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{th Anniversary of the May 17, 1994 
Supreme Court Decision 

What has happened as a result? See story on page 4 and 5 

Ten Cents May, 1958 


Blessed Martin de Porres, O.P. 
by an unknown artist 
May Blessed Martin, patron of interracial justice, 
teach all men to live together in peace and harmony. 

HIS MONTH—which marks the 

‘ : Fourth Anniversary of the Supreme 

ie Court’s ruling that segregation in pub- 

lic schools is unconstitutional —is a 

fees time for reflecting on what these four 
‘ years have wrought. 

We asked friends of COMMUNITY 
in southern states to describe the pic- 
ture as they see it in their immediate 
area. (Their comments are on pages 
4-5.) The over-all picture drawn by 
these correspondents is an uneven one. 

In “border” areas some heartening 

MAY, 1958 * Vol. 17, No. 9 

as : (Formerly “The Catholic Interracialist’’) 

is by Friendship House, 

an organization of lic laymen and 
dedicated to working for love of God on the 
elimination of racial prahadion and Gacrinination. 

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Be Circulation Manager: Delores Price 
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4233 South Indiana Avenue 
Chicago 15, Illinois 
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Reflections on May 17th 

beginnings on de-segregation have 
been accomplished—indeed, more than 
beginnings. in the Deep £outh the pic- 
ture is, as would be expected, much 
less encouraging. 

Nonetheless, there have been inroads; 
fewer states now have complete school 
segregation. Furthermore this is not 
the first civil rights Gecicion on which 
compliance has lagged. It took 15 years, 
James M. Nabrit of Howard Univer- 
sity Law {£chool has pointed out, to 
get compliance with the decision 


Four Years Later 

against white primaries, and nine years 
with the decision against segregation 
in interstate travel. Viewed in this 
background, the rate of compliance 
with the school decision is, Mr. Nabrit 
says, satisfactory. 

There can be, of course, no compla- 
cency nor halting as long as there con- 
tinue to be states where rights are be- 
ing unjustly denied. We pause for 
these reflections on what has been ac- 
complished only in order to return with 
renewed courage and hope to the task 
of completing the work. 

We’re Pleased 

a PARDON US while we point 
with pride to the news that an ar- 

ticle from COMMUNITY has been in- 

cluded in the new book Realities. 

A special bow of thanks to writer 
Helen Caldwell Riley, who generously 
contributed the article. Mrs. Riley is 
best known for her books Color Ebony 
and Not Without Tears. (A review of 
Realities appears on page 7.) 

A South That’s not so Solid(\\. bet 

HE “UNEVENESS” of the South- 

ern picture—which our report on 
school de-segregation shows—is worth 

The “Solid South” is now a misnom- 
er, and perhaps always was. Failure of 
observers (especially Northern observ- 
ers) to recognize and take account of 
this variety is a source of frustration 
to Southerners who are working for 
ending segregation. 

Recognizing this variety and then re- 
porting accurately on it is, of course, 
no easy task. As John Cogley said re- 
cently in The Commonweal: 

“T don‘t think I ever wrote a column 
which did not stand in need of foot- 
notes. I don’t believe many other col- 
umnists have, either. Something is al- 

ways being left unsaid. It is hard, even 
when one is dealing with a simple 
matter, to tell the whole truth. The 
whole truth does not lend itself to the 
kind of over-simplification which seems 
to be unavoidable in journalism.” 

Difficult as this giving the whole 
truth is, we may never fully succeed. 
But we can always try a little harder 
to do it. 

It ill becomes those of us working 
for interracial justice who are North- 
erners to fail to make distinctions 
about the South. We are quick to point 
out the failure of prejudiced people to 
make distinctions about a racial group. 
Too often we tend to do the same about 

the South and Southerners. 

The Some and the All of It 4,” 

A recent talk by John A. Morsell, assist- 
ant to Roy Wilkins, executive secretary of 
the National Association for the Advance- 
ment of Colored People, challenges the oft- 
heard “justification” for segregation: Ne- 
Sroes are inferior—either, so the argument 
goes, inherently inferior, or a (modified form 
of the same argument) inferior because of 
Past injustices. Mr. Morsell points out: 

aul HATEVER MAY BE wrong with 
some Negroes, it is senseless to 
base our treatment of the others on it. 

“As a matter of fact, the percentage 
of Negroes involved in crime is very 
small, just as is true of the population 
at large. The number of Negroes whose 
intelligence test scores fall at the aver- 
age or higher is very large, despite the 

“Among Negroes, disease and crime 
are largely confined to the low-income 
dwellers in the urban slums—precisely 
as is the case with the white popula- 
tion. It is to be assumed that, as equal- this issue 

tion and discovery, August 22-28 . 

ity of opportunity becomes real for 
larger and larger segments of the Ne- 
gro community, their proportionate 
contribution to our crime rates will 
progressively diminish. 

“The rightness of the principle of 
equal treatment and the necessity of 
applying it would remain unaffected if 
there were only a single Negro child 
who met the standards of capacity, 
cleanliness, and behavior which segre- 
gation logic would impose for admis- 
sion to the public school. But there are 
many, many more than that, in the 
smallest rural hamlet in the deepest 
South. The problem—and I would not 
pretend that it does not exist in some 
measure—is administrative and peda- 
gogical, not one of principle.” 

* ~ ck 

We are fond of challenging the separate- 

but-equal theory by raising this question: 

if schools (and other facilities) must be 
SEPARATE, why should they be EQUAL? 

. + open to 

This month is the Fourth Anniversary of the 
Supreme Court’s school de-segregation deci- 
sion. Seven Southern observers report in this 
issue how the de-segregation picture looks in 
their area today—Four Years Later. 

A COMMUNITY Survey .. . pages 4, 5 

The Quest for Jobs 

“Negro groups in Washington, D.C., believe 
that we have just begun to solve the prob- 
lems of discrimination, particularly problems 
in employment.” 

by Julius W. Hobson .. . page 3 

A Week to Remember and Grow on 

At Friendship House in Chicago plans are 
being made for a Week’s Session of explora- 

PICTURE CREDITS: 1, top—The Reporter magazine, bottom—Minneapolis Tribune; 2, St. Joseph Magazine; 3, top left— 

people throughout the country who are in- 
terested in interracial work. COMMUNITY 
readers are especialy invited. 

by Betty Plank ... page 8 


JUST ” by Dennis Clark—the page one 
article from March 1958 COMMUNITY. 

is now available in pamphlet form. Prices: 

1-9 copies, 10 cents each; 10-99 copies, 8 
cents; 100-999 copies, 7 cents; 1,000 or more, 
5 cents. Send orders to Friendship House, 
4233 South Indiana Avenue, Chicago 15, 
Illinois. Friendship House pays postage if 
payment accompanies order. 

New York State 

Committee Against Discrimination, top center—Chicago Public Schools; 4, bottom—Somerville in The Atlanta Journal; 5, top—Herblock 

in The Washington Post, right—National Conference of Christians 

and Jews; 

7, bottom, St. Joseph Magazine. 



Washington, D.C., appears to be a 
city of racial peace and harmony. The 
population is 45 per cent non-white, 
and for all practical purposes segrega- 
tion in public places has been broken 
down. Theatres, hotels, restaurants, 
places of amusement, and schools have 
been desegregated. The remnants of 
segregation are found only in the pri- 
vate clubs, some churches, and some 
private schools. 

U.S. News and World Report of 
November 1, 1957 gave this impression. 
It stated, in connection with a D.C. Po- 
lice Department—NAACP (National 
Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People) controversy, “In Wash- 
ington, D.C., the Nation’s Capitol, it 
was being taken for granted until re- 
cently that the problem of race rela- 
tions had been solved.” 

This is indeed not the impression ex- 
pressed or believed by any Negro or- 
ganization or publication— quite the 
contrary. Negro groups believe that we 
have just begun to solve the problems, 
particularly problems of discrimination 
in employment. Against this back- 
ground, let us consider what the Wash- 
ington Negro faces in his quest for a 

In Public Employment 

The Federal and District Govern- 
ments occupy key positions in the 
economy of Washington, D.C. In Janu- 
ary approximately 225,000 of the Dis- 
trict’s 636,900 workers were on Fed- 
eral Government payrolls. And 23,500 
were on the District Government pay- 
rolls. The Federal and District Gov- 
ernments combined represent the high- 
est concentration of employment with- 
in a single industry to be found among 
the nation’s largest centers. 

It is significant that more than 95 
per cent of the Negroes employed in 
the Federal Government “white col- 
lar” positions are in the lowest four 
grades of the classification schedule. 
Supervisory and professional jobs are 
seldom open to Negro applicants. 

The story of discrimination in pub- 
lic employment in Washington by its 
very proportions is a painful one in 
that public agencies are of, for, and by 
the people. The Negro, being part of 
the people, is therefore a “stockhold- 
er,”’ a part owner. 

This discrimination against the Negro 
in public employment is the same as 
if the stockholders of the General Mo- 
tors Corporation were denied the right 
to jobs or to participate in the affairs 
of the Corporation because they had 
red hair or blue eyes. 

How is this done? The school attend- 
ed and former places of residence often 
give clues as to race before an inter- 
view. After a Negro is hired there are 

MAY, 1958 


Median family income per capita — $2050 for whites, $1000 
for Negroes — reflects unequal job opportunities in D.C. 

all sorts of methods of noting race, 
without writing “Negro,” on a person- 
nel folder (such as turning down a 
corner of the folder). 

The D.C. Police Department is not 
supposed to keep records by race, but 
when this department was requested 
by the NAACP to furnish personnel 
data by race for the current period 
and for several years back, such in- 
formation was supplied in a short peri- 
od of time. 

In Private Employment 

In private enterprise, where nearly 
400,000 D.C. citizens must seek a live- 
lihood, discrimination is far more pro- 
nounced. The large department stores, 
the chain food stores, the public util- 
ities, and hundreds of smaller busi- 

leader of campaign to get five 
large department stores in 
Washington to hire Negroes. 
The campaign is directed by 
the Equal Employment Op- 
portunity committee, which 
Mr. Jackson formed. 

nesses do not hire colored District citi- 
zens in any except the lowest paying 
jobs, such as janitors, maids, truck 
drivers, messengers, etc. 

It is difficult for Negroes to obtain 
membership in the labor unions and 
particularly in the craft unions. Thus 
Negro carpenters, plumbers, electri- 
cians, printers, painters, bricklayers, 

In the Nation’s capitol, Negroes find that 
job opportunities like these (above and left) 
are severely limited. Julius Hobson describes 
the employment picture and efforts to change it. 


and plasterers are completely shut out 
by the construction industry; the ex- 
cuse of the industry being that they 
are not members of the craft unions. 

The large banks and finance com- 
panies, which finance a great portion 
of Negro home ownership, home im- 
provements, and automobile purchases, 
are completely closed to him as far as 
clerical and managerial positions are 
concerned. This writer cannot cite a 
single case of a Negro employed as a 
secretary, clerk, or teller in these in- 

The whole gamut of jobs in indus- 
tries which require little training is 
closed to colored job seekers: occupa- 
tions such as bread and laundry truck 
drivers, ticket sellers in bus and rail- 
road stations, desk clerks in hotels. 

Efforts on Public Jobs 

What efforts have been made to com- 
bat discrimination in public employ- 

In January, 1955 President Eisen- 
hower issued an Executive Order es- 
tablishing the President’s Committee on 
Government Policy. This Committee is 
responsible for assisting government 
agencies to implement the policy of 
equal opportunity for all Federal em- 
ployees or job applicants regardless of 
race, creed or national origin. 

In 1953 the District government had 
issued a similar order. This order also 
prohibited the letting of contracts to 
private concerns which practice dis- 

Federal and District Government Ne- 
gro employees have little utilized the 
machinery set up by these orders. 
Often they are not aware of this ma- 
chinery; and if they are aware, they 
may have little confidence in it since 
it is without enforcement powers. And 
colored employees are intimidated by 
a very real fear of loss of jobs. 

Therefore, despite the impressive 
stated purposes of the Federal and Dis- 
trict orders, some individual agency 
heads and personnel officers have been 
able to ignore or get around them. 

Exposure Most Effective 

The most effective method open to 
the Negro in combating discrimination 
in public employment is the device of 
exposure. This device was used effec- 
tively by the D.C. branch of the 
NAACP in its November, 1957 contro- 
versy with the D.C. Police Department. 

The NAACP acted on the theory that 

Julius W. Hobson 

any public bureau, agency, or division 
which practices discrimination over a 
long period of time builds up a case 
against itself. 

When the NAACP examined Police 
personnel records for a five-year peri- 
od, a pattern was revealed in which 
Negroes were held to 10 per cent of 
the force. These records also indicated 
that all Negro policemen were kept in 
grade year after year and that as a 
whole Negroes were given the menial 
tasks in the police department. Most 
important of all, the per capita educa- 
tion of the Negro policemen was found 
to be considerably higher than that of 
the white policemen. 

If indeed the NAACP’s theory is cor- 
rect, it could be applied to any public 
agency. Surveys of personnel records 
would undoubtedly reveal and expose 
those individual directors, supervisors, 
and personnel officers who violate Fed- 
eral and District regulations. 

These individuals cannot stand ex- 
posure. If they are ever brought be- 
fore a fair court, whether it be a court 
of law or a court of public opinion, 
their subjective appraisals of Negro 
job seekers or employees will not stand. 

Work on Private Employment 

And what about efforts to combat 
discrimination in private employment? 

Many private companies hold gov- 
ernment contracts. As noted above, the 
District government in 1953 prohibited 
letting contracts to private concerns 
who practice discrimination. Also the 
Federal government, in an Executive 
Order of 1953, required non-discrimi- 
nation “in work paid for by American 
taxpayers.” However, these orders are 
very limited in their effectiveness. 

Usually individuals seeking employ- 
ment on jobs do not know whether 
the firm is under contract with the dis- 
trict or federal government. And if the 
job seeker does know that there is a 
contract, he is usually unaware of the 
machinery through which he might 

In private employment, as in public 
employment, the most effective meth- 
ods of fighting discrimination are those 
put forward by the Negro community 
—through its NAACP, its Urban 

(Continued on page 7) 




a +i 
Bey Rites Vase 
Vee toe 

ARKANSAS: “Opposition 
has hardened.” st 

Little Rock, Arkansas, has been the focus 
of public attention on school de-segrega- 
O.S.B., abbot of New Subiaco Abbey in 
Arkansas, describes the climate in the state 
towards desegregation, as he sees it. 

UR YEARS AGO, following the 
Supreme Court decision decreeing 
the end of segregation in American 
schools, Governor Orval Faubus of Ar- 
kansas was pressurized by sprouting 
Citizens Councils for an official state- 
ment of policy. Throughout the South, 
governors and other politicians were 
shouting undying opposition and in- 
flammatory condemnation. But Gov- 
ernor Faubus refused to take an open 
stand. The court decision, he affirmed, 
was a problem of the school districts, 
not the governor’s office. 

Today, Faubus, is the segregationists’ 
hero. In September, 1957, in a complete 
“about face,” he called out units of the 
Arkansas National Guard and ordered 
them forcibly to prevent the imple- 
mentation of the court-approved inte- 
gration plan of the Little Rock School 
District. When President Eisenhower 
issued the order for the enforcement 
of the integration plan, and sent in 
federal troops to end defiance of the 
court decree, Faubus assumed the role 
of the “preserver of peace,” “champion 
of States’ Rights,” the persecuted 
“guardian of freedom.” 

Seeks Third Term 

At Central High School in Little 
Rock, federalized National Guardsmen 
are on duty, protecting the right of 
eight Negro students to obtain an edu- 
cation in the public school of their 
choice. The School Board and super- 
intendent of schools in Little Rock are 
harrassed and intimidated by continu- 
ing threats of violence and law suits. 
Faubus has announced for an almost 
unprecedented third term and is re- 
garded by political analysts as a shoo- 
in candidate. At this writing only one 
opponent has definitely announced for 
the office, and in the matter of Little 
Rock Central High and segregation he 
is an outspoken “me-too” candidate. 

A few days ago, the School Board of 
the Pine Bluff District in Arkansas’ 
third largest city announced that it was 
postponing, for at least another year, 
its integration plan which had been 
previously scheduled to begin in the 
fall of 1958. The Board attributed the 
delay to the developments at Central 
High in Little Rock. 

Today Desegregation Remote 

The practically unanimous consensus 
of opinion in Arkansas is that desegre- 
gation is farther away today in the 
State than it seemed to be four years 
ago when the Supreme Court decision 
was announced. “Integrationist” is re- 
garded as a vile epiphet and as a po- 
litical kiss of death to be implanted on 
any candidate who refuses to mount 
the Faubus bandwagon. 

The stalemate at Central High is re- 
garded as segregationist victory. Vio- 
lence and defiance of law and order 
have seemingly proven effective in 
holding off the threatened tyranny of 
the Supreme Court decree. Indecision 
is gone; opposition to desegregation 
has hardened. Champions of interracial 
justice have been brow-beaten into 
silence or into apologetic retreat. 

Are there any bright spots in the 
picture? In my observation, they are 
not apparent on the surface. A number 
of public schools which integrated 
small minority groups of colored stu- 
dents in recent years have continued 
unchanged. Catholic Negroes are ac- 
cepted in parochial and private Cath- 
olic schools where no separate facilities 
were provided in keeping with the cus- 
toms of the past. Catholics constitute a 
very small minority, less than three per 
gent of the state’s population. Public 
statements by Church authorities are 
generally being avoided. -. 


Four years later... 

On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled segregation 
in public schools unconstitutional. What are the 
results — COMMUNITY last month asked people in states 
affected — of that decisions? Here are their replies. 

Is this too dark a picture? Perhaps. 
But it is no more than a surface pic- 
ture. Christian hope assures us that the 
hour of the powers of darkness is a 
passing one. An Easter dawn cannot be 
far off. 

VIRGINIA: “Another bat- 
tle of north and south!” 

Northern Virginia’s willingness to inte- 
rate is opposed by state officials, accord- 
ing to MABEL C. KNIGHT, former COM- 
MUNITY editor, now teaching in Fairfax. 

SEEMED STRANGE to me last fall 

when a well-dressed, pleasant wom- 
an handed me an election leaflet ad- 
vocating “Massive Resistance” at a 
Safeway supermarket in Fairfax, Vir- 
ginia. Resistance would be against the 
order of federal courts that Arlington 
must admit seven Negroes to the 
schools nearest their homes, which 
schools happen to be white. 

The case is now before the United 
States Supreme Court. 

Resistance to integration by Gover- 
nor Almond and the “Byrd Machine” 
has taken some control of schools away 
from Arlington, which was ready to 
integrate peaceably with a “pupil 
placement” plan. 

During the campaign a high school 
student asked, “How will I get an edu- 
cation if schools are closed?” The pol- 
itician answered, “Wouldn’t it be bet- 
ter to have no schools than to have 
what is going on in Washington?” 

What Will Happen? 

Arlington teachers and others in Vir- 
ginia are now asking what will hap- 
pen to them if desegregation takes 
place and schools are closed. The 
Arlington school board has announced 
its intention to honor contracts through 
any racial crisis. Governor Almond has 
said the state will furnish money if 
schools are closed. 

However, if school are integrated no 
funds can be provided under .a recent 
law. One of five state payments for the 
school year will be made on August 
15. So the local school boards will have 
some funds which could not be with- 

It has been suggested that if the state 
cuts off payments to Arlington schools 
then Arlington might withhold taxes 
which are a sizeable part of Virginia’s 
income. Another battle between the 
north and the south right here in Vir- 

Delegate Webb of Fairfax County 
has. questioned whether Governor 
Almond’s: “massive resistance” policy 

has been thought through. He says it 
will produce massive disorders as thou- 
sands of parents sue the Common- 
wealth of Virginia to get public edu- 
cation for their children. And at school- 
bus time of day it seems that schools 
are the main industry of northern 

Catholic schools in Virginia inte- 
grated without difficulty when the Su- 
preme Court decided against segrega- 
tion. Teaching staffs are also integrated. 
I met a Negro teacher at the Catholic 
Teachers Institute in Richmond in the 

An integrated class from Saint Pat- 
rick’s Academy in Richmond was tak- 
en by Sister Barbara on its usual visit 
to the Virginia General Assembly re- 
cently. There are three Negro girls in 
the class. The group seated itself in 
the Senate gallery. A sergeant-at-arms 
came over and told the girls they must 
be segregated according to senate rules. 
Sister Barbara and her class soon left, 
but they had borne witness to Chris- 
tian unity. 

ed integration in 1954.” 

Former newspaper reporter in Hunting- 
ton, WILBERT QUICK tells how local 
schools completed integration in 1956. 

AST SUMMER I moved from West 

Virginia to Michigan so I don’t 
have any firsthand up-to-date infor- 
mation, but I have corresponded reg- 
ularly with a reporter on a Hunting- 
ton, West. Virginia, daily, who is fa- 
miliar with my interest in integration, 
and he has mentioned no problems in 
the last ten months. 

Integration in Cabell County (Hunt- 
ington), West Virginia, started in 1954 
in the first, seventh (first grade of jun- 
ior high school), and tenth grades; in 
1955 first, second, seventh, eighth, 
tenth, and eleventh grades were inte- 
grated. At the start of the 1956-1957 
school years the school board dropped 
the one-year-at-a-time program, and 
there were no restrictions on Negroes 
entering previously all-white schools 
in their district. They also started 
charging a fee for any student not at- 
tending school in his own district. (This 
was primarily to discourage some white 
families from transferring their chil- 
dren from an integrated school. It also 
was a matter of making sure that 
schools could handle the transferred 
students insofar as rooms and teachers 
were concerned.) 

In. 1954 I personally visited the 

schools which had Negro students in 
doing a roundup newspaper story on 
the opening of school. These two ex- 
amples best typify the feeling of stu- 
dents and teachers: 

1. The only teachers worried about 
integration were those who had no 
Negro students. 

2. A principal of an elementary 
school with several Negro students 
said that the only problem they had 
was with white pupils arguing about 
who would get to walk with a colored 
student (to the playground or other 
marching formation). 

MISSOURI: “Tensions 
seem to have lifted.” 

From a border state where de-segrega- 
tion moves began promptly after the 1954 
decision, come these observations of GER- 
ALDINE CARRIGAN, associate editor of 
The Catholic Missourian, newspaper of the 
diocese of Jefferson City. 

WOULD SAY that—from an editor’s 

point of view—four years ago we 
were saying things for the first time. 
People were always getting shocked. 
Now you can include (as we did in a 
recent issue) an editorial, two news 
stories, and a feature about race rela- 

tee ock 

QS) he WAL tere 




QS) a WAL aro. Poir 




“This Is an Explosive Situation.” 

tions in a general readership paper, 
and not even realize you’ve done it. 

But I think this is a time to really 
get to work. We should do a much bet- 
ter job for our readers of illustrating 
the principles involved by doing stories 
that show how much the Christian com- 
munity is missing when in big and lit- 
tle ways it fails to acknowledge the 
bond that does so closely unite its 
members to others. 

In schools, the tensions seem to have 
lifted for the elementary years, any- 
way. On the high school scene, there 
are so many tensions from other causes 
that it would be hard to tell what part 
integration has played. But you see 
people being friends—a couple of white 
girls and a Negro girl going to a movie. 

Negro School Integrates 

Lincoln University in Jefferson City, 
a Negro school, began integration in 
1955, one year after the Supreme Court 
ruling. It now counts some 385 white 
students among its enrollment of 1,184. 

A recent play at Lincoln, which I 
attended, was set in Ireland. All parts 
were played (complete with brogue 
and mannerisms) very well. One cast 
member was white, and the rest Negro. 
The audience was mixed. The tech- 
nical advisor was a Catholic priest, and 
everyone appreciated the efforts the 

3 oe Bi etait a8 
if j¥... fF os: 

MAY, 1938 » 

cast had made to understand Irish 
Catholics. They even made a special 
trip to a nearby town to talk ta a 
priest who was born in Ireland. A good 
experience all around. 

I believe that good experiences in 
race relations have multiplied in the 
last four years to the extent that in 
normal conversations—an office party, 
for example—a “complaint” from one 
person is very often countered by 
someone else’s unsolicited testimony. 

toward integration.” 

Our reporter, who prefers to remain 
anonymous, finds one beneficial resul:t huge 
expenditures to bring Negro schools up to 
par with white. 

NE CAN STATE without hesitation 

that the school de-segregation pic- 
ture in Mississippi remains exactly the 
same as it was before the momentous 
decision of the United States Supreme 
Court on May 17, 1954. 

No school, private or public, has 
made any step toward integration 
since that time. There have been, how- 
ever, some beneficial results of the 
Court decision. The State of Mississippi 
is spending millions of dollars to bring 
Negro schools up to par with white 
schools. Thus one sees in many com- 
munities, Jackson, for example, new 
well-equipped and well-designed Ne- 
gro public school buildings. 

As far as this writer knows, St. Au- 
gustine’s Seminary, Bay Saint Louis, 
Mississippi, conducted by Divine Word 
Missionaries, remains the only com- 
pletely integrated Catholic school (per- 
haps also, the only integrated private 
school) in the state. It has an inter- 
racial faculty and student body. Priest- 
professors number 14; high school stu- 
dents, 40; theological students, 18; lay 
Brothers, nine. The seminary became 
completely integrated in 1950. 


“Severe financial crisis.” 

JOHN J. O’CONNOR, professor of his- 
tory at Georgetown University, notes that 
District schools (which were de-segregated 
promptly) are much too crowded. Voteless 
Washingtonians can only hope Congress will 
appropriate adequate funds. 

HE WASHINGTON public school 

system is facing a severe crisis. 
Since it is the only voteless community 
in the nation, it must go to Congress 
for funds. In the years from 1947 to 
1958, the Board of Education requested 
$i12 million for capital outlay but re- 
ceived appropriations of only $57 mil- 

School officials and spokesmen for 
community organizations are now ask- 
ing $53.3 million for school construc- 
tion. If this request is granted, it will 
be possible to reduce average elemen- 
tary classroom enrollment to 30 pupils 
instead of the present 33.4. 

The lack of adequate Congressional 
appropriations has meant a second-rate 
school system. The loss of maximum 
educational opportunity has _ contrib- 
uted to deficiencies now reflected in a 
retardation of achievement, in a high 
failure rate at all school levels, in the 
behavior of bitter, rejected, and rebel- 
lious youth who leave school hating it 
and who walk the streets in humilia- 
tion which is often expressed in acts 
against the peace of the city. 

The school system is handicapped by 
the pre-1954 evil results of segregated 
education which resulted in inferior 
education for Negro pupils. Since 1954, 
there has been a large immigration of 
pupils from Southern states with re- 
sultant over-crowding and a further 
decline in the quality of education. 

The primary concern of Washington 
citizens today is the improvement of 
educational opportunities for all chil- 
dren. But Congress has the last word. 

KENTUCKY: “Wildly 
anti-integrationists never 
had chance in Louisville” 

Work for equal opportunities began in 
this Border city some years before 1954. 
MRS. JAMES DONOHUE, who helped 
start a Catholic interracial group in 1951, 
describes the variety of steps that have 
helped smooth the de-segregation path. 


begun in September, 1956, Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, has had its full share 
of the limelight nation-wide. 

The community reacted to this pub- 
licity with a certain sense of surprise; 
and then with a firm determination to 
maintain the community honor, since 
our small efforts had earned us such 
egregious distinction. Consequently, the 
wildly fanatic anti-integration groups 
never had a chance here. Although 
they held a few sparsely attended 
meetings, they received little or no 
public support, and have not been 
heard from at all during the past few 
months. In our schools, colored chil- 
dren of all ages have been accepted 
by their contemporaries without inci- 
dent or impact. 

Louisville has steadily advanced to- 
ward just treatment for all during the 
past ten years. The move 
began in the library, which 3 
has been integrated during 
all ten of those years, and 
freely offers its many serv- 
ices to all. Then the nursing 
schools operated by the Sis- 
ters of Charity of Nazareth 
opened their doors to col- 

Mey v RS 

Negro and the next white. 

Some parishes have offered a wel- 
coming hand to Negro parishioners and 
school children. The achievements of 
these parishes, like those of the public 
schools, and the public and Catholic 
high schools, have been truly notable. 

Other parishes have simply made 
Negroes feel so unwelcome that the 
parents have continued to put their 
children on the Transit Company bus 
every morning and send them maybe 
a mile or two to St. Augustine’s, the 
Negro school. No one has been refused 
at any school; it is simply a matter of 
parental reluctance to place young chil- 
dren in a hostile atmosphere. The West 
End of Louisville is the natural area 
of growth for the Negro population 
here; still, many West End parishes 
have yet to extend the hand of wel- 
come to their colored neighbors. 

Offer Economic Opportunities 

To return to the credit side, Louis- 
ville has given its colored citizens un- 
precedented opportunities for economic 
development. Many local plants give 
their Negro employees exactly the 
same opportunity to become skilled 
workmen that white workers have, 
and pay them the same wages. 

The Negro’s right to vote has never 
been interfered with here, and for 


ored students, and later still J wot SURE- 

the gates of Nazareth Col- @/ guT I THINK IT ie 
lege and the University of | AS — sa 
Louisville were opened to 4 ‘ 

Along the way of these 
advances, the segregated 
Louisville Municipal Col- 
lege was closed, and many 
distinguished Negro teach- 
ers lost their positions; with 
the notable exception of Dr. 
Charles Parrish, the other 
professors of the Negro col- 
lege were lost to the com- 
munity, and went to segre- 
gated institutions in the 
deep south to find the pro- 
fessional status they de- 
served so richly. 

Catholic Schools Lead . 

The Catholic School Board here, un- 
der the direction of Monsignor Felix 
N. Pitt, has been a leading force to- 
wards school integration. In the two 
years following the Supreme Court de- 
cision of May, 1954, the School Board 
carefully prepared the people through 
their parent-teacher associations for an 
understanding of the rights of Negro 
Catholic children to an equal, Catholic 
education. The Xaverian brothers, who 
operate two of the local Catholic high 
schools for boys, have welcomed Ne- 
gro students since September, 1956. For 
several years prior to integration, the 
athletic programs of the Catholic 
schools, both at the grade and high 
school level, had included Negro teams. 
Negro Schools 

On the debit side, we must reckon 
the fact that Negro schools continue 
to exist because of their location in 
Negro neighborhoods. The finest new 
public high school in Louisville, Cen- 
tral High School, remains a Negro 
school. So does a brand new elemen- 
tary and junior high school built next 
to the newest Negro housing develop- 

The Catholic Negro parishes remain, 
still supporting their own schools. One 
of these is old and long established, 
and dearly beloved by its congrega- 
tion; but another is almost brand new, 
and has had great difficulty in getting 
support from its congregation. 

School integration in the Catholic 
parochial schools has largely been left 
to local solution in the parishes of the 

fringe areas, where one block may be 

tv Gewr 

many years Negroes have been em- 
ployed in local civil service jobs and in 
the federal civil service. 

Many professional people have also 
been allowed to advance in their cho- 
sen fields without regard to color. A 
Negro manages a department in the 
suburban branch of a local department 
store; another is personnel manager for 
a chemical plant. The Catholic School 
Board has placed a very competent 
Negro lay teacher in an all-white paro- 
chial school in Jefferson County, and 
she has been accepted without com- 
plaint. A Negro is a teacher of nursing 
arts at the Nazareth School of Nursing; 
and a Negro woman doctor teaches 
pediatrics at the University of Louis- 
ville Medical School. A Negro Baptist 
is head of the Chemistry Department 
at Bellarmine College, Louisville’s new 
Catholic college for men. And there is 
Doctor Parrish, mentioned above, who 
has been teaching Sociology at the 
University of Louisville ever since in- 
tegration began there. 

Now Marking Time 

Just at present, the community is 
marking time, digesting what has been 

There is some pressure for jegislation 
requiring integration in theatres, res- 
taurants, and hotels; but many feel en- 
forced integration in these privately- 
run institutions would be a mistake. 
No effort has been made towards inte- 
gration of the teaching staffs of the 
public schools; but plans for such inte- 
gration are reportedly on the drawing 
boards. Some professional groups, no- 

(Continued on page 6) 



The author of our Lines from the South series was 
recently a surgical patient. While in the hospital, 

she came upon this story of Bobbie Jean. Mrs. Abernethy 
describes Bobbie Jean’s last illness and death — and the 

funeral, thronged with Negroes and whites. 

St. Anthony’s Hospital 
Morrilton, Arkansas 
(50 miles from Little Rock) 

OBBIE JEAN kept getting worse. 

Sister Ignatia, O.S.B., arranged the 
covers on the almost lifeless body of 
the young woman in the hospital bed 
and adjusted the pillow that framed 
her brown face. “It is only a matter 
of time,’ the doctor had said. “She 
cannot possibly live with that heart 
and kidney condition.” 

Sister looked at her watch. It would 
soon be time for her to go off duty. 
Most of the night attendants were not 
Catholic. They would not understand 
one very important duty when death 

Sister looked searchingly at Bobbie 
Jean, remembering her eagerness to 
learn about Jesus in her conscious mo- 
ments. Bobbie Jean had never been 
baptized. She had gone to church some 
when she was a child but had not at- 
tended since she had been married. 
But she had been well disposed to- 
wards the efforts of Sister Ignatia and 
Father George Kuhn, the hospital 
Chaplain, in learning the acts of Faith, 
Hope, Love, Contrition, and Resigna- 
tion to God’s will. 

Flickering Spark 

Bobbie Jean was scarcely alive. How 
could that tiny spark of life last 
through the night? Sister knew her 
duty. Pouring water on Bobbie Jean’s 
forehead in the sign of the Cross, she 
said, “I baptize thee in the name of 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost.” With her conscience at 
rest and a farewell look at Bobbie 
Jean, Sister Ignatia went off duty on 
November 12, 1957, eve of All Saints 
of the Benedictine Order, not expect- 
ing to see are patient alive again. 

Somehow, during the night, the flick- 
ering spark began to grow steady. By 
morning Bobbie Jean had rallied. After 
a few weeks she was able to go to her 
home in Paris, Arkansas, six miles from 
the Benedictine monastery, New Su- 
biaco Abbey. 

Happy About Baptism 

Father Kuhn sent word to Father 
Cletus Post, O.S.B., pastor of St. Jo- 
seph’s Church in Paris, about what had 
happened. When Father Cletus called 
at Bobbie Jean’s home, members of her 
family were very friendly. Before he 
could arrange instructions for Bobbie 
Jean, however, she had taken a turn 
for the worse and was back in St. An- 
thony’s Hospital. 

There Sister Ignatia explained to 
Bobbie Jean about her baptism. Bobbie 

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Jean was happy. “What must I do,” 
she asked, “to become a Catholic?’’ 

Bobbie Jean was very ill and kept 
getting worse all the time, but Father 
Kuhn gave her instructions in the es- 
sentials of the Faith in three short 
periods a day during the time when 
she would be conscious. 

I visited the hospital last January, 
prior to my own expected surgery, and 
found Sister Sabina, O.S.B., Superior 
of the Hospital, all aglow with enthu- 
siasm for the way Bobbie Jean was 
receiving the knowledge of the Faith 
and the way her husband and relatives, 
all of them non-Catholic, were glad 
for her to go on with it. 

Wants Instructions Hurried 

“But I do wish Father would hurry 
faster,” said Sister. “I do want her to 
have Holy Communion before she 

February 24 came up on the calen- 
dar, my day to enter St. Anthony’s 
Hospital. When I arrived that after- 
noon I had to go straight to my room 
to be readied for surgery early the fol- 
lowing morning. There was no time to 
be with Bobbie Jean then. The surgical 
had to precede the Liturgical. 

But there was nothing to prevent 
Father Kuhn from coming to my room 
that night and telling me of the prog- 
ress Bobbie Jean was making in spite 
of increasing weakness and longer pe- 
riods of dozing off out of the range of 

“Sister keeps telling me I have to 
hurry faster, and Bobbie Jean keeps 
getting weaker and weaker. I can’t 
hurry any faster than she can take it. 
But I—I think we are going to make 

Misses a Day 

Most of February 25 was in the dark 
for me. Right after Holy Communion 
there was the inevitable needle that 
puts a straight jacket on all the con- 

When I came to, there seemed to be 
as many wires, tubes, and contraptions 
attached to me as to my son’s radio 
which sprouts a Q Multiplier, a micro- 
phone, and assorted wires and switches 
for earphones in another room. But I 
was holding on—and so was Bobbie 
Jean, according to Father Kuhn. 

February 26 was a day that Father 
Kuhn had to make careful use of as 
Bobbie Jean was failing fast. On Feb- 
ruary 27 Bobbie Jean was no longer 
satisfied with merely wanting to learn 
about Jesus and His Church. “I want 
to be WITH Jesus,” she said, Joyfully 
she was formally received into the 
Church and made preparations for the 
great event in her left, being with Jesus 
in Holy Communion the next day. 

Receives Last Blessing 

“It was beautiful,” said Father 
Kuhn the following night on his rounds. 
“She had a good period of conscious- 
ness and was so happy to make her 
first Holy Communion.” On Saturday 
morning, March 1, she was too weak 
to receive Communion, but she rallied 
that night enough to say to Sister Igna- 
tia with a smile, “Keep sweet, Sister.” 

On Sunday morning Father thought 
she might be approaching the end. She 
had already asked for Extreme Unc- 
tion when the time came. Father 
anointed her and gave her the Last 


Mrs. Abernethy 

Blessing. Very soon after that Bobbie 
Jean, leaving her devastated body be- 
hind, quietly began her career in eter- 
nity. Her body was taken to Cosmopol- 
itan Funeral Home. 

Soon her husband and mother came 
back to the hospital to see Father 
Kuhn. “Father,” they asked, “what do 
we do now?” 

Very painstakingly Father Kuhn told 
them about the Requiem Mass; how 
Father Cletus would meet the body, 
and the order in which they would go 
into the Church. 

“I’m going too,” said Father Kuhn. 
“Tll sit near you, and you can watch 
me. If you want to, you can stand 
whenever I stand, kneel whenever I 
kneel, and sit down when I do. Or if 
you’d rather, you can just sit the whole 
time. Be at the Church ten minutes 
ahead of time.” 

Father Kuhn wrote a letter for them 
to take to Father Cletus. The letter 
gave the dates of Bobbie Jean’s bap- 
tism, reception into the Church, First 
Holy Communion, and Extreme Unc- 
tion. “And from her attitude towards 
the Church,” the letter went on, “there 
is no doubt of her right to Christian 

Some Nervous About Funeral 

Requiem High Mass was arranged 
for Friday morning, March 7, at 11:00 
A.M., the time when the largest num- 
ber of people could assemble. 

Some in Morrillton were a little 
nervous over the possibilities of the 
situation—large numbers of non-Cath- 
olic Negroes in a Church whose mem- 
bers were almost all “white.” They 
were afraid “something might happen.” 
But no Little Rock boogerbears were 
going to keep that parish of devout 
Catholics from giving decent burial to 
one of their own members. 

I could not go with Sister Sabina, 
Sister Ignatia, and Father Kuhn when 
they left the hospital for Paris. But I 
could go to Our Lord in the hospital 
Chapel. I could pray that the varie- 
gated bouquet of God’s people assem- 
bling in His Own Church would be 
unmolested by outsiders who might 
want to cause trouble. 

* * * 

Father Kuhn was beaming when he 
came back from Paris. “It was just 

wonderful. The Church was filled—lots 
of white people as well as colored peo- 
ple. Some of them came as early as ten 
o’clock. It was a High Mass, and you 
ought to have seen the crowd that 
went to Communion—First Friday, you 
know. There were even three colored 
people at the Communion Rail. And do 
you know, they had two colored and 
four white pall bearers.” 

“Was she buried in the Catholic 
cemetery, Father?” I asked. 

No. Her family wanted her buried 
with them. But lots of white people 
went on out to the cemetery, too. 
Somebody said there was a _ sheriff 
around but there wasn’t a bit of trou- 
ble at all.” After all, a sheriff can pay 
his respects to the dead, too. 

+ + * 

“Father gave a marvelous talk,” said 
Sister Sabina. “Using a text about the 
unsearchable ways of God, he went on 
to explain why He might have taken 
Bobbie Jean. He explained how Bobbie 
Jean had been baptized, some of the 
things she had learned in becoming a 
Catholic, how she had been received 
into the Church, made her first Holy 
Communion, and now was entitled to 
everything the Church could give her. 
He invited all the non-Catholics to 
come back to the Church again. 

“The cemetery was muddy,” con- 
tinued Sister Sabina, “but it was mar- 
velous the way the people went on out 
there just the same. Right after the 
Catholics had finished sprinkling Holy 
Water on the casket as they went by, 
Bobby Jean’s mother became very up- 
set and wanted the casket opened 
again. She went over to Sister Ignatia, 
and after a little she seemed to calm 

* 7 * 

“What did you say to Bobbie Jean’s 
mother there at the last?” I asked Sis- 
ter Ignatia. 

“Well, she kept saying ‘I just can’t 
give up Bobbie Jean, I just can’t.’ I 
told her she would have to because 
Our Lord had claimed her. I told her 
she ought to be proud of having a 
daughter that was a saint and that 
Bobbie Jean was up there praying for 
her now, and she ought to show Bob- 
bie Jean how brave she could be be- 
fore all those people. Then she said, 
‘O yes, that’s right,’ and seemed to calm 
right down. 

“Then she went over to the casket 
for a last look. In a very clear voice 
she said: ‘Bobbie Jean, I loved you— 
but God loved you more.’” 

+ * a 

Before the people had left the ceme- 
tery Bobbie Jean’s mother made her 
way over to one of the colored Cath- 
olic women. “Mrs. Franklin,” she said, 
“When this is all over I’m coming over 
to your house for a long talk—about 
your Church.” 

—Dorothy Abernethy 

Mrs. Abernethy, now through with her 
hospital stay, is back home recuperating. 

Four Years Later... 

(Continued from page 5) ~ 
tably medicine, offer considerable re- 
sistance to integration. 

In housing, much work needs to be 
done. The big public housing projects 
are still segregated; and white families 
still put out “for sale” signs as soon as 
a Negro family moves in on their block. 

Parish leadership could do much to 
prevent this. Many fine parishes now 
existing, with schools already built and 
paid for, could continue to serve their 
people for years to come if the parish- 
ioners would learn to accept and wel- 
come their Negro neighbors, and stay 
in their beloved, well-kept, almost- 
paid-for homes. This kind of program, 
in advance of the exodus, might save 
many a parish, bring many colored 
converts into the Church, and end the 
ghetto practice which leads inevitably 

to some kind of school segregation. 
Most Hopeful of All 

Louisville has long been a forward 
looking community, with intelligent 
leadership making every effort to util- 
ize all the human resources in the city 
to the best advantage. 

To me, the most hopeful sign of all 
is to see a white woman and a Negro 
woman, obviously friends and neigh- 
bors, meet on the street or in a bus 
and exchange a few friendly words 
about how they are getting on with 
the spring cleaning. When and if—as 
please God it will!—the time comes 
when Louisville’s Negro population 
ceases to be concentrated in a few 
blocks along Walnut and Chestnut 
Streets, then there will truly be an end 
to school segregation and human segre- 
gation in this community. 




Best from the Catholic Press 

REALITIES edited by Dan Herr and 
Clem Lane, 296 pages. (Bruce Publish- 
ing Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 


reader to shout a loud “hurrah” for 
the Catholic press. To those who decry 
the lack of Catholic intellectuals or who 
criticize the Catholic press for being 
pietistic, Realities provides an effective 
answer. The breadth of subject matter 
evidences the versatility of the Catholic 
writer. The depth of subject matter 
evidences the fact that Catholics are 
facing current American problems and 
searching for realistic solutions in light 
of their faith and philosophy. Topics 
treated include labor relations, race 
relations, politics, sex, mental health, 
censorship, art, atomic energy and the 

If one mark can be singled out to 
characterize such an diversified group 
of essays, it is maturity. The individ- 
ual reader may find points of view with 
which he disagrees, but at least the 
authors have made an attempt to con- 
sider problems from more than one 
angle without offering facile solutions 
that defy practical experience. 

Some Are Personal Approaches 

Some of the pieces reflect a purely 
personal approach to a subject: “How 
I Lost My Prejudice” by Bishop Vin- 
cent Waters and “If Your Son Should 
Ask” by Helen Caldwell Riley (COM- 
MUNITY. April, 1956); others, like 
“Christianity and the Negro” by John 
LaFarge, S.J., present the historical 
aspect of the Negro problem. 

The puzzling questions of censorship 
and freedom are scrutinized by John B. 
Sheerin, C.S.P., in “The Goal of Aca- 
demic Freedom,” by John Courtney 
Murray, S.J., in “Literature and Cen- 
sorship,’” and by William Clancy in 
“The Area of Catholic Freedom.” 
Thomas E. Murray in “Though the 
Heavens Fall” suggests that the lead- 
ers of the peoples of the world be al- 
lowed to witness the explosion of a 
hydrogen bomb so that they will have 
a strong reason for finding methods to 
establish disarmament. 

Archbishop Alter in “Industrial 
Councils” and Monsignor Hillenbrand 
in “Five-Point Social Program” outline 
the Church’s social doctrine based on 
papal encyclicals. The place of the 
Christian in politics is discussed by 
Eugene McCarthy and Bishop Mussio. 

with her son. Mrs. Riley's 
article “If Your Son Should 
Ask”—which appeared orig- 
inally in COMMUNITY — is 
included in the new book 

“Pollyanna Catholicism” by Erik Von 
Kuehnelt-Leddihn, “One View of Four 
Viewpoints” by Ralph Gorman, C.P., 
“Some Things Are Caesar’s” by John 
Cogley and “Catholic Separatism and 
Anti-Catholic Tensions” by Gordon 
Zahn present certain attitudes taken 
by Catholics which create mistaken 
impressions of our faith. 

Bishop Wright in “The Mass and In- 
ternational Order” points out that 
Catholics should be the first to over- 
come nationalistic narrowness and seek 
international understanding through 
the Mass. Frank O’Malley writes of 
“The Culture of the Church” as influ- 
encing our working and living and be- 
coming the center of our existence. 

The Catholic who is inclined to be 
narrow-minded in his belief that every 
issue, be it political, social, or moral, 
is readily and compactly answered just 
by being a,Catholic, as well as the 
Catholic who is inclined toward liberal- 
ism for its own sake, will be drawn 
toward a more sensible center position 
when reading Realities. If non-Cath- 
olics can be persuaded to read a book 
so conspicuously labeled “Catholic,” 
much can be gained in clarifying our 
thought and position. 

—Virginia Boyle 

Mrs. Boyle worked in the editorial de- 
partment of a publishing house before her 
marriage, and was graduated from Mar- 
quette University. She lives in Chicago. 


Excellent biography describes 
her too-often forgotten 
life after Lourdes 

Monsignor Francis Trochu, 384 pages. 
(Pantheon Books, New York 14, New 
York, $4.95.) 

HIS LIFE OF St. Bernadette is at 

once a very well-documented and a 
very readable biography. Such a com- 
bination is not an easy one, but Msgr. 
Trochu has accomplished it in his work. 

The early life of St. Bernadette, and 
a history of the visions of Our Lady 
of Lourdes form the first two parts of 
the book, and are familiar to anyone 
who has read any account of the Story 
of Lourdes. But the third part of the 
book—the story of St. Bernadette as 
a Sister of Charity of Nevers, after the 
apparitions of Our Lady—has been ob- 
scure, and this is regrettable for two 

First, the story of her growth in 
sanctity is every bit as interesting as 
that of the apparitions and helps give 
us a full understanding of St. Berna- 
dette’s greatness. Second, this is the 
part of her life that has the most mean- 
ing for us, since we can imitate her in 
her virtues, whereas her visions were 
a very special favor of Our Lady and 
set Bernadette off from the rest of us. 
This third portion of the book then 
makes the work especially valuable. 

A Mental Block 

Most of us have a mental block con- 
cerning the people favored with see- 
ing Our Lord or Our Lady. We think 
that automatically they became holy 
and had no further struggle to attain 
sanctity. But as one of St. Bernadette’s 
sisters in religion said, “Because she 
has seen the Blessed Virgin, she is not 
confirmed in grace.” 

St. Bernadette realized this very 
well. To a priest who told her she had 
nothing to worry about because Our 
Lady promised to make her happy in 
the next life, she replied, “Oh, Father, 
not so fast! I shall be happy, yes, but 
be careful! Only if I do my duty and 
keep on the straight road.” So the story 
of her growth in holiness, which has 
been so long overlooked, needs to be 
told for our benefit, and has been told 
ably by Msgr. Trochu. 

The outstanding characteristic of St. 
Bernadette which shines out in this 
book is her simplicity in the correct 
sense of the word. Her single-minded- 
ness of purpose, her one and only de- 

(Continued from page 3) 
League, and its churches. 

Although his median per capita fam- 
ily income is only half that of white 
Washington citizens, the Negro’s spend- 
able earnings can be his lever to pry 
open the tight labor market in which 
he finds himself. 

Campaign on Store Jobs 

A case in point is the present cam- 
paign to get Negroes employed in five 
leading department stores in Washing- 
ton. This campaign is led by a dy- 
namic, young Negro minister, the Rev- 
erend E. Franklin Jackson, pastor of 
the John Wesley AME Zion Church. 

Reverend Jackson formed the Com- 
mittee for Equal Employment Oppor- 
tunity. The Committee first visited the 
presidents of the department stores and 
asked that they hire on a merit only 
basis. The store executives were non- 
committal and evasive despite the in- 
tervention of the D.C. Commissioners. 

So the Committee set out on another 

It had printed and circulated some 
800,000 stamps bearing the statement: 
“We believe in merit hiring.” The 
stamps were placed on checks and bills 

MAY, 1958 

paid to the stores by their customers. 

The Committee next called for a one- 
day boycott of these stores by Negro 
citizens. The effectiveness of the boy- 
cott and the buying power of the Ne- 
groes is shown by the fact that the 
D.C. Commissioners have appealed to 
the Committee to call off the boycott. 
The Merchants and Manufacturers As- 
sociation and the D.C. Board of Trade 
have also met with the Commissioners 
in an attempt to avoid the boycott. 

Solution Up to Negroes 

This campaign has the support of 
every Negro civic, religious, and social 
group in the District of Columbia. 
White local and national organizations 
also have offered their support, dis- 
tributed stamps, and made contribu- 

But the solutions to these problems 
of discrimination lie with the Negro 
community. Negroes can be informed 
of their rights in public employment 
and of available grievance and appeals 
machinery. Community organizations 
can furnish legal advice and counsel 
to complainants. This type of activity 
can be carried on under the leadership 
of the Washington Urban League, the 

Civic Associations, the Washington 
NAACP, and the churches. 

Yes, the Negro in Washington, D.C., 
has the know-how and the economic 
effectiveness necessary to assure him- 
self of fair employment opportunities. 
This he must do if he is to survive and 
if he is to spare his children the same 
uphill fight that he is experiencing. 

—Julius W. Hobson 

A government economist, Mr. Hobson is 
an officer of the Committee for Equal Em- 
ployment Opportunity, whose work he de- 
scribes. He is vice-president of the largest 
organization of neighborhood groups in D.C. 
(the Federation of Civic Associations) and 
on the executive committee of the local 

—one of the world’s most 
beautiful Madonnas — rises 
from the bell tower of the 
Church of Notre Dame in 
Pau, France. Ernest Jean 
Gabard is the sculptor. 

sire to do the will of God, her courage 
in carrying out that will, her perfect 
common sense—all these comprise her 
simplicity and are brought out in de- 

Her lively sense of humor is another 
one of her great characteristics. It is 
most in evidence during the time of 
the apparitions, when she faces so 
many interviewers—most of them hos- 
tile. It also shows up during her reli- 
gious life, when for many years her 
novice mistress, failing to comprehend 
the sanctity of Bernadette, subjected 
her to many humiliations, so that she 
would not yield to self-love. 

A Difficult Phase 

Monsignor Trochu handles this diffi- 
cult phase of Bernadette’s life well, 
and his findings can be summed up by 
the testimony of one of the persons 
who knew Mother Marie-Therese and 
her failure to appreciate Bernadette’s 
holiness: “That all this escaped a per- 
son so experienced in the guiding of 
souls as was Mother Marie-Therese 
would be a mystery for me, did I not 
see therein the love of God moulding 
His little servant.” 

In the discussion of St. Bernadette’s 
spiritual life, it is brought out that 
there was nothing complicated or elab- 
orate about her life or her sanctity. 
This would be totally alien to her sim- 
plicity. With her unfailing common 
sense she went to the heart of the mat- 
ter and summed up her life as con- 
centrating on “the generous love of 
Our Lord.” This was for her the begin- 
ning and the end and the way to holi- 

For a thorough and interesting dis- 
cussion of the apparitions at Lourdes, 
in this centenary year, plus a biogra- 
phy of Bernadette that will increase 
understanding of the saint of Lourdes, 
this work is highly recommended. 

—Edith Strom 

On the staff of the Visiting Nurse Asso- 
ciation in Chicago, Edith has for ten years 
been ean ective volunteer at Friendship 






TO: Subscribers and Friends of COMMUNITY 

FROM: Delores Price, Circulation Manager 

Annual Subscription Drive, 
April 15 - June 15, 1958 

You will be pleased to know we have received 394 
subscription dollars so far during this campaign. If re- 
turns continue at this rate we will exceed our previous 
year’s efforts . . . so please keep up the fine work. 

Since so many of you readers have pitched in to get 
new subscribers, I think you'll be interested in one of 
my recent projects. Last month I sent a letter to people 
who had let their subscriptions to COMMUNITY drop. 
This was not the usual note asking them to renew, so I’d 

better let you read it: 

Dear Former Subscriber: We no- 
tice that you have not renewed 
your subscription to COMMU- 
NITY ond we wonder why. 

It would be a big help if you 
would do us the favor of jotting 

down on the reverse side of this 
letter your reasons for discontinu- 
ing your subscription. Please be 
frank and give us the real rea- 

Thanks for your help. 

Well I thought this time we’d hear anything and every- 
thing, but to our surprise, and I do mean surprise, the 
responses, and there were many, were all sugar-coated. 

“Not a thing wrong except 
that our budget was cut this year 
and we needed every dollar. God 
bless you."—A Virginia Teach- 

ing Sister. 

“My address is a bit uncer- 
tain. . . . | appreciate the ar- 
ticles in each issue. . . . The con- 
stant stressing of principles, the 
many little insights of your work 
are both an inspiration and a 
help.’—A Southern Seminarian. 

“1 was and am still financially 
unable to do so. | liked every- 
thing about the little publication. 
God bless you in all your ef- 
forts.”"—A n Woman. 

“It is good and | have passed 
it on each time | received it. | 
really don’t have time to read 
it.’—A Busy New Yorker. 

“There is nothing wrong with 
the paper. It is purely financial. 
. . . | remember all the wonder- 
ful staff workers | used to know 
and | hope you can keep on with 

the work.’’—A Wisconsin Friend. 

“The paper did not circulate, 
but | personally feel you are do- 
ing a fine piece of work.’’—A 
Sister in Chicago. 

“Sorry, | just forgot. Keep up 
the good work!’’—A Benedictine 
Priest in Oregon. 

“The reason is purely finan- 
cial. | wish you every success. 
Your paper is needed and infor- 
mative.’’—A New York Widow. 

“Because my dear Sister has 
neglected to cough up the do-re- 
me — however, | have severely 
chastised her. | enjoy reading ev- 
ery issue.’’—A Chicago Priest. 

". . . difficult to make ends 
meet. Believe me, | am in sym- 
pathy with your work. .. .“’— 
Sympothetic Kentuckian. 

“| forgot. . . . | miss it badly, 
mea culpa.’’—A Cistercian Monk 
in Mississippi. 

These letters speak well of COMMUNITY. It means, 
too, the many people who were introduced to COMMU- 
NITY through gift subscriptions are grateful. Such en- 
thusiasm is rewarding and should inspire us all—you 
and me—to keep spreading COMMUNITY to more and 
more new people. We are still asking for new subscrip- 
tions during our annual spring campaign. Won’t you give 
us a hand, if you haven’t already done so? 

Use plain sheet of paper or coupons below. 
@ Bundles: 10-99 copies, 7 cents each: 100 or more copies, 

5 cents each. 

@ Subscriptions: $1.00 a year ($1.25 foreign). 

4233 South Indiana Avenue 
Chicago 15, Illinois 

0 Bundle of ......... copies 

O New 

O Renew 

0) Gift—send notification 


4233 South Indiana Avenue 
Chicago 15, Illinois 

(1 Bundle of copies 

Oo New 
O Renew 
(1 Gift—send notification 

Send to: 



Satisfied customers 

House Study Week. This year’s course 
begins at Childerley Farm August 22. 

Lp Ay 



Chicago Friendship House 


with one of the participants in 
Friendship House’s last study week in 
June, 1955. “It was an eye-opener,” he 
said, “I learned so much. That’s one 
week I'll always remember.” I was 
glowing in his praise—and a little sur- 
prised that the week had meant that 
much to him. 

Thinking about it later and recalling 
other such sessions, I realized how far- 
reaching the results of these few short 
days have always been. Friendship 
House does have much to offer—the 
fruits of its 20 years’ experience in 
interracial work. Being so close to the 
work, we sometimes let grow dim the 
privilege of this experience and the 
privilege of sharing it with others. 
What is there, after all, to compare 
with it? 

So right now we’re planning a ses- 
sion for August 22 to 28 and wonder- 
ing who will come. COMMUNITY 
readers are our most likely prospects 
and so we issue first invitations to you. 

The Manner—Through Sharing 

As we go to press, we are still search- 
ing for a name that will adequately de- 
scribe the experience. It is a time of 
Friendship House workers coming to- 
gether with you and people like you 
from various parts of the country— 
sharing ideas and inspiration, work and 
worship, recreation and relaxation. 

Whatever its name — this Mutual 
Help Session will get underway Fri- 
day evening, August 22, with a week- 
end at beautiful Childerley Farm, 
loaned to us for the occasion by the 
Catholic Students of the University of 

Here we come together daily for a 
fuller participation in the liturgy— 
with a recited Mass Saturday, the Sun- 
day Sung Mass, and for parts of the 
Divine Office. Our chaplain will be 
with us, too, to help us deepen our 
understanding of the apostolate. And 
we will get off to a start tackling the 
interracial question specifically. 

Explore FH Methods 

After the inspiration of the country 
week-end we will continue our explor- 
ing and discovery with Friendship 
House in Chicago as home base. 

You will have an opportunity to 
study closely Friendship House’s ex- 
periences and special techniques to- 
ward disarming prejudice and effecting 
peaceful integration. You will partici- 
pate in one of these—our “Workshops in 
Building Friendships,” which are built 
around informal visits across the color- 
line. It is a simple yet unique program 
that you may want to adapt to your 

From all over the 
country they come. 

own community. On another evening 
you will join Friendship House’s Com- 
munity Relations Group, that meets in 
one of the member’s homes, to see how 
this small group through mutual help 
and inspiration works for integration 
in their own neighborhoods. 

Two Friendship House staff workers 
who publish COMMUNITY will be 
with us with ideas on their particular 
work in the interracial apostolate. We 
have also lined-up the talents of for- 
mer staff workers and other volunteers 
to provide guidance to meet individ- 
ual problems of the participants: for 
those planning to organize a small in- 
terracial group at home, for those look- 
ing for practice in giving panels on in- 
terracial justice, for those needing help 
in conducting surveys and organizing 
field work in various areas of discrimi- 
nation—housing, employment, institu- 
tions, social life, and public accommo- 

In addition to time studying the 
work of Friendship House there will 
be visits to other organizations in Chi- 
cago. (A number have local groups 
throughout the country as well.) One 
of these will be the Young Christian 
Workers whose national headquarters 
is here in Chicago. 

Registration Limited 

There will be a celebrity or two on 
the roster; but mostly we see it as an 
experience-in-sharing among “just or- 
dinary people” concerned with finding 
some answers, in doing some specific 
thing that will help form a Christian 
mentality in their neighborhoods, and 
for finding encouragement and joy in 
being with others who also work and 
pray for such a goal. 

Our aim is to work intensively with 
a few rather than seek a large group; 
so there will be limited registration. 
We do hope some of our COMMUNITY 
readers will be among us. If partici- 
pants are as enthusiastic as we are 
then this will be an introduction to a 
year-round follow-up, keeping in touch 
with continued exchange of ideas. 

Are you interested? For more details 
write—Betty Plank, Friendship House, 
4233 South Indiana Avenue, Chicago 
15, Illinois. 

—Betty Plank