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whete the dreamer makes cents. Y 

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run in a mist of oil—no" ‘oat Holes to dig 

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The Cornell Countryman 


Are you or your neighbor contemplating the planting of an 
orchard this spring or in the indefinite future? If you do not 
want to biy perhaps you can spend part of your time selling 
for us. In either case we will make you a most advantageous 
offer. Let us hear from you NOW. Do not wait till almost 
time to plant as it will then be too late. Extra fine stock, 
careful handling, early shipments, satisfaction guaranteed. 
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possible prices. We make a specialty of 
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Picking Coffee in Brazil - Frontispiece 
The Farmer's Reading Course 

I. The Point of View S. W. Fletcher 
Irrigation in Humid Districts - E. B. Voorhees 
The Coffee Industry of Brazil Ce - i. Fagundes 
The New Treatment of Milk Fever in Cows Fames Law 
The Ontario Agricultural and Experimental 

Union - - - - - - - Fohn W. Gilmore 
The Effect of Food upon Civilization 
Editorial Comment and Review 

Agricultural Teaching in Georgia 

Crates for Shipping Apples 

The Chicago Live-Stock Show - 

The Mexican Cotton Boll Weevil - - 

Meeting of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges 

and Experiment Stations - - - - 

The New Agriculture and a New Earth 

Life in the Corn Belt 
General Agricultural News 
Cornell News 

Campus Notes . - 

Additions to the Faculty 

Former Students - 

First Dairy Class, 1894 

THE CORNELL COUNTRYMAN is an Illustrate 1 Monthly Magazine, published by the 
Agricultural Students of Cornell University. 

MANUSCRIPT for publication should be received by the 10th of the month preceding that 
in which it is to be published. 

SUBSCRIPTION, $1.00 per year, single number 10 cents. 

ADVERTISING RATES made known on application. We aim to advertise reliable 
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ADDRESS all communications to, 

The Cornell Countryman, Ithaca, N. Y, 

Some of the Leading Agricultural College Men and Experiment Station Workers 
in the United States will contribute to 7he Cornell Countryman. Articles representing 
eleven States have been received or are in course of preparation. Can you afford to 
miss these ? 



Vol. I 

JANUARY, 1904 

No. 2 

By S. W. Fletcher 

Supervisors of the Cornell Farmers’ Reading Course 

HE dominating spirit of the 
| times is the spirit of al- 
truism—an unselfish interest 
in the welfare of others. Most un- 
fortunate is the man who looks out 
upon the world of to-day and sees 
only its selfishness and greed. More 
than likely he has the distorted vision 
of one whose knowledge of the world 
is gleaned chiefly from the columns of 
our daily press, with their nauseating 
details of crime, scandal, corruption, 
sordidness—all that is unlovely in life 
put in, colored and amplified; all that 
is sweet and unselfish left out. We 
hear much about “grinding trusts” and 
“soul-less corporations.” Somebody 
takes pains to tell us that the law 
of competition which governs business 
the world over, is “Get the most vou 
can and give the least you must.” We 
hear that the poor are taxed by the rich ; 
that the weak are oppressed by the 
strong. In the opinion of many of 
these lack-lustre eved, vinegar-faced 
philosophers, as life is becoming more 
strenuous, it is also becoming more sel- 

This is true only in part. In spite 
of the strong currents of selfishness 
which are set in motion by the fierce 
competition of our modern industrial 
system, there are stronger counter- 
currents of unselfishness. It is not ego- 
tism which leads us to believe that 
never before have men and women 
been so generally concerned about the 
welfare of others. Like the Jewish 
lawyer many centuries ago, they are 
asking the Great Altruist, “Who is my 
neighbor ?” and are trying to follow the 
teaching of the parable which He gave 
in reply. Never has there been so lit- 
tle of sect and caste; so much of fel- 
lowship and brotherhood. 

This growing spirit of altruism is 

manifest not only in persons but also 
in communities and peoples. The 
wonderful development within the past 
few decades of free schools, free li- 
braries, free hospitals, free museums 
and other public institutions for pro- 
moting the happiness and usefulness 
of the people, has no other significance 
but that the public conscience has been 
auickened to a sense of its responsi- 
bility toward the individual. Never 
has the body politic taken such a sym- 
pathetic interest in the welfare of the 
individual. This is not the growth 
of paternalism or of socialism. It is 
the growth of the idea of universal 
brotherhood. This idea is nearly 2,000 
vears old. 

Education has been touched by the 
altruistic spirit. For centuries the door 
of knowledge was jealously guarded 
by monks and doctors. Only the rich 
and influential, that is, the few, might 
enter therein. Is it very long since 
the days when there were considered 
to be but four “learned” professions— 
law, medicine, theology and teaching? 
How many are there now? One bv 
one the barriers are being broken down 
and the common people are entering 
into the possession of their birth- 
right—the right to expect and to re- 
ceive training in any legitimate voca- 
tion which they desire to make their 
life work. The establishment of the 
Land Grant Colleges of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts was a signal ad- 
vance toward the realization of this 
ideal. These institutions have done 
more to democracise education than 
anv other single factor, and their in- 
fluence will continue to be exerted 
along this line until every industry in 
which men and women are engaged 
has been put into pedagogical form. 

But the fact remains that the vast 

38 The Cornell 

majority of people do not go to col- 
leges or training schools. Many can- 
not; a much larger number will not 
Because they either cannot or will m rt, 
does our responsibility towards them 
cease thereby ? It is the old, old ques- 
tion, “Am I my brother's keeper ?” 
Shall we say to the ambitious young 
man, who is so bound by home ties or 
other circumstances that he cannot 
to college, “My lad, you are most un- 
fortunate. We are very sorry for 
you,” and go our w ay? Shall we say 
to the unambitious young man, whose 
early training and environment 
been such that he has no desire to 
bring into his life the beauty and 
power of education, “Very well. sir 
If vou prefer to remain in ignorance it 
is vour fault, not ours. and vou must 
suffer the consequences?” The spirit 
of altruism in education leads us to 
try to help each of these men. If they 
cannot or will not turn to the light we 
must carry the light to them. 

The altruism) which has 
modern education is expressed in many 
ways. The Farmers’ Institute is one 
way ; the Home Education work of our 
State Library is another. Perhaps it 
is best illustrated in called 
Universitv Extension Teaching—liter- 
ally an effort to extend the inspiration 
of University teaching to those who 
cannot attend the University. Some 
Extension Teaching is conducted by 
means of public lectures: by 
means of reading courses: by 
means of personal visitations. There 
is Extension Teaching in the Arts. in 
Literature, in the Sciences, and there 
is Extension Teaching in Agriculture 

The Farmers’ Reading Course move- 
ment is a part of the University Fx- 
tension Teaching in \griculture. Of 
all people the farmer is the hardest to 
reach in Extension Teaching. This 
is not because he is less eager to learn 
than other people, but because he is 
a conservative. The nature of his 
work and the comparative isolation of 
his life tend to make him tenacious of 
established ideas and slow to accept in- 
novations. Farmers are the creat con- 
servative element in our body politic 
So it was only natural that the early 
efforts in the extension of agricultural 




what is 




education were viewed with suspicion 
by many farmers and with derision by 
others. But all of this is passing away 
We hear less and less about “book- 
farming.” “Scientific farming” and 
“practical farming” are merging so 
rapidly that they will be 
onymous terms. 

Extension teaching in agriculturs 
is of far greater importance than ex- 
tension teaching in any other subject 
not only because agriculture engages 
the attention of so many more people 
than any other industry, but also be 
cause such a relatively small number 
of farmers are so situated that they can 
attend agricultural training schools or 
The attendance at 
our agricultural colleges is rapidly in 



colleges. most of 
creasing, and one does not need to be 
unduly optimistic in order to predict 
that before the end of this c ntury th 

agricultural course will be 
patronized as any other course in th 
curriculum ; but even then. most farm 
ers will never see the inside of g 
walls. They must be reached by ex 
tension teaching. \s children they 
must be interested in the natural world 
around them: in birds, flowers. 
and the majestic the 
seasons, so that thev mav learn to love 
country life and the environment. in 
which they are placed. This effort has 
been called nature study. \s lads 
thev should be shown somethine f the 
wonderful alchemy of the how 
plants eat and drink: how the farmer 
Prospers only when he questions the 
soil and studies the plant. Thie tvp 

of effort is being introduced as “Tele 

mentary Agriculture in the Publie 
Schools.” As men. they ch uld be 
brought into touch with the vital prob 
lems of their profession (1 se this 
term advisedly) by means of larmers’ 
Institutes and Farmers’ Reading 

C\ urses, 

as largely 

Ce lege 


procession of 


The Farmers’ Reading Course move- 
ment, therefore. is interpreted 
from the point of view of altruism. Tt 
is but one feature of a general ten 
denev in modern education. It is not 
conducted for political effect. It has 
the rine of earnestness and unselfish 
ness. The men who have been identi 
fied with it have put their heart into 


Cit n 
1 by 

The Cornell Countryman 39 

the work, and, in most cases, have not 
expected or received any recompense 
except the joy of service. The exten- 
sion movement, of which it is a part, 1s 
bound to grow, because it is the ex- 

pression of a truth which must some 
time possess the world—a truth to 
which a wise man once gave concrete 
form in the words,“We that are strong 
ought to bear the infirmitiesoftheweak.” 

By E. B. Voorhees 

Director of the New Jersey Experiment Station 

Hie question of irrigation in 
the humid districts has re- 
cently assumed considerable 

importance, and is probably due 
chiefly to two causes, first, the 
general discussion of the subject of 
irrigation, as a result of the action of 
the National Government in providing 
for the irrigation of certain public 
lands in the arid regions; and, second, 
to the fact that in the eastern sections 
of the humid districts there have been 
very radical changes in the character 
of the farming. Extensive systems of 
farm practice, in which cereal grains 
and hay have been the chief crops, have 
changed to more intensive systems, 
in which market garden crops and 
small fruits are more generally grown. 
The effect of lack of moisture, due to 
short periods of drouth, is more notice- 
able in the case of these quick-growing 
crops of high commercial value, than 
for those whose periods of growth 
are longer and whose value is lower, 
though possibly the relative effect 
would not be far different. 

The Amount of Rainfall Not a Guide 
as to the Need for Water.—It has 
been shown, that while the rainfall in 
the humid districts is on the average 
sufficient to meet the demands of vege- 
tation, it is not altogether a question 
of actual rainfall, but a question of its 
distribution and character. That is, 
if the total rainfall of these districts 
were so adjusted as to have the pre- 
cipitation at the proper time, and in 
such a way as to enable it to be entirely 
absorbed by the soil, there could be no 
question as to its complete efficiency, 
but the rain that falls during the sum- 
mer months is often of little service; 
the dashing showers do not readi- 

ly penetrate the soil when hard 
and dry, and a largt proportion 
runs off the surface and is lost. Thus 
the statements of annual rainfall, 
of monthly rainfall, or even of that 
during the growing season, are 
not safe guides as to possible utiliza- 
tion in crop-growing. In a large per- 
centage of years, there are longer or 
shorter periods during which the de- 
ficiency of rainfall is serious, and in 
every year there is usually one or more 
crops of the wide number now grown, 
that materially suffer from lack of 
sufficient moisture at the right time. 
A slight deficiency of water at critical 
periods in the growth and develop- 
ment of these high-class crops is often 
disastrous, and these short drouths 
are of very common occurrence in our 
humid districts. 

Difficulty of Establishing Irriga- 
tion in Humid Districts.—A difficulty 
met with in irrigating in the humid 
districts, is that the amount of water 
required in addition to that annually 
precipitated is not readily determined. 
because of the variations in the annual 
precipitation, as well as in the charac- 
ter of it, that is, whether evenly distrib- 
uted throughout the growing season, 
or whether in heavy storms in which 
case the excess is carried away. In 
certain vears, very little additional 
water may be required, while in cer- 
tain others a very large amount, thus 
the problem of water requirements is a 
much more complicated one than in the 
arid regions. 

Another matter which prevents ac- 
tive interest in the irrigation question 
by those directly affected, is the in- 
herited tendency to let well enough 
alone, and to take the chance upon 


having a sufficient precipitation for 
the annual requirements. Hence, the 
adoption of any system of storage and 
distribution, which is based upon a 
careful study of the water require- 
ments and the gains that may be de- 
rived from an abundant supply, does 
not meet a ready support, and capital 
for the building of storage reservoirs 
and distributing canals is not easily ob- 
tained. In the arid regions, the case 
is different; there is no element of 
chance; without water, nothing can be 

grown, and hence when it can_ be 
shown that water can be obtained. 

capital is ready to venture, but in the 
East any scheme of irrigation involv- 
ing considerable expense is not likely 
to meet with approval until the farmers 
themselves take the initiative and show 
that such investments will prove profit- 
able. It is for this reason too, that 
the experimental inquiries concern- 
ing irrigation in these districts have 
been carried out ina small wav. When 
the work has been done, plants have 
been installed at a small expense, and 
the areas covered were relatively small, 
but these experiment plants have 
shown that irrigation is a very profit- 
able undertaking.* There are now a 
considerable number scattered through- 
out the market garden districts, near 
the large cities of Boston. New York 
and Philadelnhia, and throughout Long 
Tsland and New Tersev. These plants 
costing from $200 to $2,000, are capa- 
ble of providing for the needs of areas 
ranging from 2 acres up to 20 or 30 
and the water is obtained from wells 
or streams, and pumped direct to the 
land or into reservoirs, and distributed 
as needed. In manv cases in the vicinity 
of cities, the cheaper method is to ob- 
tain the water direct from the city 
supplv. in which case the water is pur- 
chased only when needed. and there 
is no initial expense for plant. or for 
depreciation in value. Those who irri- 
gate, state that they would not farm 
without a guarantee of waterand regard 
it as their best and cheapest insurance. 
Methods of Practice.—In irrigation 
in the eastern districts. if full dutv of 
the water is to be obtained. the land 
upon which it is to be applied should 
be carefully prepared and measures 

The Cornell Countryman 

taken to conserve, not only the natural, 
but the artificial supplies. The char- 
acter of the soil and subsoil, the dis- 
tance of the ground water from the 
surface, and the slope of the land, are 
all factors to be taken into considera- 
tion, and both the method of applica- 
tion and the quantity used should be 
adjusted to meet these conditions. It 
must be remembered, that in these 
eastern water is not the only 
requisite as is the case in the arid dis- 
tricts. The ground must first be made 
fertile. and because of the larger crops 
consequent upon irrigation, there will 
be a greater necessity for supplving fer 
tilizing materials than if the crop fails 
for lack of water once in two or three 
vears. The time of applving the water 
is also a matter of considerable im 
portance in these districts, for it is 
atite possible to ruin a crop bv excess 
of moisture due to the application of too 
large aantities previous to a larg: 
precipitation of rain. The amount of 
rain and the time of the fall cannot be 
foreseen, hence in applications in hu 
mid districts, small and freauent ap- 
plications are better as a rule than 
thorough soakings, as is the practice 
in the arid regions. This tendency 
to iniurv from irrational applications 
of water. is due both to the character 
of the crops usually grown under ir 
rivations, and to the climate. The ap 
plication of a large amount of water 
followed by a storm of two or thre 
inches of precipitation, and this follow 

ed by damp. mugev weather, frequent 

Iv results in encouraging the 

spread of blights. diseases, rots, 
which prove quite 
deficiency of water. This is particu 
larly true in the case of melons, pota 
toes, cucumbers, tomatoes and other 
high-class market garden crops. Tt 
would not be the case, at least, not in 
such a degree, with cereal crops or 
grasses. In the work, therefore. the 
attempt should be to keen the land 
moist. That is. begin irrigation be- 
fore the soil gets drv, and add suffi- 
cient water to keep it moist. This, of 
course, is more expensive than a thor 
ough soaking, but danger of injury is 

*See Bulletins Nos.” 


as disastrous as a 

6 ‘and 87, 
Agr., Washington, D.C 

Office of Exp. Sta 

The Cornell Countryman 


By E. Fagundes, 05 

OFFEE belongs to the immense 
tropical family (Rubiaceze) to 

which also belongs the Peru- 
vian bark tree. It is probably a native 
of Arabia or Abyssinia. Its name was 
given by the Arabians. 

Not much is known of the history 
of the coffee tree. The Greeks and 
Romans were not aquainted with it. 
and it is doubtful whether in its native 
country it was known before the fif- 
teenth century. Toward the end of the 
seventeenth centur, some trees were 
taken by Wieser to the Botanical Gar- 
dens of Amsterdam where they were 
planted, and from whence a tree was 
obtained by the Paris Botanical Gar- 
dens. From this one those found later 
in Martinique were obtained, and it 
was not long before all the West In- 
dies could be supplied with trees from 
that country. 

About 1742, coffee was introduced 
into Brazil, where, owing to the con- 
dition of the soil and climate, it was 
soon seen that a large crop could easily 
be obtained. Everybody that ‘could 
began to plant coffee, and its growth 
was so rapid that to-day Brazil pro- 
duces the largest part of the world’s 
coffee cr p. 

The following table, furnished by 
the Bureau of Agriculture in San Pau- 
lo, Brazil, shows the total annual pro- 
duction of coffee for the coffee-pro- 
ducing countries, counted in bags of 
60 kilograms (about 132 pounds): 

Brazil . » »«. 11,000,000 
Venezuela, Co- 
lombia, Mex- 
ico, West In- 
Africa, Arabia. 



6,37¢ ),000 

Total 19,620,000 23,693,000 

We have reason to think that the 
different climates to which the coffee 
was carried had some effect on its 
quality, for we find that the coffee 
from Arabia, the Mocha, has a small. 
gray to greenish bean; that from Java 

or the West Indies, a large yellow 
bean; that from Jamaica is of medium 
size, and the bean is greenish; the 
Bourbon is small, yellow, almost white ; 
the Surinam has the largest bean of all 
the varieties, but is of about the same 
color as the Bourbon. 

In general, all the varieties grow 
more or less well in Brazil, but experi- 
ence has shown that the Bourbon is the 
best. It lives longer and produces a 
large crop every vear, so that one can 
depend upon it. The coffee tree grows 
very well in a place where the tem- 
perature ranges from 60 to 90 degrees 
Fahrenheit. In most parts of Brazil it 
grows better on high Jand, at from 
about 1,830 feet above the sea level, 
to not much above 2,440 feet. It has 
been found that the temperature be- 
tween these heights is the one best 
suited to the tree, for when planted 
above the upper limit the frosts will 
kill it, and when planted below the 
lower limit, it grows accustomed to 
a higher temperature which is not the 
one best suited for the plant, and is, 
therefore, easily killed by a light frost. 
The plant likes a very rich soil full of 
organic matter. A heavy, well drain- 
ed, loamy soil with some coarse gravel 
is ideal. Where this cannot be obtained 
a sandy or gravelly loam does fairly 
well, bearing uneven crops for not 
more than forty years. In an ideal 
soil there have been cases where the 
plant has reached an age of from 
eighty to a hundred years. 

In many plantations the trees are 
set at the corners of squares of from 
10 to 12 feet on a side, but some pre- 
fer planting them at the corners of tri- 
angles instead of squares. The most 
common way of planting is from the 
seed. These, five in number, are plac- 
ed in a hole one foot square, one seed 
at each corner and one in the center 
They are then covered with about two 
inches of earth and protected by a 
wooden crate laid over the holes. The 
voung plants are protected from light 
frosts that occur on low ground dur- 
ing the winter, by further covering the 
wood cases with straw or brushwood 

42 The Cornell 

The plantation is kept free from weeds 
The dead plants are renlaced by others 
from the nursery, which is a shady, 
moist place in the woods, where seeds 
are sown and allowed to grow pro- 
miscuously. After two years of pro- 
tection they are uncovered, for they are 
then strong enough to stand any slight 
change in the weather. 

In Arabia the wild tree attains a 
height of 15 to 25 feet, but under cul- 
tovation it seldom exceeds Io to 15 
feet. A tree one year old is about 20 
inches tall. It attains its maximum 

height at about six vears. 
The dark green leaves and the small, 


snow-white flowers form a very pleas- 
ing sight en When going 
through the coffee regions of Brazil. 
the traveller’s eye is delighted for hun- 
dreds of miles by the only snow he can 
in that country—the flowers of 
millions of coffee These give 
a splendid picture of a field covered 
with snow ten to fifteen feet deep. At 
other seasons the trees are covered with 
a luxuriant dark green foliage, mak- 
ing an entirely different picture. Later 
the berries begin to show, and it is not 
long before thev are of a dark scarlet 
color, and are ready for picking. They 
ripen in February. The plantation is 





then at its bustest, and one can see 
many families of laborers harvesting 
the fruit. A cloth is spread under the 
tree, and the hand is run from about 
the middle towards the outside along 
the branches bearing fruit, care being 
taken not to injure the leaves at the 
tips of the branches. From the cloth 
the fruit is carried in carts to the dry 
ing vard, where it is spread out on 
flat ground or, better still, on cement 
yards. Here the fruit is dried by the 
action of the sun's rays, it being fre 
quently turned over so as to dry 
evenly. When the drying 
about half complete, the 

pr cess 15 

coffee is 


placed in cement tanks filled 
water, so that all impurities are re- 
moved. lTrom these tanks it is again 
taken to the yard where it is left 
until thoroughly dry. Where the 
soil is heavy and compact, the fruit is 
allowed to fall to the ground when 
picked, and left there for two or three 
weeks, whence it is taken to the dry 
ing ground and run through the pr 
cess above described. After the second 
drying, it is run through several mills, 
which remove the skins enclosing the 
seeds or berries, and assort the grains 
according to size, form and weight. It 
is then shipped in bags of sixty kilo- 

The Cornell Countryman 43 

grams to the several seaports for ex- 

Coffee, as well as many other ar- 
ticles on the market, is subject to a 
great deal of adulteration. Chicory is 
generally used for the adulteration, as 
it is not injurious to health. Any one 
can easily detect its presence, because 
it unduly darkens the color of the 
beverage. Sometimes roasted corn or 
beans are used instead of chicory, but 
these are still more easily detected, for 
they effect the taste and aroma: In 
Sumatra the coffee leaves are used in- 
stead of the seed for making the bever- 
age. They are prepared in a manner 
similar to that emploved with tea leaves 

When roasted, coffee loses 15 to 25 
percent in weight, and gains 30 to 50 
percent in bulk. It should not be 
roasted after it attains the brown color 
that is sufficient to bring out the de- 
licious aroma and other qualities. If 
the roasting is carried on further, more 
or less charring results, and a disagree- 
able burnt odor is produced. For use 
it must be ground to a very fine pow- 
der; for only then can it give out all 
its aromatic oil and almost all the nu 
tritive substances to the hot water 
The beverage can be prepared in many 
kinds of apparatus, some of which are 
of rather intricate structure. The best 
those that give the strongest 
beverage and at the same time keep it 
free from all sediment. Coffee with a 
sediment is not considered good by the 

Ones are 

Brazilians, who, as a rule, are great 
coffee drinkers. 

In the tropical countries coffee is 
usually drunk pure, as a strong, black 
liquid; but it is also used with milk— 
three parts of the latter to one of cof- 
fee being a good proportion. The 
milk and the coffee are mixed and boil- 
ed for some minutes producing a much 
better beverage than when the milk is 
added immediately before serving. 

\ much quicker and better method 
is the known in Brazil as the 
coador method, and in the southern 
United States as the drip bag method. 
It consists in passing boiling water 
over the coffee which is in a cotton 
bag, and allowing it to drip slow- 
ly. The beverage made in this way 
flavor and aroma than 
when made in machines or by the com- 
mon way of boiling the coffee and 
water together. 

In almost every city in Brazil sever- 
al coffee houses are found, which sell 
the beverage by the cup at any time of 
the day and at almost any time of the 
night. Here it is dealt out according 
to the popular formula—“as black as 
ink, as sweet as love, and as hot as 

\t night the sound of an or- 
chestra is heard. Only the middle and 
higher classes of people are to be found 
in these houses. They make very con- 


p ssesses more 

venient places for the people to meet 
and discuss politics, while they enjoy 
their favorite beverage. 

By James Law 

Diy , j \ do 

HIS affection has been a steadily 
growin dairy 

and more 
fatal, so that it has become justly 
a cause of dread on the part of 
the owners of valuable stock. Its in- 
tractable course and uncertain nature 
have led to the promulgation of a 
variety of theories of its pathology, and 
to the designation of it by a number of 
different names. In England it has 

evil among 

herds of advanced 
not only 


breeds. bec 


ingly prevalent, but 


I rinary ¢ 

been known as puerperal fever, and 
parturient fever, and, better parturition 
fever; in France and Germany as calf 
or calving fever (vitulary), again as 
parturient collapse, calving paralysis 
calving paresis, calving coma, parturi- 
tion septicaemia, parturition eclampsia, ete. 
Theories of Causation and Nature. 
\s the disease follows easy parturi- 
tions (not severe ones) Contamine at- 
tributed it to the surplus of nerve 
force, which was not used up in 
calving, and now makes a_ sudden 

44 The Cornell 


The partial 

the brain is 
to the 


attributed by 
Billings contraction of the 
cerebral under the exagger- 
ated excitability of the uterine nerves 
But the womb in such cases is in a 
condition the opposite of excitable 
Hanbner attributes the bloodless brain 
to the accumulation of the great mass 
of blood in the now empty and flaccid 
abdomen. But the womb usually con- 
tains little blood, and the bowels ( por- 
tal system) are not specially congested 
Franck ascribes brain anzemia to exces- 
sive plentitude of the elaborate arterial 
network at the base of the brain (rete 
mirabile), the swelling of which drives 
the blood out of all other structures in- 
side of the closed box of the cranium 
But ewes, goats and sows have equally 
elaborate rete mirabilia, yet milk fever 
is unknown among them, or in the 
males even of cattle, in farrow or even 
in breeding cows, apart from the per- 
iod of calving. Barlow, Kohne, Car- 
sten Harms, Binz, etc., invoke an im- 
pairment of the function of the gang- 
lionic nerves, and a failure of conduc- 


tivity of nerve force, which is pure!y 


as a primary or main 
Violet, Sanson, Campbell and 
others look on it as essentially a con- 
gestion of the nerve centers, while 
Muller and Trasbot allege inflamma- 
tion of the same parts. 

Apart from all such attempts at ex- 
planation on hypothetical bases, there 
are certain facts, that have been recog- 
nized for a great while, and which no 
speculation can controvert: and 
doctrine of the disease, which 
stand criticism must harmonize 
these indisputable facts. 

Milk fever is peculiarly a disease of 
heavy milking cows, and no other 
class of animal has been bred up to 
the same exalted standard of great 
power of digestion and assilimilation, 
and enormous vield of milk. The dis- 
order is virtually unknown in scrub or 
common herds, while it is common 
and deadly in the great milking breed: 
—Holstein, Guernsey, Jersey, Alder- 
ney, Dutch, Flemish, Ayrshire, Swiss 
Norman, red polled and milking short- 

Again it is unknown with the first 



or second calf, and becomes increasing 
ly rare as the animal passes its maxi- 
mum of milk yield and enters on the 
stage of decline. From six to ten 
vears of age furnishes by far the great- 
est number of cases. 

Heavy and rich feeding prior to and 
just after calving renders the diseas« 
relatively common and destructive, and 
hence the affection can be to a large 
extent warded off, by starving for a 
fortnight before and a week after calv- 

All of these conditions operate tow- 
ard one end, a suddenly induced ple- 
thora in the calving cow, and this is 
further shown in the small size of the 
blood globules, which implies a dense 
rich condition of the plasma in which 
these float. The sudden contraction of 
the womb after the birth, and the more 
speedy secretion of the water than of 
the solids of the blood tend to the fur 
ther concentration of this liquid. Ple- 
thora therefore, both as regards excess 
and richness of blood, is one of the 
most marked and essential conditions 
of milk fever. 

The absorption of toxic matters has 
been growing in favor as an explan- 
ation. Lafosse thought poisons were 
absorbed from the womb, Adadie and 
Kaiser from the intestines, Harten- 
stein from the overworked muscles, Al- 
lemani and Gratia from the udder 
But the womb shows less putrefactive 
change in its contents than after a dif 
ficult and assisted parturition, and the 
muscles are greatly more overworked 
in prolonged, obstructed and painful 
calving, than in the easy one in which 
milk fever habitually occurs. There 
seems therefore a strong probabilits 
that the source of the poison is to b 
found, if at all, in the udder. 

Tt has been strongly suspected 
though not vet proved, that the source 
of the poison is a microbian ferment 
and microbes are not uncommon in the 
milk ducts apart from. this 
The probability of a microbian origin 
is greatly favored bv the fact, as noted 
by Bissauge and the present writer 
that certain hamlets and farms habit 
ually furnish cases of milk fever, while 
neighboring ones. with the same breeds 
and apparently the same management 


The Cornell 
also, by the observation of 
Russell and Wortley Axe, that the 
malady will sometimes be suddenly ar- 
rested in a herd, by the simple expe- 
dient of having the cows moved to a 
new and previously unoccupied stable, 
for calving and the first nine days 
thereafter. The sudden prostration, 
muscular weakness, unconsciousness 
and coma, are strongly suggestive of a 
narcotic poison of microbian origin, 
and the rapid and complete recoveries 
are equally in keeping with such 
theory, the poison having been presum- 
abally eliminated or neutralized in the 
system. Any marked © structural 
change producing equivalent nervous 
disorder would make no such rapid im- 
provement. Dangerous narcotic poi- 
sons (leucomains) may, however, be 
generated in the system without an in- 
vasion of microbes from outside, as 
when ephemeral fever follows on over- 
exertion or when the milk becomes 
poisonous when unduly retained under 
overexertion and excitement. The 
suckling is often poisoned under such 
conditions, and everything points, as 
we shall see under treatment, to the 
origin of in the 

escape , 

milk- fever-p 1SsONn 

The presence of poisons in the sys- 
tem is further shown in the constancy 
with which we find sugar in the urine 

in these cases. This points very direct- 
ly to disordered function of the base 
of the brain or liver. It should be 
stated that the mere presence of sugar 
cannot be looked upon as the cause of 
the milk fever, as the elimination of 
sugar continues for days after the cow 
has virtually recovered and is appar- 
ently quite well. The quantity of sugar 
in the urine, however, is in ratio with 
the violence of the attack, and there- 
fore it is an index to the amount of 
the real narcotic poison produced in 
the system. 

A wide variation of temperature from 
the normal is another indication of the 
violence of the attack, and its gravity. 
If much below the normal it implies a 
specially depressing narcotic poison 
and a probably fatal issue. A slow rise 
to (not above) the normal is a favor- 
able indication. A rise above the nor- 

Countryman 45 
mal usually implies inflammatory com- 
plications, in the lungs, through in- 
halation of food products; in the bow- 
els; in the womb or elsewhere. All 
such cases are to be dreaded as the 
system becomes further depressed by 
the toxins furnished by the microbian 
invasion of the inflamed part, in ad- 
dition to those already furnished froiua 
the udder. Such accessory infectious 
inflammations may well render unsuc- 
cessful the best measures of treatment 
The J. Schmidt Treatment. 

In 1897 J. Schmidt published his 
succesful treatment of milk fever by 
the injection of the teats and milk 
ducts with a solution of iodide of po- 
tassium 7 to grammes in 1 litre 
boiled water. The solution must have 
been boiled for 15 minutes and cooled 
to 40 degrees C. before injecting. The 
apparatus for injecting is a_ small 
rubber tube, five or more feet in 
length, having a milking tube fit- 
ted into one end and a_ funnel 
into the other. This is to be ren- 
dered asceptic by boiling, and kept 
there after in a solution of mercuric 
chloride (1:1000) until wanted for 
use. The udder and teats, the hands 
of the operator and assistants, are thor- 
oughly washed with soap and water, 
rinsed off with boiled water, and then 
soaked in a solution of carbolic acid 
(2:100). The udder is milked empty 
before disinfecting, and is manipulated 
after the injection to force the liquid 
into all parts of the milk ducts. 

As the result of this treatment the 
mortality was reduced to 17 per cent 
instead of 50 or 70 per cent. under the 
old treatment. 

The avowed object of Schmidt was 
to check secretion in the glands, for 
which iodine was especially promising. 
He soon advised the introduction of a 
little air into the udder to favor the 
diffusion of the iodide solution. Others 
went a step farther, thus Naudinat 
doubled the amount of the iodide solu- 
tion injected, and used eserine and pilo- 
carpine hypodermically to arouse the 
peristalsis of the intestines, and re- 
duced the mortality to 5 per cent. 

The Injection of Other Liquids. 

The great success of the Schmidt 
method inspired a number of veterin- 


40 The Cornell 
arians in both Europe and America to 
inject the udder with other antiseptic 
solutions, all of which proved success- 
ful in a high degree. Among the solu- 
tions injected were those of ly sol, cre- 
sol, chinosol, and common salt. Finally 
the injection of simple water, sterilized 
by boiling and cooled to blood heat, 
proved eminently satisfactory. In the 
use of these injections it came to be 
recogized that the more fully the udder 
was distended the better was the re- 
Injection of Gaseous Agents. 

Distension of the udder by gas 
was now a very obvious alternative, but 
although Schmidt had used some at- 
nospheric air along with his iodide so- 
lution, the idea of antisepsis had so pre- 
occupied the minds of the operators 
that for a time those gases only were 
used that had some antiseptic power. 
Kkortman used etherized air with 
Oxygen got into very general 
use, first in Switzerland, then in Lon- 
don, Canada, and elsewhere, and as the 
quarters were well filled with the gas 
the mortality practically disappeared 
every recovered. The tirst 
of the present writer, was a mature 
Jersey with a record of three pounds 
of butter ' She was attacked 
within 12 hours after calving, and the 
case should therefore, in time past, have 
proved fatal. In one hour she was on 
her feet and by next day she had fully 

has given her usual 



case cast 


recovered, and 
heavy yield of milk ever since. 
Injection of Sterilized Atmospheric Air 
Experiment had advanced so far that 
the conclusion was unavoidable that the 
value of the injection lay in its quantity 
rather than in its quality. The bene- 
fit came from the distension of the 
udder by overfilling of the milk ducts, 
and it mattered litthe what agent was 
used, provided that it was bland and 
non-irritating. This conclusion was 
strengthened by the experience of the 
breeders on the island of Jersey. Deal- 
ing with a paragon in the production of 
milk and butter, they had suffered 
heavy losses from milk fever, until they 
fell upon the expedient of omitting to 
milk out the udder for twenty-four 
hours after calving, which had at once 
the happiest result. The disease which 


had been the scourge of high class Jer- 
seys was at once “shorn ot its terrors.” 

t only remained to fully distend the 
udder ot the afflicted cow with ordin- 
ary atmospheric air, which had been 
robbed of its living germs by filtration, 
and the triumph over milk fever be- 
came easy and complete. ‘The first case 
to which | applied this was a mature 
halt-bred Holstein, which had been at- 
than twelve hours after 
calving, and which had been injected 
with Schmidt's iodide solution, yet 
eight hours aiterward remained down 
unable to rise, in a condition of stupor. 
and with no sign of discharge of feces 
or urine. On having my attention cail 


tacked less 

to the case Ll at once fully distended 
udder air, m1 
taining it by means of tapes tied around 

the ends ot the te 

the with sterilized 
ats, and ina little over 
two hours she was up seeking water 
and even food, passing faces and urine 
freely, and with 
face and eves and every pr 
\ Lhe tapes Were Now 

bright expression ot 
OL re 

allowed until the 
wen the patient ap- 
Since that 
date she has had the reputation of the 
milking herd 




off, but 
following day, w 

peared to be perfectly well. 

best milker in the heavy 

[his case is an example ot many 
others in many different hands, so in 
variably successful that there is good 
warrant for the frequently 
made, that there need be little or no 
apprehension of a fatal result, in even 


y are 
promptly subjected to treatment. The 
modern treatn ike magic and 
seems to hardly admit of failure. 
Economic Value of This Treatment. 
The ; the treatment 1s 
very far reaching. Milk fever has long 
been the tf the best dairy 
herds. Not only the best herds, but the 
best cows in these herds suffered, and 
the latter were lost to the owner at the 
very time when they were promising 
the highest remunerative returns. In 
this way the maximum value was con- 
tinually being cut down, and the herd 
came to be made up of the less valuable, 
the less productive, and the less remun- 
erative animals. Iéxcellence and hign 
yield were continually being scaled 
down, and the more intelligent and suc- 

; aaa Se ; ; 
severe cases of milk fever, if they 

lent acts like 

economy ol 

scourge of 

The Cornell Countryman 47 

er- cessful the owner might be in grading cases of infective mammitis. How 
ae his stock up to a high standard, the many more such cases will develop if 
the heavier were his losses. Not only so, this treatment shall become a popular 
lin- but the element of heredity has come domestic resort, applied by the dairy- 
een in to restrict the improvement in the man in all sorts of surroundings, and 
on, herds, and to keep this below the stand- with little or no antiseptic precaution ? 
be- ard which they were justly entitled to This result is inevitable, but we may 
ase reach under intelligent skill, selection feel some consolation in the thought, 
ure and management. ‘The cows that have that even so, the mortality and loss 
at- attained to an unprecedentedly heavy must be far less than it has been in the 
ter yield, under judicious breeding and past, when at least half the animals at- 
ted management would produce a larger tacked by milk fever died. 
yet proportion of similar high class off- To obviate such dangers entirely, 
vn spring, and were the most likely to the treatment must be applied under 
OF, bring forth those that would excel careful measures of asepsis, such as are 
ces themselves even, so that, in the absence used in all work in the bacteriological 
il of a serious drawback, the constant ap- laboratory. From one who has not had 
led preciation of the herd, under judicious — the privilege of such laboratory train- 
re- supervision, is a foregone conclusion. ing, be he veterinarian or layman, we 
nad But so long as great success in such im- cannot expect perfect results, but we 
yer provement, was the signal for the de- can at least lessen the evils by giving 
ter struction of the most valuable products, full instructions as to the precautions 
ine the best milking cows, by this disease. necessary. 
ot great individual advancement could First. Provide an elastic rubber ball 
r only be rare, and a general advance to and tubes furnished with valves to di- 
en the highest standard became a virtual rect the current of air as in a common 
the impossibility. Davidson syringe. 
ip- lf, on the other hand, we can guar- Second. On the delivery tube place 
lat antee the recovery of even the most a cylinder of tin, or other metal, made 
he strongly predisposed animal from milk in two parts which telescope within 
rd fever we have laid the foundation of a each other, making an airtight joint, 
ny general grading up, while applied upon and pack this cylinder with sterilized 
in the dairy herds generally would in- cotton. On each end of the cylinder 
od crease their value to an almost incal- have a projection in the form of a fine 
tly culable extent. [Every advance in ex- tube on which the rubber tubes are 
no cellence is a permanent gain, and as the _ fitted. 
en cow of the highest standard can be Third. In the free end of the rub- 
ire counted on to live out her days, and to ber tube leading from the cylinder, fit 
he produce a full complement of equally a milking tube to be inserted into the 
nd high class offspring all dairy herds _ teat. 

can soon be raised to this enviable con- Fourth. Sterilize this entire appar- 
nit dition. atus by boiling for 15 minutes, and, 
is Dangers of the Treatment and Need of — without touching the milking tube, 
ny Special Precautions. wrap it in a towel which has been ster- 
ry We must not shut our eyes to the — ilized in a water bath, or in live steam, 
he inevitable abuse and danger of the new — and dried and ironed. 
nil treatment. The main danger is the Fifth. On reaching the patient, 
he introduction of germs into the udder, draw no milk from the teats, but wash 
ng and the setting up of infective inflam- them and the udder thoroughly with 
In mation in the gland. Readers will re- warm soap suds, rinse off with well 
n- call the show cows in Toronto a few boiled (and cooled) water, and apply 
rd vears ago, the udders of which were to the teats, and especially their tips, 
le fatally infected by milk injected to a 5 per cent. solution of creolin or ly- 
1 make a false show in the prize ring. sol, taking great care that the teats are 
ri Already in Europe and in the hands allowed to touch nothing until the in- 
od of veterinarians the Schmidt treat-  jecting apparatus is placed in use. As 

ment has induced a small proportion of 

the cow is usually down, the udder 

48 The Cornell Countryman 

may be rested on a cushion or steril- 
izedcotton, or a sterile towel. 

Sixth. All being ready the appara- 
tus is produced, great care being taken 
to keep the milking tube from touching 
any object but the teat, and the middle 
of the teat being held between the fin- 
ger and thumb of the left hand the 
teat tube is inserted into the milk duct 
with the right. Meanwhile the assist- 
ant manipulates the rubber ball until 
the quarter is as full as it will hold, 
when the tube is withdrawn and held 
by its attached end, while the teat is 
tied with a tape to prevent the escape 
Of the air. 

Seventh. The tube is now dipped in 
strong creolin or carbolic acid, rinsed 
off in water that has been boiled, and is 
used on the second teat as on the first, 
and in turn on the third and fourth, 
until all four “uarters are thoroughly 
distended and teats tied. 

Kighth. The recumbent cow is to 
be kept on her breast bone, and with 
the head elevated even if it should be 
y to pack her around with 
straw bundles or to suspend the head 
by a halter. Lying on her side is liable 
to develop fatal bloating. 

Ninth. If in two hours the cow is 
not on her feet, nor looking brighter 
and more intelligent, if she has passed 
no manure nor urine, and if the air 
has become absorbed, leaving the udder 
less tense, the injection of the bag may 
be repeated under the same scrupulous 
and rigid antiseptic precautions as at 
first. This may be repeated later if 
necessary. In all cases, but especially 
in severe ones, it is well to keep watch 
of the cow for twenty-four hours, and 
if there is any indication of a return 
of the attack to repeat the treatment by 
udder distension. 


Tenth. It is the common experience 
that when the cow gets on her feet or 
very shortly after, the bowels will move 
freely and the urine will be discharged 
copiously, indicating a resumption of 
the normal nervous functions, and fur- 
nishing one of the best guarantees of 
complete success. If such motions are 
wanting or limited in amount, the pa- 
tient should be the more carefully 
watched, so that the earliest symptoms 
of relapse may be detected, and the 
treatment renewed. 


Complications must be met accord- 
ing to their nature. Bloating may re- 
quire puncture of the rumen, evacua- 
tion of the gas and the introduction of 
ammonia solution or other anti-fer- 
ment. Inhalation of food-matters into 
the windpipe and lungs, causing bron- 
chitis or pneumonia may demand anti- 
septic inhalants or even solutions, but 
is very liable to prove fatal. Injuries 
to the back or limbs may lead to a 
helpless condition of one or both hind 
limbs, which must be met according 
to its nature. Congestions or infections 
of the udder, womb, bowels, brain or 
other organs must be dealt with ac- 
cording to indications. If possible the 
case should be in the hands of an ac 
complished veterinarian, who is not 
only a trained bacteriologist, but a 
man of experience and skill in other 
respects. In the absence of such an 
one, the enormous mortality of the dis- 
ease, when left to itself or treated ac- 
cording to the now obsolete methods 
would fully warrant an instant resort 
to the treatment by sterilized air, even 
at the risk of a small percentage of 
complications and fatalities. 

et or 
hn of 
Ss of 
; are 
| pa- 


The Cornell 

By John W. Gilmore. 

The 25th annual meeting of the 
Ontario Agricultural and Experimen- 
tal Union was held at the Ontario Ag- 
ricultural College, Guelph, Ontario, on 
December 7th and 8th. 

This is the pioneer organization of 
its kind. It was established 25 years 
ago for the purpose of keeping the 
alumni of the Agricultural College in 
close touch with the activities of their 
alma mater, and with each other, and 
also to encourage and aid them in the 
continuation of their chosen lines of 
work. As it has grown in age and in- 
fluence, the interests of the farmers cf 
the province have been knit into the 
life and activities of the College until 
now these interests are united and all 
work in harmony for the advancement 
of agriculture. 

During the past few years several 
organizations with similar objects 
have been established mainly in 
New York, Ohio, Illinois and Neb- 
raska. Delegates from these or- 
ganizations were invited to at- 
tend the convention at Guelph, but 
only the Agricultural Experimenters 
League, ot N.. Y., responded. Two 
speakers from the United States were 
on the program, Miss Martha Van 
Rensselaer, of Cornell, and Mr. W. J. 
Spillman, Agrostologist, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

C. A. Zavitz, director of co-operative 
experiments, reported that in 1902, 
3,135 experimenters were engaged in 
this line of work in Ontario, whiie 
this year the number had increased 
to 3,845 and the work was more effi- 
ciently done. The co-operative exX- 
periment work was very satisfactory 
this vear because of the deep interest 
the farmers had taken in it, and be- 
cause of the training in judgment they 
received regarding the relation of 
crops to environment. Many speakers 
united to make an interesting and in- 
structive program. The agricultural 
and economic conditions in Ontario 
differ materially from those in New 
York, and the union is working along 
lines somewhat different from our 

Countryman 49 

work, yet is it very evident that 
through the agency of the experiment- 
al Umon substantial and lasting good 
is being accomplished. For intensity 
of effort and harmony of agencies en- 
ed their work is admirable. 

‘he meeting closed Tuesday even- 
ing, when somewhere in the neighbor- 
hood of 1,000 alumni with their wives, 
and others interested in Ontario’s ag- 
riculture, sang ““God Save the King.” 
After having partaken of a sumptuous 
supper seasoned with toasts, Presi- 
dent Mills turned upon the point that 
the time is now ripe for the experi- 
menters to give their attention to the 
development, by selection and breed- 
ing, of the crops which they have so 
long tested for yield and adaptation t 
environment. Lveryone went away 
with the feeling that this year’s meei- 
ing was the best yet. 



In a recent address at a meeting at 
Palo Alto, Cal., the seat of Stantord 
University, Professor I. P. Roberts 
of Cornell University spoke of the 
effect of food upon civilization, show- 
ing that those nations which used the 
most concentrated foods, which give a 
reserve of mental power, have attained 
the highest civilization. The Ameri- 
cans lead the world because they use 
more milk, butter sugar, fruit and 
wheaten bread than any other nations. 
The Turk, for instance, uses only one- 
tenth the sugar and one-fortieth of 
the butter that Americans use. No 
savage or barbarian people can be civil- 
ized until their food is improved. 
Neither can breeds of animals be im- 
proved without care in the food used. 

Milk and butter are the most perfect 
foods, giving, in concentrated forms 
that are easy of digestion, all the ele- 
ments needed. Butter, he said, is con- 
centrated sunshine, and sunshine stim- 
ulates, as may be shown by the super- 
ior physical appearance of Californians. 

Dr. Roberts showed plainly the 
necessity for the use of milk as food, 
and for the utmost care in producing 
and dispensing milk.—Chicago Record- 



The Cornell Countryman 

G. F. WARREN, Editor 

SCOTT H. PERKY, Associate Editor 
R. W. CURTIS, o 
G.N.LAUMAN, § Alumni Editors 
C.S. WILSON, Assistant Editors 
W. R. DUNLOP, ) 

CHRISTIAN BUES, Business Manager 

L. F. AYER, (Assistant Managers 
P. E. CLAPP, ) 
JANUARY, 1904 

: The present general as- 
Agricultural hh = . 
Teaching in sembly of Georgia has 

enacted a law requiring 
the elements of agriculture to be taught 
in the public schools. 

This is a step 

in the right direction. The majority 
of the people of the state earn their 
living farm, and it is 

children should prepare them for the 


on only 

proper education of their 

life that they must lead. But there are 
difficulties in the way of accomplish- 
ing this. The greatest of which is to 
find teachers with the training that 
would fit them to teach the 

of agriculture. 

The University of Georgia offers a 
three months’ course of instruction in 
the winter, and a two months’ course 
in the summer, to prepare teachers for 
this work. Georgia is abreast of the 
new educational ideas. She has a great 
problem to solve, and we are eagerly 
watching to see her victorious. 

— The high price and short- 

age of apple barrels this 


inconvenience. In 

has caused some 

end, however, it may prove beneficial, 


growers great 
for it has forced the growers to ship 
their best stock in boxes. This form 
of package may seem strange to apple 

The Cornell 


erowers, but it is being used more and 

more every year, and is sure to grow 
in favor. The size of the package is 
more convenient than a barrel, for the 
latter is more than the city customer 
wants, and there are too many apples 
in a barrel to carry well without bruis- 
Select sells better in small 

ing. fruit 


The Chicago Phe urth Internation 
Live Stock al Live Stock [expos 
Show : ol . Woe 
tion was held in Chicago 
last month. This is the greatest live 
stock show in the world, and is said 1 

bring more people to Chicago than 
any other event except the World's 
Fair. It is pre-eminently a show of 
neat-producing animals, but the in 
terest in horses, particularly of the 

draft tvpe, is increasing. Some of the 
best, perhaps the best, draft horses ia 
world were exlnbited 


The ve r\ active part t iken by the ag 


ricultural colleges is noteworthy. Near 
ly everv agricultural college of the 
Middle West sent a large delegation ot 

students. Some groups numbered 

over 100. But the colle 

ges were there 

as competitors as well as visitors. The 


Breeders’ Gazette says, ** Champion 


ships galore fell to the bullocks from 

these institutions. Specifically speak 
ing, the Shorthorn, the Angus and the 
grade championships went to colleges, 
and the grand championship and_ re 
serve also. Then four of the beef car- 
cas prizes also fell to college entries. 
Remarkable things were done by coi 


lege swine and sheep.” In fact, some 
of the exhibitors are beginning to feel 
it a hardship to have to compete with 

The best 

thing about this showing is that it will 

the “impractical professors.” 

call the attention of many a farm boy 

to the work of the colleges. 

The agricultural colleges of Iowa, 

re and 


or the 


The Cornell 

Minnesota, Kansas, Ohio and South 
Dakota sent teams to Chicago to com- 
The Spoor 

trophy, a bronze cast of a bull, goes to 

pete in judging stock. 

the best team. The Iowa college has 
held this for two years. There are 
also $500 to be divided among the 

twelve students making the best indi- 
vidual scores. 

The Mexican cotton boll 

weevil is at present one 

The Mexican 
Cotton Boll 
Weevil of the most discussed 
problems in southern agriculture. This 
pest came into Texas from Mexico 
about ten years ago and soon began to 
attract attention. It has since spread 
over much of Texas and threatens the 
cotton-growing industry of the whole 
South. Something of its importance 
can be seen from the fact that the state 
offers $50,000 to anyone who can de- 
vise a practical means of exterminat- 
ing it. A convention of some 1,200 
farmers met at Dallas the first part of 
November to consider ways and means 
of averting the danger to the cotton 

In a letter published in Science Dr. 
Howard says that if the legislature of 
Texas had acted upon the advice given 
by the Division of Entomology in 1897, 
the pest could have been confined to a 
small area in southern Texas and 
possibly might have been exterminated 
He also states that experimental de- 
monstrations have shown that a fair 
crop can be grown in spite of the wee- 
vil. This fall a crop of from a half 
bale to one bale per acre was harvested 
from controlled land, while in = ad- 
joining territory the average crop did 
not exceed one bale to from six to 
fifteen acres. 

The methods that have given best re- 
sults in fighting it are, growing early 

Countryman 51 
varieties and planting early, late cul- 
tivation, the destruction of the stalks 
as soon as the crop is gathered. The 
growing of other crops is also recom- 
mended, not only to avoid the weevil, 
but because it will pay to have a more 
diversified agriculture. 

One of the editors had 
the pleasure of attend- 
ing the 

Meeting of the 
A. A. C. and 
> & seventeenth 
annual’ convention of the Associa- 
tion of American Agricultural Col- 
leges and Experiment Stations, heid 
at Washington. There were over two 
hundred present, nearly all of whoin 
were men having positions in agri- 
cultural colleges or experiment sta- 
tions. This number was surely repre- 
sentative of all the different agricul- 
tural divisions in the United States 
On glancing over the list of delegates, 
one might question whether any state 
or territory were not represented. 
Matters that attracted much interest 
and discussion were Bulletin 22 of the 
U.S. Bureau of Soils, military educa- 
tion in land grant colleges, and agri- 
cultural education in land grant col- 
leges. The much talk of “bulletin 22” 
was the subject of some unfavorable 
criticism. It evidently furnishes a 
large field for contention between the 
soil phy sicist and the soil chemist ; for. 
unchallenged, it would shift the empha- 
sis from the chemical to the physical 
side of soil study and operations. It 
had its severest critic in Professor 
Ik. W. Hilgard, who sent in an 
able address to be read. Dr. H. W. 
Wiley, chief of the Bureau of Chemis- 
try, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
told of the intelligent nature of the in- 
vestigations, and of the care with which 
the conclusions were drawn. The 
opinion of the more unfavorable critics 
is that conclusions were too hastily 


The Cornell 


drawn, and were grounded on insuf- 
ficient and particularly favoring results 
of investigations. 

The expression in regard to military 
education was prettv generally to the 
effect that it had fallen below the stan- 
dard of the time 
given to instruction being very much 

a few vears ago; 
and the character of that in- 


needed is more generosity on the part 

struction being inferior. is 
of the government, and the detailing 
of President 
Atherton’s remark in regard to con- 

that the War 

Department details a man for instruc- 

efficient instructors. 

ditions is significant 
which he 


instructor should be recognized as one 

tion in some institution, of 

usually comes to take charge. 

of the faculty, and should understand 
his position among the rest. 

The discussion relative to agricultur- 
al education was concerned with details 
and curricula very largely to the exclu- 

sion of broad principles and move- 
ments. Director A. C. True, as head 
of a committee, reported on methods 


lustrating by many charts a very com- 

of teaching agriculture in colleges ; 
prehensive system. Discussion on the 
matter of teaching agriculture in the 

rural schools came as a corollary to the 

main discussion, and many appeared 

only then aware that there was any 

as if they were being pushed by the 

movement in this regard. seemed 

movement rather than they pushing ii. 

The association instructed its execu- 
tive committee to ask Congress for an 
increased appropriation for the experi- 
ment stations. Each state now gets 
215,000, an amount much too small to 
meet the present needs. 

The meeting evoked considerable in- 
terest ; but is is a question whether, on 
the whole, the subjects for address and 

discussion were usually of sufficient 


general interest or comprehensive and 
broad enough to awaken the enthusi- 
asm and spontaneity that surely might 
obtain among such men and at such 
a meeting. 

The New Again we feel inclined 
Farmer anda = {0 €Xxpress Our apprecia- 
New Earth 

of the World's 
IVork, which is doing so much to ele- 


vate agriculture in the opinion of its 

many readers, and to the 

farmer, student and experimenter. 

December’s number has two articles 
The first, “The 
New lfarmer and a New Earth,” is the 

beginning of a series by Professor 1 

on agricultural topics. 

T. Galloway, Chief of the Bureau of 

Plant Industry, U.S. of 

The article has a highly 

optimistic strain, showing the remark- 
able revolution which agriculture has 
undergone, the 

to nation 

immense advan 

provements in ideals and methods. 


tages the of 


profusion of pictures contrasting the 

great 1 

new with the old, adds illustration to 

affirmation to convince one of the pro 
man in the laboratory is given great 

gress and dignity of farming. 
and the man on the farm is com 
mended for his adaptibility and pro- 

It is an improved agriculture more 
than that 

America the wonder of the world. The 

anything else has made 
tiller of the soil owes his emancipa- 
tion to the improved agriculture and 
all that it brings with it. Rice is pro 
duced on immense acreages where it 
was thought it would not grow, and 
has brought wealth to a_ heretofore 
Within the last three 

years Russian wheat has been grown 

poor country. 

with great success in the dry plain 
country of the Northwest, and 
will probably 


year supply enough 

eC an] 


f its 


seminola to render the heretofore large 
importation unnecessary. Seminola is 
the flour used in macaroni manufac- 
ture. Dairying and the animal indus- 
try of the South have been greatly 
benefited by science. 

These are examples of the results 
of investigation and effort on the part 
of “men trained to see, to learn, and to 
do.” “Agriculture is now a diversified 
industry. The modern farm- 
er is concerned with large areas of 
land. * * * The up-to-date farmer 
must have a system, and this must be 
correlated and harmonized with the 
surroundings.” The farmer must have 
business intelligence as well as farm- 
ing intelligence. Intuitive foresight 
may be successful, but it is too uncer- 
tain. “It is the man who does things 
and knows why he does them, who 

reaches the top.” 

Life in T. N. Carver, professor 
the of economics in Harvard 
Corn Belt University, writes the 
other article, “Life in the Corn Pelt.” 
December’s CouNTRYMAN mentions 
Professor Carver’s November article 
“Corn Growing and the Corn Grow- 
ers,” in which he describes his trip on 
horseback through the corn belt. The 
present article deals with social and 
economic conditions in the corn belt. 
The western farmer is observed to 
be well informed, especially in the poli- 
tics of his state; but he lacks acquaint- 
ance with manv of the essentials of cul- 
ture. THe is keen at buving and selling, 
and evinces a fair proficiency in the 
business and technical sides of his oper- 
ations. In the corn belt we have a 
condition of things not usual to less 
prosperous agricultural sections. There 
the abler men stay on the farms, while 
the town and small ¢’ »opulations are 
made up of men inefficient physically 

The Cornell Countryman 53 

or mentally, and of retired farmers 
A class of “tired” farmers live in the 
towns, and should be sharply distin- 
guished from the “retired,” who have 
made a success of farming. Farm life 
is certainly superior to town life in the 
corn belt. 

There is no serious labor problem 
“The typical farm hand is a young un- 
married man, usually the son of a 
farmer living in the neighborhood— 
though frequently a foreign immigrant 
—who ‘works out’ for a few years 
merely to get money enough to begin 
farming on his own responsibility on 
a rented farm. Under such conditions 
it would be manifestly impossible to or- 
ganize a successful labor union among 
farm hands. This scarcity 
of farm labor, however, in no way in- 
terferes with the success of corn gTrow- 
ing.” Riding plows and other ma- 
chines make it possible for small boys 
and even girls to accomplish a great 
deal of the farm work. “On a typical 
corn farm there is no season which is 
pre-eminently the busy season, unless 
the corn-plowing has fallen behind be- 
cause of wet weather.” Corn is recog- 
nized as the most profitable crop; but 
since with a given labor force only so 
much corn can be grown, and there is 
need of no more labor force to grow 
several other crops in addition, wheat 
and oats are grown considerably 
“Thus the farmer in the corn belt has 
practically eliminated the labor prob- 
lem.” There is practically no problem 
of domestic service. “Every farmer's 
wife expects to do her own work.” 

“As applied to country districts, the 
great question is—and it is by far the 
most important and far-reaching ques- 
tion relating to rural life in America—- 
can we ultimately develop a rural pop- 
ulation with a high standard of living 
or must the land continue to pass into 
the hands of a population with a low 


standard of living, but great industry ? 

This is a question which goes to the 
very foundations of American civiliza- 
tion. Upon its answer depends the 
question whether the rural districts 
the great seed-bed of our population 
or of any population, for that matter 
shall be the home of a cultured, pro- 
gressive, liberal-minded people, or cf 
a ‘peasant-minded’ people. 

“The corn belt is the most consider 
able area in the world where agricul- 
prosperity is, moreover, healthful and 

ture is uniformly prosperous. 

The people engag- 
ed in the corn-growing industry are an 
independent, progresive class, drawing 
their sustenance from the soil, and not 
from other people.” 

Dr. Carver received his Ph. D. at 
a student here 

he rowed on the crew.— Editors 


The University and Experiment Sta- 
tion of Wvoming has received as a gift 
from the State Board of Charities t 
penitentiary buildings and farm = in 
Laramie. This adds to the college and 
station equipment a farm of 320 acres, 
situated on the Laramie River, 
buildings costing originally 



The new live-stock and grain-judg 
ing pavilion at the lowa College is near 
ing completion. It 
building, built of 
two stories high, 
be used 

is an octagonal 
pressed brick and 
The lower floor will 
for ammal husbandry work, 
and the upper floor for the judging 
of and demonstrations upon corn and 
grain. The building will cost 
completed about $15,000. 


The special course in Agriculture, 
which has been given at the Scientific 
School of Yale University for twenty- 
five has been discontinued on 
account of the retirement of Professor 


4 The Cornell Countryman 

The Idaho College and Station has 
decided to add an agronomist to its 
staff to take up work in plant breeding 
and soil physics. <A_ bacteriological 
laboratory will also be established. 

* * 

The Iowa Agricultural College of- 
fers a two weeks’ course in judging, 
feeding, breeding and management of 
live stock, beginning January 4. The 
work is intended for busy men who 
cannot take an extended course in ag- 
riculture. This is the fourth year that 

it has been given. It has proved so 

popular that accommodations have 
been made for 1,000 students. One 
of the features of the work is a 

slaughter test in which animals repre- 

senting the various beef tvpes are in- 

spected on foot, then killed, cut up, 
and discussed. 
*k x 
The Bureau of Soils has fifteen 

parties in the field, in the 
The S¢ 


southern and 
parties are 
working in 
and in the south 
of nin 

shifted with the 
the north in summet 


in winter. A party 

on the storage r 

\rizona. Most 

is working 
servoir problem in 
of the parties consist 

of two men. The Bureau has mapped 
34,000,000 acres at an average cost I 

$3.10 per square mil 

\t the close of the last session of thi 
English Hous 
introduced making agricultural 

] tsecmltursal 

of Commons a bill was 
i 1 

rural and 


schools in semi-rural 


event in the deve 1Op 
ment of horticulture in thi 
place December 10 
horticultural building 
The « xercises were at- 

\n interesting 
of Missouri took 
When the new 
was dedicated. 
tended bv the state fruit growers in a 
body. civen repre- 
senting the educationalandcommercial 
sides of horticulture. Professor Craig 
eave the former, and J. Ti. Hale the 
latter. The building is a substantial 
stone structure, costing $40,000, It is 
built by the state. 

\ddr« sses were 

nt of 
1 ag- 
(| SO 

The Cornell Countryman 



In 1892 the University herd of Hol- 
steins gave an average annual yield of 
273 pounds of butter fat, equal to 318 
pounds of butter. In 1902 the de- 
scendants of these same cows gave an 
average annual product of 301 pounds, 
equal to 351 pounds of butter. 

Within the last year the University 
farm has been much changed. The 
Board of Trustees has given to the 
Athletic Association 55 acres from the 
south side of the old farm. Twenty- 
two acres on the east part of this will 
be made into an athletic field. The 33 
acres bordering Garden Avenue will be 
a play ground for tennis, lacrosse 
cricket, ete., where any one may in- 
dulge in the game that he likes. The 
Trustees have more than made up for 
this reduction by the purchase of ad 
ditional land east of the old farm. The 
new portions are the Mitchell farm of 
108 acres, the Preswick farm of 56 
acres and the Behrend farm of 44 
acres. These changes give a farm of 
248 acres, of which 92 acres is arable, 
Q3 acres pastures, 49 wood and waste 
land. TPBesides this, they have leased 
another farm of 94 acres. 

a 2 

The first annual meeting of the Ag- 
ricultural E-xperimenter’s League of 
New York will be held January 8-9 
Secretary Wilson of the United States 
Department of Agriculture or his rep 
resentative will be here. Director 
Bailey will speak, and reports of the 
vear’s experiments will be given, 

\mong other courses given by the 
horticultural department, is one deal 
ing with the construction of various 
tvpes of modern greenhouses. Through 
the generosity of some of the leading 
horticultural builders and = manufac- 
turers of greenhouse material we have 
been enabled to give a very practical 
course of instruction in this line. At 
present there is in course of construc- 
tion a curvilinear, iron framed house, 
which was furnished by the Lord & 

Lurnham Co. of Irvington, N. Y. We 
have also on hand two other houses of 
different styles, furnished by the Dil- 
lon Construction Co. of Bloomsburg. 
Pa., and A. T. Stearns Lumber Co. of 
Boston, Mass., which will be erected 
soon. Other companies have ex- 
pressed their desire to furnish houses 
of their type of construction when 
the class is ready to erect them. Ar- 
rangements have been made so that 
students interested in this work can 
carry it on throughout the year with 
profit. : 

Professor Wing has purchased six- 
teen steer calves froin the west. There 
are five Herfords, five Galloways, three 
Shorthorns and three Angus. All are 
high grades. They will be used for 
instruction purposes and for feeding 
experiments. The high price of meat 
has caused a growing interest in beef 
cattle in the East. These, added to the 
Holsteins and Jerseys of the dairy give 
us a representative herd. 

The normal institute mentioned in 
the last number of the CouNTRYMAN 
was held from November 3oth till De- 
cember ith. There were ten sessions 
in all, in which were engaged six- 
teen professors and instructors, in- 
cluding Dr. Jordan, of Geneva, and 
Mr. Flanders assistant =commis- 
sioner of agriculture. The = sub- 
jects of instruction were: bovine and 
human tuberculosis, soil chemistry. 
soil investigation, the importance of 
water in plant production, the char- 
acteristics of soils, the improvement 
of field crops, forage and soiling crops. 
recent experiments with alfalfa and 
other legumes, pastures and meadows 
progress in plant breeding, synopsis 
of experiments with dust spray, trou- 
blesome insects of the vear, spraying 
to destroy wild mustard, foundation 
principles of animal breeding, milk 
sanitation, the horse, and agricultural 
law. Two social evenings were en- 
joved at the homes of Director Bailey 
and Professor Craig. 

There were about thirty in atten- 

56 The Cornell 

dance, whose names follow: 
Dawley, director; Fred S. Arnold, 
Alva Agee, Professor S. A. Beach, 
C. E. Chapman, H. E. Cook, J. D. 
Clegg, J. G. Curtis, Chas. M. Day, 
Emmons Dunbar, John Ennis, Profes- 
sor Eustace, Andrew Elliott, Dr. E 
P. Felt, Fred. E. Gott, Professor H 
A. Harding, Hon. John Hamilton, T 
A. Hoverstad, John Jeannin, Jr., Pro- 

F. E 

fessor P. G. Parrot, Geo. T. Powell, 
Prof. F. H. Stewart, Geo. A. Smith, 
Dr. C. D. Smead, F. A. Sirrine, F 

G. Tice, Edward Van Alstyne, Henry 

Van Dreser, Jared Van Wagnen 
Jared Van Wagnen, Jr., J. O. Wads- 
worth, D. P. Witter, J. S. Wood- 

Director Bailey and Professors Hunt 
and Pearson gave addresses at the 
New York State Dairymen’s Associa- 
tion. This association passed a reso- 
lution asking the State Legislature to 
provide a building for the College of 

x * * 

Professor Stone is getting out a 
bulletin on spraving for the eradica- 
tion of mustard. The co-operative 
experiments with the copper sulphate 
spray have been entirely successful. 

It has saved many dollars for those 
using it. 
* * * 

A new feature is being started in 
connection with the poultry depart- 
ment. A Cornell Poultry Associa- 
tion has been formed. It is the pur- 
pose to hold a poultry show each year. 
Students will choose fowls from the 
University flock and will fit them for 
the show. Awards will be made to 
those who present the best fowls. 

x * * 

An incubator house is now being 
constructed. When it is completed 
it is thought that Cornell will have as 
good an equipment for poultry work 
as anv college in the country. Profes- 
sor Rice and the students are doing 
much of the work of construction. 

x x x as 

\ ginseng bed has been established 
and will be further added to next 
spring. The various problems that 


confront the ginseng grower will be 
‘2 4 

Among the numerous experiments 
being conducted with potatoes, is one 
that has for its object the improve- 
ment of the quality. 

xk ok x 

G. W. Bush, ’07, was called home 
on account of the death of his father 
He will not be able to return for some 
time, if at all this year. 

*x* * * 

Scott H. Perky, Sp. Agr., associate 
editor of Tne CouNtTRYMAN, is about 
to start on an extended trip through 
the West Indies and Southern United 
States, where he will study rural con- 
ditions. Articles written irom these 
countries will appear in this magazine 

* * * 

G. N. Lauman spent his Christmas 
vacation in Florida. 
* * 

Professor A. D. Selby, botanist of 
the Ohio Agricultural College, Woos- 
ter, Ohio, visited us in the early part 
of December. 

Professor J]. W. Decker of the 
Ohio State University Agricultura! 
College visited the University on his 
return from the New Hampshire 
Dairvmen’s convention. 

With the reorganization of the Col- 
lege of Agriculture several notable ad- 
ditions have been made to the faculty 
and brief sketches of these men will 
certainly be of interest to all former 
students. These additions are: 
Thomas Forsyth Hunt, professor of 
agronomy and manager of the Uni- 
versity farms. Professor Hunt re- 
ceived his preliminary education at the 
reeport, Illinois, high school, and 
took his bachelor’s degree in science 
at the University of Illinois in 1884. 
After graduation he held in succession 
the positions of assistant to the Illinois 
State Entomologist, assistant in Ag- 
riculture at the University of Illinois, 
and assistant to the Illinois Experi- 

rill be 

IS one 

he me 



st of 




The Cornell Countryman 

ment Station, and in 1891 he was ap- 
pointed professor of agriculture in 
the Pennsylvania State College. The 
following year he was called to the 
professorship of agriculture in the 
Ohio State University, which position 
he has held until the time of his pres- 
ent appointment, having, in the mean- 
time, filled the office of dean of the 
College of Agriculture and Domestic 
Science of Ohio State University since 
its establishment in 1896, and that of 
registrar of the Graduate School of 
Agriculture. He received his master’s 
degree in science from the University 
of Illinois in 1&92, and in June, 1902, 
the same institution conferred upon 
him the honorary degree of D.Agr. 
Professor Hunt is a member of the 
Societv for the Promotion of Agricul- 
tural Science, and has taken an active 
interest in the Association of Agricul- 
tural Colleges and Experiment Sta- 
tions, having been indentified with a 
number of its imnortant committees. 
His numerous publications have em- 
bodied the results of his many and ex- 
tensive investigations in the field of 
agriculture and allied subjects. 

Ravmond Allen Pearson, professor 
of dairv industrv. Professor Pearsor 
was born in Indiana, but removing tq 
the East he graduated from the Tthaca 
High School. and entered Cornell Uni- 
versity, graduated from the agricul- 
tural course in 1894, and later secured 
the master’s degree. During his senior 
vear he assisted in the laboratory in- 
struction of the first dairy course given 
in the Universitv. After graduation, 
he engaged in the milk business in 
Philadelphia, but when the Dairv 
Division of the National Department 
of Agriculture was organized with 
Major H. FE. Alvord as chief, Profes- 
sor Pearson was made assistant chief, 
which position he held until 1902. He 
then became general manager of the 
Walker-Gordon Laboratory Company, 
a concern with headauarters in New 
York and operating branches in six- 
teen large cities, that makes a specialty 
of modified milk for infant feeding and 
high class milk for domestic purposes. 
Professor Pearson is Fellow of the 
American Association for the Advance- 

ment of Science, and has contributed 
several important bulletins and reports 
to dairy literature. 

Jay A. Bonsteel, professor of soil 
investigation, secured his preparation 
for college work at Franklinville, N. Y. 
He was graduated with the degree of 
B. S. from Cornell University in 1896, 
and held the position of assistant in 
geology for three years. In 1898 he 
secured employment on the Maryland 
Geological Survey, and pursued a 
a course leading to the degree of Ph.D. 
at Johns Hopkins University, where he 
was graduated in 1901. He has been 
emploved as field assistant scientist in 
the Bureau of Soils of the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture since June, 
1899, and is assigned by the Bureau of 
Soils to carry on the soil investigation 
work at Cornell. Professor Bonsteel’s 
publications have been issued through 
the annual reports of the Bureau of 

James Edward Rice, assistant pro- 
fessor of poultry husbandry, was 
born in Illionis but was brought up 
on a farm in Washington County, 
N. Y. His preparatory education 
was at the Granville Military Acade- 
my. He entered Cornell University 
in 1886, and graduated in the course 
in agriculture in 1890. For three years 
1e was a graduate student and assistant 
in agricuiure, and during this time 
gave the first definite course of in- 
struction in poultry husbandry ever 
given in an American agricultural col- 
lege. Most of the time since 1893 
Profesor Rice has been engaged in 
poultry, fruit and truck farming, 
at Yorktown, N. Y., in connection 
with his brother-in-law, under the 
firm name of White & Rice. The 
firm has obtained an enviable reputa- 
tion as a producer of high class pro- 
ducts. For the past ten years Profes- 
sor Rice has taken an active part in 
Farmers’ Institute work, and has been 
a regular lecturer in New York each 
vear. He has also spoken in New Jer- 
sey, Maryland, Minnesota, Connecti- 
cut, Rhode Island and Pennsylvania. 
His contributions to the agricultural 
press have been numerous and impor- 

S. W. Fletcher, assistant professor 

The Cornell 

of extension teaching in agriculture. 
Professor Fletcher was born on a Mas- 
sachusetts farm, graduated from the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College in 
1896, then became assistant horti- 
culturist at the Experiment Station of 
the same state. In 1897-’98 he was a 
fellow in horticulture in the University, 
and assisted in instruction in the Ex- 
tension Department until 1900, when 
he became professor of horticulture in 
the Washington State College at Pull- 
man. In October, 1902, he became 
horticulturist of the West Virginia 
Experiment Station, which position he 
has resigned to come to Cornell. 

John Main Trueman, assistant in 
animal husbandry and dairy indus- 
try takes the place left vacant by the 
resignation of Mr. James A. Foord, 
who is now professor of agriculture 
in Delaware College. Mr. Trueman is 
a native of Nova Scotia, and a gradu- 
ate of the Agricultural School at 
Truro. He graduated from Cornell 
University in Agriculture, 1895. He 
was for two years instructor in dairy 
husbandry in the South Dakota Ag- 
ricultural College, and since then has 
been manager of a large dairy farm in 
south eastern Pennsylvania, and of a 
gentleman’s country place near Scran- 

Frazer, instructor = in 
agronomy and_ superintendent of 
the University farm, was born in 
England, took a _ short course in 
dairving at the Worleston Dairv 
Institute, Cheshire, England, 1895-6. 
Graduated with first place at the 
Cheshire Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural College, Holmes Chapel, Eng- 
land, June, 1808. He has secured the 
following diplomas and medals: Fel- 
lowship, life-membership and diploma 
(with first place) of the Highland Ag- 
ricultural Society of Scotland in April, 
1808; silver medal, free life-member- 
ship and diploma, Royal Agricultural 
Society of England, May, 1898; medal 
and honors’ certificate in Agriculture, 
Science and Art Department, London, 
June, 1898; national diploma in 
dairying, September, 1898. Since then 
he has been engaged in various forms 
of farm and experimental work, and 



in giving agricultural instruction. 

Robert S. Northrup, instructor in 
horticulture, comes to us from North 
Dakota Agricultural College, where he 
had been assistant in horticulture and 
forestry for two years. He graduated 
at the Michigan Agricultural College 
in Igor. 

James A. Bizzell, assistant chemist 
to the Experiment Station, graduated 
at the North Carolina College of Ag- 
riculture and Mechanic Arts in 1895, 
and received his M.S. in 1900, From 
1895 to 1901 he was instructor in 
chemistry and assistant in the experi- 
ment station of his alma mater. In 
1901, he came to Cornell as fellow in 
chemistry, received his Ph.D., and was 
appointed to his present position last 

With the addition of these new men 
there have also been numerous promo- 
tions and transfers. 

Professor Bailey, as is well known, 
became director of the College and 
Ixperimant Station and Dean of the 
Faculty. He relinquishes the profes- 
sorship of horticulture and becomes 
professor of rural economy. 

Professor Wing’s chair has been 
divided, he retaining the professorship 
of animal husbandry. 

Professor Craig is transferred from 
the professorship of extension teach 
ing in agriculture to that of horti 

Mr. G. N. Lauman becomes secre- 
tary of the College and instructor in 
rural economy. 

Mr. G. W. Cavanaugh is promoted 
from assistant chemist of the Experi 
ment Station to assistant professor in 
chemistry in its relation with agri- 

Mr. John L. 

Stone is promoted to 
assistant professor of agronomy in 
charge of extension work. 


’89, B. S. Agr.—Geo. H. Davidson 
is on his farm at Millbrook, N. Y. 
He is one of the most noted Shropshire 
breeders in the United States. 

r in 
‘e he 

r in 

v in 







The Cornell Countryman 59 

‘94, B. S. Agr.—Harry Hayward, 
after graduating was appointed pro- 
fessor of dairy husbandry in the Penn- 
syivania State College. He received 
his master’s degree in oI, in absentia, 
and December, ‘02, was made profes- 
sor of animal husbandry at the New 
Hampshire Agricultural College. Last 
May he was appointed assistant chief 
of the dairy division, Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. He 
resigned this position in July, and is 
now farm superintendent of Mr. 
Moody's school, Northfield, Mass. 

‘96 B.S. Agr.—Leroy Anderson ’y7 
M. S. Agr., ’02, Ph.D. Mr. Ander- 
son was Professor Wing’s assistant 
in dairy husbandry until the summer 
of 1901, when he went to Berkeley to 
develop the department of dairy hus- 
bandr} at University of California. 
He returned to receive his doctor’s de- 
gree in June, ’02, and was immediately 
called to the directorship of the Cali- 
fornia Polytechnique School at San 
Luis Obispo. Professor Anderson 
still occupies this position. 

’97, B. S. A.—James Wheaton 
Clark is assistant agent of W. O. 
Wadsworth, Geneseo, N. Y. Mr. 
Clark used to ring the chimes in his 
student days at Cornell. His brother, 
Willard W. Clark, F. E. ’o02, is a for- 
ester in the Philippines in the employ 
of the U. S. government. 

‘98, B. S. A.—John Gilmore spent 
two vears in China, taught agriculture 

Honolulu, and was director of the 
government experiment works in the 
island of Negros. Mr. Gilmore em- 
bodied the results of some of his work 
in the island of Negros in a prelimin- 
ary report on “Commercial Fibers of 
the Philippines,” published as Bulle- 
tin 4 by the Philippine Bureau of Ag- 
riculture. Last fall Mr. Gilmore re- 
turned to Cornell as assistant in agri- 

98, B. S. A.—H. C. McLallen, 
M.S. in Agr., has lately been appoint- 
ed assistant in agriculture in the New 
Mexico College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts at Mesilla Park, New 
Mexico. He married Miss Helen 
Macgregor, November 25th. 

‘98. Sp. in Agr—Edgar Salinger 

is manager of the “Plasmon” factory 
at Briarcliff Manor, N. Y. 

‘98, Winter Dairy.—C. A. Grant is 
manager of a large creamery at Ful- 
ton, Kansas. 

98, M. S. Agr.—In the last mail J. 
I. Higgins of Manoa Valley received 
his commission from the Department 
of Agriculture as U. S. Horticulturist 
He has joined the staff of the Experi- 
ment Station. Mr. Higgins is a grad- 
uate of Cornell University, and an ex- 
pert in his line-—The Pacific Com- 
mercial Advertiser, Honolulu. 

‘oo, B. S. in Agr.—L. C. Corbet, ‘96 
M.S. in Agr., Horticulturist of Bureau 
of Plant Industry, is the author of a 
bulletin on “Cranberry Culture,” re- 
cently published by the Department of 

‘oo, B. S. A.—Franklin Sherman, 
Jr., who is State Entomologist for 
North Carolina, was married May 
12th, ’03, to Grace Berry, of Ashgrove, 
Fairfax County, Va. 

‘oo, Graduate Work.—L. A. Clin- 
ton, "89, B. S. Michigan Agr. Col. 
Mr. Clinton came to Cornell in the 
fall of 1899 as Professor Roberts’ as- 
sistant in agriculture. During the 
past year he has been director of the 
Connecticut Agricultural Experiment 
Station, which position he accepted in 
November, 1902. 

rc 0, B. S. A.—Otto F. Hunziker, ’or, 
M. S. in Agr., was appointed instruc- 
tor in bacteriology in the Cornell Vet- 
erinary College, but now holds an im- 
portant position with the Scranton 
Condensed Milk Co., of Ellicottville, 
N. F. 

‘oo, M. A.—Jacob G. Lipman, ‘98, 
B. S. Rutgers. Mr. Lipman received 
his Ph.D. at Cornell, June, ’03, and is 
now soil chemist and bacteriologist at 
the New Jersey Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station. 

‘oo, A. M.—C. O. Simpson was for 
three years in the employ of the Gov- 
ernment under Dr. L. O. Howard, en- 
tomologist. He is now in South Africa. 
holding the position of Government 
Entomologist of the Transvaal, with 
a salary of $5,000 a year. This is one 
of the many cases that illustrate how 
foreign governments are securing our 

60 The Cornell 

best scientists by offering them better 
salaries than they can get at home. 

‘oI, Sp. Agr.—H. S. Stone is farm 
manager of the Sailors’ Snug Harbor 
New Brighton, N. Y. 

‘or, Sp. Agr.—B. C. White is en- 
gaged in agricultural work at Olyph- 
ant, Lackawanna county, Pa. 

‘02, M. S. in Agr.—Robert E. East- 
man, ‘oo, B. S. A., Kansas Agricul- 
tural College. During the summer of 
1902 Mr. Eastman was employed by 
Miller Brothers on their large peach 
farm at Pawpaw, West Virginia. He 
was then called to Hampton Institute 
as landscape gardener and field assist- 
ant in horticulture. He is now back 
at the Kansas Agricultural College, 
where he was appointed assistant in 
horticulture, September, 1903. 

‘o2, Sp. in Agr.—Harry E. Crouch 
was well known during the three years 
that he was at Cornell. He took 

charge of the Polled-Jerseys in the 
Model Dairy at the Pan-American Ex- 
position, and is now herdsman at the 
University of Illinois. 

‘02, Sp. in Agr.—Ear! D. Crocker is 

Sennett, N. Y. 

’o2, B. S. A.—George W. Hosford 
is assistant in agriculture at Hamp 
ton Institute, Hampton, Virginia. 
B.S. A—T. M. Sewards is vice 
president, and T. F. Sewards, his 
brother, is secretary of the A. H. 
Schultze Co., 198 West Broadway, 
New York City. 

‘02, B. S. A.—Charles H. Kraatz is 
on his farm at Akron, N. Y. Recently 
he has been testing cows for Professor 
Wing at Wycoff’s, Navarino, N. Y. 

’o2, B. S. A.—Charles W. Wen- 
bourne is secretary of the Horse World 
Co., publishing the Horse World, Buf- 
falo, N. Y. 

’03, Ph.D.—E. P. Sandsten, B. S. 
and M. S. at University of Minnesota. 
Mr. Sandsten is now profesor of hor- 
ticulture in the University of Wiscon- 

03, Sp. Agr.—D. C. Stanion sailed 
for England on December toth to pur- 
chase Cheshire hogs for Mr. Huson of 
the Kalorama Farm, Penn Yan, N. Y. 

his agricultural theories at 



He will also make purchases for other 


Earl B. Willey, 223 Front Street, 
San Fransisco, Cal., has been in dairy 
work for the past four years. 

G. W. Breckenridge, Stacy Basin, 
Oneida County, N. Y., followed the 
business of butter and cheese making 
at Higginsville and Fonda, N. Y. until 
the fall of 1901. He then bought a 
farm of near Stacy Basin 
and is now actively engaged in farm- 

J. E. Dorman, 

200 acres 

7 Thalia, Princess 
Anne county, Va. After leaving Ith- 
aca Mr. Dorman ran a creamery in 
New Jersey for a vear, but left this to 
take charge of a model dairy farm near 
Philadelphia, where he remained for 
three years. He then accepted his pres- 
ent position as manager of an 1,800 
acre truck and dairy farm, which has 
also extensive ovster beds on the Lynn- 
haven River. Mr. Dorman says that 
his training at Cornell has been a 
great help to him. Every move he 
has made has been in response to an 
increase in salary until at the present 
time it amounts to $1,500 a year. He 
adds that the most important event 
that has happened to him since the 
winter of 1894, is his marriage in 1899 
to Miss Katherine Fredricks of Wash- 
ington, D. C. Thev have a son that 
he hopes one day will be a student at 

Herbert Hoopes, V. M. D., Bynum, 
Hartford county, Maryland, was the 
youngest man in the dairv class of 
1894. He had charge of their home 
creamery until the fall of 1896, when 
he entered the Veterinary Department 
of the University of Pennsylvania 
graduated in 1899, and has since been 
practicing, with headquarters at 
home, where he has a dairy of 200 
registered Jerseys. Dr. Hoopes was 
married two years ago this January. 

Peter Langwell, Wolcott, N. Y 
Rockford, Tll., is Mr. Langwell’s old 
home, but Wayne County has been the 
scene of his labors for the past nine 
years. He has been with the Sodus 




ht a 

v in 
is to 

» an 
it at 

5 of 



The Cornell Countryman 

Co-operative Creamery Co., since the | 
company started. H. B. Douglas, who 
was a student in the dairy school, is 
their butter maker at Wolcott, and 
A. S. Chaplin, graduate of Wisconsin’s 
dairy school, holds the same position 
at Sodus. Mr. Langwell is secretary 
treasurer and manager of the com- 
pany’s plants, and is a busy man. 

George L. Lucas, Pawling, N. Y. 
was in a butter factory before coming 
to Cornell, and since 1894 has con- 
tinued to follow the milk and it pro- 
ducts. He made butter until 1898, and 
then went into the bottling business 
He is now in charge of one of the 
large bottling plants of the Slawson- 
Decker Co., located 64 miles from New 
York in a rich farming section of the 
Harlem valley. Mr. Lucas employs 
nine men, and ships about 9,000 quarts 
of bottled milk daily. 

Frederick H. Merry, Verona, N. Y 
During the year of 1899 Mr. Merry 
was in the employ of James P. Brown's 
Sons of Utica, N. Y., dealers in cheese 
both for home and export trade. His 
main work was visiting the factories 
and inspecting the cheese. Since 1894 
with the exception of the year men- 
tioned, Mr. Merry has been in charge 

of the butter and cheese making in the | 

G. Merry cheese factory and creamery 

located at Verona, N. Y. 




(Established 30 years). 

Jersey Cattle, bred for butter. Cheshire Swine, 
bred for prolificacy, lean meat, and quick maturity 
Poultry for beauty and utility, including Rose-comb, 
Brown and White Leghorns. and all kinds of Ducks. 


G. F. Morgan 


Try him and see what he can do. Cam- 
pus Views, Lantern Slides, and all kinds of 
reproduction work his specialty. 

Phone 169 or address 127 Gascadilla Place, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 


Is the best and most profitable 
food for cattle and sheep 

Reports from the principal Agricul- 
tural Experiment Stations show 
the great value of Cotton Seed Meal 
for feeding. The farmer gets back 
the cost of the Meal in the increased 
value of manure for fertilizing pur- 
poses. It is of special value in feed- 
ing milch cows. 

It Makes 

More Milk 
Richer Cream 
Firmer Butter 

Cottonseed meal is enriching the 
food of dairy cattle all over the 
world, more than two hundred 
thousand tons being exported an- 
nually for this and kindred uses. 

A large quantity goes back to 
the fields every year as a fertilizer, 
its richness in nitrates giving it 
special value as a plant food. Asa 
special aid to the tobacco raiser 
it is unequaled for producing the 
color, quality and texture of leaf 
that is most desired by buyers and 
handlers of ‘tthe weed.” 

For sale by all dealers in feed. 
Pamphlets mailed free on applica- 
tion to 


27 Beaver St., 

If you appreciate THe CoUNTRYMAN, mention us to advertisers. 

The Cornell Countryman 

Ask the most success- 
ful poultrymen. 


have been on the market 
l2 years. Used exclu- 
sively on the best farms in 
America. Catalogue free. 
Made only by 

Cornell Incubator Mfg. Co., Box 57, Ithaca, N. Y. 

EAST HOMER, N. Y., Sept. 21, 1903. 
Cornell Incubator Mfg. Co. 

Gentlemen: I received your shipment of three 
No. 2 Peep-O’-Day Broodors in O. K. condition, and 
I am pleased to say that I think they are the best 
brooders manufactured. 

Yours very truly, 

Incubator Advancement 

Cornell Incubator—heated and ventilated in 
Nature's way. Always gets proper moisture 
lines at the right time. 
Result: Most vigorous 
chicks ever hatched 
artificially Gold Medal 
—Highest Award—Pan 
American Exposition, 
Catalogue free. Made 
only by 

Box 57 Ithaca, WN. Y. 

Cornell Incubator Mfg. Co. 
Ithaca, N. Y.: Dear Sirs- 
We putthe Cornell Incu- 
bator to trial twice; Ist time hatched all but four 
fertile egas; 2nd time all but one fertile egy, the 
strongest chicks we ever hatched in incubators. 

Your very truly, J. D. WILCOX & SON, 
Worcester, N. Y. Sept. 26, 1903. 


Issued Every Week at Johnstown, N. Y. 

If you are Interested in Thoroughbred Poultry and wish to keep posted on all matters 
pertaining to the fancy, ours is the paper for you. It is edited by J. H. Dreven- 
STEDT, the well known judge of Poultry. 




——— i aT to do its part all right if you give him a fair chance, 
P > Tag but he really ought to have that chance. Give us the 
= egg, a fairly good egg, and then watch the 

)) Reliable Incubators & Brooders 

get in their work. This matter of selecting the right 
machine means success or failure,chicksor no chicks, 
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the house? We have gotten out good catalogues in the past, but this one stands alone. A 
treatise of the whole poultry question by eminent poultry men. The Reliable Poultry 
Farm, with 126 pens of thoroughbred poultry, furnishes material for an interesting chapter. 
Sent anywhere upon receipt of 10 cents, 



Does Oo 0 At the Cutter Mean 
Saving ONE or TWO MEN “* ioc “eo: 

in ensilage cutting time? Self Feed on ‘‘Ohio” cutters does that and > & 

more, and increases capacity 33% %. 

1903 “OHIO” Blower Elevators 4 

solve the Blower problem. They successfully elevate ensilage into silos up Pipe edad 
to any height, as demonstrated by abun- 
dant proof in 193 catalogue. WO and 2 >= 
H. P. Engines drive Nos. 13, 16, 18 and 19 , wR IA 
Cutters with blowers, and all other sizes ‘ \ Tih lS 
‘;Ohio” Ensilage Cutters. In capacity r > 
Ohio” Cutters lead; 10 to 30 tons per hour. 
1903 Shredder Blades (patent applied for) are inter- 
changeable with knives, all sizes. They put corn stalks 2 
into best condition for feed, running at normal speed. _, : 
Our absolute guarantee goes with every machine. Made by -\ 
The Silver Mfg. Co., Salem, Ohio. Est 

ablished an 

lf 30u appreciate ‘THe CoUNTtRYMAN, mention us to alvertisers. 

The Cornell Countryman 

Cypress Greenhouses 
Cypress or Yellow Pine 





For Bugs and 


” MEngtish Glazing 
Sey f 

EN - i , 
a Send for pamph- 
let to 
B. HAMMOND, Fisasitgnstue- 
’ son, N. Y. 
LK. If your house wants painting or the green- 

house leaks, send for sample cards. 

Some of Our 


Manufacturers and Handlers 
Dairy Creamery Apparatus and Supplies. 



If you appreciate ‘THe COUNTRYMAN, mention us to advertisers. 

64 The Cornell Countryman 

Greenhouses and Conservatories 

erected complete with our Patent Iron Construction. 

Special attention given to designing and locating 
ranges of glass to harmonize with surroundings. 

Plans and estimateson application. 

Material of all Kinds Ready for Erection. 
Air Dried Red Gulf Cypress. Strictly Free from Sap. 
**Special’’ Greenhouse Putty, Glass, Etc. 

Prices upon application 


New York Office, St. James Bldg., Broadway & 26th St. 

General Office and Works, Irvington-on Hudson. 

Greenhouse Construction Catalogue, and Greenhouse Heating and Ventilating Cata 
logue mailed from New York Office on receipt of 5 cents postage for each. 

America’s Leading - Horse Importers. 


At the International Live Stock Exposition 1903 one of our 2200 pound stal 
lions won First prize and Championship. One of our sensational acting Coach 
stallions won First prize and Championship. Four Percherons won First in collec- 
tion. In the classes where we competed our stallions won more First prizes than 

the stallions of any of our competitors. 
At the great annual Show of France held at Evreux 
June 1903, our stallions won first, second, third and 
fourth prizes in every Percheron stallion class; also won 
first as best collection. 
At the show of the Societe Hippique Percheronne de 
France held at Nogent-le-Rotrou from June 1903, our 
stallions won every first prize, over forty prizes inall. Two 
groups were made up of our exhibit, on which we won 
first and second. 
At the Iowa state fair our Percheron stallions won 
three first prizes and first in collections. 
At the Minnesota state fair our French Coach stallions 
, won every possible first prize and grand sweepstakes. 
At the Ohio state fair our stallions won fourteen first prizes out of a possible 

At the Indiana state fair our Percherons won three first prizes. Our French 
Coachers won every possible prize. 

At the Kansas state fair our Percherons and French Coach stallions won 
every first prize including grand sweepstakes. 

At the American Royal, held in Kansas City, Oct. 19 to 25, our Percheron 
stallions won every first prize. One of our Percherons won championship. Five of 
our Percherons won first as best collection. Our French Coach stallions were equal- 
ly successful, winning every first prize. 

If your neighborhood is in need of a good stallion, let us hearfrom you. 


St. Paul, Minn. Columbus, Ohio. Kansas City, Mo. 

If you appreciate THe CouNTkYMAN, mention us to advertisers. 

ee © 
4 a, 


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