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State of Pennsylvania 



JANUARY, 1846-6 


Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. 

We have before us the 19th annual report of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad Company, in which we find a satisfactory statement 
if the affairs of the Institution for the fiscal year terminating the 30th 
September, 1845. This document is lucid and precise, and in exam- 
ining its contents we have only to regret that it is not accompanied 
by the very valuable tabular statements which have been appended 
to the last two reports. We have regarded those tables, in which all 
‘le expenditures of the Company were nicely discriminated and 
walyzed, as among the most valuable contributions to our details of 
railroad statistics which the experience of the country has yet fur- 
uished, and we cannot withhold the expression of our disappointment 
‘hat they have not been appended to the present interesting report. 

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company had the rare fortune 
io secure in good season the service of an enlightened President to 
iake the helm of their great enterprize, and the aid of an able Engi- 
neer to execute measures which were previously well matured. The 
improving condition of the Company’s affairs, is the happy fruit of 
this combination of talent. There are few cases in this country in 
which works of public improvement have exhibited a more steady and 
healthy advance towards permanent success, than has marked the 
progress of this enterprize. 

Vou. XI, 3ap Serres.—No. 1.—Janvary, 1946. 1 

Civil Engineering. 

The financial results of the year will be seen by the following ex. 
tract, which we take from page 5 of the report. 

Statement of the Revenue and Expenses of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad Company, on account of the Main Stem of the road, 
for the year ending the 30th of September, 1845. 


‘The amount received for the transportation of Passen- 

gers and merchandize for the year ending — 

30th, 1845, has been. $738,603 18 
And the expenses for the same period have been as fol- 

low, viz:— 
| Expenses of transportation, including fuel, 

salaries of superintendent, agents, con- 
| ductor, &c., &e., ; . $113,285 
| Repairs of the road, ; 88,184 
|Repairs of depots, . , ; 6,921 
Repairs of passenger cars, , 11,229 
Repairs of locomotives, , F 44,481 
Repairs of burden cars, . R 24,895 
| Repairing and rebuilding bridges, ‘ 55,516 2 
‘Repairs of water stations, . 1,525 
| Watching bridges and pumping water at 
/ Wate rstations, 8,984 
Office and incidental expenses, including 

salaries, house rent, fees to counsel, taxes 

on property, &e., . ‘ , 8,815 99) 

iH D 

mm =1 0% 1 & 


~ & 

Making in all ‘ . | 363,841 44 

‘Shewing the earnings of the road to be | 374,761 74 
|The Dividend of the Main Stem from the | 
| Washington Branch in April last was 30,978 00) 

_And the dividend yetto be received from 

the same, . ; 30,978 00 

Making . : 61,956 00 
The interest on the million loan, &c., 60,931 83! 


The aggregate revenue for the year is $738,603, which exceeds 
that of the previous year by the sum of $79,983. 

The amount expended for cars, engines, &c., for the accommoda- 
tion of the coal trade was $118,804, which includes the sum of $35.- 
217, disbursed for that purpose the previous year. 

The expenses of working the road and keeping it in repair, exhibit 
but a trifling increase—with the exception of the item of bridges— 
over those of the previous year, notwithstanding the very material 
increase of trade and travel which has been accommodated. 



The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. 3 

The bridge account, however, is upwards of $49,000 greater than 
that of last year. This serious addition to the expenditures of the 
year is attributed to the necessity in which the Company was placed, 
of having all the bridges refitted and strengthened, so as to be made 
capable of sustaining the weight of the heavy trains which it has been 
found expedient to run. This is no doubt a wise precaution, for these 
structures were not originally intended to sustain machines of 22 tons 
weight, drawing trains of 6 tons coal cars, and were found unequal 
tosuch duty. We trust that further experience may not show that 
the track itself—even that portion west of Harper’s Ferry—is also 
inadequate for this service. 

The report holds out that the year’s experience in the transpor- 
tation of coal has gone to demonstrate the sufficiency of the estimates 
of the Company’s engineers on this head ; but though they are looking 
forward to a considerable increase of this trade, it does not appear 
that they have yet carried a sufficient quantity to justify the drawing 
of any useful practical conclusions from their own experience. We 
would rather rely on the speculative estimates of their judicious offi- 
cers than on the meagre experience which they have obtained in run- 
ning ueW machinery for a few months over a new track. 

The President anticipates a coal trade, within a year or two, of 

100,000 tons, or upwards—and, in our view, they must carry this 
amount for several years before we can set much value on their ex- 
The report concludes with a repetition of the difficulties which are 
found to embarrass the contemplated extension of the road to the 
Ohio river—difficulties resulting from the onerous restrictions imposed 
by the Legislature of Virginia in the act authorizing the Company 
(o terminate their line at Wheeling, and the refusal of the Legislature 
of Pennsylvania to permit them to terminate it at Pittsburgh. In re- 
gard to both these States, however, it informs the stockholders that 
there will be made “renewed and vigorous efforts for that purpose 
at the next session of their respective Legislatures.” 

We add the following interesting table, which presents a condensed 
view of the results of this Company’s operations from the beginning. 





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Description of the Great Britain Iron Steam Ship, with Screw Pro- 
peller; with an Mtecount of the Trial Voyages. By Tuomas 
Ricnarp Guppy, Esq., C. E. 

(From the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers.) 
(Continued from vol. x, page 366.) 

Mr. Barnes confirmed the general statement of the results of the 
trial of the screw, which was lent to the ‘ Napoleon,’ the information 
having been, in fact, communicated by him to Mr. Guppy, immedi- 
ately after trying the experiments. One point only required correc- 
tion. ‘The reason for the whole pressure of the steam not being ap- 
plied was not from a fear of breaking the screw, but because of its 
small dimensions, it having been made for the ‘.@rchimedes,’ whose 
engines were SO or 90 h. p., and more particularly on account of 
the pitch being so small. The result was, that when it was applied 
on board the ‘ Napoleon,’ the engines (which were 130 h. p.,) would 
have required to have been driven at such an increased number of 
strokes, that the boilers could not have supplied sufficient steam. Even 
with the throttle valve partially closed, great attention was required 
to keep up a steady speed. 

He thought the results obtained, with such a small propeller, quite 
extraordinary, and such as could not have been anticipated. 

He had since calculated the results more accurately, and found them 
as shown in the following table :— 

Kevolutions Speed First | Second 
per in | 

minute. knots. Mean. Mean. 


9-9835 | 


Mean 32° + . | 100815 



The speed of the screw of 7 feet 74 inches pitch was 10-7165 knots, 
which was in the ratio of 0-9047 to 1. 

In his original calculations, given to Mr. Guppy, he has erroneously 
assumed the pitch of the screw to have been 8 feet. 
The results of the indicator were 10°15 lbs. per sq. inch. 
Veducting for friction, and more ample allow- 

ance than was required for engines in good 

order, which was not, perhaps, too much for 

engines which were quite new, and of which 

1!| the movements were stiff, 

Remains, 8-60 = 95:5 h. p. for 
-_—— each engine. 

Civil Engineering. 

Mr. T. R. Guppy stated, in answer to questions from the president 
and members, that during the whole voyage the throttle-valve was 
only one-third open, and that the steam was cut off at one-sixth ot 
the stroke. It was not possible to take any accurate account of the 
coals consumed, but he estimated the consumption at about 40 tons 
in 24 hours. The screw propeller of the Great Britain was too 
small, but still the speed obtained even against a heavy head sea, was 
never below 53 knots per hour. 

Captain Hosken said, he considered it necessary to reduce the speed 
in heavy weather; it was in such cases dangerous to apply all th: 
power of the engines; there was a danger of the sea making a clear 
breach over the vessel if she was driven bodily forward, instead of 
being allowed to rise with the waves. The experience he had ac- 
quired in the Great Western had clearly proved the correctness of 
his views. 

His opinion of the advantage of the screw as a mode of propulsion 
was decided, and he thought that it would, for sea-going vessels, su- 
persede paddle-wheels. During the worst part of the voyage, with 
the Great Britain, the screw was never more than one-half of its di- 
ameter out of the water, and the other half was acting efficiently at 
the same time; whereas under similar circumstances, with such a 
cross sea, the leeward paddle-wheel would have been immersed, pro- 
bably above its shaft, while the windward wheel would have been 
completely out of the water; the strain upon the engines, in such a 
ease, was very prejudicial ; but in the Great Britain he never noticed 
any variation in the working of the engines, not even when she was 
struck with the heavy sea which had injured the bow. 

Captain Sir Charles Napier inquired, whether the Greaf Britain 
steered well, and whether it was not found she had a tendeney to fall 
off to leeward in a cross sea? He should have supposed that the ac- 
tion of the screw propeller being so entirely in the stern, it would act 
upon the ship like seulling a boat. 

Captain Hosixen replied, that the Great Britain steered extremel|s 
well; aud that there was not any tendency to fall off to leeward. 

The action of the serew could not be correctly compared with that 
of a seull upon a boat; in that case, the power acted entirely upon 
the stern; but with the screw, the power was exerted in the direction 
of the shaft, up to the engines, in the centre of the ship, and by a sim- 
ple arrangement it could be carried on even upto the bow. He was 
of opinion that the leeward paddle-wheel had not much power to keep 
a vesse! up to the wind ; it was so close to the ship’s side that its le- 
verage was not considerable. 

Sir Charles Napier thought the principal danger of the screw pro- 
peller was in running before the wind in a heavy sea. If struck by 
a heavy wave, the sternpost and the propeller might be carried away 
together; as also in case of getting on shore, the screw would not be 
so efficient in clawing off shore as the paddle-wheels would be. 

Captain Hosken said it was evident that the propeller was not easily 
injured, for since his arrival in the Thames he had found, coiled round 

Description of the Great Britain Iron Steam Ship. 7 

the shaft, nearly 9 fathoms of chain cable, which had been apparently 
torn away from the mooring of a buoy, in coming up the river. 

Mr. J. Miller said, one point of importance in favor of the screw 
was its not being affected by variations of immersion, arising either 
from the draught of water of the vessel, or from the rolliug ina heavy 
sea. He had noticed particularly the difference of the speed of the 
engines, on board the Royal Mail Company’s vessels, at the com- 
mencement and at the end of a voyage. At starting, with a full com- 
plement of fuel, the paddle-wheels were plunged so deep, that the 
speed of the engines, which ought on an average, to be 17 strokes 
per minute, was reduced to 8 or 9 strokes, and at the end of the voy- 
age the paddle floats had scarcely sufficient hold on the water. A ves- 
sel with a screw propeller would not be so affected. 

He thought also, that the screw was less liable than paddle-wheels 
to be injured by heavy seas. 

Captain Hosken was anxious to record clearly the points where he 
was satisfied the propeller was preferable to the paddle wheel for 
steamers generally, but more particularly for the purposes of war and 
for Atlantic navigation. 

By using the screw, a great weight was entirely removed from the 
top, sides and centre of the ship. 

The exertion of the power of the engines was transferred from the 
top, sides and centre to the lower midship body, which was the strong- 
est part of the ship. 

There was a saving of nearly one-half the weight. In the instance 
of the Great Britain, that ship was first intended for paddle-wheels, 
which with all the appurtenances of beams, boxes, shafis, &c., were 
estimated at 180 tons. The weight of the propeller, cliain-wheels, 
shaft, chain, &c., might be taken at about 80 tons, and that weight 
was dispersed over nearly half the ship’s length. When leaving port 
and the ship was deep, the propeller would exert its greatest power, 
when it was most required; paddle-wheels, on the coutrary, when 
deeply immersed, would not allow the engines to exert their power. 

A steam ship, with a propeller, answered the helm quicker, and 
steered easier, than a paddle-wheel ship. 

A great point, also, was the superior efficiency of a screw propeller 
ship under canvas, on account of the absence of the unsightly and det- 
rimental paddle-boxes ; possessing also the advantage of the sails act- 
ing with the engines, instead of injuriously to them, as with paddle- 
wheels. When the sails took effect, the ship heeled, or inclined to 
one side, the paddle-wheels consequently became too deeply immersed 
on one side, and had not sufficient hold upon the water on the other, 
manifestly wasting the power of the engines. 

The screw propeller was more easily disconnected from the engines 
ihan the paddle-wheels, should it be required to save fuel, or if the 
engines were disabled, and the ship being properly rigged, a decidedly 
efficient sailing ship still remained, which in a paddle-wheel ship was 
not possible. 

The screw propeller was less liable to be damaged by héavy seas, 
or by shot, than paddle-wheels. Very recently, the West india Royal 

8 Civil Engineering. 

Mail Steam-packet Dee had one wheel quite disabled, by a heavy 
sea striking it; while the screw was nearly always so immersed as to 
be out of the reach of injury, either from waves or shot. 

As the relative merits of screw propellers and paddle-wheels were 
of national importance, Captain Hosken felt confident no apology was 
necessary, for thus, as concisely as possible, giving his opinion before 
the institution. 

If he might recommend any point for the consideration of the mem- 
bers, it would be that they should exert their ingenuity to discover 
the best propeller, all circumstances being considered ; as in his opin- 
ion it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to find a propeller 
that should be the best under every variety of circumstance. He 
considered the best method would be to multiply or reduce the speed 
of the propeller, as might be found necessary under different cireum- 
stances, but that, he was aware, would, in very large steamers, be 
difficult of attainment. 

Sir Charles Napier agreed with Mr. Miller with regard to the dis- 
advantages of the deep immersion of the paddles, particularly those 
of war steamers, where wheels were constantly plunged too deeply 
when they had their full armament and fuel on board. For fifteen 
years past he had urged upon the Government the necessity of paying 
more attention to the construction of their war steamers ; for, in his 
Opinion, there was not one really good steamer in the service; and he 
thought the Retribution, which was the last vessel finished, was not 
any improvement upon its predecessors. He objected particularly to 
the present construction of direct-acting engines, by which the work- 
ing parts were exposed to injury from shot. He thought, that all the 
upper parts of the engines, and the naves of the paddle-wheels, should 
be made of wrought-iron, as in the case of being struck by shot, less 
serious injury would ensue than when they were made of cast-iron. 

He would suggest, also, whether it would not be possible to have 
tanks near the paddle-boxes, to be filled with water as the fuel was 
reduced in weight, and thus to keep the vessel at a uniform draught, 
so that the power of the engines could be always advantageously em- 

Captain Hosken said, in reference to the points suggested by Sir 
Charles Napier, experience had shown that any thing cumbersome 
about paddle-wheels was bad for sea purposes, any machinery about 
them was difficult to be kept in order, and if the paddle-wheels were 
made to reef, when they were exposed to a heavy gale, or sea, they 
would assuredly lose a large portion of their paddie-floats. 

The suggestion of a contrivance to fill water about the paddle- 
boxes, in proportion to the fuel consumed, so as to keep an uniform 
dip of float-board, appeared not only objectionable, but it amounted 
almost to an impossibility. It was searcely possible, even if desirable, 
to find space for 500 tons of water in a steam ship that might take 
that quantity of fuel as her sea-stock ; and doing so, would keep the 
ship in a long voyage continually groaning under a heavy burthen. 
He agreed with Sir Charles Napier as to the desirableness of an unl- 
form dip of the paddle-board if it could be obtained ; but if it was only 

Description of the Great Britain Iron Steam Ship. 9 

to be arrived at by always carrying a heavy weight, it was better to 
continue the present plan, of starting deep and arriving light. 

Mr. Guppy said, in answer to questions from members, that, at 
present, he believed the average speed obtained by vessels with screw 
propellers, was below that of paddle-wheel steamers. A new screw 
of larger diameter and greater area of palms, was being made for the 
Great Britain, with a view to increasing the speed. 

It should not be forgotten, in the discussion, that a distinctive fea- 
ture of iron vessels was their stiffness, and he conceived they were 
hetter calculated to withstand the shock of heavy seas than wooden 
vessels were. 

Four chains, weighing together about seven tons, were employed 
for communicating the power from the upper drum, upon the main 
shaft, to the lower drum upon the shaft of the propeller. They 
worked smoothly and without noise, and at present had not shown 
any tendency to wear, or to lengthen. From the form of the link, he 
conceived that the chains would only lengthen on the slack side, un- 
der any circumstances; and this would not affect their working, as 
the projecting ends of the links would, on the driving side, always 
fall into the recesses prepared for them, so that these recesses must be 
much worn, before the chains would ride out of their proper direction 
upon the drums. 

Mr. R. Stephenson observed, that the chains very nearly resembled 
those used in the early locomotive engines, and which were discarded 
on account of lengthening so much asto render them useless. It was 
true, that the links of the locomotive chains were much smaller, there 
were many more traversing pins, and the speed at which they trav- 
eled was probably greater than the large driving chains of the Great 
Britain, which would, therefore, be less liable to injury than those he 
had mentioned. 

Sir John Rennie, President, said that the Institution was much in- 
debted to Mr. Guppy for the paper which had induced, in the course 
of the discussion, the expression of the opinions of the good authori- 
ties who had spoken on a subject of such great importance. 

The advances made in steam navigation were already very great, 
but he anticipated much greater would result from the application of 
the screw propeller. The best forms, not only of propellers, but of 
the vessels to which they could be most advantageously applied, would 
be more accurately ascertained from the experiments now in pro- 
gress, by the order of the Government, and also by private individ- 
uals; he hoped the Institution would soon be put in possession of the 
result of these, by the same spirit of liberality as had induced Mr. 
Guppy to present his paper. 

A very interesting communication might be produced, by tracing 
the progress of steam navigation for the last few years, taking, for 
instauce, one station, that of Dover, where, it would be recollected, 
with the old vessels eight or nine knots an hour was considered a 
good speed, but at present, with better shaped vessels and more pow- 
erful engines, a speed of nearly 15 knots per hour was stated to have 
been attained. 

10 Civil Engineering. 

Mr. P. Taylor said, that great difference of opinion existed among 
the officers of the French navy as to the capabilities of the Napoleon. 
It had been asserted that with the peculiar build and great proportion 
of power to tonnage of that vessel, greater speed should have been 
attained. Mr. Taylor was not of that opinion, although he fully ap- 
preciated the build of M. Normand’s vessel, and the excellence oj 
Mr. Barnes’ engines. He had paid much attention to the result of 
the voyages of the Napoleon, and found them, on an average, more 
rapid than those of the paddle-wheel vessels on the same station. ‘The 
screw did not generally make such good headway in smooth water; 
but with a sea or wind sufficient to lay a paddle-wheel ship at all 
over, the screw gained immensely, and hence its average superiority. 

After the trial voyages and the run from Havre to Marseilles, with 
the cast-iron screw, which had been mentioned at the Institution ona 
previous occasion, it was found, on putting the Napo/eon into the 
graving dock at Toulon, that the outer journal of the propeller-shaft 
was much worn, and that the cast-iron screw was much affected by 
galvanic action; a new bronze screw was therefore cast, and was 
highly polished and varnished before it was fixed. At the same time 
the bearing areas of both the outer and the inner journals of the shatt 
were increased, and a jet of cold water was arranged so as to be con- 
stantly applied to them. Since these alterations, there had not been 
any undue wearing of the journals. 

Mr. Barnes would not venture to state the relation of power to 
tonnage on board tac Napoleon, as the methods of measurement of 
vessels were quite illusory. The engines were 130 h. p. ‘The vesse 
was 148 feet 6 inches long, and 27 feet 4 inches broad at the water 
line, drawing 11 feet 10 inches aft, and 7 feet 5 inches forward, and 
the area of the midship section at that draught was 144 square feet. 
By the ordinary rules of measurement, the tonnage would be 490 
tons, and the displacement 365 tons. 

He had made many engines for vessels built by M. Normand. aud 
he knew their capabilities. He was of opinion, that if the feathering 
paddle-wheels, invented by M. Cavé, had been adapted to the Napo- 
leon, as good speed would have been attained, as with the screw, in 
all weathers; but that with the common paddle-wheels such results 
could not have been arrived at. 

Mr. F. P. Smith had found, with reference to the journals of the 
propeller-shaft, that steel was the best material for the bearing of the 
toe or extreme end, where the destruction was most rapid, and that 
the best form was that of two hemispheres, working under a constant 
jet of cold water. The experience upon the Rattler tended to show, 
that it was advantageous to reduce the bearings as much as possible; 
for they had always worn down to certain dimensions, and then had 
ceased to wear. On the contrary, however, on board the Great Bri- 
tain and the Napoleon, it appeared, that an increase of the size of the 
journals had been advantageous. On this practical question, the man- 
ner in which the thrust of the propeller-shafts was received in the toe 
bearing must be well considered, before any rule could be laid down. 

As liad been previously stated, one of the chief merits of the screw 

Description of the Great Britain Iron Steam Ship. 11 

was its permitting such an advantageous use of the sails. In the Rattler 
it was found, that when with steam alone the vessel was running 94 
knots to 94 knots per hour, and the engines were making 26 to 263 
strokes per minute, on the sails being set the speed increased to 12 
knots, and the engines made freely 284 strokes. At that rate it was 
supposed the screw was dragged through the water; but on applying 
the dynamometer it was found, that the forward thrust of the shaft 
was the same as before the sails were used. The screw was, there- 
fore, producing its full effect. Ifthe sails had been set on a paddle- 
wheel vessel, under similar circumstances, the lee wheel would have 
been so much depressed as to have impeded the progress; and the 
windward wheel would have lost a considerable portion of its effect, 
owing to the heeling of the vessel. ‘To that cause must be attributed 
the fact of the Royal yacht gaining speed in proportion as it short- 
ened sail, with the wind on the beam. 

In the recent trial cruise, while rounding the Longships against a 
heavy head sea, the Rattler did not make good way. The vessel 
pitched so, that the propeller was frequently more than half its diame- 
ter out of the water. On trying the dynamometric effect, it was as- 
certained that the power was fully expended, but that it was insuffi- 
cient for the tonnage of the vessel, whose build also was not calculated 
for speed. In rough weather, with a head wind, the rigging was a 
serious impediment to speed, but with the wind a little abaft the beam, 
it was thought that, in spite of her build, the Rattler would prove 
herself fully equal to any vessel of similar power and tonnage. 

From his previous experience of the performances of the Ratéler 
i!) smooth water, Mr. Smith had recommended to the Admiralty that 
a larger propeller should be tried. The recent trials at sea had proved 
the correctness of the recommendation, which was now being acted 

Captain Crispin corroborated Mr. Smith’s statement, relative to the 
Royal yacht. With the wind on the beam, owing to her heeling over, 
the lee wheel was so much plunged as to materially reduce the speed 
of the engines and of the vessel, and the more the sails were reduced, 
so as to bring her upon an even keel, the faster she overhauled the 
Rattler, whose engine power he considered insufficient for the ton- 
nage; whilst the superior size and power of the yacht enabled her to 
make good way against a heavy head sea. The performance of the 
Rattler, with the wind on the beam, and the canvas set, surprised all 
te officers of the squadron. 

To be Continued. 

Civil Engineering. 

Atmospheric and Rope Traction Railways. 
Mr. P. Barlow’s Experiments comparing the Power Lost. 

Tage, showing a Comparison of the Useful Mechanical Effect of the 
Dalkey Engine, as applied by the Atmospheric pipe, with that of 
the Tyler Hill Engine on the Canterbury and Whitstable Railway, 
as appt by the ses. 

. | No.of] Experiment 

2 | Vacuum. 

#2 | Weight of Train. 

‘auisuryy Aax| eq 

Horse power indi-| 
cated during Ex- 

Average velocity) 

per hour. | 

“Average velocity | 
per minute. 

Resistance due to 

Friction and 
= Usetul Mechanica} 


3. Le 




62 L.FE 
32 0.08 


08! power pr cent! 
= ~/ 




| Author of Experi- 

.o. of Experiment 

| N 
£3 | Weight of Train 

= | 

» | 

Te youy am 
) peejsul 
» sl au'y 
AWS puR 

ay) wlody 

aursary [tp 4ajAy, 

Horse Power indi- 
cated during ex- 

Average Velocity 
per Hour. 

| Average Velocity 



Uoljatyy ay Joy uo, aad ‘sq] Eg sm 

lod S.UIN 
*H [Blo saumuio,) Gz. ‘ 


per minute. 

“HOTPOLY aq) 107 ape Ueaq sey 

uononpap ou aui’y aqeisity Ay 841 uO aulzua | 

ay) jo Jamod oy) Buleuinsea uj—'(2) aon 

Resistance due to 
Friction and 
Useful mechanica! 

| Lost power p. cent 


a4 0aj8 109) G 

‘SET UL T JO JUaIpRss jenjow agi | 
‘C{] Ul T Jo auljoul Ue 407 payepnoyt 
“OHI, O} BNP BUR sISe1 BY T—"(1) BION 

Aay| eq] oy} uo Sjuamtdadxa ayy ul A} 

H& 0.1% 


It will be seen by this table that the loss of power by Rope traction 
varies from twenty to fifty-one per cent., and by Atmospheric traction 
seventy-six to eighty-five per cent. Civ. Eng. & Arch. Jour 


Sufety Coupling-box for Railway Trains. 

The occurrence of serious accidents on railways, arising from the 
engine running off the line, renders it desirable that some simple means 
should be de ‘vised for inst antly disconnecting the engine and tender 
from the train, when such an occurrence takes place. The late acci- 
dent on the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway, arising from the engine 
leaving the line, and attended with the loss of one life, though one too 
many for humanity to spare, might have been much more disastrous, 
had not the coupling irons given way, connecting the train with the 
tender. ‘The train was thus allowed to remain on the rails; and what 
we would suggest is, that that which took place by a happy accident 
should in future be insured, by a simple self-acting mechanical con- 
trivanee, Which shall unlock the train from the engine the moment 
that the latter shall happen to leave the rails. A scheme of this kind 
was devised by Mr. 8. B. Howlett, of the Ordnance Office, so early as 
$40, and was deseribed and illustrated in the fourth volume of the 
Professional Papers of the Royal Engineers. We take the liberty of 
e-producing this plan, as it appears to be simple, and promises to be 

rig. 1, A east-iron box, shown in plan, consisting of sides and bot- 
mM ; i : top, consisting of a separate plate bolted to the box, being 

emoved to show the arrangement of the parts in the interior. Ex- 
ernally, it is provided with trunnions which turn in sockets bolted to 
‘he front of the carriage. The draw-bar which proceeds from it is 
‘onnected by short link-work to the tender. 

Fig. 2. A longitudinal section of the box through the middle of fig. 
|, showing one of the sockets behind. 

Fig. 3. A side-view of the draw-bar detached. 

Fig. 4. A representation of the position of the draw-bar when the 
Vou. XI, 3np Sertes.—No. 1.—Janvary, 1846. 2 

14 Civil Engineering. 

chain is pulled sidewise: in this position the bar can be drawn ou 
with ease, and the connexion thus broken. 

sate Fig. 5. An isometrical sketch oj 
the coupling-box, supposed to be 
fixed on the front or lower part ot 
the luggage truck or first carriage; 
or it might be fixed underneath, 
the construction being adapted fo; 
either position. The end of th 
draw-bar is broken off in the figure 
for want of room. ; 

Literal References.—a, is thy 
boss or projection cast on the sol 
of the box, the use of which: is to 
afford a holding surface to the end 
of the draw-bar. 

b, 6, springs riveted at one end 
to the walls of the box, near th 
opening in front; they reach be- 
yond the boss a, and embrace th 
end of the draw-bar, (when engaged with the boss) the object of which 
is to retain it exactly in its place. 

c, ¢, the trunnions, cast one on each side of the box, upon whic! 
the box turns as on hinges, 

d, one of the sockets, of which there are two, in which the trun 
nions turn ; the sockets are bolted to the carriage. 

e, the draw-bar, formed on its under side with a notch, which sii; 
over the boss a, when the bar is introduced into its place, and is he 
in that position by the springs. 

It is obvious that no direct pull could withdraw the bar, becaus 
the notch rests over the boss, and the bar being held by the springs, 
cannot shift its position laterally without a greater lateral force being 
applied than could occur by shaking while traveling. The oilice | 
the springs is simply to hold the bar over the centre of the boss, and 
should, in the manufacture, be adjusted accordingly; they should, 1 
iact, be of such strength that a man laying hold of the end of th 
bar and pulling it as a lever against either side of the entrance, shou 
be just able to open either of the springs and release the bar. Th 
entrance of the box is wider than the bar, sufficiently to allow for o1- 
dinary deviations from the middle position. 

Mr. Howlett proposes the application of this safety-coupling be- 
tween the tender and the first wagon of the train. We think, how- 
ever, that it might be applied between the engine and the tender, so 
as to leave the tender, as well as the train, on the line. Our princi- 
pal object in proposing this is to provide likewise for the safety of the 
driver and stoker on the platform. A simple modification of the ex- 
isting arrangement of the platform would, however, be necessary to 
effect this most desirable end: for, according to the presently arranged 
method, one-half of the platform is erected on the engine, the othe! 

Address by Prof. Frazer. 15 

half on the tender. Now, as the engine and tender are constantly 
linked together as one, we see no difficulty in the way of attaching 
the whole of the platform to the tender-frame. Thus, while the men 
could have a comple te command over the engine, they would be in- 
dependent of it for foot-hold; and if it ever started aside and left the 
te ois r and train, it would go alone to destruction. We do not forget 
that anothe r connexion subsists between the engine and tender, 
namely, the flexible tubes which convey the water from the tender to 
he ri e-pumps. These would, however, very easily give way if no 
ther connexion remained. But, at all events, it would not be a diffi- 
cult matter to construct the water-tubes with sliding joints, which 
iid part asunder of their own accord when the engine leaves the 

ler. The railing with which the platform is enclosed at the sides 

be carried round the front of it close to the engine, leaving an 

ning, of course, for firing; this would prevent the possibility of the 
ver or stoker being precipitated from the platform at the moment 

» accident. The application of Mr. Howlett’s coupling-box 
would, in this ease, likely require it to undergo some modification. 
We recommend the principle of the complete isolation of the engine 
to the consideration of railway engineers, who will best understand 
the value of what we have now stated. The utility of the idea, apart 
from the readiness with which it might be applied, is as clear as dis- 
astrous occurrences can make it, when we know that these occur- 

rences would have been greatly alleviated had the arrangements 

which we propose been applied. At the time of the accident on the 

Edinburgh and Glasgow line, the train was running, it seems, at the 
e of 60 miles an hour: a very high speed on the narrow gage. 
ile we would hail with pleasure the progress of steam-locomotion, 

: would also insist on the corresponding advance of precautionary 
measures against accident, and would aid in the furtherance of this 

as far as our humble suggestions can go. 
Glasgow Prac. Mec. & Eng. Mag 


iddress delivered by Proressor Frazer, at the close of the Fifteenth 
Exhibition of American Manufactures, held by the Franklin In- 
stitute of the State of Pennsylvania, for the promotion of the 
Mechanic rts, October, 1845. 

LADIES AND GenTLEMEN :—The fifteenth exhibition of American 
Manutactures held by the Franklin Institute, is now about to close, 
aud while the members of the Institute congratulate each other upon 
the success which has attended their labors, it is natural that they 
should have something to say in reference to it, to those who have 
favored them with their attendance. 

[need not tell you that the exhibition has been a successful one, 
nor endeavor to show in what its superiority consists. That it is su- 

os} al 2 

Pe Mom ly os pds Mee 


+ “ Seve SOB. Phe eS _ 

<P re Ae RS or 

16 Franklin Institute. 

perior to former ones, is a matter of course; the very end and aim o; 

holding them at all, is to encourage those improvements of which our 

arts are susceptible, by showing to the public as well as to the manu. 
facturers themselves, what has been done, and by suggesting to them 
that which still remains to be done, in their respective branches. [tf] 

did not feel that this end had been attained, and that its attainment 

had been shown by the decided superiority of this over former exh. 
bitions, | would not have the courage to say one word to you upon 
the subject; nor the faith to look forward hopefully to a similar im. 
provement in the next, and so on for an unlimited series, until the 
whole of our arts have obtained the perfection which it is possible fo 
them to reach. I cannot ask you to go back to the first of these ey. 
hibitions, held in 1824, (when eleven medals were awarded.) for my 
own recollections will not carry me back that far, but I ask you 4 
task your memories, to say whether within the last three or for 
years only, the improvement in American manufactures has not bee 
such as to astonish the most credulous, and to justily the hopes of th 
most sanguine. How many impossibilities in manufactures have bee 
accomplished in that time? Itis true that exhibitions of this kin 
are not the only causes of this improvement—but that they exercis 
a very great influence in promoting this result, who can doubt? Th 
fact of their adoption by sister institutions in the cities of our own 
country, and the encouragement of them by the various government 
of Europe, is a suflicient evidence of their usefulness. You have a 
felt their utility in the astonishment with which you have examin: 
some of the products now spread upon our tables; products whic! 
you were made aware for the first time, could be produced in suel 
perfection by our own manufacturers. They operate usefully by in- 
forming the community what they can expect from our own industry, 
and thus tend to check that prejudice which still exists, though in 
far less degree than formerly, against domestic manufactures, at 
which compels our manufacturers to the vicious practice of stamping 
their goods with a foreign mark; thus tacitly admitting an inferiority 
which does not by any means always exist. They operate usefy 
by bringing conspicuously to your notice those striking improvement: 
which, in the opinion of competent and impartial judges, have de- 
served especial notice and reward; and they operate most beneficia 
by allowing the manufacturers themselves to see the progress whic! 
has been made by others, in their own art, thus exciting a generou 
rivalry among them, and stimulating them to further improvemen! 
which could not otherwise have been hoped for. 

‘These palpable considerations have so thoroughly demonstrated tly 
utility of these exhibitions, that it is but rarely that we now hear the 
question asked, “What is the good?””? Yet me must not forget that 
scarcely twenty years ago, their founders had to endure the perpetua! 
repetition of this question at all times and in all tones, froin the honest 
inquiry of him who desired to be informed, to the sneer of the wilfu 
and perverse unbeliever. This is the fate of all novelties, and the 
Institute has nothing peculiar to complain of. 

What a melancholy record we should have, if we could collect to- 


im of 
h our 
r im- 
il the 
Je fo} 
@ @X- 
yr my 
OU t 
* for 
of the 
: beer 


v hich 

od the 
ur the 
t that 
d the 

ct to- 

Address by Prof. Frazer. 17 

gether the histories of all the projected improvements which have been 
crushed by the cold indifference of those who should have fostered 
and eucouraged them, if we could read the biographies of those who 
have sacrificed their fortunes and their lives in the vain hope of ame- 
liorating society, who would not even be brought to listen to their 
schemes. We need not go far back into the history of ages less ad- 
vaneed than our own, nor need we look to other lands for ex ainples. 
Listen to the indignant yet sad appeal of one of our townsmen : “For 
seventeen years,”’ says he, “ after the means of applying the princi- 
ples of this Improvement were first discovered by the author, be could 
jot find a single person who would acknowledge that they thought 
the experimeut worth the expense of a trial. All united in condemn- 
ug the project, except two gentlemen to whom he explained the 
principles with great care and exactness after he commenced the 
work.’ This was within the present century, and the plans for 
which he so earnestly endeavored to obtain a hearing from individuals 
aud Legislatures were, the navigation of the Mississippi, and the pro- 
pulsion of land carriages, by steam. A little later, the project of run- 
ning a steamboat upon the Hudson was considered as too ridiculous 
to be introduced into the Legislature. Full justice isnow done to the 
memories of Evans and Fulton, but the same spirit is still extant, and 
it behoves us to take care lest other propositions meriting encourage- 
ment and reward, should yet share the fate of the early proposals of 
the steamboat and the locomotive. 

Do not think that Iwould discourage a habit of calm and dispas- 
siouate examination before any new scheme, however promising i! 
nay appear, is entertained ; or imagine that I have any thing to say 

the thousand erudities of men, ignorant of every princip 
they profess to use, with which we are every day assailed 
nt ef rigid examination ts precisely that which is most favora 
inventions, and although sometimes the judgment may bi 
vroug, yet the motive which prompted it is respectable and praise- 
worthy. Singular indeed have beeu the errors into which eminentiy 
judicious and dispassionate men have fallen, while judging of new in- 
ventions, but it is not of these I speak, buat of that class of uninguiritig 
drones, to whose minds, novelty is the greatest of sins, and who meet 
every new proposal with a supercilious smile ora discouraging sneer, 
unWilling to examine into its merit, or to give it the opportunity o! 
doing good. 

Against much of this spirit, the Franklin Institute, upon its first or- 
ganization, had to contend, and if we would award to its founders 
the merit which they really deserve, we must not suffer this to esea; 
from our memory. ‘The task which they undertook was no light on 
—the prejudices which were to be overcome, were not easily noi 
\uickly to be obliterated, the advantages which they proposed to be- 
‘ow, were not speedily to be gained. It was a work of constant, long 
continued, wearisome labor, a work tasking their highest energies, 
and demanding their utmost prudence and perseverance ; a work for 
Which no remuneration was to be expected—for which no reward 
Was adequate, except the consciousness of having deserved wel! 0: 


S + ea 


Latent Ane e St ee oo ee 

18 Franklin Institute. 

their fellow citizens and their fellow men. Indulge me iu paying 
this passing tribute to the founders of the Franklin Institute, for while 
they have deserved well of the community, they have left us a lesson 
as to our duty, and a hopeful example of what can be accomplished 
by energy and perseverance. Be it our place to maintain the path 
which they have traced—to fulfil the purposes for which the Institute 
was created, and constantly to foster by all means in our power those 
arts Which it was intended to promote. 

The 19th century has been truly designated as the Age of Manutac- 
tures. The wars and troubles which attended its commencement, seem 
to have left nations in a disposition to vent their natural rivalry ina 
more peaceful, and far more useful direction. The “nation of shop- 
keepers,” as England was contemptuously called, seems to have con- 
verted the Christian world to her own way of thinking, and shop- 
keeping, from being a reproach has come to be the fashion of th 
day. How long this state of things is to last, it is not for us to say; 
let us hope, that in our day at least, the change may go on in the 
same direction, and that the nations of Christendom, having learned 
ihe pleasures of being at peace with each other, may finally extend 
their charity to their more barbarous brethren, and let them also taste 
the pleasures of repose. Let us hope that the spirit of destructiveness 
may be replaced by one of production, and that the time, wealth, and 
energy which have been for so many centuries wasted in making the 
world miserable, may find a more useful employment in the promo- 
tion of the comfort and happiness of mankind. 

But it is not mere weariness of war, or caprice which has effeeted 
this change in the policy of nations; there is a stern necessity at the 
bottom of it, which gives us strong hopes of its lasting character. hh 
older countries the population has been accumulating until the pres- 
sure has come to be severely felt, while at the same time a knowledg: 
of their own importance has been to a greater or less degree spread 
among the people which will prevent their beiug disposed of by the 
unceremonious means formerly in fashion. Under these circumstances 
they must be maintained, and not only must they be maintained, but 
room must be given, if possible, for their inevitable increase. This 
cau only be accomplished by the full development of every brancl 
of productive industry. There is no time, and no spare energy now 
to he wasted in destruction ; the pressing necessity of the case calls 
for labor, in order that every source of national wealth may be called 
ito action, and this labor requires skilful guidance, in order that nove 
of it may be wasted in unproductive directions. In no country ol 
the world is this necessity so urgently felt as in England, and uo- 
where have we yet seen her equal in the great art of producing. The 
products of her manufactures are known over the whole world, and a! 
every hour of the day and night her thousand ships are busied in dis- 
tributing her productions to the uttermost ends of the earth. 

in ourown country this pressure is felt but slightly, or not felt at all: 
but the circumstances connected with our position tend naturally te 

rake us, like the Frglish,a great producing and manufacturing peop 

Address by Prof. Frazer. 19 

The vast extent of our territory and the corresponding varieties of our 
climate give to us facilities of production, which are enjoyed by no 
other single e country. The bleak highlands of our northern regions 
abound in the timber which renders the forests of Norway so valua- 
ble; the grain of England and France covers with its productive crops 
he land of the Middle States; while under the warm sun of our Scuth- 
ern regions, spring into luxuriant growth the cotton plant and the su- 
car cane, the produce of tropical countries. Almost every article of 
importance brought from foreign lands may be successfully cultivated 

some portion of our own country, while we possess others of the 

ghest value which have never yet been successfully introduced else- 

Nor is the mineral less remarkable than the agricultural wealth. 
hole country is One vast repository of mineral treasures, and 
r the very soil which returns an hundred fold to the farmer, the 
lrives his productive galleries and draws new resources from 
wels of the earth. The fossil fuel of England and ber ores of 
on, have been the never-faliing sources of her prosperity; they exist 
in far greater abundance here. ‘The ores of copper and lead, also offer 
i rich harvest to the miner. ‘These are the truly precious metals to 
an enterprising and industrious population, and where they exist, and 
are profited by, the gold and silver of other nations are sure to flow. 
Yet these too, more enticing perhaps, though less valuable, are not de- 
ficient among our rocks. Nor do these valuable resources lie in posi- 
tions which render access to them difficult, or their reduction nuprofit- 
; our mountains are indeed steep, but they are pierced by streams 
‘rendered subservient to transportation ; the vast mineral region 
he West, lies indeed at a great distance from our Atlantic cities. 
‘mighty Father of the Waters and his tributaries, on the on 
nd the great chain of the lakes upon the other, render our ac- 

as quick as it Is Couvenlent and certain. 

wre the peeuliar physical advantages which our country pos- 
for a producing and manufacturing nation, nor is the character 
people such as to render these advantages vain. Their early 
id free habit of thought, the constant ocenpation and unwearying in- 
lustry, which is characteristic of a great portion of them, added to 
he peculiar practical tendency and proverbial ingenuity of their 
minds, adapt them especially to profit by the vast resources which our 
mutry affords. All thing s mental and physical thus combine to turn 
the attention of Americans to the subject of manufactures, and the 
iseful arts generally, and if it be, that with such resources and sucli 
powers the nation still wastes its energies and embarrasses its finances, 
by Importing from abroad that which could more easily be produced 
home; if with such capabilities we receive more than we return, 
ind are kept constantly in the humiliating attitude of debtors to for- 
cig nations, surely every consideration of honor and expediency re- 
lires rn it each citizen should use his utmost endeavors to free his 
V dsc such a destructive policy, by giving his earnest endeav- 

to the promotion of our home manufactures. 

‘Bat j in entering upon this peaceful contest with other nations, we 

ec dels ant ar 

be PS Fat tai 
sole ade ba ob dh 



20 Franklin Instilude. 

cannot hope for more—for a time at least—than to supply our own 
home market. Any thing else is to a great extent forbidden to us by 
the greater cheapness of labor in other countries:—for this, there is bu 
one remedy, the exercise of ingenuity and the substitution of machines 
for hand labor. The introduction of every new machine which is in. 
tended to act as a substitute for human labor, is attended with ay 
outcry and a panic, on account of the number of laborers who are 
thus to be deprived of subsistence; and really in closely packed coup- 
tries this panic is not without its justification to a certain extent, fo 
although sufficient experience has shown that this is not the permanent 
effect, yet it certainly does produce a temporary result of this kind, 
and the difficulty of finding new employment among channels already 
crowded, is productive of much lamentable suffering ; but surely 1 
thing of the Kind ought to be heard here, where all the branclies 0; 
our industry are wanting laborers, and where the best and most c 
tain of all, agriculture, is open as a Jast resort to every one. ‘Ther 
certainly can be no excuse tor any healthy and industrious man star 
V ing among us, and we are therefore in the proper position to car 
the development of machine labor to its highest pitch, and to make 
it a substitute for the greater cheapness of manual labor abroad. 

But this dilliculty in our way brings with it its own very great ad- 
vantages. The very object of the development of productive indus- 
try, as I have already endeavored to show you, is to provide increased 
comforts for the mass of the community; consider it apart from this 
end, and it loses altogether its interest and impertance, and we reced 
in civilization in place of advancing. But the relative comforts wi 
manifestly depend upon the proportion existing between the wages 
of labor and the prices of the necessaries of life—if the first are 
creased without a proportional increment of the other, the couditio 
of the mass is improved, and we see therefore that our mechan 
should stand higher than his brother laborer in mere crowded cou 
tries, Where labor is necessarily cheaper and bread dearer. That this 
is the case, daily experience, in comparing any class of our popula- 
tion with the corresponding emigrants from other countries, 2g orn 
us. We must, therefore, regard the comparative expense of labor, 
though it may to a great extent close foreign markets against certai! 
of our manufactures, as an advantage to us in the attainment of th 
end which we propose to ourselves by developing our domestic it- 

For let me further press it upon your attention, that it is not by 
mere manufacturing that this age is distinguished. This has beet 
done in all ages. ‘The seventh man in descent from Adam was to! 
only an iron and brass founder, but he was “an instructor of every 
artificer in brass and iron.”? The ancient Egyptians were great mau- 
ufacturers ; the descendents of Jacob served them as brick makers. 
but were probably not allowed to participate in the comforts arising 
from the produce of their art. Imagine to yourself the amount ot art 
which must have been required for the furnishing of the houses in the 
great cities of Nineveh, Babylon and Thebes! Nay, more, we know 
that many of their arts had reached great perfection and some of them 

s by 


S iIn- 


Address by Prof. Frazer. 21 

we have been unable to improve. We have nothing to rival the 
solemn magnificence of the Egyptian architecture, or the graceful dig- 
nity of the ‘Greek ; ; or if we have, we must look in the dark ages for 
its creation, and not to our own times. Their statuary, their carvings, 
their embroidery were at Jeast equal to our own, and if their histo- 
rians tell the truth, (a thing not rashly to be assumed,) their dyes ri- 
valed ours in brilliancy and fixedness. Purple and fine linen, silks 
and velvets, are perhaps as old as bread, and probably few of our 
modern monarchs could array themselves like Solomon in all his glory. 
The distinction lies not in the art, but in the purpose to which the art 
was applied—not in manufacturing, but in manufacturing cheaply. 
in entirely different class of people are to be accommodated. They 
pampered the vanity and luxuries of their kings, we minister to the 
necessities of their subjects. ‘The broad forum of Rome glittered with 
its temples adorned with marble and gold, and ornaments more costly 
than gold, while her narrow streets were filled with mud huts in 
which her citizens lay trembling lest the rattling of some patrician’s 
coach should bring down the roof upon their heads. Far less mag- 
nificent are our monuments of wealth and power (indeed, the most 
extensive buildings of which, in this city, we can boast, are a charity 
school and an alms house,) but the comforts of the citizen have in- 
creased in a far greater ratio than those have diminished. 

The whole distinetion, and it is a vital one, lies in the purpose to 
which our manufacturing energy is applied. The wealthy man of 
our times dines upon silver plate not more exquisitely carved than 
that of his ancestor a century ago; he drinks from a goblet of unim- 
proved gold, not more grace fully fashioned than its Grecian or Etrus- 
can model; he wraps himself in the same silks and furs, and sleeps 
neither more warmly nor more softly. But the same comparison will 

not hold true in his kitchen; there the clean white plates would have 
reat a the hearts of Apicius or Lucullus; glass has replaced the 
horn with great advantage to cleanliness and pleasure; his cook nurses 
her rheumatism in flannels of a quality which the whole wealth of 
lis ancestors could not have purchased; the chambermaid sees her 
company in a calico, in presence of whose bright, varied and harmo- 
nizing colors his silks and brocades grow pale. In short, his luxuries 
have for a century remained nearly stationary, while the comforts of 
his dependents have been increased in almost infinite degree. ‘The 
struggle then amongst nations is not who shall manufacture —but who 
shall manufacture most, best and cheapest. It is this last quality, so 
long contemned, which has now become the pass word of the age— 
and a fitting and proper type it is: one to glory in, when we consider 
how much comfort and ease it has brought to the poor and the suf- 

And yet there are those among us, who with sad hearts and heavy 
eves, look upon this as evidence of the deep degeneracy of the age. 
If you believe them, we have attained our progress only by a sacrifice 
of all that is worthy of admiration in human nature. Our veneration 
for the great and the brave, is gone; our love for the good and 
the beautiful has been destroyed. But this is not so—the vene- 


-  rapepeas 


en hearers Open ad i < 

22 Franklin Institute. 

ration for the great and the brave, that homage which has so aptly 
been termed “ Hero worship,” is one of the feelings most deeply im.- 
planted in the human breast; one of the last which can be eradicated 
thence. Our appreciation of the beautiful, and our enthusiasin in its 
pursuit, are just as vivid and as eager as ever. They are the very 
breath of the soul, and are just as indispensable and as invariable, 
We are by birth, Hero-worshippers. But who is our hero? No longer, 
let us hope, the puppet in his robes of velvet and crown of gold; no 
longer the savage, whose sole talent is destruction; no longer the de- 
vastator of kingdoms, the destroyer of cities, the men who “make a 
desert and call it peace.””? Let us hope that this type of the hero has 
passed, or is passing, and that our children may be allowed to study 
it as a historical curiosity. No, the brave man is he who faces great 
difficulties; the hero, he who overcomes them. The very ancients 
knew this as well as we, and selected as the type of their heroes, a 
man, who it does not appear, ever commanded an army, and of whose 
glorious achievements, one of the most remarkable was in the hum- 
ble but very useful office of scavenger. Let us then adhere to the old 
definition—leave gold lace and painted feathers to the sex which they 
become, and look for an hero where difliculties are to be encountered 
and work to be done; and if this be our standard, how will Alexan- 
der compare with Aristotle—Cesar with Archimedes—Marlboroug! 
with Isaac Newton, or Buonaparte with Lavoisier ? 

But even if we turn to the pages of romance, where the imagina 
tion has been at liberty to create at will, both the qualities of the 
hero, and the difficulties to be overcome, even they bear no com- 
parison to our men of might. The old fables tell us of knights 
who redeemed treasures from watchful dragons, and encountered 
most formidable creatures of enchantment in their pursuit of adven- 
tures. The dragons are dead—we dig their bones from the rocks 
and compel them to tell us of their former history. The very last of 
these adversaries inhabits the seas between our coast and England, 
yet suffers the steam ship to sail around and over him unassailed. 
But although no dragons now oppose, and although the enchanter’s 
wand has been long since broken, the very elements themselves have 
to be encountered by our modern heroes in search of treasures and 
glory. The fiery Salamander is indeed extinct; but the essence ol 
the fire, which was his nutriment and his weapon, still steals iusidi- 
ously through our mines and watches its opportunity for destruction; 
the water has collected its forces to forbid us access— the air puts on 
a poisonous and deadly quality to check our advance.—But science 
has taken the enchanter’s place, and obedient to her—air and fire, and 
water and earth are aii compelled to war for us, and thus assisted, our 
triumph is achieved. Are not Davy, who has guarded us against the 
dangers of our explorations, and Watt, who has taught us the means 
of making the elements themselves work for us, are not these he- 
roes to compare with the best of the dragon kiilers ? 

The very rioting of oriental imaginations falls short of the realities 
of modern art. What is there in the wildest pages of the Arabian 
Nights—a book which in this age of manufacturing and demonstra- 

Report on McCarty’s Suspended Lock Gate. 

tion has lost none of its charms—what is there more wild, more unima- 
ginable, more impossible, than our modern locomotive engine, with its 
mile length of loaded cars, rushing over river and valley and through 
the very ‘bowels of the mountain, making its scared echoes reverberate 
with its warning scream! What would have been the glory of Sin- 
bad, most veracious of mariners,could he have told of the vision of 
the storm-defying steam vessel, holding her unwavering course through 
those remote seas, heedless of wind or wave? The orientalist had 
reached the very acme of his conceptions of enchantment in the me- 
chanical way when he described his Persian prince mounted on his 
wooden horse and turning a pin under his ear as the signal for the 
start; but how much more than realized is the conception, when be- 
sides the power of a hundred horses, you have given you an engi- 
neer to turn the pin for you. 

Let us then disregard these sad forebodings and press forward in 
the career which is opened to us, fully satisfied in our minds that there 
isno more fitting occupation for courage and perseverance thau in seek- 
ing to benefit mankind—nothing more beautiful than a community 
made happy by well directed labor. 


Report on McCarty’s Suspended Lock Gate. 

[he Committee on Science and the Arts, constituted by the Franklin Institute of 
the State of Pennsylvania, for the promotion of the Mechanic Arts, to whom 
was referred the Suspended Lock Gate patented by Henry McCarry, of Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania, Reeorr :— 

That they have examined a model of a lock gate,suspended on Mr. 
McCarty’s plan, which has been for some time in successful use upon 
the Monongahel: 1 navigation. 

The gate is of the ustial form, but is without a balance beam at the 
top, or friction roller at the bottom. Instead of these common con- 
trivances for diminishing the strain on the collar at the head of the 
uoin post, the principal part of the weight of the outer end of the 
gate is sustained by two iron rods bolted to the mitre post, at about 
half its height, and running obliquely upwards to an iron collar fixed 
above the centre of the quoin post, and about three feet higher than 
the top of the coping. ‘This collar rests upon a bolster of timber 
resting on the coping, and the strain of the suspension rods is coun- 
teracted by four radiating rods, about six feet in length, bolted to the 
coping. Kach of the rods may be tightened when necessary by a 
screw and swivel. 

A gate properly hung on this plan will revolve with very little fric- 
tion if it has a good socket and pivot at the foot of the quoin post. 

Mr. McCarty opens and closes his gate by means of a horizontal 
ever, the two arms of which in connexion with the upper gate-bar 
form a triangle. The outer end of this lever is supported by a roller 
traversing on a curved track let into the coping, and the motion is 
given by two chains worked by a capstan on the lock wall. 

. EQ ON mers ape ree 


— a aa 
ae a i al 

> + 

24 Franklin Institute. 

The whole arrangement is simple and effective, and all its parts are 
readily accessible. It appears to be well adapted to very large lock 
gates, and it is highly recommended by the officers of the Mononga- 
hela Navigation Company. 

Since the foregoing report was written, the Committee have been 
informed that the lock gates upon the Monongahela, suspended upon 
the plan of Mr. McCarty, are now opened and closed by means of a 
single spar, instead of the triangular lever represented in the model, 
and that large steamboats are passed through locks 200 by 50 feet in 
the chamber, and of 8 feet lift, with a delay of not exceeding six 

By order of the Committee, 
Wa. Hamirron, Actuary. 

Philadelphia, December 11, 1845. 

Loper’s Propellers and Hunter’s Submerged Wheels. 

The Committee on Science and the Arts, constituted by the Franklin Institute o! 
the State of Pennsylvania, for the promotion of the Mechanic Arts, to whon 
was referred an application from the Hon. Rosert J. Wacker, Secretary of th: 
Treasury, for their opinion as to the relative merits of Loper’s Propellers an 
Hunter’s Submerged Wheels, present the following Rerorr:— 

To comprehend the construction and action of Hunter’s Submerged 
Wheel, we have only to imagine an ordinary paddle-wheel, moving 
at the side of a boat round a vertical instead of a horizontal axis, with 
the paddles attached to a water-tight and empty cylindrical drum, and 
the whole immersed below the surface of the water. If placed en- 
tirely in the open water, it is evident that the revolution of a pair of 
such wheels would produce no motion in the vessels, since any two 
opposite paddles must exactly counteract each other. That the boat 
may be propelled at all, therefore, it is necessary that the greater par! 
of the paddles be made to revolve in dead water, by surrounding them 
with a casing of wood or irou. A very few—three or four—of th 
outside paddies are thus rendered eflicient in the propulsion of the 
vessel, while all the force required to move the others through the 
water is wasted. This propeller, therefore, differs, in its action, from 
the ordinary side wheels of steamboats, only in the circumstance that, 
in the latter, the inefficient paddles move through the air, a medium 
presenting slight resistance,—while, in the former, the ineflicient pad- 
dles move through water, a medium of great resistance. It is per- 
tectly manifest then, that the latter must require a vastly greater power 
than the former to produce the same effect. 

The Loper Propeller is one of the many varieties of the screw pro- 
peller,—an arrangement which, in some of its forms, has been long 
since devised and employed for driving vessels through the water, and 
which possesses the advantage, so important in many cases, and espe- 
cially in war vessels, of being submerged under the water. As a 
comparison of the Loper propeller with others of the same class, is 


Loper’s Propellers and Hunter’s Submerged Wheels. 25 

not asked of the committee, it is not deemed necessary to describe its 
peculiarities in this report. 

For a simple and perfectly satisfactory comparison of the relative 
merits of the two propellers in question, the best test is that which 
would be offered by their respective operations if attached to the same 
vessel, and set in action by the same engine. Such a comparison is 
fortunately presented by a series of experiments made with the U. 
S, steamer Spencer, the details of which are given in the printed re- 
ports of Capt. Alexander V. Fraser’ As the vessel and engine were 
the same in both cases, it is not necessary that they be described; 
since, for a mere comparison, it is the variable quantities only that 
need enter into the computation. 

Steamer Spencer with Hunter’s Propellers.—Iin a trial made in 

New York bay, in September, 1844, with Hunter’s submerged wheels 
ittached to this vessel, it appears, from Capt. Fraser’s report, that she 
moved through the water with a speed of 6-5 miles an hour. 
' Now the work accomplished, in the propulsion of a vessel, for a 
ziven time, is proportional to the resistance offered by the water, and 
io the distance passed over. But the first of these is known to be, in 
such cases as the present, sensibly as the square of the velocity, 
and the second is evidently as the velocity itself. Therefore, the 
whole work done is proportional to the product of these two, or to the 
cube of the velocity. Consequently, in the present case, this is as the 
cube of 6-5, or 274-6. 

The power exerted by the engine in doing this work is proportional 
to the effective pressure of the steam, and to the number of strokes of 
ihe piston in a given time, or it is proportional to the preduct of these 
two variable quantities. 

Now, in the example in question, the pressure of the steam (as in- 
dicated by the safety-valve, and therefore to be increased by one at- 
mosphere) is reported to have varied from 75 to 80, or to have ave- 
raged 77:5 lbs. to the square inch; and the steam was cut off at one- 
third of the stroke of the piston. From these data, the mean pressure 
in the cylinder is estimated at 64-54, and the effective pressure, after 
deductions for friction, according to the formula of Pambour, at 41-86. 

The number of revolutions of the engine (or of double strokes of 
ihe piston) is reported to have been from 53 to 54, or to have averaged 

3S per minute. 

The effective power of the engine (or rather of the engines, for there 
were two) was therefore proportional to 53-5 x 41-86, or to 2239. 

Steamer Spencer with Loper’s Propellers.—In May, 1845, Loper’s 
propellers were substituted in the Spencer for Hunter’s wheels, (the 
engines being the same and in the same condition,) and experimental 
trips were made, on the Delaware, and were witnessed by the Com- 
mittee of the Institute. For the required comparison, the trip made 
on the 23rd of May, from New Castle to the Delaware Breakwater 
is selected. 

On this occasion the mean velocity attained was 9-38 miles an hour, 
and consequently the labor performed is proportional to the cube of 
this number, or to 825-3. 

Vou. XI, 3am Sertes.—No. 1.—Janvary, 1846. 3 


Rie om ° 


oer hin 


cn re © 

“ee oS 
Tig Bae ars her? “eS 

26 American Patents. 

The average pressure of the steam was 49-09, (or more properly, 
by adding the atmospheric pressure, 49-09 + 14-70 = 63-79) and it was 
cut off at the half stroke. From these data, the mean pressure in the 
cylinder is estimated at 54-03, and the effective pressure, after deduct- 
ing friction, at 32-85. 

The mean number of revolutions of the engine was 44-45 per 

The effective power of the engine was therefore proportional to 
44°45 x 32°85, or to 1460. 

Comparison of the Results.—From these results we find that the 
power exerted by the engine with Hunter’s wheels, was to that with 
Loper’s propellers, as 2239 to 1460, or as 1 to 0-652; while the work 
done by the wheels was to that done by the propellers as 2746 to 
825°3, or as 1 to 3-005. 

Hence it appears that Loper’s propeller does 3-005 times more work 
than Hunter’s wheel, with 0-652 of the power; and therefore, with the 

3005 z 
same power, would be == 4-6 | four and six-tenths times more 

This is a very remarkable result; but it is one which should have 
been anticipated from the evident waste of power inseparable from 
the use of the Hunter wheels, and it shows that their further employ- 
ment ought to be abandoned. 

A change from the Hunter to the Loper propeller was also made 
in the U. S. steamer Water Witch, and opportunities of witnessing 
her performance with the latter propeller were presented to the Com- 
mittee, and full notes of the results have been preserved. But unfor- 
tunately, although this report has been long delayed for the purpose, 
satisfactory information has not yet been procured as to the perform- 
ances with the submerged wheel, the essential element of the speed 
attained being so uncertain that it cannot be made use of for calcula- 
tion. Further efforts have been made to procure the necessary data 
jor a just comparison of the two propellers in this case, and if they 
shall be successful, it will be in the power of the Committee to make 
an important addition to this report. 

By order of the Committee, 
Witiram Hamitroy, Actuary. 

Philadelphia, December 15, 1845. 


List of American Patents which issued in the month of March, 
1845, with Remarks and Exemplifications. By Cuaruxrs M. Ket- 
Ler, late Chief Examiner of Patents in the U. 8S. Patent Office. 

1. For a machine for Polishing flat plates or tubles of marble ; Jaco) 
Ziegler, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 12. 

The plates of marble, &c., to be polished, are placed, face upwards, 

American Patents which issuedin March, 1845. 27 

on the top of a carriage which carries them slowly under the rubber, 
which is a flat plate of wood or other material, covered with the pol- 
ishing substance. This rubber receives a moveinent from two cranks 
or cog wheels, attached to the lower ends of parallel vertical shafts, 
gei red together and driven by an intermediate cog wheel on the dri- 
ving shaft. These shafts are hung in a sliding cross head suspended 
by levers, &c., to regulate the pressure of the rubber. 

‘Claim.—“I do hereby declare that I do not claim as new either of 
the individual parts of said machine, but limit my claim to the com- 
bination of said individual parts, as above made known; said parts 
consisting of the reciprocating polisher, combined with the crank 
wheels, with the driving wheel, and with the sliding head and regu- 
ating rods and levers, so as, by said combination, to constitute a ma- 
chine substantially the same with that herein described and repre- 

. Fora Mill for grinding and cutting Corn and Fodder; Jacob 

"hae ', Union Town, Carrol county, Maryland, March 12 

The following claim explains fully the nature of this improvement. 

Claim.—* What I claim as new therein and desire to secure by let- 
ters patent, is the arrangement of the knives upon the wheel, and the 
openings under the same, (for allowing the substances acted on by 
the knives to pass through the same) in connexion with the crushing 
or grinding surface of the opposite side of the said wheel, and the 
combination of the cutting and grinding wheel with the stationary 
wheel and the semi-circle, as herein represented and described. The 
peculiarity of my machine consists in the cutting knives being placed 
upon one side of a wheel, and the grinding projections, or teeth, upon 
the other side of the same ; the substances, as they are acted on by the 
knives, passing through the cutting and grinding wheel (through the 
openings under the knives) and being ground on the other side of the 
same, as herein described.”’ 

. For an improvement in Stoves ; John T. Davy, Troy, Rensselaer 

county, New York, March 12. 

The bottom plate of the fire chamber does not run back quite to the 
back plate, and in the space between them there is a hinged plate, to 
close the aperture and open it for the discharge of the ashes from the 
fire chamber into the ash pan. 

Claim.—* What I claim is the turning plate, in combination with 
the grate of the fire chamber, tor the purpose of conducting the ashes 
irom the fire chamber above under the grate.”’ 

1. For an improvement in the mode of Mounting the Strings of 
Piano Fortes, to facilitate tuning ; Louis Rueckert, Baltimore, 
Maryland, March 12. 

Claim.—* What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by 
etters patent, is the fastening of the string to the shorter arm of an 
elbow lever, (or any other lever or levers ‘the same in principle,) the 

Med Ee : 


SON A TIS RET in® TL ghee s 1" tae! Fie epi ge 


28 American Patents. 

extremity of the longer arm of which being furnished with a perfora- 
tion or slot, through which a thumb or key-screw passes, the lowe; 
extremity of which passes again through a plate inserted in the tuning 
block, by which means the instrument may be tuned in a very simple, 
easy, and expeditious manner, by any professor or amateur of music, 
without the aid of a professional tuner; the whole of which improve- 
ment being constructed and operated substantially as herein above set 

5. For an improvement in the Mil/ Pick for Dressing Mill Stones; 

lonia, Ionia county, Michigan, March 12. 

The bit, or pick, is a separate thin plate of steel, placed between two 
jaws, one of which is wedge formed, to gripe the point by driving in: 
the bit being let into the wedge-formed jaw, the head resting agaiust 
a shoulder, so that as the bit wears away pieces of iron can be putin 
between this shoulder and the upper end of the bit, to give the re- 
quisite projection to the cutting edge. 

We omit the claim, as it refers throughout to the drawings. 

6. For an improvement in the Brick Press; John Waite, Leicester, 

Worcester county, Massachusetts, March 12. 

Claim.—“I claim the manner in which I arrange the parts of my 
brick machine which form or compress the brick and afterwards dis- 
charge it from the mould ; that is to say, the arranging and operating 
them so that while one brick is being compressed in one compartment 
of the mould by the compressing pistons, the discharging piston shal 
be performing its office of expelling from the mould the brick which 
had next previously been formed; the mould being progressively 
moved forward at regular intervals of time, so as to present that com- 
partment of it in which the brick has been compressed to the action 
of the discharging piston, where the compressing pistons next enter 
the preceding apartment, to effect the formation of a brick therein.” 

7. For an improvement in the Rotary Steam Engine ; James Black, 

Williamsport, Lycoming county, Pennsylvania, March 12. 

The patentee says,—“ My rotary steam engine is of that kind which 
is usually denominated a re-action engine, as it is made to discharge 
the steam which is admitted into it from the ends of two or more 
arms, the discharge orifices at the outer ends of which are in the di- 
rection of a tangent to the circle in which they rotate, being in this 
respect similar to the well-known Avery’s rotary engine, aud others 
operating on the same general principle ; I have, however, ascertained 
experimentally, that the power of such an engine may be considera- 
bly increased by admitting water into the steam arms, just behind 
the point at which the discharge of steam takes place; such water 
entering said arms in the direction of the radii of the circle of rotation, 
and consequently at right angles, or nearly at right angles to the cur- 
rent of effluent steam. To effect this, 1 place the axis of my rotary 
engine vertically, and extend the arms for the passage of steam hori- 

American Patents which issued in March, 1845. 29 

zontally, curving them at their outer ends so that their steam issues 
shall stand in the direction above indicated. Steam is to be admitted 
into the revolving axis at its lower end, and is to flow thence through 
the steam arms. ‘The steam arms are to revolve within a circular 
case, or drum, standing horizontally, and there is a depression towards 
the centre part of this drum which is to constitute a reservoir of wa- 
ter, or other fluid, from which the current is to be supplied that is to 
pass into each of the steam arms, and into which it is to return after 
it has performed its oflice. To carry this water or other fluid to its 
destined point, | use a second series of tubes, the outer ends of which 
enter the steam arms as above stated, whilst their inner ends are beut 
down so as to dip into the above named reservoir; the result of this 
arrangement is that each of the water tubes operates, when the steam 
arms are set in motion, as a centrifugal pump, raising a portion of 
water from the reservoir, and delivering it into its appropriate steam 

Claim. —* What I claim therein as new and desire to seeure by 
letters patent, is the combining with each of the steam arms a tube, 
one end of which shall dip into a reservoir, which is to contain a por- 
tion of water or other fluid, which fluid, in its heated state, is to be 
carried into the steam tube by the centrifugal action of the engine, 
aud is to enter said steam tube, near the orifice for the emission of 
steam, and at mght angles, or nearly so, to the course of the effluent 
steam; said water, or other finid being allowed to flow back into the 
reservoir, so that it may be continuously used for the purpose and 
in the manner herein set forth. 

“I do not claim the introduction of a jet of cold water into the re- 
volving arms for the purpose of condensing the steam, as was propo- 
sed in a rotary engine known as Sadler’s: the water or other fluid 
used by me being, as hereinbefore stated, employee in its heated 
state, and for a purpose altogether different from that of condensa- 

8. For improvements in Machinery for making and tinning Lead 
Pipes ; Robert W. Lowber, assignee of H. M. Ward, S. L. Selden 
& E. Y. Kneeland, Rochester, Monroe county, N. York, March 12. 
This is for tinning lead pipes, (which are formed in a die and 

around a mandrel) by introducing the melted tin through the mandrel, 

or core, which is hollow and provided with apertures for the discharge 
of the tin inside the pipe. 

Claim.—* What we claim therein as our invention and desire to 
secure by letters patent, is the method herein described of tinning the 
inside of lead pipes in the course of manufacture, by passiug the melted 
tin down into the mandrel and out atthe side thereof, as above made 
known, whether applied to this machine or any other substantially 
as described.”’ 

9. For improvements in Machinery for making rivets, screw blanks, 
&c.; Horatio G. Reed, Scituate, Plymouth county, Massachusetts, 
March 12. ; 



ae) a fo pT ee Py Be, ey anf An kyapiers ag? ote 
” . ‘s : 7 


Fie * 


30 American Patents. 

Without drawings it would be useless to undertake the description 
of these improvements within the limits of an explanatory notice. 
The first improvement is for regulating the feeding in of the wire, by 
the combination of a spring bar or lever with a rest plate, through 
which the wire passes. And the second improvement consists in 
“arranging within the movable cutter, the forcing mechanism, or 
movable piston, &c. connected with it, which forms the head, and so 
connected with the lever that operates it as to admit of adjustment.” 

10. For an improvement in Stoves for warming parlors,and for other 
purposes; John Morrison, Newark, Essex county, New Jersey, 
March 12, 

The nature of this improvement “consists in taking the air from 
near the ceiling of rooms, for supplying air to the fire, aud thus inei- 
dentally ventilating the apartment. For this purpose there is a_ pip: 
which extends up from the ash pan to within a short distance of the 
ceiling, Where it is made bell mouthed for the free admission of arr. 
This pipe is surrounded by an outer jacket. which communicates with 
the chimney, the fire chamber, and with the case surrounding the fire 
chamber of the stove, by separate pipes governed by dampers for re- 
gulating the draught, heat, &c. 

Claim.—“ What I claim therein as new and desire to secure by let- 
lers patent, is the combination of a pipe or tube, constructed and ar- 
ranged substantially in the manner set forth, with a stove or fire 
chamber, as above described, for ventilating the room and supplying 
air at a high temperature. 

I also claim, in combination with the above, the radiator or column, 
the outer case surrounding the stove, and the eduction or hot-air pipes. 
constructed and arranged in the manner and for the purposes herein 

11. For improvements in Railroads ; John Elgar, Brookville, Mont- 
gomery county, Maryland, March 12. 

Claim.—* What I desire to secure by letters patent, is the use o! 
the continuous strip of wood, or other elastic substance, combined 
with the under rails, as described herein, and with the wrought o! 
cast iron top rails of the plate or bridge, or any other form, substan- 
tially in the manner set forth. 

I also claim the manner of connecting and holding together the 
upper and under rails of iron, as herein described, so as to make the 
under rail serve as a chair, throughout its whole length, to the top 
rail, the latter being imbedded in a channel in the former; or, as in 
the other described plan, where the top rail is grooved on the unde! 
side, and rests on the under rail as a saddle, thereby giving strengt! 
and stability to the joints of both the upper and under rails. 

I claim the use of cast iron top rails, when in connexion with iron 
under rails. 

The under rail is made in manner similar to the T rail, excep 
that the top is grooved out to receive a flat rail and a continuous 
strip of wood between them.’’ 

American Patents which issued in March, 1845. 31 

12. For an improvement in regulating the delivery and tension of 
Warps in the manufacture of Brussels carpets, &c.; Erastus 13. 
Bigelow, Boston, Massachusetts, March 12. 

There is a weighted lever which makes friction on the arber of 
each bobbin, to prevent the free turning of the bobbin and the deliv- 
ery of the warps, which pass over two wires and have a weight sus- 
pended to them between these wires, for the purpose of keeping upa 
sufficient tension on the warps. When this weight is drawn up by 
the taking up of the warps it lifts the weighted lever, which liberates 
the bobbin to give out the yarn. 

Claim.—« What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by 
letters patent, is the combination of the weight and catch with the 
bobbin, or spool, constructed and arranged in the manner and for the 
purpose substantially as herein set forth, so that when the weight is 
drawn up, it will relieve the catch and allow the spool to unwind, 
and the weight to fall.’’ 

13. For an improved mode of altaching sluger handles; D. C. Stove, 
Wawarsing, Ulster county, New York, March 12. 
The accompanying sketch illustrates this improvement. 

i, YOY y 
\ 1% | \ 
\ \ 


Claim —“I do not claim to have invented an auger bit ora handle. 
nor do Lelaim any of the parts employed herein, taken separately 
from the uses to which I have herein applied them. But I do claim 
as new, and of my own invention, and desire to secure by letters 
patent, the application of the tapered tong ¢c, with two countersunk 
sides forming diagonal lips to overlie two edges of a corresponding 
mortise in the centre cylinder e, in combination with the sliding collar 
d, driven on by either half handle 4, when screwed up, so as to place 
and hold the lips to the tang over the edges of the mortise, and there- 
by hold the auger bit securely in the handle, at the same time fa- 
cilitating the separation and aeaiee of the parts, the whole con- 
structed and operating substantially as herein described.”’ 

For improvements in the Machine for Turning ; James D. Wil- 
loughby, Gettysburg, Adams county, Pennsylvania, March 15. 
This machine is for turning hubs, and other similar articles, rtd 

means of rotating cutters which act on the wood affixed to a slow 

turning mandrel, to rough shape it, the smoothing being effected hy 
a permanent smoothing iron of the form of the article intended to be 
turned. The manner of arranging the rotating cutters is fully ex- 


a Mme 


te BORA. ea ars ae) 5 yay a” oan: Pree SOR 
. > *£ : + . 

32 American Patents. 

pressed in the claim. The carriage which carries the mandrel, &e. js 
made to advance slowly towards the rotating cutters by means of a 
screw and vice, or jaw-nut, embracing it, and made in two parts, 
to throw it in and out of gear; and for the purpose of adjustment, this 
nut or vice is regulated by a separate screw. 

“ Claim.—* What | claim as my invention and desire to secure by 
letters patent, is constructing the cylinder of cutters with parallel bars 
and spirally arranged cutters, made adjustable with screws and nuts, 
in the manner and for the purpose described. ‘ 

“1 also claim the arrangement of the smoother in combination with, 
the rotating cutters. 

“] likewise claim the manner of adjusting the vice or nut for throw- 
ing the carriage in and out of gear with the screw, by meaus of thy 
slide and screw.’ 

15. For an improvement in the Machine for Hulling and Rusking 
Cotton Seed; Jabez Smith, Petersburg, Dinwiddie couuty, Virginia, 
March 15. 

This is for an improvement in the machine patented on the 21st o! 
January, 1829, by Francis Follett, and noticed in this Journal, vol. ii, 
2nd series, page 260, to which the reader is referred for a description. 
As the cotton seed is delivered from the huller, it is carried down an 
inclined riddle; and is there acted upon by a rotating beater, consisting 
of round pins projecting from a shaft, which teeth pass through the 
teeth of a rack above. “This beater intercepts all the clotted lumps 
as they pass along the upper riddle, beating them back with a force 
which completely separates them ; and should any adhere to the beat- 
ers they are immediately removed therefrom by the rack. The shati 
of the beaters is carried by a pulley and band in the ordinary way. 
and by the same motive power that carries the cylinder.’” 

Claim.—* Having thus fully described the nature of my improve- 
ment in the machine for hulling cotton seed, I do hereby declare that 
I do not claim the double beater, or the rack, as being new in them- 
selves, but what I do claim as new and desire to secure by letters 
patent, is the combining of such a beater and rack with the cylinder, 
concave and riddle, constituting the main operating parts of the above 
named machine for hulling cotton seed ; by which combination, said 
machine is essentially improved and economy greatly promoted.” 

16. For an improved O7/ Can, for oiling the rubbing parts of ma 

chinery ; Eliphalet S. Scripture, New York, March 15. 

This can is in the form of a funnel, with the spout so small as just 
to permit the oil to drip out, and the bell mouth is closed up air-tight, 
by a disk of flexible metal, which is kept out by the tension of a helica 
spring within, so that when this disk is forced out as far as the flexi- 
bility of the metal will permit, the capacity of the can has its fullest 
extent, and being filled with oil, a slight pressure on the disk tending 
to force it in will reduce the capacity of the chamber and force the o1! 
out of the small aperture in the spout, the discharge being immedi- 

American Patents which issued in March, 1845. 33 

ately arrested by removing the pressure from the disk. It should be 
provided with a spout and stopper for introducing the oil. 

Claim.—* What I claim in the above described instrument and de- 
sire to secure by letters patent, is the combination of the spring with 
the oil can, or syringe, substantially in the manner and for the pur- 
pose above described.” 

17, For an improvement in the Horse Power for driving machinery ; 

John Haw, Hanover, Virginia, March 15. 

The horses are applied within the rim of the wheel, and for the 
purpose of getting them in and out, the spindle on which the wheel 
turns is hinged at the bottom to the platform or frame, so that the 
whole wheel can be canted. Motion is communicated from the wheel 
to the machinery to be driven by the rim of the wheel, which is a flat 
plate of metal that runs between two small wheels, one above and the 
other below, and so arranged as to gripe the rim, the shafts of these 
two wheels being geared together. 

Claim.—* What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by 
letters patent, is hanging the spindle on which the horse wheel turns 
to journals or trunnions, to admit of canting the wheel for admitting 
the horses, &c., within the rim, as herein described, or in any other 
substantially similar. | also claim applying the circular metallic rim 
as a propelling power, in combination with two rollers placed on 
axles which are connected by two cogged wheels geared into each 
other, thus combining the adhesion which is acquired on both sides of 
the rim, as described.” 

18. For improvements in Looms for weaving fabrics ; James Nield, 

Taunton, Massachusetts, March 15. 

We are under the necessity of omitting the claims, as they refer to 
and are wholly dependent upon the drawings, which are too nume- 
rous and complex to admit of insertion here. 

The first claim is limited to the arrangement of parts constituting 
the take up motion, in combination with the machinery for arresting 
the progress of the loom where a filling thread breaks; the second is 
limited to the mode of operating the revolving shuttle-box, or turning 
the same around at suitable intervals of time, by means of a vertical 
cogged wheel with pins, extending from its sides, in combination with 
dogs of a circular notched plate, and with a pinion on the revolving 
shuttle-box ; and the last covers the employment and use of circular 
notched plates in combination with the connected pawls and dogs, 
Whether they actuate the shuttle-box by the mechanism which inter- 
venes between the said plates, with their appendages and the said 
shuttle-box, or by any other which may be adapted thereto. 

i9. For an improvement inthe Weaving Loom; James Nield, Taun- 
ton, Massachusetts, March 15. 
Claim.-——“ I elaim the take up motion and machinery for arresting 
the progress of the loom when a filling thread breaks, the same con- 

© tat 28)! 


. “es aes 

a ee ee 


dicen as La pe ere ames Se as Ptah, 


34 American Patents. 

sisting of a series of looped strings or similar contrivances fixed to the 
breast beam, and arranged in other respects as described, the moving 
or hinged frame and other mechanism intervening between the said 
frame and the usual hand lever and shaft of the ratchet wheel, or 
connecting the same together; that is to say, I claim the combination 
of the said mechanism for the object and purposes specified.’’ The 
series of looped strings pass between the bars of a frame hinged to 
the lay, and so connected with the take up motion and the shipper 
for arresting the motion of the loom, that when the filling thread js 
thrown between the loops of the strings and the hinged frame, this, 
the frame, is forced back at each beat of the lay by the filling thread, 
and gives the appropriate movement to the take up; but when the 
filling thread fails, then this frame is not thrown back, and then th 
shipper is shifted and the loom arrested. 

20. For an improved mode of making Hydraulic paint ; Thomas G. 

Warren, Troy, Rensselaer county, New York, March 15. 

The patentee says,—* This paint is composed of ‘hydraulic cement, 
(sometimes called ¢ water lime’) made fine by grinding, and ‘linseed 
oil’ to be mixed in such proportions as to make a paint of ordinary 

“ The use to which this paint can be applied is general. It can be 
applied to houses of either brick or wood, and also to cloth roof to 
houses, or other purposes. I have a cloth roof to my house painted 
with this new paint, and it is perfectly tight. The cost of such a rool 
is considerably less than that of ordinary roofs. 

«The same materials, but with a less proportion of the oil, make an 
excellent water-tight putty.” 

Claim.—“ What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by 
letters patent, is the method of making said paint by the composition 
of the substances mentioned, in the manner above described ; the sam: 
to be made of different degrees of thickness, so as to be used either as 
a paint, or as a putty.”’ 

21. For improvements in Machinery for Dicing and Polishing Mo- 
rocco Leather ; Rufus and Henry Brackett, Boston, Massachusetts, 
March 15. 

The nature of this improvement consists in arranging upon one 
wheel a series of smoothing or polishing balls, and another of dicing 
tools, each of the said polishing balls being followed and preceded by 
a dicing tool. The dicing and polishing tools are connected with the 
wheel by sliding rods surrounded by helical springs to force them out, 
and regulating nuts to adjust the distance to which they are to be 
forced out. And for the purpose of sharpening the dicing tools, a 
cutter is properly affixed, by a set screw, &c., to the edge of the curved 
table which receives the leather. 

Claim.—“ We do not claim a wheel having a series of dicing tools 
alone applied to it, as heretofore made, or one having a series of pol- 
ishing tools alone; but that which we do claim, is the arranging of a 

American Patents which issued in Murch, 1845. 35 

series of dicers and one of polishers upon one wheel, so as to be ope- 
rated with respect to each other, substantially as described. And fur- 
thermore, we do not claim the use of a tool for cutting or repairing 
the dicing tools, but that which we do claim is, the arranging or ap- 
plying such a tool upon the top of the curved table, in such manner 
as to admit of its being readily forced forward against the dicers, at 
any time whienever necessary for the purpose of cutting them, as 
herein before described.”’ 

22, For improvements in Presses ; Joseph Saxton, Washington, Dis- 

trict of Columbia, March 2 

The patentee says,—“ My invention and improvements consist, first, 
in the use of a flexible or elastic platen, instead of a rigid or inflexible 
plate of metal as a platen. Secondly, in the application of pressure 
to such flexible or elastic platen by means of a liquid, or aeriferous 
fluid; and thirdly, in the arrangement of machinery in printing presses, 
copying presses, and lithographic, and zincographic presses, for the 
purpose of applying such pressure to such flexible or elastic platen. 

“The object and effect of using a flexible or elastic platen with the 
pressure by means of a liquid or aeriferous fluid is, that the platen is 
equally pressed or acted upon over its whole surface, and which may 
therefore be employed in any position, to press upwards, downwards, 
or sideways. 

“The said flexible or elastic platen is to be of the necessary size for 
the press in which it is to be used, as in the case of the ordinary platen, 
and is to be a thin plate of brass or other suitable metal, varying in 
thickness from that of a sheet of foolscap paper to about half an inch, 
weording to the dimensions of the platen, and of the vacant spaces 
between the columns or pages of types or figures, technically in print- 
ing called ‘the white.’ 

Claim.—*I do not mean or intend hereby to claim as my improve- 
ments or invention any of the parts of the machine or machines, 
presses, or letter-copying machine herein delineated or described, nor 
do I intend or mean to limit myself to the employment of any particu- 
ar material or materials in the construction thereof, but to use any 
which are fit and proper for the purpose intended. But I do hereby 
claim the use and application of a flexible or elastic platen, in the 
manner herein described, the application of pressure thereto in print- 
ing presses, copying presses, lithographic presses, and zincographic 
presses, by means of a liquid or aeriferous fluid, in the manner also 
herein described, and the arrangement of the machinery or parts of 
the said presses, as herein described, for the purpose of applying such 

pressute of a liquid or aeriferous fluid to such flexible or elastic 
platen. *’ 

23. Foran improvement in Reaction Water Wheels ; Chadiah Ay|s- 
worth, Bainbridge, Chenango county, New York, March 21. 
The claim is limited to the construction of the buckets, but as the 
peculiarity of form could not be made clear without drawings, we do 

REE Oe TI hg 
ccna at ae teen bah eee lb 
: i _* cia BS t 

36 American Patents. 

not deem the modification claimed to be sufficiently important to au- 
thorize the publication of them. 

24. For improvements in the Safety Valve for preventing Steam 
Boilers from bursting or collapsing; Abraham Patterson, Rush, 
Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania, March 21. 

Claim.—“ What I claim, is the employment of the apparatus termed 
the working column, in combination with the uplifting valve and float, 
as herein described, ‘whereby the pressure of steam on the working 
column is added to the pressure on the safety or uplifting valve, for the 
purpose of opening it when the water descends below a given point, 
and which, at the proper height of the water, permits the free action 
of the uplifting valve, as herein described. 

“TI also claim the employment of a pendulum, so situated, or so 
suspended, that by the rocking, tilting, or careening of the boiler or 
boat upon which such pendulum shall be employed, the said pendu- 
lum shall so attach itself to, or so suspend itself upon a tackle, lever, 
or pivot, as thereby to apply its weight as a moving power to the 
opening of a safety valve or valves for steam boilers, as lierein de- 

25. For an improvement in the method of fastening the cullers or 
irons in the planing and ‘cutting heads of machines for planing, 
and tongueing and grooving boards; Benj. Bicknell, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, March 21. 

Claim.—*“ Having thus fully described the nature of my planing 
machine, and shown the construction and operation of the respective 
parts thereof, what I claim therein as new and desire to secure by 
letters patent, is the particular manner in which I form or arrange the 
parts concerned in fastening the cutters or irons in the planing wheel, 
under that form or modification of it which is last described in th 
foregoing specification ; these parts consisting of the strip of metal 
inserted in the arms, and of the screws, with the tapering points, ar- 
ranged and operating as set forth, and also the analogous arrangement 
of the screws and wedge pieces for fastening the cutters of the tongue- 
ing, grooving, and jointing heads; the respective irons or cutters of 
these heads being formed, arranged and combined in the manner 
above described.” 

26. For an improvement in Railread Trucks; Fowler M. Ray, New 

York, March 21. 

The patentee says,—“ The nature of my invention consists in sub- 
stituting a single cross beam of timber, having end bearers of meta! 
for the connecting bars of the axles, furnished with a single spring, 
and having a pedestal connecting the bearer, spring and cross beam 
together at each side of the truck in such manner as to give to the 
whole frame work or superstructure of the truck a yielding capacity, 
instead of the usual method of a stiff frame work, and short, unyield- 
ing springs, two at each side, as heretofore most commonly constructed. 
By which yielding quality, I effect several desirable objects. 

American Patents which issued in March, 1845. 

ist, The capability of elevating either of the wheels of the truck to 
a considerable height without affecting the position of the remaining 
wheels upon the track, and by which obstructions are passed with 
greater safety. 2nd, I give to each axle, independent of the other, a 
facility to vibrate laterally without changing their parallel position 
to each other, and by which, short curves are made easy. 3rd. Its 
vielding and elastic quality, rendering vertical and lateral concussions 
less severe than in the ordinary (rigid frame) truck.’’ 

Claim.—* What I claim as new and desire to secure by letters pat- 
ent, IS 

« First, The above described cross beam, combined with the pedes- 
tals, the springs, the connecting bars, and the howsings, substantially 
is described; by which a yielding capacity is given to the superstruc- 
iure or frame part of the truck, allowing a wheel to rise over an ob- 
stacle upon the track without affecting the condition of the remaining 

Secondly, The formation of the journal boxes, by which the axles 
fthe truck may vibrate laterally, the one independent of the other, 
io accommodate their position upon the track, (and so making curves 
easy) Which, combined with the other yielding qualities of the truck, 
actiig together produce a semi-universal joint effect.”’ 

27. For an improvement in Windows and Sashes ; C. J. Schirer and 

Thaddeus W. Cross, Boston, Massachusetts, March 21. 

The patentees say,—** Our improvement is in the ordinary sliding 
double sash window, and consists ta arranging each sash in a frame, 
so as fo turn on its centre or vertical axis, while the frames slide in 
the grooves of the boxing in the ordinary way. This improvement 
therefore combines all the advantages which belong either to the or- 
dinary sash, or the ¢ French’ window, while it avoids the evils which 
resuit from the use of either.’’ 

Claim.—* What we claim as our invention and desire to have se 
cured to us by letters patent, is the arranging of the upper and lower 
turning sashes ofa window in sliding frames, substantially in the 
manner herein before described, so that they may be turned on their 
centres, or axes, for the purposes stated; the space at the top of ine 
hoxing being formed to allow the frames, &c. to be pushed up as 
herein before described, in order to effect the aforenamed turning of 
the sashes; the whole arrangement and operation being substantiaily 
as herein before set forth.’’ 

28. For a machine for Siuging Horse Collars; Thomas Wiles, Somer- 

set, Perry county. Ohio, March 21. 

The end of the half collar is secured by a clamp to the end of a 
tube projecting from a hopper, and in this plays a fork attached to, 
and operated by, a carriage, so that at each operation, the fork is drawn 
back to take a charge of the stuffing material, which is by the next 
motion forced into the collar. The carriage is operated by a rack and 
pinion and crank handle. 

Vor. XI, 3ap Sertes.—No. 1.—Janvary, 1846. 

vyer = 

Og DAP garry as” ee Bow U 



Vag PES 


a EN ES Span Ngee PF 
ot j oN: ie 



Poe oe es 

38 American Patents. 

Claim.—“ What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by 
letters patent, is the combination of the horizontal sliding forked stuffer 
and tube and clamp with the hopper, constructed and arranged in the 
manner and for the purpose set forth, or other mode substantially the 
same, by which analogous results are produced.” 

29. For an improved mode of Preparing Adhesive and Strengthen. 
ing Plasters of India Rubber ; Wm. H. Shecut & Horace H. Day, 
New York, March 26. 

“The articles we employ in the preparation of the said plasters, are 
those known in commerce as caoutchouc, or India rubber, Pine gum, 
(obtained from the southern yellow pine, commonly termed ‘long 
leafed’ pine,) Cayenne pepper, Balsam of Peru, litharge, and spirits 
of turpentine. 

“The proportions are five pounds India rubber, reduced to fin: 
shreds, steeped in soft water for softening it, theu put, with suificient 
quantity of spirits of turpentine to cover the India rubber, in a vessel, 
the quantity to be increased as the gum soaks it up. When the rub- 
ber is sufficiently dissolved it is pressed through a fine sieve. Four 
ounces of capsicum amnum, or Cayenne pepper, is heated in a quart 
of spirits of turpentine. A portion of this tincture is ground with a 
pound of litharge and then mixed with the remnant of the tincture, 
and to it is added six ounces of the Balsam of Peru. Then melta 
pound of pine gum, and add spirits of turpentine until it is thin enoug! 
to strain; and finally, all the preceding preparations are mixed to- 

Claim.—“ What we claim as our invention and desire to secure by 
letters patent, is the combination of the materials in the general pro- 
portions above described, for making an adhesive plaster. 

“We also claim making plasters porous, or pervious to fluids, by 
perforating them with numerous minute holes.”’ 

30. For an improvement in the Drip Cup of Lamps; E. Whela, 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 26. 

The patentee says,—“ My improvement is applicable and is in- 
tended to be applied to solar lamps which have high, conical chim- 
nies or burners, say of twelve inches, more or less. In lamps of this 
description, it is difficult to regulate the height and intensity of the 
flame by simply raising or lowering the wick; and this difficulty | 
have obviated by so constructing the drip cup as to regulate, with 
great precision, the supply of air to the interior of the wick. For this 

purpose, I make the upper part of my drip cup in two pieces, one o! 

which shall swivel or revolve, to a limited extent, on the other, in the 
manner of circular registers for regulating the draught in stoves, oF 
the admission of heated air into apartments. In each of these pieces 
there is a series of similar holes, set around in a circle, which may be 
made to coincide when a full supply of air is to be admitted, and may 
be closed to any extent required for regulating the draught, there be- 

ing a check pin, or stop, to prevent said openings from being entirely 

e by 
n the 
y the 


S, are 

» fine 
- rub- 
ith a 
nelt a 

d to- 

re by 
| pro- 

ls, by 


is in- 
f this 
if the 
uty | 
yr this 

yne of 

in the 
eS, Or 
ay be 
i may 
re be- 

American Patents which issued in March, 1845. 39 

closed, as a small portion of air is to be admitted under all circum- 

Claim.—* Having thus fully described the nature of my improve- 
ment in the drip cup of the solar lamp, what I claim as new therein 
and desire to secure by letters patent, is the combining with the draught 
holes of such a cup, a rotating or other valve or air regulator, which 
is capable of being nearly, but not entirely, closed, such as is herein 
described, and substantially in the manner and for the purpose above 
set forth. 

I do not claim such a valve, or regulator of the draught, as new in 
itself, but limit my claim to the combination thereof with the drip cup 
of a solar lamp.” 

31. For animprovement in Propelling Boats; Garrett Erkson, Pitts- 

burgh, Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, March 26, 

Instead of the common paddle-wheels now used in propelling boats, 
the patentee proposes to use two elliptical wheels, flat or convex, put 
on the shaft with their longitudinal axes at an angle of about 45 de- 
grees with the line of the shaft. 

Claim.—* What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by 
letters patent, is the application of an oval wheel, flat or convex, to 
operate as described in the foregoing specification. 

«1 do not claim any part of the machinery used in the construc- 
tion thereof.”’ 

32, For an improvement in the Power Zoom ; Daniel Barnum, Bridge- 

port, Fairfield county, Connecticut, March 26. 

For the purpose of arresting the momentum of the shuttle, there is 
an extra spring within the shuttle-box, and so attached to the protec- 
tion guard that when the shuttle strikes the spring and forces it out, 
it reacts on the protection guard and arrests the shuttle. 

The upper ends of the picker staves act directly on the shuttle, in- 
stead of the pickers, and to insure their proper position relatively to 
the shuttle-box, their lower ends are curved like a rocker, and rock 
on a horizontal platform. The wag staves are connected with the 
treadles by straps, in the usual manner, and with the picker staves 
by means of jointed rods; helical springs being employed to draw back 
the wag staves and keep the treadle straps distended. 

Claim.—* What I claim therein as new and desire to secure by let- 
ters patent, is the employment of the spring on the inside of the pro- 
tection guard, in the manner and for the purpose described. I also 
claim the particular manner of combining the treadles, the wag staves 
aud the picker staves with each other, as herein described and repre- 
sented, so that they shall co-operate in producing the required mo- 
tion, as set forth. 

“I do not claim as new the manner of forming the picker staves 
with a rocker on their lower ends; nor do I claim the using them 
without the ordinary picker, this having been previously done, but 
limit my claim to the arrangement and combination above named.” 

40 American Patents. 

33. For an improvement in the method of Preventing Mill Stones 
. Jrom Heating; Fearis Freligh, Stow, Summit county, Ohio, 
id March 26. 

tee The patentee says,-—“ The nature of my invention consists in intro- 
i: ducing the pipes or tubes between the stones, with a long aperture in 
> Tia one side, to permit the air to escape between the stones, for the pur- 
: t pose of cooling them when heated by the friction caused in grinding,” 

Claim.—* What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by 
letters patent, is the application of air, through metallic pipes or tubes, 
s to mill stones, as herein described, to prevent mill stones from heating 

and also facilitate grinding.”’ 

Son ocal Soren 


34. For a Spring and Rectangular Tongue Buckle ; Kasson Frazer, 

Fayetteville, Onondaga county, New York, March 26. 

The tongue of this buckle projects at right angles from the end of 
jointed arm acted upon by a spring, so that when a hole in the stra; 
is presented, the tongue enters it by the tension of the spring. 

Claim.—* What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by 
letters patent, is the manner in which I construct the tongue of my 



e buckle, substantially as herein described, the tongue being combine! 
ay i With a spring, and so operated on by the same that it enters the holes 
a° in the straps in the direction and manner substantially as set forth.” 
ie a 

F ‘ 35. Foran improvement in Bee Hives ; Silas Hart, New Haven, Os- 
i : wego county, New York, March 26. 

i A vertical tube runs up vertically into the hive, and is provided 
+; with a bell mouth at the bottom (near the entrance of the hive,) and 
id with a drum near the top. 

i Claim.—« What I claim as my invention and which I desire to se- 
eS cure by letters patent, is the mode herein described of warming tl 
oS bees in the hive; that is to say, I claim in combination with the hive, 

7 the hot air tube in the lower part of the hive, arranged with reference 
Be, to the entrance as described, its upper part provided with a drum sur- 
ea rounded with wire gauze; the whole arrangement of parts of the said 
heating apparatus and purpose of the same being as herein described.” 

: 36. For an improvement in Bee Hives ; A. Sanburn, Sycamore, Ham- 
ilton county, Ohio, March 26. 

The hive is suspended to an appropriate frame, with the lower end 

@ downwards, and below this is suspended a platform, on which the 

; bees walk in entering the hive, and this is pierced with two rows o! 

holes, which communicate with the moth trap placed below. 

ib: Claim.—“ What I claim as original, is the combination of the moth 
B trap or harbor before described, with the suspended hive, constructed 
re and arranged in the manner set forth.” 


aS: 37. For an improvement in the Gridiron for Broiling ; Josepli 
4 Hawkins, West Windsor, Mercer county, New Jersey, March 2. 

The bars of this gridiron are formed either concave and convex auc 


re In 

a by 


O se- 
- the 


S$ ol 



} 26. 


American Patents which issued in March, 1845. 41 

inclined in their cross section, so as to have the concave part of each 
form a gutter for the reception of the gravy from the convex part, and 
to conduct it to acommon receptacle, the bars being inclined in their 
cross section, and overlapping without touching ; or there may be two 
sets, one with the concave set upwards, and the other reversed and 
placed over the spaces between those of the first set. 

Claim.—* What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by 
letters patent, is the construction and arrangement of the bars for the 
purpose of saving all the gravy, as herein set forth, whether constructed 
in the precise manner above described or in any other mode substan- 
tially the same, by which analogous results are produced.” 

38. For improvements in the manufacture of Boats and other Vessels 
of Sheet Metal; Joseph Francis, New York, March 26. 
The patentee says—“ My invention consists in forming the sheets 
of metal with mouldings or beads in suitable places to take up the 

surplus metal, when said plates are pressed into form, by means of 

projections on the die and corresponding depressions on the matrix, 
or coueave mould, which gather up the metal and prevent wrinkles 
around between the upper and lower parts of the boat, so as to pre- 
set a smooth surface, and also in forming a recess or bed for the gun- 
wale, which holds it in place and prevents its getting knocked down. 
I also add a flanch around the stem and stern posts, aud along the 
line of the keel, which takes up the surplus metal there, and forms 
the keel and stem and stern posts.”’ 

Claim.—* What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by 
letters patent, is constructing boats of sheet metal pressed into form in 
moulds, with beads, flanches and mouldings, as herein described, for 
the purpose of taking up the surplus metal in forming the boat, to 
preveut wrinkles in the sides thereof, and for stiffening it as above set 

I further claim the recess moulding and flanch, to receive the gun- 
wale, which takes up the surplus metal along the upper edge of the 
boat and gives sutlicient strength and stiffness, without frames or tim- 
bers inside; constructed substantially in the manner and for the pur- 
poses above specified.”’ 

39. For an improvement in Stoves ; Anson Atwood, Troy, Rensselaer 

county, New York, March 26. 

Claim.—* What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by 
letters patent, is constructing the stove with the sides and end plates 
splayed out at the joints, or the corners, in combination with the cor- 
rugated sides, substantially in the manner and for the purpose above 

10. For improvements in Cooking S/oves ; Gould Thorp, New York, 
March 26. 

Claim.—* What I claim therein as new and desire to secure by 
‘etlers patent is, first, the manner of combining the jamb flues with 

= pty as 



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hs a 





ine «seal al Pad te a8 
SS POR ne GA RAI SS CIEE AD gay 4 f* S04, 



~ ee 


the upper part of the boiler space, and with the closed ash pit for th 
purpose ot feeding the fire, and of carrying off the etfluvia trom said 

boiler space. 

“I also claim the combining with the foregoing, the descending flu 
furnished with a valve ; the said flue space, and its valve serving als 
to carry off the effluvia, and to regulate the draught down the jam! 
flues; said flues being arranged and connected with the other parts o' 

the stove,as set forth.’ 

List of American Patents which Expired in 1845. 

Acids, margaric and steric, de- 

composed by caustic lime, 
gue and tever specific, 

Apples, machine tor gathering, Samuel L 
Augers,boring & withdrawing, 

Do. - single twist 
Axe 's, oval 

Axletrees for wi agons, &c., John A. Weekley. PNY June 
Aqueduct pipes, T. B. Armistead, Bloomtield, N. Y., Ay 
Baggage, securing on coaches, G. Stratton, Greenfield. Mass. , Ju . e 29. 
Baking iron, EF. Skinner, Sandwich, N. H.. Oct. 
Do. or cooking A. Stowell, Medford, Mass., Dee. 
Bands for hubs ot wheels, S. K. Miller, E hzabethwown, N. J., 
a mill, M. tiurd. Au: vusta. N. Keb. 
Bed, elastic spring A. G. Hull. Tee NY Oct. 1 
Bedstead, cot P. Williamson, Baltimore, Md., Nov. 1} 
D>». for sick J Lowe, Vienna, N. Y.. Oct. 25 
Do. do, D. Banerott, Gratton, Vt., Oct. 12. 
Do. do. A. Smith, Mil yrs, Ba, Se IS. 
Do., secret W. Woolley, City of New York, wag v 
Beet,making and curing salted, W. A. Temlinson, City of New Yo 
Bee hive slide, E. Beard, Charlestown, Mas: Maur ch 
Blasting rock M. Shaw. City of New Y ork, Jan. 3 
ee plaster, E. Perkins, Baltimore, Md., Jan. 15 
Boilers tor steam engines, 2. ©. Do rwlass, City ¢ { Rye ey 5 ork. Dee. 
Do. pote ies, &e. forsteam J. J. Geraud, Baltimore, Md., March 8. 
Do. forlocomotives,vertical E. L. Miller, Charleston, a ag 21. 
Boot erimper, J. Brewster, Worthington, Mass., 
Do. do. A. Dunbar, Sharon, N. Y., Feb. 19. 
Boots & shoes. eutting seams J. Cole, East Bloomfield, N. Y., oh 26. 
Do. do, manufacturing M. be “wnock, Bast Marlborough, 
) do, water proof S. Eells, Midi lletown, Conn. Apri 3 
Boring ¢ li for water, L.. Disbrow, City of New York, platy ‘L, 
1) co do. J. Spinks & W. Morris, Kenahwa, Va., O 
Do eke, he Ds erhall. Liberty, Tenn.. April 23. 
I) timber YR sec kwith, Saratog ral, N. Y., Dee. 21. 
Boxe tor whe and ships’ 
blocks, J. Cooper, Baltimore, Md., Jan. 27. 
Brads, cutting. &e., Ek. Gammond, Gorham, Md., Oct. 20. 
Prick machine, N. Ad ims, Corawall, Jun : 22. 
Do. do. preparingciay for J. C. Porter, Powhi ittan county, V 
Do, press J. G. Talleott. Glastonbury, Conn., Oct. 1. 
Do. do. br.dle J. Willard, Baltimore, Md.. June 10. 

Do. and mortar machine, A. Parker, Sweden, Me., March 5. 
Bride frame. G. W. Lone. Fort Jackson. La., March |! 
Do. do. ee pa ong. Baltimore, Md., March 6. 
Brushes tor cloth or hair. H. Ail , Dracat, Mass., Mav 24. 

Butter, machine for making my Curti . Paris, N. Y., Ap ril 20. 
Buttons, wire eved . Hayden, Waterbury, Conn., Cet 

Candles,manulactaring dipped, T. M. Scott, Falls township, Pa 

American Patents. 

H. Seybert & L. 


Morris Cannon, New Orleans, 

Ste » he n Hyde, 

John. Snvder, 

> Hominedieu, 



Oct. | 

La., Oct. 1. 
Camden, N. J., Nov. 1. 
N. Y., June 1. 
Saybrook, nee. 
, Mi 

March 2 

. July ‘ 

Ta.. Dec. c 

List of American Patents which Expired in 1845. 43 

Cale onders J.O° H: ira, assig. 3. L. D agg, Ph ilada., Pa, May 4. 

( ‘or for railroads on streete, John P ollock, ‘Hopewell, Pa., July 7. 
Do., self loading Isaac Black, Dryden, N.Y. ‘June 28. 
Carding machine, S. Warner, Ripley, Ohio, Oct. 1. 
“Do. and dre ssing cloth, Jose “ph Grat?, Rappo, Pa., Feb. 10. 

Do. ow ool, &e., alvin Wing. Gardiner, ‘Me., Feb. 21. 
Carpet loom, re Clark, South Coventry, Conn., May 7. 
Carpeting, taking figures of in- 
rain Wm. Sherwood, Somerworth, N. H., April 20. 
Carriage, land and steam S. Fairman, Nassau, N. Y., March 27. 
Do iilroad Wim. B. Ornok, Reading, Pa., March 2 
Do do. Jos. Y. Hughes, Pottsville, Pa., June 25 
Do. springs, preparing 
steel for G. Stoudenger, Newark, N. J., July 15. 
Catholicon, chemical J. W. Smith, Lockport, N. ¥., May 28. 
Chain paddle-wheel A. Rogers, Middletown, Pa., = gn 6. 
Cheese press, M. Norton, Goshen, Conn., Oct. 
Do lo. R. Webb & J. Cox, Madison, Conn., Feb. 27. 
( ts, fire proot John Seott, Philadelphia, Pa. i. 12. 
C es, ventiduct topping Joshua Ennis, Brooklyn, N. Y., Oct. 1. 
Chu S. M. Parsons & 8S. Dickerman, Meriden, Conn 
Oct. 1. 
D E. en & N. C. Tiflany, Caroline, N. Y. 
De c. ° 
Do. H. Schively & R. S. McEwen, Fredericksburg 
Ohio, March 6. 
Do. G. Sowle & P. Brewer, Blenheim, N. Y., M’ch 22 
Di Iram Brewster, Blenheim, N. Y., May 2 
D Samuel Bushnell, Saybrook, Conn., Dec. 20. 
Do. John Ewing, Worcester, Mass., Jan. 29. 
Do. Moses Granger, Syracuse, N. Y., July 14. 
Do. cradl John Barber, Caroline, N. Y., Jan 28. 
Do. vile dasher. Wm. Sutton. Geneva, N. Y., Oet. 1. 
) revolving 43 Luther & A. Beach, Groton, N-Y., Feb. 5. 
) ting wheel ». Dewey, Butternutts, N. Y., Oct. 1. 
1) Or wing pat Bris tol, Hillsdale, N. Y., April 28. 
Do. \ John Oothoudt, Lebanon, N. Y., May 10, 
Churou rt of J. KF. Waring, Columbus township, Ohio, April 10. 
LD machine, Philip Cornell, Brutus, N. Y., Oct. 1. 
Cider 1 Charles Rice, Barre, Mass., Nov. 11 
Circular saw Jon. Crane, Schenectady, N. i = Oct. e 
( ; James Bogardus, City of New York, March 2. 
[) J. D. Custer, Norris town, Pa., Nov. 24. 
Do, Abijah Gould. Henrietta, N. Y +, Uct. 1, 
Cloth drving machine, Jos. Hurd, Jr., Boston, Mass. Jan. 23 
Do. fi ne do. Z.. Allen, Providence, R. L., Feb. 23. 
Do. forming nap on woolen Z. Allen. Providence, R. I., Feb. 2. 
Do do. do. T. Hurd & J. Fox, Lowell, Mass., June 23. 
| y le machine, Thomas Rundle, Providence, R. L., Nov. 11. 
Do. pressing and stretching, John Jewett, Dudley, R. 1., Dee. 30. 
Clover seed, &c., hulling Wm. Manning, Westfield township, Pa., Nov. 24 
Do lo shelling J. Gorgas, Fredericksburgh, Pa., Jan. 17. 
Combs, ivory boneand wood, Julius Pratt. Meriden, Conn., Dec. 28 
Do. machine for making J. Potts, C. Houghton & 8. Rice, Jr., Lancaster 

Pa., Oct. Es 
Compass, needle, marine and 

surveyor’s Moses Smyth, City of New York, July 15, 
Cooking apparatus, Joseph Jennings, City of New York, May 14. 

Do. stove, John Moore, Ackworth, N. H., May 7. 

Do. do. L. & P. Peterson, Pittsburgh. Pa., May 29. 

Do do. A.C. Bettis & E.M. Gibbs, Norwich, - Y., June 22 
Corn shelling machine, Wm. Hoyt, Vernon, Indiana, Dee. 
Cotton gin press, P. Gardner, Woodville, Conn., Apri z 22. 

Do. press, James Carson, Raleigh, N. C., Nov. 4. 

Do. do. G. Palmer, Montville, Conn., Dee. 14. 

Do. whipper, cylindrical J. S. Simmons, Scituate, R. 1., Oct. 1. 
Do, do. revolving E. Baker, Warwick, R.1., June 4. 

ee ee 

Se et a A 

esi es See 



a do. do. do. 
tt Do.  . do. 
a Do. — ship bread, &e., 

Cradle or crib, 
Cream, extracting from milk, 
Crimping boot fronts, 


Dams, constructing 
Dies and taps, 

- 2 24 # %. © 
ar Saar 

‘Fe Do. art of 
; : yy Do. by steam, 
eae... Do. — whisky from corn, 


Dogs for saw mills, iron 

a Do. do. do. 
Do. do do. 
Do do. do. 

Door fenders, 

Dress stock, gentlemen’s 

Drilling and blasting rocks, 
Do. rocks, 

Dry docks, 

Ducks, mode of catching 

, «= 

Pog Pig heny ome: 

maa! Elevator, water 
3 Excavator, floating 
* «+ 
5 - ; Do. do. 
| Explorer, submarine 
4 r Explosion sui irds for steamb’ts 
ae kt Do. of ste: am boilers, pre- 
=; 4 vention of 
if . Do. do. do. 
5 - 
3 5: Fan for bed chamber, &c., 
: + Fan-mill, : 
g Felloes, machine for sawing 

Do. do. do. 
Felt for bottoms of vessels, 
Ferry boats, 

Fire engine, 
Fire-place, Doric 
Fire-proof chests, 
Flax machine, 



to the 
Friction rollers 
Fulling mill and power loom 
Furnace for stone or charcoal, 

Do.  tailor’s 
Do. portable cooking 
Do. do. do. 

and pressed hol- 

qlass bottles 
low glassw 

Crackers, biscuits, &c., cutting Thos. Bladen, Philadelphia, Pa., March 16. 

W. Hi: erty, 

John MeGann, Kensington, Pa., 

American Patents. 

. Clark & H. ‘Henderson, Baltimore, Md., Sep. 30. 
Jas. Cooper, Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. Ll. 
N. Daskam & D. G. Wood, Geneva, N. Ls Aug.s 
John M. Read, City of New York, Fe ~s 
Samuel Davis, City of New York, Oct. 
T. H. Renchard, Boston, Mass., May 8. 

Cylinder for propelling vessels, Benj. Philips, Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 23. 

John M. Syme, Richmond, Va., Feb. 22 
A. Lemont, Pittsburgh, Pa., Jan. 29. 
Thos. Gallaher, Liverpool, Pa., Dec. 
Chas. F. Fisher, York, Pa., April 24. 
Wm. Berkley, Lebanon, Ky., May 20. 
D. Lamson, Perrysburgh, N. Y., Oct. 1. 
Ansen Andrews, Spencer, N. Y., April 10. 
J. Pierce & J. & A. Whitley Candor. N.Y., Apl13 
Martin Rich, Candor, N. Y., Feb. 19. 

do. do. do. “4 13. 
Samuel Durfee, Providence, R. ai Aaas, l 
D. Williams, Albany, N. Y., ay 
John W. Post, W ashington, D.C. Oct. l. 
J.W.& C. Post,W ashington, D. C., Feb. 2. 
T.C ‘unningh um, Pittsburgh, Pa., Oct. 20. 
W. Cottield, Norfolk, Va., Jan. 1s. 

FE. Honeywell. Broadalbino, N. Y., 

G. Pakage & Wm. Morrison, Jersey 
ug, 25. 

A. Watson, Pendleton, N. Y. Jan. 18. 

S. Short & N. Bradford, Barnstable, Mass., Feb. |s 

J. Loughead & J.B. Chapman, Philad., Pa., June | 


July 10. 



Thos. Ewbank, City of New York, June 8. 
A. B. Quimby, Hagerstown, Md., Oct. 1. 

James Barron, Norfolk, Va., 
Win. C. Howley, Brooktield, 
A. ( ‘olblyn. Sharon, Vt., Oct. 
D. D. Hanson, Ware, N. H.. 
Thos. R. Williams, Ne “~wport, R. 
M. D. Brow, Mason county, Va 
J. J. Geraud, Baltimore, Md., 
John Pierpont, Boston, Mass., Ji 
John Scott, Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 12. 

J. Halliday, T. E pneeee. - Gibbs & T. D. Gibbs 

Harttord, N. . 

Nov. 27. 
Conn., Oct. 1. 

Oct. 20. 

I., May 


. Do. and hemp dresser, E. H. Nichols & T. i sy ks, St. Johnsbury, Vt 
‘. Oct. 1. 
-" Do. do. do. A. Smith & J. Olney, Westmoreland, N.Y., July | 
a Do. do. machine Daniel Bull, Sandy Hill, N. Y., Oct. 7. 
4: Do. do. do. Joel Dewey, Jr., Troy, N. Y., Nov. 
pany Do. do. do. Robt. McCormick, Roe kbridge county’ Va., Oct. ! 
Do. do. do. Wm. K. Scott, Sandy Hill, N. Y., Feb. 11. 
4 Flour, machine for separating B. Culver, Glastonbury, Come. Oct. 6. 
: Flutter wheel, applying w sal 

*. B. Pritchard, Scriven county, Ga., May 2! 
D. Baldwin, Queenbury, N. Y., Oct. 1 
Anson Atwood, Salem, N. : = Oct. 1. 
John Eslin, Phil: idelphia, Pa., June 19. 

. Robe it: Harttord, Conn., May 28. 
. Lawrence & T. Frazer, 
New York, Nii iy 22. 

A. Cross, Cazenovia. N. Y., May 12. 

City 0! 

Noy. 26 

Cp. 30. 


List of American Patents which Expired in 1845. 45 

Glass knobs, making Denning Jarvis, Boston, Mass., Oct. 19. 
Do. wheels for clocks J. P. Bakewell, Pittsburg, Pa., Oct.1. 
Glue, manufacturing Peter Cooper, City of New York, April 29. 

Gold, digging and procuring Henry Jordan, Lexington, Ky., Oct. 1. 
Do. separating from earth David Jones, Granville, N. C., Nov. 3. 

Do. do. do. _ F. D. Sanno, Philadelphia, Pa., Dee. 24. 

Do. do. andgrinding C. ~~ & S.J. Whistler, Rockingham county, 
Va, Jan. 15. 

Do. washer, Roswell King, McIntosh, Ga., Oct. 1. 

Do. washing and separating Peter Summey, Lincoln, Mass., May 22. _ 
Do. ore and alluvial soils, V. De Rivafinola, C.Harseleben & W. Davis, Lon- 

washing _ don, England, Nov. 1. 
Grain, cleaning anddressing Gilbert Arnold, Angelica, N. Y., June 17. 
Do. scouring J. Neal for P. Pettles, Middlebury, Ohio, July 2. 

Grater for apples & vegetables David Flagg, Jr., City New York, Dee. 20. 
Grinding, apples. corn & bark D, Parmelee, Reading, Conn., March 4. ; 
Do. flaxseed, paint, &c. A. Cross & E. Brown, Cazenovia, N. Y., Feb. 4. 

Do. _ grain, &c. B.N. Tyler, Bradford, Vt., April 15. 
Grist mill FE. Griswold, Truston, N. Y., Oct. 16. 

Do. Chas. Langford, Claridon, Ohio, July 8. 

Do. A. Porter, New London, Indiana, March 10. 

Do. J.C. Smith, Wheeling, Va., Jan. 9. 

Do. W. Coleman, Euclid, Ohio, Feb. 15. 

Do. pressure of weights, J. & D.C. Ambler, New Berlin, N. Y., Dec. 6. 
Groove plane E. W. Carpenter, Lancaster, Pa., Jan. 30. 
Hair mattresses W. F. Phyfe, City of New York, Oct. 1. 
Hammers, spikes, &c., making E. L’ Hommedieu, Saybrook, Conn., April 28. 
Harrow teeth fluke Samuel C. Tam, Milton, Del.. March 30. 

Hat bodies, forming A. H. Stevens, Richland, N. Y. Jan 27. 
Do. machinery Daniel Tenny, Plattsburgh, N. Y., Oct. 1. 
Hats. making water-proof of 
paper Benj. Grut, City of New York, Oct. 1. 
Hats, scalding and napping A. P. Gregory, Ithaca, N. Y., May 13. 
Do. sizing and napping Geo. Henning, Ithaca, N. Y., April 28. 

Do. washing and cleaning Wm. Carlock, Baltimore, Md., March 12. 
Hides, scraping flesh and hair 

from T. Williams, Rochester, N. Y., Nov. 4. 
Horse power J. Heberling, Harrison county, Ohio, Oct. 2s. 
Hydraulics Theoph. Somerby, Nantucket, Mass., Oct. 1. 
Do. machinery R. McCormick, Rockbridge, Va,. Oct. 1. 
lnk distributor, self-moving John Prince, City of New York, April 23. 
Inking forms of types J. P. Fairlamb, City of New York, Oct. 25. 
lron, malleable, from pigs T. C. Lewis, Pittsburgh, Pa., Oct. 1. 
Key for bedsteads J. Black & D. Cushing, Providence, R. I., Dec. 14. 
Knife sharpener P. Cornell, Brutus, N. Y., Jan. 15. 
Lamp for burning tallow, &c. Isaiah Jennings, City of New York, May 20. 
Do. do. lard S. P. Moorehouse, Ludlowville, N. Y., April 26. 
Lamps, reflector for E. Brown, Dover, N. H., Oct. 1. 
Lathe Elias Rhodes, Kinsbury, N. Y., Nov. 11. 
Laths. machine for cutting John N. Lynch, Dilisbury, Pa., Feb. 16. 
Leather paper KE. F. & T. Blank, City of New York, Feb. 16. 

Do.  silveringand gilding L. Keaton, Philadelphia, Pa., June 21. 
Leverand pulley power applied 

to a standing press G. W. Grater, Boston, Mass., Oct. 1. 
Lever power, projectile Geo. Wood, Vernon, Indiana, June 9. 
Do. press B. Morris, Binghamton, N. Y., April 26. 
Do. do. H. Sharman, Scriba, N. Y., Nov. 1. 

Do. do. tackle windlass J. B. Carpenter, Henderson. N. Y., Jan. 30. 
Light, its application to lamps, Isaiah Jennings, City of New York, Oct. 16. 
Lime, decomposing margaric 

and stearic acid by caustic H. Seybert & L. Vanuxen, Philada. Pa., Aug. 16. 
Locks Jno. A. Rogers, Augusta, Me., Jan. 20. 

Do, tordoorsandtrunks Asa Beals, Exeter, N. H., Jan. 26. 


I me hg 


tou . 

e. P is 



ss i» 
+ as 



46 American Patents. 
Locks for cannons W. H. Bell, Norfolk, Va., Oct. 1 
Do. for drawers E. Skinner, Sandwich, N. in April 13. 
Do. spring wire Job Baker, New Bedford, Maas., Oct. 1. 
Locomotive carriage Wm. Heston, Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 11. 
Loom, carpet and rug Wm. Bacon. Philadelphia, Pa., ‘April 7 y. 
Do. carpet J. R. Clark, South Coventry, Conn., May 7 
Do. cassinet J. Hammond & J. McClelland, W illiamsport, Pa. 
uly 7 

Do. ingrain carpet W. Sherwood. Worcester, Mass., Jan. 20. 
Do. making and using J. Goulding, Dedham, Mass., July 

Do. power J. Standish, Providence, R. 1., Nov. 

Do. do. temple do. do. do. _ 

Do. vibrating cam W. 1H. Howard, Worcester, Mass., Feb. 12. 

Malleable iron from the pig Thos. C. Lewis, Pittsburgh, Pa., Oct. 1. 
Marine railway foundation J.Ronaldson & J. L. Neill, Philada., Pa., May 22. 
Milk from breasts of women, 

apparatus for drawing Elihu Blake, City of New York, April 24. 
Mills, propelling M. B. Porteaux, Richmond, Va., May 20. 

o. do. Augustus Sawyer, Hopewell, N. Y., Oct. 1. 
Monuments, &c., casting Henry Libenau, City of New York, Nov. 17. 
Mortising machine A. Foster, Philipstown, Mo., aon 28. 

Do. and boring machine, M. § Sands, Franklin, N. Y., Oct. 
Do. and tenoning do. EK, Mudge, Genessee county. N. ¥.. Oct. 
Moulds for casting iron, &e., J. Leonard, Jr., J. S. Brainard & A. Sizer, Wal- 
lingtord. Conn., Jan. 28. 

Moulds for glass makers Denning Jarvis, Boston, Mass., May 28. 
Mouldings, machine for cutting S. Kennedy, C ity of New Y ork, April 10. 
Mowing | machine E. Ingersoll, Farmington. Mich., May 7. 
Mud do. E. H. Holmes, Norwich, Conn., Nov. - 
Music, printing, by types Geo. Bruce, City of New Y ork, Nov. 

Do. types, cutting & casting G. B. Lothian, City of New York, ey IL. 
Nail machine J. Hearsey, Wareham, Mass., May a 
Nails, making wrought G. B. Manley, Canton, Mass., Dec. 

Nap, forming on cloth Z. Allen, Providence, R. I., Feb. 2. 

Do. raising do. J. Gratl,. Rapho, Pa., Feb. 10. 

Do. and card machine T. Hurd & J, Fox, Lowell, Mass., June 23. 
Oil from cotton seed G. Palmer, Montville, Conn., Dee. 14 

Do. the sun flower C. A. Barnitz, Spring Garden, Pa., Oct. 20 

Oil. tobacco and cotton press G. Palmer, Montville, Conn., Dec. 14. 
Oil & spts. turpentine for paints J. G. Pendergast, Palmy ra, N. Y., July 9. 

Ointment F. Shepherd, Belmont county, Ohio, July 9. 
Ornamenting columns, &c. S. Thompson, Washington, Ohio, Oct. 1. 
Paddle wheel, chain A. Rogers, Middleton, Pa., April 6. 
Paper cutting machine T. B. Howell, Lockport, Ohio, ae 21. 
Do. do. J. Shugert, Quincey, Mass., Dec. 
Paper finishing machine T. Gilpin, Philadelphia, Pa., sal 25. 
Do. trom wood L. Wooster & J. B. Holmes, Meadville, Pa., Aug. 3 
Pasteboard for band boxes J. <gnmremm, Milton, Mass., May 15. 
Pen, tountain M. T. C. Gould, Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 1. 
Do. D. Hyde, Reading, Pa.. May 20. 
Percussion lock S. Forker, Meadville, Pa., Feb. 19. 
Do. do. M. Carleton. Haverhill, N. H., Dee. 23. 
Do. do. concealed J. Newbury, Poughkeepsie, N. , 2 April 27 
Do. do. and vent, for 
cannon W. H. Bell, Norfolk, Va., Oct. 1. 
Piano forte T. H. O.,G. T.,& W. F. Kearsing, City of New 
York. June 13. 
Do. C. P. Sackmeisser, City of New York, May 17. 
Do. Cc. 8. Se ibury, City of New York, May 20. 
Do. cross stringing A. Babcock, Philadelphia, Pa., May 24. 
Do. upright J. Thom son, Ashtabula, Ohio, July 7 
Pill box N. & E. P. Crary, Albany county, N. Y., April 6 
Pipes, aqueduct T.B. sai Bloomfield, N.Y. , April 15. 

List of American Patents which Expired in 1845. 

Plane irons W. Hovey, Boston, Mass., March 10. 
Planes for crossing railroads J. Fairlamb, New Castle, Del., July 7. 
Planting corn H. Todd, Riciicahe N. H., Oct. 1. 

Do. and peas R. Coffey, Burke county, N. C., Dec. 14. 
Planting and digging potatoes, P. Meigs & M.C. Areal. Madison, Conn., Nov. 3. 
Plaster, lime, &c., ee 

on land A. & J. Krauss, Upper Milford, Pa., Oct. 16. 
Plates, engraved &c., wiping ; 
surfaces of . Couillard, Boston, Mass., Oct. 9. 
Plough . Folton, Huntingdon, Pa., Nov. 1. 
Do. Walker, Washingtonville, Pa., March 10. 
Do. LY ouger, Hi urisburgh, Pa., — 9. 
Do. 3. Nesbit, Toboyne, Pa., May 2 
Do. C. Pawling, Gregg township, Pa. May 21. 
Do. ye Borden, Ne ewport, R. L., Jan. 13. 
Do. A.D. Armstrong, Springfield, Ohio, Jan. 15. 
Do. bar share A. Mitchell. Washington county, Tenn., Oct. 1 
Do. combined S. Clime, New Britain, Penn., hg he 
Do. hill side J. P. Cobbs, Nelson county, Va., Oct. 1. 
Do. shares, cast iron - H. Conklin, Peekskill. N, y ie 30. 
Do. shovel cutter . Wilson, Dez arlington, S S. C., Feb. 6. 
Portable stove, steam and hot 
water T. G. Fessenden, Charlestown, Mass., Dec. 14. 
Portable power machine J.C. Gentry, Philadelphia, Pa., Dee. 14. 
Post office stamp A. White, Templeton, Mass., Feb. 27. 
Preserving meats and fruits J. r ampson, Lexington, Ky., "March 12. 
Pressing machine L. C, Dennison, Saybrook. Conn., Oct. 1. 
Propelling boats ‘¥ Be: ich, Wilmington, Ohio, April 2 QA 
Do. do. J. Copley, Warrior’s Mark, Pa., May 22. 
Do. canal boats by alock 
paddle-wheel H. L. B. Lewis, Buffalo, N. Y., Nov. 
Propelling railway carriages J. Stimpson, Baltimore, _ June 3. 
Do, machinery M. P. Poiteaux, Richmond, Va., May 20. 
Do. do. A. S: awyer, Hopewell, N. y Oct L. 
Do. do. by horse power, J. Cooper, Augusti county, Va., April 12. 
Do. do. do. T.G. e ~wsom & J. C. Schule, Nashville, Tenn., 
Dec. 1 
spindles for spinning 
wool t. Phelps, Andover, Mass., Dec. 31. 
vessels &. Peltier,City of New York, Oct. 1. 
do. . Philips, Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 23. 
rotractor & tablet, geomet- 
rical J. Pool, Jr., Easton, Mass., June 16. 
‘oy E. H. Thomas, & N. Woodcock, Brattleboro’, Vt 
Aug. 11. 
Pumps A. Batby, City of New York, May 16. 
Do. M. Mettee, Baltimore, Md., May 20. 
Do. package J. A. Smith, Windham, Con., Feb. 3 
Purifying salt water S. Hunt, Syracuse, N. Y., Jan. 23. 

Quadrant & sextant P. Spear, Portland, Me., March 19. 

Railroads FE. Duscemb, City of New York, July 13. 
Do. planes for crossing J. Fairlamb, New Castle, Del., July 7 
Railroad ear J. Elgar, Baltimore, Md., Oct. 1. 
Do. car, pendulous S. T. Jones, Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 22. 
Do. car, self-adjusting J. Pollock, Hopewell, Pa.. July 7. 
Do. carriage W.B. Orrick, Reading, Pa., March 2. 
Do. do. Jos. Y. Hughes, Pottsville, Pa., June 25. 
Do. of timber J. Stimpson, Baltimore, Md., June 3. 
Railway, endless chain S. Lane, Hallowell, Me., May 17. 
Do. car for streets S. T. Jones, Phil: idelp hia, P : Feb. 22. 
Do. tread wheel B. Sutton, Romulus, N. Y., Jan. 27. 
Raising canal boats, ships, &c. W. W. Smith, Rochester, N. Y., Feb. 2 
Do. vessels by sliding ways T. Sheffield, Green county, N. 7. May . 
Do, water L. Parmelee, Poughkeepsie, N. Ys Oct. 


+ hs 

Bains Vis ady 

rng: “Ee 



ae ate! alien i cahemmamet oil . 

Rake, iron tooth 

Reflector for lamps 

Rice and barley machine 

Rice, machine for cleaning 
Jo. do. for threshing 

Do. hulling, &c. 

Rolling steel for springs 

Roots of houses, covering 

Rope, cordage and twine’ 
do. do. preserving 

Roping, woolen from carding 


Rotary engines, propelling 
Do. pump 
Do. steam engine 

Saccharifying rice and maize 

Do. rye, &e. 
Salt, manufacturing 
Salt water, purifying 
Sausage cutter 
Do. stutling machine 
Saw mill 
Do. dogs 
Do. machinery 
Saw, set 
Do. do. 
Do. and grist mill 
Saws, cross cut circular 
Do. do. and saw mill 
Do. do. do. do. 
Saws, circular 
Sawing boards 
Do. timber 
Do. and planing machine 
Do. mortising, &e. 
Do. clap boards, &e. 
Scale, compound lever 
Screws of gimlets, cutting 
Do. cutting and turning 
Do. swedge for 
Scouring floors 

American Patents. 

N. L. Sanford & E. P. Parmelee, Meriden, Conn 

June 8. 
E. Brown, Dover, N.H., Oct. 


J. L. Norton, Charleston, S. C., wy r. 
J. Ravenal, Charleston, $.C.. Jan. 2 
E. Sands, Cincinnati, Ohio, May i. 

J. Beach, Middletown, Conn., 
G. Stoudenger, Newark, N. j., 
P. N. Ware, Albemarle, Va., 
S. Dexter & S. Graves, Aubu 
A. Salisbury, Troy, N. Y., Nc 

A. Steele, Waterbury, Conn., 
J.G. Hotchkiss, Cincinnati, O 
E. R. Hale. Hyde Park, N. Y 

March 10. 

July - 


rn, N. Y. , Aug. 4 


April 1. 
hio, Oct. 
.. July 14. 

E. Child, Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. | 

A.J. mypetier, Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 


. Hunt, Syracuse, N. Y., Jar 


. Fahrney, Washington cour 
Ii. Mobley, 

Pierce F. Whitly, Condor, N. 

J. Newton, Sweden, N. Y., Oc 

H. Aiken, Dracut, Mass., May 
E. Whitney, Berkshire, N. . & 
W. Prim, Lebanon, Pa., Oct. 
A. H. Foot, New London, Ma 

H. Johnson, Sidney Planes, N. 

P. Newton, Sidney, N.H., Jur 
J. Crane, Schenectady, N. Y.. 
D. Flagg, Jr., Gardmer, Me., 
LD). Stem, Vanderbure ¢ ounty, 

T. Bloomes, City of N. Y.. Nov. 3. 

B. Overman, Greenboro’ a. he’ 

©. Carleton & S. Whitney, 

rit K. Grover, Spring W Bed, 
. Daniels. Saybrook, Conn., 

J. Eastman & C. Abbott, Bat! 

R. Whitney, Baltimore, — 

D. Dickinson, C hatham, Conn. 

Seine twine and small cordage A. Pond, Pe tersburg, Va., Ma 

Self instructor 
Self-loading car 

C. Varle .Baltimore, Ma .Ma 
J. Beach, eoden, N. Y., June 

Shingles. scale boards, cutting J. Fairfield, Vassalboro’. Me.. 

Ships’ blocks, screw cogs for 

shives of 
Shoemakers’ Jasts 
Shot, manufacturing 
Slide rest, circular 
Slubbing, making woolen 
Smut machine 
Do. do. 

Soap, manufacturing by steam J. Kennedy, Baltimore, Md., 

Soda water apparatus 
Speeder for spinning cotton 
Do. do. do. 
Do. for twisting cotton 

Spindle & can roping machine, 

R. Kinsbury, Bath, Me., May 22 


eth Carsley, Harrison, Me., 
re Willard. Baltimore, Md., Ju 
rit 1. J. Gardiner, York, Pa., De 

, pawns, Middleboro, C wi 

J. Case, Sodus, N. Y., Oct. 
L. vias ward, Phelps, Mass., 

G. Ott. Norfolk. Va., June 1s. 
S. P. Mason, Leesville, Conn. 

J.C. Dyer, Manchester, England, Oct. 

J. Irvin, Coventry, R.J., Mare 

April 15. 
Oct. | 


Ss. W. Ww illiams, Elizabethtown, N. J., March 2 

1. 23. 

Robinson, Lancaster, Pa., Feb. 27. 

ity, Md., Feb. 16 

Fredericstown, Md., June 5. 

Y., April 13. 


Oct. 15 
ss., July 14. 
Y., Dee. 23. 
1e 10. 


Jan. 19. 

“Ind. , Dee. 16. 

, May 27. 
sath, . H.M’e 
N. Y., Dec. 17. 

Mare h 20. 

1, N.H., Dec. 23. 
April 10. 
, Oct. 
y 20. 
y 20. 
April 28. 
April 2. 
ly 10. 
c. 14 

March 10. 

, June 24. 


h 26. 

Spinning cotton, flaxand silk J. Bogardus, City of New York, May 2 
J. Thorpe, Providence. R. I.. Nov. 11. 
C. Greenwood, Winchester, N.H., Feb. | 
E. Bowen, Providence, R. I., July 13. 
J. Brown, Providence, R. l., May 20. 

0. do yarns 
Do. jenney 
Do. machine 
Do. do. 

List of American Patents which Expired in 1845. 

Spinning machine s Church, Jr., Hartford, Conn., May 22. 
Do. do. W. Clark, Pultney, N.. ¥.«, ‘Oct. 1, 
Do. do. J. Pierce, Yorks hire, N. Y., a 30. 
SI iral propellers for boats J.C opley, Warrior’s M: irk, J >a., May 22, 
»ools or bobbins. making W. C lege. Norwich, Conn., Feb. 24. 
winding conical . Atwood, Middletown, Conn., a l. 
is, making from tin plates ’s Little, Bridgeton, N. J., Dee. 

‘ 9. do. R. Butcher, Philadelphia, Pa., Teg 27. 
ngs applied to clocks, spiral S. B. Terry, Plymouth, Conn., Nov. 3. 
of carriages, attaching J. Ives & J. Walker, rockion’ N. Y., Oct. 6. 
for doors J. Eaton, Boston. Maas. Feb. 24. 
of door locks, spiral J. Baker, New Bedford, Mass., Oct. 1. 
tamp for post office A. White, Tem sleton, Mass., Feb. 27. 
taves dressing bd 5 Thomas, omfret, N. ¥., Oct. 7 
do. . B. Goodrich, Rutland, Mass., May. 10. 
hoops, &c., splitting z. Bisbee, mies water, Mass., June 5. 
beading and dressing <A. Stearns, Jr., Schagticeke, N. Y., March 22. 
ointing .i Gontiia i Rutland, Mass., May 20. 
sawing D. Toms, Auburn, N. Y., May 2. 
do. 1D. Toms, Auburn, N. Y. , July 8. 
Steam boilers H. M. Shreve, Louisville, Ky ., April 21. 
Do. engine C. Potts, Philadelphia, Pa., May a 
Do. do. rotary z Powell, Baltimore Md., Oct. 
Do. do. do. & boiler Tompkins, Montgomery, Al ibama, Nov. 30. 
Do. de. and feeder O, Mallory, Oswego, N. Y., Dee. 
Do, generating J. White, Logan county, Ky. —o h 29, 
Do. navigation I. G. Smith, Tanehbure, Va., Oct. 15. 
Do. do. J. M. Patton. Milton, I Feb. 4, 
Do. and other engines B. Ree ves, Philadelp hia, 1, 'Pa., Feb. 6. 
Stearic and margaric acid de- 
coinpose d by caustic lime H. Seybert & L. Vanuxen, Philada., Pa., Aug. 
‘tone bre eaki og and threshing 
machine W. e Bell & T. Andrews, Fortress Monroe, Va. 
July 9, 
ne hewing and drilling L.. Yale, City of New York, Jan. 20 
rr anthracite coal \. Savage, Pottsville, Pa., June 10. 
; 0 do. P. Be nedict, Lancaster, -,. Feb. 27. 
iw cutter T’. Preston, Wallingford, Conn., Oc 7 l. 
de. S. Wilson, Darlington, 8. C., Nov. 11. 
from cane juice W. A. Archbald, C ity of New Y pity yo A 19, 
| do. do. do. 
do. do. do. 
A. Bacon, Philadelphia, Pa., Dee. 17. 

r leather W. Brown, City of New Y <a Nov. 
lor looms J. Standish, Providence, R.1., Nov. i. 
revolving bar EK. V. Harris & A. R. Arno Ma Woodstock, Conn. 
Oct l. 
self-operating E.R. Otis, Riverhead, Conn., April 2. 
on wheels, cutting A. P. Smith. Cornwall, Conn., Nov. 1. 
g machine * H. Ball & T. Andrews, Fortress Monroe, Va. 
do. July 9. 
do. J. H. Arnold & S. Bonsal, Morristown, Ohio, July 8 
do. C. arene Woodbury, Conn.., ‘ed 25. 
do. . L. Caustin, Ledyard, N. Y., Oct. 
do. J. Clark & J. Starks, Geneva, N. Y., ee 
do. J. Cooper, Augusta county, Va., April 12, 
do. W. Corwilhe, City of New York, May 23. 
do. . Dewey, Jr., Troy, N. Y., Jan. 29. 
do. . Douglass & W. Johnson, Utiea, N. Y., May 14 
do. EF lage, Gardiner, Me., June 4. 
de, D.F lage, City of New York, July 10, 
do. S. Fisher & D. Sperry, Amsterdam, Va., May 19. 
do, S. Gambell, Onondaga, N. Y., June 44 
f R. Humphreys, Victor, N. Y., Dee. 27. 
T. Ingersoll, Murray, N. Y., Dee. 14. 
N. Lindsay, Catskill, N. Y., May 7. 


Vor. XI, 3np Sertes.—No. 1.—Janvary, 1846. os) 


Threshing machine. 

American Patents. 

A. & J. Lupton & J. Jenney, 
Va., July 28. 

Frederick county 

Do. do. R. Miller, Marietta, Pa.. Mareh 15. 
Do. do. D. Moyer, Cootstown, Pa., Feb. 10. 
Do. do. W. Ottinger, White Marsh, Pa., - 
Do. do. J. Peters, Harrisburzh, Pa., Oct. 
Do. do. W. Ross, Penfield, N. Y by ry 
Do. do. A. Slover & W. Sperry, City of N. - ork, June 
Do. do. A. L. Smith, Brutus, N. Y., Nov. 
Do. do. J. Stowitts Gorham, City of New Y ork. | July 13 
Do. do. Z.. Cooley, Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 11. 
Do. do. G. Jessup, Troy, N. Y., Dec. 14. 
Do. do. S. Turner & N. Barns, Aurelius, N. Y., Nov. 27 
Do. do. E. % arren, City of New York, Jan, 29. 
Do. do. W.S. Wood, ity of N. Y., Oct. 1. 
Do. do. and corn 
sheller E. Thursden, City of New York, Nov. 
Do do. do. B. D. Beecher, ( ‘heshire, Cc onn., Oct. 
Do. small grain D. Flage, City of New York, ose 
Do. &winnowing grain T. D. Be oni « Geneva, N. Y., Dec. 6. 
Do. do. do. S. Slater, Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. | 
Do. rice Butts, Georgetown, 3. C., May 20. 

Do. and hulling clover- 

seed C. Clark, Colebrookdale, Pa., Jan. 28 
Do. do. do. J. Darrah & J. Kinsey, Cookstown, Pa., Nov. 
Throstle for spinning G. Danforth, Patterson, N. J., April 1. 
Do. andspinning frame’ B. Brundred, Oldham, N. J.. May 7 r. 

Tiller wheel 

C. Tiers & J. Snyder, Philadel phia, Pa., Jan. 15 

Timber, uniting the domes of 


Tires, bending 

Tobacco, drying and curing D.G. Tuck. Halifax county, Va ag. l. 
Do. stemming G. Braint, Richmond, Va., Nov. 

Tooth brushes 

Tops, pepper and ink 

W. Anneslev, Albany, N. Y., Nov. 
L.. Butler & J. Henkley, ¢ ‘oble skill, N. Y., M’ch2 

P. Blake, New Haven, Conn., ML an 8. 
W. Markland, City of New York, Oct. 1 

Tow lines for boats A. Bull, Carlisle, Pa., Jan 30. 
Do. apparatus for holding R. Davis, Phil: Welphia, Pa., Nov. 11 

Tread wheel, railway 

B. Sutton, Romulus, N. Y. "Jan. 27. 

Truss S. Marsh, Canajohasie, N. Y., March 29. 
Do. = Knight, Baltimore, Md., Dee. 14. 

Do. elastic . Twitchell, Leominster, Mass., Dee. 20. 
Do. spiral spring G D. Heintzelman, Phil: sie pha, Pa., Feb 
Tubes, manufacturing P. Phillips, Busti, N. Y., May 20. 

Turning lathe 

Twine, cotton seine 

M. J. Gardiner, York, Pa., Bag 14. 
T. Rice, Petersburg, Va., Oct. 1. 

Do. &small cordage, seine A. Pond. Petersburz, Va., May 20. 
Types, casting and setting W. R. Collier, Boston, Rane. Feb. 9. 
Do. making and using S. Blake, Boston, Mass., March 12. 

Veneers, sawing 
Do. oncolumns, glueing B. Hinkley, Fayette, Me., April 27 
Vice, stock and hand E. D. McCord, Sandy Hillt N 1. Y., Oct. 1. 

Vessels, building 
Vent for cannon, 

lock and 

Wagon lock 

Washing machine 





C. B. Burnap, City of New York, Dec. 14. 

_ W. Annesly, Albany. N. Y., Nov. 6. 
W. H. Ball, Norfolk, Va., Oct. 1. 

S. Jones, Bridgeport, Pa., May 4. 
R. C. Arnold. New Haven, € onn., June 15. 
W. C. Arnold, Haddam, Conn., Jan. 11. 
W.H. Barnard & C. H. Bulkley, Chatham, Con: 

Oct. 16. 
> Sushnell. kgs Com, “i 20. 
+. L. Clowes, Union, Feb. 2 

yes Foot, Circentitle. Ohio. De . 7 

J. Freeman, Senate, N. Y., Oct. 4. 

J. M. Gates, Norwich, Conn., May 21. 
S. Hinds, Montrose, Pa., May 2 

Improvements in the Separation of Metals, §c. 

Washing machine A. Kirkpatrick, Urbana, Ohio, May 21. 
Do. do. E. Lester, Killingworth, ¢ ‘onn., Dee. 20. 
Do. 3 G.,Lowell, Nunda, N. Y., Nov. 6. 
Do. ‘ D. Stocking, Scotts, N. Y., June 25. 
Do. lo. H ‘Thurber, Painted Post, N. Y., April 22. 
Do. lo. IX. Walker, Woodburn, Pa. May 29. 
Do. 0. J. Barns. Kingston, ee Oct. 
Do. lo. Ii. Horton, Avon, N. Y.., ate at 
Do. lo, S. ‘ee in, } Saybrook, Conn., Feb. 3. 
Do. . T. Tenney, New Woodstock, N. Y., Nov. 23. 
Do. re - Barne ty & A. A. Beach, Groton, N. Y. , Feb. 5. 
Water elevator EE. Honeywell, Broadalbin, N. Y., July 10. 
Do. whee P. Baynton, Ogdensburgh, N. Y ., April 20, 
Do. do. o Johnson, Fairbanks towns hip, Ohio, Oct. 
Do. do. . Willson, Swanzey, N. H., Oct. 1. 
Do. do. 1. R. Wheeler, Pittsford, N. Y., May 15. 
Do. do. C. Wing, Gardiner, Me. Oct. 22. 
Do. do. reacting do, do. do. 
Do. do. do. . Henderson & J. E. Caytord, Millburn, Me.. 
"Apr il 14. 
Do. do, for propelling H. Averill, Richland, N. Y., Oct. 
Do. do. for grist mill do. do. Get a. 
Weig jhing r boats and cargo EK. Cady, Canaan, N. Y., Jan. 6. 
Weavers’ reeds J. Sennett, Philadelphia. ra, Oct. 1. 
Whee i bear is of hubs for S. K. Miller. Elizabe — N. J. , Oct. 7. 
Do. boxes for J. Cooper, Baltimore, Md., Jan. 
Do. for carriages J. Eastman & G. C. Rix, Bath, N. H., Dec. 23 
Do. for clocks, glass J. P. Bakewell, Pittsburzh, Pa., Oct. 1. 
Do. for railroad carriages te Finley, Baltimore, Md., Mareh 4. 
Window blind fastener J. A. Carver, Taunton, Mass., Feb. 27. 
Do. do. spring catch W. Phe ‘Ips, Salem, Mass., July 7. 
Do. and bed curtains hg I’. Phyfe, City of New York, Feb. 19. 
Do. sashes . Thompson, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., Dec. 6. 
Do. glass, cylinder W. Coftin, Jr.. Hammondtown, N. J., Oct. 1. 
Wood saws J. Hamilton, City of New York, June 10. 
Wool trom earding machine CC. Atwood, Middletown, Conn., Nov. | 
Do. washing onthe sheep  C. Harris, Snowhill, Ohio, Oct. 1. 
Woolen cloth, finishing Z. Allen, Providence, R.1., Feb. 23 
Do. garments J. ype & J. Stoudenburgh, Greene county, N.Y., 
April 20. 


Specification of the Patent granted to Joun Taytor, of the county 
of Middlesex, for improvements in separating metals from each 
other, and from certain combinations with other substances.— 
Sealed April 15, 1845.—Communication. 

The invention has reference to the separation of silver from ores or 
metallic combinations containing that metal. 1 proceed, first, to de- 
seribe shortly the principal methods now in operation for the extrac- 
tion of silver from its ores and metallic combinations. 

These are, Firstly. The process known under the name of the eli- 
quation process, in which the argentiferous substance, whether ore, 
reculus, or metal, is mixed and melted with lead, or some combina- 
tion of lead, when the silver is obtained in combination with the lead 
from its great affinity for that metal. 

Secondly. The amalgamation process, in which a chloride of silver 

* 4 / 

P Mages 



PIF Le pee gar! 





oro cal 

=. 33 


52 English Patents. 

is formed by mixing common salt with the ore or regulus in eq 
nation, which chloride of silver is again reduced by means of meta 
iron and mercury, the chloride passing to the iron, and the silver tory). 
ing an amalgam with the mercury. 

Thirdly. A process for which a patent has recently been obtained, 
the object of which is, the obtaining silver from various known de. 
scriptions of copper regulus, obtained from smelting argentiferous cop- 
per ores, by concentrating the main portion of the silver into a re. 
siduum ; this is to be effected by thrice repeated calcination of t{) 
regulus, having for its object the formation of as much sulphate o; 
copper as possible, and lixiviation of the sulphated materials with sul. 
phuric acid and water; after each calcination, the undissolved residuum 
from each of the two first calcinations is to be melted with some tno. 
terial containing sulphur, so as to form it again into a regulus; | 
residuum of each lixiviation becomes richer from the sulphate of co; 
per and iron being dissolved out, and from only a smail portion « 
the silver being dissolved out as sulphate ; when the contents of 1) 
first residuum are one hundred parts, or more, of copper to one of si- 
ver, it is reduced into a regulus by melting with partially calcined 
copper ore, or iron pyrites, and this regulus is sulphated and lixivio. 
ted as before; and the product is a residuum containing less than o) 
hundred parts of copper to one of silver, this is subjected to the same 
process, and the productis a residuum containing less than fifty parts of 
copper to one of silver; this residuum is called the rich sulphate resi- 
duum, and is to be calcined and digested in sulphuric acid, nitric acid, 
and water, and the silver precipitated from this solution ; the residuum 
of this operation is to be added toa residuum containing less than on 
hundred parts of copper to one of silver, and melted as above de- 
scribed, or the silver is to be obtained from the rich sulphate residuum 
by melting it with lead or litharge. A portion of the silver is obtained 
by each calcination in the state of sulphate, and is washed out by su- 
phuric acid and water with the sulphate of copper ; this silver is to | 

In describing this invention I shall divide it into two parts. First: 
the formation of a chloride of silver, and the dissolving such chiorid 
of silver by any of the hereinafter mentioned solvents. 

Secondly. The converting the whole, or practically the whole si- 
ver contained in an ore or regulus, into a sulphate of silver by a pro- 
cess of calcination as hereinafter described, the other metals contain 
in the ore or material treated being rendered indissoluble. ‘The su- 
phate of silver thus formed I dissolve out by hot water. 

1 now proceed to describe the means I adopt for the attainment o 
these objects ; and First, as regards the chloride process of extraction. 
The argentiferous materials which it in all probability will be desira- 
ble to treat may be divided into two classes. 

First, those containing sulphur; and secondly, those containing no 

First, as regards sulphurous material ; if the material to be treated 
is a regulus of copper or iron, | prefer first to granulate such regulus 
by allowing it to flow when hot into water ; I then calcine it ina sim- 

1 sim- 

Improvements in the Separation of Metals, Sc. 53 

ilar furnace to those used for calcining copper regulus for a time, va- 
rying from twelve to thirty-six hours, according to the nature of the 
reguius 1 am treating, and the quantity in the calcining furnace; | 
have found twenty-four hours’ calcination for about three tons of cop- 
per regulus a very suitable time; during this calcination a moderate 
fire sould be kept up sufficiently low to prevent the regulus caking, 
the material should be stirred or turned over once in about every two 
hours. The object of this process is the evaporation of a portion of 
the sulphur, by which means nearly the whole inconvenience arising 
from the caking of the material in the subsequent caleination is avoid- 
ed: I then grind the regulus so calcined, and pass it through a fine 
sieve. I have found a sieve of sixty holes to the square inch well 
suited to this purpose. In the same manner, sulphurous ore which it 
might be inadvisable to melt from its being already sutliciently rich 
in silver and needing no concentration, would be most advantageously 
treated by calcining it as above described previous to grinding it, in 
order to pre veut the formation of lumps in the after process of calei- 
nation: having been caleined it is then ground to a fine powder and 
treated in the following manner, which isequally applicable tocalcined 
reguius. ‘The furnace to be employed is a simple reverberatory calci- 
ning furuace, of such size as to enable the workman constantly to 
rake the ore lying on every part of it. The heat on the introduction 
of every fresh charge should be moderate, gradually increasing until 
tarrives ata bright red heat, approaching yellow; the operation 
usually lasts from two to three hours, during which time the materia! 

ited on must be coustantly raked for the purpose of thoroughly 

oxidizing the e pper, iron and other metals contained in the ore or 

reguiuis; a test should now be made of the state of the material ope- 

lou; this is done by withdrawing a small portion of the material 

treated, and at once, while still hot, pouring water on it, and allowing 

the water to pass through it; should the water appear colorless, or 

nearly so, the operation of calcination has been carried suljiciently far; 

but should it be blue or green, the calcination must be persisted in 
until the green or blue color disappear from the liquor derived from 
the lixiviation of a small portion withdrawn from the furnace as de- 
scribed, that is, until the whole of the sulphate of copper and iron has 
been decomposed. When this has been effected, chloride of sodium 
(common salt) or any other suitable chloride is to be added in the 
proportion of from four to five parts of salt to one hundred parts of 
the substance treated ; a less proportion will do, but to insure the whole 
silver being converted into a chloride, the above proportions have 
been found advantageous. The heat of the substance operated on 
should be reduced previous to the addition of the salt, in order to 
avoid a too great evaporation and loss of chlorine. On the addition 
of the salt the material should be well stirred for some time, and a 
degree of heat maintained suilicient to cause the chiorine or muriatic 
acid to rise in almost invisible fumes, in which the argentiferous sub- 
stance should be allowed as it were to soak. A test may now be 
again made for the purpose of proving whether the ealcination has 
been thoroughly performed. This consists, as before, in withdrawing 




* SeRMGn.e 


eal i 

a ig 

mr | aie 

54 English Patents. 

from the heated furnace a small portion of the substance treated, and 
pouring over it a hot saturated solution of chloride of sodium (com. 
mon salt); taking care not to add too much. If this solution is clear 
and colorless, and becomes, when cold water is added to it, of a whi- 
tish color, the calcination has been complete; but if the solution tak 
a blueish, or greenish color, the calcination must be continued wnt) 
the blueish or greenish color disappears from the solution, and 
mains colorless, as above described (when water is added, it assumes 
a whitish color.) The operation may be hastened by strewing over 
the substance in the furnace another half-pound, or pound, of common 
salt, for every one hundred pounds of material in the furnace ; 3 and 
the whole must be constantly stirred, as above described. So great 
is the affinity of silver for chlorine, that it has been found in many 
stances sufficient to rake the material which has been caleined out ot 
the furnace; and, while hot, mix it with salt; when the desired eh 
ride of silver lias been produced. Should the material it is desired 
desilverize contain no sulphur, or other substance which it is neces 
sary to volatilize, or oxidize, by such a calcination, or piesenegpin as 
above described, common salt, in the proportions before given, name 
from four to five of salt to one hundred parts of ore, or arge ntife rous 
substance, may be at once added; and the argentiferous materi: il placed 
immediately in the furnace, and treated in precisely the manner ab 
described, as that adopted for the formation of a chloride of silver, in 
argentiferous regulus, or ore, beginning from the point at which 
addition of common salt is directed. The addition of a small portion 
of sulphurous material, such as sulphurous copper ore, iron pyrites, 
or sulphate of copper has been found to facilitate this operation. A 
chloride of silver having been thus formed, the arzentiferous ore, or 
substance prepared as above, is to be washed or lixiviated with ah 
saturated solution of chloride of sodium (common salt) or any oth 
suitable chloride. alkali, or earth, or with a solution of hyposulphite o 
soda, of hyposulphite of potash, or any other suitable hyposulphite ot 
an alkali, or earth, which will dissolve the chloride of silver. separating 
it from the insoluble portions of the material treated. From this so- 
lution the silver may be precipitated by any of the known methods 
precipitated copper has been found an exceedingly good means o 
effecting this operation. The heat at which it has been found most 
advantageous to employ chloride solutions, is their boiling point, 
at least, sixty degrees of Re yvapean or one hundred and seventy de- 
grees of F ahrenheit; but Ido not confine myself to this degree | 
heat, The temperature of the solution is nec essarily affected by t 
temperature of the substance, when subjected to lixiviation. Hypo 
sulphite solutions need not be so hot; as their solvent power 

To ascertain that all the silver has been precipitated, a piece o! 
bright copper, or new copper coin, may be put into the solution in the 
precipitating vessels, If this maintains its color, the liquor may 
be drawn off; as the precipitation may thea be considered complete 
but if they come out silvered, it may be considered that sufficient tim 
has net been given for the comp!ete precipitation of the silver. 

Improvements in the Separation of Metals, &c. 55 

If the material treated has been copper regulus, some chloride of 
copper will, of necessity, be in the solution, as also if copper has been 
used for precipitation. ‘The liquor, in this case, from which the silver 
has been prec ipitated, may then be passed into vessels containing 
iron, free from oxide scale, where the copper will be thrown down, 
together with any silver which may have remained unprecipitated ; 
ind the copper thus obtained may be used for precipitation of silver, 
as above described. It may be desirable to economize, as much as 
possible, the salt used in this process; in which case, the lixiviated 
residue may be further washed, and the liquor obtained preserved, 
together with that obtained from the precipitation ; and having been 
brought up to the point of saturation, may be again used for the ex- 

of ——— quantities of silver. 

id part of the invention consists in the conversion of the 
le, or, i ictically, the whole silver contained in any ore or regu- 
into the state of sulphate of silver; rendering the other metals, 

contained in the argentiferous substance, insoluble. If the material 
to be treated is a su nance ie ore, or fre cul us, it is to be oper ited on 
precisely in the mauner already dese ribed above, as regards the e pre- 
paratory calcination of argentiferous ore, or regulus, with the ultimate 
view of forming chloride of silver, This part of the invention may 
be considered to begin from the poiut at which the ore, or regulus, 
has been finely pulverized, after the caleination of the granulated re- 
gulus, or ore. The ore, or regulus, is then placed in a caleining fur- 
nace, which must be well oo with a current of atmospheric air, 
ae over the substance heated : and the charge should, throughout 
the w — of the operation be constantly raked. ‘This operation lasts, 
generally, about three hours; and depends entirely on the good man- 
agemel tof the furnace, and constant attention to the state of the ma- 
lacted on. At first, the heat must not be great: this moderate 
hould be continued until the sulphur ceases to rise in thick 

; and until, by withdrawing a small portion of the material from 

the furnace, it is ascertained, by smell or otherwise, that the greater 
portion of the sulphur has been dissipated : after this, more heat may 
gradually given, until it at length arrives at a full red heat, ap- 
proach ing yellow. This must be done very cautiously ; ; and during 
the w hole operation, the following test must be const intly put in prac- 
tice. A small portion of the material treated is withdrawn from the 
furnace, and water, free from chlorine, poured on it, whilst hot, or hot 
water must be used; the liquor thus obtained is then tested by adding 
afew grains of common salt; when the operation is not complete, the 
liquor. when first obtained, will be blueish; and when salt is added, 
greenish. The silver, when ouly a small portion has been formed 
into a soluble salt by the caleination, will simply cloud the liquor 
when salt is added. As the operation of calcination advances, the 
blue and green color will nearly disappear from the liquor obtained 
trom the test: and, when salt is added, chloride of silver will be at 
once thrown down, falling to the bottom of the liquor in thick white 
lakes: when this appearance is given by the test, the operation of 
cuiciuation may be considered to be complete; the whole, or practi- 







—Tu ss 
—- paren 

Pe Mee 

‘- Sg OS 


an. ee 

pT oF ees 

oe i a 


56 English Patents. 

cally, the whole of the silver being in a state of sulphate; the copper 
and iron having been oxidized, and thereby rendered insoluble. ‘The 
material may then be withdrawn from the furnace, and lixiviated 
with common boiling water; care being taken that it shall be free 
from chlorine, or only contain a trace of chlorine. 

It the material lixiviated be sutliciently hot, the water need not | 
boiling. From this solution the silver may be precipitated by any o/ 
the known methods; and the completeness of the operation may be 
tested, by adding a few grains of salt to the liquor taken from the pre. 
cipitating vessels: if the liquor remains clear, the precipitation is com- 
plete. The residue obtained from large quantities, I have found t 
vary from three thousand to two thousand parts of copper, to one o; 
silver; and were, therefore, practically, wholly desilverized. Regulus, 
or sulphurous ore, may also be at once heated ina calcining furnace; 
having been first pulverized, without any previous calcination, 
above described. In this case, very slow heat must be given for th 
first part of the process; during which time the sulphur contained in 
the regulus, or ore, undergoes combustion. After a time, this com- 
bustion ceases ; and the process I have described, as the invention tor 
the conversion of the sulphuret of silver into sulphate begins; and may 
be performed precisely in the manner pointed out to be practised o1 
the regulus, already previously calcined, and afterwards ground. [do 
not consider this an advantageous manner of working, from its being 
impossible to prevent the formation of lumps; which must be separa- 
ted from the fine parts before lixiviation, and again ground and eal- 
cined ; and also from the necessity of passing the calcined materia 
through a sieve; oy which the whole benefit of the heat is wasted; 
also from regulus beiug much more readily pulverized, when granu 
lated and calcined; and from the saving of labor effected by calcining 
three tons, or a large quantity instead of a small quantity; which must 
be the case if the process of calcivation is performed atonce. Should 
it be desired to treat an ore by the sulphate process, which: in itsel! 
contains no sulphur, and at the same time inadvisable to convert i 
into a regulus, a small portion of sulphur, in any shape, such as sul- 
phurous copper ore, or iron pyrites, may be mixed with it, so as | 
afford suilicient sulphur to combine with the silver; it may then b 
calcined, as before directed, particular attention being paid to the test. 
For the purpose of lixiviation, | have found a round tub, fitted with 
a strainer, formed of a disk of wood, pierced with holes, a disk o! 
basket-work, and linen drawn over the whole, answer the purpos: 
well: tow being packed round the sides, between the strainer and th 
tub; the liquor running off perfectly clear.—Jnrolled «tpril, 1845. 

Repert. Pat. Inv 

Specification of the Patent granted to James Musprarr, of Liver- 
pool, for improvements in the manufacture of Manure.—{Sealer 
April 15, 1845. ] 

It has been ascertained, that the growing of any crop on land in 4 
state of cultivation, and the removing and consuming of such crop 




sk of 

dd th 

Improvements in the Manufacture of AJanure. 57 

wholly from the land where it was grown, takes away certain mineral 
compounds ; and it has been suggested by Professor Liebig, that in 
cultivating land and applying manure thereto, that the manure should 
be such as to restore to the land the matters and the quantities thereof, 
which the particular plants have abstracted from the soil during their 
crowth. It has been observed in the chemical examination ef marls 
and vegetable ashes, that the alkaline carbonates and the carbonate of 
lime can form compounds, the solubility of which depends on the 
quantity of the carbonate of lime contained in the particular com- 
pound. It has further been found, that the said alkaline carbonates 
ean form a like compound with phosphate of lime, in which the car- 
bonate of potash or soda is partly changed into phosphate of potash 
or soda. 

Now, the object of this invention is to prepare manure in such 
manner as to restore to the land the mineral elements taken away by 
the crop Which has been grown on and removed from the land, and 
in such manner, that the character of the alkaline matters used may 
be changed, and the same rendered less soluble, so that the otherwise 
soluble alkaline parts of the manure may not be washed away from 
the other ingredients by the rain falling on the land, and thus separa- 
ting the same therefrom. And it is the combining carbonate of soda 
or carbonate of potash, or both with carbonate of lime, and also the 
combining carbonate of potash and soda with phosphate of lime, in 
such manner as to diminish the solubility of the alkaline salts to be 
used as ingredients for manure (suitable for restoring to land the min- 
eral matters taken away by the crop which may have been grown on 
and removed from the land to be manured,) which constitutes the 
novelty of the invention. 

I would here state, that although the manures made in carrying 
out this invention, will have various matters combined with the alka- 
line carbonates, bo claim of invention is made thereto separately, and 
such materials will be varied according to the matters which the land 
to be manured requires to have returned to it, in addition to the min- 
eral substances above mentioned. The quantity of carbonate or 
phosphate of lime, used with carbonate of soda or potash, may be va- 
ried according to the degree of solubility desired to be obtained, de- 
pending on the locality where the manure is to be used, in order to 
reuder the preparation less soluble, in localities where the average 
quantity of rain falling in the year is great; but as in practice, it would 
be difficult to prepare manures to suit each particular locality with 
exactness, I shall give such average preparation as will suit most lo- 
ealities. And as lands differ very greatly, it would be impossible to 
give directions in this specification for making manure according to 
this invention, which would produce the best results on all soils, I 
shall therefore only give such average preparations as will suit most 
soils as manure, and T will afterwards give such information as will 
enable parties desirous of applying the invention under the most ad- 
Vantageous circumstances to have manure manufactured for their par- 
ticular eases. In making manure according to the invention I cause 
carbonate of soda or of potash, or both, to be fused ina reverberatory 

jn: AeEES 
» Fi9n 

en PA 

ee dee 
Es oe a 
is a 

ig te 

ce ee ear 




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a ae 

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baie oe 


58 English Patents. 

furnace, such as is used in the manufacture of soda-ash, with carbon- 
ate or phosphate of lime, (and with such fused compounds I mix other 
ingredients as hereafter mentioned,) so as to produce manures; and 
such composition, when cold, being ground into powder by edge 
stones or other convenient machinery, the same is to be applied to 
Jand as menure. And in order to apply such manure with precision, 
the analysis and weight of the previous crop ought to be known with 
exactness, so as to return to the land the mineral elements in the 
weight and proportion in which they have been removed by the crop. 

Two compounds are first prepared, one or other of which is thy 
basis of all manures, which I shall deseribe as the first and second 

The first preparation is formed by fusing together two, or two and 
a half, parts of carbonate of lime with one part of potash of commer 
(containing on an average sixty carbonate of potash, ten sulphate of 
potash, and ten chloride of potassium or common salt in the hundred 
parts,) or with one part of carbonate of soda and potash, mixed in 
equal parts, 

The second preparation is formed by fusing together one part o! 
phosphate of lime, one part of potash of commerce, and oue part of 

Both preparations are ground to powder: other salts or ingredients 
in the state of powder are added to these preparations and mixed to- 
gether, or those not of a volatile consistency may be added wheu the 
preparations are in a state of fusion, so that the manure may represent 
as nearly as possible the composition of the ashes of the preceding 
crop. This is assuming that the land is in a high state of cultivation, 
but if it be desired to grow a particular crop on land not in a high 
state of cultivation, then the manure would be applied in the first in 
stance suitable for the coming crop, and then in subsequent cases, t! 
manure prepared according to the invention would,as herein described, 
be applied to restore to the land what has been taken therefrom | 
the preceding crop. 

Preparation of manure for land which has had a wheat cro 
grown on and removed therefrom.—Take ot the first preparation six 
parts by weight, and of the second preparation one part, and mix wit! 
them two parts of gypsum—one part of calcined bones—-silicate o! 
potash, (containing six parts of siiica)—and one part of phosphate of 
magnesia and ammonia, 

And such manure is also applicable to be used after growing bar- 
ley, oats, and plants of a similar character. 

Preparation of manure for land which has had a crop of beans 
grown thereon, and removed therefrom.—Take fourteen parts by 
weight of the first preparation, two parts of the second preparation, 
and mix them with one part of common salt, (chloride of sodium)—a 
quantity of silicate of potash, (containing two parts of silica)—two 
parts of gypsum, and one part of phosphate of magnesia and ammonia. 

And such manure is also applicable for }and on which peas or other 
plants of a similar character have been grown and removed. 

Preparation of manure for land on which turnips have been grown 

—{ wo 


Experiments with the « Water Witch.’ 59 

and removed therefrom.—Take twelve parts by weight of the first 
preparation, one part of the second preparation, one part of gypsum, 
and one part of phosphate of maguesia and ammonia. 

And such manure is also applicable for land where potatoes or simi- 
lar plants have been grown and removed. 

I would remark, that I have selected the above cases, because they 
represent the chief of the products cultivated in this country ; and in 
doing so, I have given such average preparations as will be beneficial 
in most, if not in all cases, as manure, to be used after the different 
crops mentioned, but manures may be prepared according to the in- 
vention for other plants than those mentioned ; and if desired, manures 
may be made with greater exactness for those plants which have been 
mentioned for particular cases, if the matters of which the plants are 
omposed and the quantities are first ascertained, by burning the 
plants and analyzing the ashes, and then combining the manure ac- 
ording to the analysis. ‘The manure so made is to be applied to the 
ind in quantities, as great or greater than the quantities of the ele- 
ments Which have been removed by the previous crop. It should be 
stated that, where the straw of wheat and other similar plants, which 
require much silicate of potash, is returned to the land as manure, 
that it is considered to be the best means of restoring the requisite 
silicate of potash to the land; in which case, in preparing the manures 
above mentioned, the silicate of potash would be omitted. 

Having thus described the nature of the invention, and the manner 
of performing the same, | would wish it to be understood, that what 

I claim, is the preparing and applying in the manufacture of manure, 
arbonate of potash aud carbonate of soda with carbonate and phos- 
phate of lime, in such manner as to render the alkaline salts in manu- 
factured manure less soluble, and therefore less liable to be washed 
way by rain before they are assimilated by the growing plants.— 

Inrolled October, 1845. Ibid. 


ecount of some Experiments with the U.S. Iron Steamer “ Water 

This vessel was originally 100 ft. 6 in. long, 21 ft. 4 in. beam above 
ihe water line, and 16 feet 9 inches below, (her form being of that pe- 
culiar kind advocated by Lieut. Hunter,) and 9 feet 93 inches depth of 
hold. She was fitted with Lieut. Hunter’s patent submerged wheels, 
16 feet diameter, and two high pressure engines, having pistons 22 
inches diameter and 4 feet stroke. When tried by a committee of 
Naval Engineers, at Norfolk, in May, 1845, the mean draft of water 
was 7 feet 74 inches, and the maximum speed attained, ascertained 
*y the “chip log,’’* was 64 knots, equal to 7-54 statute miles per hour. 

insteam vessels, the ‘chip log” cannot be relied upon for ascertaining the 
‘peed, because the stern current created by the action of the paddle-wheels, or 

60 Mechanics, Physics, and Chemistry. 

“The pressure of steam in the boiler was 80 lbs. per square inch, ey. 
cess above the atmosphere. The throttle valves were wide open, and 
the engines were working ‘full stroke,’ that is, without expansion, 
The number of revolutions per minute was 28.” 

The velocity of the extremity of the paddle was 15-98 miles per hour, 
and the speed of the boat was, even by “ chip log,” only 7:54 miles per 
hour, being 0-47, or less than one half of the speed of the wheels, 

The “ Water Witch’? was afterwards taken to Philadelphia, ex 
apart in the middle, lengthened thirty feet, and increased about six 
inches in width. ‘The propellers of Lieut. Hunter, and the large en. 
gines by which they were actuated were removed and smaller engines 
and Loper’s propellers substituted. ‘The new engines have cylinders 
20 inches in diameter, and the stroke of the pistons is two feet, 
They are supplied with steam by one boiler, having about one. 
half the quantity of heat absorbing surface that was contained in the 
two boilers attached to the first engines. 

On the 18th of October, 1845, atier the alterations had been com. 
pleted, a committee trom the Franklin Institute made several experi. 
mental trips in her for the purpose of ascertaining her speed. The 
space run over was from a point in the Delaware ranging with the 
southern side of the Jarge ship house at the navy yard, to the pier at 
Greenwich point; the distance between these points being precise 'y 
2-19 statute miles. ‘The vessel was run considerably past the marks 
each way, so as to be under full head way while passing them, an 
the time of passing was carefully noted. During the first trip, (dow: 
and back) the steam was maintained ata pressure of 60 lbs. per squat 
inch in the boiler; during the second trip at a pressure of 46 |bs. per 
square inch; and during the third and last, at 32 Ibs. per square ine! 
The following is extracted from the minutes of the committee. 

« Experimental trips on board the U.S. Steamer ‘ Water Witch, 
Oct. 18th, 1845. 

Dratt of water at bow 5 feet 4 inches. 

Do. do. stern 6 feet 10 inches. 

“ Left the navy yard a few minutes before 11 o’clock, A. M., passed 
up the river and turned. ‘Tide slack, or very slightly young tlood 
Passed the range of the south side of the large ship house 11 o’clo 
40 seconds, steam 60 Ibs. in boiler, engines working expansively, cu! 
off at half stroke.”’ 

Av. puimber of 

| | Ruuning Time. 
No. of Trip pBvene. 08 Gx am.*} Down. Up | revolutions. | Tik 
| eas 
No. 1. | 60 | dm. 48sec.'13m. 40sec. | 619 iLow slack water. 
No. 2. 46 21 48 {13 15 | 544 = | Flood and strong 
No. 3. _32 130 2 14 38 45°5 Strong tlood 

“Passed range of the ship house at 45 minutes past 1 o’clock, rounde’ 

other propellers, causes it to indicate a higher speed than that of the vessel, 'h 
amount of error varying with the recession or slip of the propellers through t! 
water. Inthe ‘“ Water Witch,” the slip of the wheels being enormous, the erro! 
in the speed indicated by the chip log must have been very considerable. 

* The pressures given by the committee are 66 Ibs., 45 Ibs., and 30 Ibs., respe' 
tively, but a slight correcticn for the weight of the lever and appendages of 1! 
safety valve was omitted by them. 

l, eX. 
, and 

S$ per 
» Cul 
it Six 
e en- 

n the 

cpr rl. 




sel, the 
ih t 

1e erro! 

s of U 

Raperiments with the « Water Witch.” 61 

to, and landed at the navy yard a few minutes past 20’clock. Whole 
running time occupied by the experiments 2 hours and 45 minutes.”’ 

From this data it is proposed to ascertain, 

ist, The speed of the vessel through still water; and 

2ndly, The ratio of the resistance of the vessel at different velocities, 
or, in What power of the velocity the resistance increases, 

First, The speed of the boat: 

If the velocity of the tide were constant during the time of running 
each trip, the speed of the boat through still water could be easily 
ascertained by reducing the speed when running with and against the 
tide, to the same unit of time, and taking the mean. This is the usual 
way of estimating the speed of a boat running in a current, but it is 
evident that it can be correct only when the flow of the current is con- 
stant. Now, from the minutes of the committee, we see that the ex- 
periments commenced at “slack water’’ and ended with “strong flood.” 
Consequently, in order to ascertain the true speed of the boat through 
the water, we should know the velocity of the tide at all the different 
stages from “slack water’’ to “strong flood.’’ In the absence of any 
information on this point, derived from direct observation, I have en- 
deavored to form an approximation from the experiments themselves. 
Itfoceurred to me that the increase and diminution of the velocity of 
the tide might be represented by a curve, by means of which the ne- 
cessary correction for its varying influence might be made. I sup- 
posed ‘that the form of the curve would be similar to the outline of 
the section of a wave, such asis shown, in full line, in fig. 1. The in- 
ervals of time being re presented on the base line A, B, and the dif- 
ferent corresponding speeds being measure d off at right angles to the 

ine, would be the ordinates of the curve.” 

Fig. | 

7 2 3 4. 

‘ eee 5 Hours : 
It being low tide and slack water at A, I supposed that the velocity 
of the current would incre ase gradually and attain a maximum as 
shown by the figure at ( , then diminish and come to rest again at B, 

or slack water at high tide. The height of the curve, orthe line Cyc’, 

corresponding to the maximum velocity of tide, should represent 2-33 
tiles; and the line A, B, should represent 5 hours, that being the 
mean time from low to high water in the Delaware, at the navy 
yard.+ The experiments of the committee enable us to approximate 

* The curve is drawn as described by Mr. J. Scott Russel. 

'From observations made tor the coast survey. 
You. XI, 3ap Sertes.—No, 1 —Janvary, 1846. 




re ee 

62 Mechanics, Physics, and Chemistry. 

to the position of three points and developing a curve through them 
the figure shown by dotted lines in fig. 1 is produced, differing yer: 
widely from the form which was expected. From this, it appears th ‘ 
the velocity of the tide increases very rapidly, quickly attains near! 
the maximum velocity, which it maintains nearly constant for soy) 
time. In fig. 2, the portion of the curve embraced by the experim nts 
is represented having the intervals of time occupied by the boat 
making the different passages up and down, shown upon it by th 
shaded portions; thus giving a graphic representation of the influene, 
of the tide. 

Fig. 2 
pa ae os ash a 
N i 
S K 
NY | | 
} } 
>, NY fe i 
Pees KY Rf h> 
~I A a. ft , 
S kK B 4) key 
“— T TT T t 

A—First trip down, —against tide. 

— do. up, —with tide. 
B—Second trip, down,—against tide. 
B'— do. up, —with tide. 
C—Third trip, down, —against tide. 
C'— do. up, —with tide. 

By the aid of this curve, the speed of the boat has been ascertain: 
to be as follows: 
First trip Down—Against tide, time 14-8 min., and speed by 
60 x 2:19 : 

the land —= 887s 
14°8 ° : 
Add tide as determined by the curve, 0-1 
Speed of the boat through still water, 8-978 
si g a ., , , 60 x 2°19 2 
First trip Up—With tide, time 13-66 min., speed aa =F 41 

Less tide ascertained by the curve, 

Mean, up and down, 8-985 miles per hour. 
Second trip Down—Against tide, time 21-8 minutes, 
speed eat schto 6-030 
P 28 ; : 
Add tide, (by curve,) , : . 1490 


Speed of boat, . , 7-930 

Experiments with the “ Water Witch, 
Second trip Up—With tide, time 13-25 minutes, 
60 x 2°19 
Less tide, (by curve,) 


Speed of boat, ‘ ‘ 
Mean, up and down, 7-923 miles per hour. 

Third trip Down—Against tide, time 30-42 minutes, 
i= 60 X 2° "19 
Ss = 
pects 30-42 
Add tide, (by curve,) 

Speed of boat, 

Third trip Up—With tide, time 14-633 minutes, 
60 « 2-19 

Less tide, (by curve,) 

speed, - 

Speed of boat, . 
Mean speed, up and down, 6-605 miles per hour, 

The speed of a vessel, within moderate limits, will vary very nearly 
sthe number of revolutions of the propeller. This furnishes ap- 
proximate means of testing the correctness of the speeds we have just 
letermined, by comparing them with the revolutions. This compari- 
son, taking the speed in trip No. 1 asa starting point, is given in the 5th 
colunnn of the following summary. Thespeed computed in the usual 
way, by taking the inean with and against the tide, is also given in 
the 6th column. 


Press Mean num- |) LrueSpecd | — Speed 
Trip of ber of Revo-| by by by 
Steam. lutions. Curve. ‘Revolutions. | Mean. 

Ist. 60\bs. 

From this table it appears that ‘the speed, estimated in the usual 
manner, exceeds the true speed in all the trips. 

Secondly, Comparison of the resistance with the velocity. 
As the machinery was precisely the same in all the trips, the tractive 
lorce exerted by the engine may be represented by the effective pres- 
sure on the piston. The pressure in the boiler has been already given. 
Ascertaining the mean pressure, and deducting friction, &c., (according 
6-030 to Pambour’s formula ,) the mean effective pressures for each trip is 

1-900 found to as be follows. With lbs. per 
JUU | _ Sq. In, 
--—— 60 lbs, press. above atmos. = 74°7 lbs. total press., the mean effective press. is 38°21 
7-930 6 do. = 60°7 do. do. 29°08 
In do. = 467 do. do. 19°84 

64 Mechanics, Physics, and Chemistry. 

Comparing, now, the effective pressure on the piston, (which, as we 
have said, represents the force exerted by the engine in the direction 
of the motion of the vessel, or what may be called the traction of the 
engine,) with the velocities, we may ascertain in what ratio of the ve. 
locity the resistance increases. This may be conveniently done jy 
tabular form, thus: 

| ~\ Total l ) Effective|Speed of the; Ratio of et-/Resist’ce 
‘amas pressure | boat through) fective press | of vessel 
| Trip.| in ; on still water.—| 19°84 being in powers 
| | boiler. | piston. In miles unity. of v’ locity 
| | ! 
list. | 74°7 | 3821) 8-985 | 1-92 2-11 
2nd.| 60:7 | 29-08) 7:923 | 1-46 2-08 
3rd. | 46-7 | 19-84 6-600 | 100 | 

Making some allowance for error, both in the observations of (iy 
committee and in the estimate of the effective pressure on the pistoi 
(which has been used as the measure of the resistance of the vessel, 
I think we are justified in coming to the conclusion that the resistance: 
of this vessel at least, varies as the square of the velocity. Some ca- 
culations made from a former series of experiments with the sam 
vessel! but under different circumstances of immersion and tide, showed 
that the resistance increased almost exactly as the square of the \ 
locity. A record of the experiments was not made by the committee, 
and the calculations were not preserved. 

The method of ascertaining the resistance of a vessel here made us 
of is not quite satisfactory, because it is not exact. Nevertheless, 
it appears to be sufficient to show that the generally received law is 
true, viz: “that the resistance to a body moving in a fluid varies as 
the square of the velocity, and the power required during @ give 
time to overcome that resistance, varies as the cube of the velocity.” 

The correctness of this law has recently been denied, and the ca- 
culations in this paper were made originally for the purpose of satis 

fying a friend skeptical upon this point. I send them for publicatio 

believing that the facts given by the committee are valuable, 

hoping that the remarks they have suggested may not be altoget! 

uninteresting or useless, J. H. T. 

«2 Report on the Composition of the Fire-Damp of the Newcas! ¢ 
Coal Mines, and the means of preventing accidents from ils Ex- h 
plosion. By Prorgesson Granam. : 

The author had some years ago examined the gas of these miues, p 
with the same result as Davy, namely, that it contains no other cou | 
bustible ingredient than light carburetted hydrogen. But the analyss 
of the gas of the coal mines in Germany, subsequently published, 
showing the presence of other gases, particularly of olefiant gas, re0- T 
dered a new examination of the gas of the English mines desirable 

The gases were, (1) from a seam named the Five-Quarter seam, | 
the Gateshead Colliery, where the gas is collected as it issues, ale a 

S We 
f the 
C Ve- 
1@ Ih 


ls Ex- 

r coll- 

~ He 
S, Tell 


Report on the Composition of Fire-Damp.  — 65 

used for lighting the mine; (2) the gas of Hepburn Colliery, which 
issues from a bore let down into the Bensham seam—a seam of coal 
which is highly charged with gas, and has been the cause of many 
accidents ; and (3) gas from Killingworth Colliery, in the neighborhood 
of Jarrow, where the last great explosion occurred. This Jast gas is- 
sues from a fissure in a stratum of sandstone, and has been kept un- 
iuterruptedly burning, as the means of lighting the horse-road in the 
mine, for upwards of ten years, without any sensible diminution in its 
quantity. ‘he gases were collected personally by Mr. J. Hutchinson, 
with every requisite precaution to insure their purity, and prevent 
admixture of atmospheric air. The usual eudiometrical process of 
firing the gases with oxygen was suillicient to prove that they all con- 
sisted of light carburetted hydrogen, with the exception of a few per 
cent. It was observed that phosphorus remains strongly luminous in 
these gases, mixed with a little air, while the addition of one four- 
hundredth part of olefiant gas, or even a smaller proportion of the 
volatile hydro-carbon vapors, destroyed this property. Olefiaut gas 
self, and all the allied hydro-carbons, were thus excluded. Another 
property of pure light carburetted hydrogen, observed by Mr. Gra- 
ham, enabled him to exclude other combustible gases, namely, that 
the former gas is capable of entirely resisting the ~oxid: ting action of 
platinum black, and yet permits other gases to be oxidated “which are 
mixed with it even iu the smallest proportion, such as carbonie oxide 
uid hydrogen, the first slowly and the last rapidly ; air, or oxygen gas, 
g, of course, elso present in the mixture. Now platinum black 
‘ sinailest action on a mixture of the gas from the mines 
The gas was also inodorous, and clearly contained no ap- 
e quantity of any other combustible gas than light carburetted 
The ouly additional matters present were nitrogen and 
j ir; the specimen collected in the most favorable circum- 
stances for the exclusion of atmospheric air, namely, that from the 
Benshami seaim, still containing 0-6 per cent. of oxygen. The gases 
ilso containe carbonic acid. Attention was directed to the result 
lat nothing oxidable at the temperature of the air was found in a 
‘olatile state associated with the perfect coal of the Newcastle beds. 
The remark; ae absence of oxidability in light carburetted hydrogen 
appears to have preserved that alone of all the combustible gases ori- 
cinally e ea vo din the formation of coal, and which are still found ac- 
companying the imperfeet lignite coal of Germany., of which the gas 
has been examined. This facet is of geological interest, as it proves 
that almost indefinitely protracted oxidating action of the air must be 
taken into account in the formation of coal; air finding a gradual ac- 
cess through the thickest beds of super-imposed strata, whether these 
Strata be Ina dry state or humid. In regard to measures for prevent- 
ug the yisorme of an gas in coal mines, and of mitigating the effects 
of sneh accidents, Mr. Graham confined himself to two suggestions. 
The first has re fe rence tothe length of time which the fire-damp, from 
s lightness, continues near the roof, without mixing uuiformly with 
the air ¢ ite ulating through the workings. He found that a glass jar, 


of six inches in length and one inch in diameter, filled with fire-damp, 


2 We 

fo oh pithy 

OLE ea OF Bia RT SRC ge ER 

5 Si PY 

66 Mechanics, Physics,and Chemistry. 

and left open with its mouth downwards, continued to retain an ex. 
plosive mixture for twenty minutes. Now it is very desirable that 
the fire-damp should be mixed as soon as possible with the whole cir. 
culating stream of air,as beyond a certain degree of dilution, it ceases 
to be explosive. Mr. Buddle has stated “that immediately to th 
leeward of a blower, though for a considerable way the current may 
be highly explosive, it often happens that after it has traveled a greate: 
distance in the air-course, it becomes perfectly blended aud mixed 
with air, so that we can go into it with candles ; hence, be ‘fore we had 
the use of the Davy lamp, we intentionally made ‘long runs,’ for thy 
purpose of mixing the air”? It was recommended that means be 
taken to promote an early intermixture of the fire-damp and air; t 
smallest force is sufficient for this purpose: as a downward velocity 
of a few inches in the second will bring the light gas from the roof t 
the floor. The circulating stream might be agitated most easily by a 
light portable wheel with vanes, turned by a boy, and so placed asto 
impel the air in the direction of the ventilation, and not to impede th 
draft. The gas at the roof undoubtedly often acts as an explosiy 
train, conveying the combustion to a great distance through the mine, 
while its continuity would be broken by such mixing, aud an expo- 
sion, when it occurred, be confined within narrower limits. Seeon lly, 
no effective means exist for succoring the miners after the occurrence 
of an explosion, although a large proportion of the deaths is not oc- 
casioned by fire, or injuries from the force of the explosion, but {rom 
suffocation by the after-damp, or carbonie acid gas, which afterwards 
diffuses itself through all parts of the mine. It was suggested that a 
cast-iron pipe, from eight to twelve inches in diameter, be permanent) 
fixed in every shaft, with blowing apparatus above, by which ai 
could be thrown down, and the shaft itself immediately ventilat 
after the occurrence of an explosion. It is also desirable that, by 
means of fixed or flexible tubes, this auxiliary circulation should t 
further extended, and carried as far as practicable into the workings 
London Athenaeum 

New Stereolyping Process. 

A new and very useful stereotyping process has lately been 
introduced by Mr. Hugh Wilson, lithographer aud engraver, Glas- 
gow, Which promises to supersede entirely the old established pro- 
cess by taking casts of the types in Paris plaster. In taking tl 
impression, a piece of damped prepared card-board is placed over thy 
surface of the page of movable type, and an impression beat out o 
the type into the card by repeated strokes of a hard brush—a part ol 
the operation which, according to the size of the page, occupies trom 
a’ minute to a minute and-a-half. This card, which now auswers the 
purpose of a matrix, is dried and inserted in an iron frame, with ‘ 
movable top or surface, constituting a mould, which has been prev 
ously heated to an equable temperature. ‘The lid is then brought 
down, the mould shifted by a hinge from the horizontal to the per- 
pendicular; and the liquid metal poured into the matrix by a smai. 
orifice which has been left, and ina miunte the stereotype page } 

Lithographic Printing Press. 67 

produced complete ; at least, the only preparation for the press which 
it requires is the trimming of the superfluous edges, which is done by 
a circular saw with great celerity. ‘The back of the plate is as smooth 
as the slab of metal from which it received its impression, and thus 
the planing process in stereotyping is now done away. The whole 
operation is perfectly clean, and may be conducted and completed in 
less than an hour, while by the ordinary process the period varies 

from ten to twelve hours, liable to the breaking, splitting, or warping 
of the stucco matrices, risks which are unknown in the new card- -pro- 
cess. Plates may be produced by this process as distinct and clear as 
any that have been cast from stucco. As many as a dozen casts may 
be taken from the same ecard. Glasgow Prac. Mec. & Eng. Mas. 

Lithographic Printing Press. 
> o 

All attempts which have heretofore been made to apply to li- 
thography the principle of machinery, introduced in typographic 
priuting about twenty years ago, have been unsuccessful, as it was 
found impossible to obtain by a machine-press the same precision and 
regularity of pressure as by the common hand-press. M. Nicolle has 
not only made a machine so perfect as to give impressions as good 
as those obtained by hand;—he has gone further, for the impressions 
thrown off by his machine are superior to those obtained by the ordi- 
nary process now in use, whilst in point of capuenty the improvement 
s sv great as to be almost incredible. By the common lithographic 
rocess, not more than from 200 to 250 good impressions of designs, 
or about 1000 copies of lithographic writing can be obtained in twelve 
hours; by this new machine, whieh is also worked by hand, as many 
is 2,000 of the former and 20,600 of the latter can be obtained within 
the same period of time. The machine occupies but a small space; the 

ink-rollers are so arranged that the supply as they pass over the stone 

is rey gularly distributed, the paper is laid upon the stone by machinery, 

, When printed, thrown off without having any person to lay on 

i take off, and thus the expense of working is reduced at the same 

that the products are so greatly multiplied. The most extraor- 

lary part of the machine, however, is that which provides for the 

wetting of the stone for each impression. By the ordinary system, 

the printer is compelled after every impression to moisten the stone 

With a wet sponge. ‘This is an operation that requires great care, but 

which, notwithstanding, gradually affects the drawing, and before a 

thousand copies are taken off the delicacy of the outlines is almost 

destroyed. M. Nicolle has imagined a means of wetting the stone, 

which, to use a French expression, “tient au merveilleux.”” With a 

aaetee of his own invention, and by three or four strokes of the 

piston, he extracts the moisture from the atmosphere, and throws it 

tp the stone in the form of a fine dew, so that the application of 

ought the hand is avoided, and there is greateconomy of time. This pump 
» per- is fixed over the stone, and the piston is rapidly worked by the ma- 
smal. cuiney When we were present, this apparatus was not quite com- 

ge iS 

6S Mechanics, Physics, and Chemistry. 

pleted, and was not, therefore, attached to the machine; but we saw 
the pump at work by the hand, and could have no reasonable doubt 
of its perfect success when aflixed to the machinery. ‘The air of th 
printing-room would necessarily soon lose its moisture by the repeated 
application of the exhausting process; but the moisture may easily he 
kept up by the simple use of a small charcoal stove and an evapora- 
ting dish filled with water. M. Nicolle has patents in France and in 
England for his invention. London Atheneun 

Proceedings of the Society for the Encouragement of National In- 
dustry, Paris. Sitling of May 28, 1845 

Execrroryre Eneravines.—M. Philippe, of Rouen, exhibited 
electrotype copy of an old and much esteemed engraving by Wi 
representing the wandering miustrels, bearing the date of 1764, 
was accompanied by two proofs, one from the original plate and ty 
other from the copy. 

He also deposited a sealed description of the methods he had found 
to be most advantageous for the re-production by electricity of copper- 
plate engravings of every size, and also of the means he had employed 
to proloug, for an indefinite period, the etliciency of the rollers used 
in printing calicoes, &c, by a re-de ‘posite of metal upon their surtac 

It appears from the information furnished by M. Philippe, that | 
plates are composed of three different qualities of copper; the engras 
side is composed of a thick layer of copper, as hard as steel; it can, 
therefore, furnish a large number of impressions without injury. The: 
a layer of medium hardness, and last a layer of perfectly ama 
copper. The superposition of these layers allows the plate to susta 
Without injury the action of the press. If it becomes curved by t 
intensisty of the pressure, it is easily straightened by passing throug 
the press in an inverted position ; this can be done as often as requir 
without the plate undergoing the least alteration. 

M. Philippe remi irked, that the re-produced engraving had_ bee: 
obtained in fourteen days by the action of four pair of the carbon bat- 
tery of Bunsen. Atter two years’ experiments and practice, he 
serts that he is able to re-produce geographical charts engraved 
copper trom the original plates, without the latter undergoing 
slightest injury. 

MAnvuracTure or Svean rrom Brerrs.—™M. Payen remarked tha 
fears had been entertained by many, as to the prosperity of the mat- 
ufacture of the beet root sugar, sinee the establishment of a progres- 
= ea rte domestic Sugars; but on account of the lmprovements 
recently introduced into the maunfacture, all such fears have beet 
dissipated, and there is now no doubt that under equal imposts, be 
sugar can sustain, in our own market, the competition of that from 
the colonies. 

The establishment of the impost had, it is true, occasioned the stop- 
page of many establishments ; but these either had not been scandent 

Y the 
IV be 
1d in 


l In- 





Paris Society of National Industry. 69 

upon proper principles, or were very defective in their arrangemeuts. 
Of three hundred and forty factories in operation three years since, 
two hundred and ninety-two are alone continued ; but these produce 
both a greater quantity and a better quality of sugar than before. The 
present production amounts to thirty-four millions of kilogrammes ; 
the former yield of all the factories was only 27 millions. Far from 
decreasing, the manufacture has greatly advanced. 

On account of the duty, it has been found necessary to reduce the 
general expenses ; but instead of attempting to economize in fuel, ma- 
nipulation and apparatus, it has been found advantageous to increase 
them, and thus obtain larger yields, better quality and a more rapid 
process. ‘The principal improvements referred to by M. Payen were, 

ist. The reduction of the root to a finer pulp, so as to extract the 
juice more perfectly. 
~ 2nd. The omission of the old process of washing with much water. 

3d. A more rapid and more powerful mode of pressing. 

4th. A better plan of concentrating the juice. 

5th. The use of very large crystallizers, which allows the attain- 
ment of crystals of greater cohesion, dissolving with difficulty and 
giving little molasses, aud thus producing refined sugar altogether. 

M. Dumas mentioned that there existed in the department of Nord, 
an establishment on a scale so vast as to be able to work off 100,000 
kilogrammes of juice per day, with all the improvements which the 
art lias yet received ; that these would also have to be adopted by the 
colonies themselves, if they wished to sustain the competition. 

ExrxactrinG Copper rrom irs Ores sy Evecrriciry.—M. Dumas 
called attention to the importance of establishing a prize for the ap- 
plication of electricity to metallurgy, and particularly to the extraction 
of copper from its ores; he thought that the Society, to which the arts 
owed so many useful improvements, ought not to remain inactive 
with regard to the start which recent researches had given to this 
branch of the sciences. 

M. Dumas referred to the results obtained by MM. Dechaud & 
Gualtier de Claubry, who had effected a regular and continuous re- 
duction of copper, by means of a dense solution of sulphate of copper 
and a weaker one of sulphate of iron. In the first is placed a sheet 
of metal destined to receive the copper; in the second are suspended 
fragments of cast-iron, which are connected with the negative plate 
by a conductor ; the iron is dissolved, and effects the decomposition of 
the copper salt. 

The metals appear to be precipitated under the influence of electri- 
city in their equivalent proportions; thus 33 parts of zinc or 28 of 
iron precipitate 30 parts of copper. 

In the present process, analogous results are obtained, for 30 parts 
of cast-iron, containing 5 or 6 per cent. foreign matter, precipitate 
30 parts of copper. 

Thus, with the cheapest of all metals and withont the use of sepa- 

rate electrical apparatus, the copper is precipitated with the greatest 


Pit te bet het ~~ 

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opty ae. 


fae > ht He 





70 Mechanics, Physics, and Chemistry. 

M. Dumas considered the question entirely settled with regard to 
copper. He thought that the Committee on Chemical Arts should 
take into consideration the plan of the practical application of the pile 
to chemical decompositions by the dry way. He then communicated 
some intelligence he had received from England upon this subject, 
where M. Napier had obtained the following results: 

If into melted sulphuret of copper we plunge the poles of a battery, 
the sulphur is separated from the metal, which is thus reduced without 
any other employment of fuel than is requisite to melt the sulphuret. 

Another assertion more probable than the last— 

Into melted cast-iron upon a surface of graphite, the positive pole of 
a battery is introduced ; we obtain pure iron, whilst the foreign ingre- 
dients are collected at the negative pole, (the graphite.) In the first 
experiments, one equivalent of zinc consumed in the battery precipi- 
tated as much as eight equivalents of iron. 

M. Gualtier de Claubry announced that at the next meeting he 
would communicate the details of the process spoken of by M. Dumas, 
and perform some experiments to demonstrate its advantages. 

Extracts from the Proceedings of the Paris .dcademy of Sciences 
[From the London Athenweum.} 

ARTIFICIAL QuARTZ.—A communication was received from M. 
Tibelmen, mining engineer, and joint director of the royal manutac- 
tory of Sévres, announcing that he has succeeded in making an arti- 
ficial quartz, equal in every respect to the natural crystal. ‘This pro- 
cess is of great simplicity. It consists in the evaporation in damp air 
of silicte ether. The crystal thus obtained is very hard and transpa- 
rent, and scratches glass. This discovery will give courage to those 
chemists who are of opinion that even the diamond may be artificially 

DiseAsE or THE Poraro,—A number of communications on thie dis- 
ease of the potato were announced. Amongst them was one in 
which the name of M. Clerget, the inventor of a new process for mak- 
ing potato flour, was particularly mentioned. Nearly all the papers 
concur in declaring that the disease with which the potato is atlected 
is not poisonous. ‘The flour made by M. Clerget contains not merely 
the starch but also the fibre of the potato, with its bran ; it is free from 
unpleasant taste; it will keep for several years where the best wheaten 
flour would decay or deteriorate, and made into bread or biscuit it 
is light of digestion and nutritious; mixed in the proportion of one 
part of potato flour to one part of wheaten flour, the bread is better 
than if made from the flour of wheat exclusively, and is about 30 per+ 
cent. cheaper. ‘The flour obtained by M. Clerget from the potato is 
equal to nearly one-third of the entire mass, namely, 20 per cent. of 
the starch principle, and 10 per cent. of the bran and fibre. His pro- 
cess is a scientific application of the process of mixing potatoes in the 
making of bread. ‘The potatoes are first boiled, then dried before a 
fire, and rubbed up with the wheaten flour. M. Clerget produces the 

— «=. => on 

1 to 


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r he 

> in 
it it 
o is 
. of 



Proceedings of the Paris Academy of Sciences. 71 

same result in the form of flour, omitting all the extraneous and use- 
less portions. 

the first part of a paper on the nature of the milk of different animals. 
He observes that the milk of herbivorous animals always contains 
four orders of substances which form part of their food, viz: the albu- 
minous represented by the caseum, the fatter substances represented 
by butter, the saccharine portion of their food represented by the su- 
gar of milk, and, finally, the salts of different kinds which exist in all 
the tissues of these animals. In the milk of carnivorous animals, 
there is no sugar, and there are only the albuminous, fatty and saline 
substances, which form the general constituents of meat. If, how- 
ever, bread be added to the food of these animals, the sugar of milk 
will be found, although not in large quantities. .M. Dumas concluded 
by stating that his investigations have enabled him to arrive at a per- 
fect analysis of milk. 

A New AmmonracaAL Manure.—M. Boussingault made a com- 
munication relative to a new ammoniacal manure. Having remarked 
that magnesia, the basis which has always been regarded as injurious 
to vegetation, was found in the ashes of all vegetables, and in a pro- 
portion in accord with the quantity of phosphorus also found in the 
ashes, and of that of the azote which enters into the composition of 
plants, he was led to infer that vegetables must assimilate with ease 
and advantage the ammoniated-magnesian phosphate. Being desi- 
rous of verifying this, he planted on the first of May some grains of 
early maize, which had already germinated, in two series of pots; 
ito the half of which he had poured 15 grammes (about haif an 
ounce) of double phosphated salt for each pot. The two series of pots 
were then placed in the open ground. During the first twenty-five 
Jays, the vegetation was the same with both series; after that there 
was a difference in favor of the pots which had been watered with 
ihe phosphate. On the 25th of July, the plants in them were double 
in height those of the other series, and the diameter of the stems was 
iwo-thirds thicker. By the 25thof August, the proportion had dimin- 
ished ; the height of the plants watered by the phosphate was then 
only one-third greater, and the size of the stems double. At the mo- 
ment of their coming to maturity, the phosphated plants bore two 
sound ears, and one that had failed to come to maturity; the other 
plants had only two ears each—viz., one complete and one that had 
failed. This was not all; each grain of the ears of the phosphated 
plants was double in weight to that of the non-phosphated plants. M. 
Boussingault concludes therefore that the salt in question may be used 
with advantage as an artificial manure. 

Log ror ReeisTeRING THE SPEED or VEssELs aT SEA.—M. Arago 
brought forward a log for registering the speed of vessels at sea, with, 
or Without, an electrical apparatus connected with the ship’s compass. 
Mr. Bain’s log is a modification of Massey’s log, which is of great 
bulk, and liable to injury from the action of the sea. Mr. Bain’s log 
isa Simple rotator with an internal mechanism, which is acted upon 


72 Mechanics, Physics, and Chemistry. 

by the revolutions of the instrument, and a dial-plate, showing the 
rate of speed of the vessel. For instance, when the log in passing 
through the water has made a certain number of revolutions, the jn- 
dex marks a quarter of a mile, and goes on in the same way up to 
100 miles, when the index recommences. The log is kept constantly 
in the water, except when the captain wishes to ascertain the distance: 
that has been accomplished, and then it is drawn up, and the dial a: 
the end of the tube being examined, will show how many miles tly 
ship has gone. This instrument has been submitted to the Englis) 
Government, which has given orders for a trial of it. The electri 
apparatus consists of a wire connected with the compass. ‘The elec. 
tric fluid communicated by the sea, which in this case becomes |) 
natural battery, is transmitted to the compass, and marks not only th 
rate of sailing, but every part of the ship’s course. In the compass \ 
placed a card printed with lines. Atevery quarter of a mile, a p 
or pencil marks the course or direction of the ship upon the paper 
The captain may thus ascertain, by looking at the compass, how th 
ship is steered and the rate at which she is passing through the water 
When this paper is filled, it is removed, and another substituted, au: 
thus a perfect registry is obtained. 

DaGuerREoTYPE Process on a GIGANTIC SCALE.—A paper was 
received from M. Martenz, stating that he has discovered the mea 
of carrying on the Daguerreotype process on a gigantic scale. He can, 
he says, Daguerreotype an entire panorama, embracing 150 degrees 
His process consists in curving the metallic plate, and causing the len 
which reflects the landscape to turn by clockwork. ‘The lens, 
turning, passes over on one side the whole space to be Daguer 
typed, and on the other side moves the refracted |uminous cone tot! 
plate, to which the objects are successively conveyed. 

CriimaTeE or Atcerta.—M. Aimé divides Algeria into three (s- 
tinct zones, the first of which is from the north slope of the At 
mountains to the sea; the second comprises the plateaux and ridge: 
ofthe mountains; and the third, the southern slope, which leads 
to the Desert of Sahara. The mean temperature of the towns of th 
coast varies between 17° and 18° of Centigrade; maximum being 3, 
which is caused by the sirocco, At Algiers, the temperature has only 
once, in a period of seven years, fallen below freezing point, and this 
phenomenon is still more rare at Oran. In the second zone, the vat 
ations of temperature are greater, as shown by the following table :— 

Height above Mean term- 
the sea. perature. Minimum. Maximur 
Sétiff, 1100 metres. 13 deg. 4°5 38 
Medeah, 820 « 14 « 2 36 
Milisanah, soo « 15 « 2 33 
Constantina, 600 « 17 « 2 40 
Masacra, 400 * 15 « 3 41 

M. Aimé’s observations in the third zone are Jess numerous. ! 
Biskara, in August last, the temperature varied from 22° to 44°, aud 
in February from 1° to 17°.