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Vol. 29. MAY, 1946 No. 3 

This number of THe High ScHoot JourRNAL is is- 
sued in cooperation with the Committee on Southern 
Regional Studies and Education of the American Coun- 
cil on Education and the Division of Research Inter- 
pretation of the University of North Carolina’s Insti- 
tute for Research in Social Science. Guest editors are 
John E. Ivey, Jr. and Harry B. Williams. 

“Us ton 
Schoo] of +0781 ty 

~ Library —*40n 

Committee on Southern Regional Studies and Education 
American Council on Education 

The Committee on Southern Regional Studies and Education of the 
American Council on Education has been assisting existing agencies in 
the South to develop methods and materials to close the tragic gap 
between research and education. For the past four years it has worked 
on this problem with 38 regional organizations and with more than 650 
state institutions and organizations. In this process it has sponsored 
Gatlinburg Conferences I and II and published two books, Channeling 
Research Into Education and Education For Use of Regional Resources. 
It issues a newsletter, Resource-Use Education, and provides, through 
its central office located at the University of North Carolina, a regional 
consultation and clearinghouse service in resource-use education. 


Maurice F. Seay, Chairman 
Gordon W. Blackwell 
John E. Brewton 
George F. Gant 
Edgar L. Morphet 
Roy W. Roberts 
George F. Zook, ex officio 

John E. Ivey, Jr., 
Executive Secretary 

[ 102 ] 


Table of Contents 

ee Te Pe Cid save nedndcdin ones chucnesuetdnsecoeerees Editor 
Framework for Resource Use 

Steps Toward Regional Resource Development......... Gordon R. Clapp and 

William J. McGlothlin 

Emerging Patterns of State Action...........cscceceesseed John E. Ivey, Jr. 

Resources and Community Organization............... Gordon W. Blackwell 

Resources and the Community School.....................-Maurice F. Seay 
Taking Facts to the People 

Regional Libraries Widen Community Horizons.............../ Marjorie Beal 

kk fF CTT eT eT re eT eee William J. McGlothlin 

Educational Materials for Regional Growth................4 John E. Brewton 

\ Book for Study of Regional Resources................4. John E. Ivey, Jr. 

Studying Resources in the Arkansas River Valley............ Roy W. Roberts 

Teachers in Action 

Classroom Teachers Make Resource Use Vivid...........1 Mary Sue Fonville 

Preparing Teachers Through Community Experience. .... Hermese J. Roberts 

New Perspectives for the Teacher in Service.......... William S. Taylor and 

Kenneth R. Williams 

Citizens Consider Their Community..............+2+00 0 Jean and Jess Ogden 
The Minister and the Land. ...........ceceeeeeceeees Vladimir E. Hartman 
The Librarian Looks at Resource Development.........../ Mary U. Rothrock 
The County Agent Teaches Resource Use............... Harry B. Williams 

Cover by John E, Sink, University of North Carolina Art Department 

[ 103 } 











Bridging the Tragic Gap 

Photo by Tennessee Valley Authority 

The tragic gap! A modern school: symbol of science and technology, of learn- 
ng for citizenship and wise resource use—a biological desert: symbol of exploita- 
tion and misuse of resources. This picture presents a challenge far more dramatic 
than words. It symbolizes the opportunity of education to help close the gap be- 
tween what is known and what is practiced. And particularly to southern educa- 
ion, it seems, is the challenge presented to help build a region. 

Frequently it has been said that the South is “the best documented region in 
\merica.” To put it another way, more research has been completed on the re- 
sources and opportunities of the South than on any other of America’s regions. 
Now we face the issue: because the scientific facts are available, there is an un- 
paralleled opportunity for leadership to translate science into public action. The 

stakes are high: a new way of life for 28,000,000 people! 

This opportunity exists because a host of agencies and great minds have fol- 
lowed a growing curiosity to discover why a potentially powerful region has lost 
substance and spirit in the lethargy of self-complacency. An endless tide of pam- 
phlets, reports, and books have resulted from the probing of a region’s life and re- 
sources. But three volumes have symbolized the spirit and fruits of the search. 

Howard W. Odum’s Southern Regions of the United States and Rupert B. 
\ance’s Human Geography of the South represent a pioneer level of synthesis and 
interpretation of what the South is, and what should be done to correct social and 
economic deficiencies of the area. The work of Odum, Vance, and their associates 
throughout the region, creates the rock base for intelligent social action to build a bet- 
ter life in the South. 

Within the same decade, when many Americans were still pondering the South’s 
late, another volume brought another type of thinking. David E. Lilienthal’s TVA 
Democracy on the March capped a fast-growing interest in “how do we work to- 

[ 105 ] 

bridging the tragic gap 

gether to improve living in the South.” This poses a different type of intellectual 
problem. The research specialist concerns himself primarily with “what is; what 
could be.” The administrator, taking up where most research stops, says, “How, 
through what practical methods, in what place, at what time, can we get the job 

done ? 

It is in answer to this point that Mr. Lilienthal verbally parades flesh and blood 
examples of how men and science in the Tennessee Valley are slowly weaving the 
new fabric of a richer life. One is struck, and in a democracy perhaps should stay 
struck, with how the expert must find rapport with people he serves; how labora- 
tory and classroom specialization, exposed to the test of solving everyday problems 
of living, must grow into a new unity of purpose and synthesis of judgment. 

The individual who works within the influences of research and action cannot 
escape a growing humility born of respect for what each has to contribute to the 
other. He knows that, separated, research and administration each will tend to be- 
come sterile: research, because it may lose contact with people and the needs of ac 
tion programs; administration, because it may lose the stimulation and discipline 
of science. 

Today the South is becoming increasingly concerned with how communities and 
states can act to improve agriculture, industry, business, and public services. Ex- 
periments in method are growing out of the contributions of the scientist. Research 
and administrative interests are being joined, not separated. The task is becoming 
one of arranging systematic and practical methods for a three-way flow of influence 
among research, administration, and the people. 

This flow of influence is basically an educational process. Building channels of 
communication among the people, research specialists, and administrators is essen- 
tially a job of devising new and more effective working contacts. The object is mo- 
bility of ideas, synthesis of judgments, and consequent action on specific jobs. 

Resource-use education has been furnishing a focal point of interest and work in 
the South. The development of resources is basic to improved living. Scientists, 
educators, and administrators are joining efforts in forwarding this educational orien- 
tation on all levels of action: public school, college and university, and adult. The 
objective is not just learning more about the South’s resources; it is also the dissem- 
ination of information in such a way that it results in action. 

These channels between research and action, in final analysis, exist in the minds 
of people. For the task, we do not necessarily need new schools, new colleges and 
universities, new libraries, and new public agencies. Rather, we need a new con- 
viction in the hearts and minds of the leaders who influence the destinies of people 
through these institutions; we need a conviction that public service can be effective 
only if it is informed, based on a union of science and spirit so as to release the 
maximum of human creative energy. 

This issue of Tue Hicu Scuoor JourNAL records points of view and ways that 
groups and individuals, through specific and seemingly unspectacular jobs, are work- 
ing to devise practical channels between research and action. Each author has put 
emphasis on the what and how. In so doing, they have reflected examples of meth- 
ods for arranging working relationships to provide a flow of research into action. 

\ new frontier for pioneering democracy is the field of systematic research and 
action in how educational processes, through organization and administration, can 
channel research into social action. As you will see, the South may furnish some 
valuable experience, as education helps build a region. 

—J. E. I. Jr. 

[ 106 ] 

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Steps Toward Regional 
Resource Development 


The ancient writer who said “All flesh 
s grass” gave poetic expression to an in- 
‘uition born of reverence for creation. If 
e had lived at a later time, he might have 
said “All flesh is sunlight, water, air, and 
minerals,” for science has revealed to us 
a part of the mystery of nature’s powers 
of growth. Now as in ancient time man 
cannot escape dependence upon the never- 
changing basic resources of his environ- 
ment. We can discover and develop new 
sources of minerals, we can invent the 
wheel, the plow, the dynamo, we can even 
unlock the stupendous store of energy 
in the atom, but we are always brought 
hack to a source, to what we have come 
to call physical resources. 

Our Fundamental Resources 

The term will be used here to mean 
those natural parts of our environment 
on which we depend. Resources, in this 
sense, are the physical elements on which 
iorms of life and civilization feed and 
build. In their simplest, indivisible form, 
they are, of course, the 92 chemical ele- 
ments, to which man himself, through 
nuclear research, is adding more. Of 
these, we can identify a relatively small 
number—some twenty odd—as the ones 
essential to human life. They are the ones 
which perform miracles of creation in the 
capture of energy for man’s use and in 
the formation of structural materials to 
satisfy man’s need to build. The major 


elements for man’s use include nitrogen, 
oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, 
potassium, calcium, sulfur, magnesium, 
iron, aluminum. To these we may soon 
need to add uranium, as the industrial 
and medical uses of this element are de- 
veloped. We need also to add the ap- 
parently limitless supply of energy in the 
form of light and heat which the sun 
daily pours upon the earth. 

When we take a close look at these 
elements, these fundamental resources, we 
find that there are some we apparently 
cannot do anything about, and others 
about which we need not do anything. No 
matter what we do we cannot increase or 
decrease the sunlight as such. We have 
limitless stores of nitrogen, oxygen, and 
hydrogen in air and water. Carbon is 
present in every living thing. Calcium is 
widely available through limestone. Mag- 
nesium is diffused through all the seas, 
and aluminum is in every clay. But phos- 
phorus, potassium, iron, and sulfur are 
relatively limited in quantity. 

Why is it important to know this? Be- 
cause these elements of limited quantity, 
especially phosphorus and potassium, are 
the very ones we must always have to 
convert the inexhaustible supplies of 
other elements into forms useful to man. 
We know that man’s life is dependent 
on his ability to capture the sun’s energy 
for his use in the things he eats and the 
things he uses for shelter and clothing. 

Gordon R. Clapp is general manager of the Tennessee Valley Author- 
ity. Mr. Clapp has been with TVA since 1933 as assistant director 
of personnel, director of personnel, and general manager since 1939. 
He served as member of the President’s Advisory Committee on Edu- 
cation, 1936-39; chairman of the Committee on Employee Relations in 
Public Service of the Civil Service Assembly, 1942; editor-in-chief 
of the Public Administration Review, 


| 107 ] 

framework for resource use 

Wood and wool, grain and meat, oil and 
coal—all are the product of the sun’s 
energy. Without them man_ withers 
away. These elements of phosphorus and 
potassium are vital to this process of link- 
ing the energy of the sun to the life of 

The fact is simple, the process is not. 
Science has not yet penetrated the cre- 
ative mystery of the green leaf. We do 
not yet know how the magic of chloro- 
phyll transmutes sunlight, water, air, and 
a few minerals into food and fiber. But 
we are beginning to know the conditions 
under which that process will effectively 
take place. We know that without water 
and sunlight there is no growth. We 
know, also, that the plant, given sun- 
light, moisture, and air, must draw from 
the earth certain mineral elements if it 
is to grow and bear fruit. About five 
percent of the plant’s weight will be com- 
posed of these minerals, but without that 
small amount the plant will not grow. 
These minerals unlock the vast, limitless 
stores of sunlight and the elements in air, 
water, and the land. They are the cap 
that fires the shot. They form a vital list 
—phosphorus, potassium, calcium, nitro- 
gen, and traces of others such as sulfur, 
iron, boron, and manganese. 

Once we recognize this fact, there is 
no need to labor the point. Without these 
elements, no plant. Without plants, no 
food or fiber. Without food or fiber, peo- 
ple cannot live. Our course seems clear 
—it is to so organize our use of resources 
that these crucial elements are placed or 
retained where they are needed and used 
as cleverly as possible to obtain the major 
result of capturing energy for man’s use. 

This is more than abstract knowledge. 
[t lies at the heart of man’s economic 
and social well-being. For the saving 
feature of our resources is that they can 
be made constantly fruitful for man’s 
use. The cycle of sunlight, air, water, 
plant, animal, and return to soil to com- 
mence the cycle again, can be steadily put 
to use, if man does not disrupt it vio- 

Preservation of this cycle determines 
our survival. It is significant as well for 
our time. All over the South, for ex- 
ample, one can see evidences of where the 
cycle has been broken. The sagging 
shacks, the barren fields, the undernour- 

[ 108 ] 

ished bodies tell the story of those who 
did not know and could not observe na- 
ture’s primary law. Economic security 
depends upon adequate resources. But 
possession or availability is not enough. 
Economic security and strength require 
adequate and intelligent use of resources 
Wealth is created through man’s labor 
by the fabrication of resources, by com- 
bination and recombination of the twenty 
odd elements. 

What Must We Know 

This simplified account of man and 
his environment can only suggest what 
we must do to capitalize on our oppor- 
tunities and overcome our former errors. 
But if we are to come to terms with our 
erivironment, we must consciously and 
intelligently take the necessary steps to 
do it. Wishing will not make it so. 
There are things we must know. There 
are things we must do. 

We must first of all know what our 
resources are, both in the supplies of 
elements available to us, and in the useful 
combinations of those elements which 
occur in natural state or can be developed 
by our efforts. We need to know as fully 
as possible what coal we have and where 
and of what quality, what ores, what po- 
tential water power, what rainfall, what 
climate, what soil—all the complex of 
facts about the blocks from which we 
build a world. Many inventories of this 
sort have been and are being made by 
county, by state, and by region, but we 
need to make it a continuous process, so 
that at any point in time we can know 
surely what we have. 

We need to know trends also. It is 
not enough, for example, to know that 
phosphorus ore is present in Tennessee, 
Florida, and the Far West. It is not 
enough, even, to know that there are so 
many tons in Tennessee, so many more 
in Florida, and many times more in the 
Far West, important as that information 
is. We need to know what is happening 
to these beds—that Tennessee is with- 
drawing its limited amount rapidly, a 
trend which requires the conclusion that 
the beds in Florida and the Far West 
should be used to supply more of our 
increasing needs in the phosphate-defi- 
cient soils of the nation. 

Accumulation of such information 
means constant research in our universi- 

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framework for resource use 

ties, governmental agencies, and else- 
where. It must be kept up to date and 
vital, a strategic body of information to 
euide our thought and action. It must 
constantly keep before us which of our 
resources are replaceable, by natural proc- 
ess or importation, and which, when used, 
are gone forever. Without such infor- 
mation, planning becomes theory and il- 
lusory dogma. We must know and un- 
derstand what we have, in order to know 
what we can do. 

We need to expand rapidly research 
on the uses of our raw materials. The 
fast-growing scrub pine of the southeast 
hecame an entirely different asset at the 
moment Dr. Herty perfected his process 
for making newsprint. What had been 
firewood now became the sister of spruce 
aid a new industry was born to the 

We need to tabulate what we have, 
and we need to find new and better uses 
for what we have. Resources, however, 
are never isolated from each other. Each 
leans on and is supported by others, and 
you cannot touch one without affecting 
many. The plant is a product of sun, 
air, water, soil, minerals. Change any 
one of these factors, and you affect the 
ability of the plant to use them all. If 
the plant is so grown that soil is robbed 
of its minerals, the plant next year will 
be less able to capture the sun’s energy 
for growth. If ores are so mined that 
the tailings seep into streams, the life of 
that stream is destroyed, and the ore is 
bought at the price of another resource 
useful to man. At Ducktown, Tennessee, 
you can find dramatic expression of this 
interrelationship: there, years ago, copper 
ores were roasted by wood slashed from 
the surrounding hills; the sulfuric acid 
fumes from the smelter blighted the scant 
vegetation left; for years the hills have 
been bare to sun and rain and the scars 
oi erosion are deep and ugly. The Cop- 

per Basin is now a biologic wasteland. 
It will take a mighty effort to restore it 
to the cycle of growth. 

These ideas suggest that we need to 
know more than merely the quantity, 
quality, and location of our resources, 
more than new uses for them. We need 
to apply to them the kind of creative 
thought that makes patterns out of facts, 
drawing them into effective and fruitful 
relationship to each other. In the South, 
the pattern will recognize the favorable 
prevalence of sunlight and water, the 
variety of trees and ores, the composition 
of the soil, and the products and influ- 
ences of the sea. Our plans will draw 
these together into a productive organi- 
zation which recognizes the peculiar re- 
quirements and opportunities of each, but 
also the effects of one upon the other. 

Dairying in the South is an example. 
Our sunlight and heavy rainfall make 
year-round grazing possible; pasture 
cover preserves soil, captures sun and 
water, and relates land, animals, and man 
in a system that is essential to overcome 
the dietary deficiencies in the South and 
to add to the region’s wealth. The farm- 
ers of Tennessee have moved in this 
direction to the point where the value of 
dairy and beef products now exceeds that 
of crops. They have built a pattern. 

Our resources have a site. The area 
where we work with the resources we 
have must be defined to the scale of our 
comprehension. Otherwise our under- 
standing becomes too abstract to produce 
action. It is here that the concept of a 
region has significance. Regions can, of 
course, be variously defined—by a water- 
shed, a tier of states, or the application 
of a score of indices. The significance of 
the idea of region, however, lies not in 
the definition, for no definition can be 
wholly satisfactory, but in the search for 
unity—unity in a common cause for work 
and action. What makes a region is that 

William J. McGlothlin is chief of the Training and Educational Re- 
lations Staff of the Tennessee Valley Authority and chairman of the 
Board of Directors, Southern Educational Film Production Service. 
Mr. McGlothlin has been with TVA since 1935 as training officer, 
assistant chief of the Training Division, and in his present position. 
He is a member of the Committee on the Southern Regional Training 
Program in Public Administration. 
was instructor in English at the University of Tennessee. 

Before joining TVA’s staff he 

| 109 | 

framework for resource use 

its components are more closely related 
to each other than they are to the com- 
ponents of other geographic areas. There 
is similarity, therefore, in the problems 
and the factors which create them. There 
is similarity in the needs and opportuni- 
ties present throughout the region. 

From these fundamental similarities a 
sense of a cultural neighborhood emerges. 
And in the context of cultural affinities 
people find it easier to reach general 
agreement on what courses they must 
follow to improve their lot. They cast 
their governments in forms that are in- 
tended to meet their needs; they develop 
customary ways of thought and expres- 
sion reflecting and rooted in their envi- 
ronment; and they may undertake joint 
action to reach their common ends. The 
pattern of action can be valid and im- 
pelling, in the large, throughout a region, 
since it is woven out of common re- 
sources, common problems, and common 
aims. What one part of a region learns 
will have meaning for other parts of the 
same region. The lessons of success and 
failure here and there within the area 
begin to impart momentum and direction 
to the region as a whole. 

Our search then is for regional pat- 
terns, patterns in which man achieves a 
productive partnership with the factors of 
his environment, so that his use of re- 
sources is creative and redounds to the 
benefit of all men. Such patterns emerge 
from a knowledge of what resources are 
and what the laws of their use demand. 
Man ignores at his peril the simple princi- 
ple that running water can carry particles 
heavier than itself, as our gullied fields 
attest. Out of this knowledge, we must 
build a working scheme, a multiplicity of 
plans of how to get from here to there, 
a guide to action that will move toward 
the ends on which regional understanding 
and agreement have been set. 

But we must know something more. 
We need to temper impatience with full 
and faithful understanding that resource 
development is not a job for a self-ap- 
pointed elite of experts, scientists, and 
administrators, no matter how competent 
they are or how beneficent their intent. 
The life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness 
of the people depends on their resources 
and how they use them; the people, in 
accord with the most elementary prin- 


ciple of freedom, are the ones to deter- 
mine what they will do and how they will 
do it. The regional program, however 
sanctified by the judgments of experts, 
will have meaning only if the farmer, the 
banker, the workman, the manager, the 
editor, the teacher share in the analyses 
of problems and opportunities which sug- 
gest the region’s purpose. They are the 
ones whose daily action, delay, or apathy, 
whose knowledge or ignorance, whose 
vision or selfishness will decide what hap- 
pens to our resources and how we shail 
use or destroy them. 

There is no end, furthermore, to the 
process of public definition of how the 
job is to be done. Agreement on general 
direction in a region can and must be 
reached. We should agree, for example, 
whether more industry should be fostered 
as a substitute for agriculture or whether 
a stronger agriculture is a necessary base 
for the kind of industrial development we 
want and can sustain. But within the 
understanding about man’s relationships 
with nature and with agreement on direc- 
tion, we shall constantly be defining and 
redefining how and with what devices 
we are going to propel ourselves to- 
ward the foreseeable goals we have se- 
lected. This is as it should be. Our 
ultimate end is never fixed if we rec- 
ognize the latent and unlimited inge- 
nuity of man’s mind now and in pos- 
terity. Our responsibility in our time is 
to establish and strengthen the processes 
by which we and our children can keep 
open a wider choice of development. 

What Can We Do—An Illustration 

It is fairly easy to point to what we 
must know to define the regional resource 
development job. What we must do 
poses a different sort of question. From 
knowledge to action is a crucial step 
which must be taken if resources are to 
be used for human benefit. A_ brilliant 
book, a penetrating report, is that and 
nothing more unless it finds its way into 

When we begin to move from know!l- 
edge to action, we move from research 
and education, sometimes by the route of 
legislation, to administration, to the way 
things are done. Since that decision is 
one for people themselves, general state- 
ments lose their meaning. An example 
is necessary. The Tennessee Valley 

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framework for resource use 

\uthority is such an example—an illus- 

tration of knowledge being translated into 
ction through administration. Because 
ie illustration grows out of the kind of 
nalysis we have been discussing, it has 
place here. 

The TVA is many things to many 
eople—power maker, dam builder, soil 
estorer, recreation developer—many 
thers. Its chief significance is revealed 
n the context of this discussion: it rep- 
esents a new kind of administrative ar- 
rangement, through which agencies of 
states, communities, and the federal gov- 
rnment, together with thousands of in- 
lividual citizens have joined in a federa- 
ion of effort to put the resources of the 
'ennessee Valley to work to produce 

ore income for more people. These 
lany agencies and _ individuals have 

greed generally that their task is to dis- 
over and translate the knowledge of re- 
sources so that it can become part of the 
mpelling forces within men and women 

citizens whose daily decisions deter- 
line the future of the people. 

This community of effort is not the 
product of a day or a year. Slowly the 
Valley and its agencies and people have 
grown toward agreement on ends and on 
the means of reaching them. Almost 
numberless public, semipublic, and pri- 
vate agencies, institutions, and groups 
have planned or carried out or modified 
or extended parts of the effort. A list 
of them sounds almost like a catalog of 
American institutional life—universities, 
colleges, experiment stations, extension 
services, libraries, school boards, health 
departments, conservation commissions, 
planning boards and power boards, labor 
unions, farm organizations, business, in- 
dustry, and federal bureaus and depart- 
ments. New regional organizations have 
come into being in agriculture, resource 
education, library service, labor unions, 
power distribution, and public administra- 
tion. No better evidence could be cited 
to demonstrate the growing consciousness 
of regional unity in the Tennessee Valley. 

How did it come about that in the 
Tennessee Valley the administrative 

Photo by Tennessee Valley Authority 

Regional development and richer living require us “to know ourselves in our environment and 

to act according to what we know.” 

Tennesse? farmers examine a field of oats that is part 

f a land-use plan that conserves moisture, protects grain from winter freezing, prevents loss 

of soil minerals, and increases fertility and crop yield. 

knowledge of nature. 

This is a plan based on scientific 


framework for resource use 

forces have joined together to do a re- 
gional job? The answer lies in the fact 
that the TVA was created to achieve pre- 
cisely that result. In President Roose- 
velt’s words, “It should be charged with 
the broadest duty of planning for the 
proper use, conservation, and develop- 
ment of the natural resources of the Ten- 
nessee River drainage basin and its ad- 
joining territory for the general social 
and economic welfare of the Nation.” 
Such a broad duty required a host of al- 
lies. Success in the Valley, as success in 
the South or any other region, depended 
on getting as many people as possible to 
make the task of regional development 
their own job. “The planning of the Val- 
ley’s future,” TVA said in its 1936 re- 
port, “must be the democratic labor of 
many agencies and individuals, and final 
success is as much a matter of general 
initiative as of general consent.” If hu- 
man freedom is one of our objectives, 
there is no other way. 

This is not the place to recount the 
multitude of efforts in which thousands 
of citizens and scores of administratively 
separate agencies and institutions have 
come together to work toward common 
ends in the Tennessee Valley. There are 
stories worth telling of farmer, business- 
man, and banker joining as a board to 
guide the distribution of electricity to 
houses no longer dark at set of sun; of 
all farmers in a small watershed within 
the Valley joining each other and their 
counterparts in 29 states to experiment 
with and test new forms of fertilizer, and 
report their results to the nation; of 
county library boards joining neighbor- 
ing boards to administer service in sev- 
eral counties as a single unit, and pre- 
vailing on state legislatures to extend the 
service to other areas of the state; of six 
state universities joining in a study of the 
administration of resources in each of the 
states, as background for recommenda- 
tions to their governors on organization 
of state functions in that field. All these 
stories, and there are many, have a single 
point: the administrative agencies of a 
region are joining hands to expand pub- 
lic knowledge of resources and to act 
upon what is known. 

It is this surge of joint effort which 
causes us in TVA to talk about a Ten- 
nessee Valley program, not a TVA pro- 


gram. For TVA alone—and this is the 
administrative lesson—could never have 
achieved the progress which the Tennes- 
see Valley is winning for itself out of the 
resources at hand. That takes the uni- 
fied effort of many. In administrative 
language it requires “integration.” No 
other word has more significance in the 
vocabulary of regional administration. 
For without integration and all the merg- 
ing of effort it implies, programs of re- 
source development would proceed helter- 
skelter, futile in their separateness. Ef- 
forts of unrelated agencies and groups 
would fail to capture the momentum, the 
propulsion, the extra energy and social 
force which the unity of many minds and 
many hands can bring forth. In this case, 
two and two become more than four. 
What two people or two agencies can do 
together is more, much more, than the 
sum of what each can do alone. With- 
out integration, regional development just 
does not happen. 

Integrated Regional Development 

There is another administrative lesson 
which the illustration of TVA may teach. 
TVA not only acknowledges but assidu- 
ously acclaims the contribution which 
agencies, institutions, and individuals 
throughout the Valley have made to 
progress in the Valley. But it should be 
clear that integration does not occur 
automatically. An agency, public or pri- 
vate, almost always tends to build a pro- 
gram which reflects what the people of 
its particular politically or economically 
determined domain demand of it. In 
fact, it must do so if it serves its pur- 
pose. It can, however, do more. If its 
purpose is sound, it can act not only with 
direct benefit to its state or local con- 
stituency but also as part of a larger pat- 
tern of regional development. An agency 
of a state or community can rise up into 
larger vision and wider usefulness, with 
its activity basically unchanged except 
for the acknowledged fact that it is part 
and parcel of a larger regional effort. 
What is needed is an administrative in- 
fluence, regional in orientation, to draw 
the various agencies’ efforts into a vital 

In the Tennessee Valley, the regional, 
federal corporation, the TVA, by an act 
of Congress, is the “integrator’’ in the 
program of resource development. _ Its 

this is the 
never have 
he Tennes- 
f out of the 
es the uni- 
tion.” No 
ance in the 
ll the merg- 
rams of re- 
ceed helter- 
eness. Ef- 
and groups 
nentum, the 
and _ social 
> minds and 
In this case, 
than four. 
cies can do 
e, than the 
me. With- 
opment just 


ative lesson 
. may teach. 
but assidu- 
ition which 
e made to 
it should be 
not occur 
iblic or pri- 
build a pro- 
e people of 
of it. In 
ves its pur- 
10re. If its 
ot only with 
- local con- 
1 larger pat- 
An agency 
rise up into 
ulness, with 
iged except 
at it is part 
ional effort. 
istrative in- 
on, to draw 
into a vital 

he regional, 
\, by an act 
itor’ in the 
pment. Its 

tramework for resource use 

success is measured by judging how the 

rengthened and the smallest units of 

tate and local agencies. 
greater than the sum of the parts, but 

parts of the whole are 
ministration take on new life. Strong 
sional unity and a method of deliberate 
centralization of work and decision 
Ister and add to the functions of the 

The whole is 

e parts are greater by virtue of the 

ranscending objectives toward which 
hey lead. 
If the TVA demonstrates any one 

ing it is this: any proposal for resource 
velopment programs which overlooks 

he need for an agency of regional inte- 

ation is basically deficient. The spe- 

‘ifie facilities, the special skills, the indi- 

lual competence required for the many 
parate activities of a regional program 
iy be easily available in federal, state, 
local agencies. But unless there is a 
hicle for administrative influence and 

leadership, seeing the region as a whole, 
charged with responsibility for creating 
unity from a fortunate diversity, a re- 
gional program will not emerge. There 
must be a conscious, deliberate effort to 
“integrate.” Integration is not achieved 
by accident. 

The regional development of resources 
in the South requires the best we have in 
us. It requires the best of research, the 
best of education, the best of administra- 
tion. It requires knowledge, and even 
more knowledge, put to work through 
education and administration. It is a 
task for everyone. Truly democratic 
methods can make of every group a 
strategic social force in the quest for 
man’s fulfillment. We have a chance, 
if there is still time, to move a little closer 
to the answer we forever seek: to know 
ourselves in our environment and to act 
according to what we know. 

| 113 | 

framework for resource use 

Emerging Patterns of 

State Action 


The social and economic development 
of any region, or group of regions, takes 
place within some organized framework 
of social action. In the United States 
social action takes place within different 
levels of social organization: the commu- 
nity, county, state, regional, and national. 
Within these levels, and across them, the 
forces of social action generally are 
shaped and driven through institutional 
systems: government, business, religion, 
education, the family, and others. 

For people to improve health, housing, 
agriculture, industry, and other such 
areas of welfare, methods must be found 
to release more productive energies in the 
natural and human environment through 
these institutional systems. This task is 
being vigorously undertaken in the south- 
ern United States. Attempts are being 
made, through education and research, to 
find a new union between men and their 
natural resources, between men and sci- 
ence, and a new spirit of cooperation 
among different social and economic 

Here major concern is with resource- 
use education as it is being expressed on 
that level of social organization known as 
the state. Before reviewing some of the 
specific state activities, it might be fruit- 
ful to explore major considerations which 
are influencing wy and how the activities 
have been developed in their present pat- 

The Role of the State 

The people, according to the American 

concept of government, hold the reins of 


ern Regional Studies and Education. 
specialist in educational evaluation and was on the staff of the soci- 
ology department at the University of North Carolina. 

social power. Theoretically, they guice 
social and economic affairs by pulling the 
reins according to expressed concensus On 
public needs and on public policy for 
meeting needs. It follows, then, that so- 
cial action, whether on the national, state, 
or local level, can be no better than the 
expressed judgments of the American 
people. And these judgments can be no 
better than the information and objectives 
of the people. 

We must conclude that democratic so- 
ciety thrives or disintegrates according to 
the quality of and means for getting need- 
ed information to citizens. The more 
complex our society, the more urgent and 
serious are the issues with which the pub- 
lic must deal. For democracy to survive 
in modern technological society, it is im- 
perative that we maintain scientific means 
for sustaining a well-informed and strong- 
ly expressed public will. Have the peo- 
ple centered on any agency or group of 
agencies responsibility for keeping them 
well-informed and up to date on latest, 
scientific information ? 

Traditionally, the states have been the 
“people’s government.” In the Consti- 
tution, federal powers were specifically 
“delegated” ; the powers of the state were 
considered “residual.”” The people have 
hugged these residual powers still closer 
to themselves through carefully phrased 
limitations or protections in state consti- 
tutions. And one of the jealously guarded 
“states rights” has been that of responsi- 
bility for public education. 

The states have generally executed this 

John E. Ivey, Jr., is executive secretary of the Committee on Southern 
Regional Studies and Education of the American Council on Educa- 
tion. Mr. Ivey is author of Channeling Research into Education, and 
editor of Education for Use of Regional Resources. 
Education, the Newsletter of the Committee on Sout! 

He is editor of 

He was formerly with TVA as 

[ 114 } 

they guicle 
pulling the 
oncensus On 
policy for 
en, that so- 
tional, state, 
er than the 
- American 
; can be no 
d objectives 

nocratic so- 
ccording to 
etting need- 

The more 
‘urgent and 
ich the pub- 
y to survive 
ty, it is im- 
ntific means 
and strong- 
ive the peo- 
or group of 
-eping them 
te on latest 

ve been the 
the Consti- 
ie state were 
people have 
s still closer 
ally phrased 
state consti- 
isly guarded 
of responsi- 

xecuted this 

on Southern 
il on Educa- 
jucation, and 
is editor of 
ee on Soutli- 
vith TVA as 
of the soci- 

framework for resource use 

responsibility for public education by op- 
‘rating a system of secondary and ele- 
mentary schools, and a system of higher 
‘ducation through colleges and state uni- 
ersities. Not generally considered in- 
side the scope of “public education,” but 
ievertheless part and parcel of the effort, 
is another group of state agencies having 

regulatory or action programs. These 
include: agricultural extension service, 

health department, state welfare depart- 
ment, state library commission, labor de- 
partment, agricultural department, plan- 
ning board, and conservation and develop- 
ment board. 

The names of these agencies indicate 
the fields in which state government pays 
special attention to social and economic 
problems. Either directly or indirectly, 
such agencies use educational methods 
ind materials to achieve the specialized 
objectives for which they were created. 
In this sense the agencies mentioned 
ibove, plus state supported public schools 
ind institutions of higher learning. meas- 
ure the actual range of responsibility for 
public education specifically defined for 
state government. 

Besides those agencies charged with 
‘learly marked jobs in public education, 
there are other powerful channels carry- 
ing information and opinion to the peo- 
ple. Newspapers, motion pictures, 
churches, civic clubs, organizations like 
the Parent-Teacher Association and the 
\merican Red Cross, media like business 
advertising—all these, to mention only a 
few, are educational channels. 

All wield powerful educational forces. 
They influence our votes, change our 
diets, help decide the clothes we wear, 
mobilize our efforts in welfare programs, 
euide our spiritual life, influence our in- 
vestments; they can help put us in jail, 
or make heroes out of us. To accomplish 
feats of directing social action, these 
wencies use radio, motion pictures, com- 
ics, print, road signs, group meetings, and 
ther such tools of communication and 

It is clear, then, that we can speak of 
‘wo general areas of responsibility for 
public education within a state: public 
ind private. Each has its role of public 
service. And in a democracy each is 

In the South many states have begun 
o concern themselves with directing pub- 

lic education to assist in improving the 
effectiveness of resource use. State pro- 
grams have been concerned with two 
major interests (1) resource-use educa- 
tion and (2) research translation. 

Resource-use education, as a point of 
view for all levels of educational activity, 
has been concerned with human use of 
all resources available for improving 
living. The people increasingly realize 
that natural resources exist in a pattern 
of related forces and objects. Plant life, 
water, land, minerals, air, sunlight, and 
animals exist and are created in a “web 
of life.” Some are.renewable, some are 
exhaustible. Basic scientific principles 
govern their natural productivity and 
availability to man. 

Social resources also exist in a pattern 
of related forces. The church, school, 
health and welfare agencies, business, 
government, and other institutional sys- 
tems, are created to fill needs of group 
existence. Through law, morals, and 
social attitudes, these institutions shape 
forces of social control and drive or re- 
tard processes of social change. Basic 
scientific principles govern their operation 
and adaptation to meeting human needs 
in the natural and social environments. 

Research translation, as an activity, has 
been directed toward developing scien- 
tific means for public education and ac- 
tion in better use of natural and social 
resources. It has been assumed that the 
preparation and dissemination of infor- 
mation is a subject for scientific inquiry 
and administration. Organization, educa- 
tion, and administration are three inter- 
related processes which lead, in a demo- 
cratic society, from research to action on 
resource use. 

Programs in Southern States 

To create these processes for research 
translation, southern states are using com- 
mittee and commission forms of organi- 
zation. Some of these groups have ex- 
ecutive power, some are merely advisory. 
Alabama and Virginia have advisory 
groups. The Alabama Advisory Com- 
mittee on Resource-Use Education in- 
cludes twenty-six research, planning, and 
educational agencies. The Committee has 
two focal points of action: (1) the super- 
visor of resource-use education in the 
State Department of Education; and (2) 
the Research Interpretation Council at 

[115 ] 

framework for resource use 

Alabama Polytechnic Institute. Major 
interest is in personnel training and pro- 
duction of more useful educational ma- 
terials. The concept of resource study 
is broad, including natural, human, and 
social aspects. 

Virginia has begun work in this field 
with an advisory committee to the super- 
visor of conservation studies in the State 
Department of Public Instruction. Here 
the major focus of work is on natural re- 
sources. The supervisor is writing edu- 
cational source units and working with 
public school teachers in adapting these 
materials for classroom use. 

Both Alabama and Virginia reflect or- 
ganizational change in the state depart- 
ments of education. Mississippi should 
also be included in this group, for recent- 
ly a similar position has been created in 
the Department of Education. Different 
from Virginia, and to some extent like 
Alabama, service units for materials pro- 
duction and teacher training have been 
set up at Mississippi State College and 
Delta State Teachers College. In creat- 
ing these units, the resource concept has 
been broad, including natural, human, and 
social aspects. 

In Kentucky no new committee or com- 
mission has been set up on state level. 
Rather the State Advisory Committee on 
Teacher Education has taken major lead- 
ership in this field. An ad hoc committee 
of research specialists and educators has 
just completed a volume on Kentucky’s 
resources. Leadership was furnished by 
the University of Kentucky’s College of 
Education, the State Department of Con- 
servation, and the State Department of 
Public Instruction. The resource con- 
cept has been three-fold: natural, human, 
and social. 

Florida and Texas have resource-use 
education committees which possess exec- 
utive functions and guide programs based 
on the cooperation of a large variety of 
agencies. Arkansas and Oklahoma also 
have state committees. State programs 
in Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and 
Texas are integrated through the Re- 
source-Use Education Committee, South 
Central Region. A significant feature in 
this four-state area is the pattern of inter- 
state cooperation on regional resource-use 
education problems. 

Space prohibits description of how each 
of these state groups work. But North 

[ 116 ] 

Carolina’s work in this field reflects a 
broad pattern of organization and method 
of action which combines many elements 
found in the other states. Forty-six re- 
search, education, and planning agencies 
have, at the Governor’s invitation, joined 
themselves into a Resource-Use Educa- 
tion Commission. An executive commit- 
tee of eight has the function of guiding 
the full-time central staff which will 
utilize $55,000 in annual service commit 
ments from member organizations. 

The orientation of the Commission’s 
program is to help member agencies, and 
other groups, become more efficient in 
their own resource-use education activi- 
ties. A careful study of the Commission's 
functions outlined on page 117 reveals 
this basic policy point. These functions 
also reveal points of action which the 
Commission considers vital if membe1 
agencies are to employ scientific means of 
public education as a tool in democratic 
social action. The improvement of edu- 
cational media and methods for dissem- 
inating information, the training of per- 
sonnel, and program re-alignment—are 
all strategic areas in research translation 
for resource development. 

These briefly described programs re- 
flect a tendency toward an evolving co- 
hesion of interest and action in public 
education for the improvement of living. 
Within each state, responsibility is being 
jointly assumed by many agencies, but the 
public agencies are assuming major lead- 
ership. Discernible patterns of joint re- 
sponsibility include the following char- 

1. Closer cooperation between research spe- 
cialists and educators 

2. A tendency to encourage specialists in dif- 
ferent fields of research to synthesize judgments 
on scientific resource use 

3. Closer working arrangements among the 
public schools, colleges, and adult education 

4. Wider recognition of the necessity for 
adapting techniques for (a) controlling reading 
level in materials, (b) use of audio-visual aids, 
(c) use of radio, (d) systematic organization 
of relationships between research agencies and 
educational agencies 

5. A strong inclination to think and act in 
terms of regional problems and needs 

6. A more general acceptance of the position 
that instructional programs of the public schools 
and colleges should contribute to the improve- 
ment of living in the area served by them 

7. A general broadening of the resource con- 

cept to include natural, human, and social as- 

eflects a 
1 method 
y-six re- 
n, joined 
> Educa- 
lich = will 

cies, and 
cient in 
m activi- 
7 reveals 
hich the 
means of 
t of edu- 
- dissem- 
r of per- 

rams re- 
ving co- 
in public 
of living. 
is being 
s, but the 
yor lead- 
joint re- 
ng char- 

earch spe- 

ists in dif- 

mong the 

essity for 
1g reading 
isual aids, 
encies and 

ind act in 

1€ position 
lic schools 
. improve- 
ource con- 
social as- 

framework for resource use 

Functions of the North Carolina Resource-Use Education Commission 

1. Maintain a Materials Improvement Service 
a.On request, the staff will secure for school and non-school agencies an analysis of the 
adequacy of educational media and will suggest procedures for their improvement. 
b. Secure technical staff assistance for agencies and institutions in the production of edu- 
cational materials. 
c. When there is a need for special materials not obtainable from existing agencies, materials 
production will be undertaken. 

2. Arrange for Maintenance of a Materials Distribution Service 

a. Assist proper existing agencies, e.g., State Library Commission, in the collection and more 
effective state-wide distribution to schools, colleges, and adults, of needed and available 
educational materials. 

b. Assist proper existing agencies, e.g., colleges, schools, and libraries, in establishment and 
maintenance of county and community materials centers and in the improvement of ex- 
isting facilities. 4 i o oR ’ {3 

c. Develop and distribute select annotated bibliographies on available materials relating to 
State and regional resources and problems. 

3. Maintain a Leadership Training Service in Research Translation and Resource-Use Education 

a. Assist and encourage teacher-training institutions holding workshop and study conferences 
for in-service teachers and administrators to adapt curriculum, methods, and materials for 
the provision of effective study of State an1 regional resources and problems. 

b. In collaboration with teacher-training institutions and the State Department of Public In- 
struction, identify (1) basic training needed by teachers in the State if they are to use 
materials and methods to effectively provide resource-use understandings and skills; (2) 
procedures to insure that teachers get basic training as an integral part of pre-service 
and in-service teacher education programs. 

c.On request, secure technical assistance for non-school agencies in devising more effective 
methods for personnel training in resource-use education. 

d. Stimulate and assist in holding special study programs on North Carolina and southern 
regional resources and problems for newspaper editors, ministers, business men, and other 
lay readers. 

4. Program Development Service 

a. In collaboration with the public schools and institutions of higher learning, identify (1) 
emphasis and courses needed to provide effective understandings and skills in resource use; 
(2) changes that need to be made in existing educational orientation and curriculum or- 
ganization in resource use; (3) procedures for effectively making needed changes; and 
(4) assist in the process of achieving needed emphasis in curriculum organization in re- 
source use. 

b. On request, assist non-school agencies in devising more effective educational methods to 
accomplish their program objectives as they may relate to development of the resources of 
the State and region. 

c. Assist school and non-school agencies to develop programs which will insure (1) effective 
collaboration among research and education personnel in the production, distribution, and 
use of educational media based on curren: research; and (2) identification of needed re- 

The Role of the Specialist selves. When helping others help them- 
selves, specialists in public and private 
agencies do not have the job of telling 
people what they should do, or of neces- 
sarily doing the job for them. But rather, 
the specialist has a task of assisting peo- 
ple arrive at answers consistent with sci- 
entific information. This makes the spe- 
cialist’s role a more difficult job, one 
which perhaps initially results in slower 
progress. He becomes involved in a two- 
way process of give and take; education 
becomes a process of reaching concensus. 

Part and parcel of these characteristics 
are two emerging points of view which, 
as they become generally accepted, will 
wield powerful influence on contempo- 
rary education. First, there is utmost im- 
portance in considering the process, or 
how the specialist works with the people 
on the local level. 

If, as already stated, the perpetuation 
of democracy is dependent on a well-in- 
formed and vigorously expressed public 
will, an education program for resource 

development must seek to release each A second point of view stems from the 
individual’s maximum creative energy. concept of unity among the elements of 

To do this, public education must be athe natural and social environment. For 
process designed to help others help them- a specialist to operate effectively, he must 


framework for resource use 

know the general pattern of relationships 
among life activities of the people he 
In a sense, then, he must be a 

He must be a generalist so that in a 
farm community, for example, the prob- 
lems of health, housing, diet practices, 
and farm management are seen in a pat- 
tern of relationships. If the specialist is 
a public health nurse, she would see mal- 
nutrition in farm communities as partly a 
farm management problem. The total 
pattern of living would thus be seen in 
proper perspective and could be more ef- 
fectively developed. 

The specialist must also be a generalist 
in the sense that he knows when to call 
upon, and how to work with, experts in 
other fields. Again, for example, take the 
problem of malnutrition mentioned above. 
By calling in the county agent and the 
home demonstration agent, the public 
health nurse could make a many-sided at- 
tack on the problem. Home canning and 


better ways of cooking foods could be 
devised by the home demonstration agent. 
Gardening, raising of chickens, and other 
farm management arrangements could be 
worked out by the county agent so as to 
help furnish needed food elements for a 
better diet. 

Needs for the Future 

While one can identify emerging pat- 
terns of state action in resource-use edu- 
cation, it is also possible to note unmet 
needs. And a serious need is for profes- 

sional personnel possessing the view- 
points mentioned above and skills and 
motivation to act accordingly. The col- 

leges and public schools have an unparal- 
leled opportunity and responsibility to 
meet this urgent need. If they do not act, 
the emerging patterns will be but fads, or 
flash-in-the-pan innovations ; they will be- 
come superficial and rightly lose the con- 
fidence of educators, research specialists, 
and laymen alike. 

At this stage public agencies have as- 
sumed primary responsibility for resource- 
use education. A needed next step is to 
involve more vigorously the informal 
educational forces: newspapers, radios, 
churches, civic groups, and others. They 
have much to contribute and even more 
to gain. 

States in the South have taken very 
important first steps in resource-use edu- 
cation. But the vision reflected in their 
next moves may determine whether they 
accelerate or retard the processes of re- 
gional development. 

zing pat- 
‘use edu- 
te unmet 
r profes- 
le view- 
kills and 
The col- 
bility to 
9 not act, 
- fads, or 
, will be- 
the con- 

have as- 
tep is to 
. radios, 
s. They 
en more 

cen very 
use edu- 
in their 
her they 
*s of re- 

framework for resource use 

Resources and Community 



A well-known anthropologist, recently 
commenting informally on the American 
scene, had this to say: “To most people 
community organization is merely lining 
up a bunch of bums to put some agency’s 
program across.” All too often this has 
been true. A health agency, a welfare 
agency, an agricultural agency, or any 
agency seeking financial support explores 
ways of effectively using the community. 
The agency’s own narrow objectives are 
paramount in the scheming. 

Usually such agencies have state and 
national headquarters and are attempting 
to carry out programs designed at the 
top. The philosophy of using the com- 
munity tends to become more prevalent 
the higher up one goes in the hierarchy 
of national agencies, both public and pri- 
vate. To such groups community organi- 
zation becomes a catch-all for the various 
ways of mobilizing community resources 
“for our program,” rather than for the 
best interests of the entire community. 
This we may call the vertical approach to 
the development of community resources. 
It has appeared in totalitarian countries 
in an extreme form, in this country in 
some of the straight-line agencies, private 
and public, operating from national head- 
quarters. Its antithesis, horizontal com- 
munity organization, is exemplified in the 
town meeting of New [England and in the 
current community council movement. 

What Is Community Organization? 

In horizontal community organization 
or local planning,' a cross section of resi- 

Homes for Old. 

dents, both lay and professional, with the 
help of additional experts when needed, 
decides upon a priority listing of the 
needs for that particular community. The 
needs may include such things as road 
improvement, additional parking space, 
slum clearance, draining a marshy place, 
development of a town forest, an addi- 
tional nurse for the health department, 
a receiving home for juvenile delinquents, 
a cooperative, and so on. The develop- 
ment of natural, human, and social? re- 
sources is obviously indicated by these 
community needs. 

In considering needs, the planning 
group necessarily moves into a second 
step in community organization—the re- 
viewing of resources available to meet the 
needs. Many of these resources are in 
the community; some may be secured 
from state and national agencies and or- 
ganizations. The resources will some- 
times be natural, such as a tract of land 
suitable for a particular use; sometimes 
institutional, such as the school system, 
the churches, a welfare agency, the agri- 
cultural extension service, or a woman’s 
club; sometimes financial, such as the 
taxing authority of local government or 
the wealth of a few of the residents ; and 
sometimes in the form of skilled person- 

*The term “community organization” is here 
used synonymously with “local planning,” the 
geographical area being sometimes a community 
and sometimes a local governmental unit such 
as the county. 

* Included in “social resources” are social in- 
stitutions and cultural characteristics, capital 
wealth, and technological skills. 

Gordon W. Blackwell is director of the Institute for Research in So- 
cial Science at the University of North Carolina. Mr. Blackwell is 
a member of the Committee on Southern Regional Studies and Edu- 
cation. He was formerly on the staff of the Greenville (South Caro- 
lina) County Council for Community Development and is author of 
Toward Commmunity Understanding. He is co-author, with Rupert 
B. Vance, of a forthcoming volume on rural housing New Farm 

[ 119 ] 

framework for resource use 

nel, such as the county engineer, persons 
skilled in the methods of adult education, 
publicity experts, or a specialist in com- 
munity organization. 

The importance of this broad concept 
of resources cannot be stressed too much. 
Although often difficult for the engineer 
and physical planner to grasp, it is basic 
in any sound development of regional 
and community resources. The organic 
nature of the region and the community, 
in which all factors are closely interre- 
lated be they natural, human, or social, 
makes it mandatory that regional plan- 
ning and community organization be 
founded on this meaningful concept of 
resources. Otherwise the cultural lag 
and human deprivations already resulting 
so apparently from advances of science, 
technology, and engineering will con- 
tinue increasingly to weaken our regions 
and communities. One may well ask 
whether a limited concept of resources, 
considering only the physical and_bio- 
logical, can suffice for the development of 
the regions and communities of China. 
Surely population facts and the peculiar 
cultural patterns of this great country are 
fully as important as the immense natural 
wealth which has remained untouched 
through centuries of human need. 

To maintain that the concept of re- 
sources should be limited to the physical 
and biological, while at the same time 
admitting that the people and their insti- 
tutions, value systems, and customs must 
be given consideration in resource devel- 
opment, is only to beg the question. To 
maintain that an understanding of basic 
laws of natural science and principles of 
physical resource development is primary, 
and that demographic and cultural under- 
standing is only of secondary importance, 
is disturbing to say the least. Such an 
orientation for regional and community 
development can perhaps be explained 
by the wording of the legislative man- 
date under which an agency operates, but 
this should not be blindly accepted as the 
soundest concept of unified resource de- 
velopment. It would seem to negate the 
very concept of region and community as 
organic entities comprised of dynamic, 
interrelated factors including the natural, 
human, and social. 

But back to the analysis of community 
organization. By the time these first two 
steps have been taken—listing needs on 

[ 120 ] 

a priority scale and determining resources 
for meeting the needs—the group preb- 
ably has developed a pretty good picture 
of the community. Usually considerable 
fact finding, sometimes in the nature of 
a survey, is needed to reach this stage. 

Planning and Decision Making 

Then comes the heart of the commu- 
nity organization process—planning and 
decision making. Next steps in commu- 
nity action are determined. Responsi- 
bilities are allocated to existing agencies. 
A new agency is decided upon when nec- 
essary. Plans are made for securing ad- 
ditional legislation or funds. Here it 
should be emphasized that the planning 
group does not usurp agency responsibili- 
ties in program operation. The failure 
to distinguish between planning and co- 
ordination on the one hand and program 
operation on the other has doomed many 
a highly motivated community organiza- 
tion effort. 

Finally, the planning group must work 
to get its recommendations understood, 
accepted, and carried out since usually 
it has no legal authority. 

If key citizens and key agencies are 
represented in the planning group, the 
very nature of the planning process has 
been an educational experience. Accept- 
ance of the group decisions is greatly fa- 
cilitated when community leaders have 
been studying problems such as those of 
agriculture, forest conservation, health, 
and housing with experts such as the 
county agricultural agent, the forestry 
expert from the United States Forest 
Service, the director of the local health 
department, and the head of the welfare 
department. The personal and frequent 
contact between laymen and technicians 
focusing on significant community needs 
does something to both groups. Cus- 
tomary patterns of thinking are changed, 
and attitudes and prejudices are modified. 

In addition, public opinion must be 
mobilized, and here is a real challenge to 
adult education. All types of educational 
media and personnel must be used in this 
task—carefully planned use of the press 
and radio, appropriately timed with the 
steps in the community organization 
process; films; attractive pamphlets; 
speakers at all sorts of club meetings; 
the local library, which can prepare spe- 
cial book lists, exhibits, and programs; 


ure of 


ig and 
n nec- 
ng ad- 
lere it 
nd co- 
| many 

t work 

es are 
ip, the 
‘ss has 
tly fa- 
; have 
10Sse of 
as the 

ust be 
nge to 
in this 
» press 
th the 
phlets ; 
etings ; 
e spe- 
rams ; 

framework for resource tse 

Photo by Farm Security Administration 

“  . . folk wisdom guided by the expert.” Here a group of farmers work with their county 
agricultural agent and the district agent. Printed materials and maps help in the process of 
planning land use on the basis of sound information. 

the schools, which can enrich their cur- 
ricula and teaching methods through con- 
cern with fact finding for the community 
planning group; the county agricultural 
and home demonstration agents, who con- 
tinually engage in educational work with 
hundreds of rural adults; ministers, who 
more and more are relating their preach- 
ing and the work of their churches to 
community needs. 

Community organization of this hori- 
zontal type is, of course, never completed 
but must be of a continuing nature. New 
needs appear as old ones are met. New 
resources are made available to meet 
needs ; old resources may be exhausted. 

Community Organization as a 
Philosophy of Resource Development 

From what has already been said, it 
must be evident that horizontal commu- 
nity organization has grown out of a 
series of philosophical assumptions which 

are inherent in the dynamic development 
of our free society. These would include : 

(1) A belief in the values of local 
autonomy within limits consistent with 
the optimum development of the larger 
society—a sort of antidote for extreme 

(2) A belief in the folk—in folk wis- 
dom guided by the expert, in contrast to 
belief in the infallibility of the expert 

(3) A recognition of the important 
role of the specialist or expert 

(4) A belief in the value of group 
processes—group decisions rather than 
one-man, dictatorial action 

(5) A concern for the entire commu- 
nity—the development of natural, human, 
and social resources to meet all the needs 
of all the people, rather than the vested 
interest approach of one segment of the 
population, of a particular agency, or a 
particular organized group 

(6) An emphasis upon the long view 

[ 121 ] 

framework for resource use 

of resource development as contrasted 
with short-run objectives for the commu- 

(7) A willingness to make progress 
slowly on a firm basis as opposed to flash 
achievement which is not lasting 

(8) A concern for means as well as 
ends—the opposite of the totalitarian 

Limitations in the Community Approach 
to Resource Development 

At this point in our discussion it must 
be apparent that action by the community 
alone is not sufficient to assure wise de- 
velopment of resources. Planning and 
action are necessary at the international, 
national, regional, and state levels as well. 
There are many reasons why this is true. 

The occurrence of natural resources is, 
of course, no respecter of community 
boundaries. In fact, it is probably safe 
to say that most problems of physical de- 
velopment of resources cannot be handled 
within a single community. Similarly, 
population characteristics and cultural 
factors reveal patterns extending over 
areas much larger than the community. 
The complex resource structure of the 
American economy may seem to render 
the community impotent as far as plan- 
ning is concerned. 

The dynamic patterns of population mi- 
gration offer still another reason why the 
community approach is often not suffi- 
cient. Estimates are now being made 
which predict that within the next ten 
years upwards to four million persons 
will be displaced from southern agricul- 
ture, largely through the development of 
technology. Few rural communities in 
the region will be able to meet this crisis 
on their own. 

Perhaps these few examples, among the 
many which might be cited, are sufficient 
to indicate the limitations in the commu- 
nity approach to resource development. 
Such efforts as the National Resources 
Planning Board and the :c.ent full em- 
ployment legislation are hopeful indica- 
tions of how the federal government can 
participate in the planning of resource 
development within the framework of a 

federation of state governments and a 
capitalistic economy. Other techniques 
applicable at the national level will un- 
doubtedly be evolved. : 

Since most federal agencies operate 
through or in coordination with the var- 
ious arms of state government and in 
view of the important historical traditions 
and loyalties associated with the indi- 
vidual states, effective resource develop- 
ment must rely in part upon planning and 
action at the state level. The vigorous 
and sometimes startlingly original tech- 
niques being developed by some of the 
state planning commissions demonstrate 
the possibilities. 

3ut again the occurrence of natural re- 
sources, as well as demographic and cul- 
tural patterns, is no respecter of state 
boundaries. Here become apparent the 
significant advantages of the region as 
an optimum area for resource develop- 
ment. On the one hand, regional plan- 
ning serves as a buffer against extreme 
centralization of authority. Again, the 
region affords the area within which the 
occurrence and interrelatedness of the 
several categories of resources indicate 
the greatest possibilities for unified re- 
source development. A nation with the 
make-up of the United States can hardly 
afford to neglect the regional approach to 
resource development. 

Our perspective, then, on the role of 
community organization and local plan- 
ning in resource development is that alone 
it cannot be sufficient. It is not viewed 
as a panacea. We do maintain, however, 
that in a free society the opportunity to 
make choices between alternative uses of 
resources should be pushed downward as 
far as possible so as to involve the maxi- 
mum number of people, both lay and pro- 
fessional. A primary challenge to Ameri- 
can democracy is how to assure the wisest 
possible development of resources in a 
society so complex in its organization. 
Certain functions in thi$ respect can be 
handled through local planning as indi- 
cated in the earlier sections of this article. 
The part which education must play is 
indeed great. 

and a 
ll un- 

e var- 
nd in 

ng and 
| tech- 
of the 

iral re- 
id cul- 
f state 
nt the 
ion as 
| plan- 
in, the 
ich the 
of the 
ied re- 
ith the 
oach to 

role of 
1 plan- 
at alone 
inity to 
uses of 
ward as 
e maxi- 
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can be 
as indi- 
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play is 

framework for resource use 

Resources and 

The Community School 


The community school is the logical 
agency to bring facts about resource use 
to all the people of a community, and, 
more important, to provide experiences 
in applying these facts. Because of its 
interrelationship with its environment, 
the community school uses and develops 
community resources in working toward 
its educational objectives. Improvement 
in the environment thus automatically 
means improvement in the school, and the 
school’s success in turn is measurable by 
the extent to which the community uses 
its resources to meet its needs. 

In bringing facts about resources to 
the people, the community school does 
not forget that the people themselves— 
their work, their attitudes, their abilities 
are the most important resource of all. 
Discovering and developing this resource 
is the school’s greatest objective. The 
wise use of natural resources, though es- 
sential and though closely related to the 
main objective, is only a means to an end. 

The community school is not merely a 
building to house a certain proportion of 
the population for a predetermined num- 
ber of hours a day and days a year. It 
is a center, in the best that the words 
“community center” have come to mean 
in America, for all the people and at any 
time. It represents typically the larger 
and more intricate whole of the com- 
munity at work and at play—the organi- 
zations and agencies, the more informal 
groups held together by common inter- 

ests, the families, and the individuals. 
No other institution can present as true 
a picture of community needs and re- 
sources as the school which bases its 
philosophy upon community service. And 
no other institution in a community has 
as great an opportunity, through leader- 
ship, personnel, and physical facilities, to 
teach and demonstrate the use of re- 
sources in meeting needs. 

Interrelations in Education 

The high school which is part of a 
community school system recognizes the 
interrelation of educational factors. Peo- 
ple learn from one another, from doing, 
from seeing, from hearing, from reading, 
in every situation and at every age. Thus 
the school seeks and stimulates coopera- 
tion with every group or individual ca- 
pable of contributing to the school’s objec- 
tives. It initiates working relationships 
with any agency interested in the educa- 
tional approach to community improve- 
ment. Health departments, scouts, pub- 
lic libraries, ministerial associations, agri- 
culture extension departments, and many 
other organizations make a vital contri- 
bution to the school program. 

Contributors to the program also are 
the farmer who is successfully controlling 
gully erosion, the editor of the newspaper 
in whose office the high school paper is 
printed, the mother who helps can vege- 
tables for school lunches, the grocer who 
employs high school boys on Saturday, 

Maurice F. Seay is director of the Bureau of School Service and head 
of the Department of Educational Administration at the University of 
Kentucky. Since 1943 he has been chairman of the Committee on 
Southern Regional Studies and Education. Mr. Seay is director of 
the Kentucky Sloan Experiment in Applied Economics and has super- 
vised many educational studies, including directorship of the Alabama 
Educational Survey, 1944-45. He has been dean of the College and 
head of the Department of Education, Union College, Barbourville, 
Kentucky, and chief of the Training Division in TVA. 

[ 123 ] 

framework for resource use 

Courtesy of Bureau of Schoo! Service, University of Kentucky 

“The school environment serves as a laboratory 

the natural laboratory around their school. 
resources are used in their future communities. 

the elderly widow who gives private piano 
lessons, the father who is remodeling his 
house, the gardener who has tried out new 
varieties of plants, the lawyer who has a 
plan for curbing juvenile delinquency, 
and the oldest inhabitant, who reminisces 
about the founding of the community. 
The community school discovers the abili- 
ties of these people, and finds ways to 
make use of them in the educational pro- 

Learning Is a Continuous Process 

The community high school also recog- 
nizes the continuity of the learning proc- 
The education of an individual is 
not interrupted between school days or 
school years, and does not cease when the 
last examination is over and the last B+ 
recorded. He may drop out of school 
and put away his textbooks forever, but 
he goes on learning. As long as he re- 


mains in the community, the community 
school accepts responsibility for guiding 
as he learns. 

him The high school in 

| 124 | 

.” The children in this picture learn in 

The things they learn here should affect the way 

particular has a responsibility to the 
adult population. 

The high school recognizes itself as a 
link. Betore high school comes elemen- 
tary education, and after, college or some 
other kind of education. The community 
high school does not see itself as a sepa- 
rate entity, existing to pass or fail an ac- 
ceptable group of “properly qualified” 
boys and girls in a prescribed number of 
required and elective subjects, to grade 
and classify them as to oral and written 
ability in stating facts, and to give di- 
plomas to whatever proportion it deems 
worthy of college entrance. Instead, the 
school offers each individual an oppor- 
tunity to learn how to live in a world 
which needs his best possible service. If 
that service lies in one of the professions, 
for example, the individual should have 
preparation for college; but society needs 
the service of workmen, laborers, farm 
managers, homemakers, and many others 
who may not require college education. 
The community school recognizes its re- 


earn in 
the way 

to the 

lf asa 
1r some 
a sepa- 
an ac- 
nber of 
) grade 
‘ive di- 
ad, the 
| world 
ice. If 
ld have 
y needs 
s, farm 
, others 
; its re- 

tramework for resource use 

sponsibility in preparing young people 
for many types of service to society, and 
at the same time giving them the con- 
cepts that will make them most useful as 

Practicing Democracy 

It follows that the organization, the 
administration, and the relationships of 
the community high school are demo- 
cratic. Every individual is valuable. 
School-board members, superintendent, 
principal, and other suprevisors, teachers, 
janitors, students, all understand the pur- 
pose of the program and help in planning 
and carrying it out. The school is demo- 
cratic in its dealings with other local 
agencies and with individuals outside the 
school, with other school systems and 
with other schools within its system, with 
institutions of higher education, with 
state, regional, and national agencies for 
social, economic, and educational im- 
provement. Democratic relationships im- 
ply understanding of common problems. 
The community school uses a local situa- 
tion to exemplify the common problems 
of any group of people, small or large. 
The small community group is part of a 
larger state group, of still larger regional 
and national groups, and, inevitably, of 
the world group. The school demon- 
strates the interdependence of all within 
a group, and the value of each part to 
the whole. 

When a program of regional action is 
undertaken, the community school is vi- 
tally concerned. Gatlinburg Conference 
II, held in 1944 at Gatlinburg, Tennessee, 
is a case in point. Out of this regional 
conference came the stimulation for a 
state-wide program in resource-use edu- 
cation for Kentucky. A large committee 
of interested Kentuckians worked coop- 
eratively with state departments and the 
University of Kentucky to prepare a 
source book on the State’s resources. 
This book is to be made available to every 
high school in Kentucky. Regional ac- 
tion in regard to the development and use 
of resources led to state action, which in 
turn is leading to local action. The com- 
munity school, through its democratic 
relationship with the state and regional 
agencies, receives valuable services in any 
program of improvement. 

The Committee on Southern Regional 
Studies and Education, which sponsored 
the Gatlinburg Conferences, is one serv- 
ice agency giving help at state and local 
levels. It gives suggestions for action 
programs, spreads information about 
work in progress, and holds conferences 
for state and local representatives. The 
school, through participation in regional 
activities, brings the whole community 
into democratic relationships with the 
larger communities of which it is a part. 

Flexible School Programs 

The philosophy which underlies the 
program of a community school requires 
extreme flexibility in administrative pro- 
cedures. Arbitrary academic requirements 
yield to the needs and resources of the 
community and its individuals. Rigid 
daily schedules have no place in a school 
which takes advantage of learning situa- 
tions as they arise. The school facilities 
and equipment are available at all times— 
at night, on weekends, through the sum- 
mer. Space is used to fullest advantage. 
The school personnel accepts wide re- 
sponsibilities in the community as well as 
in the school. Not only is the schedule 
flexible—the curriculum is subject to 
constant change, as the needs and re- 
sources of the community change. Sub- 
ject-matter compartments are broken 
down. Instructional materials are suited 
to the problem at hand and to the com- 
munity in which the problem exists. 

The school environment serves as a 
laboratory; a town’s business district, a 
farm, a forest, an eroded hillside, a flood, 
can supply material for any high school 
class or for all classes. The school 
grounds can be a demonstration of good 
soil management and suitable landscap- 
ing. Such projects as vegetable gardens, 
fish ponds, plantations of fruit and nut 
trees, and gully control, carried out by 
high school students, can serve as an ex- 
ample and as an incentive to the whole 
community. The school may even start 
a new enterprise—a business or a coop- 
erative, for example—when the need is 
indicated. A cannery, a frozen food 
locker, a machine repair shop, a sawmill, 
may be initiated by the school and man- 
aged as a part of the school program 
until community interest has developed 
to the point that the enterprise can be 
turned over to a group or an individual. 

[ 125 ] 

framework for resource use 

The flexibility that is characteristic of 
a community school is an outgrowth of 
the school’s recognition of three principles 
illustrated above : 

(1) All educational factors are inter- 

(2) The learning process is continu- 

(3) The practice of democracy teaches 
the meaning of democracy. 

Implications for the Community School 

Administrators and teachers who wish 
to make their school truly a community 
school will find a number of implications 
in these principles : 

(1) The school must have a workable, 
understandable philosophy of education, 
based upon accurate knowledge of the 
needs and resources of the community 
and upon appreciation of the community’s 
place in a democracy. A statement of 
the philosophy should include what the 
school thinks it should do, and also what 
it is doing and what it plans to do. 

(2) The school must modify its sched- 
ule as the need arises, to take advantage 
of valuable learning situations and prac- 
tical experience. It must provide a con- 

tinuous program, in recognition of the 
principle that education is a continuous 

(3) The school must seek and main- 
tain cooperative relationships with indi- 
viduals and with local, state, regional, and 
national agencies which can contribute to 
the educational program. 

(4) The school must adjust its curricu- 
lum to meet changing needs in the com- 
munity and in the larger communities of 
which it is an essential part. Strict 
boundary lines between subject-matter 
areas must be broken down, as well as 
those between grade levels. 

(5) Secondary education must assume 
its place as a link between elementary 
education and college or education out- 
side the school. 

(6) Some of the materials of instruc- 
tion must be specifically and directly re- 
lated to the situations in which they are 
used and to the people who use them. 

(7) Teachers must have broad prepa- 
ration, in both pre-service and in-service 
education, to fit them for working in the 
community with the individuals who are 
its greatest resource. 

of the 

1 main- 
th indi- 
nal, and 
ibute to 

he com- 
nities of 

well as 

on out- 

actly re- 
they are 

1 prepa- 
g in the 
who are 

Photo by Tennessee Valley Authority 

Regional Libraries Widen 

Community Horizons 


The pattern of library service has 
changed with the years. The _ typical 
small village library of the past was open 
a few hours a week, providing books 
only for those people who could come 
to it. In recent years it has expanded 
its service to include first the people in 
its entire county and then the people of 
adjacent counties. Some results of this 
new library pattern have been more books 
for everyone, with an exchange of books 
between units, bookmobiles to take books 
into the remote corners, and qualified 
librarians to select the books carefully 
and to stimulate the readers. 

Regional Libraries Reach More People 

Two or more counties may combine or 
cooperate in public library service to form 

a regional library. The headquarters li- 
brary, usually located in the trading cen- 
ter, is open free for people to borrow 
books, pamphlets, and other materials 
and to use the library for reference and 
research. The local libraries in the re- 
gion continue their services to their com- 
munities, sometimes as branches of the 
system and sometimes as independent 
libraries. Books from the county library 
and the advice of the county librarian are 
always available to them. 

A library board of trustees, composed 
of men and women who serve without 
pay, is appointed by the appropriating 
bodies in the region. The board of trus- 
tees is the group responsible to the people 
and the commissioners for the service 

[ 127] 

taking facts to the people 

rendered. The library, board elects the 
librarian and the library staff. It en- 
courages gifts of money and buildings 
and works actively to secure adequate 

The state and the state library agencies, 
in their responsibility for the extension 
of library services to every man, woman, 
and child, cooperate with regional library 
boards and librarians in developing and 
improving service within their areas. 

Regional libraries have developed dur- 
ing the past few years, especially in the 
South, as a more economical and more 
efficient unit of service. By making books 
easily accessible, they provide the people 
with both the opportunity and the incen- 
tive to educate themselves, to keep abreast 
of current thought, and to learn useful 
knowledge. Regional libraries provide 
the best means of getting resource-use 
materials into the hands of rural and 
small community people. The develop- 
ment of one such regional library in a 
southern state is given to show that vision 
and persistence, books and materials, can 
mean enlarged horizons and a wider view 
of life for its citizens. 

State Aid to Regional Libraries 

North Carolina was fortunate to have 
state aid for public libraries voted by the 
General Assembly in 1941. The first ap- 
propriation for rural library service 
proved to be a stimulating fund to help 
counties help themselves. Previously only 
twenty-three counties had county library 
service and 1,700,000 people were with- 
out any public library service, but state 
aid changed the library picture. The ap- 
preciation of the people for books and 
for making books available by means of 
bookmobiles and book stations has helped 
to secure increased funds at succeeding 
sessions of the legislature. The 1945 
General Assembly voted an appropriation 

Extension Division. 

of $175,000 for each year of the bien- 
nium. Eighty-four counties are sharing 
in the fund during 1945-46 and less than 
half a million people are without library 
service in North Carolina. 

To share in state aid, county funds 
must be appropriated or voted and an ac- 
ceptable plan of library service presented 
to the North Carolina Library Commis- 
sion Board, which is authorized and em- 
powered to allocate the money. The 
smaller, poorer counties have been en- 
couraged to work out plans with adjacent 
counties whereby supervision by a quali- 
fied librarian, a bookmobile, and more 
books can be obtained. The North Caro- 
lina Library Law provides that two or 
more counties may join for the purpose 
of establishing and maintaining a free 
public library. It also states that the 
governing board shall be composed of 
three persons from each appropriating 

The first regional library in North 
Carolina was in the eastern section where 
the counties of Beaufort, Hyde, and Mar- 
tin combined and started service in the 
summer of 1941. Since that time four 
other regional libraries have been estab- 
lished in North Carolina. 

Cherokee, Clay, and Graham Counties 
in western North Carolina formed the 
second group to take advantage of state 
aid for public libraries and formed the 
Nantahala Regional Library. The three 
counties are situated in a rural section 
about equidistant. 125 miles, from Ashe- 
ville, Knoxville, Atlanta, and Chatta- 
nooga. No city of medium size is nearer. 
Soon after July 1, 1941, when state aid 
became available, the county commission- 
ers of each county appointed three board 
members who were to be responsible for 
setting up the service, employing a quali- 
fied librarian and assistants, and setting 
up a program for the extension of library 

After serving as children’s, public school, and college librarian, Mar- 
jorie Beal has been secretary and director of the North Carolina Li- 
brary Commission since 1930. Miss Beal is a past president of the 
Southeastern Library Association, a Council member of the American 
Library Association, and chairman of the Library Extension Board. 
She is a member of the North Carolina Resource-Use Education Com- 
mission and has served as a member of the New York State Library 

[| 128 | 

ie bien- 
ess than 
- library 

y funds 
d an ac- 
and em- 
y. The 
een en- 
a quali- 
id more 
th Caro- 
two or 
a free 
that the 
osed of 

1 North 
n where 
nd Mar- 
e in the 
me four 
n estab- 

med the 
of state 
med the 
he three 
| section 
m Ashe- 
$ nearer. 
state aid 
ee board 
sible for 
a quali- 
1 setting 
f library 

an, Mar- 
‘colina Li- 
nt of the 
m Board. 
ion Com- 
> Library 

taking facts to the people 

service into every corner of the three 

However, public library service did not 
have its beginnings in that section in 
1941. It was in the early years of the 
century that Cherokee County fortu- 
nately shared in the gift of Andrew Car- 
negie for funds to erect library buildings. 
The condition of these gifts was that the 
locality must appropriate at least five 
percent of the building cost for mainte- 
nance and support. The two towns of 
Andrews and Murphy in Cherokee Coun- 
ty met the requirements and secured Car- 
negie library buildings. At first there was 
great enthusiasm and signs of real library 
development ; but with an annual appro- 
priation of less than $400 by each town, 
there was little left, after the librarian 
was paid, to purchase books or to expand 
the service. 

Government Cooperation 

Both libraries seemed to have reached 
a dead end, when two things happened. 
The Works Progress Administration li- 
brary program offered workers and the 
Tennessee Valley Authority began the 
construction of dams in North Carolina. 
It was exciting news when the town of 
Murphy heard that a dam would be built 
on the Hiwassee River. It would mean 
improved economic, agricultural, indus- 
trial, and cultural conditions. 

At a meeting of the Murphy Library 
Board the news seemed too good to be 
true that TVA wanted reading material 
for their employees and believed library 
service was an important part of the de- 
velopment of that region. TVA asked 
the Murphy Library Board and the North 
Carolina Library Commission to make a 
contract for library service which would 
include funds for books, for a trained 
librarian, and for means of getting these 
books into use. The contract was signed 
by all three agencies. Then with new 
books, with a trained librarian to carry 
on a program of public relations, with 
removal from the shelves of the out-of- 
date books, and a rearrangement of the 
library room, the Murphy Public Library 
took on new life as headquarters library. 
The Andrews Library shared in the en- 
larged book collection. A library in 
charge of a trained librarian was also set 
up twenty-two miles from Murphy at 

Hiwassee Dam to serve the workers and 
their families. Soon everyone in the 
county was aware of improved library 

The Cherokee County Commissioners 
saw the importance of county-wide li- 
brary service and made an appropriation 
from county funds. The North Carolina 
library law permits support of a public 
library either by city or county appropria- 
tions or by a library tax vote. The 
county library needed better library sup- 
port than was possible by county appro- 
priations, so in the fall of 1940 Cherokee 
County citizens voted a library tax of 
three cents on $100 of assessed valuation. 
This produced $1500 annually. 

A bookmobile, books, and _ library 
workers had been supplied by the WPA 
library project. Since the TVA area was 
considered a defense area, the WPA 
bookmobile and books remained in the 
region at the close of the WPA library 
project. Eventually the county purchased 
the bookmobile from the federal govern- 

People were using the public library ; 
new up-to-date books supplied answers 
to their questions ; forums for the discus- 
sion of timely topics were started; ex- 
hibits, publicity, and films called attention 
to special materials. More TVA dams 
were to be constructed in that section, 
which brought in new people and new 
demands for information. Libraries, in 
charge of trained librarians, to provide 
books, magazines, and reading materials 
near at hand, were established as new 
dams were constructed at Apalachia, 
Ocoee, Chatuge, and Fontana. 

The Nantahala Regional Library ex- 
panded its services to new territories. 
The Murphy Public Library continued 
as the headquarters library and through 
that library books were exchanged be- 
tween libraries and book stations. 

In the midst of this development of 
library service, the North Carolina Gen- 
eral Assembly of 1941 voted state aid 
for public libraries and state funds were 
offered each county. This meant more 
than dollars and cents for it gave security 
and permanency to the library program 
and assured library boards of the interest 
of the state in cultural and informational 

[ 129 | 

taking facts to the people 

Bookmobiles on Mountain Roads 

Clay and Graham Counties, which bor- 
der on Cherokee County, had experienced 
some library service under the WPA li- 
brary program and realized the impor- 
tance of having books to read. The 
county commissioners made appropria- 
tions, shared in state aid, and formed 
with Cherokee County the Nantahala 
Regional Library. A _ regional librarian 
was secured. The Cherokee County 
bookmobile revised its schedule to include 
regular trips each month into Clay and 
Graham Counties. In the county seats 
at Hayesville and Robbinsville, the libra- 
ries which had been part of the WPA 
program were strengthened by more 
books, longer hours of service, and super- 
vision by the regional librarian. The 
total population in the three counties, 
according to the 1940 census, is 41,636, 
and the book stock numbers 24,280 vol- 
umes; the library income from cities, 
counties, state, and TVA for 1944-45 was 
sixty cents per capita. 

City and county funds were used to 
pay the workers in the various libraries ; 
state aid and TVA _ funds _ purchased 
hooks, paid the trained librarian, and 
maintained bookmobile service. 

The bookmobile became a_ familiar 
sight on those mountain roads; books 
were available to all the people. The 
reading interests changed as people gained 
facility in reading and discovered the 

variety of books to be enjoyed. One 
family, living two miles up a mountain, 
met the bookmobile at the end of the 
road and each member of that family had 
good books to. read. Stops were made 
on regular schedules—at the cross roads, 
in the communities, at the schools, es- 
pecially at the smallest schools. Books 
were loaned for a month and could be 
renewed for longer periods. People were 
encouraged to request special titles or 
books on special subjects. Every effort 
was made to fill these requests through 
inter-library loans. People had books to 
read ! 

As people began to use an up-to-date 
library and to realize its advantages, 
it was important to have cooperation 
with the health and farm groups. A 
county council of leaders in various fields, 
including the regional library, provided 
an exchange of plans and of problems. 
Carefully selected educational films were 
shown on a regular schedule at the vari- 
ous libraries. A monthly book review 
group sponsored the reviewing of out- 
standing and timely books; this was fre- 
quently followed by a heated discussion 
entered into by everyone present. Each 
activity united the library with the com- 
munity and proved that a public library 
has a vital responsibility as an educa- 
tional agency, and that cooperation be- 
tween leaders in a region promotes better 
thinking and better living. 

of the 
ily had 
- made 
ls, es- 
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taking facts to the people 


Film News for January, 1946, carries 
an article, “Films in the Post-War 
South,” in which this statement appears: 
“Observers of the information film fields 
would do well to look South. In that 
part of the country, particularly in the 
southeastern states, where the citizens for 
so long have had to apologize for their 
educational efforts, things are beginning 
to happen which will bring about a re- 
evaluation of film programs in the ‘pro- 
gressive’ states.” In the lead article of 
the same issue, Sidney Kaufman adds, 
“We have arrived at a period in the de- 
velopment of the information film in 
which close contact with universities 1s 

The Southern Educational Film Pro- 
duction Service reflects both these ideas. 
It represents a rapidly advancing interest 
in improved film programs. Its head- 
quarters will be established at the Uni- 
versity of Georgia so that it will be closely 
related to the subject matter and fields of 
competence represented in a university. 
To these ideas, however, the Southern 
Educational Film Production Service 
adds a significant third—it is based on a 
region, and will therefore work toward 
welding efforts of state agencies into an 
effective regional whole. The fifty or 
sixty public agencies and _ institutions 
which have worked together to develop 
the Service are convinced that it will be 
highly significant in serving educational 
programs in the South. This may be 
particularly true in the field of resource 
education, since much of the subject mat- 
ter of that field is effectively presented 
through films. 

How States Work Together 

The SEFPS is composed of two parts: 
(1) a non-profit corporation composed of 
public tax-supported agencies and insti- 
tutions in the southern states interested 
in film production, and (2) a production 
unit at present being established at the 
University of Georgia. The University 
of Georgia will administer and operate 
the production unit under the general di- 

Films for the South 


rection of policies and work plans estab- 
lished by the Service itself through its 
Board of Directors. 

Any tax-supported public agency or 
institution in the states of Virginia, Ken- 
tucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, South 
Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and 
Mississippi may become a member of the 
SEFPS simply by indicating its desire to 
do so. There are no fees or dues attached 
to membership. In each state the agen- 
cies and institutions which have become 
members of the Service elect from their 
membership one person to represent that 
state on the Board of Directors of the 
Service. The Board of Directors is com- 
posed of one representative from each of 
the nine states, one representative from 
the Tennessee Valley Authority, and one 
representative from the University of 
Georgia as the sponsoring institution of 
the Service. This eleven-man board will 
bring to the production unit administered 
by the University of Georgia a regional 
consciousness to guide film production 
plans. In this way the Service will con- 
tinue to be regional in its concern and 

The production unit of the Service will 
provide or obtain all services necessary 
for the production of educational films. 
The permanent staff of the unit will prob- 
ably include a director, a cameraman, a 
film writer, and a film editor. The pro- 
duction unit can produce entire educa- 
tional films or it can provide special serv- 
ices, such as those of a script-writer who 
may be needed by some agency which is 
producing its own films. Charges to the 
agencies for services will cover costs but 
will not include profits. Agencies in the 
South, by using the Service, will be able 
to produce films for their own educational 
programs at reasonable cost. 

Any agency in the states covered by 
the Service can request that the Service 
produce a film for its use. A contract 
will be drawn between the agency and the 
University of Georgia providing for the 
production of the film and the cost in- 
volved. The production unit then will 

[ 131] 

taking facts to the people 

work closely with the agency itself in pro- 
ducing the kind of film desired. Ob- 
viously, the unit will call on the agency 
to guide its work so that the film will be 
not only pictorially effective but factually 
sound, telling the story the agency wants 
told. Agencies themselves will retain full 
control of the type or subject matter of 
films produced. 

Many State Agencies Help 

Up to the present, the state agencies 
which have taken the most active part in 
the development of the Service are the 
state departments of education, of conser- 
vation, and of health, fish and wildlife 
commissions, the state agricultural exten- 
sion services, and the state planning com- 
missions. Interest in film production is 
not limited to this group of agencies, but 
their interest was the clearest from the 
beginning. The agricultural extension 
services, for example, have been produc- 
ing educational films in many states, most 
notably in Georgia, where for the past 
four years or more the Agricultural Ex- 
tension Service at Athens has been pro- 
ducing its own excellent educational films 
for use in the State. The State Depart- 
ment of Conservation of Tennessee has 
its own film production unit. The State 
Board of Education in Virginia is estab- 
lishing a film production unit. The re- 
gional unit established at the University 
of Georgia under the Southern Educa- 
tional Film Production Service’s spon- 
sorship will supplement rather than sup- 
plant these other well-established efforts. 

Although educational film production is 
the central function of the Service and 
its production unit, it has other purposes 
also which may be of equal significance. 
It proposes, for example, to encourage 
region-wide production of educational 
films and film strips by public agencies. 
The hope is that out of such an effort will 
come a film production program in which 
production in one state dovetails with 
production in others so that the limited 
funds of southern public agencies can be 
most effectively spent. To aid this pur- 

pose, the Service will provide a clearing- 
house of information on educational films 

planned or in production in the southern 

Film Needs in Southern States 

There is no longer need to persuade 
educators that educational films are useful 
media. That usefulness has been proved 
time and again, most spectacularly by the 
armed services in training for war. In 
the South, however, educational programs 
have suffered for lack of locally produced 
material. A film loses some of its impact 
when it is used to illustrate problems and 
their solution in an area different from 
that in which it was made. It is this 
immediate impact which production of 
films in the South, by agencies of the 
South, will achieve. 

Success of the Service is dependent 
entirely upon its ability to satisfy needs 
of tax-supported public agencies for film 
production. If there is no need, or if 
the need is not great enough to support 
a regional production unit, the Service 
will disappear. Before reaching the pres- 
ent point in the development of the Serv- 
ice, the amount of interest in the public 
agencies of the South was carefully as- 
sessed. We found that many already had 
definite programs of educational film pro- 
duction, and even more important, had 
the money to support those programs. 
The agricultural extension services are 
probably farther along in their thinking 
on the production of films for their own 
use than other agencies, but conservation 
departments, planning commissions, state 
departments of education, and state de- 
partments of health in various states, 
all have definite plans for film production. 

The SEFPS is unique in the United 
States. There is no other regionally- 
based film production service designed 
for the use of public agencies and insti- 
tutions and directed by them. Success 
here will be closely watched elsewhere 
and will have influence much broader 
than in the region alone. The major 
focus, however, is on the problems of the 
southern states and the purpose of the 
Service is to provide a means whereby 
southern agencies can use a new tool of 
learning more effectively. 


y the 

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. this 
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taking facts to the people 

Educational Materials 
For Regional Growth 


To improve the relationships between 
ur people and our resources we must 
initiate and maintain an extensive pro- 
vram of resource-use education. Re- 
source-use education differs from the 
more familiar conservation and nature 
study courses in that it is “based on a 
recognition of the unity of natural, hu- 
man, and social resources, and demands 
that this unity be recognized and ob- 
served in our resource-use policies. In 
this light, resource-use education is pri- 
marily an emphasis or orientation for all 
phases of education, not a special course 
to compete with health education, con- 
sumer education, and others.”! 

If we are to improve the quality of 
living in southern communities, schools 
must become agencies of social action in- 
terested in economic and social improve- 
ment. Schools have ignored life within 
the immediate environment of the learner 
too long. They must become concerned 
about all the people in the community 
their health, nutrition, clothing, housing, 
and their use of resources—natural, hu- 
man, and social. 

The Need for Research Translation 

Research has far outstripped our dis- 
semination of useful knowledge revealed 
by research. We have not succeeded too 
well in our attempts to channel research 
through education. Two factors have 

* John E. Ivey, Jr., “Resource-Use Education: 
A Challenge to Social Studies,” The Bulletin, 
Vorth Carolina Council for the Social Studies, 
Vol. Il (December, 1945), 4. 

Louisville city schools. 

contributed to our failure to get the re- 
sults of research to the people who might 
use them to benefit themselves and so- 
ciety. The conservative nature of the 
school curriculum and the consequent re- 
sistance to change have made the school 
program one which has been slow to teach 
the new discoveries of research. A _ sec- 
ond and perhaps more important factor 
has been the unavailability of educational 
materials. Research, the work of spe- 
cialists, couched in technical language, 
has been of little value to the ordinary 
citizen because it has not been generally 
understandable to him. There is a defi- 
nite need for research to be translated 
into everyday language for popular con- 
sumption if the findings of research are 
to become useful and helpful in develop- 
ing higher standards of living for our 

The more effective educational use of 
research on southern resources and prob- 
lems is dependent in large degree upon 
the assembly of regional materials—origi- 
nal research and available research trans- 
lations—and the distribution of informa- 
tion about these materials among teachers, 
school supervisors and administrators, 
and other community leaders. Unfor- 
tunately, there has been no public agency 
charged with the responsibility of pre- 
paring and distributing materials of re- 
gion-wide applicability ; nor any organized 
plan worked out for the distribution of 
information about such materials to the 
school systems of the region. 

John E. Brewton is director of the Division of Surveys and Field 
Studies and professor of education at George Peabody College for 
Teachers, and director of the Southern Rural Life Council. He is a 
member of the Committee on Southern Regional Studies and Educa- 
tion. Mr. Brewton formerly was high school principal, teacher, and 
superintendent of schools in Florida, and director of research for the 
He is author of numerous research studies and 
books in the fields of rural education and children’s literature. 

[ 133 ] 

taking facts to the people 

The 1943 Gatlinburg Conference iden- 
tified a major need in the field of re- 
source-use education—the provision to 
teachers of better selections of educa- 
tional materials on state and regional re- 
sources and problems. The report of the 
Committee on Southern Regional Studies 
and Education revealed that this need was 
not being met. It was pointed out in the 
1944 Catlinburg Conference that one way 
of meeting this need would be to provide 
a regional materials service which would 
facilitate the establishment of state ma- 
terials services and the distribution and 
use of educational materials on regional, 
state, and local levels. 

The Regional Materials Service 

In response to these needs and as a 
special project of the Committee on 
Southern Regional Studies and FEduca- 
tion, George Peabody College for Teach- 
ers, Nashville, Tennessee, established a 
Regional Materials Service in September, 
1945. The service has initiated a broad 
program to assemble regional materials 
and distribute information about them. 
The Service will also be a center for 
training in resource-use education. It is 
an activity of Peabody’s Division of Sur- 
veys and Field Studies. A regional com- 
mittee, composed of more than forty 
members representing research and edu- 
cational agencies in thirteen southern 
states, is advising in the development of 
the service. 

The activities of the Service include 
the assembly and distribution of mate- 
rials and information, and cooperation 
with interested agencies in the promo- 
tion of resource-use education in the re- 
gion. The Regional Materials Service 
proposes to collect and catalog informa- 
tion on the natural, social, and human 
resources of the southern region. When 
compiled, this information will become 
a central reference to problems in re- 
source-use education for each southern 
state and the region. Such a central 
source will be useful in regional research 
and its translation, in curriculum de- 
velopment on the state and local levels, 
in the training of educational leadership 
to promote better use of resources, and in 
affording a wider selection of materials 
for instruction. Along with the collection 

{ 134] 

of information and materials, the Service 
will maintain a file and periodically issue 
bibliographies on resource-use educational 

In the program of cooperation with 
other educational agencies, the Peabody 
program will offer technical assistance to 
state and institutional groups interested 
in their own materials collections and in 
the more effective use of the materials. 
It will offer assistance in establishing 
state centers of information. It will col- 
laborate in state and institutional work 
conferences conducted to train leader- 
ship in the production and utilization of 
resource-use materials. It will afford a 
channel for the continuous interchange of 
ideas among the directors of materials 
collections. The Regional Materials Serv- 
ice will actively participate in the pre- 
service and in-service education of teach- 
ers in resource-use education. 

Regional Services to States 

The Regional Materials Service will 
assist the various states in the region in 
the establishment and operation of their 
own materials services. State materials 
bureaus will be developed in such man- 
ner as to encourage the permanent main- 
tenance and utilization of materials col- 
lections on the state and local levels. 

Those states which do not set up ma- 
terials services may still have agencies or 
institutions which are interested in in- 
creasing the effectiveness of their collec- 
tion and use of materials bearing on state 
and regional resources and problems. The 
Regional Materials Service will attempt 
to furnish these agencies and institutions 
with consultant service and information 
according to their particular needs. 

The collection will be limited to mate- 
rials in print and available to interested 
educational agencies. A special attempt 
will be made to include materials readily 
adaptable to use by individual teachers. 

The successful development of the 
Service requires the cooperation and aid 
of those engaged in resource-use educa- 
tion. The Service is interested in the 

activities of these groups and individuals, 
in the programs they have planned, in 
the translations they have made, and in 
the materials collections they have as- 

y issue 

1 with 
ince to 
and in 
ill col- 
ion of 
ford a 
nge of 
e pre- 

e will 
ion in 
s col- 

p ma- 
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in in- 
| state 



f the 
id aid 
n the 
d, in 
nd in 
e as- 

taking facts to the people 

A Book for Study of 

Regional Resources 


By snow melting time in 1948, a new 
book should be ready for public school 
students who want to know more about 
the southern United States. To package 
and hand these facts to teachers and pu- 
pils, several thousand southern educators 
and research specialists will have spent 
nearly four years of cooperative effort. 

In 1944, after more than a year of 
study, a little volume pointed out that one 
glaring deficiency in educational materials 
about the South was the absence of 
any regional volume for public school 
use.!. A special committee at Gatlinburg 
Conference Il devoted time to recom- 
mending how this need could be met. 
Their proposal was considered by the 
Committee on Southern Regional Studies 
and Education. The Committee arranged 
with the University of North Carolina’s 
Institute for Research in Social Science 
to produce the volume. 

The major principle behind the method 
for producing the book is that its useful- 
ness will increase in proportion to the 
number of educators and research spe- 
cialists participating in the process. Ac- 
cordingly, four means are being used to 
increase the variety of judgments guiding 
production of the book: (1) thirty-five 
educators from thirteen states constitute 
an advisory committee; (2) drafts of the 
manuscript are reviewed by research spe- 
cialists for scientific adequacy; (3) a 
special conference for directors of teacher 
education workshops devoted part-time to 
a review of sections of the manuscript ; 
and (4) teachers from all over the South 
will use the complete manuscript experi- 
mentally in classroom teaching as a basis 
for final revision before publication. 

A team of authors is preparing the 
volume: Rupert B. Vance, Marjorie N. 

* John E. Ivey, Jr., Channeling Research Into 
Education, A Report of the Committee on 
Southern Regional Studies and Education 
(Washington, D. C.: American Council of 
Education, 1944), Chapter 5. 

Bond, and John E. Ivey, Jr. The theme 
of the book shows how living conditions 
in the southern region reflect a partner- 
ship of men and resources. 

This partnership, according to the vol- 
ume, has been getting on badly. Soils, 
forests, minerals, water, and wildlife give 
evidence that the average southerner has 
too often used them _ irresponsibly. 
Health, housing, economic development, 
government, religion, education, and other 
social problems increasingly weigh heavily 
on southerners because of the unscientific 
way they have conducted their partner- 
ship with resources. 

The regional volume will examine the 
causes contributing to the ailing man-re- 
source partnership. And it will illustrate 
principles for sound development of the 
region’s natural, human, and social re- 
sources which, if followed, will contribute 
to improved living in the communities of 
the region. 

In an Atlanta, Georgia, meeting during 
July, 1945, the regional advisory commit- 
tee reworked the regional volume’s out- 
line, previously prepared by the project 
staff. Suggestions were also given on 
reading level, format, major emphasis, 
and many other points. Acting upon ad- 
vice from the advisory committee, the 
authors are now preparing a first draft of 
the volume. As the chapters are com- 
pleted, section by section, they are being 
reviewed by research experts in the sub- 
ject matter concerned. A second draft of 
the volume’s first two sections, incor- 
porating changes suggested by research 
specialists, will be made available for 
evaluation in the teacher education work- 
shops held throughout the South during 
the summer of 1946. 

Through the state workshops, a large 
number of teachers will become acquaint- 
ed with information on regional resources 
and problems. The teachers will be in- 
vited to give suggestions for improving 
the volume for student and teacher use. 

[ 135 ] 

taking facts to the people 

The south central states—Arkansas, 
Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas—are 
seeking through cooperative effort to find 
a solution to resource-use education prob- 
lems having regional implications. The 
efforts of the four states are co-ordinated 
by the Resource-Use Education Commit- 
tee, South Central Region. This commit- 
tee has utilized state and regional con- 
ferences, publications, special meetings, 
and other devices for accomplishing its 
objectives of stimulating state coopera- 
tion in these regional problems. 

Four States Join in 
Research Translation 

The committee came into existence as 
a result of the recent accelerated interest 
in resource-use education programs in the 
four-states area. Representatives of the 
states in the south central region held an 
informal discussion on the need for re- 
gional cooperation at the 1943 Gatlinburg 
Conference sponsored by the Committee 
on Southern Regional Studies and Edu- 
cation. It was agreed in this discussion 
to conduct a regional conference for the 
four states—Arkansas, Louisiana, Okla- 
homa, and Texas—for the purpose of 
exploring the possibilities of translating 
resource materials relating to the region 
into teaching materials for use in the 
public schools. A planning committee 
composed of representatives from each of 
the four states had responsibility for con- 
ducting the conference. 

The first Regional Resources Transla- 

has served as 


the Rural Department, National Education Association. 
state coordinator of 

[ 136 ] 

Studying Resources in the 
Arkansas River Valley 


tion Conference, as it was called, was 
held at the University of Arkansas in the 
summer of 1944. Sixty-six selected con- 
ferees and consultants from the four 
states attended the conference. The con- 
ferees were educators representing pub- 
lic elementary, secondary, and _ higher 
education ; and the consultants were spe- 
cialists in the resource fields of soils, 
water, power, minerals, industry, trans- 
portation, and population. The principal 
source of technical data for translation 
was the report Regional Planning, Part 
XII, Arkansas Valley, published by the 
National Resources Planning Board. 
The conferees and consultants trans- 
lated the data of the report into teaching 
materials for use on the various grade 
levels, and in adult education programs. 
Specific outcomes included units of work, 
lesson plans, reference readers, and sup- 
plementary reading materials for use in 
school programs. Materials such as news- 
paper articles, forum discussion topics, 
radio scripts, and addresses were prepared 
for use in adult programs. These teach- 
ing materials were designed to stimulate 
persons on various educational levels to 
better appreciate the need for a wise use 
of resources. 
A Committee for Regional Coordination 

One of the recommendations of the 
conference was concerned with a perma- 
nent organization for promoting resource- 
use education within the region—and the 
Resource-Use Education Committee, 

Roy W. Roberts is head of the Department of Vocational Teacher 
Education at the University of Arkansas, chairman of the Resource- 
Use Education Committee, South Central Region, and a member of 
the Committee on Southern Regional Studies and Education. 

He is 

a member of the Committee on Publications and Constructive Studies 
and the Mid-South Rural Education Conference Committee, both of 

Mr. Roberts 
in-service teacher education in 

Arkansas and director of the Arkansas Valley Resources Translation 




e in 
s to 



| the 

h of 
n in 

taking facts to the people 

South Central Region, came into exist- 
ence. This committee is composed of 
three persons from each of the four 
states, appointed by the chief state school 
officer of the respective state. An attempt 
was made in the selection of members to 
secure a balance between representatives 
of educational agencies and technical re- 
source agencies, in order that the many 
technical and professional problems in a 
program of resource-use education might 
be properly evaluated. 

The committee has taken cognizance 
of the fact that many conservation prob- 
lems such as flood control, freight rates, 
industrial development, and others, do 
not confine themselves to state lines, and 
that a degree of cooperation between 
states is required if levels of living within 
a region are to be raised. The efforts of 
the committee have been directed towards 
stimulating the states to give considera- 
tion to these problems in state resource- 
use education programs. The committee 
activities have included regional work- 
shops, special publications, conferences, 

exchange of personnel, and committee 
study. These activities have been im- 
plemented by grants-in-aid from the Gen- 
eral Education Board. 

One of the first committee activities 
was the sponsoring of a second regional 
resources translation conference at the 
University of Arkansas. This confer- 
ence, held in the summer of 1945, was 
patterned after the 1944 conference. The 
principal difference was in the source of 
technical data used in the translation 
process. The technical consultants in the 
1945 conference assembled, prior to the 
conference, the important technical data 
having regional implications in their re- 
spective resource fields. This informa- 
tion was used by the conferees as hases 
for translating the teaching materials. 

The committee will cooperate in two 
regional translation conferences in the 
summer of 1946. One of these will be 
held at North Texas State Teachers Col- 
lege, Denton. This conference will fur- 
ther explore the possibilities of regional 
cooperation in translating resource ma- 

Courtesy of University of Arkansas College of Education 

Good farm land lies useless as silt in the river bottom. Worse than useless, for it affects the 
value of the water for other purposes and aggravates floods. From how many states upstream 
did the soil come? Resources respect no political boundaries. 

[ 137] 

taking facts to the people 

terials into teaching materials and will 
attempt to determine the position educa- 
tion should take in the post-war develop- 
ment of regional resources to improve 
levels of living. 

A second regional conference will be 
held in 1946 at Arkansas A. M. & N. 
College, Pine Bluff, for the purpose of 
initiating resource-use education pro- 
grams in the Negro schools of the four- 
state area. It is expected that this con- 
ference will utilize some of the technical 
data assembled in the previous confer- 
ences as bases for preparing teaching ma- 
terials for school use. The committee is 
assisting in planning, selecting partici- 
pants, and financing these two confer- 

A report of the 1945 conference and a 
reference reader for use in the primary 
grades have been published by the com- 
mittee. This reference booklet Surprises 
in the Arkansas Valley was written by 
Miss Catharine Garvin of Lawton, Okla- 
homa, one of the conferees at the 1944 
conference. It is designed to stimulate 
younger children to interest themselves in 
some conservation problems that have 
regional significance. 

The resources data assembled by the 
consultants for the 1945 regional confer- 
ence were considered of sufficient value 
to warrant publication for use in the 
public schools. The committee has de- 
cided to publish these data in the form 
of a source book. This volume will con- 
tain some of the more important tech- 
nical data about soils, forests, wild plant 
and animal life, minerals, power, water 
resources, industry, health, recreation 
facilities, and human resources. The 
publication will be written at the junior 
high school level, first in tentative form 
for trial in some of the schools; and later, 
if its usefulness seems to justify, it will 
be published for general distribution. 
Members of the committee are assuming 
responsibility for adapting the data for 

The committee has also in process of 
publication a second volume describing 
the organization and procedures of the 
1945 conference. Regular meetings are 

held quarterly by the committee. These 
meetings are given over to planning com- 
mittee work, projecting plans previously 
made, and reviewing state resource-use 
education programs and activities. 

State Programs 

Each of the four states has developed 
resource-use programs within the state. 
Some of this development has come about 
as a result of the stimulation afforded by 
the Resource-Use Education Committee. 
The Texas Resource-Use Education 
Council was recently organized to pro- 
mote resource-use education programs 
among school pupils and adults. This 
council is composed of educators and 
specialists in conservation and use of re- 
sources. It is contemplated that the coun- 
cil will provide funds for the employment 
of personnel to carry on its activities. 

A workshop for selected conferees 
from the state of Oklahoma was held at 
Oklahoma A. & M. College, Stillwater, 
in the summer of 1945. This was fol- 
lowed by a special planning workshop 
for Oklahoma teachers at George Pea- 
body College, Nashville, Tennessee, in 
which specific plans for an experimental 
county-wide resource-use education pro- 
gram were made. 

Special parish-wide workshops for in- 
service teachers were held in Ascension, 
East Baton Rouge, and other parishes in 
Louisiana in the summer of 1945. Plans 
for improving levels of living through 
the wise use of resources were made at 
these workshops. Some of the Negro 
schools in Arkansas have recently de- 
veloped commendable programs in re- 
source-use education and as a result some 
nuticeable improvements have been made 
in the levels of living of these commu- 

The activities of the regional commit- 
tee and of the state agencies in the South 
Central Region have provided some stim- 
ulation for developing state and regional 
programs in resource-use education. The 
further development of these programs is 
needed if the region is to make wise use 
of its resources. 

1 at 
_ in 

- in- 
Ps in 
le at 

1 re- 

ums is 
se use 

Classroom Teachers Make 

Resource Use Vivid 


Among the agencies in the South which 
must educate people for full and wise use 
of all resources is the public school. More 
than nine million students and probably 
eighteen million adults are affected di- 
rectly or indirectly by its program each 
year. If teachers and administrators in 
the public school are to capitalize upon 
their tremendously challenging oppor- 
tunities, they will need to understand 
clearly what is meant by education in re- 
source use and how it may be made an 
integral part of an on-going, functional 
program designed to improve the quality 
of living in the “here and now,” as well 
as in the future. In short, they will need 
to know the “what” and the “how” of 
resource-use education. 

The ‘*What’’ of Resource-use Education 

Resource-use education does not pur- 
port to be new or revolutionary. It is 
rather an attempt to expand, unify, em- 
phasize, and vitalize what has long been 
recognized as an essential part of an ade- 
quate and effective educational program 
for the public schools in America—con- 
servation education. In other words, re- 
source-use education is all that conserva- 
tion aims to be, and more too. 

Resource-use education goes beyond 
the usual concept of conservation educa- 
tion in several ways. First, it interprets 
resources as including not only natural 
resources but also human resources—the 
quality and quantity of the population— 
and social resources—customs, institu- 

tions, capital, and skills. Second, re- 
source-use education recognizes as funda- 
mental certain principles or concepts not 
included, or not sufficiently emphasized, 
in the usual conservation texts, and teach- 
ing procedures : 

(1) There is an uncompromising unity 
and balance among all the elements of the 
natural environment. 

(2) The natural and the social envi- 
ronments are inter-dependent. There is 
an inescapable companionship between 
nature and culture. 

(3) The attitudes and customs of 
groups, as well as their skills and insti- 
tutional arrangements, condition the use 
that they make of their resources. 

Third, resource-use education differs 
from the usual conservation instruction 
in that it seems to offer a more positive, 
creative approach to the problem of using 
all resources. It is careful to emphasize 
that wise resource use does not mean the 
locking up and hoarding of resources. 
It means that resources must be used in 
such a way as to maintain the natural 
process of replenishment. Only the use 
of resources will result in higher levels 
of living. Their scientific use will also 
insure their availability for future genera- 

The ‘‘How’’ of Resource-use Education 

Both the starting point and the methods 
employed in resource-use education de- 
pend upon the same variable factors 
which condition any other part of a sound 

Mary Sue Fonville has been a teacher of social studies and of the 
eighth grade in the Raleigh public schools since 1923. She is teaching 
now at Broughton High School in Raleigh. Mrs. Fonville is vice- 
president of the North Carolina Council for Social Studies and a 
member of the Advisory Committee on International Relations of the 
National Education Association. She has assisted with summer work 
conferences in social studies and resource-use education at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. 

[ 139 ] 

teachers in action 

educational program: (1) the general na- 
ture and needs of the local commumity; 
(2) the needs and achievements of the 
pupils; (3) the philosophy, the curricu- 
lar content and organization, and their re- 
lationships in the school; (4) the knowl- 
edge, interests, ingenuity, and coopera- 
tiveness of the teachers and administra- 
tion; (5) the available materials, facih- 
ties, and services. 

Since this is true, there is no “one right 
way” to begin or to proceed in developing 
an effective program of resource use edu- 
cation. There are, however, certain 1m- 
portant considerations which should have 
the continuing attention of both teachers 
and administrators concerned with such 
a program. 

In the first place, resource-use educa- 
tion should be considered an evolving 
aspect of the total educational program. 
The knowledges, understandings, atti- 
tudes, skills, and habits which are its 
objectives cannot be developed in one unit 
or in one course. They can be achieved 
only if the programs of pupils at every 
level from the primary grades through 
the secondary school provide experiences 
designed to build them up. Therefore, 
the final effectiveness of resource-use 
education will depend on the extent to 
which the philosophy underlying it per- 
vades the school’s curricular and extra- 
curricular activities and the concepts fun- 
damental to it are woven into the dif- 
ferent units and courses with continuity 
and consistency. 

This does not mean, of course, that it 
may not be desirable at some point, prob- 
ably at the junior high school level, to 
offer a course in which students have a 
chance to draw together, interpret, and 
integrate their earlier learnings about re- 
sources and their use. In fact, it seems 
to be the opinion of a number who have 
studied this matter that such a course may 
not only be desirable but essential. 

Another consideration to be borne in 
mind is that while the subject fields of 
health, home economics, science, and so- 
cial science will furnish the basic facts 
and concepts concerning resources and 
their use, the fields of art, music, lan- 
guage, and literature have invaluable con- 
tributions to make, especially in develop- 
ing those attitudes and appreciations with- 
out which knowledge might never be ex- 
pressed in action. The materials de- 

veloped by the Sloan Experiment in 
Kentucky to bring about improvement in 
dietary practices through the education 
of children suggest ways of utilizing all 
these fields in an integrated approach. 
For instance, in a songbook We Will 
Sing One Song, which is illustrated in 
color, there are familiar tunes with new 
words written to stimulate the interest of 
children in raising and eating healthful 

Even more, perhaps, than some other 
aspects of a school’s program, resource- 
use education must grow out of the needs 
of the pupils concerned and must have 
both roots and results in the community 
situation. Its nature, purpose, and pro- 
cedure all demand this. Therefore, among 
the considerations to be kept before those 
who are initiating or expanding such a 
program is the necessity for identifying 
as soon as possible the needs of the pupils 
and of the community in terms of their 
use of their resources. To be sure, cer- 
tain resource-use needs are common to 
all communities. Those in the South 
have wider areas of common needs and 
problems. Fortunately, these have, for 
the most part, already been identified and 
authoritatively set forth in publications 
easily available to teachers and adminis- 
trators. However, in some communities 
certain needs may be more acute than 
others and if these are duly recognized, 
they can indicate both the point of be- 
ginning and the first lines of emphasis for 
the resource-use education program. 

Questions such as the following may be 
helpful in discovering needs :1 

1. What community problems or unmet needs 
seem to be due to the inadequate use of re- 
sources f° 

2. What better ways of using these resources 
might be adopted? 

3. How can the community be helped to adopt 
these ways? 

4. What can the school do to help bring 
about the use of these better methods of re- 
source user 

5. When and how can it start to do so? 

Public School Approaches to 
Resource Use 

The action of a group of teachers and 
other citizens in the Gilbertsville School 

* Adapted from John E. Ivey, Jr., Channeling 
Research Into Education, A Report of the Com- 
mittee on Southern Regional Studies and Edu- 
cation (Washington: American Council on 
Education, 1944), pp. 20-21. 

[ 140 ] 


oT - 

r be 


r re- 

: Edu- 

il on 

teachers in action 

area of Marshall County, Kentucky, illus- 
trates the use, on a cooperative basis, of 
some such approach as these questions 
suggest. In November, 1944, more than 
150 people had an all-day meeting at the 
school to study ways and means of mak- 
ing the school’s program contribute every- 
thing possible toward the improvement of 
living in the community. Concrete needs 
with respect to health, housing, soil, live- 
stock, crops, and recreation were outlined 
and plans for helping to meet them were 
made. For instance, needs in regard to 
livestock called for such specifics as im- 
provement in quality by using purebred 
sires, provision of ten months’ pasture, 
and control of diseases by testing, vac- 
cination, and sanitary practices. Health 
needs were outlined as including the pro- 
duction of adequate food for the family ; 
this need was further particularized as 
needs for a fruit garden, a vegetable gar- 
den, poultry, milk, butter, beef, and pork. 
The experience of a tenth grade civics 
class in a consolidated school in the Ken- 
tucky village of Stamping Ground sug- 
gests how pupils may join with their 
teachers and parents in identifying com- 
munity needs. This civics class, after 
reading Improving Our Community's 
Homes and Preparing to Serve in Your 
Rural Community, prepared by the Uni- 
versity of Florida’s Sloan Experiment in 
Applied Economics, decided to make a 
survey to ascertain what the people of 
their town thought were the most needed 
improvements in their homes and in the 
community. A questionnaire for this pur- 
pose was prepared. The most frequently 
noted needs were better recreational fa- 
cilities for young people, better sewage 
disposal, natural gas for cooking and 
heating, and improvement in housing. 
The activities of this class illustrate, not 
only participation in identifying certain 
needs, but also participation in helping 
meet the needs identified. The civics 
class is building up a background of 
knowledge to help in improving the hous- 
ing situation. It is preparing a bulletin 
containing information on construction 
and on the location of materials needed 
for the improvements. Later, members 
of the group expect to help with some of 
the actual construction. Other groups 
are working too. The Future Farmers of 
America are trying to make arrangements 
for natural gas to be piped from George- 

Courtesy of Soil Conservation Service 

High school science and geography students in 
South Carolina study erosion problems on 
farms near their school. The local Soil Con- 
servation Service technician is guide. He dis- 
cusses good and bad examples of soil conser- 

town, the county seat, eight miles away. 
The biology class is planning to work on 
the sanitation problem. 

Other schools in other places are car- 
rying on promising programs. A_ sixth 
grade group in the B. B. Comer School 
in Talledega County, Alabama, developed 
an interesting and significant unit on soil. 
One rainy day someone in the group no- 
ticed how the water on the school ground 
was running off in many little streams, 
later converging in one which was cutting 
a fairly deep trench. A discussion ensued 
about the washing away of farm land. 
From the discussion a unit developed 
which gave opportunities for studying not 
only ways and means of conserving the 
laud, but also for comparing the living 
conditions of people on good soil and on 
poor soil. Maps were drawn to scale 
showing the eroded areas in the county, 
state, and nation. Letters were written 
to the government and to the planning 
board for bulletins, maps, and other ma- 
terials. A model of a well-terraced farm 
was made for a display window. A model 
of a poor farm showing eroded land 
caused from the lack of terracing and 
other good practices was made on the 
sand table. 

[ 141 ] 

teachers in action 

Other studies made in connection with 
the unit brought out the important rela- 
tionships of: (1) forests to the soil and 
to a balanced water supply; (2) soil to 
the nutrition of animals and of people 
fed on plants grown in it; (3) poor land 
to poor people; and (4) poor people to 
poor land. 

In the course of learning about the 
natural resources of their state, an eighth 
grade class in the Broughton High School 
of Raleigh, North Carolina, made a spe- 
cial study of soil. Members of the staffs 
of the district and state offices of the Soil 
Conservation Service supplied pamphlet 
material, slides, and films. They made 
several visits to the school, and conducted 
an excursion to a nearby farm which was 
once badly eroded but which is now the 
scene of various practices designed to re- 
store the soil and maintain its fertility. 
After having a unit on soil conservation, 
a ninth grade civics class in the same 
school joined the eighth grade group in 
initiating a project to stop erosion on the 
worst section of the school grounds. Par- 
ticipation by other groups was sought 
with the result that there is now under- 
way a program which has enlisted the 
grounds committee of the Student Coun- 
cil, the class in public speaking, the school 
newspaper, members of former civics 
classes, the grounds committee of the 
Parent-Teacher Association, the school 
principal and the superintendent, the 
city parks and recreation director, and the 
Soil Conservation Service. 

South Mill Creek School, an eight- 
grade, one-room rural school in a sparsely 
settled mountain area in Kentucky, un- 
dertook last fall to stimulate more and 
better fruit growing in that community. 
The third grade read the book Fruit, Nuts 
and Berries of the Smith Family Series 
prepared by the University of Kentucky’s 
Sloan Experiment in Applied Economics. 
As a result of this study, the class sug- 
gested planting a small orchard and seed- 
ling bed on the school grounds. Other 
grades were invited to join in the activity. 
Discussion as to what, where, and how 
to plant revealed the need for more in- 
formation and so a study of science 
books, agricultural bulletins, nursery cata- 
logues, etc., followed. Then suitable lo- 
cations for the orchard and seedling bed 
were chosen, cleared, and cultivated. A 

few small trees from the community were 
transplanted and others were ordered 
from a nursery. As their work pro- 
gresses, the students plan to share their 
learning with their parents. 

A one-teacher school in a Tennessee 
county was among four schools chosen 
for an experiment to test the feasibility 
of taking elementary school children on 
field trips to test demonstration farms of 
the TVA-Extension Service agricultural 
program to observe good farm and home 
practices. School and agricultural ex- 
tension officials worked out the arrange- 
ment. Among those participating were 
the county superintendent, the elemen- 
tary supervisor, the county agent, the as- 
sistant county agent, the chief education 
officer in the western area of the Tennes- 
see Valley Authority, the teacher, and the 
farmer and his wife. An information 
sheet, given ahead of time to the teacher 
to help her in planning with her children 
for the visit, suggested some of the learn- 
ings possible from such an excursion. 

A group studying the institutions of 
society in general and of their community 
in particular might become concerned 
about why their community’s institutions 
are no better than they are. In trying to 
answer this question, they might be led to 
discover and appreciate that interaction of 
nature and culture which is such a funda- 
mental concept in resource-use education. 
Still another approach to resource-use 
education in public schools lies in courses 
or units involving the study of occupa- 
tional opportunities and needs in the local 
community, the state, and the region. 

Examples of Teaching Techniques 

Resource-use education presents a need 
and an opportunity for classroom use of 
audio-visual aids, demonstrations, experi- 
ments, field trips, and other educational 
techniques. A seventh-grade class in an 
agricultural parish near the Mississippi 
River made a first-hand study of erosion 
through field trips, visiting certain places 
near the school where damage caused by 
erosion could be plainly seen. The class- 
room study included book work and the 
use of bulletins and pamphlets obtained 
from government soil conservation de- 
partments. Students got experience in 
chart making, graph reading, and work- 
ing with percentages and large numbers 

[ 142] 

teachers in action 

by studying and making for class use 
charts showing the high costs of erosion 
and amounts of soil lost by it. 

Another seventh-grade class experi- 
mented with growing plants in an effort 
to show the effect of water, sunlight, and 
soil type on plants. Identical seeds were 
planted in small containers of different 
types of soil brought from the farm homes 
of the children. Other seeds were planted 
in identical soil, with varying amounts of 
water ; others received varying exposure 
to sunlight. The experiment was accom- 
panied by a great deal of study of the 
types of soil best suited for crops grown 
in that locality. The soil samples brought 
by the youngsters were later tested by 
high school students in a chemistry class, 
and recommendations were made for soil 

A teacher of high school science makes 
excellent use of audio-visual aids in 
teaching resource use. Each time a class 
takes up a new subject that concerns re- 
sources, the teacher collects pictures and 
charts showing the resource and its use. 
Students learn how the use now being 
made of the resource corresponds with 
the supply in reserve. The teacher also 
points out correct and incorrect methods 
of putting resources to use. For ex- 
ample, during the study of sulphur, charts 
from the sulphur companies and maps 
from state geological surveys are used to 
show where and in what quantities sul- 
phur is found. The importance of this 
resource is, of course, studied in connec- 
tion with its extraction: A trip is also 

made to sulphur mines in the state. 
Movies are used in the study of forests 
and of coal. 

In the study of soil, these classes see 
enlarged photographs taken by the United 
States Department of Agriculture. These 
are actual scenes in the state, where soil 
is being used properly or improperly. 
Reasons for poor soil and wasted soil are 
studied as the pictures are explained, and 
ways to remedy the situation are dis- 
cussed. The opaque projector is useful 
in showing pictures to the entire class. 
A picture or chart in any book may be 
thrown on the wall for examination and 
discussion by the class. 

Experiments are useful. A mound of 
dirt with water poured over it makes a 
laboratory model of the process of ero- 
sion. A bucket of river water allowed to 
stand shows how much soil rivers carry 

The foregoing descriptions of activities 
and possibilities in resource-use education 
are only suggestive. There are many 
others which might be reported or pro- 
posed. And there are, to be sure, still 
others which are equally promising but 
which have not yet come under observa- 
tion. Here there is no attempt to analyze 
and to evaluate the features of those de- 
scribed except to point out that they are 
indicative of things that can be done and 
need to be done. As time goes by, there 
will evolve a richer and broader body of 
experience to guide in the development 
of richer and broader resource-use edu- 
cation programs. 

| 143 | 

teachers in action 

Preparing Teachers Through 

Community Experience 


The teacher education institution faces 
a threefold task in providing pre-service 
resource-use education for teachers. The 
institution must provide for the prospec- 
tive teacher experiences which will en- 
able her to identify resource-use needs 
important to the ends of education. The 
institution must develop for the prospec- 
tive teacher study experiences to meet 
resource-use needs. The institution must 
teach the prospective teacher how to bring 
other faculty members and community 
leaders into teaching focus. If this three- 
fold task is accomplished, there need be 
little concern that the pre-service teacher 
may not know how to take resource-use 
education into the schools and thereby 
favorably shape the attitudes of the young 
people of our nation. 

Identifying Resource-use Needs 

How can a _ prospective teacher be 
taught to identify resource-use needs 
which should be considered in education? 
Shall she be given assignments to burrow 
into dusty tomes on library shelves and 
explore the learned treatises on conserva- 
tion problems? Our suggestion is rather 
that the prospective teacher be sensitized 
to needs for resource-use education 
through practical experiences. 

\hat teacher training institution in our 
region cannot take prospective teachers 
on a field trip not ten miles from the 
college campus and observe muddy and 
flooded streams, abandoned fields and 
farms, gullies, burned-over areas, and 
other evidences of misuse of resources? 

Can we not recognize in these phenomena 
indices for education in intelligent utili- 
zation of our human and material re- 
sources ? 

Nor is casual observation the complete 
answer to the problem. The methods of 
identifying resource-use needs may be 
summarized briefly as follows: 

1. Observation, i.e., gaining first-hand infor- 
mation through contact or direct experience. 
The observation may be formal or informal. 

2. Interviews with people or agencies who 
are the original sources of the information de- 
sired, such as industrialists, farmers, etc., or 
with people who by profession, occupation, or 
special interest are in a position to have the 
desired information. 

3. Documentary research which involves stud- 
ying records accumulated in local governmental 
or organizational files. Some of these materials 
are open to public inspection and others can 
probably be reviewed through permission from 
the authorities concerned. 

4. The questionnaire, which requires careful 
planning and forethought. Items in question- 
naires should be clearly stated so that there can 
be no doubt as to information requested. 

5. The schedule or check list of items con- 
cerning information to be obtained. This 
method lends itself particularly to use by pre- 
service teachers. «It can guide observation 
which may be extended over a period of time, 
as would be likely in the program of the teacher 
education institution. Then, too, it lends itself 
to group use because it is so systematized that 
overlapping and serious disagreements can be 
checked, or corrected. 

These methods may be used separately 
or in combination, as exemplified by the 
following actual pre-service experiences 
in identifying resource-use needs : 

Hermese J. Roberts is instructor in education at Southern University, 
Scotiandville, Louisiana. 

She has been high school teacher; principal 

of the Peach County Training School, Georgia; instructor in education 
at Fort Valley State College, Georgia, and Bethune-Cookman College, 
Florida; and director of teachers’ workshop, Columbus, Georgia. Mrs. 
Roberts is a consultant on the advisory committee guiding production 
of the regional volume on southern resources and problems. She 
served as a member of the Georgia Committee for Cooperation in 

Teacher Education of the American Council on Education. 

| 144] 

teachers in action 

Students of Southern University, Louisiana, 
made community housing surveys using a com- 
bination of interviews and schedule techniques. 

Students at Dillard University, Louisiana, 
used the interview technique in identifying re- 
source-use education needs in the community. 

Students at Bethune Cookman College, Flor- 
ida, studied their home communities for ex- 
amples of resource waste to identify areas 
where resource-use education was needed. Com- 
bining the method of observation with inter- 
view and conference, they invited some local 
authorities to visit their classes and confer with 
them on resource-use and waste prevention. 
They compiled little booklets, made posters, and 
produced other educational materials on re- 
source-use education. 

These and similar experiences are ef- 
fective ways of providing the pre-service 
teacher with experiences which will help 
her to identify resource-use education 
needs and prepare her to carry out simi- 
lar activities when the task of teaching 
rests squarely on her shoulders. 

Resource-use Study Experiences 

The identification of resource-use edu- 
cation needs should lead directly to the 
development of study experiences to meet 
those needs. Can we not envision limit- 
less_ possibilities of experiences with 
which students might be provided in or- 
der to meet the needs revealed and iden- 
tified by some of the techniques outlined 

Attention should be called to the many 
opportunities of learning by doing, of 
teaching through provision of direct ex- 
perience with things, of first-hand dis- 
covery in the immediate observable en- 
vironment, and of direct experimentation 
with the various methods and processes 
of resource utilization.' 

The following examples of study expe- 
riences are but a few of the many pos- 
sibilities that will provide the pre-service 
teacher with functional learnings in re- 
source-use education : 

A group of pre-service teachers studied the 
problem of erosion in Peach County, Georgia, 
and, with the teacher of agriculture, planted an 
eroded area with pine seedlings. This growth 
is now about four or five feet in height and 
besides conserving the soil, has provided val- 
uable pre-service experience for students who 
now have the full responsibility of teaching. 

_ Pre-service teachers at the Fort Valley State 
College, Georgia, made extensive use of their 
study of food production. A detailed descrip- 
tion of their activities will provide the best 

‘The Miami Workshop Committee, “Conser- 
vation and Consumer Education,” The Educa- 
tion Digest, Vol. 10 (December, 1944), 26-28. 

example of pre-service resource-use education. 
Prospective high school teachers of mathematics 
used the food production survey schedules as 
vital source material for the regular class ac- 
tivities. They tabulated the data into com- 
parable units by use of a conversion table. This 
involved practical and meaningful drill material 
in mensuration, equations, graphs, etc. 

Prospective high school teachers of home eco- 
nomics applied the findings of the food produc- 
tion survey to increased conservation of foods. 
The survey showed that the families in greatest 
need actually conserved the least amount. They, 
therefore, undertook the following experiences 
and activities: (1) reviewed the findings of the 
food survey to note differences between need 
and production of foods; (2) studied the facili- 
ties the families represented had available for 
canning or dehydrating; (3) invited an expert 
to demonstrate food preservation; (4) carried 
on demonstrations in the community; (5) vis- 
ited a family successful in canning ‘and noted 
the condition of the conserved food. 

Prospective elementary school teachers who 
worked on this Education for Production proj- 
ect found from their survey a marked difference 
between the amount of poultry and poultry 
products needed and the amount produced. 
They, therefore, with their critic teachers and 
pupils, planned and carried through to a suc- 
cessful conclusion a school-community enter- 
prise on poultry raising. A detailed record of 
this activity may be found in the book Educa- 
tion for Production. In this book may also be 
found complete outlines of the application of 
survey findings to the teacher education pro- 

Study experiences provided by the fol- 
lowing exercises can be used by the pre- 
service teacher as activities to develop her 
own knowledge and as assignments in 
guiding her pupils in resource-use educa- 
tion : 

1. List ways in which you and people in 
your community are dependent upon each of 
the natural resources. 

2. List cases of resource conservation or re- 
source waste in your community. 

3. Have a poster contest showing effects of 
resource waste or contrasting effects of re- 
source use with resource waste. 

4. Conduct projects with school and commu- 
nity such as: _ ; 

a. Stopping erosion 
b. Providing wildlife shelters 
c. Gardening or poultry projects. 

These activities may serve to suggest 
many other study experiences in resource- 
use education for the prospective teacher. 

Faculty and Community Cooperation 

If there is to be effective work in re- 
source-use education, the pre-service 
teacher must be imbued with responsi- 
bility of not only teaching subject mat- 
ter, not only seeing the child in relation 

[| 145 ] 

teachers in action 

Photo by Vernon Winslow 

A pre-service teacher identifies resource-use 
needs through a community survey. She uses 
observation, interview, and schedule techniques. 

to his environment, but also bringing the 
school, home and community, and other 
faculty members into teaching focus. 

Members of the college faculty not di- 
rectly connected with teacher training 
may be called upon to cooperate in the 
study experiences ot the prospective 
teacher. Examples of this from material 
already presented in this article are: 

The teacher of agriculture was called upon 
to assist the prospective teachers in community 
service projects, in school beautification proj- 
ects, and in pine reforestation projects. 

The instructor in statistics and mathematics 
was called upon to assist the prospective teach- 
ers in the tabulation of their surveys and inter- 
preting the mathematical implications and prob- 
lems involved. 

The sociology instructor assisted with the 
techniques for community surveys. 

The health education instructor lectured on 
health hazards and devices in the community. 

These are only a few examples of the 
ways in which other members of the fac- 
ulty of the teacher education institution 
may be brought into teaching focus. 

A slightly more difficult problem is en- 
countered, however, when it becomes a 
question of seeking community coopera- 
tion. This problem, though more in- 

volved, is not hopeless and can be solved 
as P. R. Pierce suggests: 

In seeking a sound method of approaching 
community leaders, the school looks first to 
natural ties with public education. Civic, edu- 
cational, and social agencies are most frequently 
found in this classification. Having objectives 
which can often be implemented by the school, 
the leaders of these organizations are more 
susceptible to approach on a give-and-take basis 
than key people in many industrial and profes- 
sional fields. Invitations to librarians, county 
agents, scout executives, playground directors 
to address assemblies, give demonstra- 
tions are virtually certain to meet with 
prompt acceptance. Any reasonable request for 
assistance by a community agency should be 
received gratefully and granted promptly. .. . 
Another group having promise for early de- 
velopment of school-community relations are 
key people in the established professions.2 

Nor should we ignore the humble folk 
in the community who may have contri- 
butions to make to resource-use educa- 
tion. The school should develop connec- 
tions with the community leaders and 
citizens wherever there is an opportunity 
to do so. 

Edward G. Olsen outlines. some practi- 
cal ways to bridge any gaps that may 
exist between the school and community. 
Among these are resource visitors, inter- 
views, field trips, service projects, and 
surveys, all of which can be utilized as 
exemplified in this article in the prepara- 
tion of the pre-service teacher.’ 

If persons, agencies, and organizations 
in the community, and all members of the 
college faculty who can assist in the proj- 
ects will converge in a concerted attack 
on the problems of resource-use educa- 
tion, the prospective teacher will be well- 
equipped to go forth to do her bit. 

Major Problems 

It might be helpful to point out here 
some of the pitfalls to be avoided and the 
major problems needing immediate at- 
tention if we are to achieve offective pre- 
service experience in resource-use edu- 

We must avoid the pitfall of having 
resource-use education come into the 
teacher education curriculum as a new 
subject instead as a modification and 
elaboration of existing subjects. This 

? “Selling a Community on Its High School 
Program,” Progressive Education, Vol. 22 
(January, 1945), 16-21. 

* School and Community (New York: Pren- 
tice Hall, Inc., 1945). 

| 146 ] 

ne amerneel 


| as 









teachers in action 

can be done by incorporating the wealth 
of materials available and pertinent into 
courses already being taught. Resource- 
use education might be made the objec- 
tive of some of the field trips and com- 
munity activities now provided for pro- 
spective teachers. Practice teachers should 
be shown how to include it in their les- 
son plans for science, for social studies, 
etc. Resource-use education should be 
an integral part of the program rather 
than an added or a superimposed area of 

Tied closely with this first problem is 
the inflexibility of our teachers’ college 
programs. In most cases the curriculum 
is so inflexible that it is practically im- 
possible to secure an adequate allotment 
of time for the thorough consideration of 
resource-use education. Part of this in- 
flexibility is due to teacher certification 
requirements. More of the blame, how- 
ever, lies in the jealousies of the teachers 
of established subject matter areas who 
look askance at the new rival for the 
honors now accorded the ancient and 
revered disciplines. This probably calls 
for a re-education of college teachers in 
these fields, but until this is well on its 
way, resource-use education will suffer 
from the suspicious glances of the stub- 
born conservatives. 

Another problem demanding attention 
is the insufficiency of trained personnel. 
Still another pitfall to be avoided is that 
of making resource-use education voca- 
tional training. We must, of course, 
ever emphasize the study of “the elements 
of human relationships and _ personality 
and of the manner in which each of the 
social institutions constitute essential re- 
sources, even for the conservation and 
use of natural resources, in the service of 
humanity. It is not enough to make our 
curriculum and planning synonymous 
with the understanding of material nature 
and the development and conservation of 
natural resources on the ground that the 
sole aim of resource development is for 
the use and pleasure of man.’4 But we 
must not confuse education in resource- 
use with vocational training. 

Another major problem is the danger 

‘Howard W. Odum, “The Sociologist Looks 

at Resource Education,” The Nation’s Schools, 
Vol. 35 (January, 1945), 22-23. 

of losing sight of our educational objec- 
tives in our zeal for resource-use educa- 
tion. We should ever inculcate through 
precept and practice the philosophy that 
all education is designed to produce per- 
manent desirable changes in the child, 
school, and community. Nor should we 
lose sight of the prospective teacher as 
part of this interaction. For her we 
should direct all resource-use education 
experiences toward: (1) the formation, 
development, and application of an ever- 
broadening philosophy of education and 
life; (2) the habit of applying the scien- 
tific method to every phase of the work; 
and (3) a desire to further study and 
develop valuable materials to be utilized 
in the practice. Thus we will avoid the 
pitfall of losing sight of our educational 
objectives for the pre-service teacher. 

3v far the most important problem 
needing immediate attention, if we are 
to achieve effective pre-service experience 
in resource-use education, is teaching the 
prospective teacher how to translate her 
knowledge into actual classroom practice. 
She must be taught how_to incorporate 
resource-use education into the daily 
learning experiences of the children whose 
destiny she guides. 

If these major problems be constantly 
kept in mind as we strive toward effective 
pre-service experiences in resource-use 
education, we shall more perfectly attain 
our goals. 

In conclusion, we recapitulate : 

The pre-service teacher needs to know 
how to identify resource-use needs which 
should be considered in education. She 
needs to have study experiences to meet 
these needs. It is the duty of the teacher- 
education institution to provide her with 
experiences which will help her to iden- 
tify resource-use needs and to develop 
study experiences to meet them by bring- 
ing into teaching focus all persons and 
experiences that can contribute to this 

Only by consistent and conscientious 
attempts to serve in this threefold role 
can the teacher education institution pro- 
vide the pre-service teacher with the 
knowledges, skills, habits, and attitudes 
essential to an understanding of the place 
of resource-use education in the school 

[ 147 ] 

teachers in action 

New Perspectives for 
Teachers in Service 


Every school today is being encouraged 
as never before to formulate a philosophy 

-a statement of what it is doing, what 
it thinks it should do, and what it plans 
to do. Such a statement should include 
a description of the school’s attitude to- 
wards community needs and resources, 
its concept of its relationship between lo- 
cal, state, national, and world problems, 
and its viewpoint with respect to the im- 
portance of the individual in a world 

It is a wise school that develops a care- 
fully formulated philosophy of education. 
Kach school should be free to determine 
its own philosophy, through participation 
of the staff and extensive discussion of 
basic principles. This philosophy should 
meet the needs of the pupils and of the 
community which the school serves. The 
school’s philosophy, when understood, 
accepted, and frequently referred to, can 
chart the way to the improvement of the 
administrative and supervisory organiza- 
tion, staff, plant, library, curriculum, in- 
structional program, pupil activity, meth- 
ods of evaluation, and outcomes. A 
school philosophy should be subject to 
continuous restudy and re-evaluation. As 
teachers formulate a philosophy for their 
school, and afterwards as they continu- 
ously rethink their program, they insure 
to themselves an opportunity for growth 
in in-service education. 

A forward-looking staff of teachers, 
however, will not be satisfied to do all of 


sion on 

the thinking on this problem. They will 
want the help that can come from parents 
and friends of the school ; from specialists 
in the state department of education and 
in the institutions of higher education; 
from the state departments of health and 
conservation ; and all other agencies and 
organizations concerned with the develop- 
ment of a sound educational program for 
the children of the state. The teachers 
will seek resources wherever they can be 
found and will use them in the develop- 
ment and refinement of an educational 
program that will yield the largest pos- 
sible returns to all of the citizens in the 
area served by the school. 

Resource-use education is probably the 
latest educational term to come into fairly 
general use. The concept of resource-use 
education, however, is far from new. 
Good teachers for years have been using 

the resources of their communities to 
make education meaningful. Biology 
teachers for half a century have used 

streams, fields, and woodlands as sources 
of materials to make biology interesting 
and helpful. They have invited laymen 
into their classrooms and on field studies, 
people with helpful information about 
birds, wild flowers, trees—any kind of 
information to make the subject more 
interesting and more worthwhile. 
Teachers of agriculture, home eco- 
nomics, industrial education, and business 
education were probably the next to draw 
heavily upon the resources of their com- 

William S. Taylor is dean of the College of Education, University of 
He has been professor of education, University of Texas; 
head, Department of Rural Life, Pennsylvania State College; and 
member, Pennsylvania State Department of Education. 

Mr. Taylor 

has served as president, Kentucky Education Association; president, 
National Association of Colleges and Departments of Education; vice- 
president, American Vocational Association; and chairman, Commis- 
Curricular Problems and Research. He is chairman of a 
committee producing a volume on the resources of Kentucky. 

[ 148 ] 



1 be 


; to 
| of 


y of 

teachers in action 

munities to make work in these fields ef- 
fective. They believed that the commu- 
nity should be used intelligently in the 
education of persons who were to enter 
farming, homemaking, industry, and busi- 
ness. This was necessary, they felt, if 
education in these subjects were to re- 
sult in the kinds of information, under- 
standing, skill, and practice desirable for 
vocational efficiency. 

Gradually it became evident that re- 
source-use education in other fields could 
be just as helpful. Health education, 
education for citizenship, music education 

as a matter of fact, education in all 
fields—could profit from the resource- 
use philosophy. 

The Need for In-service Education 

But for years only the alert, intelligent, 
wide-awake teachers drew upon the re- 
sources of their communities to make 
education more stimulating and more 
challenging to their pupils. This was to 
be expected, for most other teachers had 
not been taught how to use resources 
other than those found in books. The 
only source to which the vast majority of 
them had been sent, as students in college, 
was the college library. This is an ex- 
cellent source but should never become 
the only source. Students who have 
learned the value of other resources while 
in college will find it decidedly easier to 
draw upon community resources when 
they go out as teachers. 

It must be evident to all who are con- 
cerned with teacher education that the 
great majority of teachers in the public 
elementary and secondary schools of the 
South today have not been sensitized to 
the problems of resource-use education. 
If this problem is to be brought to them 
understandingly, it must be on an in- 
service basis. How this could be done 
most effectively was a question that faced 

University of Florida. 

the South in the late thirties and early 

For about eight years the South has 
been diligently at work at the problem 
of making the school serve its area more 
effectively—of using the resources of the 
community to increase the meaning and 
the effectiveness of the educational pro- 
gram. The first great stimulus to this 
emphasis came from the Southern Study 
when the staff of the Study began its 
program of improvement with three high 
schools in each of eleven southern states. 
These schools, many of which were su- 
perior when they became a part of the 
program, profited from the stimulation 
that came from helpful visits by the staff 
of the Study and other interested per- 
sons, and from the opportunity to study 
their own problems in summer confer- 
ences. Many of them became even more 
community-minded and drew heavily on 
the resources of their areas to increase 
the effectiveness of their instructional 

It is doubtful if any single factor has 
done as much as World War II to bring 
about in-service programs of resource- 
use education. When the need for more 
food for ourselves and for other nations 
became acute, the South embarked upon 
a new effort to aid in winning the war 
and in feeding our allies. Summer work- 
shops were organized in county school 
units, in which the teachers were brought 
together to study how education in their 
particular county could be made to serve 
all of the people in the county more help- 
fully. The teachers tried to learn all they 
could about the needs of their communi- 
ties and what resources were available to 
help meet these needs. Health officers, 
teachers of vocational agriculture and vo- 
cational home economics, county agents, 
home demonstration agents, county of- 
ficials, representatives of the commission 

Kenneth R. Williams is dean of the College of Education at the Uni- 
versity of Georgia. He came to the University of Georgia as assistant 
professor in the College of Education in 1937. He was professor of 
school administration and director of war training courses for the 
Army Air Forces and the Army Specialized Training Program at the 
Mr. Williams is co-author of The Education 
of School Administrators. 

[ 149 ] 

teachers in action 

on conservation in such fields as forestry, 
wildlife, and soil conservation, and in- 
terested laymen were invited to work with 
the teachers in discovering the needs of 
the community and in planning a com- 
munity-wide attack that would aid in 
meeting them. 

In-service Education Brings Results 

It is generally agreed among persons 
who participated in these programs that 
they were unusually effective. The teach- 
ers learned how to use the resources of 
their communities by actually using them. 
In all of these workshops the problems 
of producing and preserving foods, im- 
proving housing, conserving clothing, 
building better health, and of using all of 
the resources of the area helpfully and 
intelligently were paramount. 

The final test of such teacher-education 
programs is, of course, what actually 
takes place later in the local school areas. 
The great majority of the teachers who 
had participated were using the resources 
of their communities to make learning 
programs more effective. In some in- 
stances a new garden vegetable was intro- 
duced, such as soybeans or broccoli. In 
other schools emphasis was placed on the 
repair and painting of homes or on the 

Photo by Farm Security Administration 

“The final test of such teacher education pro- 
grams is, of course, what actually takes place 
in the local school areas. ... In one county 
a vigorous effort to improve sanitation re- 
sulted in the establishment of a county health 
department and the employment of a health 
officer and a nurse.” 

beautification of home sites. In one com- 
munity forsythia was planted in every 
garden; in another, jonquils. The cam- 
paigns for better sanitation produced bet- 
ter health conditions generally. In one 
county a vigorous effort to improve sani- 
tation resulted in the establishment of a 
county health department and the em- 
ployment of a health officer and a nurse. 
Tangible results were evident in nearly 
all communities, particularly in the pro- 
ducing and preserving of food. But the 
outcome that has given greatest promise 
of lasting value is the practice of think- 
ing, planning, and working together, de- 
veloped by the school and the community. 

A Cooperative Program in Kentucky 
Another means of in-service training 
in resource-use education came as a re- 
sult of grants from the General Educa- 
tion Board to some of the southern states. 
One of the effective programs stimulated 
and promoted by such a grant was begun 
in Kentucky in 1943. Each of seven 
teacher-education institutions in the state 
was requested to select a county and to 
work with the teachérs in that county for 
a period of years. The objective was to 
improve school and community relation- 
ships and to help the teachers use all 
available resources in developing a sound 
educational program for the people— 
children and adults—served by the school. 
At the close of the summer session in 
1943 the seven institutions, the cooperat- 
ing school systems, and members of the 
staff of the State Department of Educa- 
tion were invited to come together at the 
University of Kentucky to make plans 
for a cooperative study in teacher educa- 
tion. This study was to give special em- 
phasis to resource-use education and com- 
munity school planning. The program to 
be undertaken was carefully studied. 
Help was sought from subject-matter 
specialists in the sciences, government, 
sociology, business, agriculture, and home 
economics. Specialists from the Tennes- 
see Valley Authority and from teacher- 
education institutions where effective 
work was being done were invited to 
share their philosophy and experiences 
with those attending. Plans were made 
for visits to institutions, to school sys- 
tems, and to governmental agencies that 

[ 150] 



1 bet- 
1 one 
of a 
it the 
r, de- 


a re- 
id to 
v for 
as to 
e all 
on in 
f the 
t the 
| em- 
im to 
d to 



teachers in action 

would give further insight into the prob- 
lems of resource-use education and com- 
munity planning. 

In the ensuing year visits were made to 
the Holtville School in Alabama and to 
Carroll County in Georgia. A conference 
was held at Eastern Teachers College in 
which Dr. H. A. Morgan was invited to 
consult with the participants on the prob- 

lems of building a_ better Kentucky 
through better education. All the while 
each institution was working with its 

cooperating school unit in an effort to 
improve its educational program. 

At the close of the summer session in 
1944 a second conference was held. In 
this meeting attention was centered upon 
the characteristics of a community school. 
Committees analyzed the characteristics 
of a good community school and formu- 
lated a program of work for the follow- 
ing year. Visits were planned to the 
Vine Grove community school in Ken- 
tucky and to the laboratory of the Sloan 
Experiment in Applied Economics at the 
University of Kentucky. Workshops 
were to be held in some of the cooperating 
counties, and in each unit some form of 
in-service education was to be carried 
through the entire school year. 

A third conference for all the partici- 
pating units was held in 1945; the theme 
of this program was the qualifications of 
the teacher in the community school. 
In February of the following year, rep- 
resentatives from the colleges and the 
cooperating schools spent three days in 
the Knoxville area studying the TVA and 
its program. Each participating institu- 
tion also held a conference on its campus 
with its cooperating county and other in- 
vited school units to determine how the 
institution could make its teacher-educa- 
tion program more effective. 

Another conference of the seven insti- 
tutions and their cooperating school sys- 
tems will be held in August, 1946, to 
evaluate the program and to plan the next 
steps in in-service education to be under- 
taken in Kentucky. 

Other Approaches to In-service 

Another means of in-service education 
that promises to have great value is the 

Photo by Farm Security Administration 

“Tangible results were evident in nearly all 
communities, particularly in the producing and 
preserving of food.” 

effort of individual states to prepare and 
distribute materials dealing with their 
resources. Kentucky and Louisiana have 
already completed books on their re- 
sources, and Virginia has a study in proc- 
ess. The Kentucky study, titled Ken- 
tucky’s Resources, Their Development 
and Use, contains chapters on soil, water, 
forests, wildlife, flowering plants, state 
parks and recreational areas, minerals, 
human resources, and science—the link 
between Kentucky’s resources and her 
future. More than 200 persons worked 
together in producing this volume, which 
will be made available as a sourcebook 
for teachers in every Kentucky school. 
All three studies, stimulated by the Gat- 
linburg conferences of the Committee on 
Southern Regional Studies and Educa- 
tion, have proved to be valuable aids to 
in-service education in the states where 
they were prepared. 

In an effort to stimulate growth of in- 
service teachers in the field of resource- 
use education, some states have established 
commissions or committees on resource- 
use education, with professional staffs. 
The purpose of such groups is (1) to 
coordinate the efforts and utilize the 
abilities of the agencies within the state 


teachers in action 

with resource-use funetions, and (2) to 
assist teachers in service in the improve- 
ment of instruction in this area. 

Another type of attack at the state 
level has been the establishment in the 
state department of education of a posi- 
tion of supervisor or coordinator of re- 
source-use education. The persons ap- 
pointed to these positions are assisting 
teachers in service in the development 
and use of resource-use materials and 
in the acceptance and implementation of 
the philosophy of resource-use education. 
The assistance rendered to teachers by 
these representatives of the state depart- 
ments of education given largely 
through workshops in resource-use edu- 
cation and in direct work with teachers 
or groups of teachers in their schools and 


Under the guidance and stimulation of 
the Committee on Southern Regional 
Studies and Education, the states in the 
southern region are conducting summer 
workshops in resource-use education to 
which teachers from the elementary and 
secondary schools of the several states 
are being invited. The workshops will 
assist the teacher (1) in better use of 
agencies in her community, (2) in more 
effective use of materials, and (3) in ex- 
pansion of her knowledge of resources. 
The teachers attending these workshops 
will become key people in each state’s 
effort to improve resource-use education. 
Follow-up assistance will be given teach- 



ers throughout the year by members of 
the workshop staffs and by members of 
the state department of education staffs. 

In a number of instances teacher-edu- 
cation institutions will hold such work- 
shops “off-campus.” In these workshops 
the teachers of a school system may work 
intensively on the problems of resource 
use in the environment in which they will 
be working throughout the year. Such 
workshops will provide rich opportunity 
for direct identification and use of re- 
sources available in the community. 

In at least two southern states, Geor- 
gia and Kentucky, teacher education in- 
stitutions are conducting continuous 
workshops throughout the school year in 
one or more counties. In such work- 
shops teachers have been assisted in more 
immediate implementation of the re- 
source-use concept and in the improve- 
ment of their use of materials and tech- 

These illustrations of the South’s attack 
on its educational problems through re- 
source-use education could just as well 
have been taken from other southern 
states, for the attempt to make education 
meaningful through the use of all avail- 
able resources is southwide. Resource- 
use education is already yielding rich 
dividends to an area that has too long 
been wasting recklessly its heritage of 
forests, water, minerals, scenic 
beauty—and its people. 


s of 

s of 


1 in- 
ar in 


1 ré- 



re ol 

teachers in action 

Citizens Consider Their Community 


The meeting was in what would ordi- 
narily be called an “abandoned school.” 
It was “abandoned,” however, only in the 
sense that the education of the children 
who formerly attended it had been taken 
over by the new consolidated school sev- 
eral miles away. Other community af- 
fairs, cultural and recreational, continued 
to center around the little old building, 
made more attractive and comfortable by 
the voluntary work of the citizens to 
whom it now belonged. 

The subject of the evening was “Tim- 
ber Resources of Fluvanna County.” The 
program had been planned by a local 
housewife. She presided at the meeting, 
which was attended by some 125 men, 
women, and children of that small rural 
community. She began with scripture 
reading, singing, and salute to the flag. 
Then came an ice-breaker. It took the 
form of bingo—but bingo with a differ- 
ence. Everyone was asked to list the 
names of trees he knew that grew in the 
county. These trees, instead of numbers, 
became the basis of the hotly contested 
game. Prizes were awarded. 

Then when everyone had begun think- 
ing in terms of trees, the program gradu- 
ally became more serious. The son of 
the chairman recited a poem on the sub- 
ject of the evening. A teacher who was 
a life-time resident of that community 
read a report on timber in relation to 
other resources of the county, which she 
had prepared in a countywide workshop 
in the community deveiopment conducted 
earlier that year by the Extension Divi- 
sion of the University of Virginia. The 

soil conservation technician was called 
on to give a few facts about the relation 
of trees to soil. Then came the part we 
had been asked to contribute—and the 
only part we knew about in advance of 
the meeting—two short films, on conser- 
vation and utilization of timber resources. 

Playing and Learning 

The whole thing took about an hour 
and a half. It was a good meeting and a 
responsive audience. When we told the 
chairman so, we took occasion to ask, 
“But how did you get so many to come 
out for this kind of program?” 

“Well,” she replied, “It wasn’t entirely 
for this. They want what comes next.” 
And then we noticed that in the few min- 
utes during which we had talked with her, 
the seats had been pushed back against 
the wall, three young people were tuning 
their fiddles, and couples were already 
forming sets for a square dance. 

This kind of meeting had become a 
custom of that community—education fol- 
lowed by recreation. Only those who 
came for the former were admitted to 
the latter. Out of such meetings had 
come many community improvements, in- 
cluding extension of electric power lines 
and the location nearby of a commercial 
cannery to take care of the tomato crop. 
Local people did the planning and pro- 
vided most of the program. Such devices 
as adaptations of bingo, quiz programs, 
and spelling matches were used to lighten 
the “educational” program. Specialists in 
various fields were invited, when needed, 
to give information or advice; but they 

For the past five years Jean and Jess Ogden have 


will be published soon. 

been working with the Extension Division of the 
University of Virginia on a specific experimental 
program to find ways of helping communities help 
They write the New Dominion Series 
and their latest book Small Communities in Action 
Mr. Ogden was director of 
education of Hull House in Chicago and Mrs. Ogden 
was director of the Bryn-Mawr Summer School for 

Women Workers in Industry. 

[ 153 ] 

teachers in action 

were only a part of the whole. The meet- 
ings were serving an important recrea- 
tional need, but they were also resulting 
in an alert and informed citizenry. 

In few communities can just this com- 
bination be found; but in many there are 
citizens who are, in one way or another, 
getting together to consider needs and 
problems in relation to resources and 
agencies that are available. 

From Conversation to 
Community Action 

In Washington County, Virginia, it be- 
gan with dinner-table conversations fol- 
lowed by informal evening discussions of 
three or four citizens interested in de- 
veloping their county. They invited 
others to meet with them. Talk con- 
tinued. It ranged over a wide field—local 
educational problems ; need for low cost, 
modern housing; recreational needs; ex- 
tension of public health and medical care 
programs; rural electrification; need for 
planned industrial development to sup- 
plement agriculture. It extended itself 
frequently to the world economic situa- 
tion, but one woman—the one who started 
the talk—always brought it back to the 
implications for Washington County and 
its citizens. 

This informal discussion group of citi- 
zens had no official standing except that 
which is implicit in a democracy. “Under 
whose authorization did you meet?” is a 
question which puzzles them. Theirs was 
the responsibility and theirs the authority. 
After three months, the original group 
had grown to ten—and the ten were 
ready for organization. A committee was 

The committee decided that the county 
was “rich in natural resources and beauty, 
in human resources and _ intelligence.” 
But there was a big job to be done “to 
develop and advance agriculture, indus- 
try, roads, and other resources.” They 
were sure it “could be accomplished by 
the cooperative efforts of all the people of 
the county and that some organization 
should be set up charged with the re- 

That was in the summer of 1944. Now 
more than 500 citizens are continuing the 
talk about the county—but they are doing 
it in small committees that feel the re- 
sponsibility not only to plan but also to 

put into action the results of planning. 
Committee interests include schools, 
roads, utilities, agriculture, and industrial 

Each committee studies and _ plans. 
With the help of the committee on pub- 
licity and meetings, it then lets the county 
know its findings. The entire association 
gets behind the plans when time comes for 
action. In one isolated district construc- 
tion of 74 miles of line is now under way 
bringing electricity to homes and farms. 
Extension of the county-owned water 
system is under consideration. But care- 
ful study must be given to source, quan- 
tity, and similar matters before plans be- 
come action. 

The recreation committee has as much 
interest in the three rivers of the county 
as has the industrial committee. State 
and national parks are very fine, they 
say, but equally important is development 
of small and easily accessible picnic and 
play spots all over the county. In the 
midst of so much natural beauty of 
streams and mountains, this will not be 
difficult—especially with human deter- 
mination added to natural resources. 

While members of the organization 
have been evaluating their county, they 
have not been unmindful of state and re- 
gional agencies upon which they might 
draw for help. The county is on the edge 
of the Tennessee Valley Authority area. 
A meeting with TVA _ representatives 
brought out the fact that considerable 
help in surveys and long-range planning 
is available from that agency. The State 
Planning Board was also consulted. 
Members of the local organization met 
with representatives of both these agen- 
cies “in order to secure for Washington 
County the greatest assistance from 

The County Board of Supervisors, at 
the request of the executive committee 
of the citizens’ group, has designated the 
organization as the official planning body 
for the county. Last fall. a full-time 
executive was employed, to be paid from 
membership fees. But the officers stress 
the fact that neither they nor the paid 
executive can bring about maximum util- 
ization and development of county fe- 
sources. Only an alert and enlightened 
citizenry can do this. The 500 citizens 
already concerned see it as their job to 

| 154 ] 






- be 

| re- 


‘Ss, at 
1 the 
V e- 

ob to 


teachers in action 

Photo by Farm Security Administration 

“This informal group had no official standing except that which is implicit in a democracy. 
‘Under whose authorization did you meet?’ is a question which puzzles them. Theirs was the 

responsibility and theirs the authority.” 

stimulate and enlighten others—and they 
are making real progress. What began 
with women’s talk and dinner-table con- 
versation has become a force in the 

Telling the People 

Wherever citizens—a few or large 
number—are considering their commu- 
nity needs in relation to resources, there 
emerges early in their deliberations the 
need for “telling the people.” They must 
be told in ways that are meaningful and 
persuasive. They must know what is 
and what might be, in such a way as to 
make them want to do something about it. 

County papers are usually very helpful. 
Some progressive editors have even de- 
voted special editions of the Southside 
News (Virginia) or the Clayton Tribune 
(Georgia) or the Centreville Press (Ala- 
bama) to material on local resources. 
Others use columns, such as “This Week 
in Alabama,” supplied by agricultural or 

other agencies. Almost any will use ar- 
ticles prepared by local citizens’ councils 
or committees about their findings and 

For communities that do not have a 
local paper or for people who do not 
read newspapers and magazines, citizens 
groups are experimenting with other uses 
of the printed word. 

“We are desperately in need,” a Gooch- 
land County farmer wrote to the Exten- 
sion Division of the University of Vir- 
ginia last spring, “of help in telling peo- 
ple about what is happening to their soil 
and what they can do about it. We are 
fighting an uphill battle for the soils of 
Goochland as these same soils are 
fiercely charging down hill.” 

Then, apparently having re-read what 
he had written, he appended a little foot- 
note to that last sentence: “I think that’s 
pretty good, don’t you?” We did. That’s 
one reason the Extension Division of the 
University of Virginia is convinced of 

[155 ] 

teachers in action 

the value of collaborating with the per- 
sons living in communities where printed 
matter is to be consumed. The farmers, 
for example, not only know many of the 
things that should be said to their neigh- 
bors about soil but they can help say 

The man who wrote the letter referred 
to above is a member of the Board of 
Supervisors of the Thomas Jefferson Soil 
Conservation District with which the Ex- 
tension Division recently began a coop- 
erative venture in “telling the people” of 
the five counties which comprise the dis- 
trict. The Soil Saver, a little four-page 
bulletin written and edited by a member 
of the staff in consultation with the super- 
visors and technicians is mailed out each 
month to every family in those counties. 
It states simple facts about soil in simple 
language. It also suggests persons in 
various agencies upon whom the farmer 
may call for help. Thus the farmers in 
these five counties are being told about 
their most precious natural resource—the 
soil—and at the same time about the 
institutional resources and agencies at 
their disposal. The local banks are pay- 
ing for this. They consider it a good 

It is too soon to know whether this 
indirect collaboration with the people 
through the elected officials in a Soil Con- 
servation District is as effective as the 
more direct collaboration with a county 
council out of which it developed. The 
Louisa County Citizens’ Council Bulletin 
is worked out by committees of the coun- 
cil, edited by the staff of the Extension 
Division, and mailed directly to every 
family in the county. Each issue is the 
result not only of “research’”’ by commit- 
tee members but also of careful analysis 
of that research in order to state it in 
terms that will be meaningful to their 
neighbors. The process of making a bul- 
letin means that several citizens are thor- 
oughly “educated” in the subject it covers 
—and this process may be more impor- 
tant than the product. 

Self-study Becomes a Habit 

It began in this way. About twenty 
leading citizens of the county were in- 
vited to meet with members of the staff 
of the Extension Division to consider 
their county’s needs and resources. At 

the second meeting five subjects were se- 
lected for special attention—forestry, soil 
improvement, nutrition, health, and rec- 
reation. A committee was appointed to 
investigate each and to report back to 
the larger group the following month. 
Forestry was the subject in which there 
was the most interest, since timber is the 
most important source of income for the 
county. The forestry committee, there- 
fore, was asked to report first. 

It may be significant that these citizens 
were, at first, largely obliging the people 
from the University who were doing 
some experimenting in “helping commu- 
nities to help themselves.” At the first 
meeting of the forestry committee, how- 
ever, the emphasis shifted. Members 
became so much interested in the ques- 
tions they listed that their concern was in 
finding answers rather than in helping the 
Extension Division with its experiment. 
Two typed pages of questions were listed 
at that meeting. They were directly re- 
lated to Louisa County. What per cent 
of the income of Louisa County is from 
timber or timber products and industries ? 
Has the county the authority to pass leg- 
islation placing a minimum on the size 
of timber that can be cut for commercial 
purposes? Will it be possible and prac- 
tical to get the sawmills operating in the 
county to agree not to cut timber below 
a certain stumpage? How much faster 
is timber being marketed than it is 
growing ? 

As the committee went to work finding 
answers to its two pages of questions, in- 
terest increased. A sense of urgency be- 
gan to be felt. When the result of “re- 
search” was reported back to the citizens’ 
group which had appointed the commit- 
tee, it had an enthusiastic reception. 
Three subjects were selected and referred 
back to the committee for further inves- 

This time the committee was asked to 
bring in specific recommendations on (1) 
steps leading to control of fires in Louisa, 
(2) practical methods of reforestation, 
and (3) most advantageous cutting prac- 
tices from point of view of husbanding 
Louisa’s timber resources. 

That spring (1943) was one of the 
worst in many years as far as forest fires 
were concerned. It was probably this 

[ 156 ] 

teachers in action 

fact that determined the immediate em- 
phasis of the forestry committee. It 
obtained from the state forester and dis- 
tributed through the schools a large sup- 
ply of bulletins on forest fire control. It 
placed posters in stores and other public 
places. It decided to conduct an intensive 
educational campaign before the begin- 
ning of the fire season the next spring. 
This included an essay contest in all 
schools. Cash prizes were provided by 
two local lumber companies and two serv- 
ice clubs. Preparation for the contest 
centered the attention of school children 
on the matter during the year. Prize- 
winning essays were printed in the Cen- 
tral-Virginian. Several neighborhood 
meetings were planned at which movies 
were shown and information given out. 
A plan was made in cooperation with the 
state forester for instruction in fire-fight- 
ing methods. 

As the next spring approached, it was 
decided to circularize the county with 
leaflets urging caution. Available mate- 
rials were studied. Nothing seemed just 
right. Most of the pamphlets covered 
too much ground and were too general. 
So the committee decided to select those 
items that were pertinent to their county 
and print their own leaflets. Four of 
these were prepared, each stressing one 
idea only. They were headed, respec- 
tively: “Burn Brush Early,” “Burn 
3rush Safely,” “Be Careful with Fire,” 
“In Case of Fire.” Each bulletin had less 
than 100 words. The information per- 
tained to fire in Louisa County. The 
type was large. Pictures were used. The 
bulletins were sent by mail personally 
addressed to the head of each family at 
intervals of one week during February 
and March. In October another bulletin 
on forest fires carried special precautions 
for hunters. The next spring a sixth 
leaflet was distributed. Moving pictures 
of burned-over areas were taken and 
were shown later throughout the county. 

Products and By-products 

The committee has no way of estimat- 
ing the effectiveness of this educational 
campaign but it knows that fires have de- 
creased. According to the state forester, 
decrease in Louisa County has been 
greater than for comparable counties in 
which there was no such campaign. 

But something else resulted from the 
campaign. The locally prepared bulletin 
had been effective. Other committees de- 
cided to use the device. The Louisa 
County Citizens’ Council Bulletin re- 
sulted. Seventeen issues have been pre- 
pared and distributed in the past two 
years covering such subjects as food pro- 
duction and conservation, locker retrig- 
eration, a medical care plan, buying cer- 
tified chicks, and soil conservation. It 
was the one on soil that attracted the at- 
tention of the Thomas Jefferson Soil 
Conservation District and led to the ex- 
periment with the Soil Saver. 

A similar job of collaboration between 
the Virginia Federation of Women’s 
Clubs and the Extension Division re- 
sulted last fall in the publication of a 
study guide entitled Community Quiz; 
Some $64 Questions. It is now being 
used by local clubs throughout the state. 
An editorial in the Richmond Times- 
Dispatch evaluates it as follows: “The 
federation’s quiz book contains the stuff 
which may ferment Virginia imaginations, 
if proper conditions for the magic process 
are cultivated. Its questions concern the 
state’s past and present and how its peo- 
ple can use Virginia's resources to build 
a better future. The answers are not in 
the back of the book, for that would be 
too easy. One must go to the sources of 
patient students who have studied the 
problems over the years, and in going to 
them, catch the spirit of their research.” 

As citizens learn “to go to the sources 
of patient students” and to relate the re- 
sults of their research to community 
needs, they find the way to a richer life 
for themselves and their communities. It 
is to this end that the Extension Division 
of the University of Virginia has for the 
past two years offered the services of 
staff members in local workshops “to en- 
courage and stimulate community groups 
to consider the resources and assets of 
their counties against the needs, wishes, 
and desires of the group for their com- 
munities; then to think and plan con- 
cretely to create a more satisfying per- 
sonal and community life by using and 
organizing their resources within the 
framework of tested and workable prin- 
ciples and practices of community organi- 

[ 157 ] 

teachers in action 

The Minister and the Land 


In the past decade there has been a re- 
newed interest in the rural church and 
in the community of which it is a part. 
Many ministers have seen that adequate 
resources are the essential prerequisites 
for any long-term effective church pro- 
gram. A church cannot minister to peo- 
ple when they have moved because of 
inadequate land holdings, worn-out soil, 
or for the lure of economic opportunities 
in another region. Through studies of 
their own communities, many ministers 
have come to greater understanding of 
community needs and of a realization of 
the relationships which are essential. 

New Awareness in Church Leadership 

Throughout the United States today, 
there is a new awareness on the part of 
religious leaders concerning the place of 
the rural church in the total church pro- 
gram. These leaders know that the rural 
areas are the seed beds of population and 
of the future members of the church; the 
quality of life in these areas, then, is a 
significant determinant of the quality of 
our total citizenry of tomorrow. 

The church is doing much to train 
those preparing for rural leadership; it 
also has an effective though limited pro- 
gram of in-service training for those al- 
ready in the field. In recent years many 
of the theological seminaries have added 
departments of rural church and rural 
sociology which are equipped to give men 
specialized training. Theological sem- 
inaries are now encouraging college stu- 
dents who plan to do rural work to ma- 
jor in agricultural economics, rural so- 
ciology, animal husbandry, and _ related 
fields. Some theological seminaries with- 

Southern Churchmen. 

North Carolina. 

out rural sociology departments make it 
possible for students to receive some of 
their training in a college of agriculture, 
where they receive credit applicable to 
their theological course. Other semi- 
naries also give graduate scholarships for 
this kind of specialized training. 

The Committee on Town and Country, 
composed of representatives from the 
Home Missions Council of North Amer- 
ica, the Federal Council of the Churches 
of Christ in America, and the Interna- 
tional Council of Religious Education, 
has sponsored studies of “the church and 
the land” in many sections of the coun- 
try. This committee coordinates the 
rural work of approximately thirty de- 
nominations and has sponsored two na- 
tional convocations of town and country 
ministers. The committee published a 
monthly bulletin on the town and country 
church. Many interdenominational lead- 
ers are doing field work with rural min- 
isters under the Committee’s direction. 
Schools and institutes are held for rural 
ministers in cooperation with agricultural 
colleges, agricultural and social agencies, 
denominational schools, and denomina- 
tional groups. Many of the denomina- 
tions have rural church committees with 
executive secretaries and directors of 
rural church work who are in continuous 
contact with the rural ministers. Through 
these channels there is available to rural 
ministers training in the importance, con- 
servation, and proper use of all resources. 

The Catholic Church, through the Na- 
tional Catholic Rural Life Conference, 
has embarked upon a rural program. It 
is building this program around the fam- 

As field secretary of the Council of Southern Mountain Workers, 
Vladimir Hartman works in the field with rural ministers of all de- 
nominations in the southern highlands. 
man of the Rural Reconstruction Commission of the Fellowship of 
He is an ordained Baptist minister. 
fall of 1944 he directed a work conference in resource-use education 
for rural ministers at Western Carolina Teachers College, Cullowhee, 

Reverend Hartman is chair- 

In the 

[ 158 ] 


teachers in action 

ily and is seeking to establish and per- 
petuate communities on the land. 

Another service to rural church leaders 
has been that of the Christian Rural Fel- 
lowship. In 1935 this organization began 
a monthly publication The Christian 
Rural Fellowship Bulletin. The aim of 
this organization has been a noteworthy 
one: to promote christian ideals for agri- 
culture and rural life; to interpret the 
spiritual and religious values which in- 
here in the processes of agriculture and 
in the relationships of rural life; to mag- 
nify and dignify the rural church ; to pro- 
vide a means of fellowship and coopera- 
tion among rural agencies—all this, to- 
ward a christian rural civilization. 

Resource-use Objectives of 
Rural Ministers 

The Friends of the Soil, of the Fellow- 
ship of Southern Churchmen, has done 
much to make men conscious of their 
stewardship of the soil. The objectives 
of this organization are synonymous with 
the objectives of rural ministers every- 
where who are aware of life’s common 
trinity: God, the Earth, and Man: 

(1) To lead men to regard the earth as 
holy and to cultivate a reverence toward 
it and especially the life-giving soil upon 
which the well-being of our people de- 

(2) To strengthen and fortify the 
rural church as the servant of God in its 
task of bringing redemption to the land 
and its people 

(3) To declare by work and deed the 
message of the Christian religion regard- 
ing the right use of the soil and of the 
just relationships that must exist between 
man and man if we are to build here a 
nation of free people 

(4) To strive for such economic and 
social arrangements on the land as shall 
afford justice, security, and a more abun- 
dant life for those who till the soil 

(5) To seek to use the land for the 
preservation of the home and the enrich- 
ment of the family 

(6) To work toward the development 
of a policy of diversity and abundance in 
agriculture and to seek a healthy balance 
between industry and agriculture in the 

(7) To sponsor such legislation as will 

enhance and promote the welfare of rural 
America; to cooperate with federal and 
state agencies engaged in improving the 
health and economic security of our peo- 
ple upon the land, and all other agencies 
that are working toward a just rural 

(8) To work for reforestation, soil 
reclamation, flood control, crop diversifi- 

(9) To honor publicly those who have 
performed exceptional services in rural 

Friends of the Soil has done a valuable 
service for ministers through two book- 
lets, A Primer of the Soil and Stewards 
of the Soil. 

On August 24, 1945, a statement of 
principles on “Man’s Relation to the 
Land” was made public. It was signed by 
seventy-five Roman Catholics, Protes- 
tants, and Jews, representing the National 
Catholic Rural Life Conference, The 
Committee on Town and Country of the 
Home Missions Council of North Amer- 
ica, the Federal Council of the Churches 
of Christ in America and the Interna- 
tional Council of Religious Education, 
and the Jewish Agricultural Society. 

The “Lord’s acre plan,” which is now 
being used by rural churches of all de- 
nominations throughout the world, is do- 
ing much to help rural people see that 
the earth’s resources should be conserved 
and used for the highest good of man- 
kind. As rural people work together on 
such projects, they become aware of the 
spiritual significance of natural resources. 
They feel that the “earth is the Lord’s” 
and that they are God’s fellow workers. 

Taking the Seminary to the Corn Field 

The Home Missions Council of North 
America, in cooperation with agricultural 
colleges, denominational schools, and re- 
gional organizations, has been doing much 
through conferences and institutes to 
make rural ministers aware of the re- 
sources which are in their communities. 
They are taking the seminary to the corn 
field and to the rural preachers. Much 
work has been done among southern 
Negro sharecropper preachers who have 
had little training. In the southern moun- 
tains less than one in nine of the preach- 
ers is a graduate of both college and 

[ 159] 

teachers in action 

*y +. as es 
fe ee e* 

Courtesy of Farmers’ Federation 

The churches today are helping rural ministers see the “relationship between good churches, 
good homes, and good land; to see the relationship between soil erosion and soul erosion.” 

seminary. Eighty percent have attended 
neither college nor seminary. Two out 
of five of these men have not completed 
elementary school ; one in twenty-five has 
not been to school at all and several can- 
not even read. It is these men that the 
Home Missions Council is most anxious 
to serve. Within recent years many of 
these men have participated in the con- 
ferences on “building the kingdom of 
God in the countryside” and “the minis- 
ter and his community.” In these con- 
ferences the leaders strive for the follow- 
ing goals: 

(1) To help the preachers discover the 
resources of their communities which can 
be used and developed. These resources 
are three: natural, human, spiritual. 
There is a relationship between and an 
interdependence of these resources. They 
are all good. They come from God. 
(Many untrained or semi-trained minis- 
ters speak of the “spiritual” and the 
“worldly” as mutually exclusive, divid- 
ing life into separate categories. ) 

(2) To train them in the use and 

stewardship of the resources so that they 
may know the relationship between good 
churches, good homes, and good land; to 
see the relationship between soil erosion 

and soul erosion. It is important for the 
ministers to see what land means in terms 
of human values when it is conserved. 
They are taken on field trips where they 
can hear from farmers stories of reha- 
bilitation and reclamation. One old min- 
ister said during a conference: “This is 
the first time I have ever recognized the 
relationship between God, Man, and the 

(3)To get rural ministers and other 
rural leaders together for the purpose of 
discussing areas of community improve- 
ment. Rural ministers in the South should 
know and understand the programs of the 
county agent, home agent, Farm Security 
Administration supervisor, soil conserva- 
tionists, foresters, public health officers, 
public welfare workers, and other leaders. 
It is advantageous for ministers to learn 
from others who are working with the 
same people. The rural leaders who 

[ 160 ] 

teachers in action 

know the preachers can tell them how 
they feel about the church and its pro- 
gram. The preachers are given an oppor- 
tunity to express themselves. This is a 
two-way educational process which cre- 
ates understanding, sympathy, and good- 

(4) To help them recognize the possi- 
bilities of their churches as community 
centers; as an integrating and coordinat- 
ing force interested in the total welfare 
of man and the improvement of commu- 
nity life. 

(5) To help create a fellowship be- 
tween ministers within an area across de- 
nominational lines. 

The Preacher as Community Leader 

In order for a minister to do effective 
work it is imperative that he have a com- 
plete understanding of his community 
and its resources. He must be aware of 
the social and economic trends within his 
community and its relationship to other 
communities. He must know how his 

people earn their living and what their 
level of living is: what the primary in- 

terests of the people are; what resources 
they have. A knowledge of community 
needs is basic if the minister is to envisage 
its possibilities. The job of enumerating 
all elements in the community is a never- 
ending task, but a preacher who is en- 
couraged to study his own community 
will be better able to see his role and per- 
form it much more effectively. Once a 
preacher becomes conscious that his work 
is in a community rather than with just 
the members of his own “flock” or con- 
gregation, his understanding of steward- 
ship will be broadened. He will become 
aware of new relationships; religion will 
be part of all life and not just a segment. 
This new conception of stewardship will 
be related to the land and to all the com- 
munity institutions as well as to “money, 
time, and talents.” Perhaps for the first 
time in his ministry the preacher will de- 
liver a sermon on “the sacredness of the 
soil” or “the holy earth,” and he will find 
joy in its preparation and delivery and a 
fine response from his people. A preacher 
has a heart-warming experience when he 
becomes aware of the soul-soil relation- 


teachers in action 

The Librarian Looks 

At Resource Development 


“This region is bursting with problems 
caused by lack of information about 
proper land-use,” said a land-use special- 
ist to a group of librarians a short while 
ago. His statement supports.the familiar 
observation that a man’s judgment is no 
better than his information. It helps to 
emphasize both the need for resource-use 
education and the importance of educa- 
tional materials in solving the problem. 
Materials are indeed a central problem 
of resource-use education. The problem 
actually lies not so much in the mate- 
rials themselves as in how they can be 
got first into the hands and then into the 
thinking of the people who need them. 
Librarians, among others, are responsible 
for making materials about community 
resources readily available to everybody. 
They also share the responsibility for 
getting ideas from printed pages into 
human minds. 

Supplying Tools for 
Regional Development 

Sound regional development is achieved 
only through the efforts and abilities of 
the people who live in the region. Gen- 
eral understanding of wise resource use 
is required. More than that, the people 
must supply technological skills, manage- 
ment abilities, and creative imaginations 
for resource development. Books, pam- 
phlets, films, and similar materials are 
essential tools for cultivating these quali- 
fications; and libraries—in communities, 
schools, colleges, and research agencies— 

are the institutions developed by our so- 
ciety for administering them. 

Infinite variety characterizes the mate- 
rials which treat of one or another phase 
of resource use. Advertising leaflets, sci- 
entific reports, picture stories, research 
bulletins, posters, film strips, films—all 
are media for resource-use education. 
But these are incomplete and segmental 
in their treatment. Usually they empha- 
size only one phase of the total problem. 
A balanced, comprehensive understanding 
of resources and their interrelationships 
emerges only when the skilled teacher, 
using a variety of materials, selects and 
combines pertinent facts and ideas to 
meet specific recognized needs. 

This exercise of conscious choice—the 
opportunity to evaluate, to select the bet- 
ter and reject the less good—which is in- 
herent in the library’s relatively large as- 
sortment, is itself a useful educational ex- 
perience. After having made this selec- 
tion, the teacher may then with confidence 
add other more specialized material from 
whatever other sources there may be 
available. But it should be borne in mind 
that the library, with its established rou- 
tines for checking lists of publications, for 
buying, arranging, and distributing all 
sorts of printed matter, should be ex- 
pected to provide, maintain, and circulate 
the comprehensive general collection of 
materials for resource-use education for 
its community, whether the community 
be school or college, city or open country. 

Education for resource development is 

Mary U. Rothrock has been specialist in library service with the Ten- 

nessee Valley Authority since September, 1933. 

Prior to that she 

was librarian of Lawson McGhee Library, the city and county library 

of Knoxville, 


Miss Rothrock is president-elect of the 

American Library Association and is a member of the Tennessee and 

Southeastern Library Associations. 

She is author of Discovering 

Tennessee, a book on the history of that state. 

| 162 | 

teachers in action 

concerned with the entire population, not 
those of school age alone. It is a prob- 
lem whose solution lies as much in adult 
education through individual reading, 
club programs, and other informal means, 
as in classroom instruction of youth. 

And at this point it is important to re- 
member that most of the books which 
adults will have an opportunity to read 
about resource use and regional develop- 
ment will be books from libraries; there 
is no other source available. Very few 
significant books on these subjects get 
into the hands of the general public ex- 
cept from library shelves. Furthermore, 
the community which lacks library service 
is usually deficient in telephones, radios, 
book ownership, magazine subscriptions, 
and other means for dissemination of 
ideas. Educationally it is a hot spot. 
How Well Prepared Are 
Southern Libraries? 

Since libraries occupy this. strategic 
position, it is necessary to ask how well 
prepared they are to discharge their re- 
sponsibility. Not very well. Statistics 

are not readily available for the entire 
group of southern states, but in seven 
Tennessee Valley states, which may be 

regarded as typical, it has been found 
that (1) two thirds of the population lack 
libraries which contain currently signifi- 
cant materials on regional resources and 
problems; (2) book collections in both 
public and research libraries are many 
million volumes short of the national 
average; (3) per capita expenditures for 
public libraries are less than one third the 
national average; (4) thousands of new 
library buildings are needed; and (5) 
library personnel is inadequately in- 
formed about the resources of the region 
and the printed materials which relate to 

It is uncomfortable to face this picture. 
But encouragement may be taken in the 
fact that, like the man on his back, li- 
braries are looking up. Within the past 
decade in these seven typical states, the 
number of people who have library serv- 
ice within reach has increased from 
6,600,000 to 12,700,000. The number of 
books in public libraries has grown from 
4,000,000 to 7,000,000 and the number of 
books borrowed from public libraries has 
increased from 19,000,000 to 31,000,000 

a year. State aid has stimulated the crea- 

tion of new county and regional libraries, 
and bookmobiles travel many thousands 
of miles of country roads every month. 
There is reason to believe that statistics 
for the other southern states are similar. 

Even these general statements are 
enough to indicate that libraries, public, 
school, college, and research, have a tre- 
mendous—yes, tremendous—potential 
power for helping bring about general 
community understanding of wise re- 
source use. Encouraging though this is, 
the fact remains that libraries are not 
now making full use of their strategic 
opportunities for extending public knowl- 
edge of resource-use development. Some 
of the limitations in facilities—such as 
buildings, financial support, and book col- 
lections—have been mentioned. There 
are other difficulties, less tangible perhaps 
but no less real, which have their origin 
in professional traditions. 

Obstacles to Library Effectiveness 

This whole field of resource-use edu- 
cation bristles with specialists. Public 
health officers, county agents, foresters, 
teachers, librarians—craft-minded through 
educational experience—hold tenaciously 
to their specializations; they sometimes 
find it hard to enter whole-heartedly into 
cooperative efforts to present an over-all 
picture where specializations dissolve and 
the whole emerges. Moreover, even when 
they see the logic of this with respect to 
a specific situation, they are still acting 
within the framework of state and na- 
tional specializations which obstruct 
wholly effective cooperation. 

Librarians must make some difficult 
decisions before they are ready to become 
all-out administrators of resource-use ma- 
terials. First, historical tradition from as 
far back as Alexander the Great makes 
them conservers, rather than diffusionists. 
Tradition depicts the ideal librarian as 
one whose books are safely locked up, 
one to whom the widespread dissemina- 
tion of ideas is a matter of little concern. 
The compulsions of modern life have 
cracked this tradition; in large measure 
it is repudiated, yet it lingers somewhere 
in the subconscious mind and contributes 
something to the total library attitude. 

Again, librarians are schooled to main- 
tain judicial poise—to preserve evidence 
impartially on all sides of a controversial 
subject. Thus the librarian is slow to 

[ 163 | 

teachers in action 

Photo by Tennessee Valley Authority 

What is his problem? Beekeeping, poultry 
care, nutrition, or just relaxation? The library 
can help. 

become a crusader, even for a cause to 
which in her heart and mind she may be 
wholly devoted. And, further, from li- 
brary school on she is drilled in the con- 
viction that library service is for the vol- 
untary seeker—that anything which sa- 
vors of compulsion upon the reader vio- 
lates somehow the spirit of freedom 
whose preservation is a cherished pur- 

A substantial obstacle to the effective- 
ness of libraries for resource development 
lies in the fact that librarians, like teach- 
ers, too often lack concrete subject knowl- 
edge of the resources of the region in 
which they live, and of the printed ma- 
terials which relate to them. The li- 
brarian may know how to buy, catalog, 
and circulate books; but not what books 
to buy, catalog, and circulate. Similarly 
the teacher may know how rather than 
what to teach. Remedy for these limit- 
ing attitudes seems to lie in broader pro- 
fessional education; in the re-education 
of specialists in service—librarians, teach- 
ers, and other specialists as well. 

In short, the librarian like the teacher, 
the health officer, the county agent, and 
other specialists is caught and shaped in 
the mold of her specialization. Those 
who are concerned with the total problem 

of resource use must recognize and find 
ways of overcoming these barriers of 
attitude as well as those arising from 
deficient facilities. 

Perhaps the heavier responsibility at 
this point rests on the librarians because 
of the peculiar characteristics of their 
profession. For, as a public health offi- 
cer observed three or four years ago to 
a library group, “Libraries are great cata- 
lyzing forces. Librarians can direct the 
results of research to the respective dis- 
cipline to which they pertain. Through 
disseminating the information, they can 
do the coordinating on this great job. It 
is important to lower the death rates from 
diseases, but it is still more important to 
get down to the bottom of the problems, 
to learn the factors involved and how to 
remove the basic causes of trouble. That 
is fundamental.” 

Breaking Down Barriers 

Efforts are being made by library 
schools and other agencies to meet these 
and other problems of continuing profes- 
sional education. Training institutes for 
county and regional librarians, library 
clinics, and workshops are held each year 
in most of the southern states. They 
offer appropriate and effective opportu- 
nities for presenting to librarians in serv- 
ice the subject of resource-use education 
—with the whole story of its problems 
and its promise. 

Evidence that librarians are awake to 
the importance of resource development 
may be found in the organization in 1941 
of the Tennessee Valley Library Council. 
The Council’s purposes are: (1) to study 
the basic social and economic problems 
of the Tennessee Valley states; (2) to 
serve aS an interpretative and liaison 
group in directing the efforts of libraries 
toward the solution of these problems; 
and (3) to promote the cooperation of 
libraries among themselves and with re- 
lated agencies to these ends. Restrictions 
on travel and other difficulties prevented 
meetings of the full council during the 
war years. In May, 1944, however, a 
small group of librarians from Tennessee 
Valley states met at Gatlinburg to discuss 
some of the barriers which operate 
against significant contributions by libra- 
ries to general understanding of regional 
problems. As means of strengthening li- 

| 164 ] 

teachers in action 

braries in the Southeast the group pro- 
posed conferences, institutes, and other 
forms of in-service training, detailed 
studies of specific problems, and a general 
study of library resources, needs, and 
goals, with suggested action programs. 

In spite of war-time restrictions, a 
number of states have made substantial 
progress with institutes, conferences, and 
other in-service training devices. A spe- 
cific plan for accomplishing the third pro- 
posal—a study of library resources, needs, 
and goals—will be the subject of discus- 
sion in a special called meeting of the 
Council in May, 1946. 

Libraries Aid Resource Development _ 
To this point we have said that mate- 
rials are a central problem of resource- 
use education and that the library is an 
institution created by society to adminis- 
ter educational materials. We have iden- 
tified some obstacles in library facilities 
and attitudes, and have pointed out some 
encouraging factors in regard to effective 
library participation in resource-use edu- 
cation. It is only just to say now that 
more than a few libraries are already ac- 
tive in resource-use education. : 

Most school and public libraries main- 
tain pamphlet collections and clipping and 
picture files from which teachers’ kits 
can be assembled quickly to meet special 
instructional needs. Whether the subject 
is coal, lumber, soil conservation, or 
health, the school teacher, club program 
chairman, or community leader in most 
cities and many towns is now able to turn 
with confidence to the library and find 
pictures, pamphlets, magazines, and books 
which expand his subject and give it its 
place in the whole field of regional de- 
velopment. In a growing number of 
cases the library can provide slides or a 
projector and a carefully selected film. 

A few years ago, Cherokee, Clay, and 
Graham Counties, North Carolina, which 
are served by the Nantahala Regional 
Library, found themselves on the thresh- 
old of a rapidly developing tourist busi- 
ness, for which they were not prepared. 
The regional librarian took initiative in 
helping plan and organize a series of 
meetings which were attended by local 

merchants, hotel managers, filling station 
operators, and other businessmen to study 
the needs of industry and what commu- 
nity changes should be made in order 
that the region might reap full benefit 
from this new _ recreational resource. 
When the Murphy, North Carolina, 
Town Council proposed issuing a map 
and descriptive folder of the region, it 
was the library which assembled and ar- 
ranged the facts and helped see the folder 
through the press. 

This library has exerted leadership in 
other ways, too. For several years it 
had cooperated with local clubs in ar- 
ranging monthly exhibits in the library, 
built around subjects of current interest. 
One such exhibit was of minerals and 
gems native to the region, another of 
products manufactured in the three coun- 
ties, a third of local handicrafts. Even 
if these exhibits had been less impressive 
than in fact they were, they still would 
have served the important purpose of en- 
gaging the participation of many indi- 
viduals in focussing attention and interest 
on the effective use of local resources. 

“See these books on bee-keeping ?” said 
a bookmobile librarian in another state. 
“The home demonstration agent said at a 
club meeting last week that this county 

Photo by Tennessee Valley Authority 

“|. . most of the books which adults will have 
an opportunity to read about resource use and 
regional development will be books from li- 
braries .. .” 

[ 165 ] 

teachers in action 

is one of the best counties in the United 
States for bees, and that it produces only 
one-seventh of the honey it needs. So I 
went back to the library and got these 
books. I think we can change that situ- 
ation in a year or two.” 

Experiences in regional libraries of 
western Tennessee and Kentucky have 
been similar. Physical changes resulting 
from dam construction and the formation 
of lakes by impounded water are changing 
men’s ways of making a living. In some 
instances, former occupations are being 
given up and new ones adopted. In 
others, lagging businesses get new stimu- 
lus from changed conditions. In West 
Tennessee, for example, the University 
of Tennessee Junior College Regional 
Library reported demands for books on 
roadside markets, on management of 
restaurants and tourist courts and, from 
a local pottery, on designs for earthen- 


At the same time, the Murray 
College Regional Library, twenty 

away in Kentucky, was organizing a ma- 

terials bureau to serve the teachers in 
the rural schools of two of its counties. 
A visitor to its headquarters office at any 
time will observe stacks of pamphlets and 
bulletins collected from state and federal 
departments, industrial concerns, insur- 
ance companies, educational institutions, 
churches, labor organizations, and many 
other sources, on a hundred different 
phases of resource development. And he 
recognizes that these materials will find 
their right destination, not through hap- 
hazard distribution, but by the consciously 
planned administration of a librarian in 
touch with the instructional program of 
the schools and acquainted with the ma- 
terials useful for it. 

These are only a few specific illustra- 
tions of ways in which librarians can as- 
sist in resource-use education. They could 
be multiplied manyfold. The ways in 
which the librarian can help are innumer- 
able provided she recognizes the library’s 
responsibility as the community’s mate- 
rials center and her own responsibility as 
one member of the community’s educa- 
tional staff. 

teachers in action 

The County Agent 

Teaches Resource Use 


The use of resources to satisfy human 
needs and desires is in one sense a process 
of overcoming barriers between man and 
his resources. Some of these barriers are 
placed in the way by nature—the earth 
and rock overlaying a valuable mineral. 
Modern technology has steadily reduced 
natural barriers to resource use. Some 
of the obstacles, however, are placed in 
the way by man himself. These inciude 
ignorance, inertia, tradition, prejudice, 
and monopoly. Resource use is as much, 
or more, a product of the relations be- 
tween man and man as of the relations 
between man and resources. 

Against the natural barriers to resource 
use a community—or a region, a nation, 
or the world—can level the weapons of 
modern science and technology. Against 
the human barriers it can—in a democ- 
racy—level the weapons of democratic 
community action. These weapons are 
not so precise as those of science and 
technology, but they are as old as culture 
and they are becoming more precise and 
better understood with the gradual ma- 
turing of a science of society. That they 
can reduce the human barriers is shown 
by every story of full, balanced, and ef- 
ficient resource use to satisfy human 
needs and desires. They include knowl- 
edge and understanding, skills, leader- 
ship, organization, cooperation, and mo- 

Leadership for Community Progress 
Knowledge and skills do not just walk 
into a community and announce them- 

selves, however; organization does not 
spring full grown from the brow of main 
street ; cooperation does not “just grow” 
like Topsy; motivation does not push 
people through the barriers to resource 
use until it is translated into specific ac- 
complishments—it can push people 
around in circles as well as straight ahead. 
All depend upon people’s attitudes toward 
what resources are and how they should 
be used. Leadership is a vital factor in 
the process of knitting these forces into 
a pattern of effective resource use. [ead- 
ership acts as a catalyst to organize hu- 
man aspiration into action. 

Leadership is not the only factor of 
importance, by any means. Here, how- 
ever, we are not concerned with analysing 
all the complex human relationships in- 
volved in resource use. Nor must we 
discuss the intricate questions of leader- 
ship as a social phenomenon. We are 
interested in one process toward commu- 
nity resource development, resource-use 
education, and how one leader, the county 
agent, can be a vital spark in that process. 
We know that leadership, by leading peo- 
ple the wrong way, can help make the 
barriers higher instead of lower, and that 
there are many pitfalls into which leaders 
can slip. We also know that county 
agents—like any leader—are beset by 
most of the problems and given to many 
of the pitfalls. But we are interested in 
the opportunities of the county agent as 
a community leader in resource-use edu- 

The county agent—like the minister, 

As research assistant in the Institute for Research in Social Science, 
University of North Carolina, Harry B. Williams is collaborating with 
state Agricultural Extension Service leaders in a study of the use of 
educational methods and materials by county agents in North Carolina. 
Mr. Williams is on leave from the Tennessee Valley Authority, where 
he was specialist in educational research on the Training and Educa- 
tional Relations Staff and, before that, administrative assistant in the 

Personnel Department. 

| 167 | 

teachers in action 

the school teacher, the local librarian, the 
community planner, and others—is a 
teacher of resource use at the crucial level 
where knowledge, skills, attitudes, moti- 
vation, and action achieve their true and 
integral unity. Resource-use education 
in its regional, national, and world aspects 
is a process of the large society, and as 
such it tends to share the usual division of 
labor between research, teaching, plan- 
ning, and administration. At the commu- 
nity level, highly specialized divisions of 
labor tend to break down in the need for 
unity of action as the community faces 
whole, not subdivided, problems. At this 
level community leaders, while having 
areas of special competence, clientel, and 
interest, must be able to operate more ef- 
fectively through the broad range from 
research to action. 

Helping People Help Themselves 

The position of county agricultural ex- 
tension agent was set up to carry out the 
purposes of the Smith-Lever Act of 
1914. This Act of Congress authorized 
and provided for a program to “aid in 
diffusing among the people of the United 
States useful and practical information in 

subjects relating to agriculture and home 
economics ; and to encourage the applica- 

tion of the same... .” This program is 
a cooperative one between the counties, 
the states, through the land-grant col- 
leges, and the federal government, 
through the United States Department of 
Agriculture. The county agent is the 
joint employee of these three levels of 
government. His is the job of working 
with farm people, day by day, to carry 
out the purpose of the Act. The Act is 
interpreted to mean that the job of the 
county agent is to help people help them- 

The range of the county agent’s activi- 
ties is nearly as great as the range of 
needs, problems, and opportunities of 
America’s farm people. He helps farm- 
ers learn to handle practical problems— 
culling chickens, vaccinating livestock, 
laying out terraces, registering animals, 
understanding government programs. He 
helps them in short-time and long-time 
planning—planning crop rotations, build- 
ing up soils, developing permanent pas- 
tures, building sound herds and flocks, 
planning land use, using the farm wood- 
lot. Through 4-H Club work, he helps 

youth become good farmers and citizens. 
He helps in neighborhood, community, 
and county plans for group action on a 
wide range of activities to conserve and 
develop resources, raise levels of living, 
and enrich rural life. County agents have 
helped stimulate industries to process, and 
markets to absorb local products resulting 
from agricultural development programs. 

The methods by which the county 
agent carries out these activities are 
usually called “extension methods.” They 
are teaching methods—methods of edu- 
cation. Extension methods include meet- 
ings, visits to farms, farm tours, visual 
aids, printed materials, correspondence, 
the use of newspapers and radio, personal 
interviews, the use of voluntary leader- 
ship, result demonstrations, and method 
demonstrations—and all combinations of 
these. Demonstrations are the core of 
extension methods, for in them a farmer 
teaches and convinces himself, and his 
neighbors share this process. As Seaman 
A. Knapp said, “What a man hears he 
may doubt. What he sees he may pos- 
sibly doubt. But what he does himself, 
he cannot doubt.” 

The county agent must know the coun- 
ty, its history and traditions, its institu- 
tions, its natural resources, and its peo- 
ple. He must know the community and 
neighborhood leaders and—as the tremen- 
dous work load of war years re-empha- 
sized—how to secure their help. He must 
know group membership patterns, social 
and economic groupings, farm tenure pat- 
terns, the educational level of the people, 
and much more. 

For in one way, a fact may not be a 
fact when the agent is meeting with a 
neighborhood group or talking to a farm- 
er, because its meaning and its acceptance 
are conditioned by so many factors. A 
shiny new research fact from an agri- 
cultural experiment station—a new and 
better seed combination for permanent 
pasture, for example—is a babe in the 
woods of tradition, prejudices, misinfor- 
mation, folkways, and other social reali- 
ties. It is the county agent who leads it 
through the woods into the minds and 
practices of farm people, across the bar- 
riers and into patterns of resource use. 
This is the essence of his responsibility, 
to make scientific information under- 
standable, meaningful, and motivating to 
people who can use it to help themselves. 

[ 168 ] 









s it 
x to 


teachers in action 

Courtesy of North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service 

The resource-use facts and principles the county agent teaches are not academic considerations; 
they are directly related to the everyday tasks of developing better living on the farm. Here 
a county agent teaches farmers to treat peanut seed to control disease. 

He must interpret the new fact, make it 
clear, fit it smoothly into the people’s way 
of living, working, and thinking, guide it 
into fruition on the farms of the county. 

Favorable Conditions for Teaching 

This complexity of conditions is a dif- 
ficult and trying problem. , It is also the 
county agent’s great strength as a teacher 
of resource use. Knowing these factors 
and having the knowledge and skills to 
meet them, he can teach resource-use 
facts and principles much more effective- 
ly. He can be a powerful force in that 
crucial area where knowledge and action 
become one. 

As a teacher of resource use, the coun- 
ty agent benefits from working within a 
functional learning situation. The re- 
source-use principles and practices he 
teaches are not academic considerations. 
The farmer is using resources every day. 
The county agent helps him to use them 
scientifically, evoke their fuller fruits, 
and ensure their replenishment. If they 
are successful, it means a more comfort- 
able and satisfying life for the farmer. 
In this situation, the teacher is not both- 
ered by false dichotomies between prac- 

tical and theoretical, or liberal and voca- 
tional. The county agent, therefore, has 
a striking opportunity to make resource- 
use education meaningful. 

A third favorable condition the county 
agent has as a teacher of resource use is 
that the Smith-Lever Act allows him con- 
siderable freedom from legislative re- 
quirements and limitations. This gives 
him freedom both to use and teach a 
broad range of subject matter and to use 
a wide range of educational methods, 
materials, and media with which to 
achieve his objectives. He can take ad- 
vantage of the functional learning situa- 
tion and his relative freedom to emphasize 
electrification, housing, health, forestry— 
whatever aspects of resource use that 
need attention, and all aspects in terms of 
balance and interrelationships. 

On every farm and in every commu- 
nity—in every region, nation, the world— 
the task of resource development is many- 
sided. If you touch one problem or one 
resource, it leads to others. Soil building 
is related to water conservation and this 
to forest conservation; the health and 
vigor of the people are basic to all commu- 
nity growth and this is related to many 

| 169 | 

teachers in action 

things—housing and sanitation, diet, soil 
quality, crop diversification, poultry and 
livestock, stream pollution; electricity is 
a tireless servant to farm and community 
resource use; local industries and occu- 
pations may be vital to a balanced agri- 
cultural program ; the services of schools, 
government, community planning, 
churches, and other institutions have 
their responsibilities to resource develop- 

The county agent cannot be an expert 
in every phase of activity to which agri- 
cultural problems lead. In the Extension 
Service, the agricultural experiment sta- 
tion, the state agricultural college, and the 
United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, however, is a great pool of. scien- 
tific knowledge and expert skills, upon 
which he draws. There is continuing re- 
search on agricultural problems ; there are 
specialists in poultry, agricultural engi- 
neering, animal husbandry, forestry, 
agronomy, and in many other subjects ; 
there are agricultural economists and 
rural sociologists, experts in extension 
methods, and others. 

His role in a team that can bring the 
services of a variety of experts to bear on 

problems, therefore, is a fourth condi- 
tion favorable to effective teaching of re- 

source use. He helps the people to iden- 
tify needs and problems, and to focus the 
sources of assistance upon them. His 
effectiveness depends to an important 
degree upon how well he mobilizes these 
resources at the right place, at the right 
time. It likewise depends upon how well 
these resources are organized to serve 
him, how well they are geared to the 
needs of farm people. 

The Need for Cooperation 

In developing community resources, 
then, we see the opportunity for the coun- 
ty agent to function as a leader, helping 
to develop and mobilize knowledge and 
understanding, skills, organization, coop- 
eration, motivation, and leadership. He 
is helping to stimulate and organize the 
energies and abilities of people in attacks 
upon the barriers to effective resource 

His is not the only responsibility, nor 
can he hope to meet all needs, cover all 
areas, and reach all groups. The leader- 
ship of many others is needed. If a 
community is to develop its resources ac- 

cording to the natural and social balance 
among them, it becomes a eooperative, 
democratic job. The county agent has 
the opportunity to cooperate in this proc- 
ess in at least four ways: as a specialist, 
a coordinator, an organizer, and a moti- 

The first need for cooperation, of 
course, is among the people of the com- 
munity, with the county agent and other 
community leaders furnishing technical 
competence, leadership in organization, 
and motivation. It is, at the same time, 
a need for cooperation between the peo- 
ple of the community, on the one hand, 
and the experts and leaders, on the other. 

A further need is for cooperation 
among the experts and leaders. As we 
have said, people and communities face 
whole problems, not subdivided problems. 
This requires not only the unification of 
knowledge and action, it requires the 
coordination of the help people receive. 
They want and need whole answers to 
whole problems. 

If a community decides to tackle its 
health problems on a large scale, this may 
require the knowledge and skills of doc- 
tors, nurses, public health experts, agri- 
cultural experts, housing experts, engi- 
neers, and others. The county agent is 
frequently called upon to help in health 
programs, for the relationships of health 
with diet and diet with soils have become 
increasingly clear. The people do not 
have the technical knowledge to synthe- 
size a half dozen separate reports. Nor 
can they support a half dozen separate 
programs. This synthesis may be sup- 
plied by a top expert of some kind, but it 
is best when the various experts work 
together, blending their special compe- 
tences into a balanced solution. 

It should be added that cooperation is 
needed not only among experts in dif- 
ferent fields, but also among experts in 
the same field. The multiplicity of agri- 
cultural programs implies a strict divi- 
sion of jurisdictions, competition for the 
farmer’s time and loyalty, or cooperation 
and coordination among programs. 

Community resource development in- 
volves the basic principles of democratic 
planning—identifying and agreeing upon 
objectives, identifying and agreeing upon 
problems, identifying and agreeing upon 
solutions. If the interrelationships of re- 
sources and of problems is a fact, experts 

[ 170 ] 

t is 

ut it 

mn is 
's in 
- the 

f in- 
of re- 

teachers in action 

need to work together. If the wisdom of 
the folk and the hope and promise of 
freedom are true, resource development 
must take place within the framework of 
understanding and participation by the 

It would be a serious mistake to assume 
that the responsibility for initiating co- 
operation rests solely on the county agent. 
Other community leaders—school teach- 
ers, ministers, local and county officials, 
citizen group leaders, health experts, and 
others—should actively seek the county 
agent’s cooperation and contributions. It 
becomes partly a matter of each commu- 
nity leader, including the county agent, 
identifying the places in the program he 
represents that would be strengthened by 
the help of others, of identifying the 
sources of help, and of seeking that help. 

There are many ways, for example, in 
which the county agent can help the pub- 
lic school teacher demonstrate resource- 
use facts and principles. These include 
preparation and adaption of materials 
and audio-visual aids, visits by the coun- 
ty agent to the classroom, cultivating 
school gardens and raising pets, erosion 
control on the school grounds, beautifi- 
cation of the school grounds, surveys, 
and field trips. 

Test-demonstration farms of the TVA- 
Extension Service agricultural program 
may soon be used by children of rural 
schools in the Tennessee Valley as study 
laboratories. It is believed that observa- 

tion over a five- or six-year period will 
afford school children an opportunity to 
learn farm management under scientific 

methods. This is an example of close 
cooperation between the school teacher 
and the county agent to make resource- 

use education vivid and meaningful. In 
this case, it will also involve the coopera- 
tion of state and regional organizations. 

Areas of Opportunity 

We might dwell upon the problems 
county agents face, and the short-comings 
some county agents have demonstrated. 
We are interested, however, in seeing the 
opportunities and challenges of county 
agents as teachers of resource use. There 
are at least six areas of opportunity that 
challenge the county agent in this task. 
Stated briefly, and with no reference to 
priority, these are: 

1. To emphasize agriculture as a part 
of total, balanced resource use 

2. To reach all groups, or help others 
to reach all groups 

3. To cooperate with other agencies 
and groups which are contributing, or can 
contribute, to community resource use 

4. To use the best available educational 
methods, procedures, materials, and media 
for the needs of his program and the peo- 
ple he serves 

5. To understand the people and the 
natural resources in his county, and es- 
pecially to know the needs of these people 

6. To understand and use the social 
realities of his county—local patterns of 
leadership, community and neighborhood 
organization and functions, group mem- 
bership, customs. 

In these ways the county agent con- 
tributes to a community program of re- 
source development and use that assumes 
the form of a balanced, over-all pattern. 
It begins and it grows as a program of 
the people with the help of leadership. 
And it is a continuous educational process.