TheHIGH SCHOOL JOURNAL
Vol. XLI K October, 1957 * No. 1
IN THIS ISSUE
Guidance and the Curriculum of the Small Secondary
School Camilla M. Low
Core Curriculum and the
Library Fay J. Buttle and June Berry
The Effect of Semi-Annual Promotion on Standardized
Achievement Test Scores Joseph C. Payne
ome Fg reer eee Sidney P. Rollins
Democratic Supervision Anita F. Lyons
The University of North Carolina Experience in Student
Self-Government William T. Wolf
A Child Has Rights Too!
THE CONTENTS OF THIS HIGH SCHOOL JOURNAL ARE LISTED
IN “EDUCATION INDEX”
Issued Monthly, October to May, Inclusive $2.00 a Year
Published by the University of North Carolina Press for the
School of Education of the University of North Carolina.
SAMUEL M. Ho ton, Editor
Editorial Office: Box 810, Chapel Hill, N. C.
Business Office: Box 510, Chapel Hill, N. C.
> » @ yy
costca ise v ve SJ
School o? Education
Guidance and the Curriculum of the
Small Secondary School
CAMILLA M. Low
University of Wisconsin
OME HIGH SCHOOL teachers were recently asked whether
or not they had guidance in their schools. A goodly number
answered, “No,” and explained that their schools were too small
to support a guidance counselor. Of course, when they were
questioned further concerning the efforts of the teachers and the
principal to understand the pupils and to help them mature,
it was evident that none of their schools was devoid of the activities
and the attitudes toward boys and girls usually associated with a
Unfortunately, there are many teachers, and even more parents,
who associate a guidance program almost wholly with the person
who carries a special guidance title. The guidance counselor is
surely important both for his special counseling skill and for his
work as helper and coordinator of the contribution of other staff
members to the guidance of boys and girls. In contrast to the
average teacher, however, the counselor engages in face-to-face
guidance of the rank and file of high school students during
relatively few hours. He could, for example, be the very finest
representative of his profession so far as his success in counseling
troubled youngsters was concerned, while at the same time the
staff of his school was quite deficient in understanding the needs
of individual boys and girls and in giving them constructive help.
Such a school would exemplify an inadequate program of guidance.
On the other hand, a small school which could not at present
employ a guidance counselor, might well be providing reasonably
effective guidance by virtue of the fact that teachers had sensitive
regard for the boys and girls, attempted to understand their prob-
lems, and exhibited considerable flexibility in adjusting to their
The avenue through which these teachers make their contribu-
tion to guidance is the curriculum. Assuming that the curriculum
comprises all of the experiences gained by the pupils under school
auspices, then the teacher’s responsibility for choosing classroom
1957 | GUIDANCE AND THE CURRICULUM 3
and club activities and for arranging the environment from which
the pupils gain their experience, is great indeed. Each teacher not
only plans the content to be covered in his classes, and the methods
for attempting to gain the desired objectives, but he also engages
in on-the-spot supervision of the students for many of their activi-
ties and thus alters, in subtle or more drastic ways, the actual
experiences which accrue to his students. Whatever the choices
of the teacher may be, of what to teach and how to teach it, these
may well spell the difference for a given pupil between a total
school experience which is pertinent and personally satisfying, and
one which is remote, unmotivating and even disintegrating. How
then can the teacher best insure effective use of the curriculum
as an avenue for wholesome guidance?
Keeping Clear on the Objective of Guidance
In the first place it is important for teachers to understand
what they are trying to accomplish. The objective of guidance is
to help each growing individual learn how to manage his life in
ways which will bring maximum satisfaction to him and to the
groups with whom he participates. Whether in small schools or
large, teachers who share in the guidance of boys and girls are
interested to help each one of them face himself in a realistic
manner, gain an understanding of his capabilities, and engage in
activities for their maximum development. Teachers want to help
each student plan realistically in terms of goals which seem ap-
propriate to him, and show increasingly good judgment in making
choices which lead him most effectively toward his goals. These
goals are not narrowly confined to one area of life. Occupational
choice, marriage and family living, citizenship, the use of leisure
time, and the maintenance of physical and emotional health are
areas in which teachers can encourage student thought and plan-
The Importance of “Knowing” the Student
It is next to impossible to utilize the curriculum as an avenue
for guidance unless the classroom teacher knows each student as
a person, senses his feelings and attitudes and discovers his special
needs and attributes. Without such knowledge the best that a
teacher can do is either to assume that all thirty or more of the
pupils in a given class are virtually alike and capable of profiting
from very similar curricular activities, or to assume that it is
possible to identify the needs of each on the basis of observation
in one setting which represents a very narrow segment of the stu-
4 The Hieu ScHoor JourRNAL [ Oct.
dent’s life. Most teachers are too vividly aware of individual
differences and the complexity of human personality to be content
to try to teach in terms of either of these assumptions. Yet, the
exigencies of the classroom situation and the crowding of time
lead some teachers into these traps. Our high school dropout rate
and our failure to develop the tremendous resources of gifted
children are only the more obvious pieces of evidence to support
the truth of this unfortunate situation. Where boys and girls are
not known as individuals the teacher is seriously hampered in
judging where to set the level of expectation for each pupil and
how to plan activities which will encourage full and wholesome
growth toward maturity. Fortunately teachers of small high schools
are in the enviable position of working in a relatively intimate
school and community environment in which it is not difficult to
know their students or to develop the kind of personal relation-
ship with many of them which is supporting and helpful.
The Teacher-Pupil Relationship in Guidance-Centered Teaching
The soil in which human personality flourishes has rich
nutrients of warm friendship and understanding. The small school
faces less difficulty than the large school in providing these nu-
trients. Teachers and principal are usually able to create a
school environment which couples some of the secure and com-
panionable feature of home living with opportunity for expanding
friendships and broadening responsibility. Teachers in small
schools often teach more than one subject or, at least, several
levels of the same subject. This enlarges the opportunities for
student and teacher to get acquainted and feel at home with one
another. The teacher who has a student for both social studies and
English, or who teaches him science and also acts as his athletic
coach tends to become interested in more than the student’s prob-
lems and achievements relative to subject matter or activity skills.
By virtue of the relatively intimate environment of a small school,
teachers are able to enter into the lives of their students and feel
genuine empathy and acceptance of each one of them. A high
school youngster is fortunate to experience the support of such
a relationship with his teachers. In such an environment, the
opportunity for wholesome guidance is great indeed.
The Kinds of Learning Which Contribute to the Student’s
Capacity to Manage His Life
In order to use the curriculum most effectively for guidance, it
is important for the teacher to appreciate the kinds of learning
1957] GUIDANCE AND THE CURRICULUM 5
which contribute to the student’s skill in self direction, and the
manner in which such learning takes place.
Success in managing one’s life depends not only upon the know-
ledge which a person gains in such areas as science, mathematics,
English and the social studies, and the skills he has developed in
reading, English expression, scientific thinking and computation,
but upon other kinds of learning as well. His feelings and at-
titudes toward himself and other people, his social awareness and
adaptability, his methods of meeting success and failure (all learned
as surely as science and history are learned) are of vital importance
to the pupil in applying his knowledge and skill to the practical
problems of living.
The influence of the teacher, as he utilizes the curriculum as
an avenue for guidance, is more profound in these areas of social
and emotional learning than he frequently realizes. By virtue
of the integrity of the human personality, the teacher cannot avoid
such influence even though he may think he is choosing what to
teach and how to teach it with reference only to academic aims.
The teacher’s task would be easy if human beings learned one
thing at a time. But the social and emotional setting within which
the intellectual learning takes place also “teaches.” While a teen-
ager is learning the facts about the Suez situation, for example,
he is also learning to hate or tolerate or admire the peoples in-
volved, to be competitive or cooperative with his classmates, to
face his tasks with courage or discouragement, to be independent
or dependent upon teacher authority, to accept or avoid responsi-
bility. If boys and girls learn their attitudes and feelings and
ways of behaving by default, because there has been no sensitive
perception or conscious planning for these things, the teacher may
discover that he is adding to the burden of adjustment problems
carried by some of his pupils rather than helping them resolve the
problems which already trouble them.
The truth of the matter is that within one class period, related
to one activity, each student is learning a large number of things
at the same time, and no two students are experiencing exactly the
same combination of things. The achievement of the academic
goal which both teacher and students may consider the focus of
learning can either be advanced or impeded by the attitudinal
learning which accrue from the methods of the teacher and the
general climate of the classroom. Therefore, both from the stand-
point of efficient learning of academic work and of wholesome
6 The High Scuoot Journau [ Oct.
growth in personality, not only must a teacher do his best to plan
in advance so that the setting and the methods call forth whole-
some social and emotional responses, but he must be perceptive,
as the classroom activity progresses, of what each pupil appears to
be learning which is different from, or over and above what the
teacher thinks he is teaching.
The Relationship of Method to Content in Guidance-Centered
An implication of the above discussion is that method becomes
an important part of content in guidance-centered teaching. We
know enough about mental hygiene to appreciate that young people
are striving above all else to find a place for themselves with their
peers. They must have the opportunity to gain recognition in the
classroom for something they can do reasonably well, and be ap-
preciated for that contribution. They must feel that they are ac-
cepted by their teachers as people whose ideas are worth listening
to. If their social behavior should get them into difficulty with their
peers or prove disruptive to classroom activity, they must be as-
sured that at least their teachers will lend a helping hand and
have faith in their ultimate improvability. If boys and girls ex-
perience these feelings of recognition and appreciation and know
that teachers accept them as worthy of respect, the chances are
that they will have greater singleness of purpose in trying to achieve
academic goals and much greater success in developing inde-
pendence and reliability in managing themselves. These whole-
some experiences are gained primarily from the methods used
by the teacher—the way he handles misbehavior so as to help a
student avoid losing face with his peers, the tone of voice and the
facial expression which accompany the question he puts to the
student in the class discussion, the appreciative comment he makes
for a job well done—such things are a part of the curriculum since
they provide experiences from which the student learns his attitudes
and his behavior.
Developing Skills of Planning and Appraisal
There is another aspect of method which relates more directly
to experiences in self-understanding and self-direction. Many
teachers in both small schools and large find it difficult to involve
students in all aspects of learning. They tend to reserve for them-
selves the tasks of setting the goals of learning, making the assign-
ments and grading or evaluating the results. The student's respon-
ees A iA.
1957] GUIDANCE AND THE CuRRICULUM 7
sibility relates solely to doing the assigned job. This denies him,
however, the very experiences he needs to grow in capacity to guide
his own life.
If the curriculum is to be effectively used as an avenue for
guidance, then teachers must share with their students the tasks
of goal-setting, planning and evaluating. There is much misunder-
standing relative to the limits within which students are able to
set their own goals and make their own plans. Certainly in every
high school course there are objectives which must be met and basic
knowledge and skills which must be learned. But within a broad
framework there are goals which students can identify. The skill-
ful teacher poses a question like this, “What do you think we
should learn from our work on this unit Can we state our chief
goals, as well as some sub-goals able to be achieved along the way?”
In the discussion which ensues it is often possible to sensitize stu-
dents to the fact that in addition to goals of acquiring certain
information and developing certain important academic skills, there
are also goals which relate to such things as methods of working
with each other or attitudes they hope to develop. The students’
very awareness of what they are “shooting for,” encourages achieve-
ment. In addition they are gaining experience in using an im-
portant life-time skill which they must employ whenever they are
faced with a problem to be solved.
Planning with reference to these goals can also be shared by
teacher and students. Often the ideas submitted by the pupils of
ways to attack a problem, or library and community resources
which might be tapped in its solution, go far beyond the teacher's
initial planning in both richness and originality. Here too the
process of planning teaches such things as how to set up priorities,
how to divide the labor and allocate responsibilities, and how to
go about using sources of information pertinent to the problem.
Finally, evaluation should be a joint enterprise. If a teacher
is willing occasionally to use class time to encourage the students
to do some stock-taking, they will become more analytical con-
cerning what is involved in doing a job well and how to recognize
the things which call for improvement. Thus, these boys and girls
will gradually learn to become more skillful in intelligent self-
appraisal in numerous life situations in which there is no teacher
to grade them.
Every method which a teacher can use to encourage inde-
8 The Hieu Scuoou JouRNAL [ Oct.
pendence of judgment and choice helps the student take a step
In this brief discussion an attempt has been made to emphasize
the importance of the curriculum as an avenue for guidance, and
the key role played by teachers in helping boys and girls gain ex-
periences which contribute to their social and emotional maturity.
The teacher’s success in engaging in guidance-centered instruction
assumes that he knows each student as a person and can develop
with him a relationship of mutual understanding and respect.
It further presupposes that the teacher keeps in mind the objective
of guidance and understands the kinds of classroom learning which
foster self-reliance and intelligent management of one’s personal
life. In the process of effectively utilizing the curriculum as an
avenue for guidance, method becomes an important part of content
and the teacher’s perceptiveness a sensitive regulator of method.
In small schools where specialized guidance services are at a
minimum, classroom teachers have a challenging opportunity to
utilize the curriculum as an avenue for very effective developmental
~- ff. —
Core Curriculum and the Library
Fay J. BUTTLE AND JUNE BERRY
Brigham Young University High School
HE CORE CURRICULUM teacher and the school librarian
should be true professional partners. Both are concerned with
the business of educating children and both accomplish it in a
manner opposed to traditional lecture-textbook methods. Actually,
some of the major objectives and characteristics of core programs
are pursued and realized in the library. “Experience curriculum,”
“individual differences,” “fused learning,” “common learnings,”—
we believe these terms are just as applicable to school libraries as to
The modern school library is intended to be used, not talked
about; children learn by doing, not by telling or being told. How
does a student learn to use the card catalog? By actual personal
experience with catalog drawers. Each individual searches for
books indexed in the catalog—books on subjects of interest to him.
He locates the books he needs and selects those suited to his read-
ing ability. Corresponding experiences, based on individual dif-
ferences and integrated with various subjects, could be described of
every library resource—whether encyclopedia, Reader’s Guide,
World Almanac, or Bartlett’s Quotations.
We find certain common learnings are taught solely, or at
least most effectively, in the library. For example, everyone should
learn the purposes of libraries. By using their school library,
children recognize its values and realize that all libraries contain
Another common learning which all children need is an under-
standing of the specific types of library materials—that library
resources are tools, and each has its own particular use. We don’t
use a pair of pliers to mow the lawn; neither do we use the card
catalog to find a magazine article.
Core programs are characterized by use of multiple materials,
not only multiple textbooks and library books, but also multiple
pamphlet, magazine, encyclopedia, and picture materials. And
where are multiple materials available and organized for use? In
the library. Here, as in no other situation, teacher and librarian
10 The Hieu Scuoou JourRNAL [ Oct.
may demonstrate the value of many different materials to exhaust
the subject being studied. The nature of research, its exactness,
its importance, and its unique application to subject matter study,
can be fully understood only by actual library use.
As partners, the librarian and teacher must work together when
library activities are involved. Both must cooperate to plan the
desired objectives; both must understand the process by which
these objectives are to be accomplished. If advance planning is
neglected—or indeed, if it is inadequate, haphazard, or one-sided—
learning will be limited proportionately. The class my arrive and
find the librarian unable to supply enough materials on the subject
assigned. Or the librarian who does not know the teacher's
objective may do or say things which actually prevent its ac-
Let us take an extreme example to illustrate the point. A
teacher wishes to introduce the contributions other people have
made to our American culture and to integrate the use of bio-
graphical tools with this concept. She gives the children an assign-
ment to find the nationalities of outstanding people, instructing
them to search in encyclopedias, books of collective biography,
Who’s Who, etc. The librarian may misunderstand the objective,
may actually tell the children the nationalities or find the answers
for them and thwart the teacher’s intention. To prevent this or
similar “working at cross purposes,” cooperative planning is in-
Planning the Library Experiences
Our library activities begin when the classroom teacher is plan-
ning to teach a particular unit such as “Our State.” Perhaps she
wishes to integrate the skill of note-taking with the subject matter
about the state. In the initial approach the teacher asks the libra-
rian to reserve the library for the required number of days and
describes the materials which are likely to be needed. The
librarian’s role is considered; perhaps it will be to review library
rules and materials, or orient the students to the library.
After this teacher-librarian consultation, the classroom teacher
prepares her class for the library visit. She discusses the unit with
them and permits each child to choose a specific subject to be
explored. One student may select the minerals of the state, one a
famous native son, and another a particular historical event. In-
struction is given on note-taking—probably in the classroom—
possibly with brief practice exercises. The teacher explains the
1957] Core CURRICULUM AND THE LIBRARY 11
library visit and asks the children to take notes from at least four
library sources, including books, encyclopedias, magazines, and
If circumstances permit the librarian to visit during this class
discussion, her effectiveness will be increased. Not only will she
observe the specific materials needed but also will note other
preparations to be made. Perhaps she will borrow books from
public library, make a bibliography of all materials the libarary
has on the subject, or display written materials such as books,
maps, and pamphlets on the tables at the designated hour. In
some cases she will place books on reserve or on limited circula-
tion. When illustrated notebooks or journals are assigned, scissors,
paste, and rulers should be made available as well as magazines to
cut out pictures.
Of course, the culmination of all planning is the students’
actual experience in the library. After any necessary explanations
or library orientation, either by teacher or librarian as previously
determined, the integrated learning begins. Each pupil searches
in the card catalog, encyclopedias, as other materials; he locates
resources pertaining to his subject; and he takes notes on the
Both teacher and librarian move around the library helping
individual students. Many skills will be integrated with the note-
taking; the techniques of paraphrasing, use of quotation marks,
dangers of plagiarism, and the correct form for references are re-
lated concepts which might be introduced. Note-taking may oc-
cupy one day or several days, depending on the wishes of the
teacher and the ability of her students.
If the library is needed for other classes, the writing of the
final paper or presenting of reports may be completed in the class-
room. The teacher usually takes complete charge, checks form,
sentences, and content, and corrects spelling, grammar, and punctu-
However, evaluation is not limited to the students’ work. The
librarian and teacher will evaluate all aspects of the unit, with
particular attention to such criteria as: (1) Were the desired
objectives accomplished? (2) Were the children fully prepared for
the library visit and activities? (3) Were the necessary materials
available and well-organized? (4) Were individual differences
served? and (5) How might the experience be made more valuable
12 The Hien Scuoot Journau [ Oct.
Variety of Library-Core Experiences
Although core curriculum courses vary widely in structure as
well as content and scope, any program from seventh through
twelfth grade can benefit from library cooperation. Many units
of study will dove-tail into the library-core pattern described
above, and adequate material is in the school library (or can be
obtained) to supplement any text or texts in the curriculum. The
following library units, for example, have been successful in one
core class in our school.
1. Biography. Learning about others’ lives is interesting and
challenging through the use of biographical dictionaries and other
2. Critical Thinking. The Reader's Guide, magazines, and
newspapers are used to find material on disputable subjects and to
search for valid information upon which to base conclusions.
3. World Understanding. The achievements of other peoples
and their characteristics and cultures, are studied by using bio-
graphical dictionaries as well as atlases, history books, and geo-
4. Poetry. Enjoyment and appreciation of poetry are ap-
proached through poetry indexes and poetry anthologies.
5. Forms of Literature. Library resources prove especially
useful for the study of short stories, novels, essays, drama, etc.
Values of Library Activities
The use of the library, with its various materials, and its practi-
cal activities, seems to create exceptional understanding of the
subject being presented. The students maintain interest in their
subject, perhaps because of the change from classroom surround-
ings, the success they feel as a result of personal interest in the
subject, or the variety of resources available to them.
In library learning, students have opportunities to examine all
aspects of controversial issues and are taught the danger of believ-
ing slanted or propaganda materials. This is an appropriate
occasion to teach the fact that being in print does not automatical-
ly clothe a statement in truth.
That the variety of library materials benefits individual stu-
dents—retarded, average, or superior—is obvious. For poor readers,
the library offers resources on lower reading levels. Each child
is given material on his own level, and consequently achieves some
degree of success in his work. Moreover, individual attention
is increased because the librarian serves as co-teacher an is avail-
able to assist when needed.
1957] CorE CURRICULUM AND THE LIBRARY 13
Library use seems particularly stimulating to the needs and
inclinations of superior students. ‘The materials encountered in
the course of their studies challenge their capability and pique
their curiosity. Students of superior reading ability are permitted
and encouraged to read more extensively than the others, yet
they are working on the same assignment or type of project as their
classmates. Some may explore all the ramifications of their sub-
jects, often swinging off on a wide tangent to satisfy their avid
Frequently, creative and artistic abilities of talented children
are developed through library experiences. In their explorations
of various materials, these alert people discover charts, maps,
pictures, and diagrams—media of communication not only instruc-
tive and attractive but also suggestive of ideas to be reproduced on
paper. The drawing paper (or poster board or graph paper) is
availiable, as are rulers, colored pencils, paints, or any other
materials needed to help children find success and gratification in
accomplishing their goals.
Finally, schools restricted by traditional classrooms with no
tables are especially benefited by library use and facilities. Library
tables furnish ample space for children to spread out their materials
and go to work—whether to read and take notes, to draw charts,
or to cut out pictures and paste them in note-books.
These library-classroom activities are varied and adaptable and
can be exciting and challenging. Time and planning invested in
library-core curriculum experiences will yield dividends of enriched
instruction and genuine learning.
The Effect of Semi-Annual Promotion on
Standardized Achievement Test Scores
JosEpH C. PAYNE
Educational Research Consultant, Indianapolis Public Schools
A; A PART of a survey of promotional plans, Indianapolis,
Indiana, which now promotes on a semi-annual basis, became
concerned over the possible differences in achievement between the
pupils who entered each grade level at the beginning of the school
year and those who entered the grade level in the middle of the
school year. Much has been said in respect to various promotional
plans, but the effect upon achievement was the primary con.ern in
Previous investigations into the differences found between an-
nual and semi-annual promotional plans seem to indicate that
factors which tend to be closely associated with the actual class-
room situation would favor the annual promotional plan. Conse-
quently, factors which seemed logically connected with the class-
room situation, which in turn might produce differences in the
promotional groups, were examined.
In this examination, it was determined that the mid-year
promotion group; (1) has a three-month forgetting period during
the summer; (2) that recent curriculum revision has tended
toward an annual grade level curriculum organization; and, (3)
that the mid-year promotion group is consistently smaller than the
annual promotion group because the group draws its pupils from
a lesser number of birth months than did the annual group.
Study of grade level achievement was made at the 4th grade
level, the beginning of the intermediate grades; at the 7th grade
level, the beginning of the junior high school grades; and at
the 8th grade level.
In each group, the achievement test was given after .7 of the
school year of the given group had elapsed. Mid-year entrants into
a grade level were tested in the fall of the 1954-55 school year
and annual entrants into a grade level were tested in the spring
of the 1954-55 school year. By testing each group at the same
period in their school career, comparison of the groups were
1957] Tue Errect or Sem1-ANNUAL Promotion 15
greatly simplified. In all cases, the two groups were tested under
similar testing conditions.
In order to determine the relation of the 1.Q. to achievement,
the Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability was administered to
each 4th grade group and the Otis Quick-Scoring Test of Mental
Ability-Beta Test was given to each 7th and 8th grade group.
The achievement tests used to measure each group were: (1)
the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, which tested for Reading,
Arithmetic, Language Usage, and Spelling at the 4th grade level;
(2) the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, which tested Reading,
Arithmetic, English, and Spelling at the 7th grade level; and (3)
the Stanford Achievement Tests, which tested for Reading, Arith-
metic, Language, and Spelling at the 8th grade level.
An examination of the group I.Q.’s revealed that although there
was a difference between the means of the two groups at each grade
level, the difference was not statistically significant. —The computed
t-ratios were not large enough for rejection of the null hypothesis.
In all cases in this study, a 5% level of confidence was established.
Therefore, equal performance was expected from each group ac-
cording to grade placement.
ACHIEVEMENT DIFFERENCES AT THE 4TH GRADE LEVEL
Results of testing at the 4th grade level showed statistically
significant mean differences in each of the sub-tests of the Metro-
politan Elementary Battery.
From Table I, in Reading, there was a mean difference of .4 of
TABLE I. GRADE EQUIVALENT MEAN AND MEAN DIFFERENCES
OF Two ENTRANCE Groups; 4TH GRADE.
Mip-YEAR REGULAR Fat.
ENTRANCE GROUP ENTRANCE GROUP
No. of No. of Mean
Pupils Mean Pupils Mean Diff.
ee 1616 4.7 3337 5.1 4
Vocabulary............. 1612 4.6 3337 4.8 2
eee 1612 4.6 3299 4.7 RS
Se 1608 4.6 3332 4.9 3
Language Usage........ 1608 4.5 3288 4.9 A
Ws cada aces ae 1610 4.3 3334 4.6 3
Total Average......... 1608 4.4 3288 4.8 4
16 The Hieu Scuoor JourNAu [ Oct.
a grade level. In Vocabulary, the grade equivalent mean difference
was .2. Even the small difference of .1 of a grade equivalent in the
case of Arithmetic Fundamentals test was significant. In Arith-
metic Problems, the grade equivalent mean difference was .3.
Language Usage differed by .4 of a grade level. Spelling test
mean differed by .3 of a grade level. The mean of the overall aver-
age grade equivalents differed by .4 grade equivalent. All mean
differences were significant at the 5% level of confidence and at
the 1% level of confidence which requires a t-ratio of at least 2.576.
Large achievement differences at the 4th grade level were found
in the areas of Reading and Languages Usage. The smallest
difference was found in Arithmetic Fundamentals.
ACHIEVEMENT DIFFERENCES AT THE 7TH GRADE LEVEL
Results of testing at the 7th grade level exhibited significant
differences between the means of the two entrance groups in all
of the sub-tests of the Metropolitan Advanced Battery.
From Table II, the Reading test exhibited a mean difference of
A of a grade level. The Vocabulary test means had the same
difference of .4. The means of Arithmetic Fundamentals test
had a .5 grade level difference. In the test for Arithmetic Problems,
a .4 grade level difference between means was significant. The
English test means differed by .2 of a grade level. Spelling test
means also differed by .2 of a grade level. The means of the
Total Average grade equivalents differed by .3 of a grade level.
In the 7th grade, achievement differences tend to be the same
as 4th grade differences in the areas of Reading and Vocabulary.
TABLE II. GRADE EQUIVALENT MEANS AND MEAN DIFFERENCES OF
Two ENTRANCE Groups; 7TH GRADE.
Mip-YEAR ReGuuaR Fai
ENTRANCE GROUP ENTRANCE Group
No. of No. of Mean
Pupils Mean Pupils Mean Diff.
EE ae una at at ad 1323 7.5 3422 7.9 4
Se 1345 7.6 3451 8.0 4
"Sere 1349 7.1 3453 7.6 5
Is Bs se ncecceses 1302 7.1 3391 7.5 4
a 1313 7.3 3408 7.5 .2
Se eee 1339 7.6 3447 ee a
Total Average.......... 1268 7.4 3287 7.7 3
1957] Tue Errect or Sem1-ANNUAL PROMOTION 17
Arithmetic Fundamentals showed the largest difference, while
in English (Language Usage) the difference was small.
ACHIEVEMENT DIFFERENCES AT THE 8TH GRADE LEVEL
The means of the two groups for each of the sub-tests of the
Stanford Achievement Advanced Battery Test were significantly
different. From Table III, the test in Paragraph Meaning, which
corresponded to the Reading test of the 4th and 7th grade levels,
resulted in a .4 grade level difference between the two entrance
groups and exhibited statistical significance. The means of the test
group is Word Meaning which corresponded to the Vocabulary
test of the 4th and 7th grade levels showed a difference of .3 of
a grade level. The difference between means in the Arithmetic
Reasoning test was .8 of a grade level. Arithmetic Computa-
tion exhibited a mean difference of .5 of a grade level. The
Language test resulted in a mean difference of .8 of a grade level.
Spelling test results showed a mean difference of .8 of a grade level.
The Total Average grade equivalents of all the sub-tests had a
mean difference of .7 of a grade level.
Achievement differences in the 8th grade become quite large in
most areas with the exception of Paragraph Meaning (Reading)
and Word Meaning (Vocabulary) where the differences seemed to
be similar to 4th and 7th differences. Extremely large differences
appeared in Arithmetic, Language, and Spelling. Since these
differences approach almost a full year difference in achievement
between groups getting ready to enter high school, one can see the
implications for high school curricula, programming and teacher
TABLE III. GRADE EQUIVALENT MEANS AND MEAN DIFFERENCES OF
Two ENTRANCE Groups; 8TH GRADE.
Mip-YEarR Rea@utar Faun
ENTRANCE Group ENTRANCE Group
No. of No. of Mean
Pupils Mean Pupils Mean Diff.
Para. Meaning.......... 1299 8.2 3317 8.6 4
Word Meaning......... 1296 8.7 3314 9.0 3
Arith. Reasoning........ 1304 7.8 3306 8.6 8
Arith. Computation. .... 1306 8.0 3301 8.5 5
IE ong dest anu dl sieed 1293 7.4 3306 8.2 8
ae 1303 7.9 3310 8.7 8
Total Average.......... 1288 8.0 3253 8.7 Pi
18 The Hieu Scuoor JouRNAL [ Oct.
The results of the testing of the two entrance groups show there
is a significant difference between the groups in every test at each
Further implications are that as the groups reach higher grade
levels these differences tend to increase. This would seem to be
logical and would be indicated by the conditions under which
each group operates. The fact that these differences tend to be
cumulative may be ascertained by examination of the differences in
each grade level. Increasing differences were found in the areas
of Arithmetic, Language, and Spelling.
Indications are that the amount of loss of recall over the sum-
mer months affects the mid-year entrant more, due to the fact that
this period is in the middle of his grade level rather than at the
Testing norms are set according to a continuous achievement
for one year; thus, the mid-year entrant is usually tested on material
he has learned almost nine months previously, whereas, the annual
entrant is tested on material learned seven months previously.
In this study it is assumed that this difference is not operative.
This particular study has tested each group at the same place
in the school career of the pupil, but not at the same chronological
time. To understand the full impact of the three-month forgetting
period, both groups will have to be tested at the same time. The
design of this study attempts to point out the loss in achievement
by the mid-year entrant.
A final conclusion indicated is that the mid-year entrant, due
to the conditions of promotional policy and curricular design,
achieves at a statistically significant lower level than that of the
regular entrance group.
The importance of the results of achievement testing cannot be
under-emphasized. Taking into account an understanding of the
limitations of such testing, many major curricular and administra-
tive decisions are influenced by these results. Notable among these
is the necessity for considering a change from semi-annual entrance
and promotion to annual entrance and promotion.
Let’s Tell the People!
SIDNEY P. ROLLINS
Principal, Jennings High School
REALISTIC public relations program must begin with the
pupils. A high school has hundreds of walking, talking, im-
pressionable front pages. Each pupil is the primary medium
for bringing the school into the home. Parents are given daily
reports concerning the school, the teachers, the administrators,
the non-professional staff, the other pupils, and the condition of
the building. Parents are profoundly influenced by the attitudes
of their youngsters, and tend to reflect those attitudes in their
relationships with the school. Unless the pupils are firmly con-
vinced that their school is meeting their needs and their desires,
an organized public relations program will not find the com-
munity in an acceptant mood.
Therefore it seems feasible to organize a public relations pro-
gram into two basic types of relationships. The internal public
relations program is that part which functions within the school.
The external public relations program is that part which functions
in the community. All of the public relations of a school will fit
into these two categories. However, it must be remembered that
if in the final evaluation the principal helps to develop happy,
successful pupils, he will probably do much in creating an effective,
favorable attitude toward the school on the part of teachers, pupils,
parents, and the community.
The Internal Public Relations Program
The principal should be friendly, courteous, and calm. He
should attempt to provide the staff and the pupils with an excellent
example of a happy, well-adjusted, useful life. He should possess
a sense of humor, smiling easily and often. He is in a position
to set for the school an atmosphere of relaxed efficiency.
The high school office should represent an air of dignity and
businesslike efficiency. Through his office, the principal makes
many contacts with the staff, the pupils, and the citizens of the
community. He should be readily accessible to all. Visitors
should carry away a feeling of friendliness, confidence in the school
20 The Hieu Scuoou JourRNAL [ Oct.
and its leadership, and complete satisfaction with respect to the
purpose of his visit. In addition, a tactful, efficient secretary may
The principal should develop a happy, informative, and co-
operative relationship with and among all school personnel. Since
the school is an institution designed to prepare for democratic
living, an atmosphere of democratic living should pervade the
school itself. Decisions should be reached through cooperative
action. Every idea, wherever the source, is entitled to recogni-
tion and a fair hearing. Since the success of the enterprise is the
result of the combined efforts of all working together, every staff
member can make a unique and important contribution, and
should be encouraged to do so. Good will and harmony, with
each respecting the personality and work of the other, are the end
results of a desirable philosophy of internal public relations.
School impressions conveyed by pupils through their school life
are of great influence in the homes of the community. Pupils,
particularly, are sensitive to the conduct of the principal, his
mannerisms, attitudes, and social relations. They react strongly to
the principal, liking or disliking him. And they convey these
attitudes quickly to the home. Perhaps they may be wrong, but
nevertheless the impressions and attitudes they convey prevail.
It is important, therefore, that these contacts and activities of the
school in which the pupil is so vitally concerned be wholesome,
necessary to his progress, and closely integrated with sound educa-
The means of developing a sound internal public relations
program are everywhere about us. Below are listed some of the
more obvious which provide the principal with opportunities to
implement the program.
1. Address and talk to staff and student body
2. Administration of attendance
3. Commencement and class day exercises
4. Home visitation
5. Informal visitation by parents to school
6. Motion pictures and slides of school activities
7. PTA meetings
8. Personal and social contacts
9. School exhibits
10. Open house
11. Letters to parents
12. Report cards
1957] Ler’s TELL THE PEOPLE 21
The External Public Relations Program
In most communities there are numbers of church groups, civic
groups, and common interest groups which the principal can
utilize. These forces are already organized in a manner which
will encourage such groups to participate in school activities.
These groups should be made to feel needed and wanted.
For example, the principal should be a vital, moving force in
the PTA. The group should feel free to call upon the principal
for advice, suggestion, and assistance. And the principal should
feel free to call upon the PTA for similar types of advice and as-
sistance. A cooperative working relationship should prevail.
The principal should be in continuous contact with all of the
organized religious sects in his community. He should convince
them that the school stands ready to cooperate as fully as possible
with any of the church groups. The relationship should be that
of two institutions with many of the same basic objectives concern-
ing the welfare of the youth in the community.
Many civic groups are service groups, and welcome enthusiasti-
cally any opportunity to help the school in the implementation of
the school program. The principal should provide these civic
groups with opportunities to serve the schools and the community.
A friendly, sympathetic relationship with the press is of vital
importance. The community newspaper should be provided with
interesting and accurate news items. In communities fortunate
enough to have radio and television stations the opportunities for
dissemination of favorable and enlightening reports is increased.
A look around your community will uncover many means for
developing a sound external public relations program. There are
listed below a few of the obvious means which may be utilized
to develop and strengthen external public relations.
1. Talks before civic groups
2. Membership in civic groups
3. Press conferences and interviews
4. Appearances on radio and television
5. Visits to offices of influential citizens
6. Permitting school groups (bands, etc.) to perform in the
7. Business-education days
8. Patronizing local merchants whenever possible
9. Making school property available for community use
0. Annual reports to the community
ANITA F. Lyons
Levittown, New York
EMOCRATIC supervision, the essence of today’s schools,
is based upon the ideas that life is dynamic and changing.
The older concept of autocracy and rigidity in supervision is yield-
ing to this newer concept of flexibility. Modern supervision em-
phasizes not rigid techniques but principles of learning and growth.
Teacher participation in study and self-improvement leads towards
the goals of democratic supervision. It is presently accepted that
individual conduct is based upon an interaction of four concepts.'
First, one’s philosophy or principles of life. Second, one’s purposes
or objectives in life. Third, one’s basic personality traits. Fourth,
the influence of the realities of the situation at hand. It is im-
portant for the supervisor to realize and understand these concepts.
There are many signposts of modern democratic supervision.
One is that supervision respects personalities and individual dif-
ferences in people. How different is this idea from the concept
of twenty years ago that all teachers must rigidly conform to the
ideas of the principal. In today’s schools supervision tries to pro-
vide opportunities for the best individual expression of individual
differences. By aiding each teacher to grow and develop himself
more fully, the superivsor will help the person toward a better
adjustment. This, in turn, will reflect in the quality and quantity
of the teaching and so augment the children’s growth.
Each individual on the staff needs security, status, acceptance,
responsibilities, and a fair degree of emotional equilibrium. The
modern supervisor tries to lead his group in such a manner that
many of these basic needs are met.
One example of how this was done revolved about a pro-
fessional lending library project. A few teachers wanted to start
a professional lending library. It was agreed that this would
lead to teacher growth and a committee of interested teachers was
formed. Leadership was not assigned but grew from within the
group. Slowly, book suggestions were gotten from the staff, a spot
available to all was chosen in which to keep the books, some books
2 Burton, W. H., and Breuckner, A. J., Supervision, A Social Process, New
York: Appleton-Century Crofts, Inc., 1955, p. 71.
Pa eet he
1957} Democratic SUPERVISION 23
were purchased and others donated, and the project was begun.
At the start only a handful of teachers were interested in the
project. With time it grew. The teachers who started this library
gained recognition, grew in self-learning, and achieved group status.
Some of their individual needs had been met.
A second signpost of democratic supervision is the acceptance
that all teachers are capable of growth. Often idiocyncracies,
reluctance, and antagonisms which are detrimental to a flexible
program, are evidenced. The modern supervisor meets these as
challenges and tries to help the individuals involved to at least
understand the “other side of the picture.” Often ignorance of
the facts, or previous unpleasant experiences, are causative factors.
One example of this type of reaction was brought to the fore
at a recent meeting of grade chairmen of a school district. Plans
were being laid for a long range testing program. Two of the
chairmen were very much against the program. They had had
no formal test and measurement training, were fearful of the re-
sults of the testing program, and opposed the idea forceably.
After much discussion they agreed to become members of a com-
mittee to study the testing programs of surrounding districts and to
report back. This study, requiring two months, educated these
particular teachers to the assets as well as the faults of such a
program. An agreeable long range program evolved at a later
A third signpost of democratic supervision is the substitution of
leadership for authority. The flexible school is willing and eager
to have various leaders for various projects. In most groups, if
freedom of thought and expression are prevalent, a leader will
evolve due to his inner authority of the situation and of the facts
within the situation. Often, personal authority from the group
itself will place one of the members in the position of leadership.
An example is one of a committee for studying possibilities for
homogeneous grouping in a school district. The committee con-
sisted of interested volunteers as well as appointed personnel. No
chairman was appointed. At first, the group decided to have
a rotating chairmanship. Soon, however, one member of the group,
due to his knowledge and leadership abilities, was asked to be
permanent chairman. So, from within the group, leadership grew,
was accepted, and flourished.
A fourth signpost of democratic supervision is the study and
evaluation of its own reaching results. This is a difficult area be-
24 The Hien Scuoout JourRNAL [ Oct.
cause of the emotional involvement with the results. Objective
and subjective data must be used simultaneously. Objective tests,
teacher opinions, case studies, and anecdotal records should all be
In today’s schools, objective intelligence quotients and achieve-
ment tests are often used.1 These are the only truly objective
measures education possesses today. Yet, even when using them
it must be remembered that intelligence quotients are influenced
by culture. Test scores are never infallible but rather are signs
of where an individual places at the time of the test administration.
Achievement tests must be so selected that their contents are in
line with the school’s curriculum. Since many of the flexible
schools of the day vary their curriculum quite a bit from the usual
curriculum, the achievement tests must be carefully selected. The
great value of achievement tests are as pointers of the place of the
individual at the time of testing as well as indicators of his direc-
tion of change and growth. These running patterns of objective
test scores usually show changes in a positive direction. Sometimes,
however, the reverse is true. When this occurs, the pupil should
have an individual diagnosis to determine the cause of the difficulty.
Needless to say, objective tests should never be used alone.
Subjective teacher observations of students are equally im-
portant. This is particularly true if cumulative records have been
kept or case histories developed.
In summation we may say that the flexible school moves slowly
but surely. No fast, drastic changes occur for such changes do not
give the participants time to accustom themselves to the newer ways.
Due to the development of teacher growth and basic understanding
much time is needed. Some critics might state that such a school
is not efficient. They might believe that the other, authoritarian
method is faster and more sure. They may have a partial point.
However, the long range results of the flexible school are better
understood, more widely accepted by the personnel, more secure in
their changes, and so, more lasting.
1 Hamalainen, Arthur, The Flexible School, New York: New York State Association
of Elementary School Principals, 1954, pp. 50-51.
OSES ea li(i‘ YQ’
The University of North Caro lina
Experience in Student Self-Government
WiLutiAM T. WoLr
University of North Carolina
ORE AND MORE schools today, high schools as well as
colleges, are organizing student governments and adopting
honor systems. These take many forms, depending on the needs
of the school. In some of them student governments have little to
do; in others they have a large measure of responsibility. In
some, students are not only on their honor not to cheat on quizes,
tell the truth even in very difficult matters, and respect the property
of others; students operate the honor system also, and try other
students who have violated it. Whether students can or should be
trusted to govern themselves in the first place, and especially
whether they should be trusted to deal with other students accused
of violating their honor system, are topics of considerable discus-
sion. It may be helpful, therefore, to describe the experience
which one school, the University of North Carolina, has had
with student self-government for over a hundred and sixty years,
and with an honor system completely administered by students for
On September 26, 1799, John Wynn left the University of
North Carolina. The University, which opened its doors in Janu-
ary, 1795, was just over four years old. Two student societies, the
Dialectic Senate and Philanthropic Assembly, were formed in the
summer of 1795, and were also just over four years old. John
Wynn was expelled from the Dialectic Senate for “extravagant
breaches of conduct, vicious excesses, and criminal indulgences;”
his expulsion was “total and final.” John Wynn, expelled by a
student organization for violation of its rules, had no recourse but
to leave the University. We may take this act of expelling an
undesirable member as the first act of self-government in the stu-
Student government is as old as the University of North Caro-
lina; they grew up together. And in a real sense, the best traditions
of the University are summed up in the tradition of student self-
government. Both are now 161 years old.
26 The Hien Scuoou JourNAL [ Oct.
General William R. Davie, who was the guiding spirit and
active force behind chartering the University in 1789, wrote a
“Plan of Study” about 1790, in which he said its purpose would
be to “train useful and respectable members of society.” No
definition of the purpose of education, high school or college, can
improve much on this short statement of its goal: training useful
and respectable members of society.
Recognized in the by-laws of the University, adopted in 1795,
was the right of students to make and enforce their own rules
in pursuit of this goal. Besides, it was just that many less rules for
the faculty to try to enforce. The Dialectic Senate and the Philan-
thropic Assembly—the Di and the Phi—then, made rules for their
members’ conduct, and were able to enforce them because they
also decided that every student at the University had to belong to
one or the other of the two societies.
These regulations were quite simple and limited in scope.
There were faculty and trustee rules also, of course. Among them
were detailed prescriptions for life at the University: when to get
up, when to study, when to pray, when recreation was permitted,
and when to go to bed. Student monitors were appointed to
supervise the observance of some of them, and members of the
faculty the rest. It will surprise no one, therefore, to hear that
during the first sixty years there was a running battle between the
faculty and students over observance of these rules. This took
the form of ingenious indignities being visited upon hapless (but
not helpless) members of the faculty. These were returned in
Life among the students was not quite placid either. Brawls
and duels vere not infrequent. In 1838 the Ugly Club was
formed; its purpose was to violate all the rules whatsoever. There
was an Ugly Club in 1956 also, which shows the sturdy character
of less desirable traditions than those of student responsibility and
This oft-declared war between faculty and students was not a
desirable state of affairs. That was evident to the now aged found-
ers of the University early in the nineteenth century. General
Davie wrote that a mistake had been made in “making an ordinance
for everything.” The more mature students also felt that a larger
student share in making and enforcing non-acadamic rules for
student life would be highly desirable. And in the decades before
the Civil War both students and faculty worked for this larger
measure of student control. The Di and the Phi led in this
1957] StupENt SELF-GOVERNMENT 27
movement in the student body by displaying a high degree of
student initiative and responsibility, and gradually the area of
student-made and student-enforced rules was enlarged.
Under President Kemp P. Battle after the Civil War great
emphasis was placed on personal honor. Cheating had been a fine
art in the old days; stealing and ungentlemanly conduct had too
often characterized relations among the students. This new spirit
was symbolized in what came to be called the Honor and Campus
Codes. Responsible students and faculty members, who clearly saw
that honor and gentlemanly conduct were not attributes impressed
on a student, but were rather an exibition of his own self-respect
and self-discipline, had long pressed for a step which came in
1875: the inauguration of the Honor System. The faculty ceased
suspending students for cheating and ungentlemanly conduct; the
two venerable student societies, the Di and the Pi, assumed that
The Honor Code and the Campus Code provided the yardstick
with which students measured their own conduct. The Honor
Code stated: “Under the Honor System you are on your honor not
to cheat, steal or lie; and if you see another student doing so, you
are on your honor to report him to the appropriate student coun-
cil.” The Campus Code stated: “Under the Campus Code you are
bound on your responsibility as a gentleman to conduct yourself
as such at all times, and further to see to it, insofar as possible,
that your fellow students do likewise.”
Student response to the new system left no doubt of the com-
petence of the organizations to deal with cheating as well as with
other forms of anti-social behavior. And more importantly, for
the first time they could be effectively discouraged. Un entlemanly
conduct was no longer the smart thing to indulge in; cheating
was no longer a battle of wits with the faculty. Both had become
matters of personal honor.
Unfortunately, in 1889 the system received a severe blow when
the traditional rule that all students at the University had to be-
long to one or the other of the two societies was abandoned.
Membership was no longer compulsory; a new organization was
therefore needed. A larger organization in which, all students
would be members again. Such an organization was required
to punish all violators of the Honor and Campus Codes, and
make regulations binding on all the students. This new organiza-
tion of student self-government, the University Council, was or-
ganized in 1904. It later came to be called the Student Council.
28 The Hien Scuoot JourRNAL [ Oct.
In 1936 subordinate honor councils were established. In 1938
the Student Party and the Student Legislature were formed. With
the University Party, formed in 1924, the Student Party contended
for class and student government offices; and in the Student Legisla-
ture was established a council or representatives of all groups in
the student body, which was empowered to pass laws and make
rules and regulations for all students at the University. The
government of the student community had begun to assume its
present form. This form was crystalized in the Student Constitu-
tion, adopted in 1946, which, as amended, is in force today.
Student government, as it now stands, is a development of 161
years of experience. The term “student government” stands not
for an extracurricular activity of incidental interest to the Uni-
versity and of little importance to most of the students. It stands
for a community. The machinery for servicing this community
resembles state and national government in some respects. These
are incidental, however; Student Government is an organic develop-
ment of student life at the University, not an imitative extra-
The purpose and goal of Student Government is the same as
laid down by General Davie a hundred and seventy years ago, to
educate “useful and respectable members of society.” It attempts
to do this in two ways: in the enforcement of the Honor System,
and in making all necessary non-academic regulations for student
life at the University.
Student Government now consists of three independent
branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
The executive officers are the President of the Student Body, the
Vice-President, Secretary, and Treasurer. They are elected yearly
in the Spring Elections. Assisting the President are the Attorney
General and a Cabinet, appointed by the President.
The legislative branch is the Student Legislature, a unicameral
body of fifty members, elected twice a year in the Fall and Spring
Elections. The members serve staggered terms, and are elected
from geographic, campus electoral districts.
Operating on appropriations from the Student Legislature, and
directing the specialized functions of Student Government, are
the Publications Board (which supervises the student publications
and daily newspaper), the Carolina Forum (which brings dis-
tinguished speakers to the campus), the Student Entertainment
Committee (which brings dramatic groups, musical attractions,
etc.), the Elections Board (which manages the elections), the
1957] StrupEent Se_Fr-GovERNMENT 29
Audit Board (which keeps account of the finances of Student
Government) , the Graham Memorial Student Union (which pro-
vides a wide range of recreational activities for the students) , and
a number of others.
Each student pays a fee each semester of from $17.50 to $21.00
to Student Government, which amounts to over a hundred thou-
sand dollars a year, and which finances most student activities.
About half of the money, which is appropriated by the Student
Legislature, goes for publications, and smaller sums to various other
The two political parties are the sine qua non for democratic
control of the legislative and executive agencies of the student
community, and battle each other for student votes in the best
(and worst) American political traditions.
The judicial branch consists of a series of courts for trying cases
involving alleged violations of the Honor and Campus Codes, and is,
of course, non-partisan. Half a dozen courts have original jurisdic-
tion in such cases; appeals from them may be made to the highest
student court, the Student Council, which is also the court of
original jurisdiction for cases arising from controversies over inter-
pretation of the Student Constitution.
An essential feature of the Honor System is student reporting of
violations by other students. Violators of the Honor Code are
usually expelled from school. Violators of the Campus Code may
receive the same sentence, or be permitted to remain in school
under certain restrictions.
Most people wonder if the Honor System and Student Govern-
ment really work. The answer is emphatically yes. They do ex-
actly what they are designed to do.
The Honor System, which includes the Honor and Campus
Codes, and is organized in and expressed by Student Government,
is constituted on a series of simple assumptions. Its aim, as Davie
said, is to educate “useful and respectable members of society.”
Honesty, responsibility, maturity, tolerance, public spirit, in a
word, Honor, are characteristics of useful and respectable members
of society. Such people respect the rights of others and discharge
their own duties to the community, and thereby enjoy the many
benefits of individual liberty in a free society.
These are the assumptions upon which the Honor System is
You challenge a person to be honest by trusting him.
30 The Hieu Scuoou JourNAL [ Oct.
You challenge a person to be responsible by giving him a meas-
ure of genuine responsibility.
You help a person to achieve maturity by expecting him to act
You help a person to become tolerant by tolerating his own
whims and foibles.
You foster public spiritedness by encouraging those generous
social traits inherent in every individual, and by providing outlets
for their expression.
You help a person to come to respect the rights of others by
respecting his, and encourage him to discharge his duties to the
community by making him feel that he is a vital member of it,
a member individually responsible for its continued existence.
In sum, you make a person honorable by helping him to become
a valuable and respected member of a community which highly
values honor, and by encouraging him to strive to attain its highest
These assumptions are the foundation stones of the student
community at the University. On them is built the structure of
student self-government. And around Student Government cluster
the many other student activities.
This, in brief, is the history and present organization of the
student community. It is one devoted to learning, but not less to
living; one tolerant but not indulgent; one proud of its traditions,
but not content with them. There is no short or easy road to the
education of useful and respectable members of society. We be-
lieve, however, that a hundred and sixty one years of experience has
demonstrated that a student community based on the tenents of
the Honor System administered by a responsible student govern-
ment is a broad highway to that goal.
A Child Has Rights Too!
N. R. Dixon
Associate Professor, Florida A and M University
A CHILD is a unique gift to his parents—not so much because
he represents an income tax deduction nor even yet because he
is the “spittin’ image” of his father. A child is a unique gift to
society because he is that continuing link with the future which
bears the promise of a better world. He inherits the sins, sorrows,
and blessings of all the ages. Other animals begin where their
ancestors began; the newborn infant begins where his immediate
progenitors left off. Within the newborn infant are boundless
possibilities to become almost anything that the culture decrees—
limited only by his innate capacities for adaptability.
In this age of analysis, this generation of children is perhaps
the most dissected, studied, analyzed, discussed and criticized gen-
eration in human history. Often the most favorable findings about
them are decomposed by the bacterial ambivalence of adults who,
in a crisis culture, do not always practice what they preach. To
children this is Punic faith. Because of certain sharp contradic-
tions between profound profession of belief and the lag in im-
plementation of it, the child often seems to be persona non grata.
If a child would grow and develop into wholesome maturity,
there should be an optimum balance between ego-support and
freedom. ‘Teachers, parents and other adults should not become
so ego-involved that they fail to recognize that a child has a right
to grow and develop into the best person he can become with the
assistance of adequate adult guidance. Neither small physical size,
intellectual immaturity, social inexperience, nor economic de-
pendence should forfeit the rights of a child. These rights under-
gird life and an emerging democratic society. They can be justified
by findings in philosophy, psychology and sociology. To deny
these inalienable rights is to become the devil’s advocate and play
roulette with posterity.
1. A child has a right to much larger areas of freedom than
are customarily granted him in the home, church, school, and in
life generally. He should have freedom to make choices, and he
32 The Hicu Scuoou JourRNAL [ Oct.
should be taught to accept consequences which flow from such
choices. (He should have the right to be wrong.)
2. A child has a right to grow and develop in a permissive
atmosphere. He should have the right to express his feelings and
opinions without fear of fiery retribution. As he undergoes the
process of socialization, he should mature a value-system har-
monious with that of his peer-group and that of the larger society.
3. A child has a right to be restless, energetic, virulent, active,
fidgety, dynamic. He has a right to expect to release radiant
youthfulness and gushing energy. He has a right to expect intelli-
gent guidance in channeling, controlling, and sublimating his ener-
gies in acceptable social forms.
4. A child has a right to be curious and inquisitive. He has
a right to experiment, to investigate, to inquire, to pry into, to
search, to ferret out facts and other information. (In childhood the
question mark is often the sign of intelligence.) He has a right
to question his surroundings—human, natural, and social—even
though his questions may be uncoventional or disconcerting.
5. A child has a right to help plan his curriculum. The quality
and quantity of his assistance should be limited by law, the nature
of the problem to be solved, and his capabilities for achieving a
fruitful end. In such group process emphasis should be placed
upon what is said not who said it. (In other words, contributions
to the group are judged by their value not by their source.)
6. A child has a right to experience a curriculum he can master.
He should not be expected to do the impossible! Nevertheless, he
should not be unduly protected from normal failure in certain
instances. Rather should he be led to meet life squarely, to face
facts; to accept a consequence with poise and equanimity of spirit
without dashing away to take the gas pipe or to jump off the
7. A child has a right to learn all he can by any method
that is an optimum one for him. From adults he has a right to
expect the utilization of many methods to promote growth.
8. A child has a right to expect wise, sympathetic, enlightened
guidance and instruction from interested, trustworthy, competent
adults. At least, the adults should not be inimical to his best in-
These poignant rights should be the heritage of the child. Who
would deny these rights?