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Vol. XLI K October, 1957 * No. 1 


Guidance and the Curriculum of the Small Secondary 
School Camilla M. Low 

Core Curriculum and the 
Library Fay J. Buttle and June Berry 

The Effect of Semi-Annual Promotion on Standardized 
Achievement Test Scores Joseph C. Payne 

ome Fg reer eee Sidney P. Rollins 
Democratic Supervision Anita F. Lyons 

The University of North Carolina Experience in Student 
Self-Government William T. Wolf 

A Child Has Rights Too! 


Issued Monthly, October to May, Inclusive $2.00 a Year 

Published by the University of North Carolina Press for the 
School of Education of the University of North Carolina. 

SAMUEL M. Ho ton, Editor 

Editorial Office: Box 810, Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Business Office: Box 510, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

> » @ yy 
costca ise v ve SJ 

School o? Education 


Guidance and the Curriculum of the 
Small Secondary School 

University of Wisconsin 


OME HIGH SCHOOL teachers were recently asked whether 

or not they had guidance in their schools. A goodly number 
answered, “No,” and explained that their schools were too small 
to support a guidance counselor. Of course, when they were 
questioned further concerning the efforts of the teachers and the 
principal to understand the pupils and to help them mature, 
it was evident that none of their schools was devoid of the activities 
and the attitudes toward boys and girls usually associated with a 
guidance program. 

Unfortunately, there are many teachers, and even more parents, 
who associate a guidance program almost wholly with the person 
who carries a special guidance title. The guidance counselor is 
surely important both for his special counseling skill and for his 
work as helper and coordinator of the contribution of other staff 
members to the guidance of boys and girls. In contrast to the 
average teacher, however, the counselor engages in face-to-face 
guidance of the rank and file of high school students during 
relatively few hours. He could, for example, be the very finest 
representative of his profession so far as his success in counseling 
troubled youngsters was concerned, while at the same time the 
staff of his school was quite deficient in understanding the needs 
of individual boys and girls and in giving them constructive help. 
Such a school would exemplify an inadequate program of guidance. 

On the other hand, a small school which could not at present 
employ a guidance counselor, might well be providing reasonably 
effective guidance by virtue of the fact that teachers had sensitive 
regard for the boys and girls, attempted to understand their prob- 
lems, and exhibited considerable flexibility in adjusting to their 

The avenue through which these teachers make their contribu- 
tion to guidance is the curriculum. Assuming that the curriculum 
comprises all of the experiences gained by the pupils under school 
auspices, then the teacher’s responsibility for choosing classroom 


and club activities and for arranging the environment from which 
the pupils gain their experience, is great indeed. Each teacher not 
only plans the content to be covered in his classes, and the methods 
for attempting to gain the desired objectives, but he also engages 
in on-the-spot supervision of the students for many of their activi- 
ties and thus alters, in subtle or more drastic ways, the actual 
experiences which accrue to his students. Whatever the choices 
of the teacher may be, of what to teach and how to teach it, these 
may well spell the difference for a given pupil between a total 
school experience which is pertinent and personally satisfying, and 
one which is remote, unmotivating and even disintegrating. How 
then can the teacher best insure effective use of the curriculum 
as an avenue for wholesome guidance? 

Keeping Clear on the Objective of Guidance 

In the first place it is important for teachers to understand 
what they are trying to accomplish. The objective of guidance is 
to help each growing individual learn how to manage his life in 
ways which will bring maximum satisfaction to him and to the 
groups with whom he participates. Whether in small schools or 
large, teachers who share in the guidance of boys and girls are 
interested to help each one of them face himself in a realistic 
manner, gain an understanding of his capabilities, and engage in 
activities for their maximum development. Teachers want to help 
each student plan realistically in terms of goals which seem ap- 
propriate to him, and show increasingly good judgment in making 
choices which lead him most effectively toward his goals. These 
goals are not narrowly confined to one area of life. Occupational 
choice, marriage and family living, citizenship, the use of leisure 
time, and the maintenance of physical and emotional health are 
areas in which teachers can encourage student thought and plan- 

The Importance of “Knowing” the Student 

It is next to impossible to utilize the curriculum as an avenue 
for guidance unless the classroom teacher knows each student as 
a person, senses his feelings and attitudes and discovers his special 
needs and attributes. Without such knowledge the best that a 
teacher can do is either to assume that all thirty or more of the 
pupils in a given class are virtually alike and capable of profiting 
from very similar curricular activities, or to assume that it is 
possible to identify the needs of each on the basis of observation 
in one setting which represents a very narrow segment of the stu- 

4 The Hieu ScHoor JourRNAL [ Oct. 

dent’s life. Most teachers are too vividly aware of individual 
differences and the complexity of human personality to be content 
to try to teach in terms of either of these assumptions. Yet, the 
exigencies of the classroom situation and the crowding of time 
lead some teachers into these traps. Our high school dropout rate 
and our failure to develop the tremendous resources of gifted 
children are only the more obvious pieces of evidence to support 
the truth of this unfortunate situation. Where boys and girls are 
not known as individuals the teacher is seriously hampered in 
judging where to set the level of expectation for each pupil and 
how to plan activities which will encourage full and wholesome 
growth toward maturity. Fortunately teachers of small high schools 
are in the enviable position of working in a relatively intimate 
school and community environment in which it is not difficult to 
know their students or to develop the kind of personal relation- 
ship with many of them which is supporting and helpful. 

The Teacher-Pupil Relationship in Guidance-Centered Teaching 

The soil in which human personality flourishes has rich 
nutrients of warm friendship and understanding. The small school 
faces less difficulty than the large school in providing these nu- 
trients. Teachers and principal are usually able to create a 
school environment which couples some of the secure and com- 
panionable feature of home living with opportunity for expanding 
friendships and broadening responsibility. Teachers in small 
schools often teach more than one subject or, at least, several 
levels of the same subject. This enlarges the opportunities for 
student and teacher to get acquainted and feel at home with one 
another. The teacher who has a student for both social studies and 
English, or who teaches him science and also acts as his athletic 
coach tends to become interested in more than the student’s prob- 
lems and achievements relative to subject matter or activity skills. 
By virtue of the relatively intimate environment of a small school, 
teachers are able to enter into the lives of their students and feel 
genuine empathy and acceptance of each one of them. A high 
school youngster is fortunate to experience the support of such 
a relationship with his teachers. In such an environment, the 
opportunity for wholesome guidance is great indeed. 

The Kinds of Learning Which Contribute to the Student’s 
Capacity to Manage His Life 

In order to use the curriculum most effectively for guidance, it 
is important for the teacher to appreciate the kinds of learning 



which contribute to the student’s skill in self direction, and the 
manner in which such learning takes place. 

Success in managing one’s life depends not only upon the know- 
ledge which a person gains in such areas as science, mathematics, 
English and the social studies, and the skills he has developed in 
reading, English expression, scientific thinking and computation, 
but upon other kinds of learning as well. His feelings and at- 
titudes toward himself and other people, his social awareness and 
adaptability, his methods of meeting success and failure (all learned 
as surely as science and history are learned) are of vital importance 
to the pupil in applying his knowledge and skill to the practical 
problems of living. 

The influence of the teacher, as he utilizes the curriculum as 
an avenue for guidance, is more profound in these areas of social 
and emotional learning than he frequently realizes. By virtue 
of the integrity of the human personality, the teacher cannot avoid 
such influence even though he may think he is choosing what to 
teach and how to teach it with reference only to academic aims. 

The teacher’s task would be easy if human beings learned one 
thing at a time. But the social and emotional setting within which 
the intellectual learning takes place also “teaches.” While a teen- 
ager is learning the facts about the Suez situation, for example, 
he is also learning to hate or tolerate or admire the peoples in- 
volved, to be competitive or cooperative with his classmates, to 
face his tasks with courage or discouragement, to be independent 
or dependent upon teacher authority, to accept or avoid responsi- 
bility. If boys and girls learn their attitudes and feelings and 
ways of behaving by default, because there has been no sensitive 
perception or conscious planning for these things, the teacher may 
discover that he is adding to the burden of adjustment problems 
carried by some of his pupils rather than helping them resolve the 
problems which already trouble them. 

The truth of the matter is that within one class period, related 
to one activity, each student is learning a large number of things 
at the same time, and no two students are experiencing exactly the 
same combination of things. The achievement of the academic 
goal which both teacher and students may consider the focus of 
learning can either be advanced or impeded by the attitudinal 
learning which accrue from the methods of the teacher and the 
general climate of the classroom. Therefore, both from the stand- 
point of efficient learning of academic work and of wholesome 

6 The High Scuoot Journau [ Oct. 

growth in personality, not only must a teacher do his best to plan 
in advance so that the setting and the methods call forth whole- 
some social and emotional responses, but he must be perceptive, 
as the classroom activity progresses, of what each pupil appears to 
be learning which is different from, or over and above what the 
teacher thinks he is teaching. 

The Relationship of Method to Content in Guidance-Centered 

An implication of the above discussion is that method becomes 
an important part of content in guidance-centered teaching. We 
know enough about mental hygiene to appreciate that young people 
are striving above all else to find a place for themselves with their 
peers. They must have the opportunity to gain recognition in the 
classroom for something they can do reasonably well, and be ap- 
preciated for that contribution. They must feel that they are ac- 
cepted by their teachers as people whose ideas are worth listening 
to. If their social behavior should get them into difficulty with their 
peers or prove disruptive to classroom activity, they must be as- 
sured that at least their teachers will lend a helping hand and 
have faith in their ultimate improvability. If boys and girls ex- 
perience these feelings of recognition and appreciation and know 
that teachers accept them as worthy of respect, the chances are 
that they will have greater singleness of purpose in trying to achieve 
academic goals and much greater success in developing inde- 
pendence and reliability in managing themselves. These whole- 
some experiences are gained primarily from the methods used 
by the teacher—the way he handles misbehavior so as to help a 
student avoid losing face with his peers, the tone of voice and the 
facial expression which accompany the question he puts to the 
student in the class discussion, the appreciative comment he makes 
for a job well done—such things are a part of the curriculum since 
they provide experiences from which the student learns his attitudes 
and his behavior. 

Developing Skills of Planning and Appraisal 
There is another aspect of method which relates more directly 
to experiences in self-understanding and self-direction. Many 
teachers in both small schools and large find it difficult to involve 
students in all aspects of learning. They tend to reserve for them- 
selves the tasks of setting the goals of learning, making the assign- 
ments and grading or evaluating the results. The student's respon- 

ees A iA. 


sibility relates solely to doing the assigned job. This denies him, 
however, the very experiences he needs to grow in capacity to guide 
his own life. 

If the curriculum is to be effectively used as an avenue for 
guidance, then teachers must share with their students the tasks 
of goal-setting, planning and evaluating. There is much misunder- 
standing relative to the limits within which students are able to 
set their own goals and make their own plans. Certainly in every 
high school course there are objectives which must be met and basic 
knowledge and skills which must be learned. But within a broad 
framework there are goals which students can identify. The skill- 
ful teacher poses a question like this, “What do you think we 
should learn from our work on this unit Can we state our chief 
goals, as well as some sub-goals able to be achieved along the way?” 
In the discussion which ensues it is often possible to sensitize stu- 
dents to the fact that in addition to goals of acquiring certain 
information and developing certain important academic skills, there 
are also goals which relate to such things as methods of working 
with each other or attitudes they hope to develop. The students’ 
very awareness of what they are “shooting for,” encourages achieve- 
ment. In addition they are gaining experience in using an im- 
portant life-time skill which they must employ whenever they are 
faced with a problem to be solved. 

Planning with reference to these goals can also be shared by 
teacher and students. Often the ideas submitted by the pupils of 
ways to attack a problem, or library and community resources 
which might be tapped in its solution, go far beyond the teacher's 
initial planning in both richness and originality. Here too the 
process of planning teaches such things as how to set up priorities, 
how to divide the labor and allocate responsibilities, and how to 
go about using sources of information pertinent to the problem. 

Finally, evaluation should be a joint enterprise. If a teacher 
is willing occasionally to use class time to encourage the students 
to do some stock-taking, they will become more analytical con- 
cerning what is involved in doing a job well and how to recognize 
the things which call for improvement. Thus, these boys and girls 
will gradually learn to become more skillful in intelligent self- 
appraisal in numerous life situations in which there is no teacher 
to grade them. 

Every method which a teacher can use to encourage inde- 

8 The Hieu Scuoou JouRNAL [ Oct. 

pendence of judgment and choice helps the student take a step 
toward maturity. 


In this brief discussion an attempt has been made to emphasize 
the importance of the curriculum as an avenue for guidance, and 
the key role played by teachers in helping boys and girls gain ex- 
periences which contribute to their social and emotional maturity. 
The teacher’s success in engaging in guidance-centered instruction 
assumes that he knows each student as a person and can develop 
with him a relationship of mutual understanding and respect. 
It further presupposes that the teacher keeps in mind the objective 
of guidance and understands the kinds of classroom learning which 
foster self-reliance and intelligent management of one’s personal 
life. In the process of effectively utilizing the curriculum as an 
avenue for guidance, method becomes an important part of content 
and the teacher’s perceptiveness a sensitive regulator of method. 

In small schools where specialized guidance services are at a 
minimum, classroom teachers have a challenging opportunity to 
utilize the curriculum as an avenue for very effective developmental 

~- ff. — 


Core Curriculum and the Library 

Brigham Young University High School 

HE CORE CURRICULUM teacher and the school librarian 

should be true professional partners. Both are concerned with 
the business of educating children and both accomplish it in a 
manner opposed to traditional lecture-textbook methods. Actually, 
some of the major objectives and characteristics of core programs 
are pursued and realized in the library. “Experience curriculum,” 
“individual differences,” “fused learning,” “common learnings,”— 
we believe these terms are just as applicable to school libraries as to 
core curriculum. 

The modern school library is intended to be used, not talked 
about; children learn by doing, not by telling or being told. How 
does a student learn to use the card catalog? By actual personal 
experience with catalog drawers. Each individual searches for 
books indexed in the catalog—books on subjects of interest to him. 
He locates the books he needs and selects those suited to his read- 
ing ability. Corresponding experiences, based on individual dif- 
ferences and integrated with various subjects, could be described of 
every library resource—whether encyclopedia, Reader’s Guide, 
World Almanac, or Bartlett’s Quotations. 

We find certain common learnings are taught solely, or at 
least most effectively, in the library. For example, everyone should 
learn the purposes of libraries. By using their school library, 
children recognize its values and realize that all libraries contain 
similar treasures. 

” 66 

Another common learning which all children need is an under- 
standing of the specific types of library materials—that library 
resources are tools, and each has its own particular use. We don’t 
use a pair of pliers to mow the lawn; neither do we use the card 
catalog to find a magazine article. 

Core programs are characterized by use of multiple materials, 
not only multiple textbooks and library books, but also multiple 
pamphlet, magazine, encyclopedia, and picture materials. And 
where are multiple materials available and organized for use? In 
the library. Here, as in no other situation, teacher and librarian 

10 The Hieu Scuoou JourRNAL [ Oct. 

may demonstrate the value of many different materials to exhaust 
the subject being studied. The nature of research, its exactness, 
its importance, and its unique application to subject matter study, 
can be fully understood only by actual library use. 

As partners, the librarian and teacher must work together when 
library activities are involved. Both must cooperate to plan the 
desired objectives; both must understand the process by which 
these objectives are to be accomplished. If advance planning is 
neglected—or indeed, if it is inadequate, haphazard, or one-sided— 
learning will be limited proportionately. The class my arrive and 
find the librarian unable to supply enough materials on the subject 
assigned. Or the librarian who does not know the teacher's 
objective may do or say things which actually prevent its ac- 

Let us take an extreme example to illustrate the point. A 
teacher wishes to introduce the contributions other people have 
made to our American culture and to integrate the use of bio- 
graphical tools with this concept. She gives the children an assign- 
ment to find the nationalities of outstanding people, instructing 
them to search in encyclopedias, books of collective biography, 
Who’s Who, etc. The librarian may misunderstand the objective, 
may actually tell the children the nationalities or find the answers 
for them and thwart the teacher’s intention. To prevent this or 
similar “working at cross purposes,” cooperative planning is in- 

Planning the Library Experiences 

Our library activities begin when the classroom teacher is plan- 
ning to teach a particular unit such as “Our State.” Perhaps she 
wishes to integrate the skill of note-taking with the subject matter 
about the state. In the initial approach the teacher asks the libra- 
rian to reserve the library for the required number of days and 
describes the materials which are likely to be needed. The 
librarian’s role is considered; perhaps it will be to review library 
rules and materials, or orient the students to the library. 

After this teacher-librarian consultation, the classroom teacher 
prepares her class for the library visit. She discusses the unit with 
them and permits each child to choose a specific subject to be 
explored. One student may select the minerals of the state, one a 
famous native son, and another a particular historical event. In- 
struction is given on note-taking—probably in the classroom— 
possibly with brief practice exercises. The teacher explains the 


library visit and asks the children to take notes from at least four 
library sources, including books, encyclopedias, magazines, and 

If circumstances permit the librarian to visit during this class 
discussion, her effectiveness will be increased. Not only will she 
observe the specific materials needed but also will note other 
preparations to be made. Perhaps she will borrow books from 
public library, make a bibliography of all materials the libarary 
has on the subject, or display written materials such as books, 
maps, and pamphlets on the tables at the designated hour. In 
some cases she will place books on reserve or on limited circula- 
tion. When illustrated notebooks or journals are assigned, scissors, 
paste, and rulers should be made available as well as magazines to 
cut out pictures. 

Of course, the culmination of all planning is the students’ 
actual experience in the library. After any necessary explanations 
or library orientation, either by teacher or librarian as previously 
determined, the integrated learning begins. Each pupil searches 
in the card catalog, encyclopedias, as other materials; he locates 
resources pertaining to his subject; and he takes notes on the 

Both teacher and librarian move around the library helping 
individual students. Many skills will be integrated with the note- 
taking; the techniques of paraphrasing, use of quotation marks, 
dangers of plagiarism, and the correct form for references are re- 
lated concepts which might be introduced. Note-taking may oc- 
cupy one day or several days, depending on the wishes of the 
teacher and the ability of her students. 

If the library is needed for other classes, the writing of the 
final paper or presenting of reports may be completed in the class- 
room. The teacher usually takes complete charge, checks form, 
sentences, and content, and corrects spelling, grammar, and punctu- 

However, evaluation is not limited to the students’ work. The 
librarian and teacher will evaluate all aspects of the unit, with 
particular attention to such criteria as: (1) Were the desired 
objectives accomplished? (2) Were the children fully prepared for 
the library visit and activities? (3) Were the necessary materials 
available and well-organized? (4) Were individual differences 
served? and (5) How might the experience be made more valuable 
another time? 

12 The Hien Scuoot Journau [ Oct. 
Variety of Library-Core Experiences 

Although core curriculum courses vary widely in structure as 
well as content and scope, any program from seventh through 
twelfth grade can benefit from library cooperation. Many units 
of study will dove-tail into the library-core pattern described 
above, and adequate material is in the school library (or can be 
obtained) to supplement any text or texts in the curriculum. The 
following library units, for example, have been successful in one 
core class in our school. 

1. Biography. Learning about others’ lives is interesting and 
challenging through the use of biographical dictionaries and other 
biography books. 

2. Critical Thinking. The Reader's Guide, magazines, and 
newspapers are used to find material on disputable subjects and to 
search for valid information upon which to base conclusions. 

3. World Understanding. The achievements of other peoples 
and their characteristics and cultures, are studied by using bio- 
graphical dictionaries as well as atlases, history books, and geo- 
graphy books. 

4. Poetry. Enjoyment and appreciation of poetry are ap- 
proached through poetry indexes and poetry anthologies. 

5. Forms of Literature. Library resources prove especially 
useful for the study of short stories, novels, essays, drama, etc. 
Values of Library Activities 

The use of the library, with its various materials, and its practi- 
cal activities, seems to create exceptional understanding of the 
subject being presented. The students maintain interest in their 
subject, perhaps because of the change from classroom surround- 
ings, the success they feel as a result of personal interest in the 
subject, or the variety of resources available to them. 

In library learning, students have opportunities to examine all 
aspects of controversial issues and are taught the danger of believ- 
ing slanted or propaganda materials. This is an appropriate 
occasion to teach the fact that being in print does not automatical- 
ly clothe a statement in truth. 

That the variety of library materials benefits individual stu- 
dents—retarded, average, or superior—is obvious. For poor readers, 
the library offers resources on lower reading levels. Each child 
is given material on his own level, and consequently achieves some 
degree of success in his work. Moreover, individual attention 
is increased because the librarian serves as co-teacher an is avail- 
able to assist when needed. 


Library use seems particularly stimulating to the needs and 
inclinations of superior students. ‘The materials encountered in 
the course of their studies challenge their capability and pique 
their curiosity. Students of superior reading ability are permitted 
and encouraged to read more extensively than the others, yet 
they are working on the same assignment or type of project as their 
classmates. Some may explore all the ramifications of their sub- 
jects, often swinging off on a wide tangent to satisfy their avid 

Frequently, creative and artistic abilities of talented children 
are developed through library experiences. In their explorations 
of various materials, these alert people discover charts, maps, 
pictures, and diagrams—media of communication not only instruc- 
tive and attractive but also suggestive of ideas to be reproduced on 
paper. The drawing paper (or poster board or graph paper) is 
availiable, as are rulers, colored pencils, paints, or any other 
materials needed to help children find success and gratification in 
accomplishing their goals. 

Finally, schools restricted by traditional classrooms with no 
tables are especially benefited by library use and facilities. Library 
tables furnish ample space for children to spread out their materials 
and go to work—whether to read and take notes, to draw charts, 
or to cut out pictures and paste them in note-books. 

These library-classroom activities are varied and adaptable and 
can be exciting and challenging. Time and planning invested in 
library-core curriculum experiences will yield dividends of enriched 
instruction and genuine learning. 

The Effect of Semi-Annual Promotion on 
Standardized Achievement Test Scores 

Educational Research Consultant, Indianapolis Public Schools 


A; A PART of a survey of promotional plans, Indianapolis, 
Indiana, which now promotes on a semi-annual basis, became 
concerned over the possible differences in achievement between the 
pupils who entered each grade level at the beginning of the school 
year and those who entered the grade level in the middle of the 
school year. Much has been said in respect to various promotional 
plans, but the effect upon achievement was the primary con.ern in 
this study. 

Previous investigations into the differences found between an- 
nual and semi-annual promotional plans seem to indicate that 
factors which tend to be closely associated with the actual class- 
room situation would favor the annual promotional plan. Conse- 
quently, factors which seemed logically connected with the class- 
room situation, which in turn might produce differences in the 
promotional groups, were examined. 

In this examination, it was determined that the mid-year 
promotion group; (1) has a three-month forgetting period during 
the summer; (2) that recent curriculum revision has tended 
toward an annual grade level curriculum organization; and, (3) 
that the mid-year promotion group is consistently smaller than the 
annual promotion group because the group draws its pupils from 
a lesser number of birth months than did the annual group. 

Study of grade level achievement was made at the 4th grade 
level, the beginning of the intermediate grades; at the 7th grade 
level, the beginning of the junior high school grades; and at 
the 8th grade level. 

In each group, the achievement test was given after .7 of the 
school year of the given group had elapsed. Mid-year entrants into 
a grade level were tested in the fall of the 1954-55 school year 
and annual entrants into a grade level were tested in the spring 
of the 1954-55 school year. By testing each group at the same 
period in their school career, comparison of the groups were 





1957] Tue Errect or Sem1-ANNUAL Promotion 15 

greatly simplified. In all cases, the two groups were tested under 
similar testing conditions. 

In order to determine the relation of the 1.Q. to achievement, 
the Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability was administered to 
each 4th grade group and the Otis Quick-Scoring Test of Mental 
Ability-Beta Test was given to each 7th and 8th grade group. 

The achievement tests used to measure each group were: (1) 
the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, which tested for Reading, 
Arithmetic, Language Usage, and Spelling at the 4th grade level; 
(2) the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, which tested Reading, 
Arithmetic, English, and Spelling at the 7th grade level; and (3) 
the Stanford Achievement Tests, which tested for Reading, Arith- 
metic, Language, and Spelling at the 8th grade level. 


An examination of the group I.Q.’s revealed that although there 
was a difference between the means of the two groups at each grade 
level, the difference was not statistically significant. —The computed 
t-ratios were not large enough for rejection of the null hypothesis. 
In all cases in this study, a 5% level of confidence was established. 
Therefore, equal performance was expected from each group ac- 
cording to grade placement. 


Results of testing at the 4th grade level showed statistically 
significant mean differences in each of the sub-tests of the Metro- 
politan Elementary Battery. 

From Table I, in Reading, there was a mean difference of .4 of 



No. of No. of Mean 

Pupils Mean Pupils Mean Diff. 
ee 1616 4.7 3337 5.1 4 
Vocabulary............. 1612 4.6 3337 4.8 2 
eee 1612 4.6 3299 4.7 RS 
Se 1608 4.6 3332 4.9 3 
Language Usage........ 1608 4.5 3288 4.9 A 
Ws cada aces ae 1610 4.3 3334 4.6 3 
Total Average......... 1608 4.4 3288 4.8 4 

16 The Hieu Scuoor JourNAu [ Oct. 

a grade level. In Vocabulary, the grade equivalent mean difference 
was .2. Even the small difference of .1 of a grade equivalent in the 
case of Arithmetic Fundamentals test was significant. In Arith- 
metic Problems, the grade equivalent mean difference was .3. 
Language Usage differed by .4 of a grade level. Spelling test 
mean differed by .3 of a grade level. The mean of the overall aver- 
age grade equivalents differed by .4 grade equivalent. All mean 
differences were significant at the 5% level of confidence and at 
the 1% level of confidence which requires a t-ratio of at least 2.576. 

Large achievement differences at the 4th grade level were found 
in the areas of Reading and Languages Usage. The smallest 
difference was found in Arithmetic Fundamentals. 


Results of testing at the 7th grade level exhibited significant 
differences between the means of the two entrance groups in all 
of the sub-tests of the Metropolitan Advanced Battery. 

From Table II, the Reading test exhibited a mean difference of 
A of a grade level. The Vocabulary test means had the same 
difference of .4. The means of Arithmetic Fundamentals test 
had a .5 grade level difference. In the test for Arithmetic Problems, 
a .4 grade level difference between means was significant. The 
English test means differed by .2 of a grade level. Spelling test 
means also differed by .2 of a grade level. The means of the 
Total Average grade equivalents differed by .3 of a grade level. 

In the 7th grade, achievement differences tend to be the same 
as 4th grade differences in the areas of Reading and Vocabulary. 


Mip-YEAR ReGuuaR Fai 

No. of No. of Mean 

Pupils Mean Pupils Mean Diff. 
EE ae una at at ad 1323 7.5 3422 7.9 4 
Se 1345 7.6 3451 8.0 4 
"Sere 1349 7.1 3453 7.6 5 
Is Bs se ncecceses 1302 7.1 3391 7.5 4 
a 1313 7.3 3408 7.5 .2 
Se eee 1339 7.6 3447 ee a 
Total Average.......... 1268 7.4 3287 7.7 3 

1957] Tue Errect or Sem1-ANNUAL PROMOTION 17 

Arithmetic Fundamentals showed the largest difference, while 
in English (Language Usage) the difference was small. 


The means of the two groups for each of the sub-tests of the 
Stanford Achievement Advanced Battery Test were significantly 
different. From Table III, the test in Paragraph Meaning, which 
corresponded to the Reading test of the 4th and 7th grade levels, 
resulted in a .4 grade level difference between the two entrance 
groups and exhibited statistical significance. The means of the test 
group is Word Meaning which corresponded to the Vocabulary 
test of the 4th and 7th grade levels showed a difference of .3 of 
a grade level. The difference between means in the Arithmetic 
Reasoning test was .8 of a grade level. Arithmetic Computa- 
tion exhibited a mean difference of .5 of a grade level. The 
Language test resulted in a mean difference of .8 of a grade level. 
Spelling test results showed a mean difference of .8 of a grade level. 
The Total Average grade equivalents of all the sub-tests had a 
mean difference of .7 of a grade level. 

Achievement differences in the 8th grade become quite large in 
most areas with the exception of Paragraph Meaning (Reading) 
and Word Meaning (Vocabulary) where the differences seemed to 
be similar to 4th and 7th differences. Extremely large differences 
appeared in Arithmetic, Language, and Spelling. Since these 
differences approach almost a full year difference in achievement 
between groups getting ready to enter high school, one can see the 
implications for high school curricula, programming and teacher 


Mip-YEarR Rea@utar Faun 

No. of No. of Mean 

Pupils Mean Pupils Mean Diff. 
Para. Meaning.......... 1299 8.2 3317 8.6 4 
Word Meaning......... 1296 8.7 3314 9.0 3 
Arith. Reasoning........ 1304 7.8 3306 8.6 8 
Arith. Computation. .... 1306 8.0 3301 8.5 5 
IE ong dest anu dl sieed 1293 7.4 3306 8.2 8 
ae 1303 7.9 3310 8.7 8 
Total Average.......... 1288 8.0 3253 8.7 Pi 

18 The Hieu Scuoor JouRNAL [ Oct. 


The results of the testing of the two entrance groups show there 
is a significant difference between the groups in every test at each 
grade level. 

Further implications are that as the groups reach higher grade 
levels these differences tend to increase. This would seem to be 
logical and would be indicated by the conditions under which 
each group operates. The fact that these differences tend to be 
cumulative may be ascertained by examination of the differences in 
each grade level. Increasing differences were found in the areas 
of Arithmetic, Language, and Spelling. 

Indications are that the amount of loss of recall over the sum- 
mer months affects the mid-year entrant more, due to the fact that 
this period is in the middle of his grade level rather than at the 

Testing norms are set according to a continuous achievement 
for one year; thus, the mid-year entrant is usually tested on material 
he has learned almost nine months previously, whereas, the annual 
entrant is tested on material learned seven months previously. 
In this study it is assumed that this difference is not operative. 

This particular study has tested each group at the same place 
in the school career of the pupil, but not at the same chronological 
time. To understand the full impact of the three-month forgetting 
period, both groups will have to be tested at the same time. The 
design of this study attempts to point out the loss in achievement 
by the mid-year entrant. 

A final conclusion indicated is that the mid-year entrant, due 
to the conditions of promotional policy and curricular design, 
achieves at a statistically significant lower level than that of the 
regular entrance group. 

The importance of the results of achievement testing cannot be 
under-emphasized. Taking into account an understanding of the 
limitations of such testing, many major curricular and administra- 
tive decisions are influenced by these results. Notable among these 
is the necessity for considering a change from semi-annual entrance 
and promotion to annual entrance and promotion. 



t be 


Let’s Tell the People! 

Principal, Jennings High School 
Jennings, Missouri 


REALISTIC public relations program must begin with the 

pupils. A high school has hundreds of walking, talking, im- 
pressionable front pages. Each pupil is the primary medium 
for bringing the school into the home. Parents are given daily 
reports concerning the school, the teachers, the administrators, 
the non-professional staff, the other pupils, and the condition of 
the building. Parents are profoundly influenced by the attitudes 
of their youngsters, and tend to reflect those attitudes in their 
relationships with the school. Unless the pupils are firmly con- 
vinced that their school is meeting their needs and their desires, 
an organized public relations program will not find the com- 
munity in an acceptant mood. 

Therefore it seems feasible to organize a public relations pro- 
gram into two basic types of relationships. The internal public 
relations program is that part which functions within the school. 
The external public relations program is that part which functions 
in the community. All of the public relations of a school will fit 
into these two categories. However, it must be remembered that 
if in the final evaluation the principal helps to develop happy, 
successful pupils, he will probably do much in creating an effective, 
favorable attitude toward the school on the part of teachers, pupils, 
parents, and the community. 

The Internal Public Relations Program 

The principal should be friendly, courteous, and calm. He 
should attempt to provide the staff and the pupils with an excellent 
example of a happy, well-adjusted, useful life. He should possess 
a sense of humor, smiling easily and often. He is in a position 
to set for the school an atmosphere of relaxed efficiency. 

The high school office should represent an air of dignity and 
businesslike efficiency. Through his office, the principal makes 
many contacts with the staff, the pupils, and the citizens of the 
community. He should be readily accessible to all. Visitors 
should carry away a feeling of friendliness, confidence in the school 

20 The Hieu Scuoou JourRNAL [ Oct. 

and its leadership, and complete satisfaction with respect to the 
purpose of his visit. In addition, a tactful, efficient secretary may 
prove invaluable. 

The principal should develop a happy, informative, and co- 
operative relationship with and among all school personnel. Since 
the school is an institution designed to prepare for democratic 
living, an atmosphere of democratic living should pervade the 
school itself. Decisions should be reached through cooperative 
action. Every idea, wherever the source, is entitled to recogni- 
tion and a fair hearing. Since the success of the enterprise is the 
result of the combined efforts of all working together, every staff 
member can make a unique and important contribution, and 
should be encouraged to do so. Good will and harmony, with 
each respecting the personality and work of the other, are the end 
results of a desirable philosophy of internal public relations. 

School impressions conveyed by pupils through their school life 
are of great influence in the homes of the community. Pupils, 
particularly, are sensitive to the conduct of the principal, his 
mannerisms, attitudes, and social relations. They react strongly to 
the principal, liking or disliking him. And they convey these 
attitudes quickly to the home. Perhaps they may be wrong, but 
nevertheless the impressions and attitudes they convey prevail. 
It is important, therefore, that these contacts and activities of the 
school in which the pupil is so vitally concerned be wholesome, 
necessary to his progress, and closely integrated with sound educa- 
tional objectives. 

The means of developing a sound internal public relations 
program are everywhere about us. Below are listed some of the 
more obvious which provide the principal with opportunities to 
implement the program. 

1. Address and talk to staff and student body 
2. Administration of attendance 

3. Commencement and class day exercises 

4. Home visitation 

5. Informal visitation by parents to school 

6. Motion pictures and slides of school activities 
7. PTA meetings 

8. Personal and social contacts 

9. School exhibits 

10. Open house 

11. Letters to parents 

12. Report cards 

1957] Ler’s TELL THE PEOPLE 21 
The External Public Relations Program 

In most communities there are numbers of church groups, civic 
groups, and common interest groups which the principal can 
utilize. These forces are already organized in a manner which 
will encourage such groups to participate in school activities. 
These groups should be made to feel needed and wanted. 

For example, the principal should be a vital, moving force in 
the PTA. The group should feel free to call upon the principal 
for advice, suggestion, and assistance. And the principal should 
feel free to call upon the PTA for similar types of advice and as- 
sistance. A cooperative working relationship should prevail. 

The principal should be in continuous contact with all of the 
organized religious sects in his community. He should convince 
them that the school stands ready to cooperate as fully as possible 
with any of the church groups. The relationship should be that 
of two institutions with many of the same basic objectives concern- 
ing the welfare of the youth in the community. 

Many civic groups are service groups, and welcome enthusiasti- 
cally any opportunity to help the school in the implementation of 
the school program. The principal should provide these civic 
groups with opportunities to serve the schools and the community. 

A friendly, sympathetic relationship with the press is of vital 
importance. The community newspaper should be provided with 
interesting and accurate news items. In communities fortunate 
enough to have radio and television stations the opportunities for 
dissemination of favorable and enlightening reports is increased. 

A look around your community will uncover many means for 
developing a sound external public relations program. There are 
listed below a few of the obvious means which may be utilized 
to develop and strengthen external public relations. 

1. Talks before civic groups 

2. Membership in civic groups 

3. Press conferences and interviews 

4. Appearances on radio and television 

5. Visits to offices of influential citizens 

6. Permitting school groups (bands, etc.) to perform in the 

7. Business-education days 

8. Patronizing local merchants whenever possible 

9. Making school property available for community use 

0. Annual reports to the community 

Democratic Supervision 

ANITA F. Lyons 
Levittown, New York 


EMOCRATIC supervision, the essence of today’s schools, 

is based upon the ideas that life is dynamic and changing. 
The older concept of autocracy and rigidity in supervision is yield- 
ing to this newer concept of flexibility. Modern supervision em- 
phasizes not rigid techniques but principles of learning and growth. 
Teacher participation in study and self-improvement leads towards 
the goals of democratic supervision. It is presently accepted that 
individual conduct is based upon an interaction of four concepts.' 
First, one’s philosophy or principles of life. Second, one’s purposes 
or objectives in life. Third, one’s basic personality traits. Fourth, 
the influence of the realities of the situation at hand. It is im- 
portant for the supervisor to realize and understand these concepts. 

There are many signposts of modern democratic supervision. 
One is that supervision respects personalities and individual dif- 
ferences in people. How different is this idea from the concept 
of twenty years ago that all teachers must rigidly conform to the 
ideas of the principal. In today’s schools supervision tries to pro- 
vide opportunities for the best individual expression of individual 
differences. By aiding each teacher to grow and develop himself 
more fully, the superivsor will help the person toward a better 
adjustment. This, in turn, will reflect in the quality and quantity 
of the teaching and so augment the children’s growth. 

Each individual on the staff needs security, status, acceptance, 
responsibilities, and a fair degree of emotional equilibrium. The 
modern supervisor tries to lead his group in such a manner that 
many of these basic needs are met. 

One example of how this was done revolved about a pro- 
fessional lending library project. A few teachers wanted to start 
a professional lending library. It was agreed that this would 
lead to teacher growth and a committee of interested teachers was 
formed. Leadership was not assigned but grew from within the 
group. Slowly, book suggestions were gotten from the staff, a spot 
available to all was chosen in which to keep the books, some books 

2 Burton, W. H., and Breuckner, A. J., Supervision, A Social Process, New 
York: Appleton-Century Crofts, Inc., 1955, p. 71. 

Pa eet he 






1957} Democratic SUPERVISION 23 

were purchased and others donated, and the project was begun. 
At the start only a handful of teachers were interested in the 
project. With time it grew. The teachers who started this library 
gained recognition, grew in self-learning, and achieved group status. 
Some of their individual needs had been met. 

A second signpost of democratic supervision is the acceptance 
that all teachers are capable of growth. Often idiocyncracies, 
reluctance, and antagonisms which are detrimental to a flexible 
program, are evidenced. The modern supervisor meets these as 
challenges and tries to help the individuals involved to at least 
understand the “other side of the picture.” Often ignorance of 
the facts, or previous unpleasant experiences, are causative factors. 

One example of this type of reaction was brought to the fore 
at a recent meeting of grade chairmen of a school district. Plans 
were being laid for a long range testing program. Two of the 
chairmen were very much against the program. They had had 
no formal test and measurement training, were fearful of the re- 
sults of the testing program, and opposed the idea forceably. 
After much discussion they agreed to become members of a com- 
mittee to study the testing programs of surrounding districts and to 
report back. This study, requiring two months, educated these 
particular teachers to the assets as well as the faults of such a 
program. An agreeable long range program evolved at a later 

A third signpost of democratic supervision is the substitution of 
leadership for authority. The flexible school is willing and eager 
to have various leaders for various projects. In most groups, if 
freedom of thought and expression are prevalent, a leader will 
evolve due to his inner authority of the situation and of the facts 
within the situation. Often, personal authority from the group 
itself will place one of the members in the position of leadership. 

An example is one of a committee for studying possibilities for 
homogeneous grouping in a school district. The committee con- 
sisted of interested volunteers as well as appointed personnel. No 
chairman was appointed. At first, the group decided to have 
a rotating chairmanship. Soon, however, one member of the group, 
due to his knowledge and leadership abilities, was asked to be 
permanent chairman. So, from within the group, leadership grew, 
was accepted, and flourished. 

A fourth signpost of democratic supervision is the study and 
evaluation of its own reaching results. This is a difficult area be- 

24 The Hien Scuoout JourRNAL [ Oct. 

cause of the emotional involvement with the results. Objective 
and subjective data must be used simultaneously. Objective tests, 
teacher opinions, case studies, and anecdotal records should all be 

In today’s schools, objective intelligence quotients and achieve- 
ment tests are often used.1 These are the only truly objective 
measures education possesses today. Yet, even when using them 
it must be remembered that intelligence quotients are influenced 
by culture. Test scores are never infallible but rather are signs 
of where an individual places at the time of the test administration. 
Achievement tests must be so selected that their contents are in 
line with the school’s curriculum. Since many of the flexible 
schools of the day vary their curriculum quite a bit from the usual 
curriculum, the achievement tests must be carefully selected. The 
great value of achievement tests are as pointers of the place of the 
individual at the time of testing as well as indicators of his direc- 
tion of change and growth. These running patterns of objective 
test scores usually show changes in a positive direction. Sometimes, 
however, the reverse is true. When this occurs, the pupil should 
have an individual diagnosis to determine the cause of the difficulty. 
Needless to say, objective tests should never be used alone. 

Subjective teacher observations of students are equally im- 
portant. This is particularly true if cumulative records have been 
kept or case histories developed. 

In summation we may say that the flexible school moves slowly 
but surely. No fast, drastic changes occur for such changes do not 
give the participants time to accustom themselves to the newer ways. 
Due to the development of teacher growth and basic understanding 
much time is needed. Some critics might state that such a school 
is not efficient. They might believe that the other, authoritarian 
method is faster and more sure. They may have a partial point. 
However, the long range results of the flexible school are better 
understood, more widely accepted by the personnel, more secure in 
their changes, and so, more lasting. 

1 Hamalainen, Arthur, The Flexible School, New York: New York State Association 
of Elementary School Principals, 1954, pp. 50-51. 




OSES ea li(i‘ YQ’ 

The University of North Caro lina 
Experience in Student Self-Government 

WiLutiAM T. WoLr 

University of North Carolina 


ORE AND MORE schools today, high schools as well as 

colleges, are organizing student governments and adopting 
honor systems. These take many forms, depending on the needs 
of the school. In some of them student governments have little to 
do; in others they have a large measure of responsibility. In 
some, students are not only on their honor not to cheat on quizes, 
tell the truth even in very difficult matters, and respect the property 
of others; students operate the honor system also, and try other 
students who have violated it. Whether students can or should be 
trusted to govern themselves in the first place, and especially 
whether they should be trusted to deal with other students accused 
of violating their honor system, are topics of considerable discus- 
sion. It may be helpful, therefore, to describe the experience 
which one school, the University of North Carolina, has had 
with student self-government for over a hundred and sixty years, 
and with an honor system completely administered by students for 
eighty years. 

On September 26, 1799, John Wynn left the University of 
North Carolina. The University, which opened its doors in Janu- 
ary, 1795, was just over four years old. Two student societies, the 
Dialectic Senate and Philanthropic Assembly, were formed in the 
summer of 1795, and were also just over four years old. John 
Wynn was expelled from the Dialectic Senate for “extravagant 
breaches of conduct, vicious excesses, and criminal indulgences;” 
his expulsion was “total and final.” John Wynn, expelled by a 
student organization for violation of its rules, had no recourse but 
to leave the University. We may take this act of expelling an 
undesirable member as the first act of self-government in the stu- 
dent community. 

Student government is as old as the University of North Caro- 
lina; they grew up together. And in a real sense, the best traditions 
of the University are summed up in the tradition of student self- 
government. Both are now 161 years old. 

26 The Hien Scuoou JourNAL [ Oct. 

General William R. Davie, who was the guiding spirit and 
active force behind chartering the University in 1789, wrote a 
“Plan of Study” about 1790, in which he said its purpose would 
be to “train useful and respectable members of society.” No 
definition of the purpose of education, high school or college, can 
improve much on this short statement of its goal: training useful 
and respectable members of society. 

Recognized in the by-laws of the University, adopted in 1795, 
was the right of students to make and enforce their own rules 
in pursuit of this goal. Besides, it was just that many less rules for 
the faculty to try to enforce. The Dialectic Senate and the Philan- 
thropic Assembly—the Di and the Phi—then, made rules for their 
members’ conduct, and were able to enforce them because they 
also decided that every student at the University had to belong to 
one or the other of the two societies. 

These regulations were quite simple and limited in scope. 
There were faculty and trustee rules also, of course. Among them 
were detailed prescriptions for life at the University: when to get 
up, when to study, when to pray, when recreation was permitted, 
and when to go to bed. Student monitors were appointed to 
supervise the observance of some of them, and members of the 
faculty the rest. It will surprise no one, therefore, to hear that 
during the first sixty years there was a running battle between the 
faculty and students over observance of these rules. This took 
the form of ingenious indignities being visited upon hapless (but 
not helpless) members of the faculty. These were returned in 

Life among the students was not quite placid either. Brawls 
and duels vere not infrequent. In 1838 the Ugly Club was 
formed; its purpose was to violate all the rules whatsoever. There 
was an Ugly Club in 1956 also, which shows the sturdy character 
of less desirable traditions than those of student responsibility and 

This oft-declared war between faculty and students was not a 
desirable state of affairs. That was evident to the now aged found- 
ers of the University early in the nineteenth century. General 
Davie wrote that a mistake had been made in “making an ordinance 
for everything.” The more mature students also felt that a larger 
student share in making and enforcing non-acadamic rules for 
student life would be highly desirable. And in the decades before 
the Civil War both students and faculty worked for this larger 
measure of student control. The Di and the Phi led in this 


movement in the student body by displaying a high degree of 
student initiative and responsibility, and gradually the area of 
student-made and student-enforced rules was enlarged. 

Under President Kemp P. Battle after the Civil War great 
emphasis was placed on personal honor. Cheating had been a fine 
art in the old days; stealing and ungentlemanly conduct had too 
often characterized relations among the students. This new spirit 
was symbolized in what came to be called the Honor and Campus 
Codes. Responsible students and faculty members, who clearly saw 
that honor and gentlemanly conduct were not attributes impressed 
on a student, but were rather an exibition of his own self-respect 
and self-discipline, had long pressed for a step which came in 
1875: the inauguration of the Honor System. The faculty ceased 
suspending students for cheating and ungentlemanly conduct; the 
two venerable student societies, the Di and the Pi, assumed that 

The Honor Code and the Campus Code provided the yardstick 
with which students measured their own conduct. The Honor 
Code stated: “Under the Honor System you are on your honor not 
to cheat, steal or lie; and if you see another student doing so, you 
are on your honor to report him to the appropriate student coun- 
cil.” The Campus Code stated: “Under the Campus Code you are 
bound on your responsibility as a gentleman to conduct yourself 
as such at all times, and further to see to it, insofar as possible, 
that your fellow students do likewise.” 

Student response to the new system left no doubt of the com- 
petence of the organizations to deal with cheating as well as with 
other forms of anti-social behavior. And more importantly, for 
the first time they could be effectively discouraged. Un entlemanly 
conduct was no longer the smart thing to indulge in; cheating 
was no longer a battle of wits with the faculty. Both had become 
matters of personal honor. 

Unfortunately, in 1889 the system received a severe blow when 
the traditional rule that all students at the University had to be- 
long to one or the other of the two societies was abandoned. 
Membership was no longer compulsory; a new organization was 
therefore needed. A larger organization in which, all students 
would be members again. Such an organization was required 
to punish all violators of the Honor and Campus Codes, and 
make regulations binding on all the students. This new organiza- 
tion of student self-government, the University Council, was or- 
ganized in 1904. It later came to be called the Student Council. 

28 The Hien Scuoot JourRNAL [ Oct. 

In 1936 subordinate honor councils were established. In 1938 
the Student Party and the Student Legislature were formed. With 
the University Party, formed in 1924, the Student Party contended 
for class and student government offices; and in the Student Legisla- 
ture was established a council or representatives of all groups in 
the student body, which was empowered to pass laws and make 
rules and regulations for all students at the University. The 
government of the student community had begun to assume its 
present form. This form was crystalized in the Student Constitu- 
tion, adopted in 1946, which, as amended, is in force today. 

Student government, as it now stands, is a development of 161 
years of experience. The term “student government” stands not 
for an extracurricular activity of incidental interest to the Uni- 
versity and of little importance to most of the students. It stands 
for a community. The machinery for servicing this community 
resembles state and national government in some respects. These 
are incidental, however; Student Government is an organic develop- 
ment of student life at the University, not an imitative extra- 
curricular activity. 

The purpose and goal of Student Government is the same as 
laid down by General Davie a hundred and seventy years ago, to 
educate “useful and respectable members of society.” It attempts 
to do this in two ways: in the enforcement of the Honor System, 
and in making all necessary non-academic regulations for student 
life at the University. 

Student Government now consists of three independent 
branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. 

The executive officers are the President of the Student Body, the 
Vice-President, Secretary, and Treasurer. They are elected yearly 
in the Spring Elections. Assisting the President are the Attorney 
General and a Cabinet, appointed by the President. 

The legislative branch is the Student Legislature, a unicameral 
body of fifty members, elected twice a year in the Fall and Spring 
Elections. The members serve staggered terms, and are elected 
from geographic, campus electoral districts. 

Operating on appropriations from the Student Legislature, and 
directing the specialized functions of Student Government, are 
the Publications Board (which supervises the student publications 
and daily newspaper), the Carolina Forum (which brings dis- 
tinguished speakers to the campus), the Student Entertainment 
Committee (which brings dramatic groups, musical attractions, 
etc.), the Elections Board (which manages the elections), the 

is c 
of s 


1957] StrupEent Se_Fr-GovERNMENT 29 

Audit Board (which keeps account of the finances of Student 
Government) , the Graham Memorial Student Union (which pro- 
vides a wide range of recreational activities for the students) , and 
a number of others. 

Each student pays a fee each semester of from $17.50 to $21.00 
to Student Government, which amounts to over a hundred thou- 
sand dollars a year, and which finances most student activities. 
About half of the money, which is appropriated by the Student 
Legislature, goes for publications, and smaller sums to various other 
student-supported organizations. 

The two political parties are the sine qua non for democratic 
control of the legislative and executive agencies of the student 
community, and battle each other for student votes in the best 
(and worst) American political traditions. 

The judicial branch consists of a series of courts for trying cases 
involving alleged violations of the Honor and Campus Codes, and is, 
of course, non-partisan. Half a dozen courts have original jurisdic- 
tion in such cases; appeals from them may be made to the highest 
student court, the Student Council, which is also the court of 
original jurisdiction for cases arising from controversies over inter- 
pretation of the Student Constitution. 

An essential feature of the Honor System is student reporting of 
violations by other students. Violators of the Honor Code are 
usually expelled from school. Violators of the Campus Code may 
receive the same sentence, or be permitted to remain in school 
under certain restrictions. 

Most people wonder if the Honor System and Student Govern- 
ment really work. The answer is emphatically yes. They do ex- 
actly what they are designed to do. 

The Honor System, which includes the Honor and Campus 
Codes, and is organized in and expressed by Student Government, 
is constituted on a series of simple assumptions. Its aim, as Davie 
said, is to educate “useful and respectable members of society.” 
Honesty, responsibility, maturity, tolerance, public spirit, in a 
word, Honor, are characteristics of useful and respectable members 
of society. Such people respect the rights of others and discharge 
their own duties to the community, and thereby enjoy the many 
benefits of individual liberty in a free society. 

These are the assumptions upon which the Honor System is 

You challenge a person to be honest by trusting him. 

30 The Hieu Scuoou JourNAL [ Oct. 

You challenge a person to be responsible by giving him a meas- 
ure of genuine responsibility. 

You help a person to achieve maturity by expecting him to act 

You help a person to become tolerant by tolerating his own 
whims and foibles. 

You foster public spiritedness by encouraging those generous 
social traits inherent in every individual, and by providing outlets 
for their expression. 

You help a person to come to respect the rights of others by 
respecting his, and encourage him to discharge his duties to the 
community by making him feel that he is a vital member of it, 
a member individually responsible for its continued existence. 

In sum, you make a person honorable by helping him to become 
a valuable and respected member of a community which highly 
values honor, and by encouraging him to strive to attain its highest 

These assumptions are the foundation stones of the student 
community at the University. On them is built the structure of 
student self-government. And around Student Government cluster 
the many other student activities. 

This, in brief, is the history and present organization of the 
student community. It is one devoted to learning, but not less to 
living; one tolerant but not indulgent; one proud of its traditions, 
but not content with them. There is no short or easy road to the 
education of useful and respectable members of society. We be- 
lieve, however, that a hundred and sixty one years of experience has 
demonstrated that a student community based on the tenents of 
the Honor System administered by a responsible student govern- 
ment is a broad highway to that goal. 

in ; 


sO € 
to g 
by | 

are | 
life | 

A Child Has Rights Too! 

N. R. Dixon 

Associate Professor, Florida A and M University 


A CHILD is a unique gift to his parents—not so much because 
he represents an income tax deduction nor even yet because he 
is the “spittin’ image” of his father. A child is a unique gift to 
society because he is that continuing link with the future which 
bears the promise of a better world. He inherits the sins, sorrows, 
and blessings of all the ages. Other animals begin where their 
ancestors began; the newborn infant begins where his immediate 
progenitors left off. Within the newborn infant are boundless 
possibilities to become almost anything that the culture decrees— 
limited only by his innate capacities for adaptability. 

In this age of analysis, this generation of children is perhaps 
the most dissected, studied, analyzed, discussed and criticized gen- 
eration in human history. Often the most favorable findings about 
them are decomposed by the bacterial ambivalence of adults who, 
in a crisis culture, do not always practice what they preach. To 
children this is Punic faith. Because of certain sharp contradic- 
tions between profound profession of belief and the lag in im- 
plementation of it, the child often seems to be persona non grata. 

If a child would grow and develop into wholesome maturity, 
there should be an optimum balance between ego-support and 
freedom. ‘Teachers, parents and other adults should not become 
so ego-involved that they fail to recognize that a child has a right 
to grow and develop into the best person he can become with the 
assistance of adequate adult guidance. Neither small physical size, 
intellectual immaturity, social inexperience, nor economic de- 
pendence should forfeit the rights of a child. These rights under- 
gird life and an emerging democratic society. They can be justified 
by findings in philosophy, psychology and sociology. To deny 
these inalienable rights is to become the devil’s advocate and play 
roulette with posterity. 

1. A child has a right to much larger areas of freedom than 
are customarily granted him in the home, church, school, and in 
life generally. He should have freedom to make choices, and he 

32 The Hicu Scuoou JourRNAL [ Oct. 

should be taught to accept consequences which flow from such 
choices. (He should have the right to be wrong.) 

2. A child has a right to grow and develop in a permissive 
atmosphere. He should have the right to express his feelings and 
opinions without fear of fiery retribution. As he undergoes the 
process of socialization, he should mature a value-system har- 
monious with that of his peer-group and that of the larger society. 

3. A child has a right to be restless, energetic, virulent, active, 
fidgety, dynamic. He has a right to expect to release radiant 
youthfulness and gushing energy. He has a right to expect intelli- 
gent guidance in channeling, controlling, and sublimating his ener- 
gies in acceptable social forms. 

4. A child has a right to be curious and inquisitive. He has 
a right to experiment, to investigate, to inquire, to pry into, to 
search, to ferret out facts and other information. (In childhood the 
question mark is often the sign of intelligence.) He has a right 
to question his surroundings—human, natural, and social—even 
though his questions may be uncoventional or disconcerting. 

5. A child has a right to help plan his curriculum. The quality 
and quantity of his assistance should be limited by law, the nature 
of the problem to be solved, and his capabilities for achieving a 
fruitful end. In such group process emphasis should be placed 
upon what is said not who said it. (In other words, contributions 
to the group are judged by their value not by their source.) 

6. A child has a right to experience a curriculum he can master. 
He should not be expected to do the impossible! Nevertheless, he 
should not be unduly protected from normal failure in certain 
instances. Rather should he be led to meet life squarely, to face 
facts; to accept a consequence with poise and equanimity of spirit 
without dashing away to take the gas pipe or to jump off the 
Brooklyn Bridge. 

7. A child has a right to learn all he can by any method 
that is an optimum one for him. From adults he has a right to 
expect the utilization of many methods to promote growth. 

8. A child has a right to expect wise, sympathetic, enlightened 
guidance and instruction from interested, trustworthy, competent 
adults. At least, the adults should not be inimical to his best in- 

These poignant rights should be the heritage of the child. Who 
would deny these rights?