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M1. Vif, ( AC. é 4 Lyin 

DECEMBER ° 19 43 


r fh 


tienen — 


HE lookout on the PC boat stared 
again at the twinkling midnight sky. 

“Must have been a falling star,” he 
said half-aloud. 

But, as he watched, a far-away point 
of light—red this time—rose above the 
horizon, lingered briefly . . . and dis- 

The lookout clutched his telephone. 
“Bow lookout to bridge: Distress signal 
3 points off the port bow, sir.” 

Seconds later, the PC boat swerved 
sharply and churned to the rescue. 

The light which this sailor spotted is 
called a Very signal. Twelve signal car- 
tridges — red — green — white — together 
with a hand projector are packed in a 
six-inch, air-tight can—a Canco con- 
tainer which has frequently meant rescue 
to the crews of foundering ships... a 

chance to fight again on the high seas. 

To cans for Very Signals, add... 
... complete torpedoes ...fuse containers 
... demolition kits ... hand grenades... 
containers for blood-plasma transfusion 
kits... first-aid kits ... emergency field 
rations ...and a host of other vital war 
products—all made by Canco. 

In addition, Canco machine shops are 
devoting the greater part of their time 
to the production of specified basic ma- 
chine tools for other war needs. 

At the same time, the amount of 
food packed for the Army and Navy and 
the home front shows no signs of slacken- 
ing. Indeed, last year more food was 
packed in cans than ever before. 

These are some reasons why it was 
necessary to drop certain can sizes and 
why metal containers are no longer avail- 

able for numerous consumer products. 

Please understand, however, that this 
company is doing everything possible to 
“stretch” its metal supplies and to de- 

substitute containers 

wherever possible. 


oN e) 



As you read this advertisement—stop 
and think—your blood could save the 
life of a wounded American soldier! If 
you live in or near one of the 33 cities 
in which blood-donor centers are lo- 
cated, call and make an appointment. 

ucts. | 

le to 

»de- | 


N.Y. | 


— | 


HRISTMAS! Reflect upo 
faeeich every man has many—not upon your past misfo 
ome. Fill your glass again, with a merry face and co 
, but your Christmas shall be merry, and your New Year a 
A not. hope to say it better. Phoenix Metal Cap Co., Chicago and B 

DECEMBER * 1943 



PEARL HAGENS, Managing Editor 

CHARLES A. SOUTHWICK, JR., Technical Editor 
R. L. VAN BOSKIRK, Washington Editor 

FLORENCE GETTER, Editorial Assistant 


presented a preliminary article on 
Saran film, telling something of the 
properties and war uses of this im- 
portant new material. In this issue 
appears the first complete labora- 
tory report, with charts, tables and 
summaries of the recognized testing 
methods telling exactly what may 
be expected of Saran in postwar 
packaging. The article, by two of 
the scientists who have been most 
closely associated with Saran’s de- 
velopment, starts on page 95. 

This month’s cover 

Hundreds of volunteers like those 
in the photo, most of whom have 
sons and husbands in_ service, 
packed 55,000 Christmas packages 
for men overseas at the Central 
Red Cross Chapter of Queens, 
Jamaica, L.I. Cartons holding 72 
packages were lined with water- 
proof paper and roped for shipment. 
Job was completed in eight days, 
half the time allotted. The Ameri- 
can Red Cross sees to it that every 
serviceman overseas receives a 
package on Christmas day. 

Member of Audit Bureau of Circulations 


General Manager 
DANIEL M. BROADS Production 
F. L. POSNER Circulation 
WALTER S. ROSS Promotion 

221 N. La Salle St, Chicago /, Ill. 

815 Superior Ave. Cleveland 14, Ohio 

427 West 5th St. Los Angeles 13, Calif. 


) 2 ._ = 
ode “chuyiny 



1943 Conference—‘‘Meeting wartime restrictions”’ 


Home packaging for the freezer-locker 

War lessons in time, space and labor saving 

A study in eye-catching display 


A preview of Wharton School study 

Conservation caps keep coffee fresh 

5,000,000 crowns a month saved 

Packaging does a big Lend-Lease job 


Camouflage plan may preserve brand identity 

Lederle redesigns packages for 70 products 


Suggesting needs in packaging machinery 

First-aid kits dressed in khaki 


Laboratory study points answer for Army 


FOR YOUR INFORMATION.............0..0.0.0cce cece eee 148 

122 E, 42nd St., New York 17, N. Y. WASHINGTON OFFICE: 625 Colorado Bldg., 14th & G. Sts., D.C. 6 

Published the 5th of each month by Breskin Publishing Corporation. Publication office: Twentieth and Northampton Sts., Easton, Pa. Sponsors of the All- 

America Package Competition. 
Canadian, $9.00; foreign, $10.00. 

Subscription $5.00 per year in United States; Canadian, $5.50; foreign, $6.00. Two-year subscription: United States, $8.00; 
All foreign subscriptions payable in United States currency or equivalent in foreign currency computed in current exchange. 

Price this issue, 50¢ per copy. Copyright 1943 by Breskin Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved including the right to reproduce this book or portion 

thereof in any form. Printed in U.S. A. 

Acceptance under the Act of June 5, 1934, at Easton, Pa. Authorized October 7, 1936. 


....f0r bag users 

There’s new reason for interest in bags 
of Alcoa Aluminum Foil 

First, let’s be realistic. Aluminum foil 
bags can never be as cheap as paper 
bags. No, not even nearly as cheap. 

However, the war-born abundance 
of aluminum can’t help but have an 
effect on the price of foil bags, postwar. 
That price should be more interesting 
than any you’ve ever had in the past. 

There’s another reason for re- 
examining foil bags for packing your 
product . . . new construction and 
sealing techniques. Plastic coatings 
and membranes teamed up with 
aluminum foil will make bags stronger. 
Thermoplastic sealing agents will 
make all seams tighter. 


These new reasons plus the old ones 
... aluminum foil’s inherently superior 
protective properties . . . challenge the 
thinking of bag users. They demand a 
look-see by even those who use car- 
tons, cans and glass containers. These 
metal bags may well be the answer to 
lower packaging costs with complete 
protection for your product. 

The actual answer must wait till 
the war’s end. Meanwhile some study 
of the idea is indicated, for the reasons 
mentioned. Shall we make it a co- 
operative study? ALUMINUM COMPANY 
or America, 2129 Gulf Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Bags of Alcoa Aluminum Foil will 
be made, after the war, in this and 
other styles to suit your needs. 

DECEMBER * 1943 



Alone, or in combi- 
nation with other 
materials, it excels 
in preserving fresh- 
ness, flavor, volume, 
aroma and color of 
products that are 
sensitive to air, light, 
radiant heatand gain 
or loss of moisture. 
Its sparkling beauty 
makes a handsome 
package, too. 

do a Master Job 


Another good thought 
passed on by 

x * 










a77IL gt 
$ o* 
i ad 

If the war should end tomorrow what you 
will have to offer the postwar world will 
be precisely what you have ready today. 
‘Recognizing this . . . many forward-thinking concerns are 
already planning their postwar packages ... working out 
now, details for which there may well not 
be time later. Why not consult a Milprint 
representative today? There is no obligation. 

. et -@ul- 
~ —— Lomine 

han’: an eet 
celloP xed ‘ 
id including Bags 

inum FO forms | spec 
5 0 uches ith! 
aps, R° is r ps: soe nrer 
ar Re god Mattar cau 
io : w 
Revere ind Winespie and Co ”) 
Foldin simp!e 
Y se 

pispley”’ us prising 5, on = 
umegrerr* terre Tat Kinds: 

Rot? z 


DECEMBER ®* 1943 7 



N A WORLD of uncertainties, there is one 
sure fact you can include in your postwar 
planning! Paperboard will play a major 

role in future packaging, 

Based on its performance since Pearl 
Harbor, this versatile packaging material 
opens up whole new vistas of beauty, econo- 
my, and utility in the packaging field. 

Here at Sutherland you will find the right 
combination for your postwar packages — 
men with a lifetime background of packaging 



design and technique plus men with produce 
tion know-how, backed by huge modern 
plants for paperboard manufacture, printing, 
and fabrication into all shapes, sizes, and 
types of packages. 

Let us start work now on your future 
packaging program. We can have your post- 
war packages designed, approved by you, and 
ready for production the minute the green 
light flashes. 

Write us about your problem! 




protect the purity 
of Lilly pharmaceutical 

prod ucts 

The makers of quality drugs and phar- 
maceuticals fully recognize the neces- 
sity of protecting their products. Today 
many leading manufacturers are using 
CEL-O-SEAL cellulose bands for added 
protection of package closures. 

The application of a CEL-O-SEAL 
band is the modern method of sealing 
closures securely in place. These bands 
keep closures on. They forestall tam- 
pering with the contents of bottles, 
jars and other containers. They help 
prevent evaporation and leakage and 
assure that health-guarding products 
retain maximum possible strength. 

Whatever your package closure prob- 
lem .. . consider CEL-O-SEAL. There 
are many types and styles, colors and 
sizés. Write for complete information. 
E. |. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.), 
““Cel-O-Seal’’ Section, Empire State 
Bidg., New York 1, New York. 

Also sold by: Armstrong Cork 
Company, Glass & Closure Division, 
Lancaster, Pa.—I. F. Schnier Co., 
683 Bryant St., San Francisco, Calif. 





DECEMBER °* 1943 

all ofem 

@ Yes, there are cold vegetable adhesives or hot 
animal glues made by Swift & Company for Can we help you? 

all uses, including the following: 

There are still a lot of noncritical 

adhesives available. There are still 
Bottle labeling 

many ways to do a good gluing job, 
eset meen even under present conditions. 
Case sealing Our work today isn’t “‘selling’’; 
rather, it’s ‘“helping’’... helping our 
customers meet the fast changing 

Folding boxes 

Leather goods ne , 
~ conditions due to new materials, new 

container problems, new demands, 
and new restrictions. 

Today our 50 years of glue and 

Loose leaf binders 
Magazine coverings 


Remoistening helpful to many customers. It’s yours 

Spreader sets for the asking. 

Tight wrapping Can we help you? 
Tin labeling 

Tube winding 

a” adhesive experie i i 
a perience is proving most 


Glue Division - Chicago 9 

Factories at: Chicago, Ill., Harrison, N. J., 

South San Francisco, Calif., St. Joseph, Mo., Omaha, Neb. 

, oo , y , 
f our branches and plants throughout th 



oe won't be the 

same as former holidays but, 

for “their” sakes, let’s keep 
our vision clear, our chins up, 
and our faith steadfast. And 

in that spirit we send you 



hEsapeake 3344 


528-34 North Western Ave. ¢ Chicago (12) Ilinoi 



DECEMBER ° 1943 

Among the bags produced for war service by Bemis are Multiwall 
Paper Bags slipped over cloth bags for foods to be shipped over- 
seas. These packages are especially designed so they can be tossed 
into the water and carried ashore without damage to contents. 


Morale among fighting men depends upon full 
mess kits, and Uncle Sam spares no effort to 
see that his warriors on land and sea are the 
best fed in the world. 

Getting this all important food to the men on 
our far-flung fronts in a sound, wholesome con- 
dition is just as important as “keeping their 
powder dry.” It’s a task that calls for wide ex- 
perience and know-how...a task the bag indus- 
try has taken in its stride. 

In the 22 Bemis mills and factories more than 
8,000 employees have made millions of bags 
to protect and transport food over land and 
sea, from farm and factory to fighting men. We 
like to think this our contribution to morale 
for Victory. In addition to this important work, 
we still find time to supply industry and agri- 
culture with bags for other war materials and 
essential civilian goods. 

Costs Cut and Losses Reduced 
With Bemis Multiwall Paper Bags 

Bemis Multiwall Paper Bags are economical, 
one-trip containers that guard against moisture 
and thus reduce caking and loss of quality. 
Their extra strength maintains output by mini- 
mizing breakage on production lines. Bemis 
self-forming gussets speed filling and closing. 
Brilliant Bemis printing makes brands stand out. 

Let us work with you in supplying bags for 
your war or civilian production. From the bags 
themselves to their filling, closing, shipping 
and storing, our staff of experts can help you. 
If you have a packaging problem... present or 
future ...let’s talk it over. 




All of us in the glass container and closure industry do our best 
to make lighter, stronger, less expensive containers, and depend- 
able, more efficient lower cost closures. Each company, to promote 
these improvements, spends in research and development as much 
as it can afford. And the efforts of all are, of course, commendable. 
But some companies succeed beyond others in improving products, 
lowering prices or bettering service. This may be because of 
extensive experience, large facilities, exceptional financial ability, 
or a strong insistence upon a higher manufacturing standard. 
When, as with Anchor Hocking, all these attributes are combined, 
that company is, obviously, better qualified as a highly desirable 
source of supply. 

M. L. COOK, one of Anchor Hocking’s ablest and 
most popular men, has been a member of the Anchor 
Hocking family for 17 years. 


il, Yreuass a cars 


Their Supplies Are Packed Right 


The Armed Services are as exacting about the container as they 
are about its contents . . . that's why they ask every shipper to "Pack 
It Right to Reach the Fight." 

Never has Apaco taken greater pride in its products. Apaco 
corrugated shipping cases, Belsinger textile cases, and Apaco folding 
cartons—all are proving themselves invulnerable convoys for precious 

AUGUSTA PAPER COMPANY supplies—getting them to every front dry ... intact... and ready 
Augusta, Ga. for action! . 
Columbus, Ga. 
Macon, Ga. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 




Memphis, Tenn. 


Little Rock, Ark. Established | iy 
78 68 ee : 



IRCRAFT engines and fuselages now go to war 
A wrapped and hermetically sealed in Pliofilm. 
Wherever they go, they emerge ready for action — 
as bright and spotless as the day they left the factory. 

In the case of an aircraft engine, this use of Pliofilm 
saves 75 man-hours, once required for the coating 
and removal of heavy grease protection against 
moisture. No other pliable, transparent packaging 
material has saved so much precious time in war — 

or withstood such severe moisture tests. 

With peace there will be more Pliofilm than ever 
before available to the packaging industry. Remem- 
ber then what Pliofilm does now. 

Pliofilm is the packaging material that keeps mois- 
ture where you want it. Whether your product 
requires preservation of moisture content — like 
varden-fresh vegetables, or must be kept moisture- 
free — like sulpha drugs, Pliofilm will answer your 
postwar packaging problem. And gleaming, trans- 

parent Pliofilm is an attractive merchandising 

feature. Jewel-like precision of aircraft engines retained by Pliofilm. 


Actual experiments conducted by the Agricultural Experiment Station 
of the University of Florida. 

Pliofilm seals moisture in fruit, potato chips, pharmaceuticals, pre- 

vegetables, cheese, frozen foods, cision instruments and cables. Two- 
tobacco, meats and other products way moisture control makes liter- 
with moisture content that should ally thousands of applications for 
be preserved. And it seals moisture Pliofilm. For information write: 

out of such moisture-sensitive prod- Pliofilm Sales Dept., Goodyear, 

happens to ordinary unwrapped carrots after a week in ucts as dehydrated foods, peanuts, Akron 16, Ohio. 

the icebox? These Pliofilm-protected carrots were stored 

at 37° — for a year and a ha‘f. Official report: **Loss of THINGS ARE BETTER PACKAGED IN 

weight was negligible, and the carrots held their color 
perfectly — retained their firmness and vitamin content.” 



ALL FOUR MONTHS OLD! But the still-perfect oranges 

were “‘stretch-wrapped” in Pliofilm. Official report: 

“The oranges wrapped in Pliofilm lost less than 2% of 
their initial weight after four months’ storage — the IN RUBBER 

original taste and appearance of the fruit were un Pitcfiien—T:M: The Goodyear Tike & Robber Cam 
changed — Vitamin C content very slightly diminished.” . 

DECEMBER °* 1943 

Coated Lithwite, with its surface 

mineral coating, gives you just 
the white you want. 


right as ever: 

Despite the shortage of critical wood pulps which necessitate the use 

of pulps of darker and poorer quality, you can still get 

folding cartons as white and bright as ever with Coated Lithwite 

S YOU KNOW, many high-grade paperboards have 
been affected by war conditions. But not Coated Lith- 

wite. Its original whiteness and brightness, its brilliant 
printability, its unusual folding and sealing qualities have 

been maintained. And the reason: the surface coating of 

this revolutionary paperboard is compounded of noncritical 

All of this should be good news to carton buyers. For this 
genuine mineral-coated paperboard enables you to give your 
packages the advantage of better appearance and, fortunately 
for you — because there have been fewer problems in the 
production of Coated Lithwite than in some other high- 
grade paperboards — limited quantities of Coated Lithwite 
cartons are available from time to time. 

Write. We will send you printed samples so you can 
compare the striking qualities of Coated Lithwite with your 
present cartons. Better still. Send along detailed specifi- 
cations and a sample of your present carton and we will sub- 
mit a quotation so you can also make a down-to-the-penny 

cost comparison with the cartons you are now using. 

FINER PRINTING. Coated Lithwite’s surface is 
so uniform and hard, so free from ‘‘chalki- 
ness,"’ that inks stand up brilliantly, halftones 
and type print crisply—without fill-up or 

BETTER PERFORMANCE. Coated Lithwite bends, 
scores and folds without shattering. Takes a 
tight seal—and is not temperamental about 
the type of glue used. 


Manufacturers of Folding Cartons and Boxboard 



DECEMBER ®* 1943 17 



@ We manufacture a complete line of sturdy drawn 
transparent plastic boxes in all shapes and sizes. Typ- 
ical models are shown in photo. Every size and shape 
can be manufactured to meet specifications. Rounds, 
squares and oblongs are all available, and inserts and 
partitions may be inserted to meet your requirements. 
We also manufacture plas- 

tics in other forms: injec- These boxes are presently being used by the Army, 
tion and compression i 

molded boxes; extruded Navy and Marine Corps for a great many purposes. 
rods, tubes and special Th di 1 f : d : b 
shapes including collap- ey are used in war plants for storing and routing sub- 
sible tube bodies; acetate assemblies and for small parts in repair and service de- 
and butyrate sheet cut to 

size in thicknesses from partments. They give protection and visibility at the 

.003.” and up. same time. 

Production facilities are ample to handle large orders. 
Prices and samples will be sent on request. 

End use must be permissive under WPB rules and regu- 
lations for sample requests and orders to be filled. 


“Wasttcs Fatrtcated ty cr ery ELEM CLT ALLE Industry’ : 


Telephone: Leominster 1650 * LEOMINSTER, MASSACHUSETTS © Teletype Leominster 295 
New York City Sales Agency: 27 West 20th Street *¢ Chelsea 3-0267-8 


It started in America. It traveled 
by train—boat—plane—truck. 

It was bounced about, knocked 
around. It was even sat on for hours! 

Then, months later, it became a 

life-saving oasis for a pair of stranded 
US. fliers. 

You’ve guessed by now what it is 
—a can of drinking water! A flat can 
with a wax-sealed top and a special 
inner lining that keeps water pure 
indefinitely. Part of a pilot’sseat pack, 
it’s opened for emergencies only. 

Perhaps you’ve also guessed why 
this precious water is packed in 
cans. Cans are sturdy. They’re proof 

The story of the traveling oasis 

against dirt, heat, cold, light, mois- 
ture, insects. You can depend on 
cans—they deliver the goods safe! 

You'll find the can on every front 
today. It’s guarding American boys 
... supplying our Allies... and still, 
it’s on the job here at home. 

The cans we’re making for war 
today will some day be back—better 
than ever. We’re gaining new knowl- 
edge and experience as “Packaging 
Headquarters for America”’ at war. 


Rushed as we are, we can still take on more war 
work. A part of our vast metal-working facili- 
ties for forming, stamping, machining and as- 
sembly is still available. Write or phone our War 
Products Council, 100 E, 42nd St., N. Y. C, 




ne oak verne - : . peneenee t Doar 


In 1839, Niepce and Daguerre of Paris discov- 
ered how to fix an image on a tin plate, and the 
art of photography was born... Tin-type methods 
were simple and crude beside the long-range, 

high-speed, full-color photography of today. 

NEUTRAGLAS... offering the highest resistance 
to solvent action and chemical attack ... was 
developed by Kimble because no glassware can 

be just “good enough” if better is obtainable. 


Standardize NOW on Kimble Ampuls, 
SerumVials, Serum Bottles and Clinical 
Glass containers of NEUTRAGLAS. 

Dav still gets his pipeful — even 

though its peacetime package has 
gone to war. For versatile paper- 
board cartons and shipping cases 
have successfully taken over hun- 
dreds of new packaging jobs—re- 
leasing metals, rubber, plastics and 

other critical materials for war use. 

Because conversion to paper- 
board has always been a specialty 
at Container Corporation, we've had 

a large share of this work. Our staff 

are wizards at developing or adapt- 
ing finishes, coating, linings, designs 
for particular types of products — 
and rich in that combination of 
experience and imagination that 

produces ideas. 


General Offices: 111 W. Washington St., Chicago * New York © Rochester * Natick, Mass. * Philadelphia 
Akron © Cincinnati * Cleveland * Circleville © Detroit * Indianapolis * Wabash * Carthage * Anderson, Ind. 
Pecria * Rocklsland ® Minneapolis * Baltimore © St.Louis * Fernandina © Dallas * Ft. Worth 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 


The divisions of General Printing Ink Corporation are contributing to the war 
effort in various ways. The list below represents sundry items which they have 
developed or manufactured for the government and the armed forces. Several 

technical assignments and experiments cannot be divulged. 

* %& %& *%& Cameras for the Engineer Corps. 
* *& *& *& Oil coolers for the Navy. 
% % %& %& Shell trimmers (both for small arms and guns). 

% % % %& Machining ship parts for the Navy and Maritime Com- 

* *& %& %& Parts of range finders for the Navy. 

%*% %& & %& Equipment for marking wire and cable used in air 

% %& *& %*& Special printing machinery for product identification. 
% %& *% %*& Equipment for map reproduction for Engineer Corps. 

%& *& *& & Printing and photographic equipment for reproduc- 
tion of templates for airplane industry. 

*& *& & & Equipment for aircraft instrument dials. 

%* %& %& %& Photo-composing machines for Bureau of Engraving 
and Printing. 

*& *& & %*& Equipment for Signal Corps. 

*%& *& *& *& Navy blue compound (for waterproofing and flame- 
proofing duck for the Navy). 

%& %& %& %& Compound for shrimp net coating (fireproof, infra-red 
reflectance camouflage specifications). 

*& *%& *& %*& Nylon coatings and raincoat coatings for Quarter- 
master Corps. 

* *%& *% *% Development and manufacture of fluorescent inks 
used by the air forces of this country and some of the 
foreign powers. 

%* *% *& * Inks for the Engineer Corps and Navy. : 

*%& %& %& %& Shell marking and identification inks. 

* *& *% *® Fingerprint inks for Army, Navy and Medical Corps. 
% % *%& %& Parachute marking inks. 

% %& %& *& Inks for marking communication equipment for 
Signal Corps. 

*% * *% * Duplicating and printing inks for Office of Emergency 

* * * *& Special printing inks for Lend-Lease. 

%* % *% *%& Printing and lithographic inks for all branches of 
armed services. 

* *& *& * Navy fireproof non-skid deck paints. 

* *& *& *& ‘Sea Slicks’”’ for designation of submarines, lifeboats, 
rafts, targets, etc., for the Air Force and Navy. 

% %& *& * Tentage Compound (for waterproofing and flame- 
proofing duck for the Army). 

% %& & %& Various camouflage compounds for both Army and 
avy to be used on osnaburg cloth, jute, burlap and 

* %& *& *& Gas resistant and waterproof coatings for Army and 

* * * * Identification inks for synthetic rubber program. 












in to fix 
a good drink 

CorrEE is a refresher: That’s why every Army 
K-ration kit is supplied with the makings of a 
cup. And, to be certain the drink will be a 
good one, the coffee powder (enough for a cup) 
is packed in an envelope . . . air-tight, fume- 
proof, water-proof and vapor-moisture-proof. 
It is a teamwork job between metal foil and 
Lumarith* foil. To the favorable qualities of 
the metal, Lumarith adds the necessary 
toughness, waterproofness and protection of 
the printed instructions. 

The same sort of packaging teamwork of 
Lumarith with other materials is responsible 




*Reg. U.S. Pat. Off. 

for the safe delivery of a great part of the sup- 
plies and equipment shipped to our armed 
forces all over the globe . . . keeping food fresh 
and uncontaminated and equipment free of 
rust and ready for instant use. 

The technical service department of 
Celanese Celluloid Corporation has informa- 
tion of value to manufacturers who are con- 
cerned with both short-range and long-range 
planning. You are invited to call or write. 
Celanese Celluloid Corporation, a division of 
the Celanese Corporation of America, 180 
Madison Avenue, New York City 16. 

DECEMBER * 1943 

I Bees Wish tia Kind Thought 

Throughout the coming holidays millions of family toasts will be raised to 

dear ones whose only home presence ts of the mind and thoughts... 

Appreciating that this year, one is inclined to more quiet, cherished 
reflections, it seems appropriate that we extend our thanks, with simple 
sincerity, as a greeting of kind thoughts in the hope that the family 
separations of this holiday season be firnly and permanently re-united long 

before the next to come... For such is the power of Peace! 

Sit A Meee 





Af? 24 UU eh. 




Whether it’s in the groove jive or a vital war 
message, Radio and Electronic tube perform- 
ance depends on tiny leads and supports. 
These thumb-sized tubes are made with 
Callite Tungsten elements. 

components are extra sensitive—super durable. 

These delicate devices are shipped in MASON 
for extra safety 
—easy packing 
and sure de- 



175 5TH AVE. 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 

Make War Bonds the Christmas Order of the Day. 
Urge your workers to make their personal Christmas 
gifts in the form of War Bonds—and practice what you 
preach! Make this a 100% War Bond Christmas—to 
insure future Yuletides of peace and prosperity. 

Make up your own posters to spread the ‘‘War Bonds 
for Christmas” story across your plant. Tell the story 
again and again on bulletin boards, in your plant maga- 
zine, and on pay envelope stuffers. 

But don’t forget your basic, all-important Pay-Roll 
Savings Plan. How’s it going, these days? Perhaps it 
needs a bit of stoking-up right this very minute, to 
hold its full head of steam against the competitive de- 
mands of the holiday season. 


... and drive even harder on the pay-roll savings plan!” 

Well, you’re the man to stoke it! You can’t ex- 
pect it to keep running indefinitely on last summer’s 
enthusiasm. See to it that your participation percent- 
ages, and your deduction percentages, both end up the 
year at new levels. 

Every month, now your Pay-Roll Savings ought to 
run well ahead of the preceding month. For so many 
families that formerly depended on the earnings 
of a single worker, now enjoy the combined earn- 
ings of several. Such family incomes are doubled, 
trebled, even multiplied many times. 

Now’s the time to turn as much as possible of these 
increased earnings into War Bonds—War Bonds for 
Christmas ... and War Bonds the whole year ’round! 


This space contributed to Victory by 


This advertisement prepared under the auspices of the United States Treasury Department and the War Advertising Council 


one | 




OU may find it hard to believe 

that any ingredient of fine 
| glassware must be measured in a 
| quantity as small as five one-hun- 
p dredths of one per cent of the en- 
pure batch. But it’s true. For in- 
jStance, as little as one pound of 
°he material in a ton of glass can 
make that glass decidedly clearer, 
rizhter, more brilliant. 

— careful measurement means 
that the production of fine glass 

depends, among other things, on 
fine, accurate control over the in- 
gredients. As a rule, any of today’s 
commercial glassware will have 
the clarity and brilliance you ex- 
pect. You can take for granted that 
its ingredients have been weighed 
and mixed with care. 

But the fact that only one pound 
of one ingredient in 2000 pounds 
of glass means better ware is im- 
portant to you because it proves a 
point—the point that there can be, 
and often is, a difference in glass. 

The difference is made up of 
things that are little in themselves 


Pipes: ® 

—such things as composition, ther- 
mal shock resistance, brilliance, 
clarity, toughness. When added to- 
gether, they can make the big dif- 
ference in the containers you buy, 
the difference between ordinary 
glass and top-quality glass. 
That difference is important. 

The skill and care that go into 
the making of Armstrong’s Glass 
are pictorially described in our 
new booklet, “Men and Glass.” For 
your free copy, drop a postcard to 
Armstrong Cork Co., Glass 
and Closure Division, 5912 
Prince St., Lancaster, Pa. 

er Convoy 

Submarines and bombers are not the only 
menace along America’s far-stretched supply 
lines. Sub-zero cold, scorching heat, extreme 
humidity, frequent hasty handling — all these 
can exact a costly spoilage toll, if perishable 
products are improperly packaged. 
Warnercraft is helping “plug” such leaks. 

New and better paperboard containers have 


Official U. S. Navy Photograph 

been evolved — tough boxes and cartons that 
are moisture-proof, grease-proof, sift-proof. 

A group of long-experienced Warner ex- 
perts stands ready to assist you in securing 
safer transit for your product. They will help 
you help the war effort by packaging goods 
that reach the embattled users just as they 

left your plant. 

Caron wc >) WARNERCRAFI 

. - » For WARNERCRAFT SERVICE Makers of set-up and folding boxes of all types, transparent acetate 
. - - For WARNERCRAFT QUALITY containers, hand made specialties, counter displays and dispensers. 


Coll Brid t 4-010! N ‘ Main Office and Factory: 325 Lafayette Street, Bridgeport, Conn. 
wictartons, sl - Se ee New York Sales Office: 200 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. 



Naturally, Rover, you wouldn't understand—but your 
mistress. eye was caught by those gleaming, graceful 
Maryland Glass Bottles in the store window 

Yet, smart as are the Maryland Glass designs of pre- 

y origin, they will be supplanted by even more al- 
luriry styles after Victory . . . . In your post-war plan- 
ning, kegp posted on Maryland Glass bottles and jars. 

Broadway . .. . Chitggo: Berman Bros., 1501 S. Laflin St. . . . . St. Louis: H. A. Baumstark, 

4030 Chouteau Ave.%... Memphis: S. Walter Scott, 435 S. Front St. .... Kansas City, 
Mo.: Aller Todd, 1294™%4Jnion Ave. .... Cincinnati: J. E. McLaughlin, 401 Lock St. .... 
San€zancisco: Owens-Illinois Pacific Coast Co. 


DECEMBER ®* 1943 


The Harris Four-Color Offset Press illustrated above 
was recently installed in our San Francisco plant as part 
of an expansion program initiated more than two years 
ago. This modern press is the newest addition to the 
West's lithographing facilities. Purchased and built just 
prior to Pearl Harbor, it typifies the attention that we, as 
pioneers in Western lithography, continue to give to the 
installation and use of the most modern lithographic 
equipment, and our desire to maintain our customary 
speed in delivering top quality work. 

The Harris Four-Color Offset Press represents the last 
word in four-color process reproduction equipment. It 
prints 5,000 sheets, 42” x 58” (or smaller), per hour in 
one operation. With its Harris Stream Feeder, it assures 

top production—bettered by few other presses installed 
anywhere in the country. 

This Company has added the names of some of the West's 
largest label users and advertisers to its list of customers 
since the new Harris press was installed. Lithographic 
reproduction for these many concerns has been handled 
expeditiously, and always in a highly satisfactory manner. 
The quality of such work has, without exception, been of 
the very highest order. 

We invite our old customers as well as others to take ad- 
vantage of our new facilities. Call for a salesman. Let us 
place that new lithograph job of yours on our production 
schedule for early delivery. 


Lithographers and Printers Since 1879 



AN averace of five more tons per car ... that’s the war-load being shouldered by the railroads. 
And that’s why “floored” shipping boxes must support many more pounds per package. 
One case for better packaging rests on that fact. Crushed shipping boxes mean damaged merchan- 

dise. That means waste of materials, manpower, time and shipping space . . . waste that can be greatly 

curtailed by use of sturdy corrugated boxes engineered to meet the new conditions. 


Ask an H & D Package Laboratory to check your shipping boxes. A few pennies more in the right 

place may enable you to cut losses enormously. 


Protect the Product 


- P ASEREIRE “CCRY:C0 nee Soe. eee sounn St grt ctosinn iteration 

The cost? A penny post card. Mail your requests to... 

HINDE 2 DAUCH, Executive Offices: 
ns — 4314 Decatur Street, Sandusky, Ohio 

FACTORIES in Baltimore @ Boston @ Buffalo @ Chicago © Cleveland @® Detroit @ Gloucester, N. J. 
Hoboken @ Kansas City @ Lenoir, N. C. @ Montreal @ Richmond @ St. Louis @ Sandusky, Ohio @ Toronte 


DECEMBER ®* 1943 i 


for a Precision Tool... 

mM .. that Provides a INDDERM Method 

of Checking Micrometers and Other 
Precision Inspection Devices 

Sav-Way’s new set of Master Setting and 
Checking Rolls is housed as befits a pre- 
cision tool of this calibre, in a modern 
transparent plastic case. 

Precision tools and inspection devices are 
only as accurate as the methods and gages 
by which they are set and checked. When 


anvils are worn unevenly, flat gage blocks 
cannot give accurate readings. Sav-Way 
Master Setting and Checking Rolls provide 
for the first time a really accurate means of 
checking micrometers, snap-gages, ampli- 
fiers, dial indicators, and other inspection 
devices, under all conditions of wear. 


The set consists of 20 rolls ranging 
from .100” to 2.000” in diameter. Rolls 
are hardened, ground, and lapped to X 
gage tolerance. They are deep frozen be- 
fore finish grinding to eliminate internal 
strains and provide accelerated ageing. 

Send for Illustrated Literature 


in London or Berlin may change the entire course of your 


It takes far less time to unconditionally surrender a shat- 
tered army than it does to change a business from a war to 

a peacetime basis. 

Today, Old Dominion’s creative and engineering staffs are 
studying the possibilities of the new materials and new 
methods which have been produced by this war. They are 
ready, now, to apply their knowledge to your peacetime 







» « « you can’t afford to use 
anything but top quality 

T the present moment, it ap- 
pears fairly certain that there 
will be an adequate supply of top- 
quality corks of all types to meet 
packers’ closure needs in °44. There 
are no restrictions on the use of 
cork and a plentiful stock of corks 
is available. 

Restrictions on containers, and 
on the manufacture of many prod- 
ucts themselves, however, are still 
in force. Because of these, and 

other wartime limitations, many 


packers face the possibility of not 
being able to produce enough pack- 
ages to take care of all their cus- 
tomers. This makes it more impor- 
tant than ever before that you use 
top-quality corks in °44. 

For top-quality corks help you 
make sure that every package you 
can produce reaches your distribu- 
tors in saleable condition. They re- 
duce losses in production and dis- 
tribution due to faulty sealing. 

They keep the contents of your 

packages safely, surely sealed, 
ready for use in the best possible 

So, if you’re using corks in 44, 
get them from the company whose 
name for 83 years has stood for 
quality in the cork field. You can 
get types, sizes, and quantities to 
suit your needs, deliveries to meet 
your production schedules. For fur- 
ther information, get in touch with 
your Armstrong representative, or 
write direct to the Armstrong Cork 
Company, Glass and Closure Di- 

vision, 5912 Prince Street, 

Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 


DECEMBER ®* 1943 


by automatic packing 

Tus completely automatic machine has two filling 

stations which pack by volume, fill by volume or weigh, 
according to the consistency of the product and the size 
of container. The machine also has provision for a vibrating 
device for settling the product when this is required. 

Model JK is a late model machine and incorporates many 
improvements and refinements. One time-saving feature 
of value to the user is the hand control for quick 
adjusting of weight variation resulting from a change 


Package Limits: 

3’ 4%" 
y 4" 
Base 5” x 4” 

Running Speed: 60 per minute (2 H.P.) 

12’ including standard conveyor (longer con- 
veyor optional) 

Height 14” to 12” 

Model JK Automatic Gross 
Weight Packing Machine, 
operates as Volume Packer, 
Volume Filler or Gross Weigher. 
(Illustration shows Capping 
Unit attached.) 

in the density of the product. By the simple turn of 
a knob this variation can be corrected while the machine 
is running. 

This machine handles powdered and granular materials of 
all descriptions. The fact that it will automatically pack the 
material, so as to get the exact quantity into the required 
size of container, makes it particularly desirable for the 
automatic filling of many difficult powdered products which 
require packing. 



3400 Ibs. 



Makers of complete line of packaging equipment for weighing, filling, cartoning, closing, box-making and wrapping 

Also owning and operating 

18 Arboretum Road, Roslindale, Boston, Mass. 

Branch Offices: NEW YORK ° 




SRAM he SSR cca 2, </e ce a o  Rhaeraeen EN ct PS VaR eA of ERR a a sine wa rmone apatite 
Spas sins ac SN SA 3 lek nfs, Sahel ETRE LN SRE ORT ee es. a ees 53 ee 

He's Got Bot 
on the Ground! 

High above Munich or Munda, this boy has both 
feet on the ground. His heavy shoes are planted 
squarely on Reynolds Aluminum, made from Bauxite 
ore mined in America. 

Long before Pearl Harbor, Reynolds anticipated 
coming events—the need for a great new source of 
aluminum. So, Reynolds staked all its resources to 
fill this need—to mine its own Bauxite—to build 
mammoth new plants. 

Mounting U. S. plane production is proof of our suc- 
cess. Today, Reynolds is turning out hundreds of 
millions of pounds of finished metal. And some of it 
is going into every American plane now clearing the 
skies of Nazis and Japs. 

Yes now our fliers have both feet on the ground be- 
cause years ago we had our heads in the clouds, saw 
what was coming and did something about it. 


General Offices, Richmond,Va. Parts Division, Louisville, Ry. 


eet ee ie e : ck > 


ee a 

t ou fs percent of our men are in if, 
armed Torces.|Voe oo a ive our i. a 

= anes in if e fh ICU t con Tions. 


Sedis a 


orkin vil subctot molerials isnol sim ad 
LZ pt cuca kt theyre tl dew 

W. wy our bi as we fd Jon since 1909 

k a r ‘ rause 

92 E.19TH ST..NEW YORK, 3 N.Y 


LO OR ee O_o OUP 

Ni as 

| so 

4 ‘hens aianRe Ts st 



General Sales Offic 

Works and Pr 


“Trade Mark Reg. U.S. Pat. Off. 


Foresight in 

calls Crexsits 




ee ee dally with any 
directed by physician. 

Ke 0 stones 
f2 cupevio 


mee! er os 


There is extra protection for products packaged in 
IDIRGE S CLEARSITE . .. more than mere quality protection... 
CLEARSITE survives handling and accidents which 
P ” A R fal A C f U T IC A l $ would totally ruin less resilient containers as well as 

their contents. CLEARSITE, process-labeled direct 

DIETARY PRODUCTS upon the container protects eeled counterfeiting of 
: valuable brand names. Test samples—and SEE for your- 

self! Our Engineering Department is at your Service. 








ts The sranged Iuieg 


Every time you eat a 
meal, you’re at a battle 
station, fighting to save 
food to feed our fight- 
ing men. Remember, 
the Army fights on its 
stomach, so let’s make 
sure to furnish them 

with all the food they 

need, by conserving our . 

home supply. That way, 
you'll help food fight 

for freedom. 

Take one of your packages, for instance. To you, it’s 
mighty important. But as it gets farther away from home 
base, in the hands of wholesaler, retailer or customer, 
that importance diminishes. To them, it’s just another 
item to be bought or sold. 

Dobeckmun Packaging Engineers like to use the cus- 
tomer’s perspective when they’re designing packages. If 
your package can signal “come and get me” and 
then deliver your product in perfect condition, that’s 
the one for you. 

We’ve proved to a lot of people that our converted 
cellophanes, laminated films and foils deliver both eye 
appeal and product protection. While we’re doing our 
share of War work right now, our engineers have time 
available for planning future packages with customer 
perspective. We’d like to work with you. 



DECEMBER ®* 1943 

Representatives: E. C. Collins, Baltimore 

L the war is won 

when you read this—if it isn’t won for 
months to come, efficient cartoning re- 
mains a leading problem for industry. 
Material scarcity demands it! 

The protection, identification, sales 
value of cartons are qualities always in 
need of improvement. The more these 
features are stressed the fewer the lavish 
details and the greater the saving in 
materials. Cut out the waste and your 
package becomes more efficient — more 
welcome by the consumer. 

It is possible now for Ridgelo Clay 
Coated products to contribute to your 
plans. Finer finishes that use less ink, less 
valuable-fiber content, linings to protect, 
rigidity with light weight and minimum 
thickness—these are some of the advan- 
tages of Ridgelo Clay Coated. They are 
good reasons now for using Ridgelo — 
they will be equally good in your carton 
plans at any time. 





Bradner Smith and Company and Mac Sim Bar Paper Company, Chicago @ H.B. Royce, Detroit 
A. E. Kellogg, St. Louis © Philip Rudolph & Son, Inc., Philadelphia 

Gordon Murphy and Norman A, Buist, Los Angeles 





Wie" oe 




Factory and Main Office: BALTIMORE, MD. 



As a user of glass containers there are doubt- 
less many interesting things about Carr- 
Lowrey that may not have occurred to you. 

For example, while we’re not the oldest glass 
manufacturer in the business... we have been 
making quality glass containers for more than 
50 years! 

And while we are not numbered among the 
largest glass manufacturers in America... 
hundreds of well known drug, cosmetic, food 
and household products are enclosed in Carr- 
Lowrey containers. 


New York Office: 500 FIFTH AVE: 

In fact, when it comes to the manufacture of 
glass packages specifically designed to meet 
your particular need efficiently and economi- 
cally, the excellence of Carr-Lowrey products 
will be found to equal or exceed similar con- 
tainers manufactured elsewhere! 

That is because every order that we receive 
is accorded the most painstaking treatment 
by skilled workmen, jealous of their hard- 
earned reputation for top quality craftsman- 
ship in every detail. 

Worth considering, isn’t it... WHEN YOU 

DECEMBER °* 1943 

Chicago Office: 1502 MERCHANDISE MART 


Shipping Case Sealing Ma- 

Consecutive Numbering Ma- 

Carton Sealing Machines 

Auger Packers 

Paper Can Tube Gluers 

Dating Devices 

Paper Can Tube Cutters 

Paper Can Shrinking Machines 

Paper Can Labeling Machines 

Shipping Case Printing Ma- 

Carton Making Machines 

Automatic Volumetric Fillers 

Paper Can Set-up Conveyors 

Paper Can Label Dryers 



The operation of the Packomatic Case Printer is entirely 
automatic. Saves warehouse space, eliminates use of 
stickers and saves excess handling. 

It will print both ends of the case simultaneously, after 
the case is filled and sealed as you use them. Prints one 
or two colors, and from one to seven lines of type. Or it 
may be furnished to print both ends and both sides of 
the container. 

PACKOMATITC Packers who use glass containers will find great economy 

AUTOMATIC __ in using these machines. No regular operator required. 

PAPER CASE = Adijustable for a wide range of case sizes. Operates up 
PRINTING to 20 cases per minute. 



For Automatically Sealing All 
Types of Paper Shipping Containers 

The Packomatic Model “D"’ is care- automatic sealing of both top and 
fully designed to automatically bottom flaps simultaneously, or it 
seal the Government ‘‘V" cases, or 
any other type of paper shipping 
containers, giving continuous low- . . : 
cost operation at any required speed. operator required. Easily adjustable 
It will meet your requirements for for different sizes. 

may be equipped for either top or 
bottom sealing only. No regular 

We can only supply equipment to essential 
industries who can furnish suitable priority. 
We are now accepting orders for post war 




...1n Warand Peace 

% In war—by protecting vital supplies to our armed 
forces. In peace—by protecting consumer goods against 
contamination. Our multi-printed Cellophane and 
Glassine bags and wrappers for food and other pro- 

ducts mean sanitation, eye-appeal and increased sales. 

Pioneering a better way of life is the American 
habit. Whatever your product, we, as pioneers in 

modern packaging, can help you plan an improved 

package for your present or post-war use. 


Traco-Packs e Traversheen e Traverwrap e Cellophane Bags 
“Tite-Seal” Liners e Multi-Color printed Cellophane and 

Glassine in Sheets or Rolls e Loxtite Fillers e Dividers 


358-368 W. Ontario St. © CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ¢ 404 N. Sacramento Blvd. 

DECEMBER * 1943 45 

Richard Wright Took a Walk.. 

Fifty years ago Richard Wright, while strolling along Piccadilly 
Circus in London, saw a package of machine-wrapped tobacco. 
Instantly, he visualized what this could mean to the tobacco 
industry of America. 

Wright hurried home, put his ideas into action, and the Wright's Auto- 
matic Machinery Company was born. Tobacco packaging in this country 
was revolutionized. 

In the years that followed, refinements were made and new develop- 
ments added that opened up opportunities in other fields. Up to 1941 
Wright's Automatic Machinery Company was designing and manufac- 

turing automatic packing, bagging, wrapping and labeling machinery ha 
for a growing list of companies in the food, liquor, tobacco and other the 
industries. do 
Since 1941 Wright's Automatic Machinery Company has been supply- er 
ing precision instruments to the United States Navy. This important tre 
experience will, one day soon, be expressed in terms of solving pack- sa 
aging problems for post-war marketing. Our engineers and designers pr 
are available now for consultation with firms interested in modern on 
equipment for packaging, wrapping, labeling, stamping, or bagging, th 
of their products. th 

~ 1893 - 1943 ~— Packaging Engineers 

es 1. D. WRIGHT, President ooo — R.H.WRIGHT, JR.,V. P. & Treas. on 




ESTERTAY...An Expert TIYUE ae 
otal Lithographer... Kifleman ... 

sa anceesy 

Dis een hs ws wm 
Se Saget a a 

ee aw 

_ the big Heekin factories men 
have gone forth in all branches of 
the service—and on all fronts—to 
do their share toward winning this 
war. There are expert lithograph- 
ers who today are expert riflemen; 
traffic men who fly in bombers; 
salesmen who ride in tanks and 
production men who ride the seas 
on battle-wagons .. . and when 
this war ends, they'll be back with 
the Heekin organization ready and 
anxious to carry on again with your 
peace time packaging problems. 
Remember, metal packages 
square, round or oval . . . do a 
better job. Heekin Lithographed 
Cans have been famous for lasting 
colors . . . colors that harmonize 
. colors that sell merchandise. 
The Heekin Can Co., Cincinnati, O. 

# HEEKIN -24092<p4ec Cans 



We've done our share of America’s packaging, too 

In many lines, the bulk of production 
of the industries is S&S packaged. ... 
In many more, the job is split about 
evenly between S&S and others... . In 
almost every industry where the mate- 
rial to be packaged is a powder, 
granular substance or paste, S&S has 
supplied a goodly percentage of the 
packaging machines. 

This is easy to understand when you 

We supply many essential new S&S machines 
- and help convert old S&S equipment to 
wartime uses. And, drugs and chemical products 
for the armed forces and the home front — 
munitions —a vast number of familiar foods 
and a large percentage of the new dehydrated 
foods —a hundred other war-important items 
—re speeding through production faster, in 
greater volume, because of this. 

We are helping, too, in solving war's new and 





remember that, in many cases, it has 
been S&S improvements that have 
made the advances in packaging tech- 
nique — that have made practical 
many better packages at lower unit 
costs. Further, it has been S&S devel- 
opments, like that of the first tight- 
wrapper, that alone have made 
possible many new triumphs of modern 


unfamiliar packaging problems, through close 
collaboration with many packagers. 

And, we are doing this in addition to produc- 
tion direct for the United States Government, at 
whose disposal our facilities have been placed. 


If you have a packaging problem that's war- 
essential, bring it to our engineers. We'll help 

any way we can, so long as it contributes 
toward Victory. 


SS Filling Machines 

SS Carton Filling and 
Sealing Machines 

$2 S$ Bag and Envelope 

Fillers and Sealers 
S$ « § Tight-Wrappers 

SS Complete Packaging 

Frankford, Philadelphia 24, U. S. A. 


__-weight is the first consideration | 


OD Zé. Cons It our. engineers 
ear ° ua S iat 


Robert Gair Company, Inc. 

New York—Toronto 

Save Waste Paper. : 
for War Production 


DECEMBER °* 1943 49 

SF os 
Sas nae 


Modern packages deserve smart, modern nameplates 
and decoration. Investigate the unlimited effects in 
color and design obtainable with genuine Meyercord 
Decalcomania. Any trademark or decorative design, in 
any number of colors, can be reproduced in any size— 
for application on glass, wood, plastic, glazed crockery, 
etc. Special production line techniques provide speedy, 
economical application on flat or curved surfaces. The 
durability of Meyercord Decals protect your brand- 
mark for the life of the product ...and serve as 
permanent salesmen for repeat purchases. Free design- 
ing service. For full details write Department 812. 

These colorful Don Juan plastic lipstick con- 
tainers are decorated with little Decal figures of 
soldiers, sailors, etc.. for the patriotic girl. A prod- 
uctof Don Juan, Inc., 67 Vestry St., New York. 

DECORATE packaces W\t™ 



The trend in modern package 
identification and decoration is 
to Meyercord Decals. Solon 
Palmer, Inc., New York, N.Y. 
identify the cleverly designed 
blond wood container of their 
famous ASCOT Shaving Soap 
with a multi-colored Meyercord 
Decal Trademark (brown, yel- 
low and red) as illustrated 
above. Remember...if your prod- 
uct stands out... it sells out! 


Back the Attack... Guy War Bonds 



Main plant and general offices: 5323 WEST LAKE STREET, CHICAGO 44, ILLINOIS 

Sales offices in principal cities of U.S. A., Mexico and South America 


May Christmas always bring J oy 
to the hearts o the Young... 
Peace to the hearts of Men 




Scandia helps 
to ‘Keep ’em Flying’ 

Instead of packaging other products, the fruits of our 
labors are now an essential part of the “package” 
shown above. The engineering and production skill 
of Scandia is “‘on the War-path”—an understandable 

reason why Industry must wait. 

~but watch Scandia spurt 

when “Y”-day comes along—_— 

Because Scandia cellophane tite-wrap packaging 

machinery has always embodied all the Industrial 
Scandia packaging equipment keeps essentials of SPEED, PERFORMANCE and SIM- 

freshness in—and keeps moisture out; 

protects foods, drugs, fruits, cigarettes, PLICITY for ‘round-the-clock’ production, inquiries 
cosmetics, etc. Descriptive circulars , 
are available... for post-war delivery are already on the books. 
N) adi 


FOIL PAPERS...20lls aud sheets 



R@TW-LITH,, 5 ne 

15 W. 18TH ST., NEW YORK 11, N. Y. cums emanate 

DECEMBER °* 1943 

She packs agun 
.-and keeps it ready 
To use 

It’s a U.S.Army pistol—the famous Hi- \ 
Standard .22 Automatic Long Rifle.* And 
it reaches the eager hand of some soldier, 
ready for action, thanks to a specially de- 
signed, rugged, anti-corrosive, grease-proof 
container made by United States Envelope 

Here is one more example of the indi- 
vidualized protective containers by U. S. E. 
that are carrying sulfa drugs and bayonets, 

field rations and ack-ack gun parts and he 
many other Ordnance and Quartermastet fr 
Corps materials . . . protecting and de- th 
livering them ready for action. fin 
Your protective packaging problem of w 
ss the present or the future, military or civi- se 
= , lian, can perhaps be solved now by some 
war-created U. S. E. development applied in 
to your individual needs . . . or by the a 
*Manufactured by ; ; : , 
The High Standard _ creation of something entirely new. re 
bie r, Manufacturing Corporation, ° li 
x a, New Haven, Conn. 
V General Offices ( 
“DE pctecdive 
‘a / aches ws | 

Products of United States Envelope Company include WAR PRODUCT PACKAGING e TRANSPARENT CONTAINERS e@ ENVELOPES 



ly de- 

S. E. 
; and 

id de- 

*m of 
t CiVi- 

yy the 



Each year during the holidays, it 
has been our past custom to send our 
friends a keepsake, something we 
thought worth the semi-permanence of 
fine reproduction. This year, in a world 
woefully short of paper, the annual 
sentimental gesture seemed inept. 

A few weeks ago, however, the men 
in the shop began to ask about the 
“Christmas job.” Then the stockroom 
reported a leftover of fine paper, too 
little for a commercial job. And our 
Bill Scoble, connoisseur of the fine as 
well as the commercial arts, saw a 
Grant Wood painting, and coveted it. 
But the painting was already en route 


Gift from Grant Wood... and us 

to the museum which had paid some 
$40,000 for it. Scoble thought of the 
only substitute—a reproduction. The 
owners gracefully gave permission... 

So ruts YEAR it is our pleasure to 
present a reproduction, faithful to the 
best of our collective abilities, of Grant 
Wood’s “Spring In The City.” 

For fifteen years, Grant Wood tried 
to find his soul and metier in France; 
and like the novelist, Thomas Wolfe, 
found America. He came home to 
paint his own country in his own way. 
**American Gothic,” the art sensation 

of the Chicago World’s Fair Exhibit, 

was first resented by his native Iowans 
as insulting, but has become a best 
selling print. Wood’s last few years, 
were largely spent in teaching art, 
which limited his own output. 


Sraine IN THE CITY” is a simple 
and homely scene in the soft colors 
Wood usually worked. It has a peculiar 
timeliness just now, when so many city 
dwellers find new satisfaction in the 
soil, and new food resources, in their 
Victory Gardens...If you have not 
been on our lists in the past, and 
would like a copy, we shall be happy 
to send one while the edition lasts. 



DECEMBER ®* 1943 


@ The development of packaging by 
American industry deserves much credit for 
the success of our armed forces at fabulous 
distances from the sources of supply. War 
materials that have run the gauntlet of 
enemy submarine and air attacks for thou- 
sands and thousands of miles would be use- 
less if not finally delivered in good condition. 

With thousands of different: items, from 
bullets to airplanes, now being packaged for 
the largest armies ever conceived, the de- 
mand for the materials and methods of war 
packaging alone exceeds the total of any 
previous peace-time packaging. And there 
still remain very large packaging require- 
ments for essential civilian use. 

Not only are the demands extensive but 
the requirements are unusually difficult. 
Shipments must be protected against the 
humid heat of the Solomons, the furious 
cold of Iceland and the Aleutians, the sand- 
laden winds of Africa, and the corrosive 
salts of the seven seas. Protection, too, 
must be provided against insects which can 
enter the tiniest crevice or eat through the 
toughest non-metallic material. 

] 2 * 

What's This Little 
o * 

7 0 st | tc h Sit p Pp YW) 0 | n g In spite of this overwhelming demand 

and the difficult requirements, Bostitch has 

: tried to take care of as many civilian needs 

; n th e C 0 m ba t vl 0 n e ? as possible. Bostitch will increase its pro- 

duction for civilian uses as rapidly as in- 
i aa creasing supplies will permit without lessen- 
CONTRIBUTING vital speed to hundreds of important ing its one hundred per cent effort to help 
projects...from the paper work in the commanding offi- 
cer’s tent ... to the linking of portable landing fields... : ; on 
Speed with tiny desk fasteners ... speed with power- Some of the interesting applications of 
ful tools and huge staples for assembling the “iron car- Bostitching in packaging for military use 
pets” which make smooth landing areas on uneven are listed below, to illustrate the essentiality 
ground...speed with hammers and tackers which help of this work: 
build barracks and hospitals... 
Back home, Bostitching also serves the war, solving 
new fastening problems in war plants...continuing its Sealing powder bags; 
time-saving work in war-converted civilian plants... : ‘ 
manufacturing camouflage nets, attaching deck cover- Fastening canvas covers on machined end 
ing on landing craft, steel-stitching sheets of aluminum of steel pipe; 
for planes. 

win the war. 

Tacking padding to cradle of bomb box; 

Tacking zinc tags on shipping cases for 

° ° ° ° war zones; 
Bostitch fastens it better with wire...a 

sible for many new techniques and ‘ Sealing waterproof bags to protect deli- 
minded manufacturers will welcome, ' cate instruments; 

The Bostitch line — unrivalled in complete . : . 
to select the right combination of machin Sealing bags of moisture-absorbent chemi 

If you have priorities... or want to bul) ny cals for packing with delicate metal in- 

post-war plans, investigate now. ‘ struments, to prevent rust from moisture 
Bostitch (Boston Wire Stitcher Compa , “ay ° 

East Greenwich, R. I. (Bostitch-Canada, q in the air; 

Right: A special Bostitch war tool. Making grommets to protect rotating 

bands on large calibre shells; 

: Assembling boxes for hand grenades, 
sfohkpahaa ammunition, bomb fins, fuzes, clothing, 
food, and other ordnance, quartermaster, 

W772 FASTER : and medical supplies; 
Vee Gt VA/ wilh WILE. . 7, Tacking oil paper and felt linings into 
A large wooden boxes for shipping wings and 



| can 
1 the 

1 has 

s in- 


is of 
r use 


d end 
‘s for 

al in- 



; into 
zs and 

Day sy pay the need for wood pulp mounts. 

Long ago the paper and pulp industry took on 
far greater responsibilities than the routine 
office supplies of war — forms, books, bonds 
and stamps by the billion. 

Wood pulp today is a vital material-of war. 

It is used in producing hand grenades, gas 
tanks, camouflage, ammunition boxes, and hun- 
dreds of other fighting aids. It is molded into 
airplane wing tips. It is impregnated with resins 
and pressed into metal bearings and gears. 

The need is so great that the paper industry is 
salvaging waste paper and paper board at the 

— Paper 
-\ takes a 


rate of 500,000 tons a month. As a matter of 
fact, it has never stopped trying to protect its 
source. of supply. While the needed lumber 
jacks are lacking, vigorous salvage campaigns 
are helping enormously to supply paper fiber 
and to make up for steady deficits in virgin pulp. 
The results have been valuable to every phase 
of the war effort. 

Making a thousand miles of paper a day, as we 
do, we are in close touch with every need and 
development in the industry. We know that 
waste paper will play an important part until 
peace is ours. Save your paper waste and do it 
methodically. Get in touch with your local sal- 
vage committee! 


EXECUTIVE OFFICES: 230 Park Ave., New York 17, N. Y. 
WESTERN SALES OFFICE: 35 E. Wacker Dr., Chicago 1, Ill. 

MILLS AT: Rumford, Maine; West Carrollton, Ohio 


DECEMBER * 1943 



A wing-tip rib or an ammunition box may seem to have little 

bearing on your urgent need for protective packaging papers for 
SCae ASeaes food at home and abroad. 


But Riegel-X, our new group of impregnated base papers for 
plastic laminates, is only one of the reasons why we cannot serve 
all our customers, with all they want, all the time. Paper is being 
used to replace many other materials in vitally needed products 
—and our mills and laboratories are under a heavy strain for we 
are one of the largest manufacturers of special industrial and 
protective papers. 


We are doing our best to serve you within the necessary limita- 
tions imposed upon us. Where we cannot supply you adequately, 
we will gladly help you by recommending substitutes or other 

sources of supply. Riegel Paper Corporation, 342 Madison Ave- 
nue, New York 17, N. Y. 



A group of plain and impregnated base papers for 

ee both fluid and direct pressure plastic laminates. 










Don’t Sacrifice Familiar Features 
When Changing to a Wartime Package! 

When you are forced to switch from the old, 
familiar container to a different package, be 
sure to preserve those valuable recognition 
features you have established over the years. 

Let us show you how easy it is to retain 
your brand name, trade-mark and other 

Our 28-page book 
—‘‘The Value and 
Patriotic Use of 
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how to get beauti- 
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cost. Write today 
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For over 75 years—head- 
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identity characteristics in their established 
colors and design, even though the package 
itself undergoes a revolutionary change in 
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As one of the world’s largest producers of 
packaging materials and fine Full Color 
Lithography, we offer you the benefits of 
experience, skill and ability to produce 
packaging of various types in sparkling Full 
Color at surprisingly modest cost. Write us 

Contractors to the Government—War Work Comes First! 

wraps, packets, folding boxes, 
one pda td — é 
Rochester, N. Y. San Sevieroure Cal 

Offices in Pra Cities 

SOLVED! Another Metal Replacement Problem 


f bnew thousands of pounds of metal 

formerly used by Durkee Famous 
Foods for their Shortening package are 
needed for the war effort, so Durkee has 
adopted the metal replacement unit il- 

The rigid fibreboard carton is lami- 
nated inside and out with Du Pont Cello- 
phane. A heat-sealed Cellophane disc 
provides a completely airtight closure, 
held solidly in place by the removable 
fibre lid. 

This lightweight, leak- 

proof, easy-to-handle package keeps the 
product in splendid condition. The filling 
operation is speedy and easy. Durkee has 
found that—both in the factory and in 
the consumer’s kitchen—this new con- 
tainer is superior in many ways to metal 
containers formerly used. 

If you have a metal replacement prob- 
lem, perhaps we can be of assistance. 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.), 
Cellophane Division, 
Wilmington 98, Del. 


Du Pont Cellophane 










In thousands of frozen-food lock- 
ers, modern, moistureproof heat- 
sealing materials this year are 
keeping Victory Garden produce 
fresh for Christmas dinner. Nearly 
1,500,000 housewives already are 
(o Lo} belo me debh Welham belo me) Molo(el <oleptelon 

—a new trend in packaging 

We and the victory garden have created something brand 
new in the packaging field. 

Millions of American housewives have learned to package 
their fresh fruits and vegetables in cellophane bags and paper- 
board boxes for quick-freeze storage in locker plants or home 
freezers—and for the first time the housewife has become a 
direct, major consumer of paper packages. She is being 
made package-conscious. 

The implications of this trend are tremendous: 

Will it cut into the volume of commercial processing of 
foods in the normal, peacetime economy? 

Will the production and sale of the traditional food-pack- 
aging materials (glass and tin) be affected? 

Will the channels of normal food distribution and mer- 
chandising be disrupted? 

Will the locker plant drop its servicing or packaging 
functions and become purely a storage place for home- 
packaged foods? 

Answers to some of these questions are clouded in postwar 
uncertainty, but there are certain facts and certain obvious 

signs and portents that should be carefully noted. 

Heavy military demand on a limited supply of canned 
goods has spurred the victory garden program and, in turn, 
all types of home packaging and preservation of produce. 
The familiar home canning in glass jars has shared in this 
boom. But—is this purely a wartime phenomenon due to 
subside after the war to the previous ratio of hot-packing 
to freezer preservation methods? When rationing ceases 
will the grocer’s canned foods be in normal, prewar 

There are good indications that things will not be the same. 
The housewife has learned that foods properly quick-frozen 
and properly packaged can be superior in freshness and flavor. 
She has learned the economy of doing her own processing 
and packaging. Perhaps most important of all, she has in 
the last year found available excellent moistureproof bags 
and cartons especially designed for her, for easy and effective 
home packaging and sealing. 

The new “‘locker packages,” in pint, quart and two-quart 
sizes, are equal in every way to the best that has been used by 
the commercial quick-frozen food industry. In combination 
with the locker or home freezer, they bring to a new high the 
ease and convenience of home food preservation. They 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 61 

make available frozen foods at a cost with which the com- 
mercial industry cannot hope to compete. Except for the 
job of butchering and wrapping meats and large pieces, they 
seem to obviate the packaging services which the locker 
operator has heretofore usually provided. 

Several manufacturers are now actively promoting various 
types of unit packages for home packing and subsequent 
freezing. Most of them are bag-and-box combinations; 
seme are bag alone or box alone, but all have these things in 
common: a high degree of moisture-vaporproofness and 
ease of filling and sealing. The heat seal is effected by the 
housewife with her curling iron or flat iron. 


As shown by accompanying illustrations, many of these 
packages have been dressed up with attractive printed designs 
and instructions. Some have “windows” so that the con- 
tents may be identified at a glance. Most of the boxes are 
shipped flat with or without the cellophane inner bag in- 

One of the attractive window containers is a bag-in- 
box arrangement (Fig. 2). Specifically designed for home 
use, the carton has step-by-step instructions for assembling, 
filling and sealing printed on the back panel. The bag of 
lacquered cellophane is spot-glued to all sides of the carton 
to facilitate a wide opening for filling when the box is squared 
up. Except for the top opening, the bag is presealed with 
duplex heat-sealed seams. A dotted line marks the filling 
level on the box and the bag is closed by the user either by 
making a simple cross seal with an electric curling iron or 
flat sealing on a tabletop with an ordinary flat iron. The 

rectangular, space-conserving box comes in pint and quart 
sizes, two pints nesting in the same space as one quart. 
Simple notched tuck-end locks hold securely when pushed 
into position. 

A similar box, furnished in pint and quart sizes is shown 
by Fig. 4. This box also has an attractive printed color and 


1—Peaches are sliced fresh into cellophane bag inside 
window box, then covered with syrup. 2—Cellophane is 

easily heat sealed with the housewife’s curling iron. 

design; including illustrated directions. It is supplied with 
the cellophane bag, presealed at side and bottom, ready to be 
inserted in the carton by the user. The lengthy flap on the 
bag may be heat sealed as above or closed simply by twisting 
and tying. The carton itself, wax-coated, is said to be 
moistureproof and airtight, and its lock flaps may be sealed 
with an iron. A dewaxed space on one flap provides for 
identification of contents. The manufacturers report that 
best results are obtained when the separate cellophane bags 
are wrapped in a warm wet cloth at least 24 hours before use. 

Another type of box (Fig. 5), depends entirely upon the box 
for protection and has no separate bag. A new thermoplastic 
coating applied to the box makes it liquid-tight and is said 
to reduce dehydration by inhibiting moisture-vapor transfer 
through the walls. The same coating provides a heat-seal 
closure of the triple top flaps, effected by the housewife with 
a flat iron. The triple-sealed bottom is constructed of three 
layers of flaps cemented firmly together under pressure. 
This box, made square to minimize upsets in the locker, is 
shipped set up and closed to assure cleanliness. It is re- 
usable, the manufacturer says. 

One type of plain, undecorated paperboard box (Fig. 6) 
is shipped flat with separate No. 300 MSAT cellophane bags 
to be inserted. The box is .025 special kraft lined board. 
Available in three sizes—about ?/; quart, a heaping quart 
and about 11/3; quarts—it is sold in units of 100. When the 
bags are heat sealed by a curling iron, the package is said 
to be airtight and moistureproof. 

An example of the bag-alone package is shown in Fig. 7. 
This bag of paper laminated with cellophane—or in normal 


le is 


to be 
1 the 
o be 
s for 
2 use. 
e box 
; said 
. with 
er, 1S 
is re- 

ig. 6) 
> bags 
on the 
s said 

‘ig. 7. 

times with pliofilm—is simply filled and sealed with a flat 
jron and is said to give good air and moisture protection to 
the contents. 

The separate cellophane liner provided with some boxes 
has an advantage in that the outer container often may be 

Other materials currently used in frozen-food lockers 
are wax-coated cylindrical containers, so-called locker paper 
which is a wet-strength paper wax-coated on one side, and 
glassine and parchment laminated bags. For use by locker- 
plant operators and others in wrapping of meat and large 
pieces, moistureproof cellophane is supplied in rolls in cutter 

The special locker boxes and packaging materials are sold 
by locker plants, often at cost, and by paper supply houses 
and dealers in freezing equipment. They may soon find 
their way onto the shelves of hardware and grocery stores 
as a regular item. Consumers now in some cases may order 
direct from the manufacturers in bulk quantities. 

It was revealed at the recent Des Moines convention of 
the National Frozen Food Locker Assn. that there are now 
4,780 locker plants in 47 states, handling more than a half- 
billion pounds of meat, poultry, fruit and vegetables a year. 
Most of these plants are concentrated in the Middle West 
and Pacific Northwest, with Iowa (550) and Washington 
(375) topping the list. Increase has been rapid in the last 
two years in sections where previously there were few plants, 
particularly in urban areas. 

The average locker plant has 500 lockers. This indicates 
a total of at least 2,390,000 families now patronizing the 
locker plants. It is estimated that by 1948 there will be 
10,000 plants. If the average of 500 lockers to the plant is 
merely maintained, that means that 5,000,000 families will 
be participating. 

In addition, there are nearly 60,000 home freezer and 
frozen storage units in use. Machinery shortages have re- 
tarded their manufacture during the war; demand far exceeds 
the supply, and after the war their sales are expected to mush- 
room. In the meantime, there are reported instances of ice- 
cream cabinets having been removed from soda fountains and 
carted off to freeze beans and chickens for this winter’s table. 

Not only vegetables and fruit, but cut-up poultry also is 
being packaged in the new home containers, heat sealed and 
then frozen. Dressed poultry and large cuts of meat are 
wrapped in sheets of cellophane usually cut from a roll. 

Baked beans, chili con carne and even mince pie are today 
going into farm freezers along with eggs and dairy products. 
Apples, broccoli, brussels- sprouts, cauliflower and cran- 
berries are successfully frozen. 


A typical housewife who has turned to packaging her own 
produce for freezing states that she did so after finding “‘plenty 
of faults” in the materials and packages offered at the locker 
plants. Nevertheless, queried as to probable effect of the 
freezing trend on canned and other packaged foods after the 
war, she declares that, ‘‘Many housewives will have learned 
that locker freezing is easier than home canning and that fresh 
garden stuff when frozen—if properly handled—is better 
than canned food. They will also have learned that home 
gardens mean work. They may decide to buy commercial 
frozen foods and forget about preserving their own. But 
personally, I don’t see how any housewife who has become 

accustomed to her own nice, clean packaged meat, cut as she 
wants it, can ever go back to the careless, untidy meat 
handling of the average butcher.” 

Competent observers appear to agree that the locker 
operator has been somewhat at fault in failing to keep step 
with packaging progress. Until very recently, the packaging 
methods of most locker plants were deficient in the all- 
important point of moisture-vaporproofness—far behind the 
commercial quick-freezing industry in this respect. In a 
way, the housewife has helped to bring about recent develop- 
ment of locker packages by insisting on a freezer package 
as good as that she found in the store. 


The locker plant trend probably will be in the direction 
of large-scale expansion of freezing and storage facilities 
with diminution of preparation and packaging facilities as the 
latter activities move directly into the home. In volume of 
business the locker-plant industry is destined for steady - 
growth. Servicing facilities may not be entirely dropped, for 
there has been developed recently one small but interesting 
trend: participation by urban families and apartment dwell- 
ers who simply buy large quantities of produce at the most 
favorable market price and take it to a locker plant to be 
processed, packaged and stored against future withdrawals. 

Locker-plant growth may, however, be affected to some 
extent by increasing use of deep-freeze units in the home, a 
practice which in some cases knocks out the locker plant 
entirely. Large home freezers will hold several months’ 
food for a moderate-sized family. If the home freezer’s 
facilities are inadequate for long storage, it still may be used 
for the original freezing of food packages and for spot storage 
of supplies as they are withdrawn from locker storage. 

One way in which locker plants may make up for loss of 

3—Into the family’s freezer locker goes produce of the 

victory garden, neatly packaged against dehydration. 

DECEMBER °* 1943 63 

business on processing for home consumers is by engaging in 
processing on a commercial scale. This is already being 
done and the practice seems to be increasing. Many plants 
in the Midwest are receiving frozen foods in bulk quantities 
from the coasts and re-packaging it in consumer units to be 
sold to locker clientele. Frozen fruits, to a certain extent, 
also are being handled in this manner. Poultry and meats 
are often put up in handy units by the locker operator and 
sold directly to the consumer who may place them in his 
locker for future use: All this represents an interesting 
market for the new type of unit package. 

Whether this food processing by the locker operator will 
be at the expense of the commercial quick-freezer or the 
canner, or whether it will merely conserve a great deal of 
food that might otherwise be wasted are points upon which 
no conclusion can be hazarded at this time. 

A possible additional trend in the business was suggested 
at the Des Moines conference by Frank R. Wilson, Assistant 
Secretary of Commerce, who predicted that large refrigerated 
warehouses will be established in principal cities to collect 
frozen foods in carload lots from outlying locker plants and 
distribute them to metropolitan consumers. 

Prof. Slater Bull of the University of Illinois warned the 
locker-plant operators that after the war they will face con- 
siderable competition from the manufacturers of small 
home-unit freezers ‘“‘which probably will be marketed for as 
low as $200.” 

Prof. Harry Carlton of the University of Tennessee, one of 
the nation’s outstanding authorities on locker-plant freezing, 
told the conference that careful attention should be paid to 
proper packaging to preserve moisture. He recommended 
the lacquered cellophane as being the best wrapping ma- 
terial now available. 

“Even if you charged your patron a half cent per pound 
more,’’ Prof. Carlton told the operators, ‘‘for giving his food 
the best possible protection, it amounts to only 75 cents 
for a 150-lb. hind-quarter of meat worth approximately $35; 
preventing a 2 per cent dehydration loss would pay the bill.” 

Prof. Carlton warned that the closure, whether it be a fold 
or a heat seal, should be carefully made. Although generally 
crediting the package manufacturers for their recent develop- 
ments, he declared that there was need for more careful 

4—This bag-in-box package has illustrated directions 
for filling and sealing printed on the back panel. Cello- 
phane bag may be closed either by tying or heat sealing. 


seaming on some of the cellophane bags. ‘“‘It is true that 
there is only a small percentage of leakers,”’ he said, “‘but 
a small leak may spoil a package of food. A small leak of 
unfrozen heavy sugar syrup will thoroughly mess up a locker.” 

“Do not confuse moistureproofness with moisture-vapor- 
proofness,”” Prof. Carlton warned. ‘‘They have no relation 
in the protection of frozen foods. In protecting the many 
types of food passing through the locker plant we use sheets 
for wrapping irregular pieces such as meat cuts and containers 
in which are packed smaller pieces of more or less uniform 
size, such as fruit and vegetables, or cut-up chickens. The 
same material for protective purposes is required in either 


The best recent discussion of packaging as applied to 
locker plants is the paper read at the Des Moines meeting 
by A. W. Shaffer.* An abridged version of this paper is 
presented herewith: 

It is said that the community refrigerated locker plant 
development has been the stepchild of the frozen-food 
industry, at least from the standpoint of the packaging and 
freezing of perishable food products in order to prevent dry- 
ing out or desiccation. 

In spite of the importance placed on the use of proper 
packaging materials by the industry, many locker plants are 
still using inadequate materials or lack the necessary informa- 
tion and experience to make proper use of the materials they 
already have. 

These improper packaging practices in the locker industry 
may be due to many factors, among them the fact that it is a 
new industry that has expanded so rapidly within the past 
few years that insufficient time has been given to the packag- 
ing phase of the business. 

Locker plants are usually small in comparison with the 
establishments of some of the large commercial packers of 
frozen foods, who have laboratory facilities for testing the 
various packaging materials. The locker plants are therefore 
at a disadvantage in evaluating the comparative merits of 
various packaging materials. 

Proper packaging of course is only one link, but a vital one 
in the chain of precautions to be taken to assure quality 
results. The best package cannot offset poor processing or 
inadequate freezing, nor can packaging improve the basic 
quality of the product itself. 

We should set as the ultimate goal the arrival at the con- 
sumer’s table of frozen products, whether fruits, vegetables, 
meats, poultry or fish that will: (1) taste as good as the same 
products strictly fresh; (2) have the quality and appearance 
of prime fresh products. 

The frozen food industry as a whole is facing fundamental 
changes in that the old style bulk containers and methods 
of freezing no longer answer all needs nor meet the growing 
demand for small consumer units. 

Quite naturally, this new demand can only be met by unit 
packages which permit day-to-day consumption in small 
quantities. In the final analysis it represents the develop- 
ment of a new style of food distribution which will eventually 
compare with consumer units of canned goods in breadth and 
variety, but equalling fresh goods in flavor and quality. 

Some packaged goods industries have developed an over- 
whelming variety of container sizes and shapes that represent 

~ * Ree Section, Cellophane Division, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & 
o., Inc. 


_ of 







rs & 

5—-The box-alone type has no 
cellophane liner, but is it- 
self coated with a thermo- 
plastic which makes it liq- 
uid-tight and allows heat 
sealing of the triple top 
flaps with an ordinary flat 
iron by the housewife. This 
box is shipped already set up. 

fancied demands or subconscious desires to have something 
different. It has taken years of sales research and manu- 
facturing studies to show that this often means exorbitant 
costs, unsatisfactory packages and situations where the 
packaging material has dominated the situation rather than 
basic requirements of the product itself. 

Today there is no-reason why a relatively new industry 
such as the refrigerated locker industry should repeat such 
mistakes. Basic fundamentals for frozen food package 
design are as follows:° 
Structural strength 
Ease of handling 
Trade satisfaction 

6. Cost 

Each of the basic principles should be studied in con- 
nection with the needs of the individual locker plant. 

Protection of the product from the time it is processed and 
frozen and until it reaches the consumer’s table is paramount. 
Regardless of any other factor, if the food has deteriorated 
it will create resistance to future use. Therefore this factor 
cannot be overstressed. 

Second, in the locker plant it is a mistake to use a package 
lacking in structural strength. While the locker package does 
not undergo the long distance shipment which commercial 
packages do, nevertheless, this is more than offset by the fact 
the locker package is not handled under as favorable con- 
ditions. So entirely aside from the package performing its 
chief function of preventing desiccation and protecting 
flavor, it should have sufficient strength to stand up under 
at least normal stacking and handling conditions. It should 
also be tough and strong enough to withstand normal and 
low temperatures. 

Third, the wrapping materials and containers used in 
locker plants must necessarily be easy to handle. Trick packages 
must be shunned, for more often than not their best selling 
argument is based upon some novelty feature which has not 
been tried, tested and proven to be workable under practical 
operating conditions. Containers should possess the same 

oe Wh 

characteristics as wrapping materials in the matter of hand- 
ling. They should be easily assembled, easy to fill and have 
an effective seal that is easy to manipulate. 

Trade satisfaction is the next factor that cannot be over- 

‘looked by the successful locker operator. Packaging is a 

necessary part of marketing. Except for certain aspects in 
processing and in the volume handled, many of the packaging 
problems in a locker plant are significantly similar to the 
problems faced by the commercial packer. The end results 
are the same. The consumer or the locker patron passes 
trial judgment on the package. Each package must be de- 
signed to result in consumer satisfaction. All packages used 
for merchandising frozen foods must be attractive. Even 
for locker use, package appearance should not be neglected. 
While it is true that the locker container or package is not 
required to do the direct selling job of a retail store unit, a 
package that is attractive, clean and sanitary looking has an 
important psychological effect upon the consumer and can- 
not help but do its share in helping to perpetuate and expand 
the locker plant industry. . 


Standardization of container sizes and packages is another 
requirement which cannot be too highly stressed as the effects 
are far reaching. Costs of most containers such as the 
‘‘bag-in-box”’ type used for fruits and vegetables vary with 
volume purchased. Therefore it is evident that a wide range 
of sizes requires careful planning to avoid increased cost. 
Through the development of the quick frozen industry, 
certainly since 1930, there has been a trend from bulk to 
small packages. About that time the quick frozen fruits 
and vegetables industry was ready to develop the retail 
market which requires smaller packages than a 30- to 50- 
gal. or even a 5-gal. institutional container. The whole 
packaging period of that time may be described as a trial- 
and-error period. 

In setting up sizes for frozen varieties of fruits and vege- 
tables, first consideration is the purpose of the package and 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 65 

second the size best suited for this purpose. The answer to 
these questions will determine the sizes of packages for 
various uses as well as standardization of them throughout 
the locker field. Packages based upon consumer preference 
will serve as a guide post in setting standards in most in- 

What about the cost of the package? Low costs with 
particular reference to packaging materials come through 
standardization, use of materials in most economical fashion, 
volume purchases and adequate inventories to avoid rush 

Cost of the package is important—extremely important— 
but only in relation to the other fundamentals previously 
mentioned, which are: protection, structural strength, ease 
in handling, trade satisfaction and standardization. 


Before discussing packaging methods as they apply to 
locker plants, first take a look at what might be termed the 
fundamental requirements of: proper packaging materials: 
1. They must protect the food from desiccation and 
oxidation. Of the numerous factors considered in 
selecting a suitable packaging material, moisture-vapor- 
proofness should be considered first because this affects 
the quality of the product more directly than does any 
of the others. There should be no compromise on this 
point because loss in flavor, appearance and weight 
means that the basic reason for freezing in the first 
place is voided. 
It is important that packaging materials be of a type 
that will protect the food from absorbing outside 
flavors, odors and contamination. 

It is also important that the material does not crack 
or become brittle at low temperatures; absorb blood, 
water, oil or grease, nor impart any flavor or odor to 
the enclosed product. 

With fruits and vegetables where the ‘‘bag-in-carton’’ 
type is most widely used, it is important that the 
package be leakproof, stainproof, easy to fill and have 
an effective seal. 

The requirements for the proper packaging of meats 
and poultry are equally as important as those for 
fruits and vegetables. The loss of moisture from the 
surface of the meat or poultry, or contact with air 
permits oxidation and development of rancidity of the 
fat. Wrapping materials must not only be moisture- 
vaporproof, but should also be moisture-resisting to 
insure stripping quality. By stripping quality is 
meant the ability of the wrapper to be removed from 
the meat while still in a frozen condition without 
undue sticking or tearing which results from absorption 
of liquids and subsequent freezing. 

A wrapper possessing these qualities will also protect 
the original weight of the product wrapped and thereby 
reduce to a minimum or eliminate entirely the shrinkage 
losses due to evaporation or transfer of moisture or 
juices from the meat into the wrapper itself. 

Much can be said on packaging methods. A wide variance 
exists in the methods used in wrapping meats, and in filling 
and sealing containers holding syrup fruits and vegetables. 

Some distinction must be made in the methods and hand- 
ling problems in a locker plant which may require the hand- 
ling of a relatively few packages per day compared with 
the large commercial packer who handles thousands of pack- 
ages requiring a straight-line production set-up. 

The question has often been asked of the commercial 

6—Inexpensive plain carton, sold in units of 100, has separate cellophane bag, easily inserted by the user. 
This package is manufactured in three sizes. 7—Example of bag-alone container is this bag of paper 
laminated with cellophane, which is simply sealed with a flat iron on kitchen table top, as illustrated. 





packer and it may well apply to the frozen food locker field. 
“What is the ideal package for frozen foods?’’ This is a ques- 
tion difficult for anyone to answer because of the variance in 
size, Shape and nature of the products to be packaged. An 
ideal package for frozen vegetables such as cut corn, lima 
beans or peas would not necessarily be satisfactory for frozen 
steaks. Likewise the steak package would be unsuited for 
frozen peaches or cauliflower. 


However, there are certain qualities which all finished 
packages of frozen foods must possess, of which the most 
important is maximum resistance to moisture-vapor pene- 
tration, inwardly or outwardly. No matter how good the 
packaging material «nay be in resisting the passage of mois- 
ture-vapor, no package is better than its closure. This point 
cannot be over-emphasized. It is equally true in the wrap- 
ping of meats and poultry as it is with containers for holding 
fruits and vegetables. 

Because of this, there has been a decided trend in recent 
years for food locker plants to adopt something that has been 
standard practice in the commercial frozen food field for 
years. It is the use of what is commonly referred to as the 
bag-in-box type of container for fruits and vegetables. 
This type of package may take the form of a separate bag 
and carton or a prefabricated bag liner attached to the inside 
walls of the carton and used as a single unit. 

Protection in this type of package is not dependent upon 
the carton itself cr the.way in which it is sealed, but rather 
upon the use of a separate independently sealed moistureproof 
cellophane bag liner of the heat-seal type in combination with 
a carton to produce the desired protective results and to 
meet requirements in handling, compactness and structural 

In connection with the use of cellophane in the frozen food 
industry, the use of the moisture-proof type is assumed 
and not the type of film known to the trade as ‘‘plain trans- 
parent” cellophane. This is not recommended for frozen 
foods because it does not afford moisture-vaporproof protec- 

The paperboard container enclosing the cellophane bag 
lining is fashioned from selected material, free from odor, 
and paraffin coated to resist moisture or water penetration. 

Suitable containers made of paperboard may be divided 
into two classes, depending upon their shape. Each class 
has its good and bad points. One class of paper containers 
includes cups, tubes and circular-shaped straight-wall side 
spiral-wound containers commonly classified as the round 
type. The other includes square-cornered cartons available 
in almost any size or shape. For locker plant use the most 
acceptable has been the rectangular shape in the 1- and 2-lb. 

The rectangular and spiral-wound cylindrical-shaped con- 
tainers are available with moistureproof cellophane bag 
liners which can be heat sealed to make them moisture-vapor- 
tight as well as liquidtight. 

A note of caution should be sounded in connection with 
the handling of the bag-in-box type of package. It is not 
sound practice to insert flat bags in cartons, then fill and trust 
to luck that the weight of the product will properly round out 
the corners of the bag. Unless the bag is preformed over a 
mandrel, it will not usually shape itself properly to the walls 
of the carton. Improper shaping causes excessive wrinkling 


8—Cut chicken, too, is efficiently packaged in the new 
moisture-vaporproof container with heat-sealing cello- 
Phane. Locker operators now use this better packaging. 

and pinching of the cellophane, and the chance for pin-holing 
or cracking. 

In filling the bag every effort should be made to keep the 
mouth or upper rim as clean as possible. The top portion of 
the bag is where the heat seal is made and it is obvious this 
surface must be kept free of product to insure a proper seal. 

After the container has been filled, the part of the bag 
extending beyond the upper rim of the carton should be care- 
fully flattened and pressed together to remove as much air 
as possible within the package and thereby prevent oxidation. 
The next step is the final sealing of the bag to prevent liquid 
leakage or air penetration. 

The sealing iron should be at the proper temperature. 
Bags made of moistureproof heat-sealing cellophane for frozen 
fruits and vegetables may be best sealed with a temperature 
of about 255 deg. to 265 deg. F. and pressure applied for up- 
wards of a second or so. Care must be exercised to prevent 
the iron from becoming too hot. Too much heat will burn 
the cellophane and cause it to become brittle, so that it may 
crack when subjected to freezing temperatures. Too low a 
temperature will result in weak seals. 

Just as fruits and vegetables are more adequately pro- 
tected from desiccation and oxidation by the use of a sealed 
container of the types represented by these samples, so 
meats and poultry retain their full flavor and appearance, 
and suffer no loss due to desiccation when the same procedure 
is followed in securing a moisture-vaportight sealed package. 

The packaging problem for meats in locker plants is under- 
going constant study and much experience has been gained 
in developing sounder and better methods of wrapping— 
thanks in no small measure to the helpfulness and cooperation 
of locker operators. 

‘“‘What is the best way to wrap a cut of meat?’’ is a ques- 
tion often asked. This can be answered best by analysis of 
the method used to apply the (Continued on page 154) 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 67 

Navy standards for palletized unit loads 

1—The Navy's new standard. 
ization of clothing containers 
permits quick and efficient 
modern equipment to get 

in its best work. Photo 

shows “fork truck” depositing 
top deck of palletized load 
in a railroad freight car. 

Ki ccvine Naval Forces well-clad is a colossal task. It re- 
quires the handling of 1,000 truckloads and carloads a 
week and more than a million garmentsaday. These are not 
merely the blue undress, blue dress, whites and dungarees of 
peacetime, but hundreds of different items for sea and land, 
for arctics and tropics, for jungle, for camouflage. 

The heart of the huge circulatory system which keeps these 
garments moving is the U. S. Naval Clothing Depot in Brook- 
lyn, housed in two 8-story buildings, two blocks long and one 
block wide. A walk of approximately 7!/, miles is required to 
inspect the plant, which is not only one of the largest clothing 
manufactories in the world, but a reception center for the 
thousands of garments received daily from contractors. 

Plans for handling this packaging procedure were inaugu- 
rated under the direction of Capt. Charles D. Kirk, S.C., 
U.S.N., Supply Officer in Command of the Naval Clothing 
Depot. This plan entailed the standardization and simplifi- 
cation of all packing and packaging procedures to’ save man- 
hours and materials, notably sulfate fibre. Though de- 
signed for the Naval Clothing Depot, this plan has applica- 
tions in many branches of industry. Many boxmakers and 



iad HATS 
BUT 44 Ow. CARE Kt. 
; . 

* . 
rT RSS 12545 
RE, £2545 



2—Three pack sizes for standard 4 ft. by 4 ft. pallet loads. They are designated as standard, half-standard 
and quarter standard. 3—The pallet accomodates 18 standards, 36 half-standards or 72 quarter-standards. 

clothing manufacturers supplying the Navy are already be- 
coming acquainted with these applications. There is a good 
chance that a fair share of the features of the system will be 
carried over into the nation’s industry in peacetime. 
Before setting up its new plan, members of the depot 
studied thousands of containers already in use. It was 
finally decided to reverse the old policy by “‘standardizing the 
boxes, letting the issues fall where they may.”’ A big part of 
the problem of handling the enormous quantities of clothing 
passing through the depot involved transportation to move it 
through the great distance within the building, into and out 
of elevators, and on the shipping floor. First step in reform 
was the adoption of what is called the ‘‘palletized’’ method of 
transporting packaged items. For this, standardized pallets, 
taking loads in units of 4 ft. by 4 ft. were selected. These 
pallets differ from the skids formerly used in that they have 
three runners instead of two and a bottom as well as a top 
deck. This construction requires the use of a fork truck to 
lift it. The forks on the small motorized trucks may be 
moved up and down so that the palletized units may be de- 
posited wherever desired in double-decker fashion. 


ry fb -§— > 





PARK NUL Fron ExXPont 


4—Export cartons are fitted over domestic standard cartons and can accomodate three standards, 6 half-stand- 
ards, 12 quarter-standards or combinations of these. 5—Waterproof tape is applied to seams and to all flaps 
and openings. Treated this way, these export containers were dry after nine hours under running water. 

Having settled upon the use of the 4 ft. by 4 ft. pallets, the 
depot standardized its packs in three divisons as follows: 

Pack No. 1—Equivalent to a “‘retail’’ pack, this is comprised 
of three sizes of containers, called the standard, half-standard 
and quarter-standard. The accompanying photograph shows 
the three sizes. A pallet accommodates 18 standards, 36 
half-standards or 72 quarter-standards, or combinations. 
Pack No. 1 is used for supplying distribution points and ships. 
Its units are purposely kept small to save space on ships and 
to prevent wear and tear on garments which might not be 

Pack No. 2—Equivalent to a ‘‘wholesale” pack, this is the 
Bulk Pack, used for shipments sent to training stations. Itis 
standardized in units of four to the pallet. 

Pack No. 3—The Export Pack. This is an outer carton 
into which the units of Pack 1 are placed. The outer carton 
of waterproof board is sealed with waterproof adhesive; 
waterproof tape is applied to all seams and joints, and each 
pallet is bound girthwise with steel straps. Standardized, 
five cartons to a pallet. 

In the palletized system, the pallet cover fits on the top and 
holds the top layer of cartons in place. The cartons by the 
force of their weight hold the other layers in place for ordi- 
nary storage around the depot. Before shipping, however, 
each palletized load is bound together with */, in. by .020 
curved-edge steel strapping. 

The economy of the new method is apparent in the time 
saved in gathering up the cartons and delivering them to the 
shipping floor. Formerly, transveyors, or ‘‘jiggers,’’ as the 
small hand-trucks are called, were used to gather up the car- 
tons and take them to elevators into which the loads had to 
be transferred by hand. There was another similar hand 
operation necessary to get the cartons out of the elevators and 
onto other trucks. Finally, there was the task of loading— 
still by hand—into freight cars. This procedure, which re- 
quired the equivalent of the work of 14 men for a half-day is 
now accomplished by one worker in less than two hours. 
The saving is made because the fork truck mechanically picks 
up the entire palletized load at one time and drives it into the 
elevator, dropping it there. A similar hand-truck picks up 

the load when the elevator has descended, takes it to the ship- 
ping floor, finally to the freight car and deposits it there for 
its final journey. Freight cars can accommodate two tiers 
of these units and the fork trucks set the upper load in place 
just as readily as they set the lower one on the floor of the car. 
(Under the old system, when the smaller cartons were stacked 
by hand, it was necessary, under union rules, to hire a helper 
for each worker who stacked cartons above shoulder level.) 
The average freight car accommodates 40 of these new palle- 
tized units. 

The savings in cardboard, kraft paper, paper tape, metal- 
stitching and steel strapping under the new system are es- 
pecially noteworthy. For example, ten ‘Hats, White,” to 
use the Navy designation, were formerly placed in a box of 
200-Ib. test corrugated board and each set of four such boxes 
was placed in a master carton. These, in turn, were placed in 
bulk containers. The object of this careful packing was to 
keep the hats shaped as blocked. This care was entirely 
wasted, because nine sailors out of ten prefer to shape their 
white hats to suit themselves. Now the 200-lb. test boxes, 
the master cartons and the bulk containers have all been 
eliminated. Instead, the half-standard boxes of Pack 1 are 
used. Sixty hats are tiered and compressed together and 
placed in each box. These boxes are smaller than the ones 
which formerly held only 40 hats. A pallet load consists of 
2,160 hats. The accompanying photographs show the ma- 
terials saved under the new system. 

Formerly, in shipping overcoats, each was placed in an in- 
dividual corrugated box and each set of three such boxes was 
placed in a master container. Now the corrugated box has 
been replaced by a 50-lb. basis weight kraft paper bag and 
eight overcoats fit into the same size of box that formerly held 

The elimination of individual packaging for large garments 
has resulted in substantial economies. In the elimination of 
thousands of boxes alone, at a minimum cost of 5¢ apiece, the 
saving runs into large sums. Wherever feasible, the kraft 
wrapping paper formerly used to enclose underwear, socks and 
other small items, in units of a dozen, has been eliminated and 
with it the gummed paper which sealed the assortments, 

DECEMBER °* 1943 69 


now a group of such items is simply tied together with string. 
Large savings have been effected in the handling of bolts 
of cloth. Formerly each bolt was wrapped with two layers 
of reinforced asphalt laminated duplex paper (for waterproof- 
ing) and two wrappers of 75-lb. basis weight, heavy-duty 
kraft paper. The waterproof paper was a needless frill, the 
Navy said, because the cloth goes through a sponging process 
before it is made up into garments. So both of the water- 
proof paper wrappings were eliminated and a 60-lb. kraft was 
substituted for the 75-lb. wrapping. (Care is taken to 
salvage the 60-lb. paper for re-use or for sales to paper mills.) 
The elimination of the full overlap slotting in standard and 
half-standard containers has also been a worthwhile conserva- 
tion measure. While this type of closure is desirable, it is 
said to be wasteful of material and man-hours in a carton’s 
manufacture. Instead. the box is slotted with inside flaps 
meeting and the outer ones overlap with no cutting required. 

More than 30 carloads of fibre are saved every six months, 
as wellas a considerable quantity of metal for stitching through 
a change in the bulk container. Formerly the entire body 
and the covers were made of 500-Ib. test, double-wall, corru- 
gated board which required stitching at the closure. A new 
type of cover was designed of 350-lb. test, single-wall board, 
which folds together without stitching. 

One of the greatest economies effected involves the Export 
Pack. Before the new system was devised, it was assumed 
that any carton might be exported. Therefore, every item 
that passed through the department was packed to withstand 
the hazards of export. Now every item is packed for domes- 
tic shipment and those destined for export are later placed in 
larger export cartons of the type described as Pack 3 earlier 
in this article. Made of export V-Board, this unit holds 
three standards, six half-standards or 12 quarter-standards, or 
combinations of these Pack 1 cartons. Today, when an 
order is received for a given quantity of garments to be ex- 
ported, they are taken in their original domestic cartons and 
dropped into the waterproofed export boxes. After the boxes 
are filled, they are closed and waterproof adhesive is applied on 
top to the areas of contact between the flaps. Then water- 
proof tape is applied to all seams, flaps and openings and man- 
ufacturers’ joints. This waterproofs the box in accordance 
with tests lasting nine hours under running water. The final 
step is reinforcement by steel straps (the °/, in. by .020-in. 
curved edge variety)—three girthwise encirclements to each 
box. Export containers are kept on their pallets even 
aboard ship. 

The method of packing twill is interesting. It was for- 
merly packed in heavy cases, 1,000 yards to the lot. Now 
2,000 yards are piled on the lower half of a half-slotted carton 
resting on a pallet. Over this is telescoped a half overlap 
slotted carton, approximately 44 in. in depth. Then the top 
flaps are folded over and the whole load is strapped to the 
pallet. Though it weighs about 1,500 pounds, the load is 
handled automatically with the transporter and fork truck. 
These can be stowed away two-high, without dunnage. 

It requires little imagination (Continued on page 156) 

6—Bulk packs, equivalent to a “wholesale” pack, stand- 
ardized in units of four to the pallet. Used for shipments 
to training stations. 7—Same bulk containers in storage. 
8—Palletized unit load of hats in 36 half-standard con- 
tainers. Sixty hats in one of these boxes takes less space 
than 40 occupied by old packing methods. 9—Containers 
and strapping saved by new methods of packing hats. 




a S be ot 


IT - 



Diagram of average candy counter 
stand. Spot 1 is considered the 
best position. Spot 2, left and right 
of center, is considered average 
or favorable. Spots 3 and 4 are 
considered poor. Spot 5, left or 
right, is also considered poor, but 
can be greatly improved by use of 
displays along the back of rack. 

SHELE POSITION TESTS to aid candy bar sales 

qr to show the influence of shelf position, display ad- 
vertising and suggestion selling on sales of a popular- 
priced candy bar was recently conducted by the Point of 
Purchase Advertising Institute. 

The test, conducted in 50 outlets such as newsstands, 
cigar counters, subway, hotel and theater lobby stands, was 
made for a manufacturer who plans postwar expansion in 
lines he will package and brand for distributors. 

POPAT has broken down total results for use by a number 
of manufacturers who plan to develop the test idea as a 
basis for sales training material in store merchandising 

Results of the study indicate that sales from average- 
prominent position on the counter increase in direct propor- 
tion to the display cards used and sales clerk support given to 
the unit items. 

The test item was a newly developed peanut candy bar 
priced at 10 cents. It was first displayed in a poor position, 
alone. In the second phase of the test, the merchandise 
was displayed in an average-prominent position. Next it 
was given average-prominent position, plus display ma- 
terial. Finally it was displayed in an average-prominent 
position and supported with display cards and suggestion 
selling by sales people. 

On the first day of the test with the product in poor posi- 
tion, 11 units were sold. On the second day, with good 
position, 201 units were sold. On the third day, the total 
went to 859 units with the merchandise in average-prominent 
position and supported by display material. On the final 
day, also in average-prominent position, but supported with 
proper display and suggestion selling to all customers, the 
total sales jumped to 1,172 units. 

Relative selling positions used for the study are shown 
on the accompanying diagram as follows: 

Spot 1.—The best spot on a unit of the type shown. 
This spot was not used in the test because the Institute 
wanted only average-prominent or average-favorable 
position. (Consideration of the spot as most favorable 
is in this case the contention of the candy manufacturer 
for whom the study was made and is not based, as far as 
known, on other data.) 

Spot 2.—Left and right of center were considered 
average or favorable positions in the test. If there is 
any difference in degree of value of the two positions, 
Spot 2 right (facing the customer) was considered the 

Spot 3.—Considered poor position, but slightly better 
than Spot 4. 

Spot 4.—Poor position, but not as good as Spot 3. 
These spots are low down on the unit and well to the 
edges. Both were used in the poor position test. 

Spot 5.—Left and right of center were also considered 
poor—because of their location at top level and at the 
edges of the shelf. Spots 5 were greatly increased in 
value by the use of display cards along the back of the 
unit with the merchandise placed in front of the card, 
it was found. This position was also found good when 
merchandise was placed in this lccation in display con- 
tainers tilted so that the merchandise showed. 

The candy company with which POPAI worked out the 
tests expects to continue the study over larger samples and 
under varying conditions. Further detail will include study 
of sales messages used on the display cards and merchandising 
talks the clerks use in contact selling. 

DECEMBER °* 1943 




Something is happening to the carriage trade and 
merchandisers of luxury lines are already beginning 
to gear for an expected greater transition in the 
postwar era. Four new American perfumes intro- 
duced last month by the House of Leigh, now a 
division of Shulton, Inc., are an indication of this 
trend. This company’s perfumes used to sell in the 
$7.50-an-ounce bracket. The new aromatic scents 
are offered at less than half that price, although 
equal in quality to those sold at the former price, 
the company states. This innovation, it is said, is 
in anticipation of a demand for American perfumes 
at an American price. Packaging of these new per- 
fumes is streamlined to high-speed assembly-line 
handling. Each of the four scents—Poetic Dream, 
Risqué, Heartbeat and Dulcinea—are being put in 
the same kind of a bottle and the same kind of a box. 
Each, however, has a separate identifying tight wrap 
and label, inspired by the character of the various 
scents. An etched crest is the same on all glass 
bottle stoppers. The over-wrap is the same on every 
box, with suitable end labels for each scent. 

Heaters for war gones 

When American boys start crossing the Alps, there 
will be a neat package in the vanguard to help ease 
the cold. Waterproof, paperlined boxes will take 
Carrier Unit Heaters for shower and utility rooms up 
to the front. Packaged for export, according to Navy 
Department Bureau of Yards and Docks, each box 
contains two 46E-126 unit heaters, two aquastats, 
one thermostat, four 1-beam clamps and four hanger 
rods. * Heaters are of a steam type and will provide 
for circulation of heated air. 

To prevent corrosion and rust en route from 
Carrier’s factory at Syracuse, N. Y., to any part of 
the world, each part (including motors and controls) 
is wrapped in a heavy, greaseproof paper. The 
paper keeps out rain, snow or salt water spray. The 
parts are then put into a wooden box, lined with 
waterproof paper and sealed to insure a tight covering 
and lining. In the accompanying illustrations may 
be seen the unit heaters and parts before and after 
they are wrapped, and the paper liner for the box. 
All parts fit securely in the box and are separated 
for protection by wooden partitions. 

Bouillon cube packets 

Bouillon cubes are an extremely hygroscopic product 

ing and therefore must be carefully protected to keep out 
the moisture. Wyler’s bouillon cubes formerly came in 
tro- tin containers. Now five of these individually waxed 
va paper wrapped cubes come in a heat-sealed cellophane 
this tube which is placed in a tiny folding carton scarcely 
the bigger than a five-cent package of chewing gum. 
nts The carton is a good example of how product identity, 
ugh appetite appeal and informative data can be arranged 
‘ice, over a few square inches of space. Product name is 
i, is at the top, then an illustration of a steaming cup of 
mes broth, below which is a sales message: ‘‘Refresh 
per- yourself with a cup today.”’ Colors are red, blue and 
line yellow with a white background. The cubes are 
‘am, wrapped by means of hand-operated gauges over 
t in moving conveyors. The cellophane tubes are crimped 
box. and heat sealed. 


ere Credit; Cellophane tubing, Humitube Co., Peoria, IIl., 
oe and Milprint, Inc., Milwaukee, Wis. Covers, Mil- 

print, Inc., and Morris Paper Mills, Chicago. Cartons, 
American Coating Mills, Inc., Elkhart, Ind. 

A, Bean business 

there More and more dry foods in cartons are being intro- 
- duced for the civilian market by companies which in 
take normal times are leaders in the packing of hot proc- 
essed foods in tins. A great deal of ingenuity has 
Navy been shown in developing items which can be pack- 
| box aged this way to present them with counter and 
stats, appetite appeal. 
—— Two. new ones that appeared recently are College 
ovide Inn Chili Dinner and Western Style Beans. AIl- 
though these units contain nothing more than dried 
from beans and spices, they have been dressed up to give 
rt of the ration-harried housewife new ideas for preparing 
trols) these nourishing everyday foods. A sombrero-ed 
Th Mexican besid tus plant is the pictorial sug- 
exican beside a cactus plant is pictorial sug 
The gestion for the Chili dinner, while a cowboy cooking 
with over an open, outdoor fire is used as the illustration 
esti for the Western Style Beans. The reverse panels 
deve each depict a dish of the foods as they look when 
_ prepared. End panels contain the recipes and direc- 
ree tions for adding the packets of spices inside the carton. 

. Credit: Carton, Container Corp. of America, Chicago. 

DECEMBER °* 1943 7 

Package versus bulk handling costs 

xk k & 

YN topic has been the subject of an investigation just 
completed by the writer of this article with the help of 
several of his colleagues in the Department of Marketing, 
Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, University of 

There is some information on the difference in the cost of 
certain grocery products to household consumers (consumer 
price) when in a package and when in bulk quantities that 
must be weighed or measured out to customers in the retail 
store. Certain grocery products are still distributed in both 
of these ways and where information concerning relative 
costs has not been collected this can be readily done. There 
are also available some statements of what this difference in 
cost to household consumers would be if certain food products 
now sold only in package would be marketed in bulk form. 
But there is some doubt whether such statements should be 
classified as information or misinformation. They usually 
aver that the consumer price for the same quantity of a given 
product if sold in bulk form would be substantially less than 
the consumer pays for the product in the package. How so? 
This question is not answered by ‘‘giving the figures,’’ so to 
speak, but it is not difficult to see that the conclusion is 
generally reached somewhat as follows. 

Assume that the consumer pays 10 cents a package for the 
product. From somewhere a figure of, say, 1'/2 cents is 
gotten as the cost of packaging (even though accurate 
average packaging costs of individual grocery products for 
the entire trade, or any sizable section of it, are not to be had). 
From some other undisclosed source a figure of say '/2 cent 
per package for cost of advertising is gotten. If the product 
were sold in bulk, the argument runs, since there would be no 
package, both the costs of packaging and of advertising 
would be avoided. The same quantity and quality of the 
product in bulk form would be sold to consumers for only 8 
cents instead of ten. Of course, nothing is said of the greater 
protection, convenience and sanitation afforded by the 
package that would be lost if the change to bulk handling 
were made or, if so, they are treated as inconsequential. 

Marketing costs important 

Packaging is assumed to be a marketing function rather 
than one of production although the contrary assumption 
would not alter the situation. It is true that the consumer 
price would follow downwards any significant lowering of 
marketing costs if competition were active all along the line 
from manufacturer to retailer which appears to be the case 
for the grocery trade taken as a whole. Hence the respective 
marketing costs of a product in bulk and in package form 
assume a vital importance from the public’s point of view. 
They are also important to the trade, not only because of their 
effects upon the respective profits of the individual marketing 
concerns that are to be had from the “bulk distribution” and 
the ‘‘package distribution” of a given product but also as an 
approximate measure of what it costs the trade taken as a 
whole to give household consumers the extra services of the 

* Professor of Marketing, Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, 
University of Pennsylvania. 


by Ralph F. Breyer* 

package, a few of which were alluded to above, and to obtain 
for itself certain peculiar marketing services afforded by the 
package. This latter meaning will become clearer as the 
discussion proceeds. 

In view of this two-fold importance of the respective 
distribution costs of a product in bulk and in packages it 
seemed desirable to explore the possibilities of establishing 
such differences in these costs as might exist to endeavor 
actually to compute the cost differences on one or two 
products in a comparatively small market area and to draw 
out in a particularized fashion the significance of such cost 
differences. To make such a small-scale exploratory cost 
study the Container Corp. of America gave a grant to the 
University of Pennsylvania. It was under this grant that the 
“pilot”? study, so to speak, mentioned in the first sentence 
of this article was made and what follows is based upon 
portions of that study. 

Rice one of test products 

Instead of endeavoring to establish the total cost of market- 
ing for bulk distribution and for package distribution of a 
given product, the study just referred to attempted merely 
to find what the difference in such costs are that are caused 
entirely or primarily by the disparities in the types of con- 
tainers for each system, namely bulk and package. 

Rice was one of the two food products covered by the study 
and since it will be used exclusively as the basis of further 
discussion, it can be employed here to illustrate the objective 
of the study. The study sought to determine how much 
more or less it cost to market (including the entire marketing 
process from producer through successive wholesale and 
retail stages to the consumer) cleaned rice to household con- 
sumers because it was distributed in one form (bulk) rather 
than in another (package). The distinction between these 
two forms lies in the nature of their respective container? 
patterns. For bulk distribution rice is placed in 100-lb. 
burlap or cotton bags at the mill and it remains in this con- 
tainer until it reaches the retail store where it is weighed 
out in small consumer quantities and placed in manila paper 
bags or in cellophane bags in a few instances. For package 
distribution the product may either be placed in the package, 
holding consumer quantities, at the mill or at some other 
point prior to the arrival of the rice in the store, more usually 
a wholesaler’s or large chain’s warehouse. In either case the 
packages are placed in fibreboard shipping containers in 
which they arrive at the store. Where the packaging is done 
at some point other than the mill, the rice is moved to this 
point in exactly the same 100-lb. bags as are used for bulk 

Since the differences in costs of marketing were confined 
solely to those caused by the dissimilarities of these two con- 
tainer patterns, advertising costs, except for such advertising 
matter as was incorporated in the package, were eliminated 
from the cost calculations on the ground that such advertising 
is not caused by the use of the package although the latter 

1 The word container when used without a qualifier refers to any and all 
types of receptacles for holding the product that accompany the product as 

‘it moves from producer to consumer. 






| all 
t as 

facilitates such advertising. The cost of personal selling had 
to be excluded also because it was not feasible to measure 
the difference in the cost of this activity as between the bulk 
and the packaged form of the product. Since the remairing 
marketing activities relate primarily to the physical handling 
of the rice they have been termed ‘“‘bulk handling’”’ where the 
rice is in bulk form and “‘package handling”’ where it is in 
package form, and the cost differences that were established 
were those for bulk and package handling. 

If particular marketing channels are located, in each of 
which rice is handled both in bulk and package form and 
follows the same route of physical flow, then any cost differ- 
ences that may occur as between the bulk handling and the 
package handling of rice in each such particular channel 
would come about by virtue of the existence of one or more 
of the following three circumstances: (1) an operation has 
to be performed or a financial burden must be carried for 
package handling and not for bulk handling; (2) an operation 
or financial burden is required for bulk handling but not 
for package handling; (3) the operation must be performed 
or the financial burden must be carried for both bulk and 
package handling, but because of differences in surrounding 
circumstances it costs more per pound of rice for the one 
than the other type of handling. 

Such being the case particular channels (such as Mill A 
to Wholesaler B to Retailer C; Mill A to Wholesaler B to 
Retailer D; Mill A to Wholesaler E to Retailer F; and so 
on) each handling rice in both bulk and package form were 
first located. Then the entire length of the channel was 
examined to discover all operations? that might fall into any 
one of the three classes mentioned above (such operations 
being termed ‘‘cost-difference operations’). The costs of 
such operations were determined and this was charged 
against bulk handling or package handling as the case might 
be. The total of such charges against each type of handling 
for each particular channel was calculated and the difference 
in such totals, running against one or the other, was taken to 
be the difference in the cost of bulk and package handling 
of rice for that particular channel. Below is given a list of 
the specific operations that were commonly found to show 
cost differences when the packaging was done at a wholesale 
warehouse located in an eastern metropolitan area. Some 
of these, such as packaging and put-up, always evidence such 
cost differences, whereas others, like the difference in salvage 
price for used bags, sometimes do and sometimes do not. 

1. At Processor Level: 


At Wholesaler Level: 

(a) Packaging, including weight losses. 

(b) Difference in the average salvage price re- 
ceived for used bag by wholesaler and by 

(c) Order assembly. 

(d) Delivery. 

3. At Retailer Level: 

(a) Put-up (weighing and wrapping), including 
weight losses. 

(b) Getting a package of rice from the shelf for a 
retail customer. 


The study of cost differences for rice was confined to those 
occurring for the bulk and packaged rice sold in one large 
metropolitan area in the East. (Continued on page 152) 

? In this and all subsequent cases the word ‘‘operation’’ should be assumed 
to include purely financial burdens. 



— two years ago, Walter P. Paepcke, 
president of the Container Corp. of America, 
announced that at the request of his company, 
“a factual, scientific and scholarly study of the 
economics of packaging’’ was being undertaken 
by the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce 
of the University of Pennsylvania. 

That study, in spite of the dislocations of a 
chaotic period, has now been completed and 
MODERN PACKAGING presents to its readers an 
advance report by the research professor who 
conducted it. 

This is a pioneer investigation in a field of vast 
interest to everyone concerned with packaging 
and also of vital importance to every consumer 
of packaged merchandise. Whatever may be 
thought of the method or the conclusions of this 
study, tribute is due to the institution that con- 
ducted it and the company that sponsored it. 

The fact is that trail-blazing in research dis- 
closes much more than the original ‘“‘quod erat 
demonstrandum.”’ In this case, there was 
nothing whatever to serve as a guide. New 
patterns had to be found. The original plan 
included more than one product, but abnormal 
conditions made progress very slow and unfore- 
seen circumstances made it possible to follow 
through to completion with only one product. 

It can now be seen, as Dr. Breyer himself points 
out, that the investigation of this one product 
and the scope to which the research was limited 
has resulted in a fragmentary study which ob- 
viously leaves many questions unanswered. 
That one remaining product, too, is one which 
doesn’t call for mass production packaging meth- 
ods, nor for that matter does it call imperatively 
for packaging at all! Consequently, as the re- 
searchers would be the first to admit, it was im- 
possible in this study for packaging to demon- 
strate its real values. 

Nevertheless, the study makes a plain case for 
packaging. As the reader will see, in five out 
of 11 cases the handling of packaged rice was 
less expensive than bulk handling and in a sixth 
case, it was ‘“‘even-Stephen.”’ It is obvious 
that a study equally scientific and of equal in- 
tegrity could be conducted on products of a 
perishable character. Such a study would not 
need to be limited to the operations of wholesale 
houses who use only hand and semi-automatic 
methods, but would cover all the speedy modern 
low-cost mechanized methods used in up-to-date 
manufacturing plants, and could also include 
investigation of the “intangible elements”’ to 
which Dr. Breyer attaches much importance. 
Then indeed packaging would show its real 
value to every user of packaged goods. 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 


on topic has been the subject of an investigation just 
completed by the writer of this article with the help of 
several of his colleagues in the Department of Marketing, 
Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, University of 

There is some information on the difference in the cost of 
certain grocery products to household consumers (consumer 
price) when in a package and when in bulk quantities that 
must be weighed or measured out to customers in the retail 
store. Certain grocery products are still distributed in both 
of these ways and where information concerning relative 
costs has not been collected this can be readily done. There 
are also available some statements of what this difference in 
cost to household consumers would be if certain food products 
now sold only in package would be marketed in bulk form. 
But there is some doubt whether such statements should be 
classified as information or misinformation. They usually 
aver that the consumer price for the same quantity of a given 
product if sold in bulk form would be substantially less than 
the consumer pays for the product in the package. How so? 
This question is not answered by ‘‘giving the figures,” so to 
speak, but it is not difficult to see that the conclusion is 
generally reached somewhat as follows. 

Assume that the consumer pays 10 cents a package for the 
product. From somewhere a figure of, say, 11/, cents is 
gotten as the cost of packaging (even though accurate 
average packaging costs of individual grocery products for 
the entire trade, or any sizable section of it, are not to be had). 
From some other undisclosed source a figure of say 1/2 cent 
per package for cost of advertising is gotten. If the product 
were sold in bulk, the argument runs, since there would be no 
package, both the costs of packaging and of advertising 
would be avoided. The same quantity and quality of the 
product in bulk form would be sold to consumers for only 8 
cents instead of ten. Of course, nothing is said of the greater 
protection, convenience and sanitation afforded by the 
package that would be lost if the change to bulk handling 
were made or, if so, they are treated as inconsequential. 

Marketing costs important 

Packaging is assumed to be a marketing function rather 
than one of production although the contrary assumption 
would not alter the situation. It is true that the consumer 
price would follow downwards any significant lowering of 
marketing costs if competition were active all along the line 
from manufacturer to retailer which appears to be the case 
for the grocery trade taken as a whole. Hence the respective 
marketing costs of a product in bulk and in package form 
assume a vital importance from the public’s point of view. 
They are also important to the trade, not only because of their 
effects upon the respective profits of the individual marketing 
concerns that are to be had from the “‘bulk distribution” and 
the “package distribution” of a given product but also as an 
approximate measure of what it costs the trade taken as a 
whole to give household consumers the extra services of the 

* Professor of Marketing, Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, 
University of Pennsylvania. 


Package versus bulk handling costs 

xk kK & 

by Ralph F. Breyer* 

package, a few of which were alluded to above, and to obtain 
for itself certain peculiar marketing services afforded by the 
package. This latter meaning will become clearer as the 
discussion proceeds. 

In view of this two-fold importance of the respective 
distribution costs of a product in bulk and in packages it 
seemed desirable to explore the possibilities of establishing 
such differences in these costs as might exist to endeavor 
actually to compute the cost differences on one or two 
products in a comparatively small market area and to draw 
out in a particularized fashion the significance of such cost 
differences. To make such a small-scale exploratory cost 
study the Container Corp. of America gave a grant to the 
University of Pennsylvania. It was under this grant that the 
“pilot”? study, so to speak, mentioned in the first sentence 
of this article was made and what follows is based upon 
portions of that study. 

Rice one of test products 

Instead of endeavoring to establish the total cost of market- 
ing for bulk distribution and for package distribution of a 
given product, the study just referred to attempted merely 
to find what the difference in such costs are that are caused 
entirely or primarily by the disparities in the types of con- 
tainers for each system, namely bulk and package. 

Rice was one of the two food products covered by the study 
and since it will be used exclusively as the basis of further 
discussion, it can be employed here to illustrate the objective 
of the study. The study sought to determine how much 
more or less it cost to market (including the entire marketing 
process from producer through successive wholesale and 
retail stages to the consumer) cleaned rice to household con- 
sumers because it was distributed in one form (bulk) rather 
than in another (package). The distinction between these 
two forms lies in the nature of their respective container’ 
patterns. For bulk distribution rice is placed in 100-lb. 
burlap or cotton bags at the mill and it remains in this con- 
tainer until it reaches the retail store where it is weighed 
out in small consumer quantities and placed in manila paper 
bags or in cellophane bags in a few instances. For package 
distribution the product may either be placed in the package, 
holding consumer quantities, at the mill or at some other 
point prior to the arrival of the rice in the store, more usually 
a wholesaler’s or large chain’s warehouse. In either case the 
packages are placed in fibreboard shipping containers in 
which they arrive at the store. Where the packaging is done 
at some point other than the mill, the rice is moved to this 
point in exactly the same 100-lb. bags as are used for bulk 

Since the differences in costs of marketing were confined 
solely to those caused by the dissimilarities of these two con- 
tainer patterns, advertising costs, except for such advertising 
matter as was incorporated in the package, were eliminated 
from the cost calculations on the ground that such advertising 
is not caused by the use of the package although the latter 
1 The word container when used without a qualifier refers to any and all 

types of receptacles for holding the product that accompany the product as 
“it moves irom producer to consumer. 

a ee a” a ee 

SF a a a aa ae ae ae a 

~~ “= 

m RP TR 

aS «6 



facilitates such advertising. The cost of personal selling had 
to be excluded also because it was not feasible to measure 
the difference in the cost of this activity as between the bulk 
and the packaged form of the product. Since the remairing 
marketing activities relate primarily to the physical handling 
of the rice they have been termed ‘“‘bulk handling” where the 
rice is in bulk form and “package handling’’ where it is in 
package form, and the cost differences that were established 
were those for bulk and package handling. 

If particular marketing channels are located, in each of 
which rice is handled both in bulk and package form and 
follows the same route of physical flow, then any cost differ- 
ences that may occur as between the bulk handling and the 
package handling of rice in each such particular channel 
would come about by virtue of the existence of one or more 
of the following three circumstances: (1) an operation has 
to be performed or a financial burden must be carried for 
package handling and not for bulk handling; (2) an operation 
or financial burden is required for bulk handling but not 
for package handling; (3) the operation must be performed 
or the financial burden must be carried for both bulk and 
package handling, but because of differences in surrounding 
circumstances it costs more per pound of rice for the one 
than the other type of handling. 

Such being the case particular channels (such as Mill A 
to Wholesaler B to Retailer C; Mill A to Wholesaler B to 
Retailer D; Mill A to Wholesaler E to Retailer F; and so 
on) each handling rice in both bulk and package form were 
first located. Then the entire length of the channel was 
examined to discover all operations? that might fall into any 
one of the three classes mentioned above (such operations 
being termed ‘‘cost-difference operations’). The costs of 
such operations were determined and this was charged 
against bulk handling or package handling as the case might 
be. The total of such charges against each type of handling 
for each particular channel was calculated and the difference 
in such totals, running against one or the other, was taken to 
be the difference in the cost of bulk and package handling 
of rice for that particular channel. Below is given a list of 
the specific operations that were commonly found to show 
cost differences when the packaging was done at a wholesale 
warehouse located in an eastern metropolitan area. Some 
of these, such as packaging and put-up, always evidence such 
cost differences, whereas others, like the difference in salvage 
price for used bags, sometimes do and sometimes do not. 

1. At Processor Level: 


2. At Wholesaler Level: 

(a) Packaging, including weight losses. 

(b) Difference in the average salvage price re- 
ceived for used bag by wholesaler and by 

(c) Order assembly. ; 

(d) Delivery. 

3. At Retailer Level: 

(a) Put-up (weighing and wrapping), including 
weight losses. 

(b) Getting a package of rice from the shelf for a 
retail customer. 

The study of cost differences for rice was confined to those 
occurring for the bulk and packaged rice sold in one large 
metropolitan area in the East. (Continued on page 152) 

? Im this and all subsequent cases the word ‘‘operation’’ should be assumed 
to include purely financial burdens. 



early two years ago, Walter P. Paepcke, 
\ president of the Container Corp. of America, 
announced that at the request of his company, 
“a factual, scientific and scholarly study of the 
economics of packaging’’ was being undertaken 
by the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce 
of the University of Pennsylvania. 

That study, in spite of the dislocations of a 
chaotic period, has now been completed and 
MODERN PACKAGING presents to its readers an 
advance report by the research professor who 
conducted it. 

This is a pioneer investigation in a field of vast 
interest to everyone concerned with packaging 
and also of vital importance to every consumer 
of packaged merchandise. Whatever may be 
thought of the method or the conclusions of this 
study, tribute is due to the institution that con- 
ducted it and the company that sponsored it. 

The fact is that trail-blazing in research dis- 
closes much more than the original ‘“‘quod erat 
demonstrandum.” In this case, there was 
nothing whatever to serve as a guide. New 
patterns had to be found. The original plan 
included more than one product, but abnormal 
conditions made progress very slow and unfore- 
seen circumstances made it possible to follow 
through to completion with only one product. 

It can now be seen, as Dr. Breyer himself points 
out, that the investigation of this one product 
and the scope to which the research was limited 
has resulted in a fragmentary study which ob- 
viously leaves many questions unanswered. 
That one remaining product, too, is one which 
doesn’t call for mass production packaging meth- 
ods, nor for that matter does it call imperatively 
for packaging at all! Consequently, as the re- 
searchers would be the first to admit, it was im- 
possible in this study for packaging to demon- 
strate its real values. 

Nevertheless, the study makes a plain case for 
packaging. As the reader will see, in five out 
of 11 cases the handling of packaged rice was 
less expensive than bulk handling and in a sixth 
case, it was ‘‘even-Stephen.”’ It is obvious 
that a study equally scientific and of equal in- 
tegrity could be conducted on products of a 
perishable character. Such a study would not 
need to be limited to the operations of wholesale 
houses who use only hand and semi-automatic 
methods, but would cover all the speedy modern 
low-cost mechanized methods used in up-to-date 
manufacturing plants, and could also include 
investigation of the “intangible elements” to 
which Dr. Breyer attaches much importance. 
Then indeed packaging would show its real 
value to every user of packaged goods. 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 

wo NEW 
E cyosunts= 

Nc ways of doing things with wartime substitute materials 
continue to make their appearance in the packaging field. 
Two new types of paper closures for wide-mouth bottles— 
one of them said to be capable of a hermetic seal—have just 
been introduced. 

The vacuum seal makes use of a tacky liner disc, heavily 
coated on the under side with an amorphous wax, which is 
applied first to the bottle top and held in place by a paper 
side ring while vacuumization takes place. The tacky liner 
holds the vacuum and the ring is removed after the bottle 
emerges from the vacuumizer. Then a paper disc of over- 
size dimension is placed over the liner and the ring is replaced, 
resting atop the disc. The whole assembly goes under a 
special capping machine which turns the edge of the disc 
down tightly around the thread of the bottle opening and 
seals it firmly by driving the side ring back into place. 

This vacuum closure is the development of a Buffalo paper- 
box company which also has designed the special capper 

for use with it and has evolved a quadruple filling and capping 
production line. Such a line is now being set up in the plant 
of the Griffin Grocery Co., Muskogee, Okla., which is already 
packing its “Griffin” and ‘‘Polar Bear’’ brands of coffee with 
the paper closure. It compares favorably in cost with other 
closures now available. 

Griffin reports that the closure was thoroughly tested before 
being adopted and was found to give adequate vacuum pro- 
tection to ground coffee. Manufacturers of the closure de- 
clare that it will withstand up to 20 in. vacuum without 
wrinkling; 28 in. has been held successfully but the badly 
wrinkled condition of the liners indicated that leaks might 
later develop, they say. 

The liner disc is made of white paperboard. The side ring 
is cut from convolutely wound tubes of kraft, pressed to give 
it a slight shoulder at the top. The oversize top disc is of 
brown chipboard and is die stamped to give it a slight in- 
dentation in the diameter of the bottle top and a crimped 

1—The disc-and-ring type paper closure is said to hold up to 20 in of vacuum and is being used to cap at least two 
brands of vacuum-packed coffee now on the market. Housewife opens the jar by prying off the ring with a knife. 
2 and 3—Screw-type closure is being used for both coffee and cosmetics, with varying types of liners. It is 
said to make a tight closure, although not a hermetic seal. Both types of cap can be colored and decorated. 


“one « ne 

ae np 


Hroge s 
ote niry ¢ 

Coffee a 
2 FoR FETER ee 


“pie crust” edge which facilitates folding over the thread of 
the bottle. 

While the disc-and-ring cap will unscrew in ordinary usage, 
in the case of vacuumized products where the tacky liner is 
used the manufacturers recommend that the jar be opened 
by pulling off or prying up the ring. The disc and liner then 
can be easily removed. They can be replaced by reversing 
the process, a slight pressure of the hand replacing the 

Studies by the manufacturer of the closure indicate that one 
operator should be able to assemble 20 rings and liners and 
place them over the jars in one minute. Following vacuum- 
ization, the lifting of the rings from the jars, placing the disc 
and rings in a suitable press and pushing the ring over should 
be done at the speed of about 10 per minute per person. In the 
case of a non-vacuumized closure, a single filler is expected to 
operate at the speed of 15 containers per minute, while the 
quadruple filler should operate at a speed of 60 per minute. 

The second new paper closure is a screw-top type developed 
by one of the glass companies. It is already in use on wide- 
mouth jars in both the food and cosmetic fields. 

These caps are being made by one of the subsidiaries of a 
glass company. They are being supplied in 53-, 58- and 63- 
mm. sizes, GCA Standard 400 finish, continuous thread. 
The material is sulphite manila fibre and the cap is supplied 
with two types of liners, although it is said that any standard 
liner can be used. For coffee jars, the manufacturer is sup- 
plying a combination pulp and oil liner called ‘‘Silite’’ and the 
cosmetic users have a vinylite liner. 

e The construction principles of the second cap are simple 
- enough. A disc of sulphite manila is pressed into shape in 

the form of a cap and a heavy outer ferrule consisting of sev- 
t eral thicknesses of moldable pulp is wound around it. This 
y description is perhaps over-simplified, but this outer ferrule 
imparts such strength and rigidity as to keep the cap from 

_——— = == Fr wa 

: 4—Special capping machine for disc-and-ring closure of 
- the vacuum type. This principle can be adapted to either 
d hand or pneumatic capper of conventional design. 5— 
Steps in vacuum sealing with the paper closure: Right, 
above, tacky liner is placed within ring, and ring and 
liner on top of the jar finish. Below, as jar comes out 
of vacuumizer, ring is removed, disc placed over liner, 
the ring replaced and driven home in the capper. 





DECEMBER ®* 1943 

spreading while allowing sufficient torque to be applied to 
give a very strong and persistent seal. 

All the parts of this closure are thoroughly impregnated 
with a specially processed wax and they are then formed in 
automatic presses, which were developed especially for the 
job in the plant of the manufacturer. 

The manufacturer claims that the closure functions in 
actual production use exactly as does a metal or plastic 
closure; it can be applied either by hand or by automatic 
machine. Also it is said that the closure can be readily 
unscrewed by the user, and then—as in the case of coffee— 
reapplied quite tightly to protect the contents remaining in 
the container. The closure can be removed and replaced as 
many times as may be necessary. 

Additional machinery for the manufacture of this closure 
is being installed and it is expected that capacity will soon 
reach 1,000,000 caps per day. Production so far has been 
unable to keep pace with demand. Material supply is also 
something of a problem, but if paper continues to be less 
critical than metal or plastics the substitute closure may 
find widespread adoption. 

The users have not been stampeded by urgent need into 
accepting this cap without thorough test. One of the cos- 


metic manufacturers informed MODERN PACKAGING that 
it had successfully withstood the most rigid tests for cil- 
and water-resistance, as well as most careful tests to deter- 
mine the permanency and adequacy of the seal. They do not 
require a hermetic seal for their products. In the production 
line, they are handling these caps on fully automatic capping 
machines with the regulation hopper-feed. 

Eventually, these caps will appear as decorative members 
of a package ensemble. The material of which they are made 
and their method of fabrication both permit interesting color 
effects and printed reproduction of trademarks, etc. So far, 
however, because of the urgent need in the closure field, the 
manufacturers are confining their attention to production in 
natural color. 

Coffee distributors are taking hold of the screw cap eagerly. 
It forms a tight enough seal, experiment has demonstrated, 
to retain the coffee aroma for a considerable length of time. 
Reid-Murdoch and Kroger have no hesitation in marketing 
their coffee in this package in ground form, while the A. & P. 
organization, sticking to their traditional practice, pack theirs 
in the bean only. The latter organization made no tests of 
this cap for gas- and air-tightness because of this fact. They 
are filling the jars mechanically and the caps are applied by 

Some of the users feel that though the paper screw cap 
seems to be not quite as sturdy as the metal cap, their tests 
have demonstrated satisfactory results in respect to retaining 
its rigidity for periods which are more than equivalent of 
average shelf life. In cost, these caps are somewhat higher 
than the metal types which they have displaced, but the 
cosmetic houses report that they are less expensive than 
plastic caps. If later experience and volume production 
work out as expected, they are inclined to predict a permanent 
place for this cap. 

The manufacturer states that improvements are constantly 
being made in both material and construction to comply with 
various conditions encountered in actual use with varying 
types of products. 

Credit: Ring-and-disc vacuum closure by F. N. Burt Co., Inc., 
Buffalo, N. Y. Screw-top closure by Perma-Seal Closure Co., 
St. Paul. Minn. 

6—These are the three compo- 
nent parts of the disc-and-ring 
closure. Smaller disc is heavily 
coated on one side with an 
amorphous wax which effects 
the vacuum seal. Larger disc 

with crimped edge is then laid 
on and driven down inside ring, 
as shown in Fig. 5. 1—Dissec- 
tion of screw-type closure (Fig. 2), 
showing coated liner and outer 
ferrule of moldable pulp, cut 
to reveal their construction. 

2) oe ot 










pow fountain syrup, introduced since the Govern- 
ment restricted metal for crowns, is solving the metal cap 
problem to the tune of 5,000,000 crowns a month. 

This saving was made through replacement of metal crowns 
by paper caps and plastic dispensers on bottles of fountain 
syrup. Translated into tonnage of metal available for war 
use, the monthly saving multiplied by 12 equals 210 tons a 
year or enough to build four heavy tanks of 50 tons each, 
according to Walter S. Mack, Jr., president. 

Pepsi-Cola fountain syrup, which offers the company an 
enviable new sales outlet, is shipped in 12-o0z. bottles similar 
in appearance to the familiar “big, big bottle’ except for a 
color-applied label and paper cap. Use of the paper cap, 
similar to a milk bottle top, is possible since the syrup con- 
tains no carbonation and therefore does not have to be main- 
tained under pressure like a carbonated beverage. 

Fountain operators are supplied with plastic pouring de- 


2—Paper caps similar to those on milk 
bottles can be used on the syrup bottles 
to save metal since the syrup contains 
no carbonation and therefore does not 
have to be held under pressure. 3— 
Fountain operators are supplied with 
a colorful trademarked plastic pouring 
device for the syrup. This replaces 
Paper: cap after bottle is opened. 

Cola goes 
to the fountains 

1—Syrup is poured by hand froma 12-oz. bottle, while 
customer watches, into a glass bearing a syrup 
line indicating the exact amount of syrup to be 
used before ice and carbonated water are added. 

vices which replace the paper caps after the bottle is opened. 
This dispenser top also bears the Pepsi-Cola trademark. 

This method of dispensing the beverage at fountains shows 
thoughtful planning in the use of available packaging mate- 
rials at a time when material and labor shortages would have 
made it-impossible to obtain other specially designed counter- 
dispenser units. 

This fountain service provides sanitation and careful meas- 
uring of ingredients, and assures fountain customers of getting 
Pepsi-Cola when they ask for it, Mr. Mack pointed out. 

The syrup is poured by hand (while the customer watches) 
from the bottle into a special 10-0z. Pepsi-Cola glass bearing 
a syrup line to indicate the exact amount of syrup to be 
used before ice and carbonated water are added. 

Credit: Paper caps, Smith-Lee Corp., Oneida, N. Y. Plastic 
dispensers, Advertising Novelty Co., Philadelphia. 


DECEMBER ®* 1943 

by Millard C. Faught 

hen it comes to wartime packaging problems, the people 

in the seed business are really in a class by themselves. 

Few things are fussier about the packages they travel in than 

are seeds. If seeds get too hot, too cold, too wet, too dry, 

too near strange odors, or take airplane rides too high up in 

the sky, they may die or at least lose their power to germinate 

and yield food for man. In total war, the yield of a few tiny 

seeds can mean the difference between victory or death 
through starvation to civilians and soldiers alike. 

Military strategists well understand the ‘‘logistics’’ of seeds. 
One Commando transport plane can carry enough seeds to 
raise 10 trainloads of vegetables. To take advantage of this 
fact, Uncle Sam has sent to his allies overseas 62,000,000 Ibs. 
of seeds of all kinds. He has kept his own soldiers in places 
like Australia and India well supplied too, because every ton 
of food that the Army or the allies can raise where they will 
eat it is one more ton of cargo space freed for guns and planes. 

From March, 1941, to October, 1943, the United States had 



1—Great bulk of seeds moves in sacks. 

sent, under lend lease, to the allies these vast quantities of 
vegetable seed: United Kingdom, 40,092,081 lbs. ; Middle East, 
11,405; Australia, 1,548,960; Govt. of India, 29,963; Southern 
Rhodesia, 28,000; British East Africa, 25,356; Equatorial 
Africa, 6,592; New Caledonia, 50,865; Malta, 3,000; Russia, 
19,240,198; North Africa, 416,052. The total was 61,452,427. 

Other millions of pounds have gone to our own armed forces 
and still more have been sent by private individuals in the 
United States to families in Britain and Russia so that they 
could raise true ‘‘Victory”’ gardens. 

The combined results make one of the best chronicles of the 
entire war. Hitler thought he could devastate the rich 
Ukraine, starve the Russians and use the same soil to feed his 
own ravaging hordes. Now his villainous ambitions are a 
Nazi mockery. As fast, last spring, as the Russian soldiers 
could hurl the Nazis out off the black soil, American seeds 
were arriving to plant the liberated earth. Here is evidence 
from a letter received recently by our State Department: 

so al 

roe : 


In p 
ing | 

in s 



“As National Commissar for Agriculture in the name of 
the collective farming peasants of the Soviet Republic I 
desire to express my thanks to all American organizations 
and individuals who participated in the purchase, assem- 
bling and forwarding of vegetable seeds to Russia. After the 
withdrawal of the Germans from occupied regions, which 
they ruthlessly devastated and scorched, the help of 
American vegetable seeds assisted in re-establishing 
normal life to many destitute families. 

BENEDICTOV, Commissar for Agriculture.” 

Part of those thanks go to the men who overcame the pack- 
aging and shipping problems which preceded delivery of the 
millions of pounds of life-saving seeds. American seedsmen 
were as thorough in their methods for insuring the quality and 
condition of their seeds as were certain Dutch seedsmen in 
subtly sabotaging seeds stolen from them by the Nazis. 
Wherever possible the Dutch seed merchants handled their 
seeds so they would be ruined in transit. We handled ours 
so all would arrive in good order in spite of a shortage of many 
normal types of overseas shipping containers like soldered tin 
inner cases. 

Surprisingly, the great bulk of the war seeds which we have 
shipped have made their hazardous journey in trucks, Liberty 
ships, planes and even by burro or oxcart, packed only in 
single and double thickness cloth bags. The author has seen 
numerous cargo vessels loading in American ports with the 
entire holds filled with white seed sacks, packed together like 
roe in a fat fish. Fig. 1 shows a warehouse room filled with 
such sacks. ; 

Under normal conditions transatlantic shipments of seed, 
being on a far smaller scale, are likely to be conducted with 
greater care. Shipment of most seeds in bags is adequate pro- 
vided they do not become damp or wet any place in transit. 
In peacetime, when more time is likely to elapse before plant- 
ing than is the case in the emergency of war, a much greater 
proportion of seeds is shipped in moistureproof containers 
such as lined boxes, drums and various types of cans. 

Even under the material shortage exigencies of war, some 
5,000,000 Ibs. of seeds have been sent abroad in the past year 
in special containers. These were the non-lend-lease seeds 

2—More than 5,000,000 Ibs. of vegetable seeds have been sent as gifts from Americans to British and Russian families. 

sent by the British and the Russian War Relief Societies in the 
United States to householders in Britain and the Soviet. 
Fig. 2 shows a typical ‘family carton.’’ Each gift box con- 
tained a well-rounded selection of seeds adequate to supply a 
family with a year’s supply of vegetables, mostly storageable 
biennials. For shipment the in“ividual cartons were packed 
in strap-bound wooden boxes of the type shown in Fig. 3. 
The boxes are lined with oiled paper and are used to ship small 
bags as well as the cartons pictured in Fig. 2. 

Figs. 4 and 5 show another type of seed container, fibre 
board drums which are used in sizes ranging from 1 to 60 gals. 
They have proved a very satisfactory substitute for tin con- 
tainers where shipments must be protected from moisture and 
heavy treatment such as they would receive in going to a 
place like Equatorial Africa. 

The drums pictured were made for the W. Atlee Burpee 
Seed Co. The shell itself is of waterproofed laminated seam- 
less jute fibre. The ends are flanged wooden bulkheads with 
self-locking steel rims. They are light enough to meet the 
requirements of air express but at the same time sufficiently 
rugged to withstand ‘‘crash landings” or a mule’s back. 

Fig. 6 shows a much scarcer prewar type of seed container, 
a tin cannister which can be soldered airtight after filling. 
These containers are designed to be moisture, disease, insect 

_ and rodent free. One drawback is that certain seeds may 

“sweat” inside over a period of time. 

This war, in which seeds are playing such a strategic role, 
is virtually revolutionizing international traffic in seeds. 
Heretofore, the United States has been a heavy importer of 
seeds from the Low Countries, Germany, the Balkans, Russia 
and North Africa. Now the flow, ona vastly increased scale, 
is the other way, except to enemy and enemy occupied areas. 

The consensus among seed shippers is that the container 
people are doing a fine job with the woefully limited mate- 
rials now available, but that in the future, with thousands of 
kinds and varieties of seeds and bulbs to be sent abroad to 
every type of climate, a huge assortment of ‘‘tailor-made’”’ 
containers will be needed. 

Credit: Drums, Carpenter Container Corp., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Cannister, American Can Co., New York, and others. 

3—In wood boxes go ‘‘American seeds for British soil.” 4 and 5—Water-resistant, seamless, jute-fibre drums have replaced 
metal containers. 6—WNothing short of a torpedo is likely to get into this soldered tin can of seeds for South Africa. 

4 5 


DECEMBER °* 1943 

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The illustrative theme in full color and old-fashioned letter- Newcomer among the ranks of paperboard powder containers — 

| ing on this box for Americana Fruit Cake, adopted by Berke 3 is this elongated, octagonal-shaped box for Yardley After- Water’ 
Cake Co., will carry the spirit of American Christmas tradition Shower powder. The only metal used*is for the dispenser top, 

wherever it goes. It was planned principally as a gift item for yet because of the shape there is a striking similarity to pre- Si 

meninservice. The lid is constructed like a folding carton. The viously used metal containers. The wide front panel allows tc 

base is like that of a set-up box. Designed by Alan Berni, New ample space for brand and product identification. Dispenser top “Hair 

York. Folding Carton by Eastern States Carton Division of and background are black. Design and lettering are in green of Wy 

Robert Gair Co., Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y. white and gold. Container by Imperial Box Co., Brooklyn, N. Y held t 

a knif 

) Effectiveness of the seal is one of the important factors in Five-pound units of pea-soya soup mix, packed by the War vba 

@/ the seleciion of a ceramic container. This problem has been 4 Food Administration for lend-lease, are being put into sturdy, _— 

solved by combination ceramic and cork closures on these graceful delta-seal kraft bags printed in two-color design. Instructions of a , 

pink and blue containers for SRF day lotion and SRF night cream for preparation are printed in 15 languages. Each of these kraft ve 
distributed by Sperti, Inc. The ceramic part of the lotion con- bags is placed in a double MST cellophane bag and heat sealed. 

tainer cap is made with a stem. A pierced piece of cork is then Nine 5-lb. units are sewn in a heavy cotton bag and this is put Vv 

placed over the stem and adhered to the ceramic piece. A cork into a mulliwall bag, sealed with cloth tape. Complete unit is q 20 

disc is secured inside the cream jar cap so that when the closure designed for protection and cargo space saving. Maximum bottle 

is put on it fits the jar finish precisely. Design models by Rook- preservation is assured by a new gassing process. Bags by Bemis hot a1 

wood Potteries, Cincinnati, Ohio. Ceramic containers and caps Bro. Bag Co., St. Louis, Mo. Tape by Industrial Tape Corp., Chica 

by Vanderlaan Tile Co., New York. Closures fabricated by New Brunswick, N. J. Gassing process, The Dow Chemical sales- 

Armstrong Cork Co., Lancaster, Pa. Co., Midland, Mich. 


A super-duper in luxury re-use packaging is this musical 
) cabinet box put out by Belsic Products containing a 
Thorens stormproof cigarette lighter, a drawer of cigarettes and 
two decks of fine playing cards. The box plays a melody each 
time the lid is opened. . It is made of fine polished walnut, set off 
by a graceful band of reptile leather. The unit sells for about 
fifty dollars plus tax. 

A tiny shadow-box, displaying a boutonniere that can be 
( detached and worn on lapel is the Christmas gift item 
Lentheric is featuring for three miniature bottles of its leading 
perfumes, ‘“Tweed,” “‘A Beintot’”’ and ‘‘Confetti.”” The box is 
pale blue with a white scroll design around the frame for the 
nosegay. A ribbon holds the bouquet in place. 

/ Today’s wooden lipsticks are a far cry from the early ones 

introduced to take the place of metal. A new process of 
impregnating wood with a chemical which seals the wood pores 
against the absorption of additional moisture is claimed for this 
new wooden lipstick adopted by Luxor. Special machinery, 
previously used for applying the lettering and design on metal 
containers, has been converted for use on wooden containers 
finished in clear lacquer. Lipstick containers by Scovill Mfg. Co., 

iners : 
Waterbury, Conn. 



pre- \ Similar to an old-fashioned patch box in which ladies used 
lows to keep court plaster is this new opal glass jar-and-lid for 
r top “Hairid’”’ and ‘‘Odorid,’’ two toiletries distributed by the House 
Teen of Wynchase, Merchandise Mart, Chicago. The two elements are 

V.¥ held together by a band label and the lid is removed by running 
a knife blade around a line indicated on the band. The glass 
War top saves metal and plastic. Labels are printed in rich brown 
tones with white for accent. The package has the counter appeal 

irdy, ‘ , 

ene of a luxury cosmetic. Jars and lids by Hazel-Atlas Glass Co., 
— Wheeling, W. Va. Labels by A. J. Andersen, Chicago.. 


Bsa What more appropriate than Derby’s Merry-Go-Round box 
it Is -octagonal construction, for a revolving tray containing 
_— bottles of five different sauces—barbecue, steak, Worcestershire, 
emus hotandchop suey. This unit put out by Glaser, Crandell Co., 
rp. Chicago, is designed for department store and gift shop counter 

sales—a tempting item to pep up ration-planned meals. 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 


1—New water-resistant labels—of high wet-strength paper varnished front and back—can be camouflaged by 

2—Label applied with water-resistant adhesive shown after 7 days’ immersion in brine. 

Must American labels be blacked out? 

oa who are merchandising-minded are disturbed by a 
recent Army camouflage move which would cloak in 
complete anonymity the brands of food products now pouring 
overseas. They feel that they should have the privilege of 
carrying their brand names to the millions of American troops 
abroad, and—more important—they know that the same 
Army cans are going to feed millions of civilians in scores of 
foreign lands where American brands will be bidding for 
business after the war. 

The Army, of course, has a sound reason, or rather two 
reasons, for its action. It has found that the bright labels 
and bright tin ends of food cans attract enemy planes and 
gunfire to troop-concentration areas and it has found that 
ordinary cans may rust and contaminate the food when 
subjected to extreme conditions of exposure in the field. The 
Army’s answer is direct and thorough: It has ruled labels 
off the cans and directed that the cans be completely covered 
with a drab-colored, wax-base, corrosion-resistant paint 
bearing only a single identifying word as ‘‘Peas,”’ ‘‘Beans,”’ 
etc. In 10 of the largest canneries the Army already has set 
up facilities for applying this label ‘‘blackout”’ and it is re- 
ported to be considering ways and means of extending the 
process to all canneries doing Army packing. 

There can, of course, be no quarrel with the Army’s purpose, 
which is to conceal military dispositions and protect the lives 
of our soldiers. That is a matter of military necessity. But 
packaging men have been asking themselves whether there is 
not some way to attain the Army’s two aims while at the 
same time preserving brand identity. 

The situation was the subject of considerable discussion 
both on and off the floor at last month’s New York conven- 
tion of the Packaging Institute. It should be a matter of 
interest to the entire packaging field that two companies, 
working cooperatively, have developed a promising solution. 

The solution, which awaits acceptance by the Quartermaster 
Corps, involves a special new water-resistant label developed 



by a leading lithographer and the new water- and corrosion- 
resistant aqueous adhesive with wide temperature range 
evolved by one of the adhesives manufacturers. Some de- 
tails on the latter development were given at the Packaging 
Institute meeting. 

The suggested procedure involves also the cooperation of 
can manufacturers in spraying the outer surfaces of can tops 
and bottoms with a non-reflecting dull lacquer. It involves 
finally the overprinting of the canner’s regular color labels— 
made on high wet-strength paper—with a camouflage pattern 
scientifically designed to kill reflection values but leaving the 
basic label easily discernible on close examination. Samples 
of cans so camouflaged are shown in Fig. 1. 

This procedure is simple; it requires no new machinery 
and will not appreciably delay production, its proponents 
say. The labels can be applied by a standard labeling ma- 
chine or comparable results may be expected of hand-labeling 
operations by use of a comparable water-resistant lap paste. 
The hot melt pick-up resin is said, furthermore, to be suitable 
for spot labeling in automatic equipment capable of applying 
this type of material to No. 10 cans at both ends of the label. 
The new adhesive simply takes the place of the usual pick-up 
gum on the ordinary labeling machine. It gives a water- 
resistant seal and joint at the lap. The manufacturer of the 
label ‘‘spares” the varnish on the corresponding edges. 

The process is inexpensive; its backers estimate that the 
complete job of water-resistant labeling can be done at an 
additional cost of only about 11/2 cents per case of 24 No. 2 

The Quartermaster Corps has long been searching for labels 
and adhesives which have greater resistance to exposure. 
There is the classic story of the barge loads of canned food 
which floated ashore on a Solomons island—after having 
been flung overboard during an emergency—completely 
naked of labels or any other means of identification of the 
contents. This situation has been corrected by improved 




1 of 





adhesives, but there has been evidence that some adhesives 
still commonly used, such as the more hygroscopic types of 
lap paste and cold pick-up gum, actually promote the corro- 
sion of cans and the consequent contamination of contents 
under extreme conditions of exposure. 

The adhesives firm which developed the new water-resistant 
formula conducted laboratory tests comparing standard can 
labels and adhesives with the new resistant label and adhesive. 
Its report asserts that both types of labeling were applied by 
a standard labeler in a New Jersey plant after which the cans 
were totally immersed in a brine solution at room temperature 
and then spun periodically. Within 3'/2 hours, it is said, the 
ordinary adhesives gave way at the lap seam and the ordinary 
labels themselves disintegrated to a considerable degree. 

The water-resistant labels and adhesives, however, stood 
up for the entire seven days that the test was conducted, the 
report stated, and ‘‘it is reasonable to assume, from the con- 
dition of the samples, that they would withstand considerably 
longer immersion without appreciable change.’’ On removal 
from the 5 per cent sodium chloride bath, the labels were 
somewhat wrinkled (Fig. 2), but when they had air-dried they 
showed only a slight ripple, which was not considered objec- 
tionable. The lack of ‘‘bellying”’ or expansion was attributed 
to the fact that the label stock is varnished on both sides; 
this method of varnishing also adds greatly to the wet 
strength of the paper, the report says. 

The labels after seven days’ immersion in the brine are 
said to have shown no commercial difference in adhesion 
from cans that were not immersed at all. There were some 
rust stains on the label attributed to corrosion of the tin 
plate in salt water, particularly around the beads of the cans. 

The results indicate that it is entirely possible to do a 
waterproof can-labeling job on a commercial scale with 
existing machinery, the laboratory report concludes. With 
camouflaging of can ends and camouflage over-printing of 

colored labels, it would appear that (Continued on page 156) 




wos mt 

from the 
United States 

Or Cocqunennnx 

3—Examples of national insignia approved by OWI for 
labels of all lend-lease shipments. 4—Typical labels 
found in the stores and commissaries of Borneo. Arrows 
point to American labels which show to poor advantage 
against those of Australian and Canadian food packers. 


Sn tae 

DECEMBER * 1943 

‘cometh i egret 
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vitamin B COMPLEX 

lence and eructabon Mithede ge. 
samated with tah ot products. 

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Women &., B. Racconngy, 8 

1— Evolution of Lederle design now adopted for more than 70 products. Left: early packages, 

hard to read and without the distinguishing Lederle oval trademark. Right: new pack- 

ages with new typographic treatment and trade and product identity emphasized sharply. 

New technique for readability of drug labels 

He: to include all the label data required by FDA in read- 
able type and at the same time have a package with 
counter appeal and ready identification is one of the greatest 
tasks in designing a modern drug package for the consumer 

The redesigned line recently introduced by Lederle Labora- 
tories, Inc., now comprising more than 70 different products— 
and with more to appear soon in the new dress—is attracting 
wide interest in the drug field and medical profession. 

Here is a new family of labels planned by one of the coun- 
try’s leading designers so that every word is readable by 
average eyesight without the aid of a magnifying glass and 
with colors and clearly identified trademark standardized 

A brief history of the Lederle line is necessary to under- 

stand the progress that has been made by the introduction of 

these new packages. 

When Lederle started putting out biologicals at the turn 
of the century, these products were packed in set-up boxes 
with wrap-around labels. Since they usually went from the 
company to the doctor’s or druggist’s refrigerator, there was 
little need for eye appeal so long as label information met 
legal requirements. This same label style with minor changes 
was gradually carried over into the company’s pharmaceutical 
and vitamin line. However, counter and window displays, 
particularly for vitamin products, demanded an improvement 



over the old Lederle label which had served so well for bio- 
logicals and ‘“‘prescriptions only” preparations. 

Plans were launched about a year ago for this new project. 
First consideration was given to a special technique worked 
out by the designer for getting perfect register of design and 
legibility of printing on all the labels. 

News Gothic was selected as the best type for readability 
in small areas and Bodoni for the titles and subtitles. 

Master drawings were made of every label and carton de- 
sign. The proper size type that would reduce to the required 
size for the label was selected in each case. This had to be 
figured out in advance in correct proportion for the reduction. 
A principle was observed of never reducing below 4-point type 
on the smallest labels. However by careful scaling in ad- 
vance, even on some of the small labels, type sizes after reduc- 
tion were maintained at 5- and 6-point. Drawings with type 
included were reproduced by photo-engraving to the proper 
sizes. In this way, the company stated, there was no danger 
of deviation from carefully planned layouts in which every 
space and placement of pattern had been calculated. 

The code word and laboratory numbers are in the same 
position on all the labels and cartons. Colors are standard- 
ized, but with special identifying colors to distinguish between 
their human products and veterinary products. 

First products to appear in the new Lederle dress were 
members of the vitamin line—Vi-Magna, Vi-Alpha, Toco- 

the ¢ 
this | 
up le 
and < 
no di 
of ur 
ard | 
the ; 
J. 1 




pherols, Vi-Delta Tablets and Clipsules, and the other B 
Complex groups. For these, the original yellow previously 
used was modified to buff for overall package color. All 
lettering is in royal blue on background panels-of white. 
Distinguishing features are horizontal strips in buff and the 
oval trademark which says “‘Lederle”’ on everything. This 
selection of only two colors for the complete job represents a 
saving in printing cost, yet gives an identifying design that is 
different from that of competitors. 

Folding cartons are used exclusively instead of set-up boxes 
previously housing these products. These have advantages, 
the company states, in that they are more economical for 
this purpose and easier to handle. They stack easily, take 
up less storage space when delivered flat, simplify inventory 
and are cheaper to print. 

Bottles have also been changed. Round amber bottles 
have replaced Blake bottles for tablets, powders and capsules. 
Liquids are put into a modern oval bottle. The change from 
Blakes to rounds was made to provide more space for label 
area—so necessary these days to meet legal requirements in 
describing vitamin preparations. The new bottles also 
afford uniformity of shape for all bottled products. Grada- 
tions of size are quickly seen by the purchaser and there are 
no distracting indented panels to confuse him. 

The company plans eventually to use all buff closures made 
of urea formaldehyde. For the duration, however, they will 
use what they have on hand or can get—brown or black 
plastic or metal. 

The Lederle veterinarian line used to come in set-up boxes 
with red and white labels. Since no particular identification 
had been established, Lederle is going to use the same stand- 
ard layout adopted for human products, with two shades of 
green as the identifying colors rather than buff and blue. 
Biologicals, too, are being given a new dress. Colors will be 
the same buff and blue as used for pharmaceutical products 
and a similar design will be used, except that the identifying 
stripes will be omitted to provide more area for copy. 

A substantial percentage of Lederle products now go to the 
armed forces for which service Lederle was awarded the 
Army-Navy “E.”’ Production facilities have been greatly 
increased, however, and practically all the company’s prod- 
ucts for prophylactic and therapeutic use are available for 
civilians in ample quantities. 

All of the company’s packages have been planned with re- 
straint and dignity to symbolize the ethical character of the 
long-established Lederle name. 

Lederle Laboratories, Inc., really began when Dr. Ernest 
J. Lederle, a young chemist, opened a testing laboratory in 
New York City. He attracted so much attention in medical 
circles that in 1902, when only 37, he became Health Com- 
missioner of New York. A year later he set up the company 
which bears his name to make diphtheria antitoxin. This was 
the first company to refine and market this antitoxin. He 
introduced various cultures to ferment milk and make it 
digestible. A Russian named Metchnikoff discovered Bacillus 
Bulgaricus while working in the Pasteur Institute in Paris. 
Dr. Lederle brought this product (Continued on page 158) 

2—Set-up boxes (left) are completely replaced by folding 
cartons. Modern oval bottles replace old-style bottles. 
3—Round bottles replace Blake bottles for tablets, powders 
and capsules. 4—Round bottles (right) contain greater 
label area than old one since informative data can be ar- 
tangedon side panels. 5—Note how well new family design 

shows upon new folding carton at right to replace set-up box. 






DECEMBER ®* 1943 


ays READY forvet! 



Baiscige tay 25r 


Mifflin Chemical Co.’s new display ‘“‘capitalizes’’ on the 

company’s slogan, ““The National Rub Down.” Appearing 
in drug stores throughout the country this season you may see 
this dramatic illustration of the National Capitol behind which 
is the giant hand of Uncle Sam holding a bottle of Mifflin’s 
rubbing alcohol. The construction of the card is such that a 
three-dimensional effect is created when a bottle of the product 
is: placed in the hand. The whole sales message is carried in 
five words—the company name and the slogan. The only other 
copy that appears on the display is the line under company name 
that describes contents. Display by Einson-Freeman Co., Inc., 
Long Island City, N. Y. 

9 Today, when labor is short, the silent counter salesmen is 
& more important than ever. This well-designed perfume 
tester, made entirely of non-critical materials, has been intro- 
duced for Leigh perfumes (see page 72). The walnut tray holds 
four crystal bottles with crested stoppers by which the customer 
may serve herself. Each of the bottles, identical in design to 
those in which the perfumes are sold, is filled with one of the 
company’s four scents. The tester is sent to every dealer with 
an initial order. The rack is packed for shipment with four 
2-oz. refill bottles and four separate glass funnels, all wrapped 
in cellulose wadding for protection. Tester measures 11 in. by 
31/2 in. The only decoration on the polished walnut is the com- 
pany name. Along with the tester, the dealer is provided with a 
brochure containing many suggestions for window displays and 
other selling aids. 

Modern artists have caught public fancy with colorful 

abstractions of complex chemical symbols and formulae. 
Such illustrations are like adventures into the unknown beyond 
the average layman’s imagination. Air-brush technique has 
been adopted widely for these revelations of chemical discoveries. 
Rexall Drug Stores selected this treatment for a display to 
announce that they have sulfa drugs ready at all times for 
doctor’s prescriptions. The display is colorfully dramatic, yet 
has the restraint and dignity in keeping with the ethical character 
of the products. The display is in full color with blue predomi- 
nating in the background for the upper part of the illustration. 
Background of the lower part is yellow with the words ‘‘Sulfa 
Drugs” standing out prominently in red. Made by U. S. Printing 
and Lithograph Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 




in a 
so t 




r to 


This cabinet of early American design is for counter use in 
4 promoting Shulton Early American Old Spice perfumes. 
It is sturdily built of heavy cardboard, 91/2 by 41/2 by 13%/, in. 
and contains three shelves. It has a glass front and slide back. 
Each shelf has 12 indentations to hold a dozen dram-size bottles 
of perfume. It is given to every dealer who places an order for 
three dozen dram-size bottles. The slide back makes it easy to 
dispense the perfume. The cabinet is decorated with floral 
sprays and the Old Spice Lady motif. Background is cream- 
colored like the company’s packages. 

This simple counter merchandiser has been designed for the 
convenient packages of Personna Blade Mail—the ready-to- 
mail folder that combines letter from home and ten razor blades, 
described in November MopERN PackacGInc. The compact unit is 
planned for impulse sales at strategic point-of-sale locations. The 
cabinet is a die-cut folding carton type and serves as shipping 
container as well. Colors are red, white and blue to supplement 
the design of the package. Each contains a dozen of the folders. 
Dealers are also supplied with two window posters and counter 
cards as additional promotional aids. 

( This three-color display is being used currently, by Con- 
solidated Hair Goods Co., Inc., to promote the sale of their 
FIJ-Oil for home use. The merchandiser is arranged for good 
use of copy space to tell the sales message and allows ample 
place to present actual cartons of the product in the foreground. 
These cartons fit into a die-cut base. Designed by Mason 
Studios and printed by Carl Gorr Printing Co., both Chicago. 

Color tones that suggest the golden brown of fried chicken 

or a veal chop were selected for the counter unit to sell 
Modern Maid Redi-Breader, the ready mixed breading which 
saves the housewife milk, eggs and cooking fats. A die-cut 
opening allows a place for inserting an actual carton of the 
product in the display. Inside the carton the product is packed 
in an 8-oz. parchment moistureproof bag. Carton flap is die-cut 
so that it stays secure when shut. Cartons by Acme Folding 
Box Co. Display by Marvin Ellis Co., New York. 


Md pie 



DECEMBER ®* 1943 

An engineer speaks for the future 

by L. W. Kendrick* 

Prctssine equipment users have been giving much thought 
to what they would like to have after the war. Replace- 
ment needs have been growing, and enlarged sales and the 
prospect of new items point to considerable purchases of 
equipment. Also, increasing labor costs highlight the need 
for further mechanization, the supplanting of semi-automatic 
machines by automatic machines and the mechanizing of 
hand work. 

Obviously, most users will welcome the time when machines 
are obtainable again and for a while will be glad to get the 
foremost prewar designs if nothing else is available. But the 
war interlude has been long enough for users. to crystallize 
their desires for improvements. Cumulatively, observations 
of the various faults, small in themselves, have built up in 
users’ minds the need for major design improvements. 

The prewar years provided machines that would “run. 
The postwar wants are for machines that will operate con- 
sistently well. As these wants are analyzed, as users ask 
themselves what postwar equipment design should do, the 
following specifications become clear. 


1.—It should reduce the human element to a minimum. 
To this end, feeding, setting and servicing should be 
made easy. This involves unscramblers, setting without 
the use of tools, using the glass involved as the gauge 
and built-in lubrication. 
2.—It should have a maximum output. To this end, the 
design should be such that the maximum practicable 
operating speed is fully maintained without stoppages 
due to breakage or spillage. This involves designing to 
handle abnormally wide tolerances with improper posi- 
tioning affecting only the package involved, rather than 
making a breakage of glass or machine the penalty for 
faulty material or positioning. It also involves avoid- 
ance of abrupt changes in motion and ease of cleaning 
up spills. 
3.—It should operate normally throughout its life. To 
this end, also, the human element should be at a mini- 
mum in lubrication and other servicing, and such wear as 
affects the quality of the output should be automatically 
compensated or taken up. 
4.—It should be safe to operate. All pinch or seizure 
points should be guarded with transparent guards if 
necessary so that a careless person will be protected as 
well as is now done with modern electrical installations. 
5.—It should look its best. Appearance should be im- 
proved to give the feeling of competent design, if nothing 
more. Users are taking more interest in providing at- 
tractive working conditions for several cogent reasons 
and machine appearance is a large factor. Too many 
machines look as though they were just copies of a first 
experimental model and operators cannot develop pride 
in keeping them clean. 
The human element, fallible and costly as it is, gives users 
major concern. Many strides have been taken by machine 
builders in reducing its impact, but many more are desired 

* Chief Engineer, The Carter’s Ink Co. 


In this challenging article a plant engineer sets up a 

postwar mark for machinery manufacturers to shoot at. 
Some of the things he demands may already be available— 
at a price or on sufficient priority—; others may be on the 
drawing boards; still cthers may not be practical beyond a 
certain degree. The article will command the interest 

of other machinery users as well as machinery makers. 

so that fewer operators are needed on a line and any skills 
they may now require are transferred into the design of the 

Feeding should be simplified by the further development of 
unscramblers, or other mechanical means, so that machines 
may ke designed for greater line speeds. The present capacity 
of a feeding operator should not be accepted as a limiting fac- 
tor. Fillers, cappers, labellers and cartoners should require 
no operator attention whatsoever during a run except for 
feeding the magazines occasionally. 

Inspection and packing should be further mechanized. Ex- 
cept in the cases where bundlers are used, this station in a 
line is still essentially hand work. Corrugated carton sealers 
have progressed a long way on this road, but carton stacking 
on skids is still hand work, either at the sealer or at the end of 
a delivery conveyor. In many cases, at the present line 
speeds, the use of automatic sealers is not economical because 
of the necessary presence of a stacking operator with time 
available to hand glue the cartons. Though the output of 
several lines can be stacked by one operator, it becomes a 
back-breaking hand job. 

Simplify set-up 

Set-up should be greatly simplified so that unskilled opera- 
tors can readily change sizes. The skilled set-up man of to- 
day should devote his skill to true maintenance of equipment. 
Machine designers have gone part way in this respect, but 
where hand-crank adjusting means are provided, in some 
cases a mechanic’s wrench is necessary to unlock the setting. 
The use of such tools for set-up should be avoided. The 
need for judgment in set-up positioning shculd be designed 
out of the equipment. Gauge points should be provided 
so that the glass may be used as the gauge, or else easily de- 
mountable single-use heads, as on some present labellers, 
should be employed. 

The chore of hand lubricating should be eliminated as far 
as possible and this should be done in the basic designing 
rather than by the addition of automatic lubricators. Where 
it cannot be eliminated, such lubrication should be from one 
or two readily accessible points. Oilless bearings, short mo- 
tions hinged on flat springs and hydraulically operated mo- 
tions are examples. The maintenance man should be a doc- 
tor, not a nurse-maid. 


to | 





is 1 





Simplification should be sought for many reasons, not the 
least of which is accessibility in case repairs are needed. 
Further thought will show cases where a few parts will do the 
work of many and often this will make for accessibility. 

False simplification should be avoided, such as elimination 
of bronze bushings where repair is greatly hampered without 
them. Split cams should be used where removal of plain 
cams would be difficult. Built-in motors, clutches and main 
drives should be given special attention from this point of 
view. Especially, care should be taken that all parts are 
plainly identified for ease of replacement. 

Eliminate delays , 

Consistent operation requires that the equipment be de- 
signed to accept and pass through occasional faulty glass 
without breaking the glass or altering its ability to handle 
subsequent normal glass. For serious abnormalities in di- 
mension, automatic rejection means, possibly of an elec- 
tronic nature, should be considered. Faulty glass or position- 
ing should not cause breakage or permanent distortion of 
machine parts, or change the setting. The percentage of de- 
fective glass is, of course, very low, but breakage in 
the machines magnifies it a hundred or a thousand-fold as 
far as output is concerned, and makes for a very appreciable 
cost factor. Some limit of pressure should be designed into 
any movement acting on the glass, either by the use of spring 
releases, by using the limitation inherent in hydraulic move- 
ments or by other means. Synchronization of the several 
machines in an automatic line will help, especially if the pres- 
ent piling up at latches is avoided. 

Obviously, normal glass should not be broken, yet some 
present designs shcck the glass too close to the breaking point 
and result in surface bruises, with attendant reduction in 
ability to withstand later shocks along the line. Occasionally, 
difficulties at the glass manufacturers result in glass of less 
than normal strength. Improper annealing due to trouble 
with the lehrs, or so-called ‘‘cordy’’ inhomogeneous glass due 
to pulling on the tanks too fast, may cause breakage where the 
impact is severe. Abrupt movements in any of the machines 
cause spills and consequent clean-up delays, even after the 
capping station when a cap is missed. 

With all this taken into account, there still will be leakers, 
with openings too small to release the filling vacuum. There- 
fore, the path of travel should be easily cleaned and provision 
made to prevent spillage from reaching other parts of the 
equipment or soiling the floor. More thought should be given 
to link belt conveyors whose pins are ‘‘frozen’”’ by the products 
which may leak or spill out of the bottles. 

Retain initial quality of output 

Consistent operation requires also that as a machine wears, 
the quality or speed of output should not be affected and this 
wear should not introduce the necessity of judgment in the 
set-up adjustments. It is far better to replace parts from time 
to time, such as nozzle rubbers or label-pressure pads, rather 
than to alter the setting to compensate for their wear. This 
is the maintenance man’s province, but design opportunities 
exist in the compensation of variables caused by cam and cam 
roller wear. This latter point may be closely related to the 
limitation of maximum pressures previously referred to. 

That a machine must be safe to operate cannot be too 
strongly stressed. Most bottling equipment is poor in this re- 
spect. There are many positions which can crush fingers and 
break bones and while operators should not get near them with 
machines in motion, carelessness or over-confident familiarity 

should not have this opportunity of causing accidents. 
Again, limitations of pressures should help in many cases. 

In others, only guards can really make it safe. The design 
of these guards should be such that the machine will not oper- 
ate when they are displaced. Where motions must be cb- 
served in a diagnosis of trouble, the guards can well be made 
of transparent plastic materials. Flying glass in an opera- 
tor’s eye is inexcusable. Equally so is a broken finger or 
arm. Yet today while they may not have even happened in 
some plants, the possibility and even the probability is there. 

Improve over-all design 

Sleek appearance and functional design are desirable for 
several reasons. Attractive working conditions, developing 
pride in cleanliness and generating a feeling of design com- 
petence have been mentioned. Another is that such de- 
signing often goes far toward guarding dangerous conditions, 
enveloping them with smooth contours. Opposed to this 
covering up is the reasoning that lubrication will be over- 
looked if parts are hidden, but if more attention is given to 
the designing out of these conditions as suggested above, 
several dividends are obtained at the same time. 

The design of the machine should include all accessory 
equipment as integral parts of the main unit, hidden perhaps, 
yet accessible. Pumps, switch boxes and fuse panels are ex- 
amples. Push buttons or toggle switches should be the 
means of controlling automatic equipment, plus built-in 
automatic shutoffs with tell-tales to stop the machine when 
something goes wrong. 

This unity will aid much in providing flexibility of use. 
Machines then can be provided with casters or other means 
making for portability. This will be helpful in many types 
of plants. Variable speed drives add further to flexible use 
and means for adjusting the working height should not be 

The orphan small bottle 

The need has been mentioned for several new accessory ma- 
chines, but not to be omitted is the very real desire for junior 
models of current machines. True, a large proportion of 
mechanically handled glass is in the quart and pint sizes, 
and today most machines are built with these in mind. But 
there is also a large volume of glass to be handled from !/4 oz. 
to 2 oz., evidenced by drug-store shelves and chain-store 

Automatic machines designed primarily to handle quarts 
have been adapted fairly successfully to handle some bottles 
as small as 1/2 0z., but it is very much like cracking a nut with 
a steam roller. Smaller editions to handle the smaller sizes 
would be welcomed for several reasons. The lower cost 
would open up new opportunities for mechanizing, and floor 
space would be conserved. 

Where and how 

In all of these comments, the attempt has been toward con- 
structive criticism and toward visualizing the broad problem 
of mechanization from the experience of users rather than 
from the view of the equipment builders. Yet there is no 
thought of belittling the very real progress that has been 
made in this field in the past by the ingenious designers of 
various types of packaging equipment. Rather, the intent 
is to say hopefully, ‘“‘Let’s not be content with minor im- 

How this can be accomplished is a wide open question. 
Designers have, no doubt, been (Continued on page 156) 

DECEMBER °* 1943 91 

Camoutlage to balk snipers 

Natural kraft cartons like the one in the foreground are replacing white ones in this first-aid 

kit, since it has been discovered that white labels and boxes make perfect enemy targets. 

fh Pies of white gauze, a white carton or a white label on 
medical supplies that save the lives of thousands make 
perfect targets for Jap snipers. 

This information brought back recently by an Army medi- 
cal officer from Guadalcanal has started a whole program of 
camouflaging medical supply packages. 

Among them is this new first aid kit prepared as standard 
equipment for pneumatic life rafts. The unit consists of six 
folding carton packets containing the following: sulfadiazine 
tablets, bandage compresses, sulfanilamide, boric acid oint- 
ment, morphine syrettes and iodine applicator. 

Original cartons were white paperboard. Later ones, as 
shown in the foreground of the photo, are being made of kraft 
board, which provides a neutral color that blends with almost 
any kind of scenery the same as khaki uniforms and other 
camouflaged materiél. Bandage compresses contained will 
also be dyed so they will not be dead white and distinguishable. 

The cartons are enclosed in heat-sealed laminated cello- 
phane envelopes which will withstand 48 hours’ submersion, 
meeting with Government specifications. The carton packets 
are then enclosed in a kraft sleeve which is inserted into a 
waterproof bag of laminated kraft, metal foil, asphalt and 



cellophane, similar to the flexible waterproof material used 
widely in medical supply packaging. 

This waterproof bag is then placed in a kraft carton sealed 
with moistureproof glue. The kraft sheet for the outer carton 
unit, before die-cutting, is treated with a coating of micro- 
crystalline and paraffin wax to make it weatherproof and to 
withstand temperatures for both tropics and arctics. This 
wax penetrates the kraft about 4 pts. on each side of the board, 
thereby giving adequate protection. The mixture is such that 
it will not melt at tropical temperatures nor crack in arctic 

The packets are delivered to a central place from the various 
drug houses for assembly. Identification is a Red Cross to 
indicate that the package is a medical supply. Because it 
will be used for both Army and Navy, the further designation 
is simply U. S. Government. 

It is reported that labels on containers for blood plasma and 
other medical supplies are also being colored to blend with 
outdoor backgrounds. Natural kraft paper makes a good 
camouflage packaging material, without further color treat- 

Credit: Cartons, Berles Carton Co., Inc., Paterson, N. J. 



d to 

Ss to 
e it 


HE development of screw-type and lug-type paper closures 
to cap standard-sized glass containers was as logical as it 
was necessary. 

Without these paper ‘‘war bonnets’’, many products would have 
no way of getting to market, consumers would have no way to 
buy them. 

Burt has been glad to be of service in making this development 
available to as many industries as possible. This, and our other 
contributions to wartime packaging, give further example of the 

type of intelligent and resourceful service we render at all times. 

500-5 a eee 
NEWARK, N. J.: 915 Military Park Rd. — Telephone MArket 3-0788 
SAN FRANCISCO: 220 Bush St. — Telephone YUkon 0367 
CANADIAN DIVISION: Dominion Paper Box Company, Ltd. 
469-483 King Street, West, Toronto 2, Canada 

_____? es 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 

— "(= 



When the war ends, you'll expect wrapping ma- 
chines that embody new and advanced ideas... 
You'll be most likely to get them from an organi- 
zation that has kept its wits sharp and its skill at 
top notch by building not only wrapping machines, 
but new and intricate armament machines as well. 

50-cal. machine gun bullets, for example, are 
linked at a speed of 150 per minute by a new ma- 
chine of our invention and manufacture which 
has proved so successful that hundreds are now 
serving the armed forces. Portable, comparatively 
light in weight and operated by power or by hand, 
this machine can follow the fighting and be used 
in the most advanced positions. 

Other machines built by us are used for pierc- 
ing and priming cartridges, loading them with 
powder and projectile, inserting them into clips, 
packing them into cartons, etc. 

The inventive talent, engineering ability and 
craftsmanship required for this type of work will 
lead to faster, more efficient and more versatile 
wrapping machines. We are ready now to study 
your postwar wrapping plans. 



Over. a Quarter Billion Packages per day are wrapped on our Machines 



1—Its molecular alignment is largely respon- 
sible for Saran’s strength, flexibility and pecu- 
liar dimensional stability. X-ray diffraction 

pattern reveals the film’s crystal structure. 


Its properties and postwar 
potentials as a moisture- 

proof packaging material. 

by F. J. MacRae! and H. L. Schafer’ 

— chloride was first mentioned in chemical annals 
over a century ago, but little or no active investigation 
was carried on until the last decade. At this time, tte Dow 
Chemical Co. investigated the material while working on 
chlorinated aliphatic compounds. This preliminary study 
soon led to an extensive development program and early in 
1940 the first vinylidene chloride polymers* were introduced 
commercially under the trade name Saran. 

Possessing unusual characteristics for a thermoplastic 
material, Saran found immediate acceptance in uses requiring 
chemical inertness, high strength, toughness and good resis- 
tance to the absorption of water. Molding granules, mono- 
filaments, pipe and tubing, as well as pipe and tubing fittings, 
were soon develored to the production stage in 1942. In 
the same year, a thin, one mil film of Saran was developed 
that had all the physical properties of the parent material 
and, in addition, was very flexible. 

Results of tests showed that this film of Saran had an 
exceedingly low rate of moisture-vapor transmission, could 
be welded like the otker Sarans and possessed a very high 
tensile strength for a thin plastic membrane. Characteristics 
such as these indicated the possibility of the film’s use as a 
packaging material. Extensive research and development 
work made it possible to introduce vinylidene chloride com- 
mercially as a packaging medium for war use under the trade 
name, Saran film Type M, early in 1943. 

~—- srneiion Development Division, The Dow Chemical Co., Midland, 

“oa” Development Laboratory, The Dow Chemical Co., Midland, 

3 U.S. Patent 2,160,931. 


Chemically, polyvinylidene chloride is the polymer of un- 
symmetrical dichlorethylene and is produced from brine and 
petroleum. Ctlorine liberated by the electrolysis of brine 
and ethylene made by the cracking of petroleum are combined 
to form Trichlorethane which in turn is converted to 
vinylidene chloride. This clear colorless liquid which boils 
at 31.7 deg. C. is polymerized to form the long, linear, 
straight chain polymer, polyvinylidene chloride. Following 
the polymerization, a plasticizing and stabilizing agent is 
added to the fine granular polymer which is then ready for 
fabrication into Saran film by means of specially designed 
mechanical equipment. 

Saran film is a nearly colorless, transparent, flexible sheet- 
ing which shows remarkable properties of strength, pliability 
and moistureproofness. Whereas other fabricated thermo- 
plastic materials exist in the amorphous state, Saran is 
normally crystalline in nature. However, in a molten con- 
dition, the resin is amorphous and readily crystallizes when 
cooled to room temperature. The process of crystallization 
may be expedited by mechanical working, resulting in molecu- 
lar alignment, or orientation. This molecular alignment is 
responsible to a great extent for the film’s properties of 
strength, flexibility, and peculiar dimensional stability. As 
can be seen from Fig. 1, an X-ray diffraction pattern of the 
film exhibits a crystal structure similar to that of a cold 
worked metal. 

At the present time, Saran film is produced in one grade 
only, Type M, which is suitable for the packaging of metal 
parts and assemblies according to the Method II Pack 

DECEMBER °* 1943 95 

wherein’ a desiccant is used. The film is available in the 
form of continuous rolls 15 in. or less in width and in two 
gauges, 125 and 225. The thickness and tolerance limits on 
these gauges are as follows: 

Gauge Thickness Tolerance 
125 0.00125 in. +0.00025 

225 0.00225 in. +0.00025 

Saran film appears to be the most chemical-resistant 
sheeting now offered to the trade. Many products heretofore 
restricted to packaging in glass or other special type con- 
tainers may be safely stored or packaged in a relatively in- 
expensive Saran-lined container. Of particular value is its 
use in the packaging of corrosive or anhydrous materials 
which require the additional protection of a moisture barrier. 
Saran film possesses the same high degree of chemical re- 
sistance as Saran pipe and tubing. Table I is a condensa- 
tion of the resistance of Saran to the more common types of 
chemical compounds. 




Room temperature 

Mineral acids: 

Lo, SES ee ee ee ae cee Mee ee eee eae Excellent ‘ 
Concentrated (except H,SO, and HNOs)....... Excellent 

NUNN 5 Shes arctan cps sioner ene © aces ele ee cde maes Excellent 

Alikalies (except NHUOB).. ...... 6008s cadccwn Good 

ee CARRIAGE WRENN 25 oo 5 ntcc cave gn e.c) Sccuel sueracevoretlecer’ Excellent 


Alcohols, aliphatic hydrocarbons.............. Excellent 1 

PRE GNIS ooo ies: vice wiessi one: Hate SIO Good to fair ‘ 

Note.—Chemical resistance decreases with increase in temperature. 1 

Resistance to the passage of moisture vapor is one of the 
most unusual properties of Saran film. Because of its high 
degree of élasticity and toughness, the film may be creased or 
folded repeatedly without affecting this property. The 
moisture vapor transmission rate as measured using a pyrex 
glass cell, anhydrous calcium chloride desiccant and the 
General Foods’ moisture-vapor test cabinet at 100 deg. F. 
and 90 per cent relative humidity is shown graphically in 
Fig. 2. As illustrated, the moisture-vapor transmission rate 
is inversely proportional to the film thickness. However, 
unlike other moistureproof films and laminates, the rate is. 
not constant but decreases as shown in Fig. 3. This is a 
plot of the instantaneous moisture-vapor transmission rate 
upon aging the film at 100 deg. F. and 90 per cent relative 
humidity for the times indicated. 

Fig. 3 is a representation of the expected decrease in 
moisture-vapor transmission under normal aging conditions | | 
for a period of 10 to 12 months. The drop in transmission 
occurs as a result of the loss of plasticizer from the film, the 
plasticizer acting as a carrier by which a limited amount of 
moisture may be transmitted. Upon aging or at increased 
temperatures, crystallization proceeds, forcing this plasticizer 
to the surface where it volatilizes. This loss does not ad- 
versely affect the physical properties, as shown in Table II. 
Fig. 4 illustrates the volatile loss with time at various tem- 

The water absorption of Saran film is extremely low; the 
increase in weight is less than 0.02 per cent after seven days’ 
immersion in water at room temperature. This property, 
together with its low moisture-vapor transmission, makes 
the film ideal for use as a moisture-impervious barrier. 



The transmission of gases, as well as moisture vapor, 
through Saran film is extremely low. Recent emphasis 
placed on such rates of transmission of thin plastic membranes 
for commercial application places the film in an enviable 
position. Several types of gases have been tested, namely, 
helium, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen. 
The rates in liters/sq. meter/24 hrs. for a 125-gauge film 
ranged from not more than 0.70 to not less than 0.01 for the 
gases in the respective order as listed above. 

The extreme toughness of Saran film may best be illus- 
trated by observing the tensile and bursting strengths as 
plotted in Figs. 5 and 6. The process used in making Saran 
film produces a product having high orientation and corre- 
spondingly high strength in the transverse direction of the 
material and limited orientation and somewhat lower strength 
in the longitudinal direction. As shown in Fig. 5, within the 
working range the tensile strength is proportional to the 
degree of orientation. Thus, the tensile may vary from 
approximately 6,000 to 15,000 Ibs./sq. in., depending upon 
the orientation. Actually, the film, as presently produced, 
ranges from 7,000 to 11,000 lbs./sq. in. The variation in 
bursting strength with gauge is illustrated in Fig. 6 and, as 
may be observed, is quite high. As additional evidence of 
the toughness, a 1-in. diameter steel ball weighing 67 grams 
may be dropped from 5 ft. to 6 ft. at room temperature on a 
tautly held 125-gauge film and from 10 ft. to 12 ft. on a 
225-gauge film before rupture occurs. At 0 deg. F. the 
rupture points are 2 ft. and 5 ft., respectively. 

Saran film normally exhibits a high resistance to tear but 
like most other flexible, transparent, plastic membranes shows 


Figs. 2, 3 and 4 show Saran’s resistance to the transmis- 
sion of moisture, vapor and volatile gases. Figs. 5, 
6, 7 and 8 portray the physical properties of the film. 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 97 

low resistance once a tear has been started. Fig. 7 illustrates 
the relation of thickness to this property. 

When exposed to temperatures above 85 to 95 deg. F., 
Saran film will shrink when unrestrained to the extent illus- 
trated in Fig. 8. However, a slight restraining force readily 
prevents this shrinkage. Above 160 deg. F. this unrestrained 
‘shrinkage occurs within a matter of seconds. This is a result 
of the stress present in the material due to mechanical work- 
ing or orientation the film is subjected to during manufacture. 
Advantage may be taken of this property in the fabrication 
of skin-tight coverings by loosely wrapping the package or 
container and then exposing it to a temperature sufficient 
to shrink the film down onto the surface. 

Saran film does not present a fire hazard either from the 
standpoint of use or fabrication, as the base material is self- 
extinguishing. When exposed to heat, the material first 
shrinks, then melts, and if an open flame is applied it will 
chemically decompose, but it will not support combustion. 
When the flame is removed, decomposition stops. 














Problems of storage and handling of prefabricated shapes 

are relatively simple. The only consideration necessary is 
that of elevated temperatures. Care should be exercised not 
to store the material near steam pipes, radiators or other 
excessive heat because of the possibility of shrinkage. 

Upon exposure to climatic conditions, Saran film does not 
embrittle or change adversely in physical characteristics, 
Some discoloration, however, occurs. Some of the physical 
properties actually improve upon aging, notably the moisture- 
vapor transmission rate. Effect of outdoor exposure on Saran 
film for one and three months’ periods is listed in Table IT. 


Unexposed 1 Mo. 3 Mo. 
MVT (grams/100sq. in./24 hrs.) 25 13 13 
Tensile strength (Ibs. /sq.i n.) 8,900 7,500 7,500 
Bursting strength (Ibs. /sq. in.) 38 39 41 
Tear strength(grams Elmendorf) a4 17 15 
Elongation (per cent) 22 27 35 
Flexibility Excellent Unaffected Unaffected 

Table III lists the properties of 225-gauge Saran film at 
room temperature. 


(All data referred to were obtained from 225-gauge 
film at 77 deg. F. and 50 per cent relative humidity) 


a a 1.68 
Specific volume—cu. in./Ib.................... 16 
Area factor—sq. in./Ib............. 00. c cee wees 7,000 
Moisture-vapor transmission: 
Grams/100 in.?/., hrs. at 100 deg. F., 90 per 
eae 0: | 0.20 
Water absorption—1 week at 77 deg. F......... 0.02% 
WEG POINE........«. «cers se diesccsee casce anes 310-330° F. 
Burning rate—A.S.T.M. D568-40.......... Self-extinguishing 
Specific heat—cal./deg C./gram............... 0.32 
Thermal conductivity— 
cal./sec./cm.?/deg.C./em. 2.2 XK 1074 
Resistance to heat—up to 125 deg. F.—cont..... Excellent 
Resistance to heat—up to 170 deg. F.— inter... .. Good 
Resistance to cold—tested to —20 deg. F....... Good 
Tensile strength—Ib./in.?..................05. 7-11,000 
Elongation—per cent..................00000- 25-35 
Bursting strength—lIb./in.?.................... 68 
Drop impact—(1 in. steel ball)—ft.: 
OEE NO asians 9's tin) Spntig sone Haw Gas see RIRHS SSH 10’ 
MIEN sete. gos Sibi to Tr Ad Gav Sando asia lanadargneteherers 8’ 
CPE onus c.antecnteneniaeinio cs and acne 5! 
Folding endurance (M.I.T.)............ not less than 500,000 
RREMACHIVE INGER... 5.0.5... o5 5 oe SEE EER cee ans 1.61 
Transmission of white light................... 90% 
Ultraviolet Cut-Off ...5..6n ieee nseeewnee 3,500 A 
Transmission of infra-red..................... 90% 
Dielectric constant: 
A aiid Se “sare, eral ar fo Onecare wh alin Gus, he Bile Sein 2-4 
(0); 2-4 
Percent power factor: 
OI i oiacsrsreiar aise mare Kee nals ame naka diche aes 10-13 
0 3-5 
Dielectric strength, volts/mil.................. 5,000 

ry is 
d not 

S not 
le II. 



30° F. 





500 A 


bo bo 


Saran film can be joined by three methods of heat sealing, 
namely, hot air bead welding, an improved type of continuous 
heat sealing and high frequency welding. 

The first method, commonly called the hot air method,‘ 
produces a neat, strong and vapor-tight seal with the film. 
This method takes advantage of Saran film’s shrinking char- 
acteristics when exposed to extreme heat. The two layers 
of film to be joined are clamped between two bars as shown 
in Fig.9. The upper bar has a !/,¢-in. wide slot at its bottom, 
which is chrome plated and highly polished. This bar is 
clamped to the lower one by a suitable clamping device, and 
holds the film firmly over the 1/j.-in. groove in the resilient 
rubber face of the lower bar. This leaves a '/,¢-in. wide strip 
of the film exposed. A jet of hot air (about 575 deg. F.) is 
directed into the opening of the upper bar against the narrow 
exposed section of the film, which melts into two parts and 
immediately shrinks back to the cool edges of the slot. Here 
it forms two inconspicuous cylindrical bead-like welds, one 
along each edge of the slot. 

A continuous unit has been developed using the same basic 
principles as mentioned before. This is shown in Fig. 10. 
The upper bar D is made curved to fit a rubber-covered drive 
cylinder A, which replaces the lower bar. Clamping pressure 
of about 5 Ibs./sq. in. is applied by spring tension to the 
curved upper bar, or segment D, which is chrome plated and 
highly polished. This segment D has a !/,¢-in. by 2-in. slot E 
which matches the !/,.-in. wide groove B in the resilient face 
H-H of the driving cylinder A. The driving cylinder A and 
the segment D are cooled by circulating cold water through 
the openings as shown in Fig. 10. Hot air is directed through 
a '/s-in. nozzle G at from 475-575 deg. F. into the slot E at 
about a 45-deg. angle. Room temperature air at the rate of 
*/, to 11/2, cu. ft./min. is heated in a 550-watt open coil 
heating element. This delivers sufficient air to the exposed 
surface of the film to produce 6 to 8 linear feet of weld per 

As may be seen by Fig. 11, this unit produces two complete 
welds with each cut. Production units capable of producing 
several tubes at one operation can be built up from two or 
more of these units. Welds produced by this method on 
225-gauge Saran film will support from 7 to 8 Ibs./linear inch 
and 5 to 6 lbs. on the 125-gauge stock. Results of tests have 
shown the welds to have a lower moisture-vapor transmission 
rate than the parent material. 

Due to Saran film’s orientation and comparatively sharp 
melting point, attempts to use conventional heat-sealing 
devices in general have not been too satisfactory. A recently 
developed continuous heat-sealing device, as shown in Fig. 12, 
has overcome difficulties encountered with the heated bar 
and roller types of conventional units. The film to be joined 
is supported by the two thin chrome-plated or stainless metal 
belts which are tightly held together. These belts carry the 
film through a cool zone, a hot zone and a second cool zone 
before it is released. Shrinking is minimized due to the 
belts supporting the film through the heated zone and a second 
cool zone where the material (Continued on page 152) 

*U. S. Patent 2,220,545. 

9 and 10—Two recommended setups for hot-air bead weld- 
ing of Saran film. 11—Continuous welding unit pro- 
12—Setup for 

continuous heat-sealing. 13—Sealing with soft lead rings 

duces two complete welds with each cut. 

may be done without the use of heat-sealing devices. 





BELT (2) 

SHOES (2) 





DECEMBER °® 1943 

What makes cans corrode in V-boxes? 

Full laboratory report supplements QMC tests, comparing corrosion resistance of various boxes 
and analyzing conditions under which corrosion is most apt to occur in overseas shipments. 

e problem of corrosion of metal containers in V-boxes 
ae its ugly headin mid-summer. The container manu- 
facturers and the Quartermaster Corps cooperated in pre- 
liminary tests to determine causes and correct the situation, 
if possible (see special insert opposite page 74, MODERN 
PACKAGING, September 1943). 

The New York State College of Forestry has just com- 
pleted another investigation marked by extreme scientific 
accuracy, the method and results of which follow. This in- 
vestigation, sponsored by The Eastern Box Co., was under 
the direction of Dr. C. E. Libby, professor of pulp and paper 
manufacture, assisted by F. W. O’Neil, assistant professor in 
the same department, in cooperation with Arno W. Nicker- 
son, consulting engineer. , 

Their objective was to determine what were the objection- 
able characteristics of V-boxes manufactured for overseas 
shipment of foodstuffs packaged in tin cans. Corrosion of 
these tin cans had been experienced in the use of the boxes 
of The Eastern Box Co. as well as those of other manufac- 
turers. The purpose of the investigation was to compare the 
products of several box manufacturers for their properties in 
promoting or inhibiting the corrosion of tin cans and to deter- 
mine, if possible, the specific conditions under which maximum 
corrosion occurred. The manufacturers’ names, of course, 
have been withheld in the complete report which follows, but 
the*sponsor of the project very courageously makes public 
the facts, even though his own products did not come out first. 

Container submitted for investigation 

A shipment of 80 solid fibreboard containers was received on 
September 17, 1943. Each container was fitted with a sleeve 
composed of the same material as the box. The shipment 
consisted of the following types: 

CODE A. Twenty V-1-S boxes composed of four plies 
of Southern Kraft Corp.’s .025 kraft, laminated with a 
20 per cent solution of urea-formaldehyde resin and 

CODE B. Twenty V-1-S boxes composed of 4 plies of 
West Virginia Pulp & Paper Co.’s .012 kraft liner 
laminated to make .025 board with a urea-formalde- 
hyde resin and starch. The four plies were laminated 
with Du Pont weatherproof No. 77, a polyvinyl alcohol 
base adhesive. 

CODEC. Twenty V-2-S boxes composed of jute filler 
laminated with urea-formaldehyde resin and starch. 
The top and bottom liners were laminated to the jute 
filler with an asphalt adhesive. 

CODE D. Twenty V-3-S boxes composed of high test 
filler chip board with kraft liner top and bottom which 
had been laminated with Du Pont weatherproof 
adhesive No. 77. 

Sixty No. 10 cans, sealed top and bottom, were shipped in 
each box. Upon arrival the cans were examined for rust spots. 


All cans were found to be entirely free from corrosion. The 
cans were manufactured by the American Can Co. 

Sixty cans of similar construction were delivered to the Col- 
lege laboratories by the Syracuse plant of the Continental Can 
Co. These cans were used to replace the cans in two boxes of 
each manufacturer for purposes of comparison. 

Preparation for testing 

The boxes were sealed top and bottom with Du Pont weather- 
proof No. 77, a polyvinyl alcohol base adhesive, and allowed 
to stand 16-18 hours under pressure to make certain of a tight 
seal. The boxes were then segregated for testing as follows: 

10 boxes to kiln with sleeve. 
5 boxes to kiln without sleeve. 
5 boxes to kiln after sealing all openings with Solseal 
30/30/30 waterproof tape. 
10 boxes to kiln with sleeve. 
5 boxes to kiln without sleeve. 
3 boxes to kiln, after allowing 8 per cent additional 
moisture to collect on box with sleeve. 
2 boxes to kiln after sealing with Solseal 30/30/30 
waterproof tape. 
10 boxes to kiln with sleeve. 
3 boxes to kiln after allowing 8 per cent additional 
moisture to collect on box with sleeve. 
5 boxes to kiln without sleeve. 
2 boxes to kiln after sealing with Solseal 30/30/30 
waterproof tape. 
10 boxes to kiln with sleeve. 
5 boxes to kiln without sleeve. 
5 boxes to kiln after sealing with Solseal 30/30/30 
waterproof tape. 

Testing procedure 

The fibreboard boxes were placed in a specially designed rack 
as shown in the accompanying photographs and were located 
according to the diagram, Fig. 1. 

The rack was placed in the dry kiln at the New York State 
College of Forestry. This kiln is 8 by 8 by 20 ft., constructed 
of hollow tile wall 8 in. thick and with a 12-in. asphalt covered 
cork roof. The temperature and humidity of the air in the 
kiln are controlled by means of Taylor Instrument air-oper- 
ated valves. The temperature is maintained by steam heat- 
ing coils and is controlled within +1 deg. F. The instrument 
also records the wet bulb and dry bulb temperature. A fan 
is used to circulate the air in the kiln. 

In order to simulate conditions of high temperature (140 
deg. F.) with high humidity (98-100 per cent R.H.) and con- 
densation of the water vapor due to cooling, the following 
schedule was adopted: 



> Col- 
1 Can 
xes of 










1 rack 

in the 
A fan 

» (140 
1 con- 

24 hrs with steam on—temperature and relative humid- 
ity controlled by Taylor Recording instrument at 
140 deg. F., 98-100 per cent R.H. 

24 hrs. with steam off, kiln allowed to cool to outside 
temperature (60 deg. F.) 

This schedule was repeated every 48 hours during the en- 
tire test. Boxes were removed from the kiln every 72 hours. 
The boxes were examined and tested for Mullen burst and ply 
separation and the cans were examined for rust spots. 

Discussion of results 

The Government specifications for solid fibreboard boxes 
designated as V-1-S list minimum bursting strength average 
as 750 Ibs. per square inch dry, and 500 lbs. per square inch 
after soaking in distilled water for 24 hours and a minimum 
caliper dry of .100 in. The V-1-S box, Code A, had a dry 
Mullen of 679 lbs. per square inch, a wet Mullen after im- 
mersion for 24 hours in distilled water at 73 deg. F. of 441 Ibs. 
per square inch and a dry caliper of .110 in. The V-1-S box, 
Code B, had a dry Mullen of 794, a wet Mullen after immer- 
sion for 24 hours in distilled water at 73 deg. F. of 514 anda 
dry caliper of .110 in. 

The Government specifications for V-2-S solid fibreboard 
list a minimum dry bursting strength of 550 lbs. per square 
inch and a minimum wet bursting strength of 500 lbs. per 
square inch and a minimum dry caliper of .09in. The V-2-S 
box, Code C, had a dry Mullen of 533 and after immersion 
for 24 hours in distilled water at 73 deg. F., a wet Mullen of 
441 and a caliper of .096 in. 

The Government specifications for solid fibreboard con- 
tainers designated as V-3-S list minimum dry bursting 
strength of 400, a minimum wet bursting strength of 150 and 
a minimum dry caliper of .09 in. The V-3-S box, Code D, 
had a dry Mullen of 489 Ibs. per square inch and a wet Mullen 
after immersion in distilled water at 73 deg. F. for 24 hours of 
227 Ibs. per square inch and a caliper of .11 in. 

Results of 72-hour kiln treatment 

After this period of treatment, the boxes were opened and the 
cans examined for corrosion. The cans in the V-1-S box, 
Code A, placed in the kiln without a sleeve showed con- 
siderable rusting around the top and bottom closure and the 
side seams. The rust spots on the body of the can seemed to 
be perpendicular to the side seam and were about .025 in. 
wide and .05 to .375 in. long. 

The tops and bottoms of cans also showed rust when in 
contact with the box. The cans in the V-1-S box, Code A, 
placed in the kiln completely sealed with Solseal weather- 
proof tape showed some corrosion of the same general nature 
as the other box, but not quite as extensive. No condensa- 
tion was noted in the sealed box. 

The boxes withstood the effect of changing temperature 
and humidity without appreciable change. The average 
bursting strength was 867 lbs. per square inch as compared 
to 679 Ibs. per square inch for the original. (Note: In this 
case the box itself was tested after being in the kiln. All 
other tests are on the sleeve.) 

The cans in the V-1-S box, Code B, showed corrosion around 
the seams and on the lip atends. This corrosion was not very 
heavy. The cans in the box with the sleeve showed consider- 
ably more corrosion than the cans in the box without sleeve, 
15 to 25 spots per square inch as compared to 4 spots per 
Square inch. One box previously exposed to high humidity 
to increase the moisture content and then filled with cans and 
sealed, was removed at this time. The additional moisture 

in the box did not increase the amount of corrosion. The cans 
in this box showed about the same amount of corrosion as 
cans in the box sealed without the sleeve, about 3 spots per 
square inch, 

The boxes withstood the effect of changing temperature 
and humidity without an appreciable deterioration. The 
average bursting strength was 768 lbs. per square inch as 
compared to 794 lbs. per square inch for the original container. 

The V-2-S container, Code C, was opened after 72 hours’ 
treatment. The cans were in excellent condition and were 
entirely free from corrosion. This condition was noted in 
the box with the sleeve, the box without the sleeve and the 
box which was conditioned to 13 per cent moisture before 
placing the cans in the box and sealing it. 

The boxes withstood the effect of changing humidity and 
temperature without appreciable change. The average burst 
for the boxes removed from the kiln was 520 Ibs. per square 
inch in comparison with 533 Ibs. per square inch for the ori- 
ginal boxes. 

The V-3-S container, Code D, was opened after 72 hours’ 
treatment. Slight corrosion was noticed on the cans in the 
box fitted with a sleeve. About three spots per square inch 
were noted. These spots were about .03 in. in diameter. 
The cans in the box sealed without the sleeve were less cor- 
roded than the cans in the one with the sleeve. There were 
about 1-1.5 spots per square inch and these spots were about 
.03 in. in diameter. The cans in the box completely sealed 
with Solseal waterproof tape were only slightly corroded at the 
seams. No condensation was noted in this box. 

The boxes were in good condition. The average burst for 
the boxes removed from the kiln was 498 Ibs. per square inch 
as compared to 489 for the original container. 

Another set of boxes were removed from the kiln after this 


DECEMBER °* 1943 

period of treatment. Mr. Kronquest, chemist of the Conti- 
nental Can Co., Syracuse plant, was present when these boxes 
were opened. 

The cans in the V-1-S box, Code A, sealed and with sleeve, 
were very badly corroded, especially at the seams and were 
considered unmarketable. The cans in the V-1-S box with- 
out the sleeve were moderately corroded on the body of the 
can and quite heavily corroded at the seams. Cans were 
very nearly unmarketable. The cans in the V-1-S box com- 

pletely sealed with Solseal waterproof tape were corroded 
although not to an excessive degree. No condensate was 
noted in the sealed box. 

The average bursting strength for the boxes in the kiln was 
694 in comparison with 679 for the original box. 

The cans in the V-1-S boxes, Code B, and in the kiln for 
144 hours were examined. The cans in the box sealed and 
with the sleeve were excessively corroded and considered un- 
marketable as were the cans in the box sealed without the 
sleeve. Very heavy corrosion was noted at the seams. 

The boxes were in excellent condition. The average burst- 
ing strength of the boxes removed from the kiln was 773 lbs. 
per square inch as compared to 794 lbs. per square inch for the 

The cans in the V-2-S boxes, Code C, treated for 144 hours 
showed no signs of corrosion. 

The average bursting strength of the boxes removed from 
the kiln was 523 lbs. per square inch in comparison with 533 
Ibs. per square inch for the original container. 

The cans in the V-3-S boxes, Code D, were examined after 
144 hours in the kiln. The cans in the box sealed and with the 
sleeve showed fairly heavy corrosion. It was most extensive 
at the seams. These cans would be considered to be in poor 
condition. Those cans in the V-3-S box sealed, but without 
the sleeve, exhibited only moderate corrosion. The cans in 
the box completely sealed with Solseal waterproof tape were 
only slightly pitted on the body but with heavier corrcsion at 
the seams. 

The boxes were in good condition with no condensation 
showing in the completely sealed box. The average bursting 
strength was 497 lbs. per square inch in comparison with 489 
Ibs. per square inch for the original container. 

After this period of treatment the boxes were removed and 


Arrangement of the fibre- 
board boxes on the specially 
designed rack ready for 
the kiln treatment. The rack 
was then placed in the dry 
kiln at the New York State 
College of Forestry and 
tested with extreme accuracy. 

the cans examined. The cans in this V-1-S box, sealed and 
with the sleeve, Code A, were manufactured by the Conti- 
nental Can Co. These cans were very badly corroded on the 
top and on the seams. The body of the cans was only mod- 
erately corroded. The cans would be considered unmarket- 
able. Another V-1-S box sealed and with the seeve contained 
American Can Co.’s cans. These cans were very heavily 
corroded at the side seam and top and bottom closure. The 
cans would probably be considered unmarketable. The cans 
in the V-1-S box sealed and without the sleeve were corroded 
on the side seam and top and bottom closure. These cans 
were moderately corroded. Most of the corrosion seemed 
to be localized in two or three spots on the cans. The cans in 
the V-1-S box sealed with Solseal waterproof tape were cor- 
roded most heavily at the seams. These cans were in better 
condition than the ones which were in the two containers de- 
scribed above. 

The average bursting strength of the box removed from the 
kiln was 734 lbs. per square inch in comparison with 679 for the 
original container. 

The cans in this V-1-S box sealed and with the sleeve, 
Code B, were manufactured by the Continental Can Co. 
These cans were very badly corroded on the top of the cans 
and at the side seams. The body of the can exhibited moder- 
ate corrosion. These cans would be considered unmarketable. 

- Another V-1-S box sealed and with the sleeve contained 
cans manufactured by the American Can Co. These cans were 
heavily corroded at the seams and on the body of the cans. 
These cans would be considered unmarketable. The cans in 
the V-1-S box sealed but without the sleeve were heavily 
corroded at the seams and on.the body. Although not so 
badly corroded as the cans in the V-1-S box with the sleeve, 
the cans would be considered unmarketable. Another V-1-S 
box was examined which had been conditioned to 13 per cent 
moisture before addition of cans and sealing. This box was 
very moist due to condensate dropping on it from the cover. 
These cans were heavily corroded and probably would be 
considered unmarketable. The cans in the V-1-S box sealed 
with Solseal waterproof tape were very heavily corroded at 
the seams. The body of the can was in fairly good condition. 
However, due to corrosion at the seams, the cans would 
probably be considered unmarketable. 

co Mec M co ce M coll il @ Mice Ml v= in| 



is in 



is in 
t so 
1 be 
d at 


Code A Code B Code C Code D 

Test V-1-S V-1-S V-2-S V-3-S 
Burst, * dry 679 794 533 489 
Burst, * wet 441 514 441 227 
Caliper,t dry 110 . 100 096 .110 
Caliper,t wet 155 142 112 154 
Burst,* 72 hrs. 867 768 520 498 
Burst, * 144 hrs. 694 773 523 497 
Burst,* 216 hrs. 734 735 520 472 
Burst, * 288 hrs. 753 774 499 473 
Burst, * 360 hrs. 648 763 495 489 

Note: * Pounds per square inch. 
Tt Inches. 

The boxes were in very good condition. The average burst- 
ing strength was 735 lbs. per square inch in comparison with 
794 for the original box. 

The cans in this V-2-S box, Code C, sealed and with the 
sleeve were manufactured by the Continental Can Co. These 
cans exhibited very slight corrosion on the side seam. There 
was no corrosion on the body or covers of these cans. An- 
other V-2-S box sealed and with the sleeve contained cans 
manufactured by the American Can Co. These cans felt 
slightly rough to the hand but very little, if any, corrosion 
was evident to the eye. 

The cans in the V-2-S box, sealed and without the sleeve, 
exhibited very slight corrosion on the seams and on the top 
when in contact with the box. The cans were still in good 
condition. The cans in the V-2-S box, previously condi- 
tioned to 13 per cent moisture and sealed were in excellent 
condition with only very slight corrosion on the seams. The 
body of the can was slightly rough to the touch. The cans in 
the box completely sealed with Solseal waterproof tape were 
still in good condition. These cans were only slightly rough 
to the touch. The pits when found were about .01 inch in 

The box itself was in good condition. The average burst- 
ing strength was 520 lbs. per square inch in comparison with 
533 for the original box. 

The Continental Can Co. cans in the V-3-S box sealed and 
with a sleeve were corroded sufficiently at the seams and on 
the top to cause them to be unmarketable. The American 
Can Co. cans in the same type of box were also heavily cor- 
roded, both on the seams and on the body of the cans. These 
cans would be considered unmarketable. The cans in the 
V-3-S box sealed but without the sleeve were quite badly cor- 
roded over the entire body of the can. The seams were fairly 
heavily corroded. The cans in the V-3-S box completely 
sealed with Solseal waterproof tape were slightly pitted on 
the body and very definitely pitted at the seams. The cans 
would be considered moderately corroded. No condensa- 
tion was observed in any of the sealed boxes. 

The boxes were in good condition with the average burst- 
ing strength of 472 Ibs. per square inch as compared to 489 
lbs. per square inch for the original box. 

Results of 288-hour kiln treatment 

After this period of treatment the boxes were opened and the 
cas examined for corrosion. The cans in the V-1-S boxes, 
Code A, were very heavily corroded. This condition applied 
to the cans in the boxes with the sleeves, without the sleeve 
and the box completely sealed with Solseal waterproof tape. 

No condensation was observed in the latter box. The cans 
in all of these boxes would be considered unmarketable. 

The average bursting test for the boxes after 288 hours in 
the kiln was 753 lbs. per square inch as compared to 679 Ibs. 
per square inch for the original container. 

The cans in the V-1-S boxes, Code B, showed moderately 
heavy corrosion in the boxes with the sleeve as well as the box 
without the sleeve. The cans in these boxes would be con- 
sidered unmarketable. 

The bursting strength of the box after 288 hours in the kiln 
was 774 lbs. per square inch as compared to 794 Ibs. per square 
inch for the original container. 

The cans in the V-2-S boxes, Code C, were starting to cor- 
rode after this 288-hour kiln treatment. Very small spots, 
.01-.02 in. in diameter appeared on the body of the can. The 
side seam and the seam at the top and bottom closure were 
moderately corroded. Cans were probably still marketable 
in this condition. 

The bursting strength of the box was 499 Ibs. per square 
inch in comparison with 533 lbs. per square inch for the ori- 
ginal container. 

The cans in the V-3-S box, Code D, sealed and placed in 


Time of Test 

Type of CodeA Code B CodeC CodeD 
in Kiln Closure V-1-S V-1-S . V-2-S  V-3-S 
72 Hrs. With sleeve ee 2-3 0 1 

Without sleeve 2-3 2 0 1 
Conditioned to 

13 per cent 

moisture aes 2 0 
Sealed with 

Solseal tape 2 ete eich 1 

144 Hrs. With sleeve 4 4 0 3-4 

Without sleeve 3-4 4 0 3 

Conditioned to 

13 per cent 

moisture ot As snag Soe 3 
Sealed with 

Solseal tape 3-4 

With sleeve 4 4 1 
Without sleeve 4 4 1 4 
Conditioned to 
13 per cent 
moisture ye 4 1 
Sealed with 
Solseal tape 3-4 

288 Hrs. With sleeve 4 
Without sleeve 4 
Conditioned to 
13 per cent 

Sealed with 
Solseal tape Bt wide ae 3-4 

216. Hes. 

With sleeve 4 4 3-4 3-4 
Without sleeve 4 4 3 3-4 
Conditioned to 

13 per cent 

moisture Peek 4 3 
Sealed with 

Solseal tape 4 4 2-3 4 

360 Hrs. 

Legend: 0 No corrosion. 1 No visible corrosion, rough to touch. 
2 Light corrosion. 3 Moderate corrosion. 4 Unmarketable. 

DECEMBER °* 1943 103 

the kiln with the sleeve showed moderately heavy corrosion 
on the body and heavy corrosion on the seams. The cans in 
the box placed in the kiln without the sleeve showed moder- 
ate corrosion on the body and moderately heavy corrosion on 
the seams. These cans would probably be considered un- 
marketable. The cans in the box completely sealed with 
Solseal waterproof tape showed moderately heavy corrosion 
and would probably be considered unmarketable. No con- 
densation was observed in this box. 

The average bursting strength of these boxes was 473 lbs. 
per square inch in comparison with 489 lbs. per square inch 
for the original container. 

Results of 360-hour kiln treatment 

After this period of treatment all boxes were removed from 
the kiln and the cans examined for corrosion. The cans in the 
V-1-S boxes, sealed and with sleeves, Code A, were heavily 
corroded. This condition applied to the cans manufactured 
by the Continental Can Co. as well as to those manufactured 
by the American Can Co. The Continental cans were more 
heavily corroded on the tops than the American cans. All 
of these cans would be considered to be unmarketable. 

The cans in the boxes sealed, but without the sleeve, as 
well as the boxes completely sealed with the Solseal water- 
proof tape, were also heavily corroded and would be con- 
sidered unmarketable. No condensation was observed in the 
latter boxes. 

The average bursting strength of the box after 360 hours in 
the kiln was 648 Ibs. per square inch as compared to 679 lbs. 
for the original container. 

The cans in the V-1-S boxes, Code B, were heavily cor- 
roded and would be considered unmarketable. This same 
condition applied to the cans in the boxes sealed and with the 
sleeve, those in boxes sealed and without the sleeve, those in 
boxes conditioned to 13 per cent moisture before sealing and to 
those completely sealed with Solseal waterproof tape. No 
condensation was observed in the latter box. The cans from 
the American Can Co. were corroded as badly as those from 
the Continental Can Co. 

The average bursting strength of the boxes was 763 lbs. per 
square inch in comparison with 794 pounds per square inch for 
the original container. 

The cans in the V-2-S boxes, Code C, exhibited slight to 
moderately heavy corrosion and while they probably would 
be unmarketable, they were nevertheless in much better con- 
dition than the cans in any of the other boxes. This condi- 
tion applied as well to the cans in the boxes sealed and with 
the sleeve, those in the boxes sealed and without the sleeve, 
those in the boxes conditioned to 13 per cent moisture before 
sealing and to those in the box completely sealed with Solseal 
waterproof tape. No condensation was found in the latter 

The average bursting strength of these boxes was 495 lbs. 
per square inch as compared to 533 lbs. per square inch for the 
original containers. 

The cans in the V-3-S boxes, Code D, exhibited moderately 
heavy corrosion and would probably be considered unmarket- 
able. They were, however, in better condition than the cans 
in the V-1 boxes. 

This unmarketable condition of the cans applied to the 
boxes sealed and with the sleeve, those in the boxes sealed 
and without the sleeve and to those in the box conditioned to 
13 per cent moisture before sealing. The cans in the box 
completely sealed with Solseal waterproof tape were very 
heavily corroded. No condensate was observed in these 



The average bursting strength of the boxes was 489 lbs. 
per square inch which was identical with the strength value 
of the original boxes. 

Miscellaneous tests 

Several additional tests were performed in the course of this 
investigation. One Code C V-2-S box was completely covered 
with adhesive on the inside by painting with Du Pont weather- 
proof No. 77, filled with cans and exposed in the kiln treatment 
for 144 hours. These cans were entirely free from corrosion. 
Several cans were wrapped in a .025 laminated kraft sheet. 
This board is made by laminating two plies of .0125 kraft 
paper with urea-formaldehyde resin and starch. These cans 
were practically free from corrosion. Several individual un- 
boxed cans were also placed in the kiln. These cans were 
slightly corroded. One of these cans was placed on a V-3 box 
during the kiln treatment and the bottom of this can was 
heavily corroded. 

Two cans, one from the American Can Co. and one from 
the Continental Can Co., were placed in distilled water at 
73 deg. F. for 24 hours. Both cans showed considerable cor- 
rosion around all seams on completion of this treatment. 


This investigation has been productive of results from which 
the following general conclusions may be drawn: 

1. The complete kiln treatment was sufficiently severe 
in all cases to cause the cans in the several types of containers 
to corrode to a considerable degree. There was, however, 
a considerable variation in the time required for the cans in 
the various containers to exhibit corrosion under identical 
treatment. The cans in the V-2-S boxes, Code C, withstood 
the treatment for 216 hours before a very slight corrosion was 
evident and at the end of 360 hours of treatment the majority 
of these cans showed only moderate corrosion. This con- 
tainer was, by far, the best for inhibiting corrosion of the 
tin cans. The containers themselves withstood the treat- 
ment without appreciable deterioration. 

2. The cans in the V-3-S boxes, Code D, withstood heavy 
corrosion for 216 hours. However, light corrosion was notice- 
able on these cans at the end of 72 hours and moderate cor- 
rosion was observed at the end of 144 hours. These contain- 
ers also withstood the treatment without appreciable deteri- 
oration. The composition of the V-3-S boxes while not as 
satisfactory as the V-2-S box for inhibiting corrosion was 
slightly superior to the V-1-S box. 

3. The cans in the V-1-S boxes, Code A, and those in the 
V-1-S boxes, Code B, exhibited moderate corrosion at the end 
of 72 hours and heavy corrosion at the end of 144 hours and 
were unmarketable. Additional treatment increased the 
amount of corrosion. The composition of the V-1-S boxes, 
Code B and Code A, seemed to promote more rapid corrosion 
of the cans than the V-3-S box. It is possible that the presence 
of the asphalt lamination in the V-2-S box prevented the forma- 
tion of compounds which accelerated the corrosion of the cans. 

4, The cans in boxes sealed and fitted with sleeves cor- 
roded more rapidly than the cans in the boxes sealed but 
without the sleeves. 

5. The cans in the boxes which were conditioned to 13 per 
cent moisture before filling with cans and sealing did not cor- 
rode any more rapidly than those sealed in the containers 
without previous conditioning. 

6. The cans in the boxes which were completely sealed 
with Solseal waterproof tape resisted corrosion longer than 
the cans in the boxes sealed in the (Continued on page 156) 

to re 


for < 


New Yc 




r at 


Is in 


t as 

| the 

3 per 



Ph Sosa *: Se ieee 

is a name which you are going 

to remember. It identifies and describes a new product that 
has come to the rescue of men who have been struggling 
with the huge task of packaging and protecting metal parts 
for our armed forces. 

Before STRIPCOAT, many packaging methods proved both 
cumbersome and time-consuming. Each part had to be 
treated with a preservative, laboriously wrapped in paper, 
then packaged. Dow technicians solved this problem by 
developing sTRIPCOAT, a hot melt in which Ethocel is the 
essential ingredient. This water repellent plastic gives the 
coating toughness and durability for service in every climate. 
Now, parts are simply dipped in the melt, which immediately 
forms a skin-tight film. Slit this coating, strip it off and the 
part emerges clean, uncorroded and ready for service. The 
method is so simple it saves uncounted man-hours. With 
STRIPCOAT, you merely dip it, ship it, strip it. 


New York * Cleveland » Chicago «+ St. Louis * Houston + San Francisco + Los Angeles + Seattle 




- i 

STRIPCOAT is a copyrighted trade name 


This consultation service on packaging subjects is at your com- 
mand. Simply address your questions to Technical Editor, Modern 
Packaging, 122 East 42nd St., New York 17, N. Y. Your name or 
other identification will not appear with any published answer. 

Turpentine as testing medium 

QUESTION: In comparing materials for greaseproofness we 
have been using turpentine as the testing medium. Is there any 
correlation between these turpentine values (in seconds) and the 
greaseproofness using oils such as chicken fat, cottonseed oil, 
lard, etc.? 

ANSWER: Unfortunately there is no correlation between 
the turpentine test for greaseproofness and tests using natural 
oils and greases on a wide variety of materials. 

The turpentine test provides a useful and reliable index of 
greaseprooiness for glassines and parchments. It is also a 
quick test suited for the production control of those papers. 

However, it is not a reliable test for materials which obtain 
their greaseproofness by means of coatings, lacquers and 
similar treatments. Turpentine may act as a partial solvent 
for some coatings and indicate a low level of greaseproofness. 
However, the natural oils may not possess this solvent power 
for the coating and the coated material would actually 
prevent their penetration. 

A test made with the specific oil or fat would be the best 
means of evaluating the greaseproofness of many different 
kinds of materials. 

Puckering of films in heat sealing 

QUESTION: In heat sealing many different kinds of plastic 
films we notice that some kinds and some types of other films will 
pucker and creep near the sealed area. Also that the sealed area 
has shrunk in length compared with the original film. Is this due 
to our faulty heat sealing and if so, how can it be overcome? 

ANSWER: Many plastic films can be highly stretched either 
cold or in a warm atmosphere. This can occur in the original 
manufacturing process or in subsequent treatments and proc- 
essing. Depending upon the composition of the film, the 
storage temperatures and whether or not the film is firmly 
held in position, some or all of this stress may be relieved 
before the film is used. 

If the film you received still carries these stresses it will 
heat seal as you describe. This occurs because the molecules 
cannot move or flow to an “‘at ease’’ position at room tem- 
perature, but can adjust themselves more rapidly as the 
temperature increases. The heat of sealing causing this molec- 
ular readjustment and the dimensional change is the in- 
evitable result. 


How to Prevent Sifting 

QUESTION: Our company packages a finely powdered tea 
in a cellophane wrapped carton which has a glued side seam 
liner with folded closure. We have many complaints of sifting 
with this package which results in an undesirable appearance 
because of the tea particles between the carton and the cellophane 
wrapper. How can we avoid this difficulty? 

ANSWER: The best solution to your problem would be to 
use a heat-sealed liner for your tea carton because in this 
way you would get a more positive closure than with aqueous 
adhesives or with folded closures. However, since you prob- 
ably only have this type of lining equipment on hand, one 
possible answer would be to make the carton a little shorter 
so that you compress the liner and this, with perhaps another 
turn of the top fold, might help reduce the amount of sifting. 
If the sifting is not too severe, but is noticeable because of 
the dark color of the particles under the cellophane, it might 
be possible for you to use a dark-colored band around the 
bottom of your carton and this would serve to prevent the 
tea: particles being seen after they had sifted through and 
fallen along the bottom of the package. This change in de- 
sign plus the tightening of the inner liner might reduce this 
problem to the point where it would no longer be a serious 

Accelerated tests for product with fat content 

QUESTION: How can I test under accelerated conditions 
packages carrying a product which has approximately 20 per 
cent fat of a melting point of 85 deg. F? 

ANSWER: Finished packages either machine made or their 
equivalent in hand-made samples can be exposed to an at- 
mosphere of 100 deg. F. at normal or low humidities (60 
per cent or less). Each package should be laid on tissue or 
filter paper and several, say three, should be exposed in each 
of the various positions—that is, three sitting on the filter 
paper in their normal position, three with the closure on the 
bottom, three wide face down and three narrow face down. 
In case it is possible to remove the inner liner, the filled 
liner should be exposed in this same way in groups of three. 
The temperature of 100 deg. F. is sufficiently above the 
melting point of the fat to cause liquefaction and seepage 
through either the structure or its seals and closure. The 
usual index of failure is the time required to observe oil 
staining on the carton. With (Continued on page 158) 


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“Meeting wartime restrictions” 

ober stocktaking at the conclusion of a second year of war 
\ marked the annual meeting of the Packaging Institute 
November 4 and 5 in the Hotel New Yorker, New York City. 

It was a businesslike conference, keyed to the theme of 
“Meeting Wartime Restrictions.’’ In four general institute 
sessions, members attending in record strength heard and 
discussed reports on Government restrictions, the glass pack- 
aging manual, new adhesives, package and material testing 
standards, availability of materials, and the problems of 
contract termination, renegotiation and alien patents. Some 
of the sessions were round tables and panel discussions in 
which questions and answers were given straight from the 

Suppliers of materials and containers generally held out 
little hope of any easing of restrictions in the immediate fu- 
ture, but on the other hand most of them felt that present 
positions could be maintained for the next three to six months. 
An interesting and important fact brought out was that the 
manufacturers of packages are themselves threatened by the 
shortage of shipping containers. Representatives of both 
the glass industry and the collapsible tube industry agreed 
that lack of boxes in which to ship their products was a greater 
danger than either manpower or material supply, important 
as these latter problems might be. 

The necessity for another intensive nationwide drive to 
bring in wastepaper was agreed upon and members were 
urged to lend their utmost support to such a drive, nationally 

and locally in order to build up fast dwindling reserves. 

Registrations at the convention totaled 557 and it was 
disclosed that membership in the Insitute has nearly doubled 
in the last year. 

One of the most important sessions was that in which 
Charles A. Southwick, Jr., F.S. Leinbach and W. H. Graebner 
presented their preliminary outline for a manual of package 
testing and opened it up to suggestions from the floor. 

Members dropped their “strictly business’’ attitude only 
on Thursday evening for a reception and informal dinner at 
which they heard a gripping, first-hand report on the war 
by Charles Collingwood, youthful CBS foreign correspondent 
and award winner. Collingwood was critical of the State 
Department’s handling of the occupied nations, but he took 
occasion to deny any mishandling of Lend-Lease and 
warmly praised the British for the real material aid they are 
giving this country. 

The Institute re-elected all its officers for another year— 
Joel Y. Lund, Lambert Pharmacal Co., president; A. Vernon 
Shannon, Westfield River Paper Co., and Wallace D. Kim- 
ball, Standard-Knapp Corp., vice-presidents. 

The semi-annual meeting of the Institute was set for Wed- 
nesday evening, March 29, 1944, at the Palmer House, 

The three divisions of the Institute—Machinery, Produc- 
tion and Supplies—held their annual meetings at off-the-rec- 
ord luncheon sessions Thursday and chose officers as follows: 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 107 

The Package Machinery Manufacturers Institute elected 
George A. Mohlman, president of the Package Machinery 
Co., as its president and named as vice-presidents H. Kirke 
Becker (re-elected), president of the Peters Machinery Co., 
and Frank B. Fairbanks, president of the Horix Manufactur- 
ing Co. Chosen as directors were Mr. Mohlman, Mr. Fair- 
banks and H. Lvle Greene, vice-president of the J L. Fergu- 
son Co. 

Charles A. Southwick, Jr., technical editor of MODERN 
PACKAGING and technical director of the Shellmar Products 
Co., will continue as chairman of the Production Division. 
Two new directors elected in this division are Gustav Winckel- 
mann, vice-president of Frankfort Distilleries, Inc., and T. R. 
Baxter, manager of packaging and packaging development 
department, Standard Brands, Inc. 

Dr. H. A Barnby, Owens-Illinois Glass Co., was elected 
chairman of the Suppliers’ Division, succeeding Hal W. 
Johnston, Stecher-Traung Lithograph Corp. Walter D. 
Lynch, vice-president of the National Folding Box Co., 
was elected a new director and Mr. Shannon was re-elected. 

Pharmaceutical manufacturers had a 
separate informal luncheon meeting on 
Friday which developed into an inter- 
esting interchange of ideas on the par- 
ticular wartime packaging problems be- 
setting this field. This meeting was 
under the chairmanship of W. O. 
Brewer, Calco Chemical Division, Am- 
erican Cyanamid Co. 

On Friday also, the machinery manu- 
facturers’ section had a second off-the- 
record meeting to discuss their own 

A digest of the complete proceedings at the four regular 

sessions of the Institute follows: 
Presiding: Jor. Y. Lund, vice-president, Lambert Pharmacal 

Co., Si Louis, Mo., and president, Packaging Institute. 

W. O. Brewer 

PRESIDENT LUND: It is quite a source of gratification to us 
who have been interested in the Institute to find this increas- 
ing interest in the sort of things that we believe people like to 
know about and want to find out about. This is the largest 
meeting we have ever had. Our membership is increasing 
also. A 50 per cent increase over last year. 

Conditions this year are a lot different from a year ago. 
Last year we were just beginning to feel the impact of the 
wartime restrictions and shortages. At that time there was a 
lot of conversation about things that were going to happen, 
but we were just beginning to wonder whether the whole 
thing would be as bad as we thought. Now we have found 
out that things were not only as bad, but generally worse. 

Last year we were still living on our fat, so to speak. In- 
ventories had been gradually going down and were slowly 
being exhausted, but there were still things left. As the war 
progressed, new requirements of the armed forces brought 
about shortages in first one thing and then another, and 
there was a frantic search on the part of everyone for some 
sort of a substitute to take the place of things they knew were 

going to be short. 
Not only that, but even if they could find those materials, 


there had to be new methods of fabrication, new methods of 
adapting those materials for use. We just did not know where 
we were going, but we thought we would be able to do some- 
thing about the matter. 

At that time also the thought was that while most of the 
raw materials might eventually be short, at least paper would 
be one thing of which there would be a sufficient supply. 
There was a lot of discussion last year about paper and how it 
could be used to take the place of metal and glass, and some 
other things. Now it appears that paper is also short. 

Our manpower situation was just beginning to get bad last 
year. We had started to train new operators and we began to 
realize that we were going to have difficulty even if the draft 
had not made the inroads that it has this year on our person- 
nel. I beieve it is quite a tribute to the work that has been 
done by people such as you who are here, in the engineering 
and development of packages, that there have been so few 
failures. comparatively speaking. Of all of the new things 
that have come on the market most of them have worked out 
pretty well. That has been due to a realistic and practical 
approach, and a knowledge of the sort of thing that people 
had to do, and what qualifications the package had to Have, 
as well as a desire and willingness not to just take anything 
because it might be better than nothing. 

This year, of course, conditions are different. The real 
scarcity has come upon us. In many cases because of in- 
creased productivity and because of the limitation orders 
that we have had on metals and particularly the so-called 
liner metals, the supply is much better and they are even cut- 
ting back on some of the production programs because there 
is more available material than they want. 

At the same time, the pendulum is swinging the other way 
and paper (which I imagine we will hear more about in this 
meeting) has become quite scarce. Glass is also in the same 
category We are going to have to find some ways to move 
back into these other materials or else find some ways to 
economize. We still have the ever-present limitation orders 
and probably will have. 

It certainly is true that we have to have limitation orders. 
It seems also true that we ought to be a little more practical 
in our aspect on these things. I think in writing these orders, 
there has been too much of that effort to try to avoid loop- 
holes, so that somebody cannot outsmart the order. That has 
had the effect, I believe, in some cases of making the orders 
not as effective as they might otherwise have been. 

For example, take the box order, L-317, just issued. There 
are two or three things to my mind that make the situation 
worse rather than better. If a man has actually been out 
trying to conserve paper, the base period, the way it is set up, 
works a hardship on him. If he has cut out small sizes and is 
shipping only in larger shipping containers, the base period 
being comparatively recent does not provide for that thing. 
So that the man who has not tried to conserve is in a rela- 
tively better position and can now cut down on shipping in 
small sizes. Other men, who tried to conserve are out of luck. 

In some ways it also encourages waste. Take, again, the 
small-size situation. Because restrictions have been put on 
the basis of use, rather than allowing for inventories (and I 
don’t think there are very many large box inventories any- 
way), the thing is set up in such a way that you cannot use up 
any boxes that you might have had that are not economical to 
use. It is a lot better in terms of shipping out materials just 
to take those boxes where you use, let us say, 10 sq. ft. per 
unit of volume in the shipping, instead of using another one 
that might use only perhaps 8 sq. ft. Nobody is going to use 
those boxes out of his inventory but will instead buy the new 


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boxes that give him the most economical use of the paper. 
Me:ntime, these others will sit around until the end of the 
war unless there is some way of offsetting it. It seems to me 
that should be taken into consideration. 

] think another thing they did on that was this: Because 
they did not want people to change from jute to kraft and get 
the lighter weight, they put the restriction on footage as well as 
onweight. Itseems to me they could have allowed a person to 
redesign his boxes if he continued to use the same kind of ma- 
terial. In other words, you do not want, certainly, to take 
everybody from jute into kraft, but on the other hand if a 
man can redesign a kraft box to make a box that is a really 
good shipper and at the same time save on board, he should 
be allowed to do it and get credit for it on his quota. Of 
course, they say a person ought not to redesign his boxes be- 
cause they are going to get them so light they will not carry. 
I don’t think that is necessarily true, because, after all, our 
primary interest (which is the reason we are here today) is 
in good packaging and to get our materials to destination in 
proper condition. If boxes are not of the proper weight and 
properly designed, they will not get the materials delivered in 
the proper way and we would all be very foolish to redesign a 
package that would give a bad result. 

The function of the Institute is to 
look forward on these matters. It isa 
nice thing to sit around and have a bull 
session on what is going on and what 
has happened. But, really, the Institute 
can only be of value if it helps us look 
forward, if it helps us to judge the things 
that are going on, in the light of the 
future, so that we can in return adjust 
our businesses and adjust our problems 
to meet changed conditions and be ready 
for them when they come along, rather 
than wondering what todoabout them after they creep up onus. 

We ought to know not only what the new materials are 
that are being developed as a result of the war, but we ought 
to know how to handle them, how to use them, how to test 
them in the light of the results that they are to accomplish. 

We hear a lot of talk about postwar business. Really, what 
we are interested in is postwar contracts. What are you 
going to do with your plant when you do not have any more 
war business? How are you going to change it back? What 
are your problems going to be with regard to the termination 
of contracts, reconversion and that sort of thing? The ma- 
chinery people are in that right this minute. A lot of them 
have been making machine tools and special parts, and a good 
many of them are having contracts terminated. They have 
problems of getting back into their own business. It will be 
helpful to all of us if we can see how they are working on these 
problems and use that as a guide for our further thinking. 

Of course, no work or study that is handled by any meeting 
can be well done unless it is based upon a proper foundation. 
In this case the foundation should be a knowledge of the gen- 
eral overall situation as far as packaging and packaging ma- 
terials are concerned and the packaging problems that are 
involved. I don’t think there is anybody in the country who is 
better fitted to talk about this thing than is Charlie Sheldon. 
Charlie headed up the Container Division in Washington for 
a year, as you know, and he did a grand job. Everybody 
realizes that. He has kept in touch with the situation down 
in Washington since then and is, I think, in a better position 
to tell us what we want to know, perhaps not what we 
would like to know, but at least what the facts are, as a 
basis for the future discussions we are going to have here. 

J. Y Lund 

What Is Today’s Packaging Picture?— L. SHEL- 
DON, purchasing agent, Hood Rubber Co. (a division of B. F. 
Goodrich Rubber Co.), Watertown, Mass., and former chief of 
the Containers Branch, WPB. 

About a-year and a half ago I stood here (or perhaps it was 
some other hotel) and said that you could safely change to 
paper and you would have no difficulties at all—just get into 
paper and your troubles would be over. I think I also said 
that you might get into wood at that time. Things have 
changed—and changed very rapidly. 

I wish I could stand here and tell you that your packaging 
supplies are going to be plentiful but in all honesty I can’t 
do so. 

The fact is all packaging materials are critical and I am sure 
that this statement is not news to you. No matter what you 
use—paper, glass, wood or steel containers—the problem of 
obtaining your supplies is a difficult one, and no doubt, as 
time goes on, and until the end of the war your difficulties 
will increase. 

The entire field of packaging materials is controlled by 
Government orders and sometimes we wonder if all the con- 
trols are necessary. To my way of thinking they are. The 
reasons for these controls are easily explained. Steel and tin 
are needed for war materials. Therefore, it was prohibited 
to use steel or tin for any commodity that could be packed in 
other materials. Then, many commodities went into glass 
containers. The glass industry was soon loaded to capacity 
and to increase production, the WPB issued order L-103. 
Many users of distinctive bottles were forced to use a stand- 
ardized design. But what is wrong with more than one manu- 
facturer using the same kind of a bottle? Especially is this 
true when the overall packaging picture is helped. While 
L-103 did help increase production, a survey showed demand 
exceeding production by approximately 25 per cent. L-103B 
was issued placing quota restrictions on certain products 
packed in glass containers. This order made available more 
containers for the packing of food. I am certain no one is 
going to object to having more food. The allocation order on 
fibre drums gives the essential products that need this type of 
package first call on the available supply. The folding and 
setup box restrictive order is a step towards conserving board 
and also prevents some wasteful practices. 

Of course, we all know about P-140 (the container rating 
order) and by the way, I understand that there is a new order 
to be issued shortly which will give users of boxes a new rating 

L-317, the latest restrictive order on corrugated and fibre 
containers, is really a severe one. WPB states that a part of 
the impact of the limitations imposed can be absorbed easily 
if users will resort to utilizing used containers or other types 
of packing. It looks as if the second-hand case market is in for 
a boom. You can’t turn to wood because a companion order 
(L-232) was issued last week restricting the same products 
and many others from the use of it. It has been stated by 
WPB that there is an overall shortage of 2,500,000 feet of 
lumber for 1943. Forty per cent of all lumber being produced 
is used in crates and boxes. 

Early realization by the WPB that there was the vital need 
of paperboard—and that without sufficient supplies our war 
effort would suffer—might have prevented the present situa- 
tion. The industry should have been rated essential long 
before it was. Order M-241, limiting production of certain 
boards, particularly folding and setup boxboards, to 80 per 
cent and container board to 100 per cent, should never have 
been issued. Later this order was revoked but the damage 

DECEMBER °* 1943 109 

had been done and now we are trying to repair it. As a mat- 
ter of fact, sections of WPB were of the opinion that we could 
get along on much less board than we are now manufacturing, 
even though many products formerly packed in tin and steel 
were being put in paper boxes, fibre drums and cans, and de- 
mands from our armed services had increased tremendously. 
There was a feeling that a great many products could be 
eliminated from cartons and 
packed in bulk. If this line of 
thinking had been followed, you 
can well imagine the confusion 
and hardship it would have caused 
manufacturers and retailers alike. 
I will admit that some articles now 
in cartons could be safely and 
easily handled without them. 
Better sense finally prevailed and 
instead of elimination of cartons 
from entire lines, order L-239 was 
issued to do away with extrava- 
gant and wasteful practices. No 
one should object to this program. 
Possibly, a number of recom- 
mendations made by WPB will 
continue to be followed after the war. 

The appointment of a coordinator of pulp and paper is cer- 
tainly a step in the right direction and I hope it proves that 
the thinking prevailing in some quarters of WPB has changed. 
Instead of all containers being handled by one division of the 
WPB a recent change has been made so that fibre and cor- 
rugated shipping containers, as well as folding and setup boxes 
are to be in a new division and the balance of the containers 
remain in the old Containers Division. It is difficult for me to 
understand why this change was made and if the reason is 
that the WPB wanted products made of paper in one division, 
why didn’t they put fibre drums, paper cans, drinking cups 
and paper bags in the same division with fibre containers? 
As the situation now stands, if you are a user of, let’s say, 
fibre cans, you see one division and then go to another for your 
paper shipping containers. If you use wooden boxes and also 
paper boxes you will have to contact two divisions. If an 
order is written on one type of container, it always affects 
other kinds and many times it is necessary to write another 
order so that the balance may be maintained. For example, 
if you write an order prohibiting the use of paper shipping 
containers for certain materials, you should prohibit the same 
materials from the use of wood, as the wooden box situation 
is extremely critical. Every time an order is written, the 
over-all container situation must be reviewed and it seems to 
me that this could best be done if all containers were under 
the jurisdiction of one man. 

We all realize that today’s situation is critical and that is 
why the WPB started its re-use campaign, and we should 
further this program. Many companies are getting their 
containers back and re-using them. Others have cleaned out 
their stock of obsolete containers and some have redesigned 
their containers to save material; also, by increasing their 
packing unit they have made substantial savings. Let us cut 
out all fluff and frills and overpackaging to conserve the sup- 
ply of fibre and lumber and make available these materials 
for other essential uses. 

In my own plant we have changed over to 92 per cent war 
work. We have had thousands of cases on hand that we 
formerly used for packaging civilian products that we make. 
They were just lying there, drying out, and would be no good. 
So I got rid of them in the last couple of months—some 85,000 

C. L. Sheldon 


of them. I think there are probably a great many other cases 
like that throughout the country. 

We are hearing a great deal about postwar planning, but in 
business today we have so many troubles it is natural for us 
to concentrate on our daily problems. However, the day is 
coming when Government restrictions will be removed and 
we should have some ideas about what we are going to do 
relative to our packaging. Now is the time for action. Now 
is the time to do your planning. 

In the October issue of MODERN PACKAGING there is an 
editorial by C. W. Browne entitled, ‘‘Plan Now for Recon- 
version.” Mr. Browne outlines eight points and I am going 
to take the liberty to read them to you: 

1. What basic changes have taken place, or will take place, 
in my products that I want to retain or that I want 
to re-convert? How will those changes affect my 

What basic changes will appear in consumer desires 
that will have an effect on my packages? 

What changes must I know about in the merchandising 
setup and what changes in my packages must be 
made in adaptation to them? 

What packaging materials have I substituted in 
place of scarce materials that I may want to retain 
or drop, depending on (a) future availability; (b) 
performance; (c) economy; (d) convenience; (e) 

Will the postwar export business, of which I expect to 
get my share, require providing new types of inner 
and outer containers? 

What new packaging machinery will be available and 
what reconversions of present equipment should I 

Why shouldn’t I plan my re-designs NOW and be 
fully ready for re-conversion when the time comes? 

Have I someone in my organization on whom I can 
rely to obtain accurate answers to these questions 
and prepare a program to fit the situation? 

Mr. Browne further pointed out the answers will not be 
found in any book—they must come out of a searching 
analysis of the individual product or business and that is a 
problem for an executive. This plan has been so well out- 
lined by Mr. Browne that there isn’t anything I can add 
except this: ‘‘What new packaging materials and methods 
have been developed that I can use?” I suggest that you 
read the entire editorial. 

x kK Kk * 

In 1941 the packaging industry total dollar-volume of 
business was estimated at $2,678,000,000, but in 1943 it is 
expected that they will do $3,440,000,000. Some of this in- 
crease is due to higher prices but a large part is due to in- 
creased production. 

Here are some production increases: In 1941 fibre drum 
manufacturers produced approximately 5,000,000, and in 
1943 it is expected that 25,000,000 will be made. 

Steel drum use has been restricted by the WPB, but ap- 
proximately 10,000,000 more drums will be made in 1943 
than were made in 1941. Of course, this is due to the de- 
mands of our armed services—Multiwall bag producers used 
270,000,000 tons in 1941. In 1943 they will use approxi- 
mately 315,000,000 tons and expect to use 375,000,000 tons 

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in 1944. The glass industry produced about 71,000,000 gross 
in 1941, but this year will make between 92,000,000 to 95,- 
000,000, a large part of this increase being in wide-mouth 
containers. It has been estimated that twice the lumber 
used for boxes and crates in 1941 will be used during the 
year 1943. 

The packaging industry is one of our most progressive. 
Although regulated by many Government orders and handi- 
capped from lack of raw materials, manpower and new 
equipment, it has done a remarkable job in increasing pro- 
duction and developing new types of containers not only to 
take the place of those prohibited, but also to carry supplies 
to our armed forces no matter where they are now or will 
be in the future. Truly it can be said containers have gone 
to war. 

Swamped with orders, the container manufacturers—and 
this goes for all of them—have somehow managed to keep 
industry supplied. They certainly have earned our respect 
and good will and have a right to be proud of their achieve- 

In that bright tomorrow when peace returns, all of us will 
benefit from the new materials, processes and packaging 
methods that they have developed. 

Mr. Lanois, Aiélantic Refining Co., Philadelphia: Mr. 
Sheldon suggests that old cartons that are on hand and are 
drying out should be given up to help the fibreboard situa- 
tion. Is there any stipulation that if you do that you could 
get credit for that amount of stuff and buy some new material 
in like quantities? 

Mr. SHELDON: The order does not give you credit for 
doing that, not at all. In the cases where you have to get 
down to the inventory restrictions in that order, it might 
help in that way, on the other containers you are using. But 
as far as increasing your quota is concerned, or helping you to 
get containers, the answer is ‘‘no.”’ 

PRESIDENT LunpD: I have a question of my own, Charlie, 
as suggested by this discussion. What is a secondhand con- 

Mr. SHELDON: I talked to Tom Tomiska the other day in 
Boston and asked Tom that question. He says it is a con- 
tainer that has been used. I guess that is your answer. That 
it is a container that has been used once for shipment. A 
box that has never been used is not a used container, even 
though it is a secondhand box. 

Mr. Homes, Inland Container Corp.: Vf you have boxes 
that were purchased with an AA-3 Priority that are now sur- 
plus under the inventory clause for lack of additional re- 
quirements, can you dispose of those to someone without a 

MR. SHELDON: Yes, I would say so. You can buy con- 
tainers, if you can get them, without priority ratings. You 
can place orders and if the manufacturer of containers can 
make that order (if he has a surplus capacity) he would be 
able to ship the containers to you. You have to be careful 
about the ‘‘V”’ in “‘boxes” though. That order very clearly 
states that ‘‘V’’ boxes must be used for packaging war ma- 
terials only. 

Mr. Foote, Wilson & Co.: I would like to know if the 
fibre or corrugated carton industry as an industry is living up 
to the priority rating pattern in furnishing boxes on a AA-1 
rating in preference to all other ratings, except the AAA rat- 
ing? ; 

Mr. SHELDON: I think the WPB would like to know the 
answer to that one also. I don’t think all of them are. I do 
think in the main, the large majority of corrugated and fibre 
box manufacturers are living up to it. 

Mr. BAuGHMAN, Toledo Scale Co.: I am very much op- 
posed to the use of the words ‘‘secondhand”’ containers, es- 
pecially because of the reaction of the carriers, where re- 
strictions are about to be issued on secondhand containers. 
I am very heartily in favor of the term ‘‘used”’ containers, in- 
stead of “secondhand” containers. I think it would have a 
better psychological effect on the claims men of the railroads. 

x KKK 

Automatic Glass Packaging.—H. A. Barnsy, director, Pack- 
aging Research Division, Owens-Illinois Glass Co., Toledo, O. 

If one were to sit down with ten average production men to 
discuss ‘“‘Automatic Glass Packaging”’ it is probable that each 
would have in mind a different picture of what the subject 
denotes. The mental image created in the ten individuals 
would vary probably all the way from the bottling of catsup 
at 300 containers per minute to the consideration of a more 
rapid means for inserting cut plugs in the neck of tablet bot- 

For any given container or product, automatic glass 
packaging to the writer means the satisfactory transformation 
of empty bottles, caps, labels, etc., as received to finished 
goods in the warehouse with the minimum expenditure of 
time, labor and dollars invested. 

So much for the definition. I'll venture the guess that our 
ten production men would come a lot nearer agreeing on this 
definition than they would on the best means for attaining 
the ‘‘minimum expenditure of time, labor and dollars in- 
vested” for every thousand cases entering the warehouse. 
Certainly anyone who makes the rounds of a few plants carry- 
ing out the same general operations will be impressed with the 
non-uniformity of practices, physical setup and overall ef- 

More important than trying to explain why such non- 
standard methods in glass packaging practice exists has been 
the urge on the part of the makers and users of glass containers 
to do something about it. This urge gave rise to a meeting 
called by the Glass Container Assn. some three years ago at 
the Astor Hotel at which container manufacturers, production 
managers and eqttipment manufacturers each were repre- 

Out of this meeting came the idea of preparing a Glass 
Packaging Manual, which as then conceived, would be a sort 
of question and answer guide book on common glass users 
questions or problems. The assignment for developing this 
booklet went to the Glass Container Assn., but through pres- 
sure of more urgent things, only a beginning was made in the 

At a Packaging Institute directors’ meeting last spring, it 
was voted to revive and complete this manual idea and Carl 
Lambelet, Charlie Southwick and the writer were given the 
job. The Glass Container Assn. has kindly consented to this 
plan and is agreeable to the publication being issued as a 
Packaging Institute job. 

Rather than follow out the subject matter on the manner 
of presentation exactly as begun, the committee was impres- 
sed with the real worth of this book if more completely done. 
Accordingly, it was decided to take whatever additional time 
was required to expand and illustrate the contents fully. 
The manual should be ready for the printer by the first 
of the year. 

The Glass Packaging Manual is made up of three sections 

DECEMBER °* 1943 1 | 

as shown by the topics listed in the following outline: 

1. The Glass Package 
A. Container 
1. Determination of shape. 
a. Preliminary consideration. 
b. Determination of design particulars. 
c. Design as influenced by glass manu- 
facturing technique. 
d. Design as influenced by glass hand- 
ling equipment. 
2. Glass container nomenclature. 
3. Dimension tolerances and inspection. 
4. Container standardization. 
B. Closures and finishes. 
1. Closures. 
2. The Glass Container Assn. 
3. Standardized finishes. 
C. Label and labeling. 
D. Shipping case. 
Packaging Operations 
(A graphic summary of principles employed) 
Labeling (6 principles of labeling). 
F. Casing. 
3. Packaging Practice 
(Questions and answers, including glossary) 



If this Manual provides the means 
through which those who package in 
glass containers become better informed 
on the fundamentals of containers and 
their successful and efficient use, it has 
well served its purpose. 

This still will not lessen, however, the 
responsibility of those who supply the 
container user to see that he has the full 
benefit of their experience and counsel 
to the betterment of his operation. 

(Mr? Barnby then presented slides to 
illustrate the Manual and a technicolor film on the subject 
of glass packaging.) 

Not everyone has had an opportunity to keep posted on the 
progress that has been made in recent years on automatic 
and rapid glass packaging, he said. For that reason, it seemed 
advisable to take you on a 25 minute tour by technicolor 
through some representative food packing operations. 

Food plants were chosen because they were largely sea- 
sonal operations, which means they cannot often justify the 
amount or refinement that could be justified for a year 
round item. Likewise, they are dependent mostly on green 
help and finally in the packaging and sterilizing of food, 
the glass container is subjected to more severe treatment 
than in some other glass packaging jobs. 

During the showing of this film, you would do well to keep 
in mind the questions that follow. The answers should be 
found in what you see. 

1. Is there any production advantage to using round 
containers as compared with other shapes? 

2. Is it possible to convert certain can conveying, filling 
and labeling equipment so that it will handle glass jars of 
similar size opening? 

3. Can glass jars or bottles be automatically cased? 

4. Has the adoption of standardized round containers 

H. A. Barnby 


contributed sizably to the automatic handling of same? 
5. Would you not say that an automatic line for pack- 

ing and sterilizing fruits or vegetables really demonstrates the 

progress that has been made in glass container handling? 
Affirmative answers to these represent a perfect score. 

x KK 


Presiding: CHARLES A. SOUTHWICK, JR., Director of Research 
and Development, Shellmar Products Co., Mt. Vernon, O., and 
Technical Editor of MODERN PACKAGING. 

Water-Resistant Glues in the New Geography of Packag- 
ing.—Dr. FRANK C. CaAmpins, Sales Engineering Department, 
National Adhesives Division, National Starch Products, Inc., 
New York. 

In approaching the problem of water-resistant glues, the 
obvious first thought is, why not hot melts? Hot melts— 
more especially in the form of asphalt, but certainly to include 
also the hot pickup gums that are so widely used in can 
labeling—seem to afford a ready-made solution to the prob- 
lem of water-resistant adhesives. And yet, fundamentally, 
most hot melts act as fluids; namely, they have the capacity 
to flow under a small but continuous force. 

When you try to apply that class of adhesive to the flaps 
even of an ordinary cardboard carton—or, worse yet, to the 
flaps of a shipping container which would subject the bond 
to a continuous tension—then that glue will gradually flow, 
and that joint will yield. 

The next type of product which would obviously be fully 
water-resistant is the non-aqueous or lacquer type of ad- 
hesive. But the use of lacquer types of adhesives has the 
limitation that in most cases the solvents evaporate off too 
rapidly for satisfactory machine operation, and the adhesives 
themselves set, after application, too slowly to enable a satis- 
factory commercial bond to be achieved in the time per- 
missible for machine production. 

Further, most lacquer types of adhesives, unless they be 
made of very high consistency, tend to penetrate excessively 
into the stock, because the lacquer solvents, unlike water, do 
not have a capacity for swelling paper fibres, which with 
aqueous glues prevents excessive penetration of the glue into 
the stock. 

That leaves us, then, with aqueous types of adhesives. 
Obviously, there is an anomaly in considering the develop- 
ment of a water-resistant bond from an aqueous product. 

From a machine manufacturer’s standpoint, or from the 
standpoint of a man utilizing glue, your aqueous product 
needs to be stable for machine operation. 

Because water is keyed to the property of a paper fibre, 
namely, that your paper fibre has the ability to absorb water, 
when you apply an aqueous adhesive to a paper surface you 
sometimes hear the erroneous statement that glue sets by 
penetration. Nothing in this world ever set or hardened 
permanently by the mere act of going into a hole. Neither 
does glue. When your adhesive is applied to a paper surface, 
this being a paper fibre, something must happen between the 
adhesive and the paper fibre to enable that adhesive to body 
up. And the only “something” that could do that is the 
ability of that paper fibre to preferentially pull in more water 
than it pulls glue. In other words, it pulls one ingredient 
away from the glue at a greater rate than it pulls other in- 


S the 

Ca rch 


, the 


» the 


> the 
r too 

y be 
r, do 



s by 
1 the 
r in- 

gredients out. That way your glue literally concentrates on 
the surface of the fibre in the absence of evaporation. 

The limit of setting is arrived at when your glue sets so 
fast that actually it will build up on your glue applicator. In 
other words, as the sheet of paper contacts the glue roll, the 
glue itself sets partially on the paper and enough of the water 
ingredient is pulled away to enable the glue to ‘“‘body up” on 
the roll. In combating the extremely high tensions encoun- 
tered in your Victory or weatherproof V-1 reinforced con- 
tainer, as a matter of fact that ceiling has been reached. We 
have had to work backwards from there. 

Another interesting angle on the setting of your aqueous 
glues is the fact that as you approach the sisal kraft reinforced 
cases, it is brought out that you have a very rough surface. 
(Showing Chart) This drawing brings that out. Clearly, 
the thickness of a glue film that you can apply to a rough sur- 
face to apply film continuity is a function of the degree of 
irregularity of the surfaces. So that the more irregular your 
surface, as a rule, the thicker the film of glue you are forced to 
apply. Besides that, you also have the fact that contact is 
achieved only between humps. Consequently, since your 
area of contact is greatly reduced, each contact point has a 
greater responsibility and carries a greater tension, and con- 
sequently requires a faster set in the glue so as to be able to 
hold the flap down, in spite of possibly having only 15 per 
cent or 20 per cent of the area actually contacted by the com- 
pression belt. 

How can an aqueous glue develop water resistance? Obvi- 
ously, something that is dilutable with water, as long as it is 
in a glass jar, certainly would tend to stay that way. After 
application to the paper, you must depend on some chemical 
reaction paralyzing some part of that glue and rendering it 
insoluble or non-dispersible. In other words, we approach 
that problem when you seal your board or your paper and you 
let your glue dry out, and normally you have a reaction taking 
place sometimes between the small percentages of chemicals 
present in the board, that makes insoluble the dispersing 
medium or dispersing agent in the glue, so that that product 
will not redisperse—in the case where part of the glue that is 
dispersed is not soluble. In other cases you have chemicals in 
your paper that deliberately react with water after they are 
once dried out to give an insoluble substance. Whichever 
road you follow is largely a matter of what is most available. 

Adhesives have come on the market geared only to papers 
having extremely high chemicals content. Obviously, ad- 
hesives of that character would have only a very limited use. 
A properly designed product should be geared to a paper with 
a minimum chemicals content, so that it would handle the 
entire range of papers commercially available. 

The postwar period is going to bring with it the release of a 
great number of freak chemicals and new materials which are 
today deep, dark secrets, and that, when released, in them- 
selves may well change the entire complexion of packaging. 

Let us look at one of the opportunities inherent in the very 
nature of the warfare that we are conducting. You have 
in those facts the basis of developing a tremendous export 

Now, then, if you are going to move stuff long distances, 
there is the obligation of developing cheap methods of pack- 
ing—that are economical, that save space and save weight. 

You have also a growing industry in the frozen foods group 
and in the frozen locker industry. Obviously, every time you 
remove a package from a refrigeration unit, you tend to get a 
moisture concentration on that package. Consequently, 
you will need water-resistant glues, and industry is 

working very hard to develop the kinds that are needed. 

To switch to the fibre can, which has made great progress, 
partly because of the metal shortage, I want to mention that 
I think the fibre can is here to stay, in many fields, except 
possibly where you require high sterilization. 

In that field, one use that comes to mind is the oil container. 
You would need a water-resistant adhesive to enable your 
container to be stored out in the open without losing its 
identification. Also, water-resistant adhesives could be used 
for binding tubes. As a matter of extravaganza, I have also 
seen materials that were made from paperboard and were 
impregnated, but that required an impregnation of consider- 
able water-resistant adhesives so that the whole impregnated 
mass would still hang together. 

Tests have been conducted in con- 
junction with one of the Army branches 
in the Quartermaster Corps in the 
development of adequate water-resis- 
tant adhesives for picking up and 
sealing the labels. In conjunction with 
Stecher-Traung, labels have been devel- 
oped which are readily available com- 
mercially that can be adapted to pro- 
longed submerging in water. So that, 
if the time is to arrive for glamorizing 
a package and still making it respon- 
sible, field-wise, that time has already come from a labor- 
atory and test production standpoint. 

The multi-walled shipping sack. particularly in the chemi- 
cals industry, has made tremendous progress in the packaging 
of practically every type of granular chemical. The reason for 
that is the versatility of the sack itself, namely, by the use of 
some type of appropriate liner or protective paper at some 
part of the manufacture of that bag. It is possible to enable 
materials such as calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, asphalt 
or synthetic rubber, to be satisfactorily packaged in that 
container. The bag people themselves have been very con- 
scious and cautious in not making broadside statements; 
and they insist—and rightly—on designing a package around 
each material. 

Of interest from the standpoint of water-resistant adhesives, 
the fertilizer bags represent a great development. They 
indicate also a possibility. In conjunction with the chemicals 
industry, in extending the use of the multi-walled shipping 
container, by using high wet strength outer ply and appropri- 
ately insulated inner plies, an appropriate package can be 

Perhaps few of you realize that these water-resistant 
aqueous adhesives have to have tremendously wide tempera- 
ture tolerances. For instance, in the calcium chloride sack, 
that material is packaged at around 205 deg. F. Some of 
your asphaltic materials are packaged nearer 350 degrees. 
So that your water-resistant aqueous adhesive, in addition 
to having some of what the Government thought was a tre- 
mendously wide temperature tolerance of minus 40 to 140 
deg. F. (they thought 140 deg. F. was a tremendously high 
temperature), in the multi-walled shipping sack industry it 
functionally meets temperature requirements that make 140 
degrees look very anaemic. 

There is an interesting corollary in a development to meet 
the requirements of the St. Louis Medical Department of a 
label for bottles, ampules and medical supplies to withstand 
48 hours’ submerging in water. I believe it is some type of 
heat treatment and then there is another submerging test. 

Obviously, there is a definite domestic market for water- 

F. C. Campins 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 


resistant, bottle-labeling glues. Certainly we have to pay 
homage to the bar, in this field, because certainly they sub- 
ject bottles to a lot of wet abuse, and the liquor companies 
should have their tongues hanging out for a water-resistant 
labeling adhesive. 

Hospital supplies that are liable to be subjected to wetting 
periodically also need such means of retaining their identity. 

In summarizing, I might state that the new geography of 
packaging is the extension of packaging competitively into 
fields where that particular type of package never could 
previously encroach, because of limitations either in the ma- 
terials or in the adhesives, as far as withstanding conditions of 
exposure is concerned. Water-resistant adhesives are one 
arrow in the direction of progress which we ask you to think 
about and plan with in the future. 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: The next phase of our program 
will cover the preparation of the manual on packaging mate- 

Many of you were present at the Packaging Materials 
banquet in April, when Mr. Lund appointed me chairman of 
a committee to undertake the development of standard 
test methods on packaging and packaging materials. Sub- 
sequently, at a directors’ meeting, we voted to canvass the 
Institute membership and a questionnaire was sent out to 
get from the members of the Institute any information that 
might help on what obviously was a tremendous undertaking. 
At the same time the full committee was announced, con- 
sisting of F. S. Leinbach, formerly of the War Production 
Board and now with the Riegel Paper Corp., and W. H. 
Graebner of the Menasha Products Co. I would like each of 
them to stand and take a bow. 

We have taken the letters that have 
been received from members and have 
been working on an outline for standard 
test procedures, testing methods and 
certain phases of packaging engineering. 

What we propose to do today is to go 
over this outline and tell you what we 
are trying to do, and ask for your help 
and suggestions. 

You will notice that we have definitely 
confined the work of this outline to flex- 
ible containers—not all flexible contain- 
ers but flexible containers of paper, foils and plastic mate- 
rials, and certain flexible containers in terms of metal tubes. 
We have eliminated cans and glass jars. As time goes on, 
we should have test procedures in these other fields, but at 
the moment we do not. At least, the Institute does not. 

We found in outlining this work at the beginning that we 
had lots of definitions to work up. We found ourselves using 
words that had either not been defined, or that had been de- 
fined so loosely that they meant different things to different 
people. That is a basic step. And so the next thing we have 
is a few definitions. 

W. H .Graebner 

The first detinition is the definition of a‘‘package’’ and reads: 
““Package—The term ‘Package’ refers to the complete con- 
tainer of the product normally accepted by the ultimate 
consumer. The product may or may not be in direct contact 
with the package.”’ 

The next definition is that of “Inner Packaging,” and 
reads: ‘‘Inner Packaging—The term ‘Inner-Packaging’ refers 
to containers or materials which may be used inside a package 
for the subdivision of the package or its contents, or for the 
preservation of unused portions.”’ 

The definition of ‘Packing’: ‘‘Packing—The term 


‘Packing’ refers to outer container or containers which are 
used as the shipping means for the package or the product not 

The definition of ‘‘Inner-Packing’’: ‘‘Inner-Packing—The 
term ‘Inner-Packing’ refers to containers or to materials which 
enclose or support one or a group of packages, and which are 
not the primary shipping means.” 

We found one or two other things that needed definition, 
and one of these is ‘‘Functional Packaging.” We suggest 
as the definition for ‘‘“Functional Packaging’’ the following: 

“Functional Packaging’ is the designing and making of 
packages for the accomplishment of specific purposes.” 

Another definition we found necessary was that of “‘Equilib- 
rium Humidity,” and our suggested definition is: ‘“The 
‘Equilibrium Humidity’ of a product is that humidity level 
at which the product neither gains nor loses moisture. The 
value of equilibrium humidity is dependent upon the moisture 
content of the product.”’ 

We found also, in going over this work, that we came up 
with what may be a new term to most of you, and which we 
have called ‘Index of Failure.’”’ We have defined it as fol- 
lows: ‘Index of Failure is the per cent change by weight 
(original) of the element which causes failure.” It can be 
either a positive or a negative value. Obviously, if it is a 
positive value, it has been a gain in weight that has come from 
external influences. It does not necessarily apply to mois- 
ture, but it will apply more to moisture than to any other 
thing. A negative value of index of failure would result 
from a moist product losing some of its moisture. 

Chapter III covers the ‘‘Definition of Functional Packag- 
ing.”’” Iam going to turn that over to Mr. Graebner. 

Mr. GRAEBNER: To define ‘Functional Packaging” we 
may start as follows: that Functional Packaging is the making 
of a package that comprises the accomplishment of certain 
specific purposes. Heretofore, the general concepts of pack- 
aging and the specific purposes have embraced largely decora- 
tive objectives. However, a critical analysis of functional 
packaging indicates that there are several factors involved. 
These phases may be mechanical, chemical or visual. 

Perhaps a broad breakdown can first be made in which 
the first two factors, namely, mechanical and chemical, are 
thought of as a group that contribute protective qualities to 
the package as distinct and separate from the visual phase, 
which provides the attractiveness and eye appeal for the 
package, and which, in the majority of instances, is a job for 
the merchandising manager, perhaps, rather than the pack- 
aging engineer. 

Both classifications are extremely important and it must 
be remembered that in the final analysis it is the visual func- 
tion that is the main point of contact between the package 
itself and the purchaser. However, the mechanical and 
chemical functions are the prime factor at the point of use. 
A definition of these functions will serve to clarify this con- 

The mechanical phase comprises those qualities which con- 
tribute to the ability of a product to carry through packing 
and storage and handling without allowing external forces 
to damage the product, or create conditions whereby it may 
be damaged by chemical means. 

The chemical phase comprises those qualities which allow 
the package to protect the product from deterioration 

1. Loss of product constituents by their penetration of 
the package walls. There we may have moisture, fats or oils. 

2. Entry of external detrimental elements. There, 

h are 
‘t not 

h are 


ng of 



le up 
h we 
s fol- 
n be 

is a 

” we 


, are 
es to 
. the 
b for 




n of 

again, we may have moisture or we may have oxygen. 

3. Unfavorable reaction between the product and the 
package itself. 

In order that the packaging engineer can build into a 
package the indicated and chemical functions he must be 
provided with the necessary tools or methods of analysis and 
evaluation. Here, again, this can be divided into the three 
phases of mechanical, chemical and visual functions. 

Among those test methods determining mechanical per- 
formance, we have methods such as bursting strength, tear- 
ing strength, tensile strength, folding endurance, porosity 

(or it may be called mechanical permeability): also com- 
pression, tumbling and impact tests. 

Many of the foregoing methods of evaluation and test are 
well established and well known to many people. However, 
it is also necessary to devise testing methods which have not 
been completely standardized. In some instances, tests are 
still in the development stage, some of them being very much 
in the embryonic stages. 

Among some of these tests are sealing characteristics, 
blocking characteristics, pliability characteristics and me- 
chanical stability of packaging materials. A great deal of 

I. Preface 

II. Definitions of Packing, Inner-Packing, Packaging, 

III. Definition of Functional Packaging 

3 phases of functional packaging 
A. Mechanical 
B. Chemical 
C. Visual 

IV. Discussion of Package Engineering 

A. Knowledge of Product 
B. Knowledge of Package Performance 
C. Knowledge of Terms of Storage and De- 

V. Discussion of Economics of Packaging 

A. Cost of Product 
B. Cost of the Package 
C. Value of Returned Merchandise 

VI. Package Material Tests (Evaluation) 

A. Mechanical 
’ PI-MM-1—Bursting Strength 
PI-MM-2—Tearing Strength 
PI-MM-3—Tensile Breaking Strength 
PI-MM-4—Folding Endurance 
PI-MM-6—Sealing Strength 
PI-MM-7—Blocking Characteristics 
B. Chemical 
PI-MC-1—Water Vapor Permeability at 
100° F. 
PI-MC-2—Water Vapor Permeability at 
0° F. 
PI-MC-3—Air, CO», Ox, Ne (Fixed gases) 
PI-MC-4—Organic Vapors 
Aromas) Permeability 
PI-MC-5—Water Penetration 
PI-MC-6—Oil and Grease Penetration 
PI-MC-7—Static Fold 



(This is the tentative outline as presented to the con- 
ference by the committee, subject to further revision.) 

VIII. Package Tests 

PI-MC-8—Dynamic Fold 
PI-MC-9—Surface Abrasion 

(a) Temperature 

(b) Oxidation 

(c) Light 

C. Visual 

PI-MV-3—Brightness and Reflectivity 

VII. Product Tests (Contents of Package) 

A. Mechanical 
PI-CM-1—Bulk Density of Contents 
B. Chemical 
PI-CC-1—Humidity Equilibria 
PI-CC-2—Index of Failure (Moisture) 
PI-CC-3—Index of Failure (Oxygen) 
PI-CC-4—Free Water 
PI-CC-5—Free Oil or Grease (Note—must 
be reported by kind) 
PI-CC-6—Chemical Activity (Acids) 
PI-CC-7—Chemical Activity (Alkalies) 
C. Visual 

A. Mechanical 
B. Chemical 
PI-PC-1—Moisture Change (CaCl) 
PI-PC-2—Moisture Change (Normal Con- 
PI-PC-3—Fixed and/or Organic Gas 4 
Change . 
PI-PC-4— Water Penetration 
PI-PC-5—Oil and Grease Penetration 
C. Visual 

DECEMBER °* 1943 

work needs to be done on some of these and, as Mr. Southwick 
pointed out to you, help is going to be needed. 

Among the test procedures to determine chemical per- 
formance, the following may be listed: 

1. Water-vapor permeability at 100 deg. F. and at 0 deg. 

2. Permeability to fixed gases in carbon dioxide, oxygen 
and nitrogen. 

3. Organic vapors. 

4. Water penetration. 

It was pointed out earlier that the visual phase of functional 
packaging may not be within the scope of the activities desig- 
nated as package engineering. However, there are proce- 
dures of evaluation available that can assist the person charged 
with the responsibility of creating a visually satisfactory and 
attractive package. Among these methods are opacity, 
transparency, brightness or reflectivity. 

The next step in the development of a package that is 
satisfactory from the chemical and mechanical viewpoint or 
the protective viewpoint is one of package engineering, which 
is the next subject on your outline. 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: Mr. Leinbach will cover the next 
chapter, Chapter IV, Package Engineering. 

i ae te ke 

Mr. LEINBACH: Package engineering is an applied science. 
Like any other applied science, its workings are based upon 
definite numerical working relations. As in any other applied 
science, the accuracy and usefulness of that information are 
no better than the clarity and accuracy of the concepts that 
are used to define the science. 

Mr. Southwick and Mr. Graebner 
have outlined many of the concepts 
and they have outlined the ways in 
which they group themselves. It is the 
purpose of this section of the manual 
to outline the kinds of information 
upon which the application of those 
concepts, and those groups of concepts, 
are based, and the general interrelation 
among them. 

Now, the broad pattern of package 
engineering is simple. It is subdivided, 
as we all know, in three ways: 

First, it calls for a qualitative and a quantitative knowledge 

F. S. Leinbach 

of the characteristics of the product in terms of what things - 

affect it, and the rate at which they affect it. 

Second, it calls for a quantitative knowledge of materials 
in terms of how they resist those things that affect the prod- 
uct, and how durable they are. 

Third, it calls for an exact definition of the job to be done 
in terms of storage and delivery; that is, a definition of degree 
of intensity of those things affecting the commodity, and how 
long the container must resist them. 

Taking these step by step and reviewing very briefly some 
of the things Mr. Graebner has mentioned and sticking to 
the subdivisions of the mechanical, chemical and visual 
phases (by which I think a lot of our thinking on package 
engineering will be cleared up) it has been mentioned that we 
should know the bulk density of the product and the abrasive- 
ness of the product, as mechanical characteristics. 

We should know, as the chemical characteristics of the 


product, its likelihood of deterioration through changes due 
to internal or external deteriorating elements, such as mois- 
ture, oxygen and so forth. 

We should know the amount of such change that the prod- 
uct can suffer before becoming unusable or unsalable. 

It is also desirable to know the presence of other free agerts 
in the product that tend to damage, deteriorate or detract 
from the appearance of the package, or the loss of which from 
the product is otherwise undesirable. Such agents are. 
free water, free oil or grease, compounds that will react 
chemically with package materials. 

Regarding the packaging materials and the characteristics 
of package materials and packages, there are a limited number 
of external deteriorating influences affecting packaged prod- 
ucts. These include physical damage, infestation, water, water 
vapor, oxygen, light, foreign flavors, aromas and temperature. 
The latter of these is a factor, of course, that cannot be con- 
trolled through packaging. These are the natural elements 
against which the package must guard. 

Thus the following factors generally need consideration 
under the division of mechanical factors. As Mr. Graebner 
has mentioned, there is the physical durability of the mate- 
rial, qualities such as bursting strength, tearing strength, 
tensile breaking strength, folding endurance, porosity, sealing 
strength, resistance to blocking, pliabiltty and mechanical 
stability of the packaging material itself. 

We also need to know something of the durability of the 
formed package, qualities such as compressive strength, 
tumbling endurance and strength under impact. 

In the chemical phase of the thing, we must know the 
ability of the material or of the formed package to resist the 
transition of water vapor at high and low temperatures, 
transmission of fixed gases or organic vapors, the ability of the 
package to resist penetration by water, oils and greases. 

I think we will all agree that not only must we measure 
these qualities for packaging materials, but we must measure 
them for those materials after they have been given some de- 
formation, such as a flat fold or static fold, or some treat- 
ment of that sort. 

We must also have, of course, a knowledge of the chemical 
stability of the packaging material, whether it becomes 
brittle under ultraviolet light, whether it is attacked by oxy- 
gen and such factors. 

Regarding the visual factors of the packaging materials, 
as Mr. Graebner has pointed out we have certain tangible 
things that we now can measure, such as opacity, trans- 
parency, brightness and reflectivity. It is hoped, of course, 
that other things can be defined. 

I would like to point out that that is one very good reason 
for this thing being done by the Institute. At one time the 
visual end of packaging was considered very important. 
Later, in the last year or so, we have emphasized what we 
call the functional end of packaging, which is also the pro- 
tective end of it and all of us, I think, feel that a balance has 
to be restored. 

Therefore, the members of the Institute are certainly called 
upon to try to help define other visual qualities that are 
tangible and measurable. 

Regarding the terms of storage and delivery and the things 
that have to be defined, many of these are factors that wil’ be 
determined in working out the merchandising of the product. 
factors such as the size and capacity—that is to say, the 
dimensions and the weight of the contents, that merchandis- 
ing considerations have shown to be advisable for the market- 
ing of the package that is to be put out. 








A second factor would be the length and type of storage 
during wholesale distribution. 

A third would be the normal shelf life in retail distribu- 

A fourth would be the method of use and/or dispensing the 
product by the consumer; that is to say, whether the product 
is used in small portions, so that the remaining portions need 
continuing protection, thus calling for some sort of efficient 
re-closure. That, of course, will have a tremendous bearing 
upon the type of material or construction that is chosen for 
the package. 

Last factors, but certainly not the least important, are the 
typical temperature and humidity characteristics of areas in 
which the product will be marketed. The engineering phase 
enters the picture when this information is used to calculate, 
before the package is actually made at least the approxi- 
mate level of functional ability required by that size and 
that weight of package, of that product, and through the 
expected time, type and locale of its distribution. 

I would like to point out again that package engineering 
could be said to be the use of these factors in determining 
beforehand at least the level of functional ability required by 
that size and weight of package, of that particular product, 
through the expected time, type and locale of its distribution. 

Now take the better-developed aspects of these package 
materials which tells about moisture-vapor transmission. 

Let us assume a product which we will designate as “‘A.” 
We will say that merchandising studies have shown the 
advisability of marketing the product in 4-oz., 1-Ib. and 5-Ib. 
packages. These merchandising studies also indicate that 
the expected distribution time is three months. Laboratory 
reports show that the optimum moisture content—that is, 
the moisture content at which it is most desirable to pack 
the product—is 4.8 per cent. The index of failure, which you 
have heard defined (in other words, the percentage by weight 
of the deteriorating element of the product) with respect 
to the moisture of this product is plus 1.3 per cent, meaning 
that the product will become unsalable or unusable after it 
has picked up 1.3 per cent of its original weight in moisture. 

The bulk density of the product, as differentiated from its 
true specific gravity, and not taking into account how much 
it kulks due to physical size, is 3.67 cu. in. per ounce. Taking 
the amount of cubic contents that we have, and knowing 
the bulk density, we can certainly calculate the cubic content 
of the package. Knowing the cubic content, our designers 
can set the size or the dimensions of the package. Assuming 
certain dimensions, let us see what happens. 

We find that the 4-oz. package will occupy 15 cu. in. 
The size of the package chosen will have a surface area of 37 
sq. in. In the case of the 1-lb. size, that will have a volume 
of 60 cu. in. and the dimensions chosen will have a surface 
area of 100 sq. in. The 5-lb. size will have 395 cu. in. and 
340 sq. in. 

Now, then, in the 4-oz. size you have 15 cu. in. in 37 sq. 
in. In the 1 lb., you have 60 cu. in. in 100 sq. in. (Notice 
that the ratio is going down.) In the 5-lb. size, it is 395 cu. 
in. in 340 sq. in. 

We know the weight of the product and the amount of 
moisture it can be allowed to pick up arid the length of time 
during which the pickup will happen; we know the surface 
area through which this moisture will come. It certainly is 
theoretically possible at least to calculate the transmission 
that can be allowed by that package wall. (I think a lot of 
you who work in this field will recognize that as a verbal 
statement of Parson’s equation.) 

Applying those calculations, the theoretical moisture-vapor 
transmision required for the 4-oz. package is 4.8 per cent, on 
the 1-lb. package it is 4.8 per cent, and on the 5-lb. package 
it is 4.8 per cent. In other words, we have arrived back at 
the axiom of packaging—that the large package requires less 
protection against moisture vapor in its walls, for the very 
simple reason that in a larger package a greater weight is 
held behind a comparatively or proportionately smaller area. 

Now, we have pointed out the relation of volume to area 
and have pointed out the relation between moisture-vapor 
transmission in the different weights of package, and we can 
say that we have arrived at the general level on which we 
must work for designing packages for these different weights. 

I would like also to point out again this matter, which is a 
fact—that the larger package needs the lesser barrier in its 
walls. That is of tremendous benefit in many ways. For 
instance, a bulk case liner for bulk protection in the packing 
case, or as a bundling medium for groups of packages, may be 
used for the protection of various sized packages. 

The field beyond that pumt, of course, is well defined in 
some instances, and less well defined in others. We feel that 
the thing that has to be done is to get these concepts defined, 
get these measurements worked out so that they are accurate 
and reproducible, and carry the thing along until that same 
sort of thing can be applied right down the line to each one of 
these qualities—each one of these protective abilities that we 
have talked about—until the ability of a package is no less 
unpredictable than is the ability of a bridge. 

x KKK * 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: You are probably wondering at 
this point how we could get so far afield when we started out 
to write testing methods. This, I think, is part of it. We 
started out to write the testing methods and we realized that 
they are only the tools which you use. You must have some 
knowledge of how to use them. So we changed the name 
slightly to “‘A Manual of Package Engineering”’ and included 
the test data with certain of these outlines and concepts of 
how this information can be used, feeling that in this way we 
are presenting a more complete picture than we had if we 
simply presented a lot of test methods of standardized pro- 
cedures for a variation of materials. 

With regard to Chapter V, the Economics of Packaging, 
there are only one or two important points I think we should 

The first is to clear up a misunderstanding that we do 
packaging for permanent protection. That certainly is not 
true in the field of which we are talking. We are handling 
materials with a certain rate of transmission, and we are 
handling packages with a certain rate of degradation. There 
seems to be a misconception that protection should be added © 
to a package until you get no returned goods. That, I feel 
very strongly, is not clear thinking. So we are not thinking 
in terms of having you make packages with infinite shelf life. 
What you actually do in commercial practice is to make your 
package probably for the average shelf life or turnover of your 
product. That means that a certain part of the product 
which has a quicker turnover will be over-protected, in a 
sense; and probably certain of your products which have a 
longer turnover will not be as well protected as the average 
or normal turnover. 

However, in most cases we are working with some degrees 

DECEMBER °* 1943 117 

of tolerance. A product is not going to degrade certainly and 
quickly at a given, precise moisture level. There will be some 
variation in the product. The failure will be usually over a 
limited range. So that we are thinking of packages to take 
care of the average shelf life. 

Now, then, the cost of the product enters into our thinking 
at this point, because there is an absolute minimum cost for 
a given level of protection, and that is a matter of conven- 
ience and so forth. It specifies a definite kind of package. 
There is an absolute minimum cost for a given level of pro- 
tection. Each kind and type of package has this minimum. 
In a more expensive product we can use the same protective 
level with higher cost of materials for convenience and a more 
dressed-up package, or we can use a more expensive product in 
terms of a protective package. In the higher value of prod- 
uct, it is usually advisable to run higher packaging cost in 
terms of absolute value of the packaging cost, to reduce the 
loss of returned goods. 

It seems that packaging cost should be increased as long as 
the cost of the packaging increase is equal to or less than the 
reduction in cost of returned or lost merchandise, remember- 
ing, of course, the intangibles of borderline failures. 

It is also possible (and it is done, in many cases, commer- 
cially) to put out a part of your product in a better package. 
If you find that in the Southern part of the country your 
turnover is longer and your product deterioration is greater, 
it is possible to reduce the value of returned goods by packing 
only that portion of your product which goes into those 
areas, since this, obviously, will keep down your total pack- 
aging cost and cure that specific ill. 

We have some other thoughts on the economics of packaging 
which we shall include later in the final revision of the manual. 

x kK Kk 

That brings us to Chapter VI, Package Material Tests. 
I think, first, we should explain the code which we have used. 
By this time you have all suspected that the initials PI mean 
“Packaging Institute.’”’ The next letter can be one of three, 
either ““M,” meaning ‘‘Material,” or ‘‘C,’’ meaning ‘“‘Com- 
modity or Product,’ and “P’’ meaning ‘‘Package.’’ The 
fourth letter in this case will be one of three—either M, C or 
V, meaning ‘“‘Mechanical,” ‘‘Chemical’’ and ‘‘Visual.’”’ We 
have developed this in order to quickly recognize these tests 
in the category in which they belong. 

Going on to Subdivisions A—‘‘Mechanical,”’ we have: 

PI-MM-1—Bursting Strength 
PI-MM-2—Tearing Strength 
PI-MM-3—Tensile Breaking Strength 
PI-MM-4—Folding Endurance 

This whole group of tests could be taken from TAPPI pro- 
cedures, TAPPI being the Technical Association of the 
Pulp and Paper Industry. Here is a clear case where we 
have used the specifications of another association or industry. 
These are various kinds of mechanical property tests, very 
well outlined and very well described, with a great deal of 
definite experience, in the TAPPI test methods. That 
covers the first five items. 

We find, however, in packaging that, besides knowing the 
mechanical characteristics of materials, we must know some- 
thing of their combination or construction, put together by 


heat sealing and adhesives. Therefore, it becomes necessary 
to measure such things as sealing strength. I don’t know 
offhand of any test which we can use, which we can lift. We . 
are not averse to lifting from anyone at this point, but | 
don’t know any we can use. We have roughly devised one 
which is based upon the sealing under a variety of conditions, 
a specified width of seal, aging that seal at given conditions, 
and then pulling the seal apart at a given rate of pull of tem- 
perature range and humidity. It is probably very elemental. 
It may leave a lot to be desired. At least it starts us off on a 
very important function, which is the sealing strength of ma- 

Another important characteristic of materials which we run 
into in packaging is the blocking characteristics. We have 
outlined a test method for that. We have the most beautiful 
functional material you ever saw that blocks in high humidity, 
and if it blocks in storage in your warehouse, if it blocks in 
summer weather it is not good. You must have a clearly de- 
fined means of measuring blocking characteristics. 

Question: Have you a definition of ‘‘blocking’’? 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: That is a very good point. We 
thought the description of the test would cover that. But 
it may be a good point to add a definition of blocking at this 

Mr. Lersacu: “Blocking” is that tendency of heat- 
sealing materials to seal to themselves in the rolls or stacks of 
sheets and so forth. Mr. Southwick is going to describe a 
procedure which will more or less predict under what condi- 
tions a heat-sealing material would seal to itself in the course 
of shipment. 

Question: It does not have to be heat-sealing material, 
does it? 

Mr. LEINBACH: No, it does not. Thank you for that cor- 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: Now, then, the blocking charac- 
teristics of thermoplastic packaging materials we have de- 
fined as follows: “Blocking characteristics of thermoplastic 
packaging materials shall be measured by placing at least 
six layers of the material between two flat metallic surfaces 
and maintaining the temperature of the stacks and pressure 
blocks in ovens held at elevated temperatures for 24 hours. 
Tests shall be run at !/2 lb./sq. in. pressure and/or 1 lb./sq. 
in. pressure, aswell as at 40 per cent + 5 per cent R.H. and/or 
90 per cent + 5 per cent R.H. 

“Results shall be reported as ‘no cling,’ ‘cling’ or ‘seal,’ re- 
garding tendency of specimens to adhere, and ‘no mar,’ ‘slight 
mar’ or ‘mar,’ regarding the appearance of the surfaces of the 
specimens, and the temperature in degrees F. at which these 
results were observed also shall be reported. 

“In the case of materials on which only one side is thermo- 
plastic, results shall be reported after the material is tested 
both with thermoplastic side against the thermoplastic side, 
and with the thermoplastic side against the non-thermoplastic 
side, whether or not the latter condition is to be expected in 
the package form to be used.”’ 

You are concerned with the temperature of blocking at a 
specified humidity range and rate, so that the unknown factor 
is temperature. 

The next one on the list is ‘‘Pliability.”” We are going to 
leave that a great big blank. It would be nice if we had some 
numerical index of pliability. If any of you people know 
how to do this, and if you have some numbers that could be 
put down on paper, to indicate a reproducible result, we would 
be delighted to have it. 

That, then, takes care of the items under ‘‘A,”’ the last 

it | 




s of 












three of those listed in this division being as follows: 

PI-MM-6—Sealing Strength 
PI-MM-7—Blocking Characteristics 

The next item is not on the outline, and is known as 
PI-MM-9—Mechanical Stability. 

Mr. LernpacH: I have something here on PI-MM-9, 
which was written out but did not get into the outline, and 
these items have been suggested in connection with mechani- 
cal stability: Ply separation, distortion, dimensional change, 
a deterioration of strength, pliability and, under adverse 
conditions of weather, they should be defined. We intended 
to put stuffing or abrasion resistance test in that particular 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: We have an abrasion test which 
is PI-MC-9, and it is intended to include the one on the me- 
chanical side up above. 

Question: What about compressive resistance or resili- 

Mr. LEINBACH: In answer to that question, I would like 
to point out that we are talking about material tests at the 
moment and I believe that would be more likely to fall 
under a package test. Is that the point that you had in 

SAME DELEGATE: I was thinking of cushioning materials, 
where you are thinking of resistance to compression. 

Mr. LEINBACH: Isee. Let us write that down as a further 
suggestion. We had not thought of that. 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: That takes us through our first 
series of mechanical tests of materials. 

We then come into the chemical tests on materials, under 
this Subdivision B—‘‘Chemical Tests on Materials.”’ 

Mr. WENDLER, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilming- 
ton: What about the surface characteristics of materials, 
particularly as they affect machine operations? 

Mr. LEINBACH: Obviously, there is a tendency to cling to 
parts of the machine, as many kinds of papers do, or films. 
I think that is an excellent thing to be measured. Personally, 
I would not know how to translate that into definable terms 
at the moment. We will put that on the list, Mr. Wendler, 
and will appreciate your help in trying to determine or de- 
fine the qualities that determine that. 

x weKK * 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: We shall go on, now, to the chemi- 
cal functions. The mechanical functions were easy. Down 
among these chemical functions is a good place to get into 

The first one will be discussed by Mr. Graebner. 

Mr. GRAEBNER: This first item is PI-MC-1—Water- 
Vapor Permeability at 100 deg. F. 

As Mr. Leinbach pointed out, package engineering ties up 
intimately the factor of water-vapor permeability with the 
performance of any package as far as moisture loss or moisture 
gain is concerned. As a result, this method of testing has 
been the subject of much individual and committee effort. 
TAPPI did a job on it several years ago and had a committee 
which turned up with an excellent method for that period. I 
refer to that in that way because several years ago we did not 
have developed the types of better packaging materials that 
are available at the present time. Also, the art—or, rather, 

I should say the engineering—had not advanced to the point 
where it is today. The older method of TAPPI, while I said 
it was excellent, had a rather low gradient of vapor pressure 
existing on the two sides of the sheet. As a result, when we 
encountered some of the better packaging materials, it did not 
adequately differentiate between materials in these lower 
ranges. TAPPI has recognized this, and has had a com- 
mittee working on the job during the summer, and they made 
a report on it at the Chicago meeting back in September. 

Since that time a revised method has been in process of 
preparation, which embraces the idea that is prevalent today 
on water-vapor permeability testing, and that is to increase 
the water-vapor pressure gradient or differential, if you want 
to call it that, by making this test at higher humidities, some- 
where in the range of 90 to 95 per cent, with a low humidity 
approaching zero on the other side of the membrane. 

The old TAPPI test, which is still on the books, had a low 
relative humidity on the one side, with only 50 per cent of 
relative humidity on the other side. The result you can 
readily see—that with the higher humidity existing on one 
side of the membrane, we are going to have higher ratings, and 
are going to be able to differentiate between the more mois- 
ture-resistant papers. As I say, this TAPPI method has 
been going along, and it looks as if it can be lifted bodily and 
put into this manual. There are a‘few questions to be settled 
on the technique, but the technique and the general principle 
evolved have been well established in the minds of most 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: It does not do very much good to 
run your transmissions too far away from your temperatures 
of use. So it seems advisable to have a method of testing 
water-vapor permeability at 0 deg. F., which is the common 
point of frozen food storage. We have a method worked out 
on this one—which consists of a similar cup arrangement to 
the hundred-degree test—the high humidity test—but with 
special compounding of the adhesive, the wax sealing agent, 
to get flexibility at zero rather than at 100 deg. F., and also 
to stand the thermal shock of being exposed at zero to room 
temperature. The test method is brief. It consists of a 
tight metal box in a frozen foods cabinet operating at zero, 
with a box containing a rack, and also a suitable amount of 
cracked ice being used to maintain the vapor pressure, and the 
metal box being put in the frozen foods cabinet to level out 
any temperature differences and prevent the colder walls of the 
box from affecting the vapor pressure inside. 

In other words, with ice in this metal box, we have a satu- 
rated atmosphere at zero and using calcium chloride inside 
the test cups. 

The procedure is as follows: The samples are made up as 
usual. In this case they are allowed to age something in the 
order of three days, rather than the usual 24 hours in this box, 
with the cover down tight, in the zero room. They are then 
taken out and put in a desiccator for a period of at least 24 
hours. I think you all recognize the problem we are trying to 
overcome, and that is the fact that you take any metallic 
object from 0 deg. F. and try to weigh it, and with ordinary 
balances you are going to get concentration when it is taken 
into ordinary atmosphere. We are going to put it through 
this desiccating cycle to bring it up to temperature, without 
causing any additional transmission and without having any 
surface condensation to affect the accuracy of the weighing. 
After the initial weighing, the sample will go back in the test 
box, in the test atmosphere, and in this case it will stay for 
two weeks. Ordinarily, the water-vapor permeability tests 
are run off in three days, but because of the extremely low 

DECEMBER ® 1943 119 

vapor pressure—one milligram of mercury—it is in this test 
atmosphere for two weeks. As a matter of fact, there are 
some materials that it is a good idea to put in for 30 days, and 
then the procedure is repeated, and the net result, multiplied 
by the factor, gives you the transmission. It is a procedure 
based on a certain measure of 100-degree tests, which is very 
good for the frozen foods industry. 

Mr. Leinbach will now describe the procedure under 

Mr. LEINBACH: This is concerned with air, carbon dioxide, 
oxygen, nitrogen and fixed gases permeability. The test, 
which has, so far as we know, the best background and re- 
search behind it, is the Shuman and Elder test, developed by 
Dr. Shuman and Dr. Elder, of the General Foods Corp. 
Essentially, this consists of holding the test specimen in a 
chamber, supporting it in such a way that one side of the sheet 
can be evacuated and the apparatus so arranged that the gas 
transmission can be determined by circulating it across the op- 
posite face. As that gas works its way through the speci- 
men, it gets into an area that has been evacuated. This, of 
course, will register a slight change in the pressure within that 
space below that sample, and that in turn is measured by a 
change in the level of mercury of the manometer. That can 
be calculated back very readily, as you know, knowing the 
volume of that space below the sample, and it can be calcu- 
lated back very readily into the actual volume of the air or 
the oxygen or the fixed gas that came through the sample. 
The time factor, naturally, is controlled by the length of the 

There is considerable work behind this test, and it looks 
like a pretty good one. I think perhaps some of you read 
about it in MODERN PACKAGING a few months ago. 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: We are getting into the unknowns 
among the unknowns here. 

The next one is still further removed into the nebulous 
state, and that is the PI-MC-4, Organic Vapors (Flavors, 
Aromas) permeability. I think you all recognize the im- 
portance of being able to measure the permeability of mate- 
rials to flavor ingredients. If they are present in small quan- 
tities they are extremely vital to the acceptance of your 
product, and we are long overdue on a satisfactory means of 
evaluating the migration of this material through a package 
structure. We would very much appreciate anyone’s giving 
us clues or information or help of any kind on how this test 
should be run. We frankly admit we have nothing. I wish 
you would all think about it, and give us any help you can. 

x kK Kk * 

The next one is PI-MC-5—Water Penetration, which I will 
turn over to Mr. Graebner. 

Mr. GRAEBNER: Water penetration has been given con- 
sideration by the paper industry for a long time, and here 
again we have a case where TAPPI has done considerable 
work. The opportunities are good that their methods will 
suffice for this job, as well. There are a number of methods, 
depending on the type of water penetration that is involved. 
There is the dry indicator test, which is well-known to people 
in the paper industry but may not be applicable to all other 
types of packaging materials. 

Considerable work has been done on a fluorescent-dye test. 
That comprises the test existing in the paper industry. Pos- 
sibly other people concerned with packaging have devised 


certain tests. If so, I know our chairman would be very glad 
to have them. 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: Mr. Leinbach, will you please 

go on with Item PI-MC-6—Oil and Grease Penetration? 

Mr. LEINBACH: Talking about oil and grease penetration 
is something like the problem of water penetration. As you 
think about it, you realize that moisture-vapor transmission 
(that is, water-vapor transmission) is a control of flow. When 
you get into the problem of water penetration and water re- 
sistance, or oil and grease resistance, you are talking about 
what might be determined as an absolute test or almost a 
destruction test. In other words, either the grease comes 
through or it does not. After it has come through, you are 
only mildly concerned with the rate of flow. 

Now, this problem (as you present here know) is one that 
has been battered around and is still being worked on at a 
tremendous rate. Actually, the whole problem is one of a test 
designed for production control as against a test designed to 
show the specific performance of a particular material against 
a particular grease. 

A person who is running a mill or a paper machine has to 
have a test so he can tell, in any reasonably short time, how 
he is doing. The opposite of that would be for him to use a 
test in which he would not know for two weeks how well he 
had performed at the time he ran the paper, which would be 
disastrous. The TAPPI test involves the use of a typical 
oil in the form of turpentine, and, as you know, it simply 
measures the length of time it takes for that turpentine to 
work its way through the material tested. 

The thing that has been criticized very severely, and the 
criticism that has been raised, against the turpentine test, 
has been raised because you now have coating materials and 
new films coming on the market. Some of these coating 
materials may be quite adequate in their resistance to certain 
greases, but they may also be soluble in turpentine. There- 
fore, if you apply the turpentine test, you dissolve the coating, 
and itis allover. And it would in no way show the perma- 
nence of that material against lard, for example. Therefore, 
without omitting the turpentine test as a good standard proven 
test—because it certainly has been shot at from all angles and 
still stands—still we believe that the Packaging Institute test, 
besides including that, should have a second division which 
would be based on performance of specific materials when 
they are in contact with specific oils or greases. 

Of course, the time would be that which it takes for that 
grease to get through there, and, naturally, you would have 
to control temperature and see that enough samples were 
tested so that the results would be representative. I think, 
in general, that represents the thinking that has been had on 
this matter of oil and grease penetration. 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: We next have a series of four 

PI-MC- 7—Static Fold 
PI-MC- 8—Dynamic Fold 
PI-MC- 9—Surface Abrasion 

(a) temperature 

(b) oxidation 

(c) light 

These are considered supplementary tests for some of those 
that have gone before. Mr. Graebner will briefly outline 
these test procedures and the reports. 

Mr. GRAEBNER: The next four test procedures which 
have just been mentioned are important particularly from 




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the viewpoint of their effect on the preceding six procedures, 
covering what Mr. Southwick has referred to as ‘‘proofness.”’ 
We all know the story of having tested a packaging material 
and having reported and found excellent water-vaporproof- 
ness or greaseproofness, or waterproofness or gasproofness, 
and then finding that it disappeared after the sheet has been 
creased or folded. Therefore, obviously it is important to 
know how these materials will perform after they have been 
subjected to standard methods of folding or creasing 

The first one, Static Fold, is encountered very frequently 
in many packaging operations. We have a suggested method 
that was developed by the Institute of Paper Chemistry, 
primarily at the request of the Quartermaster Corps. This 
method involves taking a sheet, folding it at intervals, and the 
intervals depending on the size of the sheet to be tested. A 
little differently, the plan is to have a given linear amount of 
creasing in proportion to the area, so that the test can be cor- 
related between laboratories, regardless of the size of the 
testing cup that you may be using in, for instance, water- 
vapor permeability work. These folds are made in both direc- 
tions—that is, the paper is folded face to face under standard 
conditions of temperature, weight and time. It is folded back 
to back. These folds are also made in opposite directions in 
the paper. In other words, when you are finished you have 
a checkerboard effect, and each successor fold or parallel fold 
has been made in the opposite direction. 

On the matter of Dynamic Fold, there is a need for a test 
that would have a tendency to injure a sheet in a manner 
similar to that which you may find in a bag-making operation, 
in which a web of paper is pulled over a former, creased and 
folded dynamically. That is one of the methods that is 
rather in the embryonic phase. We have had a number of 
suggestions and ideas involving attempts to make a fold by 
passing the sheet between revolving wheels. Nothing con- 
crete or specific has been developed. 

This is another one of those tests on which we would like 
to have your suggestions. 

As to the next point, Surface Abrasion, it may take place 
in a variety of packaging operations. It may take place, 
again, in bag manufacturing, in lining machines, and, as a 
result, the need for some test which provides a standard sur- 
face abrasion is necessary. Here, again, we have nothing 
specific to offer. However, it has been suggested (and it is 
just a suggestion) that some standard abrasive material, 
such as a fine sandpaper, be applied to the surface of the 
sheet in question and subjected to a specified rate of vibra- 
tion for a given length of time as maybe a starting point. 
Here, also, your suggestions are welcome. 

The next point, PI-MC-10, Aging, includes temperature, 
oxidation and light. Many of you have had the experience 
of examining a sheet of packaging material that appeared to 
have excellent properties. Perhaps a month or two later, 
or six months later, it had lost many of these properties. 
Of course, here we are speaking in connection with the chemi- 
cal tests. There have been many cases where a sheet had 
excellent water-vapor permeability or grease-proofness, only 
to have lost much of it after six months of storage. 

This is still another case in which standards have to be set 
up and unquestionably a lot of people have had experience in 
that field. Some of the conditions may have to be rather 
arbitrary at the start. For instance, exposure of a sheet of 
material to 100 deg. or 120 deg., for various periods of time, 
would have an effect upon its properties in many instances. 

Oxidation is another important factor and here, again, 
the conditions probably will be arbitrary. Again, suggestions 

from the members will be gratefully accepted. 

Light also has a tremendous effect on many packaging ma- 
terials. The procedures have been to expose the materials 
to north daylight, south daylight and some from the roof, 
But here, again, south daylight and north daylight are not 
always constant. They vary from day to day, and vary also 
in values from season to season. It would be desirable to 
have some artificial means of subjecting papers and packaging 
materials to various types of light. Some people use ultra- 
violet light. Again it is known that the infrared end of the 
spectrum has some effect on certain packaging materials. 
The field is wide open; but it is an important one, and we 
would like to have your ideas. 

x KKK * 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: We have one small item left— 
Subdivision C, the ‘‘Visual Evaluation of Packaging Mate- 
rials,’ which will be covered by Mr. Leinbach. 

Mr. Lernsacu: Briefly, this is an effort to put down some 
of the tangibles that are visual qualities. TAPPI, of course, 
has well-organized and well-developed tests for opacity and 
for brightness and reflectivity. Regarding transparency, | 
don’t know right now of a non-restricted test on transparency 
that is available. Again, let us say very briefly that we would 
like to have any suggestions or help that you can possibly 
offer in the measurement of transparency. We would like 
to have any suggestions or help that you can give us in meas- 
uring other visual qualities which are tangible, which can be 
measured, and which are of interest in packaging. 

I think that is about all the time we should take with this 
particular part of the program. 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: The next group is VII—Product 
Tests (Contents of Package). I know you are not vitally 
interested in them, although you do appreciate the need for 

Here, again, the Institute should cooperate with other 
groups which are better able to do this product work. We 
have outlined certain obvious characteristics such as bulk 
density, abrasiveness and then, down in the chemical char- 
acteristics, there are items such as humidity equilibria, index 
of failure to moisture and index of failure to oxygen, free 
water, free oil or grease, chemical activity, both in acids and 
in alkalis. We shall not describe them. Finding free oil 
and grease is somewhat of a misnomer. How free is free? 

We shall go on, then, to the last section, Section VIII— 
Package Tests—which is, after all, the nucleus of this whole 
deal. You are going to test the materials but you want the 
final evaluation of the package as formed. 

Under the Package Tests, we have the first group—Me- 


Probably all of you know that the manufacturers of outer 
containers, corrugated cases, have based all their develop- 
ment work on engineering and tumbling methods and on im- 
pact methods. I think the same general techniques can and 
should and will be applied to packages. I don’t think we 
know enough about the durability of packages. This is, of 
course, again, distinctly different from the durability of ma- 
terials. Here is a very pointed case where the Institute must 

DECEMBER °* 1943 121 

do some work. If any of you have suggestions on how to 
adapt the outer container test procedures to this work, or if 
you have any test procedures which you have done your- 
selves, we shall be delighted to have them. We think that 
these are three important subjects, and we don’t know any- 
thing about them. 

The next group is Chemical Package Tests. We have three 
there that are quite alike: 

PI-PC-1—Moisture Change (CaCl.) 
PI-PC-2—Moisture Change (Normal Contents) 
PI-PC-3—Fixed and/or Organic Gas Change 

In the first two procedures, the method of evaluation or 
determination of moisture change will probably be identical, 
the only difference being that No. 1 is the standard test, be- 
cause the contents in this case will always be calcium chlo- 
ride, and you will always have a basis for comparison. Prob- 
ably in most cases you will run No. 1 and No. 2 together, be- 
cause you are interested primarily in some particular product. 
In the case of a tube it would be nice to have your record as a 
common denominator which would be the calcium chloride 

Briefly, we will call one the standard procedure and No. 2 
the product procedure. Both tests are exposure of packages 
to certain humidities, and weight gains reported. I think we 
shall only put down procedures similar to those which most 
of you people are doing. I have gone over carefully the letters 
from members, and I find that by and large most people are 
using a similar method of moisture gain test. There is prob- 
ably more than one means of measuring the moisture change, 
but we will use in these two cases first, examination of con- 
tents and, second, gross weight. I think those tests are 
probably in the best shape of any of them, too. 

The other one we have here is Fixed and/or Organic Gas 
Change. We had to have an outline to cover the field. By 
the way, that is designated as PI-PC-3 on your outline. It 
includes both oxygen and flavor change. The procedure there, 
of course, will be to use a similar test atmosphere, but exami- 
nation will probably be by a different means. 

Mr. Graebner will now describe the next item—PI-PC-4— 
Water Penetration Test for Packages. 

x *KkK Kk * 

Mr. GRAEBNER: Here, again, there is no standard method 
that has been adopted by any group at the present time, and 
unquestionably a lot of individuals and individual concerns 
have their own packaging tests. As a starter, there are two 
procedures that might be suggested. One is to subject your 
finished package to water emergence in a standard amount 
of water at standard temperature and for a given length of 
time—again weighing the package before and after, and pour- 
ing off the surface water before weighing; then examining 
the contents and determining moisture content on the con- 
tents, which may not even be necessary if you have had any 
substantial penetration of water. It can be done probably by 
visual means, as we have visual penetration of water into 
your product by the package. 

There is another possible test that has some interest and 
that was developed by the Surgeon General’s Office, I believe, 
in connection with some of the water packaging problems. 
They suggested the use of plaster of Paris on the package, 
which then is submerged in water. A very slight amount 


of water penetrating through the package, of course, will 
cause immediate caking and hardening of the plaster of Paris. 
This condition is immediately noticeable upon opening the 

package and examining its contents. I have seen some of © 

the tests made in this manner and they are really very inter- 

As I mentioned in starting this, there are probably other 
tests and procedures being used, and we would like to have 
them and know more about them from any of you who can 
help us. 

CHAIRMAN SouTHwIck: A final item on the list is PI- 
PC-5—Oil and Grease Penetration. That will be handled 
by Mr. Leinbach. 

Mr. LEINBACH: Briefly, the oil and grease penetration for 
packages follows somewhat the same lines as that described 
for materials, in the sense that it is concerned more with per- 
formance with respect to a specific grease than it is concerned 
with a performance respecting a standard oil or grease. The 
procedure on which we expect to go, in the first proposal, calls 
for putting the product which contains the free oil or grease 
into the package, storing the package at probably 100 deg. F. 
some of them in normal position, some of them inverted, some 
of them with the wide face down and some with the narrow 
face down (in the case of rectangular cartons). I think if the 
liner is removable it will be recommended that it be used as 
the test. If there is no liner we shall have to use the carton 
as the surface on which the result will be noted. 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: We have some numbers down on 
the outline under the heading of ‘‘Visual,’’ but we have not 
even a good idea of them. That is the end of the test pro- 
cedures which we have thus far outlined. 

We are sorry we could not have analyzed these a little 
more, We are going to try to put this all together in the 
next thirty or sixty days, and at that time we shall mail it 
out to the members of the Institute as a beginning of this 
very important work. 

Mr. Prouprit, U.S. Rubber Co., Passaic, N. J.: | Has the 
resistance to rodents and infestation and so forth been 
studied ? 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: I think that is one of the things 
we have missed. If you have any suggestions on that we 
should be delighted to have them. 

Mr. Hitspon, Standard Cap and Seal Corp.: With regard 
to rigidity and stiffness, has any work been done on that? I 
don’t notice it in the outline. Also, has any work been done 
on the inertness or springiness of material? 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: In other words, you suggest a 
test on inertness, and on stiffness or springiness. We have 
not included that. Do you know whether there exists a test 
for either property? 

Mr. Hitspon: Very crudely, yes. 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: That is good enough for us. 
Please let us have them. 

Mr. HartMANn: Again, on the subject of abrasion, the 
importance of finish and its effect upon converting machines 
has been raised. The importance of finish I think also comes 
into consideration on the matter of ability to stack packages. 
In other words, the slipperiness of the surface has a bearing 
upon that. 

With regard to abrasion tests, I might say we have de- 
veloped a machine which will record the effect of abrasion 
of one sheet against another, of similar material. 

CHAIRMAN SouTHWICK: In other words, you feel that 
slipperiness is an important characteristic in the stacking of 
materials. That is one thing we did not think of. I am 

oO ~«_ F- mm 






1 it 







also making a note of the other phase that you mentioned— 
namely, the abrasion resistance of materials together. We 
would like to see a procedure on that if we could have one. 

Mr. Hatcu, Hartford Empire Co., Hartford, Conn.: With 
regard to package engineering, when you depart from a rec- 
tangular package to one of odd shape, such as a cylindrical 
package, for example, the relation of diameter to height be- 
comes important, particularly as it affects the total volume 
of the packing case itself. It might be well to include that 
for those who have to deal with a cylindrical or other special- 
shaped package. 

Mr. LEINBACH: By that you mean to include a study of 
the effect of the ratio between the volume and the area, as 
the ratio between the diameter and the height is changed? 

Mr. Hatcu: Yes; as it affects the total volume of the 
packaging carton in which you are shipping. I refer to it as 
cubic ratio, meaning the ratio of the volume of the contents 
to the rectangular closure of the bottle or jar, in the case of 

Mr. Leinsacu: The ratio of volume of content to the 
rectangular volume of closing the container. 

Mr. RUSSELL, Oliver Machinery Co.: It does seem to me 
that your approach is good on what I would call the chemical 
aspects of packaging. On the mechanical characteristics, 
however, I should think it would be wise to correlate your 
efforts with those of the machinery people, because many of 
these efforts obviously belong in the laboratory. 

Mr. LEINBACH: As I understand, you are making a point 
similar to that made by Mr. Wendler, of duPont, earlier, 
that the qualities which determine the ability of a material 
to handle on a packaging machine, should be defined and 
should be brought into a measurable area of concept. I 
think itis true. I think it is of very great interest both to the 
Production and the Machinery divisions. I think we all 
realize how complicated it is, but I do very much agree. 

Mr. WENDLER, duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc.: One 
characteristic that might be considered reciprocal to slipperi- 
ness is static rating. While it does not relate itself to a 
straight numerical rating, nevertheless the function of static 
is very helpful, and of extreme importance. 

Mr. Lernsacu: That idea of static rating, and the ten- 
dency of materials to take and hold electrical charges, is an 
interesting one. 

Mr. Camp, The Dorr Co.: I have not heard mentioned 
here the name of the American Society for Testing Materials 
in connection with the source of information on various tests. 
They have done a great deal of work along many lines, such 
as abrasion, tumbling, exposure to light, and so forth, on many 
materials that are concerned in this work. I think it would 
be worth while to consult them for information on methods 
of testing. 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: I believe the ASTM uses many of 
the TAPPI standards for testing, and in this case we have 
indicated the primary source, rather than the ASTM tests. 
It may be, however, that the ASTM has other tests where 
they would be the proper source. 

With reference to this matter of machinability and work 
with the machinery group, I think the machinery group would 
do us a great favor if they would break down some of these 
collective words, such as “‘machinability’’ and ‘‘pliability.”’ 
There are a lot of other words that also have a number of ele- 
ments having to do with physical strengths. We have taken 
certain well-known physical strength characteristics and 
added certain other things which are particularly packaging 
properties—seal strength, blocking characteristics and _ pli- 

ability. That is just a beginning. There are other factors; 
and if the word ‘‘machinability,”’ for example, could be broken 
down into factors, and if we could measure those factors, we 
could develop a pattern of measuring some of these collective 
words, and we would be delighted for any suggestions of 
other factors of this kind which can be measured. 

Mr. Pitt, Sherman Paper Products Corp.: On the matter 
of pliability, sometime ago I saw a testing apparatus designed 
for testing the pliability of papers. 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: Can you indicate the source? 

Mr. Pitt: Gummed Products. 

Mr. Sweet, Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Co.: 1 believe you 
will find other instruments that have been developed for 
testing in this field. There is an instrument that was brought 
out by Tinnius-Olsen Testing Machine Co., Philadelphia, for 
testing the flexibility and elasticity of sheets and also an 
instrument by the Tour-Marshall Co., a stiffness tester. 

Mr. Daum, Johns-Manville Products Corp.: The Forest 
Products Laboratory has developed equipment for testing 
the ability of fibreboard to stand up under bending. 

Mr. Lanpis, Atlantic Refining Co.: We, of course, use 
finished products, and we are very much interested in the 
moisture test that we have heard of here. It would be very 
interesting if you could have a test for cartons. 

Another thought that has not been brought out here is 
this: how about the pulling away of fibre board packages from 
the bulk materials packed in them—the liners pulling away 
from the product itself? We are selling products to a lot of 
people who say that our product does not pull away. Is that 
under one of these headings here for study? 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: No, we have not thought of it. 

Mr. Lanois: Take asphalt, for instance. Asphalt is being 
sold in paper, and unless you can pull that paper off, you will 
get complaints. We are having quite a lot of trouble getting 
the container manufacturers to give us packages that will 
pull away from some of the new products. That might be 
worthy of consideration under suitability of packages. Work 
has been done on smaller packages that are put inside of outer 
containers. But how about bulk materials put right in the 
fibre container, such as wax, asphalt and greases? 

CHAIRMAN SOUTHWICK: That is an excellent point. If 
you have done some work on this we would like to have a 
tentative procedure from you. 

x *k*k 


Materials in a War Economy: Panel Discussion—Presid- 
ing: WALTON D. LyNcu, vice-president, National Folding Box 
Co., New Haven, Conn. Members of the panel: J. D. MAt- 
COLMSON, technical director, Rober? Gair Co., Inc., New York; 
A. B. Huyssoon, vice-president and sales manager, Continental 
Paper Co., Ridgefield Park, N. J.; Sot BuSCHMAN, president, 
National Can Co., New York; FREDERIC REMINGTON, presi- 
dent, Peerless Tube Co., Bloomfield, N. J.; C. M. CONNOR, 
technical director, Glassine Paper Co., Conshohocken, Pa.; 
M. A. Brown, advertising manager, Plastics Division, Mon- 
santo Chemical Co., Springfield, Mass.; Dr. J. H. TOULOusSE, 
chief service engineer, Owens-Illinois Glass Co., Toledo. O. 
CHAIRMAN LyncH: Each of the seven well-qualified au- 
thorities we are privileged to present to you this morning will 
give you a brief, right-to-the-point report regarding the pres- 
ent availability of the type of materials with which he is 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 123 

thoroughly familiar, and we will welcome questions from the 

Mr. Malcolmson, what is the corrugated and fibreboard 
situation today in regard to its present availability ? 

Mr. Matcoimson: It happens in our industry right now 
that we have the largest bank of unfilled orders in our history, 
and yet we are making boxes at a smaller rate than in 1941, 
which was our record year. The reasons are the typical rea- 
sons that you are all familiar with, namely, raw material and 
manpower. I don’t see at the present moment much hope of 
relief on either of those subjects. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Mr. Huyssoon, what is the condition 
at present in the paperboard field? 

Mr. Huyssoon: Anyone who is at all involved in the pur- 
chasing of paperboard, knows that the situation is very criti- 
cal and very acute. As is true with the situation of fibre con- 
tainers, paperboard used for cartons and boxes of all kinds, 
depends entirely upon waste paper for its raw material. Pro- 
duction has been steadily declining from a peak of some 
157,000 tons a week early this year, I think, down last week 
to 143,000 tons. The outlook is not too good. I don’t know 
just what we can look forward to, but I can see right now it is 
going to be damned serious. 

xk *kKK Kk * 

CHAIRMAN LyNncH: Mr. Buschman, what is your situation 
on metal containers, tin containers? 

Mr. BUSCHMAN: ‘Tin containers are now available for 
products earmarked for the Army and the Navy, for Lend- 
Lease and for civilian use. Since February 1942, allocation of 
production for these used has been under rigid Government 
regulation. The War Production Board through Order M-81 
has carefully specified the products, the quota that may be 
packed in cans, the sizes permitted and the specifications. 

If your product falls within any of the 93 classifications 
listed in Order M-81, covering food products, or in any of the 
50 classifications covering non-food products, it is my opinion 
that tin can manufacturers today have the facilities to supply 
you with all of the tin cans that the Government states you 
can have. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Mr. Remington, what is the situation 
on collapsible tubes? 

Mr. Remincton: I should be inclined to say that it is 
very good in this respect: If you have previously been a user 
of collapsible metal tubes, you are quite apt to get the same 
number that you received during the year 1943, not ’42, but 
’43. The industry’s output has been about 135 per cent above 
1942 output. 

The various Government orders have controlled the type 
of metal used so that the ‘et result is that we are producing 
about as much as we can possibly produce, but if you were a 
customer of a tube company you are quite apt to be taken care 
of in the same degree that you were before. 

I would issue a word of warning to every manufacturer in 
the room who uses collapsible metal tubes. That is to save 
every last chipboard box that the tubes are packed in, and 
every last corrugated box and send them back to the collap- 
sible tube manufacturer. The production of tubes may not 
fall down, but if we haven’t got anything to ship them in, we 
will be in a very bad position. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Mr. Connor, what is the situation in re- 
gard to protective papers? 



Mr. Connor: From a raw materials standpoint, the situa- 
tion is just as serious as it is in the board field. It might be 

considered somewhat more serious, because the protective - 

paper field requires specialty pulps. Those pulps obviously 
are a little more difficult to get on short notice, at least, par- 
ticularly at a time when the inventories of those materials in 
the mills are down to an absolute minimum. The tendency, 
as far as the mills are concerned, at the moment, is to keep 
operating to their full production, whatever production, 
whether it is five days, six days or seven days, depending on 
how they have been operating. The attitude of the War 
Production Board has been to maintain that production in so 
far as they can possibly do so. Obviously, they have a prob- 
lem of distribution of the raw materials, and an attitude of 
keeping all of the industry—not only the protective paper in- 
dustry, but the whole paper industry—operating, and their 
problem obviously becomes one of maintaining a distribution 
for the entire industry which is in line with essentiality, as far 
as civilian use is concerned. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Mr. Brown, what is your situation? 

Mr. Brown: Putting it briefly, all the commercially im- 
portant types of plastic materials are under strict allocation. 
We are able to take care of the direct requirements of the 
armed forces with some material left over for essential civilian 
purposes. The amount left over for civilian purposes varies 
from one material to another, but in thinking about trans- 
parent coverings and of plastics, in general, two things should 
be remembered: That the packaging uses of plastics are 
competing with the non-packaging uses of plastics by the 
armed services. 

The second fact to remember is that, compared with other 
packaging materials, the over-all capacity of the plastics in- 
dustry is relatively small. There hasn’t been, except in some 
materials, a very great expansion, and therefore the amount 
that we have to play with is fairly limited. 

7 of fs & 

CHAIRMAN Lyncu: Dr. Toulouse, what is your situation in 
the glass field? 

Dr. TouLtouse: The glass container industry has been 
working to capacity for about three years now, although that 
capacity has been increasing all the time. 

The general situation is that we are able to fill all but 15 
to 20 per cent of the demand. It is for that reason that certain 
items that are considered less essential than others have been 
placed upon various quotas. The chief problems with us are 
not so much raw materials as they are fuel and manpower. 
Any marked restriction of fuel or any marked decrease of 
manpower is going to cut our production and at the same time 
cut the quotas or allotments given various industries. 

We began to feel this pressure back in ’41, and I will just 
add a little bit of statistical information. We are now produc- 
ing 78 per cent more glass by weight in bottles than we were 
in 40, and there has been a 140 per cent increase in the capac- 
ity of these bottles for products. So we have been keeping 
pace with the demand, as much as we can. 

There are two things I might suggest, and one of them is in 
the line of cartons. Something can be done for glass contain- 
ers by increasing the package unit, still keeping it under, of 
course, the shipping limits. There are cartons containing 
dozens which might more skillfully use a carton material if 
more cubicle packages were made, say, two or three dozen in 

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two or three layers instead of the present way it is done. 

The second is that narrow-mouthed containers are a little 
easier than wide-mouthed containers. Wide-mouthed con- 
tainers are used for food products and such. Any user who 
could use either narrow- or wide-mouthed bottles can help 
relieve the glass situation by using the narrower sizes because 
some of the capacity for bottles of that type cannot be con- 
verted to wide-mouthed containers. 

x KKK * 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Now I would like to know what are 
the prospects for the next three months in these respective 

Mr. MALCOLMSON: Unfortunately, we are not very hope- 
ful about the prospects for the next three months, because we 
do not see much help in the way of our raw materials and man- 
power difficulties. On manpower, of course, everybody knows 
where we stand. 

As regards raw materials, they are chiefly waste paper, and 
to a lesser extent, new pulp. Even if new pulp is increased 
by the cutting of more pulpwood, it will take more than 
three months for that to trickle down through the various 
stages to the point where you make corrugated boxes out of it. 

As regards wastepaper, we are still in the critical situation 
there. Many of you people remember the wonderful response 
the public gave us in 194f on the wastepaper drive. In fact, 
so great that we had to call it off on account of having every 
possible inventory warehouse filled and stored it outdoors. 

However, calling that drive off let the dies get cold, and now 
we are having a tough time reviving interest in that drive, 
although the need is more urgent now than it was then. 

That single factor of waste paper is one that may help us 
in the next three months, but there is some question. How- 
ever, the least that we can do now is to ask everybody in this 
audience if he will make it a personal matter to help this waste 
paper campaign and particularly in regard to the use of brown 
paper and oid boxes. They make the best forms of waste 
paper for our industry. The use of old boxes will even have 
to be resorted to. We view that with considerable alarm, ap- 
parently, and yet there is no help for it. 

So that, summarizing, I would say that for the next three 
months we still are going to be faced with a situation almost 
if not as critical, as at the present time. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Mr. Huyssoon, what is your opinion 
of the next three months in boxboard? 

Mr. Huyssoon: I think Mr. Malcolmson has probably 
covered the major explanation of what could possibly be the 
situation in boxboard for the next three months. Our same 
problem, raw materials, is our most acute one. The mills 
themselves would run more evenly with their manpower 
problems if they had adequate supplies of raw material. I am 
afraid it is going to get worse before it gets better. 

The mills are still eating into their inventories at the rate of 
5,000 tons a week. Obviously, that can’t keep up. Many 
mills are running on the basis of shutting down for a day or 
two or three days a week, waiting until they can accumulate 
enough paper stock to run. 

I do want to say that I think there is plenty of waste paper 
available if it can be collected. The problems of getting it are 
more difficult than they were before, with less manpower 
available to collect it. The waste paper collection industry 
has always been a low-paid industry. They are having many 

problems in regard to keeping their help, probably more seri- 

ous than a great many people realize. 

The transportation difficulties are much more acute than 
they were then. But I do think that with the proper 
amount of support the problem can be licked as far as giving 
enough paper to the mills to run their capacity. 

That, however, doesn’t necessarily mean that if the mills 
are able to run to capacity there is going to be enough box- 
board for everybody. I don’t think that there will. For the 
next three months I don’t look for any improvement to any 
extent. I think that after that time if we can—I will stick 
my chin out a little bit and say that I think that possibly by 
the spring of next year, this paper stock collection campaign 
will really begin to produce results. It takes a little while to 
get those things organized, get them rolling and get the ma- 
chinery working. I think I can hold out some hope for some 
improvement, but again I want to repeat that I don’t think 
there is going to be enough to go around. Somebody is going 
to have to go short. 

So far as you know, gentlemen, there hasn’t been much in 
the way of any type of control as far as distribution is con- 
cerned, in paperboard. Itisa terrific problem. Paperboard 
was the bottom of the barrel as far as substitute packaging 
was concerned. When they couldn’t get metal for tin cans or 
things of that type, everybody immediately looked to sub- 
stitutes and paperboard was one of the most available sub- 
stitutes that there was. Now that substitute is at the point 
where it can’t be used to any great extent further, and as far 
as I know there is no further substitute—going down still 
further—for paperboard, unless we go back up the ladder 
again to other types of materials which formerly had been de- 
clared as being more critical. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Mr. Buschman, 
what is your opinion of the next three 
months in metal containers? 

Mr. BuscHMAN: The scarcity at the 
present time in tin cans is due to the 
shortages of both raw materials and 
manpower. As a consequence, the 
outlook for the next 90 days cannot be 
viewed with optimism. The WPB 
knows where the pinch is most severe, 
and consequently it issues from time 
to time amendments to its various orders 
in an effort to relieve cases of undue hardship and actual dis- 

For example, thé most recent amendment, WPB order 
M-81, dated October 2, 1943, increases the allotment of tin 
cans for certain products because manufacturers have been 
unable to find substitute containers. While under prevailing 
conditions leniency is not to be expected from the WPB, if 
you find yourself in a distressed situation the only recourse 
seems to be another appeal based upon all of the facts to the 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Mr. Remington, what is your opinion 
in collapsible tubes? 

Mr. REMINGTON: I should like to extend my prophecy 
beyond three months. The three months significance would 
be termed static, but within six months the products that are 
being considered by the Army and the Navy may change 
that picture. 

But unless there are future plans of the armed services 
that will take a much higher percentage—and that I cannot 
prophesy—the picture will look about the same as it is now 

W. D. Lynch 

for from three to six months. I think that is as clear as I can 

DECEMBER °* 1943 125 

make it from all present indications in our field. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Mr. Connor, what is your situation 
in your industry? 

Mr. Connor: It is rather apparent to me that we can ex- 
pect a reduction in the next three months in at least some of 
our protective papers. It is reported that the pulpwood in- 
ventories are being depleted at the rate of 100,000 cords per 
month. It is also reported that those pulpwood cuttings 
for the year 1944 would be reduced by approximately 25 per 

There are some factors, such as improvement in the man- 
power situation, which may alter that latter figure. There 
are some other factors which come to work in favor of main- 
taining the production of protective papers. Protective paper 
pulps are specialty pulps, as I said before. They are rela- 
tively high-priced pulps. If there is going to be a shortage of 
wood for all pulp, the attitude of the pulp mills will be to make 
the higher grades, the higher-priced grades. This is going to 
increase somewhat, although only slightly, the yield from 
each cord of wood. 

The chemical situation, glycerine and the pigments, has a 
direct bearing on what we can expect in the way of protective 
papers in the future. At the present time the glycerine situa- 
tion is somewhat better than it was six or nine months ago. 
However, as many of you know, the pigment situation is 
getting definitely worse. The revision of certain grades and 
the modification of certain grades using glycerine and using 
pigments may minimize the effect of the deficiencies of these 
materials. It is difficult to foresee, however, that a reduction 
in pigments, which is definitely going to affect the paper in- 
dustry, is not going to make a difference in the light protec- 
tive or lightproof protective papers inasmuch as our reduc- 
tion in pigment is quite drastic at the present time. 

There are some other factors, such as the manpower situa- 
tion, which will have to be considered. Generally, it would 
seem that the reduction, taking all of the five different factors 
into consideration, might run in the order of possibly 10, 
maybe higher, per cent. 

A great many protective papers rely on the use of kraft 
pulp. Obviously, the demand for kraft pulp in the fibre- 
board field for Army and Navy use is making a great deficiency 
of that pulp as far as some of our protective papers for 
civilian use are concerned. 

x KKK * 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Mr. Brown, what is the situation in 
your industry ? 

Mr. Brown: There again the situation varies from one 
plastic to another. There is one observation, though, that 
applies to the industry as a whole. Until fairly recently the 
control in our production has been raw materials. In the 
case of many companies operating in critical labor areas, the 
control is tending to become more and more a manpower 
situation. We are chemical plants using in the main un- 
skilled or semi-skilled people. We are limited in the extent 
to which we can put women into our plants and as a result in 
some cases plastics plants could be operating at a higher 
capacity using available raw materials but have been limited 
because of the shortage of manpower. 

Now specifically, in the case of the rubbery elastomeric 
materials, there is likely to be some loosening of the re- 
strictions on those materials. Those particular plastics were 


used as replacement for rubber to a considerable extent. 

If the synthetic rubber program continues to progress and 
the synthetic rubbers as such become more readily available, 
it is likely—or at least it is possible—that the demands of the 
armed forces on those particular plastics will be relaxed to 
some extent. But remember that at any time, as soon as 
the level goes down, the level at which point materials will 
be allocated is dropped into a less essential category, and the 
packaging uses are competing then with a great many essential 
and semi-essential civilian uses of plastics. 

In the case of the molded plastics, we are likely to have 
substantially the same situation with the exception of poly- 
styrene, which some of you use, which is likely to become 
somewhat easier. There again that hinges on the synthetic 
rubber program which manufactures as one of its raw ma- 
terials the base material polystyrene. Now it is re- 
ported that the capacity for the production of styrene, which 
is a constituent of Buna § rubber, is somewhat greater than 
the capacity of the rest of the set-up to absorb it. Therefore, 
we are very likely to have a somewhat easier situation in that 
particular plastic. 

In the case of the cellulose plastics the situation has some 
bearing on that in paperboard and related materials, be- 
cause they, being cellulose materials, are basically 
from wood or in some cases from cotton linters. The situa- 
tion there is not likely to change too radically. 

CHAIRMAN LyNncH: Dr. Toulouse, what is the situation 
in the next three months on glass? 

Dr. TouLouseE: It is relatively easy to answer for the next 
two months, because just Monday of this week L-103-B was 
extended to the end of the year. Beyond that it is difficult 
to say where the restrictions will be placed, but my guess— 
and this is merely a guess—is that some form of restriction 
will have to continue. 

There are several reasons for concern this winter, even 
though the seasonal food period has passed and the de- 
mand for food containers will drop off slightly. Con- 
trasted with that, of course, is the fact that during the 
winter is our chance to build up stocks. The reason for con- 
cern is the fuel and manpower situation. We are faced with 
the possibility that certain fuels in time of winter demand 
may be taken away from us for short periods, especially in 
areas where the strictly military demands for processed fuel 
are heaviest. 

Some glass companies have been told that they may face 
a period in which they cannot get gas, or that they cannot get 
oil, and the producer of gas, of course, depends upon the coal 
situation, which we don’t need to mention other than in pass- 
ing today. 

In 1940 we produced something like 54,000,000 gross of 
bottles in the industry. In ’41, about 71,000,000. In ’42, 
about 79,000,000, and in ’43, where the full effects of stand- 
ardization, along with other improvements will be felt, it 
jumped to 93,000,000 gross, or 20 per cent over last year. I 
don’t want to give standardization all the credit, but to some 
extent that is part of a standardization function that is giving 
us greater capacity to produce. 

Now on the manpower side, we are down to the point where 
women have replaced men about as far as they can. 

The raw materials situation isn’t particularly alarming. 
Our raw materials are generally non-essential: sand, of 
course, and lime being the two least demanded. 

The only one giving us any concern—but no threatened 
shortage—is soda ash. The other materials for glassmaking 
have been pretty well stabilized. We have reduced our de- 







mand a lot by standardization. Rubber is a lot easier for 
sealing the essential things, chiefly of food products, but it 
comes back to paper as being our chief disturbing raw ma- 

I might say that we would have to shut down a glass fur- 
nace if we are unable to get paper in which to pack the glass. 
That has been upon us very close several times this past 

We do expect, all things considered, an increase of about 10 
per cent in production next year, going to 103,000,000 gross, 
and in that are considered possible production losses due to 
shortages of supplies or manpower or fuel or possible disas- 
ters that could upset future operations. 

x KKK * 

CHAIRMAN LyNcH: Thank you. There is one thing I got 
out of this discussion here. There is going to be a serious 
shortage of paper. I never realized it even went back to the 
glass man, that he might not be able to ship his commodity, 
but to me it seems stupid that we as business men sit around 
and accept a restriction where there is plenty, because of 
a weakness, a lack of guts to get out and fight for what we 
want. I know that you men need shipping cases, car- 
tons, to get your merchandise to the ultimate consumer. I 
also know that today you don’t have to have a lot of direct 
mail advertising coming over your desk because the adver- 
tising man says, ‘We have got so much money; 
instead of paying it to the Government. we will put into a 
brochure to tell them that the railroads are fine railroads, our 
food is good, our service is good, but, for goodness sake, don’t 

Just think, and ask yourself this question: Is it necessary 
to go to the store and secure a carton of cigarettes, or a pack- 
age of toothpaste and have the dealer put that into a paper 
bag or wrap it up with a piece of wrapping paper? You 
answer the question. Is it necessary to have some of this 
direct mail coming over your desk today when there is a paper 

Look at England. In England they are packing merchan- 
dise. Eighty per cent of all the material used in paper 
making goes into packaging. The other 20 per cent goes into 
papers for various other uses. In this country we don’t do 
that. We have lobbies, we have politics and we ourselves are 
to blame, our own companies. If you men can go back to 
your own company today and say to the officer in charge, 
“What do you want? Do you want boxes to ship your stuff, 
or do you want to advertise a commodity that you can’t 

I have some written questions here, and after we finish with 
them we will take questions from the floor. 

The first question is: ‘Do liners adequately protect the 
product when lead is used for collapsible tubes?” 

Mr. REMINGTON: That is a very important question. I 
anticipated that question coming to me, and so I will read off 
the answer. The responsibility of proof that a liner is satis- 
factory lies entirely with the manufacturer of the prod- 
uct. The collapsible tube industry has cooperated in deter- 
mining the proper liner, but because formulas are changing 
rapidly and because as an industry we never did know the 
basic formula of your product, we cannot accept responsi- 

We will place liners of lacquer or wax in tubes to the extent 

that our equipment will permit and to the extent that we are 
permitted to use lining materials under the restrictions of the 
War Production Board governing such materials, but we can- 
not help but stress that while liners have been developed that 
are extremely satisfactory, yet the responsibility lies on your 
shoulders as the manufacturer of the product. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: The next question is: ‘‘Is it true that 
V-boxes are getting most of the available material?” 

Mr. MA.Lcotmson: That is a question that comes up very 
often, and I know that the right answer is ‘‘No,”’ and I think 
the best way to prove it is to give you very briefly some 

It is true that the great tonnage of V-boxes, a lot of that 
being solid fibre, has gone up in the last few years. For in- 
stance, the total production of solid fibre in 1943 was 100 
per cent over 1938, but that is not the right way to look at it. 
The actual fact is that the production of solid fibre in 1943 
was less than 10 per cent of the total of corrugated plus solid 
fibre. In 1942 this figure was 8'/2 per cent, and in 1941 it was 
5.9 per cent. 

In other words, while the V-box has gone up, both corru- 
gated and solid fibre, the total amount of raw materials 
that they use in comparison with all boxes is around 10 per 
cent, very small. 

Mr. Lynch, as long as I am one of the end men, I would 
like to ask you whether you have anything to contribute on 
the situation in folding boxes. We haven’t covered that 
one this morning. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: That is passing the buck. Well, 
folding boxes depend on boxboard. If we get the boxboard 
we can take care of the requirements on folding boxes. To 
get the boxboard we will have to have the raw material. As I 
see it, while there is an acute labor shortage the mills have 
done a fine job; they have put women into jobs that formerly 
were handled by men. I believe the capacity in this country is 
here. It is up to you fellows to see that the raw material is 
diverted into the right channels. 

Now, I don’t say, cut out advertising. I don’t say stop 
wrapping articles at retail stores with supplemental wrap- 
pings. If you feel that is more essential to running your busi- 
ness than the shipping case or the carton, then throw the 
carton out and divert that material to the supplemental 
package, but it is up to you fellows to make that decision 

The next question that I have here is on cans: “Is the. 
Government easing up on can restrictions?” 

xk kK K * 

Mr. BuscHMAN: More positive limitations are ahead of 
us. Any easing up on can restrictions will depend upon mili- 
tary requirements and the available supply of steel. There is 
a strong possibility that tin-can quotas may have to be de- 
creased next year. It is only reasonable to presume that as 
long as we have war our military demands will continue and 
Government restrictions will not be eased except in some un- 
usual distress cases. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: The next question is on glass con- 
tainers: ‘“‘Will the re-use of bottles relieve the glass con- 
tainer situation?” 

Dr. TouLouse: That may be a little touchy question to 
answer for this reason: I imagine many have heard of the 
new crazy regulation allowing certain limited re-uses on the 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 127 

basis of —‘‘if he is in trouble then all we need to do is to cut 
down the whisky, you say, 5 or 10 per cent of its former level, 
and everything will be lovely.”” Well, that isn’t true, for the 
reason that the re-use of whisky bottles is almost impractical 
under the present serious conditions of shortages of different 

For instance, that demands a channel for the sorting and 
the boxing and the return of the bottles. That means a 
certain amount of manpower in doing that job which is 
spread thinly over a great area. The Treasury Department’s 
intention is, of course, that they come back from the user. 
That enjoins the used bottle market which is probably the 
best equipped for salvage and return, and it makes the return 
difficult and perhaps would decrease to a considerable extent 
any possible return. 

Then, third, is the fact that, in general, the present filterers 
do not have to wash those bottles. Therefore, they are not 
equipped with the proper means to wash and sterilize, to 
cleanse the bottles before they refill them. Washing machines 
take a considerable amount of metal. They take attention; 
they take power, and I do not believe that any bottle-washing 
equipment is being made in the country today, so it is a physi- 
cal impossibility for the distiller to buy bottle-washing equip- 

Add to that if you could get the equipment you would have 
to add a force of men to inspect the bottles as they are re- 

Then finally, present bottles are designed, and their weight 
particularly is such that they contemplate one trip only. It 
is a very easily demonstrable fact that the weight of the glass 
container as designed is tied up with ability to re-use it. Ina 
mill, in the beverage and beer industries those bottles are a 
little heavier, and they are designed considerably plainer, 
compared to distilled spirit bottles. In order to make a bottle 
re-usable, it should have added weight to give it strength for 
repeated use, and this then would turn the tables in a very 
peculiar way in that it would put a demand for tonnage of 
glass on the glass industry now which they do not have, and 
the net result would be the demanding of more tonnage of 
glass, the making of fewer glass containers in the available 
time to meet the situation that this order was primarily de- 
signed for. 

That singles out the distillery industry, but the same thing 
applies to the re-use of bottles for foods and other things. 
The question really should have covered re-uses generally, 
and there again the same distribution problem, return prob- 
lem, the same bottle-washing problem, is in all of the indus- 
tries except the Big Three that re-use the bottles, that is, the 
dairy, the beverage and the brewery groups. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Dr. Toulouse, there is another question 
which has just been handed to me: “What are the bottle 
manufacturers doing to insure sufficient supplies to pharma- 
ceutical manufacturers? It is getting more difficult each day 
to get such bottles as amber round packers (whatever that 

Dr. TouLouse: The situation there is probably tied up 
with the glass situation in general. That is, all branches are 
finding it difficult to get bottles. Pharmaceuticals are men- 
tioned, and if you will pardon my reference to my own com- 
pany’s experience, one of our plants making pharmaceutical 
prescription-packed bottles, has blocked out its available 
production between now and after the first of July 1944. 
That industry, of course, has not been required to use a stand- 
ard bottle, although much of the product goes in standard- 
ized bottles. If standardization were brought in there, 


there might be an additional pickup in volume, but I can only 
say that that industry probably ranks next to foods in essen- 
tialty and will feel less restriction than some of the others and 
their situation is no different from the general glass situation 
as a whole, in that all goods are having difficulties in placing 
orders, especially for quick delivery. The deliveries are slow 
because scheduling is a problem and because everybody who 
wants the bottles is, of course, getting his orders in and asking 
for delivery. 

CHAIRMAN LYNCH: Here is a question on plastics: ‘‘Will 
there be lower cost plastics available for packaging users, 
and if so what type of plastic materials may we expect to 
have available at lower prices?” 

Mr. Brown: I presume that question means in the post- 
war period. If that is the case, the answer is ‘‘Yes.’’ Cer- 
tainly, in some types we will definitely have lower-cost ma- 
terials that will be better able to compete with the older 
packaging materials. The reason for that is that the chemical 
industry—and we are part of the chemical industry—has 
enormously expanded the production of some of the raw ma- 
terials which we use. Most of that expansion is not neces- 
sarily being used in plastics today, but, chemically speaking, 
they are the same materials that we can use to make plastics 
after the war. 

In some instances, the progress in the production of a raw 
material has taken place during the war that would have 
taken place possibly 10 or 15 years under normal peacetime 
procedure in getting a product from the laboratory into full- 
scale commercial production. The result will undoubtedly 
be lower cost in the raw materials that we use and hence 
lower cost in our products. 

x KKK * 

CHAIRMAN LyNcH: I have another question here on con- 
tainers: ‘“‘Is salvaging and re-use of corrugated cases neces- 

Mr. MAtcotmson: It is evidently the Government’s 
opinion that it is very necessary, because all the releases 
that have come from Washington in the past few days have 
urged the shippers to re-use containers wherever possible. 

This is on dangerous ground, because you have to leave it 
to the judgment of each shipper as to what is a re-usable 
container. The freight regulations don’t prohibit the use of 
secondhand containers, but Rule 5 of the classification does 
say that no container shall be shipped unless it is in a condi- 
tion to insure safe and adequate transportation. 

We view with considerable alarm this move because there 
is always a temptation to take a box that maybe wasn’t any 
too good in the first place, and re-use it maybe the second and 
third time, and the loss and damage that might result in 
freight might be even more than the saving involved. The 
loss of good will is even more intangible and dangerous. 

My recommendation would be that each shipper give seri- 
ous consideration to the possibility of re-using and then don’t 
just let everybody in your shipping department decide what 
box can be re-used. Instead, pick one capable man and make 
him solely responsible for the decision as to which box can be 
re-used, and in that way you can at least put all the responsi- 
bility on one trustworthy man for deciding that very im- 
portant point. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: I have a question here on tubes. 
“What chance do you think there will be that more tin will 


of Ww we A 

Ss Qa. ff 



= « 

be allotted to the industry because of the efforts of the Tin 
Salvage Institute?” 

Mr. REMINGTON: Tin is a very critical material and it is 
one in which the supply will continue to diminish and not 
increase. The tube industry never did get back the tin that it 
salvaged in the Tin Salvage Institute. That tin moved on 
to other war uses, 

The net result is that I do not think there will be any addi- 
tional tin allocated to the industry, but that the total 
amount under the present restriction order may even go 
down, so that there is more apt to be less tin available than 
more tin. 

In turn that fits into the necessity for research on the part 
of the tube industry and its customers to supply suitable 
liners for the tubes now being made. The only exception to 
my statement will be the precise types of pharmaceuticals 
which are permitted to use tin under the tin restriction order. 
Such pharmaceuticals could get an increased over-all amount 
of tin solely because of the nature of the product 

x *wkKKK * 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Here is a question on metal cans: 
‘When the war is over and the present restrictions are elim- 
inated, how long will it be before the can industry can con- 
vert to container manufacture?” 

Mr. BuscHMAN: It is my opinion that for the greatest 
part, can manufacturing facilities are available right now. In 
other words, it remains only for the shortage of raw materials. 
to be alleviated before we can swing right back into container 
production. There will be no serious delay in converting can. 
manufacturers back to normal requirements. 

CHAIRMAN LyncuH: I have another one while you are here: 
“T think many here would be interested in the present and 
future availability of a type of container not touched upon 
this morning; namely, steel drums in 55-gallon and 5-gallon 

Mr. BuscHMAN: The demands for military: needs are so 
great that in my opinion there is very little, if any. possi- 
bility for any release in the present restrictions. The war 
program as we know it, calls for tremendous step-up in 
5-gallon and 55-gallon containers for gasoline, and I doubt 
whether you would be able to get any relief unless you are 
operating on at least a double A priority. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Here is another one: ‘The cosmetic 
industry has been cut to 65 per cent of its glass use under 
L-103. Will there be any special dispensation with respect to 
opal glassware that has been generally used by the cosmetic 

Dr. TouLouse: I think not; because the furnaces used 
for that glass, which is simply an opaque glass, are the same 
as used for other glass products, and since it is possible to con- 
vert those furnaces and make, for instance, food bottles, I 
don’t believe that any special dispensation will be given the 
cosmetic industry. 

CHAIRMAN LyNcH: This one is on boxboard: ‘‘What are 
the possibilities of further restrictive orders, or the issuance 
of control orders regarding the use of boxboard by the War 
Production Board?” 

Mr. Huyssoon: Of course, any forecast as to what the War 
Production Board is likely to do is always very dangerous, 
but I don’t think that the present thinking down there is 
along the lines of further limitation orders in the use of box- 

board. I think probably any further attempt to issue control 
orders will be along the lines of partial allocation or partial 

It is almost impossible to consider the relative essentiality 
of all of the uses of boxboard for civilian requirements. It is 
easy to take off the top requirements for the armed service, 
Lend-lease, and so on, but after you have done that, to at- 
tempt to establish a 1, 2, 3 classification of requirements for 
civilian uses is a terrific job. 

CHAIRMAN LyncuH: “Is there any change to be made in the 
weights of liner stocks of shipping containers in order to in- 
crease the amount of liner stock for shipping containers 
such as on lightweight liners, and so forth?” 

Mr. Matcotmson: I don’t think so. Many people don’t 
realize that their present Rule 41 is already an emergency rule 
to reduce the caliber. That rule was made effective November 
15, 1941, for one year and at the end of that year the emer- 
gency still existed and it was extended several times and is now 
slated to expire next February 15. This emergency rule under 
which we are operating in the corrugated industry does permit 
the use of 9-point liners, 14-point and 23-point for the heavier 
boxes, and I know the railroads are firmly convinced that those 
calibers are too light right now and they intend to go back to 
the old rule or something very similar at the very earliest 
moment they can. At this point they feel that will be next 
February, so that in answer to that question I don’t think 
there is much room for any further reduction in caliber with- 
out greatly increasing the chances of loss and damage in 
shipment due to ineffective protection. 

xKkKKwKk * 

CHAIRMAN LYNCH: Here is one on metal cans: ‘‘When tin 
cans are again available, will they be cheaper or more ex- 
pensive than they were before the war?” 

Mr. BuscHMAN: Inasmuch as the food containers and 
standard type can prices have been constant during the war 
period, it is reasonable to presume they should continue after 
the war. Whether the present price structure will remain 
undisturbed, in my opinion undoubtedly will be determined 
by the raw material and available labor costs existent after 
the war. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Another question on tubes: “Should 
collapsible tubes be looked to as a relief substitute to cover 
shortages of other containers?” 

Mr. REMINGTON: I should say distinctly not. That is 
because of the fact that the collapsible tube industry had 
better set itself on record as being sold out, at least, for the 
year 1944. 

CHAIRMAN LyNCH: Here is one on protective papers: 
“What will be the effect of wastepaper salvage on the light- 
weight protective papers?” 

Mr. Connor: At first glance it would seem that the 
production of lightweight protective papers is definitely tied 
up with the salvage campaign. To some extent that is true. 
If the campaign is successful, obviously, certain pulps are 
going to be released for use in protective papers. However, 
the salvage papers cannot be used directly in most protective 


CHAIRMAN LyNncH: ‘‘What materials are available for small 
molded transparent boxes preferably with compartments for 
separating small metal items? Over-all size, roughly 3 X 6 
X 2 deep, cover hinged or telescope type. What would be 

DECEMBER °* 1943 129 

the minimum thickness of walls of a box for such purpose? 
Net weight of contents up to one pound.” 

Mr. Brown: The materials available would depend on the 
actual product that was going into the box. If it were a war 
product or a fairly high level of civilian essentiality, we could 
use any one of three or four different materials. Polystyrene, 
possibly; phenol-formaldehyde, for example. I wouldn’t 
try to answer the engineering questions until I see a blue- 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: ‘Are AA-1 orders given precedence 
over lower rated orders in the corrugated box industry?” 

Mr. Matcotmson: I think if they are not we are liable to 
have a $10,000 fine and a year in jail, or something like that. 
Actually, though, we have to file a rating pattern with Wash- 
ington at stated intervals showing exactly how much per- 
centage of our business is in each of the different categories 
and those, of course, are all subject to checking up, Govern- 
ment inspection, and so forth. I haven’t said a word about 
the integrity of the industry, but I can assure you that 
those AA orders are observed very religiously. 

x KK Kk * 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Here is a corker: ‘‘Are 71/2 per cent 
tin lead collapsible tubes to be made available after the first 
of the year? This question is in reference to the announce- 
ment that probably after the first of the year only coated lead 
tubes will be available. If the above is true, are lacquers and 
waxes to be made available in this use for pharmaceutical 
packages? Can we look for an easing up of the waterproof 
paper situation for export government packaging in the next 
two or three months? Have any developments been made, or 
is any development in process on other substitute metallic 

Mr. REMINGTON: Well, there are really two separate ques- 
tions there. I won’t even touch on the one relating to paper 
or waxed papers of any kind. 

As far as tubes are concerned, I am not at all sure that 71/2 
‘per cent tin coated or alloy tubes are going to be withdrawn. 
I am hoping that they will not be withdrawn. 

However, if they are, I think that the over-all wax picture, 
which is the only one that I can answer at this moment, is 
sufficiently good that pharmaceuticals would probably have 
good resistant waxes allotted to the tube industry for that type 
of coating. ; 

That is only a personal opinion and the first thing, as I 
said, about hoping that 71/2 per cent would be retained is 
also a personal hope. I have not been given any clear indica- 
tion that they expect to withdraw that perticular type of tube 
from the market for pharmaceutical use for the present time 
at least. 

The last part of the question, as I recall it, deals with other 
materials. There has been considerable work done by, I 
might call it generally, the plastics industry in the production 
of a plastic tube or plastic tubes. I am not in any position to 
answer the extent to which they have been successful, and I 
simply know that the collapsible tube industry is in the posi- 
tion that it thinks there will be an adequate supply of lead and 
a sufficient amount of allotted tin to continue its present 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: Mr. Connor, do you want to answer 
that question on paper? It says, ‘Can we look for any easing 
up of the waterproof situation—the waterproof paper situa- 


tion for export Government packaging in the next two or 
three months?”’ 

Mr. Connor: I am a little bit nonplussed, because [ ~ 
didn’t think there was a great shortage there. Those of us 
that are more interested in the civilian field, so far as water- 
proof or moisture-vaporproof barriers are concerned, have 
had some considerable difficulty in getting materials because 
of the greatly increased demands for overseas packaging. 

There are in the wax fields a great many substitutes being 
developed at the present time. Some of them are relatively 
wax-free. That is going to extend the amount of wax which is 
now available for those uses, and if the demand for overseas 
shipment continues to grow, it can grow probably to the extent 
that wax can be extended. 

Mr. REMINGTON: I would like to amplify my statements, 
particularly after what the last gentleman has said. 

There are a great many different types of waxes that are 
used by the collapsible tube industry as inside liners. Some of 
them are critical. Some are not. When we first started lining 
tubes with waxes, it was our desire to give the customer the 
best available wax that could be obtained. 

However, there are a great many products on the market 
that could use, may I say, less critical and more available 
waxes. The result is that perhaps some customers will be 
asked to take a wax that is more available and not as highly 
protective simply because his product doesn’t need as much 
protection as was originally thought. 

So by such a division of types of waxes with types of prod- 
ucts, we believe that the tube industry will receive enough 
waxes for its purpose. 

CHAIRMAN LyncH: ‘‘Will standardization be extended in 
the glass field?” 

Dr. TouLouseE: I do not believe that standardization will 
be extended very far. A few minutes ago there was a question 
on pharmaceuticals, and that is representative of one: field 
that has not been forced into a standardized package. The 
possibility of such a requirement of course always exists. The 
industry that is required to use a standardized package will 
have to give up, as food and other industries already have 
given up, the versatility of the glass container in design. The 
glass industry itself is giving up similarly one of its chief dif- 
ferences in the versatility of design. 

A possible pattern has been given by the recent addition of 
the particular types of bottles we call Boston Rounds. That 
is a simple round bottle, or an oblong bottle, and there are a 
few other standards which are not yet obligatory. That could 
be required, and there would be a pickup in the amount of bot- 
tles that could be made by the same machinery. 

I am firmly of the opinion that many in industry would be 
without a package to take their goods to market if it had not 
been for the standardization that went through last year. 

The drugs are largely in standardized containers already. 
Proprietary products and pharmaceuticals other than the 
drug industry as a whole are not in standardized containers. 
Some standardization might be done in the milk bottle field, 
although there is a fairly standard milk bottle. Nevertheless, 
the short-run proposition, that is the small orders, to take up 
considerable production time in the preparation period that 
precedes the manufacture itself. 

So for that reason I say that standardization can be ex- 
tended only a very little so far as gains are concerned, but I 
should not wonder but what the drug and cosmetic industry, 
drugs and proprietary products, medicines and the like and 
possibly cosmetics, would be the ones where standardization 
could be effected if WPB so considered. 


2 of 




1 in 


n of 

1 be 


2 up 

ut I 

CHAIRMAN LyNncH: That completes the questions that 
were written. We will be glad to answer any question from 
the floor that we are capable of answering. 

Mr. Burroucns, Western Electric: On the containers for 
re-use, second-hand containers, in connection with the label 
there has been a preparation which has been worked out 
which is something that you can put right on the container 
that will mark out the present label and you can get the name 
of the manufacturer by writing to Tomiska, at Washington. 

In connection with this Monsanto Chemical Co. matter, on 
waterproofing with waxes, I don’t know whether this will be 
of any interest or not on Army and Navy packages: we take 
the article and put it in a corrugated carton. That corrugated 
carton is wrapped in wax paper which in turn is dipped in 
wax, half at a time, and allowed to dry. That in turn is put 
into a fibreboard container and sealed with friction tape. 
That is one of the uses of a wax barrier that we have found 
to be very successful in the past. 

x KK 


Machinery and Production Round Table.— Presiding: Wat- 
LACE D. KIMBALL, | st vice-president, Standard-Knapp Corp., 
Portland, Conn. Members of the panel: JoHN W. Hooper, 
vice-president, American Machine & Foundry Co., Brooklyn; 
GeorcE A. Moniman, president, Package Machinery Co., 
Springfield, Mass.; DExTER Nortu, chief, War Production 
Section, Office of Alien Property Custodian, Washington. 

Mr. Hooper: As most of you may know by now, the 
Army has attempted to regularize the administration pro- 
cedures involving the termination of Army contracts. To 
date I am not aware that any such procedure has been worked 
out by the Navy. 

I believe they are conducting termination arrangements 
informally and entirely around the termination clause that 
they standardized on some 16 months ago which has been 
changed a number of times. So, our consideration today will 
resolve itself into a consideration of Procurement regulation 
No. 15, and the Accounting Manual the Army has gotten out. 

Regulation PR-15 prescribes two modes of settlement. One 
is called the negotiated method and the other is called the 
formula method. In theory the negotiated settlement is one 
whereby the prime contractor and the contracting officer get 
together and agree on a settlement, on a basis perhaps not 
strictly related to cost or inventory. 

In order to make clear just what I mean in the way of a 
negotiated settlement: you may be a contractor who does 
not operate on a particularly elaborate set of job costs or 
standard costs, and you might therefore find it very difficult 
to agree or to prepare the prescribed data that would enable 
you to set forth a claim for recovery based on inventory values 
or accumulated costs. Therefore, you go to the contracting 
officer and you say, ‘‘Here—our engineering records and our 
production records indicate that 60 per cent of the work has 
been completed. Therefore, we ought to get 60 per cent of the 
contract price.”” If the contractor can substantiate his 60 
per cent by engineering evidence, that is satisfactory to the 
Army contracting officer. 

You and J, however, as practical people, know that if we 
were in the shoes of the contracting officer, we would want as 
much bookkeeping, arithmetical computation as possible to 
satisfy you or me, as the contracting officer, that the engineer- 

ing estimates were reliable in the face of the accumulated ex- 
perience of the particular contractor on that contract or any 
similar contracts that might be used as a guide, or any similar 
previously performed contracts that might be used as a guide 
before passing final judgment. 

Therefore, as a practical matter, I concede that the nego- 
tiated contract will simply resolve itself into the use of the 
formula method, whereby, in the long run, you will be called 
upon either to settle on an inventory basis or else to settle 
upon the basis of accumulated costs. 

From the standpoint of the settlement of the contracts 
where termination has been ordered, the prime contractor 
deals directly with the Government, and the Government 
deals directly with the prime contractor only. There is no 
direct line from the Government to the subcontractor. Set- 
tlements are entirely between the prime contractor and the 
Government. However, this does not mean that the prime 
contractor is called upon to accumulate all of the claims 
of his subcontractors before receiving a settlement for his own 
expenditures or claims. The prime contractor may submit 
his claim independent of the subcontractors, and obtain set- 
tlement from the Government. However, in order to protect 
himself (I am talking now of the prime contractor) against 
his subcontractors, it behooves him to take immediate steps 
and intensive steps to get his subcontractors to file their 
claims through him as soon as possible, because if you do not 
do that you will have a contingent liability which is more 
than a contingent liability; it is a direct liability hanging 
over your heads as prime contractors, for all the period that 
the subcontractor will not have had his claim satisfied. 
There is nothing in the regulation so far, or in the contract 
clause, that specifies a time limit within which a subcontractor 
must file his claims. 

Now, then, any payments to be made by the Government 
will pass through the prime contractor to the subcontractor. 
The subcontractor has no direct claim on the Government. 
The claim of the subcontractor is against the prime contrac- 
tor. Therefore, if there is a question of the solvency of the 
prime contractor, an arrangement will be made whereby the 
Government will pay to the prime contractor, in trust for the 
subcontractor, a percentage of the claim of the subcontrac- 
tor. That is provided for in PR-15. I am expressing a per- 
sonal opinion now when I say that I very much doubt the 
ultimate effectiveness of that, because the subcontractor, 
along with other suppliers, is a general contractor, and in the 
absence of an assignment (which, incidentally, does not im- 
pair the rights of other creditors) I fail to see how a trust 
arrangement could be made that would stand up against the 
claims of other creditors. The only kind of assignment that 
would stand up would be in the case of a bank loan or an as- 
signment at a time when it was definite that said assignment 
was not an act of bankruptcy. And how anyone in these 
days can tell whether we are bankrupt or not, I am sure I 
don’t know. 

Of course there is the practical consideration that the 
subcontractor may go to the Government and say, ‘“‘Here— 
this fellow is not sound, and we want some money,’’ and you 
might get together with a contracting officer and, by an ex- 
change of checks, as it were, (a Government check to the 
prime contractor endorsed over then by him to the sub- 
contractor) immediately pass the necessary funds to the 

Nevertheless, the claim of the subcontractor is against the 
prime contractor, and that point should not be overlooked, 
because at no time in his claim directly against the Govern- 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 131 

ment. The procedure outlined here is the correct one. 

(Mr. Hooper then quoted at length from a speech given 
before the New York Credit Men’s Assn. by Maj. Elbridge 
Stratton, Officer in Charge of Terminations, New York 
Ordnance District. A significant excerpt follows.) 

“|, . a brief summary of the facts in connection with two 
claims which were actually settled in our district. Nego- 
tiated settlement was used in both cases. In the first case, 
the total cost basis was the method followed, and the second 
the inventory basis. 

“The claim submitted on the total cost basis was in con- 
nection with a contract for the production of 2,350,000 
units, total contract price $718,000. The contract was par- 
tially terminated, and the number of units reduced from 
2,350,000 to 109,000. Production had not been completed 
on 109,000 at the time of the partial termination, but was 
completed approximately six weeks later, and the contractor 
then submitted his claim. 

‘His total costs were $74,200. He had received payment 
for the completed units, $33,300. So there was a balance 
representing his claim of $40,900, exclusive of profit allow- 
ance and exclusive of his subcontractors’ claims, of which 
there were seven, totaling $17,500. His costs were made 
up of direct costs consisting of labor, material, and factory 
overhead, and indirect costs, general administrative expen- 
ses, and office salaries. 

“The costs were reviewed in our office, and an auditor was 
sent to the contractor’s plant to review his cost records. As 
a result of this audit, certain items of cost, totaling $6,400, 
appeared to us to be unjustified. These eliminations in- 
cluded certain administrative costs, and rent extending be- 
yond the time of the termination of the contract. The other 
reductions were small and covered four or five other items. 

“After giving effect to these reductions, to which the con- 
tractor agreed, his costs applicable to the terminated part 
of the contract were reduced from $40,900 to $34,500. 

“In the contractor’s original proposal, his breakdown of the 
unit price indicated a profit of 10 per cent, but it was agreed 
between him and our negotiator, on the basis of the record 
of performance of the contract to the date of termination, 
that he would not have realized a profit of more than 4 per 
cent, had the contract been completed. So the rate of 4 per 
cent was applied to the total costs, as adjusted, and after 
subtracting the amount which he had been paid on com- 
pleted items, this left his claim of $35,900. He did have cer- 
tain materials on hand, which he offered to retain at a dis- 
count of approximately 25 per cent of their costs. We ac- 
cepted this figure, and final settlement was reached with him 
at the figure of $33,400. 

“The subcontractors’ claims, totaling $17,500, were ex- 
amined in our office. We made suggestions as to two or 
three of them to our prime contractor. He went back for 
some further negotiations with his subcontractors and a 
small adjustment of $1,500 was made, so they were settled 
at a total of $16,000.” 

A question was later asked at this meeting at which this 
talk was given with regard to what would happen in the 
case of a subcontractor’s refusal to accept the write-down in 
his claim that was proposed to the prime contractor by the 
contracting officer, and it was said in no uncertain language 
that the final dealing was entirely between the subcontractor 
and the prime contractor, and that if the subcontractor once 
went to law on it in a suit against the prime contractor, the 
Army would acknowledge the judgment of the court. So it 
spells out very definitely the principle that even though the 
Army may recommend a write-down of your subcontractor’s 
claims, the ultimate settlement of the claim of the subcon- 
tractor is between the subcontractor and the prime contrac- 
tor, just as if the Government were not in it. 


; “During the period of negotiations, the contractor re- 
quested a partial payment. At that time we had received 

his claim, given it an office review, and were satisfied that. 

he was at least entitled to $20,000 payment, which we 
promptly made him. He in turn used this to pay off the 
balance of his bank loan, and it put him in a position to 
negotiate an entirely new bank loan in connection with an- 
other Government contract. 

“Exactly three months elapsed between the filing of the 
contractor’s claim and the approval of a negotiated settle- 
ment by our contracting officer.’ 

I happen to know that they are doing their best to speed up 

“Briefly, the facts in connection with the other claim, 
which was made on an inventory basis, covered a con- 
tract for the production of 1,200,000 units at a contract 
price of $93,000. This contract was terminated to the 
extent of 441/. per cent. As soon as production was 
complete, the contractor was able to prepare his claim and 
file it, one month after that date. 

“Computed on the inventory basis, his claim amounted 
to $14,700, consisting of raw materials on hand, parts in 
process, commercial parts on hand and unamortized costs of 
various tools. The claim was reviewed in our office and an 
auditor was sent to the contractor’s plant to make a selective 
audit, and the check completely substantiated the contrac- 
tor’s claim. He agreed to retain certain tools which were, of 
course, applied as a credit. We allowed him a profit allow- 
ance based on the indicated rate which he had made on the 
units produced and delivered. In this case a total period of 
two months and 24 days elapsed between the filing of the 
claim and the negotiated settlement. 

“In some cases the period has been longer—considerably 
longer—than two months and 24 days or three months. In 
some cases it has been shorter. I think as contractors ac- 
quire greater familiarity with these procedures, and as we— 
the Government personnel—have more extended training, 
we hope to steadily reduce the average time.” 

x *KK Kk * 

CHAIRMAN KIMBALL: Are there any questions that you 
would like to ask Mr. Hooper? 

Mr. FERVER, Package Machinery Co.: Are there any con 
tracts now being negotiated with the Government which 
specifically state what the price will be for profit percentage 
that will be allowed on the uncompleted portion of the con- 
tract cancelled, and would it not be a good way to get 
around some of the difficulties? 

Mr. Hooper: The Army is trying to obtain from prime 
contractors (and is pretty successful in doing it today) an 
estimate of the amount of profit included in the contract or 
in the estimate given for the job before the contract is closed. 
But I do not know of anything in any contract I have seen or 
heard of where a profit percentage is stipulated to be paid the 
contractor in the event the contract is terminated for any 

Mr. Moui_man: I understand, John, that every contract 
has to stand on its own feet. It is not like renegotiation where 
they are all lumped together, but that every time you make 
a contract you still have to negotiate each one with the con- 
tracting officer. Is that right? 

Mr. Hooper: That is correct. 

Mr., The De Laval Separator Co.: By what 
method can the so-called profit be applied to the uncompleted 










; of 

, of 
l of 




1 or 



portion of a contract when the completed unit is being sold at 
a loss? 

Mr. Hooper: I think that right here, in the second case 
that I mentioned, it might be possible if you can get them to 
agree to it. But in the case that I cited here, where the con- 
tractor estimated originally a 10 per cent profit, in the final 
upshot of the case on termination, his records indicated he was 
only earning 4 per cent, and then he was only allowed his 4 
per cent profit, and not what he originally estimated, namely, 
10 per cent. So, if you apply that principle, I think you will 
know what your answer is. 

That is why Mr. Mohlman pointed out that, unfortunately, 
contract termination and the negotiations that go along with 
it, are a one-way street. It just goes in one direction, and 
you do not have a chance to offset the traffic coming in the 
other direction. 

Mr. Barr: The questions that have been asked here indi- 
cate that there is some provision for the normal profit or the 
anticipated profit on the uncompleted part of a cancelled con- 
tract. It has been my understanding that there has been no 
allowance made for the profit that you would get on the un- 
completed part of such a contract. Am I correct about 

Mr. Hooper: You are correct in your understanding, 
Charlie. I have in my hand a booklet called ““War Contract 
Termination Procedure’’—as announced on September 1 by 
the War Department in Regulation 15, and parts of the 
“Termination Accounting Manual for Fixed Price Contracts.”’ 
This also was published by the National Association of Credit 
Men, and I imagine you can obtain it easily enough by 
sending for it if you wish to have it. 

zx KKK * 

CHAIRMAN KIMBALL: We wish to thank you, John, for 
your fine contribution. 

In the next subject on our program for the afternoon we 
have another nut to crack—the re-negotiation of contracts, 
and in view of the fact that the president of your association, 
and also the president of the Packaging Machinery Corp. of 
Springfield, has been re-negotiated, we have asked him to tell 
us what he knows about the situation. Mr. George A. Mohl- 

Mr. MouLMAN: One of the important questions for busi- 
ness today is—shall we re-negotiate or not. Those who have 
decided that they don’t want to will find, after considerable 
hesitation, that they must, or should, if they want to continue 
to do business with the Government. I quote a paragraph 
from the Under Secretary of the Navy’s letter to the Lincoln 
Electric Co. 

“If you wish to be heard with respect to the determination 
of excessive profits for your fiscal year ended December 31, 
1942, please advise me not later than October 21, 1948. 
Otherwise, action will be taken to eliminate such excessive 
profits for your fiscal year ended December 31, 1942, by di- 
recting the withholding of payments otherwise due to you 
by the Government and by prime contractors with the 

This is technically legal, but is an example of the bureau- 
cratic pressure which is going on, and under which we are 
living for the time being. It makes the department the final 
judge of what a profit should be without an appeal to some 
disinterested tribunal which would look at both sides dis- 

passionately. Even a murderer is entitled to a jury trial. 
Furthermore, I do not believe that Congress will repeal the 
act, although it may organize a joint board, or at least have 
standard rules of the game. 

Our first direct contract with the Army was made at a 
price set by another contractor. We beat his costs so much 
that we would voluntarily have returned some of the profit 
without re-negotiation, if we had known whom to pay it to. 
No one would take the money. 

The point is, though, that when we were taken to the 
cleaners, the penalty for cutting costs was much greater on us 
than on the original contractor. This leads me to wonder if 
efficiency and proper shop methods are worth as much in war 
work as they are in peace times. 

The case of our company is probably typical of those who 
have gone through the wringer. When our local committee 
from the Ordnance Department first came to us, and said 
that they had been authorized to open re-negotiation pro- 
ceedings with us, we were glad to see them, admitted that 
we probably had made too much money by accepting someone 
else’s prices for the machines we were told to build and told 
the board to go ahead and figure out what they thought we 
should pay, and we would abide by their decision. In a few 
weeks they came back and submitted a figure, and we told 
them that we would certainly stand by what we had said, 
and accepted the amount that they recommended we pay 
without question. 

That was in October, 1942, and at that time, we and the 
local board were given to understand that the local committee 
had full authority to make such agreements, and that the War 
Department in Washington would only interfere in cases of 
fraud or other criminal practices. 

Four months after this signed agreement, the local board 
was told by Washington that they had been too liberal, but 
would not give any figure which they thought would be satis- 
factory. We felt that not only we, but the local board, had 
been double-crossed somewhere along the line, and simply 
let the matter rest. 

As the result of the delay in the approval of the local board’s 
findings, we were not able to present a clean financial state- 
ment to our stockholders, and we were forced to hold up many 
necessary State and Federal Government certificates, reports 
and other papers. 

Finally, in September of this year, Washington was per- 
suaded to set a figure at which they would close the deal, and 
this we accepted, and the matter is now history. The basis 
of settlement was a little over 15 per cent on adjusted sales, 
and was fair enough, in view of the tendency to settle between 
10 per cent and 18 per cent. 

If re-negotiation is to continue, I approve of the re-figuring 
of prices of such settlements by local boards, because they 
know the type and condition of the businesses in their area, 
their history and their prospects for postwar business. For 
example: the board felt that an old-line pistol and revolver 
manufacturer in the area simply existed between wars, and 
should be allowed to keep enough of a reserve to help keep 
him in business until he might be needed again. This is, per- 
haps, an extreme case, but does illustrate the usefulness of 
local decisions. 

In ordinary business practice, a concern estimates on a job 
and figures overhead, taxes, etc., in its costs. These are all 
known factors. Re-negotiation is another form of taxation, 
but the company quoting has no way of knowing what that 
tax will be. For that reason, the tendency is to figure high 
and if they don’t get the business, there are always other war 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 


jobs. On the other hand, if you lose money on your contract, 
there is no redress or recovery. 

After all, what business wants is not a large profit now, but 
enough reserve with which to continue business after the war, 
and Section 403 could be amended to allow as a cost of pro- 
duction, a reasonable charge for reserves for postwar con- 
version. If some clear law were enacted by Congress, which 
would insure that, the terrors of re-negotiation would be much 
less and settlements would be made with less delay. What 
the business man fears today is the unknown, whether it is 
the definition and amount of excess profits or what. We, as 
business men, want to know and should be told what is 
going to be left in the pool after we have turned over our 
facilities, honestly and sincerely, to the production of ma- 
terials for war. At present, we are all in the race, but are not 
even running on the same racetrack. 

Unless the matter of re-negotiation is left in local hands, it 
might be a good idea to have the Internal Revenue Depart- 
ment do the work in connection with their tax returns. They 
would certainly be able to quickly screen out all concerns 
which were obviously not subject to re-negotiation and would 
be in a much better position to decide on the amounts that 
should be re-paid, because they would have the financial his- 
tory of the company involved, for years back, to compare 
with present earnings. 

This method would take a heavy load off management and 
would return just as much revenue to the departments in- 
volved without the tremendous expense of the many re- 
negotiating bureaus which have been set up throughout the 
country. I doubt very much that the Government could show 
a profit on the re-negotiated business they recover if the dif- 
ference between that amount and the taxes collected by the 
Revenue Department were the only yardstick they could 
use to go by. 

Perhaps at some later date this group might care to take 
some action on re-negotiation or make some recommenda- 
tions to our political leaders. 

CHAIRMAN KIMBALL: Are there any 
questions you wish to ask Mr. Mohlman? 

Mr. Barr: I want to ask Mr. 
Mohlman this question: did you say 
that the percentage of profit that was 
allowed on your re-negotiated sales was 
about 15 per cent? 

Mr. MOHLMAN: Yes. 

Mr. Barr: Before taxes, of course? 

Mr. Mou_MAN: Yes, before taxes— 
adjusted sales. 

W. D. Kimball 

Mr. Barr: It is very surprising the 
widespread difference in the percentages that are apparently 
allowed. We have heard that they vary all the way from 
61/, per cent up to 18 per cent. 

Mr. Mouiman: It is all over the lot—and it is a good deal 
a matter of horse trading with the powers that be. Most of 
our industries represented here must and do operate on a 
large percentage of profit. We have to in order to stay in 
business and to keep our customers provided with the sort 
of things they want through the appropriation of certain of 
our profits to experimental work and that sort of thing. I 
believe that was taken into consideration in our case. I 
think an appeal you could all profitably make, if you come up 
for re-negotiation, is that we are in a specialized industry 
which does need a large profit in order to keep going and to 
keep our customers happy. 


Mr. Browne, The De Laval Separator Co.: I would 
like to ask this question: is it true that the Lincoln Electric 
Co. profits are in the neighborhood of 2 per cent? 

Mr. Mouiman: If you are talking about the Lincoln 
Electric Co. which I quoted here, I am not familiar with it 
and don’t know. 

Mr. Hooper: I understand that the Lincoln Co. has just 
gone to court to serve an injunction on the War Department 
to prevent the War Department from deferring or withhold- 
ing payments to the Lincoln Electric Co. under the award of 
$3,200,000. That was recently indicated by the Under 
Secretary of War as the amount that the War Department 
would expect from the Lincoln Co. and they have gone into 
court seeking an injunction. That is the first test case and | 
recommend that you all follow it. I am sorry I don’t have 
the percentages in mind, but I think we all owe it to ourselves 
as a duty to follow that case. 

x KKK Kk 

Mr. BEecKER, Peters Machinery Co.: Apropos of Mr. 
Mohlman’s remarks about the peculiar type of business most 
of us are in, I would say that the five-year period on which 
they base their conclusions is very important—that is, the 
audit for five years from 1939 back to 1934 or ’35, and that is 
the basis on which we made up our recommendation for a per- 
centage, because we showed a certain percentage of profit 
over that five-year period. I believe that is very important 
and is applicable mostly to this machinery manufacturers 

Mr. Hooper: George suggested that we all ought to get 
after our representatives and see if they could not do some- 
thing about this Re-negotiation Act. At the present time, 
Wesley Disney of the Ways and Means Committee has been 
chairmaning a subcommittee of the Ways and Means Com- 
mittee with a view to drawing up a bill for modifying the 
Re-negotiation Act so that you should direct your attention, 
if you are going to take any political action at all, to the ac- 
tivity of that subcommittee and the bill that is now before 
the House Ways and Means Committee. It is important, if 
you want something done, that you express yourselves now, 
because the public hearings are all over. Now is the time 
for you to take action. 

Mr. MoutMANn: Yes, that is quite true. I think we should 
do it at once, because the hearings are over and the conclusions 
will come out very shortly. Any pressure we can put on the 
Ways and Means Committee or our own Representatives 
should be done right away. 

CHAIRMAN KIMBALL: I think we ought to use what in- 
fluence we can in this matter. It is something that is very 

Mr. SToKEs, Stokes & Smith: I am wondering whether we 
as a group cannot send a telegram to Washington on this. 
Wouldn’t our collective strength be better than our doing it 
each one as a separate individual? There is not very much 
time to act. 

Mr. Moutman: That is what I had in mind in the last 
paragraph of my remarks. I am glad Mr. Stokes has brought 
itup. I think this Machinery Institute is strong and powerful 
enough and well enough known to make such a telegram 
worth while. I would like to hear someone make a resolution 
which would be appropriate. 


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Mr. STOKES: I would like to offer such a resolution. 

Mr. Mou_tmMan: What form shall we put it in? Do you 
want to work it out? 

Mr. STOKES: I would be very happy to leave it in your 
hands, sir. 

Mr. MouHLMAN: We shall do what we can, then, on it. 

Mr. STOKES: I so move. 

Mr. Barr: I second the motion. 

CHAIRMAN KIMBALL: It has been moved and seconded 
that an appropriate telegram or letter be sent to the proper 
parties in Washington relative to this matter and that the 
wording thereof be left to Mr. George Mohlman. All those 
in favor will please signify by saying ‘‘Aye.’”’ Contrary- 
minded? It is carried and so ordered. 

Mr. Hooper: May I make a suggestion there, too? At 
the present time, termination, as we know, is being taken 
care of by the Army only on single contracts. I think the 
association ought to take some steps to get itself on record 
with respect to the need for over-all termination and the need 
for one body—the same as we are trying to work toward one 
body on re-negotiation. 

CHAIRMAN KIMBALL: Doesn't that require additional ac- 
tion—taking the matter up with the War Department in 
addition to the Ways and Means Committee? 

Mr. Hooper: No. There are hearings going on today on 
the subject of termination with the idea in mind of enacting 
a new bill that will allow financing of prime contractors on 
termination, including a provision for an over-all hearing 
body and over-all hearing regulations. That along with the 
other matter ought to be addressed to the Ways and Means 

CHAIRMAN KIMBALL: George, you are the president of this 
outfit now. We will let you wrestle with this problem. 

Mr. MOHLMAN: We will work it out. 

CHAIRMAN KIMBALL: Are you satisfied, then, to have 
John Hooper and George Mohlman work that out which- 
ever way they see fit and send proper communications to the 
proper people? 

(Common consent was given by those present.) 

x *wk*kKKk * 

I want to call your attention to something that may or may 
not be of interest to you. That has to do with the foreign 
patents held by the Alien Property Custodian. In connection 
with that subject we have been successful in inducing Mr. 
Dexter North to come here this afternoon and tell us some- 
thing about these alien patents. 

Mr. Nortu: I am very happy to have this opportunity 
to come here to talk to you about the subject of enemy pat- 
ents for the reason that we are confident they will play an 
important role in the transition period from a war to a civilian 
economy and I suppose many of you are now thinking of the 
postwar period. 

The Alien Property Custodian has seized approximately 
45,000 patents and patent applications of enemy aliens and 
nationals of occupied countries, of which over two-thirds are 
enemy. Their average remaining life is estimated to be 7 or 
8 years. These patents constitute about one-sixteenth of all 
unexpired United States patents so the Alien Property Custo- 
dian controls the largest number of patents in the United 
States. They cover inventions in nearly every field and rep- 
resent millions of man-hours of research and the expenditure 
of many millions of dollars. The inventions represent some 

of the finest foreign research achievements, particularly in 
dyes, plastics, pharmaceuticals, rayon, alloys and electronics. 
A goodly number relate to packages and packaging machinery, 
of which I shall speak in more detail later. 

A series of digests, describing alien patents of particular 
interest to the packaging field, prepared by Harold A. 
Levey, will be presented in the forthcoming January 

On specific instructions from the President, the enemy 
patents will neither be returned to their former owners, nor 
sold. The patents formerly belonging to nationals of occupied 
countries are being administered by the Custodian not only 
for the benefit of the people of the United States but also for 
their former owners who cannot under present conditions 
manage them. 

The patent licensing policy of the Alien Property Custodian 
is directed towards two main objectives—winning the war, 
and the permanent enlargement of our national production in 
the postwar period. To obtain the maximum effectiveness 
of this program, the following licensing conditions were de- 
cided upon: 

1. Under enemy patents and patent applications not ex- 
clusively licensed prior to vesting, licenses will be non- 
exclusive, royaliy-free for the life of the patents. Pre- 
viously outstanding licenses will not be disturbed where 
American interests exist, unless necessary for the war 
Under patents and patent applications belonging to na- 
tionals of enemy-occupied countries, not already ex- 
clusively licensed, non-exclusive licenses will be granted 
for the life of the patent. When no license is already out- 
standing, new licenses will be royalty-free for the dura- 
tion of the war and six months thereafter, and then sub- 
ject to reasonable royalties. When non-exclusive 
royalty-bearing licenses are already in effect, new licenses 
will carry, for the life of the patent, the same royalty 
terms as the licenses already outstanding. 

3. Existing exclusive licensees under vested enemy patents 
have the option of exchanging their royalty-bearing 
exclusive licenses for non-exclusive royalty-free licenses, 
but otherwise these licenses will be maintained except 
where the public interest or the needs of the licensee may 
require the revision of agreements. 

4. Each licensee, unless operating upon a war secrecy 
agreement, will report periodically to the Custodian on 
the extent of his use of the patent. 

5. The Custodian reserves the right to revoke a license. 
In the absence of express Congressional authority, the 
Government does not appear to have the power to 
dispose of property on royalty-free terms except with 
provision for recapture when in the public interest. No 
reasons are apparent, in the absence of misconduct on the 
part of the licensee, why licenses should be revoked. 


We have not yet issued licenses on patents of nationals of oc- 
cupied countries, a subject on which we are consulting with 
the State Department acting on behalf of the governments-in- 
exile. Satisfactory clearing of this situation is anticipated in 
the near future. 

I have already pointed out that we are recognizing pre- 
viously outstanding exclusive licenses. In order to ascertain 
which patents were so licensed the Custodian issued a general 
order requiring all licensees under vested patents to report the 
facts in the case and other pertinent information. Our li- 
censees are assured that the patents under which they are 
operating are unencumbered with prior claims, and if this 
position is challenged in the courts, the Custodian has ar- 
ranged with the Department of Justice for the defense of the 
licensees at any future time. 

You will be interested to learn of the progress of our licens- 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 


ing program. As of October 20, the number of license applica- 
tions received was 615, involving 8643 patents, and the num- 
ber of licenses issued was 269, involving 1153 patents, both 
patent figures being net after elimination of duplicates. 

We are under no illusions that this is a great achievement, 
but are aware that considerable time and research are often 
necessary to prove a patent and that our industries are too 
busy with war contracts to give thought to new products or 
new processes. We have just initiated intensive efforts to 
bring these patents to the attention of small industries of the 

I have with me a supply of our Index of patents vested in 
the Alien property Custodian. This Index shows the num- 
ber of patents which the Custodian holds, grouped according 
to some 300 Patent Office classes. You will find there numer- 
ous classes relating to packaging machinery and packages. 
I have some mimeographed lists of the more important 
classes. From the index sheet you can order from our Chicago 
office those sections or classes of the catalog of patents which 
interest you. The catalog lists the title, number, class and 
sub-class of each patent. From these lists I have selected at 
random a few titles of patents which might be of interest to 
some of you who are connected with the packaging industry 
as follows: 

Closing of tins. 

Packing of ground coffee. 

Sealing bottles, jars and other receptacles. 

Bottle closure. 

Egg-carrying device. 



Method of reinforcing the walls of packing cases. 
Folding box. 
Dispensing and closing device for tablets. 
Sanitary toothbrush container. 

Cosmetic holding device. 

Device for drilling, filling and sealing hollow bodies. 
Device for wrapping irregularly shaped objects. 
Paper roll wrapping machine. 

Machine for labeling and wrapping. 

Automatic coin counting and wrapping machine. 
Device for closing filled bags. 

x KK Kk * 

The next step is to examine the actual patents and patent 
applications, copies of which may be purchased from the 
Patent Office in Washington, inspected in our patent libraries 
at our Chicago, New York or Washington offices, or at any of 
the 17 depository public libraries receiving copies of United 
States patents. Members of our staff at these offices will be 
glad to be of assistance to you in examination of our patent 

Incidentally we have made available printed specifications 
of vested pending patent applications, which are obtained in 
the same manner and for the same price as copies of patents. 
They represent the latest inventions of our enemies and the 
countries dominated by them. This is the first time that 
printed specifications of a large number of pending United 
States patent applications have ever been made available to 
the public. 

Once you have selected a patent, follow the simple instruc- 
tions for obtaining a license as shown in our catalog. A li- 


cense application fee of $15 is charged for each patent, pay. 
able at the time of filing the application. 

It is a challenge to American industry to put these vested 
patents to active use. Failure to use them must not delay our 
war production or conversion to peace-time pursuits. The 
Custodian’s office stands ready to help you use these patents 
to their fullest extent. 

CHAIRMAN KIMBALL: In order to save time and in order to 
direct the questions which we would like to put to Mr. North, 
I have asked the assistance of a very good friend of mine, Mr. 
W. Brown Morton, a partner in Penny, Davis, Marvin & 
Edwards, and who is also my patent attorney. Mr. Morton 
will direct questions which are pertinent to this problem to 
Mr. North and will lead our discussion. 

Mr. Morton: I would like to ask Mr. North first: is 
there any procedure by which a license can be obtained under 
the patents which are owned by corporations in this country 
which have been taken over by the Alien Property Custodian? 

Mr. Nortu: Yes, a certain number of them. Generally 
speaking, we have not vested the patents owned :by corpora- 
tions which we have taken over. We are operating those 
corporations as going concerns and their patents, accord- 
ingly, are worth money. We hope they are. But under the 
general broad policies laid down by the Custodian, those 
patents which they are not interested in exploiting them- 
selves are being laid over to non-exclusive license on royalty- 
bearing terms. One company already has published a list of 
patents that they are willing to license. I refer to the Schill- 
ing Corporation, which is a chemical company. The largest 
company which we have vested, the General Aniline and 
Chemical Corp., which purchased about five thousand pat- 
ents in 1940 from the German I.G. and G.A.F., is now in the 
process of evaluating those patents to determine which ones 
they want to exploit themselves and which ones they will be 
willing to license. 

Mr. Morton: Will those lists be published? 

Mr. Nort: The Schilling Corporation published their 
list and sent it, I believe, to the Patent Bar Association. I 
assume other companies will do likewise. 

Mr. Morton: Is there any procedure by which an ex- 
clusive license can be obtained under any of the enemy patents 
which you have seized if the proposed licensee is contemplating 
making a substantial investment in going ahead under the 
seized patent? 

Mr. Nortu: So far, the answer is no. We have had re- 
quests for exclusive licenses, but it has been our experience 
to date that either they finally have been willing to take non- 
exclusive licenses or others have come forward and taken non- 
exclusive licenses. There might be certain conditions under 
which we would consider limited exclusive licenses. In the 
case of a war item, we will say, where the applicant cannot 
very well see his way to recouping the development cost (this 
is entirely in the talk stage now) we might consider not 
granting an additional license until the original licensee has 
absorbed the development cost. Or, another alternative 
would be that any additional licensees would share in this 

development cost until such time as the development costs 
are absorbed. Each case will have to be decided on its merits. 

Mr. Morton: And no case of that kind has actually come 
up as yet? 

Mr. NortH: No. 

Mr. Morton: I wish you would tell us, Mr. North, some- 
thing about the obligation that the licensee assumes under the 
licenses (the standard form) which are already issued. 

Mr. Nortu: Do you refer to the reporting requirements? 









r to 
1 & 
1 to 


- of 


Mr. Morton: That, and any other obligations they may 
assume. ; 

Mr. NORTH: The reporting requirements are very simple, 
and are not onerous. A licensee is asked to report annually 
on his production under a patent. He may not have produced 
at all; in which case all he has to say is ‘‘No production.”’ 
Some companies have taken out patents merely to safeguard 
their patent position. Then he is also asked to report whether 
he is conducting research. 

Mr. Morton: Is anything being done to abstract the 
subject matter of patents so that the prospective licensee can 
get a better idea of the patents than merely from the titles? 

Mr. NortH: Yes. Iam glad to say that is being done for 
the chemical and process industry patents, which total nearly 
8,000. The Chicago section of the American Chemical So- 
ciety has volunteered to do this work and has appointed a 
committee of nearly 250 men to make these abstracts. They 
have compieted their job and these abstracts are now in the 
process of being edited, indexed and grouped according to 
fields of interest. 

Beginning in January, we hope the first of the new volumes 
will come out and that the job will be completed in February. 
There will be a total of 31 or 32 volumes, each with about 
900 abstracts. or an average of 150 words each. This will 
serve as a very useful short-cut tool in the searches for inven- 
tions in particular fields. 

Now, on the non-chemical patents, we are discussing the 
desirability of reproducing in printed form the drawing and 
the claim which is contained in the Official Gazette of the 
United States Patent Office. That will be the work of some 
36 volumes and we are now sending out a letter to see how 
much demand there might be for such a work. 

xk kK Kw * 

Mr. Morton: Please tell us the advantages of taking out 
the non-exclusive license which you are now offering, over 
just going ahead and using the subject matter of the seized 
patent without that formality. 

Mr. Nort: That is a question that is most frequently 
asked, probably. In the first place, the license fee is only 
$15. It is true that a company will hesitate to operate under 
one of these patents, non-exclusively licensed, if it had to 
make a large investment in plant and equipment. But do 
not forget that any improvements he may work out belong 
to him and not to any licensee, and that should be a great 
incentive to obtain one of our licenses. Furthermore, most 
patents are improving patents, anyway, and a great many of 
the enemy patents certainly are subject to improvements by 
Yankee ingenuity. 

CHAIRMAN KIMBALL: There were some questions handed 
in, of which this is one: ‘‘Will the seized Italian patents be 

Mr. NortH: So far as we know, there will be no change 
in our treatment of Italian patents. 

CHAIRMAN KIMBALL: Another question: ‘‘What incentive 
is there for a manufacturer to secure a license from the Alien 
Property Custodian and make a substantial investment of 
plant and equipment if the license can be revoked at some 
future time?’ 

Mr. Nortu: In the first place, the Government does not 
license any of its property in perpetuity, a position for which 
ample legal precedents can be cited. For instance, a railroad 
may want to put a bridge over a river; but the Government 

does not give trem perpetual right to maintain that bridge. 
It may be necessary, in the national interest, to remove or 
change that bridge some day. But a patent has only a life of 
17 years. So we are now discussing the possibility of offering 
an irrevocable license, except for cause, which would have the 
life of the patent only, and it is possible we may be able to 
get around that Government ruling. 

I have had it told me that one reason for that revocation 
clause is for use as a bargaining point at the peace table. I 
can truthfully say this: that I have inquired about that and 
I have never found any hint that such was the purpose in 
back of this controversial clause. 

x *kKKK * 

CHAIRMAN KIMBALL: Brown Morton asked you this 
question and for purposes of the record I will read it: ‘In- 
stead of obtaining a license on a seized patent, what is to pre- 
vent a manufacturer from utilizing the disclosures in the 
patent without a license?” 

Mr. Nortu: I don’t think I fully answered that. In the 
first place, the taking out of a license shows the licensee that 
the Alien Property Custodian, through the Department of 
Justice, will defend him against any damage suits or infringe- 
ment suit by the Alien Property Custodian, and possibly a 
damage or infringement suit brought against him by the 
former alien owner. 

CHAIRMAN KimBALL: I wonder if this question is not 
asked a good many times: ‘What incentive is there to ob- 
tain a non-exclusive license if competitors can also obtain the 
same license ?”’ 

Mr. Nortu: I have already answered that but I might 
add another point: that exclusive licenses tend to channelize 
research. The Custodian wants the widest possible use made 
of these patents. Furthermore, an invention may have ap- 
plications in another not readily discernible field. So that 
we want as much as possible, to use the technique of one in- 
dustry in other industries. 

CHAIRMAN KimBALL: Are there any questions from the 

Mr. REBNER, Hotel Research Laboratories: Will the 
Custodian defend actions in infringement suits also when 
brought in foreign countries, in connection with export busi- 

Mr. NortH: No, I assume not, since the United States 
patent offers protection only in the United States, not in 
foreign countries. 

Mr. Norpguist, American Type Founders: Did I under- 
stand that if you took a license, you would not be subject 
to any suits for infringement after the war was over, by 
the original holder of the patent, in the event something like 
that came to pass? 

Mr. Nort: I would not say that. The Custodian will 
undertake to defend the license. 

Mr. Norpouist: The Alien Property Custodian will de- 
fend any suits, then? 

Mr. NortH: Yes. 

Mr. JoHNSON: Who pays the damages growing out of 
such a suit? 

Mr. Nortu: The Alien Property Custodian. 

CHAIRMAN KimBaLL: If there is no further business to 
come before us during this session I will declare the meeting 

(Adjournment was thereupon taken at 4:30 P. M.) 

DECEMBER °* 1943 


by R. L. Van Boskirk 

@ L-232 Amended—Amendment to Limi- 
tation Order L-232 issued November 10, 
1943, by the WPB Containers Division 
postpones until January 1, 1944, the pro- 
hibition against the packing of fresh vege- 
tables in new wooden shipping containers 
to permit growers to use this type of con- 
tainer for shipping fresh vegetables which 
will be picked during the balance of the 
year. Shippers of the vegetables added 
to the prohibited list by another amend- 
ment to L-232 issued October 25 may for 
a period of 60 days use any new wooden 
shipping containers that were in inventory 
or in transit on October 25, 1943, the 
amendment says. 

In addition, the newer amendment es- 
tablishes restrictions as to the use of 
wooden shipping containers on a quarterly 
rather than a yearly basis. 

The lumber required for boxing and 
crating currently represents about 40 per 
cent of total lumber production. Be- 
cause of the critical supply situation on 
lumber, veneer and plywood, which are 
used in the manufacture of wooden con- 
tainers, the Containers Division has had 
to take drastic steps to make sure that 
expanding military requirements are met. 
The amendment issued on October 25 
was designed to save annually approxi- 
mately 170,000,000 board feet of wood that 
otherwise would be used for containers. 

This amendment prohibited the use of 
wooden containers for the shipment of a 
large number of products which can be 
shipped satisfactorily in other types of 
containers which are not so critical as 
wood. These include certain building ma- 
terials, a number of food items, some 
fresh vegetables and a number of other 
miscellaneous products. The order per- 
mitted wooden containers to a limited 
extent for a number of items which cannot 
be satisfactorily shipped in other type 
containers. These items, shipments of 
which are restricted by quotas based on a 
percentage of 1942 shipments, are the fol- 
lowing fruits and vegetables: radishes 
and cucumbers, 50 per cent; cantaloupes 
and melons, cauliflower, celery and lettuce, 
80 per cent. Carrot shipments may be 
made at 100 per cent of the 1942 figure. 
Miscellaneous products such as _ books, 
carpets, clothing, glass tableware and 
kitchenware, and linoleum and rugs are 
given an 80 per cent quota. Animal 


proprietary drug remedies and furniture 
other than for outdoor and garden use are 
given a 65 per cent wooden box quota. 

@ Paper and Paperboard Production 
Reserves—Conservation Order M-241 has 
been amended by WPB to revise the 
industry’s production reserve of paper and 
paperboard tonnage, particularly as it 
affects filling Governmental orders and to 
simplify and clarify paper and paperboard 

Reserve production requirements were 
changed to permit WPB to direct delivery 
of as much as 10 per cent of a paper mill’s 
production in any month. The new 
amendment makes it possible in the future 
to modify the percentage as a whole or by 
paper grades or grade groups and thus 
makes the reserve production only as large 
as is needed to meet war needs. Any 
paper or paperboard manufacturer who 
voluntarily schedules a recognized govern- 
mental order and reports it to WPB on 
the form indicated will receive credit 
against his reserve or withheld production. 

The amendment also provides that 
paper -and paperboard inventories are 
limited in total rather than by grades as 
in the past. Manufacturers of folding 
and set-up boxes and paper shipping sacks 
may carry a 60-day total inventory. 

@ No Lipsticks in Steel Cases—Rumors 
that steel may be released for lipstick 
cases and vanities are without foundation. 
An amendment to Conservation Order 
M-126 (Iron and Steel) would be necessary 
to release steel for this purpose and no 
such amendment is being considered at the 
present time. According to a WPB 
official, a hardship appeal might release 
a small amount of steel for lipsticks and 
vanities. The only other possibility, how- 
ever, would arise if some one had frozen 
blackplate or carbon steel that couldn’t 
be used for more essential purposes and 
then found a processer in a non-critical 
area. This possibility is still remote. 

@ Glass Container Order Revised—An 
amendment to Supplementary Order 

L-103-b issued November 1 by the Con- 
tainers Division of WPB makes minor 
revisions of new glass container quotas. 

The expiration date of the Order L-103-b 
has been extended to December 31, 1943, 

by which time it is expected a permanent 
order covering glass containers can be 
issued. Adjustments in methods of com- 
puting quotas have been made to adapt 
them to the new 6-month quota period 
(July 1-December 31, 1948) instead of 
the old 4-month period (July 1—October 
31, 1948). In addition to regular quotas, 
a commercial user may borrow during the 
month of December, 1943, an additional 
1/, of his quota, not to be used prior to 
January 1, 1944. As amended, the order 
now controls only glass containers of less 
than 2-gal. capacity instead of the former 
5-gal. limit. 

The maximum exemption figure for 
small users of glass containers has been 
raised from $1,000 to $1,500 worth of 
empty new containers during the 6-month 
period ending December 31, 1943. 

Quotas of glass containers authorized 
for packing coffee have been maintained 
at 75 per cent with adjustments to allow 
increased acceptance during the winter 

The filing of a one-time certificate when 
purchases of new glass containers are made 
is now required. The purchaser must 
state that he is familiar with supplemen- 
tary Order L-103-b and that he will not 
accept containers in violation of the order. 

@ Restrictions of Tinplate, Terneplate 
and Tin Mill Blackplate Clarified—Sup- 
plementary Order M-21-e, as amended, 
was issued by WPB November 9, 1943, 
to clarify restrictions on tinplate, terne 
plate and tin mill blackplate. Under 
the order it is permissible to recoat mate- 
rial in a number of applications and thus 
salvage misprinted or rusty material. 
Minimum practicable coatings in excess 
of 1.25 lbs. per base box for hot dipped tin 
plates, in gauges heavier than 112 pounds 
per base box, are permitted. 

Tin- or terneplate coated with less tin 
than specified in Schedule A for any per- 
mitted use is specifically allowed in the 
amended order. The provision restrict- 
ing use of tin to the quarterly quota as- 
signed by WPB is removed. Since pro- 
duction is now restricted by production 
directives, this provision was unnecessary. 

@ L-83 Amended—Amendment to L-83 
(Industrial Machinery) issued November 
4, 1943, permits the renewal of leases of 

Well, the can does look familiar! 
But the product isn’t... unless 
you re versed in the culinary art! 

It's a Crown fabricated type beer 
can all right! But this time it con- 
tains Tournade’s Kitchen Bouquet 
especially packed for the use of our 
overseas forces. 

This concentrated sauce has long 
been popular with army cooks as 
well as with civilian chefs for flavor- 
ing and enriching gravies, stews and 
soups... so Crown was called upon 

to furnish a container that would 
assure its safe transportation to 
kitchens set up in the combat zones. 

So the Crown fabricated type beer 
can took on the job... not in its 
regular line of duty .. . but ina 
special wartime capacity... another 
demonstration of Crown's ingenuity 
in meeting military demands! 

York e Philadelphia. Division of 
Crown Cork and Seal Company, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Crown Cr 


* “tients, Onions, 
Tay, turnips, parsley, 
bait Road sugar, oS 





DECEMBER ®* 1943 

any kind of packaging or labeling machin- 
ery without application to WPB for ap- 
proval or for new ratings, if the original 
lease or any prior renewal has been ap- 
proved under this Limitation Order and 
the machinery is still being used for the 
purpose approved. This amendment ap- 
plies to certain types of packaging and 
labeling equipment used for can closing 
which are customarily leased rather than 
sold outright. 

Packaging and labeling machinery which 
is sold outright is covered by General 
Limitation Order L-83 only on an order 
for a single machine of a value in excess 
of $200. 

@ WPB Establishes Quotas for Canning 
Machinery—WPB has announced quotas 
establishing the quantities of more than 
150 specified types of canning machinery 
and equipment that may be manufactured 
during the year beginning October 1, 
1943, through issuance of Schedule III of 
Crder L-292 (Food Processing Machinery). 
Prior to the issuance of this schedule, 
production of canning machinery was 
limited to 50 per cent of the annual aver- 
age number of units produced during 

WPB may increase or decrease any 
quota or transfer any portion of it from 
one manufacturer to others, should there 
be need to do so. 

@ Recent Changes in M-81—Conserva- 
tion Order M-81 (Containers) as amended 
by WPB October 23, 1943, removes limi- 
tations on the pack of grapefruit juice for 
the 1943-44 season and limits packs for 
other citrus products to the quantities to 
be set aside for governmental agencies 
under Food Distribution Order No. 22. 
The order as amended permits the use of 
No. 2 cans for packing spinach and other 
green leafy vegetables, increases packing 
quotas for paints from 55 per cent to 65 
per cent of the 1942 pack, increases the 
packing quota for printing inks by 10 per 
cent and reinstates shoe polish in the order 
with the 1943 packing quota fixed at 100 
per cent of 1942. 

@ Specialty Paperboard Industry Ad- 
visory Committee Appointed—Twelve 
business men representing the various 
segments of the specialty paperboard in- 
dustry have been appointed to an industry 
advisory committee by OPA to advise and 
consult with OPA on problems affecting 
the specialty paperboard group of manu- 
facturers who are subject to Appendix C 
of Revised Price Schedule No. 32 (Paper- 
board Sold East of the Rocky Mountains). 

Members of the Committee are: Ken- 
dall Wyman, Champion Paper & Fibre 
Co., Hamilton, Ohio; A. K. Nicholson, 
Hollingsworth & Vose Co., East Walpole, 
Mass.; Joseph Auchter, Cherry River 
Paper Co., Camden, N. J.; T. Stewart 
Foster, Foster Paper Co., Inc., Utica, 


N. Y.; C. A. Goodrich, Case Brothers, 
Inc., Manchester, Conn.; Cecil M. Pike, 
Spaulding Fibre Co., North Rochester, 
N. H.; W. S. Gamble, Brownville Board 
Co., Brownville, N. Y.; F. Henry Savage, 
International Paper Co., New York City; 
Malcolm B. Lowe, Lowe Paper Co., 
Ridgefield, N. J.; J. B. Cowie, Hollings- 
worth & Whitney Co., Boston, Mass.; 
John A. Dodd, The Davey Co., Jersey 
City, N. J.; Walter B. Sheehan, Missis- 
quoi Corp., Sheldon Springs, Vt. 

@ L-317 Interpreted—The following inter- 
pretation has been issued with respect to 
Limitation Order L-317 which limits the 
manufacture and use of fibre containers. 

The restrictions of L-317 are applicable 
only to new fibre shipping containers. 
A question has arisen about the status of 
such containers which have been rejected 
during the course of manufacture or upon 
delivery because of errors in size, printing, 
etc. Such containers are new containers 
and subject to the restrictions contained in 
the order until they have been used for the 
packing of a product. 

@ Wet-Strength Paper Markings Re- 
quired—Limitation Order L-279 (Paper 
Shipping Sacks) has been amended and 
clarified to make it more practicable and 
workable in view of the present paper 
shortage, according to J. F. Zeller, Chief 
of the Paper and Textile Bag Section of 
WPB Containers Division. 

Wet strength paper markings have been 
defined in order to identify this type of 
paper and aid in sorting papers in salvage 
work. After December 1, 1943 all wet- 
strength paper used in the manufacture of 
single wall, duplex and multiwall paper 
shipping sacks must be distinctly colored, 
stained or printed or marked with longi- 
tudinal stripes. No other grade of paper 
used in the manufacture of such shipping 
sacks may be so marked. 

@ Stocks of Cork—Stocks of cork in the 
United States are more than sufficient to 
meet current requirements; therefore it 
is felt that a portion of government stocks 
should be liquidated through industry 
channels. This situation was revealed at 
a recent meeting of the Cork Industry 
Advisory Committee, when a program, 
which may forecast methods employed in 
the liquidation of other war inventories, 
was developed. 

@ Paperboard Ceilings Increased— 
Amendment 7 to RPS 32 (Paperboard 
Sold East of the Rocky Mountains) was 
issued October 29, 1943, by OPA as part of 
a joint program with WPB to encourage 
the production of the lower-priced grades 
of paperboard made primarily from waste- 
paper. Paperboard ceilings at the manu- 
facturer’s level have been increased on 
nine different items for a limited period. 
By limitation and allocation orders, WPB 
also will facilitate a shift in production to 
lower-priced grades. 

The increases became effective No- 
vember 4, 1943, and will remain in effect 
through January 14, 1944. The following. 
day the former ceilings will again apply 
unless OPA orders otherwise. 

Another move to increase supplies for 
the manufacture of paper boxes, boards 
and other critically needed shipping mate- 
rials is the three-point attack, designed to 
break a serious black market in waste- 
paper, which has been outlined jointly 
by C. E. Wilson, Acting Chairman of 
WPB, and Chester Bowles, General 
Manager of OPA. 

Key points of the joint program: (1) 
OPA ceiling prices on wastepaper will 
remain unchanged. Dealers and sup- 
pliers cannot benefit by holding off sup- 
plies awaiting higher prices. (2) Special 
OPA investigators have been assigned in 
the drive against any wastepaper handlers 
who violate wartime price ceilings. Simul- 
taneously, WPB is considering directives 
or other controls on the distribution of 
wastepaper to help wipe out the black 
market by channeling wastepaper into 
areas where the need isthe greatest. (3) A 

paper salvage campaign is being under- 
taken by WPB. 

@ Paper from Bananas in Palestine— 
According to the Department of Com- 
merce, a new mill in Palestine is manu- 
facturing a common paperboard from 
cotton waste, pulp from banana and orange 
peels and leaves of banana trees. A second 
new mill is producing wrapping paper 
from the papyrus plant and a “brown 
leather board” from leather clippings. 

@ New Prices for Staves, Headings and 
Barrels—MPR 481 (Knife-cut Slack 
Staves, Slack Heading and Slack Cooper- 
age) has been issued by OPA to provide 
a schedule of new prices for knife-cut slack 
barrel staves, heading and finished slack 
barrels. Because of increased production 
costs, the new ceilings are approximately 
15 to 20 per cent higher than those pre- 
viously provided by the GMPR under 
which the items were priced. The new 
ceilings are retroactive to April 10, 1948. 
The industry since that date has been 
operating on an open billing basis, pend- 
ing issuance of the present regulation. 

@ Production of Zein Increased—During 
the six months that zein has been under 
allocation, production has been more than 
doubled, and further increases are anti- 
cipated soon. Zein is an alcohol-soluble 
protein obtained as a by-product of corn- 
starch manufacture and raw material for 
its production is available in very large 
quantities. As a shellac substitute in 
commercial use it is combined with other 
resinous materials and each pound re 
places two or three pounds of shellac. 
Some experiments have indicated that 
for certain uses this substitute is superior 
to natural shellac. 

Tight Wrapper—Glues entire inside surface of 
wrapper to insure strong, sift-proof, insect-proof 

y package. Other machines for handling waxed- 

if one-side wrappers, 










es Single Head Capper—one of several differ 

of models designed to handle even the most de’ 

: caps without breakage or scratching. 

P . 

f- : 


u- Hi-Speed Duplex 

om eral other mor’ 

ge 4 boxes and jarr 

nd - 

yer - 

wo OU 




de More than eighty major packaging and bot- 

ck tling machines back up Pneumatic’s continued 

ick assertion of “‘lower cost per container.’’ Take 

oe the leading manufacturers of packaged goods 

Pt in the food field for example. There, a wide 

der variety of Pneumatic equipment is daily deliver- 

“4 ing packaged foods with speed, smoothness, 

° . . 

as and dependability. 

. ; Today, in designing and building machines 
for producing ordnance, Pneumatic engineers 

ing Oy have discovered important new facts about 
* , E ; 

der fF design and method. This means that after the 

- : war Pneumatic Packaging and Bottling Ma- 

nti- ; : : : 

ble fy chines will be even better equipped to lower the 

n-  f cost per container. 

for FF , 

ge As in peace times, we continue to advise with 

in ' ‘authority on adapting packaging equipment to 







your particular needs—engineering the machine 
and suiting it to the product in question. 

We are now under the pressure of delivering 
essential war goods. Nevertheless, we have 
made provision in our production schedule to 
continue to give your orders for essential new 
equipment and parts the prompt and careful 
attention they deserve. 

Pneumatic Scale Corporation, Ltd., 71 New- 
port Avenue, North Quincy, Mass. Branch 
Offices: New York, Chicago, San Francisco, 
Los Angeles. 



DECEMBER * 1943 

YU. 8. patent digest 

This digest includes each month the more important patents which are of 

interest to those who are concerned with packaging materials. 

Copies of pat- 

ents are available from the U. S. Patent Office, Washington, at ten cents each 
in currency, money order or certified check; postage stamps are not accepted. 

ENVELOPE. P. E. Georgiou, Salt Lake 
City, Utah. U. S. 2,330,045, Sept. 21. 
An envelope of symmetrical shape com- 
prising a front portion, a sealing flap 
along the upper edge, and narrow front 
flaps of equal area extending away and 
along substantially the full length of the 
opposite lateral edges of front portion. 

CONTAINER. J.C. van Cleaf (to Gay- 
lord Container Corp., St. Louis, Mo.). 
U. S. 2,330,093, Sept. 21. A carton with 
a tray member and a cover member 
telescoped over said tray member. 

(to Precious Metals Research Works, 
Inc., New York, N. Y.). U.S. 2,330,117, 
Sept. 21. A box of folded material, and 
adapted to rotatively support a roll of 
foil, paper or the like mounted upon a 
cylindrical shaft, which shaft extends 
beyond each end of the roll. 

PAPER BALER. T. E. Wykes, Grand 
Rapids, Mich. U. S. 2,330,165, Sept. 21. 
A construction including a carton having 
a bottom, vertical sides, upper end closing 
flaps adapted to extend vertically from 
the sides of the carton, said carton being 
adapted to receive material to be com- 
pressed therein. 

ins (to Molins Machine Co., Ltd., Dept- 
ford, London, England). U. S. 2,330,000, 
Sept. 21. A combined cigarette-making 
and packing machine, comprising in com- 
bination a cigarette-making unit and a 

and C. E. Scarcrist, Alliance, Ohio. U. 
S. 2,329,689, Sept. 21. A_ receptacle 
having a cap with a delivery opening, an 
ejector movable toward and from the open- 
ing, and mechanism operable from the 
top of the cap for shifting said ejector. 

SEMICARTON. J. F. Ames, Selma, 
Alabama. U. S. 2,330,255, Sept. 28. <A 
bellows-type bag having integral bottom, 
front, rear and side portions with bottom 
portion lying in a flat plane, and other 
portions extending vertically. 

PACKAGE. §S. I. Darrow (to Beech- 
Nut Packing Co., Canajohari, N. Y.). 
U. S. 2,330,691, Sept. 28. A package 


having a wrapper that is wrapped about 
the longitudinal surface of the package 
with its edge portions overlapping and 
its ends folded over the ends of the pack- 

and J. J. Wodal, West Collingswood, 
N. J. U. S. 2,330,772, Sept. 28. A 
cigarette package rectangular in form of 
two-ply material, one of said plies being a 
straight continuous line of perforations 
adjacent and paralleling one of the longer 
edges of said blank, and provided with a 
pull tab. 

THEREFOR. C. A. Biggs, Burlington, 
Ontario, Canada. U. S. 2,330,262, Sept. 
28. A box lining blank formed of a single 
piece of cardboard or similar material 
scored to form a bottom, sides, corner 
pieces between adjacent sides. 

CONTAINER. J. P. H. Leavitt and 
E. W. Wells (to Container Corp. of 
America, Chicago, IIll.). U.S. 2,330,294, 
Sept. 28. A container formed of flexible 
sheet material having four interconnected 
side walls, adapted to be collapsed to a 
flat condition. 

PACKAGE. C. I. Elliot (to Radio Corp. 
of America, a corporation of Delaware). 
U. S. 2,330,345, Sept. 28. A one-piece 
tray made of foldable sheet material and 
comprising a rectangular support plat- 
form having an odd number and at least 
three rows of holes parallel to the sides of 
said platform. 

CARTON. C. I. Elliot (to Radio Corp. 
of America). U. S. 2,330,346, Sept. 28. 
A container for fragile articles comprising 
an outer tubular box, an inner article- 
supporting cradle comprising two pairs of 
flat, thin straps of a width less than the 
depth of said box. 

(to Radio Corp. of America). U. S. 
2,330,347, Sept. 28. A container of 
paperboard for packing fragile articles 
comprising a rectangular outer container. 

PACKAGE. C. I. Elliot (to Radio Corp. 
of America). U. S. 2,330,348, Sept. 28. 
A package comprising an inner container 
having four rectangular side panels, an 
outer container having four rectangular 

side panels, said containers having end | 
flaps, and means for resiliently but firmly 
spacing the inner container from the 
sides and ends of the outer container. 

Atterbury (to Atlantic Carton Corp, | 
Norwich, Conn.). U.S. 2,330,464, Sept, 
28. A dispensing receptacle with side, 
end and bottom wall members forming a 
receptacle and upper, outer and inner 
secured together, end members closing 
said receptable, the inner member having 
a trapezoidal-shaped opening with a rear 
end adjacent to the rear side of the re- 
ceptacle, and equipped with a spout form- 
ing member. 

THE LIKE. H. C. Pomeranz, New 
York, N. Y. U. S. 2,330,619, Sept. 28. 
A combined cover and mailing wrapper 
for a magazine book, and the like of a 
readily foldable material. 

B. Berkowitz (to Berkowitz Envelope Co., 
Kansas City, Mo.). U. S. 2,330,666, 
Sept. 28. A  quick-opening envelope 
formed of fibrous material including a 
body portion and a seal flap portion. 

Howard (to Pneumatic Scale Co., Ltd., 
Quincy, Mass.). U. S. 2,330,361, Sept. 
28. Method of making individual filled 
bags; steps comprise forming bag, filling 
and sealing on one apparatus. 

Parker, Cleveland Heights, Ohio. U. S. 
2,330,616, Sept. 28. Apparatus for filling 
a substantially airtight container having 
an opening through which liquid may be 

MACHINES. W. Hoppe (to National 
Bread Wrapping Machine Co., Spring- 
field, Mass.). U. S. 2,330,715, Sept. 28. 
A wrapping machine having a carrier 
movable between loading and discharge 

Pierce, Winthrop, Mass. U. S. 2,330,311, 
Sept. 28. Producing collapsible contain- 
ers by making a bag in the form, and 
having the characteristics, of a conven- 
tional paper bag. 

BAG. S. P. Cerf and E.W. Cerf, Uni- 
versity City, Mo. U.S. 2,331,536, Oct. 12. 
Means for restoring to an initial datum 
capacity a used bag composed of walls of 
paper or the like. 

And the Season's Greetings to all you people who sent me your excess bottles and bottle 
caps. You certainly made possible a (Merry Chrichuns to « good many people whose busi- 
nesses depended on filling bottles, and who had no means of obtaining any except hien people 
like you with excess merchandise to dispose od. You also made it a very (Merry Christmas 
to many sick people who went to hospitals to get medicine through the dispensaries. Chese 
dispensaries were also caught short on bottles, and you helped relieve the shortage. Let us 
‘ aliatin making people happy this coming year by disposing of 3 your excess merchandise in 
this manner. « (We will continue to buy any odd; discontinued or obsolete bottles or 
bottle caps, ie metal or balelite, plain or lithographed, regardless of size or 
quantities. Gr fuck, any kind Jd containers, including paper or metal cans, compacts and 
lipsticks. * Let us know what you have to dispose of and we shall contact you immediately. 

Glass Containee & Cap Outlet Co. 

14 &ast 17th Stecet + New York, MN. YY, 



The sales department of H. G. Hanline Co., Philadelphia, has 
developed a box corner stencil which is said to save two-thirds 
in man-power time. The stencil is of 16-gauge steel, 2 in. wide 
and is made to stencil a distance of 5 in. in each of three direc- 
tions from the corner of a packing case. It is equipped with a 
handle and weighs 11/, lbs. 


The Grasselli chemicals department of E. I. du Pont de Nemours 
& Co., Inc., has introduced a weatherproof adhesive (Dupont 77) 
for use in the production of V-1, V-2 and V-3 weatherproof board. 
(See pages 100-104.) The product is sold as a dry powder in 
50-lb. paper bags and is said to require only simple mixing equip- 
ment to produce stable solutions ready for use. The Grasselli 
chemicals department is offering technical assistance to fibre-box 
producers in adapting its new adhesive to their ‘‘V”’ box pro- 
duction problems. 


An asphalt-testing department for determining the suitability 
of various grades of asphalt used in the manufacture of weather- 
proof boxes has been installed by Container Testing Labora- 
tories, Inc., New York. 

This new department was prompted by the order requiring the 
use of asphalt in the manufacture of V-boxes. This confronted 
many box makers with the problem of working with a material 
with whose properties they are unfamiliar. Quality of asphalt 
has been found to vary considerably from shipment to shipment. 
Such variations often require changes in the operation of the 
combiner or laminator. For example, a change in viscosity is 
said to require a corresponding change in running temperature 
in order to keep the same spread. 

Because few boxmakers are equipped to make their own 
control tests, the Container Testing Laboratories have provided 
an independent agency for testing several of the more important 
properties of asphalt, including penetration at various tempera- 


tures, flash point, fire point, Furol viscosity, solubility and 
softening point and other factors involving asphalt. 

Angier Corp., Framingham, Mass. announces a new oil-impreg- 
nated crepe wrap for wrapping metal parts. The paper is said 
to be flexible enough to conform to protruding parts of odd- 



shaped articles without puncturing or tearing and to be shock 


Union Special Machine Co., Chicago, announced a new column 
type bag closer that accommodates all types of this company’s 
sewing heads. Depending on the sewing head used the closer 
produces (1) bound-over tape closure for all sizes of multiwall 
bags, (2) straight-sewed closures for all sizes of cloth or paper 
bags, (3) double-tape sewed closures for paper bags up to 10 lbs. 
It is available in either the single-thread chain stitch type for 
easy raveling or the two-thread, double-locked stitch type for 
extra strong closures. 


The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. has announced the develop- 
ment of a new synthetic rubber conveyor belt which they claim 
compares favorably with prewar high quality belts. According 
to W. C. Winings, manager of Goodyear’s mechanical goods 
division, the new belt not only matches its predecessor in flex 
life, aging and resistance to abrasion, and cutting but it also 
resists oil and high temperatures. 


George A. Mohlman, president of the Packaging Machinery Co. 
foresees a great replacement demand for wrapping machines in 
the postwar era. ‘‘The majority of machines now in operation, 
even if they do not need replacement, will at least need com- 
plete overhauling,’ he said. ‘‘With proper care the average life 
of a packaging machine is 10 to 15 years. Some have been run- 
ning for 30 years and most have received only about 10 per cent 
of normal maintenance.” 


A new liquid chemical to dissolve glue on sealing tape has been 
announced by Seal, Inc., Shelton, Conn. The company claims 
that the liquid will cut sealing time in half. It dissolves the 
glue on the tape in the few moments it takes the tape to pass 
from the machine to the carton. The shipping clerk merely 
has to place the tape on the carton. 


The Jessop Steel Co. of Washington, Pa., have just published a 
new booklet on stainless steel which they claim to be of special 
interest te fabricators contemplating the use of composite metal. 
There are sections on deep drawing, grinding, polishing, cleaning, 
gas-cutting, riveting, soldering, welding, etc. Copies are avail- 
able on request to the company. 

ADDENDUM-—In the November issue, the small printing press 
illustrated in Fig. 7, Page 84, is manufactured by the Markem 
Machine Co., Keene, N. H. 

"THERE is no such thing as a market that favors either buyer 

or seller exclusively favors both or none. 

in When the buying end of business cannot get raw materials, 

- manpower, containers, or whatever is necessary for the produc- 

fe tion of finished goods, the selling end cannot make shipments 
= to customers on schedule. 

It takes both buyers and sellers to make a business, and teamwork 

to make a success of it. So...let’s not delude our- 

i selves that these difficult times are a paradise for 

the Mote 0 Wr so-called “sellers.” We are all confronted with iden- 

Uo tical problems and we will have to work them out 

A arene together. Together, we can work them out best. 



DECEMBER ®* 1943 

Plants and People 

Herbert H. Leonard, long identified 
with packaging machinery activities 
and now president of the Consoli- 
dated Packaging Machinery Co., has 
been elected to the presidency of the 
American Machine & Foundry Co., 
New York. He says this is not to be 
interpreted that he is leaving the 
packaging field, which means much 
to him. Later, an announcement 
will be made regarding his affiliation 
with the Consolidated Packaging 
Machinery Co. and the official personnel of that company. Mr. 
Leonard was president of the Packaging Machinery Manufac- 
turers Institute for a number of years. 

H. H. Leonard 

King Pedlar, advertising manager of Einson-Freeman Co., has 
left to join the U. S. Army Air Forces. He will be succeeded by 
Ben Dreyfuss. 

Gene Reichert replaces A. J. Lyons as manager of the glass and 
closure division and industrial division creative section of the 
advertising and promotion department of the Armstrong Cork 
Co. He will also continue to handle the advertising of the 
industrial division. William Lamb has been named assistant 
manager in charge of glass and closure division advertising. 

Herman R. Thies has been appointed manager of the Good- 
year Tire & Rubber Co.’s new plastics and chemical sales divi- 
sion at Akron, according to R. S. Wilson, vice-president. Robert 
D. Vickers, research and sales engineer from the company’s labo- 
ratory staff, R. S. Sanders and Eileen Marshall will also be 
members of the new division. 

T. R. Baxter has been appointed manager of packaging and the 
packaging development department of Standard Brands, Inc., 
according to an announcement made by James S. Adams, 
president. He will consult with the research, new products, 
sales, manufacturing and engineering departments on changes 
in packaging equipment or design. 

Emory J. Price is now industry manager for milling and cereal 
industries in the newly established Minneapolis branch office of 
the Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, Va. Mr. Price will co- 
operate in postwar packaging research for these industries. He 
has had many years of experience in the milling industry and 
was with the Pillsbury Flour Mills Co., Minneapolis. 

The Package Machinery Co., Springfield, Mass., was awarded the 
Army-Navy ‘‘E” on November 3 with George A. Mohlman, 
president accepting the award for more than 600 workers. 

Robertson Paper Box Co., Inc., Montville, Conn. recently received 
the Treasury Star—the highest award of the Treasury Depart- 
ment—in recognition of their employees’ attainment of the cash 
quota for the purchase of War Bonds through the Payroll De- 
duction Plan, and for investing more than 10 per cent of their 
gross earnings in War Bonds. 

The Gair Old Timers Assn., founded in 1933 in memory of Robert 
Gair by those who had worked for him or his company, Robert 
Gair Co., Inc., for a number of years, held its Eleventh Annual 
Banquet, October 23 at the Hotel New Yorker. Frank E. Fors- 
brey, assistant vice-president and general manager, Paper 
Division of the Pulp & Paper Trading Co., New York, was 


elected president of the association for 1943-1944, succeeding 
Charles F. Stocker, president of the Sweeney Lithograph Co. 

A history of the Association, together with its ideals and ob- 
jectives was published in booklet form and distributed to mem- 
bers and historical libraries. It is interesting to note that the 
founder established his business as a paper jobber only 60 days 
after the conclusion of the Civil War. 

G. A. Gustafson has been named manufacturing manager of the 
plastics divisions of General Electric’s appliance and merchandise 
department it has been announced by W. H. Milton, Jr., manager 
of the division. Mr. Gustafson’s new headquarters are at 1 
Plastics Ave., Pittsfield, Mass. The company has also ap- 
pointed F. W. Warner as assistant engineer, plastics division. 

Removals: Elmer E. Mills Corp. to 153 West Huron St., Chicago 
10, Ill. Standard-Knapp Corp.’s Chicago Office to 221 No. 
LaSalle St., Chicago 1, Ill. Pacific Fine Arts and Pacific Label 
Co. to 1231 South Main Street, Los Angeles 15, Calif. 

William H. Weintraub & Co., Inc. has been appointed by Anchor- 
Hocking Glass Corp. as its advertising agency for radio. A 
coast-to-coast program will be broadcast over Columbia network 
starting sometime in January. 

Enid Edson is the new director of 
packaging for Richard Hudnut. Mrs. 
Edson has been in the industrial 
designing field for many years, the 
last ten of which were in the cos- 
metics field. She studied at both the 
New England School of Design and 
the Rhode Island School of Design to 
prepare for her career as an industrial 
designer, particularly of packages. 

Robert S. Solinsky has resigned his : 
position as Chief of the Metal Can ne Seon 

and Tube Section, WPB, a post he has held since the early days 
of the Containers Division. Mr. Solinsky is president of Cans, 
Inc., Chicago. 

The Comstock Canning Corp., Newark, N. Y., is first food proc- 
essing company to receive the ‘“‘A’’ award, War Food Adminis- 
tration’s recognition of “achievement.” Richard E. Comistock, 
president, accepted the award for all six plants. 

Paul A. Parker, manager, corrugated carton division, Anchor 
Hocking Glass Corp., has been granted a leave of absence to 
serve as chief consultant of the Paper Board Division of the 
Office of Civilian Requirements. He assumed these new duties 
November 16. 

C. C. Van Stray, eastern sales engineer for the Cameron Machine 
Co., Brooklyn, N. Y., died at his home in West New York, N. J., 
October 14. Mr. Van Stray was known by paper mill officials all 
along the East Coast south of New York in which territory he 
represented the Cameron Machine Co. for almost 15 years. 

Louis S. Reynal, former President of The American Paper Goods 
Co., died on October 18. Mr. Reynal was the chairman of the 
board of directors up to the day of his death and he was well 
known and loved throughout the industry. 

George E. Senseney, 69, president of the Marvellum Co., 
Holyoke, Mass., died November 18 at his home in Ipswich, Mass., 
after along illness. Mr. Senseney was born in Wheeling, W. Va. 
He was known widely in the paper industry, but was also inter- 
nationally recognized as an etcher, 

The distinctive flavor of Bowey’s famous 
DARI-RICH chocolate syrup has been enjoyed 
by soda and sundae-loving Americans for al- 

most a decade. 

Bowey’s, Inc., has manufactured for nearly 
half a century a full line of high quality Choc- 
olate Products, Fruits, Fruit Syrups, Vanillas, 

Flavors, Extracts, Colors, etc. 

DARI-RICH chocolate is just one of the 
many Bowey’s products that are protected with 
Crown Screw Caps—available in a wide vari- 
ety of types and sizes for all kinds of glass 
packed products. 


World’s Largest Makers of Closures for Glass Containers 



ROWN’S WARTIME POLICY: To supply closures, containers and services for packaging foods, beverages, chemicals, etc., 

*eded by civilians and the armed forces. To build an ever-increasing volume of vitally needed weapons of war for our fighting men. 


Men with packaging experience who can qualify as 
officers are needed by the Navy in connection with a 
special program. These officers will be assigned to the 
Containers Section of various Bureaus for service at shore 
establishments. Applicants must have a college degree 
and at least three years’ experience in the packaging or 
packing field or two years of satisfactory college work and 
five years’ experience. 

The age bracket is 28 to 48 years. Applicants must meet 
Naval physical requirements and possess officer-like quali- 
ties. Applications should be made at the nearest Office of 
Naval Officer Procurement. These offices are located in 
principal cities throughout the United States. 

To fill a vital packaging job Joel Y. Lund, president of Packaging 
Institute, Inc., calls on the packaging industry in a letter to 
members as follows: 

‘‘We have been requested by the United States Army to bring 
to your attention the fact that they are establishing in the Wash- 
ington area a laboratory equipped for package testing. 

“At the present time they have not as yet decided upon a di- 
rector for this laboratory. With the realization of the tremendous 
importance of the laboratory to the industry, they have requested 
us to advise all of our membership that the position is still open, 
and that they earnestly request all of us to suggest qualified 
candidates. Their reason, very simply, is that from past experi- 
ence they know that industry wishes men in these key govern- 
mental positions to be high calibre, capable men. Through the 
medium of the Institute, they wish to call upon industry to take 
part in choosing and in finding the best man for the job.” 

WPB’s “Salvage Manual for Industry,” the first comprehensive 
manual on industrial salvage ever prepared has been completed 
by an editorial board of seven practical industrial salvage engi- 
neers and business paper editors. This 250-page book, published 
by the Technical Service Section, Salvage Division, WPB, con- 
tains instructions regarding efficient salvage methods and prac- 
tices for segregating and preparing secondary waste materials. 
WPB claims that putting the information in the manual to work 
in a well-organized salvage program will not only conserve valu- 
able war materials but also will result in more efficient plant oper- 
ations with substantial savings after the war. 

Copies are procurable for 50 cents through Superintendent of 
Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Roth F. Herrlinger, President of the Gummed Products Co., 
Troy, Ohio, was again named president of the Gummed Industries 
Assn. at the annual meeting in Cleveland. John McLaurin, 
president of the McLaurin-Jones Co., Brookfield, Mass., was 
named vice-president. Philip O. Deitsch was appointed man- 
aging director of the association and the following directors were 
chosen: E. J. Durkin, The Tanglefoot Co., Grand Rapids, 
Mich.; R.A. Maish, Dennison Mfg. Co., Framingham, Mass.; 
Wm. Mazer, Hudson Pulp & Paper Corp., New York; Irving 
McHenry, Mid-States Gummed Paper Co., Chicago; F. A. 
O’Neill, Jr., Paper Manufacturers Co., Inc., Philadelphia. 

One of the highlights of the meeting was when Herbert T. 
Holbrook of the Packaging Section of the Ordnance Department 
outlined some of the obligations to be imposed on the industry 
in the use of its new waterproof paper sealing tape. Later in the 
program Messrs. Hrubesky and Spinar of the Forest Products 
Laboratory discussed the technical obligations that will be im- 



posed upon this new product. The convention authorized its 
committee of technicians to meet with representatives of the 
Forest Products Laboratory and Dr. B. W. Scribner of the Bureau 
of Standards to perfect a tentative specification covering this 
new product. In a specially prepared paper, C. W. Boyce, 
special assistant to the director of the paper division of the WPB, 
outlined the extremely critical pulp situation and urged the in- 
dustry to continue its conspicuous record of cooperation in deal- 
ing with this particularly difficult situation. 

Thousands of British school children gave up their summer holi- 
day to work instead for the Royal Army Ordnance Corps, helping 
to pack and send vital supplies to the British armies all over the 
world. Inthe depots of the R.A.O.C. these boys and girls worked 
voluntarily and without pay counting, packing and stenciling 
stores for shipment. When they started working they were care- 
fully supervised by R.A.O.C. personnel and those in charge claim 
that the children handled thousands of tons of shipping a week. 

To cut down absenteeism, the American Can Co.’s Amertorp 
plant has designed an Employees Service Bureau. According to 
Carl G. Preis, vice-president of the company, the bureau is oper- 
ated by three-full time clerks who are war-working wives, under 
the supervision of Vincent T. Day, assistant to the industrial 
relations manager. Among the services which the bureau pro- 
vides are: handling gasoline and special mileage applications; 
purchase of new automobiles, bicycles, tires, tubes, etc., listing 
of rooms, apartments and houses; the purchase of war bonds, 
automobile licenses and tickets for social functions. 

The National Adhesives Division of National Starch Products, 
Inc., has prepared a two-color mailing piece which shows how to 
make metal drums last longer and which urges the trade to return 
empties (barrels too) promptly. Its title is ““Ever Been Beaten 
By a Drum?” 

The food processing industry, with a minimum reconversion 
problem in prospect, can look forward to an orderly readjustment 
to a peacetime economy, with probability of broadened volume 
to sustain the peak production volume attained under the war 
program. This was the general feeling expressed at war con- 
ference sessions of Grocery Manufacturers of America. Current 
postwar planning, it was said, includes provision for the introduc- 
tion of numerous new products and packages at the termination 
of hostilities. It was added that while the termination of govern- 
ment contracts will slow down operations for a brief time, the 
changeover to outright production of civilian lines will require 
only a brief transitory period. 

A new and enlarged edition of the Canned Food Reference 
Manual has just been published by the American Can Co. The 
revised edition presents the latest knowledge concerning con- 
tainers for commercially canned foods and commercial canning 
technology, together with recent phases of wartime research in 
food, it is said. Prepared and edited by member of the Canco 
research department the new handbook contains 106 illustrations, 
65 of them new and 552 pages of textual matter covering the 
story of tin can making from the Napoleonic wars to the present. 

Multiwall bags for dehydrated molasses—Due to shortage of 
tanker facilities in the Caribbean, some 275,000,000 gallons of 
molasses in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands and other West 
Indies Ports cannot be exported. This is a serious economic 
problem in the islands which are almost entirely dependent upon 
sugar product exports and also curtails to the United States a 


N the world’s far-flung battle fronts, our fighting men 

are carrying out that stirring command—“Advance!” 
Their courageous deeds are writing a glorious page in his- 
tory. And helping them to write that history—to keep 
strong in body—to combat sickness and disease—are col- 
lapsible tubes. 

These small tubes whose peacetime duties have been 
devoted largely to such products as tooth paste, shaving 

cream and powders are now doing scores of vital jobs for 
our armed forces. 

Collapsible tubes hold emergency rations... sulfa drugs... 
pyrotechnics and many other wartime products. And to 
provide them Sun Tube is busily at work. 

In addition, Sun Tubes are being used more and more for 
domestic products. Sun Tubes are sturdy and durable, per- 
fect protection against dirt and germs. They are the ideal 
containers for dozens of everyday products. 

If your product needs a container such as Sun Tube 
offers, we'll be glad to give you details. Just call or write 
our nearest office for details. 

SUN TUBE CORPORATION ---: Hillside, New Jersey 

el ley Nevoun | am 
James L. Coffield, Jr. 
360 No. Michigan Avenue 

M. P. Yates 
315 Chestnut St. (Room 125) 

Alexander Seymour 
903 Pioneer Bldg. 

R. G. F. Byington 

1260 North Western Ave. 

critical import needed for the distillation of alcohol for munitions 
and other commercial alcohol uses such as cattle feed. 

As a wartime expedient the Board of Economic Warfare has 
developed a process for dehydrating and packaging molasses, 
with the idea of making possible the movement of molasses in 
greater volume to the States. In this form, it is said, molasses 
can be shipped in freighters in 40 per cent less space than fluid 

Packaging tests of the dehydrated blocks in multiwall paper 
bags have been conducted at the University of Louisiana, Baton 
Rouge, by BEW and Union Bag and Paper Co. Experiments 
included bags of various types and number of plies subjected to 
conditions approximating those of actual handling and shipping. 
Since this, actual test shipments are being made. Results are 
expected to provide data with regard to performance and costs 
to show whether this project with the equipment, labor and 
packaging materials involved can be feasibly done. Some sugar 
people argue that it can never be done at a cost comparable with 
that of pouring the molasses into tankers at a loading point and 
syphoning it out at its port of destination. On the other hand, 
if the molasses must be moved, this may be the way, regard- 
less of cost. 

American Iron and Steel Institute has issued a 180-page manual, 
‘Packaging, Marking and Loading Methods for Steel Products 
for Overseas Shipment.’”’ The manual is the culmination of an 
intensive three-year study of methods in preparing steel products 
for overseas shipment in wartime. It contains instructions ap- 
proved by the Army, Navy and other government agencies for 
wrapping, tying, marking and loading of steel products. In 
preparing the instructions, many consultations were held with 
purchasing missions representing the British Empire, China, 
U.S.S.R., the Fighting French and others. 

Twenty-five awards for coffee, tea, spice, condiment and flavor 
containers entered in the Seventh Annual Packaging Show con- 
ducted by The Spice Mill, were announced at the National Coffee 
Assn. Convention at French Lick, Ind. 

Awards were made largely upon consumer appeal, wartime 
availability and utility. Entries this year continued to show 
marked improvement in design, informative labeling, color and 
other qualities regarded as essentials for consumer appeal. No 
single ‘‘top’”’ award was made for the entire show. Each of the 
25 blue ribbons was for outstanding merit in a particular classifi- 
cation. Consideration was also paid to the kind of performance 
in wartime markets each entry might be expected to give. 

Serving as judges for the Seventh Spice Mill Packaging Show 
were: Arthur S. Allen, designer; Agnes Adams, food editor, 
New York Post; and, Lester J. Loh, art director, J. M. Mathes, 
Inc. Following is a list of the blue ribbon winners: 

Bag—Parker House Coffee. Banker Coffee Corp. Bag by Benj. 

C. Betner Co. 

Quality Appeal (Bag)—Choisa Coffee. S. S. Pierce Co. Bag by 

Benj. C. Betner Co. 

Display Value (Bag)—Stewarts Private Blend Coffee. Stewart 

Ashby Coffee Co. Bag by Thomas M. Royal & Co. 
Informative Labeling (Bag)—Richelieu Coffee. Sprague Warner- 

Kenny Corp. Bag by Benj. C. Betner Co. Designed by How- 

ward List, Sprague, Warner & Co. 

Brand Identification (Bag)—Red Head Coffee. Banker Coffee 

Corp. Bag by Union Bag & Paper Corp. 

Double Purpose Bag—Emmrich Coffee. Emmrich Coffee Co., 
} Inc. Bag by Thomas M. Royal & Co. 
Kraft Bag—Arabian Coffee. Arabian Coffee Co. Bag by Benj. 

C. Betner Co. 

Hotel Bag—M-C Coffee. Majestic Coffee Mills. Bag by Benj. 

C. Betner Co. 

Carton—Holland House Coffee. Holland House Coffee & Tea 

Corp. Carton by Robert Gair Co., Inc. 

Carton (Tea)—Mayfair Tea. The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea 
! Co. Carton by Robert Gair Co., Inc. 
Carton (Tea Bags)—Royal Scarlet Tea Bags. R. C. Williams & 

Co. Carton by Rossoti Lithographing Co., Inc. 


Carton (Spices)—Pickling Spice. National Tea Co. Carton by 
American Coating Mills, Inc. 

Carton (Dehydrated Foods)—Soup Mixes. Stahl-Meyer, Inc. 
Carton by American Coating Mills, Inc. 

Carton (Family Group)—‘‘Mc”’ Spices. McCormick Sales Co, 
Cartons for Whole Spices by Guilford Folding Box Co. De- 
signed by James Harley Nash. 

Carton Can—Parker House Coffee. Banker Coffee Corp. Car- 
ton Can by American Can Co. 

Carton Can (Quality Appeal—Limited Market)—Medaglia 
D’Oro Caffé. S. A. Schonbrunn & Co., Inc. Carton Can by 
American Can Co. Label designed by H. S. Fromme. 

Can (Spices)—Pepper. A. Schilling & Co. Can by American 
Can Co. 

Can (Family Group)—‘‘Mc’”’ Spices. McCormick Sales Co. 
Cans for Ground Spices by American Can Co. Designed by 
James Harley Nash. 

Glass—Del Monte Coffee. California Packing Corp. Jar by 
Owens-Illinois Glass Co. Caps and ‘‘Cel-O-Seal’’ Bands by E. 
I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 

Glass (Quality Appeal)—-Flame Room Coffee. McGarvey Coffee 
Co. Jar and Cap by Owens-Illinois Glass Co. Seal by The 
Celon Co. Label Design by Art Gruber, Jensen Printing Co. 

Glass (Condiments)—-Glass Top Prepared Mustard. Plochman 
& Harrison. Jar by Hazel-Atlas Glass Co. Closure by Trio 
Metal Cap Co. Label by Abbott Way Printing Co. 

Glass (Family Group)—-M M & R Flavors. Magnus, Mabee & 
Reynard, Inc. Bottles by Fairmount Glass Works. Embossed 
Corks by Armstrong Cork Co. Labels by Columbia Litho- 
graphic Co. Glassine Paper by Deerfield Glassine Paper Co. 
Design by J. B. Magnus, Vice-president M M & R, Inc. 

Combination Family Group—Coffee, Tea, Tea bags, Rice. Ar- 
nold & Aborn. Coffee Cartons by Brooks & Porter. Tea and 
Rice Cartons by Acme Folding Box Co. 

Envelobe—Morton Salt. Morton Salt Co. Envelope by Amsco 
Packaging Machinery Co. Packed by Neostyle, Inc. 

Bulk Package—Sterling Salt. International Salt Co. ‘“‘Bagpak” 
by Bagpak, Inc. International Paper Products Division, 
International Paper Co. 

Eagle Printing Co., division of General Printing Ink Corp., has 
issued its thirteenth folder in the color facts series. This latest 
folder, titled ‘‘More Illusions and Facts About Color’’ contains 
several demonstrations of visual phenomena. Copies can be had 
by writing the company, 100 Sixth Ave., New York. 

The Lamson Corp., Syracuse, N. Y. have published a booklet 
entitled ‘‘Simpson’s Revised Methods of Wrapping & Packing” 
in the interest of paper conservation in store operation. The 
booklet lists groups of merchandise along with the former cost for 
wrapping and the present cost and it tells how the saving was 
achieved. Copies can be had from C. S. Jennings, sales promo- 
tion manager of the company. 

Gordon Dilno, advertising manager of the Sutherland Paper Co., 
Kalamazoo, Mich., is chairman of the Kalamazoo Waste Paper 
Conservation Committee. According to Mr. Dilno his commun- 
ity has been doing such an excellent salvage job that nearby com- 
munities have asked for an outline of the collection method used. 
The outline is now available in printed form and can be had upon 
request from Mr. Dilno by writing him at Sutherland Paper Co. 

The Committee for Economic Development moved from the De- 
partment of Commerce Building, Washington, to 285 Madison 
Ave., N. Y. In announcing the move John Fennelly, executive 
director of the CED stated: ‘‘Wartime Washington is so crowded 
that every activity which can be moved to another city helps 
the war effort by making room for those activities which ab- 
solutely must be located next to government agencies.” 

Milprint, Inc., Milwaukee, has just published a booklet on metal 
replacement packaging. The booklet shows the various ways in 
which a cellophane pouch can be used to line either a cylindrical or 
rectangular carton. 














Read how Beerie* helped Vick 
solve a merchandising problem « 
—and style the product, too! 

One of the most attractive packages on dru}store shelves is 
this inhalant produced by the Waterbury Button Company 
for Vick Chemical. Molded of BEETLE Plastic, the Vick 
inhaler presents as trim a container as you one Whi to 
find in merchandising today—or Tomorrow! \ 

All these vital characteristics \ 

Yet, surprisingly, appearance was a secondary consideration ‘ 

in the selection of BEETLE. The real problem was in finding 
a container material that would resist attack from the 
medication to be packaged. In BEETLE, with its durability, 
chemical inertness and adaptability to mass production © 

needs, the package designer found the answer. 

BEETLE also offers freedom from odor and taste to preve 
product contamination, smart, pleasing appearance, and 
ready adaptability to many types of design. 

Planning the package for postwar 

For the present, of course, BEETLE is restricted to essential — 
packages and closures. But it is not too soon to be thinking of 
this colorful plastic for future packaging. Investigation now 
may solve Tomorrow’s distribution problem... give you : 
that all-important head-start—a more attractive and eco- B Bul . URAC 
nomical package—for postwar merchandising. In writin 
for more ame n, nf use our Postal Zone alleen” é MELURAC - LAMINAC © 
New York 20, N. Y. 



ey *Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. 

Saran film 

(Continued from page 99) and tapes are cooled by a blast 
of cool air. Saran’s low thermal conductivity allows the 
tapes to cool first and thus insures freedom from sticking to 
the tapes. Temperatures of the heated metal shoes must be 
controlled to a +4 deg. F., due to Saran’s sharp melting 
point. Thus a very sensitive temperature controlling unit 
is required if satisfactory welds are to be made on this type 
of machine. 

High-frequency welding has been performed successfully 
for some time on a laboratory scale. Saran, like most thermo- 
plastic materials, readily lends itself to this type of joining. 
Although this type of sealing is still more or less in the experi- 
mental stage, it holds considerable promise as a method of 
sealing Saran film when machines of this type are commer- 
cially available. 

Saran film in tubing form has been successfully closed by 
an ingenious method of sealing with soft lead rings. This 
method has been approved by military agencies for use in 
the Method II package. The ends of the tube to be closed 
are threaded through the lead ring, which is then clamped 
tightly onto the film by means of a clamping device or a 
large pair of pliers. This method of closure produces a 
moisture-vaporproof and watertight seal quickly and easily 
and without the use of heavy and cumbersome heat-sealing 
devices (see Fig. 13). 

Attempts at sewing, stapling and binding Saran film are 
still in the experimental stage. Inasmuch as these types of 
joining do not produce moisture-vaporproof seals, it is doubt- 
ful if they will receive too much attention, at least, during 

Typical of the present military uses for which Saran film 
is suited is the Method II package, used on the 50-calibre 
machine gun. This package was developed by the Frigidaire 
Division of General Motors Corp. (MopDERN PACKAGING, 
July, 1943, page 72). The film has been approved for use in 
compliance with the following military specifications: ANC- 
67, AN-O-P-406 (Type 2), 100-14a (Type 2). Of the prod- 
ucts approved by military specifications to be used as mois- 
tureproof barriers, Saran film is the only single-ply material. 
The other materials are dependent upon coatings or com- 
pounded by being laminated with other materials to obtain 
the properties required for this use. The film not only 
possesses these required properties but is transparent and 
package inspection can readily be made without opening the 

Difficulties sometimes encountered in moistureproof pack- 
aging with laminates are readily overcome by the use of 
Saran film. There is no dependence on the adhesive quali- 
ties of the laminating agent in a heat-sealed joint made with 
the film as it is homogeneous throughout its entire thickness. 
Another factor not to be overlooked is that all the required 
properties are obtained without the use of heavy, bulky, 
multi-ply materials. Saran film has an unusual flexible 
drape-like quality and can be folded and creased as is required 
in placing the packaged part in the outer container. This 
may be done without fear of cracking or fracturing along the 
fold after extended exposure to elevated or reduced tempera- 
tures for a considerable length of time according to results of 
tests made. 

Saran film is subjected to certain wartime restrictions 
which confine its use to the packaging of metal parts and 
assemblies, as set forth in the Method II type military 
package. The base material—polyvinylidene chloride—is 


subject to allocation in accordance with the Materials Gou- 
servation Order No. M-10. 

The present Type M film was expressly designed as a . 
packaging medium for metal parts and assemblies and has 
a taste and odor which are undesirable for general food use; 
however, developmental work is directed toward the elimina- 
tion of this taste and odor. Other types of film for wide- 
spread applications in food packaging are the subject of 
further investigation. 

The adaptation of the natural shrinkage of the film which 
is caused by exposure to elevated temperatures when the 
material is unrestrained to shrink packages has been under 
development for some time. Additional work of this nature 
is being carried on now in conjunction with casings for meats 
and poultry. 

The immediate acceptance and the rapidly growing demand 
for the present type Saran film as a packaging material for 
war use and the experience gained from such use under war- 
time conditions assure its role as a major contender in post- 
war packaging. 

Package versus bulk 

(Continued from page 75) Since the report has not yet 
been released and because such a distribution cost analysis 
necessarily carries many important qualifying factors that 
could not be detailed in an article of this sort, no actual 
figures can be given here. However, the more important 
results of the study can be set forth in general terms. The 
explanation of the method of analysis that was set forth above 
points to the fact that although bulk handling does away 
with the cost of packaging, at the same time it incurs the 
costs of weighing and bagging the bulk rice in the store, which 
is not necessary for the packaged product. The put-up cost 
(cost of retail weighing and bagging) is an offsetting item 
that is overlooked by those who have been busy setting forth 
the reputed economies of bulk handling. More than this, 
however, our study shows, contrary to the belief of many in 
the grocery trade, that a few operations in addition to those 
of packaging and put-up (which are by far the most important 
in terms of the amount of the cost) show a sufficient cost dif- 
ference between bulk and package handling to require in- 
clusion in the calculation. One such case is bulk-packing at 
the mill, which may be avoided altogether if the rice is pack- 
aged at this point. Another is the cost of getting a package 
of rice from the shelf of the retail store for the consumer. 
This is by no means a negligible cost, 

In determining the cost of packaging rice, which was neces- 
sary in order to compute cost differences, it was found that 
there was an amazing variation among the packaging opera- 
tions at various local grocery warehouses. The highest- 
cost operation of the six that were covered was almost three 
times as costly as the lowest-cost operation and the remaining 
four had direct costs well scattered between these two ex- 
tremes. Since these operations were representative of all 
local rice packaging, it is apparent that an average packaging 
cost figure, whether used for legislature or other purposes, is 
subject to very serious limitations for the particular market 
area to which the study was confined. It is also evident 
that there must be room for considerable improvement in the 
efficiency of some of the packaging operations at the various 

The direct cost of put-up of bulk rice in 11 retail stores 



570 Lexington Ave. 208 W. Washington Street 702 Society for Sav. Bldg 300 Seventh Street 

420 S. San Pedro Street 3224 Western Avenue 1208 S. W. Yamhill Street Paul Brown Building 

Windsor House, Victoria Street, LONDON, ENGLAND 

located in the given market area showed even greater varia- 
tion. The expense for the highest-cost store was about 
four times as great as that for the lowest-cost store. The 
put-up costs for the other nine stores were fairly widely 
scattered between these limits. 

The figures for packaging and put-up costs do not include 
the cost of shrinkage, i.e., the loss of weight that occurs 
during each of these operations. This omission is due to the 
fact that reliable data on the amount of weight loss for the 
put-up operations could not be gotten. However, despite 
the fact that such loss could not be measured, observations 
and inquiry showed beyond a doubt that the cost of shrinkage, 
while it may vary greatly from one operation to another 
for both packaging and put-up, is by no means an insignifi- 
cant item in the cost of both types of such distribution 

Finally, and most important, it was found that for 11 
particular marketing channels each of which moved rice in 
both bulk and packaged form, package handling cost was less 
than bulk handling cost in five of the channels. The reverse 
was true in five of the other channels and for one channel there 
was no appreciable difference in the cost of handling the 
rice in bulk and in packages. However, the cost differences 
that favored package handling were much smaller than those 
that favored bulk handling. These costs differences had to 
be computed by using the direct costs of packaging and put- 
up because direct costs alone could be determined for all 11 
channels. For eight of these channels total cost (excluding 
shrinkage expense) could be calculated for the put-up and 
packaging operations. Using these figures in computing the 
cost differences resulted in two channels showing package 
handling costs that were less than bulk handling and six 

The packaged rice that moved through these 11 channels 
was all packaged at local grocery warehouses, which supply 
from one-third to one-half of the total packaged rice con- 
sumed in the market area to which the investigation was 
confined. For this sizable portion of the vast packaged 
rice volume of this metropolitan area our study creates a 
strong presumption that there are a very considerable number 
of cases in which it actually costs less to handle* rice in 
packages than in bulk, although they are without doubt a 

The study also showed that the package was rendering the 
consumer distinct net additional services in the way of pro- 
tection, cleanliness and convenience over those afforded by 
the paper bags used for putting up bulk rice for consumers. 
In the channels where package handling costs less than bulk 
these net additional services of the package to the consumer 
represent an additional advantage to the trade over and above 
the cost advantage, while the trade at the same time obtains 
the benefits of the selling work done by the advertising fea- 
tures of the package. In those channels where package hand- 
ling costs exceed bulk handling costs, the difference in cost 
to the trade that runs against package handling must be set 
over against the net additional services of the package to the 
consumers and also the benefits to the trade of the advertising 
done by the package. 

In conclusion, it may be said that the cost-difference pat- 
tern could be swung to a much more favorable position for 
package handling if improved, up-to-date machinery and 
operating methods were employed by more of the local rice 
packaging operations in the market area covered by the 

§ According to the special use of this term explained previously. 



Frozen victory gardens 

(Continued from page 67) wrapper. No matter how pro- 
tective the wrapping material itself may be, it is quite obvious 
that unless the wrapping is applied to prevent seepage of 
air or moisture through the folds, the wrapper cannot fully 
protect the meat in the way intended. 

The method most generally used in locker plants today 
consists of placing the product to be wrapped on the sheet 
diagonally or on a bias, bringing one corner of the sheet up 
and over the cutof meat and then, in a rolling fashion, folding 
in the two opposite corners of sheet. The package is turned 
over and the remaining opposite diagonal corner of the sheet 
is folded over and the wrapper sealed in place by means of 
string or tape. 

This is a simple and quick method of wrapping and its 
only weakness is that it does not provide for a positive closure 
as it is possible for air and moisture to seep through the folds 
of the wrapper. 

Examination of cuts of meat wrapped in this fashion that 
had been frozen and stored in lockers for periods ranging from 
one month to a year or more, by carefully unfolding the wrap- 
per from the frozen meat and observing closely the color of 
the meat, show signs of air or moisture seepage as evidenced 
by the presence of freezer burn—light grayish spots on the 
surface of the meat usually at points in the folds of the 

Increasing the size of the wrapper through tearing off 
more material than is actually needed to enclose the meat 
completely not only adds to the cost of packaging but fails 
many times to provide for a better sealed package. No mat- 
ter how much wrapping material is used, whether it be cello- 
phane or a good grade of locker paper or a combination wrap 
of cellophane and locker paper, it is still extremely important 
that the style of wrap be such as to provide for a good mois- 
ture-vaportight seal. 

The other method of wrapping is not new or untried. It 
has been successfully used in other fields for years, particularly 
in the baking industry in providing a moisture-vaportight 
wrap for fresh cakes and other baked goods items wrapped in 
cellophane. It is working out successfully in a number of 
locker plants because of the saving in the amount of wrapping 
material used, as well as providing for a more positive mois- 
ture-vaportight seal. 

The same principle applies in wrapping, whether it be 
your present locker plant paper, cellophane or a combination 
wrap of cellophane and locker paper and requires no more 
labor than a single-wrap as the wrapping is done all in one 

A combination wrap of cellophane and a sheet of locker 
paper has proved very successful in view of the added as- 
surance against tearing which the cellophane receives by 
reason of the locker paper being on the outside. The paper 
also provides a surface for easy stamping or writing the 
name of item, date, locker number or other information re- 
quired on each package. 

Careful study and actual experience will solve the problems 
of proper packaging for frozen foods. 

Credit: Containers shown in Figs. 1 and 2, Interstate Folding Box 
Co., Middletown, O. Bag-in-box in Fig. 4, Sutherland Paper Co., 
Kalamazoo, Mich. Carton in Fig. 5, Container Corp. of America, 
Chicago, Ill. Bag in carton in Fig. 6 by Bloomer Bros., Newark, 
N.J. Bag in Fig. 7, Thomas M. Royal & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

se ph thee AREER IIE NEE RA 4 

r of 

_ be 


- as- 
1 re- 


+ Box 
r Co., 



EVE I TR 37 UM" 

amd Paper Box Co. 

Bicknell & Fuller Paper Box Co. 

Specialty —_— Box Co. 
E. J. Trum ic. 

Thoma Paper Box Co. 


Old Dominion Box Co. 
yin fase vay A — 
Atlas Paper Box Co 

Kroeck Paper Box Co. 

Columbus Paper Box Co. 

Friend Paper Box Co. 

Stecker Paper Box Co. 
Shoup-Owens, Inc 
Crook Paper Box Co. 
Finger Paper Box Co. 
Kentucky Paper Box Co. 
Shaw Paper Box Co. 
recency Tri-State Paper Box 

Mooney & Sead ney 
Newark Paper Box Co. 



A. Dortman Co. 

Shaw Paper Box Co, 

| fangs yg gpa PA. 

Sprowles & hea. Inc. 

Keystone Box Co. 

Casco Paper Box Co, 

Hope Paper Box Co. 
Taylor Paper Box Co. 

Union Paper Box Mfg. Co. 

Consolidated Paper Box Co. 

ST. oo MICH. 

Great Sore Paper Box Co. 

— T Box 
Schivicher Pa et Box Co. 
a . Paper Box 

Utica Box Co., Inc. 

Wilmington Paper Box Co. 


The Fielder Paper Box Co., Ltd, 


Topay, war production comes first. But to create 
post-war jobs, numerous manufacturers have already 
completed plans for products they will turn out in peace- 
time. And many of these products will be packaged for 
added sales appeal in set-up paper boxes. The custom- 
built set-up paper box is the most versatile of packages; 
and none is more beautiful. Its attractive covering papers 
enhance its appeal. 

If you are an executive interested in post-war plans, 
why not talk to a Master Craftsman in the field of packag- 
ing. Like yourself, these men are creative, welcome a 
problem, and know how to produce economically. 

Master Craftsmen 


Cooperating Suppliers: Appleton Coated 
Paper Company; Blackstone Glazed Paper 
Company; Bradner Smith & Co.; Louis 
Dejonge & Co.; Globe Mfg. Co.; Hampden 

Card & Paper Co.; Hughes & Hoffman Co.; 
Lachman-Novasel Paper Co.; Marvellum 
Company; Matthias Paper Corp.; Nashua 
Gummed & Coated Paper Co.; Pejepscot 

Glazed Paper & Card Co.; Hartford City Paper Co.; Plastic Coating Corp.; Rac- 
quette River Paper Co.;Stokes & Smith Co. 

Paper Co.; Hazen Paper Company ; Holyoke 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 


Must labels be blacked out? 

(Continued from page 85) the Army’s requirements 
can be met while at the same time preserving merchandising 
advantages for American canners. 

That Washington is not unaware of the selling job that 
labels do is indicated by OWI’s current activity in developing 
a national insignia for all lend-lease shipments. Examples 
of these latest approved insignias, in many languages—which 
are intended in the future to go on food can labels also—are 
shown in Fig. 3. 

So far, Uncle Sam has done a poor job of label propagan- 
dizing. In North Africa and in the South Seas, invading 
American troops have found American labels outshown by 
those of Allies and even by those of the enemies. A collec- 
tion made by a member of the armed forces in North Africa 
from stores supplying the civilian population shows that 
German, Italian, British and Australian brands generally 
bear beautiful, full-color labels; the one American label is a 
drab, black-and-white affair. 

Similarly, Fig. 4 shows samples of labels taken from the 
commissaries and stores in Borneo. Australian brands show 
to good advantage, but the few American labels are among 
the poorer specimens, as regards both attractiveness and 

Looking ahead into the postwar period, the new water- 
resistant labeling technique would appear to have distinct 
possibilities. It might permit breweries to apply paper labels 
to beer cans, capable of withstanding immersion in ice-water 
coolers. It might permit packers of citrus fruits, apple, 
tomato and other juices to merchandise their products in this 
manner, like soft drinks. Moreover, the same labels and 
adhesives are said to be suitable for use on cylindrical glass 
and waterproof fibre containers. 

Credit: Water-resistant labels by Stecher-Traung Lithograph 
Corp., Rochester, N. Y. Water-resistant adhesives by National 
Adhesives Division of National Starch Products, Inc., New York. 

Navy standards— 

(Continued from page 70) to see that there was much 
work behind the system developed by the Naval Clothing 
Depot. The choice of the particular types of cartons now in 
use was not based upon guesswork, but upon experimentation 
and study. The type of container to be used for each of the 
hundreds of items handled and how these items were to be 
arranged and folded was undoubtedly also a major point for 
consideration. In getting the approval of the proper author- 
ities in Washington for the system, the depot used 
photographs and charts to show the various sizes of containers 
most suitable for standardization and how these could be pal- 
letized. Once the system has been approved, the next step 
was to get it into effect. 

To enable contractors and suppliers to send the articles 
they furnish the depot in conformance with the system, 
a “Navy Handbook for Packaging, Packing and Marking of 
Clothing, Small Stores and Textiles,’’ was prepared for their 
use. It contains detailed instructions for style of carton, di- 
mensions, size and weight of material to be used, how to mark, 
including size of print, how to center, spacing of letters. It 
also tells how the contents of the packages are to be arranged, 


and applies to items which the Navy uses as diverse as whisk 
brooms and mattresses. 

The handbook is useful in several respects. Formerly, . 
specifications, contract requirements and purchase orders 
contained as many as two or three pages of instructions on how 
to package and how to arrange contents in the packages, 
Now there is merely a line referring to the handbook. Since 
the handbook is being put into the hands of all boxmakers, 
the relaying of the detailed instructions all along the line will 
no longer be necessary. Another advantage is that the in- 
structions in the handbook were compiled by specialists in 
packaging and they are couched in the language of the in- 
dustry. This was not always truein the past and it makes 
for better understanding. 

The willingness of the Navy—and of Captain Kirk and his 
depot in particular—to draw upon the knowledge and 
experience in industry, and to adapt those resources to 
its own uses, is commendable. Industry, in turn, can 
learn from the Naval Clothing Depot’s project, since many of 
its features are applicable in specific packaging fields. 

An engineer speaks— 

(Continued from page 91) giving as much thought as is 
possible to these matters in view of their wartime problems. 
They may have many answers to these suggestions already 
on the drawing boards. But the feeling among users is that 
the pressure of the necessity of these suggestions would be 
felt much more, if designers could see more at first hand how 
their designs are working out. Most users would welcome 
further collaboration of this sort. If the designers could live 
a little more with the troubles, as users do every day, their 
horizon would be broadened along the lines which need their 

It may be that only new entrants to this field, those who 
must look to converting from war goods to peace goods, can 
“see the forest for the trees.” It may be that users must de- 
sign and build their own equipment. But thoughtful users 
are confident that somewhere, somehow, strides will be made 
toward better equipment for after the war and these strides 
will be made toward safer and faster production. 

What makes cans corrode? 

(Continued from page 104) normal manner. This com- 
plete closure did not cause condensate to form in any of the 

7. The coating of the inside surface of the Code C with 
Du Pont weatherproof No. 77, prior to kiln treatment seems 
to indicate that the polyvinyl alcohol base adhesive does not 
in itself promote corrosion of the cans. 

8. The cans from the American Can Co. and those from 
the Continental Can Co. were equally corroded throughout 
the course of the investigation. 

9. The individual cans which were placed in the kiln un- 
boxed and which were only slightly corroded would seem to 
indicate that major source of corrosion is in the container 
itself, perhaps due to a chemical constituent of the pulp 
furnish, e.g., alum, sulphur or iron. 




n to 


Ay 3) Po 

Chemistry Created Bonderized Steel Sheets 

Bonderizing steel sheets is a mech- 

anized operation from the time plain 

steel enters these machines until the 

sheets drop 


out, treated 

for rust 

to take a vital part in winning the war 

Canned food is of vital importance in 
both military and civilian life, and the 
economical packaging of our critical 
food supply is one of our pressing prob- 
lems. An important contribution toward 
its solution was the creation of the 
Bonderized steel sheet—a new material 
for the production of cans, containers 
and closures. While this material had its 
inception in the Parker research labor- 
atories, it took the close cooperation of 
the technical staffs of the leading can 
manufacturers and steel mills to quickly 
make it a practical commercial product. 
Countless detailed problems had to be 
faced and licked by this team. 

For months now American steel mills 
have been turning out tons of Bonderized 
steel sheets for the can and container 
industry. This is a new, useful manu- 
facturing material. It has the strength 
of steel, rust resistance, excellent enamel 
adhesion, and the forming and other 
manufacturing qualities necessary to its 
practical commercial use. 

War stimulated the development and 
application of Bonderized sheet steel 
—but it will remain long after the war 
as a useful packaging and closure 
material, because of proven valuable 



DECEMBER ®* 1943 


Parco Lubrizing is a chemical 
treatment for iron or steel friction 
surfaces, in mechanical assem- 
blies, that improves bearing prop- 
erties, and retards wear. 


Bonderizing is a chemical treat- 
ment for iron, steel, or zinc that 
insures cohesion of applied coat- 
ings of paint, enamel or lacquer, 
resulting in longer-lived, rust- 
resistant finish. 


Parkerizing is a chemical treat- 
ment for iron or steel, resulting 
in a surface that can be stained, 
oiled, waxed or painted and is 
substantially resistant to rust. 

Pug-nose box withstands 1,000 foot drop from plane 

Above, close up of the wire-strapped aerial unit. Below, 
medical supplies unpacked from these new cases after 
test drop with all bottles and other equipment intact. 

7 Army’s answer to keeping ground troops supplied from 
the air may be found in this new pug-nose wooden con- 
tainer which can be dropped without parachute. 

The new box is a development of Army Air Corps officers 
from Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, and a Chicago maker of 
steel strapping. Cargo planes have dropped test consign- 
ments of food, ammunition, gasoline and medical supplies 
placed in these boxes from heights of a 1,000 feet without para- 
chutes and with almost 100 per cent recovery. 

Other consignments, packed deep in excelsior and weighing 
from 100 to 200 lbs.—even including delicate instruments— 
were said to have been dumped out at 200 m.p.h. from 2,000 
feet with breakage averaging only 0.5 per cent. 

The boxes are made of three-quarter-inch lumber and have 
pug noses to prevent rolling. The top is left slightly open 
and the box is wrapped with strands of wire by a machine 
which tightens, ties and cuts the wire. The strands have a 
tensile strength of 14,000 lbs. per square inch, it is claimed. 
When the package lands the wire and the open top permit the 
box to stretch freely, but prevent breakage. 

Military spokesmen say this shockproof unit has advantages 
over the use of cargo parachutes, because it allows greater 
accuracy in placing deliveries and lower flight altitudes that 
reduce chances of the action being spotted by the enemy. 

The boxes cost an average of $2.75 apiece, in comparison 
with an average cost of $25 for a parachute. Probable post- 
war uses include speedier delivery of air express and mail at 
intermediate points, it is said. 

Credit: Collaborating designers af box and strapping, The Gerrard 
Co., Chicago. 

New technique—drugs 

(Continued from page 87) to the United States and 
marketed it as Massol in 1910. This was a forerunner of 
Acidophilus which came out in 1921. 

In 1910, Dr. Lederle needed more room for research and 
manufacturing and moved his plant to Pearl River, N. Y., 
where it continued to expand and Lederle’s smallpox vaccines 
and tetanus antitoxins soon became famous the world over. 

During World War I, Lederle Laboratories was the only 
American source of gas gangrene antitoxin. The company 
was purchased by American Cyanamid Co., Inc., in 1930. 

Since then the research and manufacturing facilities have 
increased and the business expanded to include pharmaceutical 
specialties and standard products. Today, although the bio- 
logical sales have continued to increase, they are but a small 
part of the total business. Among other projects Lederle 
has been a leader in the development of sulfa drugs and vita- 
min products, and is at present building one of the largest 
plants in the country for the production of the new life-saving 
drug penicillin. 

Credit: Package designs, Arthur S. Allen, New York. 


Questions and answers 

(Continued from page 106) carton stocks printed with 
dark-colored inks, it may be necessary to open a few sample 
packages and observe the staining on the inside since the 
dark-colored areas will not show grease staining on the 
outside. Different package materials and different methods 
of making the closure will probably give a wide difference 
under this test and it should give a reliable index of 
the ability of the package to hold this fat. Test can be sup- 
plemented with taste and flavor examination after various 
periods in the oven compared with samples retained and 
held in cool storage. The later examination will provide 
you with information about the stability of the fat and 
whether or not any of the elements of the package are causing 
contamination of the product. Asa control test for your ma- 
terials, I suggest that you follow Technical Assn. of the Pulp 
and Paper Industry Specification No. T454M-42 for grease 
resistance of paper except that you use as a testing liquid the 
fat which is contained in the product colored red as indicated. 
It might be advisable to make this test on flat as well as on 
creased samples. 


> the 
| the 
ax of 
i and 
- and 
r ma- 
id the 
as on 

aa a 


The safe arrival of overseas shipments is vital to 
ultimate victory for the United States and our allies. 
These must be packaged for delivery to any point 
in the world. Such packages cannot be designed for 
specific climatic conditions due to rerouting of most 
materials to meet the varying needs from the many 
air fronts. GLU-WELD adhesives used to seal water- 
proof paper liners and “Victory Board”: containers 
assure the packager of perfect closures whether the 
shipment ultimately arrives at the freezing ports of 
Russia or the tropical climate of the South Pacific. 

Write today for our booklet “GW-1”, which will tell 
you the full story on GLU-WELD. 

Or better yet, send us a small sample of your board. 
We will, in turn, forward a sample of the proper 

GLU-WELD formulation. 


Union Paste Company 
1605 Hyde Park Ave., Hyde Park 36, Mass. 


The F. G. Findley Co. 

1230 No. 10th St., Milwaukee 5, Wis. 


Post-War Products will be MERCHANDISED 
in LUSTEROID Vials and Tubes 

With an eye to post-war merchandising, more and 
more manufacturers are shaping their plans around 
LUSTEROID. They know it will pay them to dress 
their products in containers that display as well as 

By every standard, LUSTEROID meets the most 

exacting requirements of modern display-mer- 

chandising. Amazingly light in weight. Strong, 

rigid and unbreakable. Transparent for product 

visibility. Colorful for eye appeal. Economical, 
too. No protective partitioning or special packing 
needed. No labels to affix because the sales 
message can be reproduced as an integral part of 

the container. They save work, time and money. 

All colors . .. clear or opaque . . . with cork, 

slip-on or screw-cap closures. Diameters from 

Yy" to 114" and lengths up to 6”. 

Write for complete details 




DECEMBER * 1943 

Saved eee 




“We saved the 
labor of two per- 
sons and made a 
very satisfying 
saving by the use 
of Silverstitcher.” 
Gen’! Supt., 
Chicago Mfr. 

Replace Labor Shortage With 

acme dilverdstitchow 

This improved stitching equipment 
assures faster, easier box stapling. In 
some plants, output has been doubled, 
costs cut and complete satisfaction is 
the rule where Silverstitcher is in use. 

wire is made in six standard sizes...true 

to size and temper, provides stitches gy 
which clinch tightly and stay that way. 
Try it on your present equipment. 

Sturdily built Silverstitchers are made 
: in various sizes and types to meet your 


requirements. Many exclusive features 
mean quiet, trouble-free, speedy oper- 
ation. Sold under guarantee. 


Silverstitchers are available on send coupon below for 
ratings of A-9 or better when FREE Booklet giving com- 
placed in conformity with Limi- plete details about Acme 
tation order L-83. Silverstitchers. 



Branches and Sales Offices in Principal Cities 

2843 Archer Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 
I’m interested in faster, easier, box stitch- 
t ing at lower cost. Send me FREE Folder 
with all the facts. 

j Name 






For full information write to 



PLAZA 8-2644 

' “Se 

ree? “NS 


In RED STREAK tapes you find a combination 

of good papers, good glue and plenty of it, that 

gives you the best sealing job possible. 
Ask us for details, samples, prices. 

BROWN-BRIDGE MILLS, Inc., Troy, Ohio: 



return trip for re-use. Send orders to New York Office. 

Box with Stitches Removed and 
Flattened for Return Trip 


ont ba, EO 

To Conserve Shipping Containers 

The Containers Branch of the War Production [7 
Board has ruled in favor of re-use of Wire | 
Stitched Shipping Containers, to conserve cor- 
rugated and solid fibre board. 

Regular slotted containers that are both bot- 
tom and top stitched, when emptied, may now 
be knocked down by removing the wire stitches, 
flattening the boxes as illustrated here, and re- 
turning them in bundles to the original packer. 

This wire stitch remover is a handy, practical 

Price $1.60 Postpaid tool for quickly removing the wire stitches 
without breaking or tearing the board. It will 
materially reduce the time and cost of preparing wire stitched containers for their 

Box Stitched 
Top and Bottom 

330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, N. Y. 

CINCINNATI, OHIO in less than one minute. 


For assembling cases, the blade anvil 
is lowered, table is swung to one side, 
and post placed in position for bottom 
stitching. For top stitching, the post 
is removed and blade anvil and table 
swung into position. Change is made 


Atter sixty years of close contact with paper converters 
throughout the world, we now find ourselves engaged in an all-out 
production of essential equipment for the war program. 

The army and the navy now have first call on our men and 
machines and we are unable to accept orders for machines, or parts 
used in our machines now operating unless the War Production 

Board deems the same necessary for promoting the war effort. 

ee SET, ala NET PMO oe 

We want to keep in touch with all of you. We want to help 

you keep up the flow of essentials from mills and converting plants. 

BPN es 

If we can advise you, do not hesitate to call on us. If you need 
machines or parts which the War Board will pass favorably upon, 

we will try to serve you. We wish, however, to advise that army 

y 4 and navy requirements will come first until no longer needed. 



close sidewise register. 

ee Sy nates 

j So writes E. A. Bradshaw, of Bradshaw’s Limited, Toronto, 

about a Camachine Electric Eye Side Guide Control which 
incorporates also a Camachine Constant Web Tension Con- 
trol. “Our enthusiasm for the work it is doing increases 
every day,” says Mr. Bradshaw; and that is understandable, 
for his plant is slitting small wraps which require a very 

For precision register, side- 
wise and lengthwise, on web 
printing presses—and for ac- 
curate, uniformly rewound 
rolls on slitting and rewinding 
equipment—the Electric Eye 
Side Guide Control with Con- 
stant Web Tension Control is 
a money-earner. Write for 
descriptive literature. 


61 Poplar St., Brooklyn, 2, N. Y. 
Harris Trust Bidg. 111 W. Monroe St., Chicago, 3, Ill. 

DECEMBER * 1943 


Paper! | 

Every Armful 

Your supply of paperboard 
depends on the ability of 
the paperboard mills to 
obtain waste paper. 

Urge your employees, 
neighbors and friends to 
save waste paper. 

Remember, every armful 
does count. 




on a HAYSSEN Automatic 

The high-speed HAYSSEN automatic wrapping ma- 
chine does such a perfect job that you can't tell the first 
package from the millionth in the same run. 

Perfect registration is achieved through the photo- 
electric cell. Capital investment is low, so is upkeep. 
Handles both Cellophane and waxed paper. Design 
is simple and parts are interchangeable. Speed is rapid 
and may be adjusted to any production, within range. 
Every package wrapped on the HAYSSEN is a 
perfect job. 

Send for further data, quotations. 


Builders of Wrapping Machines for more than 30 years 

Sedona ona, 




Ie. eee F eee ee 

ie Ea 

i dap 

Pied ainar aon 9 












SElLEp Srey 


Waterproofing Waxes for 
Cartons and Packages 

““Get 'em ashore fast!’’ That’s the order . . . even though it 
means a dip in the sea for many cartons and packages. 

Overseas shipments can’t have too much protection 
against moisture. That’s why many manufacturers are giv- 
ing their packages “extra” protection afforded by Johnson’s 
Waterproofing Waxes. 

Perhaps you're packaging vital war materials in cartons 
and paper, materials that must have moisture protection. 
We suggest you get all the facts about Johnson’s Water- 
proofing Waxes for Cartons and Packages. Write us today 
for full particulars. 

Made by the makers of JOHNSON’S WAX 


* Dept. MP 103 - 

Racine, Wis. 

Industrial Wax Division 


DECEMBER * 1943 


Miller Model MP Wrapping Machine and 
Corley-Miller Speed-Wrap wrapping paper 
pads at Rockwell-Barnes Company, Chicago 

©PAPER, indispensable carrier 

of the written message, must 
proceed in uninterrupted flow to 
our army and navy. Rockwell- 
Barnes Company, Chicago, in- 
sures steady output and _ high- 
speed production on government 
contracts by wrapping their pack- 
ages with the Miller Model MP 
Wrapping Machine and Corley- 
Miller Speed-Wrap Combination. 
3 x< 5’, 6 X 9", and & X 1034” 
pads, also 8% X 11” reams, are 
all wrapped on these machines. 
The packages are sealed with cold 
glue, no gummed tape required. 
One operator is used to feed the 
reams or pads into the machine. 
All packages are end sealed, and 
can therefore be wrapped with a 
minimum amount of paper. The 
wrapping paper is fed from a roll. 
If you have a problem involving 
wrapping, bag making, filling, or 
sealing, consult Miller. Write for 


Amsco Model CL-2 Rotary Bag 
Sealing Machine 

Shipping War 
Materiel in Bags? 

Amsco Rotary Bag Sealing 
Machines provide moisture- 
vapor proof sealing plus high 
speed production. Amsco Ro- 
laries have gained wide popu- 
larity for sealing bags con- 
taining rations, dehydrated 
foods, drugs, bandages, ord- 
nance materials, and _ other 
bugged products. Companion 
eyuipment including bag open- 
ers and loaders, air extractors, 
and conveyors is also offered. 



M; in Meow haying Sag Mails 

14 South Clinton Street 


Chicago 16, Illinois 



@ The jaw-type heat-sealing machine 
manufactured by Automatic Scale is a ma- 
chine of wide versatility. It can be used for 
hand-sealing of lightweight packages, and 
for bag making. The same machine can 
be tipped to handle heavier packages. 
Automatic heat-sealers are widely used for 
wrapping packages and making bags for ex- 
port shipping. The heat seal is as strong 
and water-tight as the material itself. 
These machines handle bags up to 30’ wide 
in all heat-sealing materials. Tempera- 
tures from 70° to 500°F. 



NEW YORK 14, N. Y. 

r THE 
Unknown Package 

Victim of a faulty adhesive, the package 
that loses its label loses not only its per- 
sonality but its identity as well. All the 
trouble of making its contents the best in 
the field—all the effort of creating a sound 
container and sending it through modern 
automatic production—all are lost when the 
glue fails. 

Bingham glues stick on all types of pack- 
ages under all sorts of circumstances and 
climates. Let our technicians recommend 

one of our adhesives for your purpose. 

“Make Your Identity Stich” 



vety Kind o, of Koller and Uddenve 

406 Pearl St. 
980 Hudson Ave. 

§21 Cherry St. 


Brown St. & Lister Ave. 

131 Colvin St. 

Eliminates Bottlenecks in 

War Plants 

Whether packaging rivets, or large and small 
parts for aircraft, the AMSCO rotary sealer will 
give the speediest operation, and the most 
efficient in terms of quantity, space-saving and 
labor cost. 

An unique packaging principle gives the 
AAMSCO Hi-Speed Rotary Heat-Sealer extra 
speed, turning former bottlenecks into the 
smoothest function of many production lines. 
450 linear inches of perfectly moistureproof heat- 
sealing per minute—a speed that is faster than 
most lines require. Ease of operation reduces 
operator fatigue and expediting output. Aijir 
extraction from packages before sealing elimi- 
nates oxidation F seme Maximum production in 
a minimum of space and low labor cost. 

Many war industries have eliminated packaging 
bottlenecks with AMSCO equipment. An 

AMSCO engineer will be glad to describe and 

demonstrate their possibilities to you. 

Equipment Packages 

plaster bandages 

emergency field 

31-31 Forty-Eighth Ave. $v: Long Island City, N.Y. 

life boat rations 
tank and truck 

rts blies 
dehydrated foods 

dehydrated soup 


teletype ribbons 


blood plasma 

film and sup- 

rifle and machine 
gun parts 

rivets and small 

large assemblies 
and subassem- 


aoe? SNES er: 




Striping . . . Cornering . . . FLOQUIL — new speedy, 
approved method for marking overseas shipments for Armed 
Services. Applies APPROVED SERVICE COLORS by roller. 
We supply rollers, colors, tanks. Also: FLOQUIL Salvage 
Kraft color for salvaging and re-using packing cases. 

Send for literature, color cards. 







affected by Government orders 
covering packaging materials 


DECEMBER ® 1943 




TYPE “A” for PASTE. “B” for POWDERS. “C” for LIQUIDS. 

The famous COLTON CLOSURE machine has been greatly im- 

poved and simplified. It now offers you these new advantages: 
1. Motor is underneath, out of the way. 
2. Equipped with REEVES drive for speed control. 

3. New design filling head gives a positive free smooth action of 

Start and stop push button switch. ' 
5. Two hand levers. One for starting the machine proper. One 
for stopping and starting filling mechanism. 

All of these improvements — yet no increase in price. 
Write today for a sample tube and full information on 
this machine. 


No. 17-A. I d Aut tic Tub 
Filling, Closing and Crimping Machine 2602 JEFFERSON AVE., EAST 


CHARTS reprinted from 7. fost Wr Prasrama™ 


Chart of Functional Packaging Materials 

Tabulates physical, chemical and mechanical 
properities of all flexible commercial packaging mate- 
terials—the first over-all standardized compilation. 

each... 75¢ 

ee ay 

After “Unconditional Surrender”’ is a fact of history, you 

Packaging Materials Under Government Control 

Lists all materials affected by Government 
order, from Acetone to Zinc, and gives reference to 

siactitiantiees an 2 will want the highest productive Sheeting equipment f 
obtainable, to meet competition. Your choice may be 
ae THE TWO CHARTS a ee ea $1 = | from the hi-speed Electric Eye machines for ‘‘spot sheet- ff 
; ing’’ down to the more simple standard machines for 
Please send remittance with order to plain work. 
Industrial Magazine Service, Iuc. Write us to-day for to-morrow. 
122 East 42nd Street CHARLES BECK MACHINE CO. 
NEW YORK 17, N. Y. 13th & Callowhill Streets Philadelphia, Pa. . 






Yuu | il 

... to do your packaging 

It's pretty hard to find human 
fingers to do the work today, but 
Triangle Elec-Tri-Pak Vibratory Feed 
Weighers are ready to package all 
kinds of candies, marshmallows, etc., 
in cans, cartons, bags or bottles. The 

electric fingers of the Elec-Tri-Pak 
handle your product gently, weigh it 

carefully to fraction-of-an-ounce ac- 
curacy and save you time, money 
and headaches. Users report labor 
savings as high as 60%; space sav- 
ing of 1/3 and more, and many other 

A complete range of models is 
available to meet any requirements. 
For high speed and continuous pro- 
duction, completely automatic Elec- 
Tri-Line Systems are available. 

For full details, write explaining 
your needs. 

Illustration above shows Elec-Tri-Pak 
at Jewel Tea Co. packaging candies. 




ve os 

Te aeall 


Offices in Principal Cities, United States and Canada 


Many changes in production requirements have taken 
place since the war began. Where formerly it was possible 
to get along with slow packaging methods, it has now 
become almost out of reason to endeavor to continue in 
this vein. Greater production is the key to winning the 
war as soon as possible and greater production will be the 
key to efficient and profitable operation when peace is 
again restored. 

If you are unable to obtain a high priority now, in- 
vestigate these machines for installation as soon as possible 
after the war. Send us a sample of each size carton you 
desire to handle and we will recommend machines to meet 
your specific requirements. 

CHINE sets up 30-40 
cartons per minute, re- 
quiring one operator. 
After the cartons are set 
up, they drop onto the 
conveyor belt where they 
are carried to be filled. 
Can be made adjustable 
to handle several carton 

MACHINE closes 
30-40 cartons per min- 
ute requiring no opera- 
tor. The cartons enter 
this machine as open, 
filled cartons on con- 
veyor belt and leave 
machine completely 
closed, ready to be 
packed for shipment or 
wrapped. Can also be 
made adjustable to han- 
dle several carton sizes. 

If you require repair parts, do not hesitate to order them. 
We will make prompt shipment without interfering with the 
large amount of war work we are now doing. 



DECEMBER °* 1943 

SEALING problems disappear when a CAPEM 
screw capping machine goes on the line. CAPEM delivers 
a tight, leakproof seal with all styles of metal and plastic 
caps as well as caps of certain acceptable substitute mate- 
rials. This capper seals bottles, jars or cans of any size or 
shape at speeds ranging from 2000 to 7500 per hour. 
Fully automatic, it saves from 2 to 4 operators. 

Enlarged facilities enable us to produce more than 
ever before. Right now all of this equipment is devoted to 
the war effort. When this crisis is over, however, we hope to 
utilize these enlarged facilities to build new types of 
packaging equipment in addition to the standard line of 
Consolidated packaging machinery. 

lems. Such an interchange of ideas will benefit all users of 
packaging equipment by helping them to plan NOW on 
ways to meet post-war needs. 


RE RN ea 


To this end, we welcome suggestions from users | 
of packaging machinery as to new types of equipment | 
which might help to solve their post-war packaging prob- | 

All classified advertisements payable in advance of publica- 

tion. Rates: $5.00 up to sixty words; enclosed in border, 

$10.00 per inch. Publisher reserves right to accept, reject 
or censor all classified copy. 

manufacturer producing new marking device and marking 
colors, to establish distribution, contact government de- 
partments and industrial plants. State your qualifications, 
lines carried, territory covered and age of establishment. 
oy a. Products, Inc., Dept. M-1, 1974 Broadway, 


LARGE NATIONAL CONCERN producing packaging 
material wants three men who are familiar with 
packaging materials and equipment to serve as 
packaging engineers. Also one man_ thoroughly 
familiar with laminating equipment and laminated 
materials and fancy papers. Also one man thoroughly 
experienced in the manufacture and sales develop- 
ment of bags. Write to Box 201, giving experience, 
age, salary, etc. All replies will be held in strictest 

FOR SALE: Model S Improved Economic World Labeler, 
motor driven, to place labels 234” x 534” and 214” x 51/;” on 
box ends, with general Electric 42 H.P., A.C. Motor, Type 
R.K.T., 220 Volts, 60 Cycle, 3 Phase, 1725 R.P.M., Snap 
switch, serial No. 745810. Reasonably priced. Box #199, 
Modern Packaging. 



PACKAGING ENGINEER, experienced on high speed 
wrapping machines to maintain continuous production on 
gum wrapping machines. Excellent opportunity. State 
age, experience, and salary desired. Write care of Box #198, 
Modern packaging. 


SET UP AND FOLDING PLANT, annual volume 
nearly $500,000. Can double with present equipment. 
Orders on hand $125,000. Good mill connections with 
excellent board allotment. Labor situation best in 
United States according to Government survey. Not 
a war plant in city. Real opportunity for Northern 
or Eastern concern to relieve their present produc- 
tion problems and have an established business for 
postwar business. Owner wants to retire. Write 
P. O. Box 1042, Memphis, Tenn. 

wrapping machines. Excellent starting salary. Plenty of 
overtime. Good future. Write Mr. O’Brien, SHULTON, 
INC., 1500 Hudson St., Hoboken, N. J. 

Experienced on S & S 

WANTED: An experienced Packaging Foreman for Depart- 
ment now employing 35 people. We want a man well versed 
in small package operation to grow with a new development 
with a definite post-war outlook. Fine opportunity for an 
aggressive young man who can handle people. Plant 
located near Newark, New Jersey. Reply Box 196, Modern 

kee ee ee 

A =a KARA Ae Sa eeaae ee os ts oe ee ob oe 6S 

aus eae eee eae eae ee a, eo —]—eeTs4 COT 

2 tor & 







psig MN a hg OS ke ia 4.4 ke 160 Lowe Paper Co... ine es au ae ae 
Aiuminem Co. of America. . oo... 0. os cece cdane ss 5 Lusteroid Container Co. POR eee ty Ae LY 159 
stich CMM’. «065-0 bi id cs oes Inside Front Cover 
American Commend Co... «. ccc ce cccebesss ioeen: ies De Peer fess dies el es 162 
Amsco Packaging Machinery Wit. osc asccevscccs MMM Manhattan Paste & — vend Ree. 94 
Anchor Hocking Glass Corp. . PRCT rs. hay dey a ag pSugy £e ee eG: Cee 
Pewstrong Cote CO... . 5 eee eee cn ce cces eee Rl, Mason Box Co., The . OE ey ee 
oe A, en. ee Waite CHM... «so scence ccc csvecses. 155 
Automatic Sete Co... 2... cc cence ceseees 164 3 say Seon ie eT aeee Bre eu ore 50 
: icnigan Carton Co. ............... nside Back Cover 
a Sona ee Co. eee eee eee be Miller Wrapping & Sealing Machine Co......... 164 
Bingham B sae gi Se an ne 164 tai ae ve o oa otabaitdetedaetl cabanas beh asi ister 7 
aks Mee... RererreeeeeeeeeneneS 56 ge 7 ee ee eee 170 
Brown- n-Bridge M Mills, Diets Gas National Starch Products Inc., National Adhesives 
§ Burt, F ce 93 ea oon ten ade 145 
Cameron Machine Co. Pee Dee xe > 161 PUI TR os i og hee ce mban 163 
nna og) be eee eee i 
—— — NN 25k 6cnd Fabre eee eee on ae a ie wet eee ee ee ee ee ees Back C 
Cell ti PORE STE Sy eeeen ae wens-Ilinols lass CO... ... 1 ee ee ee ee ack Cover 
a... os 168 ee clip, EE ee 57 
CN PO NN ac ui wba ads os ox x ER 166 
Consolidated Packaging Machinery ee Latncaeaccans 168 Package Machinery Co... ........-...-. 02-000 94 
Container Corp. of America....... ee Packaging Catalog Corp... ............2 2000 ee. 166 
Cotinectel Con Co. a Lua dhe ee oe PUNE, POE Oc Bs sk os cee cece wsecsaweees 11 
Creative Printmakers Group . . oases dhee ae ain ee a Parker Rust Proof Co. . bitte t tee ee cess TST 
ay OY. a a a. 139 ee 167 
Crown Cork & Seal Co... oo occ cc cccncnnceee $47 Petroleum Specialties Inc.......... 2.0000 cece eee 160 
eres on a de sae ri ea Se ree re ee wise 
ee a ae ee eee ea eee ae ee ee ee umati Nik lig We S.A iad Og eh 
say cor) gl ele eae 41 ree Ee ee 
| de. a ee eee er eee 105 meynolds Metals Co. Inc.........6.06..5.50008. 37 
| du Pont de Nemours, E. |. & Co., Inc., Cel-O-Seai iii... 58 
/ “tee sctealt COC ee 9 St oii, ~ ee a eee 165 
: Cellophane Division ..................00000% 60 Roesch, Louis, Ge Say a ar Aa ir ees eee 30 
Einson-Freeman Co., ae eet eee Be oe 55 Roto- Lith cha, © gaacte wp ane a Fo rece eae 53 
! NN, BE RR iene ciurtuigecennd wees 44 re 39-33 
Floquil Products RR ee re eee IE ee 165 ar we Yana ig te re a Ce we ee 59 
S § Gair, Rob CE os ae ea 49 tandard-Knapp Corp. ...........------+ eee ees 153 
\% el be eden hey Ol cbeasvatense.e.... 1 Stecher-Traung Lithograph Corp................ 59 
Coad tanee....................... I wd cn kg Sc ao eb db ow Gu ek wee 48 
era ting 99 
Glass Container & Cap Outlet Co.............. 143 eer emer ire ee 149 
S Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc......-....--.. 45 ee stig shale. asia, 8 
| Great American Plastics Co., The............... 18 Swift & Co... eee eee eee eee ees 10 

Sylvania Industrial Corp....................... 39 

SEER mney eis oe enD a 162 
\ Piame)-Piies (eet Coe cs ok om vncck ice ecsecss 51 Traver Corp PE Oe Ne oy ET, ae 5 Senne Te 45 
| terial okay Sr eee Gt reat a | j | | | | | ; | | Triangle Package Machinery Co A eg ee ee ey aie 167 
| ~— Hudson-Sharp Wischden (Ce. << ccivesrcssc..s 4 — i elez fee eR ao 159 
nited otates Automatic Box Machinery Co....... 36 
; Johnson, S. C., & Son, Inc.....+++++++sseeeeees ™ United States Envelope Co............00202005. 54 

} Kalamazoo ht, gga Parchment Co...........-. 6 
| OE EEE LOI OTT Oe 0 a a ere 98 
Krause, Richard M., Inc.......--....-++0eeeees 38 Wright's Automatic Machinery Co...........-.. 46 


122 East 42nd St. New York 17, N. Y. 

DECEMBER ®* 1943 


Many a sales executive is looking forward 
to the day when he can once again put his 
Christmas merchandise on display in rigid, 
transparent packages of Vuepak. When that 
day comes, you will find Vuepak even bet- 
ter than the sleek sturdy material you knew 
before the war. MONSANTO CHEMICAL Com- 

PANY, Plastics Division, Springfield, Mass. 





| Pass me the 

Hs Clit 

He won’t be putting his feet under 
the family table this Christmas .. . 
sO we are passing him the well 
deserved turkey and “trimmings” 
across thousands of miles of land 
and sea. They will reach him with 
all of their original lip-smacking 
tastiness and flavor — still full of 
morale and energy giving nutrition. 

Again American ingenuity rises 
to the challenge of “it’s got to be 
done.” We are proud of the part 
Michigan Cartons are playing in 
making the soldiers’ Christmas hap- 
pier ... glad that our 36 years of 
package engineering readied us for 
the unusual requisites of wartime 
food protection. 

ca * 




Serving the packaging world for well over half 
a century has given Owens-lllinois the 
background to produce and to create 

successful packages. 

Knowledge, teamed with wide experi- 
ence in material selection and fabrication, 
sets the pattern for our ideas in plastic packaging. 

Today, the war effort has first priority on our 
plastic facilities. This continuing experience 
points ahead to new plastic developments that 
will be yours...tomorrow.