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Full text of "American Engineer and Railroad Journal 1907-06: Vol 81 Iss 6"

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June, 1907. 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 201 











(Established 1832). 
AMERICAN 
ENGINEER 











New York Centrat LInes. 











Synopsis. 
PART I. 

PaGE. 
( The Importance of this Development............ 201 
Introductory 2ue Need of Such & Syste. .cccccccsccscscess 201 
General Features of the System................ 201 
Introduction on the New York Central Lines................... 202 
Former Apprentice Schools on the New York Central Lines...... 202 
CORSE CIC 6 oie tKK 6 CU a Nedeeedceaagcdteeneceueseons 202 
ee ee ee ee er er eer 202 
-vening Classes for the other Employees...................2.+ 203 
Apprentice Courses or Schedules.......... 203 
Rate of Pay for Apprentices.............. 203 
ee Perr eet torre 203 
} EURO OF BROCUGR. ccc ccccvasse 203 
eral Methods 2 . Grading the Classes............ 208 
Schools RIM COMIGERS i's 0's ceswscnues 205 
PVOnen COMPEEE. cc cicccccccccce 408 
, OMI co's b0uese's cee eawaar 205 
I OG OE so i.nb se these ciaicadascusnendeedeunsds ews sannenea 205 
[ SO cto nnweweeeen ELE ELSPA 205 
Pisctastecn eee aties CUUMTMCRIUURE oa 60:00s ntdeewewcenwens 207 
rawing instructus Observation Visits to Other Schools... 207 
n a er rr Terre re re 207 
he Sho astructor § Duties ....ccccccccsccccccccccccccseces 207 
en Se: ee f SNNOOS bance due sardilceuwavaqweas 207 
Advastbagen 00 te TSG ic cocckcsnccacccisseenecscsveess 207 
(Drawing Room Equipment.......... 208 
Equipment Furnished to Each Boy.. 208 
Drawing Instruments. ....cccccceccee 208 

Models ......  Asppannpenaciyesets 

~i)ie3 — Reference Books. 

cilities and Equipment GE Kcckuncbeetadsaceeekeanatuna 

TOGO COs 6 ok ncacacceeesevas 
Stereopticon and Reflection Lantern. 209 
Air Brake Instruction Car.......... 209 
; (Other Facilities. ....cccccccescccces 209 
Interest Shown by the Boys...--scecccseccccesccsccesssvesess 209 

Better Class of Boys Being Se- 
GUAGE oot c cencesceveree cence 209 
Understand Instructions More . 
Kdeantines Thee Bae MAGEE ccceseaqecucsaccscas 20 
\dvantages Thus Far Apparent ee eee ee 209 
Less Spoiled Work........+... 209 

Knowledge of Drawing Put to 
PUGS COGS ik ccisccssases 209 


\RT II. 

Entrance Qualifications. 
Examinations. 
Blackboard Exercises. 
Lectures. 
Discipline. 
Records and Diplomas 
Incentives to Promote and Hold Interest. 
Attitude of the Men. 
Attitude of the Officers. 
The Car Department. 
Apprentice Auxiliaries. 

PART III. 


Apprentice Courses or Schedules. 

The Drawing Course in Detail. 

The Problem Course in Detail. ; 
Apprentice School vs. Technical School Training. 


Introductory. 


A development which promises to be the most important that 
has ever taken place in the motive power department of our 
railroads, and the general principles of which are equally ap- 
plicable to manufacturing and commercial organizations, is the 
apprentice system recently introduced upon the New York Cen- 
tral Lines and now being extended as rapidly as possible through- 
out the system. While it is too soon to judge accurately of the 
final results, those thus far apparent, and the very rational and 
practical methods which are being used, indicate that it will very 
materially improve the labor conditions and add greatly to the 
efficiency of the motive power department. 

Those who are familiar with the present labor situation, the 
lack of skilled mechanics, the difficulty in securing foremen and 
the gross neglect, on most roads, of a system for recruiting good 
men for these positions, must realize the great need of improve- 


ment. The most forceful presentation of this subject which 
has ever been made, whether we consider the railroads alone or 
the manufacturing and commercial interests at large, was that 
made by Mr. G. M. Basford in an individual paper read 
before the Master Mechanics’ Association in 1905 (AMERICAN 
ENGINEER, page 251, July, 1905). The necessity of installing 
such a system, and a general outline of a system which would 
produce successful results under present conditions, was clearly 
presented. As these suggestions have been followed quite closely 
in working out the details of the system on the New York Cen- 
tral Lines it is suggested that a study of the following article 
be preceded by a careful reading of Mr. Basford’s paper. 

Briefly the system adopted may be summed up under the fol- 
lowing three heads: 

1. It provides for the close supervision and instruction of the 
apprentices in the shop by an apprentice instructor. 

2. A school is conducted by the company during working 
hours, the apprentice being paid for attendance, at which me- 
chanical drawing is taught in a practical way. 

3. A course of problems, carefully arranged to suit the needs 
of the apprentices, has been prepared which they are expected 
to work out on their own time. 

While the system differs radically in many respects from any- 
thing that has been done in this country, it follows more or less 
closely the general principles governing the educational system 
of the British Admiralty, which has been in operation more 
than sixty years and according to Sir William H. White has 
produced the majority of the men who are now occuping the 
most prominent positions in the ship building industries of Great 
Britain. In an article, published in the January, 1904, issue of 
Technics, he says of it: “It has given to private shipbuilders 
its leaders, who have risen from the ranks, while it has pro- 
duced men holding many important and influential positions in 
all parts of the world.” 

The only system that has been carried out on a large scale in 
this country, which at all approaches the methods used on the 
New York Central Lines, is the General Electric Company’s ap- 
prentice school at Lynn, Mass., which was described in a paper 
on “A Plan to Provide for a Supply of Skilled Workmen,” pre- 
sented by Mr. Magnus W. Alexander at the December, 1906, 
meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. A 
special shop has been fitted up at Lynn, known as the “Appren- 
tice Training School,” and for the first 1% or 2% years of the 
four years’ course the boys work in this shop under the direc- 
tion of competent instructors. The production of this depart- 
ment is of commercial value. The latter part of the course is 
spent on regular work in the shops. A school is conducted dur- 
ing working hours at the expense of the company, each appren- 
tice receiving six hours’ instruction a week. 

Under the New York Central system the boys come into con- 
tact with the actual shop conditions from the very first. 

During the discussion of Mr. Alexander’s paper the fact was 
brought out very forcibly several times that manufacturing in- 
dustries are suffering greatly from the lack of suitable means 
for recruiting skilled labor and that unless immediate steps are 
taken to remedy the difficulty the commercial resources of the 
country will be seriously crippled. The same thing applies with 
equal force to the motive power departments of our railroads. 

It is true that here or there a railroad or a shop has given 
some attention to this subject, but generally speaking it has been 
almost lost sight of. The old methods are not suitable for the 
new conditions and an adequate system cannot be installed and 
carried on successfully as a side issue by an officer who already 
has all he can do. Fortunately the formation of large railroad 
systems, each made up of several railroads, makes it possible to 
place a work of this kind in the hands of a well qualified man 
who can give his entire time to it and employ the necessary as- 
sistants. 

The purpose of such a movement, if it is to be successful, must 
be in line with the suggestion intimated by the following words 
of Mr. G. M. Basford, used in closing the discussion of his 
paper before the Master Mechanics’ Association two years ago: 
“I beg you to bear in mind the pyramid—a pyramid of the rank 












202 





AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





and file, the rank and file of the workmen upon whose shoulders 
you stand. As the base is great and upright and strong morally 
and intellectually, so is the structure. No structure is great and 
permanent that is not right at the bottom.” If steps are taken 
to furnish a good supply of skilled workmen, well equipped for 
service under modern shop conditions, there will be no trouble 
in developing men from among them for the higher positions. 

In the series of articles, of which this is the first, an effort 
will be made to explain just what has been done in this matter 
on the New York Central Lines up to the present time. The 
articles are intended to supplement a paper to be presented be- 
fore the coming meeting of the Master Mechanics’ Association, 
by Mr. C. W. Cross, superintendent of apprentices, and Mr. W. 
B. Russell, assistant superintendent of apprentices, which will 
be reprinted in our July issue. 


Introduction on the New York Central Lines. 


Mr. J. F. Deems, when he became general superintendent of 
motive power of the New York Central Lines, had under con- 
sideration the establishment of an adequate system of appren- 
ticeship on that system, but the apprentice department was not 
inaugurated until March 1, 1906. On May 7, 1906, the first ap- 
prentice class, under this new plan, was started at the West 
Albany shops. It was, of course, realized that while there would 
be some advantages which would be almost immediately ap- 
parent, the most important results would not be noticeable for 
a number of years, and therefore, before starting the organiza- 
tion, steps were taken to insure its permanency for a period of 
sufficient length to enable the results to be clearly demonstrated. 


Former Apprentice Schools on the New York Central Lines. 


Although at the inauguration of the new plan there were 
twelve shops on the system, each of which had from 20 to 74 
apprentices, apprentice schools of some kind had been carried 
on previously by the local managements at only four points, 
Elkhart, Ind.; Jackson, Mich.; Oswego, N. Y.; and McKees 
Rocks, Pa. 

About 35 years ago an apprentice school was started at the 
Elkhart shops on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Rail- 
way. The sessions were held in the evening and the school was 
intended primarily for the apprentices, although anyone in the 
employ of the company was eligible to membership. This school 
was continued with more or less success, and in 1901, under the 
direction of Mr. C. W. Cross, then master mechanic, attendance 
was made compulsory for apprentices, and what was known as 
the Apprentice Association was organized. This association held 
meetings every two weeks, at which reports were made by com- 
mittees who had visited other shops, or addresses were made by 
persons skilled in different classes of work. While membership 
was not compulsory the greater number of the apprentices be- 
longed to it and the meetings were well attended. 

On July 28, 1886, evening class work for the apprentices was 
started at the Jackson shops of the Michigan Central Railroad. 
For the first few months the classes were held from 7 to 9 Pp. ., 
but this did not prove satisfactory and was changed to 5.15 to 
7.15 Pp. M. Each class met one night a week from November Ist 
to April 3oth. Attendance of apprentices was made compulsory. 

In January, 1904, an apprentice school was organized at the 
Oswego shops of the New York Central under the direction of 
Mr. W. O. Thompson, division superintendent of motive power. 
This class met for two hours, directly after the whistle blew 
at the close of the day, one day of each week. Attendance was 
made compulsory for the apprentices and they were paid for 
their time in the class, thus making it possible to enforce a 
somewhat more rigid discipline. 

About two years ago an evening school was organized at the 
McKees Rocks shops of the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, 
under the direction of Mr. L. H. Turner, superintendent of 
motive power, and Mr. W. P. Richardson, mechanical engineer. 
These classes met twice a week and attendance of the appren- 
tices was made compulsory. 

Mechanical drawing was taught at these four schools, the 
method being the same as that ordinarily followed, including 


—— 
practice in lettering, geometrical exercises, projections, copying of 
drawings and blue prints, making drawings of locomotive parts 
and making tracings. 


General Organization. 


The apprentice department is under the direction of Mr. C 
W. Cross, superintendent of apprentices, who reports directly 
to the general superintendent of motive power and devotes his 
entire time to this work. His office is at the Grand Central 
Station in New York. Mr. Cross gained his early experience on 
the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburg, after which he took 
a position as master mechanic on the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern Railway at Elkhart, Ind. While at Elkhart he re- 
organized the apprentice system in the shops at that point, mak- 
ing it much more effective. His very extensive and successful 
experience as a shop manager and master mechanic, his per- 
sonality which appeals to the boys, and the interest that he 
has always displayed in the welfare of the apprentices, makes 
him especially well qualified for this position. 

He is assisted by Mr. W. B. Russell, who has charge of the 
educational features. Mr. Russell is a graduate of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology and was engaged for a number 
of years as an instructor at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, one 
of the most successful trade schools in this country. He has 
thus had exceptional opportunities for studying boys and young 
men of about the same type as the apprentices in railroad shops 
and understands thoroughly how to arrange the work to hold 
their interest and so they will understand how to apply what 
they have learned to practical purposes. 

The central organization deals with the general problems af- 
fecting the apprentice work, otitlines the different courses, looks 
after the educational work, organizes new schools and keeps in 
close touch with all of the schools. 

At each of the larger shops are two instructors, a drawing 
instructor, who in most cases is the shop draftsman and who 
has charge of the school work, and a shop instructor, who gives 
his entire time to instructing the apprentices in their shop work 
and to seeing that they receive the proper shop experience. Both 
of these men report directly to the local officers of the road, 
who keep in close touch with the apprentice department. 


Special Features of the System. 


The apprentices are instructed in drawing and in shop prob- 
lems by a man already in the service of the company, on the 
shop property, during working hours and while under pay. 

They are instructed in the trade in the shop by a special in- 
structor, who gives the whole or part of his time to this work, 
and who is responsible to the local shop management. 

Thé instruction in the trade is given in the shop on the regu- 
lar tools and in the regular run of shop work. 

Apprentice schedules are followed, insuring a thorough train- 
ing in the trade and giving the necessary variety and work. 

The drawing and the problem courses are arranged to allow 
each apprentice to progress as rapidly as he desires, but so as 
to enable a single instructor to handle classes with as many 
as 24 students in a class. 

The character of the courses is such as to fit the standards of 
the road, to read in the language of the shop and to suit the 
special conditions existing locally. 

The method of instruction differs radically from the ordinary 
methods of teaching in the following points: 

Text-books are not an essential part of the plan. 

There is no sub-division into subjects. 

All principles are clothed in problem form. 

There is no arbitrary standard of the amount of ground 
to be covered. 

No examinations are held. 

The progress and marks of the apprentices are based on the 
close personal touch maintained between the instructors and the 
apprentices. 

The apprentice work can be installed at the greater number 
of the shops by using talent already in the service of the com 
pany. 






























































~~ SS Oe 


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June, 1907. 














AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 








OCCUPATIONS OF EMPLOYES IN THE EVENING CLASSES AT THE DIFFERENT SCHOOLS. 





Occupation. 





| West Albany. | Collinwood. | McKees Rocks | Brightwood. 





Machinist ......ccsecccccccnccccceccccces ee ean eae 
Boilermaker .. e+e e cere eee eeeeeeeeeeeees 
Blacksmith ......ccccccscccccccsscccsccccs aca 1 
Foremen, ASsSt. .......ssscccccecccccccces roe 4 
9 
4 


Piece Work PMNS cai xiscd desieredin Seaim aueeeias 


TIMMCT sewer eee eee e eee eee eee eeneeeeeeees 


Clerk Tere Te Te TET TCC TCT TTT eC rer ; are re ere e aeunl 


Crane Men ....-ceecccccccccccccccscccoes 
Painter .ccccccscccccesccsccccscccsecscese 
Car Dept. ...ccrceccccccceccccccccccccecs 
Electrictam se eee ec eee eee e ence eerneeeveees 
Upholsterer eee rccccnrccccccceseceeeescese 
Canmee WEOEOE 5o0s686ess wesiscvessdcudas 
RE SEE. 6 ick si venscwrseresacreieedas 


WOOd WOHMEE 60 cscs ccdcreticcsccceccccces cow DP i kkbe lice caenceaicds 


Templet Maker ....ccsccccccccccscccecece wee 
ee EE eek skeen se deuvavcswatcecuneaws wee waite 
Wo MAGE cic cece ccceeccavcvccesseccesee | cccscsccccecs aes 1 
Moulder .cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccces saae nee 
CLC EPCOT COPEL TE CT OC CEE Cee Cee eee Te Tee Cree 


Wane MONEE nyc cc ve cee rescecescadcawaes ee eer N roaniataaaea as | 


Ghebigniety TMBMISEE occ ccccicssscaesveces | 
MECSSENTET ccccccccccccccccccccccccescccce eee ere re Eee eee ree 


WEE RUE ae ccskeWonsSienedcaxcceceees es | 


OPES DOT ee Pe Ee oe ey SR Seen 





13 


Oswego. 


Jackson. 


— 
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Grand total, 132. 


Evening Classes for the Other Employes. 


The men in the shops, both foremen and workmen, have 
evinced considerable interest in the apprentice schools, and there 
has been a demand for evening schools to give them the same 
advantages. In response to this, evening schools have been 
started at a number of places, including McKees Rocks, October, 
1906; Elkhart, November, 1906; Jackson, November, 1906; West 
Albany, November, 1906; Brightwood, December, 1906; Oswego, 
January, 1907, and Collinwood, February, 1907. These classes 
are open to all of the employees. At all of the points, except 
Elkhart and McKees Rocks, they meet for an hour and a half or 
two hours directly after the shop whistle blows in the evening. 
At Elkhart the classes meet from 7 to 9 and at McKees Rocks 
from 7.30 to 9.30 P. M. The men are more regular in attend- 
ance and take a keener interest in the work when the meeting 
is held directly after the shop closes. In many cases the men live 
a considerable distance from the shop, and it would not be con- 
venient for them to return after going home to their dinners. 

The make up of these classes, as shown in the accompanying 
table, is very interesting and will give some idea of the extent 
to which this work has been carried. At several of the schools 
where there is a full quota of apprentices and a waiting list the 
boys take places as helpers until there is an opening for them 
in the apprentice department. These boys usually enroll in the 
evening classes. Boys who have finished their apprenticeship 
also follow up their studies in connection with the evening 
classes. These classes are discontinued for three or four months 
during the summer. The men who attend them take the same 
course as the apprentices, but if they desire may skip the easier 
portions. As a rule they prefer to take all of the work, review- 
ing that part with which they are familiar. They furnish all of 
their own material and pay the instructor (the apprentice school 
drawing instructor) for his time. The cost of tuition amounts 
to about $1.25 per month, which ordinarily includes nine lessons. 
The classes are held in the apprentice school room, the company 
furnishing this, with light and heat, free. Only the drawing 
work is done in class, the problems being worked outside. 

These classes give the more ambitious men an opportunity for 
becoming more proficient and to fit themselves for better posi- 
tions. They are especially valuable for foremen and assistant 
foremen who may desire to “brush up” their knowledge of draw- 
ing and mathematics. As a result of the classes the shop men are 
becoming more familiar with the company standards and are 
being drawn into closer touch with the shop draftsman. 


General Methods. 


Apprentice Courses or Schedules—One of the first steps taken 
by the apprentice department was to draw up uniform appren- 
tice regulations to be followed at all the shops, and to arrange 
schedules showing the amount of time to be devoted to each 





* One of these clerks is from the engineering department. 





part of the work for each trade. These regulations and the 
apprentice courses will be considered in detail in other sections 
of these articles. 

Rate of Pay—tThe rate of pay for the apprentices is controlled 
by the management of each road. 


Tue ScHOoOL. 


Place——The school room should be located near the shop 
buildings from which the greater number of the apprentices 
come, in order that as little time as possible will be lost in going 
to and fro, and so that the boys can conveniently drop in during 
the noon hour. The room should be well lighted and ventilated. 
Provision should be made, if possible, for sufficient blackboard 
space to send the entire class to the board at one time. The 
floor area, including the space occupied by the filing cases, racks 
or tables for models and the instructor’s desk, should have an 
average of at least 25 to 30 square feet to each member of the 
class, and more if possible. 

At West Albany the school is on the ground floor of a build- 
ing alongside the machine shop and opposite the office building. 
A connecting room at one end contains the filing cases and large 
models. The school room is rather crowded, the drawing room 
tables being made specially narrow. 

At Oswego, Depew, Jackson and Collinwood the school rooms 
are in the office buildings, the one at Depew being especially 
large and well lighted. At McKees Rocks a large room on the 
second floor of the storehouse, which is centrally located, is 
used. At Elkhart the school is held in a separate building, which 
was formerly used by one of the other departments. It is well 
lighted, as it is comparatively narrow and has windows on both 
sides. 

The building at Brightwood, on the Big Four, was built espe- 
cially for the school. It is of frame construction, located con- 
veniently, and the large amount of window space furnishes 
splendid light. Inside dimensions of the building are 25 x 50 x 13 
ft. high. An idea of the arrangement of several of the school 
rooms and buildings may be gained from the accompanying illus- 
trations. 

Time of Meeting.—The classes meet twice a week for the first 
two hours in the morning. The boys are bright, fresh and clean 
at this time of day and able to do their best work. This is much 
more satisfactory than evening classes, as the boys are in a more 
receptive frame of mind than after a long day in the shop. The 
schools are closed during the month of August. The boys ring 
in at the shop before coming to class and at the close of the 
session proceed directly to the shop. Strict discipline is enforced 
in the school. 


Grading the Classes—No attempt has been made to grade the 
classes, according to the progress made by the students, except at 
Oswego. At that place conditions at present are such that this 





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June, 1907. 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 


205 














APPRENTICES IN THE DIFFERENT TRADES AT THE VARIOUS SCHOOLS. 
































Trade West Albany. Jackson. Depew. Collinwood. |McKees Rocks, East Buffalo.| Brightwood. Elkhart. Oswego. 
Machinist .......-.-. - 54 30 53 34. a: GR scks Peawnwsceesedac 26. . 36 16. 
pee a Ne AR Peer rrr Serene rere were cree GQ ccnebacdcaw<cedeeeclaed 6 ccd wetnde hues ceeds candcal ccasceeessseeaaeanee 
Boilermaker ere ee 11 9 15 a DW ca selvbwseanetaanae 6. 12 1 
Blacksmith eececcce eece : ee hey ae ee OD manda uweheanndeseuseuceas eee 7° , Saree, ee eran eer 1 
Tin and Copper Shop} .... 1* | meee errr ere 1 1 I gs S 3 D cncahagaadaeasaee 
Daitee: MOONEE &< cin) 06 cecicntcccnbecs.s | PAS Rr ere Corer etre peer eee ee” been ee eee a rere Creer ree? 
WEGGUUEE co cnccstcccelecscccscccssich eocccdncceses| cccesesesees ME CE POPE TEE LEER ET: PERE ECC EE CET T D cntdiigawsaseatnas 
Ce ML | Ca eR EOEEL 656 ass aaa Odi ses cent aces cade Kas eee cesee Paes dees caacee Bes dcashead ae WUhweseacdn Gece sched ee desseeraiciehs baeunetcudans 3 
Machinist* ......-. t er SEP erer Mr eer re CCT er ere Lar rery irr t - Sratinaagudewtee debaamsanaes | sada cackoueaan 
Cabinet Maker ..... S| eee CE PEE Ee CE PN Cee? emp yee tiny! "st EEE MEPS 3 oe ere, | Sn ae ee Sccwhepasaatann 
Carpenter .cecrcecefeccccccccccccalecccccccvcccce! coves cceccee | once ceccescee beecceccecceccs ee seu teks wee ade aware Rene Py weeedeweadaaan 
EE GRY TEE CERT POET OEE PROCTER DOP R COPE r CR prrrpetaemre Sbemenlen tm iertene ak tas ca dares Jes cecceeerees l addandnguaded 

eet es 
Tee. cnctacens 69 44 75 51 33 18 MB ical 54 21 














~~ * Car Department. 








+ The 13 laborers are included in the class for reasons which will be considered in the section on “The Car Department.” 
The above information is correct to May 1. Since that time a number of apprentices have been added at different points. 


can be done. Care is exercised that too many boys are not taken 
from any one department in the shop at the same time, so as not 
to interfere too seriously with the shop work. The drawing 
course is arranged so that one instructor can look after as many 
as 24 boys at a time, although smaller classes may be handled to 
better advantage. The average number of students in a class is 
about 17. 

The Drawing Courses——The class work is largely mechanical 
drawing, although some time is devoted to blackboard exercises 
in connection with the problem course, and occasionally the in- 
structor may find it advisable to talk to the class about the work 
in the drawing or problem courses. The students are also in- 
structed from models as to shop practice and taught the princi- 
ples of the steam engine and valve setting with the aid of a small 


Present Extent. 


Thus far apprentice schools have been established at nine 
points on the system, including West Albany, Depew, East 
Buffalo and Oswego, on the New York Central; Elkhart and Col- 
linwood on the Lake Shore; Brightwood on the Big Four; Jack- 
son on the Michigan Central, and McKees Rocks on the Pitts- 
burgh & Lake Erie. The date on which each of these schools 
was inaugurated, the number of apprentices in each trade, and 
the names of the drawing and shop instructors are shown on the 
accompanying tables. The boys are divided into three classes at 
all the shops, except Oswego and East Buffalo, these two places 
having two classes each. The schools were all started in 1906. 


Date 

stationary engine in the class room. School 

The d ‘ 7 diff — that di i] Shop. Started. Drawing Instructor. Shop Instructor. 

e drawing course is very different from that ordinarily west arany 5/7 A. L. Devine Prank ilies 

followed, and is based on strictly practical and common-sense Jackson 5/15 C. P. Wilkinson C. T. Phelan 

: he ‘ - 4 Depew 5/28 G. Kuch, Sr. P. P. Foller 
lines. No time is wasted on geometrical exercises, but from the* Collinwood 6/4 R. M. Brown Thos. Fleming 

. > . . aa . . +1: McKees Rocks 7/il Henry Gardner J. R. Radcliffe 
very first the student draws objects with which he is familiar and East Buffalo 8/2 ia” =3— Ss cerca weg 
comes in contact in the shop. The first exercises are largely Brightwood 8/8 C. M. Davis A. W. Martin 

; P e 2 Elkhart 9/11 C. A. Towsley J. S. Lauby ‘ 

redrawing correctly sketches which are not in scale, the dimen- Oswego yn a ~~ erates 5 


sions in all cases being taken from the model. New principles 
are introduced gradually and progress is slow but very thorough. 
The courses in drawing will be considered in detail in a later 
section of this article. 

Problem Courses.—Like the drawing course the problem course 
is eminently practical and is based on shop practice and company 
standards. No matter how simple the problems, even in simple 
addition and subtraction, they refer to something with which the 
boy is familiar in connection with his work. The problems grad- 
ually grow more difficult, taking up the simpler principles of al- 
gebra, geometry, physics, elementary mechanics, etc., but these 
are introduced only when necessary to solve some practical 
problem and are not classified as such. The boys do the greater 
part of the problem work at home. 

Text-Books.—It is not possible to use text-books in connection 
with either of the above courses. The work must be arranged 
to suit the special conditions met with in a railroad shop, and to 
be effective the problems must be tied up closely to the shop 
work. For instance, the drawing and problem courses for the 
locomotive and car department are not alike. The drawing prob- 
lems are arranged on blue print sheets and when a boy is ready 
a problem sheet and a model are handed to him, the sheet giving 
the directions as to what is to be done. In this way each boy 
in the class can work on a different problem, and yet the work 
of the instructor is very little more difficult than if all were on 
the same problem. 

The problems are arranged on sheets, and as soon as a boy 
finishes one sheet he is given another. The instructors keep in 
close touch with the central organization and co-operate in get- 
ting together material for the drawing and problem courses. 

The methods followed in arranging these two courses are very 
different from those usually advocated by educators. They, 


however, form the real foundation of successful school work, 
and the rapid progress made by the apprentice schools is due 
largely to them. Their importance is such that we shall present 


a detail study of both these courses in the third article of the 
Series. 


The total number of apprentices enrolled in the schools at the 
present time is 396. The total number of apprentices on the New 
York Central Lines, not including the Boston & Albany, is 667, 
so that at present more than 58 per cent. of them have the ad- 
vantages of the apprentice schools. The schools are being ex- 
tended to the larger shops as rapidly as possible. The larger 
shops where schools have not yet been established are: 





Road. Place No. of Apprentices. 
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pO eee re ree eee ee Cre er oe 26 
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Sree SIGN: acaaawaaawe cedures 24 
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ee | ee ey eee eee 27 

MO cc ev aces tiscaasapecdivucecdeweraenaesens 224 


When schools are installed at these places over 92 per cent. of 
the apprentices on the New York Central Lines will have school 
privileges. The remaining 8 per cent. are at 13 points, each place 
having from one to nine apprentices. Just how these will be 
reached has not yet been decided, but probably by traveling in- 
structors. 


Drawing Instructor. 


Duties.—The drawing instructor is usually the shop draftsman 
and reports to the shop management on all matters concerning 
the apprentice schools, except those which are purely educational. 
All reports are transmitted to the central apprentice organization 
through the local management. The instructor is expected to 
keep in close personal touch with each apprentice, so much so 
that it will be unnecessary. to give examinations to determine the 
student’s standing. He has charge of the school and checks up 
and assists the boys in connection with the problem course. 

As it is necessary for him to be at the school before seven 
o’clock in the morning and he must also devote more or less of 











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AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 207 









his own time in correcting the problems which are handed in 
and in other duties connected with the school, he is paid extra 
for this service, depending on how many classes he has each 
week. The instructor should be at the drawing-room for at least 
a part of the noon hour to advise and assist any of the boys 
who may drop in at that time. 

Qualifications.—The success of the system depends very largely 
upon selecting the proper men for instructors. The drawing 
instructor should preferably be the shop draftsman, thus being 
brought into close contact with shop problems and also with the 
men in the shop. He must be a man who will take a genuine 
interest in the boys and can see things from their point of view; 
a man that the boys will feel free to approach either for in- 
formation as to their class or problem work, or for advice as to 
personal matters. 

He should be a man to whom the boys will look for advice 
and assistance in forming apprentice clubs or organizations, 
whether intended for educational or social purposes. One in- 
structor who is especially close to the boys is very often accosted 
on the street in the evening by boys who have questions to ask 
in connection with some problem. Some of the instructors make 
a practice of calling upon the boys at their homes when they 
have been absent from the shop due to illness or other causes. 
A quiet talk with a careless or indifferent boy often accom- 
plishes remarkable results. 

Observation Visits to Others Schools.—It is the policy to have 
the instructors visit the other schools on the system in order 
to broaden out and see what the other fellows are doing. A very 
noticeable feature at most of the schools is that upon examining 
the methods and equipment closely the instructor is quite likely 
to tell you that he got a certain idea from one point, another 
from still another school, etc. Possibly this feature is to some 
extent responsible for the rapid progress which has been made 
at some of the schools, at any rate it is apparently productive of 
important results, especially at this time when the work is just 
getting well started. A periodical meeting of the instructors 
would doubtless be productive of good results. 

Understudy—The drawing instructor should have some one 
trained to take his place when he is absent. His duties in con- 
nection with other work may take him away from the shop for 
a day or two; he may be taken ill, or find it advisable to visit 
one of the other schools. In such cases his assistant in the 
drawing room, if he has one, or one of the advanced apprentices 
should be in position to look after the school. At Brightwood 
the drawing instructor was ill for some time and his place was 
filled by the shop instructor. 


Shop Instructor. 
The shop instructor is an important factor in the organization. 
The Collinwood shop on the Lake Shore was the first to intro- 
duce an apprentice shop instructor, and the results were so im- 





SCHOOL IN SESSION AT THE COLLINWOOD SHOPS, LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN. 


mediately apparent and important that this feature was included 
in the new apprentice organization when it was started. 

Duties—The shop instructor at the larger shops gives his 
entire time to looking after the apprentices. He instructs the 
boys at their trade and sees that they are changed from one class 
of work to another, in accordance with the apprentice schedules. 
In changing the apprentices about the instructor consults with 
the various foremen, studying the situation carefully in order 
to have as little friction as possible in making the changes, and 
so as not to interfere too greatly with the efficiency of any one 
department. His suggestions must of course be approved by the 
shop superintendent before being put into effect. 

He must pass upon all applicants for apprenticeship as the 
official representative of the apprentice department, and is also 
to make recommendations as to apprentices who are unsatisfac- 
tory and should be dropped from the service; in fact, he is held 
responsible for the retention in service of apprentices who are 
incompetent or otherwise unsatisfactory. He is expected to 
assist and consult with the drawing instructor as far as possible. 

The apprentices report to their foremen, as before, but the 
foremen are relieved of all responsibility of instructing them. 
Ordinarily very great returns are not to be expected from the 
introduction of an apprentice system until after a period of 
several years, but the work of the shop instructor has been found 
to almost immediately affect the shop output, and this is to be 
expected. The shop foremen are too busy to spend much time 
with the boys, and ordinarily the instruction in shop practice has 
been very much neglected, thus restricting the output and in- 
creasing the amount of spoiled work. The shop instructor is 
expected to occasionally visit other shop schools to study their 
methods. 

Qualifications—The shop instructor, like the drawing in- 
structor, must have a great deal of patience with, and take a 
genuine interest in, the boys. He must be a good mechanic, must 
have sufficient all-around knowledge to enable him to look after 
the boys in the various trades, and his position in the shop 
organization should be such that the boys will look up to him. 
Most of all, he should be a man who will appeal to the boys and 
know how to convey his ideas so that they will readily under- 
stand him. He should take a broad view of the shop problems, 
giving the boys some idea as to the general principles affecting 
their work, such, for instance, as movement of material through 
the shop, the cost of production and the elimination of lost 
motion in performing their work. 

Advantages to the Instructors. 

In addition to what financial compensation the drawing and 
shop instructors receive there are other important advantages. 
To successfully handle their work they must study up and be- 
come more familiar with the work in the various departments of 
the shops. They become familiar with shop practice at other 


208 





AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





points on the system by occasional visits. If they have marked 
executive ability it soon becomes apparent, and this with the 
broader view they have of the shop operation fits them for more 
important positions in the organization. Nothing is quite so 
important in crystallizing one’s ideas and broadening a man“as 
trying to instruct others. 

Facilities and Equipment. 


Drawing Room Equipment.—An effort has been madé to pro- 
vide sufficient blackboard space in each school room so that the 
entire class, if possible, may be sent to the board at one time. 
A standard drawing table is used at several shops, but at others 
the shape of the room, or equipment already at hand, made it 
advisable to deviate from this. The construction of this table is 
shown in the accompanying drawing. It is simple but substan- 











SECTION OF THE CASE FOR FILING DRAWING BOARDS AND TOOLS. 


tial and inexpensive. Drawing stools are furnished and are 
especially appreciated by the evening classes. 

Cases are provided for filing the drawing boards and tools. A 
section of one of these standard cases is shown in the accom- 
panying photograph. Each drawing board is numbered and is 
filed in a corresponding space in the case, the tools being placed 
in an orderly arrangement on top of the board. 
made of %-in. pine with an oak stain finish. The section for 
filing the drawing boards is 19%4-in. wide, 2714-in. deep and 
3-ft. 6-in. high, this being sufficient for 24 boards. The drawers 
at the bottom are used for storing material. Racks or tables 
are provided for the drawing models. The arrangement used at 
Depew is shown in one of the photographs. Cases of various 
kinds are used for filing the finished drawings, the problem 
sheets and the solutions which have been handed in. The draw- 
ings and solutions to the problems are kept by the instructor and 
returned to the apprentices in lots of fifty. 

Equipment Furnished to Each Boy.—Each boy is furnished 
with a pine drawing board, shellac finish, 18 x 24 x 11/16 in. 
thick. These boards have 14 x 1 in. hardwood strips mortised 
in each end to keep them from warping. In addition, the boy is 
furnished with a T square, celluoid triangle, a wooden curve, tri- 
angular box scale, thumb tacks, erasers, erasing shield, pro- 


These cases are 


tractor, pencils, a file for sharpening the pencils, ink, pens and 
pen-holder and the necessary drawing and tracing paper. This 
equipment is shown in one of the illustrations. As these supplies 
are purchased in large quantities the cost to the company is com- 
paratively small. 

Drawing Instruments.—The boys are expected to provide their 
own drawing instruments, which because of the large number of 
sets required are comparatively inexpensive. A splendid set 
may be secured for $4.00, and very satisfactory sets can be ob- 
tained as low as $2.50. 

Models.—The drawings are all made either from the actual 
parts or from wooden models, which are easier to handle. Each 
school is arranging to secure a small vertical engine and a light 
engine lathe, not necessarily new or up to date, which will be 
used in connection with the drawing and problem courses. Any 


number of practical problems may be based on the gearing, 
pulleys, etc., of the lathe and the principles of steam distribution 
and valve setting may be taught in connection with the engine. 
Models of the Walschaert valve gear are also being provided. 





VERTICAL ENGINE ARRANGED FOR DEMONSTRATION PURPOSES AT 1 
ELKHART SCHOOL. 


At Jackson, Mr. Phelan, the shop instructor, has some wooden 
models for instructing the boys in quartering driving wheels, 
etc. These are shown in the photograph of the school room at 
Jackson. At McKees Rocks, Mr. Radcliffe has constructed a 
model of the foundation brake gear used in connection with a 
four-wheel truck with inside hung brakes. 

Reference Books—No text-books are used, but each boy is 
furnished for reference with a copy of “Machine Shop Arith- 
metic,” compiled by Fred H. Colvin and Walter E. Cheney, and 
“Link Motion,” by Fred H. Colvin, both of these books being 
published by the Derry-Collard Company, of New York. The 
boys at one or two of the schools were furnished by the Morse 
Twist Drill & Machine Company with a small pamphlet known as 
the “Young Machinist’s Practical Guide.” It is planned to have 
other technical books and trade papers kept on file for reference 
at the different schools. 

Charts—At West Albany a series of charts have been fur- 
nished by one of the air brake companies, showing the different 
parts of their apparatus. Charts have also been furnished by 
a steam gauge company, showing the construction of its gauges. 

Trade Catalogs——Catalogs of interest to the students are kept 
on file at each school. In several instances catalogs or pub- 
lications of special interest have been furnished to each appren- 
tice, such for instance, as a publication on: the cross-compound 
locomotive, published by the American Locomotive Company, and 
given to the apprentices of the Michigan Central, where this type 
of locomotive is used very largely. The Allfree-Hubbell catalog 





















June, 1907. 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 209 








was furnished to each apprentice on the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie 
where a number of these engines are in service. 

Stereopticon and Reflection Lantern—A combination stereopti- 
con and reflection or opaque projection lantern has been pur- 
chased by the railroad company and will be used in connection 
with any lectures that may be given. The lantern was purchased 








RACK FOR MODELS AT DEPEW. 


from the L. E. Knott Apparatus Company, of Boston, Mass., and 
in addition to using the transparent slides can be used to reflect 
on the curtain views of printed matter, drawings, photographs or 
any opaque substance. 

Air Brake Instruction Car.—These cars can doubtless be used 
to good advantage by having them devote a part of their time 
to the shop apprentices; in fact, this is being done on one or two 
of the roads. 

Other Facilities—The testing laboratories, machinery and 
equipment, especially at the larger shops, afford exceptional op- 
portunities for occasional practical demonstrations in connection 
with the class work. 

Interest Shown by the Boys. 

The apprentices generally have displayed considerable interest 
in the work of the school and the efforts which are being made 
to improve their opportunities. This is clearly shown in a 
number of ways, and especially by the earnestness with which the 


greater number of them are following up the drawing and prob- ° 


lem courses. At several shops the writer managed to drop in at 
the school during the noon hour, after the boys had eaten their 
lunch, and almost invariably several of them would be found 








MECH ANICAL DRAWING EQUIPMENT FURNISHED TO EACH APPRENTICE. 


Working on problems, looking up references, asking questions of 
the instructor, or talking the work over among themselves. 

‘Some of the boys have completed their apprentice course since 
the school was inaugurated, but realizing the opportunity which 





was being placed before them they have enrolled in the evening 
classes and are continuing their studies in that way. The draw- 
ings made by the boys are very good, both as to accuracy 
and neatness, considering the work in which they are engaged. 


Advantages Thus Far Apparent. 

Better Class of Boys Being Secured—While only two or three 
of the schools have been in operation for as long as a year, 
a number of practical advantages have become apparent. With 
the greater opportunities that are being offered a better class of 
boys is being secured. Formerly it was difficult to keep up the full 
quota of apprentices at most of the shops. Now there is a wait- 
ing list for some of the trades at several shops, and apprentices 
are being secured for trades formerly without them. In many 
instances high school graduates have enrolled as apprentices. At 
shops where there is a waiting list it is not unusual for the boys 
to take places as helpers or wipers and enter the evening classes 
until an opening occurs in the apprentice department. This 
service is a sort of probation period and those who are unsatis- 
factory are sifted out. 

Understand Instructions More Readily—The boys take a 
greater interest in their work in the shop, and because of the 
principles learned in connection with their educational work, are 
better able to understand the instructions given to them and to 
carry them out intelligently. Their earning power is thus in- 
creased. 

Greater Output——The work of the shop instructor is especially 
productive of immediate returns. When the apprentice is shifted 
to a new class of work the instructor stays right with him until 


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STANDARD DRAWING TABLE FOR APPRENTICE SCHOOLS. 


he understands it thoroughly. Under the old system the foreman 
was supposed to instruct the apprentice. He would almost in- 
variably be interrupted a number of times and would probably 
hurry off after he had half instructed the boy, expecting to re- 
turn shortly. The chances were that he would forget all about 
it and the boy would be left to shift for himself. As one shop 
superintendent tersely put it—under the old system a boy after 
working on a machine for two or three weeks might get to a 
point where he could produce one-half of a mechanic’s output— 
now he can on an average turn out seven-eighths of a mechanic’s 
output after three or four days. When a workman does not re- 
port for duty an apprentice can be put on the job under the di- 
rection of the instructor and the output does not suffer to any 
great extent. The increase in the apprentice’s output due to the 
above causes more than offsets the loss of time due to class work, 
which amounts on an average to forty minutes a day for each 
boy. 

Less Spoiled Work.—The amount of spoiled work has been 
very greatly reduced, due to the advent of the shop instructor. 

Knowledge of Drawing Put to Practical Use—The brighter 
boys, after they have worked for several months in the drawing 
course, may be used to considerable advantage for making rough 
sketches or simple drawings, either of a broken part, for trans- 
mission to the mechanical engineer’s office, or in connection with 
the shop practices. 

One master mechanic, in speaking of the apprentice courses, 
said that if on twenty-four hours’ notice he was asked to estab- 
lish a mechanical engineer’s department with a force of six or 
eight draftsmen, he could do so by selecting his men from among 
the apprentices and would guarantee to make as good a record as 
the average railroad mechanical engineer’s office. It is only fair 
to say that the apprentices at this particular shop had had the 
advantage of an evening school course previous to the establish- 






































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210 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





ment of the present system, although it was not nearly as com- 
plete as the present one. The man who made the remark was in 
earnest and was thoroughly conversant with the work expected 
of a railroad mechanical engineer’s office. 





STEEL PASSENGER EQUIPMENT. 





By Cuaries E. BarpA AND MarviIN SINGER. 








PrEsSENT STATUS OF STEEL PASSENGER CARs. 





The past few years have seen the beginning of a new industry 
in America, and although the construction of all-steel cars is in 
its infancy, it promises to effect a permanent revolution in 
passenger equipment. It is hence of vital importance that the 
question of economic car design be given careful technical 
consideration; technical not alone in the matter of construction 
and repair, but from the standpoint of transportation require- 
ments. : 

It is the purpose of this series of articles to advance methods 
by which the fundamental laws and principles governing the 
action of the structural materials, under simple and combined 
stresses, may be applied to the design of steel passenger equip- 
ment so as to secure a maximum of strength and convenience 
with a minimum weight. 

In this introductory article an endeavor will be made to indi- 
cate the most prominent economic and social needs and necessi- 
ties which are forcing the introduction of the steel passenger car 
and note the various cars brought forward to solve these trans- 
portation problems of the present and immediate future. 

Our lumber resources are fast approaching the stage reached in 
Europe years ago. The general supply of timber near the 
regions of greatest industrial activity has been fearfully depleted 
and the exhaustion of these nearby forests puts the native supply 
so far away as to make the transportation charges an ever- 
increasing burden. As a result the commodity is not at all 
stable. The market value of some of the ordinary varieties 
used in car construction and maintenance has risen over 100 
per cent. in the last few years, and even at this price it is almost 
impossible to secure timbers of a size large enough to construct 
the framing of long coaches without resorting to splicing. In 
seeking for a material to replace wood it is necessary that it be 
a product of a firmly established and comparatively stable indus- 
try. Designers have turned to steel, as answering the require- 
ments with best satisfaction, and its suitability and high efficiency 
clearly indicate the advisability of its general use in future car 
construction from an economic standpoint. 

The managements of modern railroad systems have been com- 
pelled to resort to elevated and subway construction in order to 
relieve the congested traffic on lines of greater passenger density ; 
the limitations under which the existing surface railways must 
operate, make it impossible for them to adequately satisfy the 
needs of travel in these districts. The general introduction of the 
above modes of transportation has increased the probability of 
fatalities, incident upon accident, to such an extent that the dis- 
placement of wood by the metals, as a constructive element in 
equipment for such service, is inevitably coming. The use of 
steel and fireproof materials will instill a feeling of security in 
the public and satisfy the legal demands for immunity from the 
greatest dangers to life and property. The substitution of 
steel will secure the required increase in strength at a slightly in- 
creased weight for coaches and a decreased weight for sleepers. 
The dead load carried per passenger will be reduced and econo- 
mies in operation will result. 

Probably the first definite intimation, that cars framed and fin- 
ished entirely in metal would soon be introduced to a large ex- 
tent, was the intention of the Pennsylvania’s late president, ex- 
pressed in connection with the New York tunnel projects a few 
years ago, that none but such cars would be used for the service 
and that the traffic would require 1,000 coaches and 500 Pull- 
mans. This contemplated step occasioned much surprise at the 





time as the idea was much bolder than had been attempted in 
foreign countries where cars with steel frames had been running 
for years. Much doubt was expressed as to the feasibility of 
such an innovation. In the ranks of the car builders and the 
railroad world scepticism was rife as to the practicability of turn- 
ing out such a car and preserving a harmonious appearance com- 
bined with great strength and low weight. Considerations of 
safety, especially for electric control, and economy of operation 
made the necessity a live issue and the patent office records of 
papers issued to car designers and the frequent illustrations of 
the practical working out of these designs in the technical jour- 
nals show that no effort has been spared to solve the problem. 
Nearly all of these designs have points which are worthy of note, 
but with a few exceptions they seem to bear evidence of too low 
an estimate of the requirements of strength and of operating 
shocks and stresses, since it is evidently but a matter of a few 
years until we shall have compete trains of such cars in opera- 
tion, including postal, baggage, dining, combination, coaches and 
Pullmans. While at first hesitating to make the large outlay 
necessary to successfully build such equipment the commercial 
car builders are now entering the market, and we may expect the 
art to progress with great bounds to such an extent that they will 
be unable to satisfy the demands of the railroad companies. In 
underground running the dangers from fire are greater than 
from collision, and the necessity for non-collapsible fireproof 
cars for such service is evident. 

The necessity for cars of this kind is just as great for our long 
distance, high-speed service, where luxurious buffet, dining, 
parlor and sleeping cars have provided comforts at the expense 
of increased weight. To meet the requirements of these fast 
schedules with heavy trains the modern passenger locomotive of 
large tractive power has been developed. Considerations of 
safety demand that the passenger equipment of such a train be of 
a uniform strength, capable of resisting the greater shocks in 
service and accident due to the greatly increased kinetic energy 
of the moving unit. 

The modern wooden coach, following the tendencies of design, 
as presented by Pullman practice, is a great improvement over 
its immediate predecessor. The early cars were built to conserve 
expenditure and at the same time they suitably met the traffic 
demands. For through service their limitations soon became 
apparent and the long heavy equipment took on more the char- 
acter of bridge design and departed much from that “developed 
from wagon building and consisting of timber framing held to- 
gether by nails, spikes, straps, lag screws, and bolts.” (M. C. 
B. A.—1897.) To meet the requirements for increased length 
the framing became heavier and heavier, developing in the form 
of Howe, Pratt, Challender, and other trussed side frames and 
the substitution of additional sills until we now have as many 
as eight of them continuous over the length of the car. We 
have reached a point where the future development must be met 
by a radical departure from the present designs in order to re- 
duce the ever increasing weight and momentum of fast express 
trains. Operating conditions, as prevailing at present, have 
forced the conclusion that further reinforcement of wooden 
coaches either by the addition of more and heavier timber brac- 
ing or by the use of steel is not at all profitable. 

The large initial orders of the Pennsylvania, a few weeks ago, 
are an indication that, though the steel passenger equipment is 
but in the initial stage of its development, the railroad com- 
panies are taking advantage of the superiority which is possible 
in steel designs and depend upon such cars to satisfactorily solve 
the constantly increasing difficulties of the passenger traffic prob- 
lem. This means that the steel railway car for such service is 
regarded as an accepted type of railway rolling stock, and though 
the initial cost may be somewhat higher, the ultimate returns 
will more than offset the expenditure. That the future will se¢ 
few new cars constructed of wood is the opinion shared by sev- 
eral managements and evidenced by the hasty preparations of 
the car builders to be ready for the change. The introduction 
of this improved equipment will without doubt proceed as fast 
as the resources of the companies will permit. 

Contrary to what one would consider a natural course of events 











June, 1907. 








AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 


211 








the Master Car Builders’ Association, up to date, has given no 
consideration to the steel car question and made no recommenda- 
tions. Since 1885 no report or paper concerning passenger car 
framing has appeared. Following along the lines of railroad reg- 
ulation for the sake of uniformity in safety and operation the 
Interstate Commerce Commission had a bill introduced in the 
House at Washington by Congressman Esch, of Wisconsin. 
Though by no means the only evidence of such legislation it is 
the most far-reaching of any bill brought forward to aid the 
railroad companies in their endeavors to secure for the public 
the best service possible. This bill thoroughly covers specifica- 
tions for the framing of the underbody and superstructure, ves- 
tibule and platform, floor and roof of passenger coach, mail, 
chair, smoking, combination or tourist sleeping cars and provides 
a date after which it shall be unlawful to construct or operate 
cars which do not come up to the specifications. ‘lhe items of 
this bill would equalize the resisting qualities of all classes of 
cars, a result which car builders have made an effort to secure 
by steel reinforcements of existing cars, but which is introducing 
the coming advent of an all-steel equipment on an instalment 
plan and is at its best but a half-hearted attempt to secure a 
few of the advantages obtained by an all-steel construction. 

The experience gained from the development of the steel 
freight equipment in the last decade and from the steel rein- 
forcement of our wooden passenger equipment, in providing for 
increased capacity and end shocks may be used as a basis to 
indicate the elements underlying the design of framing for steel 
passenger cars along lines which are theoretically correct. Thus 
the structure need not be an experiment nor will it mean simply 
a substitution of steel for the present wooden framing. That 
wood and steel are of equal strengths for equal weights does 
not hold true when full advantage of the possibilities of dis- 
tribution of the more efficient metal are taken. 
the same weight steel is the stronger. 


In this case for 


When the construction has advanced further due to the char- 
acter of detail design, facilitating the application of more eco- 
nomical production, these cars can be built for the same if not 
for less cost than the present wooden ones. When this stage 
has been reached the wooden cars now running will be super- 
seded by equipment which will secure to the public the benefits 
to be derived from its increased strength and reliability. 

From an inspection of the steel passenger equipment already 
built, we note that the designs are not at all uniform, due, no 
doubt, to too much personality entering into the development 
instead of a hearty co-operation between the railway manage- 
ments and the car builders. The railroad managements cannot 
be too careful in considering the preliminary designs for the 
purpose of securing the advantages afforded by extensive inter- 
changeability and standardization, whereby initial construction 
is hastened, repairs are facilitated, the necessary stock of store- 
houses is reduced and shop work simplified. 

The ordinary passenger equipment comprises various lengths 
of coaches, combination, baggage, dining and mail cars for loco- 
motives, steam and electric, and electric car operation. Unham- 
pered by any existing designs or precedents the framing and de- 
tail construction of these cars should be made suitable for the 
various motive powers and interchangeable to a noteworthy degree. 

Outlining, in general, a scheme of construction with this idea 
in view we might adopt a section between side posts, compris- 
ing two or three windows, as a unit and obtain various length 
cars by the addition or elimination of these units, and finish the 
tar with a standard end, inciuding platform and vestibules. Hav- 
Ing such a section for baggage and mail and one for coaches, 
together with stub and wide vestibule ends, would mean that 
any car or combination of cars could be built by simply joining 
these various suitable units. The superstructure of these units 


for baggage or mail and for passenger coaches would be uni- 
form, using the same posts and carlines; upper and lower deck 
toof sheets; deck plates; deck window frames applicable for 
trailing, pivoted and fixed sash; side eaves and letter boards; 
belt rails and panels beneath. Windows, window frames, win- 
dow sills, window capping, and the castings can also be made 
the same in each section. 


This same principle can be applied to the underframe by de- 
signing the sills for the maximum length car and when short- 
ening for smaller ones, a central unit may be removed and, 
where advisable, the thickness of cover plates reduced. Hence 
the ends of the underframe are standard, one for full vestibule 
and one for short; here the riveting can be anything that is 
consistent with good design, but in the central unit section it 
must be a constant function of the distance between posts so that 
the removal of such a unit will not alter the spacing. The un- 
derframe should be built with a view to clearances required for 
both steam and electric service and hence designed to take either 
motor or trailer truck. Interchangeability may even extend as 
far as the fittings for the two modes of operation. ‘hese ideas 
will govern the future theories of design which we shall advance 
and full advantage will be taken of their possibilities. 

We know that it is impossible to build wooden cars as strong 
as steel cars of the same weight, likewise for equal strengths 
the wood is heavier. Hence the steel car provides a greater 
coefficient of safety for similar weight and an increased operat- 
ing efficiency for equal strengths so that the question of steel 
passenger equipment is one in which the designers must bear 
in mind that for the greatest strength and least weight the dis- 
position of every ounce of material placed in the framing should 
be such as would help to sustain its share of the strain. 

Far-sighted car designers years ago recognized the value of 
the use of steel for such purposes. Their ideas, however, were 
not adopted, not from a lack of worth, but because they were 
years ahead of the economic needs. The transportation problem 
was not so complicated and dangerous and our lumber resources 
made it impracticable. To show. the correctness of the reason- 
ing of these early inventors and that the present designers are 
following the same principles, the following is quoted from the 
patent issued to B. J. La Mothe in 1854, this being one of the 
earliest examples with which we are acquainted: 

“The three requirements for railroad cars are, first, lightness; 
second, strength; and third, slight elasticity or toughness, as 
distinguished from rigidity, thereby providing against accidents 
in cases of collision by preventing the structure from being 
either broken up or considerably indented or smashed, which 
would in either instance be nearly equally destructive to life.” 

“Tt is well known that all the weight of railroad passenger 
and freight cars is borne by the floors and platforms, the upper 
parts being of a character scarcely more than competent to sus- 
tain their own weight, and hence become principally coverings 
to retain and protect the contents of the car. Where these upper 
parts are made of wood, considerable weight is added to the 
car without increasing its strength to bear the load it contains, 
and in case of accident these brittle frames are broken into 
fragments and inflict more personal injury than the actual con- 
cussion consequent upon the speed of the train, hence I desire 
that the platform and floors of the (the only parts 
which really resist concussion) be formed very strongly and 
provided with competent springs at the ends, while the upper 
parts of the car to which my invention relates, be formed as a 
light, strong, permanent and elastic inclosure that will not vibrate 
under the motion of the train, neither will it crush down in 
cases of collision, but be elastic, slightly yielding to great pres- 
sure and then spring back to the proper form. At the same 
time the sides act to strengthen and support the platform and 
the load thereon.” 

Besides the above there are a number of other early cars 
which are noteworthy in that they embody the essential ideas 
that govern present practice. In La Mothe’s design the theories 
concerning the underframe were sound, but he preserved wooden 
center and side sills while making the superstructure of metal. 
Five years later Mr. Joseph Davenport designed a car with both 
underframe and superstructure of iron. He realized the possi- 
bility of the best distribution of the metal in the framing and 
replaced the bar metal of La Mothe’s by “U”-shaped posts and 
carlines connected by longitudinal braces of bar iron, using eaves 
and side sills of angle iron and pressed or rolled intermediate 
cross bearers similar to the posts; though the construction of 
the center sills is faulty the design presents many good ideas. 


cars 




















































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June, 1907. 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 213 














In 1860 Mr. Robert Montgomery offered a design which was 
an advance over Davenport’s in the character of pressed fram- 
ing. Here we first note the use of corrugated iron to support 
the floor. Interior steel sheathing is to be noted in a design by 
Mr. John A. Roebling later on in the same year. These early 
cars possessed in common the feature of center sills continuous 
over the platform. The next thirty years saw these same ideas 
worked out by numerous designers in various ways and also 
brought to light some cars of a peculiar character, such as one 
framed entirely of steel tubing with the center bearing fastened 















of mechanically solving the problem, but the matter was only in 
a formative state and it is believed that the introduction of 
the steel side door suburban car on the Illinois Central (AMER- 
ICAN ENGINEER, October, 1903, page 358) in the fall of 1902 
marked the beginning of the new industry in America. A few 
months later the car for the Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany (AMERICAN ENGINEER, October, 1904, page 375) of New 
York was placed in service. It was a step farther toward entire 
steel construction than the Illinois Central car. Since that time 
the designs tabulated have been built. 








‘ame of Road. Class. Builder. Reference in this Journal. 

















| 
Long Island Motor Passenger American Car & Foundry Co. | September, 1906, page 340 | 
Long Island Passenger - i = = February, 1907, page 49. | 
New York Central Passenger ns ye a March, 1907, page §1 
Santa Fe Postal - = i October, 1906, page 397 

Erie Baggage and Mail Stentiend BieiCoeGe  +4+«~| iéié@§e§ atSicassacatwacadcacrevsdacuvadewe | 
N. Y., N. H. & H. Postal om -  & &=&=—=—“i(i‘idsS OCU seh gta tea itncun catia apiece arava 3 ae wea aaa 
Southern Passenger Pressed Steel Car Co. July, 1906, page 260 | 
Pennsylvania . Passenger, 58 ft. Pensesiesa See @ =| Q0 6hSsféndéataddacnsacqeneakeeneuwaleads aout 
Pennsylvania Baggage ” = Pee neers: ins ian ty Wa tele eae aI 
Pennsylvania Postal se = April, 1907, page 136 

Pennsylvania Passenger, 70 ft. ~ June, 1907 

Pennsylvania Diner, 70 ft. ‘i eer Crp l trae rye ree ree AY | 
Pullman Company Sleeper Pullman Car Co. April, 1907, page 130 


Southern Pacific Passenger Southern Pacific Shops January, 1907, page 6 

















directly to the center sill, and another formed as a large shell 
of annular steel rings with the windows set into the sides. Mr. 
Edward Meatyard advanced the idea of continuous posts and 
carlines, with side sills of channel iron and center sills of “IL” 
beams. Especially notable is the design of his all-steel truck. 
During this period the clerestory, metallic window frame and 
window sash were introduced. Structural and pressed steel also 
began to gain prominence in the design. From 1890 until 1902 
or 1903 the art progressed to a marked extent in the manner 

















These cars present more or less valuable applications of the 
three fundamental theories of underframe design to take care 
of the static and service stresses to which a car is subjected. 
We have never seen in print a consideration of the best methods 
to be pursued in determining the stresses involved in the fram~ 
ing due to combined end shocks, dead or live weights and the 
most economical and practical distribution of the material to 
secure the maximum strength. The following article will deal 
with the problem as affecting the underframe. 

















MALLET COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVE FOR REGULAR FREIGHT SERVICE—GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY. 


MALLET COMPOUND FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVE. 


Great NorTHERN RAILWAY. 


The Baldwin Locomotive Works is delivering an order of 
twenty-five Mallet compound locomotives to the Great Northern 
Railway which are of special interest as being the first of this 
type to be put into regular road service in this country. It will be 
temembered that this railroad received five locomotives of the 
‘ame type from the Baldwin Works last fall,* which were de- 
signed for pusher service in the mountains and have been giving 
Most satisfactory results in that capacity. 

This later order being designed for different service, naturally 
differs from those now in use in many respects. They are lighter 
mM weight, have smaller cylinders, a much smaller boiler and a 
somewhat shorter wheel base. In the general features and ar- 
Tangement of parts, however, the two designs are very much 
alike, The accompanying table will show wherein the principal 
differences lie. It will be noticed that the boiler is very decid- 
edly smaller, having but 3,906 sq. ft. of. heating surface, while 


. 
See American ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JourNAL, Aug., 1906, p. 300. 























the pusher engines have 5,658 sq. ft. This, however, does not 
necessarily indicate that the freight engines have too small a 
boiler capacity, as the ratio of 229 sq. ft. of heating surface 
to 1 cu. ft. of cylinder volume shows them to be well within the 


BOCGIOG. ceccccscccdcsecee cos. ceedencoceceseceses Pusher | Freight 
Total weight, IDS. .-.ceeeeesesecees cere séssees 355,000 302,650 
Weight on drivers, IDS. ..-e.e see cece eee eeeeeees 316,000 263,350 
nnn GE Eas «  gkdidcaden cnet euneeéesnaxs 71,600 } 57,940 
Pilmeoter GF GPIGOOR icc cceicccecscecee: coccdoncens 55” 55’ 
Dinsseter Of CylidletSscccccccccccccsecss clases: 21%” and 33” | 20” and 31” 
GATORS ve6sca<s< i arcade oud komad onus az” 30’ 
WE OE i aecctccndccdccentccce>  senxes 94’ 72! 
Stems PTESSUTS, Ten cc cccccssccceccescccccccsess 2 0 210 
Rigid wheel base.........se.eeeesees erncennns 10 | , 
Re I es cx cccuncnancesdcecnes nae 30’ | 287 11” 
Total heating surface, sq. ft...-..-. -..+-. 6+: 5,658 3,906 
CI I OE Bei avi ss 606406 xcsi ences ahaaakeaael 78 | 53.4 
WO IMME. .. pancccsingssceccanansaceas APES 698 820 
Heating: surface + volume cylinders.....------ 271 229 
Grate area + volume cylinders.........+-++++++- 3.75 | 3.13 
Total weight + total heating surface ......-.. ‘ 62.75 | 


77. 





usual range in this respect, but it does show very clearly that 
they are intended for an entirely different kind of work. 
Reference can be made to the description of the previous loco- 
motives for a discussion of the general features of the Mallet 
compound type of locomotives as illustrated by these examples, 








AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





eich aD RATER 














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BOILER, 2-6-6-2 TYPE MALLET COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVE—GREAT NORTHERN RY. 


and a few of the more interesting 
details only will be considered 
here. 

The boilers are of almost exactly 
the same size as the ones fitted by 
the same company to an order of 
Pacific type locomotives built for the 
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy 
Railway about a year ago.* The 
tubes are 2% in. diameter and 21 ft. 
long. There being 301 of them, this 
gives a sectional area of tubes of 

| i ae ; | 1,195 sq. in., or 29.5 per cent. of the 
a ie FS sectional area of the boiler at the 
a’ front end. The same proportion for 
ee Te the pusher engines is 31.5 per cent. 
and for two other recent heavy 
freight engines is 32 and 30.5 per 
cent. The mud ring is 5 in. wide on 
all sides, and the water space is given 
a good clearance toward the crown 
sheet, it béing increased to 81% in. at 
this point on the back head. The 
dome, as will be seen in the illustra- 
tion, is a steel casting in one piece, 
with the joints for the double ported 
throttle and the outside steam pipes 
forming part of the same casting. 
The construction of the throttle and 
its chamber was illustrated in the 
October, 1906, issue, mentioned 
above. The arrangement of the 
front end, which is much simplified 
by the absence of the steam pipes, is 
shown in one of the illustrations. 
The connection between the two 
sets of frames is very similar to that 
used on the previous engines, differ- 
ing principally in being a little light- 
er. A different type of saddle, which 
is stronger and probably lighter than 
the usual box design used in the 
earlier order, is found in this desig. 
The details at this point are evident 
in the illustration of the frame con- 
nection. ; 
The spring centering device 10f 
guiding the front set of frames 


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* See AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD 
FRAME CONNECTION, MALLET COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVE—G. N. RY. JournaL, Aug., 1906, p. 300. 








a. 





June, 1907. 








AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 215 








is the same as that used before, and is shown herewith. Briefly, 
it consists of a saddle fastened to the boiler shell, which extends 
down and can form a bearing on a cross tie across the top of 
the frames directly below it. Normally, however, there is 14-in. 
clearance at this point. Within the sad- 





PLAN, 2-6-6-2 TYPE MALLET COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVE—GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY. 


The construction of the receiver and exhaust pipes with their 


ball and slip joints was shown. in the previous article, as was 
also the M’Carroll air reversing gear used on these locomotives. 


The general dimensions, weights and ratios of the freight loco- 
























































: s ‘ 
dle casting are arranged two sets of om - Vi] bee 
° . ° . °o ° 1 3% 
coiled springs enclosed in housings, hav- pen “= OF i ae 
ing bearings so arranged as to permit s)- |el- P| at Sy 
: Seatac CLELL MEME LLEDD 
free inward movement and to resist out- uy of! f 
P RR) s 
ward movement by the compression of | le -—___- 5g” - - s eccronae ™ 
the springs. The spring cap which has i j 7 


free movement within the spring cast- 
ing or housing is connected to a rod 
which is hinged at its outer end to an 
extension of the frame cross tie. This 
rod also has a boss forming a ball joint 
at the outer end of the spring casting. 
Thus, the movement of the front set 
of frames is resisted by the spring on Ps 
the side toward which it is moving. Any BN 
desired amount of initial compression _T 
can be given the springs by means of si 

the nuts on the inner end of the rod, 7 

access to which is provided in the saddle sane 


casting. This spring centering device is 


located between the first and second pairs [65 bbe--——39—- 3 - 39-9 
' | 


of drivers of the front set. It also forms 
the only connection between the front 
end of the boiler and the front set of frames, which will prevent 
them dropping away from the boiler. This connection is made 
by 40 x 1 in. plates, front and rear, fastened to the cross tie and 
lipping over the flange on the saddle, as shown. 

The weight of the front end of the boiler is carried by a 
bearing between the second and third sets of drivers. This bear- 
ing does not restrict movement in any direction except vertically. 


mal 
















y 


44h 
= ge Fe > 





1 


























FRONT END ARRANGEMENT, MALLET COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVE. 











een Soe 


— 





| 


te. — 


FRONT FRAME SPRING CENTERING DEVICE, MALLET COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVES. 


motives are as follows: 
GENERAL DATA. 


RINNE cdecdundnvendtcneduaeneeescenebaedcesKeuees andaeed .-4 ft. 8% in. 
SUE” Gack didecdsaccddaeecesianmnecéodaccucsagesnaausseeeeeae Freight 
Fuel ...c00- LidshbEAdeNedReCeodkeoweeaad qanmentaait ecccocecccel CORE 
RE OEE ce ncacdesevenerdsdeecestasaneeduaeasauneer 57,941 lbs, 
Ve Sl WI CONG cs ccccwnccniencncseenwar daéedeuees 302,650 Ibs. 
WE ON eta dcccaccssnecheeecewnseeweacunaie 263,350 lbs. 
WOGte COE LOUD CERO edn ck ccccccecccocans citeneduwemee eeee 17,900 Ibs. 
Wee 0) Cl CCC ccceensacnnaneedeeeaeqdaeds eeeseee 21,400 lbs. 
Weight of engine and tender in working order......... ++++++450,000 lbs. 
Ween SO (QC ic décccceseetecceonndeasetsenetedueaneanauee 28’ 11” 
Wee MO IES ho dues cnscesucewesanssénceayecqans eeeduceneancadie ee 
Ween NE CENT s debe ccacacdeccodecceccKaetaneecacaeqeueewes coceele 
Wheel base, engine and tender...............00. enalai ack cccceccccete 
RATIOS. 
Wane eh GRINGO -6~ GUN GIIIER sono oc ccc cciccccdiedcdccadeuanaus 4.55 
"ae We i TRING CIES ide dnicccccacccasccccesecdeceeuceueual 5.21 
Tractive effort X diam. drivers + heating surface.........ee.eeee- 820.00 
Total heating surface + grate area...........sseeececcceeees aeceeus 73.00 
Firebox heating surface + total heating surface, per cent............. 5.10 
Weight on drivers ~ total heating surface.........cceccccccscsccees 67.50 
"FOORE WORE <& GOCE) ROGRIN SUNENOR a occ cccdcicccccccccucecdcecaces 77.00 
Volume equivalent simple cylinders, cu. ft......ccccccccccccccccccccs 17.10 
Total heating suriace + Wl. CHHMGEIS. oc ccccccccccccccecccccceeeee 229.00 
CORON UGE -<O WEE, COTINGG a 6 ccc ciccccesendinddccacesees seccdneconetuee 
CYLINDERS. 
(ae bb ddddadedeckedeesedeetebusantoakatetesenue Mallet Comp. 
Number cccccecs POTUUTCCOC TET TC CT OTT TOC CO errerrrrrrT, ere 
ee ae ere ee Peer em re ee 20” and 31” 
SOPGRO .cscce ET AE eT LE rer rT oeeecesee e830” 
Kind of valves..... Gancdevivendedaedecgvaeds<auqeeeudsadaee Bal. Slide 
Wee GON cera rekcccdccdeicdocnsccsscdaaccesccnseqsees . +». Walschaert 
WHEELS. as 
Driving, diameter Over Cres. ... ccc ccccccsccccccsccccsccccceceeucs 55 in. 
Driving, thickness of tires. ........-ccccccccccccccecee cccccscceeed% iM, 
Driving journals, diameter and length............eeeeeeeeees 9% X 12 in, 
Engine truck wheels, diameter. ......cscccccsccceccccceccccccccese 30 in. 
ees eer rrrrrerrcrrrr rr ceeeceeceeeeB X 12 in. 
Trailing truck wheels, diameter.........++..cescccccccecees seeeeee 30 in. 
Trailing truck, journals. .....cccccccccccccccccccce aedeeed ---6 X 12 in. 
BOILER. : 
GE, ckcdksuaudsedsdcdsaedsdeneccesseuesaawedeneeendadan ....Belpaire 
Working pressure ....... Pee ee seeeeee210 Ibs. 
Cataida Ghammetet OF Grek GING cc ic cc ccctcccccccceccecsccucens nimraed 72 in. 
Firebox, length and width. ......-ccccccccccccecctcceree 116% X 66% in. 
Firebox plates, thicknéss ........+.-ceccccccceccccccsecees -% and in, 
Firebox, water space......... po vcccccccccecs se ccccccccccccceseceseeD IMs 
Tubes, number and outside diameter. .........+-.eeeeeeeeees 801—2% in. 
WU I oc da ccndndeewenacscacansecececaes wcusddanesequeaumen 21 ft. 









































216 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 








Heating surface, tubes 

Heating surface, firebox 
Heating surface, total 

Grate area 


Wheels, diameter 

—-, diameter and length 
ater capacity 

Coal capacity 


in, 
8,000 gals. 
13 tons 


ROUNDHOUSE BETTERMENT WORK. 





By J. F. Wuirterorp.* 


In the general description of the “Betterment Work” lately 
instituted on the Santa Fe System, which was published in the 
December, 1906, issue of your journal, but little space was de- 
voted to its application to roundhouses (December, 1906, page 
474), as the work in this department had barely commenced. 

The installation of a system of rewarding individual ability 
through increased pay has progressed so satisfactorily in this 
department that a brief description of the work will be of in- 
terest to your readers, since there are many conditions encoun- 
tered that vary considerably from the regular shop work which 
necessitate the employment of other methods than those already 
described. 

In the machine shop the application of such a system is com- 
paratively easy, since it is possible to determine exactly the depth 
of cut and speed for the various machines for each quality of 
metal, and schedules, providing a time allowance for each indi- 
vidual job, can be arranged accordingly, the bonus being de- 
termined by the regular curve (December, 1906, page 465). 

In erecting work the problem is more difficult, since the 
amount of work necessary to complete a certain piece of work 
may be greater or less than the preceding job, as for example, 
on a shoe and wedge job on a locomotive, more lining may be 
required, more dressing of jaws and more new work at one time 
than another, consequently it becomes necessary to allow a mar- 
gin on schedules on this class of work, so that a workman may 
average a fair compensation in return for special effort. Experi- 
ence has proven that a shop organization can be much improved 
by specialization of work, and schedules on erecting work are 
arranged to good advantage on that basis, as, owing to the large 
number of engines in for repairs at one time, there is always 
sufficient work of each kind to occupy the men on schedules. 

The roundhouse, however, presents an entirely different cou- 
dition, for, while the shop foreman is able to plan the work one 
or two days, or even a week, in advance, and can determine from 
the reports furnished him what work will be necessary on the 
engines on the waiting track, the roundhouse foreman has no 
knowledge of what work is required until the engine reaches the 
ashpit. 

Again, while the shop foreman has days or weeks to complete 
his work, the roundhouse foreman is confined to minutes or 
hours at the most, necessitating considerable elasticity in hand- 
ling his force, and this condition permits neither a stated number 
of men to perform a certain job nor allows one job to be 
finished if more important ones arrive, and the item of waste 
in delay and waiting for work precludes the specifying of certain 
work to be performed by certain men. 

It is readily seen that any system of schedules which would 
not admit of any job being performed either individually or in 
conjunction with other work, or that did not provide for the 
work to be done by any number of men, would be of no value 
whatever in expediting roundhouse work, and it is on this ac- 
count that the railroads which have similar systems of rewarding 
special effort in their shops, have been unable to handle it suc- 
cessfully in all departments of roundhouse work. 

This difficulty has been overcome by arranging the schedules 
on a time allowance rather than a money basis, in the following 
manner: 

First—By arranging schedules on all operations in detail so 
that credit may be given for each individual piece of work 
performed. 

Second.—By making all schedules on a one-man basis and 


* General Roundhouse Inspector, Santa Fe System, 


dividing the time allowance according to the number of men 
used. 


The following schedules illustrate the methods employed: 


Schedule 

Number. : _ Description. 

1261 Reducing and lining back end outside main 
rod brasses 


. 


Groups. Hours, 
ABCDEGHJK L.6 
FLMNRSTUVX 2.4 
1271 ad 
1275 


Reducing, refitting and lining back end inside 
main rod 


1279 
1305 
1308 


All 
rod or side rod, not otherwise included.... All 
Dressing one main rod end or strap when 
necessary 


Note.—The letters refer to groups of certain engine classes, arranged 
this manner for convenience. 


The standard time at which 20 per cent. bonus is paid for 
performing the work in each schedule is shown in tenths of 
hours for one man, and where more men are used, the time 
shown is divided according to the number of men, and bonus 
is paid to each in proportion to his hourly rate. 

From the examples of schedules on rod work, it will be noticed 
that all operations have been scheduled sufficiently in detail, so 
that the proper time allowance can be credited to each man 
according to the work performed, though special schedules of 
a blanket nature are often arranged to cover boiler-washing, 
boiler work, etc., where the work performed by certain gangs is 
considered as a unit. An example of this is as follows: 

“For performing all grate and ashpan work, boring flues and 
doing all necessary hot work on engines turned during each 
shift, a bonus as per table below will be paid to the boiler gang, 
and prorated according to the wages earned. No bonus to be 
paid unless work performed is satisfactory to the foreman. No 
engines to be counted on which overtime is worked; no engines 


counted if a failure due to this work occurs on the following 
trip.” 





4 Men. 
$0.80 
1.00 
1.20 
1.40 
1.60 
1.80 
2.00 
2.20 
2.40 
2.60 
2.80 
3.00 
3.20 
3.40 
3.60 
3.80 
4.00 
4.20 


3.80 

The ruling that no bonus is paid if the work performed is not 
satisfactory to the foreman, minimizes the imperfections in work- 
manship, and this is further emphasized by the fact that the 
earnings are materially reduced if a failure occurs on this class 
of work on the succeeding trip. The men soon realize that a 
“stitch in time saves nine,” and that slighting of work one da) 
means considerable loss of bonus when the engine returns, so 
that each man exerts himself to get the engines out in the best 
possible condition. 

It frequently becomes necessary for the roundhouse foreman 
to shift men in order to furnish power promptly to the trans- 
portation department and delays to individual jobs are often 
occasioned by waiting for work from the machine or blacksmith 
shops, all of which would nullify any effort to pay bonus on 
individual schedules. 

In order to provide for these contingencies, and not restrict 
the shifting of men, and also to permit the men to profit by 
such benefits as may be derived by carrying on several jobs at 
one time, a collective feature was introduced where the total 
work performed in any one day by one man or gang of men 15 
grouped and the total time allowance for all operations is taken 
as the standard time of the collective schedule, for the calculation 
of bonus. 

By this method, a record of all work completed by each work- 
man during the day becomes essential, but it is unnecessary to 


























June, 1907. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 217 
Pe Week Ending a Week Ending 
.- he = S & = S a a8 = s a g * - S 
11 on | ° “a 





EFFICIENCY BY WEEKS OF 


know the exact hour any particular job was completed and clerks 
are employed to visit the workmen at intervals in order to give 
them credit for all operations performed; as this system of time- 
keeping has been found the most satisfactory. 

With a systematic distribution of men and work, one clerk is 
able to attend to these duties in any of the roundhouses, though 
it has been found advantageous to secure clerks who have had 
practical experience in locomotive work, as their duties are such 
that they can materially assist in the supervision of repairs. 

Delays between jobs, always a source of waste in roundhouses, 
are eradicated, as each workman realizes that every minute idled 
reduces his bonus earnings and they now inform the foreman 
when delays ensue, which is quite contrary to the former custom. 

There is always a tendency, where work is required on short 
notice (and this condition is almost continuous in a roundhouse), 
to assign more men to the work than are necessary, all of which 
increases the cost of repairs, but the arrangement of schedules 
on a one-man basis, while permitting the necessary flexibility in 
handling the work, serves to discourage the employment of 
superfluous help, as this greatly affects the bonus earnings, and 
thus exerts a marked influence on the individual workmen. 


Day of Month 


78 9 1011 12 1381415161718 19 23 24 25 26 27 


29 30 


4 


2 \7 
| YA 
Z\ 


“| 


tosz | | | | 
rani 


| 
} 
| 
| 
| 
} 


h 


Stand; 
Actual 


Total Hours W 


INDIVIDUAL EFFICIENCY STATEMENT. 






110 


100 


90 








SEVERAL LARGE ROUNDHOUSES. 


As a man gets but one-half the time allowance with two men 
on the job as when he is alone, it results in efficient team work, 
or produces a tendency to work by himself whenever possible. 

iexperiments have demonstrated that the more men work 
alone, the more efficient they become, and the following graph 
is submitted as evidence, the line “A” indicating the work 
performed by one man working alone, and the line “B” or “C” 
that performed by each when two men are working together, 
the record having been taken from the actual performance for 
thirty days on the same class of repair work. 

The actual hours worked by each man is indicated by the 
broken line and the standard time allowance for the operations 
performed, by the heavy lines. The record shows that, at the end 
of thirty consecutive days “A” had 308 hours to his credit, or 
an efficiency of 103 per cent., while “B” and “C” working to- 
gether, have but 182 hours each, or an efficiency of 60 per cent., 
for which work “A” earned bonus equal to 23 per cent. of his 
wages, while “B” or “C” 

Estimating the value of locomotives at $5.00 per hour, the 
gain by the performance of “A” is $40.00, standard time con- 
sidered as a basis, while the performance of “B” and “C” re- 
sults in a loss of $590.00, or a difference of $630.00, from which 
must be deducted $17.25, the amount of bonus paid to “A.” The 
value of distributing the work as much as possible is very 
evident. 

The efficiency of each workman is the relation the standard 
time of the work performed bears to the actual time consumed, 
and the foregoing serves to illustrate the ease with which the 
most efficient men can be readily located. Statements showing 
the efficiency percentage of each man are furnished at intervals 
to the master mechanics in order that the incompetent may be 
This has served to improve the force at 


earned no bonus. 


located and replaced. 
all points. 

When the amount of work fluctuates, as is usual in round- 
house work, it has always been a difficult matter for accurate 
comparisons to be effected for the same point for different 
periods, as any comparative basis which does not consider the 
quantity of work performed, is erroneous in the extreme, and 
the usual basis of the average cost per engine is one which 
possesses no value whatever. 

On the Santa Fe, a method has been employed for some time 
wherein comparisons of the handling expenses are made on the 
unit cost, a unit allowance having been determined for each 
operation in connection with the turning of engines, which 
method was fully described in the issue of your journal of De- 
cember, 1906, page 474, but a comparison of repairs has been re- 
cently arranged by means of an efficiency report which shows 
the performance of the repair force. 

The efficiency for a roundhouse is determined by comparing 


218 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





the relation of the total standard hours of all operations per- 
formed and the total actual hours, and this data is compiled at 
the close of each day’s work, which enables the efficiency of any 
point to be determined by days, weeks, or months. 

The accompanying graphs show the efficiency record by weeks 
of several of the large roundhouses, showing how these reports 
are arranged and distributed to the various mechanical officials, 
enabling them to know positively at a glance what was previously 
only a matter of conjecture. 

‘Lhe following data, taken on a division operating the heaviest 
power, in a bad water district, with adverse labor conditions, 
indicates the relation the efficiency of a force bears to the total 
expenses and serves to illustrate the value of records of this 
nature. 

The figures are for three consecutive months immediately fol- 
lowing the introduction of the new system, and include the effi- 
ciency, the handling expenses, the repair costs and the average 
time consumed in turning power: 


Handling 

Efficiency. Expenses 
35% $6,399.01 
58% 5,990.24 
82% 9,236.83 


Average Time 
Repairs. Turning Power. 
$9,128.80 10.4 hours 
8,866.58 i a 
6,727.44 8.3 ‘5 


‘The increase in the efficiency resulted in a substantial decrease 
in the average time consumed 
duction in 


in turning power and also a re- 
the cost of handling and which includes 
all expenses incidental to the installation of the new methods. 

It is noticeable that the majority of the points shown in the 
second graph are located in territory where there has always 
been difficulty in securing and it is worthy of note that 
since the installation of the new system at these points the 
length of service of the men has increased over 50 per cent., and 


repairs, 


labor, 


the number of steady men is gradually increasing, while a more 
cordial relation between the men and foremen has been effected, 
as each workman realizes that it depends on his own ability 
whether his services are found worthy of promotion or other- 
wise. 


The introduction of the system has made such progress that 
the majority of the work in the larger roundhouses is now 
covered with schedules, and it is being introduced in the smaller 
places as rapidly as possible. 

The general results which have been obtained may be noted 
from the following comparison of roundhouse expenses for the 
with those of a year previous on one grand 
system has been introduced at all points: 


month of February 
division where the 


Engines 
Handled. 
5,036 
5,929 


Handling 
Expenses. 
$10,110.69 
8,328.40 


Repairs. 
$15,517.01 
12,839.9) 


1996 
1907 


With an increase of 16 per cent. in engines handled, the ex- 
penses have decreased over 17 per cent., an actual saving for 
the month of $4,468.30, or, on the basis of engines handles. al out 
$9,000.00, which would mean a yearly saving on that division of 
over $100,090.00. 


Additional advantages of this system are improved super- 
vision, a more complete record of work done than was possible 
under the old system, and a more accurate distribution of labor 
charges, all of which are due to the method of checking and 
recording each individual operation performed. The economies 
resulting from the improvement in handling power are such 
that they cannot be reduced to a money basis, though they pro- 
duce a marked iticrease in the earning capacity of each locomo- 






























































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ree 


CATS 


Pad 4? a agp itigs 4d 0) 5G) 4 18 


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ay 








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Iams: 3 4p — why -2- [oy = -- fi 


















































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fo OBSIO 0 OO 00 








ARSEEI 



































1 


9 


7 = 
Single course of flooring 3 thick by 8 ide over Bolster 
8 4g" button head bolts to each plank 
69° 
~~ 3 >< 


| i" Countersink head bolts 
through bottom course of flooring 
only Top course of flooring spiked 1% bottom course, 
i 














From Rail 2 


Ce ER = > ee 
MA Fk nt sind . 























75-T0N 


STEEL FLAT CAR—-LAKE SHORE 








> 


& MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY, 











June, 1907. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 219 


























75-TON STEEL FLAT CAR. 
LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY. 


The Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway has just com- 
pleted building, at the Collinwood shops, five 150,000 Ib. flat 
cars for carrying heavy machinery, castings, etc. These cars 
were designed under the direction of Mr. R. B. Kendig, me- 
chanical engineer, and will carry a load of seventy-five tons, 
with the customary 10 per cent. overload, concentrated between 
the needle beams. The’ general dimensions of these cars are as 


follows: 

ROI GN MINS oa baus cela cacce sss catveuusetdeueeeees Soraha 3” 66” 
EAGMID COVEY GRTININE DIMIEE c 550 ccc ce ccccddneiceccthaaecnucees 36’ 614" 
Reranee Getweles CPUM GOMUNIE. 6646.06 sk0ca cd ca dia dencenat ens 22’ 

Wri: GOR NN SN hee oa Bo pk nx des i wevedeonceeseceeKades 7” = 





< —-- 98° 
. ; Sh dP OPT 















































Section on B-B 
Section on A-A 





END VIEW AND CROSS-SECTIONS OF 75-TON STEEL FLAT CAR, 





5-TON FLAT CAR WITH AN 80-TON CONSOLIDATION LOCOMOTIVE LOADED ON IT. 


re I ees dee ine nd wad eae nae aba dame eed dees 9” 10” 
cuemue, Gu OO Waar te 400 C8 GOOG ssc < cites wecenscceesnciecues 3’ 104” 
UREN odio 24.6 .0600ecddeuceneemnnnseamenudeeeenee 5 
Truck, Ge Ce ON cbc vcokkedenviadendbecctatwsiaae 32° 
PUGMMN SOMNIINE <0 oC ik cn adeancod ceed caacecutaqedeeenvaaaawes x ie 
NOQNE cadaadandeaeietckees se sedaacacesecvaseuveseesenae 65,000 Ibs. 


The center sills are continuous for the entire length of the 
car and consist of a %-in. plate, 24 in. deep, for a distance of 
7 ft. 4 in. at the center of the car, and 14% in. deep at the bol- ~ 
sters, with two 4 x 4 x 13/16 angles riveted, back to back, to 
the upper edge and two 4 x 4 x \%-in. angles riveted along the 
lower edge. The inside angles along the lower edge extend 
through the bolster only, because of the rear draft lug. ‘This 
lug is specially heavy and backs up against the bolster center 
sill filler casting. 

The side sill is of a slightly different construction, the 4-in. 
plate being 19% in. deep for a distance of 7 ft. 4 in. at the 
center of the car and 1134 in. deep at the bolsters. Angles are 
riveted on each side of this plate at both the top and bottom 
edges, but the flanges are all turned outward. The center and 
the side sills are securely tied together by the heavy cast steel 
members of the body bolster and by the %-in. top plate, which 
is the same width as the bolster, 3 ft. 4 in. At two points be- 
tween the body bolsters the sills are tied by a %-in. plate with 
two angles riveted along both the top and bottom edges, as 
shown. This plate is secured to the sills by angles. 

Extending between the cross braces and parallel to the longi- 
tudinal sills are a number of stiffeners or floor supports. They 
are 10-in., 25-lb., I-beams and are attached to the cross braces 
and bolsters by angle plates. The floor supports nearest the 
junction of the bolster and the side sill consists of two 6-in., 
12%4-lb., I-beams, in order to afford sufficient clearance for the 
truck wheels. The floor supports between the bolster and the 
end sill are 6-in., 12%4-lb., I-beams. 

The end sill is a 12-in., 40-lb., channel. A diagonal brace 
extends from the gusset plate at the corner of the car under- 
neath the floor supports, to the body bolster at the center sill. 
This brace consists of a plate with angles riveted on its top 
side between the floor supports to stiffen it. The coupler strik- 
ing plate is of cast steel. The end sill is reinforced between 
the center sills by a steel casting, which is also utilized as the 
front draft lug. Westinghouse friction draft gear is used. 

Stake pockets of heavy construction are attached on the in- 
side of the side sills, their tops being flush with the top of the 





220 AMERICAN ENGINEER 











AND RAILROAD 


JOURNAL. 




































































~~ 
aw, \ 
O' Gi @ oS) 








Ne! @ ue & 








































































A 
An. OQ\ iy 
FW 1 OOF 
NAN Cas 


\. a 


\ 
























a 


SIX-W HEEL 


TRUCK 


floor. The flooring consists of two courses of 134-in. plank. 


The first course is fastened to the side sills and to two of the 
intermediate floor supports by 4-in. countersunk head bolts. The 
top course of flooring is spiked to the bottom course. Because 
of the cover plate at the bolster a single course of flooring is 
used, 3 in. thick, each plank being secured by eight %4-in. but- 
ton head bolts. 

It is, of course, necessary to build a car for this service as 
low as possible and for this reason considerable difficulty was 
encountered in designing the truck. The side frames each con- 
sist of two 8-in., 2114-lb., channels, placed back to back with a 
space of 4 in. between them. They are spaced apart by thimbles 
and also by projections on the ends of the transom castings. 
The end pieces are 4 x 4 x %-in. angles. The transoms are of 
cast steel I-section and the center bearing piece is also of cast 
steel. As may be seen from the drawing the center plate is only 
a short distance above the middle axle and the flanges on the 
center bearing casting extend below the axle at each side. The 
equalizers are of cast steel. Symington special 5%4 x 10-in. 
journal boxes are used, also Perry roller side bearings. 












































Within five years New York City has doubled its business in 
the sale of mining and industrial machinery and is now the 
world’s greatest market for all the principal types of machinery 
and tools—New York Sun. 


























FOR 75-TON FLAT CAR. 


CoaLinc with Locomotive CrAnes.—The practical limit of a 
locomotive crane in coaling locomotives is said to be about 70 
engines a day. The fact that it can unload direct from flat bot- 
tom cars is much in its favor. Three of these cranes, besides 
handling cinders, show the following cost for two years’ opera- 
tion, coaling direct from cars: 


Avetage tone Handled Ger Gay ooo occ cs cccniscevicese 195 
Buterest Bid Genreciation . 6.6.6 0ccccvesccestvevcconcees 1.5 cents 
Oe Cee ree re ree 5G ae eee a oo ~ 
DEUS Go 266.5.0s sy ne ERS pels ee URSA CE se RR SC OROS CUT cs. = 
UN NUNE. ocd Ca eRe visa eee aa acwscebes ei soeaan saawes a * 


TOCA GUA BER CON a 566 <6 db ewe ideeck Se cawda eine 


—Rcport of Committee, Amer. Ry. Eng. & M. of W. Assoc. 





Tue Locomotive ApprecrATteD.—The advocates of electrifica- 
tion must compete with what is probably the most remarkable 
prime mover in existence. Hampered in every way by limita- 
tions of space and weight, the locomotive designer has produced 
a power plant which is lower in first cost than any other form 
of fuel-burning power plant that is known, costing only a frac- 
tion of the price that would be asked for stationary power 
equipment of equal capacity. Its operating efficiency in steam 
generation, in spite of abnormal proportions and conditions, com- 
pares favorably with that of any steam boiler; while its economy 
in steam consumption has not been surpassed by that of any non- 
condensing engine.—William Duane in The Third Rail. 






















June, 1907. 














AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 224 








THE METHODS OF EXACT MEASUREMENT APPLIED 
TO INDIVIDUAL AND SHOP EFFICIENCY AT THE 
TOPEKA SHOPS OF THE SANTA FE. 


By HarriNcTton EMERSON. 


“Too much emphasis cannot be laid upon the fact that ‘Standardization’ 
really means ‘Simplification.’ "—F. W. Taylor—(The Art of Cutting Metals). 


Shop efficiency pays. By shop efficiency is meant a careful in- 
vestigation and betterment of all conditions, so that with the 
same effort men can accomplish more. To secure the co-opera- 
tion of the worker with the management in cutting out unneces- 
sary wastes at the Topeka shops of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe Railway, he is offered an increase of as much as 20 per 
cent. If by means of special strength or skill he does more 
work than normal he is given all the gain, for instance, if he 
does in one hour a job standardized at two hours he receives 
two hours’ pay for an hour’s time. The management gains, 
firstly, by the elimination of unnecessary wastes, although it gives 
the worker a 20 per cent. increase, and it particularly gains by 
the increased efficiency of its machines and other equipment, 
which results in a larger output without the necessity of increas- 
ing the capital investment. The actual results at the end of two 
years of systematically organizing the Topeka shops on an 
Efficiency basis were: 


To increase the average pay Of the MO. 2... ccc cccicscdvcdccceess 14.5% 
To decrease the unit Gost OF production... ccccccccctcccsecceces 36.3% 
Te TETCORE UO SU GOIN odd oig bv cin th cei di enbcenckcccadeetes 57% 


There is no reason why all the men should not earn at least 
a 25 per cent. increase above standard wages, and many of them 
do, 40 per cent. of them earning a 25 per cent. increase and 
better. The average efficiency of all the men in the month of 
\pril, 1907, was 94.2 per cent. Two years ago it was about 60 
per cent. Although the average of all the workers is 94.2 per 
cent. there are many who are better, many who are not as good. 
One man earned 105.4 per cent. above standard wages. Four 
men drawing full pay were 64.7 per cent. below normal, doing 
only one-third of what they should have done. These figures 
are not guessed at, but taken from the actual operations of this 
large locomotive repair shop in which every job is standardized 
and the efficiency of ¢very man determined. Now, the system 
is perfected and it costs no more to keep it in operation than the 
former barren methods. The successive steps of progress were: 

1. A permanent and standard method for determining costs of 
every operation. 

2. The betterment of all conditions. 

3. The determination of a standard cost of every operation. 

4. A comparison of actual costs with standard costs as to every 
operation, 

5. The guarantee to each individual worker of standard wages, 
and the payment of an added amount based not on the piece or 
on output, but on efficiency. 

6. A check and reward of each foreman on the basis of the 
eficiency of those under him. 

7. A check of the efficiency of the shop as a whole from month 
to month. 


8. The use in all accounting, of standard costs, not accidental 
actual costs. 


Epiror’s Note.—After thirty years of experience in developing the 
efficiency of men at their work of many kinds, Mr. Harrington Emerson 
became convinced that the average efficiency of any industrial concern is 
exceedingly low. Some do not reach 25%, others are higher; very few, 
tailroads included, reach as high as 50%. 

While capital and labor, or rather employer and employee, waste their 
Strength in an embittered quarrel as to their relative shares of joint pro- 
duction, they are together wasting so much that, if labor, without these 
wastes should receive the entire present share of capital and organizers; 
if capital and organizers, without these wastes, should receive in addition 
to own, the entire present share of labor, there would be still a large 
surplus, 

It was Mr. Emerson’s privilege to have an opportunity to apply, on a 
Somewhat large scale, in the shops and roundhouses of the Santa Fe, 
methods which he believed would, by increasing the efficiency, demonstrate 
the entire feasibility of increasing the pay of the workers, yet result in 
diminishing unit cost to the company. In addition Mr. Emerson set him- 
self the task of proving to the management that a body of skilled, reliable, 
friendly workers could be permanently secured; of proving to the workers 
that withcut any unreasonable work effort on their part their pay would 
be advanced far beyond the wage scale for similar occupations elsewhere, 
and that the management would not only not begrudge them the increased 
Wages, but welcome the increases as evidence of better and more economical 
Conditions, 








As appears on the diagrams, the movement one way or the 
other of a single line shows whether the shop is improving or 
retrograding. As to each foreman, a single comparative figure 
shows what is doing, absolutely irrespective of the kind of 
work, and as to individual workers; not only does the monthly 
efficiency figure show absolutely what each is doing, but the 
efficiency of each individual operation is ascertainable. 

It was not an easy task to work out this problem, undertaken 
jointly by the “Betterment Department” on the one hand and 
by the superintendent of the shops, Mr. John Purcell, and his 
foremen on the other. 

While the ideal end was never lost sight of, every step wag 
taken with care and deliberation, and for every two steps for- 
ward one was taken backwards as difficulties developed which it 
was found easier to go around than to break through. In the 
whole course of three years during which the work was being 
perfected it was not found necessary to remove or discharge a 
single worker or foreman, and if, at first, there was occasional 
friction, in the end as to every step there was complete and 
unanimous accord. 

At the last meeting on this subject, attended by representatives 
of the auditing department, of the mechanical accounting de- 
partment, of the superintendent of motive power’s office, and by 
the superintendent of shops and his betterment work assistants, 
and also by the general betterment organization, the agreement 
as to all the radical points, as to final and radical steps neces- 
sary, was unanimous. 

Each of the previous seven moves or steps had been a separate 
problem. A brief outline of the successive steps follows: 

A PERMANENT AND STANDARD METHOD OF 
DETERMINING Costs. 

Costs are of two kinds, those that can be located and those 
that cannot be located. The work of a machinist and also of 
his machine can be located. The problem of cost determination 
reduces itself into apportioning to each man and each machine, 
the indirect or unlocated costs in addition to the direct or 
located costs. To do this, each item of indirect cost is appor- 
tioned either to men or to machines or partly to one and partly 
to the other. Having thus secured two grand totals, one of 
indirect men costs and the other of machine costs, the 
totals are subdivided to various departments. Whereas the 
indirect cost as a whole may be 75 per cent. of the pay roll, 
within the confines of a department, the percentage may vary 
from 15 per cent. up to 400 per cent, showing how absolutely 
inaccurate the usual method is of applying the same flat rate of 
factor, surcharge or burden to all departments alike. 

Having secured substantial accuracy by apportioning each class 
of costs, men-costs and machine-costs, to each department, no 
great errors can arise in any particular method of subdividing de- 
partmental charges to specific men and machines. The simplest 
method is therefore preferable. The method adopted at Topeka 
was to assess indirect men-costs as a percentage on applied labor, 
to assess all direct and indirect machine costs as a yearly charge 
on the inventory value of the machines. To ascertain the hourly 
rate for each machine, the yearly charge to the machine was di- 
vided by 2,400 hours, it being assumed that the machine worked 
80 per cent. of the time. If there were any gains in simplicity 
to be effected by modifying this general method within the 
boundaries of a department there was no hesitation in allowing 
common sense to govern. For instance, when it was discovered 
that a direct worker on a shear did 200 different small jobs a 
day, he was at once considered an indirect worker, and when a 
machine rate worked out at $0.01 an hour, the machine was 
promptly relegated to the list of indirect machines. There is 
no sense in an accuracy that makes the distribution of cost 
amount to more than the cost itself. 


Power is determined at so much per horse power and floor 
space at so much per square foot for the plant as a whole 
and charged on a flat basis to each department. If one depart- 
ment is further from the power house than another and there- 
fore suffers a greater line drop loss, this loss is considered a 
plant loss, not a department loss, and it is borne in the form of 
a general increase in power cost. What would one think of a 
















































































































































































































































































































222 





AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





gas or water company which charged more for gas or water 
because the customer was farther from the central plant or which 
charged repairs of mains to the customers served by the mains, 
yet just this kind of cost accounting has brought the whole art 
of factory cost accounting into deserved disrepute! 

With a machine rate, man rate, and man surcharge provided, 
and time known, the cost of every operation is at once deter- 
minable. 

FACTS KNOWN. 


DE 0. can bnGk can nage bins sane ns $0.40 per hour 

Sy ey nr a eee 0.80 “ si 

I Is Clos ui a wh aca io Ss 80% 

SS Ne NON ss nn bbc ko Senn oes bowed cin 2 hours 

COST OF OPERATION, 

EE ee oe hee ac oth nis Sie Sele male be eae $0.80 

PCM oO cc5 hse access a MSs eaeeUsuscauesseeriane se -60 

NE sc 5u wes 6k audo wie eee wlad Seen encase .48 
DRED ee LEO coca RG onili ah GRRE $1.88 


It is at once evident that the cost (not including material) 
varies with the time, that if an operation takes one hour it costs 
half as much as if it takes two hours. The time cost of machine 
shop operation is very nearly one dollar an hour, rarely as low 
as $0.80, for the average combination of man and machine. 

In striving for shop efficiency nothing is more important than 
the exact determination of a fair standard time. Any guess- 
work, any haphazard application of piece-work schedules in use 
elsewhere is sure to result in disaster. 

These time and cost determinations are for the purpose of 
promoting shop efficiency and not for the purpose of enabling 
the accountants to balance the books. If the books show that 
the total costs in a given month are $105,000, but the total shop 
cost for all the items amounts to $100,000 it is easy to reconcile 
the two methods by adding in the office 5 per cent. to the shop 
costs. If a shop is temporarily running on half time it is ab- 
surd to assume that the shop cost of each operation is doubled. 
The indirect shop costs are based on an average rate for power, 
an average charge for floor space, an average charge for super- 
The 
direct costs are based on the average wage rate and average 
cost of materials, and these average costs are not subject to 
hourly or daily variation, but only to slow changes based on 
averages of months or years. 


vision and an average charge for machine maintenance. 


. THe BetTrerMENT OF ALL CONDITIONS. 

This was a very large task and involved everything that could 
be done to improve machines, tools, operation and general com- 
fort of the men, as, for instance, better lighting and heating. 
It is evident that standard costs could not be determined until 
conditions were in the main standardized. 

A DETERMINATION OF STANDARD Costs. 

This part of the work was most completely and conscientiously 
carried out. The motto adopted and promulgated by the authori- 
ties in a pamphlet distributed to the men was: 

‘Fairness, not Favoritism. 
Individuality, not Subserviency. 
Efficiency, not Drudgery.” 

Painstaking, accuracy, judgment, and fairness in ascertaining 
standard methods of performing work, is the foundation on 
which a lasting reconciliation between employer and employee 
must rest, as well as the foundation on which all cost accounting 
must be based. The fame of Mr. Fred. W. Taylor, as the dis- 
coverer of high speed steels has overshadowed his even greater 
evidence of genius in being the first scientifically to standardize 
shop operations, to substitute for guesswork or spasmodic ex- 
periment, perfected scientific methods. Not only were the best 
men possible secured to carry out these investigations along the 
lines taught by Mr. Taylor, but the work was checked and 
counterchecked by many different officials. 
as follows: 

A time study of a job under actual working conditions by the 
regular worker was made by a practical man, a machinist, a 
boiler-maker, or a blacksmith, as the case might be. The ma- 
chines and other conditions, tools, belting, speed, etc., were first 
adjusted. It made no difference whether the job under observa- 
tion actually took a long or a short time. It was the duty of the 
observer to set down a reasonable and proper'time. As a rule 


The procedure was 








the times eliminated from standard were not those 


of reasonable 
work, but those of unnecessary waste. 


SAMPLES OF Time SrupiEs. 
Finishing an air compressor piston rod. 


aking finishing cut 35 mi 

a ; CO eee Peer erererrerrerererereeees te 

Looking for chain to sling it down..................5. 14 _ 

Looking for pad to put between chain and piston...... 8 " 
PN ee an desig cd wat Rg eek 6a ck ane oeus 67 minute 

Standard time adopted..........0 22ND —s 


Actual efficiency of observed operation 63.2 % 


The gain is in the 22 minutes wasted. 


Laying out and slotting brass collar fit in new cast iron driving boxes, all 





boxes over 9” brass fit. 20% steel cast iron. 

; Actual Time. Estima ' . 
Putting box on machine...............cceee0. 35" saci a 
Clamping down, setting box...............0.. . 2 5’ 
teen: SC ee ee oe ees 14’ 52” 14’ 52” 
RONNIE ONE NOTING 6 i 0:5. Vode dnesicwsaase bie 42” 42” 
SME ow oasis shia eso ulen sawed outRONaR is 11’ 39” ny” 30” 
Changing tool, grinding.............ccccceees Ss’ 19” a: 2 
I aa ia aia Melons bs.4a:br5X Sine 6 SCA swans 2’ 56” 2’ 56” 
RRITONN, nig dca pt wise dle wesc scan seeee ss 2. 42” 
Broken spring, time lost...........cesccccess 46’ 20” ” 
ME eee walrae a rane ene cmuwieue cee 53’ 23” 40’ 
Cmmniee CHO) ONE BES. oe ccc cc Sess se cave 1’ 16” _ 
RE Na alate as pap nieve un beater de arb wae oaeinn Ke 3’ 39” 3’ 39” 
RPI ONOU iis 4 cessive dake cindneuwa cans rer 1’ 35” 50” 
n,n Ee er en nnn . 2. 3’ 39” 
OMNES WE OM aso iaidna'o gov sites OAS eK SRW OES 3’ 32” 4 

MD) Sorcscresd Drees Mak sleieis aia oneatars eae 2 $7’ 46° 1 28’ $4” 
Efficiency of observed time, 56.3%. Standard time adopted, 1.5 hours. 


The main gain is in the 46’ 20” of time lost on account of a 
broken spring. 


Planing for guide fit une Penna. type crosshead, when gibs are old. 





7 Actual Time. Time Allowed. 
Pick up and place on machine............... S <€ 3’ oo 
PN TAM digg Sa Ware d gale wg hae Sie anaes s 6 12’ 
oes eed oe Se See ee arene ee . 9’ 
ee SEE ee oer een aah a: e hg 
NAD IOUS ME Soins satas s oxe ck ce meee cows 3” 
Se MMMMN: |e aren Siskis ac acm and Osea caen a cuus . a Mw 
ee aR eee rrr an a = 13’ 
Turn crosshead for resetting................. ee oe 3’ 
SE MD NE WII a siding ate 4'e-¥ do KOU wa RRS Lees 18’ 12’ 
PN NUN TN Sao ca 0Sae be seb Sige wacelooales so" §” 13’ 
Cte? Ee eee en ene orp oes Rees 7. «“@ 3’ 
EES 5OW CE DOMME Cie ourats eek Sai ehaecarcadoone , - 
ROME Aadiin Ge aetunten te Suanieu eu am hare ge aa 109’ 47” 65’ 22” 


Allow 1.2 minutes). Efficiency; 60%. 

These examples average about 60 per cent. efficiency, and this 
is a fair average in an average shop. 

The time schedules at Topeka, made when the method was 
first introduced, and also the latest records show the following 
results between actual observed current times and standardized 


times subsequently realized by workers: 


Hours Hours Number 

Standard. Actual. of Men. Efficiency. 
SE Ss cali Saw cen eas ile ele 828.8 1,375.8 ll 60.2 
PRG NOUS 8. oa ceinnnesveweue’ 2,011.17 3,613.9 21 55.6 
Seder errrrccrere ree 2,780.9 4,636.1 30 60. 
SR eee en re er ee 4,350.2 7,418.8 50 58.6 
EL eens Pr er aL 7,649.6 12,748.3 17 60. 

After two years, 

BRE MNS: Sidktirowain Cements 36,695.2 40,997.3 225 89.5 
Apr., Re We glgratnrs state ke tatad ate 60,314.9 64,028.6 297 94.2 


A Comparison oF AcTuAL Costs witH STANDARD Costs AS 10 


Every OPERATION. 
This is exceedingly easy. Each job is assigned to each man 
on a work card which states the standard time. The man notes 
his own actual time which in the aggregate must check with his 
clock time. 


AcTuaAL ReEcorp oF Work Done By No. 02510, Topeka Suops, 8 ConsEcu- 
TIVE Days 1n Marcu, 1907. 


Dept. No. 2. 
Machine Rate, $0.33. Machine 1460. Dept. Charge 85%. Man Rate, $0.32. 
Sched. Std. Actual 
No. Operation. Charge. Hours. Hours. 
=v Turn 34” off one counter-balance, on one 
ee i eee arr S. 036835 4.1 4.1 
T-84 Turn tires on two pair drivers.......... Eng. 1006 4.4 4.4 
J-25 Turn three pair journals.............0.. Eng. 1006 7.5 6.7 
J-26 Pte GGG HE SORIBUE. 6<.650ccss ccc cvcec Eng. 1001 2.3 2.6 
T-63 Turn tires on three pair of drivers......Eng. 1001 12.0 12.0 
— Stamp three pair wheels................ Eng. 1006 0.6 0.6 
J-25 RURH WO MOM FOUPMAIG « 6 o6ok i cccccccecn Eng. 1001 5.0 4.6 
BEETS Re WE ponranicsnn vneeees oaue ses Eng. 1001 0.5 0.5 
.... Turn counterbalance on one pair of 
MONEE eGGe Ess ce iboavewaKkes kaeeeN S. O. 36835 3.7 3.7 
J-24 Turn one pair journals. ......cccccseche Eng. 0166 2.2 2.2 
ste Stamp three pair wheels................ Eng. 1001 0.6 0.6 
eer ey a er ree Shop Exp. 1.0 1.0 
j-24 "Path Cee PAF FOUTOETS. 055. ices vacss Eng. 176 6.6 6.1 
ee eer creer rere rere Shop_ Expense 0.2 0.2 
Te. Lk re Tree Eng. 0160 0.4 0.4 
f-184 Turn tires on two pair of drivers....... Eng. 0166 4.4 4.0 
1-25 Turn one pair journals......... ore Eng. 1144 2.5 2.2 
Oygae 2 a ere womans er Eng. 1144 3.0 2.4 
T-63 Turn tires on one pair drivers........ Eng. 1144 4.0 3.4 
H-177 Face one (1) hub......... bisdesndens cue: ee 0.5 0.5 
J-25 Turn three pair journals...............Eng. 1000 7.5 6.6 











June, 1907. 





AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





J-25 Turn journals on one pair drivers...... Eng. 257 2.5 2.6 
H-177 Face two (2) hubs...... stecccccccccecs Eng. 1000 1.0 0.8 
J-24 Turn journals on two pair drivers...... Eng. 257 4.4 4.0 
H-177 Face two (2) Bube......ccicccccccscece ‘Eng. 515 1.0 1.0 
J-25 Term Ge ORF IOWIMME. 2... ic cccccesccas Eng. 515 2.5 2.1 
pea Face ene p@it Grivers. ......cccecccccese Eng. 515 0.7 0.7 

85.1 80.0 


Efficiency, 106.4%. 


This man is a most upright and conscientious worker, so ab- 
solutely fair and reliable that his word and opinion is accepted 
without question as to corrections of a standardized time. He has 
asked to have standard times shortened when on a series of trials 
he found them too easy, and on the other hand his opinion that 
a time was not long enough would be given fullest weight. 

The clock time for the eight days, 80 hours, checks up the 
time actually taken for the jobs, so there is neither object nor 
inducement to any man to report false times. 
the record of the seventh day: 


Take, for instance, 


Standard Times. Actual Times. 


7.5 6.6 
2.5 2.6 
1.0 0.8 
11.0 10.0 


Assuming a man wholly unreliable, or who omits to report any 
of the actual times, it cannot make any difference as to the effi- 
ciency report, since that is based on the clock cards and by mak- 
ing incorrect reports he has deprived himself of the help that 
would be his due to locate and overcome a difficulty for which 
he may not be personally responsible. For every man and for 
his whole time a record of this kind is potentially available since 
it is contained on his work cards. 

The efficiency of each man is tabulated each month. 
tual cards are given as samples: 


Four ac- 


Santa Fe ErFricitency Recorp. 
John Doe. No. 23. 
Machinist. Dept. 2. 
Total Time. Per Cent. Amount Amount _ Total 
Month. Rate. Standard. Actual. Effic’y. Bonus. Wages. Bonus. Earnings. 
Jan., ’07 $3.20 281.8 261.0 108.0 28.0 $83.52 $23.38 $106.90 
Feb., ’07 247.6 226.0 109.6 29.5 72.32 21.33 93.65 
Mar., ’07 283.7 260.5 108.8 29.0 83.36 24.17 107.53 
Apr., ’07 283.9 258.0 110.0 30.0 $2.56 24.77 107.33 
An absolutely steady worker. 
Santa Fe Erriciency Recorp. 
H. J. Doe. No. 44. 
Machinist. Dept. 1. 
Total Time. Per Cent. Amount Amount Total 
Month. Rate. Standard. Actual. Effic’y. Bonus. Wages. Bonus. Earnings. 
Jan., ‘07 $3.40 174.0 158.0 110.2 30.0 $53.72 $16.12 $69.84 
Feb., °07 261.4 220.0 117.3 37.5 75.48 28.30 103.78 
Mar., ’07 822.8 250.0 129.0 49.0 85.00 41.65 126.65 
Apr., ’07 322.6 ~ 233.0 138.5 58.5 79.22 46.34 125.56 
A man stimulated by bonus to faster and faster work. 
SanTaA Fe Erricirency REecorp. 
M. T. Doe. No. 32. 
Machinist. Dept. 1. 
Total Time. Per Cent. Amount Amount Total 
Month. Rate. Standard. Actual. Effic’y. Bonus. Wages. Bonus. Earnings. 
Jan., “07 $3.00 102.7 95.0 108.1 2.8 $28.50 $7.98 $36.48 
Feb., ‘07 147.3 210.0 70.1 22 © 63.00 13 63.13 
Mar., ’07 93.7 157.5 49.5 47.25 eau 47.25 
Apr., 07 130.7 227.0 57.6 68.10 68.10 
Quit 


A man, capable, but unsteady and indifferent, 
of his own accord. 


who finally quit 


Santa Fe Erriciency Recorp. 


Chas. Doe. No. 11. 
Machinist. Dept. 1. 
Total Time. Per Cent. Amount Amount Total 
Month. Rate. Standard. Actual. Effic’y. Bonus. Wages. Bonus. Earnings. 
Jan., '07 $3.00 82.6 99.0 83.4 5.25 $29.70 $1.56 $31.26 
reb., ’07 182.4 221.0 82.5 4.62 66.30 3.06 69.36 
Mar., ’07 203.7 253.5 80.4 3.52 76.05 2.68 78.73 
Apr., ‘07 77.7 109.0 71.3 46 $2.70 15 32.85 


A man worth standard wages and very little more. 


Che efficiency reward is on a sliding scale. It begins at 67 
per cent. and increases rapidly according to a table carried out 
to tenths of a per cent. 


Per Cent. Sonus Above 
Efficiency. Standard Wages. 
_, LEREERERELLTLELC CTCL CL Cer re 0.00 
Wabinves Wecduesdddceeuseeeceuauaan 0.22 
Wie tbe s NONNeNecue ka ceed 1 ebendea 1.31 
We cddéenwedaeencuad tases eatadens 3.27 
Dsiietwuawaeudeeceeeesbaoecnte 6.17 
SP saeetakbcsheces séenubuasaewen 9.91 
SN eee TE PC Tee eT er eT ree 14.53 
DMedetuesdbeewbaesdad ownaeenud Ke 20.00 
J eer eheeeavienrenwes 30.00 
eee Chadumed KMtcenbicveewwe wes 40.00 
pe ey Per re eee 70.00 
esa tChbaeesidiecadeunt avtenwen Dee 






Tue Rewarp To FoREMEN. 


The efficiency of the foreman depends on the efficiency of all 
the men under him. If all the men average 100 per cent. the 
foreman receives 20 per cent. increase on his own wages. Under 
some other foreman the extra earnings of the men might be in 
the aggregate more, but not average as well, if some men were 
very good and others very poor. Such a foreman would earn 
less increase, so it is to the advantage of a foreman to bring 
up his whole force evenly. 

The curve of bonus earnings is curiously close to a hyper- 


bola. There are many men who earn low bonus, there are a 





arned 


x 
“ue 


Amounts of Bonus E 











0 
0 10 
Number of Men Earning Bonus Between Amounts Shown. 


20 30 40 50 GO 7 80 9% 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 


BONUS EARNINGS, TOPEKA SHOP, APRIL, 1907. 


few men who earn high bonus, and the higher the bonus the 
lower the unit cost. 


SHop Errictency AS A WHOLE. 

Shop efficiency as a whole is determined by the average effi- 
ciency of all the workers. show the same 
shop in two successive months and the improvement in the 
second month is largely due to the lessons in the diagram of the 
first month. 


The two diagram: 


It is plain that the shop is improving when the 
average efficiency line moves to the right, that it is retrograd- 
ing when it moves to the left. It can be made to move to the 
right by finding out what the matter is with the men whose 
average efficiency is low, and all workers with an efficiency 
under 70 per cent. should be investigated. The record is there 
not only as to monthly efficiency, as a whole, but as to every 
single job done in the month. It often happens that efficiency 
falls through no fault of the worker, as when a steel casting is 
so hard as to make normal work impossible. In very marked 
cases of this kind temporary schedules are put into effect to 
suit the peculiar and exceptional occurrence. 

The diagrams show that while even in the best shop the 
greater part of the workers are normally good, there are a few 
geniuses far in advance and some stragglers far in the rear. 
It would be utterly futile, even if the management was so in- 
clined, to demand from the average man the results given by 
the geniuses. The only proper way is to reward these excep- 
tional men suitably and fully for their special skill. The very 
poor men are but a small part of the whole, only 4 per cent. 
The attempt to base wages on the efficiency of this 4 per cent. 
is as iniquitous and ridiculous as at the other end to offer nor- 
mal wages for the extraordinary output of the geniuses. Men 
who continuously cannot or will not do a fair day’s work for 
normal pay are out of place in a modern shop and should seek 
some other occupation. 

Because the better men are rewarded for their own greater 
skill, because the check of every operation permits the correc- 
tion of any condition which is a detriment to the worker, be- 
cause it also permits infallibly the detection of incompetent and 
listless men, it is perfectly possible, month by month, to move 








AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 

















+ 








ww 
. om 
ss 
++ 











i= 
Me Bi 
Bi 


- - 
“ 





of Time worked _|_| 





i= 
a 

















— 
+ 














— 
te 








— 
iJ 








| 


« 


Percentage of, 
‘at Efficiencies shown. 


» | 4 
2Men | | Perce 
RE. OE 


> 
»M 








‘S: a eeee bol {se} _ = 

















107,7% Av 





Be. a8 








10Wn. | 








ne 








oo oe ee ee 


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f 














Eff. 


i... 7 
Men} 


[101.5 @ Av. Eff 


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i | 


vy. 

















141.0% Av. Ef. | 


153.8 
rT? 
a mee. 








1.64 Eff 





| 1.Man | 








1 






























































160 170 180 190 200 210 


¢ 


8u vo 100 110) 120 130 140 
Percentage of Efficiency 


w 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 19 20H 2 
Percentage of Efficiency 


MARCH, 1907—EFFICIENCY OF EMPLOYEES IN TOPEKA SHOPS-——APRIL, 1907. 


the efficiency line forward. Competitors will not know enough 
to pay as much for the best men, who therefore remain as an 
asset, growing yearly more valuable; competitors will not know 
enough to correct bad conditions or promptly to eliminate in- 
competent men, so they will continue to run shops with an effi- 
ciency of 60 per cent. or less, when I00 per cent. to 120 per cent. 
is attainable. 
THE Use or STANDARD Costs IN ACCOUNTING. 

Since every job is standardized it necessarily has a standard 
cost. How ridiculous it would be for a railroad company to 
attempt to vary its ticket prices on account of accidental delays 
or extraordinary expenses, as for a wreck. 

It is not less ridiculous to attempt to follow into costs acci- 
dental variations of shop operation. If a fast worker is on a 
job one day and a slow worker on the same job the next day, 
both have varied from standard, but the selling price of what 
they have made nas not changed. 

Variations from standard costs are accidents of shop operation 
and are to be taken care of, not in detail but as a whole, by a 
factor added in the office. In the examples of the two months, 
the efficiency of iabor was 89.5 in March. Actual labor costs 
were therefore 11.7 This 11.7 
per cent. could have been applied to each item of the output in 
the following month. In April the actual costs-were 6.2 above 
standard, so for May 6.2 per cent. could have been added to the 
direct labor part. The discrepancies should, however, be aver- 
aged for at least twelve months, and if this was done it would 
be found that the fluctuation in office factor to be 
ward with the succeeding month would not vary 
I per cent. from month to month. 


per cent. higher than standard. 


thrown for- 
as much as 


THIS SYSTEM OF 
Suorp MANAGEMENT. 


Tue EFFECTS OF 


(1) To increase output enormously without adding to shop 
equipment or space. 

(2) To reduce unit costs as much as 30 per cent. or more. 

(3) To increase the pay of the best men as much as 30 per 
cent. on the average. 

(4) To hold permanently the best men. 

(5) To know accurately the cost of every item before work 
is begun on it. 

Relations of costs and efficiencies in a shop working 10,000 
hours a day, average wages $0.36, average machine rate $0.40 
per hour, average burden $0.24 per hour. 
Total Cx st 


Per Day. 
10,000 


Inceased 
Output. 


_ Reduction 
in Unit Cost. 


Increase 
in Wages. 
60 0. 

70 7.99 10,007 9% 14.24 16.7 
80 217. 10 117.7% 24.12 33.3 
90 356.76 ; 30.96 50. 

100 720. 2 35.68 66.7 
110 1080, 11,080 39.56 83.3 
120 1444. 11.444 3.00 100. 


Efficiency 


A shop, as above, increasing its efficiency from 60 to 120 per 
cent., not impossible of realization, increases wages 44.4 per cent., 


decreases unit costs 43 per cent. and doubles the output. 


The system is equally applicable to railroad operations as a‘ 


whole, i. ¢., the mileage of engines and cars and tonnage move- 
ment. It is, in fact, on the Santa Fe now being adapted to de- 


termine the efficiency of each engine, exactly as in the Topeka 
shop it has been perfected to determine the efficiency of each 
man. Even as men in average shops work with less than 60 per 
cent. efficiency, so also do engines work with less than the 60 per 
cent. efficiency. What was done with the men in the shop can be 
done with engines. 





STAY BOLT CLUTCH. 


A simple but very efficient stay bolt clutch is shown on the 
This was devised by Mr. A. W. Martin, 
tool room foreman and apprentice shop instructor at the Bright 


accompanying drawing. 


mae 
































( i) 46 Screw Countersunk 





























” | 
— -1}4;—-><—-- 1 
_ ot” 


— 


wood shops of the Big-Four. All of the parts are of soft steel, 


case hardened, except the clutch, which is of hardened tool steel. 


The clutch is eccentric and the greater the pressure exerted in 
turning the stay bolt the tighter it will grip; when the pressure 
is released the clutch readily loosens. 





FLexieitity oF Motor Car Encine.—Motor car No, 8 was 
equipped with a 200 horse-power gasoline engine, designed and 
built at the Union Pacific shops, at Omaha. ‘The engine was 
designed particularly for motor car service, and the hope for 
a flexible control engine has been fully realized, the engine 
being able to start and accelerate the car from. zero to sixty 
miles an hour simply by varying the speed of the engine. If the 
car attains a speed of fifty miles an hour, and it is desired to run 
slower, it can be accomplished by simply closing down the throt- 
tle, reducing the consumption of gasoline, and therefore saving 
fuel—Mr. IV. R. McKeen, Jr., at the New York Railroad Club, 
Apr., 1907. 





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AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 229 











REAL APPRENTICESHIP. 





By G. M. Basrorp.* 


Probably no subject which has been continuously before the 
railroads of this country for many years has received more inter- 
ested attention during the last few years than methods of re- 
cruiting the service by apprenticeship. 

While some important items of organization and management 
as well as engineering construction become fads and are over- 
done, there is no danger-whatever of such a result in connection 
with apprenticeship. This is true chiefly because the conditions 
surrounding recruiting have been so long neglected as to promise 
improvement for any kind of effort. This is equivalent to saying 
that the apprentice situation cannot be made worse. 

A very general movement—especially in the eastern section of 
the country—in the direction of trade schools indicates the wide 
interest in the general subject on the part of both manufacturers 
and educators. While this movement suffers somewhat from a 
lack of definiteness it seems impossible that anything but great 
good can come from it. If communities engage in trade school 
development the whole country will be benefited, but the benefit 
will, for a long time, be diffused and indefinite. No matter what 
the trade school development may be, there will yet remain a 
vast problem of the most specific kind in supplying large organ- 
izations with the leadership talent of which they stand so greatly 
in need. Trade schools will not fill this want, because what is 
needed for this development is the training of recruits in these 
large organizations in such a way as to keep the young men, 
during this training, under the control of the influences which 
conduct the organizations themselves. 

The large industrial establishments and large railroads share 
in the problem of providing the men of the future; and these 
men cannot be trained for them by outside influence—no matter 
how good this influence may be or how well directed. This 
means that large organizations must conduct their own training 
schools; and, that this fact is forcing itself upon the attention 
of those who are carrying the heaviest responsibilities of man- 
agement, is clearly indicated by the interest now expressed in 
apprenticeship plans and methods by some of the largest organi- 
zations of the country. : 





The prediction was made several years ago to-the effect that 
before long a wave of apprentice education would pass from one 
end of this country to the other. This has already occurred, 
but we are to have another and larger wave. To those who are 
to be responsible for the future development in this direction, the 
work which has already been accomplished is exceedingly im- 
portant; and no one need now feei, in establishing an apprentice- 
ship system to meet modern conditions, that he is tilling new 
ground or that he lacks sufficient and satisfactory precedent. 

Perhaps a few principles which seem most likely to lead to 
complete success may be appropriately noted here. 

First of these is to really return, in effect, to the fundamentals 
of the ancient apprenticeship, not of a generation ago, but per- 
haps three or four generations ago, when industrial units were 
so small as to render it possible for the master to give his per- 
sonal attention to the apprentice. When these units became large 
enough to introduce a journeyman helper for the master, our 
Present troubles began. We need to get back to the time when 
there were no helpers, but the blacksmith, himself, trained the 
boy and looked after his moral and intellectual as well as me- 
chanical training. Of course, to-day, the master cannot do this, 
because of the change which numbers have brought; but the 
Master to-day may delegate, to a well qualified man, these most 
Important duties. The very fact that men qualified to train boys 
are so difficult to obtain illustrates the distance which we have 
drifted from the path of rectitude. Our first principle, then, is to 
Select the best man to be found for this executive work, the most 
important part of which is to see that the boys are taught trades 
m accordance with the promises which are so freely given them 
in the indentures. Having selected the man to teach the trades, 
he must be given authority which will permit of success; and, if 


" Assistant to the President, American Locomotive Company. 








some slight inconveniences occur, they must be met, for it is 
certainly as important to produce men as it is produce ma- 
chinery. 

Another principle is mental training which, to insure complete 
success, must be parallel and simultaneous with the manual 
training in order that the boy may understand his work—that 
he may know his materials, understand his methods, and that 
he may know the reasons for what he does. For this, night 
schools will not suffice, and it seems fair to say that no re- 
cruiting system can approach the ideal which does not provide 
this mental training by taking the school to the boy; taking it in 
working hours and compelling his attention to it as being as vital 
a part of his apprenticeship as the trade itself. This requires 
another sort of substitute for the master of years ago in the 
form of one who is prepared to contribute to the mental training 
the equivalent to the manual training of the shop instructor. 

It is important that the apprentice should come into contact 
with the real problem of the shop and that he should work as 
nearly as possible upon the same basis as the workmen, knowing 
that the product which he contributes is part of the general 
product of the plant. He should at once come into contact 
with the commercial questions of cost and incidentally with the 
problem of management in the organization, so that he may see 
where the workman and employer fit into the general scheme. 
In the mental training the same idea appears. This offers no 
field for the lover of “pure mathematics,” but it offers a wonder- 
ful field for the man with practical ideas who understands the 
apprentice mind and knows the questions which are constantly 
arising with respect to the work of the shop. Mechanical draw- 
ing offers the readiest educational medium, and the development 
of this subject will lead to a clear view of the entire educational 
scheme. The brain and the hand must be trained simultane- 
ously. 

While other fundamental principles may be enumerated, but 
one more will be mentioned, which, embodied in the form of a 
question, is: What is to become of the apprentices when through 
with their terms? All that need be said about this is that until 
the organization is such that a wide-awake, ambitious apprentice 
may profitably grow into it, with a view of spending his life 
there, the apprenticeship effort should not be inaugurated. Prob- 
ably the most vital element in the success of any apprentice 
scheme is that the organization should be such as to be worthy 
of receiving well prepared apprentices. The organization may 
need the first attention. How many of our railroads or our in- 
dustrial establishments approach the ideal in this respect ? 





StroraGe oF Locomotive Coat iN Cars.—The importance of 
providing storage room so as to cut down the delay of cars as 
much as possible is ordinarily underestimated. One day’s stor- 
age of locomotive coal in cars on the Pennsylvania system costs 
more than $300,000 a year, figuring that the cars are worth one 
dollar a day each. An expenditure of $4,000,000 would be justi- 
fied to avoid holding two days’ supply of coal in cars, consider- 
ing that the structure costs 15 per cent. of the original cost for 
interest, depreciation and maintenance. Figuring 40 tons to the 
car, storage in cars costs 24 cents per ton per day, and an ex- 
pense of $61 a ton is justifiable to avoid it. Ordinarily, storage 
in the bin is much cheaper than in cars, yet the usual practice is 
to keep from one to five days’ supply stored in cars at the dif- 
ferent plants—Report of Committee, Amer. Ry. Eng. & M. of 
W. Assoc. 





Water-TuBE Locomotive Borers Possinte.—The compound 
locomotive has shown its ability to develop more power per ton 
of weight than the single expansion engine, and its increasing 
use in the future may be expected. The balanced type is the 
most promising for high speed service, while for slow and heavy 
freight service the Mallet type seems particularly suitable. Rad- 
ical changes in design. such as the introduction of the water- 
tube boiler, for example, are by no means beyond the limits of 
possibility; while superheated steam may play an important 
part in the solution of the transportation problem.—Paul T. 
Warner before the Franklin Institute. 


































































230 AMERICAN ENGINEER 


AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 














(Established 1832). 
AMERICAN 
ENGINEE 


RAILROAD JOURNAL. 


steer itassso A MONTHLY 


R. M. VAN ‘ARSDALE 


J. S. BONSAL Ly 
Business Manager. 


140 NASSAU STREET, 





NEW YORK 











R. V. WRIGHT, | Editors 
E. A. AVERILL,§~ . r 
_JUNE, 1907 | 








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EXCEPT IN THE ADVERTISING PAGES. The reading pages will contain 
only such matter as we consider of interest to our readers. 








Contributions.— Articles relating to Motive Power Department prob- 
lems, including the design, construction, maintenance and operation of 
roliing stock, also of shops and roundhouses and their equipment are 
desired. Also early notices of official changes, and additions of -new 
equipment for the road or the shop, by purc hase or construction. 


To Subscribers.—The AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL is 
matled regularly to every subscriber each month. Any subscriber who 
fails to receive his paper ought at once to notify the postmaster at the 
office of delivery, and in case the paper is not then obtained this office 
should be notified, so that the missing paper may be supplied. 





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office at once, so that ond paper may be sent to the proper destination. 





CONTENTS 


A Rational Apprentice System, New York Central Lines............ 
Steel Passenger Equipment, by Charles E. Barba and Marvin Singer 210 


201* 


Mallet Compound Freight Locomotive, Gt. Nor. Ry............-e+.6. 213* 
Roundhouse Betterment Work, by J. E. Whiteford................ 216" 
Peewee ot, To ets Ea Oh ROA. BY RG oa ec cde cierenccasaven 219* 
Serene SEU ADOOROTAWE TORBOE 6 osc vx oe 0.2 cee es ooecexe sie dy sie ers 220 
ee nL Aa MONE ks eh cic ew cin cwlninln'o 5S Se BSa was morales 220 
The Methods of Exact Measurement Applied to Individual and Shop 
Efficiency at the Topeka Shops of the Santa Fe, by Harrington 
i elt esisaus Gah sass xe <ukeu ek Res She eek eee e21* 
en ck oS leashes eo ene & oben «Waa es ou ee sind-« 224* 
eee ee OO SORE BENIN ois icine seo as sc venenswess~aSeese ere 224 
Locomotive Data Tables: 
ee bas iis h oc kaw seen Sus wad weeaeeenrees 225 
ee EE DONOR. 655 56 e diss i ove 6.cceG eds sdibSSeawe as 226 
PN ER MNERE PWNS. ios sti is todecmadwacbulsadabuceue 227 
ee de ee ee 228 
Real Apprenticeship, by G. M. Basford............ccccccceccccvecs 229 
eoreme oF TLocomotive Goal tn Care .is és ie cecccccsssecsincsciccies 229 
Water Tube Locomotive Boilers Possible.............. $S,.dGee wae ees 229 
aS a eS ce Ee ROW IEROINE 55s 5.00455 sea 0% bales slau sees Woess'os 230 
Ee EOE OC TT TT eae 230 
UES Ok BIOCONNMNDOR . 5 ono 50s 6 66 W64.60W% ocd sbwcekSabeS seem 230 
ne I AOR I eee On te ee ee en eS te 230 
The Motive Power Department Problem...................00cecees 231 
All Steel Passenger Service Cars, Pennsylvania R. R.............. 232* 
SEO RE COOOL DOUMUIRIB 5 c.sisc cicka'ke sb css bus dbeecccsone 237 
SE oho eG rs denS hsb a nSs.s seas bH.56 Nw haS KOSS seo aaa SS 237 


a4 

The Efficiency of he Worker and His Rate of Vay, by Clive Hastings 238* 
Locomotive Fitted with Improved Smoke Tube Superheater, by Will- 
PF Nowe seas AG Skies eben dso Se SeGNb skate ba cenaedews 
ee ee AOE SB NMOUNEE So 6 sis ss swieencb 6000s d6Ks souk ow eeees 
Ieee Pet PH RCRED THGIIS 8 6i55i5icic os wacencinsiececcgencuwcs 243 


What a Western Road is Doing for its Apprentices................. 244 
ES NIN RISD ts 10 is ss sig 4:59 61016. Ss esos sie we ewe a ke 245* 
fees Benn Shoo, NW. VY. OO; BWR oon i ccc cece ic sc éeexins 245* 
Expanded Metal Racks on Coke Cars, P. & L. E. R. R............. 246 
Air Brakes on Mountain SOA erat aoe esr 246 
Simple Ten-Wheel Locomotive, C. & N. W. R. R.........eceeeeees 247* 
errr Ssekecss SNe 
Spemcn poets Seemres Crank SMA... 6... osc ccc sivcwssioncccesss - g4o* 
ee EEE PREWOKGIDIS WCNC 6 a 5 ii ioe 05sec cee cnedvnsnevavdcdes 250* 
Cee SL oOo estan spp ais eka Cae be MES ROSALES ORG cee 250 
ee EEE COPE OTT ET ETC T RTT Tee TT Er ins Oe 
eee aco e oe vcs case isna Kak baGneekG aun ahem Mameeice 252 


* Illustrated articles, 





M. M. AND M. C. B. ASSOCIATIONS. 





The Master Mechanics’ Association will meet at Atlantic City, 
N. J., June 12, 13 and 14, and the Master Car Builders’ Asso- 
ciation will meet June 17, 18 and 19. The meetings of both 
associations will be held in the Sun Parlor on the Steel Pier. 





CO-OPERATION 
A division may be said to be well managed, as far as its power 
is concerned, when the following four features, which to a certain 
extent are co-related and dependent upon each other, are nicely 
adjusted. These are, a reasonable mileage per engine failure: 4 
reasonable cost for repairs per mile run; a reasonable per cent 
of power out of service at a fixed hour (omitting engines held 
twenty-four hours or less), and reasonable mileage between 
Any attempt to make a showing on one of 
these items without reference to the other three will probably 
careful investigation that 
expense of the others. The master 
really successful, 


general repairs. 
show on it has been made at the 
mechanic, in order 
must secure the co-operation of the division 


to be 


superintendent to assist in keeping these four features balanced. 
Unless these two officers do co-operate and 
.good results cannot be expected. Probably no other 
can do quite so much to reduce the net earnings as friction or 
ill will between these two departments and vice versa. The 


assist each other 
one thing 


problem of operating a railroad is so great that it requires sey- 
eral different departments, but it must not be lost sight of that 
they are all that they 


coinmon treasury. 


working for one purpese and have a 





THE SUPERHEATER IN LOCOMOTIVE PRACTICE. 


Mr. William Schmidt in this number, 
tive of a Swiss locomotive fitted with his latest design of super- 


The article deserip- 
heater, is of special interest as illustrating the tendency abroad 
toward a higher degree of superheat. Mr. Schmidt is probably 
the leading authority on this subject among foreign engineers 
and the alterations in his well-known smoke tube type of super- 
heater, for the purpose of holding the steam longer in contact 
with the hot gases and thus giving it a higher temperature, in- 
Ele claims that unless the steam 
is sufficiently superheated to prevent ail the cylinder condensa- 
tion the full benetits of superheating are not obtained. As con- 


dicate his ideas on the subject. 


densation depends largely on the area of cylinder surface and 
the temperature or pressure at exhaust, it is easily seen that with 
large cylinders working at a short cut-off this must necessarily 
be considerably higher than with smaller 
cut-off. Conversely this that 
permits the use of larger cylinders and much 
cut-off. This point is illustrated by the 
scribed. 

Granting that the full benefits of superheating cannot be ob- 
tained unless all condensation is prevented, still it is reasonable 
to expect that a proportional benefit can be secured by a 
degree of superheat, 


cylinders and a later 


means highly superheated steam 


shorter working 


well locomotive cle- 


lower 
which partially prevents or reduces con- 
densation or at least guarantees dry steam at the cylinders with 
foaming boilers, and it is for this purpose that a design of st- 
perheater has recently appeared in this country and is now being 
applied to a number of locomotives. 





ALL-STEEL PASSENGER SERVICE EQUIPMENT. 


The need of stronger and non-combustible passenger equip- 
ment is becoming more and more recognized and it is apparently 
only a question of time when cars which meet certain require- 
ments will be 
lation. 


in this connection national legis- 


and the 


demanded by 
The development of the all-steel freight car 
satisfactory service which it has given on roads where it has 
been used in large numbers, together with the fact that the all- 
which have been in service in the New 
York Subway for the past two years, have proved very satis- 
factory, would indicate that there is no reason why the steel 


steel passenger cars 


























































































June, 1907. 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 


231 








passenger coaches cannot be designed for heavy service on steam 
roads which would be equally advantageous. 

For the past six months we have presented detailed descrip- 
tions of all-steel coaches, which are being placed in service, at 


the rate of one a month. In designing these cars the mistakes 
in the introduction of all-steel freight equipment should be 
avoided, thus facilitating their introduction and saving the rail- 
road managements much useless trouble and expense. It is of 
vital importance that before the railroads introduce this new 
equipment, the designs be carefully considered with a view to 
securing the advantages resulting from extensive interchange- 
ability and standardization. We have been fortunate in secur- 
ing a series of articles on this subject, compiled jointly by Messrs. 
Chas. F. Barba and Marvin Singer, both of whom have had 
special opportunities for making a thorough study of the devel- 
opment of all-steel freight car equipment, and of what has thus 
far been accomplished in developing designs for passenger equip- 
ment. The first of these articles is presented in this issue. 
* * * * K 

The placing of an order for 200 all-steel 70-ft. passenger 
coaches by the Pennsylvania Railroad is particularly significant. 
The size of the order for an entirely new and comparatively un- 
tried equipment would seem to indicate that, after a most care- 
ful study of present conditions and future probabilities, this com- 
pany has concluded that the steel passenger train is the correct 
solution for many of the passenger traffic problems and pro- 
poses to put its convictions into practice at the earliest possible 
moment. It also makes the design adopted for these cars, de- 
tails of which are given in this issue, of special interest. 





THE MOTIVE POWER DEPARTMENT PROBLEM. 

A railroad will spend several thousand dollars for a machine 
tool which will increase the output of a certain class of work, 
or do it more economically. Special appliances are placed on 
locomotives at a considerable cost, either to increase their ca- 
pacity or improve their efficiency. This is all very well and 
should be encouraged. There are, however, other features, pro- 
ductive of greater economies and higher efficiency for the same 
expenditure, which are often’ overlooked and the importance of 
which is not generally realized. 

Suppose the new machine tool does the work for one-half ot 
what it cost with the old methods, being careful in making these 
comparisons to include all surcharges. Even though this saving 
was made on the most important tool in the shop it would be 
but a very small percentage on the total cost of shop operation 
and yet we find men in the most important positions in the mo- 
tive power department devoting a considerable part of their time 
to problems of just about this kind or type, whether it be in the 
shop or on the road, instead of tackling some of the bigger 
problems which are possibly not quite so apparent, but which 
if solved will produce much greater and more far-reaching re- 
sults. 

* * 7 * * 


You know, in a general way, that you have men in your or- 
ganization who are less efficient than others on the same class 
of work, but have you ever made an attempt to determine ex- 
actly the cemparative efficiency of your men and to improve or 
cut off the less efficient men? The results accomplished at the 
Topeka shops of the Santa Fe, described by Mr. Harrington 
Emerson on page 221 of this issue, are startling. In two years 
the average efficiency of the men in the shop was increased from 
60 to 941% per cent. and the work is now only well started. The 
method of determining the exact efficiency of each man in the 
Organization has only been in operation for a short time and 
the lessons which were learned from the figures for March, 1907, 
were such as to make it possible to increase the average efficiency 
of the men from 89.4 to 94.5 per cent. in the following month. 
The importance of these figures becomes more readily apparent 
When we learn that the efficiency of the average railroad shop, 
or shop of any kind, based on the above measure of efficiency, 
1S probably as low as 50 per cent. 





Surely something is wrong with our methods and very great 
improvements are possible when the difference between the effi- 
ciency of two men in the shop is as great as 500 or 600 per cent. 
and where by a careful and systematic effort it is possible to 
improve the average efficiency of the men in a shop 50 per cent. 


in two years. 
* * * * k 


The method of accurately determining the efficiency of the 
roundhouse as a whole and of each employee in it would appear 
to be very much more difficult than for a repair shop, in fact 
would seem almost out of the question. The problem has, how- 
ever, been successfully solved on the Santa Fe as is indicated 
in the article on “Roundhouse Betterment Work,” by Mr. J. F. 
Whiteford, on page 216 of this issue. The effect of men work- 
ing in groups, or alone, the method of determining the amount 
of bonus due each man and of determining and improving the 
efficiency of each worker and of the roundhouse as a whole 
should be studied carefully not only by those who are interested 
in roundhouse work, but also by those interested in the labor 
question at large. 


k * *k ok * 


. 


Mr. Hasting’s article on the “Efficiency of the Worker and 
His Rate of Pay” is worthy of the most careful study, and while 
the reader may possibly not agree with his final conclusions they 
should receive thoughtful consideration. The advantages and 
disadvantages of the day rate, piece work and the bonus, or 
individual effort system, are clearly brought into contrast and 
Mr. Hasting’s suggestion would seem to approach more closely 
to the ideal than any of these: 


* * * * * 


After all, the great problem confronting us to-day, whether 
on the railroad or in commercial organizations, is that of men 
and this is to be solved by not only perfecting the organization 
with a view to improving the efficiency of each employee, as sug- 
gested above, but also by providing a means for supplying skilled 
workmen, better educated and more thoroughly equipped for 
their work than are available at the present time and thus rais- 
ing the standard of the employees throughout the organization. 
Manufacturing establishments are facing the same problem, and 
that they are beginning to realize its importance is indicated by 
the attention which is being given to the apprentice problem at 
the present time by several of the large manufacturers’ asso- 
ciations, as well as by the larger individual establishments. 

The Master Mechanics’ Association has considered the appren- 
tice problem in one form or another several times during the 
past, but it was not until two years ago, when Mr. G. M. Bas- 
ford presented an individual paper on that subject, that its real 
importance seemed to be at all appreciated or that an adequate 
plan was suggested to solve the difficulty. As a direct result of 
Mr. Basford’s paper and the resulting discussion several rail- 
roads have taken steps to improve the condition of their ap- 
prentices and to give them a more thorough training. The New 
York Central Lines have probably given the matter the most 
attention and have introduced upon a large scale an apprentice 
system which is based on rational and common sense lines. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. J. F. Deems, general superin- 
tendent of motive power, and with the assistance of Mr. C. W. 
Cross, superintendent of apprentices, and his assistant, Mr. W. 
B. Russell, we were enabled to make a very careful study of 
the work which has thus far been accomplished. The more 
general features of the system are presented in an article in this 
issue and other articles, which will follow shortly, will consider 
the work in detail. 

That the advantages which are thus far apparent are sufficient 
to justify the effort which is being made seems to be the opinion 
of the shop superintendents and foremen who are in touch with 
the work which the boys are doing. What the final returns at 
the end of a period of ten years will be it is, of course, impos- 
sible to predict accurately, but it does not seem unreasonable 
from present indications to prophesy that the efficiency of the 
workmen will be increased at least 25 per cent. and probably 
more, due to the introduction of the apprentice system. 




















































































































AMERICAN. ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 














SEVENTY-FOOT STEEL 


ALL STEEL PASSENGER SERVICE CARS. 


PASSENGER 





PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 


The introduction of the all-steel car for passenger Service 
on American railroads has been prophesied many times during 
the past few years and the past month has seen the first real 
move toward its fulfilment. This refers to the order for 200 
passenger cars, placed by the Pennsylvania R. R. with the 
American Car & Foundry Company, the Pressed Steel Car 
Company and the Altoona car shops, the general design of which 
is illustrated herewith. 

Our readers are acquainted with what has been done in the 





COACH+-PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 


STELLAR ANS FOE 












REASONS FoR BurLpinG STEEL Cars. 

The most important reasons why the construction of all-steel 
cars for regular service in through trains is desirable is very 
clearly explained and summed up in an article by Messrs. Barba 
and Singer in this issue. Briefly these are: the increasingly 
high price of satisfactory timber, the public demand for fire- 
proof cars and the desire to obtain the full benefit in the way 
of carrying capacity for the weight of the material in a non- 
collapsible car. 

ACTION OF THE PENNSYLVANIA. 

These conditions have been recognized for some time by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad and several experimental steel cars have 
been built and put into service on its lines. The first of 
these was a 58-ft. passenger coach 





PE PE ATS 








designed in 1904, and built in 1906, 
which has a steel underframe and a 
steel outside sheathing up to the roof, 


This car, however, contains about 
1,500 lbs. of wood. Following this 
there was constructed a 60-ft. all- 


steel baggage car, which was com- 
pleted last November, and a 7o-it. 
mail car,* which was finished in I’eb- 
ruary of this year. There was also 
a car built by the American Car & 
Foundry Company for the 
Island Railroad,t which 
ated over the Pennsylvania Lines for 
some time. 


Long 


was oper- 


President Cassatt took a very ac- 
tive interest in this work. A com- 
mittee composed of motive 
and other officials of the Pennsylya- 
nia Railroad, was appointed to care- 
fully investigate the whole subject. 
using the experience gained by the 


power 


operation of these cars over then 








VIEW 


line of steel passenger car building in this country and know 
that several railroads have built cars of this type during the 
past few years, which have been placed in service and are now 
being given a practical trial. In addition to these strictly ex- 
perimental cars there are also in operation comparatively large 
numbers of all-steel cars built for short haul traffic, such as 
subway, elevated and suburban work. These cars,_ while of 
course a big step in progress, do not present the difficulties in 
design that a full-sized modern passenger coach for a long haul 
service Their service, however, and many of them 
have been in operation for over three years, has of course been 
of great value, and incidentally a great stimulus, in the design 
of the larger type, since they have conclusively proved that a 
steel car can be built which is perfectly satisfactory to both the 
traveling public and the railways. 


gives. 


SHOWING STEEL PASSENGER COACH PARTIALLY COMPLETED. 


own lines, as well as of steel pas 
senger cars on other roads, and 
the much longer and broader ex- 
perience with steel freight  cirs, 
as a basis for recommending @ 
design which should be adopted 
for a large order of cars. ‘The 


cars which have now been ordered are of the design recom- 
mended by that committee. The recommendations included pas- 
senger service cars of all kinds for both through and suburban 
trains, having the general dimensions shown in the table below. 


Length. Truck. Capacity. We ight. 
Passenger coach ....... 70’ 534” 4 wheel 88 passengers 113,500 10s. 
OS Serer rr err re 77 £067 6 * 3 pawnercnsges 128,000 
Baggage and express car 60’ 10%” 4 “ 40,000 Ibs. 91,000 | 
Special baggage car..... 70’ 0” cs 60,000 lbs. 120,000 ys 
Passenger-baggage ...... : 5 ee of SG © setwesesanes 130,000 © 
SEE 6c cdnacie<cidtes an nm nse” SU 30 passengers 140,000 
ee 54’ 4” ; 70 passengers 75,000 


GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN. 


All of these cars are based on the same general principles, 


which in brief are: that the car shall be absolutely fireproof; 





* See AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL, April, 1907, p. 136. 
+ See AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JouRNAL, Feb., 1907, p. 41- 














JuNE, 1907. 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 


































































































































































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that it shall be capable of withstanding, without any deforma- 
tion or yielding, end shocks up to 400,000 Ibs.; that the struc- 
ture shall be such that the car body can be rolled down an 
embankment without collapsing; that the end structure shall 
be of sufficient strength to prevent one car sweeping the super- 
structure from another, and that the finished car shall be as 
light as the above conditions will permit. 

In designing the framing for the cars there is offered a choice 
of two general types, one of which carries the whole load of 
the car and its lading by means of a heavy center sill, which is 
of sufficient strength in itself to resist very large buffing loads. 
The other is one in which the sides of the car beneath the win- 
dows form plate girders afd carry a larger part of the load, 
the center sills being comparatively light. The 
Railroad had in operation at that time a sample of both types 


Pennsylvania 


of cars, the former being the one built at its own shops and 
the latter the Long Island car mentioned above. 

Careful calculations were made by the committee which in- 
dicated that when the loads due to pulling and buffing are 
less than 100,000 lbs. the weight and cost of the car frame 
of cither type will be practically the same. When, however, 
these strains exceed that figure the framing for the type where 
the sides carry the load increases considerably in weight, while 
for the center sill type the loads, due to pulling and buffing, 
may reach a value of 400,000 lbs. without any material increase 


in weight. In view of the primary requirements mentioned 





SEVENTY 

















wa,’ : | 
39-T% - — 


-FOOT STEEL PASSENGER COACH. 


above these calculations led the committee to recommend the 
center sill type for cars used in through train service and a 
modification of that design for the suburban type, the modifica- 
tion being necessary to allow sufficient room for motors be- 
tween the underframe and track. 


DesiGN ADOPTED. 

The design of framing finally adopted is one in which the 
weight of the car body is carried by the center sills at four points, 
two of which are near the ends of the sills and two between the 
trucks, the latter being located at 
same distance from the center plates as the end loads. 


points approximately “he 
Refer- 
effect on the center sills of this 
method of carrying the loads, the shaded portions representing 
the live load and such part of the car as is supported directly 
on the center sills and the four arrow points the loads trans- 
ferred to the sills by the end sills and cross bearers. The 
sill is supported by the trucks at the two points as shown. An 
inspection of the exaggerated deflection line will illustrate that 
the four points of support will be deflected practically tie 
same amount and that therefore they will always be in line one 
with the other and no stress is placed upon the superstructure 
of the car by the deflection of the center sill. With this form 
of construction the sides of the car can be made comparativeiy 


ence to Fig. 1 will show the 


light, as they have to carry but little transverse load and are 
supported at four points, and they can be designed principaliy 
The 


that the side doors required by mail, express or baggage 


to resist collapse in case of a corner blow or overturning. 
fact 














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cars most convenient without requiring 


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SECTION NEA 
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at the center of the sill and over the center plates, thereby giv- 
ing a sill of uniform section throughout. At the same time a 
sill of sufficient depth to carry the load in this way permits the 
draw bar to be placed between the sills so that its stresses are 
transmitted directly to them instead of through auxiliary draft 
sills secured below. This eliminates a very serious bending 
movement at the end of the sills. 
TuHroucH Service PassenGer COoAcu. 

In its general interior arrangement and appearance this car is 
almost an exact copy of the standard wooden passenger coach. 
It seats 88 passengers, has two large saloons in diagonally 
opposite corners and is estimated to weigh 113,500 Ibs. 

Tue UNpberFrAME follows the principles mentioned above 
and comprises two 18-in., 42.2-lb., channels set 16 in. apart and 
having 2 x 24-in. cover plates, top and bottom. These sills 
extend continuously from platform sill to platform sill. The 
weight of the superstructure is transferred to them by the body 
end sills, which are about 7 ft. from the truck center bearing, and 
by the cross bearers about 7 ft. 3% in. inside of the center 
bearing. The distance between the bearers is 42 ft. 
The end sills are of the cantilever type, riveted to the center 
sills and built up of a web plate which is an extension of the 
end sheathing, and angles, top and bottom. The load is trans- 
ferred to them partially by the corner posts and largely by the 
door posts. The cross bearers, which carry practically all of 
their load at the outer end, are also of cantilever form, being 
built up of two dished plates riveted to the center sills, set 8% 
in. apart and having heavy top and bottom cover plates pass- 
ing continuously above and below the center sill and riveted to 
the outstanding flanges of the web plates. These cover plates, 
however, extend only to a point about half way between the 
center and side sills. A malleable iron casting is fitted between 
the web plates at their outer end where the connection to the 


cross 




















AND SECTIONS OF UNDERFRAME—STEEL PASSENGER COACH. 


side sill is made. The side sills are of 5 x 3% x 9/16-in. angles 
and are supported only at the end sills and cross bearers on 
top of which they rest. A series of nine struts composed of 
5-in. channels are spaced between the side sills and center silis, 
being riveted to each and act as 
The use of bolsters is not 
the center 


transverse _ stiffeners 
this 
riveted directly to the bottom of 
the center sills, which are reinforced at this point by a stcel 
casting secured inside. The side bearings are fastened directly 
to the side sills in line with the center plate. ‘The connection 
between the side and end sills is stiffened by a gusset plate, as 
is shown, and two diagonal pressed steel shapes are fitted 
between the center sills and the outer end of the end sills, these 
being designed to resist the effect of a blow on the corner of 
the car and also to stiffen the structure of the underframe and 
keep it square. Projecting beyond the ends of the center sills 
are steel castings of special design, shown in the illustration, 
which act as a backing and support for the buffer plates. 

Tue Main Sipe Posts are of pressed steel and are spaced 
5 ft. 11 in. centers. They are of channel section and the edges 
are flanged out and riveted to the inside sheathing, thus form- 
section. They riveted to the side 
sills at the lower end and the upper sections are tapered down 
and bent inward, forming lower deck carlines. At the upper 
end they are secured to the deck sill which is formed by 4 
steel plate pressed into the shape shown in the illustration of 
the framing. It forms a continuous beam running the entire 
length of the superstructure. 

Between the main posts are shorter intermediate posts, which 
extend only from the belt rail to the deck sill. They are of 
light channel section with edges flanged for riveting to the out- 
side sheathing, forming a box section. 

Tue Upper Deck Car.ines are of sheet steel pressed to chan- 
nel section with edges flanged out for riveting to the 3/32-iN- 
steel roof sheet. The ends of the carlines are riveted to the 
combination deck sill and plate, to which the edge of the roof 
sheets are also riveted. Malleable iron posts of special design. 
located at the junction of each carline, act as stiffeners to the 
web of the sill and plate. 

Tue Outset Bopy Sueratuine is of %-in. steel and the 
course below the belt rail is riveted to the outside sill and to 


necessary in design and 


plates are 


ing a box are securely 











June, 1907. 








AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 


























VIEW OF STEEL FRAMING. 
each post. The joints are butted and fitted with a cover plate. 
The steel shape forming the window water table laps over the 
side sheathing and under the belt rail. The outside sheathing 
above the windows is riveted vertically to the posts and its upper 
edge is secured to a channel shaped steel section forming the 
eaves for the lower deck and extending the entire length of the 
superstructure. : 

Tue HeapiininG for the upper and lower decks is of compo- 
site board secured to the carlines and posts with metal strips. 
Below the belt rail the inside sheathing is of 1/16-in. steel, to 
the unexposed face of which 3/16-in. asbestos board is cemented. 
The bulkheads and remaining parts of the inside lining are of 
1/16-in. sheet steel. Mouldings, closely resembling those used 
in wooden construction, are pressed from steel and their use 
adds greatly to the artistic appearance of the interior. By care 
in design it has been possible to almost wholly eliminate ma- 
chine from the it that 
both construction maintenance 


cured thereby. 


screws construction, and is believed 


economy in and has been se- 
THe Winpow Sasues are of wood and slide in pressed steel 
frames, which are supported and secured by malleable castings 
riveted to the posts. These castings are machined by jig, after 
being riveted in place, so that the frames will be true and 
parallel regardless of any slight irregularity in location of the 
posts. Window stops, which also form ways for the curtains, 
are of extruded bronze. The deck sash are of malleable iron. 
Tue Fioor is formed by corrugated steel plates which are sup- 
ported by the center sill and upon the longitudinal angles se- 
cured to the side posts. ‘These corrugated plates are covered 
to a maximum depth of 1% in. 


composed largely of cement. 


with a plastic surface filling, 
A sub-floor of asbestos board 3¢ in. 
thick supported by No. 20 galvanized sheet steel is secured to 
the center and outside sills. Along each side of the car just 
above the floor, rectangular ventilating ducts are provided, which 
enclose the heating pipes. 

Tue Vestipute.—Sufficient .strength in the end of the car to 
Prevent the from the un- 
derframe by the next car in event of a collision has been given 
careful attention. The center sill is the main support of the 


superstructure from being swept 








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entire vestibule and to it are securely fastened the 9-in. bulb 
angles forming the door posts. These, together with the 5-in. 
channels forming the vestibule posts, form the vertical mem- 
bers which are relied upon to prevent damage to the super- 
structure during collision. The vestibule floor plate, the end 
sills and sheathing, and the vertical bulb angles, are securely 
framed together to give an exceptionally strong foundation 
for the entire end construction. 

Vertical corner angles uniting with the sides and an angle 
across the top secured to the vestibule ceiling form the support 
for the end sheathing. Two diagonal braces running from the 
eaves down to the floor and securely riveted to the sheathing 
give additional stiffness to the ends. 

The end of the vestibule is supported by two outside posts of 
pressed sheet steel together with two channel posts forming a 
doorway. ‘he base is formed by a pressed steel platform end 
sill, and the top support is given by the vestibule ceiling plate. 












































—_- 

































































June, 1907. 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND ‘RAILROAD JOURNAL. 


237 








Door jambs and lintels are of pressed steel closely imitating the 
forms used in wooden construction and are provided with cast 
diaphragms at intervals to prevent collapse and furnish support 
for attaching hinges, railings, etc. 

The end construction of the roof is of formed steel plates 
reinforced by angles secured to the end carline and the vesti- 
bule ceiling. 

HEATING AND VENTILATING.—-The passenger coaches will be 
equipped with a ventilating system by which, with all windows 
and doors closed, each passenger will be supplied with 1,000 
cubic feet of fresh air per hour, which is equivalent to a com- 
plete change of air in the car every four minutes. ‘lhe air is 
taken in by two hoods situated on diagonally opposite corners 
of the car roof. From each hood a vertical duct leads down, 
within the side of the car, to the horizontal duct which runs 
the entire length of the car, between the floor and the sub-floor 
next to the side sill. Above the floor of the car, and running 
its entire length along the sides, are the rectangular ducts, men- 
tioned above, which contain the steam heating pipes. After 
circulating about the heating pipes and becoming thoroughly 
warmed the air is delivered into the aisles of the car through 
tubular outlets beneath each seat. It is discharged from the 
car through ventilators in the roof, which are provided with 

















BOLSTER—FOUR-WHEEL STEEL TRUCK. 

The movement of the car forces the air into it under 
slight pressure and by limiting the discharge this pressure is 
maintained and the entrance of cold air through cracks about 


the doors and windows is prevented. This system works equally 


valves 


well in either winter or summer. The warming of so much 
fresh however, requires considerably more 
would be needed by the usual methods of heating without much, 
if any, 


air, steam than 
ventilation. 

Trucks.—An entirely new farm of truck is required for these 
cars owing to the fact that the very deep center sills lower 
the center bearing plate to a point where it just clears the axle 
of the 36-in. wheel, having a 5 x 9-in. journal. As will be seen 
from the table above, both the six-wheel and four-wheel type 
of truck are required on different cars. The four-wheel truck 
is the one used on the passenger coach and will be considered 
first. 


This truck is of steel throughout and weighs but 12,500 Ibs. 

















TRUCK FRAME—FOUR-WHEEL STEEL TRUCK. 
the ordinary wooden truck of the same capacity would weigh 
10,000 Ibs. The most noticeable feature of the general design is 


the elimination of the usual equalizers and the adaptation of the 
Wheel pieces for this purpose. The wheel pieces consist of two 
10-in. channels with the flanges turned inward and set 9 in 
apart, outside measurement. Thé two channels are spaced and 
secured together at several points by filling pieces and supports 





for hangers and springs. ‘lhe wheel pieces are connected by 
two cross bars, one at either end, each formed of steel pressed 
in channel shape. These are depressed in the center in order to 
ciear the center sill. They are secured to the bottom of the 
wheel pieces and further stiffness is obtained. by a malleable iron 
knee between the wheel piece and the cross bar. 

[he weight from the center plate is transferred to a bolster, 
built up of pressed steel shapes and angles in channel section. 
It has a depth of 12 in. at the center and is 26 in. in width. 
‘his bolster extends some distance beyond the wheel pieces and 
is supported by twelve elliptical springs, six at either end, which 
in turn are carried on a cast steel base hung by links from 
the wheel piece. The casting which forms the bearing and fill- 
ing piece at the connection of the hangers to the wheel pieces 
is extended downward and forms a stop and guide for the bolster 
on either side. A spring centering device, the arrangement of 
which is clearly shown in one of the illustrations, has been in- 
corporated. 

The pedestals are secured to the wheel piece in the ordinary 
manner and are connected at the bottom by two tie rods, suf- 
ficient space being given the rods to permit the use of the jack 
on the bottom of the journal box. The weight is transferred 
from the wheel pieces to the journal boxes through nests of 
coiled springs resting on top of the boxes and extending up be- 
tween the two channels, the lower flanges of which are cut out 
at this point, to a cast steel spring cap. 

The side bearings are incorporated in the casting forming the 
outer stop of the spring centering device, which is connected on 
the extreme end of the bolster and comes directly below the 
side sill of the car. 

In the brake rigging the principle of an independent set of 
duplex brakes for each side has been carried out and brake 
beams have been entirely dispensed with’ by directly suspending 
the brake-heads from hangers attached to the wheel piece. 

The six-wheel truck, postal, baggage and suburban cars will 
be considered in our next issue. 


WRITING FOR TECHNICAL JOURNALS. 


The easiest way to find how little you know about a particu- 
lar subject or thing is to endeavor to write about it. Unquali- 
fhiedly, I believe this to be true. How many of us have started 
to describe some little thing only to discover that at some point 
we must do a little investigating before we could go ahead! In 
description of principle or fact we must get the successive steps 
in their proper sequence and true relation if our ideas are to be 
conveyed logically to the reader or before they will “sound 
right” to us when we read them. So I believe that whether our 
subject be a chicken-coop or a 10,000-horse-power plant we know 
more about it after we have described it than we did before; our 
ideas are clearer, more logically formed. This is no new prin- 
ciple; it is applied in every school and college to-day and why 
is it not as applicable here? 

But the greatest benefit derived is that of the interest stimu- 
lated by writing. If we get into the habit of describing things 
about the shop our interest grows, our knowledge broadens. If 
our story about a special chuck is published we inadvertently feel 
a pride in it, and want to see what the other fellows are saying 
and so we read more and our interest broadens. 

Someone’s description of a milling fixture may have helped 
you out of a hole; so you want to give other readers anything 
vou have “up your sleeve” in return. And so you gradually ob- 
tain the power of seeing things, not just looking at them. 

Every foreman, no matter how large or small his shop, has 
done something that is worth telling about. How much better 
it would be for him if he would not stop at developing the idea 
but would write it up for publication and in so doing stamp its 
principles upon his mind and at the same time develop his re- 
ceptive powers and become on the alert for someone else’s ideas 
that he can apply to his own work.—“Egypt” in the American 
Machinist. 














































238 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





THE EFFICIENCY OF THE WORKER AND HIS RATE OF 
PAY. 


By Cuive HAsTINGs. 


All workers should be paid in proportion to their efficiency. 
The efficiency of a worker depends upon the amount of work 
done. A measure of efficiency is the ratio of the amount of 
work actually accomplished to the amount of work performed 
by a standard worker. Day work, piece work, and the various 
premium systems all attempt to pay the man who does the most 
work the most money, or, in other words, to pay the efficient 
higher than the inefficient. This is done under the day rate by 
rating those highest whom the foreman or manager considers 
worth the most. Under the piece work or premium systems 
this is done automatically, but difficulties arise in the matter of 
changing conditions which necessitate continued changes and 
adjustment of schedules. 

Some system is needed by which the rate of pay will be auto- 
matically adjusted to meet changing conditions. This can be 
done by paying the individual worker on a sliding scale depend- 
ing upon the ratio of his efficiency to that of other workers of 
the same class working on the same class of work under the 
same conditions. 

To be fair piece rates should be continually adjusted for every 
change in conditions. Hard castings in a machine shop warrant 
an increase in the rate per piece and improved methods or tools 
warrant a decrease in the rate per piece. 

The bonus or premium system insures the worker a fixed 
amount of wages which should be the same as that of the day 
worker of his class, with an increase in the form of bonus for 
efficiency. The straight wage remains constant, but the bonus 
varies with the worker’s efficiency. Efficiency under the bonus 
system is determined by the ratio of the time to perform an 
operation, or set of operations, to a standard or schedule time 
assigned in which to perform it. If standard time is ten hours 
on a certain operation and the workman does this in ten hours 
his efficiency is 100 per cent. If he does the work in eight hours 
his efficiency is ten divided by eight, or 125 per cent. If he does 
the work in fifteen hours his efficiency is ten divided by fifteen, 
or 6634 per cent. 

As in piece work a constant adjustment of rates is needed for 
every change in conditions, so in bonus work, there should be a 
change of schedule for every change in conditions. The de- 
mand for adjustment is not so urgently called for by the bonus 
worker as the major part of his pay comes to him as a straight 
day wage and he takes the changing conditions of hard or soft 
castings, good or poor crane service, etc., as a matter of luck, 
but is continually striving to increase his output or efficiency for 
the sake of the resulting increase in pay. Both the bonus sys- 
tem and the piece rate system require the establishing of sched- 
ules and rates. The method of establishing piece rates may be 
by careful time studies or by judgment on the part of those 
making the rate. 

The greatest difficulty in establishing a piece rate is that very 
few (the worker included) realize the marvelous rapidity with 
which work can, be done when the incentive is great enough. 
When a rate is set on a certain operation it should be high 
enough to insure the worker a fair rate of pay. It will be found, 
however, that on account of the incentive to get out more work 
he is getting out so much more or becoming so much more 
efficient that an adjustment of the rate has to be made and 
this kind of adjustment of piece-work rates is the thing that 
has made the workmen so opposed to piece work. They believe 
that as soon as one begins to make a high rate of wage the 
price per piece will be cut. This produces a sentiment of doing 
just enough to earn the ordinary rate of pay of men of their class 
working in day-rate shops and no more. When this happens 
the object of piece work has failed as the men are not striving 
to increase their output beyond a certain point. In other words, 
if our piece-work price is too high we do not find it out on ac- 
count of the worker only doing a limited amount, then idling 
the rest of the working day. 


If a piece-work rate is set too low an injustice is done the 
worker, for in this case he is unable to make the wages of 
other men of his station in life and soon becomes dissatisfied 
and quits. If the piece-work price is set where it should be to 
begin with, it looks so low to the worker that he feels he can- 
not make living wages. As a matter of fact he cannot until 
after several months of practice, during which period he has 
not been earning as much as he should and is very likely to 
become discouraged and quit before he has become efficient 
enough to earn his just rate of pay. 

Summing up the above in regard to piece work: 

First. If rates are too high it is not discovered as the worker 
so sets his pace as not to make an excessive wage for fear the 
rate will be cut if he does. 

Second. If rates are too low the worker becomes discour- 
aged and quits. 

Third. If the rates are such that the worker will make a just 
rate of pay, after he has reached his maximum efficiency by 
practice the rates will be so low that during the period of be- 
coming efficient he will not receive a just wage and will be- 
come dissatisfied. 

The bonus system overcomes these difficulties, for during the 
period of transition from day work to that of maximum efficiency 
he has received his straight day rate plus a bonus figured on a 
sliding scale as his efficiency increases from 6624 per cent. to 
{00 per cent. The schedule can be made as low as it should be, 
yet the worker is not disheartened, and when he reaches maxi- 
mum efficiency his total wage is not exorbitantly high. 

It is customary to make the bonus schedule such that the 
worker making it, or reaching 100 per cent. efficiency, is entitled 
to 20 per cent. increase in his day-rate wages and to make the 
day rate the same as other workers of his class are making under 
a day-rate system. If the worker takes one-half more time than 
the schedule or works at 6634 per cent. efficiency he receives 


1 2 3 4 5 ( 8 
TIME 


STANDARD TIME 4 HRS. 20% BONUS 
WAGE RATE=0.24 MACHINE RATE= 0.70 


GRAPHICAL ILLUSTRATION OF BONUS SYSTEM. 


no bonus. 


The bonus increases on a sliding scale from 66% 
per cent. to 100 per cent. efficiency, at which point the bonus 1s 


20 per cent. of the wages. For all increases in efficiency above 
100 per cent. the worker is paid in bonus 20 per cent. of his 
wages for standard time plus the number of hours saved times 
his rate of pay per hour. Thus the total pay for any operation 
done in over 100 per cent. efficiency is the same as if his effi- 
ciency was 100 per cent., which means that the wage cost at 100 . 
per cent. efficiency is a standard price for the operation. 











June, 1907. 





AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 


239 





Under the bonus system, then, we can establish a just price as 
standard and by means of the sliding bonus scale induce the 
worker to achieve maximum efficiency without feeling that at 
any time during the transition he has been.forced to take a 
lower wage than he deserves, and when he has reached the point 
of maximum efficiency it is not necessary to cut the schedule 
as has proved the case so many times with piece work. 

Piece work and bonus systems are methods that automatically 
pay the efficient more than the inefficient, and the bonus system, 
with the guaranteed day wage, leads to fewer difficulties in the 
way of discontented workmen during the period of transition 
from day work to that of maximum efficiency. Changes in the 
conditions do not affect the total wage to as great an extent and 
the workers therefore are less discontented when conditions work 
to their disadvantage. The extra money in the form of bonus is 
a continual incentive to make them strive to work at their maxi- 
mum efficiency. Granting that we have bonus schedules which 
are fair and just for conditions as they exist to-day, these con- 
ditions will not be the same to-morrow, and in strict justice the 
schedules should be changed with each change in conditions. 
This would be such an interminable task that no piece-work or 
bonus man would ever think of attempting it. The friction and 
disputes that would constantly arise would upset all shop dis- 
cipline and organization. For this reason schedules are made 
as near right as possible and allowed to remain constant under 
the theory that month in and month out the conditions will vary 
as much one way as the other and thus be balanced. 

The attempt of the employer who works his workmen under 
a straight day-rate system is always to rate the efficient higher 
than the inefficient. This can be done and is accomplished very 
satisfactorily in a small organization where the employer can 
know all his men personally and is allowed a free hand to rate 
them according to his judgment. In large organizations it is 
impossible to know each man personally, and as soon as the per- 
sonal element is lost it becomes necessary to pay whole groups 
or classes of workers a uniform rate rather than a varying rate 
based on efficiency determined by personal knowledge of the 
employer, as was possible in the small organization. Some form 
of premium or piece-work system is then resorted to as a method 
of determining efficiency and thus paying the efficient more than 
the inefficient. It has been shown that these systems do this 
automatically. It has also been shown that unless schedules are 
continually being adjusted no account can be taken of varying 
grades of materials or tools, etc. The next step, then, is a system 
which will take care of these variations automatically. 

The efficiency of men working side by side in day-rate shops 
has been found in cases to vary from 40 per cent. to 120 per 
cent., yet the rate of each man was the same. Efficiency of 40 
per cent. means that 100 hours are actually taken to perform 
work scheduled as requiring 40 hours. Efficiency of 120 per cent. 
means that 100 hours are actually taken to perform work sched- 
uled as requiring 120 hours. The worker working at 120 per 
cent. efficiency does three times as much work per hour as the 
worker of 40 per cent. efficiency. 

The employer is evidently satisfied, though probably through 
ignorance, with the man of 40 per cent. efficiency, for if the 
employer is not satisfied the man would be discharged or his 
rating cut in three. Granting he is satisfied with the worker of 
40 per cent. efficiency the employer would be no loser, in fact he 
would be a gainer on account of increased output, if he paid 
the worker of 120 per cent. efficiency a bonus of 200 per cent. 
of his wages in addition to his straight day wage. This is an 
extreme case though not an uncommon one. 

Every employer should be willing to pay the man in his shop, 
whose efficiency is that of the average efficiency of the whole 
shop, a wage equal to the highest day wage that man can obtain 
ina day-rate shop in the same section of the country. If we 
then assign standard or schedule times for every job given 
a worker it is a simple matter at the end of each day, week, 
month or period to sum up the total of the schedule hours of 
all jobs he has performed and then by dividing this total by the 
actual hours worked determine his efficiency. 

In the same way the time efficiency of the whole shop can be 





determined by dividing the sum of all the schedule hours of 
work performed by the sum ot the actual hours worked by each 
man as shown by time clock. Having determined the efficiency 
of the shop as a whole we can compare the efficiency of each 
man with this and base his rate of pay on the ratio his indi- 
vidual efficiency bears to the whole shop efficiency. The man 
whose efficiency is the same as that of the shop will receive a 
wage equal to the highest day wage which workers of his class 
receive in the same locality. The man whose efficiency is above 
that of the shop will receive a total wage which bears the same 
ratio to the wage of the man whose efficiency 1s the same as that 
of the shop as his own efficiency bears to the whole shop effi- 
ciency. Also the man whose efficiency is less than that of the 
shop will receive a total wage which bears the same ratio, to the 
wage of the man whose efficiency is the same as that of the 
shop, as his own efficiency bears to the whole shop efficiency. 

It will be better to divide the workers into groups much the 
same as is done in a day-rate shop, all the workers on a certain 
class of machines in one group, all those doing bench work in 
another, and so forth down to as minute grouping as desired. 
After dividing the shop into groups the wages of each individual 
worker should be based on the ratio of his efficiency to that of 
the efficiency of his group as a whole. 

The advantage of basing the worker’s wages on the ratio of 
his efficiency to that of the efficiency of his group is that all vari- 
ations in conditions are thus automatically adjusted, and after 
schedules have once been established they may be left indefi- 
nitely without a change. 

Assume as an example the case of a worker who is one of a 
group of six all doing small lathe work. Our schedules have all 
been made as fair and just as possible for existing conditions. 
Next month the castings coming from the foundry are discov- 
ered to be a much harder grade of casting than those of to-day. 
Under a straight bonus or piece-work system the only fair thing 
to do is to adjust the rates or schedules, allowing more time 
on account of this hard run of metal. Under the proposed sys- 
tem of paying men based on group efficiencies this is not neces- 
sary, for when the hard castings are brought in and the schedule 
left unchanged the efficiency of the whole group will fall and 
that of the individual will fall in proportion. We will con- 
tinue to pay the worker whose efficiency is equal to that of the 
group the highest wages he could get under a day-rate system, 
and those whose efficiency is above or below the group efficiency 
will be paid in proportion. Assume again the same group and 
that all other things being equal we suddenly introduce a new 
tool steel allowing the cutting speed to be doubled. Under bonus 
or piece work it is immediately necessary to cut the schedules 
in two, with its accompanying discontent and grumbling from 
the worker. Not so with the proposed plan, for when the new 
steel is introduced the efficiency of the group immediately doubles 
and that of each individual worker increases proportionately. We 
will continue to pay the worker whose efficiency is equal to that 
of the group the highest wages he could get under a day-rate 
system, and those whose efficiency is above or below the group 
efficiency will be paid in proportion. 

SUMMARY. 

Summing up:—Every system of paying labor is an attempt to 
pay the efficient more than the inefficient. The straight day rate 
in which the attempt is always made to rate the workers by their 
efficiency gave satisfaction with the smaller organizations of the 
past in which the personal relation between employer and em- 
ployees were such that by personal knowledge the employer de- 
termined the rating of each man. With the increase in the size 
of organizations the personal relations between employer and 
employee have become such that the employer is unable to know 
his employees personally and thus be able to rate them accord- 
ing to his personal knowledge of their individual ability or effi- 
ciency. As a result he has turned to piece-work and premium 
systems as automatic means of determining efficiency and ad- 
justing wages accordingly. The piece-work and premium sys- 
tems both do this, but any arbitrary setting of rates or sched- 
ules cannot stand without continual adjustment to meet varying 
conditions that are never twice exactly alike. 





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JuNE, 1907. 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





241 








The premium system with guaranteed day wage needs less ad- 
justment than a straight piece-work system. Even under the 
premium system employee and employer are continually insist- 
ing upon adjustment of schedules to meet changing conditions. 
These adjustments are continual causes of strife and ill feeling. 

The next step toward a just wage is a system of wage rating 
which shall automatically adjust itself to these changing con- 
ditions. This is accomplished: 

(1) By scheduling every operation for conditions as they ex- 
ist. These schedules to always remain the same. 















SECTIONS OF MOGUL TYPE PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE WITH SUPERHEATER—SWISS GOV 


SIMPLE LOCOMOTIVE FITTED WITH IMPROVED 
SMOKE TUBE SUPERHEATER. 





Swiss GovERNMENT RAILROAD. 





By WILHELM SCHMIDT. 





Generally speaking, mogul locomotives are still in considerable 
favor in Europe, where the demand for larger and heavier en- 
gines has not been of that urgent and persistent character which 
has been so marked a feature in the case of America. This is 
mainly due to the fact that highly superheated steam has for 
some years been extensively employed on the European Conti- 
nent, as a result of which it has been possible to adequately in- 
crease the power of new locomotives without augmenting the 
total weight to an undesirable degree. The engine shown in 
the accompanying engraving is especially interesting for the 
reason that it is provided with the latest improved smoke-tube 
type of superheaters, a type which is as steadily increasing in 
popularity in Switzerland as it is elsewhere. Apart from the 
Superheating apparatus and certain other parts which work 
under steam, the design of the engine as a whole is a typical one 
for this class of locomotive on the Continent of Europe. 

THE BOILER, which embodies features closely allied to American 
Practice, is of the narrow firebox type. The inside firebox is of 
copper, the sides and crown being in one sheet, % in. thick. The 
Crown sheet is flat, with a slope towards the back of about 
2% in., and is supported by vertical stay bolts. There are also 
horizontal stays extending across from the sides of the boiler 
shell, and placed immediately above the crown-sheet. The mud- 
ting is only 2 9/16 in. wide. The back and front flue-sheets are 
each about 11% in. in thickness, the former being of copper and 
the latter of steel. The boiler has a diameter of 5534 in. at the 
front ring, and contains 150 tubes 12 ft. 734 in. long. Of these 





(2) By dividing the workers into groups, all in the same group 
being employed on the same class of work. 

(3) By determining the efficiency of individual workers and 
groups by dividing the total schedule hours performed by the 
total hours actually taken. 

(4) By paying each worker whose efficiency is equal to that 
of his group the maximum pay he can get under the day rate 
system, and varying the wages of those whose efficiency is above 
or below that of their group in the same ratio that their efficiency 
bears to that of their group. 








o00000 





o0000 | 
IN 0000 














ERNMENT RAILROAD. 


tubes, 132 are 134 in. in diameter, while the remaining 18 have a 
diameter of 5% in. 

As will be seen from the drawing, the latter are disposed in 
the upper part of the barrel, and it is in this group of larger 
tubes that the new smoke-tube superheater is arranged. The 
earlier forms of this apparatus are familiar to the readers of 
the AMERICAN ENGINEER, Owing to its application to engines on 
the Canadian Pacific Railroad. The present modification of 
the superheater possesses several mechanical and other advan- 
tages over the originai design. Its principle and construction are 
clearly shown in the detailed drawing. There are two import- 
ant features which constitute the chief differences between the 
new and the old smoke-tube apparatus. One feature is that the 
superheater pipes are now formed in double loops instead of in 
single loops, while the other is that each set of superheater 
pipes is independently bolted, and can be got at without discon- 
necting or in any way disturbing the adjacent sets. 

Each of the 18 large smoke-tubes, A, contains a superheater 
element, B, consisting of four ‘solid-drawn steel pipes, of 114 in. 
diameter, which are connected at their firebox ends by two 
steel return bends, thus forming a double loop, as shown in 
detail. The two ends of each set of superheater pipes are bent 
upwards in the smoke-box, and are there spread apart, in order 
to allow for the full expansion of the pipes under different tem- 
peratures. At the same time this arrangement permits of the 
smoke-tubes being just as easily inspected and cleaned from the 
front end of the boiler as trom the firebox end. This feature 
is of very great importance in the case of boilers with long tubes, 
and more especially so if poor coal is used, as then the cleaning 
of the smoke-tubes from the firebox end alone cannot always be 
efficiently performed. Again, as there are no header castings 
hanging down in the smoke-box, no difficulty whatever arises 
witn regard to the resetting or removal of the large tubes, 
either of which operations can be readily carried out, without 
disconnecting the whole arrangement. 





242 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 








There are as many superheater elements as there are smoke- 
tubes, hence there are 18 in the engine under notice. The two 
smoke-box ends of each set of double-looped superheater pipes, 
B, are expanded into a flange, C, which is independently secured 
to the bottom face of the cast-iron steam collector, D, in the 
smoke-box, by means of a single 1 in. bolt, E. The heads of 
these bolts are movable in slots in the underside of the collector 
casting. In the most exceptional case, it would not be necessary 
to loosen more than three of the holding bolts in order to draw 
out any particular set of superheater pipes. This feature thus 
renders the new apparatus thoroughly practicable and accessible. 
An all-round even joint is obtained by passing the bolt through 
the centre of the flange, and supplementing it with a couple of 
copper-asbestos rings. Only 18 of these 1 in. bolts are needed for 
the purpose of fastening the whole superheating arrangement to 
the collector casting, and there are neither coupling-nuts nor 
screw connections in the smoke-box which would cause any 
trouble through leakage. 

The collector casting is divided by partitions into compart- 
ments for saturated and superheated steam alternately. These 
compartments communicate with the corresponding ends of the 
superheater pipes in the smoke-tubes. On the throttle-valve 
being opened, the saturated or moist steam flows from the dry- 
pipe into the several compartments for saturated steam, then 
passes through the double-looped superheater pipes (as indicated 
by arrows), and returns highly superheated to the other com- 
partments in the collector, from which it finally 
passes to the cylinders in the ordinary way. 

The passage of the combustion and 
therefore the degree of superheat in the smoke- 
tubes, can be regulated by means of dampers 
fitted to the collector casting in the smoke-box. 
For the purpose of preventing overheating of the 
superheater pipes, these dampers are kept closed 
while the engine is standing or drifting, as the 
case may be. 

The ratio of the heating surface of the super- 


gases, 











heater (307.9 sq. ft.) to the total heating surface 
of the boiler (1,512.4 sq. ft.) is ample to insure 
an average temperature of the steam 
steam-chest of from 580° to 600° Fahr. a 
high degree of superheat is absolutely necessary 
in the case of simple locomotives, in order to 
avoid all condensation in the cylinders, by which 
result alone can the entire benefit super- 
heating as regards great economy and efficiency, 
be obtained. Manifestly, the complete preven- 
tion of condensation is equivalent to a larger 
boiler capacity, so that, with a view to fully utilizing this in- 
creased steaming capacity, cylinders of a comparatively large 
diameter are necessary. For an engine of the size of this mogul 
locomotive, 2114 in. cylinders would undoubtedly be deemed too 
large in America. The engine would be regarded as being over- 
cylindered, and assuredly it would be so, if saturated steam was 
employed. But the possibility of using large cylinders in an 
economical manner, is one of the salient features of this system 
of superheating, while it is the principal source of the greatly 
increased efficiency of the numerous locomotives which have been 
fitted with it. As compared with ordinary-size cylinders, highly 
superheated steam allows of earlier and more economical cut- 
offs, both at starting and while running; and, what is even more 
important, it also permits of the use of relatively low boiler 
pressures. 

In the case of locomotives working with saturated steam, the 
size of the cylinder is quite as much restricted by the losses due 
to condensation as by the loading-gauge limits. It is necessary 
to employ comparatively small cylinders, which, in turn, means 
the use of late and uneconomical cut-offs when the engine is 
starting or being forced. On the other hand, with locomotives 
using highly superheated steam, the total absence of condensa- 
tion enables the diameters of the cylinders to be so increased that 
economical cut-offs are possible, in addition to which advantage, 
an increase in the tractive power is obtained simultaneously. The 


in the 


Such 


of 


Lox 


29) 


@ 





> 


t/ 


comparatively early cut-offs with which the engines can be 
started, reduces the tendency of the drivers to slip, in conse- 
quence of which superheated steam locomotives are given a 
greater lap on the steam side of the valves, so that they start 
away under full steam with short cut-offs, and are far less liable 
to slip than are saturated steam locomotives. 

As in the case of the engine illustrated, the large cylinders 
fitted with piston-valves necessitate the use of by-pass valves. 
The drawing shows a very simple design of such a valve, ar- 
ranged on the top of the steam-chest and actuated by hand. 

Pistons provided with three small square-section spring rings 
of cast-iron are used. The rings are grooved, and there are a 
number of small holes in the periphery of the first and third 
rings, in order to avoid compression of the outer ring at the end 
of the stroke, and to equalize the pressure of the steam which 
leaks behind the rings. When highly superheated steam is em- 
ployed, it is particularly desirable to secure steam-tightness with 
a minimum of friction. For this reason, a long tail-rod to the 
piston is used, and the weight of the piston is counter-balanced 
by this rod on the one side, and by the crosshead on the other. 
In this way, the friction of the piston-rod proper when moving 
in the packing is reduced to a minimum. 

THE DOUBLE-PORTED PISTON-VALVES, with solid rings, are ar- 
ranged for inside admission, and are operated by the Wal- 
schaert gear. As on the outside of the valves there is only the 


relatively low exhaust pressure, no stuffing-boxes for the \ 









A 
Caen,’ 


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D | 


raps: 
! 


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_—_ 


c4 














am. 








io) 


SCHMIDT IMPROVED TUBE 


SMOKE 


SUPERHEATER. 


rods are required or used. On account of the double admission, 
and owing to there being no bridges in the steam ports—the rings 
being solid—the diameter of the piston-valves can be kept very 
small. An important point in favor of highly superheated steam 
is that its great tenuity makes the use of piston-valves of a com- 
paratively small diameter possible, even in the case of loco- 
motives designed for high-speed passenger service. To prevent 
jamming of the solid rings, the steam-chest is steam-jacketed.* 

Forced lubrication, with mineral oil having a high flash-point, 
is used for the cylinders and valves, in order to insure efficient 
lubrication. 

Tue Frames are of the usual plate type employed abroad, and 
are 1 in. thick. The underhung springs of the back and inter- 
mediate drivers, together with the overhung springs of the front 
drivers and truck wheels, are equalized, so that the weight is 
compensated between two distinct groups of wheels. The truck, 
however, is not provided with a cross equalizer. It will be no- 
ticed that all the spring-hangers are adjustable in length. 

Tue Pony Truck is of the Krauss-Helmholtz type, and its 
construction is clearly shown in the drawing. A_ noticeable 
feature is that the axle is connected with the leading drivers 
by a radius-bar whose fulcrum lies between the truck and driving 


* These piston valves were designed by Mr. Schmidt, who has also devised 
several other forms of such valves fitted with split rings, which have proved 
to be very successful and have been extensively adopted by many European 
railways.— Eb. 





June, 1907. 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 


243 








axle. The latter has a certain amount of lateral play, and acts, 
in its combination with the pony truck, like a four-wheeled en- 
gine truck. Hence, locomotives of this type are well-suited to 
either fast passenger or ordinary freight service. 

The principal dimensions of this engine, which was constructed 
at the works of the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Company at 
Winterthur, Switzerland, are given in the following table. 
Twenty engines of the same type are either already at work on 
the Swiss Government Railroad, or are in course of being built 
for that system: 


ee Gr Gb nddoniviees sachs cddauccedesccenasaséanes 21.26 in. 
DONG, MEE. Sc d@L ties iva vieencesneessesenececeasiaseadacuns 23.62 in. 
ge Pr er ne 59.8 in. 
ee ee ee ee ee ee 1,072.1 sq. ft. 
PIOAtIDN GUNTEEO GF GUDETRORIEES 6.5 66s ccccccccccccaccceveses 307.9 sq. ft. 
ee: Gere Ge TONING 6 bcd cnstedwdurdeusessecdeeees 132.4 sq. ft. 
the ND SUNNIIOs i000 06:64 6 ese dk es nmaeetedseneens 1,512.4 sq. ft. 
WN SRO So Gata sec decked dicddeeewnueneend dccdedvadnus 24.8 sq. ft. 
ee GU DEP OR. Div eoicgnd cece cwsdccacveneesCoeatctaews 170.7 Ibs. 
Teeetes GE Vee GEVORe GU iekk 6 ck caddasericecocanccceecucevec 55% in. 
eee Sr OE WU oc oe ciukndaneededéneee han keueseauabaneuan 132 
CE Oe GUE SUEE cc nadindcanesaucendedsnaeunnaw~ewecs 1% in. 
TREY OE GUMETMCOIEE GRIM 6 6c iis Cet cieccodccnctiaccencesseee 18 
Diameter of superheater smoke-tubes............. cccscccccccccces 5% in, 
Sn Oh CE oi cbuccandwuecaeehheiareise ekckeesaeawees 12 ft. 73% in. 
Weignt GF GUGINE Hi WOTKIIE OPE. 6. ccc cccccccieccccuceces 123,630 lbs. 





A TIME AND COST COMPUTER. 





An interesting and valuable application of the logarithmic 
principle of the slide rule, for the simple solution of problems in 
connection with boring and turning mill and lathe work, has 
recently been made by Mr. William Cox, a mechanical engineer 
of New York City, in the design of a “time and cost computer” 
for The Bullard Machine Tool Company, of Bridgeport, Conn. 
This instrument, which is illustrated herewith, is practically a 
circular slide rule in which the various scales—six in number— 
have been given special values corresponding to the elements 
which enter into the calculations. 

The formula which it solves: 


xt & xX FE 











1s £8 
S 
is derived as follows: 
LX F S X I2 
T= ——— _,, in which R = , which resolves into 
R xD 
LXF DXLXF 
FS ee Se ( ) = 
S+ 12 12 S 
=D 
<b ¢.F 
2618 in which 
S 
T = Time required in minutes. 
D = Diameter of piece in inches. 
L = Length of cut in inches. 
F = Rate of feed per revolution in parts of 1 in. 
R= Revolutions of piece per minute. 
S = Cutting speed in feet per minute. 


The usefulness and time-saving qualities of the instrument, 
a compared with the usual pad and pencil method, are well 
illustrated in the following example (a cast-iron cylinder being 
assumed: Cutting speed 35 ft. per minute (A), feed per revo- 
lution % in. (B), diameter of piece 30 in. (C), length of cut 
20 in. (D), time required 36 minutes (E), the accompanying 
illustration showing the scales set in the required positions for 
the solution of the problem. Another scale, not shown, deter- 
mines the cost per operation at an hourly rate of from 1 to 60 
cents. The determination of the proper feeds and speeds to be 
used for the completion of a certain operation in a given time 
18 another valuable feature. 

The Bullard Machine Tool Company has arranged for a sup- 
ply of these, at a considerable expense, and we are advised that 
they will be glad to furnish them to motive power officials or 
foremen, who may have need for them, if an application is 


made, the applicant to state his position and the company he is 
with. 


EQUALIZERS ON PASSENGER TRUCKS. 
To THE EpitTor: 

The equalizer, so called, in a passenger truck is an equalizer 
in name only, for it does not equalize. It is merely a rigid 
bracket for supporting the helical springs, which might as well 
be supported on the journal-boxes. What equalizing there may 
be is due to the action of the wheel-pieces as equalizers. 

The truck shown in Fig. 2, page 180, is just what is advocated 
by those who would omit the equalizer. There we have springs 
over the boxes, supporting the truck frame. The piece having 
the shape of an equalizer we can call a “wheel-piece truss rod,” 
or a “spring seat hanger,” and we shall have in principle just 
such a truck as that of the New York Central car, page 81 
(March issue). The omission of equalizers would reduce the 
weight of each truck by about 600 Ibs. 

It is a mistake to consider that the best American roadbeds 
are not as good as any to be found in Europe, and that the rid- 
ing qualities of European trucks are thereby explained. 

yo 2 





To THE EpiTor: 

Below are noted some thoughts that occurred to the writer on 
reading the communication on “Equalizers on Passenger 
Trucks” in your May issue. 

When equalizers are removed from these trucks, the frames 
will not be supported by blocks-on the journal-boxes, but by 





COX’S TIME AND COST COMPUTER. 


20 30 Nae 50, 








COPYRIGHT 1907 BY B 


THE BULLARO MACHINE TOOL CO 


INVENTED AND DESIGNED BY 
WILLIAM COX NEW YORK 











springs. Such a truck is shown in the March issue of THE 
AMERICAN ENGINEER, under a New York Central car, page 81. 
There may be some uncertainty as to what kind, and propor- 
tions, of springs will be most satisfactory for supporting the 
frame. The common European practice is to employ long, flat, 
semi-elliptic springs with small helical springs interposed in the 
hangers. This arrangement is particularly conducive to easy 
riding. 

The principle commonly employed in equalizing is to group 
the supports into three sets, the supports of each set being equal- 
ized. If there are but two groups the supported load is in un- 
stable equilibrium, and is in danger of being overturned unless 
some outside influence holds it in position. If the two wheels 
on each side of a four-wheel truck were really equalized by the 
equalizer, the truck frame would be tilted by the action of the 
brakes and by resistance to motion, until the wheel-pieces rested 


































































AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 








30-INCH CHANDLER PLANER—WEST ALBANY 


on the journal-boxes. Such would be the behavior of the truck 
shown in Fig. 1, page 180. But the inequality in the track sur- 
face in the length of a truck is so small as to require no equal- 
izing, while the inequalities in the length of a locomotive wheel- 
base are an entirely different matter. 

The six-wheel truck has a longer wheel-base than the four- 
wheel one, and it has three wheels in line. Equalizers are neces- 
sary on it in order to insure the proper distribution of weight 
on the bearings, and the equalizers here do perform that func- 
tion. The distribution of weight over six wheels instead of 
four divides the shocks by six instead of four, and so it will 
probably be impossible to build a four-wheel truck which will 
ride as smoothly as the more expensive six-wheel one. But 
some of the good riding qualities of the six-wheel truck are due 
to the greater distance between the springs supporting the wheel- 
piece, preventing the vibrations of the truck frame just as the 
overhung springs were found necessary on four-wheel electric 
cars to prevent the vibrations of the body. This is just what 
would be accomplished by omitting the equalizer of the four- 
wheel truck and placing the frame-supporting springs over the 
boxes N. O. 





WHAT A WESTERN ROAD IS DOING FOR ITS 
APPRENTICES. 


To THE Epitor: 
Have followed articles in your journal regarding the better 
instruction of shop apprentices, through the organization of spe- 


SHOPS—NEW YORK CENTRAL, 


cial classes for their benefit, with great interest, and thought 
possibly you might be interested in knowing what the Soo Line 
is doing in this respect. Although the apprentice of to-day is 
offered means of bettering himself through the local Y. M. C. A. 
and private evening classes often conducted by draftsmen, ‘or 
a small outlay in tuition, these do not seem to be as effective 
or to meet with such ready response as classes conducted by 
the railroad company. Such classes also tend to bring the ap- 
prentice in closer touch with the railroad organization and give 
him a better insight into its affairs, thus making him realize 
to a greater extent his own importance in the organization. 
Mr. T. A. Foque, mechanical superintendent of the Soo Line, 
realizing the importance of bringing the apprentices together in 
this way, first had an interview with them, trying to make them 
understand that upon the responsible young man of to-day rests 
the future success of our railroads. The apprentices in the ma- 
chine shop, 18 or 20 in number, were organized into two classes, 
those farthest advanced in their shop term constituting the 
senior class and the others the junior class. Each class meets 
every other Saturday afternoon in the drafting room, from one 
to five o’clock. The head draftsman for an increase in salary, 
paid by the company, gives them instruction in mathematics and 
mechanical drawing, also in the process of making prints and 
filing the drawings for quick and ready reference. The drawing 
boards, 24 x 36 in. in size, of well seasoned pine and the T-squares 
of cherry, both made in the company’s shops, are furnished by 
the railroad. The student furnishes his own triangles and in- 
struments. Occasionally an afternoon is devoted to a talk to 
the apprentices by one of the officials of the motive power de 





ine, 


lem 
ests 
ma- 
ses, 

the 
eets 
one 
ary, 
and 
and 
ying 
ares 


| by 


< to 
de- 


JuNE, 1907. 





AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 245 








partment. The apprentices are very much interested and the 
plan promises splendid results both for the boys and the com- 


pany. W. N. 
Sr. Pau, MINN. 





36-INCH HIGH DUTY PLANER. 


A 36-inch Chandler planer has recently been installed at the 
West Albany shops of the New York Central, which has sev- 
eral features of special interest. The greatest difficulty encoun- 
tered in developing high speed planers has been to secure suffi- 
cient belt capacity and, in connection with this, to increase the 
efficiency of power transmission between the driving belt and the 
cutting tool. To overcome the difficulty of shifting an extra wide 
belt two 3-in. belts are used for driving the planer on the cut- 
ting stroke. The tight or driving pulley runs between two loose 
pulleys, the belts being shifted on and off from each side. 

Two belts and two sets of pulleys are required for driving the 
platen on the return stroke. One of these acts as a starter and 
the other as an accelerator, for instance, the West Albany planer 
reverses from a 50-ft. cutting speed to a 79-ft. return speed. As 
soon as the platen is well started on the return stroke the 
starting belt is shifted off and the accelerating belt is shifted on, 











Lt Damper 


increasing the return speed from 79 to 147 ft. per minute. At 
the end of the return stroke the return belts are operated in 
the reverse order, i. ¢., the 147-ft. belt goes off and the slow belt 
comes on, returning the speed to 79 ft., from which it reverses 
to the cutting speed. 

To reduce the friction in the machine all the shafts are case- 
hardened and accurately ground, the bearings are made espe- 
cially long, and the outboard bearings are bushed and have chain 
oilers. All of the loose pulleys are self-oiling. The gears are 
of cast steel and the pinion gears and the rack are steel forgings. 
The planer has two cutting speeds, 30 and 50 ft. per minute; 
the change from one speed to another is made by means of a 
back gear in the gear train, somewhat similar to the back gear 
on an engine lathe. The belt ratios are, therefore increased on 
the slow cuts, which is a considerable advantage. 

The feed is not reguiated by the usuai wrist pin, which is 
adjustable on and off the center of the friction box, but by 
regulating the movement of the friction box with two pins, a 
fixed pin on the bed of the machine and a pin on the adjustable 
lever, which moves on a marked dial somewhat as the reversing 
lever on a locomotive. Any desired feed can, therefore, be had 
instantly and the position of the levers indicates the amount of 
feed. The platen may be started or stopped from either side. 
The 36 in. by 36 in. by to ft. planer weighs about 26,500 Ibs. 











| 








Damper 














Damper 
a ; 
6s fn Damper_f-) 














ARRANGEMENT OF HEATER DUCTS AND PIPES—N. Y., 0. & W. RY. PAINT SHOP, 


HEATING A PAINT SHOP. 





New York, Ontario & WESTERN RAILWAY. 





The New York, Ontario & Western Railway has recently com- 
pleted a new paint shop at Middletown, N. Y., 384 by 66 ft. 
having three longitudinal tracks. The building is of wooden 
construction and was designed and constructed under the super- 
vision of Mr. C. E. Knickerbocker, engineer maintenance of 
way. The method of heating is somewhat different from that 
ordinarily used in shops of this character, and is of interest. The 
equipment consists of an 8-ft. fan wheel, which draws the air 
through a heater, in which are compactly arranged to sections 
containing 6800 ft. of 1-in. pipe. The rapidity of air flow pro- 
duced by the fan increases 


ing, this central position reducing the cost of the distribut- 
ing system to a minimum. Beneath the floor and alongside 
each of the walls and the cohimn piers run four tile distributing 
pipes branching from the main brick cross duct from the fan. 
Branches from these pipes lead to the floor level, the upper por- 
tion of each branch being constructed of heavy galvanized iron, 
and so arranged as to throw the escaping air at an angle toward 
the floor. This maintains a constantly changing volume of warm 
air at the floor level, which naturally ascends alongside the 
painted surfaces of the cars, increasing the rate of drying. The 
constant replacement of the rising air by the incoming heated 
volumes insures a fresh warm atmosphere. 

The outlets range from 6 to 8 ins. in diameter, and are spaced 
16 ft. apart, so that a very uniform distribution and mixing is 





the efficiency of the heat- 
ing surface from 300 to 500 
per cent. above that of the 
same area exposed in still air. 

A direet-connected 8 by 
12-in. engine drives the fan 
up to a maximum speed of 
Over 200 r.p.m., which is 
sufficient to insure a veloc- 
ity of about 3,500 ft. per 
min. through the discharge 
Pipe. The heater is de- 
Signed for the use of high 
Pressure steam, and = ar- 
ranged so that the exhaust 
from the fan engine may be 
utilized, 





_ The apparatus is placed 
mM a small lean-to mid- 
length of the main build- 


Sl 





INTERIOR OF PAINT SHOP SHOWING HEATER PIPES. 








eminent acting eer S 


246 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 








secured. Those in the middle of the building are protected 
from injury by the adjacent columns. The building is warm 
where warmth is desired—at the floor. The small rooms at the 
end of the building are heated by the same system through risers 
extending up from the underground ducts. 

In other arrangements of the blower system the air is distrib- 
uted through overhead pipes carried upon the roof framing and 
provided with long discharge pipes extending downward to near 
the floor. Each method has its advantages, but the results se- 
cured at Middletown prove that the underground system gives 
satisfactory results. The B. F. Sturtevant Company, of Boston, 
assisted in designing the system and furnished the equipment. 





EXPANDED METAL RACKS FOR COKE CARS. 
PITTSBURGH AND LAKE Erte RAILROAD. 


The Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad has in service at the pres- 
ent time over 4,000 coke cars, the greater number of which are 
30-ton gondola cars which have been converted by the addition 


of rack is more expensive than wood, and little, if any, saving 
in weight is effected, it is very much more durable. With cars 
having wooden sides the laborers at the coke ovens do not hesi- 
tate to saw through or break the top of the side if the car is 
not placed to suit them, or if they think the sides of the car are 
too high. Damage of this kind, which is usually entirely un- 
called for, not only causes a considerable expense to the railroad 
company, but also causes much inconvenience. This cannot be 
done where the sides are of expanded metal. The metal used 
is known as No. 6 gauge, 3 in. mesh, single strand, and is fur- 
nished by the Central Expanded Metal Company of Pittsburg. 

The stakes, or posts, which support the racks are bolted to 
the side and end planks of the car, and are tied across the car 
by %-in. rods. These posts are 4 in. wide by 3 in. thick, except 
the two nearest the center of the car, which are 4 x § in. and 
which, in addition to being bolted to the side planks, are fitted 
to stake pockets on the side sill. The 5 x ™%-in. timbers at the 
top of the sides are bolted to the posts. The expanded metal 
is fastened at the top and bottom by %-in. staples and at the 
sides by staples and by the 3-in. U-bolts and %-in. hook bolts, 





1% ’ Holes for 3 X% Countersunk Bolts 


















































| 
ico Tie 
Ha) 
! . = 


[/—-—— 








5-6 — - > - 4. 


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. ay AX oo 


Sat. 





° —9~ —2— Ms 





ia 
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SSCS 10K ht] 
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Pr TGK 55> 








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<§—_—— ees as aan 


as shown. The side doors and the 
method of fastening them is shown 
in detail on the drawing. 








Air BrAKEs ON MountaIN GRADES. 
—I am of the opinion that where 
cars are equipped with the improved 
quick service, retarded release, triple 
valve and “three-position” retaining 
valves, no difficulty should be expe- 
rienced in successfully handling 100,- 
000 pound capacity cars, fully load- 





EXPANDED METAL RACKS FOR COKE CARS—P. & L. E. R. R. 


of wooden racks. The use of wood for this purpose has, how- 
ever, recently been discontinued in favor of expanded metal, as 
shown on the illustrdtions. While the first cost of fhis form 


ed, down approximately  200-ft. 
grades, providing the brakes are 
properly maintained and the braking power is, at least, 80 pet 
cent. to 85 per cent. of the light weight of the car.—Mr. 7. E. 
Burton, before the Air Brake Association. 





a ce a 


m_— CD 


}y 





the 
wi 


DES. 
nere 
yved 
riple 
ning 
xpe- 
100,- 
acl 
o-tt. 

are 
| per 
r. B. 





June, 1907. 





AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 247 




















SIMPLE TEN-WHEEL LOCOMOTIVE WITH WALSCHAERT VALVE GEAR—CHICAGO & NORTHWESTERN RAILWAY. 


SIMPLE TEN WHEEL LOCOMOTIVE. 


Cuicaco & NorTHWESTERN RAILWAY. 





The locomotive equipment of the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railway differs from that of probably every other large railway 
in this country, in that it includes no locomotives of the con- 
solidation type. The work usually performed by that type is 
taken care of on this road by ten-wheelers, of which there are 
now 230 in service. In addition to handling heavy freight trains 
they are also available for use on fast freight or passenger trains, 
and are largely used for those services. 

Recently in increasing this equipment by an order of 30 loco- 
motives from the American Locomotive Company, it was speci- 
fied that five of the order should have the Walschaert type of 
valve gear, and it is this design which is shown in the accom- 
panying illustrations and tables. The other twenty-five locomo- 
tives of the order do not differ in any essential way from those 
already in service. 

An examination of the list of general dimensions will show 
the general features of these locomotives. It will be seen that 
while the boiler is not particularly large, the ratios between the 
heating surface and cylinder volume and the weights, total, and 
on drivers, are well within the usual range for this type of loco- 
motive. Furthermore, the specification of identically the same 
boiler on this last order clearly indicates that it has sufficient 
capacity for the service demanded which, as mentioned above, 
may be anything from fast passenger to slow freight. A table 
is also given by which comparison can be made with three other 
recent designs of the same type, two on western roads and one 
on an eastern road. In considering this table it should be re- 
membered that a sufficient boiler capacity on a locomotive de- 
pends very largely on the contour of the line over which it op- 
erates and on the schedule demanded. 

The points of special interest in this design are found in the 







te 
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fire-box and in the arrangement of Walschaert valve gear. The 
fire-box is fitted with side sheets having vertical corrugations 
extending nearly to the edge of the sheets top and bottom, and 
also with the O’Conner fire-door flange. This type of fire-box side 
sheet has been in use on the C. & N. W. Ry. for the past three 
or four years with very satisfactory results. We understand that 
in the same service’ a sheet of this type will outlast the usual 
straight sheet by from one to two years. Its advantage, of 
course, lies in its flexibility in the longitudinal direction which 
distributes the strains due to expansion and contraction over the 
whole sheet instead of concentrating them at the flanges. The 





Name of road........-. aseaiiesh Gea cooest BYE Frisco |C.R.I.&P.|C.&N.W. 
Total weight Ibs,....... sjuaaeuesieed 194,500 | 183,000 | 173,720 179,500 
Weight on drivers, Ibs. ......--.---| 148,000 | 136,000 | 131,200 135,500 
Diameter of drivers......... étneceanl 69/’ 69’ uM t 
Diameter of boiler....... phauecmanna’ 70%’ | 66%” | 68’ 6634" 
Length of flues......... -- .aeenee Wi | wa | ee a 16’ 0” 
Flue heating surface, sq. ft....--... 3,124 2489.7 | 2,426 2808.4 
Firebox heating surface, sq. ft..... 203 164.6 | 160.8 150.8 
Total heating surface, sq. ft... ..... 3,327 2654.3 | 2586.8 2959.2 
Cylinder volume, cu. ft.......+..0.. 11.4 | 10.4 | 11.4 10.4 
Wi Ph Pian k.. cttctitdicacaccceese 642 | 735 | 763 655 
Wet. on drivers + total heat surf.... 44.5 51.1 | 50.6 45.8 
Wet. total + total heat surf..........| a 69. | 67. 60.5 
Total heat surf. + cyl. Vol..ee++-.+++ 292. | 255. | 228. 285 
Total heat surf. + grate area..csees. 60.5 | 55.8 | 46.8 64. 
Equated heating surface...........-| 1010. | 806.6 | 849. 850.8 











staybolts are secured to the bottom of the corrugations in the 
fire-box and the ends are thus somewhat protected from direct 
action of the flames. 

The O’Conner fire-door flange is simply a design which gives 
the flange at this point a much larger radius and largely increases 
the space around the fire-door ring or joint. The larger radius 
acts in a manner similar to the corrugated fire-sheets by in- 
creasing the flexibility of the sheet and preventing the concen- 
tration of the stresses at the joint or sharp flange. The reversal 
of stresses at this point is particularly severe, due to the rapid 
cooling of the sheets whenever the door is opened. The in- 
creased water space around the door largely prevents the collec- 






























































ARAARAAL 


yaaa CY § 1 

















fe» —_- agg 


FIREBOX SHOWING CORRUGATED SIDE SHEETS AND O'CONNOR FIRE DOOR FLANGE—C. & N. W. RY. 





i 
i 


ESS Ss 


ry 





248 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 
































ARRANGEMENT OF WALSCHAERT VALVE GEAR—CHICAGO & NORTHWESTERN RY. 


tion of mud and scale by allowing room for better circulation, 
and thus prolongs the life of the sheets and the joint. This 
type of fire-door flange has been in use on the C. & N. W. for 
several years, and we understand has greatly reduced the trouble 
formerly experienced in the cracking and burning of the sheets 
at the door ring. The same design of flange was also specified 
on the very large consolidation locomotives recently built for the 
Delaware and Hudson Company by the American Locomotive 
Company, which were illustrated on page 22 of the January, 1907, 
issue of this journal. 

As was mentioned on page 104 of the March issue, in connec- 
tion with a description of a ten-wheel locomotive for the Frisco, 
the application of the Walschaert valve gear to this type of loco- 
motive presents difficulties not encountered on other types. This 
is due to the location of the guide yoke preventing the attach- 
ment of the link in the usual manner, and the introduction of too 
long a radius bar and too short eccentric blade if it is placed 
back of the front driver. In the design above mentioned this 
difficulty was overcome by the use of a heavy extension casting 
fastened to a heavy steel cross tie across the frames back of the 
front driver, in which the reverse shaft bearing was also made. 
The connection to the radius bar was made by a sliding joint. 
In the present case the arrangement is very similar, except the 
location and attachment of the reverse shaft. A steel plate 114 
in. thick and 10 in. deep extends between the guide yoke and the 
steel cross tie, outside the front driving wheel, and supports 
the reverse shaft bearing. The connection to the radius bar is 
made by a link in the usual manner. The detailed illustration 
shows this construction very clearly. 

The general dimensions, weights and ratios are as follows: 


GENERAL DATA, 


CCL CUGLL Mick hasee SO hkeE boc ke aeh kaso ak Seaeeeeeaee 4 ft. 8% in. 
eer soos ac Rea hyike bee Shae ma Freight and Passenger 
EERIE CIS re rr rrr area penne ee aper gry emery jh vee -Soft Coal 
i SCO nc absc ii bees eo bnse5eeu SNS N EE REK EE 80,900 Ibs. 
CNN i oh ss sty sic han Aee Sen ee eee eee ee «179,500 Ibs. 
eT Se Te Te er eT ere eC ee, 135,500 Ibs. 


Weight On: Teading 1100 .o 6:5 66:6 0cnsns ees nno veeesceewsessesies 44,000 Ibs. 
Weight of engine and tender in working order.............++: 319,000 Ibs. 
Wheel base, driving..... SEREGREVER RESO OM RESE MARS RCONOER aT 14 ft. 10 in. 
Wee? SNE, GUTS 660.550 0.cbsdvcces eran icghthenswensee 25 ft. 10 in. 
Wheel base, engine and RR ace |scdeus ae chemaleaatened 57 ft. 9 in. 
RATIOS. 
Weight On Grivess 4- COCtIVE CHOKE... 56 ici cc ccsccvcccseeccscoesseus 4.38 
Ce ee errr rr gveiss 5.80 
Tractive effort X diam. drivers + heating surface.............-00 655.00 
DoOtal heating SUrlace = Grate GTER. oo..5 ccc cc ccccsccscesesecesceses 64.00 
Firebox heating surface + total heating surface, per cent.........++-: 5.10 
Weight on drivers ~ total heating surface............ee.eee0es yr 45.75 
Otel Weignt = total REA GUTTOCEs o.oic ccc cc icc cvccaveseccwcscese 60.50 
Wee eet EO. "OU. TE aniaescaiecssecviteeree. cowencaes 10.40 
Total heating surface + vol. cylinders. ...ccccccecsccccccccccccccoee 285.00 
Oe ee ee er eer err rer re rer rer 4.45 
CYLINDERS. ; 
DO. gs asians newal sinks Awibesc Saga Sea eaeeee kale eaten eee eee aaD Simple 
OE MA Es 6.560555 5-0 9a hAKAS eRaecereNeeeeseee 21 X 26 in 
VALVES. ; 
OS ee nee ee er er ese ree re rere er re Piston 
SPUN 6.05.5 5d gs 8 Sink WWin'b 00 5. 4/044s 6d Sew RES ERC UOU Seu ae Ne ESS .11 in. 
ee PEE eee ere T TT Te oRe CT rr ee ee. 934 in. 
MEN, waka cs neis. vice sees exatsoanns oaNpeSeNe ee aee ened eee ee 1 in. 
NE CREINOE oi bon 6 cha ies v bn bsn5 es ao0e segue ar Reawe sees 1/16 in. 
ee ee ee er te eer rr rer 3/16 in. 
WHEELS. . 
DC Cy WERT TONE s 6 ao a b's ccd ccc cis Fae eanaleeneeneey 63 in. 
Driving, thickness of THECS. 0. eee eee ete ee tenet eee eeeeeen ess BB in. 
Driving journals, main, diameter and length.............++++- 9X 12% } in. 
Driving journals, others, diameter and length.........scee- 81%4 X 12% in. 
Engine truck wheels, diameter. ........0.cccccssccccccecccescecsssO0 in. 
SI NE SONNY 6 6.8 6 abso 5.0 kcccbsucbvisaiacsewe essere 6 X 10 in. 
BOILER. 
NE crs glenigic wha WEES SUR WwSOdo Khe ei SEA OKA ww Ree Ree ne E. W. T. 
I EOIN isn 6si5's bc Soickckccwaenteavekeocn cuvewetousbnned 200 Ibs. 
GE GIA’ OF TRIM PING. oc ccc ciccicccciocsseceveseversuoss 6336 i in. 
a Sr a er ere er 102% } in. 
NG UNE wb 085504 ORods dé 0 oa ss dsssb eS aceeEReeeeeS 6514 in. 
I ii 6 se ccdaeee nd 00eesec bbs Reeaene cee eeee of in. 
Tubes, number and outside diameter.............cecececccceees 837—2 7 
Ep cocked 660 Ks dates dvinees onan tasavee tenes Gueeeeee 16 ft 
Heating NIRS 4.505 6sc0c ees Cav neancsebeweseaaasen 2,808.4 sq. ft 
ee OMEN, IO iy ices ccscncenccccst eeseues nee wees 150.79 sq. ft 
SEEN UNE nko scesuecaccene x ceeuedéedateanoes 2,959.19 sq. ft 
ere Tree rr reer re he 46.27 84. 
eS eee rere ery Pee rte 14 and 16% in. 
Smokestack, SURE IOUG SUNN oie 5 5 hkks cc cieiccernecsews 14 ft. 11% -in. 
TENDER. 
MENGE GUNaGae deed Seb Kes ss sass wnre Sonus sos RATeeeheeeeeunens Waterbottom 
AD a hairisa td PeeWee acKNmie ech ie eee ase seme eer ened 13” Channels 
er reer ere rT rrr PE rr S - 
DOMEREM, CIOCNET OGG TORBEN. 0.oiies. ccc cncccessccssscceesues 5% x am, 
EF PT Terr Te re rr re 7,500 gals. 


- s 
RPL CRON, 6.05 v ckt acces badness scedkeeu WebeeeeereseETmese=es" 10 ton 








rrrrce rc. rs Ys 


June, 1907. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 249 














METAL SAWING MACHINE. 


The Quincy, Manchester, Sargent Company has re- 
cently placed on the market a metal sawing machine 
somewhat smaller than their standard machines, but 
which has a capacity for 6-in. rounds and squares, and 
1o-in. I beams. The saw blade is driven from the 
periphery, but by an entirely new method. In place of 
the sprocket drive, hardened and ground steel rollers 
are used, journaled in removable steel bushings, which 
are held securely in the double driving gear. With this 
arrangement a much larger portion of the blade is 
available for cutting than with a blade of the same 
size arbor driven, where about one-third of the diame- 
ter is occupied by driving collars. It is also more eco- 
nomical as to repairs, since a worn or broken roller 
can easily be replaced. 

A radial T slot is cast in the side of the carriage and 
the double gear containing the driving rollers is jour- 
naled on a stud held in this T slot. To adjust the 
driving mechanism when the saw blade becomes worn 
it is only necessary to loosen the stud and lower the 
double gear. The table is large enough to enable beams 
and channels to be properly supported when being cut 
off at any angle up to 45 degrees. The distance the top 
if the table is placed below the axis of the saw blade is 
about one-half the height of the largest shape the ma- 
chine will cut, and such a piece can, therefore, be placed 
advantageously for cutting off with a minimum travel 
of the blade. 

The feed is of the variable friction type, is adjustable 

















while the machine is in motion and may be varied from 
3/10 in, to I in. per minute. It is powerful and con- IMPROVED METAL SAWING MACHINE. 
tinuous in its action throughout the range and is , ee 
; ; or , ME GE CNG ib akb ced ce Saeed ececdadnedacéadeedecdedewaeuneenent in, 
superior to the ratchet feed, which is intermittent. wan a ans ee ee 18 in 
The general dimensions and data for this machine are as Weight on skids, approximate....-.......... Sette eens eeeeteeees 1500 Ibs. 
follows : The machines may, if desired, be furnished with a motor drive. 
ee ee ee ert Terr re reer cre Te 18 in. 
NN GI) ANI SR soho 3 2d al c'g a ee Giwaa eek ke wiele ae Ra 3/16 in. -INCH CK EARED RANK WI 
Travel of saw blade carriage...........cceceecceccccceensccecccces 10 in. 25-IN BA G Cc SHAPER TH 
en RE SE OP Ig ok. asicdccccaccnsccepsceueendcnneas ase 35 ft. SPEED BOX. 
Cee TOU BOE GUE 6 bi bined cdecccéctavesd catcccesdpae We © 2 mi 
Re CIE QE noc aso ci ecnsectewWNaeusdeceuasneaanenad 6% in. = a . 
CO, COD GRR CUNO 26 hoa ncssccnccessnncssecastesncenncs 6 in. The John Steptoe Shaper Company, Cincinnati, O., has re- 
Caeitee,  S WONONNNES oes adac ds cacgnccandéeedtaceecaceaneunce 10 in. . ty ol ’ ; ‘ 4 
Height from table to Saw aXiS.......c.cccccccccecevceccececceseseesd in, CONtly p aced on the market a new line of motor driven back 
) geared crank shapers equipped with 


a simple speed box, which furnishes 
four changes of speed. The 5 hp. 
constant speed motor is direct con- 
nected by means of a small pinion 
which meshes with the large gear, 
part of which may be seen at the 
rear in the illustration. The speed 
box is shown with the cover re- 
moved, and consists of four sets of 
gears on the two shafts. The gears 
have exceptionally long bearings, 
making them rigid and insuring 
long life. The speed box is operated 
by the hand lever, which controls a 
clutch that engages or releases the 
different gears. The lever at the 
back of the machine operates the 
back gears, which in conjunction 
with the speed box furnish eight 
changes of speed. 


| 
| 
| 





The machine is equipped with a 
power down feed of simple con- 
struction, operated by a friction box 
in connection with a suitable ratchet 
and bevel gearing. The table sup- 
port has a roller at the top which 
comes in contact with a planed sur- 
face on the bottom of the table, 
thus making it possible to take very 
25-INCH CRANK SHAPER WITH SPEED BOX. heavy cuts without springing the 

















| 
| 
Mi 
i 
a 
| 


Ci ARES A ied 


a IE 








ieee 





Share ee ee 





250 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 








table, and insuring a high degree of accuracy under the most 
severe conditions. These machines are made in three sizes, 16, 
20 and 24 in., the above features being applied to plain as well 
as back geared shapers. 





THE FAVORITE REVERSIBLE RATCHET WRENCH. 





The reversible ratchet wrench, shown in the illustration, is 
manufactured by Greene, Tweed & Company, 109 Duane street, 
New York, and is made in four sizes. The handle for the 
smaller size is 15 in. in length and for the other three sizes, 28 
in.; as may be seen, it is in one piece, the reversing mechanism 
being near the head. The heads are made to accommodate 
square nuts on one end and hexagon on the other, or hexagon 
nuts on both ends, and are constructed so that there is a clear 
opening through them, allowing the bolts to pass through. The 
small size takes three different heads, the second size five and 
the third and fourth sizes three heads each. The openings in 





FAVORITE REVERSIBLE WRENCH, HEADS AND SOCKETS. 


all the regular size heads are designed to fit standard nuts. 
Ordinarily only one head is furnished with the wrench, but as 
many of the others may be ordered as desired. Heavy exten- 
sion sockets 10 in. long for 34-in. square and hexagon nuts may 
be furnished to fit one of the heads of the second size wrench. 

The advantages of this wrench are that its motion is con- 
tinuous until the nut is seated or removed, thus economizing 
time; it entirely encompasses the nut, thus preventing slipping 
and marring; it can be used in a limited space, as a very 
slight travel of the handle will catch one tooth of the ratchet; 
the motion can be instantly reversed by slipping the pawl one 
way or the other, and there is very little machine work on it, 
thus minimizing its cost. They are used extensively on several 
large railroads. 





Mr. John E. Ward, vice-president of the Gold Car Heating & 
Lighting Company, has decided to retire from the management 
of the Gold Companies for the purpose of engaging in the busi- 
ness of manufacturing and dealing in railway, steamship and 
contractors’ supplies. About July 1st he will start on an ex- 
tended trip abroad, and on his return will open offices in New 
York City. Mr. Ward, who has been actively engaged for a 
number of years in the railway supply business, was born at 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., on June 3, 1875, receiving his early educa- 
tion in the public and high schools of that city, and in 1891 
graduated from Manhattan College, New York City. He ad- 
vanced rapidly from the duties of chief clerk, shop superinten- 


dent, sales agent and general manager to the position of vice- 
president of the Gold Companies. 





THE ALTERNATE-CuRRENT Motor is particularly applicable to 
this class of work (planing mill) on account of its inherent 
characteristics and sparklessness, which latter is particularly 
valuable in the inflammable atmosphere—Mr. G. R. Hender- 
son at the New England Railroad Club. 





PERSONALS. 


Mr. E. A. Wescott has been appointed assistant mechanical 
superintendent of the Erie R. R., with office at Meadville, Pa, 





Mr. B. Tarkington has been appointed road foreman of en- 
gines and equipment of the Midland Valley R. R. at Muskogee, 
| ae 

Mr. M. Parra has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Tampico terminal, Mexican Central Ry., succeeding Mr. A. G. 
Kirchner, resigned. , 








Mr. R. L. Stewart, general foreman of the Kansas City South- 
ern Ry., has been appointed master mechanic at Pittsburg, Kan., 
succeeding Mr. W. B. Dunlevy. 





Mr. R. C. White has resigned as master mechanic of the Bir- 
mingham Southern R. R. to accept a similar position with the 
Birmingham Rail & Locomotive Co. 





Mr. M. F. Beuhring has been appointed foreman of the car 
shops of the International & Great Northern Ry. at Houston, 
Tex., in place of Mr. Martin Ryan, resigned. 





Mr. W. H. Maddocks has been appointed assistant super- 
intendent of machinery and equipment of the Missouri, Kansas 
& Texas Ry., with headquarters at Parsons, Kan. 





Mr. P. J. Colligan has been appointed acting master me- 
chanic of the Chicago, Rock Island & Gulf Ry. at Fort Worth, 
Tex., succeeding to the duties of Mr. J. E. Holtz, resigned. 





Mr. R. M. Boldridge, formerly master mechanic of the Mis- 
sissippi Central. R. R., has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Central R. R. of Georgia, with headquarters at Cedartown, 
Ga. : 

Mr. C. A. Snyder, heretofore master mechanic of the Gulf, 
Colorado & Santa Fe Ry. at Cleburne, Tex., has been appointed 
master mechanic of the El Paso & Southwestern R. R. at 
Douglas, Ariz. 

Mr. A. C. Adams has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Alliance division of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy 
Ry., with office at Lincoln, Neb., succeeding Mr. G. M. Reynolds, 
resigned. 

Mr. E. E. Austin has been appointed master mechanic of the 
third district of the Can. Pac. Ry., with headquarters at Nelson, 
B. C. The position of road foreman of the third district has 
been abolished. 














Mr. W. H. Sitterly has been appointed general car inspector 
of the Buffalo & Allegheny Valley division of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad at Buffalo, N. Y. Mr. Sitterly succeeds Mr. S. M. 
Hindman, promoted. 





Mr. Frederick Mertsheimer, formerly sup’t. of mach. of the 
Kansas City Southern R. R., has been appointed sup’t. of the 
motive power and car departments of the Kansas City, Mexico 
& Orient Ry., with headquarters at Sweetwater, Tex. 





Mr. William Miller, formerly master mechanic of the Denver 
& Rio Grande Ry. at Denver, Colo., has been appointed supéef 
intendent of motive power of the Western Maryland R. R., with 
headquarters at Union Bridge, Md., succeeding Mr. I. N. Kal- 
baugh, resigned. 











le 
1€ 





June, 1907. 





AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 251 














Mr. William O’Herin, sup’t. of machinery and equipment of the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas Ry., has been given indefinite leave 
of absence to recover from injuries sustained some months ago. 





Mr. Geo. H. Daniels, after a service of about twenty years 
with the New York Central and Hudson River R. R., has re- 
tired from active management of the advertising department of 
that road, of which he has been in charge during the past year. 
Previous to that time he was for many years general passenger 
agent of the system. Mr. Daniels is said to have more and 
better friends than any other railroad man in the country. He 
is possessed of a rare amount of tact and has an enviable repu- 
tation for resourcefulness and skill in handling difficult prob- 
lems and situations. He was born December 1, 1842, in Hamp- 
shire, Ill, and entered the railroad business at the age of 15 
as a rodman. 


Table of Volumes Through Air Ways. By C. H. Kuderer. 
Cardboard, 8 x 11 in. Published by E. E. Meyer, Allegheny, 
Pa. Price, $0.25. 

This table gives the volume of air passing through air ways 
of different lengths from 1,000 to 11,000 ft. with areas from 1 
x 1 ft. to 10 x Io ft. with increments of 6 in. and under dif- 
ferent pressures varying by tenths of an inch, from one-tenth 
to two and five-tenths in. W. G. It will be found to be a 
most valuable and convenient reference for engineers who meet 
with problems of air transmission through large air ways. 





Locomotive Engine Break Downs and How to Repair Them. 
By W. G. Wallace. 282 pages. 4% by 63%. Bound in 
flexible leather. Published by Frederick J. Drake & Co., 
Chicago. Price, $1.50. 

This book contains nearly 400 questions that have been asked 
by enginemen and answered by Mr. W. G. Wallace through the 
columns of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen’s Maga- 
zine. They cover almost every possible breakdown and include 
many difficult problems, all of which are answered in a clear- 
cut manner and in simple terms. Many illustrations are in- 
cluded, materially assisting in giving a clear explanation of the 
proper procedure in any particular case. This is a very valu- 
able collection of information, and is carefully indexed for rapid 
reference. 





Standard Examination, Questions and Answers. For Locomo- 
tive Firemen. By W. G. Wallace. 343 pages. 4% by 6%. 
Flexible leather. Published by Frederick J. Drake & Co., 
Chicago. Price, $1.50. 

This book contains the standard questions adopted by the 
Traveling Engineers’ Association for the mechanical examina- 
tion of locomotive firemen for promotion. Each question is fol- 
lowed by a full and comprehensive answer, illustrations being 
included where necessary. These questions cover the progres- 
sive examinations for the first, second and third years. In 
addition to the questions and answers there is much valuable 
information on the general features of the locomotive and its 
parts, including valve setting; train resistance; oil burning loco- 
motives; recent air brake practice; chapter on fuel combustion; 
one on “don'ts,” etc. It will be found to be of value to engi- 
neers who have already passed their examination, as well as to 
firemen who are preparing for it. 





Engineering Index, Annual. 1906. 305 pages. 6% by 9%. 
Cloth. Published by the Engineering Magazine, 140 Nassau 
St. New York. Price, $2.00. 

This book acts as a supplement to the five yearly volume No. 
4, which covered the years from 1901 to 1905 inclusive, and 
brings the index complete down to the end of 1906. In view of 
the desirability of issuing this annual at the earliest possible 
Moment, it has not been classified alphabetically, as is done in 
the larger volume, but retains the same scheme of classification 





used in the monthly numbers of the Engineering Magazine. The 
scope and character of these indexes is too well known to re- 
quire comment, and there is no doubt that the issuing of 
the annual numbers will be appreciated by all engineers who 
have occasion or desire to look up the most recent articles pub- 
lished on any particular subject. This volume in connection 
with the previous five year indexes puts in the hands of its 
possessor a complete catalog of all of the more important 
technical periodical literature published during the last 23 years. 


- CATALOGS. 


STORAGE OF OILs AND GasoLtnE.—S. F. Bowser & Company, Fort Wayne, 
Ind., is issuing several catalogs describing their system of storage and 
handling of gasoline, lubricating and illuminating oils, 





Crane Spectatties.—The Crane Company, Chicago, is issuing a very 
complete little catalog of valve fittings and appliances for every purpose 
and all pressures. Each valve, etc., is illustrated by parts and sections and 
is accompanied by a brief description. 





Ergin & BELvEeDERE Erecrric Rattway.—The Arnold Company, 181 La- 
Salle Street, Chicago, is issuing Bulletin No. 17, which contains a complete 
illustrated description of the above railroad, which is 36% miles in length, 
and the construction of which was in the hands of this firm of engineer- 
contractors from its earliest preliminary stages to its operation. 





B. F. Sturtevant Company.—The above company is issuing bulletin No. 
146, which illustrates and describes electric propeller fans. This type of 
fan is used for ventilation and special attention has been given to its 
simplicity and reliability of operation. These fans are built in a full line 
of sizes from 18 in. to 120 in. and are driven by a type of motor which is. 
absolutely dust proof. The fan may be placed in any location and con- 
trolled by a switch from a distance. 

MALLEABLE Iron JouRNAL Boxes.—The Gould Coupler Company, 1 W. 
84th street, New York, is issuing part catalog No. 3 on the subject of 
malleable iron journal boxes. These boxes are clearly illustrated and thor- 
oughly described. A flexible type of dust guard, which will permit the 
applying of a new guard without removing the box from the journal, is used 
with these boxes, which also include a number of other improvements. 
There are at present over a million of this type of box in service. 

New G. E. Butietins.—The General Electric Company, Schenectady, 
N. Y., is issuing several new bulletins as follows: No. 4394B illustrates. 
and describes form P belt driven alternators. No. 4494 is on the subject of 
incandescent lamps with Holophane reflectors. No. 4497 is on the subject 
of snap sockets. No. 4500 is on the subject of constant current trans- 
former panels. The same company is also issuing a convenient table which 
shows the approximate size of wires for three-phase transmission lines. 





ELEctTrRIcAL AppaRATUS.—The Fort Wayne Electric Works, Fort Wayne, 
Ind., is issuing several new bulletins illustrating and describing recent 
designs of electrical apparatus. No. 1,086, which supersedes 1,026, deals 
with direct current, series, enclosed, arc lamps. No. 1,091, superseding 
1,036, describes direct current motors. No, 1,092, which supersedes 1,072, 
is on type S single phase motors, and No. 1,093, which supersedes 1,071, 
is on the subject of small power motors, from 1/100 to 1/30 h. p. capacity. 


Tate FLexisLte Staysotts.—The Flannery Bolt Company, Pittsburg, VPa., 
is issuing a leaflet regarding the installation, inspection and testing of its 
type of flexible staybolt. It explains in detail the proper method of installing 
the bolts in the boiler and what points need inspection. Methods of secur- 
ing the lagging to the jacket in sections, so as to allow ready inspection, 
are explained, as well as what testing should be given the bolt after its 
application. It is stated that over one million of this type of bolts are 
now in use on 88 different railroads. 





Evectric Licgut For Postat Cars.—The Consolidated Railway Electric 
Lighting & Equipment Company, 11 Pine street, New York, is issuing 
Builetin No. 5 descriptive of the ‘“‘axle light” equipment for postal cars. 
A special type of this equipment has been perfected particularly for these 
cars, which require better and more reliable light than any other part of the 
train. The electric light is particularly well adapted for this purpose on 
account of its flexibility of location and greater safety. The catalog contains 
illustrations of cars and apparatus, and also includes wiring diagrams with F 
complete descriptive matter. 

Rotary Snow Prtow.—A pamphlet recently issued by the American 
Locomotive Company illustrates and describes the rotary type of snow 
plow built by that company. The first part of the pamphlet contains a 
brief account of the work done by the rotary in fighting the snow on 
various railroads, with illustrations showing it in operation. Then follows 
a description of the plow, giving the particular features of the design. The 
last part of the pamphlet contains a set of rules for the guidance of those 
operating the rotary, which are based on experience gained during the past 
years in handling the plow. 












































































= 


= 
> 


iste 


if 
hi 
i 


ne = 


5 


= 
er 


Sp ene ae 








252 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOUKNAL. 











Tarvia.—The Barrett Manufacturing Company is issuing a small catalog 
describing the above product, which is a coal tar preparation for roads and 
boulevards, making them smooth, compact and absolutely. dustless. The 


method of application is clearly explained and many illustrations of roads, 


both in the city and country, which have been treated are shown. 


A Few Pornts on Grinpinc.—The Norton Grinding Company, Worcester, 
Mass., is issuing a booklet with the above title, which will be found to be 
of much practical benefit to those who have grinding to do. This company 
is undoubtedly in a position to speak with great authority on the subject 
and this booklet is full of valuable hints for the successful and economical 
operation of grinding machines of different types. 


A Stupy 1n Grapuite.—The Joseph Dixon Crucible Company is issuing 
a booklet with the above title, which gives in detail a series of tests of 
graphite as a lubricant made by Dr. W. F. M. Goss of Purdue Universtiy. 
The study opens with a dissertation by Dr. Goss based upon the conclusions 
drawn from the tests; then follow complete description of the tests, to- 
gether with illustrations of the testing machine and of the condition of 
the bearings and journals taken at different stages. A limited number of 
copies of this book will be distributed free to those interested in the science 
of graphite lubrication. Upon the exhaustion of these a charge of 25 cents 
per copy will be made. 


GisHo_t LatHes.—-The Gisholt Machine Company, Madison, Wis., some 
time ago purchased the drawings, patterns, etc., of the American Turret 
Lathe Mfg. Co., who were the manufacturers of the American semi-auto- 
matic turret lathe, a machine exceedingly well adapted for the finishing of 
certain classes of work, such as gear blanks, cylinder heads, fly wheels, 
pulieys, ete., and is issuing a very attractive catalog devoted to it. The 
machine is exceedingly powerful and massive in design, yet is very easily 
controlled and operated. The company announces that it is in a position 
to furnish prompt deliveries of this class of machine. The catalog thor- 
oughly illustrates and describes all the important features of these lathes. 

PurpvE University CataLtoc.—The annual catalog of Purdue University, 
Lafayette, Ind., which has recently been issued, includes a very complete 
description of the material equipment of this rapidly growing University, 
which now embraces seven special schools, including a school of agriculture, 
a school of science, schools of mechanical, civil and electrical engineering, 
as well as of pharmacy and medicine. Complete information is included 
on the detailed courses given in each of these schools, including a descrip- 
tion of each course, showing how much time is given to each and its extent. 
A chapter is included on the expenses at the University and the catalog is 
completed by a register of the 2,046 students now in attendance. 


REsutts OsTAINED From Water Sortentnc.—The Kennicott Water 
Softener Company, Railway Exchange, Chicago, has printed, for private 
distribution, an attractively arranged booklet, composed entirely of extracts 
from reports and published articles of disinterested parties concernjng the 
results which are being obtained from water softening on railroads. The 
extracts are carefully selected, brief and to the point, and must appeal to 
the busy and practical railroad officer. The book contains only 26 pages, 
in addition to two large diagrams, and is 5 x 8 ins. in size, so that it can 
be slipped in a side pocket and studied at leisure moments on the train or 
going to and from the office. The source of the information is noted in 
every case, so that those who wish to go into the matter more fully can 
do so. sees 


Tue Care oF Exrectric Mine Locomotivrs 1n Service.—The Jeffrey 
Manufacturing Co., Columbus, Ohio, is issuing bulletin number twelve hav- 
ing the above title. It contains information of great importance to the 
users of electric mine locomotives in the nature of detailed explanation of 
the proper method of dismantling, repairing, assembling and adjusting all 
parts of these machines. The text matter is fully supplemented by illus- 
trations reproduced from photographs and every point is so fully covered 
as to make mistakes impossible even by a common laborer. The book leaves 
nothing to be desired in the way of typographical excellence or arrange- 
ment, and in addition to the instructions for repairing, contains illustra- 
tions and descriptions of many standard locomotives, complete and in de- 
tail, regularly manufactured by this company. , 

Dewey Decimat SystemM.—The Engineering Experiment Station of the 
University of Illinois has recently issued Bulletin No. 9, entitled, ‘An 
Extension of the Dewey Decimal System of Classification applied to 
Engineering Industries.”” This bulletin is in effect a fifth edition of the 
extension previously issued by the mechanical engineering department of 
the University. It contains the extensions previously worked out for 
railway mechanical engineering and in addition, a very complete extension 
for electrical engineering, as well as more or less complete extensions for 
bridge engineering, sanitary engineering, metallurgy and architecture. An 
alphabetical index of subjects is included. The station is also issuing Bulle- 
tin No. 10, giving the results of tests of concrete and reinforced concrete 
columns, and Bulletin No. 12, on tests of reinforced concrete T beams. 








NOTES 





Macnus Metat Company.—The general offices of the above company 
have been removed from Buffalo to New York City, and the company will 





no longer maintain an office in the former place. Quarters have been 
obtained in the Trinity Building, 111 Broadway. 





Buss Evecrric Car Licgutinc Co.—Among the orders recently received 
by the above company, whose general office is at Milwaukee, is one from 
the Baltimore & Ohio R. R., to light the cars of the Royal Blue limited 
trains with the Bliss system of electric car lighting. 








GENERAL Exectric Motors ror Cuicaco Street Raitways.—The Chicago 
City Railways Company has purchased from the General Electric Company, 
1,200 direct current railway motors with a controlling apparatus for 309 
cars, Each car will be equipped with four 40 h. p. motors. The power for 
the new rolling stock will be supplied by additional generating machinery, 
aggregating 6,000 h. p. ‘ 


“MacuHiInery’s” New Orrice.—The editorial and advertising offices of 
Machinery have been moved to the eighth floor of a new building recently 
erected at 49 Lafayette street, New York. This location is one block east 
of Broadway and four blocks north of the City Hall. The offices occupy 
the whole of the eighth floor. 





AMERICAN STEAM GavuGce & Vatve Mrc. Co.—Mr. Charles H. Glasser, 
formerly mechanical engineer of the Camel Co., Chicago, has accepted a posi- 
tion with the above company, and will make his headquarters at its Chicago 
office. Mr. Glasser has had several years’ experience in the mechanical 
field and possesses a very wide circle of friends. 


Farts Hottow Sraysott Company.—This- company announces that the 


fire which broke out in its plant on the morning of May 9 did not inter- 
fere with the operation of the mill to exceed 24 hours, and that the damage 
resulting was of little consequence and will not interfere with or delay the 
filling of orders. Within two days the plant was running day and night as 
usual. 


GENERAL Evectric Company.—The San Francisco office of the above 
company is now permanently located in the Union Trust Bldg., in San 
Francisco. Since the fire, this office has been located in the Union Savings 
Bank Building at Oakland, large temporary warehouses having also been 
erected in the same city. 





B. F. Sturtevant Co.—The New York office of the above company has 
been removed from 181 Liberty street te the Engineering Building, 114 
Liberty street, where much better facilities for conducting its rapidly in- 
creasing business have been obtained. This company reports that the past 
year, in particular, has marked a very great increase in the demand for 
its machinery of all kinds for installation in New York and vicinity. 





Tue Norton Company.—-This company, which has works at Worcester, 
Mass., and Niagara Falls, N. Y., for manufacturing grinding wheels of 
alundum and other abrasive specialties, is to erect a large addition to its 
Worcester Works. This will consist of an extension to the plant designated 
as No. 2 and will more than double its present capacity. The same com- 
pany also announccs a change in the location of its Chicago office, which is 
now at 48 S. Canal street. 


. 


CrocKER-WHEELER Mortors.—The ‘Tennessee Coal and Iron Company, 
which recently received the largest order for steel rails ever placed with a 
single concern, amounting to 150,000 tons and placed by the Harriman 
Lines, has just ordered from the Crocker-Wheeler Company, of Ampere, 
N. J., a complete electric motor equipment for its new steel rolling mill at 
Birmingham, Ala. This order includes 15 C. W. form W. rolling mill 
motors, aggregating about 575 h. p. 





Exuisit oF Car Licutinc at ATLANTIC City.—The exhibit of the Bliss 
Electric Car Lighting Co., of Milwaukee, at the Atlantic City Conventions 
will occupy spaces 1201-1207 on the south side of the Steel Pier. It will 
consist of complete 30 and 60 volt equipments for electric car lighting. 
which will be in operation on the pier under the conditions that will closely 
simulate those encountered in actual service. The exhibit will be in charge 
of the president, vice-president and general manager of the company. 





Sirk, McCreLtan & Company, incorporated, brings together, in its active 
management, two young men who have had a wide experience in the supply 
business and who have a host of friends among railroad men who will be 
pleased to hear of their new venture. This company, with a factory in Chi 
cago, is manufacturing a line of high-grade railway car specialties. Mr. 
Edward E. Silk has been in the railway supply business for seven years: 
previous to that time he was in the employ of the C. R. R. of N. J., an¢ 
for two years was associate editor of the AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD 
Journat. He is a graduate of the railway mechanical engineering schoo! 
of Purdue University. Mr. Benj. S. McClellan has been in the supply 
business for about six years; previous to that time he was for eight —_ 
in charge of the car shops of the Illinois Central Railroad at the New 
Orleans terminal and for three years in charge of the passenger car shops 
of the New York Central at West Albany. Silk, McClellan & Co. include ™ 
their list of specialties a line of dust proof car window fixtures, special 
sash locks, desk sash ratchets, universal steam couplers and hose bands. 
The main office and factory of the company is at 58th street and Normal 
avenue, Chicago. They have complete sets of blue prints and illustrated 
matter which will be sent on application.