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SEP 21 reg 





UNIV. OF my 
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XN ; 

INS : 

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Single Copies 15 Cents CLEVELAND, SEPTEMBER 21, 1916 Four Dollars a Year 





Continuous Mills 


Alphabetical list of Advertisers, page 154. Table of Contents, page 39. “‘Where-to-Buy, page 108. 
Opportunities, pages 148-149. Second-Hand Machinery, pages 150-151. Manufacturing Sites, page 152. 
Fill-in and Contract Work, page 153. Engineering Directory, page 140. 

as. ee 

2 THE IRON TRADE REVIEW September 21. 1916 

Connersville High Pressure Gas Pump 

Gas Pumps, Exhausters and Boosters 


ally advantageous wherever gas is handled. 
Altho they are the type of simplicity, they possess all the features of practical 
construction, resulting from years of experience. 


The testimonials which we have received from users of CONNERSVILLE PUMPS, 
EXHAUSTERS and BOOSTERS, prove that “Connersville” products are correct both in 

design and service. Many state that they out-work as well as out-last the best pumps that 
they have ever been able to obtain. 



Their range of capacity is from 25 to 40,000 cu. ft. per minute, and their pressure range is from ¥ to 10 
pounds. There is no lost motion—all motion is rotary, parts being carefully balanced and separated by accurately 
gauged clearances. There are no valves, no springs and no internal parts requiring lubrication. 


The service to which CONNERSVILLE PUMPS, EXHAUSTERS and BOOSTERS can be put, is almost 
unlimited. They can be used for handling air, gas, steam, water and al! other fluids. 
These pumps may be driven by belt, by direct connected steam engine, by electric motor direct connected or 

through gear and pinion, or by silent chain. 
If you wish correct and efficient pump service write for a “CONNERSVILLE” catalog. 


929 Monadnock Bldg. 114 Liberty Street 

Say you saw it in THe Iron Trape Review 


Vol. LIX Cleveland, September 21, 1916 

Te oe 

Strong Pressure for Deliveries 

Plants Compelled to Curtail Production on Account of Inability to 
Obtain Steel—Tremendous Demand for Plates 
Car Buying More Active 

rTRONG pressure for delivery of finished ma 

S terials, particularly steel bars and plates, con 

tinues and some consumers have been compelled 

to curtail operations on account of not having 

adequate supplies of steel, while others are on the 
verge of temporary suspension. 

In spite of the advanced prices of 

cars, railroads are feeling the neces 

uy sity of adding to their equipment 
suying and during the past few days do- 

mestic lines have sent out inquiries 
for 10,000 new cars. French steel railways are inquir- 
ing for from 3,000 to 5,000 cars, and it is estimated 
that there are 14,000 cars in the market, not including 
large Russian and other foreign inquiries which have 
been pending for some time. 
The demand for ship-building ma- 
terial continues unabated and some 
Plates extraordinary prices are being named 
Occasional sales of tank steel have 
been made as high as 6 cents, Pitts 
burgh, and even higher has been named on boilet 
steel. A leading eastern Pennsylvania company has 
written to various steelmakers, asking to what extent 
they can protect it on steel if it bids on the entire 
first year naval program, which calls for four battle 
ships, four scout cruisers, twenty destroyers and thirty 
ubmarines. Another ship-building company has asked 
protection on 16,000 tons to cover bids on the four 
scout cruisers 
Steel bar manufacturers, as a rule 
ire not anxious to make additional 
Bars contracts, but one leading indepen 
dent company is booking some ton 

nages for fourth quarter of this year 

id first half of next year for bessemer bars \ few 
contracts with the implement trade have been mad 
t 2.50c to 2.60c, Pittsburgh. Some steel companies 

hich are not ordinarily factors in the rerolled steel 
market are rolling reinforcing bars from crop ends 
and discards and are quoting prices several dollar 

per ton below those made by the regular rerolling 


mills. On 1,000 tons placed at Cleveland, competition 
was very keen and a local mill took the busines: 
Buying of basic pig iron has been 
Pi the leading feature of the market 
‘s during the past week and includes 
Iron from 15,000 to 20,000 tons bought 
by the Follansbee Bros. Co.; 4,000 
by a Cumberland, Md., consumer; 4,500 by the N. & 
G. Taylor Co., and 5,000 by the Colonial Steel Co. 
It also developed that the Allegheny Steel Co. recently 
purchased 20,000 tons. While some of this iron pur 
chased in the valley was bought at a shade below 
$18.25 at the furnace, a considerable part of it was 
sold at $18.25, which now seems to be the minimum 
quotation.. One valley interest has advanced to $19, 
for shipment next year. In the Chicago market, 
activity continues in all grades, and in the south the 
market shows decided improvement with the tendency 
of prices upward 
On account of the high prices which 
; they have been compelled to pay for 
plates, warehouses have advanced 

Advances quotations $5 per ton at Chicago, 

Cleveland and other centers. Heavy 

advances have also been made in warehouse prices 

on tin plate. Mull prices of wire fence have been 
marked up to correspond with recent advances ‘nu 
wire products Quotations on cast iron pipe have 
been advanced in leading centers 

The American Sheet & Tin Plate 
Co. is now asking 3c, Pittsburgh, 
Sheets as a minimum for No. 28 gage 
bessemer black sheets and 3.10c for 
No. 28 gage open-hearth black sheets 
he demand for sheet products is heavy and that for 

galvanized is of unusual volume 

Phe rap market still lags in some 
sections, but on the whole the trend 
Scrap Is upward rhe rerolling of large 
quantities of crop ends to make 

einforcing bars and other materials 

is an important factor in the present situation 





Successful in Every Feature The pet 
HE conventions of the American Foundrymen’ asap Maca 
Association and the American Institute of A _ a 
Metals. held tn Cleveland last week, cannot sng “mg 
J, skilled ma 
fail to have important influence in contributing to the 4 
progress of both the ferrous and non-ferrous indus shes wig 
tries represented. It seems trite to say that a con o% » 
vention was the best ever held, but last week’s meet ore ee 
ings, whether viewed from the standpoint of attend = cs 
ance, or of papers and discussions, or of exhibits, pity 
certainly will take high rank and will be difficul s scrim 
entire ul 
to surpass as - ties 
Liit SiC} 
he plan inaugurated this year of having mornin Sos "aaa 
sessions only worked out admirably \s a tor wae = 
went from one hall to another and hstened ’ ( “ge 
proceedings usually there vere er neeti l ' 
progress simultaneously—the impression conveyed w 
that the members were most deep! mtel | 
were conducting the discussi Ol i Ingh plane, si 
showing that it was possible to be earn a 
differ somewhat radically without being acrimoniou 
One subject which received much attenti it dit , 
ferent. meetings Ww the technical school, and it w ; 
cleat that the school ha not vet succeeded 1 mVvini be 
ing all practical foundrymen of its succes ; | * 
due perhaps largely to misunderstanding as to wha . 
the school professes to do. Certainly it do | 4 
claim to turn out graduates who can at once do is rhe } 
well as men of long practical experience A | 
foundry any more than the law college can tur : aa 
the ripened lawyer But one could not listen to foe 
man of the type of Dean Clifford B. Connell , Oo nt ; 
the school of applied industri of Carnegie Institut whee 
of Technology, who told not only of what the school —~. 
‘ : ‘ OT s/ 
1S trying to do, but ilso of its earnest desi { 
co-operate in every possible way with the m 
turers of the country, and not be convinced ss 
properly conducted technical school ha mn aoe 
and is bound to be a highly important facto he is 
testimony of men like Supt. Fuller, of the Cl , 
foundry of the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. ¢ M5 
to the excellent records made by graduates of t 
schools shows that experiel ed for iryme oOo! 
progressive type are able and willing t ecogniz: ' 
what the technical school can accomplis! — 
Another subject that aroused much i é 
the relation of the engineer and the foundry 
is evident that the engineer who is not intimately tion in M 
acquainted with foundry practice and the fou v1 
who has not had an engineering education do not entl 
always work as harmoniously as might be desired, but 
in just such meetings as were hel é I 
men come togethe and grow to know each othe y \ 
personally and to appreciate each other’s problems tion 



nnial question of how to obtain appt 

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1] 1 ; 
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IEW 549 


s of carrying them out can be devised. We 
that it \ e enti ’ ible to give 
t ers i ndustrial plants during 

their ti ervi it it 1s doubtful 

lier uld be utilized on such work 
one will 


Lt er mentions lor example, no 
urgent need for work on 
the tt 

e] re workings long these rivers, 
t { ; ilitary drills and 
t to the routine 
} [ron | the S« Market 
ltrs ‘ een offered for 
f the foundry iron 
that i teelmaking irons 
| their part 
, the labor 
‘ ted con 
Ip ted nd 
g of iron 
tal is 
I rmed a rd 
in the scrap 
tending to 
id upon the well 
of rap coming 
f the 1 ! 
g ting both 
eavy current 
dq or lus the effects 
eratior w being Cat 
YT ( 4 rap prices 
‘ . 1 and teel 
foundryvmart ha been able 
trom 34 to 35 a tol 
t $2 to $3 under more 
ivailable in 
¢ he has been 
; it direction 
vill be viewed 

Dite 1i¢ 
’ 7 
, £ 1] 
tne ren h 
‘ as 
] worti 

has been 

550 THE TRON TRADE REVIEW September 21, 1916 

Pri yet 3 yo 4h 4d WD ana Dp. ei 
rices rresent and fi ast 
(Vest . \ 
Quolaticns on leading products Septem‘er 2). average for August. 1916, average for June. 1916. and average 
for September, 1915. Prices are those ruling in the largest percen age of sa'es al the dates named 

Bessemer billets, P 
Be heet ba I { 
Op +} a} } 
(pe heart ! ‘ I 
Stee har | yg 
Steel I , 
lror bar P) ad ) ' 
Ir t ( 
FF Ss hut wi 
4? Hp? : Wo "a > iT 7 | 
rend of Pics Iron Prices Unware 
j | J ' <> VV 7 i ij 
PF Ih i Li " peat i J Lh i | 4 . J _ a v ¥ ch a 
~ Li 
Heavy Bookings in the East and Central West Follow ed by 
4 ~ ; . . 
Higher Quotations | tbe il Buy ne ot 
. . 1 
Basic at Pitts! urch 
Philadelphia, Sept. 18 Heavy b 
ings ot orders recent! by VarTi 
merchant producers of iron in east 
Pennsylvania are having their ettect 1 
in firming up pr und ti j 
the I irket re clear] } 
One producer has accumulated { f f 
100.000 tons in orders unother & ‘ t : 
tons \ Virginia maker who has 
selling at minimum pric I 
tered about 17,000 tons s e vel l 

S< n eastern pre u¢ 
hort on foundry " , 
buying from other fu : , | 
high valley maker of toundry 1 
has withdrawn all prices a! . 
quoting Foundry meta el 
I re bac <W urd 1 ¢ ) t! c 
is tar is iudva cs | | 
while $19, turnac for No. 2 x t 
ic named there are or sone ; 
strengthening under the aint i 
“ Chi M if t Acti 

of a fair demand and $1925 for ea 
and $19.50 for forward l ry ‘ ~ 
being established 
Steelmaking vrace lea 
strength 4 Cumberland. M . 19M. 
sumer closed for 4,500 tor f wall aa cag ous | 
basic for first half \ Pert! \ 
N } buver wants 3000 tons Ra | 

11 , > ‘ ! 
remains quotabt at trom Oc2VU to de < t | . | 
eastern Pennsylvania It devel 

that the recent 15.000-to1 purchas« 

7 ‘ , TO?! 
September 21, 1916 ri 


at least one 

is prob ible that 
ivanced to $19 

as S1I&/5 seems 

the valley, 
valley price 

. a Cleve land 

the East 

F ‘ ’ tained in 
: showing a 
, ering thei 

| $20 tide 

e representative 

l¢ ) | ind 
" ; 
vo. 2X 
‘ t Si r re 
‘ ' mpecti 
‘ ule i 
ii | 
‘ I 
:? ’ ’ 
, ’ ’ 
c14 ' 
) \ 
| \y 
mm) of I 
‘ it 
‘ ot 
| nd 
( ‘ 
| uy) 
ts ; 


ad . '  aneee seus 
them In some cases fore ryt eds for the remainders d 
have dropped the making of ed of t ( ¢ vn a dispositio 
re! and have auth ‘ t vent t { < \ ; this eal vere 
close at the best price obtaina le the ‘ 7 OOK ind 8.000 tons " price 
purpose being evidently to expedite n é é in this quantity it 1 
gotiations. Ocean freight rates ce f th deliveries 
little change Export bessemer is arou c i ; >] er t t 
$22 50, New Yorl with | ( ted t ict {) two rf the Y 
and northern foundry at from $20.50 t tere rt that the « t 
$21 New York. { | | ive | oe ‘ he 
- or} ; ’ ot the ' rk te S 
Market Grows Stronger : 
i t \ i uct 
Buffalo, Sept. 19 lr] ile t ’ ‘ , 54 
1 ‘ t | t } ; t ~ 
2,000 tons of bessemer if it $22 We ; ‘ district trving ta T - 
the furnace and a tonnage of gt rorg the two furna a ton $44 
iron at $19 and with all of the odu ths or LSit | 
' 1 | C1 
ing interests holding rigidly to the iF ¢, lalive s vet rang t 
minimum on even the lower g s, the — : Riser ae 
‘ ‘ T pertected 1 
position of the market in the Buffalo lament ens 
district’ may be gaged Producers ar settled, ans oe veduct af fa clud 
sold up to such an extent for deliveries es al ee a nn 4 Lie 
extending through first half of I91/7 yr <q, 
that practically no effort is being mad Phe tal © and + 2 . s 
to invite buying At the same time I | atl ~ 
‘ i | > is , 
ders continue to come in and the tor , 
l » t { t is¢ I 
nages bein hooked f m d to 1 sO O00 cue t lacl 
for advance delivery pot take up th : y] l, 1 ship ents { ‘ 
capacit} o! the 5 nel ] luc ne interes ‘ 7 P ‘ 
car s : S 
that has any available iron in this di : , — 
\ ’ 
trict to sell. 1 ‘ f ; me dn 
: ce ' ( 
é' Bing 1 
The streneth of the steel making iron a Beef ’ f ‘ 
, . 
is particularly noticeable as reflected j ‘ , ‘ ‘ 
( ( 
the price paid for the tonnage of be , iy ‘ > cks . 
mer booked here M ill ble | ) 
very strong =. a) VY 2 
wu a vv Ss . 
Shipments are going torwa t I 
, ° ’ 
limit of the furnaces to get out é iY 
terial demanded of them by th uth thie lat 
| +1 
sumer In fact, some of the produc 
of the district are receiving sl vt ‘ t 
tructions in exc f the l ) 
get out the material t 
S14 PP 
St. Louis Market Strong 
St. Louis, Sept. 18 Somet! il O " 
to a oom is developing in tl t ke 
iron industry in the 1 ket \] } ! { 
the local foundries ure conside S14 $50 \ 
inquiring for deliveries for next year 
as well as those in Bellevill Il] 
where col d ra ke buy +e Vas ¢ 
last week [he most rm | t 1 i< » sot 
. | ss % os 
auiry on the 1 irket today r to 
1000 tons of No. 3 hicl Ae ii Will Probably Be Made at an Ad- 
wwpearance several davs 2 As vance of $3 to $5 Per Ton 
rt . ’ i 
ber ol inquiries tor s ill lots ilso t< ~ ] | 
ire out Sales in Belleville last wee t S | i si s . 
included 1,200 tons of N zs ) { vy ¢« ers t} ‘ 
800 tons of Nos. 2 and 3. 600 tons ‘ portant 
No. 3, 100 tons of No. 3, and 400 tons s, likel ll e a this 
ot No 3 | i | y It 
Southern N 2 is quot it 4 é lly is | 7 ( , 
to $15, Birmingham basis ( » s S 
~~ 7 ] pr es | @2 
Anxious to Cover . 
; t those cont ed 
Birmingha \la Sept 18 Lhe cts er ehin nt 
tendency’ o { part of Ivers ft . 4 ‘ , ' ’ 
cover for the ~ hal 19] re re ' i 1] For ft ‘ r 
the past week he s { ' ark ‘ oe f S45 to $5) 1 
nd those buyers who have not fu | ’ llets are selling at $70 

fyi is 

September 21, 

4 | ~ / 
ry ict 
‘ ] 
Ss i i il 
Lis ire 
torward S 
pt a 

} Sey ~ 
' ' 
! \ 
1 ; | 
| \f 
. { 


ia I] | 
\ Ah 7 UT a i ¢ 2 | . = | BR 4 Ad it Ty T Al [> ne 1 : " 
' 1B jj ia 10 ho Hae » OF UE CS 
4 hj = . ’ ’ ’ . ’ ‘ 


Result From Extraordinary Demand tor Material tor Ships . h 
. | accepted 

Only a Small! Part ot Re juirements Being Covered ; 

Z| 2 r 

. . On Cast Iron Pipe in the Chicago 
District—Business Light 
‘ irket : 
| ; : ¥ S Ww as 
t t the yea 
| w he ‘ | 
‘ é The onl 
‘ , ry recent 
S OF Cast | « 
‘ States Cast 
‘ | actically 
: . is tk ; ll 
ars ew 
ed $1 pe 
re 4.) ! 
¢ ' 
; : 
Advance of $1 
Tr } ne leading 
iker ‘ cast 
il id ance 
| class 
} y 1 4-inch 
’ p \ rk iT 
} ’ _ 
) ; ; 
Ss al 
Mills Sold Uy | = 
t i Sit iat 
| \ ery 
\ con 
ere s going 
‘ and 
b ind 
K« J a 
‘ t he 
‘ was 
i t 
Many Small Orders 
Turn ng 1) " Orders 



Pressure for Steel Bars 

Is Very Strong—Mills Have Great Difficulty in Satisfying 

Their Customers in Deliveries 



Cleveland, pressure 


Sept. 19. 

for delivery of bars is 
than ever and sales agents 

ure giving a large part of their time 

to efforts to satisfy customers, some 

of whom are in danger of being com 
their plants on ac- 



pelled to 

count of not having enough 

Mills are 

very conservative about 

additional business and 



slow to promises as to 


the bar 


The only weakness in 

ket is found in bars, in 
which there is very active competition. 
On 1,000 tons placed by the 

Superior- Detroit 


subway for the 
approaches to the 

bridge, a local steel plant, which has 

contractor for 

not been in the past a factor in the 
hard steel market, took the business 
in competition with rerolling mills. 

Steel Bars Scarce 

Chicago, Sept 19 Comparatively 
little buying of steel bars is being 
done at present, after the heavy busi 
ness which has been met most of the 
time for several months. Recent con 
tracts made by the larger steel com 
panies with regular customers for de- 
livery some time next year at con- 
venience of the mill have covered most 
consumers for all they can obtain 
until late in 1917. 

Steelmakers are not seeking busi 

ness and are taking on new contracts 

only at the urgent request of consum 

ers who are willing to meet the con- 
ditions and await delivery until mills 
are able to turn out material New 
business is now about equal to ship 

ments, which are not up to the record 

made before the mid-summer heated 

spell reduced output. 

Specifications are being received in 

constantly increasing volume and at 

a rate much greater than shipments 

irom increasing 

mills. Production is 

at a heavy rate, as cooler weather has 
removed the 
ing July One 
September shipments practically 

drawbacks suffered dur 


large producer 

day heavier was the 

August, and the probabil 

will show in 

tons per 

case during 

ity is that later months 

creasing records until the extreme 

cold of winter again cuts down pro 

Export inquiry is less insistent than 

was the case a few weeks past, as 
some of this tonnage has been placed 
and buyers find it difficult to obtain 
more steel and many have abandoned 

the effort. No change has taken place 
in the quotation on soft steel bars, 
which remains nominally at 2.79c, 
Chicago mill, for an indefinite deliv- 
ery, not sooner than second or third 
quarter of 1917, The few prodacers 
able to sell some tonnage for early 

delivery are able to obtain a premium 

Hard steel bars are still quoted by 
all makers at 2.50c, Chicago mill, and 
demand is sufficiently strong to keep 
mill for 

weeks in 

operations steady several 


Few Make Contracts 

Few of the 
forward contracts at this time, but there 

this One 


Philadelpl ia, Sept. 18. 

steel bar miils are inclined to 

are some exceptions to rule. 

iar ge independent producer 

has accepted a number of contracts for 

third quarter and beyond, including a 
considerable tonnage from implement 
manufacturers for the first half of 1917 
Bessemer bars principally were sold 
These lots were booked at from 2.50k 
to 2.60c, Pittsburgh, the inside pric 
going to the larger and pre ferred buy- 
ers especially in the implement trade 
Considerable offering of hard steel 

bars rerolled from shell steel crops and 

discards by eastern mills continues and 
while some irregular prices are re- 
ported, these do not seem to have dis- 
turbed the situation. A number of 
these orders have been for reinforcing 


\ Baltimore 
steel, French specifications, for delivery 

by July, 1917. The Bethlehem Steel Co 

broker put 

quiry this for 50.000 tons of shell 

has been awarded by the government 
4.420, 38-inch shrapnel cases at $4.95 
each and 2,450, 4.7-inch forgings at 
$6.75 each for the Frankford arsenal, 
Philadelphia, which was on a _ revised 
letting It is significant that where a 
dozen companies quoted on the original 
tender in Mav, only two submitted bid 
on the second opening, the difficulty of 

teel apparently being the chief 

Bar Demand Holds Up 

Pittsburgh, Sept. 19 More favorabl 

. the 




have enabled makers of hot rolled pr i 
ucts to inerease production to a ¢ 

siderable extent, but shipments show 

substantial improvement Specifica 
tions for steel bars continue to come 
wut in heavy volume and orders entered 
thus far this month are fully as heavy 

received during the first 19 

days of August Domestic consumers 

(For complete prices see page 608.) 

September 21, 1916 

aré urging shipments nd b 
rounds for munitions and shel 
not reduced specificati St I 
are firm at 2.60c for delivery t 
convenience of the maker Ir 
are commanding 2.65 
Bar Iron Stronger 
Chicago, Sept. 19—A tendency t 
ward higher quotations is evident 1 
the bar iron market While some 
mills are yet willing to take on to 
nage at 2.35« Chicago mill ytthers 
which have sold on long contracts 
are quoting 2.40c, Chicago mill, and 
occasionally taking additional busi 
ness at this level However, the min 
imum quotation is still being made on 
sufficient business to make this the i 
going market, with 2.40c as a proba 
hle general quotation in the near fu 
Bar iron makers are not a n the 
Same position as to OKINES is § € 
have sold for delivery through the re 
mainder of the year while others 
have limited their bookings to 60-day | 
contracts und = are still able to take 
tonnage for last quarte 
Reinforcing Bars 
St. Paul, Minn., Sept. 19 The Paul 
J. Kalman Co., this city, has furnished 
reinforcement for the following jobs 
Dam and power house, East Michigan 
Power Lo Vellst mn Mich ippr X1 : 
mately 1,000 tons s} p S 
Dunwoody Institut M ipolis, ap : 
proxi itely 400 tons ct } actu 
ing plant, beef cool ete \r yur 
& Co., South Omaha, N« 
mately 225 tons, and Morris el 
iddit ( hicago ipprox i 250 
Shafting Sellers Cautious 
Pittsburg] Sept. 1° M ers 
{ cold lled i I t re ‘ ‘ 
more cautiously tl é Some 
ests are refusing t ts 
calling r deliv ( 
han 90 S | S 
< ence ot t l] 
manding from 20 to 15 ( | 
list, b the 20 per cent 
ually is disappearing 
Hoops and Bands 
Pittsburel Sent 19 _ ' 
irger on ifacturers : 
ands, having enough t R t 
books to maintall pres t g 
ites until July 1, 1917 p t ave 
vithdrawn from the mark: S 
! { nage 1S ava I I | t r 
vert H Ops iT¢ comfy w ” 
ands OVc 1 shipment at the ¢ 
enience of the maker 

September 21, 1916 


q aD ° : 
( 6 ® i> nW7T iT ay 
Ua l pDUYVINne 




a Se | Li ~/ @& 


Unexpected Activity of Railroads Attributed to Heavy Trafhe—l arge 

Order for Locomotives Placed by New York Central Lines 

\ \ \ k el 1 S| irp activity 
s develop r abruptly in the 
ket goregate if 
es | the railroads during 
past two days re ich ire $,00U 
10,000 cars. With an active inquiry ! 
r 3,000 to 5,000 steel cars from the '! 
rench State Railways, the total in 
( ' 
e appr itely 14,000 cars. This ; 

does not take into account the addi- 

tional equipment for the Russian and 

Some Car Inquiry 

{ ca Sent 
cht « s continue ‘ com ‘ 
' ; ‘ ; ‘ ‘ ’ at pre s¢ 
ires t he lg take 1,01 ) g 
| I c Yor Lent il ra 
l 500 cars ro! the Nic ‘ 
té ’ | +t ers ’ t? | oil 

ny 7 

rerro Licenses 

te stag I new movement Are Being Granted More Freely— 

‘ . rd the | chase ‘ up ne ry 
railr s sé \ Ss ar expres 
' ; } r ' ma 
S | ess eeds under 
pres ( ( ons and I the 
‘ } 
‘ | pes ior lower ° 
| es { I Y I eC enter- ] 
; 1. } ’ 
i Phe 5 now in tie | 
' I 
K iré See yr { i > ) Ttnese 
, 7 
rs aS @arty I TS Ca nak 
gy ti] new juiries or cars 
t t have ( rket are 
iw | A 
{) ) S Weeste Mary- 
la ] c 5 { { cs "AKC 
‘ () =< Il «¢ ce ine the 
. ’ . ’ 
Miss I ( ( x for the 
i ¢ M J vile 1or 
x , ‘ | 1 - 
Sick Plate e for . 
~ | | ] Salt 
s r s & Lit < 
Ke it) «s k ¢ Ar] c ( ist 
} t } 
4 , ‘ 
: é | 4 $ r 
| | ’ | 5 r 
‘ rh ‘ I 
‘ / i ‘ 
T ‘ } ‘ 
i f l or tne 
(; XN S ine- 
' , 
- , 
i ; Ss KR 
{ 5 Ol 
‘ oe tors 
, , . 1 oe 
s | e Haskell 

Very Few New Orders Booked 

‘ 4 | e 
‘ \ } K ey \ WW 
S ‘ 
‘ ‘ cu 
‘ ¢ ‘ ; 
4 t i4 i ; 
4s was a ia 
" ‘ ott | | ce rf s 
‘ cers l ~ | ( the 
iis K¢ 5 s,s aes f T ee 
, ‘ , , 
( | tne 
Y rece y nave 
] | ‘ ¢ ‘ 
s | i. ‘ ‘ 
: 7 
it? ." I S e i Sis 
- , ' ‘ 
i .. . i i 
~ ‘ t “ i 
| ‘ 
‘ | ‘ 
. es eT ns 
wiht ‘ 
' ecescc ‘ 
1 } 
+1 , 
\‘ ‘ ‘ f 7 
ee | ‘ n ‘ ’ 
‘ ] 5 (i ‘ 
it . 
+? } 
‘ ‘ eeds - S 
ext \ T 
‘ | ‘ ‘ 
( i , AC * 
Sic ¢ 
‘ es 4 

iccording t ts agent, reg- 
rece ng licenses to ship 
| thousand tons monthly, or at 
full normal rate, and so far this 
rought in the largest ton- 
mn ite history The position of 

producer this respect 1s excep- 

il, and illustrates. that there is 

derabl difference among. the 

s} makers as to stocks of ore 

t¢ al act ac and tor besse- 
iecrro-suicol has developed as 
I ; 

time for contracting for next 

s supplies has approached. A 

gh Valley steelmaker has inquired 
600 tons of bessemer and semi- 
é erro-silicon \ Newark 

aker bought 250 tons \ Read- 
uyer, which recently closed for 
lot, again is figuring on 300 tons. 
was ne sal oft 1,000 tons 
1cers are making liberal sales of 
etal, sor of which have been 
export and have a large inquiry 
efore the One inquiry for 
export is pending. 
leisen is riet and unchanged 

$45 to $50. furnace, for 20 

Offer on Manganese Ore 

ly : Pa Sept 19.—There 
fier in the market of 65 cents 
iT ; tons of domestx 

le manganese ore. An in 
ilso is ending for a small 
: if Un tons of toreign 
preset ! inganese ore 

estic and foreien 

to be 65 cents 

e ore appears 

t and upward \ number of 
pments of Indian man 

ore unting to 500 tons 

at New York. 

e | ‘ irrived, or are 

Alloys Active 

~ | ‘ market tor 
’ ‘ 
| c ( ‘ TT 
' mnt 
/ i 
; ’ | , 
’ . 
‘ re re 
* _ 
, bes 
| | { Pitt 
t | tT c Pa 
’ ‘ Te 
‘ . ‘ 
; p . ferry, 
tal The 
ra ements 
T licor 
t ’ 


os cal 

\ fy 
Al C i 

Former Minimum Quotation in the Valleys Disappears 

Market for Galvanized Sheets is Strong 

wn () Se] l . ly 5 
‘ Ir ely id ced t 5 t 
7 , , 
ot the I IIs ! lis 
below tha c \ 
hold i 
id Tf Ll I 
1! ll Vl cl t 1) I : > a ‘ 
pects to id S I ‘ IIs \ 
the end of the ee] great ( culty 5 
Ss re ] oO the | Ss S 
t ylack cheet é or t} Ss . . " . 
Galvanized Sheets Strengthen 
‘ P ‘ eKs 
}? Cant A fs 
opal ly | d 
ppar¢ ! >’ ed 
All thy ‘ mills i 
( re ‘ ind 
’ ’ ' . 
ries ths pas 
' = 
} p i T¢ | ( 
- ; 
‘ Ovete 1 l] witne l ; 
! I 
the sheet buy S n I 
Sapp ranc¢ d ' 
“~ ‘ tl qui 
»7 ] > 5 } 
VA » TT : - : 
y T ] : i e 
‘ rene d : ‘ I 
{ prod S 2 
i } . 
fe ; 1 eet S 1 x 
{ . 
iarter del ery I Mi . : 
| ‘ t ‘ is tor 5 o! . : . 
aes yh , - f ©. and 1 I 
renael a ul oO set 
ive < cf t pl < ‘ 
' \ \ 
tor next quartet S . 
it an idva ( it if t . 
’ j ) t 
WW ll ‘ ! } M ny iS 
’ | 
pa >4U I I raw §s i 
t brings a sel pr ol 
sie S| es aa y 
' 4 
( st ill 
de iuring nie Mi K sre 
1 () + . * ‘ 
rly ree ( é Sheets Gain Strength 
sold S000 tons of ylack ( . 
i 5 is< | c \\ nK ‘ } 
nat | | 
Lif ] ( ad oO 
i ‘ 
S experience { 
I ron re 5 
: , 
vers i i S \ red 
] ‘ S . . . 
\ » dela s 
Ket lO! i S ) 
\ - 
‘ o {> \ 
| () ] 
, ; 
4} I > , 
4 ( isis ‘ Ss 
' : 
iy> { 
; S 
epelt | t 7 
’* ‘ i " 
, I tn. 
. { ‘ 
Ited I S h 
| ; 
Val i St ) 
I ] i al l | -) . 
, . S if 7 
{ i ‘ oon 
O« Tr} past 
s been i tter d ind than either Increased Capital. Phe I 
' ’ [ } 1] ‘ 
ick I ! | S iw ‘ \ H 
, ' : 
( T ew it | r) } ’ 2 { 
re s { weeks 1 yt] 1y< 5 ‘y UU" . Ut 

vanced $5—Upward Tendency 


September 21, 

tures ~ f ‘ 
t | ~ . 
“ t ri } J 
spe é ( | 
‘ 7 
‘ ( 
‘\ ia 

seems to Have Stimulated Activity— 

Pipe Line Inquiry 

~. We 4h : ryt Y Pp 
2557 @ Bid ‘ i: = | 

lates in the Chicago Territory Ad 


{ 1 * , ‘ { 

eptember 21, 1916 THE IRON TRADE REVIEW 557 

cy _ ni fo T 140 1 : f g \\ Jenning 
> ’ : 
BA 4d HO¢ fae Ah WeOcC ne 4 i sn Wrastrary a : 
IC] A | ) 1 ICa Py Ss LX (a | (db i} | 
t a G HT -. ” 4/7 A 4 Ss Gee ~. _. £8 J =. . ua Ve & 
a if . , 
‘ : 7 a Few Railroad Offerings 
Improv ed Conditions Coming Slowly in Some Centers 
' ? BM. : 18—Scrap quot 
Higher Prices Are Expected at Pittsburgh ” 2 , 
; ‘ } “ still fur 
~ _ c wh ‘ I 
’ iny la ‘ 
~ ( ( | it | cont 
it shortly ther 
~ | \ £ move le ' 
‘ c t? " et ‘ tré ‘ 
. “ u t 1 ths al tl ‘ 
Ww ‘ f a shortage 
HH, , ae Upward Tendency narticn 
" , i ' ’ 
$17 y sol ( | Sent } nt l tru i rails. a rail 
( c S : S be | ive very 
, , 
. re 4 ) Ciayil il 
{ ( ; i j yreat ac 
- | . xceed -* 
‘ ‘ ad f os 
’ Te , 
i o t } wee) iré 
‘ { ‘ ati W a | 
¢ | \ ‘ , 
‘ i | 
J ~ ' | CO 
New Users of Scrap 
‘ 1¢ | 
‘ : , ~) : 
| t t ‘ the 
: . Ns » ter? : : | : at la | rT 
Most Grades Quiet ge st to the act ind for pig 
; ] ‘ een hold 
\ ved condi 
l to sell Sane 
f ‘ ny 
i id 
| I ‘ ) steel axles 
| lingly irc 
: Crap at d 
and Lhe 
{ ‘ } is | ace | 
“ I ele< tri rut 
an 4 - 
i i ' itt 
' VN ’ 
’ ‘ 
Chicago Scrap Strong 
: | 
eT cet if 
i cay 
Mill a 
t} ' Limited Improvement 

558 THE TRON TRADE REVIEW September 21, 191 

lot of car wheels is being inquired a a 1] 
1 | 7 {} | MAT 6] ze) x 
or. Eastern worts coninne nace M Ore Structural Awards 
ent towar< i@avy melting steci but 

there is a moderate amount of buying August Makes Gain Over July—New York City Must Pay Advance 
s 4 de om 4 "Nttsb rh dis P . ? 7 . 
in this grade f1 2 Pt us of $10 on Subway Work on Which Bids Were Rejected 

trict at from $13 to $13.25, New 

York New York, Sept. 19—A substantial now being made on ingot capacity 

creas ove! niy ) the mont ot ‘ ‘ cers 
Heavy Melting Firm ae bh 2 1 sia eieal ad _ ae * 
suffalo, Sept 19 Heavy melting let s throughout the country, o1 portion of thei ookings 1 this 
steel is holding firm and is in good 5 v 110,000 tons, is show é lls, thereby eleas 
demand. The same is true of wrought t Stat S the Bridge Bull é e steel purposes 
scrap, and also for old steel and iron ¢rs and struc il Society \ugus s kers similarly e being 
axles, the latter for export W hil ercentage Oo p ‘ ! © take care « elr 
axles are not to be obtained in tl is ed t W 64, « pared with 4 s, these IT ive I er 
district to any extent, the pri has , ily nd 6 une cece] | Phe t s got 
advanced to $32 for both steel and monthly statistics oO! thi ibsorptiol plus a liberal de i 1Or 
iron axles Railroad malleable, No. 1 ‘ridge Builders’ and Structural So shapes upon those mills which are 
railroad wrought scrap, and_= stove ) si perc 1g ol k é siness Ss producing 
plate are also firmer. Railroad mal capacity contracted for and tl u stronger conditiotr yf the market 
leable is now bringing $15.50 to $16; prox t onna reported i as ! wher prices are eing talkee« 
wrought scrap, $17.50 to $18, and stove llows it One | P l 
plate (net ton), $11.50 to $12 Per My ul maker has ced 2.75 I S 
Mont . | - . ‘ 
‘i ecti s special shapes are 
ry TDi : 
lin Plate Prices ed. Several contracts _ for 
j tourt ter wwe take! t he pas 
For Delivery Next Year Will Not be stert kers at 26 
Named for Some Time Mat t uvers pr tly 
Febr ' 
Pittsburgh, Sept. 19 As might be , = ene: “an SP a ; 
expected, consumers of tin plate, be ree 5 : - = 
lieving that the market will continue to o ' er SO SO at GOR TE RES ay a 
strengthen, are endeavoring to covet | : 1b ; : — > 
requirements for the first six montl . ws 3 : NN-tet 
of 1917, Without exception, manu ty a, . a a oe ae oes : 
facturers in this district have refused wy : aad er an an é' : 
to book tonnage tor shipment § attet \pr ( Mouswen & ; pe A has navel ts 
Dec. 31, at any specific price and it is ™ of lI Nn . eae age ) 

not likely that quotations for 1917 dé KS gt ‘  “ 10 a 
livery will be named for several weeks.  pDece 1914 LYS bra - 

bh! \ ' 
Many buyers have been able to resery Nov fe a * | 

tonnages, but no intimation as to prices ‘’“' ree 1 eal ;, , 
7 Sen Q T | Kt re S 
has been made It is generally | ever an : Sans ’ ~ ot 4500 + 
however, that tin plate for 1917 shi ee a ht ee _ r 
ment will command not less than $5.9 Fabricators OTS FelUClane est Leal y 
‘ As ns +] ! 7 taleis , , 
per base box U , ' » N ‘ . Z eh. - ‘ = oat r . 
vorl 5 labor and plait .% 

Prices Not Named terial uncertainties [his has ca 
uN ntracts t Shapes Fairly Active 

rie ( i ns ‘ us Cor! i — 
Cleveland, Sept. 19.—Some sellers : 

: . . dra The volume of new work is D5; 7 = ; 
of tin plate continue the policy of 
booking limited tonnages for deliver: ; ' \ 

eS oo > far the enbe 
after Jan. 1, the price to be deter oe ial F lh r 
mined later The same policy was wr % 
followed in the case of a round tor satan ; a 1 tn RO . 

, : iT | ) / 0 X, ' 

nage of black plates of tin mill siz ae te , 

het - . ' . }/} e ‘ 
which were sold without the price be VaR tole a 
ing inserted in the contract Bae: oe ID t, ; 

. ~ - ‘ es9 — > efill ch . ‘ ne lar | , 7 on 
Nuts, Bolts and Rivets Bs gm : f wale cel capa 
ery ) | .CW a \ ! ‘ ‘ ¢ : 
Pittsburgh, Sept. 19 Demand for e obliged to y about $10 a t ; 
nuts, bolts and rivets has not fallen oft mor udbway section Of :, C] 
Mills are being urged to ll obligat t | ] le } et 
6 > ; ' } y 1] + . | , ‘ 
for all three products. Rather he ( 

mand exists for shipment to Sout ’ e tal } { I ct : 
Structural Work Light 
American and Europe and considerabk - : , ; 
Talk of Higher Prices 5 
tonnage has been sold recently for « Tt 

port. Current prices appear to be we Philadel ti 4 

maintained. I sidel 

September 21, 1916 

Sheet Mill 



| ( M 
\ | 
R | 
Vs C 
\ | 

\ i ul 
; ‘ 
‘ rroe 
; “ 
5 | 




B Open-Hearth Plant 

Will be Built by Trumbull Steel Co.— 
Phenomenal Growth. 

Warren, O., 

The lron Tradz 
Id an open-hearth 

rs t Jonathan Warner 
that lans for the new 
approved and 
pen-hearth installa 

Z lecided upon. The 


Lar 4 i ne or more blast 

g iron tof the 

: is not been con- 
, Owing to the impossibility of 
‘ \ ’ 
. equipment in the 
\f ' 1) ‘ ’ ‘ ; , ' : 
: : te futur not believed that 
‘ay A » Wt Tt : : 
Virg ’ rth plant will be ready 
| \\ \ 
‘ ~ ; . 
I ne Size o! tre 
, ‘ if : . . 
; t be built have 
’ | | , 
t 18 evident that 
( ' oe 
b ! “ ‘ mace either at fnrst 
e. t ire for the com 
f ipacity The company 
g trom 175.000 to 
moO ft . ed products an 
‘ ’ 

‘ 7 
iu annea.cad 
tion about Oct 
Id rolled strip 

ng, this output will 

7 rumbull S ] 

Have Been Advanced—Russia Still oe na aie 
Inquires for Barbed Wire onttion ‘ania 

. : ce the original 

, f now one ot 

‘ heet and tin 
’ { mtr Re 

! r) if began to 

it Ft. Smith 

( ipitalized at 

als, _ ' Nf 0,008 1 little more than 

e stock now 

' irth installa 
\ | 
{ resigne . this 
nt of the per 

§ ry Owes . . 
( . Contracts 
First National 
nendent , | ‘ irgh has re 
the Bethlehem 
‘ tior of @& 
’ \ cette > 
- : , Kopper 
W Di j uipment will 
| ly this 
1 { placed 
co pany 
— .f 240 
plant at 
Vi ‘ the comm 
‘ atteries 

560 THE IRON TRADE REVIEW September 21, 1916 
Vivorous Protests — °°" "t«* about half of whom were = Bl eetric Furnaces 
©S present at the conference today, are 
Against Proposed Rates on Products ©- M. Haney, Brier Hill Steel Co. Porging Plant and Rolling Mill to be 
For Export Youngstown, O.; F. S. Swansey, Cen- Installed at Anniston. 
Washington, Sept. 19—Representa tral Steel Co., Massillon, O.; J. H Sher -O im rr etree ak ae 
; i: , Steulman, Curtis & Co. Mfg. Co baat: tii? ee 
tives of iron and steel concerns, yes- St. Louis: J. K. Frye, Donner Stee! cial announcement has been ma 
terday, before the board of suspension as . S aeae ee bly , “—_ “; : 
of the interstate commerce commis eit palate é hogar sodweun, A. . e. bead of the Alabama 
Co.; I. P. Blanton, Ironton-Ashlan: C, Bs ae eee ee ( 
sion, protested against proposed Mie. Association; Allan R. Campbell, » a , Ina 
railroad rates on their products for Bernard F. Pollak and C. E. William ( that $1,00( 
the export trade. The tariffs propos it Dalit Sul Co 3. Mack 
ing the rates, which would apply from iat Mintet Ca end Wee —_—w 
all coast ports through which steel Conley Mfg. Ce Corrigan, McKinney etiainal : _- i 
a me ie oe ooen Aled to & Co., Cleveland; Northwestern Iron ad anttt 1 With thes 
vecome effective Oct. | rhe protest Co. Milwaukee: By-Products Coke . 
ing producers are seeking to have Ca ‘Chleiese: Iréenate tron Ca. Chi installed, there will be a total : 
the board of suspension recommend ones Picheois eS ate & Co. Chi having , mn 4 
to the commission that it suspend the * ero gge* Ee wns pi aes _— —— 
rates so that in the meantime they ty ee ee ‘a papi eet, My : 
can prepare formal complaints and ie TEs Beets Cae we ieee ‘ 
arguments against them. They assert Deksi math hte Matentinns Rollin » Mill furnis t forgings t 
the increases vary from 50 to 75 Co nai market nd ? ne t the © 
per cent, which, they say, are un —— ‘ A a: > nein 
precedented in the history of the steel 
industry in the United States Che q — o) wires : 
increase would be applicable to all = AES is = emer! ul that 
materials made by steel manufactur Makers Marking Up Quotations— i P f | 
—_ Sheets Are Advanced 
A general outline of the case was 
made in the opening statements otf P » U 
Commerce Expert | | Williamson, Pig iron pri b xy put 
and Attorney Allan R. Campbell, who ents and 30 t ton by 
appeared tor the Pollak Steel = lealers i! | cl J ( 
with plants in Cincinnati and Chicago. ait 
Citing the situation as it relates to t $18.5 t 
shipments of billets for export, said his price to $19 é é 
to be representative of the entire next eat W hil at least I 5 
case, it was pointed out that the sumer has recently bought bast ( 
present export rate on billets from $18 illey, p t buy« 
Cincinnati to New York is $3.06, while no tonnage is now availabl t 
the proposed rate is $4.58; and the than $18.25, vall Foundry and 
present export rate from Chicago to able iron are beit Id at from $18.75 CaxitLoa RR 7 
New York is $3.52, while the proposed to $19, valley 70k SEAN uN 
rate is $5.26 Consumers ssemer_ tet At Milwaukee Without Surrendering 
[he protest against the alleged dis are playing at ' =r ie ne the Open Shop Principle. 
crimination in favor of Pittsburgh, jet pending inquit avelving abneé sli 
however, was abandoned for the pres 1000 tons for 2 warter deliver .. nwe Sept. < 
ent, when Chairman G. M. Crosland, pealers are asking $31. furnace. { ' ’ — 
of the board, said that question was nor cent material. A rolling mill « — Jobat 
not before it Moreover, he pointed nl ont manufa . . ra 
out that suspension of the proposed 1 a9 tons and a steel w ; : 
rates, were it determined upon, would ssking bide 10 cata e 4 'o : hm sGay 4 MEEtS 
not affect the relationship of domestic reste almers rdberg s and ot! 
rates from Pittsburgh and points east p rr ' r larg : : 
and those applying from points west. ; pe 4 rm ' 
Bernard FE. Pollak, treasurer and eee a baw sae . S s ging p 
general manager of the Pollak Steel ¥ ees ie” —— ; I s A \ 
Co., said his company has contracts , ee yi ie _ vith a / 
for probably between 90,000 and 100,000 — = a valk 7 t S s 
tons of steel for export during the oan } ess 
last quarter of this year. No con ga we i ’ r : 2 
tracts, he said, had been made since — it 
April 27, the day on which he learned the A Sheet & 1 Plate | 
from a brief statement issued by the ‘day withdrew all prices below Jc | ay a 1 
Baltimore & Ohio railroad, that the 4° “8 gage bess r black sheets at — " ‘ 
, : 
new export rates were being pro- 3.10c « No. 28 gage open-heart . & N 
posed The export business of his ‘Sheets. Th mand for all ‘1 Ss al g 
company, he said represents approxi- cts 1s hea ; t As! 
mately 95 per cent of its entire total I rep t the Columbia St x ' cos 
Steel interests which have protested Shafting Co., Pittsburgh, plat D1 UK ( 
against the proposed advance in ex warehouse at Cleveland. is denied , 1) lye P - 



Bad S 
{ ‘ 
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latt has 
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es ned alftet 
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dire r of 

I ginee! y LA 
Pres ‘ ’ Harry 
Ss ¢ | | i< 
« rk 1 the 

| : supe! ten 
\ | s _ount 

he abe 
fees in the 
« < col 
‘ Is to de 
t gas < al 
Ww. ’ 
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’ t Ma 
cer elect 
| Ma nery 
ad Sine the 
, ntly 
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7 : 
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Shell Steel 
in Very Active Demand— 
Allies in the Market. 

Is Still 

A buying movement in shell stce! 

that will cover up all the ton 
available for the second quart 
1917 to 
80 The 

purchases covered fourth quarter a 

expected develop with 



to days recent heavy 

first quarter deliveries and _ practi 

cally no tonnage is now available f 

delivery during those periods Th 
scarcity of inquiries at this time r 
sults from a lack of steel prodt 
capacity and not from an unwillins 
ness of the consumers to buy Fo 
instance, representatives of on of 
the allied governments have é 
personally visiting plants this we: 
in an effort to line up more tonnag 
although no written inquiries h: 
been sent out 

One mill this week took nea 
25,000 tons of billets for second 1 
ter delivery at 3.75« These ill 
are in 6 x 6-inch sizes and lara 
and are to be used for 9.2-inch shells 

Steel mills are not anxious to i] 
too tar ahead This reluctance arts 
both from the uncertainty concerning 
prices of various raw materials, such 
as ferro-manganese, ferro-silicon, et<., 
and from a widespread belief that 
steel prices will stiffen appreciabi:y 
in the next few months 

An active inquiry continues y 

shell steel discards Discards from 
fhe smaller sized billets are mor: 
cagerly sought, as they can be « 
verted to use with the finished she!tl 
more easily than larger discards, lor 
smaller sizes, prices range from $35 
to $40 a ton, while larger sizes ars 
held at $28 to $30 a ton 
’ ° a | 
Coke is Strong 
Due Largely to Shortage of Produc- 
tion—Labor is Scarce 
Pittsburgh, Sept. 19 The marke f 
Connellsville coke is just ibout 
strong as it was a week befor I 
Day, at which tim i 
scrambled for tonnages, fearing that 
shipments might be cut off summarily 
by a strike of railroad employs Blas 
furnace coke for spot shipment, no 
rmal car supply, i 

withstanding a no 

selling at $2.85, ovens While demand 
is not heavy, enough tonnag b 
turned over to enable coke ukers 
maintain prices Most llers of bila 
furnace coke ars isking $2.7 

for shipment after Dec. 31, but the m 
ket for future delivery | not beet 
definite'y — established. ilthough _ blast 
furnace managers are beginning tft 
manifest interest in first and seco 
quarter needs Seventy-two hour cok 



-2 9% > 
e« ge at r ge from $3.25 ¢ Sz Sv) 
( S( r kers ire ret ( 
t l ium n@ure 
s { , r tor tl wi h ( 
Sept. - product was 384,374 
mpare 401,100 
Slow Delivery 
Cleveland Sept l (Owing to the 
s] tage Tt mn la or ind BI 
lit to tal il id quat su | ‘ 
( Cal de ! rt coke ~ 5 ) 
1! itistact lhere +< : } 
carcity cars t 
1 quot £ sence k S25 
ror Sti h Ca | c y is Ca 
=: . . . \\ 
Firmer at Cincinnati re 
( ~ 1 | P ‘+ 
ket 1 ; ; te! 
’ ‘ , 
that } , ar ‘ ' 
t ’ r ti ‘ \ \. lare 
ft Wise « { ( grad 
cent tract del < ‘ 
t ] ' | ' 
shipped ove ‘ 
} ; arg it & \ 
\\ yu 
hol ’ $3.25 wene 1 
<) ~ . _ 
17] + 
_ om \ o~ Th i ‘ TATA 
(}) t | Y (i }) eo at tol fe 
ere a, ~ NU i i it al 
Co 4 + [ ead 
2 I — — —— 
Pires S named 
‘ \ Hi 
, | 
[ l 
| trong 
I ' 
Pr ' Sey Q 
{> ; 
ve ) 
| ‘ ' . 
( ~ } XN 
I \ S & R 
¢ N \ 4 
. ‘ ‘ 
} \ 
r . 
‘ N \ P 
r S ! 
, te 
S Ss Dp lent | } 
, , ‘ 1 well into O 
Bott lomesti t cig ers g 
(For mplet rices § ha 608. ) 


é Poca 
SIRS ¢ ¢ 
. { 
‘ i ~ 
adi ci y 
It ( 
j ~ 
i ‘ 

Vi atta ie 
LV ii ielg line, 



The Presence of Alumina in Steel 

This Paper Points Out That Alumina May Be Distinguished from Non-Metallic Inclusions 
in Steel and Indicates How it May Be Recognized—The Difference 

Between Alumina and Other Inclusions is Very Distinct 


subject of non-metallic in- 
clusions in steel is one that has 
attracted remarkably little atten- 

tion among students of metallography 

considering the vast amount of work 
that has been done in recent years in 
the investigation of metallic structures 
with the microscope. Indeed the ten- 
dency is still far too common among 
metallographists to give the general 
name slag to all substances seen in pol- 

ished steel surfaces that are not metal 

in regard 
are not 

[his is especially unfortunate 

to sulphides, which 

slag, and it should be equally 

to distinguish between other typical in- 
silicates of iron or 

clusions, such as 

manganese, iron oxide or scale, alumina, 

and titanium nitride The objects of 
this paper are to call attention to the 
fact that alumina can be distinguished 
from other non-metallic inclusions in 
steel, to indicate how it can be recog- 
nized, and to show a few examples of 
the harm arising from it when locally 
Early References to Alumina 

In the literature dealing with in- 
clusions in steel there are but few refer- 
ences to alumina One of the earliest 
of these, and also the most definite, is 
in an article by Heyn and Bauer, en- 
titled “Kupfer, Zinn, und Sauerstoff”, 
published in the Zeitschift fur Anor- 

A paper read at the annual meeting of the 
American Foundrymen’s Ass ition, Cleve 
land, Sept. 11 to 15, 191¢ 


1905. No 

This reference to alumina, freely trans- 

ganische Chemie, 45, page 63 

lated from the German, is as follows 

“The film-like enclosures of tin oxide 
in bronzes bear much similarity to the 
enclosures in mild steel which have been 
deoxidized with aluminum instead of 
manganese. A photomicrograph, Fig. 1, 
shows such enclosures which consist, as 

found by analysis, of alumina. Also, 
in copper-magnesium alloys similar en- 
closures can be observed which are due 
to thin films of magnesium oxide.” 

Fig. 1 is a transparency copy, mace 
by the United States bureau of stand 
ards, of the photomicrograph published 
by Heyn and Bauer to show the alum 


his same photomicrograph was used by 

ina inclusions, magnified 29 



Martens and Heyn in “Materialenkunde 

fur den Maschinenbau”, 2A, page 
207, from which the following is quoted 
and translated freely 

‘A similar case (of non-metallic in- 
clusions) can also be found in mild 

steel to which aluminum has been added 

before the deoxidation is complete 
The alumina arising from the com- 
bination with oxygen is held in the 
metal on account of its infusibility 
and forms foam-like films which are 
visible after solidification, as shown in 
Fig. 1 (referring to the same photo- 

micrograph, magnified 29 diameters, 

first published by Heyn and Bauer) 
The dark lines and specks are AIO, 
\ steel which after solidification con- 
tains such foam-like films is not work 
able, but will crumble when forging at 
a red heat is attempted A piece of 
such steel was found to be extraordi 
narily red-short, and when rolling 
was attempted it split and formed col 
lars on both the upper and lower 
Characteristics as Deoxidiser 

Referring to the use of aluminum as a 

deoxidizer, and the resultine formation 

of alumina, Dr. Walter Rosenhain, i 
his “Introduction t the Study ol 
Physical Metallurgy page 153, writes 

is follows 

{4 more powerful deoxidizing agent 
than manganese is furnished by alum 
inum. but this differs from manganes« 
in two vitally important respects In 

oxidation product of 
aluminum is a_ particularly refractory 
substance, alumina, which has a strong 
tendency to remain in the molten metal 
I ] The Se 


first place, the 

Suspension as fine particies 







564 THE IRON TRADE REVIEW September 21, 1916 

+ Aw ‘ 
: | 
of course, tend to lessen the strength potential harmfulness of this impurity, in one elongated streak hey are of 
and toughness of the alloy. but they do not give any idea as to a very dark bluish-gray color, when 
In a paper entitled “The Solid Non- how it may be recognized and iden- examined with the white light of a1 
Metallic Impurities in Steel’, published tified in metallographic work. To sup- electric arc, appearing black unless 
in the Transactions of the American ply this deficiency was the object of highly magnified It was almost im- 

Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol the author’s article on “Alumina in possible to polish them without form 

‘( age »? ard -, a9 : , : . : 
XLI, pages 803-822, Henry D. Hibbard Steel”, published in Metallurgical and ing little pits around each _ inclusion 
writes, in part, as follows Chemical Engineering, Dec. 1, 1915. If the polishing is done very carefully, 
“If other elements have been added, This article described the experiments these pits may be kept very small; bu 
such as aluminum, chromium, or vana- made to ascertain the characteristic ap- with certain methods of 
dium, their oxides and silicates may be pearance of alumina in steel, and pits are made so large that th 
ae °* ¢ @ The nett an 
present. . . The too plent ful use showed numerous photomicrographs to original inclusions cannot be seen at al 
of aluminum in steel may have been - : Th . will ' if tl , ‘ she 
condemned, partly at least, because it iustrate it. 1¢@ WOrkK will not be gone the specimen 1s not rotated continu 

forms oxides or silicates in the metal, over in detail here, as the original ously during the final polishing, the pits 
which, being insoluble, and infusible, article can easily be referred to, but take the form of short scratches, and 
exist in the solid steel as very harmful some of the typical photomicrographs each inclusion will have a little tail like 
sonims. Of course, to form the oxide ; 

i‘ are m agai ri ‘scriptions of a comet. This is illustrated in Fig. 3, 
there must still be some oxide of iron 7¢ Shown again with descriptions of g 

or manganese in the steel. If the alumina inclusions and the points where- while Fig. 4 shows the same streak of 

metal were free from oxygen perhaps in they differ from sulphides, slag, etc. alumina particles after grinding and 
the w akening = effect of aluminum Fig. 2 shows the inclusions in the more careful polishing 

would not occur. » ; Fie 5S si another } F steel 

first bar of steel that came to the ig. 5 shows another bar of steel 

1 he various writers quoted above un- auythor’s attention, in which alumina like Fig. 2, in which the occurrence of 

mistakably recognize the existence of was known to be present. The in- alumina was assured, and the general 

alumina as a frequent non-metallic im- ¢jysions are in the form of small similarity of form in these two in- 

purity in steel. They are aware of the sounded spots, arranged close together stances is apparent Although these 

—— gee meio macnn 



September 21, 1916 THE IRON TRADE REVIEW 

show longitudinal sections of cate inclusions are often found of quite 9 shows oxide of chromium embedded 
forged bars, the individual inclusions large size, as well as very small, while in _ steel These resemble alumina 
have not been elongated by the forg- particles of alumina are always small slightly in a photograph, but when seen 
ing, but merely the groups of particles and do not seem to coalesce into large directly through the microscope they 
have been drawn out into streaks. bodies even when closely grouped to- may be distinguished by their smooth 
Compare these with Figs. 6 and 7, show- gether. These characteristics of alumina polish and purplish color Fig. 10 
ing silicates in rolled bars, and a great inclusions agree with what is known of shows the inclusions in steel treated 
difference is evident at once, for the the properties of alumina Its great with nickel oxide These are probably 
individual silicate particles are very hardness and brittleness would account oxide of iron, and could not be mis- 
much elongated in the direction of roll for the pitting effect; its infusibility taken for aluminum Titanium nitride 
ing It should perhaps be noted here would account for the small size of the crystals are easily identified by their 
that there is no difference between roll- particles and the tendency not t angular form and pink or orange color, 
ing and forging in their effects on either coalesce; and both of these properti which is shared by no other substance 
alumina or silicates together would account for the particles in steel The differences between sili- 
The differences between inclusions of not being elongated by forging or roll! cates and alumina have been pointed 
alumina and ordinary slag or sili ing of the steel in which they are em uit above, and sulphides are of course 
ites in steel were summarized as fol- bedded known to nearly all metallographists by 
lows: (1) Silicate inclusions will gen- My fornier article pointed out that no _ thei smooth dove-gray appearance 
erally take a fairly smooth polish in a other substance was known that had Thus the appearance of alumina is be- 
section prepared for microscopic exam- exactly the same appearance as alumina lieved to be distinct, and warrants the 
ination, while alumina is very hard to in a polished steel section, and this identification of this substance in steel 

polish without pitting (2) Silicate in- statement still holds true. Fig. 8 show by metallographic examinatio: 

clusions are always elongated in the di- some complex slag inclusions, probably The author’s work in establishing this 
rection of rolling or forging, while containing titanium, since the steel was _ identification was based largely on check- 
alumina particles are not. The groups. treated with oxide of titanium before ing the microscopic evidence by chem- 
of particles are of course elongated, but casting Evidently it cannot be said | analyses It was stated u the 
not the particles themselves (3) Sili- that this oxide looks like alumina. Fig previous article that all samples in 
By: | 





nd : — -' 

c > 



September 21, 1S91¢ 

> - . e 4 

. : * Ake 

- ea , * 

‘ + & ii? t 

. 4 f tom cB 5 
: , 
\ 2 : "i 
- = . - ev 
" a . B ate 

‘ » “ws . ‘x a 

. . >~ ; > 

7 ys : 
Mey Hoe 

<< a * 

‘ 4 
5 4 < 
which more than the merest trace ot sively that alumina may ccur é M 
alumina was found by analysis were tree state insteel,and greatly strengthes ibove, a 
seen to contain the typical inclusions as the probability that free alumina Bauer in | \ 
described ab ve, and those in which be detected by me tallographi ex re ] 5 < 
alumina was not found by analysis, did tion.” \LO Fig 
not contain these inclusions Further- ig ‘ 29 
‘ 11107 Sau ” 
more, those in which more alumina was ; , 
found by analysis contained more ot Che well known metallogray t. P : lescribed 
these inclusions than those in which Albert Sauveur,. of Harvard University, show Figs. 2 a 
only a very little was found. It might has recently completed an independ Prof 
perhaps be well to mention the fact that investigation dealing with the occurren vas t nina 
these analyses were not made _ undet f alumina inclusions in steel, it ( 
the author's direction, but in a different course of which he examined Ped 
laboratory, and neither the chemist not the author’s specimens as well as s ‘ g ‘ 
the metallographist knew each other's that he himself prepared His rep ark 
results until the work of both on any of this work was published in the Aug ( a 
given sampk was completed The 1, 1916, issue of Metallurgical and Chen te nee f elong the 
methods used in the chemical determi- ical Engineering and in the I/ro» ‘ gine 
nation of alumina in steel are described and J/ron Trade Review { ] 7 S 
in the booklet “Ferro Carbon-Titanium 1916 Fig. 11] cluded a 
in Steel Making.” Titanium Alloy Mfg photomicrograph taken by Prof. Sau ‘ slag it 
Co., pages 99 to 105, and in the course veur of the same samples shown in Fig vork 
of his remarks on the chemical side of 5, but magnified only about 36 diameters 
the work, the writer, | E. Barton, It illustrates well the “filmy’ rrang | " 
states that “the results show conclu ment sometime assumed by ulun \“ 

wal git ets og! 

* ge" 


tember 21, 191¢ THE IRON TRADE REVIEW 567 




g es mn castings may be encounters id t segregate gather together im cer- 
id f fiber il might perhaps lb worked steel, sucl as wires tensile t parts of the casting or ingot. When 
stake t ireiess - _ itt pulling et Here tre is ippens the resuits are dangerously 
ed and exat i. But the very dark ww or silicate fibers are usually broker eak streaks such as is shown in part 
R pearance into fragments and drawn out into n Fig. 15, taken from a bloom intended 
i the pitting effect, and the invariably treaks, but if carefully polished the for structural steel. Such streaks may 
small siz f the | particles are fragments of silicates can be recognized t be commor but they nevertheless 
sufficiently distinctive racteristics % y their definite and angular outlines lo occur when alumina is used, and 
enable it to be recog istings as nd. their smooth surface, while alum may cause great harm \ few exam 
well as forgings, es] if the ol ina particles will be rougher, probably ples will be mentioned in closing where 
server is careful lr familiar more or less pitted nd less distinctly failures in service could be directly 
wit lig shows I ced 1 the presence t alumina 
these G soft l¢ t ‘ re t olVve he impr rig 16 how ig ip ol alumina 
ste whe 4 | € t t lun | ilwa cs ear the Starting port f the 
lw es ts ( t ror s t | i iree a g@ tire ol a 
t the iT ] le re 1 trot : large reg groups t part cl is tl s< wi ilr ad locomotive N other detect 
sampk Fig. 13 s ‘ 1 fairly typical in the photomicrographs. Its most usual uld be found to explain the failure, 
though large slag lus nothet mode of currence is probably in is except the presence f too much alum- 
casting, and the shar} utlines of the ted particles, thinly scattered througl na, segregated in spots through the 
slag. as compar with the rough ap- tl metal, at in this form it 1s pt metal Fig. 17 shows part of a streak 
r earance r the ina are clearly t lly harmk The dang if us if alumina ane sulphide parti les that 
brought out. This slag, moreover, as is as a deoxidizer lies in the fact that uused the top of the head of a rail to 
ften the case, is evidently not hom« with our present knowledg r under reak and shell off in the track. The 
geneous, but r ¢ é sit Fig re t mill conditions we ca ever trast in appearance between alumina 
14 shows a _ sect near the extreme be sure that the alumina partick will sulphides its well brought out in 

toy f an ingot, where this photomicrograph 

he alu: af ent : Fig. 18 shows a section 
excessively g This f a thin steel plate, o1 
i ya afa s | wl | blisters appeared 
ut t i ta é after hot-rolling \ 
t es S g 5 large streak of alumina 
escribe Ma é s was found near the sur 
ant Hey The ~ tact f the plate, and 
aspect I al I i cast part I this streak 18 
ste s the sa is shown in the photomucro 
forged ste grat Phe lack strip 
wit e sing exc along one edge is space 
at ‘ : cles bevond the edge of the 
2 sely sectiol! or yeyond the 
yetnhe i Ss s surtace t the plate and 
| these groups are of irreg "4 ‘ : the other long black 
lar led sha e . e spots ar sections of 
asting stea isters, the bright areas 
) & Rate as all the 
streaks as the phot rographs 

Tests of Welded Pipe Connections 

In This Article the Author Has Described Interesting Tests on Welded Pipe, 
Showing That in Strength and in Cost, the Welded Product 

Has Features Worthy ofa Serious Consideration 

Ta rapid extension of the use 

of the oxy-acetylene for weld- 
ing pipe connections and the 
possibilities of still further adapta- 
tions in the future, give at this time 
interest to figures on the 
cost and efiiciency of connections 
made by this process. Recently a 
series of experiments were conducted 
at the University of Kansas, which 
had for their purpose the determina- 
the strength of welded pipe 
connections. The detail work of these 
experiments was performed by three 
senior students in mechanical engi- 
neering under the direction and su- 
pervision of the author. 

The specimens were furnished by 
the Oxweld Acetylene Co., Chicago. 
The samples were cut from standard 
weight national black steel pipe, were 
from the same stock, and hence prob- 
ably of uniform quality. The speci- 
mens included two pieces of the orig- 
inal pipe, four butt welds, two con- 
nections made with malleable iron 
screwed couplings, three welded tees 
and two tees made up with the ordi- 


tion of 

Mr. Sibley is director of Fowler Shops, 

University of Kansas. 


screwed fittings. 

nary malleable iron 

The length of the straight samples 
was 18 inches. The pieces for the 
butt welds were cut at an angle of 

necessary V 
The tees were 
run and a 15- 
welds being 

degrees in a 
give the 
made with an 18-inch 
inch outlet. The tee 
made by cutting a hole in the run and 
butting the outlet against the outside 
of the run. Al] the connections were 
made by the company’s operators. 
The straight samples of “4%, %, 1 
and 1%-inch pipe were fitted with 
plugs in the ends to prevent crushing 
in by the jaws of the’ testing machine 
and then tested in tension by 
the usual method. The 2-inch straight 
samples were cut off square to lengths 
of 5 inches and tested in comparison. 
For the tee welds a holder was made 
to fit the run of the tee at either side 
of the joint. The end of the holder 
was then placed in the upper jaws of 
the testing machine, the outlet of the 
tee was held in the lower jaws and 
the sample was tested in tension. 
‘Fhe behavior of the welded 
nections under tension was very much 

about 60 
machine to 




that of the original pipe speci- 
Some of the specimens broke 
and some broke 

screwed con- 

outside of the weld 
in the weld. All of the 
nections broke right at the last thread 

in the fitting. The characteristics of 
these failures are shown in Figs. 1 
and 2. The arrows indicate the loca- 

tion of the weld in the smaller sam- 
The 2-inch pipe samples tested in 

compression bulged out on either side 
of the weld, split along the seam in 
the pipe as the butt weld, 
which held without splitting. One of 
the screwed (fittings sheared the 
threads and telescoped, and the other 
the fitting. The 
these failures are 

far as 

bulged outside of 
characteristics of 
in Fig. 3. 
broke in 

tee con- 
and at 
All of 

in the 

the welded 

In most 
nections outlet 
screwed tee broke 
casting. The characteristics of 
breaks are shown in Fig. 4. 

In the tension and compression tests 
the elastic limit of the welded speci- 
mens was practically the same as the 
unwelded pipe, showing that the elas- 

some distance 

the fittings 












September 21, 1916 

ticity is not much affected by weld- 
ing. The screwed coupling specimens 
broke without elongating because of 
the reduced cross 


the strength of the welded connections 
to be from 113 to 171 per cent of the 

strength of the ordinary 


nections by the two methods will be 
interested in Table Il. The cost of 
oxygen at the present time varies 

from 1% to 2 

sectional area at 
the threads and so 
has no elastic 
limit. The elon- 

Table I. 

Strength of Welded and Screwed Pipe Connections try. 

cents per cubic 
foot in different 
parts of the coun- 
The price of 

gation of the 6- Relative str’gth 2 cents which has 
- 4 . | Avy : N i 0a 7 ld : 
inch test sections eee been used in com- 
was less for the 1 (inch. ) (Ib.) (Ib.) (per cent.) puting these tables 
> > . oO « 4 9 
welded than the ension tests of butt welds and coupling * 10.222 2008 a13 3 therefore con- 
unwelded pipe, but , I net ya ye servative. The cost 
this was even . 7 ie: of acetylene is 2 
better than the Compres’n tests of butt welds and coupl’gs 2 72,500 $8,150 125 cents per cubic 
screwed couplings Tension tests of welded and screwed tees ¥ 42,908 3733 + foot, if supplied in 
. 9.76 2,303 60 
which broke with 1 30°00 17.550 171 tanks. If the 
no elongation. acetylene were 
Table I is a Table II. generated as used, 
summary of the . . . the cost would be 
- age = 
average maximum Cost of Pipe Connec tions reduced to a little 
mS ; ee ere we uu 4 1 1% 2 3 4 me 
loads of the weld- Welded pipe joints... 0.0258 0.0354 0.0515 0.0647 0.0934 0.1610 0.2888 less than 1 cent 
ed and _ screwed Screwed couplings. . 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.11 0.15 0.32 0.52 per cubic foot, In 
; Welded tee joints... 0.0392 0.0520 0.0732 0.0951 0.1447 0.2785 0.4509 ino & 
specimens as de- Screw tees . ape 0.08 0.12 0.18 0.23 0.057 1.11 most cases, it 1s 
termined in the Note:—In computing cost of welded connections the following values were used: claimed the cost 
‘ Labor, 30 cents per hour; oxygen, 2 cents per cubic foot; acetylene, 2 cents per ; 

tension and com- cubic foot; welding wire, 12 cents per pound. of the welded 

pression tests. 

joint is less than 

From these aver- 
age loads, the relative strength of the 
welded and screwed connections have 

been computed. These figures show 

malleable iron screwed connections 
Those who are concerned with the 

comparative cost of making pipe con 

Making Airtight Alloy 

RASS and bronzes are recognized 

as metals adapted especially to 

withstand internal air pressure, 
and this paper will, therefore, be con- 
fined to the use of such alloys. Density 
and strength are the two qualities that 
go to make up a metal suitable for the 
retention of air or other gases under 
pressure and while strength may be se- 
cured through proper design, density is 
that elusive will-o-the-wisp which we 
chase for a while in one direction and 
think we have captured, only to find 
that it has eluded us and we must look 
for it elsewhere. 

This leads us then to the conclusion 
that there can be no hard and fast rule 
whereby this desirable quality of density 
can always be obtained, probably because 
of the fact that there are so many va- 
riables that enter into the process and 
that they cannot always be under our 
control. To enumerate some of these 
variables, we have the design of the ar- 
ticle to be cast, the design of the pat- 
tern with reference to its position in the 
flask, the composition of the alloy, the 
treatment of the metal in the furnaces, 

Presented at the annual meeting of the 
American Institute of Metals, Sept. 11-15, 
1916, Cleveland, O The author is superin 
tendent of foundries, Westinghouse Air ~—~ 
Co., Wilmerding, Pa 


and the temperature of the metal when 
being poured. Each item in this list is 
worthy of extended discussion, but time 
will not permit of more than a cursory 
glance at each subject. 

Design is Important 

We shall begin with the design of the 
article to be cast. This has a very im 
portant bearing upon the ultimate su 
cess of the casting. The designer should 
bear in mind the desirability of having 
all cross sections of approximately equal 
thickness in order to prevent draws at 
heavy portions. If this is not possible, 
access to all large sections should be al 
lowed for the use of chills to prevent 
such draws. If the cored cavities are 
large the cores will, themselves, act as 
chills. Fillets should be as small as pos- 
gible in order that excessive masses of 
metal shall not be concentrated at one 

In laying out patterns, the pattern- 
maker must be governed by several 
things. He must know what chills are 
to be used so that large chilled surfaces 
may be placed in a vertical position in 
order to prevent the metal kicking off 
these surfaces He must know what 
parts are to be clean, such as valve seats 

etc., and to what parts loose sand may 

the cost of the 
fittings. As the pipe sizes increase, 
the advantageous cost of the welded 
joint 1s said to be even more marked 


be allowed to flow if any be found in 
the mold. Such unimportant parts 
should be placed high in the cope and 
the loose sand will flow to them on top 
of the metal. A clean mold, however, 
is absolutely essential to good tight cast- 
ings. An exceptionally clean casting may 
be obtained by gating it from another 
casting which will itself take all the dirt 

On the use of chills, the following 
may be taken as an almost universal 
law: Use chills on all enlarged sections 
in close proximity to smaller sections 
and connected thereto. If the sections 
are exceptionally large, use a_ sinking 
head on top of the large sections. Gate 
your molds with a heavy upright pour- 
ing gate as near to the pattern as pos- 
sible. The gate leading from the pour- 
ing gate to the pattern should be made 
large at the pouring gate and then re- 
duced sharply into the pattern. If it is 
large where it joins the pattern, in all 
probability it will show a draw, in the 
casting at the gate. As a rule, it is bet- 
ter to gate in a light part of the casting 
than in a heavy portion. If a sinking 
head be used it should be placed on the 
heavy part. 

As regards the alloy to be used, the 
following compositions have been tried 
and found satisfactory for the purpose 


of making the desired castings: 
No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 

alloy alloy alloy 

per per per 

Metals cent cent cent 
Copper 72.50 82.00 83.00 
FA ae 1.7 7.50 11.50 
Zine 19.25 4.75 4.00 
Lead 6.50 5.75 1.50 
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 
No. 1 alloy is used for ordinary cast- 
ings, such as cocks, pistons, bushings, 
etc. This alloy is easily machined, but 
is not intended for use with very high 
pressures. No. 2 and No. 3 alloys are 

intended for use with high pressures and 
are harder to machine in proportion. 
As might be expected, the treatment 

of the metal in the furnaces is of vital 
importance. If proper allowance for 
oxidation of zinc, etc., is not made the 
alloy intended will not be produced. 
Furthermore, the metal must be taken 
from the furnace as soon as it reaches 

the proper heat, for if allowed to soak 
in the furnace, it will take up gases and 
the castings made from it may be por- 
In certain packing ring mixtures, 
we consider this item so important that 


we use an alarm clock to insure the 
metal being poured off at exactly the 
proper moment. 
Avoid Aluminum 
The temperature at which the metal 

should be poured into the molds is im- 
portant and no doubt many castings are 
lost due to this matter. 
If poured too cold it is almost 
sible to obtain solid castings, especially 
at the gate. On the other hand, if 
poured hot, the may be 
porous throughout. Great care 
taken to see that no aluminum gets: into 
the mixture, as a very small percentage 
of it will the castings to leak 
Antimony and iron will do the same, but 
not to so great an extent. Aluminum 
has a very peculiar action on the metal. 
The castings will look solid and will not 
show a draw, but when put under pres- 
sure will leak all over. It is one of the 
most dangerous metals around the brass 
not act as 

carelessness in 

too castings 

must be 


foundry. Antimony does 
quickly as aluminum, but has about the 

same effect if used long enough in the 

mixture. You may start out with a 
small percentage and it seems to do 
no harm, but if used until it is mixed 

with all returned material, such as turn- 
ings, gates, etc., the castings will become 

In conclusion, it may be said that solid 
withstand air 
can be the 
exercise of the the 
design of the article to the pouring of 
the metal into the mold. Even then fail- 

castings of a density to 

pressure obtained only by 

greatest care from 

ures will sometimes happen and _ final 
success can be obfained only through 
experiment and the adaptation of the 

various methods to the article under con- 


Conductivity of Iron Pipe 

Investigations conducted by the U. 
S. bureau of the action of 
steam in pipes show that in the case 
of saturated steam the temperature of 
the outside surface of the pipe is very 
nearly that of the steam in the pipe. 
There is no appreciable difference in 

mines on 

the temperature of the outside surface 
whether the pipe is bare or covered 
with a l-inch layer of magnesia pipe 
covering. Therefore the conductivity 
of the iron in the pipe is so high that 
only a fraction of a degree of tem- 

perature drop between the two sur- 
faces is needed to conduct through 
the metal all the heat that can be 
radiated from the outside surface of 

the pipe under almost any condition; 
also the rate of impartation from the 
steam to the the 
pipe is so high that the metal is kept 
at the same temperature as the steam 
This is undoubtedly due to the fact 
that saturated steam can off a 
large quantity of heat by condensation 
without any change in temperature. 
From the preceding deductions, it fol- 
lows that in computing the heat losses 
through pipe coverings the resistance 
to the heat flow through the metal of 
be dropped out of the 
problem the resistance of 
the covering material considered. That 

inside surface of 


the pipe can 
and only 
is, it is safe to assume the inside sur 
face of the covering at the same tem 

perature as the steam 

New Elevator Motors 

\ two-speed,  alternating-current 
motor, recently designed by the West- 
Electric & Mfg. Co., East 
Pa., embodies the unique 

feature of two separate windings in 
both the rotor and the stator. This 
motor was designed for operating 
high speed elevators and will provide 
an increase in speed up to 400 feet 
The inherent features of 
single-speed, alternating-current 
the speed of the eleva- 
feet a Mechan- 
the construction of this new 
motor is the same as that of the 
standard single speed elevator motor. 
The motor develops a high torque at 
low speeds with a starting current of 

a minute. 
motors limit 

tor to 250 minute. 


approximately 50 per cent above full 
load, full speed current. 

is used, giving the motor a speed of 
When the 
speed, the 

For starting, a connection 
250 revolutions per minute 

motor attains sufficient 
connections are changed to an eight 
pole combination, increasing the mo- 
tor speed to about 850 revolutions per 

In stopping the motor, the connect 

ing operations are reversed, and, since 

September 21, 1916 

the change from eight 
made the motor is op- 
synchronous speed, an 

at the instant 
to 24 poles is 
erating above 
electrical breaking action is produced 
which brings the motor to synchron- 
ism for the eight-pole connection. The 
motor is then from the 
line and brought to rest by the ap 
plication of electrically operated me- 
chanical brakes. 

The controller equipment is actuat- 
ed by a number of magnetically op- 
erated switches and relays mounted 
on a slate panel and controled by a 
car switch located in the elevator. 
The car switch provides two running 
These new 


speeds in each direction. 

motors are built in standard sizes 
varying from 25 to 40 horsepower. 
They are especially adapted for use 

in outlying districts where direct cur- 

rent is not available for elevator 


Chromic Ore Production 

Chromic iron ore is extensively used 
in making colors and dyes and re- 
fractory materials as well as for alloys 
in making steel for armor plate, pro- 
jectiles and high speed tools, and the 
demand for it greatly increased 
since the war in Europe 

The chromic ore mines of the Pacific 
coast have been recently examined 
by J. S. Diller, of the United States 
geological survey, who reports a re- 
markable increase in production since 
the transcontinental railroads have 

so reduced freight rates as to enable 


the chrome ore produced on the Pa- 

cific coast to with the ore 

imported on the Atlantic border. 
For many years California has been 



the only state producing 
and it is still the chief producer. Its 
production is far greater than ever 
Its output during the first six 
1916 than three 
greatest yield of 
and is 


months of was more 



former increasing 
The the 
belts of serpentine in the Sierra Ne- 

chief producing are 
vada and Coast ranges, which are dis- 
score of counties 
still the 

producer and contains the largest ore 

tributed through a 
Shasta county ts greatest 
body yet discovered in the state. 

Nearly all chrome ore is taken out 

of open quarries Most of the ore 
bodies are small and are lenticular 
in shape, containing from 1 to 200 

long tons of ore Few contain as 
much as a thousand long tons of ore, 
and many are the source of blasted 
hopes in those who exploit them. Bodies 
of chrome ore have recently been dis- 
covered in different parts of Oregon, 
where production has already begun 
The development of some _ promising 

bodies is awaited with interest 

VER a year ago the first Gron 

wall - Dixon electric melting 

and refining furnace was in- 
stalled at Detroit In conjunction 
with the basic Gronwall patents, there 
were combined certain American pat- 
ents secured by Joseph L. Dixor 
The Gronwall-Dixon furnace operates 
n a 2-phase system, energy being 
taken from 3-phase supply through 
two banks of transformers connected 
yy a modified Scott 3-phase t 2 
phase connectior It t s oft five 
tons and larger capacities, four verti 
cal electrodes iré l troduced through 
the root The potton electrode is 
embedded under the lining of the 
hearth and is entirely pr tected trom 
the molten chargé It therefore re 
quires no water cooling. In capacities 



ire introduced through the root 
Under the Gronwall-Dixon patents 
the transformers aré arranged to de 


liver a current at varying 

which are imme liately available as re 
quired by the operator Each phase 
ot the 2-phas« current whicl takes 
a balanced load Irom the 3-phase 
supply mains, is carried to a pair of 
the vertical electrodes the botton 
electrode being joined to the neutral 
{ ‘nt of the trans! ners 

ly ( ay 4 iar is) hy Sor 
Dhre ig] i special irrangement 

switches the arcs ca! e thrown in 
series, or in parallel or into several 
series parallel posit s Durit 2 the 

A paper read at the American Fi 
Associatior nvention at Clevelar 
15, 1916 

| ie 
7 oe 
4 ths 
uJ , 
elting Stage while t he ar< are 
series, the lower electrode greatly a« 
celerates the process by carrying a 
nsiderable proportion of current, as 
well as all the unbalanced loads 
ich im commercial operation are 
navoidable Because of this feature 
the power input to the furnace may 
be greatly increased over and above 
e amount it would be possible to 
carry without the bottom electrods 
In subsequent periods of refining 
recarburizing, and introducing alloys 
x for holding the bath, the voltage 
can be reduced, shortening the ars 

the reby 

lessening to a marked degree 

the reflected heat on the walls and 
roof. This procedure prevents rapid 
destruction of the refractories. When 
operating with a short arc the parallel 
ir one t the modifed nnections 
ure used, passing a large proporti 

ft current through the at to the 
bottom § electrode By this metl 

the proportion of current flowing 
through the lower elect ‘ ul ‘ 
varied within wide limits Fs the 
power companies’ point view this 
transformer and connection arrang 

nt or over, the pows actor is 92 
97 per cent, af the sery e mains 
d power tat ure t S ‘ 
any s¢ Ss sures 

The Gronwall-Dix I act s 
drical in s pe il nt the isual tilt 
gz type rhe tilting peratior $ car 
d ut throug wort lrive t 
cting rods operate yy motor drive 
rough a reversing controlle: The 
rnace¢ is iesignes witl tw 1oors 

front a yack Lhe tront door is a 
mbination pouring and charging 
oO the spout being removable. The 
se of two in place of three doors, as 

is customary on electric furnaces, re 

es the heat losses 
( nsivt nod ures 

built up in a supporting 

special shapes 

t silica brick The entire roof is 
removable an y providing a spare 
roof, very little time is lost in re 
placing, in case one is burned out 

The electrodes are carried by an 

verhead support made up of I-beams 

Phe weight 1s taken up by a coun 
terbalance t whicl the mechanical 

caring tor the control is attached 

[his control is operated by an in 

\ al mot ror each electrode, 
‘ is energize through a system 

i tactors located ! a switcl 

either iutomat ally or hand 
perated at a push button station. In 
trument i ! ati the amount 
current and voltage in each ele 

t le are pla r i separate panel 
jacent to the « trol and under in 

‘ ate servat ! the pperator 

e at nt f current to be passed 
r €a electrode can be set at 
nut er ¢ different tep by the 
perat Phe rrent will be main 
‘ at { t by the automat 
t A] perating the 
witches ar rought to a panel so 
that the entire peratior ! irom one 
f P y be carried it 

ne melts , ; assistant 

The furt stalle at Detroit for 

‘ | ;. ‘ le ‘ 1s r five 



September 21, 1916 

er part of the required 

tons capacity. Up to Aug. 

4 alloys either with the scrap 

1, ovér 800 heats of alloy 
steel for automobile and 

or immediately after the 

charge is melted, reserving 

aeroplane construction had 
been poured. The results 
obtained have been so en- 
couraging from both a 
commercial and a_ metal. 
lurgical viewpoint, that an 
additional 10-ton unit is 
now being installed and ar- 
rangements for still fur- 
ther additions have been 
made. The operation of 
this furnace is continuous. 
The cold charge, consisting 
of various kinds and grades 

of scrap together with a 
percentage of pig iron, is 
charged into the furnace . 
and from this material 

heats of high-grade nickel, 
chrome-nickel, chrome - va- 
nadium, high silicon and 
high manganese, high car- 
bon and high speed steels 
may be made within a pe- 
riod of four to five hours, 
with an energy consump- 
tion of from 500 to 600 

—_— Tr 

only sufficient for a final 
adjustment of the analysis. 
Investigations of alloy steels 
made under this practice 

have shown an_ absolute 

uniformity and extreme ac- 
curacy in meeting specifica- 
tions. After the melting op- 
eration, and during the re- 
fining, the passage of the 




current through the molten 
metal creates a magnetic 
movement of the bath pro- 
ducing three distinct results. 

First—It brings the en- 
‘tire bath in direct contact 
with the refining slag, ma- 
terially assisting in removal 
of the sulphur and phos- 
phorus. It is therefore pos- 
sible, starting with a charge 
high 0.10 
sulphur and 

averaging as as 
per cent 
phosphorus to reduce these 
slag to 


elements with one 

under 0.03 per cent. 

kilowatt hours per _ ton. 

Under favorable conditions 

many heats of steel refined | 

to under 0.02 per cent sulphur and 
phosphorus have been completed in 
a little over three hours with a min- 
imum energy consumption of 460 
kilowatt-hours per ton. In making 
the above grades of steel, practically 

FIG. 1 




duced in a 5-ton Gronwall-Dixon ele: 

tric melting and refining furnace is 
shown in an accompanying table 
In making the usual run of 

it has proved to be unnecessary to use 


any deoxidizing agents such as ferro- 


quently the phosphorus and 

sulphur has been reduced 

to 0.01 per cent with an ad- 
Extensive investiga- 


ditional slag 

tions of more than heats have 

of bottom 

shown a minimum 
in the piped section 
poured This 
of the sulphur and phosphorus is also 


ingots. rapid 

90 per cent are brought about by 
to carbon specifi- the passage of the 
. ‘ iring ‘ f . ° J _ be " - . : a 
a Cost Per Ton of Liquid Alloy Steel Produced current = through 
generally consid- ; " : ft the bath as_ it 
erable recarburiz- in Gronwall-Dixon Furnace overcomes the 
ing of the bath as Electric energy 550 K. W. H. at 0.08c $4.41 tendency for the 
‘ . . Electrodes, 20 Ibs. at 53sc per Ib..... 1.10 nina " , » 
well as the addi i iin bteseeh chins in dens 4 arcs to skim along 
tion of the neces- ET Nisateenvcbehucevtatesbuar Seanist 94 the surface of the 
, Ret The Slag mixture—60 Ibs. lime per ton of steel; 6 Ibs. f spar per n tec . ; : 
cary & oys. re _ 10 Ibs. anthracite coal per ton steel , : slag by drawing 
specifications are oe lee ETON... eeeecccseecces 14. them directly into 

° Skille« abor d ann 
in all cases exact- Unskilled labor 30 it. This method 
ing, and the charge Total : produces an  ex- 
- Oo ° pcc.' P 
must be held = *To raise the manganese content 0.30 to 0.40 per cent from 38 to 50 pounds of 80 ceptionally high 
the furnace while per cent ferro-manganese are added in a 5-ton furnace, or approximately 9 Ibs. per temperature par- 
’ . . ton of steel. At 8% cents per pound the alloy addition cost is 76 cents To bring “i 
a sample is ana- up the silicon content in the steel, to approximately 0.15 per cent it is customary to ticularly desirable 
lyzed for carbon add 6 Ibs. of 50 per cent terro-silicon which at 3 per makes the cost 18c when introducing 
= Y J . 7 , > ry c ‘ “ a2 . : : ‘ . 
by the combus Conversion Costs Per Ton of Steel Castings the desulphurizing 
tion method, man- Electric energy, 500 K. W. H. at 0.08 0 0 slag, which must 
ganese, nicke L, Electrodes, 20 lbs. at 5%c Ib........... 1.1/ be made highly 
; i MetractOries ..cccccccces cath erabeeuewerens .40 : 
chromium and va Alloye—See note at foot of previous table 94 basic and _ steel 
nadium, accord- Slag Material ........ ‘i 25 kept sufficiently 
. Scrap and Iron........ 12.00 7 
ing to the grade Skilled Labor Ts nnnhiwndanee : hans .60 fluid to complete 
of - steel Unskilled Labor for charging and handling scrap 12 the removal of 
The above figures Total $19.41 the sulphur. As 
on power con- there are no oxi- 
sumption include dizing gases pres- 
the time and energy consumed while manganese or ferro-silicon except as ent, the sulphur is held in the slag. 
the laboratory work is being com- required to meet the specifications. Second. — This motion of the bath 
pleted. Many heats have been poured where brings all of the charge under the 
The estimated cost per ton of liquid no additions of these elements are direct influence of the arcs, and cold 
alloy steel, refined to under 0.025 per made. Owing to this neutral atmos- rings at the edge and chilled bottoms 

cent sulphur and phosphorus, pro- 

phere, it is possible to add the great- 

have never been experienced during 

September 21, 1916 



the operation of the Gron- 
wall-Dixon furnace in nearly 
800 heats It is therefore 
possible to pour all of the 

metal, leaving the 

entirely clean for the  suc- 
ceeding heats 

7 hird — The 

tion of the bath produces a 

magnetic ac- 
distribution and amalgama- 
tion of all the added -alloys. 
This is particularly notice- 
able when making final addi- 
tions for the adjustment of 
the analysis, such as metal 
for recarburizing, ferro-man- 
ganese, nickel, chromium, or 
vanadium as may be required, 
furnace can be tapped within 

which additions _ the 
10 minutes 
That this 
through the 

passage of the 
current hearth 
is of decided benefit is shown 
by the fact that the initial lin- 
when the fur- 

ing installed 

square section was cast, the 
physical test being as follows: 
The bar was supported on 
knife edges 12 inches apart 
and sustained a load, ap- 
plied in the middle of 3,050 
pounds before breaking, the 
deflection being 0.215-inch. 
The tensile strength was 
27,570 pounds with a Brinnel 
So far the 
work has been carried on 
only in an experimental way. 

hardness of 202. 


The figures above as re- 
gards output and energy con- 
sumption are based on the 
making of high-grade alloy 
steels to meet severe speci- 
making the 
ordinary run of steel cast- 
ings it is believed these fig- 
ures can be greatly reduced, 

fications In 

more especially as no time 
need be lost in sampling and 
analyzing the metal during 
the actual operation. Gener- 

nace started nearly a _ year 

and a half ago, is still in FIG, 2 
good condition, and 
promise of lasting an indefinite period. 

Another field for this furnace is the 
electric refining of cupola metal. Some 



of the results have most en- 

couraging In one case fluid metal 
was taken from the cupola and re 


fined in the electric furnace, the final 


analysis of the iron being as follows: 

Per cent 
Silicon 1.980 
Phosphorus 0.313 
Sulphur 0.044 
Manganese 0.730 
Combined carbon 0.630 
Total carbon 3.280 

From the metal test a bar of 1-inch 


ally speaking, a steel foundry 
requires a large number of 
small heats in quick succes- 
sion This is obtained by reducing 
the capacity of the furnace hearth it- 
self and increasing the transformer 
capacity so that the charges are melt- 
ed quickly. Thus, by reducing the time 
cycle of operation, the production costs 
are materially decreased 

The Cost of Grinding Castings 

HERE is commendable ten- 
dency for large foundries to 
use softer wheels for their 
rough snagging work than were 

formerly employed. This is especially 
to be noticed among the concerns that 
grind duplicate 
castings under the piece rate system 
of payment. Low first cost and long 
life are no longer the chief requisites 
grinding wheels. 

large quantities of 

that interest the trained and 
ligent purchaser of 
It is now recognized that rapid cut- 
ting wheels which require infrequent 
dressing are the most economical in 
wheels that are safe to 

the long run 
operate, cheap to 

duplicated and dependable in quality. 


With grinding becoming more of a 
factor in our manufacturing life every 
day, it will pay the consumer to more 
carefully figure his grinding costs and 
check them up from time to time, in 

order to be sure that “his final 
abrasive cost” is reduced to its lowest 
limit. By “final abrasive cost” is 

From Grits and Grinds, published - 


meant the abrasive cost per unit of 
output, taking wheel cost, labor cost, 
power and maintenance cost into con 

Where there is a constant duplica 
tion of work in large foundries and 
the piece-work system is employed, 
there is a very simple, but serviceable 
method for computing the relative 
efficiency of various kinds of grinding 
wheels. The operator’s earnings on 
a given job per dollar cost of whee! 

may be considered under these cir 

cumstances as a very fair means of 
value beirg 

determining the actual 

received for the invested 

should be 


These earnings averaged 
from the individual earnings of each 
operator employed on the same class 
of work and the data collected for a 
sufficiently long period of time to 

practically eliminate the personal 

factor and reduce the chances for 
error to a minimum. 

For instance, the average earnings 
of several operators grinding a certain 
class of steel castings might be $9 
per man in a given time and each 

might average to corapletely wear out 

a grinding wheel costing $6, which 
means that for every dollar cost of 
wheel the operator earns $1.50 

It should now be clearly established 
by the shop manager whether or not 
he is economical 
grinding wheel for the work at hand. 
Comparative tests should be conduct- 

using the most 

ed on wheels of slightly harder or 
softer grades, perhaps of coarser or 
finer grits until the plainly 
indicate that the most efficient wheel 
has been found. The most efficieni 
wheel is the one that earns the most 
for the operator, with reasonable exer- 


tion on his part, per dollar cost of 
wheel to the manufacturer. When this 
condition exists you may be sure that 
the wheel is a rapid cutter, yielding 
high production; that wasteful dress- 
ing away of the wheel is reduced to 
a minimum; that the power cost, labor 
cost and general maintenance cost are 
lower than they would be ctherwise. 
In other 
that you have reduced the abrasive 

words, you may be sure 

cost per unit of production to its 
When this 

reached, the manufacturer has a very 

lowest value point is 

ee eS 

good knowledge of tlhe abrasive con 
sumption necessary to get his work 

out and he can readily detect ineffi- 

cient work on the part of his oper- 
ators or a falling off in the quality 
of the grinding wheels Of course. 

grinding wheels of identical composi- 

tion are bound to vary slightly in 
their life and no two operators will 
get the same service out of similar 
wheels. The averaging of costs and 
earnings over a long period will take 
care of such variables But marked 
deviation from the established costs 

and earnings may be brought to light 

and can then be intelligently investi- 

gated by the manufacturer working 

in conjunccion with the wheelmaker. 
Grinding Plows Economically 

An interesting method is used in 

the plow industry for checking up the 

abrasive coSt entering into the manu- 
facture and assembly of. plows, etc. 
and it may be applied to other in 

dustries as well. 

Suppose a 30x4-inch grinding wheel 
costs the manufacturer $51.30. When 
it is 26 inches in diameter it is only 
worth $39.30, or $12 worth of abrasive 
has been used. If the operator's earn- 
ings during that time were $15.60, the 
earnings per dollar cost of wheel were 
$1.30, whereas the minimum require- 
ment might be $1.20. To encourage 
operators to use their wheels eco- 
nomically, a bonus is often paid for 
all earnings in excess of say $20 in 
using a wheel down from 30 inches 
to 26 inches in diameter. 

At 26-inch diameter the 
removed and placed on a 
with higher spindle speed, and the 
wheel worn down to 20 inches diam- 
eter. At 20 inches diameter a similar 
change is made to another machine 

wheel is 

with still higher spindle speed. The 
average wheel speed in all cases 
should be around 5,000 surface feet 

per minute. Bonuses are paid for ex- 
cess earnings in all these stages and 
thus the maximum efficiency of use 
is bound to be attained. 

Earnings per dollar cost of wheel 
should not drop below a certain care 
fully level. If they do, 
the knows that the 
wheel is either hard and has to 
be dressed too frequently, or that 
the wheel is too soft and wears away 
too fast, or even that the wheel is 
satisfactory, but is being wasted away 
by unnecessary dressing at the hands 


of an ignorant, unskilled or careless 
workman. Honest and capable fore- 
men can readily determine the real 

cause of lowered earnings and take 
the necessary steps to straighten mat- 
ters out. 

Still a third method is used 
sionally on duplicate work and with 



excellent results. Here also it is nec- 
essary to keep certain rccords care- 
fully and a better check is obtained 

where the piece-work system is em- 
The following records are kept 

Date, pieces ground, weight in pounds 

hours of grinding, earnings, wheel 

loss on diameter and cubic inches of 
abrasive consumed. 
These figures enable the manufac- 

turer to calculate the amount of 
abrasive consumed per ton of castings 
cost per ton of 

ground, the abrasive 

castings ground, the average carnings 
per hour for each operator or general 
average for all and the average earn- 
ings per ton castings ground. Con- 
tinual examination of these values 
keeps the superintendent thoroughly 
informed of the grinding costs, their 
fluctuations and the reasons therefor. 

If a given grain and grade of wheel 
grinds an average of a ton of cast- 
ings with an abrasive consumption of 
abrasive cost of 45 

35 cubic inches, 

cents and operator’s earnings of 28 
cents per hour, and another grain 
and grade of wheel grinds an average 
of a ton of the same castings with 
an abrasive consumption of 25 cubic 
inches, an abrasive cost of 32 cents 

and operator’s earnings of 28 cents, 
it is very apparent which wheel should 
the work. If, on the 
the second cited 

earnings per 

be chosen for 
other hand, in 
the operator's 
hour had fallen off materially, it 
would have clearly indicated that the 
second wheel was too hard. The de- 
creased cost of abrasive would prob- 
ably have been offset by an increased 
labor cost, lower production per day 
and a dissatisfied operator. 

The earnings 
castings ground to abrasive 
ton of castings ground should not fall 
determined mini- 
paid for 



ton of 

ratio of per 

cost per 
should be 

below a 
mum; a bonus 
excess earnings over a carefully de- 

termined maximum value of this ratio. 

Such figures educate the shop man- 
ager in relative abrasive costs and 
make him master of the situation. 

They absolutely point out the wheel 
of greatest efficiency, which is the one 
that will grind a ton of castings at 
lowest abrasive cost and highest earn- 
ings consistent with the effort of the 

Abrasive Efficiency Factor 

Efficiency, to the engineer, represents 
the ratio of output to input, expressed 
in the same terms. Calling the earn- 
ings of the operator per unit of produc- 
tion, the output, EF, and the abrasive 
cost per same unit of production, the 
input, 4, we derive the so-called abrasive 
efficiency factor A/E. 

You are using the 

most efficient 

September 21, 1916 

wheel for your work when the value 
of this factor is highest. Trial, alone, 
will prove when you have arrived at 
this point and the time is coming 
when such a factor will be submitted 
each month to executives along with 
other factors the depart- 
mental costs of plant operation. 
Did you ever stop to consider how 
wasteful the average operator is when 
rough snagging wheels? A 
this kind should be dressed 
reasons—wheel load- 


wheel of 
for one of two 
ing or glazing, or wheel out of round, 
or worn uneven on the face. By far 
the most frequent use of the dresser 
is to sharpen the wheel face, and 
this merely requires the removal of 
about 1/32-inch—just the extreme out- 
er surface. 

An 18x2x1%-inch wheel might cost 
a concern $8 and could be used down 

to 8 inches diameter. This would 
leave about 400 cubic inches of 
abrasive available for work, at a cost 
of 2 cents per cubic inch. Suppose 
when this wheel is 16 inches in diam- 
eter it should require sharpening and 
the operator used his dresser care- 
lessly, removing \%-inch from the 
diameter of the wheel. This repre- 

sents over 6% cubic inches of abrasive 

valued at 13.2 cents, and most of it 
is absolutely wasted. This same op- 
eration should not have cost ° over 

one-fourth that amount. 

Free cutting wheels mean grinding 
with less exertion on the part of the 
operator, earnings and less 




The question of power consumption 
receives little attention at pres- 
ent and yet where there are many 
grinding wheels at work, the question 
investgiation. It requires 
5-horsepower to drive 


will bear 
a grinding machine to capacity with 

a 24x2™%-inch rough snagging wheel 

of the correct working grain and 
grade. It might require 5'%-horse- 
power to drive a wheel that was 
long-lived and slow wearing on the 
same work. The freer cutting wheel 
will cut much faster than the hard 
wheel, probably from 10 to 25 per 
cent faster, which means that the 

horsepower or kilowatt hours re- 
quired to do a given piece of work 
with the freer cutting wheel, will be 
much lower than on the harder, long- 
lived wheel. 

Power money and there is 
no question but that the  differ- 
power -consumption of 
a grinding plant using free cutting 
wheels and one using wheels bought 
chiefly on long-life specifications, will 
amount to several hundred dollars per 


ence in the 


Normal Fracture of Malleable tron 

The Author Points Out That There is a Difference in Structure Between the 
Skin and Core of a Steel Casting, as in a Malleable Casting, 
Only in the Former it is Not Discernible 

malleable iron show the appear- 

photographs of tractures ot 

ance distinctly, the usual photo- 
graphs simply show the fracture of a 
test lug that has been hammered off a 
casting, the fracture of a test piece, o1 

Such fractures are made 

of a casting has been broken 

complex by virtue of the fact that fail 

takes place due to influence 

of both and 

tensity depending upon their distance 
the While 
in castings of any kind, in the ma- 
f loads that 


stresses, being of varying in 

from neutral axis failures 

jority of cases, are due to 
produce bending, torsion or both, still 
accurately approached by a 
pull, as in 
test lug, 

broken in a 


[ believe subject can be more 

study of 
have been 

fractures produced 

action of a direct 
tests. A 


through sole 

making tension 
for instance, is 

very indifferent manner, 

blows are de 
of the lug that compression is about 
the The 
seems to be to hit the lug squarely on 

and often first few 

livered so upon point 

only stress produced. idea 

end, curling it up more and more by 


tend to 

repeated blows until 

place. The direct blows 

A paper read at the annual 
American Foundrymen’s Asso 

Sept. 11 to 16, 1916 

meeting of the 
iation, Cleveland, 


press and flatten out those crystals 
on the tension side of the lug as well 
as on its compression side and slij 

planes are not only produced but duc 

tility may be practically destroyed 

It is evident that if a crystal of pure 
iron is compressed and flattened out 
its subsequent ability to elongate when 

pulled is greatly reduced. Consequent 



FIG 1 

struck side 

to knock it off the casting, we 

ly, when the lug is 
will se« 
shiny particles on the ten 

fracture, because, as 

ductility of the 

sion side of 

already explain d, the 

crystals has been greatly lessened by 

the compression which they previously 

sustained and they will, when sub 
jected to a pull, part through the slip 
bands instead of stretching This 

leaves tacets that will sparkle, so that 

the tension side of the fracture will 
have an abnormal appearance, be the 
material good, bad or indifferent, as 
compared with what the fracture of 
these respective grades would show 
if subjected to transverse or tensile 

stress only 

When malleable iron is broken trans- 

versely, the metal on one side of the 

neutral axis is of course in compres 

sion, and in any quality of malleable 

it will always appear silvery white 

at the extreme edge of the compres- 



sion side, the being less in 

evidence as neutral axis is ap 

proached, because, as stated, the com 
stresses are of 

pression varying in 

tensity, and the crystals furtherest 
from the neutral axis are flattened 
much more than those nearer to it 
Fractures that have been produced 

by transverse stress will always show 

a silvery white area on the compres- 

sion side, starting faintly to one side 
f the neutral axis and growing deeper 

as the edge is approached, as is plainly 

illustrated in Fig. 1 

From the foregoing, it is clear that 
if we desire to ascertain the appear 
ance of the fracture of malleable iron 
t is desirable to see what its frac- 
ture looks like when the metal in the 
entire sectior has been subjected to 









Fr DE 
FIG. 4 




position of malleable iron consists 
simply of two constituents, including 
about 98 per cent, by weight, of duc- 
tile iron practically free from carbon, 
and about 2 per cent of small rounded 
particles of graphitic carbon uniformly 


throughout mass of 



iron, except within 


Carbon Burned Out of the Surfac: 

It is a well known fact that it is not 
possible to heat a 
steel billet, or a malleable 
ing in the 
nace without removing a great deal, if 

steel casting, a 

iron cast 

oxidizing gases of a fur 
not all, of the carbon from the metal 
for a certain depth under its surface 
In commercial practice this depth will 
vary anywhere from a 1/32-inch to a 
1/16-inch. As steel contains no graph- 
carbon the broken 
piece will be 
throughout, and the characteristics of 

itic fracture of a 

uniform in appearance 
the fracture can best be described by 
the “Steely”. The 

microscope, however, will disclose the 

accepted term 
fact that there is very much less car- 
bon in the nearly decarbonized ring 
of metal referred to, than in the core 
which it The that 
when the fracture is examined by eye, 
the border is similar in appearance to 
the core in the due 
solely to the fact that the appearance 
of the steel fracture does not depend 

encircles. reason, 

case of steel is 

the same treatment as would be the upon carbon percentage, unless the 
case in a tension test. As you are amount of carbon between the steels 
doubtless aware, the structural com-_ that are being compared varies greatly 

instance, the fracture of a 0.10 


per cent carbon steel would look about 
the same as one that contained 0.40 
per cent carbon \ pohshed and 
etched section, however, when viewed 
under the microscope shows that a 
great difference exists between the 
two, which can be plainly seen by 

September 21, 1916 

with numerous particles of graphiti 

carbon causing the metal to look dark 
due to contrast, the 

border is plainly visible 


In Fig. 3, which is enl 

i ~ 

FIG. 6 

reference to Fig. 2, enlarged 60 diam« 

ters. This illustration shows the dif- 
ference in structural composition be- 
tween the skin and core of a piece of 
steel that was inch thick 

Even in the case of the very best 
malleable iron the eye easily distin- 
guishes the difference in appearanc« 
between the decarbonized border and 
the metal it surrounds, because the 
former is practically carbonless and 

looks steely, while the latter is dotted 





lameters, can be seen th the struc 
ture f the decarbonized border and 
the core, as it is misleadingly called 
of a section taken from one of the 
ensile test bars show I Fig 4 
[he skin, as you will note, is practi 
cally free fro cat while the little 
particles of graphitic carbon can plain 
ly be seen distributed with great uni 
formity throughout the iron of the 
core You are aware that ar ‘ 
mercial iron product containing but 
little combined ca ( ust < neces 
sity be ductile, and as good malleabl 
iron contains but littl iny mus 
be ductile material 

In Err ) us U/ } 

If I have dwelt upon this matt 
somewhat at length it is cause ther 
appears to be an erroneous opinior 
first, in connection w é acte 

istics of the border or skin f mal 
leable iron, second, becaus« tf the 
common belief that a decarbonize: 
border or skin is unique in malleabl 
iron and not present in steel, owing 

to its invisibility in the fracture, third, 

because the skin must be taken into 
account in considering the fractur 
of malleable iron, and fourth,. becaus« 

can in the case 



this so-called 

inferior iron be of itself ar 
explanation of its inferiority 
In Fig. 4 is shown the fracturs 

three tensile test bars The bars have 
been held in such a position that th 
fractures were perpendicular to th 
axis of the lens: while in Fig. 5 
other view of these same fract es 
be seen In the latter illustrat 
plane of the fractures was held 
lique to the axis of the lens 

These two views were take 
purpose of illustrating the appearance: 
of the fracture of good malleable iro 
when broken by direct tension and 
when held at different angles he 
direction of the light. When this ma 

terial fails due to a 

September 21, 1916 

the crystalline grains of iron, when 
the elastic limit has been reached, 
start to elongate permanently. As the 

test proceeds, they stretch further and 
become thinner, and just prior to frac- 
ture they become tapered down to a 

The fracture then has what is known 
as a “tooth”, 
made up of an innumerable number of 
spines that have the 
elongation of the numerous grains in 
the metal. In Fig. 4, that part of the 
fracture encircled by the decarbonized 

because its surface is 

resulted from 

ring appears to be of a dark gray 
color. This is due in part to the pres- 
ence of small particles of graphitic 
carbon and in part to the shadows 
that are cast by the spines of the 
elongated grains. The skin, or bor- 
der, looks white, due in part to the 
fact that no graphitic carbon its pres 
ent and in part to light reflection 
When the bar fails, the metal in the 
border being slightly more ductile, 

breaks last and at an angle, and con- 
sequently, when the light shines direct- 
ly on the fracture of the core, it shines 

obliquely on the surface of the bor- 
der. If, however, the bar is held ob 
liquely to the direction of the light, 
as shown in Fig. 5, a very fine silky 
sheen will be seen that varies in shade 
from a silvery gray to darker shades 
of the same color, as the obliquity ot 
the fracture to the light is decreased 
Such will always be the appearance 
of the fracture of a tensile test bar 

of good malleable iron when the frac 

ture is held in the various positions 

If a bar is broken transversely, then 
that failed 

show, in a 

in tension should 

the part 

large measure, the char- 

acteristics covered by the foregoing 

description, while the part that was in 
compression would have the whitish 
looking area already referred to, and 
the more ductile the metal the greater 
will be the depth of this area 

such fractures 


Only a few years ago 

as are shown in Fig. 6 were « 

typical of what the good 

should be and it is 

fracture of 

malleable iron 

actually due to such fractures that ma 

1 this « 

leable iron made in ountry re 
ceived the name, “black heart.” Su 
iron as this is defective, as the 

der instead of being decarboniz« 
contains considerable carbon in tl 
combined form. As a matter of ta 

sequently is mort 

it is a steel, and cor 

brittle than the core When good mal 

leable breaks in tension the core parts 
first, as must be the case if its du 
tility is slightly less than the metal 
in the skin This fact alone is suf- 
ficient to prove that those who have 

claimed that the strength of malleable 
iron lies mostly in the skin are mis 

! bi 
led. In 

case f material whose 



fracture is similar to that shown in 
Fig. 6, the skin breaks first as it is 
more brittle than the core. 

Tests of Webs of I-Beams 
and Girders 

A series of tests has been conducted 
at the engineering experiment station 
of the University of Illinois for the 
purpose of studying the web strains in 

I-beams and girders The specimens 
used consisted of 12-inch I-beams hav- 
ing webs planed down to a thin sec- 
tion and of 24-inch built-up girders hav- 
ing webs of thin plates. The test data 
were used in conjunction with a mathe- 
matical analysis to determine the im- 
portance of diagonal strains and the 
methods of failure of girders The 

results of the investigation, which ars 

published in detail with a complete de- 
scription of the apparatus in a university 

maximum at the 

bulletin, indicate that in general 

shearing stress is a 
neutral axis, but that the diagonal stress 
at the the 


web and th 

also show that the approximate methods 

junction of 

flange must be results 

of computing shearing stress in webs 

should, under certain conditions, be 

checked by 
stiffeners at the 
] | 


more accurate methods and 
supports and under 
concentrated The 

data obtained were utilized by the ex- 


are necessary 

perimenters to develop a formula for 

the buckling strength of webs 

Book Review 

Power Transmission by Leather Belt- 
ing, written by Robert Thurston Kent, 
consulting engineer; cloth, 114 pages, 

514 x8 inches; published by John Wiley 
& Sons, and furnished by The Iron 
Trade Re View for $1 25 net. 

In the preface of Power Transmission 
by Leather Belting the author, 
Thurston Kent, that 
high machinery 
the problems of 
Leather belts 
proved difficult at best, but under the 




points out 

advent of speed 
which obtain in 

intensive conditions 

most machine shops at the present 
time care must be taken to reduce 
belt failures to a minimum in order 
that maximum capacity may be main 
tained. Belting practice, as pointed 

Kent, has been remarkably 
of high 

out by Mr 

improved with the appearance 

grade technical literature upon this 
important subject, but it is sometimes 
impossible to obtain this literatur« 

tions of engineering It is, 

object of this handbook 

since it is often buried in the 


to present to the practical engineer, 
21 series of applicable formulas and 
methods for belt installation, for test- 

ing apparatus already installed and to 
suggest improvements and care of 
belts which are in use. 

The Wiley engineering series, of which 
Power Transmission by Leather Belting 
books devoted 
to the consideration of single subjects 
with the purpose of presenting man- 
practice rather than theo- 
The author mod- 
estly disclaims any credit for original- 
the book that his 
been the complier of 
previous investigations by Barth, 
Taylor and The calculation 
of the tables, however, was done by 
the author this section of the 
book is of importance to the 
practical engineer. 

A thumb-tab 
relating to horsepower, tension, stretch 
of belts, 

is one, will embrace 

uals of 
retical discussion. 

ity in and states 

has office of 



index of the tables 

arc of 

contact, etc. is pro 
vided. The value of the fund of 
information contained in these pages 
is patent. The editing of the vast 
amount of material at the author's 

command has been done with a view 

of presenting vital topics having prac- 
tical application to 

belting problems 

Temperatures in Boiler 

The bureau of 

sued a 



ay mines has is- 
series of 
tests, it has been found that the tem- 
perature of a 
to 20 

technical paper which 

with transmission of heat 

conditions In a 

boiler tube is within 10 
Cent. the 
the boiler water, and the tempera- 
the affected very lit- 
the of the hot 
gases, but follows the temperature of 
the boiler 

degrees same as that 

ture of tube is 
tle by temperature 


\s the temperature drop along the 
path of heat travel is nearly pro- 
portional to the resistance to heat 

travel, the resistance appears. to 

be very high from the hot gases 
to the gas-side surface of the 
tube and very low from this surface 
to the boiler water This fact indi- 
cates that a boiler tube can transmit 
very easily all the heat that can ever 
be imparted to it by the hot gases, 

and that as long as the tubes are kept 
free from scale, oil and other deposit, 
nd filled with water, it is impossible 
tubes, no how 

part in the path of heat 
hot the 
It is this part of the path 


to overheat the 
hard the 

travel is 


boiler is 
vases to 

from the 

that is responsible for slow rate 

heat transmi in boilers as now 
Anything that 
rate of heat impar- 
the hot gases to the boiler 
tube will almost directly increase the 

working of the boiler 

designed and operated 
will increase the 

tation by 

rate of 

How Vanadium is Used 

What its and 

Vanadium is a silvery-white metal used 
to increase both the tensile strength and 
the elastic limit of steel and to increase 
qualities of 

vanadium, how is it 

the strength and wearing 
cast iron. As an alloy in 
metals some advantages of more or less 


importance are claimed for it 
dium is produced in the United States, 
but the leading vanadium mine of the 
world is in Peru, South America. There 
are two ores, the black sulphide and the 
red oxide. Ferro-vanadium is the com- 
mercial product used in steel making and 
foundry practice. It is made from the 
ores by chémical and alumino-thermic pro- 
cesses. The alloy is a hard silvery-white 
iron alloy carrying from 30 to 40 per 
cent of vanadium. It has a fluxing 
action on molten metal, in that it tends 
to take up and remove gases. In prac- 
tice, however, the greater quantity re- 
mains in the metal as an alloying ma- 
The ferro-vanadium is added di- 


rectly to the molten 

Literacy Tests 

There apparently was a great change 
of sentiment in congress with regard to 
the necessity of enacting a literacy test 
in the immigration laws, the majority 
of members seemingly being im favor 
of it. Is or is not the President still 
opposed to the literacy test? 

Efforts made at the recent 
congress to pass the immigration bill 
carrying the literacy test provision were 
blocked, when word went to the senate 
that President Wilson continues to be 
opposed to the literacy test. 

Effect of Webb Bill 
Will the Webb bill, which has re- 
ceived considerable attention, directly 
affect domestic business in the United 
The Webb bill, designed to legalize 
export combinations, was not drafted 

session of 

trade in way 


to affect domestic any 
It was introduced in an effort to 
mit American manufacturers to 
forces in building up an export trade 
action on the measure will 
not be taken until next December, 
since the senate refused to accept the 
bill as an amendment to the omnibus 

revenue bill, just before the adjourn- 



ment of congress, Sept. 8. 

What is Thermalene? 
What is 


thermalene and what is its 

Thermalene is a gas, the discovery 
of which was recently announced from 
Zurich, Switzerland. It is used for 
welding and cutting in the same man- 
ner as acetylene is used with oxygen 
It is produced by the decomposition 
with water and is 
compounded with the 

of crude oil. There 
made for it. It is 

of calcium carbide 
enriched or 
heated vapors 
are several claims 
heavier than air, specific gravity 1.1, 
and it is said it can be used at a 
lower pressure than the other gases 
It is not explosive when liquefied, 
and its explosive range is narrow, the 
explosive ratio from 12 per cent to 30 
per cent air. It can be liquefied at a 
pressure slightly over 1,400 pounds and 
at the ordinary atmospheric tempera- 
ture. An excess of oxygen is not 
required in the welding flame, so that 
there need not be any reduction of 
the carbon in the iron or steel that is 
being welded, thus producing a soft 

It is generated automatically in a 
portable apparatus as needed and de- 
livered at 15 pounds pressure to the 
torch. The special feature in its pro- 
duction is the use of cartridges of 
material, consisting of alternate layers 
of calcium carbide and sawdust soaked 
It is necessary to wash, purify 
and cool the gas. The introduction 
of this gas into the iron and steel 
industries of the United States will be 

watched with interest. 

in oil. 


The Coke Situation 

With the decreasing demand for Con- 


due to the 
of by-product ovens 



of a 
in the country, it would seem that there 
Should be a large surplus of this fuel 
on hand and that the market should be 


extremely weak. I! understand that 
there is no surplus and that there is 
a strong demand for coke. Can you 

explain this apparent inconsistency? 
conditions the de- 
coke, if 

corresponding de- 

demand for 

crease in the un- 

accompanied by a 

crease in the output, would create a 
weak market and a surplus At the 
present time, the operation of by-prod- 
uct ovens has not affected the Con- 
nellsville market to a greater extent 
than labor troubles and car shortage 

have restricted the production of coke 

Therefore, since output and consump- 
tion have been equally reduced, the net 
result has not appreciably changed the 


Electric Arc Welding 

Will kindly explain what is 
meant by the Zerener process of elec- 
tric arc welding? To what application 

is it limited? 


In the Zerener process, an arc is first 
drawn between two carbons by bring- 
ing them into contact with each other 
and then separating them a _ pre-deter- 
mined distance. After the arc is formed 
it is blown upon the metal by means 
of an electro-magnet. The metal which 

is in the vicinity of the arc is raised to 
a welding temperature. Because of the 
difficulty in obtaining 
of the arc and because the construction 
of the apparatus lend itself 
readily to the handling of cur- 
rents, the Zerener process is confined to 

close regulation 

does not 

use on a narrow range of work such 
as welding small steel and brass cast- 
ings and wrought-iron plates, tubes and 


Great Meeting Stirs Foundrymen 


was ¢ 

ot re] 


Cleveland Convention of Allied Foundry Organizations Sets New 
High Water Mark—Steel, Malleable and Gray 

Iron Sessions Spirited 

ERHAPS the most striking feature of the 
1916 foundry convention, which was held in 

Cleveland from Monday to Friday of last 

week, is found in the fact that at no previous 
meeting were the exhibition, entertainment and 
technical features so thoroughly welded into a 

complete whole. The program was almost per 
fectly balanced, not only in its major but in its 
minor elements. The topics presented at the pro 
fessional sessions were so carefully selected and 
grouped that at no time did the interest flag or 
the attendance wane. The list of papers and re 
ports was exceptionally long and the di 


were unusually extended, nevertheless, with one 
exception, the meetings were run off virtually on 
schedule time, leaving all of the afternoons fre 

for the enjoyment of the entertainment features 


of the program, for plant visitation or the trans 
action of personal business. 
In spite of unusual difficulties resulting trom 


traffic delays, the exhibition was complete to the 
last detail, at the opening hour on Tuesday 

morning. A comprehensive description of the 

exhibition appeared in last week’s issue of J/e 
Iron Trade Review. Throughout the we: the 
Wednesday morning sessio1 col ttee on f 
levoted entirely to the reading power t 
vorts of committees and the pre method of ca 
ion and discussion of several s ( s 

technical papers. The big meeting roon 
was completely filled. In the report 
the American Foundrymen’s Associa 
committee on foundry costs 
vhich was read by B. D. Fuller 
\Westine us Electr & Mfg ( 
Cleveland, it 1s reco ended that a 
ingre ¢ t with i eliable cost at 
{ nt % cf sidered It s 
so pointed that the federal trade 
( iss S cde elopit £ | st at 
counting systems fo arious dus 
tries \ O Backert secretary I 
he association, explained what E. N 
Hurley chief of the ( ss is 
‘ n to devel ip cost act nting svs 
t s to anufacturers 

( H Scovell, ( lint m H. SCcovée 1] 
& Co., Boston, emphasized the neces 
sity for good cost accounting He 
said that foundrymen must develop 
t feature in thei business until 
eir systems are so standardized that 
ill may compete on a common basis 
The talk was followe by entl 
siastic discussion in which difficulties 
now encountered on account of the 
lack of a uniform cost system wer 
enumerated and suggestions \ PROM 
action offered The secretary int F. B. W : 
duced a motion to the effect that th : " 

the visiting foundrymen in an unusually satisfying’ 
mannet The program, which included outdoor 
nd indoor recreation features, was run off with 
out a hitch Che final event of the week, the 
annual subscript banquet, was replete with 
Unique features, excellent addresses and classical 
The opening jo sessions on Monday and 
Tuesday were covered last week’s issue of The 
lron Trade Rz \ complete report of the 
remaining sessions follows 
ndr costs the board ot directors be em 
estigate the best vered to put the plan in action, if 
t the sugges idvisable Che motion Was 
st ttees and irried 
Faults of Profit-Sharing 
n interesting discussion on profit 
i g was contributed by (¢ | 
noeppel. ( | Knoeppel & Co 
ew Yo t Mr Kr oeppel declared 
that Sav g-sharing plar s had failed 
st i s becaus labor does not 
lerstand the motives, because the 
plans have yt een based upon in 
dua atta ent because the re 
l iny cases is so far in the 
ture th the kma loses inter 
est r plar ind f ally re ¢ S¢ 
anufas ers have bee untair 
ealing th their employes In the 
discussiot e speaker declared that 
employers as a whole are trying to 
pay as low wages as possible, where 
— his opinion, the highest pos 
sible Vage ld be the obiex ot 
th r eit ts AY other speaker 
t ht that insincerity was the cause 
f ma failures f profit sharing 
le lr Moldenk« said that all 
tl d cart lai to 
’ f ’ id pted 
\ OMI 
‘ f I J Vhiting Foundry 
F A | ent ‘ Harvey, Ill, gave the 

attendance at the show was phenomenal and the 

steady flow of visitors continued until the doors 
were closed Saturday evening [his year, for the 
first time, the exhibition feature was operated 

under the joint control of the American Foundry 

men’s Association and the American Institute of 
Metals, and there is every evidence that this 
method of co-operative management will meet 

with pronounced success. 
the direction of 
trusted to C. E. Hoyt, 
The ( 

| , 

\s in previous years, 

active the was en 

Lewis Institute building, 
leveland committee, organized 

by the 
\ssociation, entertained 



report of the committee on foundry 
scrap. After some discussion as to 
what action should be taken in re- 
gard to the recommendations of the 
committee it was decided to adopt 
the specifications. 

The reading of the report of the 
representatives on the conference 
board on the training of apprentices 
by B. D. Fuller, Westinghouse Elec- 
tric & Mfg. Co., Cleveland, was the 
signal for a prolonged exchange of 
ideas tegarding the training of ap- 
prentices and the functions of trade 
and technical schools. A. H. Kramer, 
Advance Foundry Co., Dayton, O., 
asserted that the practice of “steal- 
ing” an apprentice as soon as he had 
been trained is discouraging foundry- 
men carefully training young 
men for the foundry trade. C. B. 
Connelley, dean of the school of ap- 
plied industries, Carnegie Institute of 
Technology, Pittsburgh, said that a 
good system of apprenticeship would 
solve the problems of labor, cost ac- 
counting, etc., now confronting foun- 
drymen. In replying to Mr. Kramer 
he said that if the proper attitude be- 
tween employer and employe existed, 
there would be no “stealing” of ap- 
prentices. Dean Connelley outlined 
the function of a technical scheol, and 
later in reply to a speaker who had 
claimed that the foundry trade was 
discredited and the molder despised, 
said that in any line of work, “it is 
what you make of the job, and not 
how you dress for it, that counts.” 
G. Rottweiler, Davis Sewing Ma- 
chine Co., Dayton, O., enthusiastically 
described the apprentice system of 
Germany which he maintained turned 


out perfect all-around molders. J. P. 
Pero, Missouri Malleable Iron Co., 
East St. Louis, IIL, said that the 

foundrymen had “sowed the wind and 
reaped’ the whirlwind.” He declared 
that many executives were guilty of 
placing apprentices where they would 
best benefit the company, and that in 

many cases this meant that their 
training was directed along special- 
ized lines. Mr. Pero also referred 

to the growing tendency to do away 
with the all-around molder on account 
of the changed system of foundry 
management which requires that each 
man specialize on one particular oper- 
ation. J. H. Wilson briefly explained 
that the American Rolling Mill Co., 
Middletown, O., is doing to train ap- 
prentices, and asked what other firms 
had done in this respect. It was 
finally decided that the committee 
should study various apprentice sys- 
tems, and that the board of directors 
be empowered to draft a contract for 
apprentices, if, in its opinion, such 
action is considered advisable. 


Dr. Richard Moldenke gave the re- 
port of the advisory committee to the 
United States bureau of standards. 
He recommended that foundrymen 
work for the preparation of a “fool- 
proof” molding sand, that a_ sieve 
scale be adopted and that the num- 
bers by which various grades of sand 
are distinguished be standardized. A 
notion was carried to the effect that 
the board of directors be empowered 
to adopt the sieve scale recommended 
by the bureau of standards and to 
standardize the numbering of mold- 
ing sands. 

Victor T. Noonan, 
of Ohio, Columbus, O., 

industrial com- 

mission pre- 

American Foundry- 

men’s Association 

Officers and Directors 
J. P. PERO, 

Missouri Malleable Iron Co., 
St. Louis, Il. 




Westinghouse Electric & Mig. Co., 


(In addition to the above) 

Commonwealth Steel Co., Granite City, 


General Fire Extinguisher Co., 
Providence, R. I. 

Massey-Harris Co., Toronto, Ont. 


Cleveland Pneumatic Tool Co., Cleveland. 

Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Co., 
Burlington, N. J. 

U. &. 

Stanley G. Flagg & Co., Philadelphia. 
c. E. HOYT, 
Lewis Institute, Chicago. 

Phillips & Buttorff Mfg. Co., 
Nashville, Tenn. 
Bettendorf Co., Davenport, Ia. 
S. Obermayer Co., Chicago 
Mixing Machine Co., New York 
Pittsburgh Valve Foundry & Construction 
Co., Pittsburgh 
H. B. SWAN, 
Motor Car Co., 


Cadillac Detroit 

the report of the committee 
on safety and sanitation. He 
that the code prepared by the com- 

the best 


mittee was in his estimation 
that had been drafted by any organi- 

zation. In discussing the subject of 
industrial accidents he declared that 
safety rules are not enforced, and 

that the lack of discipline in this re- 
spect is responsible for many of the 
accidents that occur. A_ resolution, 
urging the governors of the various 
states to use their influence to have 
laws enacted which will place part of 
the responsibility for accidents upon 
the workmen, was presented. 

September 21, 1916 

The secretary read a communica- 
tion from N. W. Alexander, chairman 
of the the Na- 
tional Founders’ Association, in which 
the proposed 

safety committee of 

a number of points in 
safety code were criticised. 
motions required to 


A number of 

officially complete change from 
an unincorporated to an incorporated 
association were passed. S. D. Sleeth, 
Westinghouse Air Brake Co. Wil- 
merding, Pa., and C. H. Gale, Pressed 
Steel Car Co., Pittsburgh, were named 

as members of nominating com- 

mittee in addition to the three who 
had been named on Monday. Alfred 
E. Howell, chairman of the nomi 
nating committee, read the list of 
nominees which included the names 
ot the directors in office at that time, 

with the exception of A. H. Thomas 
and Walter Wood, whose names were 
replaced by S. G. Flagg 3rd, Stanley 

G. Flagg & Co., Philadelphia, and S 

B. Chadsey, Massey, Harris Co., Tor- 
onto, Ont The secretary was em- 
powered to cast a unanimous ballot 

electing the 16 directors. 
Steel Sessions 

The attendance at 
the Thursday 
doubtedly attracted by the promise of 

unusually large 

steel session was un- 

a lively discussion over the merits of 

methods of making steel for 

castings. After a 

talk by W. A. 


brief introductory 

Janssen, chairman of 

the session, Carl H. Booth, Snyder 
Electric Furnace Co., Chicago, dis- 
cussed “The Ideal Electric Furnace 
in the Steel Foundry,” a paper pre 
pared by F. J. Ryan, E. B. McKee, 
and W. D. Walker of the Snyder 
company, as part of a symposium on 
electric furnace practice. Mr. Booth 
presented the single electrode type 

of furnace as the ideal. He described 

furnace, and 


an open-roof type of 

offered statistics showing per- 


number of 
the United 
Eugene B. Clark, 
anan Electric Steel Co., 
Mich., briefly described the four proc 

formance of a 

trode furnaces in 

and Canada. 

esses of making steel and stated that 

the advantage of electric furnace 

over other melting mediums is in its 

ability to produce a higher quality 

of steel. He strongly emphasized the 
fact that the electric furnace is 
not a cure-all for foundry evils, but 

that it requires care and attention in 
Joseph L. Dixon, John A 

operation. ; 
Crowley Co., Detroit, described a 

Gronwall-Dixon furnace installed and 

in operation at Detroit. The furnace 
operates on a 2-phase system, energy 
being taken from 3-phase_ supply 
through two banks of transformers 

which deliver current at varying volt- 

RN — 

September 21, 1916 

ages through two or four roof elec- 
trodes and one bottom electrode. The 
arcs may. be thrown in series or par- 
allel and the furnace may be operated 
in intermediate positions between ser- 
ies and parallel. The representative 
of a foundry using open-hearth fur- 
naces placed the electric furnace peo- 
ple on the offensive when he claimed 
that the converter and open - hearth 
furnace men wanted to be shown why 
they should throw away their equip- 
ment in favor of the electric furnace 
Mr. Clark brought out the point that 
the supervision of foundries was be 
coming more efficient on account of 
the fact that better trained men were 
required to direct the operation of 
electric furnaces, and that their in- 
fluence is being extended to  practi- 
cally all departments of the foundry 


\ President America Foundrymen’s 
Ass tior Ir rporated 
One speaker asked what had been 
aon to meet the \ » 4 M re- 
auirements for steel castings He 

nted to know where he could buy 
castings to meet those specifications 
Chairman Janssen suggested that this 
as evidently a good chance for some 

the salesmen for steel foundries to 
get some business, but there was no 
1eply to the inquiry 

r. S. Quinn described the results 
htained with a l-ton Heroult furnace 
luring a period of 18 months He 
touched on a number of points previ 
usly discussed in other papers when 
he said 

‘Today the development of the elec- 
tric furnace is hampered, if not threat- 
ened, by instances of dissatisfaction 
with the product, probably because it 
is the trend of the times to commer- 

cialize any important discovery on a 


large scale, and it is possible that the 
exploitation and installation of elec 
tric furnaces has been so rapid that 
the development of metallurgical and 
operative skill has not been in pro- 
portion. Certainly the electric fur- 
nace does not call for any better 
operative talent than the open-hearth, 
and it is only reasonable to assume 
that when electric furnace practice is 
established and standardized it will 
come into its own.” 

M. G. Tielke, Crucible Steel Cast 
ing Co., Cleveland, mentioned a Her- 
oult furnace operating under practi 
cally the same conditions as that de 
scribed by Mr. Quinn, but with an 
adequate supply of power, which act 
ually consumed a much lower number 
of kilowatt-hours per ton of steel 
Mr. Crosby, Detroit Edison Co., De 
troit, also emphasized the importance 
or having sufficient transformer ca 
pacity to operate furnaces economic 
ally He said that good power sta 
tion service depends largely upon the 
co-operation of the producer and con- 
sumcr of power. 

Peter Blackwood, Blackwood Steel 
Foundry Co., Springfield, O., com 
pared electric and converter steel in a 
paper which was given unusually close 
Mr. Blackwood made the 

statement that under ordinary condi 


tions a l-ton baby converter can sux 
cessfully compete with a 6-ton elec- 
tric furnace His comparisons be 
tween -converter and electric steel 
were for the most part favorable to 
the former 

“The Presence of Alumina in Steel,” 
was the subject of an interesting 
paper presented by G. F. Comstock 
Titanium Alloy Mfg. Co., Niagara 
Falls, N. \ Mr. Comstock showed a 
number of microphotographs on the 
screen in which the presence of the 
various inclusions was indicated. 

W. S. McKee, American Manganes« 
Steel Co., Chicago, was not present to 
deliver his paper on the manufacture 
of manganese steel castings 

Friday Steel Session 

At the Friday morning steel session, 
John Howe Hall, Taylor-Wharton 
Iron & Steel Co., High Bridge, N. J., 
presented the report of the committe 
on specifications for steel castings 
Mr. Hall mentioned the results of a 
conference held with representatives 
of the Steel Foundry Society and the 
American Society for Testing Ma 
terials. The report was accepted and 
is to be made part of the transactions 
of the association 

Davenport, Ia., presented a paper en- 
titled “The Use of Titanium in the 

Janssen. Bettendorf Co 

Manufacture of Steel Castings.” N 

Petinot. consulting engineer, New 


York, in a letter read at the meeting, 
took exception to several points raised 
by Mr. Janssen. The chief points of 
difference seemed to be in the merits 
of vanadium, titanium and other al- 
loys as deoxidizers. L. Selmi, Corri- 
gan, McKinney Co., Cleveland, re- 
lated his experiences with over 100 
heats of acid open hearth steel un- 
treated and treated with the Gold- 
schmidt alloy, aluminum and ferro- 

Edwin F. Cone, The Jron Age, New 
York, delivered a paper comparing 
acid with basic steel for castings. He 
said that there is a distinct dividing 
line between acid and basic castings. 
Castings which must be machined all 
over are almost universally made of 
acid open-hearth steel and practically 

all other castings, particularly for 

J. P. PERO, 
President, American Foundrymen’s Association 

railroad cars are poured from basi 
steel Mr. Cone described a method 
of producing basic castings from acid 
scrap and showed by statistics the 
relative production of basic and acid 
castings in the United States and Ger- 
many R \. Bull, Commonwealth 
Steel Co.,° Granite City, IIL, contrib- 
uted a written discussion in which he 
showed that manufacturers in the east 
have been slow to discard acid steel, 
but that in the west, the results from 
continued use of basic have justified 
the action of manufacturers who have 
placed their faith in it John M« 
Fwen, McEwen Mfg. Co., Tulsa, 
Okla., asked if basic steel can satis 

be used in the manufacture 

of hydraulic machinery. Mr. Bull re- 
plied that he thought that basic steel 
could be used for this purpose, and 

Mr. Janssen declared that the Betten 

THE IRON TRADE REVIEW September 21, 1916 








September 21, 1916 

dorf company has been successfully 
making hydraulic machinery from 
basic castings for several years. Mr. 
Janssen was of the opinion that or- 
dinarily basic steel is cheaper than 
acid steel, but for castings of equal 
quality, the spread in prices of the 
two kinds of steel is diminished. Mr. 
Cone asked why acid operators do 
not change to basic if the process is 
more desirable. Mr. Janssen replied 
that the manufacture of basic castings 
requires better supervision, and that 
the east has been obliged to come 
to the west for operators for their 
basic open-hearth furnaces. 

Ralph D. West, West Steel Cast- 
ing Co., Cleveland, presented an ex- 

haustive treatise on the theory and 
practice in gating and heading steel 
castings. Mr. West carefully ex- 
plained the relation between gating 
and heading and the shrinkage of 
castings and warned foundrymen 

against the practice of allowing mold- 
ers to use their own judgment in 
gating castings. Mr. West described 
certain representative castings 
should be gated and headed, and 
urged the foundrymen of today to 
adopt the practice of more freely ex- 
changing that “we may be 
able to develop a theory in relation 


ideas sO 

to our practice.” 

Evans, Chicago Steel Foun- 
iry Co., Chicago, was not present to 
read his paper on alloy steel castings, 
and Frank Carter, Milwaukee, Wis., 
who had prepared a paper on “The 
Small Open-Hearth as a Flexible Unit 
Foundries or 


for Either Large Steel 
General Jobbing 

Shops,” was not in 

Malleable Session 

On Thursday morning, malleable 
iron foundrymen held a special 
sion and discussed problems peculiar 
to this important branch of the cast- 
ings industry. J. P. Pero, Missouri 
Malleable Iron Co., East St. Louis, 
Ill., the newly-elected president of the 
\. F. A., presided at the meeting. Mr. 
Pero opened the vigor- 
ously commending the malleable foun- 
drymen for their evident interest in 
the proceedings. He pointed out that 
it was the third year that a separate 
has been set apart for the 
discussion of malleable practice, and 
that the attendance this year far ex- 
ceeded that of the two preceding. At 
the conclusion of the session, Mr. 
Pero again congratulated those in at- 
tendance for their lively participation 
in the discussions and strongly urged 
upon malleable foundrymen the ne- 
cessity of preparing papers for next 
year’s convention, as an abundance of 
papers would insure the malleable in- 


session by 



dustry a more prominent place in the 
convention proceedings. 

Five separate papers and a _ special 
committee report were presented at 
this session. Frank J. Lanahan, Fort 
Pitt Malleable Iron Co., Pittsburgh, 
discussed “The Application of Mal- 
leable Iron Castings in Car Construc- 
tion.” He points out that one of the 
most important features entering into 
freight car construction is the char- 
acter of the castings that are used to 
join individual sections. For this pur- 
pose, the author states, malleable iron 
castings will generally prove their su- 
periority for two important reasons, 
their greater length of service and 
their economy. Mr. Lanahan then 
urges closer co-operation between 
foundrymen and engineers in order 
that castings may be designed to give 
maximum strength. The combined 
efforts of leading malleable foundry- 
men, he stated, in the past few years 
have brought about a great improve- 
ment in the quality of malleable cast- 
ings. The tensile strength and elon- 
gation have been increased materially, 
tensile bars averaging from 48,000 to 
53,000 pounds per square inch, with 
an elongation of 10 to 12 per cent 
The elastic limit also is high. 

Mr. Lanahan’s 
state the case of 

malleable foun- 

drymen as follows: 

“Malleable iron has been misunder- 
stood and frequently criticised in the 
past, partly on account of careless 
and incompetent manufacture, but 
largely, too, because of the custom 
er’s insufficient knowledge concerning 
it. During the past few years the in- 
dustry has undergone a _ complete 
change and the process and practice 
today is far in advance of the hap- 
hazard system followed three or more 

years ago. As an illustration, each 
foundryman formerly had his own 
analysis for the raw materials, and 

the same idea governed the finished 
castings. Neither analysis was based 
on any scientific knowledge, but sim- 
ply what this or that individual thought 
was right. In contrast with such 
practice, the modern method is to fol 
low a standard pig iron analysis, for 
uniform results in the finished prod 
uct, depending on the purpose for 
which the castings are to be used. 
The standards so set are the result of 
a long series of metallurgical, chem- 
ical, mechanical and other scientific 
tests. Customers can readily under 
stand how necessary it is for a manu- 
facturer to know exactly where the 
castings are to be used, and under 
what conditions, so that he may de- 
termine what particular feature should 
be developed as the casting’s strong 
est characteristic Commendable so 
licitude on the part of the engineers 
in their effort to obtain minimum sec- 
tions so as to reduce weight, and con 

sequently cost, has in the past re- 
sulted in condemnation of the ma- 
terial when the real trouble was 

caused by insufficient metal. In this 
respect it is wise to follow good en- 


gineering practice, by figuring theo- 
retically and designing practically, 
bearing in mind the extremely difh- 
cult service demanded at times, erring 
if at all, on the safe side by having 
ample metal thickness to meet the re- 

The A. F. A. committee on stand- 
ard specifications for malleable iron 
through its chairman, En- 
rique Touceda, presented a short re- 
port. The committee had not had 
time to finish its work and requested 
permission to continue. This permis- 
sion was granted. 


Normal Fractures 

Enrique Touceda, Albany, N. Y., 
then presented a paper on “What is 
the Normal Fracture of Good - 
leable Iron?” ‘This paper is presen 
in full in another part of this issue 
of The lron Trade Review. In re- 
sponse to a question raised by P. H. 
Davis, superintendent, Moline Malle- 
able Iron Co., St. Charles, Ill, Prof. 
Touceda pointed out that in elonga- 
tion tests on malleable bars, the core 
breaks first, indicating greater strength 
in the core than in the skin. Only 
when malleable iron is poor is greater 
strength found in the skin. C. H. 
Gale of the Pressed Steel Car Co., 
McKees Rocks, Pa., asked whether 
the carbonless rim in steel occurs in 
kind of Mr. Touceda 
stated that this rim exists in all forms 

every steel. 

of steel, such as rolled, forged and 
annealed bars, but does not occur in 
unannealed cast steel. As such cast- 

ings are practically always annealed. 
however, he stated, this distinction is 

relatively unimportant. 

Large Air Furnaces 

“The 25-Ton Air Furnace” was dis- 
cussed in a paper by F. C. Rutz, 
Rockford, Ill. The author presented 
details of a 25-ton air furnace de- 
signed for melting malleable iron and 
expressed the belief that this is the 
most satisfactory size for a number 

furnace is 

of reasons operating cost of 
estimated to be 
with a 
of approximately $3.85 per ton for 12 

15-ton The 

the 25-ton 

$3.25 per ton, compared cost 

ratio with the large furnace, covering 

and furnaces. 

a year’s tonnage actually 
be 2.75 to 1 

is claimed, will do practically double 

poured, is 

said to This furnace, it 

the work of a 12 or 15-ton furnace. 
Chairman Pero asked whether the 
economy of space effected by the 

large furnace would not be more than 
offset by the greater distance to which 


must be carried. He 


iron ques- 



whether economies of 

large furnace not be 

by increased cost of labor, greater 

loss in hard iron and greater labor 

fatigue. Stanley G. Flagg Jr., Phila 
delphia, in explaining the results of 
his opération of large furnaces stated 
that such difficulties had not been 
experienced, as the heavy work was 
placed at the greatest distance from 
the furnace and the small work near 
est the furnace. In this manner hot 
iron was obtained for small work and 
cooler iron for the heavy In re- 
sponse to a query by another speaker, 
Mr. Flagg stated that the rigging 
equipment for the big furnaces was 
practically the same as for the small 
furnaces. A tramrail is used, he 
stated, to carry the bull ladles to the 
far end of the shop. The furnaces 
are charged by hand. Mr. Flagg sug- 
gested that two or three tap holes be 
employed in tapping the big furnaces, 
as bad iron can be avoided by first 
tapping the high tap hole. ‘He stated 
that with good coke, three tons an 
hour can be melted down with the 
big furnace. 

A query as to present practice in 
charging either on a cold furnace or 
after heating for an hour, developed 
that the latter method is now almost 
obsolete. Practically all malleable 
foundrymen now charge on a cold 

W. G. Kranz, National Malleable 
Casting Co., Cleveland, described “The 
Commercial Side of the Malleable 
lron Industry.” After outlining the 



work of Reaumur and Bovdon, he 
sketches the growth of the industry 

and the increasing application of mal 

Fill Holes With Scrap 

Alfred E. Howell, a past presi- 
dent of the A. F. A., entertained 
the members at the Friday morn- 
with an interesting out 

ing session 1 
5 years’ experience im 

line of his 
a gray iron foundry. 

“My superior,” said Mr. Howell 
“once instructed me to use as much 
scrap as possible so that this small- 
grained material would fill up the 
interstices of the big-grained pig 
iron When one reflects that such 
common, a 


opinions were once 
clearer insight is gained into the 
wonderful strides the foundry in- 
dustry has made 

“Another old-time fallacy.’ con- 
tinued Mr. Howell, “was the belief 
that the tuyeres in a cupola should 
be as small as possible so that the 
air blast would be fiercer and the 
air would thus reach the center of 
the cupola. One day while over- 
hauling the cupola in the absence 
of my superior, I had the tuyeres 
made larger only to have the super- 
intendent return and order them re- 
duced to their former size. Moad- 
ern practice, of course, teaches us 
how mistaken this belief was.” 

leable iron to various uses such as 
agricultural, railroad and automobile 
work. Since 1900, the production of 

malleable iron has increased about 

September 21, 1916 


hve times, or from 173,415 gross tons 

in 1900, to 993,736 gross tons in 1913 

Since the automobile industry began 
to make big demands on the mall 

able foundrymen, the consumers have 
hegun to study malleable, the auto 
mobile engineer in particular, being 
on the search for a metal that will 

withstand shock. Common properties 

and uses of malleable, states Mr: 
Kranz, are its resistance to corrosi 
its adaptability for both light and 

heavy sections and its good magneti 
qualities. Owing to its permeability 
mialleable iron is being more exter 

sively used in the el 

ectrical industry 
The future of malleable iron, states 
Mr. Kranz, is bright, as greater study 
by the engineers will make know 
its suitability for uses in other lines 
of engineering endeavor. 

Prof. Touceda in amplifyir fa Stat 
ment in Mr. Kranz’s paper that mal 
leable iron is now being made with 
an elongation of 15 per cent, detailed 

the results of tests he had conducted 

in the last 10 months on 
to 8,000 bars. On these bars elonga 
tions of 19, 20 and 21 per cent were 
observed. His tests, he stated, showed 
that malleable iron had a property 
not encountered in most other metals 
that is, that as the ultimate strength 
increases the elongation increases 
Bars of more than 52,000 pounds ten 

sile strength had shown an elongation 


September 21, 1916 

as high as 15.80 per cent 

W. W. Carlson, Kansas State Col 
lege, Manhattan, Kan., is the author 
of a paper on “Suggested Standard 

for Pattern Parts In the absence 

of Mr. Carlson, the paper was read by 

title After pointing out the many 
factors that influence industrial con 
ditions, this paper discusses two ofl 
these factors, specialization and stand 
ardizatior and then emphasizes the 
importance of the latte The princi 
ples of specialization and standardiza 
tion can be applied in the pattern 
shop as well as in other parts of the 
oundry The author points out the 

advantage, for instance of the molder 

knowing just what surfaces of the 
casting are to be finished, and what 
surfaces or points must make a close 
fit For this purpose he suggests a 
system of coloring the various parts 
ot the pattern \ set of standards for 

core prints is also le sc ribed and illus 

(ra lr ; Sens ’ 

\ special sessio r the discussion 
t { lems of particular interest to 
anutacturers otf gray iron castings 
was hel on | la I ning Nine 
papers wert presented and three re 
ports rec ved f special commit- 
tees Che lively interest taken in the 
roceedings was indicated y the dis 
cussio which each of the papers 




G. S. Evans, Lenoir Car Works 
Lenoir City, Tenn., presented a paper 
on “The Effects of Different Mixtures 
on the Strength of Chilled Car 

Wheels.” He gives the results of a 

Dogs in Demand 

Above the roar of the air ham- 
mers, the thump of the jar-ramming 
machines, the hiss and sputter of 

the acetylen welding apparatus, 
the rhythmic pounding of the com 
pressors and a hundred kindred 
noises of th Coliseum, could I 
heard the commotion from a surg- 
ing mob of men and women about 
the booth near the center aisle. The 
voung men wm th } th wer at 
tempting to pacify the crowd; th 
joled, pleaded, threatened and 

humored lt was all to no ava 
Finally a policeman sauntered int 
the wmmediate 7 nit Th situa 
tion was becoming acute. The pres 
ence f th ficer seemed t stir 
the ringleaders t ven oreater ef 
forts That crowd was there for 
a definite purpose As a result of 
several demonstrations f this » 
ture W hit Br New Yori 
disp sed ; ver YO Iittle tlass 
d 4 ni paper veights, muci 
priced | th ‘ , 

Se es f exhaustive tests I ca wheel 

mixtures mad it the Le if Lit 

plant These tests extet} ‘ ‘ ; 

period of two years and wers 

taken to determine _ the relative 


strength of car wheels made from dif 

ferent mixtures but under uniform 

During the tests, 
trom ov 

foundry conditions 

wheels were cast different 

mixtures, some carrying as much as 

60 per cent scrap steel; others 85 per 
cent charcoal and coke pig iron, and 
thers as much as 98.5 per cent scrap 

wheels It was found that car wheels 

could be made from all these mixtures 
that would meet the requirements of 

e latest Master Car Builders’ Asso 

ciation specifications Over 15,000 
wheels were cast from the special 
ixture and over 1,000 tested to de 
In response to a question by ( ( 

' . : 
Kawin ( 

that at his foundry 

Mr. Evans 

thre sulphur content never exceeds 0.15 


t 16 per cent He also pointed out 
that high silicon iron shows a sharp 
line ot demarcatior itter chilling 
lerro-manganese and spiegeleisen ars 

used in the same 

manner whether 

charcoal or coke pig iror is being 
elted These additions are made 

simply to bring the analysis to the 
‘ ired point rec ardiess of the rigi 
il character of the iro The ferro 

usually added in the 

la and only infrequently in the 
| | 

Ser Stee Clas was dis 

sed in a naner by David BMclate 
McLain’s Systen Milwaukee ' a 


THE [RON TRADE REVIEW September 21, 1916 



fatigue. Stanley G. Flagg Jr., Phila work of Reaumur and Boydon, he _ five times, or from 173,415 gross tons 
delphia, in explaining the results of sketches the growth of the industry’ in 1900, to 993,736 gross tons in 1913 
his operation of large furnaces stated and the increasing application of mal Since the automobile industry began 
that such difficulties had not been to make big demands on the mall 
experienced, as the heavy work was able foundrymen, the consumers have 
placed at the greatest distance from Fill Holes With Scrap hegun to study malleable, the auto 
the furnace and the small work near- : ; mobile engineer in particular, being 

he furnace. | ain ons = hee Alfred E. Howell, a past presi- ‘« ae 1 + “2 
est the urnace. n this manner ho dent of the A. F. A. entertained on the search tor a meta that will 
iron was obtained for small work and the members at the Friday morn- withstand shock. Common properties 
cooler iron for the heavy In re- ing session with an interesting out and uses of malleable, states Mz: 
sponse to a query by another speaker, line of his 35 years’ experience im Kranz, are its resistance to corrosio1 
M FI 1 that ti ria a gray iron foundry. ' bil , a air 

‘lage state é ; z 4 i ” : 7 adé abilty or both hght an 
I r. agg state< tha 1e rigging My superior,” said Mr. Howe! its ac ptal ity for gh and 
equipment for the big furnaces was “once instructed me to use as much heavy sections and its good magnetic 
practically the same as for the small scrap as possible so that this small- qualities. Owing to its permeability, 

‘ . , m0 minal «¢ the . 
furnaces. A tramrail is used, he grained material would fill up the nialleable iron is being more extet 
he bull lad! ; interstices of the big-grained pig 1 i ' ; " 

stated, to carry the bull lac es to ene iron. When one reflects that such sively used in the electrical industry 
far end of the shop. The furnaces Opinions were once common, a he future of malleable iron, states 
are charged by hand. Mr. Flagg sug- clearer insight is gained into the Mr. Kranz, is bright, as greater study 

wonderful strides the foundry in 
, . a dustry has made. 

employed in tapping the big furnaces, “Another old-time fallacy.” con- 
as bad iron can be avoided by first tinued Mr. Howell, “was the belief of engineering endeavor 
that the tuyeres in a cupola should 
be as small as possible so that the 

by the engineers will make know: 

gested that two or three tap holes be 
its suitability for uses in other lines 

tapping the high tap hole. ‘He stated Prof. Touceda in amplifying a stat 

that with good coke, three tons an - 

, . ited d +h tt air blast would be fiercer and the ment in Mr. Kranz’s paper that mal 
10ur can be melted down with the air would thus reach the center of leable iron is now being made with 
ig ace > - une + wee . Tm = 3 : 

big furnace. the cupola One day while over an elongation of 15 per cent, detailed 

. . hauling the cupola in the absence 
A query as to present practice in - he. : lynne > reenite ecte : j sn dlins / 
] . I I of my superior, Il had the tuveres the results of tests he had conducted 

charging either on a cold furnace or made larger only to have the super- in the last 10 months on from 7.000 

after heating for an hour, developed intendent return and order them re- to 8,000 bars. On these bars elonga i 

that the latter method is now almost duced to their former size. Mod- tions of 19, 20 and 21 per cent were 

obsolete. Practically all malleable tab vi lay Boog wt — sad observed. His tests, he stated, showed 
foundrymen now charge on a cold 1 173 that malleable iron had a property 

furnace. not encountered in most other metals 

W. G. Kranz, National Malleable leable iron to various uses such as_ that is, that as the ultimate strength 
Casting Co., Cleveland, described “The agricultural, railroad and automobile increases the elongation increases 
Commercial Side of the Malleable work. Since 1900, the production of Bars of more than 52,000 pounds ter 
lron Industry.” After outlining the malleable iron has increased about sile strength had shown an elongatio 

September 21, 1916 

as high as 15.80 per 

W. W. Carlson, Kansas State Col 
lege, Manhattan, Kan., is the author 
paper on “Suggested Standard 

for Pattern Parts.” In the absence 

of Mr. Carlson, the paper was read by 

title After pointing out the many 
factors that influence industrial con 
ditions, this paper discusses two ol 
these factors, specialization and stand 

ardization, and then emphasizes the 
importance of the latter The princi 
ples of specialization and standardiza- 
tion can be applied in the pattern 

shop as well as in other parts of the 

advantage, tor 

foundry author points out the 

instance, of the molder 
knowing just surfaces of the 
casting are to he finished, and what 

surfaces or points must make a close 

fit For this purpose he suggests a 
system of coloring the various parts 
of the pattern. A set of standards for 
core prints is also described and illus 


Gray lron Sessior 

\ special session 1 the discussion 
f problems of particular interest to 
manufacturers of gray iron castings 
was held on Friday orning Nine 
papers were presented and three re 
ports received from special commit- 
tees The lively interest taken in the 
proceedings was indicated by the dis 
cussion which each of the papers 









G. S. Evans, Lenoir Car Works, 
Lenoir City, Tenn., presented a paper 
on “The Effects of Different Mixtures 
on the Strength of Chilled Car 
W heels.” He gives the results of a 

i i 

Dogs in Demanc 


Above the roar of the air ham- 
mers, the thump of the jar-ramming 
machines, the hiss and sputter f 
the acetylene welding apparatus, 
the rhythmic pounding of the com 
pressors and a hundred kindred 
noises of the Coliseum, could |! 
heard the commotion from a surgq- 
ing mob of men and women about 
the booth near the center aisle. The 
young men in the booth were at 
tempting to pacify the crowd; th 

1joled, pleaded, threatened and 
humored It was all to no avai 
Finally a policeman sauntered mit 
the wmmediate vicinity The situa 
tion was becoming acute. The pres 
ence f th ficer seemed tft stir 
the ringleaders to even greater ef 
forts That crowd was there for 
a definite purpose fs a result f 
several demonstrations f this na 
ture, White Br New Yor 
disp scd | er YOU itttie ass 
dogs, excellent paper weights, much 
priced the sttor 

f j P — f s enfaaull 
Series Of exnaustive ests I ca wheel 
mixtures made at = the Le ur City 
plant These tests extended over a 
period of two years and were under 
taken to determine the relative 



strength of car wheels made from dif 
ferent I 

mixtures but uniiorm 
foundry conditions 

During the tests, 

wheels were cast from 60 different 

mixtures, some carrying as much as 

60 per cent scrap steel; others 85 per 

cent charcoal and coke pig iron, and 

much as 98.5 per cent 

others as 

wheels. It was found that car wheels 


could be 


made from all these mixtures 
meet the 
Master Car 

that would 
the latest 

requirements oft 


ciation specihcations 

from the _ special 

1.000 tested to de 

wheels were cast 
mixture and over 

In response to a question by C. ¢ 
Kawin, Chas. Kawin Co Chicago 
Mr. Evans stated that at his foundry 

the sulphur content never exceeds 0.15 

to 0.16 per cent He also pointed out 
that high silicon tron shows a sharp 
line of demarcatior ifter chilling 

erro-manganese and spiegeleisen ars 

used in the same manner whether 
charcoal or coke pig iron is being 
elted These additions are made 
simply to bring the analysis to the 
desired point regardless of the origi 
nal character of the iron The ferro 

managanese is usually added in the 

cupola and only infrequently in the 

/!- = 

Semi-Steel Classified was dis 
ussed in a paper David McLain, 
McLain’s System Milwaukee, in a 


paper which was illustrated by stere- 
opticon views. Mr. McLain’s paper 
points out that while semi-steel has 
not been recognized in iron and steel 

nomenclature, it ranks among the 
most valuable products of the grey 
iron foundry. The paper suggests 
that standard chemical specifications 

covering the different classes of cast- 

ings should be clearly defined. “Our 
coftention,” says Mr. McLain, “al- 

ways has been that ,no metal could 
be defined as semi-steel unless it con- 
tained from 25 to 50 per cent steel, 
and even the reputation of this metal 
has suffered to some extent from 
those who offer a 
steel which is not even a good gray 
iron,» Any man thinks he can 
simply throw some steel scrap in with 

product as semi- 


pig iron and make good semi-steel is 
much mistaken.” The author 
discusses the history of semi- 
thoroughly explains the 
metallurgy of this material. He gives 
in detail the uses of semi-steel. He 
discusses the hardening of semi-steel 
and claims that it has been used suc- 
cessfully for dies and punches. He 
does not believe, however, that sem- 
steel will replace tool steel. The dis- 
cussion developed the great influence 
of coke in determining the quality of 

steel and 

either pig iron or semi-steel 

Specifications for Coke 

The report of the A. F. A. commit- 
for analyz 
tentatively adopted. 

which H. E. Dil- 

Pa., is 

tee on standard methods 
ing coke 
This committee, of 
Electric Co., 


ler, General Erie, 

chairman, has been at for some 
agreed on 


the American 


months in 
tees representing 
Testing and 

ety for 

American Chemical 

three committees have 

standard = specifications which 

previously been tentatively 
by the American Society for Testing 
Materials. The A. F. A. 
methods coke 
which are now superseded. 

recommended that a 
inethod the determination of sul 
phur should be given as an alternative 



analysis in 




method to the one offered and recom- 
that the 
adopted be 

mended method formerly 

given as an alternative 


Coke in 
is explained in a paper by 

Use of By-Product 

George A. T. Long, Pickands, Brown 
& Co., Chicago 


“The requisites of a 

good foundry coke,” said 
second, low sulphur; third, good cel 
that the 

The car 

“are first, high carbon: 

structure, and fourth, 
product shall be 
bon and sulphur are primarily the re- 



sult of the quality of coal which is 
used in the ovens for coking purposes. 
proper preparation of the coal before 
coking, as well as upon the arrange- 
ment of the which the coal 

is coked, and upon the temperature 

structure, however, depends on 

ovens in 

of the coking chamber.” 

Mr. Long in discussing the use of 
this fuel in cupolas states that for or- 
dinary soft gray iron C&stings, the 

bed should be brought up to 24 inches 
the Small charges are 
recommended In 
of 24 to 36 

above tuyeres. 

ordinary cupolas 

inches inside diameter, 

charges are considered 

satisfactory. In cupolas from 36 to 
54 inches, 2,000-pound charges are 
preferred. In larger cupolas, 3,000 
pounds is considered the limit -Mr. recommends that the blast pres- 
sure be kept as low as pwssible in 
order to avoid trouble from slag, hard 
iron, shrinkage, etc. He states his 

belief that it is not necessary to select 
large sized= coke for the bed, as the 
large pieces leave too much space for 
the passage of the air. He concludes 
by Stating that a uniform fuel is the 
greatest asset a foundryman can have. 

Benjamin D. Fuller, Westinghouse 
Electric & Mfg. Co., Cleveland, who 
was chairman of the meetirg, brought 
out the fact that by-product coke was 
now more uniform than a few years 
ago when its manufacture was less 
fully understood 
How to Use Borings 
James A. Murphy, Hooven, Owens 

& Rentschler Co., Hamilton, O., de 

scribed “The Use of Borings in 
Cupola Operations.” In the absence 
of the author the paper was read by 
title only. In this paper, the author 
points out that for many years iron 
borings and steel chips have been 

charged in cupolas to reduce the cost 
ot the mixture and to better the qual 

ity of the metal. borings or 

chips have been loose with 

pig iron and scrap, the melting loss is 

excessive and when charged alone, 

the heat does not penetrate the mass 

entire charg¢ 
a bed of 

said to 

far enough to melt the 

The practice of laying bor 
ings on the cupola bottom is 

that by 

be unsatisfactory as heat is 

It was accidentally discovered 

using lengths of stove pipe as cor 


tainers, chips and borings could be 

charged in the cupola in such a way 

that the melting only 

loss amounts to 

2 cartridges 

é per cent Che stove pipe 

hold about 50 pounds of borings and 
the cost of preparing them does not 
exceed $2.50 per ton Walter F 

Prince in 1908 introduced a method of 

melting chips in a vertical tube placed 

in one side of the cupola. Although 

September 21, 1916 

satisfactory in many respects, this 
method, according to Mr. Murphy, 
lacks the simplicity which marks the 

cartridge method, and is less 

mical. The briquetting of borings by 
means of great pressure gives satis 
factory results but the cost of prepar- 
the briquettes is high, according 

to Mr. Murphy. Briquettes in which 
binders are used, the author states, 

produce castings containing pin holes 
and blow holes and the melting loss 
in the cupola amounts sometimes to 

60 per cent. Castings made from 
similar metal which had been charged 
with borings in cartridges are sound 

in every respect. 
Dr. Moldenke’s Discussion 



Dr. Richard Watchung, 
N. J., 
of Mr. Murphy’s paper in which ex 
taken to the 

This discussion is as fol- 

presented a discussion 

ceptions were some of 

“I regret very much to differ with 
Mr. Murphy on some of his facts and 
conclusions derived in connection with 
the foundry 
practice. the 
methods he enumerates will give good 

use of cast borings in 

Unquestionably all 

results if operated under correct melt 

and all of them will give 

ing methods, 

had results if the charging method is 
bad, or if the cans, briquettes or stove 
pipes become damaged and allow 
loose borings to drop into the bed 

and before the tuyeres 

“Mr. Murphy’s estimate of the cost 
of the several processes is not alto 
gether correct, as while he may be 
right about wooden boxes and his 
cartridges at $2.50 a ton ready for 
charging into the cupola, the method 
of Mr. Prince costs no more than 
about $1.50 a ton (exclusive of roy 
alty) and that of briquetting under 
high pressures about the same Che 
two last methods mentioned give good 
results, as does Mr. Murphy’s can 
method, where medium and heavy 

castings are the rule, and these will 

machine nicely and without blow holes 

if the charging and melting has been 

done right For very light castings 

particularly where high 

essential, no prox 
will fill the 

speed machinery is 

ess of borings 

using cast 

bill, as the melting of material so 

prone to oxidation as this is bound 
to harden the metal Che mistake 
made in introducing both the tube and 
the briquetting methods into fouw 
dries has been in going to specialty 
shops machining enormous numbers 
rf very light castings Here the 
saving in the mixture is more tha 
offset by the extra cost of machining 
and it does not pay 

“For general work, as stated, the 

September 21, 1916 

three methods work it all right if 
irried out right Mr. Murphy’s can 
ethod costs ost, Mr. Prince's is 
eape! it has the disadvantage o 
e tubes opening up and spilling the 
rings if ! careless hands Bri- 
ttes ade under high pressure 
' all rignt I not too large if 
( iss section and if the pressure was 
sufficiently high That Mr. Murphy’s 
conclusion in regard to briquettes that 
the method is so unreliable that it is 
ot worth pursuing is entirely i 
orrect s sl Wi y the tact that to 
iy there ar 25 high pressure 
riquetting plants in Europe in full 
operation, supplying hundreds of foun 
dries with their borings in briquette 
i In this country the cost, in 
cluding royalty, will run between $1.25 
ind $2 a ton lepending upon the 
weight of rings compressed at each 
\ further criticism | ist make is 
egard to Mr Murpl y's remarkable 
tests eltir canned orings, his 
loss less tha 2 per cent ] 
can! accept this as possi yle and 
rather judge that some error in ma 

Mr. Murphy’s 

attent I have had many samples 
( cast ori! 5 analy ed for thei 
iron content The very best of then 
vid at 1 pret ut ror their con 
arative freedor tror extraneous 
matter—gave less than 90 per cent 
actual irot Ordinarily cast bor nes 
run nearer 85 per cent iron than 90 
per cent This accounts for the con 
paratively { r rey ts gotten when 
anv process ; mel ng rings 
whether in cans. t es or as briquettes. 
These results sl from 12 to 20 per 
cent ] ec * leisy re } ; ; is torgot 
te that { 10 5 per cent of 
the rig < vac ft ‘ ' the hret 
\gair iny rusting tro exposure 
fF the OS P ; cal yg of 
vetting eans st so much irot 
removed th. litv of elt 
7 e is T 7 . j ’ <T Cs nr ) the 
Ir 1¢ there I the ) t 
incé ot il ¢ Sa ~ the us¢ tT 
rings should be encouraged, but 1 
their pr ‘ plac t will pay four 
! eT il 4 ediu i l large 
castings and sma astings t re 
onal P schining. to look om has 
matter carefully is economy will 
. f , ths ard ‘ ‘ dav The 
1 thy riquett cess unde 
le 1 thy r¢ mreme +< ect is +} 
( I i I the metl ds of intr 
ve not re ained live issues.” 


in tne rR 1e€Trali 
speaKxe r int out 
5 ac S 
1 al ft ‘ 
_ 1s ? { ’ 
7 | ) . 
c ts al \ 
g loss L he 
int Q 
; Scr 
{ ‘ Kav ( i 
(hicago discusse 
{ capt Materials 
out particularly the 
may e realized fro 
eral proportions of 
other scra in gray 1 
tures. Sili Mi 
j : . 
one f the { 
cul 41 mixture, and 
that th nmronper prot 
Line j ‘ k 
t Various ¢ isses 
secured whet using 
i +} 
S pm. provide 
‘ al p y tj rit 
fryll na ' 
( Ciully a ia Alyse 
| | 
Ly \ nu er 
! ; 
‘ ? 2 ne cet . 
xtures : d one ’ 
mixture t i ir Sa 
used SUCCESS ] 
lf 11 
Alfred | Howell 
1 } 
rff Mfg. Co., Nashv 
' ‘ 
president ft the 2 
teresting account of 
ng One-third of 
ay [ror | undry 
scusses the great 
actice sin 188] 
lieel ; 
was il . 
ret write 
T rsase ‘ 
‘ ty ent 
was \V\ | 
: D srs | 
ss? ] , , , 
= | ‘ ‘ 
f T M | 
tter , , tr ta le 
\ Ta tice Sli¢ 1s 
ge test and the dé 
nes eo} lat 
: ‘ : ; . 
ihern IX t 
Cr ed ; 
( «ll j 
it ner oft the 1 é 
8 g | 
- tsar £ 4} 1 
gest ‘ ‘ 
| ‘ 
‘ —_ ‘ 
f 4 Mf 
¢ } 
il i 
thor « ‘ ‘ et 
eT ati I te 
| , 7? 
H. Col 
Fo ( le 
Z| ‘ Sore ( lé¢ anit 




scussio1 ‘ s Have é Solved The tre 
tha i é us advance 1 cleaning room 
t } tn | actice ! re t years, according to 
g gs é t has brought this depart 
1 | t the foundry fully abreast of 
t to inches lhe tull significance 
‘ satisfactory this advance is not clearly grasped, 
’ elt VeVe ind many toundrymen have 
gS A ed tallied ft avail themselves of the meth 
t ls and apparatus now available. Mr 
I-step then presented an interesting 
” eries olf stereopticon views showing 
—— a ao ethods and equipment employed for 
' we _¢ cleaning castings at a number of thor 
- ughly modern foundries 
pa nts 
,; nnaake that \. report was received trom the \ 
inn! aut e 4 I committee on general specifica 
shewe oben’ auul tions tor gray iron castings, of which 
a rr " W. P. Putnar Detroit Testing Labo 
—_ tate ratory, Detroit, is chairman. It was 
eae cided to continue the work of the 
nal res ttee ¢ g the ftorthcoming 
; . ala : ea This « ttee will work in 
sat ; ‘ inctior wit 1 committee of the 
meee Tay WS erican Society for Testing Ma 
ade s watches : rT ywoard of directors of the 
; i Fr. A. has decided to maintain the 
s are : ‘ 
‘ , " } t the various committees on 
ables ar 
eee .., Specifications in conjunction, where 
, cent scrat ssible wit! s ilar commiuttees ofl 
on eee e America ety for Testing Ma 
t in effort will be made to 
Phillios & Butt e chairm« ft the A. F. A. com 
P re a past ttees serve imilar committees 
4 wave 4 the lesting M iterials Society 
his experiences \ report was also received from the 
1 Century ir : mittec on specihcations for 
Mr Howell ©8t iror pe, Alexander T. Drysdale, 
a aoe a ted States Cast Iron Pipe & Foun 
Ae that time ( Burlington, N. J., chairman 
eer his report recommended that speci- 
aws Mr LJ yell cat . 1 cast iro! pipe now in 
> thie oleae aad eneral use should be officially ap 
, “- ‘ The report was accepted 
. , io usiness Session 
; e conventi concluded its formal 
ae , Friday 1 n when the newly 
; é 1 officer vere inducted into 
ss hee P. Pero, the new president 
‘ mn a short addres requested the act 
+} peratior ot ll the members 
: piss 4 oa g f rd e work which 
S it has een doing in re 
— * ‘ ; I n D. Fuller, the 
; ent, also spoke briefly 
x? f Dn: . I et g president 4 \. Bull 
' A. \ + a t vigorously commended A. O 
‘ 3 | kert e-electe secretary and 
: ( 
. his efforts during the 
, | ting the work of 
it iccessfully ar 
, the tail f the Cleveland 
reg Lor ted approving 
CI t ind directors 
' g ft t ind ex 
’ ” ‘ Sand , ne control 
it ecreta ted to con 
land ext 1 it vitl Fitzgerald 
g | t} tte ppropriations of 


the house of representatives, calling 
attention to the work of the bureau 
of standards and urging a larger ap- 
propriation for the bureau’s work. 
The registration far exceeded that 
The num- 

at any previous convention. 
members who registered 
with 513 

ber of 
889 compared 
while 194 guests 
208 last year. During 
acted upon 
total membership of 
above the 1,000 mark. 

week 42 
membership were 
bringing the 
the A. F. A. 


Entertainment Features 

The one-meeting-per-day plan in- 
augurated this year allowed the visit- 
ing foundrymen greater freedom to 
enjoy the various entertainment feat- 
ures arranged by the local committee. 
A ball game Cleveland and 
Detroit attracted several hundred fans. 



Tuesday evening the foundrymen and 

their friends attended B. F. Keith's 

Wednesday at noon a luncheon was 
the Hotel Statler for the 
visiting ladies and at 2 o'clock they 
were given a sight-seeing trip through 

served at 

Cleveland’s parks and boulevards. At 
the the 
the Cleveland Furnace Co.'s plant. In 

same time men were visiting 
the evening many of the foundrymen 

and their friends boarded cars for 

Euclid Beach. Many devotees of golf 
made use of the five links placed at 
their disposal. 

The annual banquet, which was held 
promptly at 7 o'clock Thursday even- 
ing was a fitting climax to the events 
the week's 
Henry A. 

which had preceded it in 
schedule of entertainment. 
Carpenter, General Fire 

ter. May 

Providence, R. I., was toastmas- 

Rosalind Pero entertained 

The American Institute 

EW and _ valuable information 
relating to the _ strengthening 
and improvement of aluminum 
alloys by adding manganese and iron, 
formed a notable feature of the an- 

convention of the American In- 
Metals, held Sept. ll to 15, 
inclusive, at the Hotel Statler, 
The first two days were spent in 
the American 

stitute of 

joint convention 

Foundrymen’s while 
sessions were held on the 
Among other subjects which 
were: The 

rate succeed- 
ing days. 
received thorough attention 
reclamation of*brass ashes; 
the strains which are set up by “burn- 
ing-in” castings; season-cracking 
of brass; annealing properties of 
per; high castings; 
walled castings; 
wood patterns; the pressed metal 
A novel feature of the 
reservation of an 




metal coatings 

cess, etc. 

was the en- 
tire for 
foundry practice. This portion of the 
brought out the 
the meeting. In 
the Institute 
arrange for foundry sessions 
at future conventions. The attendance 
was record breaking, being more than 
150, out of a total membership of 350. 
A proposal that the Institute be 
merged with the American Foundry- 
men’s Association was disapproved. The 


session discussions on brass 

program largest at- 
tendance of 
the interest 

view of 
shown, will 


executive committee reported that after 
thorough it had been 
deemed wise to continue the Institute as 
at present, since a large portion of its 
membership is not interested in foundry 
practice, and it was feared an amalga- 
mation with the American Foundrymen’s 
Association would result in the elimina- 


tion of matters which have no connec- 

tion with foundry practice. Further- 

more, it was decided, where only one 

metal and a few mixtures are used in 

iron and_ steel foundries, mumerous 

metals, in a huge variety of mixtures, 

are used in non-ferrous metal foundries, 

with the result that non-ferrous melters 

are apt to be more thorough metallur- 
gists than iron and steel foundrymen 
The committee furthermore decided that 
the identity of the Institute’s work and 
the scope of its activities might be ob- 
scured by merging with the sister or- 
Secretary's Report 
The report of Secretary W. M. Corse, 

Titanium Alloy Mfg. Co., Niagara Falls, 
N. Y., showed a member- 
ship from 314 to 300 in the year ending 
July 1, 1916. Since July 1, however, ap- 

decrease in 

proximately 40 new applications have 
been received, with the result that the 
membership now is about 340 Mr 
Corse also reported the association to 

be in splendid condition financially. An 

interesting communication from Dr 

George K. Burgess, of the bureau of 
standards, was read. This directed at- 
tention to the handicaps under which the 


bureau is working. surgess pointed 
the for 
that its staff 

sufficiently to 

out need support in 

order and might 

be enlarged enable it to 
pursue research work in connection with 
important subjects which for some time 
past have been awaiting attention. An 

appropriation of by congress 

would go far toward enlarging the 
bureau’s scope, and Dr. Burgess sug- 
gested that the Institute follow the ex- 

ample of other leading engineering and 

September 21, 1916 

with a number of vocal selections, 

after which the toastmaster introduced 
J. P. Pero, the president elect of the 

American Foundrymen’s 


On behalf of the directors of as- 
sociation, Mr. Pero presented R. A. 
Bull, the retiring president, with a 
beautiful chest of silver. 

The principal address of the even- 

ing was delivered by Hon. Newton D 
Eaker, secretary of war, who in a 
masterful way emphasized the im 
portance of the iron industry in the 

aftairs of the nation. Irving Bachel 
ler delivered a humorous talk \t 
the conclusion of the program, mov 
ing pictures of scenes taken during 
the convention were shown. The pic- 
tures were furnished by the Private 
Feature & Film Mfg. Co., Cleveland, 
and were taken under the direction 
of J. S. Smith, Smith Facing & Sup 
ply Co., Cleveland. . 

of Metals 

technical organizations in endeavoring 

to enlist the interest of congress in this 
lo co-operate more effectively with 

the bureau of standards, members of 
the Institute 

sider the former as a clearing house for 

were requested to con- 

information as to various metal alloys 


possible information with respect to all 

bureau is desirous of securing all 

alloys now in use It was suggested 
at the that 
facturing alloys of any kind forward to 


meeting companies manu- 

bureau such facts with reference to 

these alloys as they had ascertained 
The bureau, it is understood, will be 
glad to furnish additional data on these 
alloys, including, for instance, the physi 

which can 

tained only with the aid of delicate ma 

cal characteristics 

chines or instruments 
W. H. 

chairman of 

Bassett, American Brass Co., 

the committee on _ the 

standardization of crucible sizes, su 

mitted a report containing a list of 


was compiled af 

proposed standard sizes for 

extended conferences 

report, which 

with leading brass 

foundrymen and manufacturers of cru- 

cibles, was accepted but not acted upon 
by the Institute 

The special session on foundry prac- 
tice brought out a number of notable 

papers. Among these was a _ contribu- 

tion by Charles Pack, Doehler Die Cast- 

ing Co., Brooklyn, on “The Evolution 
of the Die-Casting Process”. This paper 
embraced a study of the metal casting 
processes of all ages and was illus- 
trated by lantern slides showing early 
casting practice as depicted upon 
Egyptian tombs built as early as 1500 
B. C. The illustrations included views 

September 21, 1916 


the gradual 
methods the 
Pack concluded his 
discussion of the 

which portrayed 
In casting 

a general 

up to 
casting industry as it now 

In a paper entitled “The Brass Foun- 

dry”, E. A. Barnes, Fort Wayne Elec- 
tric Co., Fort Wayne, Ind., compared 
conditions in the brass foundry today 

with those that prevailed 30 years ago 
At that time brass foundries could select 
l coke hard 

whereas today gas, coke, coal, fuel 

ol and coal as a 

y between 
vil and 


electricity are available, each 
its own particular sphere of use- 


use of compressed air on molding ma- 

fulness Barnes also mentioned the 
chines and other factors which have en- 
larged and improved the output of brass 
recently made 

foundries. He described successful 
attempt which his company 
to discover a duplex thermostatic metal 
which would withstand both rolling and 
annealing. The author described his ex- 
perience in lengthening the life of wood 


wear and warp when unprotected, have 

patterns patterns which soon 

been found to be much more durable 
when coated with metal by the Shoop 
process. With the Shoop pistol, Mr 
Barnes said, copper or lead coatings 
may be applied to fragile and even com- 
plicated wood patterns, and the pat- 
terns coated by this process are ex- 
ceedingly durable. He also described 
efforts to make aluminum castings 
which would take a high polish; suc- 
cessful results were obtained by adding 
8 to 10 per cent tin to an aluminum- 
copper mixture. Mr. Barnes also de- 
scribed the manufacture of brass and 

aluminum parts by the compressed metal 
process. Castings which are required to 

be more homogeneous, tough, and per- 

produced at the 

fect than could be made by 

casting methods, are 
Fort Wayne plant by 
metal blanks or 
Portable hydraulic presses are employed, 
the that intri- 
cate work reproduces perfectly by this 


bars into steel molds. 

with result exceedingly 

lief that the 
practice in the 

expected to develop in the 

The author expressed his be- 

greatest advances in foun- 

dry near future may be 

melting de- 

In discussing Mr Barnes’ paper, 

Charles Pack described tests which he 
made on lead and tin coatings which 
were applied by the Shoop method. The 

coatings of these metals, in addition to 
being unhomogeneous, were deposited in 


sharp corners were 
McKinney, in 

such a manner 

out con- 
cluding the 
with the 
finishing on 
close up porous portions, thus rendering 

said treat- 
a buffing wheel, 

sufficiently to 

ment sand fine 

sand, and 
smoothes coating 
the coating impervious to corrosion. 

That the 
binary alloys of 

physical properties of 

copper and alumi- 


adding a 

num may be improved by 

small amount of iron was brought 
out in a paper by W. M. Corse and 
G. F. Comstock, entitled “Some Cop 
per-Aluminum-Iron Alloys” rhe use 
of iron increases the tensile strength 
and the hardness, and _ particularly 
the yield point. The changes in char 
acteristics resulting from the use ol 
varying percentages of iron are found 

decidedly advantageous in adapting 

the alloys to special uses. One marked 

feature is that the addition of iron 

serves to break up the large crystal 

always are 


line growths which pres 

binary alloys con 


ent in paper 

tained results from al 

loys containing varying percentages 

of iron in connection with varying 

percentages of aluminum 

addition to the instt- 

An interesting 

Re-elected President of American Institute of 
tute’s literature on the subject of 
seasoning cracks and_ self-annealing 
of brass was presented by W. Arthur, 
Frankford arsenal, Philadelphia. Since 
it requires several years for self 
annealing or season cracking to man- 
ifest itself to any marked degree, Mr 

Arthur said, it is to be expected that 

this subject 

numerous instances ot! 

any extended study on 

would be much delayed author 

inentioned sea- 

especially in cartridge 

any he 



artillery cases, et 


described changes in the 

ing processes which have resulted in 
decreasing the liability of deteriora 
tion of the material. Mr. Arthur was 
inclined to believe that there its no 

evidence at present which would 

show that impurities such as lead and 
cadmium are responsible for season 
cracking and self-annealing 



P. E. McKinney, Washington navy 
yard, presented a paper entitled “Alu 
minum Castings and Forgings”. The 

use of manganese, with or without 
copper, when employed in relatively 
small quantities, hardens and 

strengthens without de 

Mr Mec 



stroying its ductility, said 


are excellent 

Kinney machining 

and the comparatively 

small amount of hardener used makes 
gravity in the fin- 
ished alloy from 0.35 to 0.40 less than 
that of the No 8 alloy 
When Mr. McKinney 
said, these alloys practically are free 

possible a specific 
properly made, 

tricate castings can be produced with 

from shortness and most in 

comparative ease. Despite conten 
tions that the use of special melting 
furnaces and equipment is necessary 

to produce good aluminum alloys, the 

al thor that 

tound alloys of aluminum 

containing manganese can be melted 

in natural draft pit furnaces provid 

ing ordinary precautions are preserved 

in melting and fluxing the metal 

rhe discussion which followed this 
paper concerned itself chiefly with 
crucibles employed in the melting of 

aluminum and aluminum alloys In 

Mr. McKinney 

said it is questionable practice to use 

reply to questions, 

crucibles from which harmful ele 
ments might be absorbed by the 
inetal Cast-iron crucibles, despite 

the fact that they are used on a large 

scale for melting aluminum, he re 

garded as undesirable, and he  be- 

lheved that wrought-iron crucibles 
would prove less harmful than the 
cast iron ones In the Washington 
navy yard, he said, the care which is 
exercised to prevent exposure of the 
metal to undesirable elements extends 
so far as covering the crucible skim- 

mer with clay 

Mr. McKinney 
making aluminum alloys; although he 

Graphite crucibles, 

said, may be used for 

recommended that they be provided 
with a lining low in silicon 
Tests f Zinc Bronze Bars 
C. P. Karr, United States bureau 

of standards, submitted a report on 
a series of comparative tests of zinc 
test These 

were con posed of an alloy 

bronze bars bars, which 


8&8 per cent copper, 10 per cent tin 
and 2 per cent zinc, were cast from 
the same mixture in five foundries 
The hars made from virgin material 
showed a greater tensile strength, 
elongation and reduction of area, than 
the bars made from the first and sec- 
ond remelts In the case of both the 
virgin and the first remelted material, 
the chill cast bars showed markedly 
better results than the sand cast bars. 

E. Jonson, New York board of 


water supply, submitted an interesting 

discussion on defects to which brass 
and bronze castings are 
which cannot be located by ordinary 


subject, and 
examination or by 
A large percentage of 


static testing. 
defects arise from 
of oxide in the casting, Jonson 
The only way to the 
defects due to oxide is to design and 
manner that 

these presence 

the mold in such a 
the oxide will not 
metal. The only 
whether or not a metal is 

said, is to test it for tensile strength. 

flow in with 
way to 
sound, he 

bronze mixture 

No brass or 
leakage at 
does, he 

pounds pres- 


sure. if it such 
ure generally is due to the fact that 
tions of 

clean. Heavy sec 
castings, Mr. 

ve fed from a riser througk 
sections by such an ar- 
rangement the the 
would be available to the heavier sec 
tions only up to the point where the 
solidified. In order 

metal is not 

Jonson said, 
should not 
metal in 


thinner sections 

to produce sound castings, Mr. John 

son said, the mold should have suf 
ficient risers and extensive flat sur- 
faces at the top of the mold should 
be avoided. 

Russell R. Clarke followed Mr. 

Jonson’s paper with a lengthy discus- 
sion in support of the use of bottom 
gates. It has been his experience, 
said Mr: Clarke, that all 
whether light, medium or heavy, can 
and the 


be gaited from the bottom, 

percentage of discount is very much 
smaller when this system is employed 
than when the mold is gated from the 

Among the many advantages of 

the bottom pour method is the fact 
that pin holes never are found at the 

junction of the gate and the casting 

for Burning-In 


~ W. Miller, Rochester Welding 
Works, Rochester, N. Y submitted 
an exceedingly interesting paper on 
the use of the oxy-acetylene flame in 
burning-in brass and manganese 
bronze castings. After extensive ex 
periments, Mr. Miller said, he had 
discovered a material which would 
weld with all kinds of brass and 

bronze, with the exception of ad 

miralty or gun metal; it was found 
impossible to weld the latter due to 
the development of a porous struc 
ture immediately surrounding the 
weld In the experiments conducted 
by Mr. Miller, it was found that ma- 

terial containing tin was entirely un 

satisfactory for welding tin-containing 

castings, since the presence of this 
metal increased the amount of the 
eutectoid present. The presence of 

zine also was found to be undesirab:e, 


since it rendered the weld 
[he metal which he finally found sat- 

isfactory for welding brass and man- 


consisted of 

reference to making welds in manga 

bronze castings 



copper, iron and 

nese bronze castings, Mr. Miller said, 

the essential element in the welding 
mixture is aluminum, although only 
a very small amount of this metal is 
necessary. In fact, less than 0.05 per 
cent is desirable. Mr. Miller exhib- 
ited a number of photographs show- 
ing the results obtained in making 
typical welds in manganese bronze 
castings. He also exhibited a num 
ber of specimens of the metal which 

he has developed for use in making 

J]. M. Bateman submitted a paper 
describing the methods pursued by 
the Hawthorne Works of the West- 
ern Electric Co. in disposing of its 
old metal. The monthly raw mate- 
rial input in this plant approximates 

$1,500,000 in value, and the waste ma- 
terial which collects during a similar 
about as follows: srass, 
copper, 180 

tons; iron 

period is 
100 tons; German 
steel, 89 


silver, 17% and 
tons; solder skimmings, 4 tons; 
833 tons. 

Arthur F. assistant pro- 
fessor of mining Shef- 

field scientific school, Yale university, 


submitted a paper on “The Reclama- 
tion of Brass Ashes” which was read 
by title. A great deal of metal is 
wasted each year, said the author, 
due to the unsatisfactory methods 

which are pursued by brass foundries 
generally in reclaiming the metal and 
brass ashes He 

unburned fuel in 

gave analyses of typical ashes which 

showed the copper content to range 
all the way between 2.9 and 23.2 per 
cent, thus proving it to be absolutely 
essential in the interest of economy 
to devise a method by which most 
ot this metal will be saved. The 
author described a general method of 
reclaiming ashes which must be varied 
according to the character and quan- 
tity of the ashes, etc. [The method 
suggested, he said, has worked with 
exceedingly satisfactory results 

In discussing this paper, W. H 
Corse described the experience of the 

Alloy Mfe Lo., Niagara 

in reclaiming metal from 


Falls, N. Y. 
Originally the company 

with a 

ashes. treat 

ed the ashes in a crusher, re 

the metal hydraulic 
classifier This 
saving all but 8 to 10 per cent of 


prises the use of 

resulted in 


copper present method com- 

a concentrating table 

in conjunction with the crusher, and 
the company now reclaims all but 
about ‘4 per cent of the copper in 

September 21, 1916 

the ashes. The company has im- 
proved its reclamation process con- 
siderably by operating its crusher 

constantly instead of intermittently. 

lhe concentrated material is removed 

long-handled ladle as 

As a result, 95 

by means of a 

fast as it accumulates 

cent of the metallic residue is re- 



Thin-Walled Castings 

Wallace, National Cash 
Dayton, O., 
“The Manufacture of 



a paper on 

Area in 

Register presented 
Castings of 
and Bronze” 


Large Brass 
He discussed fully all 
which enter into the problem, includ- 


ing the sand and its preparation, the 

equipment, the methods of fueling, 
the composition and melting of the 
metal and the cleaning of the cast 
ings, S. D. Sleeth, Westinghouse Air 

Brake Co., Wilmerding, Pa., general- 

ly recognized as one of the foremost 

the manufacture of 

authorities on 

castings to withstand pressures, sub- 
mitted an interesting paper on this 
subject. This is published on page 
569 of this issue of The Jron Trade 
Review Dr. Paul D. Merica_ sub- 

mitted a report of an investigation of 

the corrosion of tinned sheet copper. 
Ir was found that tinned sheet cop- 
per corrodes only where the sur- 
face of the tin has been penetrated 
by scratches, tool marks, etc. G. V. 

Caesar and G. C. Gerner jointly sub- 
mitted a paper entitled “The An 
nealing F’roperties of Copper at Tem- 
peratures Below 500 Degrees C. With 

the Effect of 
Dr. Henry S$ 


Particular Reference to 

Oxygen and of Silver.” 

Rawdon, bureau of standards, 

paper on “The 

sented a Occurrence 
l Electrolytic 
sell, Raritan 
Amboy, N. J., 
The Manufacture of 
Copper”. C. H 
of Hamm 
presented a paper 
“Co-operation with the Metal 
Metallographic Work”, which 
title. William B. Price 
Davidson, Scovill Mfg 
presented a 

Copper” F. i Anti- 
Works, Perth 

paper on 

Significance of Twinned 
presented a 
Mathewson, director 
Yale Uni 


ond Laboratory, 
tries in 
was read by 
and Phillip 
Co., Waterbury, 
entitled “Physical 
High Brass Taken 

Right Angles to the 

Tests on 


and at 

of Rolling.’ 

Election of Officers 

Jesse L. Jones, Westinghouse Ele« 
tric & Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh, Pa., 
was re-elected to the 
dent. W. M. Corse, Titanium 
Mfg. Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y 
re-elected secretary; George C. Stone, 

office of presi 



September 21, 

New Jersey Zinc Co., Palmerton, Pa.. A. Cowan, National Lead Co., New 
was elected senior vice president, and York; and H. S. Gulick, Moore-Jones 
ether vice presidents were elected as Brass & Metal Co., St. Louis Phe 
follows: R. S. B. Wallace, National nominating committee was as follows 
Cash Register Co., Dayton, O.; W. Chairman, G. H. Clame Ajax Metal 
B. Price, Scovill Mfg. Co., Waterbury, Co., Philadelphia; L. W. Olson, Ohio 

Conn George K. Burgess, United Brass Co., Mansfield, O.: and N. K 
States bureau of standards, Washing B. Patch, Lumen Bearing Co.. Buffalo 
ton; DeCourcy Browne, Goldschmidt- The need for the distribution of in 
rhermit Co., New York; Harold J formation as to methods of making 

James Ltd.., hydrostatic tests of d 
Montreal; J. P. Salter, Ohio Brass Co., 
Mansfield, O.; F. H. Schutz, H. B 

Mueller Mfe. Co Decatur, Ill: W 

Master Pattern Makers 



Roast, Robertson C o., ifferent allovs 

was brought to the attention of 
y ( . Karr and 




followed a discus 


formation of the 

> , , 
Pat t is the plat or the associatiol 

Association the meet with the A. F. A 

in conjunction 

American Foundrymen’s Associatior to read its own papers and to cor 
convention which was held in Cleve duct its own meetings While 1 
land Sept. 11 to Sept. 15, marks ar officers were ected at the first me 
interesting development in that branch ing, plans were made to conver 
of the foundry industry The met again next year at the America! 
originating the idea felt that the re Foundrymen’s Association conventior 
lation between the foundry foremar and to consider plans which a « 
and the pattern shop foreman might mittee will submit at that time 
be more nearly equalized, and that ‘{ Anderso ving spir the 
technical papers of interest might be organization, stated that he felt th 
presented each year. With these aims ovement would be nation wid 

in view the formation of the associa its scope, would re nearly equal 
tion was decided upo1 To perfect the status of the tound: foremar 
the organization, a dinner was held and the pattern shop foreman a1 
Thursday evening at the Statler ho would work for the etterment « 
tel. Those attending the first gathe that branch of e foundry trade 

ing were as follows: J. H. Taylor 
superintendent of pattern shops, For . 
River Ship Building’ Co., Quincy Rolled Steel 

Mass.; F. E. Delano, superinte nt ; . , ' 
fass.; F. E. Delan iperintends Will Replace Casting Which Failed 

: pe mas. 4 
a a shop, oe cy Warns at Quebec Bridge. 

General Electric Co.; John Pember 

ton, superintendent of pattern shop, Toronto, Sept. 18 As a result of 
Lynn, Mass., works, General Electric a conference between officials and 
Co.; John O. Howarth, superintendent engineers, George H. Duggan, chief 
of pattern shop, Westinghouse Ele« engineer of the St. Lawrence Bridg: 
tric & Mfg. Co. Cleveland: R I Co.. issued the following statement 
Clegg, Gardner Printing Co., Cleve im regard to the collapse of the cer 
land; Alexander Crowe, superintend ter span f the Quebe Railwa 
ent of pattern shop, Youngstown bridge, Sept. 11 

Sheet & Tube Co., Youngstown, O.; “Careful examination indicates that 
George Hogg, Oak street plant the loss of the center spa s proba 
United Engineering & Foundry Co bly due to the failure f the casting 
Youngstown, O.; C. D. Morris, works at the southwest end. « which tl 
manager, United Engineering & Foun span has been resting for six weeks 
dry Co., Youngstown, O.; Ira Cole, with a greater load than yesterday 
plant superintendent, American Road [he main structure is apparently al 

Machinery Co., Delphos, O.; Mr: solutely uninjured The St. Lawrenc: 

Hamman, foundry foreman, American Bridge Co. takes full responsibility 
Road Machinery Co., Delphos, O.; S. for center span and is making ar 

1. S. Wormsted, superintendent of rangements to replace it as soon a 

pattern shop, Gould’s Mfg. Co., Se practicable 

eca Falls, i ep Anderson, as & N Monserrat cha iT 4 i 
sistant to president, Thomas E. Coale_ chief engineer of the bridge commis 
Lumber Co, Philadelphia; A. W. An sion appointed by the government 
derson, salesman, Thomas E. Coal after the first disaster, confirms this 
Lumber Co., Philadelphia; J. F. Shea, view 

superintendent, Lake Torpedo Boat There will be no attempt made t 

Co., Bridgeport, Conn raise the sunken span fr the river 


sion which resulted in the adoption 
of a motion referring the need for a 
standard testing method to the Amer 
in Society for Testing Materials 
\s a result of a resolution adopted 
at one of the joint sessions. President 
Jones appointed a committee whose 
tut it will be to formulate a code on 
fire preventior his committee is 
prised of C. E. Skinner, Westing 


Sinn, New Jersey 

house Electric & 
Clements, National 
Dayton, O.; F. P. 

fain (oo 

Co : F. { 
Register Co., 


is teet deep as 

ucture will not interfere with 

gation and it will be cheaper to 
plicate The construction oT a 
spa will egun at once or 
i \ the same lines except that 
é yf 1 hoisting apparat 
Il be constructed of rolled steel 
ut castings p 

Pittsburgh Foundrymen’s 

M eeting 

ri \\ i¢a trie Schoo 

I mii tr { niversity ot 

, irgh, talked t Industrial and 
| ymic Prepared Sept 1x at the 
ng meeting the Pittsburg] 
Foundrymen’s Association for the year 
916-17. George W. Knotts of the 
ited Engineering & Foundry Co. is 
esident of the $s ation, having beer 
ect to sux ‘ (,eore B Kocl 

perintendent of the Altoona foundries 

W hy Did He Want It? 

The Va Dort lectric Tool Co 
leveland, recently received an inquiry 
n regard to the purchase or renting of 

electric drill fros 1 man who gave 

s addre at a certain number i 
| et Ii] After me correspondencs 
representat! es f the company called 
it the number designated and found it 
was the location of the Illinois pen 

tiary, where the correspondent was 

nvict The company is now wor 
lering what the mat expect d to d 

with t he dtill 
ne Ar erican Manganese Bro ‘ 
Holmesburg, Pa., has purchased 
ract of land adjoining its present 
int, upon which it will erect an ex 
yn which will materially increase 
achine shop and foundry capa 
The company is the manufactur 
wane e cast KS S 

ther { S 

The Human Element in the Foundry 

A Heightened Regard for Their Workmen Has Led Manufacturers to Methods and 
Equipment Which Promote Safety, Contentment and Efficiency—Effective 
Lines of Progress Are Outlined and Unsolved Problems Discussed 


HERE are three important fac- was long enough to accomplish the get. It takes the time of experienced 
tors in production,—the equip task It is not believed that any men to instruct ‘green’ boys, and as 
ment, the systems and meth- apologies are necessary in making the soon as we have one trained, he leaves, 
ods employed, and the human element. man, and the dealings with him, the and goes somewhere else.” 
While in the past greater weight has subject of this address , 
* 8 ; It is believed that a systematic plan 
been given to the two former factors, f apprenticeshi nil tat i 
mee ~ 2 . . VU appre ces ) entere into se 
and the human element has been al How to Get Skilled ty & ‘har 
rs : ously, with terms just to both the 
lowed to take care of itself, a radical ; : , 
. \t this time when foundrymen as employer and the apprentice, and with 
change is now taking place in the : a ‘ ert ‘ 
well as those having the management Sufhcient guidance and backing from 

relative importance given to these fac . ; 
- of other lines of industry are asking the management, will bring results 

tors, and it is being more and more : ; . 
B “Where are the skilled which will offset the objections just 

; : the question 
appreciated that the human element is, , ‘ 
workmen ? How can we supply the pointed out and that as a consequence 
or need?”, it is well here pointedly to the whole 
portant in securing the results desired ; ' San - 
inquire: “What results attained. A conference boar 
to provide for this need in the future?” on 

I believe there is only one answer to tives 

the great steel industry, that if some ,. al eo eae a 
this question, and that is that every Sanizations 1s now working on this 

in the last analysis, the one most im- 
. = ws / “a trade will profit from the 

: : are you doing today 
Andrew Carnegie said, at the time : ag 
apprenticeship having representa 

when he was actively connected with , ; 
: from the leading national oft 

great catastrophe destroyed all his . ig roble 
foundry should be training young men ProOdiem. 

steel plants and equipment, but left £ 
eo through apprenticeship to learn the At the foundry of the Brown & 
the personnel of his organization he : . 
, various branches of the business as Sharpe Mfg. Co. the course of appren 
would have courage to start anew; but : ; : . 
_ distinguished from men who are hired ticeship for molders occupies three 
all his vast equipment remained and : : Sas 
: : as operatives simply to perform ore years, the age limits at which boys 
he had to build up a new organization ; : . ; 
operation in which they can in a short are taken to learn this trade being 
from the beginning, with a new force . eds as 4 a 
: ‘a time become reasonably skillful but between 17 and 20 years They are 
of men, he would not feel that life : hier : 
which does not fit them for responsi- paid 14, 16 and 18 cents per hour dut 
An address by Mr. Burlingame, who is in- bility in the trade. I know the thought ing the apprenticeship years. The ap 
dustrial superintendent of the Brown & Sharpe which comes into the minds of many, prentice pays $25 at the close of th 
Mig. Co., Providence, R. I., before the New - - ¥ 
more than the returns we trial period: as a guarantee of good 

England Foundrymen’s Association, Sept. 13. “It costs 


(yout font 

yee om OR 




September 21, 1916 

or it might be considered 

a5 24 

payment for the privilege of learning 

the trade At the successful com- 
pletion of his term of apprenticeship 
he is paid a bonus of $100. These ap- 
prentices ire given experience in 
ench work, floor work and in the 
core roon They also have during 


subjects re- 

ours per ot 

devoted to 

lating their trade, and tending to 
rease their efhciency This school 
work consists of simple mathematics, 
ised entirely on foundry problems, 
and having to do with the sizes of 
flasks, the weight of iron poured, etc. 
Che course also includes reading les 
sons in connection with foundry prac 
tice and methods 
\pprentice s are also taken in the 
remaking department: for a period of 
one and a half years, the rates of pay 
r the successive periods of six 
ionths being 14, 15 and 16 cents -per 
hour. In this case $25 is paid by the 


apprentice at the close of the trial per 
iod, and a nus of $50 is paid him at 
the successful completion of his ap 
prenticeship. In both these forms of 
ipp entices! p the boys have piece 
work or work during a consider 
ble portion of their time, so that 
those who are efficient can earn ma 
terially higher wages than the sched 
uled rates 

Patternmaking, so closely allied t 
foundry work, also has its apprentice 



ship system, these apprentices serving 
for four years and being given some 
experience in the foundry during the 
course of their apprenticeship 

While a fair proportion of these ap 
prentices remain, after completing 
their time, it is not felt to be wholly 
to the disadvantage of the company to 
have good men go out to other foun- 
dries, because, as in the case of ma 
chinist apprentices, they often become 
“missionaries” to make the name of 
their company widely and favorably 
known in a.way to turn business later 
to the home shop 

In many cases these boys, even 
when they leave for a time, return 


later to become valued workers for 

the company 

Clarence H 
Commonwealth Steel 
to take 
that plant the first thing he 

Some time ago I heard 

Howard, of the 

say that when he went 

charge of 

did was to give attention to the boys 
getting them together, becoming a 
quainted with them, and putting the 
stamp of his personality upon them 
He took pains to impress upon them 
that the future managers and skilled 
workmen of that business were to be 
selected from among them and that it 
was worth their best efforts to fit 
themselves for sucl positions 
Sanitation and Health 

After securing and training our men 

important duty of the management 
is to see that proper provisions are 
made for their comfort, health and 
satety These matters often become 
factors in determining whether a man 
will stay or leave and sometimes have 
a deciding influence rather than the 
question oO! pay 

Among the most important matters 
to consider are the provisions for an 
ample and pure water suply, and clean 
and ample wash and toilet rooms with 
lockers or other suitable provision tor 
clothing, so separated from the smoke 
ind grime of the foundry as to pre 
s e the workman's self-respect when 
he changes his clothes to go on the 

Shower baths in connection 






with this equipment are important ad 

is an especially difficult problem in 

foundry and requires consideration at 
of the the 


securing of pure air and 

the time construction of 

buildings provision along 



these so giving proper 

control temperature, should 

have do with comfortable 

working conditions 

While the important consideration 
is to keep men well provision for 
caring for them when ill also has its 
place. The service of a first aid de 

partment and a shop dispensary, where 

a skilled physician and experienced 
assistants are in attendance, can help 
cases of acute illness arising in the 
foundry and keep men at work who 

might otherwise be out on account of 

sickness Such a_ service can also 

diagnose cases which may threaten to 

become more serious and so help the 

men as to avoid the consequences 
which might follow neglect 

For many years a relief association 
conducted by the workmen with the 
cooperation of the Brown & Sharps 

Mfg. Co. has paid sick and death ben 

fiis which have been of material aid 

in bridging over times of greatest 

need Plans to cooperate in an If 

> | 
vestment and insurance plan are als 

being put into effect. 
Prevention of Accidents 
The first aid and dispensary equip 
ments can also be of direct help in 

The important con 
to prevent 

danger, and to instruct the men 

case of accidents 

sideration here also is ac 

cidents by safeguarding places of 


lines of safe methods of work 

In the Brown & Sharpe foundry 
much attention has been given to this 
matter of accident prevention At 

ing great gains in reducing such acc! 


times we have felt that we were n 

but with congested 
of the 

sity of hiring a large number of inex 

dents present 

condition and neces 
perienced men there have been periods 
of relapse when it has seemed impos 
to the 

Burning accidents are among the most 

sible keep down accidents 

serious in this foundry 

It had been thought at one time 
that the combination of congress 
shoes, inspected periodically to see 
that they were in good repair, to 

gcther with leggings, which came over 

the tops of the shoes, would almost 
eliminate burning accidents to the 
feet. An early form of legging proved 
quite efficient in this respect but 
owing to its being attached by buck- 
les, the process of removing it was 

found to be too slow, when a burning 
did The N. A O 
legging was then substituted, a 

accident occur. > 



with which foundrymen 

coming familiar, througl 



are now he 

1 the fact that 

the National Founders’ Association is 
represented on the board which is 
working to standardize matters of 

safeguarding This style of legging 
snaps on to the leg in such a way 
that it can be readily removed in case 
of burning It has, however, the ob- 
jection that it easily rises abovetthe 
hoe top, especially after becoming a 
little worn, or when used by a long 
legged man, and burning accidents 
then occur, the hot iron entering at 
the top of the shoe. The use of a 
chain, passing under the foot, to hold 

the legging in place is 

being experi 

mented with, as is also the manufac 
tur f leggings of varying length to 
suit ti workman It Ss hope 1 that 
some still better method than any so 
tar suggested may be brought to 
light which will entirely prevent these 
painful and slow-healing burns. 
Th d (/uestt 

Lhe en igement t sob ty a 
the securing of a sober class of work 
men are direct factors in th ! oO 
tior f health and the avoidance of 
a( det ts. lr] 1S a ré irkal le 
move now ng on throughout 
the industries to eliminate th 
la | elieve it will e tou! 4 it 

n normal « ditions a rest 

lowit he present situation whe 
the demand fo labor is so g eat that 
oo It that some things must 
“winked at” which ordinarily would 
not be tolerated—it will mean a still 
further elimination of those who are 
subsect to the drink habit from the 
industries: this as a protection to the 

manutacturetr against t 



of compensation legislation, etc., and 
because of a growing conviction that 
the drink evil is a menace to effi 
Teaching English 

\ new labor problem comes from 
the bringing together of many nation 
alities, since a much larger proportion 
of workmen than in the earlier days 
are from countries where English is 
not the native tongus This intro 
duces not only misunderstandings, re 
sulting in spoiled work and lowered 
eificiency, but in an increased accident 
rate and loss of time from sickness 
Under these circumstances there is 
not the common ground of interest 
which formerly existed 

One step towards bringing about a 
better condition in this respect, which 
the foundryman can well consider a 
part of his legitimate work, is in tak 

ing such measures as are possible to 

teach the rudiments of English to 
workmen who need such instruction 
The fact that it is often the workmen 
who need it ost who are least re 






American citi: 


of f 



lV <« 


September 21, 1916 

nsive and the 



make them get 
makes the pr 

lifficult ( i 


ouple witl 



g regardless of 

future and thus 

me to 
ril but 

strike, Du 

some inve 
to ascertain 
and firing” empl 

cost is much thar 

believed Also, that 


out, it 

2 m 
loyes are hired to mait 
ar than 
With a true apy 
he cost of this constan 
an earnest 
he difficulty, it is 

not oniy 




yvenent o 


°5 aS 






) the 

Will i! 



proble m 


D Ȣ 





September 21, 1916 

Heavy Shipments 

Of the Steel Corporation, but Unfilled 
Tonnage Shows Increase 

Pressure for new tonnage on the 
Steel Corporation continues of tre 
mendous volume, as demonstrated by 
the increase of 66,765 tons in the 
unfilled orders during the month of 
\ugust, according to the _ statement 
issued Sept. 9 rhis gain was estab 
lished in the face of the fact that 
production and shipments during 
\ugust were in excess of those of 
July, to an amount officially estimated 
at about 10 per cent. The order book 
of the Steel Corporation, as of Aug 
31, was at the gross total of 9,660,357 
tons, which is exerting so severe a 
demand upon manufacturing capacity 
that it has been necessary to enforce 
more rigidly policies calling for a 
restricted acceptance of new business 

The unfilled orders of the Steel 
{ orporation at the close ot each 
month in recent years, showing the 
changes in tonnage and per cent are 
is follows 

Change, Change, 

Date. Total. tonnage. per cent. 
Aug 31 19l¢ ) 66 66.76 0.69 
luly l 191¢ 59 46,866 0.48 
june » i¥ie 040,498 297,340 $.uy— 
May 31, 1916 9,937,798 108.2474 L114 
Apr. 30, 1916.... 9,829,551 498,5504 5.34+ 
Mar. 31, 1916 . 9,331,001 762,035+ 8.894 
Feb. 29, 1916 8,568,767 646,199+ 8.164 
Jan 31, 1916.... 7,922,767 119,547+ 1.53+ 
Dec. 31, 1915.... 7,803,220 616,731+ 8.584 
Nov. 30, 1915.... 7,189,489 1,024,037+ 16.63+ 
Oct. 31, 1915.... 6,165,453 847,8344 14.064 
Sep. 30, 1915.... 5,317,618 409,1634 8.134 
Aug. 31, 1915.... 4,908,455 20,085— 0.04— 
July 31, 1915 - 4,928,640 250,3444 5.354 
June 30, 1915.... 4,678,196 413,598+ 9.694 
May 31, 1915.... 4,264,598 102,3544 2.464 
Apr. 30, 1915.... 4,162,244 93,505— 2.21 
Mar. 31, 1915.... 4,255,749 89,622— 2.06— 
Feb. 28, 1915.... 4,345,371 96,800+ 2.28+ 
Jan 31, 1915.... 4,248,571 411,928+ 10.744 
Dec 31, 1914.... 3,836,643 512,051+ 15.40+ 
Nov. 30, 1914.... 3,324,592 136,505— 3.94 

Oct. 31, 1914.... 3,461,097 326,570— 862— 
Sep. 30, 1914.... 3,787,667 425.,664— 10.01 

Aug. 31, 1914.... 4,213,331 54,7424 1.324 
July 31, 1914.... 4,158,589 125,7324 3.124 
lune 30, 1914 4,032,857 34,697+ 0.864 
May 31, 1914 3,998,160 278,908— 6.98 
Apr. 30, 1914 4,277,068 376,757— 8.09— 
Mar. 31, 1914 4,653,825 372,615— 7.42— 
Feb. 28, 1914.... 5,026,440 412,760+ 8.954 
Jan. 31, 1914.... 4,613,680 331,572+ 7.744 
Dec. 31, 1913.... 4,282,108 114,239— 2.59 
Nov. 30, 1913.... 4,396,347 117,420— 2.60 
Oct. 31, 1913.... 4,513,767 490,018— 9.79 
Sep. 30, 1913.... 5,003,785 219,683— 4.24 
Aug. 31, 1913.... 5,223,468 175,888— 3.03 
July 31, 1913.... 5,399,356 407,965— 7.03 
Tune 30, 1913.... 5,807,317 517,00S— 8.18 
May 31, 1913.... 6,324,322 654,440— 9.38 
Apr. 30, 1913.... 6,978,762 490,194— 6.55— 
Mar. 31, 1913.... 7,468,956 187,758— 2.45 
Feb. 28, 1913.... 7,656,714 170,654— 2.18— 
Jan. 31, 1913.... 7,827,368 104,796— 1.32— 
Dec. 31, 1912.... 7,932,164 79,2814 1.014 
Nov. 30, 1912.... 7.852.883 258,502+ 3.404 
Oct. 31, 1912.... 7,594,381 1,042,874+4 15.334 
Sep. 30, 1912.... 6,551,507 388,132+ 6.294 
Aug. 31, 1912.... 6,163,375 206.2964 3.464 
July 31, 1912 $957,079 149.7734 2.58+ 
Tune 30, 1912 5,807,346 56,363+ 0.984 

W. W. Ewing, special agent of the 
United States Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce, recently conferred 
with Pittsburgh manufacturers of struc- 
tural material and machinery He will 
leave United States on Oct. 1 to visit 
the West Indies and the principal coun- 
tries of South America under the aus- 

cated steel and machinery 

Death of A. T. Whiting 


Lake Erie Ore Rece 


Toluol Prices 

Are Lower for Those Engaged in 
Making Products Not Used in War. 

New York, Sept. 19.—A large part 
of the 50,000 to 60,000 gallons of re 
sale pure benzol which recently has 
been in the market at concessions or 
at from 60c to 68c per gallon has 
been absorbed, leaving only about 
-000 gallons remaining The spot 
market accordingly is firmer and the 
lowest price has disappeared, though 
limited quantities may be had under 
70 The recent buying of spot has 
been extensive Che contract market 
is quiet and unchanged at 70« 

It has become more apparent that 
two sets of prices apply in the toluol 
market, one to manufacturers who 
are using the product for peaceful 
requirements and the other to mak 
ers of high explosives. For the for 

er, spot is from $3 to $3.50 per 
gallon and contract from $3 to $3.25 
while to the manufacturers of trini 
trotoluol, they are from $3.50 to #4 
on spot and from $3.50 upward on 
contract "ome larg orders for 
peace needs have been placed. Mak 
ers of trinitrotoluol are receiving large 
inquiries and making some sales of 
their product, so it is expected the 
toluol market soon will see better 
buying from that source Bids have 
Leen taken by the government on 
900,000 pounds of trinitrotoluol for 
the Frankford arsenal 

Strength continues to be added in 
phenol through the active uying of 
picric acid plants. For spot Oc per 
pound was paid this week, against as 
low as 49%c recently Contract is from 
55c to 60x The prospects for this 

arket are good Solvent naphtha is 
weaker at 35c to 40c per gallon for 
pot and We to 35c for contract 

\nother advance on spot and near 

is been made by sulphate of am 

ia to $3.68 to $3.72 per 100 pounds 

it tidewater Fertilizer manufactur 

ers ar uying trom time to time as 

new needs come up. Producers, hav 

Q sold heavily on contract are 
ged to reject some inquiries 

Market Prices for Coke Oven 

Per t Pr ers Plant 
Pure benz $0.68 t 
mi peace | [ : i) te : 
ol war f 5 to 4 
Solvent naphtha 
Per P j I s P t 
Phe $0.6 
I I I : j 
Suls : " $3.68 
Per Pr ers I 
I enz $0.7 
f ; I e $7 0 to 3.3 
r purs 3 to 4. 
< ent phtha 30 to : 
Per I 1 at I ers Plant 
| $0.55to .60 
Per 1 I d at Seaboard 
> n earby) $3.68 to 3.7 

usiness News of Nation’s Capital 

Political Scramble for Armor Plate Plant—Tremendous 

Ret ew, 
Sept. 19 

Iron Trade 
206 Corcoran 
Washington, D. C., 

Bureau of The 

HE somewhat 
two - day 
staged by Sec- 

retary of the 
Navy Jose 
phus Danicls 

in his office on 
and Thursday 
of last week 
with regard 
to the 


site for a 
armor plate plant seems 
to have developed into a_ polit- 
ical scramble. Despite the fact that 
something like 200 applicants crowded 
his office and presented contentions 
before Mr. Daniels and bureau officials 

tion of a 


on’ behalf of the approximately 125 
cities they represented, the actual 
selection of a site, if the plant is 

really built, is being made an object 
of a vigorous fight among members of 
congress to land the “plum” for their 
respective districts or states, as the 
case may be. 

A tremendous mass of material was 
presented at the hearing in the way 
of photographs, briefs, blue prints and 
maps. It althost swamped the secre- 
tary and the officials surrounding him, 
and if it is to be given anything like 
a close analysis, it would seem that 
many months would be required before 
a site could be determined upon. But 
no one who has followed the pro- 
ceeding imagines that any substantial 
percentage of the material will be 
given even casual consideration. The 
impression prevails that the general 
board of the navy, upon which rests 
the question of approving the site for 
the plant, will arbitrarily eliminate 
much of the material presented and 
concentrate their study to a relatively 
few points. The costly work of pre- 
paring the plans, arguments, maps, 
etc., expenses and time of applicants 
who came to Washington, generally 
at the behest of chambers of com- 
merce of cities seeking the plant, will 
go for nothing in a large measure. 

Necessarily, out of all of the argu- 
ments made by the numerous appli- 
cants in behalf of cities and com- 
munities they represented, some of 

Amount of Material Will Receive 

Scant Consideration 

them were decidedly impractical. On 
the other hand, some made convincing 
points, and perhaps among the fore- 
most in this direction was President 
James E. Bowron, of the Gulf States 
Steel Co., who urged that Birmingham, 

Ala., be chosen as the site for the 
plant. But there were also many 
others who made strong arguments. 

The cities represented at the hearing 
are scattered throughout the country, 
north, east, west and south. 

After the hearing 
Secretary Daniels who seems to have 

was concluded, 
been placed in a quandary over the 
situation, said it probably 
“two months or longer” before the site 
would be selected. There were those 
who saw in this announcement a pe- 
culiar significance. “Two months or 
more,” it was pointed out, would place 
the date beyond the day of election 
in November. To the site 
fore then, it was urged, might 
for Mr. Daniels considerable 
viable opinion from disappointed appli- 
cants. But after election, it was ar- 
gued, the political effect of such an 
opinion would not matter. 

would be 

name be- 


Applicants Express Opinions 

Personal conversation with many of 
the applicants revealed a_ sentiment 
that appears to be almost universal. 
They conceded that the idea of the 
government making its own armor 
plate is absurd, as well as dangerous 
They persuaded by 
Mr. Daniels’ publicity campaign into 
the that the 
been paying excessive prices for armor 
plate. Moreover, they the 
practical offers made by armor manu- 

have not been 

belief government has 


facturers to provide armor to 

government at prices to be set by the 

federal trade commission after it had 
inventoried their plants. And they 
had kept in mind the fact that the 

United States government is not only 
getting the best armor plate made at 
reasonable and lower prices than any 
other nation, but that also the armor 
making the 

capacity of 
normal requirements. 
readily saw that for the 
to build the proposed 
plant with an annual capacity of 20,000 
tons would the 
private industries, but would likewise 
jeopardize the quality of armor that 
would be made for the government, 
to say nothing of the extremely high 


country tar 
armor plate 

not only. destroy 

cost such manufacture would undoubt- 
edly entail. 

recely ed no of- 

It is perhaps needless to say 
the navy department 
fers from private armor makers to sell 

their plants to the government. Reason 

exists for the belief, however, that 
Secretary Daniels had hoped _ such 
offers would be presented. One sen- 
ator, who apparently felt there was 
no chance that his state would get 
the plant, is credited with saying 
that none of the many sites suggested 
at the hearing will be selected, but 
that the government will buy two 

private plants. It is thought he re- 
ferred to the plants of the Bethlehem 
Co. the Midvale Steel & 
Ordnance Co. Representatives of both 

of these concerns have said they would 

Steel and 

not sell their plants to the government 

and that it would be impractical to 
do so because they constitute a part 
of their general steel plants. Talk 
that the government would attempt 
to take over these plants by right of 
“eminent domain” has not been treat 

ed seriously. 

The following is a partial list of 
cities which are seeking the govern- 
ment armor plate plant 

Alabama—Tuscaloosa, Mobile, Birmingham, 


Connecticut—New Haven, Hartford 

Illinois—Chicago, Loamax, Metropolis 
Indiana—Jeffersonville, La Porte, Michigan 
City, Evansville, Gary. 

Ilowa— Newton 

Kentucky — Fort Thomas, Mount Vernon, 
Ashland, Wickliffe, Dover, Louis«ville 
Maryland—Baltimore, Annapolis, Barclay. 

Massachuetts— Dalton 

Michigan Saginaw. Houghton, Traverse 
City, Menomine Manistique, New Buffalo 

Missouri—St. Louis 

New Jersey—Park Ridge, Camden Phil 

New Mexico—Corona, Jicarilla 

New York—New York City, Fulton. Brook 
lyn, Breaker Island, Troy, New Brighton, 
Port Richmond, Buffalo, Albany, Watervliet, 

North Carolina—Newton, Gastonia, Fayette 

ville, Asheville, Southport, Brevard, Wilming- 

Lakewood, Steu 

Ashtabula, Toledo, 
Port Clinton, Conneaut, 
Cincinnati, Youngstown, 

Sandusky, Massillon, Columbia, Canton, anes 
ville. Oberlin, Huron. 


Pennev'vania—Chester, New Castk Pitts 

burgh, Philadelphia, Oil City, SlI-tington, Per 
wick, Sunbury Allentown. Bridgeport, Erie, 
Coateeville, Columbia, Girard, Sandy Lake, 
Scottdale, New Cumberland, Emerald, Car 

Rhode Island—Providence 

Tennessee—Elizabethton, Bristol 

Texas—Beaumont, Orange, Port Arthur, At 

Virginia—Richmond, Newport News. Tye 
River, Portsmouth, Buena Vista, Bristow, 
Basic, ‘West Point, Norfolk, Petersburg, Hope- 
we'l. Alexondria. 

West Virginia—Wellsburg, Wheeling, Hunt 
D. of C.—Washington 

News of Employers and Employes 

Safety Council Will Convene to Discuss Safety Work in Many Trades 
Employment of Women to Relieve Labor Shortage 

HE National Safety Council will 
hold its fifth annual safety con- 
gress at Detroit, Oct. 16 to 20 
140 speakers 

A program 
has been arranged The main 


of this year’s meeting will be sectional 
-onferences. The development of safety 

work has 

problems of 

become intensive and the 
various industries are be- 
ing taken up separately. A great safety 
exhibit will be presented in connection 
with the congress, where recent types of 

satety devices will be shown 

Special committee meetings will be 
he first day and the annual busi- 
ness meeting the second. This wit!l in- 
clude addresses of welcome and re- 
sponse, the president’s address, reports 

of officers and committees, 

business and election of directors A 
general round table discussion will be 

held Tuesday afternoon with H. W 

Forster, chief engineer of the Inde- 
pendence Inspection Bureau, Philadel- 
phia, in charge The topic will be 

“Maintaining Interest in Accident Pre- 

vention.” A meeting will be held 
Tuesday evening to consider the adop- 
tion of universal danger signs 

The program for the three sessions of 
the iron and steel section includes the 
following papers: 

Progress of Safety in Iron and Steel 
Industry (illustrated with lantern slides), 
Dr. Lucian W. Chaney, U. S. Dept. of 
Washington, D. C.; Safety in 
Blast Furnace Operation, F. H. Wilcox, 
Bureau of Mines, Pitts- 


Engineer, U. S 
burgh; Safety in Bessemer Operations, 
J. H. Ayres, Supt 
and Welfare, 

National Works, 

Achievements and 

of Safety, Sanitation 
National Tube Co., 
McKeesport, Pa 

Possibilities of Ac- 

cident Prevention in American Indus- 
tries, Dr. F. L. Hoffman, Statistician, 
Prudential Life Insurance Co., Newark, 
N. J Employment, A. H. Young, 

supervisor of labor and safety, II‘inois 
Steel Co., South Chicago, IIl 
Safety Methods and Prevention of In- 
fection, Dr. C. C. Booth, chief surgeon, 
Republic Iron & Steel Co, 
O.: The Duties of the Visiting Nurse, 
Miss Florence Wright, Clark 
Co., Newark, N. J 

The foundry section will meet Wed- 

Origin of 



nesday and the following papers will! be 

Safety in Rolling Mill 
Chas. R. Hook, Gen. Supt., American 
Rolling Mill Co., Middletown, O 
E'ectrica! Hazards, D. M. Petty, Supt 
of Electrical Dept., Bethlehem Stee! Co, 

( pe rations, 

Urged by Munition Board 

South Bethlehem, Pa Safety in Coke 

Oven Operations, K. M. Burr, safety 

inspector, Il‘inois Steel Co., Gary, Ind 

Police and Fire, G. W. Atwood, Youngs- 

town Sheet & Tube Co., Youngstown, 
O.; Strains, Sprains and Burns, S. W 
Ashe, Educational and Welfare Dept., 
General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass 
Crane and Chain Practices, F. H. Elam, 
Mer. Casualty Dept., American Steel 

Foundries, Chicago; Eye Protection, F 

W. Shepard, safety inspector, Americas 
Cast Iron Pipe Co., Birmingham, Ala 
Alcohol vs. Safety, Dr. H. P. Hourigar 
Larkin Co., Buffalo, N. Y 
Sanitation, J. F 

Assn., Toronto, Can 


Foundry Alexander, 

secretary, The Trades Safety 

The National Safety Council is made 

up of employers and was organized 

about three years ago. It is a clear- 

health conservation and 

ing house of information on 
sanitation. Starting with about 40 mem 

than 2,200, each 

bers it now has more 

of whom receives five bulletins each 

week, presenting the latest and best 
means of reducing accidents 

Iron and steel men will be interested 
in the hea'th service and steam rai!troad 
sectional meetings in addition to the 
steel and foundry sectional meetings, as 
operation of 

both touch closely the 

iron and steel industries 
Employing More Women 
Toronto, Sept. 18—The imperial 
munitions board at Ottawa has taken 
in hand the organization of labor 
available for the manufacture of shells 
and war equipment, as the growing 
shortage of men for factory work has 
been for some time becoming more 
serious. Mark H. Irish, M. P. P., has 
been appointed to take up the work 
in Toronto. The main object at pres 
ent is to increase the use of femal 
view Mr 

with which end in 

Irish will go over the plants engaged 


in the munitions industry and urge 

the employment of women in all 

operations suited to their capacity 
At present, the number of women en 
gaged in this work in Toronto is 
estimated at about 500, many of whom 
earn high wages 

The conductors and trainmen of the 

Grand Trunk system, as the 

result of a conference lasting for sev- 
eral weeks with the railroad officials 
at Montreal, have been granted a new 

scale of wages with an _ increase 


amounting to from 5 to 8 per cent 
and representing $500,000 yearly. The 
only members of the operating de 
partment who dd not come under the 
agreement are the trackmen, who 
asked for a larger increase than the 
company was willing to concede 
heir case will be referred to a board 
of arbitration. The settlement was 

harmonious throughout 

Not Enough Men 

loronto, Ont., Sept. 18.—Shortage of 

labor is the explanation given by On- 
tario munition-making plants for fail 

ure to keep abreast of contracts. Some 


40 replies have been received to the 

letters sent to the factories 

by the provincial war resources com 


mittee The shortage of labor is par- 

ticularly complained of in plants which 
secured contracts for 

have recently 

the manufacture of high explosive 

shells. In certain of these plants at 
least 100 skilled 

could be used, 

additional workers 

Accident Prevention 

Observance of Fire, Accident and 

Prevention day, Oct. 9, is being urged 
on all cities and managers of industrial 
plants. The movement has enlisted the 
National Fire and 

North America and the 

co-operation of the 
Association, the 

Creditmen, the Fire 

Safety Council, the 
tion of 
Association of 
International and Dominion Association 
f Fire Chiefs 

It is hoped the educational value of 

this observance will bring home to peo- 
ple in general the fact that 75 per cent 
f fires and accidents are due to care- 
lessness and can be prevented Assist- 
nce in outlining a method of observing 

the day will be 

I given by either the 
National Fire Protection Association, 87 
Milk street, Boston, or the National 
Council, 208 South La Salle 

street, Chicago 



ot Hamilton (nt., 

Plow Works 
Harvester Co., 
effected a 


The Oliver 
nd the Intern 
ompromis with their 

ering 2,000 men, who asked for 

1 nine-hour day The companies ob 
ted on the ground that this would 
Ive a curtailment of production 

nd agreed to give a 10 per cent in- 

instead of shortén- 

"cast mm wages 


fron and Money: Fact and Comment 

Steel Shares Carried to Highest Levels of Their Careers by 
the Wild Rush of Bullish Speculation 

NE OF the best signs of th 

times, speaking of the iron and 

steel industry from the finan 
cial point of view, is the widely mani 
fested disposition of steel company 
managements to share profits with 
stockholders Only within the past 
inonth or two has this attitude been 
clearly detined Earnings were big 
before that, but companies were bus 
ily engaged in building up their finan 
cial positions, wiping out floating in 
debtedness and generally preparing 
for nossible hard times to come Lon 
ditions have changed. Steel companies 

ave built up extraordinarily heavy 

eserves, brought ther mechanical 
equipment up to the highest possible 
cegree and have a backlog of business 

1 their books sufficiently large to 

remove all worries as to the immedi 
ate futute Thus we see Lackawanna 
Steel, which in 15 years had paid 

rckholders but 1 per cent, go on a 
6 per cent per annum basis Another 
instance is the Gulf States Steel Co 
a concern which only a little over two 
ears ago seemed only a shell, the 
remains of reorganization after re 
organization. Yet within less than a 
year all three issues of stock of th 
(,ulf States Steel Co. have been placed 
on a dividend basis. Last January 
dividends in arrears on the $2,000,000 
first preferred stock, amounting to a 
little more than 15 per cent, were paid 
and the stock placed on a regular 7 
per cent basis, The directors of the 
company have now declared an initial 
dividend of 2 per cent on the $5,000,- 
000 common, placing that issue on an 
8 per cent basis. The financial po 
sition of Gulf States Steel now is said 
to be almost impregnable 

Naturally, such developments as 
these the past week served as more 
fuel to the fire of speculation which 
has raged in the stock market for 
weeks past Monday saw the tenth 
consecutive “million-share” day on 
the New York stock exchange, a ser 
ies just equaling the record of last 
autumn The unbridled revel in «stock 
trading is based upon the opinion that 
the country’s economic position is so 
overwhelmingly prosperous that no 
speculative rise in stocks could be 
wild enough to overdiscount it But 
the more conservative Wall Street in- 
terests are beginning to hoist storm 
signals and “safety first” signs 

This bull movement has brought 

in the Stock Market 

any of the steel shares to the high 
est levels in their histories United 
States Steel common on Monday top 
ped 10834, the loftiest price in its 
career. Republic Iron & Steel com 
mon sold up to 68 a level 13 points 
above the best ever recorded by this 
stock before the present movement 
\s only 4 per cent accumulated divi 
dends remain against Republic pre 
ferred it is felt that Republic com 
mon may be placed on a dividend 
basis ere long. Brier Hill Steel com 
another Star 

mon was pertormer 

among the steel stocks, touching 1 

on the Cleveland stock exchange 

Quotations on a number of leading 
iron, steel and industrial securities at 
the close ot the Ne W . rk stock ¢ 

change Sept 16 and net changes tor 

the preceding week are shown in the 
following tabl 
{ se N 
Sept. l¢ g 
American Car 6 
American Cat pr 11 
Amer. ( & Fdy 68 
Amé Car & Fdy. ¢ ' 11 
American I tive " l 
Ar erican ] t 1 TH¢ 1 
American Steel Foundries 
Baldwin I ymotive R 
Baldwin Locomotive, prf 106 
fethlehem Steel 74 
Bethlehem Steel, pr 138 
Colorado Fuel & Iron ¢ 5534 
Continental Car 106 1 
Continental Car pri 110 
Crucible Steel 93 g 
yy e st i 119 
General Electr 1703 
Cult state Stee 94 ] 
‘ States Ste Ist J 101 . 
( States Ste 6 2 
Inte t Harv ] 117 | 
Internat’! Harv 7 = f 118 
International Ha Cory 72 
I Kawanr st RS 
Nat'l Enamel’g & Stmy 29% 
Pr ed Stee { ‘ j 
Pressed Steel ( pr 101 
Pullman Palace Car 1¢ 
Republic Iron & Stee 68% 
Republic Iron & Steel, prid 11 
U. S. Cast Iron Pipe & Fdy 4 
l = 4 I P. & Fd pri 
1 ’ ted States N tee 1 4s 
Ur ted States > t I | 1 
Westingh e M 63 > 

Offer Made for Thomas 
Iron Properties 

Otter of $3,500,000 cash has beet 
made for the properties of the Thomas 
Iron Co. by an eastern syndicate 
headed by William Billyeu, vice presi 
dent of the Northern National Bank 
of Philadelphia The offer, it is said 
would net stockholders about $50 a 
share, since the capital stock out 
standing amounts to $2,500,000 and 
there are $600,000 bonds. The nego 
tiations have been referred to a com- 


ittee of stockholders If the syndi 

cate acquires the property, it is stated 

that a large sum will be expended in 

modernizing and improving the fur 
naces to enable them to compete 
more successfully in the market. At 
one time an option was taken by N 

| C. Kackelmacher and associates, as 
part of a proposed merger of the east 
ein Pennsylvania blast furnaces, but 
this was never exercised 

The meeting of the stockholders is 
described as having been a_ stormy 
one and there were charges that the 

agement had not made the most 


ot the recent market conditions and 

that the company had been losing 

oney Che finance committee, how- 
ever, reported a profit of $45,000 dur- 
ing the month of August R. H 
Sweetser, who has been president and 

general manager of the company for 
recently retired, and 

is succeeded by W. A. Barrows Jr., 
ot Brainerd, Minn 

several years 

Lackawanna Goes on 

Dividend Basis 

wanna Steel Co. has been put on a 

Lhe common stock of the 

lividend basis of 6 per cent per an- 
dividend ever paid 
previously was 1 per cent in 1913 
rhe company had paid off all the 
moneys borrowed in connection with 
the redemption on March 31 last of 
the company’s two year 6 per cent 
gold notes, thus completing the pay 

ment during the past two years of 

$10,000,000 face value of funded in 
debtednes ind is free of floating ir 
debtedness Che privilege at die 

counting payments tor current sup 

plies has been regularly availed of, 

and the directors felt that, in view of 

the large current earnings, it was 

proper to begin distributions to the 


Atlantic Steel Profits Pass 

What some of the smaller steel pri 
ducers are doing in the way of earn 
ings under present steel market condi- 
tions is instanced by the remarkable re- 
port of the Atlantic Steel Co., Atlanta 

1 Aug 

Earnings are shown to have 

Ga., for the eight months ende« 
31, last 
been at the rate of about 107 per cent 

on the preferred stock. After deducting 

September 21, 1916 THE IRON TRADE REVIEW 599 

e preterred dividend of / per cent, a rs of the Ralei ft W ork hank Mi: oe Miallic n 
; . , , P rT ald SO ) ' = 
surplus remained for common equivalent rupt, will be held in Ra Sept. 19 Vian ’ VERRELORS 
» of aboot 7S34 ner c to « mands for ag . , 
a rate of about 7334 per cent. The ee det a rag os Will Be Expended in Detroit—The 

mmmon stock at resent 18 paying ‘3 : , . : 
common stock at pres ying 1% of the compat y t ca f Entrance of the Pennsylvania 

r cent quarterly In other words, the the International Ass tins ; MM 

mpany 1s earning about /U per cent a st wt 
’ 7? > septa \ “T) nt ’ th ; | 
year on its common stock above a . . ° . vs the next 
, , : < S nd ' ’ 
charges and dividends Following is tl . comn cial 
. (Jtmciais t ( 4 a & . ? ; 
come account for the eight months . . ‘ ‘ ‘ now eing 
roundry C¢ ant ince that tft co ni , ) T} 
period "7 4 ‘ . pial t ! nese enormous 
' 10a pany \W i nla ( piet« 1 rigtifia ‘ " 
AUGUS! der for the Russian gov ent ex litures will bring to the city 
- ‘ 
‘ s earnings trom perations $136,92 $2,500,000 w «| } ‘ she : s pl ities ol i high 
Le reserve tor interest 00( within three w ks 1 he wrder tor hig ' ' Ne ral new ofhice buildings 
: : ' . 9 ; 
, — . Soa 15,04 CXPlOSIVe SMEs e 4 t aw the 1 3-story building of 
+} ; } 
\ he f the vea N < 
. , ‘ t Su r type of construction, will 
set t t gen ss nd gain $116,92' c ntracts nave airea e¢ Sig ‘ , 
. erectes 
up by the compar ( any . 
EIGHT MONTHS . ‘ ge “be ry , ) 
pial : Lv liand, Unt = . ked up i a rance | Pennsylvania 
G s earn’gs fron erations $574,718 ey ‘O17 : 
i z ; 1 I i the end of 1913 railroad nts ww , costing $40,000, 
Less reserve for: a ie 
t 43,00 Ut vill ! 15 industrial 
ements 6 The uil-Rentschle Tra ( plants b i locomotive 
" ' , : 
Dividends 88 Hamiultor ) rece! \ I rporat VOrKs | ‘ ents contem 
| ; ' 
wit! a autnor er ca Ss n pl ri i ra ot the Ford 
N nce $32? 968 S10 HK) adv ses if < ‘ ’ : 
: < ’ : i i “ Vv ' { 1] rt nt ' +! 
- : . ’ \ i p S¢< al OuLiay 


‘ , i ' , nd is 
Phe net earnings tor the preceding designed to run oOo! Kerosene an i I x " the uild 
: , , 
~y es . = ti n \ mac f fas el 
fve veare averaged $155,000 per annum idapta he ) i k I i 1 ste e down-river 
: - - , work The I porators who art ‘ 
hee { hie » + baons hean af ¢ . : é 
l tar thi year tney ave a rie mer nt + ans and road 1 anufac ' , ; ; 
wits ‘ { ‘ nd if 
rate of about $705,000 a year ng and usiness experienc ar i . . ates thet 
follows (; \ Rents< le ( tures follow 
Financial Crop End Wing, J. A. Vail, Gordon §. Ren 
* > 4 , » . v« ’ " , 
inancia Zop ©£.nas : ; $4 
- s eT al Samue ( va M ( j 
' ' ‘ * I iB ‘ hee 
The Superior Tool (¢ Koko ’ ° Or 
} : | 4 + ; } } f ; , 1 | . 
Ind., has declared a KA? per cel STOCK Vg n iro V ork g ta I t ‘ ; 0, 
, ’ S ' 
1 e1 Directors are \ i Tha t t ‘ ‘ t NY M . . 
, ’ | ‘ \ 14 | , ' 
man, A. V. Conradt, T. ¢ Rapp, |. D West I & Ma { 
‘ f 

’ \ } S 
K. Kennedy, A. P. Weigle, A \r gat . , 
st ng \ Gy. Sethe he \ ] ' 

‘ ‘ Ml ( [ 12 
‘ \ | ‘ l r 
< \ t t 
’ i 
Creditors of the def Krit } O t vill . i 
‘ ‘ 9 ‘ ‘ 
tor Sales Co., Detroit, have receiv 75 1 
, ’ ’ 
nai pay ent < tne cial S agains ! } t : 
he co pany where \ 71.0 per cet \i ‘ 
, T> s 
f the total claims were realized Phe 2 i rort 
‘ : - ' ‘ 
abilities wert S299 4% vin sure i ‘ l 
$161.651 was 1 » ( \ £ ‘ 
4 ‘ + * 
Niner ] ‘ rt , _— 4 } ‘ » i ( rs¢ 
' ' . P ’ 
| ake Superior ( rat ma Te 7 ‘ | | | | 

— o £ ' ' 

| at 4 n Came . XN | | < { iM 
was ret dithcult las \ I b caus ty ’ \ " 

| , : ti it 
sr) T? a \ Ene Ts, 4 4 iV 
the Furopean wart g | | ‘ S| tow 
* * + t t x S g he et 

} \f ‘ ‘ Del M Vi i ) ‘ } 

. ) fo , r ent ’ ge sw 
corporated for $75,00 f which G. ] ; e. in which 
Viittinger and Mittinger yf >1/) as eso nn ‘ , ‘ ‘ cot 
Cleveland are ancial backers nas anni ¢ tad 

, . ’ ’ ‘ 
ugnt the plat r the (Oni sasn ‘ , , 
weignt ( } ings en ae W \ Ty ¢ 7 
Start 4 facture I il Sad irons P . 
ind met c ? elties ° ° ’ ~ mh VV Orks 
dire ; ré< ; ; ‘ x VW | ‘ * 
. ’ sf | ( ~ ’ ‘ . 
‘ ©) ‘ S10 yt S750) OOO 
NX ; rr < + ¢ { ? States St tena \! tr 
{) i ; ee fe | ’ 
( 3 ming in \ \ gust tt, . Ad at Ds eine ° ‘ ( ( y 
’ ’ 
making heav} wances for depri ie eens Kae t enlarge 
tior und reserves, were $237,483, the a RY ea ‘ ‘ ef ' 
. - . : ~ | I \ : it? : | 
i largest in the histor of the company eae | ' 
; . . pret ‘ < K | ‘ ’ < 
: being a 1 rease t S186.914 ver \ g ‘ f Cc) 
‘ ce 
+4 , 
i svct 1914 For the eight months t Sent 1914 » . \ ] 
] t ; rnir 1" want | ‘ Se} By) Ol” ad ‘ 5 ; ‘ : = 
I net ear! gs i inted I yi 1¢ wher . ‘ ow \ ' the ethle 
: wainst S318/19 for 1? same ner | “ie _ ‘ . 
; ‘ 5 : : : ‘ ‘ ’ 
- TOS i 
i ivi. 
* * * ‘ ° ‘ the . floor 
eing ( err té ? , : . 
' , , - » 
Josey B Ches I te States per cent in | ya . . \ : ’ 
. +} ret ; (er | 
district of XN rt Car ; ’ } . ; ‘ int f \ P - superse led \ ’ 
1 ‘ 1 — 7 © 
wut a notice that a meeting 7 we ‘ mer will a , SR wy +1 . wr future 

Single Orders Feature Tool Markets 

While No Large Sales Have Been Noted in Any of the Leading Machinery Centers 
the Volume of Business Concluded From Domestic Sources Has 
Given the Situation a Brighter Aspect 

IMPROVED domestic demand for miscellane- 
ous tools featured the eastern machinery mar- 
ket during the past week. Although no large 
were noted, a number of transactions, aggre- 
The widely 


divergent sources from which these inquiries originated 
has given the situation an encouraging aspect. A 
better foreign inquiry also was in evidence, especially 
for large lathes, and a considerable volume of busi- 
Perhaps the most 

a good total, were consummated. 

ness of this nature has been placed. 
interesting development in the machinery market 
this time is the growing scarcity of machines for 
prompt shipment. Although lathes, milling machines 
and some of the had in fair 
quantities for nearby delivery, the larger equipment 
Such the with 

smaller tools can be 

is exceedingly hard to get. is case 
cranes, and consequently the market for this kind ot 
machinery is rather quiet. Dealers report a good 
volume of inquiry, but state that buyers are backward 
about closing, owing to the late deliveries offered. 
As a result of this sold-up condition, a number of 
inquiries are now before second-hand dealers. The 
railroads continue practically out of the market, while 
ship building plants are reported to be taking a little 
more interest in their requirements. 

The National Lamp Works of the General Electric 
Co. will erect a $200,000 plant at Providence, R. I. 
The Raritan Copper Works plans to construct an 
$8,000 addition to its foundry at Perth Amboy, N. J 
The Rice & Adams Dairy Machine Co. contemplates 
the erection of a $75,000 plant at Buffalo. The 
Cameron Engineering Co. will erect a $10,000 machine 
shop at East Stroudsburg, Pa. The Electric Hose & 
Rubber Co. has completed plans for an $8,000 machine 
shop, which will be erected at Wilmington, Del. The 
Turner White Metal Works is taking bids on an 
$8,000 plant addition at Highland Park, N. J. 

Good Business in Chicago 

ENERAL demand for miscellaneous tools singly 

or in small lots continues to give dealers in 
Chicago a fairly large volume of business. While 

inquiries for small lathes and single-purpose machines 
for munition work on small shells have diminished, 
there is strong buying starting for large lathes to 
machine 9-inch shells and for long-bed lathes for boring 
cannon. The inquiry 50 
30-inch lathes is understood to be still pending. 
The Manitowoc Ship Building & Dry Dock Co. is 
seeking to place a contract for some special work 

of a local concern for 

requiring the service of a 14-foot boring mill. One 
agricultural implement maker has been buying recently 

and is inquiting for a large quantity of equipment 


on small inquiries well distributed over the market 
Transactions in second-hand machinery are in smaller 
volume than was the case during the summer and 
prices for this class of equipment have gone to a 
lower level. The limited supply of grinders, radial 
drills and milling machines in stock makes it difficult 
to place an order for tools of these types. 

Builders of Heavy Equipment Snowed Under 
BUILDERS of heavy rolling mill equipment in the 

Pittsburgh district, who have been driving plants at 
maximum capacity for months, are being 
swamped with inquiries from manufacturers endeavor- 
ing to increase production. The American Rolling 
Mill Co., Middletown, O., the Youngstown & 

Steel Co., Youngstown, O., and the Donner Steel Co., 



Buffalo, let contracts last week for additions to their 
mills. Each concern has been negotiating for lifting 
and rolling mill equipment. The Westinghouse Ma 
chine Co., East Pittsburgh, Pa., plans to build a plant 
Strip Steel Co., Pittsburgh, has awarded the contract 

Essington, Pa., and the Pittsburgh Cold Rolled 
for a new plant at Verona, Pa. Inquiries for machine 
tools are fairly heavy, and come largely from domestic 
manufacturers, although shellmakers continue to buy 
equipment. Buying for munition-making purposes is 
on a smaller scale than formerly. 
Small Orders in Cleveland 

"THE activity of the Cleveland machine tool market 
i to 
have not figured in the market, but the total volume 

is confined small orders. Large transactions 

of business concluded, representing sales of single 
tools, has been well above the average. There are 

several inquiries current for milling machines, radial 
These tools are in greater demand 
now than at any time within 90 days. The G. H 
Scott Machine Co., 118 Noble court, Cleveland, is in 
the market for a 24-inch by 24-inch by 5-foot planer, 

drills and grinders. 

new or second-hand, for immediate delivery 
Railroads Buy a Few Tools 
BETTER inquiry from the railroads has come 
the The 
Orleans railroad 



Cincinnati market Cincinnati, 


single tools, mostly lathes and drilling 


New Texas Pacific has been 
quietly buying 
machines, and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & 
St. Louis railroad is also buying single tools from 
time to time. It is expected that the former will be 
in the market shortly for a fair list of machine tools 

machine tool builders during the first half of Sep- 

for one of its southern shops. Business by 
tember is a little below that concluded for either the 
first or last half of August, but it is still very satis- 


September 21, 1916 , THE IRON TRADE REVIEW 601 

The efficiency of our modern Fire Apparatus 

depends, in a large measure, upon the ma- 

terials from which it is built. “AGATHON”™ 
STEELS are designed for just such service— 
service where unusually severe strains are 
abundant—strains caused by high speed over 

streets and roads of uncertain condition. 

If you wish to protect the reputation of your 
product under all conditions, then specify 


*AGATHON"™ Chrome Nickel “AGATHON”™ Vanadium 
*“AGATHON™ Chrome Vanadium “AGATHON"™ Chrome Steel 
*“AGATHON”™ Nickel Sreels “AGATHON ™ High Carbon 

“AGATHON”™ Special Analyses Steels 

Our shipping facilities are favorable to speedy delivery anywhere 



Detroit Office: 326-27-28 Ford Elde., F. Walter Guibert, District Representative 

Cleveland Office: Hickox Bldg. - The Hamiil-Hic ox Co., Di-.trict Representative 

Chicago CUffice: Room 1511-12 Lytton Bldg., 14 East Jackson Bivd., A. Schaeffer, 
District Representative 

Philadelphia Office: 902 Widener Bidg., Frank Wallace, District Representative 

Say you saw it in Tue Iron Trape Review 

602 THE IRON TRADE REVIEW : September 21, 1916 

ay A a Mi el 

New Construction and Kquipment 

What it is Where it is Who’s doing it 
MR A de WT 7 

Se coat Ms 

Among New England Factories 

MIDDLETOWN, CONN Plans are being 
prepared for a reinforced concrete, 2-story and 
basement, 55 x 100-foot warehouse for the 
Meech & Stoddard Co. on North Main street 

MAN( “STER, N. H.—George A. Leigh . 

‘ HE —s — SALEM, MASS.—Cass & Daley have award 
ton, Los Angeles, Cal., president of the ; 
Leighton Machine Co., Manchester, is having 

a contract for a brick, 4-story, 40 x 120 
foot addition to their plant on Goodhue street 

plans prepared for a foundry to be erected 

> ’ TE >) - = 
at Manchester. A 10-year lease has been me gen on 2 age ; ar -" | ing MILFORD, CONN.—The Howes-Larsen Tool 
taken on the proposed plant by a Maine con ee seg — oo, Cea ae incorporated with $25,000 capital 

60x60 feet, for William Carter Co Harry 

- by ohn T. Howes, Henry E. Larsen and 
H. Hope, 185 Devonshire street, Boston, is the y Je , 

Anton Christensen 
NEW HAVEN, CONN.—Plans have bee: 
completed for a brick, stone and steel, 5 

cern, wauich will operate it in making small 

parts and castings 

S 2 ; ‘ ’ sic ave ser 
OMERSWORTH, N. H Bids have closed WEST BOYLSTON, MASS.—The Luminous 
for a_ brick, mill-construction, 1-story, 30 x : 
. » . Mfg { 
100-foot dye house and a 3-story, 20 x 50-foot 
addition to the mill of the Great Falls Woolen 

0. is to be incorporated with a capital 

story, 50 x 90-foot store 

of $10,000 to manufacture fire appliances and aee ° 
he to cost $70,000, for Rudolph Steinert at Ely 

has leased two floors in the George W. Reed 

Co. to cost $25,000 ind Church streets. 
building on Prospect street 
BOSTON.—The storehouse of the Inter WORCESTER, MASS.—Edwin Carlson wil) © NEW LONDON, CONN.—Plans are being 
national Waste Co. 97-99 K_ street, South bold o brick, Setery, 45 x O4bet ‘factors prepared for a brick and stone, 10 or 12-story, 
oston, was damaged by fire with a loss of a¢ 47.19 Briden street 42 x 109-foot office building to cost $150,000 
$50,000. WORCESTER, MASS.—The A. A. Wheeler as an add.tion to the Mohican hotel, ee 
BOSTON.—Plans have been completed for Co. has awarded a contract for a brick, 4-story — Frank A. Munsey, New York, is the 
a brick, fireproof, 2-story, 50 x 110-foot addi business block and a 2-story public garage or ee 
tion to the Brighton exchange of the New Mechanic street NORWICH, CONN Bids have closed f 
England Telephone & Telegraph Co. at Her PROVIDENCE, R. I Fhe Gorham Mig. * >rick and concrete, Greproot, S-story, 40 3 
shaw and Worth streets Co has awarded » contract for » brick. 100-foot mercantile bureau for the Plaut-Cad 
999.fa0ne € = ) 7 den Co 
CHARLESTOWN, MASS.—Plans have been ‘TY © * 122foot factory building and a a ee ~~ 
figured for a brick, 3-story, 70 x 168-foot club Peet addition to its foundry ¢ replace ROCKVILLE, CONN.—Plans will be ready 
house to cost $125,000 for the Bunker Hill those recently destroyed by fire to hgure Oct 1 for a brick and stone, fire 
boys’ club at Green and Wood streets PROVIDENCE, R I E B. Whipple, proof, l-story and basement, 56 x 78-foot post 
irchitect nd engineer, 27 Exchange street, is fice building to cost $55,000 for tre Il ted 
LOWELL, MASS Bids have closed for a taking bids on a $200,000 factory for the States government at Park and School eet 
brick, 2-story, 52 x 115-foot office building National Lamp Works of the General Electric ROXBURY. CONN Sids are being taker 
and a 106 x 151-foot theater building to cost Co, The structure will be two stories high, id i 1 atte ee ry. 40x 156 feet. for Muney 
$100,000, for the Strand Realty Co. on Cer 80x 400 feet, with three wings, each, 60 x 144 & Sorensot . 
tral street feet : 
" THOMPSON, CONN The Frencl River 

BRIDGEPORT, CONN.—The Royal Equip 

. naw ragteggee 3 MASS res American ment Co. has purchased a 600-foot site or Textile Co. has been incorporated with : ' 
sue oer ” will —_ work eas. ‘a East Main street, Stratford, Conn., and will 000 capital by Charles O. Read, Andrew I 
alec — qe lye lage =. Same | cs’ doce fer the- mnmafiztese of fc Jone = Edwin E. D yle, all of Pawtucket 

, brake lining. R » and will erect a plan 

NEW BEDFORD, MASS The Union DANBURY, CONN.—Plans are being figured WATERBURY, CONN The Brass City 
Street Railway Co. has plans in progress for for a brick, 1l-story round house and repair Machine & Tool Works has been i: rporated 
# $50,000 addition to its engine house Harry shops to cost $65,000, for the New York, with $5,000 capital by George Fritz \. H 
H. Hope, 185 Devonshire street, Boston, is New Haven & Hartford Railroad Mitchell, Emma S. Mitchell and Charles O 
the engineer White street Nelson 

F the Alleghenies to the S 

BROOKLYN, N y The Calber Tool & feet, fo the Rice & Adams Dairv Machinery Machine ( kas been incorporated with $10, 
Machine Co. has been incorporated with $10, Co 000 capital by R. Keegan, G. S. Conger, ( 
000 capital, by K k Sjogren, Cc I Lon BUFFALO The New York Central rail ( Buckner, 1793 Sedgwick avenue, Bronx, 
merin, P. Caligiuri, 137 Oakland = street, road plans to enlarge its stockyards at a cost N. ¥ 
Brooklyn. of about $100,000 G. W. Kittredge, Grand NEW YORK The Newfoundland Copper 

BUFFALO.—The Unique Brass Foundry Co Central terminal, New York, is the chief Co. has been incorporated with $100,000 capi 
has been incorporated with $100,000 capital by engineer tal to mine copper and n ore The 
W. T. Steward, S. M. and W. G. Grove, all BUFFALO. The Kelly Island Lime &  Crporators are E. V. R. Ketchum, J. E 
of Buffalo. Transport Co., Cleveland, has purchased a rant and W. A. Barnes, 140 Nassau street 

BUFFALO.—The Transmission Ball Bear 400-foot frontage on the Buffalo river, on SCHENECTADY, N. Y.—The General Elec 
ing Co. plans to build a plant W. J. Mur which it plans to build a crushing plant for tric Co. has awarded the Austin Co.. Cleve 
ray, Toronto, is president of the company the manufacture of flux for blast furnace land, a contract for a 1-story turbine mar 
W. B. Chambers is the engineer. use and for other limestone products. facturing building 

BUFFALO.—The Excelsior Steel Ball Co BUFFALO.—Bids on general contract, in BUTLER, N. J.—The Standard Oil ( s 
has awarded the Structural Steel Co., 106 cluding equipment, for $18,000 power house to buying a right-of-way through the Vern 

Dart street, a contract for the erection of an be erected at Buffalo will be received shortly mountains and Pompton lakes for its new 

addition, 50 x 115 feet, to cost about $20,000 by G. J. Rays, engineer, care ef Delaware, pipe line. The company will erect big supply 
BUFFALO.—G. Morton Wolfe, architect and Lackawanna & Western Railroad Co., owners, tanks at Hightstown, N. J 

engineer, 1377 Main street, soon will call for 90 West street, New York City. ELIZABETH, N. J.—The New York Tele 

bids on a $75,000, 3-story, factory, 60x 150 NEW YORK.—The Automatic Engraving phone Co. contemplates erecting new fireproof 

September 21, 1916 THE IRON TRADE REVIEW 603 

Cold Drawn Seamless Steel Tubing 


\ of 
© Ball beam holler Rearmgy 
a Our entire woe ity concentrated 

Madein Shelby 
to any Special Analysis 

Stl the Same 
Old Pehable™ 

IF you require Quality give us a call 
Fourteen Grades of Steels 





Say you saw it in Tue Iron Trave Review 


building on East Grand street. Plans are 
being prepared by the engineering department 
of the company in New York City 

HADDONEFIELD, N. J.—The New Jersey 

Water Service Co., care F. H. Smith, 616 Sta- 

tion avenue, is taking bids on a $3,500, 1- 
story, pumping Station, 24x 47 feet. 

HIGHLAND PARK, N, J. — The Turner 
White Metal Works is taking bids on an 
$8,000, 2-story plant addition, 39x63 feet 
Alexander Merdant, 262 George street, New 
Brunswick, N. J., is the architect 

JERSEY CITY, N. J The Duryea Mfg 
Co. had plans prepared by John T. Rewland 
Jr., 100 Sip avenue, for a group of and 

4-story factory buildings on Chapel avenue to 
cost about $60,000. 

KEANSBURG, N. J.—The main plant of 
the Hydro-Carbon Products Co. at Lorillards 
was burned with a loss of $50,000. Charles 
Turner, president, says new building will be 

erected at once. 

NEWARK, N. J.—The W. S. Rockwell Co 

will erect a 1l-story brick building for storage 
of castings in Ball’s lane. Structure will be 
56 x 82 feet and will cost $8,000 

NEWARK, N. J.—The city of Newark is 
advertising for bids for a steel railroad bridge 
over the tracks of the Central railroad. Plans 
are being drawn by Morris R. Sherre:.. chief 
engineer of Newark. 

NEWARK, N, J.—The Brick Church Auto 
& Taxi Co. has been incorporated to manu 
facture and deal in motors, engines and ma 
chinery. The new company is capitalized at 

Cranford, N 

Orange, N. J., 

$10,000, by James A 

J.; Joseph G Browne, 
Robert K. Shoemaker, 
NEWARK, N. J.—The 

hids for 

Newark is 
construction of three 
Clifton Fifth 
crossings of the 

city of 
advertising for 
across the avenue, 

Lackawanna & 



and street 


Plans are being prepared by Morris R. Sher- 
rerd, chief engineer, Newark 
OGDENSBURG, N. J The city of Ogdens 

burg contemplates installing a water system 
and erecting a pumping station at a cost ot 
about $30,000 

PERTH AMBOY, N. J The Crucible Co 
has been incorporated to deal in crucibles. 
The new company is capitalized at $200,000 
by Louis H Meade, John W. Olsen and 
Alfred H. Crowell, Perth Amboy 

PERTH AMBOY, N. J.—Geerge E. Fulton, 
architect and engineer, is taking bids on an 
$8,000, 2-story, 33x 43-foot foundry addition 
for the Raritan Copper Works. A. C. Clark is 

superintendent of the plant 
PLAINFIELD, N. J Phe city f Plain 
field has received bids for a new municipal 

building to be built on Watchung avenue at 
cost of $149,000 The contract will be let 

Western an 

VUGUSTA, KAN The Eureka Tool ( 
is planning to build a factory 

NEODESHA, KAN.—Bids will be received 
until Sept. 29 by the township clerk for a 
steel bridge, including a 100-foot through-truss 
span and two I-beam approach spans, 24 x 38 
feet long. Plans are by the state engineer at 
Manhattan, Kas. 

WINFIELD, KAN.—Burns & McDonnell, 

engineers, Kansas City, are preparing plans 
for a waterworks system at Winfield 
NORFOLK, NEB The Johnson Hay 


BRADDOCK, PA.—The council has awarded 
two. pumps fér the water sys- 
Pump Co., Pitts- 

contracts for 

tem, to Epping-Carpenter 

burgh, to cost about $26,050. 

F. Zimmerman plans to 

build a theater to cost $200,000. The Hoff- 
man Co., Globe theater building, Philadelphia, 
is preparing the plans 

CREIGHTON, PA The Yost Bros. Co 
plan to build a 1-story, 50 x 100-foot machine 

shop and foundry to cost about $20,000 WwW 
F. Yost is 

president of the company. 

EAST PITTSBURGH The Pennsylvania 
railroad plans to build a I-story, steel freight 
Station, to cost about 25,000 

ron Engineering "Co.*plans the erection of a 
$10,000, 1-story machine shop, 71x 112 feet 
G. S. Pullinger is secretary of the company 

ELIZABETHTOWN, PA.—Contracts so 
will be awarded for erecting three 3-story 

buildings for the Masonic home to cost $90, 
000 ( Emlen Ruban, Woolworth building, 
Lancaster, is preparing the plans 

ERIE, PA The board of water commis 

sioners has awarded the De Laval Pump ( 

Trenton, N a i contract for i 20,000 
gallon filter plant 

ERIE, PA The board of education plans 
ta build a high school and grade school to 
cost $450,000 and $200,000, respectively Wil 

liam B. Ittner, St. Louis, is preparing the 
FRANKLIN, PA, — The American § Steel 

Foundries plans to build an addition to its 


Reading railroad, 
the Phoenix Bridge Co., 
Priladelphia, a contract for 
plate girder bridge 
New York division. 

PA, — The Philadelphia & 
Philadelphia, has 
410 Walnut 
constructing a 

through west of 
well on the 


PA. -—- County commissioners have 
Whittaker & Diel, MHarrisburg, a 
for constructing a concrete and 

contract steel 

bridge over the east branch of Naaman’s 
creck at a cost of $8,300. 

NEW FLORENCE, PA.—The Heslop Mig 
Co., recently incorporated to manufacture a 
preparation for surfacing roads, plans to 
build a factory, 40 x 60 feet, along. the 

Pennsylvania railroad near New Florence 

OAKMONT, PA.—Plans are under way for 

a 3-story, 125 x 300-foot factory for the Hall 
Concrete Products Co. J. C. Norton, Lan- 
caster avenue, Bryn Mawr, Pa., is the archi 

PITTSBURGH.—The Pittsburgh Corrugated 
Paper Box Co. plans to build a _ reinforced 
concrete factory on East Ohio street, North- 
side, Pa 

PITTSBURGH.—The Shanahan Transfer & 

Storage Co. plans to build a warehouse. T 

September 21, 1916 

E. Cornelius, 1218 House building, is 
paring the plans. 

PITTSBURGH.—The Baltimore & Ohio rail 
awarded a contract for erecting a 
freight station, 50 x 400 
avenue and Thirty-second 


large site 

road has 
feet, at 


Biscuit Co 

east of the East 


has purchased a 

Liberty station from the Pennsylvania railroad 
for the purpose of erecting a factory 

PITTSBURGH.—The W. G. Wilkins ( 
Westinghouse building, is preparing, plans for 
an armory on Emerson street to cost about 

PITTSBURGH - The White Co., Craig 
street and [T-aum boulevard, has awarded a 

contract to J. L. Stuart, 233 Oliver avenue, 

for erecting a 2-story garage and salesroom 

to cost about $50,000 

PITTSBURGH The Standard Underground 
Cable Co. has purchased an additional site, 
100 x 205 feet, at Seventeenth and Pike 
streets rhe company contemplates the ere 

tion of an extension to its plant 

PITTSBURGH J. E. Welland ( has 

been awarded a _ contract for erecting at 
apartment house at Fifth avenue and Craig 
street, to cost $500,000 Rutar X Russell 
Magee building, are preparing the plans 

PITTSBURGH The Pittsburgh ( 1 Rolled 
Steel Co. has awarded contracts to the M« 
Clintic-Marshall Co for the erection fa 
plant at Oakmont, Pa A tandem mill will 
be installed for the manufacture f cold 
rolled strip steel 

PITTSBURGH. — Contracts so will be 

awarded for the erection of an addition to the 

school of applied science of the Carnegie 
Institute of Technology, to cost ab $300, 
000. Edward Stotz, Monon Bank building, is 
preparing the plans. 

PITTSBURGH.—The Fisk Rubber Co., 5933 

boulevard, and the Pittsburgh & 

416 North Craig street, have 

Motor Co., 
awarded J. L. Stuart, 233 Oliver avenue, a 
érecting a 

about $1 
to build a plant, 45 x 240 
the Pennsylvania 
PA - The Wilkinsburg 
plans to build a 


contract for garage 

salesroom to cost 

Arensberg plans 
feet, at Palmer 

street and 

Public Market Co 
house at Mulberry and 
$69,000 D 

cost Simpsor - 
paring the plans 

DOVER, DEL.—The Harroun Motors ( 

poration has been incorporated with $1,000,0 
capital to manufacture motors, tools, et rhe 
incorporators are Lewis H. Rogers, New 
York; John G. Monihan, Jackson, Mich., and 
Ray Harroun, Detroit 

WILMINGTON, DEL.—The Electric Hose 
& Rubber Co. has plans completed for a: 
$8,000, 1-story, machine shop, 40x 100 feet. 
Brown & Whiteside are the architects 

Intermountain Territory 

Stacker Co. has bought a site on which it 
will build a machine shop, 75x 150 feet 
GREAT FALLS, MONT.—A _ permit has 
been issued to the city of Great Falls to build 
filter beds, a chemical house and pumping 
station at a cost of $101,435. 
Power & Light Co. will expend $500,000 on 
provements to its plant, adding 13,000 horse 
power to the Rainbow Falls plant 
MISSOULA, MONT rhe Great Western 
Engineering Co., Billings, Mont., is planning 

to build a sugar factory at Missoula to cost 

OGDEN, UTAH The Ogde I Works 
Co. has been incorporated with $100,000 cay 
tal by Joseph Scrowcroft, Mariner Browning, 
R. B. Porter, L. T. Dee and James W. Silver 

LEWISTON, IDA.—The milling |; t and 
practically all of the buildings of e Dee 
Creek Mining ( n Deer creek were le 
stroyed by fire, causing a loss f $124,006 
W. Jj. Orr, manager of the company, says 
the plant will be rebuilt 

September 21, 1916 


Activities in the Central States 

nee Machine Co 

ed that it w spend $500,000 in 
7; ; P ; d ible the 
ese 2 f s The erection 
\ g has s te 
CANTO oO The Whee e & Lake Erie 
Pe . v s ¢ c ring 
. ‘ , ’ ks at 
. Z ri 1 he I ted 
} e ({ | se \ will be 
| y “ $4 
CINCINNATI The |} Ste f has 
r $ t its 
$ rdditior 
s NS 
CT INNAT I " Milling 
Machi { is applied tf a pe .. 2 
l-st I oo ] Tact y 
g { i } — stree 
> i $ 
CLEVELANI The \V | M ao € 
< . $ : 

CLEVELAND.—The G. H. Scott Ma 

8 Noble ; ‘ irket for a 

4 7 « “ se i-hand, 
f ¢ € < 

CLEVELAND I I Brass Works 

has er i w $ tal by 

Kat : I S Reseh Joseph \ 

CLEVELAND The Os e Engineering 
( s s t ts pla 
The structure w e ¢ x ) feet, f 
. es A re ves e I 

( VELAND.—1 I Gree g Society 

S gs r 5 t a 4-story 
¢ t i t Noune etl 

¢ fs. at ai cost f 

CLEVELAND.—I George W. Crile 2 

: | ‘ ] be 
t Hotel Ke x East Sixty-tl 1 
P I € > I Fried 2 
T he 1d WW : € I 
CLEVELAND x H. F. Neigt 
M ( 7 
7 4 x foot 5 
‘ ¢ Fas Tw ty-tl j 
{ he Fisk R ‘ 
‘ N ,. ed stru re 

w $¢ 
I ge ( S < ¢ " $ 
‘ HW R oO c P Harr ; 
H. J. I H Leste 
DAY \ a) e 4 e W M ( 
‘ te $ spital 
\\ ( M. W e, I ( M. I : 
MARIETI ( ‘ Pitts g 
S " ‘ W Ss a Pitts 
’ $ 
M \ f Middle 
$ i R 
Vl T ) \ kR g 
M . e Ame 
an I ge ( ra * * 
PORTSMOUTH, ¢ Ritter & Bates 
SANDUSKY, O The & C. } iry ‘ 
has : ¢ * $ 


YOUNGSTOWN, O The Trussed Concrete 
Steel ( has awarded the Hunter Constru 
t ( a contract for erecting an addit 
t ts plant 

HAMLIN, W. VA Albert F. Black 
lerk, will receive bids for constructing 
steel bridges Oliver & Mauplin, Huntingt 
ure the engineers 

Tr , | ( has awarded t 

I ed States engines W ee g x 
eceiv = ) k ind e © 
ve r A Little G al ve } M 
“ ind P t Pleasa The ks 
st a it $600,000 eacl 
DEPAUW, IND Phe engine ! ar 
ther equipment f the flouring l f 
S pert have ee les ve y fire “ 
a ss of $10, 
FT. WAYNE, IND The A. ¢ Ma we 
r has been incorporated ¢ facture e 
s es w $ ) } 1 by I 
“ H : A. ( Ma weiler and P. W 

( has eC ted ¢t inula c ; 
se a e tools hinery a arts. The 
new compa s capitalized at $ 

Nestor Fries, I! s | T ] s i Gus 

WARREN, O The Fahrney & Willian 
Motor ( has been incorporated with $10,0( 

; th 


act & Electr 

to cost } t $60.00 Sanders 
rter, New York, are the eng ecrs 


seph Fluxmat nd William Feder 

HANOVER IND rhe Kent Light 

wer ( has beer t ate 
nerate electr light plant 7 

e, J A. Reed and ] es ( Reed 

Mfg { is < : r rated 



Toseptk ty will | ' ge 
Joseph river at t $ 

APPLETON. WIS The Rive Pape 
Fibre ¢ Applet ‘ ging over 
t ‘ f stea M 
cw ec . eing ‘ 
c c w c . f § 

FOND Dl LA WIS ja w Br 
' x : B ¢ 


848 Jackson street s the general contractor 

e ere f the new. $100,000 auto 

e and igt mn specialty plant on Hop 

kins ad, f ec Briggs & Stratton Co., 258 
M wauKkec s : 



ff & Rose, Majestic 

g ave eceived ids tor the erection 

fay garage sting $30,000 on Broad 

way ior t M kwit Realty Co , 425 Mil 

waukee street I “ be three stories and 

as ent, 60 x fee f brick, concrete 

" steel \ t electric freight elevator 
5 are he ’ 


Industrial Controller 

Co., 886 Greet sh street, Milwaukee, electri 
ntrolling devices nd equipment, is having 
plans prepared Henry ( Hengels, archi 
tect, for the addition of two stories on the 
resent si , ff . 125 feet It is likely that 
the enlarged Iding will be equipped with a 
sprinkler syste f fire protection. Frank W 
Magin $ secretar & the company 
ORFORDVILLI WIS The Orfordville 
Light & Power ( s contemplating the in 
' a re wer diesel engine 
and ther generating « ment \ I Tor 

S superintendent 
RACINE, WIS The Gortor Machine ( 

hk acine, has awarded 

7 Thirteent street, 
a general contract for the erection of a new 
achine shop, 75 x 180 feet, one story and 
f brick and steel, t Nelson & Co., Robinsor 
ling facine The work is now under 


RACINE, WIS \ \. Guilbert, architect, 
R nson building, is preparing plans for a 

6-story banking house and office build 
60 x 1! feet for the Manufacturers’ 

National Bank of Racine, at Fifth and Mair 
| : 

KANSAS CITY The Metzner Stove Re 

Co has eer " : rated with $50,000 

ul and mechanical devices with $10,000 cay 
McE we I k Browr and 
Albert Wehmeier 

SEDALIA, MO.—The city incil is forn 

ng plans for building a : pal waterworks 
j | I Ra - s the may 
RLOOMFIELD, IA Pee Sewn "tikes 
esior Ames la s preparing plans for 
65-1 t ; Ss spans and " 4.4 ‘ 
I -be spa H 0) W ray s the ‘ ty 
engineer. The , s cleo preparine 
i ior a £ sisting t tw 60-foot 
ss spans ¢t e erected 4@ Charles 
la { H. | the inty engineer 
. s Ss ais pre ring | mea tor @ 
kew bridge 1ining tw foot spans with 
4 r iway f Mas City, la 
¥ ‘ are he Nee ens Engine ne { 
» Michig ve G (} " } 
ele “ five at 7 ™ 

i € 
WATERLOO, IA American M 
5 } 
D. | ers iw s 
PRINCETOD MINN.—Bids » be re 
, Oo 7 Albert H. Ku field 
‘ r | . ’ ige 
+ . the state ahway 
. I 


In the South and Around the Gulf 

KNOXVILLE, TENN The Sout*ern Loco TOWNSEND, TENN,.—The Little 


September 21, 

SPRINGS, ARK The Snowde 


motive Valve Gear Co., I D. Tyson, presi Lumber Co., after completing a building at a gineering ( has beet ‘ wit 

dent, will build a plant to manufacture yst of $35,000, is nuw installing saw mil $500,000 capital stock t build a 6 rse 

motive specialties at a cost of $20,000 and w uipment to the value f $50,000 i F power steam operated ectric plant The 

install equipment costing about $50,000 Murphy is superintendent incorporators are G. H. Snowden and S. A 
KNOXVILLE, TENN \ plant for manu Farrell, bot! Kansas City 

facture of locomotive valve gears and power LENOX, KY I escript and es . : 

reverse gears will be established by _ the f thre 18 7 )-horsepowe —_ pre ae, § . , rene “Wey ; 

Southern Locomotive Valve Gear Co., which zontal tubular boilers, with stacks and Dut iB sae fe » lo ridge t Bay Mallet 

has contracted for a building to cost $20,00( ven set gs sked f y the I E99, 

Mill Cs 

and will equip it with machinery to cost Saw RARTLESVILLI OKLA rT} 

$50,000 L. D. Tyson is _ president f the Foundry & Machine Shop ( = rel 

company LOUISVILLE, KY \ut B.§ ' 5 foundry stall t 
LEBANON, TENN The Moore-Stratto: facture a gasoline vending device he Vis worth f equipment 

Hardware & Mfg. Co. has been incorporated Measure Gasoline Dispenser Co. has been in 

to conduct a hardware and manufacturing corporated with $40,000 capital The dev OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLA I 

business. The new company is capitalized a neludes a force pump which will likely ‘ I Mfg. ( has beet 

$20,000, by F + Stratton, I H Moore, nade on contract at the utset ] He y $ 0 capital stock ture 

Mary B. Stratton, Mrs. 7 H Moore and Brady, William A. Pell and Willia A. Ea n d s | ‘ levices by V. M. I i 

J. Porter Wilson ire the incorporators nd E. B. I 

Pacific Coast and Western Canada 

d its 

SAN BERNARDINO, CAI Bids wil be e leading fr t Swan lake reservo t SPOKANE, WASH I city engines 
received until Sept. 25 by |! R. Patty, clerk the city storage aces The project will st mpleted plans for 300-foot steel bridge w 
of the board of supervisors, for a 108-foot, ipproximately $1,650,000 >-toot roadway sting $40 P 
steel truss bridge over San Timoteo creek. SEATTLE. A pe - o eae street 

SANTA BARBARA, CAI A contract will covering the second unit f the 0 vot SPOKANE, WASH.—‘ Wolfe ’ 
be let soon by the county supervisors for warehouse of the Chicag Milwaukee & St de f the Be I M g ( wit 
reinforced concrete arch bridge containing two Paul railroad at Seattl rhe tota i property Deave e« s : 
110-foot spans, 75 feet high and 400-foot ap to be expended will be about $500,000 mpressor hoist 1 4 Ss are : 
proaches to cost $48,000 C. A. Hunt is clerk SEATTLI The city t will appr stalled 
of the board priate $42,000 for construction of a steel and SPOKAN WASH.—Tte Spoka Heat 

STOCKTON, CAL The Samson Sieve-Grij concrete bridge across the West Waterway and Light & Power Co. has purchased x 142 
[ractor Co. has taken over the Samson Iron t is expected that e Pug » 1 Tract t l $s prese pe “ 
Works and will install new equipment at a Light & Powe ( \ provide $2 0 t Ke provis extens s 
cost of $59,000 ward tl project 

VICTORVILLE, CAI The Appleton Land SPOKANE, WASH A contract ASHLAND, ORI I 1 se 
& Water Co, is planning to build a 300,000 than 500 tons f 6-incl ast a, Bon Ashland mine. destroyed by fire . ; : 
gallon tank and add equipment to its pumping been awarded by the city cou lt the nstructed nd equipped with ele : 
plant. J. S. Thayer is the superintendent American Cast Iron Pipe Co., | W. Har ery to replace stea A. W. Barth 

‘ » . rinetor ‘ } — ' : , 
BREMERTON, WASH.—Bids will ber gton & lenry a | San Ant Fex., is the k 
. . ] ~ r nres ? s , > 
ecived up to Sept. 30 by the bureau of yards - = entative BEND, ORI The Pring I s | 
and docks, Washington, D. C., for installing SEATTLE Plans for the first unit of t ( has completed arrangements for tl 
generator sets furnished by the government proposed $1,000,00 shij ulding pia ! pow ‘ wil 
and furnishing and installing boilers, conder J. F. Duthie & Co n the Kitsap avenue we 
scrs, pumps, motors, switchboard equipment, lands have been completed by the Industria REND. ORI The Huffs Due 
etc.,, at the naval torpedo station, Puget Engineering C rhe first structure will be a | W orks ! P 
Sound, Wash Plans may be obtained on ay story office, 42 x 69 feet, at 3408 Kisap avenue erations “ g ‘ 
plication at the bureau or of the commandant, ‘ cost $3, ° achine s 
, . 
navy yard, Breme ld loft to st $4.0 : 

y yard, Bremerton MYRTLE CREEK, OR! 

EVERETT, WASH.—Plans for the propos SEATTLE.—The following items hav. lx Myrtle Creek has voted $ 5 
municipal power plant are practically co ipproved the city idget for the lighting electric light 
picted Robert Howes, American bank build lepa ent Testing machinery, $ ) s he waterworks pla 
ing, S tle " cael es and terials, $10 ( ve ad " : : : 

& eattle, is the engineer . oi PORTLAND, ORI The W 

on wee . g, $10,00 re | es, $ 
EVERETT, WASH. Articles have er 7 & Steel Works is building t 
: . pole s, transformers, meters, lamps, « a 
filed by the Washington Coast Utilities ¢ come : ; , . louble its present ul ty at $ 
> S27 Mw): Ss Ss t ns, ! ead et 
for $100,000 rhe new concern proposes t . Ral : , : 7 UU 
. : ‘ n . idings at ird a > ron 
supply gas, water and electricity to towns : PORTLAND, OR} Ki { 
near Arlington, Wash SEATTL1I ‘ er enginec ‘ Sent y Roedmaste y 
NORTHPORT, WASH.—C. A. Coffir ‘ oa * : se for the struct . 
. ' , Seattle grain ‘ 
First avenue, Spokane, has a 33-year light and ; L : ——.S -3 — S Helens \ t 
water franchise at Northport and will spend : , , “we! nies The « , stec “ be s¢ 
$50,000 on improvements ‘ vice n “ units, subs ; . 
SEATTLE 1 nd s s ( F The building w r f NEW WESTMINSTER, B Henry 
SE. .—T acific Bolt ‘ ’ b q 7 ! 
: he Paci Bolt Co. has igh einforced concrete with 30 storage ns 18 Schaake, of the Schaake Ma Works s 
a 3-acre site on which it will build a plant feet im diameter and 90 feet hich | making preparat s #f establis . 
costing $50,000 for the manufacture of nuts i 
; mated cost ! I “ k is $125,00( noy and foundry 

rivets and spikes . 

a aimee & i . SEATTLE A contract for nstruct NEW WESTMINSTER, B. (¢ I 

SEATTLE. — The Seattle Construction & , \ Cc 5 . " “- dams = : . 

‘ the ant t the erican n it 1d r rks wil er s 
Dry Dock Co. will begin to erect a $400,001 , Cl | ’ " i vile ' 
‘ venue | lay st t s beer wart factory l t i s ling 

to $500,000 floating dry dock within the next . Ww 3 ~ , I ; , ; 1M | < 
7 st & Lo ge ding € i “ e erecte t r } s 
oe ee. Iding wi be f and five stories, 18 x to J. R. Dunca 

SEATTLE.—Seattle has voted in favor of 200 feet and of reinforced <¢ rete Pla Fa ; 
issuing bonds to the sum of $35,000 to build for the constr f a 18 estes VANCOUVER, B. < The management i 

» Robert S wa fee ae eS the Hotel Vancouver will install ete 

= terminal — by Robert Strahorn fo: ver Railroad avenue t connect with : - : e ; a ; 
t oro ( “sliforn ’ 5 —_ new power pliant t c yperated ne 

~ - posed Oregon, California & Easter ' yosed plant the American Can ( on j . 

» with the hote 

railroad. t'e waterfront warehouse have been coms 

SEATTLE.—The city council has adopted und are now being considered by A. L. Vale NOKOMIS, SASK The town council w 
idea of Councilman Thomson for a steel pipe tine, superintendent of public utilities nstall an electric light and power plant 

September 21, 1916 


New Business in EKastern Canada 

DAUPHIN, MAN The Dauphin Milling 

s the market ! i ss engine 
s pie facing ylinde head fly-whe« 
ght sbout 15 x 36-inch’ cy le 
Tires, has begun the constructior f a rubber 
inuftacturing plant n : 4 acre site The 
nin building will be of stee und concrete 
nd about 300 feet in ler gtl 
BRANTFORD, ONT.—The Dominion Steel 
Products Co. has commenced the erection of 
1 plant at B t j “ h the latest 
chinery ft ng wheels will be ' 
ELORA, ONT The Canadian K. K. ¢ 
1as ec ited t anutacture nach 
ery t s st et The new concert 
s ca alized t $4 y Charles I D 
Leo W (10 Ile M McTague : 
hers, {f Gueiph, U 
GALT, ONT The D nion Building Prod 
ts, recently rgat ed y David D W 
s, Toront : To} I lackson. Toront 
wi ld i 
sand rick . ew ; - 
I he city is } ted $100,000 
the erect | : ‘ Y 
Works pia I ig ‘ 
the resent syste 

LINDSAY, ONT I he Canadian govert 

ment has lIet a contract for the constructi 

nd « pment of an arse r the manufa 
munitions to the Westing se, ( re} 
Kerr ( New York Cit ind Montrea 
The « mate st the ling nd cet 
t parts t the ft sely Ass st 
erewitl “ ‘ ap x te ca? { 
LONDON, ONT The Middlesex Mills ¢ 
( rne street, has sé ed new premises 
and ‘ c ! ts plant s is 
erate ull machinery y ele t S 

LONDON ONT rt McClary Mie ( 


; nerete const ‘ a 

a] Nicke ( has et ntracts t the 

the st f Cana 
ery ‘ ‘ shee . I 
ks A ve ~ | a . 
wards of $3.000.( 
ST THOMAS, ONT The Per Marquette 
Railway ‘ W st ‘ ent in its pl 
f perating its ' ™ ‘ 
[ we 

ONI I American Brake 

Shoe & Foundry Co. will install equipment 
te niant « 1s ‘ erate a machinery 
cic tr wet 
i ma ne sh f the St Thomas ( 
$ ( was ge P re ‘ 
i Ss $ , I image ‘ < 
P 1 imme ste! 
SUDBURY, ON I I s Canad 
: : Sud! “ s s . ree 
lect plant t eve ts wt power 
THOROLD, ONT rh tow incil w 
’ hase > new ‘ . ; ‘ » ‘ ‘ 
waterw KS int 2 s $4 5 I) T 

S ciere 

TORONTO Harry Webb & Cs have taken 

ta pe t and c e the erect 
a factory t Kendal venue, Ww h will st 

TORONTO rte j fa V “ 
the Harry Webb { Buchanar street, was 
Jest ed y fire with a $s ling a 

TORONTO.—The Russell Motor Car ( re ores a etals and carry on a Gen 

76 West King street, has awarded a gene ‘ fact x ind engineering business 

ract for the erect f a ' es any : pitalized at $45,000, by 

to the Deacon Construct ( Weston, Ont Robert J. Maxcy, Portland, Me. Leand D 
cost $40.00 \dams and Arthur R Helden, Montreal 

rORONTO The Ste Tire & Tube (¢ MONTREAI The Manitoba Steel Foun 

yf Canada has beer neorporated t manuta ries has been incorporated to manufacture 

ture tires, auton es, tools, accessories, et iron, steel and copper and carry on the 

The new neert s upitalized at $4,000,0 business of iron founder, mechanical engineer 

t James |! Ross I King stree \ nd manufacturer The company is capitalized 

thur S Ma ue ] lynd ve 1€ D £ t $300,000 by Peter ] Smith, Arthur M 
las J. MacLean and others of Toront Tirbutt, and Horace Ormond, Winnipeg 

FTORONTO.—The Port Hope Sanitary Mfg MONTREAL.—The National Bronze, Iron 

Ue has been incorporated t manutacture & Engineering Works has been incorporated 

i aces, stoves s ers SsuppHes t arry m the wsiness of mechanical, elec 

ete The new « . Ss pita ed t $1 trical and chemical engineer and operate 

00 by Britt Usi¢ " D — smelters and refineries The company is cap- 

ang W. A. Ca ‘ . talized at $750, by Louis A. David, Jo 

B ~ 7 . ‘ epl S Lamarre ind Benjamin Robinson, 

WINDSOR, ONT rt Martin Acroplanes SHERBROOKE, QUE The Iron & Metal 

As een incorporated to manufa ‘ S y Co. 40 Power building, Montreal, 
planes, motor, et The new ' rm is f es t build a factory at Sherbrooke to 
talized at $100,000 y ¢ irles S King W t $! 

R. Bonds, Windsor, Walter lL. McGreg BATHURST, N. B.—The Bathurst Lumber 

, : has had plans prepared and will start work 

ce on the erectior f a smelting plant 
y destroyed ’ wit ss : 
CHATHAM, N. B The town council wil 
$4 t A . 
ase » sen hese! engine, direct-con 
4 ‘ . 
s dyna ind a exciter at a cost of 

LACHINI QUI i : = $13,601 P ] McIntyre s clerk of the 

I lge ( Ss ¢ < tior 
. 9 " ST. JOHN, N. I F. N. Brodie, 42 Prin 
pr ; we } « g re a6 eo s pre g wna for the erectior 
; ' ‘ rd . : 
ers } ne se iry for the publ 
e t x t . , @ 

DARTSMOUTH N S The Imperial Oj 

‘ is ‘ rate nut Montreal, has juired 401 scres at 
s ‘ whi an rte lartemouth and has mmenced the erection 
s $4 y Johr ' refining plant t cost $2,000,000 and 
MacNaug twrig Nora 
etwe 4 ' acres 
gu Mi 
mas I\LIFAN N > The Standard Construc 
MONTREA k I ‘ Halif en awarded contract 
. ‘ ‘ lings t the 
( La _ sting 5 0,000 
% Sed eae , f' brass New Catalogs 

Be rometric type steam condenser is 

ted and described in a bulletin recently 

i by Ingersoll-Rand Co., New York. The 
. mental principles f steam condensing 
it > ys . 
re dis sed and the Beyer condenser 
er ay ' 
. . npared with the low level jet and surface 
rr ' ‘ fontre ery ; 
MONTREAI I f { A aati Seetinee tallitin ined: Om de 
Supp! s has err : rnorated ¢ mport : : ‘ , 
. . ngersoll-Rand ( is devoted to drill sharp 
: i ner und a third describes duplex, steam 
attend ot © } CG. B Walter 
er mpressors Var s sizes and capac 

re 8 wn and the operation of the com 

res explaine ' letail 


: : CUTTING.—An inetruction beck on on 
I ‘ s , , etylene welding : tting ntaining 48 
I s E. Be W ‘ , H " pages, prepart 1 by H. Sidney Smith and A 
Ss ers M F. Brennat is been issued by the Prest-O 
Lite ¢ Inc., Indianapolis This work pra 
MONTREAI The Mit Ra Ar r & Ny 7 » en empecsuitiin Gultes 
"0 z=... a " met nd itting perations It has been written 
ee - = open : ¢ entary tyie ¢t ‘ those who have 
ent I new I pit ze stle — Lnowledge f this process to 
$3 y L aed A D ' - rehend every letail vf the vari is Opera 
masse, and S. H. R. Bush, Montres I welding f ust iron, malleable 
MONTREAI The Consolidated Steel | ron. and ® steel is described and all 
lries f M trea is er r r rateqd t f the necessary operations to be followed in 
rry eS ness ' na stee! maker welding are detailed The welding of alumi 
ners, smelters ind engineers I cael ' . neidered as well as copper, 
any ‘ 1 ed at $ y I s | honee lead et Thi astruction booklet 
Bernard W red A H : ' . \ “ now t ' rt edition and sells at 
Sullivan, Montreal » price of 5S ent should be included in the 
MONTREAI Z i rary of every mndryman and user of iron 
Co. has bee } stee 1 slur n product 

(Lower price to Jan. 1, 1917; higher to July 
1, 1917.) 

ne i ec oc aces $21.00 
Bessemer, Pittsburgh 21.95 
Basic, Pittsburgh ...... : 18.95 to 19.45 
Basic, eastern Pa........... 20.00 to 20.50 
Bands ote hanh} s 19.00 to 19.590 
Mallesble, Pittsburgh 19.45 to 19.70 
Malleable foundry, Chicago..... 19.00 to 19.50 
Malleable foundry, Philadelphia. 21.00 to 21.50 
Malle ble foundry, Ruff:io 19 
No. 1X foundry, Philadelphia... 20.00 to 20.50 
No. 2 foundry, Pittsburgh....... 19.45 to 19.70 
No, 2 foundry, Cleveland....... 18.50 
No. 2 foundry, Ironton......... 18.00 to 19.00 
No. 2 foundry, Chicago........ 18.50 to 19.00 
No, 2X icone. Philadelphia... 1°.50 to 20.00 
No. 2X foundry, N. J. tidewater 1y..0 to 20.00 
No. 2X found y. Buff»lo 19.00 
No, 2 plain, Philadelphia....... 19.00 to 19.50 
No. 2 plain, N. J. tidewater.... 19.00 to 19.50 
No, 2 ploin, Buffalo q 19 00 
No. 2 southern, Birmingham.... 14.50 to 15.00 
No. 2 southern, Cincinnati..... 17.40 to 17.90 
No. 2 southern, Chicago........ 18.00 to 19.00 
No. 2 southern, Phila. delivery.. 18.50 to 19.50 
No. 2 southern, Cleveland...... 18.50 to 19.00 
No. 2 southern, New York docks 18.50 to 19 00 
No. 2 southern, Boston docks... 18.75 to 19.2 
No, 2 south. inter'or, New Eng. 19 50 to 20.50 
No. 2 southern, St. Louis...... 18.40 to 18.90 
Virginia No. 2X furnace........ 17.50 to 18.50 
Virginia No, 2X, Philadelphia.. 19.75 to 20.75 
Virginia, No. 2X, Jersey City.. 20.50 to 21.50 
Virginia 2X, Boston points... 20.75 to 21.75 
Gray forge, eastern Pa....... 18.50 to 19.00 
Gray forge, Pittshurgh......... 18.95 
Gray forge, Birmingham........ 13.50 
Silveries, 8 per cent, furnace 21.00 to 27.00 
Silveries, 8 per cent, Chicago... 29.50 
Low phos. Stondard, Phila...... 33.00 to 34.00 
Low phos. Lebanon, Pa., furnace 29 00 to 31.00 
Low phos, Pittshurg@h........... 30.00 to 31.00 
Charcoal, Lake Superior, Chgo., 

ee ee errr «ees 19.75 to 22.25 
Charcoal, Ruffalo ............ . 21.90 to 22 00 
Charcoal, Birmingham ..... 22.50 to 23.00 

Lake Superior Ores. 
(Lower Lake Ports.) 
Old range Bessemer, 55 per cent, ton... 4.45 
Mesabi Bessemer, 55 per cent, ton...... 4.20 
Old range non-Bess., 51% per cent, ton. 3.70 
Mesabi non-Bess., 51% per cent, ton.... 3.55 
Eastern Ores. 

(Per unit delivered eastern Pennsylvania.) 
Pt. Henry fur., 60 per cent, unit 8.5c to 8.9c 
Local N. Y. and N. J. ores, unit 8.5c to 8.75c¢ 
Port Henry lump, at mines, ton. $4.00 

Foreign Ores, 
(Per unit Philadelphia.) 
Foreign Bess., 50 to 65 per cent...... nominal 
For’n non-Bess., 50 to 65 per cent....nominal 


(At the ovens.) 

Connellsville furnace ...........+. 2.85 to 2.90 
Connellsville fur., contract........ 2.40 to 2.50 
Connellsville foundry, contract.... 3.15 to 3.40 
Connellsville foundry ............ 3.25 to 3.50 

Vice county furnece, contract 3.00 to 3.25 
Wise county foundry, contract.... 3.50 to 3.75 
Pocahontas foundry, contract..... 3.25 to 3.75 
Pocahontas furnace, contract...... 2.85 to 3.25 
New River foundry, contract...... 3.75 to 4.25 
New River furnace, contract...... 3.25 to 3.50 


Ferro manganese, 80 per cent, 

seaboard, prompt a bapeuees $170 to 175 
Ferro manganese, 80 per cent, 

seaboard, contract ........... 175 
Spiegel. 20 per cent, fur, early 

ere 45.00 to 50.00 
Ferro-silicon, 50 per cent, Phil, 83.00 to 85.00 
Ferro-silicon, 50 per cent, Pbgh. 83.00 to 85.00 

Bessemer ferro-silicon, 9 per cent to 10 per 
cent, $30.00; 10 to 11 per cent, $31.00; 11 to 
12 per cent, $32.00; 12 to 13 per cent, $33.00 
a ton at the furnace at Ashland, Jackson and 
New Straitsville, 

Ferro-carbon titanium, 8 to 12% 
pound in carloads. 

cents per 



Corrected up to Tuesday noon 


Open hearth billets, Phila......$47.50 to 52.50 
Forging billets, Phila........... 65.00 
Forg ng billets, Pbgh., nominal. 65.00 to 70.00 
Forging’ billets, Chicago........ 65.00 
Wire rods, Pittsburgh (nom.). 55.00 to 60.00 
Bessemer billets, Youngstown... 45.00 to 50.00 
Bessemer billets, Pittsburgh.... 45.00 to 50.00 
Open hearth billets, Pittsburgh. 45.00 to 50.00 
Open hearth billets, Youngstown 45.00 to 50.00 
Bess. sheet bars, Youngstown... 45.00 to 50.00 
Op. h’th sheet bars, Youngstown 45.00 to 50.00 
Bess. sheet bars, Pittsburgh.... 45.00 to 50.00 
Open hearth sheet bars, Pbhgh.. 45.00 to 50.00 
Muck bars, Pittsburgh (nominal) 40.00 to 45.00 
Grooved steel skelp 2.60c 
Sheared steel skelp 3.00¢ 


(Gross tons.) 

Stand. Bess. rails, Pbgh. & Chg 

delivery after May 1, 1917... $33.00 
Stan. op.-h’th rails, Pbg. & Chg 

delivery after May 1, 1917.... 35.00 
Light, 8 to 10 Ibs., Pbgh.. 50.00 
Light rails, 8 Ib., Chicago... 43.00 
Light rails, 12 to 14 Ibs., Pbgh 49.00 
Light rails, 12 Ibs., Chicago.... 42.00 
Light rails, 16 to 20 Ibs., Pbgh. 48.00 

Freight Rates, Pig Iron 

Cleveland % oevcce 
Newark, N. J. Pe Aa . 2.98 
Boston iowweebute 

PRROMEDOND .. cccevececesescccecctss 2.78 
De. <s¢hetereesécenenecesaeeene 95 
DI chp eked taese shade caneess 3.18 
Buffalo to 
2” 2. § Menesusogndcvesevecedes $1.26 
New England (all rail)............ 2.58 
New York and Brooklyn (all rail) 2.58 
New York and Brooklyn (by 
GREP ec ccsccccdcccccesesse 1.25 to 1.60 
Virginia furnaces to:— 
Boston docks (r. and w.).......... $3.05 
New England (all rail)......... —s 
New York dock (r. and w.)....... 2.88 
Birmingham, Ala., to:— 
NRE RG eS ys $2.90 
EE Se ee) ee ae ae 4.39 
Cleveland indndadeans ¢eabthahe ~~) 
Te acc cae anek an’ nae ae 
New York (all rail)......... soe Se 
New York, (r. and w.). 4.25 
Philadelphia (all rail).. 5.20 
Philadelphia (r. and w.) 4.00 
ee el. oh eeéee 4.90 
Savannah, Ga. 2.75 
Chicago to:— 
Des Moines ......... ..-$2.80 
DT. «i adek os atc eben naa .50 
Moline, Ill jou : ‘¢ .. 1,40 
DE seseeeee wet wea sédaden 3.58 
af ER ee SBeactdads , te 
Ironton and Jackson, O., to 
0 RR a $2.54 
Cincinnati xe ; 1.26 
Cleveland .. bat ee ; 1.62 
EES eee 1.81 
Indianapolis 1.58 
Light rails, 16 to 20 Ibs., Chgo $41.00 
Light rails, 25 to 45 Ibs., Phgh 47.00 
Light rails, 25 to 45 Ibs., Chgo. 40.00 
Relaying rails, standard, Pbgh. 
and Chicago -.. ben eebule ced $23.00 to 24.00 
Relaying rails light, Chicago.... 24.00 to 25.00 
Angle bars, st. sect., Phgh. base 2.00c 
Angle bars, st. sections, Chgo 2.00¢ to 2.50: 
Sp kes, railroad, Pittsburgh 2.65e to 2.75: 
Spikes, railroad, Chicago........ 2.75¢ to 2.90¢ 
Track bolts, Pittsburgh. 3.25c¢ to 3.50c 
Track bolts, Chic ago.. eeeeee 3.25¢ to 3.50 
Tie plates, Chicago. $0.00 to $5.0: 
Structural shapes, Pbgh........ 2.60 
Structural shapes, Philadelphia 2:759c to:2.9%c 
Structural shapes, Chgo....... 2.79¢ to 3.50¢ 
Structural shapes, New York.. 2.769c to 2.919c 
ZO DEERNR, GBBc cc ccecscccs 3.19¢ to 3.60c 

September 21, 1916 

~ Ce Tt Peete 
Bins ae 

rank plates, Pittsburgh ( ) 
Tank plates, Pittsburgh 3.50c t 
Tank plates, Philade pl i 3.159¢ t 
Tank plates, New York 3.169c to 
Bars, soft steel, Chicag 2.79¢ to 
Bars, soit steec Pbgh 
Bars, soft steel, New York 
Bars, soft steel, Philadelphia 
Hoops, carloads, Pittsburg! 
Bands, Pittsburgh 
Shafting, Pbgh., contr. carloads St 
Bar iron, Chgo... 
Bar iron, Philadelphia 
Bar iron, Cleveland 
Jar iron, New York 
tar iron, Pittsburgh 2.65¢ to 
Hard steel bars, Chgo 
(Differentials indicated bel are not now 
being closely followed.) 
Per ll 
Nos. 3 to 8 i 2.85c to 2.95¢ 
Nos 9 t ] (base) 4 t ‘ 
Nos. 11 and 12 2.95c t « 
Nos. 13 and 14 3 c to 3.10c 
Nos. 15 and 16 ] to 3.20¢ 
Nos. 17 to 21 2.70c to 2.80c 
Nos. 22 and 24 y to 2.85c 
Nos. 25 and 26 2.8Uc to 2.9Uc 
ik 2 nae 2.85c to 2.95« 
No. 28 (base).. <.7 t ’ Cc 
No 9 t 3.05 
No. 30 . to 3.15¢ 
Besse mer 
Nos. 10 and 11 3.2 t c 
No. 12 4 
Nos. 13 and 14 to 3.40¢ 
Nos. 15 and 1 t 
Nos. 17 to 21 ¢ t r 
Nos, 2 und 24 8 85<« 
Nos 5 and ) } t ‘ 
No 27 41 to 4.15¢« 
No 8 (hase) + to 4 
No “ to 4.40¢ 
No, 28, black, Chicago to 3.19¢ 
No. 28 galvanized, Chicag 4.59 
No. 10, blue annealed, Phila. 3.159 to 3.659¢ 
No. 10, blue amnealed, Chgo ] to 3.29 
Tin plate, 100 Ib., coke bas $5.54 to ¢ 
(Prices Adopted July 24, 1916.) 

Butt weld Black Galv 

%, 4% and *%& Oe 35% 
in 66 51% 
4 to 3 WW 6 5 2 

Lap weid 
S me « 63 4% 
2% to 6 66 53% 
,. aoe 63 49 
13 and 14 if 53 2 
15 in $1 


Butt weld:— Black Galv 
™% and 4 in... 51 24 
% in 25 

in 56 38 
4% to 1% In $9 43 

Lap weld:— 

1% in 46 31 

1%4 in §2 38 

‘uel = 53 39 

2 to 41 $5 42 

4%, to 6 n 5 42 

7 to 12 in 54 41 

Steel, 3 to 414 inches l 54 

Iron, 354 to 4% inches, | l 44 

( Retailers’ price 5 cents above ers 

Wire nails, jobbers’, Pittsburg! $2.6 

ain wire jobbers’, Pittsburg 2.55 
Galvanized wire, jobbers’ Pbg! 3.25 
Polished staples, Pbgl 2.75 
Galvanized staples, Pbheh 3.45 
Barb wire, painted, jobbers’ Phgh 2.75 
Barb wire, galv., jobbers’, Pbgh 3.45 

September 21, 1916 THE IRON TRADE REVIEW 
: 608a 


Corrected up to Tuesday noon 


(Delivered within 20-cent 7 ae - black sheets, Chicago 3.35¢ Rail 

Carriage bolts “ “ 7 freight radius.) oy 28 black sheets, Cleveland 3 00c to ; 10 R ered md wrought, N Chgo 16.00 to 16.50 
tiaten walied : ; * inche s, smaller or No. 28 black sheets, Cincinnat 795 a Railroad wrought, No. 2, St. L. 16.0 : 

; ed thread, 50 and 5, c md No. 28 bi sti.. 3.25cto3.40c Shafting, S » 16.00 to 16.50 
40, 10 and 2: | é 5, cut threads, 4, 28 black sheets, Detroit 2 on g, t. Louis 19.50 

Mach 2%, larger or longer, 35 and 2% No. 28 black sheets, St. I poo Springs, Chicago 0 to 20.00 
een —_ _— with hot pressed nuts & x “4 No. 28 black sheets, St P = 3.45c¢ Sect car anies. St. Lowi le WU to 10.90 

ches, smaller or shorter rolled 5 : N ; »* aul 2 oH S if axics, + Louis 33.00 to 34.00 
z ~ a ‘ olle< 50 F “ No. 28 alv " - J : c teel car axle . “ 
cut, 50; larger or longer, 40 and 5 » and 10; No. 28 nah erent, Chic Ago 4.65c to 4.75c¢ Stove pl an. r * t wh ago 32.00 to 33.00 

Cold pressed, semi-hnished } . No. 28 “t heets, Cleveland 4.40c to 4.75¢ Stov = ee 9.25to 9.7 
and 5. . exagon nuts,60 oo. gain sheets, Cincinnati 4.50c to $.00c e¢ plate, Cleveland 10.00 

No. 28 gi 05.00c Stove plate, Buffal ; 

Gimlet and con 1o 8 galv. sheets, Detroit : - : p! iffalo 11.00 to 
10, Hot pre csod 00 at 1 lag bolts, 50 and No. 28 galv. sheets, St. Louis 4.75c to § 00c oo. ae <tncinnati . 875 te oes 
$2.70 off list; ty pre Ly or tapped nuts, . one: Stove plates, St. Louis.... .» 9.50toll 00 
tapped, $2.70. sed hexagon blank or ‘a : 

ol © 4 r ) 
at pressed square, blank or tapped, $2.40 Freight Rates, Coke Ax! . peeryn 

+ hexagon, blank or tapped, all sizes, $2.80 Connellsville district, per 2,000 It I ask on ie 1 Buffel 021.38 to 83.28 

. " 2.80. ’ er 2, ; ry jusheling, No Suffal - 
RIVETS Baltimore 8., to 2 sche! ct aso 13.00 to 13.50 

7 eee $1.20 tusheling, No 1. Pittsburg! 

Structural rivets, Pbgh.. Buffalo . 85 Busheling No. 2 B af “te 13.00 to 13,50 
Structural rivets, Chgo. deli ae seeee 400c Chicago “?; Bundled sheets ” Piet — mi 11.00 to 11.50 
Boiler rivets, Pbgh ii bbbhaeee 1 Cleveland 1 Bundled sheet Cle: te 14,90 
Boiler rivets, Chgo ‘deliv Lapel sere ewer 4.10c Detroit .... : 4 Bundled sheste, —- + 11,25 to 11.50 
Timnmer’s rivets, 45 10 CTY + +++ eaesees 4.10c East St. Louis oe Car wheels, ( : “ Pie 11.50 to 12,00 
ST EL: and 5 off, Pittsburgh Joliet —— Cor whale’ (eteal). Pittsburgh. . 13.50 

. J . 2.50 reels steel), itesbure 77 o 

EEL SHEET PILING Louisville . Car wheels, ( hic J ‘ itt e" 17.75 to 18.2 
—— ( Pittsburgh.) Siwestes - =, 2.59 SS ee ae as ; 12.00 to 12.50 

@SC SIZES «1.455, c N ‘o 6.89 7 ; a 15.54 

. Lacwall ... 2.50c to 2.60c Phil Rs rk 285 Car wheels, Buffalo 13 a oo Soar 
; STANDARD STEEL CHAIN 4 tiladelphia * 30s Car wheels. New York to 13.50 
Chain, % inch proof coil ~~ - Ae 9 : a Car wheels. St, Louie + . to . 75 

POU. w+ +s. 5.00c to 5.50c ichmond, V ( hee oe to ~ 

co : c c Ric a 2.94 ar wheels, Birminghs 

Base — yoo STRIP STEEL Lay Pita ah 1.85 Tram car wheels Bh ~ 4 50 - + + 

: ce 00c to 6.50 alley urnaces - ( bor ~ . 9.50 to 10.00 
hard, coil , 50c per 100 pound . 1.20 ust borings, New Yorl “ - 

. s 1% inche f Ags, Cincinnati : . ; os 700to 7.50 
inch and heavier. ches and wider and by .100 2.00 -— borings, eastern Pa 900 to e+ 
es ‘ ; ast orings, Buffalo 7.50% od 
0.100-inch an : - a : or Thickness Cast borings, Pittsburgh Aes ~ ; 

- a Tae 1.€ or. ’ Oo 700 
aa eae, Oe ; iidotelniee IRON AND STEEL SCRAP ae, O'S ee Se 16.00 to 16.50 
0.036 to 0.049 . .$0.05 aot, oO . ittsburgh 14.50 - 

) to . : to 14 
0.035 ..... ; ... 0.20 Angl (Net Tons.) Cast, No 1, Birmingham 10.5 » 14.7 
‘ ; Angle bars, iron, Chicago $18.75 a Cast. heavy N 1 N 50 to 11.00 
0.031 to 0.034 0.20 Angle bars, steel, St. Louw $18.75t019.25) Borge N y No. 1, N. J. points. 1650 to 16.75 
0.026 to 0.03 shee Soot team aki de Bae Ouls 15.50 to 16,00 Kah No. 1, eastern Pa 12.00 to 12:50 
0.020 to 0.02 ee Arch , insoms, (Ung l to 0 rogs, switches, guards, St | 16.50 7 

y 024 Arch bars and transoms, St. | . Grate bar Buff to 17.00 
0.025 ET af: . 0.55 Boiler plate, cut, No . “tb 10 to 00 yea os A. ar 11.50 to 12.00 
0.017 to 0.019... "IID 0145 Boiler plate, cut, No. 1, St. L 10.5010 11.00 Hieavy axle turnings, B 11.75 to 12.00 
0.015 to 0.016 . 1.35 Boiler punch ne oo e & 7.30to 8.00 Fe, a ~ turnings, Buffalo 12.00 
0.013 to 0.014 "4.55 an Gl = ue uicago 13.50 to 14.00 H aan awe steel, Pittsburgh. 16.00 to 16.50 

. , nomen 2 Or cn ‘ citi y ‘ . .ee 

7 Seen: 245 Busheling, No. 1, Chicago . i. o 85 pnt d — st el, Buffalo 15.75 to 16.25 
ryt teeta e eee 2.80 Bushel:ing No. 1 " Cine ~ t , 00 to " 50 i . . iting tes . @ w 16.00 to 16 50 
"oy FR Rt, eae otic ath. she eeeeeeceses 3.15 P achot . at 0.50 to 11.00 nelting steel, C'evelond 14.00 + 
RP SS, See OR WR “ye tio a rs g. N 1 Cleveland ee Heavy me! to 16 25 

Other peed ad oneade<. ane shottoa ' . ] Otol 5 velting steel, Cincinnatt 5 00 . 
enme as per card of March 15, 1916. Dabdine No ZC Louis 14.0010 14.50 frcevs monies OSth See's Te. 1475.00 15:00 

2» usheling, No 2 Chicag e 2: eavy : _ = é 4/5 to 13 
For AST IRON WATER PIPE Cast borings Chicag 1g . 9 1 to 19.00 H melt ng steel, New York. 13.00 to 13.50 

ur-inch, Chicago =~ ( , & ncago.. 7.25to 97.75 eavy melting stecl, St | 16.50 a 
SIX inch ond large-. y hi . $34 30 to 35.00 —, —o Cine innati 5.00to § $0 Heavy melting steel, B*ham 10 ao ao 
Six-inch Class B ann ¥ - 31.50 to 32 00 ( t : "@ Mevelond 4 7 7 “ Ieor ro'l c #0 19 < to 10.50 
. “Fe rk 7 » " . i Shtw 2? 
Four-inch Class B, New York... 30.50 et Gerings, Se. Lowe ent, veo Lron fails, Buffalo to 29 OS 
Four and six-inch Bi ew York... 33.50 Cast, No. 1 Chicago 117 » >! =6Tron rails, Cincinn ti 18.00 to 18.30 
Six | ach Birmingham. . sy >, 60 Cast, “No. 1, Cincinnati to 12.25 a we : 14.00 to 14.50 
: inch and larger, Bir 28.00 4 > cinnat 12.00 to 12.5 s, St. Low's 19.00 e@ ¢ 
Leight weg! , mingham 2s H st, 1. Clewel-rd Iron rails. ¢ -" to 19.50 

ght weight water and gas 25.00 Cast N : 1 to 12 is, Cleveland 18.00 

$1 per ton higher chen a. ast, No, 1, St. Louis 13.00 to 13 n axles, P'ttshurgl 12 00 to 33.00 

ard water. nm bs s xles Cincinnat  SOt 100 

ror ' - od ‘ 
; . . xles, eastern Pa 20.00 
Stee! bar WAREHOUSE PRICES __Freight Rates, Finished Material | von Sulcs, ‘Suite 00 to 31.0 
o . , 1cago.... rom *{ttsburel o. ron x! = le Oo. A 
Steel squares, 2-in. & « te Clew, 3.10c to: gh, carloads, per 100 Ibs. poe oF es, a ‘ < os 24.00 to 24.50 
v., leve — os . . 
atest rounds, 2-in. & ov., ( vee 3.75¢ New York . } Low phos. steel mans , 20 00 to 20.50 
Steel bars, under 2 in., Clevel oa 3.75¢ Phi'adelphia $y poco Low phos. ste¢ 1, east 2. ape ted To 
Steel bars, Detroit , elam 3.25¢ Boston 15.9 cents Madhine sha astern Pa 21.00 to 22.00 
Steel bars, Philac “2 * ‘gata 3.20c¢ to 3.25« Buffal sting 18.9 cents \ nop turnings, Buffalo 6.00to 6.50 
lia lelphi . ilo Mch sho tt 
Steel bars, New York... 3.00c to 3.25c Baltimore 11.6 cents ae ' ° ‘ —— i, York, 6.75to 7.25 
a bars, St Louis. “a 3.25¢ Clevelond 15 4 cer ts Mch sh »p samen . - . ~~ ? a to. 7.50 
Steel bars, Cincinnati. — 3.15¢ Cincinnati 10.5 cents Stetintite  sutbens he Y" eqetera Pa 7.25t0 7.7 
Steel bars, St. Paul 3.20c to 3.75¢ Chicago 15.8 cents Malleahle rail a . Ls nd 14.50 to 14.75 
me ee . iroad luffalo 5 
Steel bars, Buffalo. 4.20c Minneapolis and St. Paul 15.7 cents Maltestie sallveed easiest c 14 25 to 14.50 
Iron bars, Chicago 3.35¢ Denver : . 32.9 cents R. R. and mch. cast N ‘ 1 13 90 to 13.50 
Iron bars, Cleveland 3.10c St. Louis = 2 oeue R. R. wrought No. 1, B a. s5 5M to 16.00 
Iron bars, Detroit... 39 3.20¢ New Orleans 25.6 cents R. R. wret N : ] Galo 17.25 to 17.75 
— a St. Louis ; + ~ : 25c¢ Birmingham - cents R. R wrgt. a ms aw. 7 4-4ed> mm 
ron bars, Cincin 3.0S¢ to ; 10c¢ int lin dee x. 45 cents R R —t : ew r 00 to 18.50 
Iron bars, Phil ret 3.20¢ to 3.75« Pacific = {os oe 1.9 cents > wrought, N 1, Pbgh 18.00 to 18.25 
’ ul adelphia nd : acihe coast (tin late) - rR. R. wrought, No " - 
Iron bars. New York 3.00c to 3.25¢ ee neal P ate cents Reroll ug 1. B’ham 12.00 to 12 50 
Shapes, Chicago = 3.25« ast, via Panama canal 61.9 cents Dasa. 4 +. . v., Phe 17% 
“ ‘ . -_— — t ‘ ov ’ od se 
anes,  Dotwon 32 $.10c Cut foree, Chic-e ~ ., <,_ Reroll. rails, S$ ft. & ‘E.'P: 17.00 t0 17 
Shapes, St. Paul 3.15¢ Tron axles, Cleve > 028.00 Shafting, New York. 5 to 19.25 
Shapes, New York 3.20¢ Knuckles, coup Chicago +x to 29.00 Shaft ng, ao to 20.50 
Shapes, Cleveland 3.25 Knuckles, co Ip St I ~ . t 16 ) -4 . " ( . 00 to 21.0 
+ “ae > Hin . ’ . 
a er adelphia . , : . - ccomotive tires, Chicago ys ; a INOVE @ steel, St. I 1 
Shapes, Buffalo 9.UUC tO 3.20 ocomotive tire St L 80 on™ < . =e 50 to 16 
“ c . rc’, ne¢ ; , 4 
Shapes and plates, Cincinnat 3.20c t : a ~ hine shop turnings, Chg f : 6 Steel rails, short, Cleveland 4 p 
tes. (} “ 3.20¢ to 3.50« fete ' ’ ng to 6.5 ’ ’ a ne 
, c’¢o — nm tuerieg (“ewe . ‘ ’ : wee  t 1. — , 
Plates, Detroit . . gh Machine shop turn’gs, Cincin : ate r ; rR’ Cleveland 15,50 
"lates, St Louis : 3.60c to 4.00c¢ Mechire shop penas _ Ce _ ° 50 to. 6.1 Ss eget : A , f 141 SM ¢n 49 ' 
Pi-tes, St Paes] ° >t Rik Malleahle agricultur 1 Cr 1 t “ Sree . Bs . Rr ' I 118 16.50 to 17.00 
> S , . , : : ‘ ; — ot, g 00 to . " es ermine vam ré a 327A 
oe New York 40 o ~~ ; e agricultural, St. I s 11.50% + pip ar axles, New York $0,007 ihe 
es, velaed UC Malleable, Cincin : ; ——*s Stee . ' — 0 32.00 
Plates, Philadelphia 20 af - acts. -o acs mati 87Sto 925 cre, : ales B * 26 00 to 24 $0 
nee 00c , ‘ ' Te ’ ' ir axies evel 
oh +0 aoe anl, sheets, Chicago =e aa > Malleable railroad, St. Loui 1 13 4 ’ ' ~ - 34.00 
No. 10 blue anl. sh oT 9-9UC ‘pes and fine Clevel ww) to Cree . ' Jr it, 
Nx . eets, Cleve 3.10c to 3.25¢ *. . s, eve and 11.90 to 11.25 ~ ’ xlee, eastern Pa I OA to 29D 
No = blue anl. sheets, Buffalo ‘ - + Pi es and flues, Cheo 12 Of to 12 : Stove plete, N. 1. points co : ) : os 
sq 0 blue anl. sheets, St. L 3 Soe Pipes and flues, St. Louis 12.50% ’ Stowe plete Rieminghom . eto 12.50 
vo. 10 bine anl. sheets, Cinci 2 3.45¢ Rr-i'road wrought,-No. 1, © > » 154 Stove plate, Pittshurch seo THO 
No. 10 blue anl. sk o 3.40¢ to 3.50c Re-ilrnad cana - I ito l Crowe " . : . » 11.0000 113.25 
No. 10 bi sheets, St. Paul 3.50c Ral wrovent, No. 1, Cleve. 16M to 16 25 plate, cattern Pa 12.0 to 12°81 
No. ue anl. sheets, Detroit 3.55¢ Rallsond wrought, No. 1, St. L. 17.25+ 17 7 Me ronant> pine, ew Vers 11.50 . 1 73 
92 ailr ‘ : ‘-& > Prouwh o , 
oad wrought. No. 1, Cinci. 13.50 to 14.00 ona pine, eastern Pa : 43'S t0 14.00 
ign pipe Buffalo 12.00 to 12.50 


Birdsboro Steel Fdy. & Mch. Co., 
Birdsboro, Pa. 
Chambersburg Engrg. Co., Chambersburg, Pa. 
Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co., Mt. Gilead, O. 
Mackintosh, Hemphill & Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Mesta Machine Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Tod, Wm., Youngstown, O. 
United Engrg. & Fdy. Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Wood, R. D., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Southwark Fdy. & Mch. Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Linde Air Products Co., New York City. 
Oxweld Acetylene Co., Newark, N. J. 
Prest-O-Lite Co., The, Indianapolis, Ind. 


Roebling’s, John A., Sons Co., Trenton, N. J. 
American Vanadium Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Bethlehem Steel Co., The, So. Bethlehem, Pa. 
Blackwell, Geo, G., Sons & Co., Ltd.. 
Liverpool, Eng. 
Bourne-Fuller Co., The, Cleveland, O. 
Carnegie Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Central Steel Co., The, Massillon, O. 
Titanium Alloy Mfg. Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
United Steel Co., Canton, O. 
United Smelt’g & Alum. Co., New Haven, Ct. 
(Solder. ) 
United Smelt’g & Alum. Co., New Haven, Ct. 
(Vanadium. ) 
American Vanadium Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
United Smelt’g & Alum. Co.. New Haven, Ct. 
United Smelt’s & Alum. Co., New Haven, Ct. 
United Smelt’g & Alum. Co., New Haven, Ct. 
(See Steel. Structural.) 
Mesta Machine Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Pittsburgh Annealing Box Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Pittsburgh Malleable Iron Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Pittsburgh Valve Foundry & Const. Co., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Swedish Crucible Steel Co., Detroit, Mich. 
United Engrg. & Foundry Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Zanesville Malleable Tron Co., Zanesville, O. 

Wah-Chang Mining & Smelting Co., 
New York City. 
Wah-Chang Mining & Smelting Co., 
New York City. 
Crocker-Wheeler Co., Ampere, N. J. 
General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co.., 
East Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Lakewood Engrg. Co.. Cleveland, O. 
American Bridge Co., New York City. 
Bethlehem Steel Co., So. Bethlehem, Pa. 
Cambria Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Carnegie Steel Co., Pittshurgh, Pa. 
Til'nois Steel Co.. Chicago, TI. 
Lockhart Tron & Steel Co.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
National Tube Co., Pittshurgh, Pa. 
Otis Steel Co., Cleveland, O. 
ee Bronze Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Lubricating Metal Co., The, New York City. 


Where-lo Buy 

A classified-by-products list of advertisers for the convenience of readers. 
want, write us and we will tell you where to get it. 

you page number of any advertiser and by referring to advertisement 

you can get full particulars about products. 

Morgan Construction Co., Worcester, Mass. 
Turner, Vaughn & Taylor Co., 

Cuyahoga Falls, O. 

Bethlehem Steel Co., The, So. Bethlehem, Pa 
New Departure Mfg. Co., Bristol, Conn. 
Carnegie Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 
American Bridge Co., New York City 
(Wire Nails.) 
Turner, Vaughn & Taylor Co., 
Cuyahoga Falls, O 

Central Steel Co., The, Massillon, O 

(Concrete Reinforcing.) 
Bourne-Fuller Co., Cleveland, O. 
Cambria Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa 
Carnegie Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Cincinnati Iron & Steel Co., Cincinnati, O 
Franklin Steel Works, Franklin, Pa 
Inland Steel Co., Chicago, Ill. 
Laclede Steel Co., St. Louis, Mo 
Ryerson, Jos. T., & Son, Chicago, II) 
Trussed Concrete Steel Co., Detroit, Mich. 
Upson Nut Co., Cleveland, O. 

(Iron and Steel.) 

American Bridge Co., New York, N. Y. 
American Iron & Steel Mig. Co., Lebanon, Pa 
Belmont Iron Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bethlehem Steel Co., The, So. Bethlehem, Pa. 

Bourne-Fuller Co., Cleveland, 

Brown-Wales Co., Boston, Mass. 

Carnegie Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Cincinnati Iron & Steel Co., Cincinnati, O. 
Franklin Steel Works, Frankiin, Pa. 
Harvey, Arthur C., Co., Boston, Mass. 
Illinois Steel Co., Chicago, Il. 

Illinois Steel Co., Warehouse Dept., Chicago. 

Illinois Steel Warehouse Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Illinois Steel Warehouse Co., St. Paul, Minn. 

Inland Steel Co., Chicago, II! 

Jones & Laughlin Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Lackawanna Steel Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Lockhart Iron & Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Milton Mfg. Co., Milton, Pa 

Republic Iron & Steel Co., Youngstown, O. 
Ryerson, Joseph T., & Son. Chicago. III. 
Scully Steel & Iron Co., Chicago, IIl. 
Standard Gauge Steel Co., Beaver Falls, Pa. 
Tennessee Coal, Iron & R. R. Co., 

Birmingham, Ala. 

Trussed Concrete Steel Co., Detroit, Mich. 
United Steel Co., Canton, O. 
Upson Nut Co., Cleveland, O. 

Belmont fron Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Bourne-Fuller Co., Cleveland, O. 

Cambria Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Carnegie Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Franklin Steel Works, Franklin, Pa 
Illinois Steel Co., Chicago, III. 
Scully Steel & Iron Co., Chicago, Ill. 
New Departure Mfg. Co., Bristol, Conn. 
(Vanadium Steel.) 

American Vanadium Co., The, Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Graton & Knight Mfg. Co., Worcester, Mass. 

Texas Company, The, New York City. 
Williams, I. B.. & Sons. Dover, N. i. 

; (Leather, ) 
Chicago Rawhide Mfg. Co., Chicago, Ill. 
Graton & Knight Mfg. Co., Worcester, Mass 
Williams, I. B., & Sons, Dover, N. H. 

See Index to Advertisements for Pages Containing Advertisements of Companies Listed Above 

@ Index to advertisements will give 

September 21, 1916 


If you don’t find what you 

(Chain. ) 
Link-Belt Company, Chicago, Ill 

Chicago Rawhide Mfg. Co., Chicago, III 
Graton & Knight Mfg. Co., Worcester, Mass 
Williams, I. B., & Sons, Dover, N. H. 

New Britain Mach. Co., New Britain, Conn 

Morgan Construction Co., Worcester, Mass 

Turner, Vaughn & Taylor Co., The, 
Cuyahoga Falls, O. 
Abramsen Engrg. Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Bertsch & Co., Cambridge City, Ind. 
Birdsboro St’l Fdy. & Mch. Co., Birdsboro, Pa 
Cleveland Punch & Shear Works Co., 
Cleveland, O 
Espen-Lucas Machine Works, Philadelphia, Pa 
Hinman, D. A., & Co., Sandwich, Il. 
Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co., Mt. Gilead, O. 
Mackintosh, Hemphill & Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 
Niles-Bement-Pond Co., New York, N. Y. 
United Engrg. & Fdy. Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 
Koppers, H., Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 
Andrews Steel Co., The, Newport, Ky. 
Bethlehem Steel Co., The, So. Bethlehem, Pa 
Bourne-Fuller Co., Cleveland, , 
Cambria Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa 
Carnegie Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 
Central Steel Co., The, Massillon, O 
Illinois Steel Co., Chicago, II). 
Inland Steel Co., Chicago, IIl. 
La Belle Iron Works, Steubenville, O 
Lackawanna Steel Co., Buffalo, N. Y 
Otis Steel Co., Cleveland, O 
Republic Iron & Steel Co., Youngstown, O. 
Tennessee Coal, Iron & R. R. Co., 
Birmingham, Ala 
Upson Nut Co., Cleveland, O. 
Whitaker-Glessner Co., Portsmouth Works, 
Portsmouth, O 
Wood, Alan, Iron & Steel Co., Philadelphia 
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co., Youngstown 
Lakewood Engrg. Co.. Cleveland. O 
Keystone Bronze Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 
Clark, Chas. J., Chicago. Tl. 
Bethlehem Steel Co.. The, So. Bethlehem, Pa 
Bourne-Fuller Co., Cleveland, O. 
Cambria Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa 
Carnegie Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Hillman, J. H.. & Sons, Pittsburgh, Pa 
Illinois Steel Co., Chicago, Tl 
La Belle Iron Works, Steubenville, O 
Lackawanna Steel Co., Buffalo, N. Y 
Tennessee Coal, Iron & R. R. Co., 

Birmingham, Ala. 

Upson Nut Co., Cleveland, O 
Wood, Alan, Tron & Steel Co., Philadelphia. 
Youngstown Sh’t & Tuwhe Co., Youngstown, O 
Connersville Blower Co., The, Connersville, Ind 
General Electric Co.. Schenectady. N 
Gilbert & Barker Mfg. Co., Springfield, Mass 
Roots, P. H. & F. M., Co.. Connersville, Ind 
Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., 
East Pittshurgh, Pa 
(Electric. ) 
Wickes Brothers. Secinaw. Mich 
(Flaneed and Dished.) 
Worth Brothere Co. Philedelnhia, Pa 
(Irregular for Marine Work.) 
Worth Brothere Co., Philedelnhia, Pa. 
Armstrong Cork & Insulation Co., Pittsburg!