still have to compete with the 
handsome new public high school? ... 
St. Lucy’s and other Catholic schools in 
the South must offer pupils equal if not 
better educational, athletic and social 

Ans. ... Otherwise much that has 
been done for us in the past will be un- 
done by these new public high schools 
for Negroes. 

Beverly Porche kisses her parents good-bye and sets out for her daily, thirty-mile round-trip bus ride to St. Lucy’s. Beverly is 

one of many Baptist pupils at St. Lucy’s. 

(Photos courtesy of St. Joseph Magazine)