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Fripay, Juuy 6, 1906. 



The Formal Opening of the Laboratory of the 
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Re- 
search :— 

A Sketch of the Development of the Rocke- 
feller Institute for Medical Research: Dr. 

a GF EP Tere e er Tees 1 
The Endowment of Research: Dr. WILLIAM 
WM b6id 66 os eo RRR Ane ve ccs nc ct benes 6 
Address by President Nicholas Murray 
BUEN iki tt odin cbetoke pte snap en he a$iins 12 
Address by President Charles W. Eliot.... 13 

Scientific Books :— 
Fine’s College Algebra: Proressor J. Ep- 
WU EE, “Ac bseuwhes dees ccnes aren és 18 

Societies and Academies :— 
The New York Section of the American 
Chemical Society: Dr. F. H. Poucu. The 
Torrey Botanical Club: C. Stuart GaGerR.. 19 

Discussion and Correspondence :— 
Intercollegiate Athletics and Scholarship: 
Note on the Ypsiloid Apparatus of Crypto- 
branchus: B. G. SmitH. A Newly-found 
Stony Meteorite: Dr. G. P. MERRILL...... 21 

Special Articles :— 

The Great Catalogue and Scientific Investi- 
gation of the Heber R. Bishop Collection 
of Jade: Dr. GEORGE FREDERICK Kunz. The 
Rock of the Pelée Obelisk and the Condition 
of the Volcano in February, 1906: Dr. 

ANGELO HIEILPRIN ...... 22. cece wcteeee 23 
The Commission for Brain Investigation.... 26 
William T. Bedgwick...........cccecccsees 27 
Scientific Notes and News..............++: 28 
University and Educational News.......... 31 

MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for 
review should be sent to the Editor of SctzNcE, Garrison-on- 
Hudson, N. Y. 

FOR reat ta RESEARCH: 


FIvE years ago there were in France, 
Germany, England, Russia and Japan well- 
equipped and endowed institutions for re- 

_search in medicine. In this country not 

one existed. For pure and applied science, 
all our higher institutions of learning had 
their laboratories, their corps of instructors 
and fellowships, and both opportunity and 
encouragement were given to students to 
take up original work. But how great the 
contrast when we turn to medicine, whose 
problems are related not only to the health 
but even the life of the race. The poverty 
of the resources of the medical institutions 
was truly pitiful. Their laboratories were 
for the instruction of students and pos- 
sessed but little equipment beyond what 
was necessary for this end. 

It was at this time that a group of five 

_ men met in the Arlington Hotel at Wash- 

ington just five years ago last week, at the 
request of the founder of this institute, to 
consider the question of the establishment 
of an institution to promote research in 
medicine. There could be but one opinion, 
and, at the conference only one was ex- 
pressed, viz., That the most urgent need 
existed and that the time was ripe for the 
foundation of such an institution in tais 

May 11, 1906. 

A hats. tre ake ae 

ea ee 


Never was a suggestion more warmly 
welcomed nor an offer more heartily appre- 
ciated by the profession and the medical 
press from one end of the country to the 

To this group of five, two others were 
added a few weeks later, and on June 14, 
1901, the institution was formally inecor- 
porated as The Rockefeller Institute for 
Medical Research, with the seven men re- 
ferred to as its board of directors. They 
were William H. Welch, T. Mitchell Prud- 
den, Christian A. Herter, Theobald Smith, 
Hermann M. Biggs, Simon Flexner and L. 
Emmett Holt. The same board has been 
continued up to the present time. At this 
first meeting a pledge of $200,000 was made 
to the board to be drawn upon at their dis- 
eretion during a period of ten years, it 
being understood that this was for prelim- 
inary work. 

In considering what use should be made 
of the funds placed at its disposal to make 
them immediately productive of some sci- 
entific results, and at the same time to get 
a general view of the field, the board de- 
cided not to centralize work in a single 
place, but to create a number of scholar- 
ships or fellowships to be distributed in 
existing laboratories throughout the coun- 
try. In this way it was hoped several ends 
might be attained: first, to enlist the coop- 
eration of various investigators in different 
places; secondly, to aid some promising 
lines of research which could not be con- 
tinued for lack of funds; and, finally, to 
discover who and where were the persons 
who desired to undertake research work 
and what were their qualifications. 

From a large number of applications re- 
ceived, twenty-three grants were made to 
eighteen different laboratories in this coun- 
try, and three men were sent abroad to 
pursue special investigations, two in Ehr- 
lich’s laboratory in Frankfurt and one in 
Koch’s Institute in Berlin. 


[N.S. Von. XXIV. No. 601. 

At the end of the first year’s work, it 
was evident to the directors that while 
much could be accomplished by individual 
workers carrying on their investigations in 
separate laboratories, widely scattered, the 
highest results in research could not be 
secured in this manner. Existing institu- 
tions did not afford adequate facilities for 
many phases of investigation which were 
of the greatest importance. Again, the 
heads of these institutions, although in 
many instances men of great ability, were 
so taken up with their duties as teachers as 
to leave comparatively little of either time 
or energy to devote to research work. It 
was gratifying to find that there were a 
large number of earnest men and women 
in America anxious to devote themselves 
to this branch of science; but it was quite 
clear that very few possessed the breadth 
of education combined with the technical 
training requisite for independent work. 
The directors, therefore, were united in the 
conviction that, although many important 
investigations might be fostered by contin- 
uing the plan of foreign grants, great prog- 
ress was not possible in this way, and that 
this could be secured only by centralizing 
the most important lines of work in a fixed 
place, under a competent head or series of 
heads, and with special equipment. In 
other words, the institute must have a lab- 
oratory of its own with its own staff of 
workers who should devote their entire time 
to research. 

These conclusions and the considerations 
upon which they were based were, there- 
fore, placed before the founder, who at the 
second annual meeting, in June, 1902, made 
another and larger gift to the institute, to 
enable the board of directors to acquire 
land and erect a laboratory building in 
which to begin the work of organization 
along the broader lines contemplated. 

The first question to be decided was 
where such an institute should be located. 

Jury 6, 1906.] 

After due consideration of the advantages 
offered in other cities, New York was unani- 
mously selected as possessing greater ad- 
vantages than were elsewhere to be found 
in America. The next step was to find a 
suitable site; one which should be ade- 
quate, not only to present needs, but for 
future expansion; near enough to the cen- 
ter of the city to be accessible, and yet 
sufficiently removed to secure for its work- 
ers the freedom from needless interrup- 
tions and the quiet necessary for scientific 

After a prolonged search, the committee 
on site reported in October, 1902, in favor 
of the Schermerhorn property, fronting 
East River at East 66th and 67th Streets, 
as meeting to a remarkable degree all the 
requirements. This entire property was 
purchased by Mr. Rockefeller a few months 
later, and a plot comprising twenty-six and 
a half city lots, upon which the present 
building stands, was deeded to the insti- 
tute. Work was immediately begun upon 
plans for a laboratory building. 

The next great question was the cheice 
of a scientific director. After looking over 
the entire field in America and Europe, the 
board could find no one possessing the 
qualifications to so high a degree as one of 
its own members, Dr. Simon Flexner, who 
was prevailed upon to resign his position 
as professor of pathology in the University 
of Pennsylvania, and assume the director- 
ship of the scientific work in the new lab- 
oratory. Dr. Flexner began his work July 
1, 1903, and spent the following year in 
Europe, studying various questions con- 
nected with institutions for research, espe- 
cially those of organization, construction 
and equipment. He also acquired the 
nucleus of a library for the institute. 

Eighteen months and much careful 
thought were spent in completing the plans 
for the present laboratory building. Dur- 
ing this time five of the directors visited 


Europe, in order to profit by the experi- 
ence of other institutions of a similar char- 
acter. Final plans were adopted June 13, 
1904; and a few weeks later contracts were 
let, ground was broken for the new build- 
ing and December 3 of the same year the 
cornerstone was laid. 

It was quite clear to the directors that 
it was unwise to delay commencing work 
until the new laboratory was completed. 
It was decided to take steps at once to get 
together a nucleus of a future laboratory 
staff; that it was best that a beginning 
should be made with a small program, a 
few problems, in a small building, so that 
the institute should be in a position for a 
natural organic growth and development 
and avoid the dangers incident to rapid 
expansion. A building at the corner of 
Lexington Avenue and 50th Street was 
leased and fitted up for temporary use. In 
that place, in October, 1904, work was be- 
gun and continued for eighteen months 
until the completion of the new building a 
few weeks ago. 

The staff at first consisted only of the 
director and four other workers. It has, 
however, been gradually increased until, at 
the time of removal, it numbered nine 

One of the most difficult problems pre- 
sented to the board has been to secure a 
staff of scientific workers. Heads of lab- 
oratories and their assistants in this coun- 
try are, almost without exception, men 
trained for the work of instruction rather 
than that of investigation. Many applica- 
tions for positions in the institute have 
been received from England, France and 
Germany, but the feeling of the directors 
has been that it was the American type of 
mind, with its genius for practical results, 
that was wanted, and this has made the 
board doubtful as to the wisdom of choos- 
ing European heads for any of its de- 
partments. Many young men and women 


were found in this country with evident 
capacity, yet few possessed necessary train- 
ing which should fit them to work inde- 
pendently. With each year’s experience 
the conviction has steadily grown that the 
institute must in large measure train its 
own staff, selecting from the promising 
young applicants such as gave evidence of 
a special fitness and giving them subse- 
quently such training both here and abroad 
as would fit them for their special work. 

To get in close touch with such a class, 
a number of resident scholarships and fel- 
lowships have been created. For these 
thirty-one applications were received dur- 
ing the present year and five have been 
awarded. This plan, if suecessful, will be 
continued and from this corps, from time 
to time, will be reeruited the future work- 
ers of the institute. 

The present organization provides for 
the following departments: pathology, bac- 
teriology, physiological and pathological 
chemistry, physiology, comparative zool- 
ogy. To these it is expected that a depart- 
ment of pharmacology and experimental 
therapeuties will soon be added. 

The fully organized staff will consist of 
a chief director and a head for each of the 
different departments. Each head will 
have his associate and corps of assistants. 
The heads of departments, associates and 
first assistants, it is expected, will constitute 
the permanent staff of the institute. The 
other workers will be less closely attached. 
Besides, there are contemplated scholar- 
ships and fellowships for workers who may 
come for a limited period; and finally, it 
is expected to provide for a limited number 
of voluntary workers who will be given the 
facilities of the institute for working out, 
under supervision, their own problems. 

While the purpose of the institute will 
be research, not instruction, it can not fail 
to exert a considerable influence in medical 
education, since many of those who will 

[N.S. Vor. XXIV. No. 601. 

receive their training within its walls will, 
doubtless, go elsewhere to assume positions 
of responsibility in teaching institutions. 

The present scientific staff consists of 
fourteen persons; the laboratory building, 
when fully equipped, will furnish facili- 
ties for about fifty workers. 

Much work must always be done in the 
fundamental subjects of chemistry, biology, 
physiology and pathology, for upon these 
basie sciences future discoveries in medical 
science must largely rest. While fully 
realizing the importance of these and lib- 
erally providing for them in its laboratory, 
the institute aims at the same time to keep 
close to the practical side, and will en- 
deavor to apply the latest discoveries in 
science to problems connected with the pre- 
vention and eure of disease. In order that 
the greatest good can be accomplished 
along these lines, the board realizes that a 
hospital closely affiliated with the institute 
is indispensable. Only in this way is it 
possible for those who work in the labora- 
tory to appreciate the relation of their re- 
sults to the problems of practical medicine. 
The hospital need not be large, but should 
be fully equipped. Such a hospital it is 
hoped may soon be added to the institute, 
in which the closest kind of scientific study 
may be given to obseure diseased condi- 

From the very beginning, the institute 
has sought not to monopolize the field, but 
to cooperate in all possible ways with exist- 
ing agencies for medical research in this 
country. It has cooperated with the Health 
Department of New York in the study of 
the conditions surrounding the production 
and distribution of the milk supply of the 
city, and the effects of milk upon the health 
of the children in the tenements; also with 
the commission appointed by the city in 
1904, to study the prevalence of the acute 
respiratory diseases, and with that appoint- 
ed in 1905 to investigate cerebro-spinal 

Jury 6, 1906.] 

meningitis. It has united with Harvard 
University in sending a man to Manila to 
study certain phases of smallpox. With 
the same end in view, also, it has made 
grants each year to assist important in- 
vestigations which were being carried on 
in various places. 

While it has been impossible to aid more 
than a small proportion of the even suit- 
able ones asking for assistance, still an 
average of twenty grants has been made 
each year, and much excellent work done 
which otherwise could not have been under- 

With the opening of a central laboratory 
for research in New York, these foreign 
grants will necessarily become a less impor- 
tant part of the work. It is not, however, 
the intention of the institute to discontinue 
them altogether. The board hopes always 
to be ready, with a grant of money or by 
sending a trained man, to assist in the solu- 
tion of any important emergency problem 
which may arise in connection with the 
public health in any part of the country. 

The work done entirely or in part under 
the auspices of the institute and published 
in various scientific journals has been col- 
lected in volumes of reprints; four such 
volumes of about five hundred pages each 
having already been issued, two in 1904 
and two in 1905; a fifth volume is now in 
press. The need of a special organ of pub- 
lication was early felt by the board and in 
1904 negotiations were opened with the 
editor of the Journal of Experimental 
Medicine with a view to transferring its 
control to the institute. This has been 

In February, 1905, the institute took 
charge of the publication of this journal, 
under whose auspices it has since been is- 
sued. In it are published not only the 
work of the institute, but also other scien- 
tifie contributions of a similar nature. 

In the five volumes of reprints appear 


137 original papers; they may be classified 
under the following heads: There were 50 
papers relating to etiology, or the causation 
of disease; 28 relating to pathology; 12 to 
bacteriology ; 22 to physiology; 8 to chem- 
istry; 9 to toxicology; 7 to experimental 
therapeutics, and 1 to pathological anat- 

Among the most important researches 
in point of the attention which has been 
given to them may be mentioned: 21 papers 
upon dysentery and diarrhceal diseases; 
5 papers upon milk; 4 papers upon small- 
pox; 12 upon various pathological condi- 
tions of the blood; 3 upon diabetes; 5 upon 
trypanosomiasis, and 6 upon snake venom. 
The other topics are widely distributed 
over the field of scientific medicine. 

To many, five years may seem a long time 
to be taken up with the work of prelimi- 
nary organization. Many difficulties have 
been encountered and many perplexing 
questions have come up for decision. It 
has been the policy of the board of direct- 
ors to proceed deliberately, and no step 
has been taken until a conviction regarding 
the wisdom of it was practically unan- 

To outline the development of an insti- 
tution which should secure the highest pos- 
sible efficiency has been no easy task. 
European models have aided greatly, but 
it was believed that what was needed in 
America was an institution different in 
many important respects from those of 
Europe. While many years will be re- 
quired for the full development of the 
institute, the board has felt that the general 
policy should be reflected from the outset. 
Throughout it has striven to keep con- 
stantly in mind the intention of the 
founder, expressed in his letter of gift, 
that the trust was to be administered in 
such a way as ‘to accomplish the most for 
humanity and science.’ 


The present staff of the institute is com- 
posed of the following persons: 

Department of Pathology and Bacteriology— 
Dr. Simon Flexner, Dr. E. L. Opie, Dr. H. 
Noguchi, Dr. J. E. Sweet, Dr. H. S. Houghton. 

Department of Physiology—Dr. 8S. J. Meltzer, 

Dr. John Auer. 
Department of Chemistry—Dr. P. A. Levene, 

Dr. W. Beatty. 

Resident Fellows and Scholars—B. F. Terry, 
zoology; R. D. MacLaurin, chemistry; Chas. A. 
Rouiller, chemistry; E. H. Schorer, bacteriology; 
Bertha I. Barker, bacteriology. 

L. Emmett Ho vt. 

THE support of hospitals has always made 
a strong appeal to the philanthropy of the 
state and of individual citizens, and the 
importance to the community of educated 
physicians has been appreciated, although 
in this country until recent years most in- 
adequately, but the recognition of medical 
science as a rewarding object of publie and 
private endowment is almost wholly the re- 
sult of discoveries in this department of 
knowledge made during the last quarter of 
a century. An eloquent witness to the 
awakening of this enlightened and _ bene- 
ficent sentiment is the establishment, in 
1901, of the Rockefeller Institute for Med- 
ical Research with its laboratories formally 
opened to-day. 

While the scientific study of infectious 
diseases is, of course, not of recent origin 
and had been pursued as a part of the 
functions of health departments and of 
university laboratories of hygiene and of 
pathology, the first provision of a special 
laboratory for this purpose was made by 
the German government in 1880, in the 
Imperial Health Office in Berlin, and to the 
directorship of this laboratory was called 
from his country practise Robert Koch, 
who four years before had startled the 
scientific world by his memorable investiga- 
tions of anthrax. 

[N.S. Von. XXIV. No. 601. 

The supremacy of Germany in science 
is due above all to its laboratories, and no 
more fruitful record of scientific diseov- 
eries within the same space of time can be 
found than that afforded by this laboratory 
during Koch’s connection with it, from 
1880 to 1885. Thence issued in rapid suc- 
cession, the description of those technical 
procedures which constitute the foundation 
of practical bacteriology and have been the 
chief instruments of all subsequent discov- 
eries in this field, the determination of cor- 
rect principles and methods of disinfection, 
and the announcement of such epochal dis- 
coveries as the causative germs of tubercu- 
losis—doubtless the greatest discovery in 
this domain—of typhoid fever, diphtheria, 
cholera, with careful study of their prop- 

The leading representative, however, of 
the independent laboratory devoted to 
medical science is the Pasteur Institute in 
Paris, founded in 1886, and opened in 
1888. The cireumstances which led to the 
foundation of this institute made probably 
a stronger appeal to popular sympathy and 
support than any others which have ever 
occurred in the history of medicine. 

There stood in the first place, the per- 
sonality and the work of that great genius, 
Louis Pasteur, of noble and lovable char- 
acter, one of the greatest benefactors of 
his kind the world has known, who for 
forty years had been engaged, often under 
adverse conditions, in investigations which 
combined the highest scientific interest with 
important industrial and humanitarian ap- 
plications. Pasteur’s revelation of the 
world of microscopic organisms in our en- 
vironment—the air, the water and the soil 
—and his demonstration of their relation 
to the processes of fermentation and putre- 
faction, had led Lister in the late sixties, 
even before anything was definitely known 
of the causative agency of bacteria in hu- 
man diseases, to make the first and most 

Jury 6, 1906.] 

important application of bacteriology to 
the prevention of disease by the introduc- 
tion of the principles of antiseptic surgery, 
whereby untold thousands of human lives 
have been saved. 

In 1880, came the most momentous of 
Pasteur’s contributions to medical science 
and art in the introduction of the method 
of active immunization by the use of the 
living parasites of the disease attenuated 
in virulence, a method which until this 
date had remained without further appli- 
cation since its employment by Edward 
Jenner in 1796 in vaccinating against 
smallpox. Pasteur’s researches in this 
field of immunity, marvelous in their orig- 
inality, ingenuity and fertility of resource, 
culminated in 1885 in the announcement 
of his successful method of protective in- 
oculation against that dread disease, rabies, 
and most of those here present will recall 
the enthusiasm with which this great 
triumph of experimental medicine was 
hailed throughout the civilized world. 

It was under the immediate impression 
and the incentive of this discovery, and 
as a mark of gratitude to Pasteur, that 
over two and one half million franes were 
raised within a short time by international 
subseription for the construction and en- 
dowment of an institute to bear his name, 
where the Pasteur treatment was to be 
carried out and ample facilities afforded 
for investigations of microorganisms and 
the problems of infectious diseases. This 
model institute, much enlarged since its 
foundation and after the death of Pasteur 
under the directorship, first of Duclaux, 
and now of Roux, and in one of its most 
important divisions, of Metchnikoff, has 
been a fruitful center of productive research 
and through its contributions to knowledge 
affords a signal illustration of the benefits 
to science and to humanity of the endow- 
ment of laboratories for the advancement 
of medical science. 


It was under much the same influences 
that the important Imperial Institute for 
Experimental Medicine in St. Petersburg, 
with even wider scope than the Pasteur In- 
stitute, was founded and munificently en- 
dowed by Prince Alexander of Oldenburg 
in 1890. 

In the following year the Prussian gov- 
ernment established in Berlin, under the 
directorship of Professor Koch, the ad- 
mirably organized and equipped Institute 
for Infectious Diseases, to which is at- 
tached, as to the Pasteur Institute, a hos- 
pital for infectious diseases. This and the 
excellent Institute for Experimental Thera- 
peutics, in Frankfort, under Professor 
Ehrlich’s direction, founded also by the 
Prussian government in 1896, are unsur- 
passed in their scientific activities and in 
the number and value of their contribu- 
tions to our knowledge of infection and 

In 1891, was founded in London the 
British, later the Jenner, and now the 
Lister, Institute of Preventive Medicine, 
designed to be a national institute similar 
in character and purpose to the Institut 
Pasteur, in Paris. The funds were con- 
tributed by the public, and subsequently 
increased by Lord Iveagh’s generous gift 
of two hundred and fifty thousand pounds. 

Within less than a year after the founda- 
tion of the Rockefeller Institute for Med- 
ical Research, the Memorial Institute for 
Infectious Diseases was founded in Chi- 
eago, by Mr. and Mrs. Harold F. MeCor- 
mick, and placed under the capable direc- 
tion of Professor Hektoen. 

The Institute for the Study, Treatment 
and Prevention of Tuberculosis, which 
bears the name of its beneficent founder, 
Henry Phipps, was incorporated in Phila- 
delphia in 1903, and, while devoted to a 
single disease, it must be ranked among 
those of wide scope, when we consider the 
magnitude and surpassing importance of 


the problems pertaining to this disease. 

It may also be noted that the Carnegie 
Institution in Washington, with its un- 
equaled endowment of ten million dollars, 
includes within its seope the support of 
biological and chemical investigations of 
great importance to medical science, so 
that our country now stands in line with 
Germany, France and Great Britain in the 
opportunities afforded for research in 
medical and other sciences. 

These various institutions have been men- 
tioned as typifying the general aims and 
character of the Rockefeller Institute for 
Medical Research, rather than to afford any 
complete picture of the material aid now 
available for the advancement of scientific 
medicine. If the latter were the purpose, 
it would be necessary to travel far afield 

~so as to inelude independent medical labo- 

ratories of more restricted scope, such as 
those for the study of cancer, the labora- 
tories connected with departments of 
health, so well exemplified in our own 
country by those of the state board of 
health of Massachusetts, and of the de- 
partment of health of the city of New 
York, hospitals and the laboratories con- 
nected with them, the medical laboratories 
of the universities and medical schools, 
such as the Thompson Yates and Johnston 
laboratories in Liverpool, and the splendid 
new laboratories of the Harvard Medical 
School, laboratories established in recent 
vears for the study of tropical diseases, 
such as our government laboratories in 
Manila, and funds available for special 
grants to investigators. ; 
Impressive and encouraging as is this 
1emarkable growth within recent years of 
laboratories devoted to the medical sciences, 
no one who has any knowledge of the vast 
field to be covered, of the difficulty and 
complexity of the problems, of the expendi- 
ture of money required, and of the returns 
in inereased knowledge and benefits to 

[N.S. Von. XXIV. No. 601. 

mankind which have been attained and 
which may be expected in increasing meas- 
ure, can for a moment suppose that the 
existing opportunities, considerable as they 
are, are adequate to meet the present and 
the future needs of scientific medicine. 

As I have already stated, the wider rec- 
ognition of medical science as a rewarding 
object of endowment is a result of dis- 
coveries made during the last quarter of a 
century, and it is of interest to inquire 
why this increased knowledge should have 
borne such abundant fruit. The result is 
not due to any change in the ultimate aims 
of medicine, which have always been what 
they are to-day and will remain, the pre- 
vention and the cure of disease, nor to the 
application to the solution of medical prob- 
lems of any higher intellectual ability and 
skill, than were possessed by physicians of 
past generations, nor to the growth of the 
scientific spirit, nor to the mere fact of a 
great scientific advance in medicine, for 
the most important contribution ever made 
to our understanding of the processes of 
disease was the discovery by Virchow, in 
the middle of the last century, of the prin- 
ciples and facts of cellular pathology, the 
foundation of modern pathology. 

The awakening of this wider public in- 
terest in scientific medicine is attributable 
mainly to the opening of new paths of in- 
vestigation which have led to a deeper and 
more helpful insight into the nature and 
the modes of prevention of a group of dis- 
eases—the infectious diseases—which stand 
in a more definite and intimate relation to 
the social, moral and physical well-being 
of mankind than any other class of dis- 
eases. The problems of infection which 
have been solved, and kindred ones which 
give promise of solution, are among the 
most important relating to human society. 
The dangers arising from the spread of 
contagious and other infectious diseases, 
threaten, not the individual only, but in- 

Juty 6, 1906.) 

dustrial life and the whole fabric of 
modern society. Not medicine only, but 
all the forces of society are needed to com- 
bat these dangers, and the agencies which 
furnish the knowledge and the weapons 
for this warfare, are among the most 
powerful for the improvement of human 

Great as was the material, intellectual 
and social progress of the world during 
the past century, there is no advance which 
compares in its influence upon the happi- 
ness of mankind with the increased power 
to lessen physical suffering from disease 
and accident, and to control the spread of 
pestilential diseases. Were we to-day as 
helpless as the physicians of past centuries 
in the face of plague, smallpox, typhus 
fever, cholera, yellow fever and other 
epidemic diseases, even if the existence of 
our modern crowded cities were possible, 
which may be doubted, the people would sit 
continually in the shadow of death. Great 
industrial activities of modern times, ef- 
forts to colonize and to reclaim for civil- 
ization vast tropical regions, the immense 
undertaking to construct the Panama 
Canal, are all in the first instance de- 
pendent upon the successful application to 
sanitary problems of knowledge, much of it 
gained in recent years, concerning the 
causation and propagation of epidemic and 
endemic diseases. 

And yet probably a fair measure of the 
general realization of these facts is the 
provision by Congress that of the seven 
members of the Isthmian Canal Commis- 
sion, four shall be engineers without a word 
concerning a sanitarian on the commission. 
There could hardly be a more impressive 
opportunity to demonstrate to the world the 
practical value of our new knowledge con- 
cerning the mode of conveyance of malaria 
and yellow fever, the two great scourges 
of Panama, than that afforded by the dig- 
ging of the Isthmian Canal. The sanitary 


problem is not surpassed in difficulty by 
the engineering problem, but we may feel 
reasonable assurance that with the sanitary 
control in hands as trained and capable as 
those of Colonel Gorgas, the ghastly experi- 
ences of the old French Panama Canal 
Company and in the construction of the 
railway will not be repeated. 

To comprehend fully the degree and the 
character of the progress of modern medi- 
cine requires a kind of knowledge and a 
breadth of vision not possessed by the aver- 
age man. He is concerned mainly with 
the prompt relief of his own ailments or 
those of his family. Of the triumphs of 
preventive medicine he knows little or 
nothing. With such dull matters as the 
decline in the death rate by one half, and 
the increase in the expectation of life by 
ten or twelve years during the last cen- 
tury, he does not concern himself. He 
takes no account of the many perils which 
have been removed from his pathway since 

his birth, and indeed at the time of his 

birth, nor does he know that had he lived 
a little over a century ago and survived 
these perils, he would probably be marked 
with smallpox. 

While it is true that in the relief of phys- 
ical suffering and in the treatment of dis- 
ease and accident the progress has been 
great and the physician and the surgeon 
ean do more, far more to-day than was pos- 
sible to his predecessors, and while im- 
provement in this direction must always be 
a chief aim of. medicine, still it is in the 
prevention of disease that the most bril- 
liant advances have been made. The one 
line of progress, that with which the daily 
work of the physician is concerned, affects 
the individual, the unit; the other, like all 
the greater movements in evolution, affects 
the race. It has been argued, with a cer- 
tain measure of plausibility, that the inter- 
ference with the law of the survival of 
the fittest, assumed to be a result of the 


suecess of preventive medicine, will bring 
about deterioration of the race. I believe 
the argument to be fallacious, and that we 
already have sufficient experience to show 
that there need be no serious apprehension 
of such a result. 

Before some accurate knowledge of the 
causation of infectious diseases was se- 
eured, preventive medicine was a blunder- 
ing science, not, however, without its one 
great victory of vaccination against small- 
pox, whereby one of the greatest scourges 
of mankind ean be controlled and could be 
eradicated, if the measure were universally 
and efficiently applied. The establishment 
upon a firm foundation of the germ doc- 
trine of infectious diseases, the discovery 
of the parasitic organisms of many of 
these diseases, the determination by experi- 
ment of the mode of spread of certain 
others, and the experimental studies of in- 
fection and immunity, have transformed 
the face of modern medicine. The recogni- 
tion, the forecasting, the comprehension of 
the symptoms and lesions, the treatment 
of a large number of infectious diseases, 
have all been illuminated and furthered, 
but the boon of supreme import to the 
human race ‘has been the lesson that these 
diseases are preventable. 

Typhus fever, once wide-spread, and of 
all diseases the most dependent upon filth 
and overerowding, has fled to obscure, un- 
sanitary corners of the world before the 
face of modern sanitation. 

In consequence of the knowledge gained 
by Robert Koch and his coworkers, Asiatic 
cholera, to the modern world the great rep- 
resentative of a devastating epidemic, will 
never again pursue its periodical, pandemic 
journey around the world, even should it 
make a start. 

Of bubonie plague, the most dreaded of 
all pestilences, which disappeared mysteri- 
ously from the civilized world over two 
centuries ago, we know the germ and the 

[N.S. Vor. XXIV. No. 601. 

manner of propagation, and, although it 
has ravaged India for the last ten years 
with appalling severity, it can be and has 
been arrested in its spread when suitable 
measures of prevention are promptly ap- 

Typhoid fever, the most important in- 
dex of the general sanitary conditions of 
towns and cities, has been made practically 
to disappear from a number of cities where 
it formerly prevailed. That this disease 
is still so prevalent in many rural and 
urban districts of this country, is due to 
a disgraceful neglect of well-known meas- 
ures of sanitation. 

To Major Walter Reed and his colleagues 
of the army commission, this country and 
our neighbors to the south owe an inesti- 
mable debt of gratitude for the discovery of 
the mode of conveyance of yellow fever by 
a species of mosquito. On the basis of 
this knowledge, the disease, which has been 
long such a menace to lives and commercial 
interests in our southern states, has been 
eradicated from Cuba, and can be con- 
trolled elsewhere. 

Another army surgeon, Major Ross, act- 
ing upon the suggestion of Sir Patrick 
Manson, had previously demonstrated a 
similar mode of ineubation and transporta- 
tion of the parasite of malaria, discovered 
by Laveran, and it is now possible to at- 
tack intelligently and in many localities, 
as has already been proven, with good 
promise of success, the serious problem of 
checking or even eradicating a disease 
which renders many parts of the world al- 
most uninhabitable by the Caucasian race 
and, even where less severe, hinders, as does 
no other disease, intellectual and industrial 
activities of the inhabitants. It is gratify- 
ing that one of our countrymen and a mem- 
ber of the board of directors of this insti- 
tute, Dr. Theobald Smith, by his investiga- 
tions of Texas cattle fever, led the way in 

Juty 6, 1906.] 

the discovery of the propagation of this 
class of disease through an insect host. 

The deepest impress which has been 
made upon the average death rate of cities 
has been in the reduction of infant mortal- 
ity through a better understanding of its 
eauses. The Rockefeller Institute, by the 
investigations which it has supported of 
the questions of clean milk and of the 
causes of the summer diarrheas of infants, 
has already made important contributions 
to this subject, which have borne good fruit 
in this city and elsewhere. 

No outcome of the modern science of 
bacteriology has made a more profound im- 
pression upon the medical profession and 
the public, or comes into closer relation to 
medical practise than Behring’s discovery 
of the treatment of diphtheria by antitoxic 
serum, whereby in the last twelve years the 
mortality from this disease has been re- 
duced to nearly one fifth of the former 

The most stupendous task to which the 
medical profession has ever put its hands 
is the crusade against tuberculosis, whose 
preeminence as the leading cause of death 
in all communities is already threatened. 
Sufficient knowledge of the causation and 
mode of spread of this disease has been 
gained within the last quarter of a century, 
to bring within the possible bounds of real- 
ization the hopes of even the most en- 
thusiastic, but it will require a long time, 
much patience and a combination of all 
the forees of society, medical, legislative, 
educational, philanthropic, sociological, to 
attain this goal. 

Time forbids further rehearsal, even 
in this meager and fragmentary fashion, 
of the victories of preventive medicine. 
Enough has been said to make clear that 
man’s power over disease has been greatly 
increased in these latter days. But great 
and rapid as the progress has been, it is 
small in comparison with what remains to 


be done. The new fields which have been 
opened have been explored only in rela- 
tively small part. There still remain im- 
portant infectious diseases whose secrets 
have not been unlocked. Even with some 
whose causative agents are known, notably 
pneumonia and other acute respiratory 
affections, and epidemic meningitis, very 
little has yet been achieved by way of pre- 
vention. The domain of artificial im- 
munity and of the treatment of infections 
by specific sera and vaccines, so auspi- 
ciously opened by Pasteur and by Behring, 
is still full of difficult problems, the solu- 
tion of which may be of immense service 
in the warfare against disease. Of the 
cause of cancer and other malignant tu- 
mors nothing is known, although many 
workers with considerable resources at their 
disposal are engaged in its study. With 
the change in the incidence of disease, due 
at least in large part to the repression of 
the infections of early life, increased im- 
portance attaches to the study of the cireu- 
latory, renal and nervous diseases of later 
life, of whose underlying causes we are 
very imperfectly informed. There are and 
will arise medical problems enough of 
supreme importance to inspire workers for 
generations to come and to make demands 
upon all available resources. 

In directing attention, as I have done, 
to some of the practical results of scientific 
discovery in medicine, and in indicating 
certain of the important problems awaiting 
solution, there is always the danger of giv- 
ing to those unfamiliar with the methods 
and history of such discovery a false im- 
pression of the way in which progress in 
scientific knowledge has been secured and 
is to be expected. The final victory is 
rarely the result of an immediate and direct 
onslaught upon the position ultimately se- 
eured. The advance has been by many 
and devious and gradual steps, leading 
often, it might appear, in quite different 

ee eee ee 

phe ded else pes ett 


directions, and mounted more frequently 
than not to secure a wider prospect, but 
without any thought of the final goal. The 
army contains a multitude of recruits 
drawn from the most various fields, the 
biologist, the chemist, the physiologist con- 
tributing their share to medical triumphs 
just as truly as the pathologist, the bac- 
teriologist, the hygienist, the clinician. 
The inspiration has been the search for 
truth and joy in the search far more than 
any utilitarian motive. In the fullness of 
time comes the great achievement; the 
leader is hailed, but he stands upon the 
shoulders of a multitude of predecessors 
whose contributions to the result are often 
lost from view. 

In full recognition of the dependence of 
success in the warfare with disease upon 
increase of knowledge, the Rockefeller In- 
stitute for Medical Research was founded 
by the enlightened munificence of Mr. John 
D. Rockefeller, to whom we make grateful 
acknowledgment. Likewise to the broad 
sympathies and active interest of his son, 
Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., the origin 
and development of this institution are 
largely indebted. 

What has already been accomplished, as 
well as the general scope and aims of the 
institute, have just been concisely indicated 
to you by Dr. Holt. My purpose has been 
to show, although of necessity most_inade- 
quately, that these aims relate to matters 
of the highest significance to human so- 
ciety, that the present state of medical 
science and art requires large resources for 
its advancement, and that the returns in 
benefits to mankind have been and will con- 
tinue to be great out of all proportion to 
the money expended. 

May the hopes of the founder and of 
those who have planned this institute be 
abundantly fulfilled! May it contribute 
largely to the advancement of knowledge, 

[N.S. Von. XXIV. No. 601. 

and may the streams of knowledge which 
flow from it be ‘for the healing of the 

Wituiam H. WELCH. 

It seems to me significant that this home 
of scientific research is placed amid the 
teeming population of a great city. Sci- 
ence has for its end service, and there will 
be no quicker or more useful application 
of the discoveries made here than among 
the tens of thousands who live just outside 
these walls. 

In no way has knowledge more com- 
pletely revealed its power than in the tri- 
umphs of modern engineering and of mod- 
ern medicine. Engineering and medicine 
have conspired together to make human 
life pleasanter and happier, and to relieve 
it from a large amount of suffering and 
pain. The transmission of energy over 
long distances and in new forms and the 
discoveries of the modern pathologists have 
changed the conditions and even the aspect 
of life more than we realize. 

These buildings are dedicated to the re- 
lief of human disease and human suffering 
by the application of scientific method to 
the study of a concrete body of facts. 
They will exert their influence in three 
ways: they will add to the sum total of 
human knowledge in respect to medicine; 
they will aid in developing a company of 
trained scientific observers; and they will 
help spread abroad in the public mind a 
respect for science and for scientific 
method. Each of these services is a public 
service, but the last named is perhaps the 

Pasteur, whose name will often be spoken 
here and always with reverence, understood 
this. In 1870, when his country was 
crushed under overwhelming disaster and 
staggering under blow upon blow, he found 
voice to say that neglect of science and of 
scientific research was a powerful cause of 

Juty 6, 1906.] 

the moral and the military humiliation of 
France. Said Pasteur: 

France has done nothing to keep up, to propa- 
gate and to develop the progress of science in our 
country. * * * She has lived on her past, think- 
ing herself great by the scientific discoveries to 
which she owed her material prosperity, but not 
perceiving that she was imprudently allowing the 
sources of those discoveries to become dry. * * * 
While Germany was multiplying her universities, 
establishing between them the most salutary 
emulation, bestowing honors and consideration on 
the. masters and doctors, creating vast labora- 
tories amply supplied with the most perfect in- 
struments, France enervated by evolutions, ever 
seeking vainly for the best form of government, 
was giving but careless attention to her establish- 
ments for higher education. 

Each year shows more clearly how true 
this view is, and how fully it applies to the 
triumphs both of peace and of war. Japan 
has even more profoundly impressed the 
world by her knowledge of scientific fact 
and by her rigid application of that knowl- 
edge than by the valor and military skill 
of her soldiers and sailors. No people are 
more in need than our own of learning the 
all-important lesson that the modern Ger- 
mans and the modern Japanese have to 
teach. Respect for the man who knows and 
loyalty to demonstrated truth are char- 
acteristics of civilization that is founded 
on rock. Our American happy-go-lucky, 
wasteful way of approaching a serious 
problem, our naive egotism and our exalta- 
tion of the man who does things, no matter 
how, must sooner or later give way to more 
patient study, to more respect for the ex- 
perience and wisdom of other countries 
than our own, and to more regard for cor- 
rectness and sound principle, than for a 
superficial costly ‘efficiency,’ if we are to 
hold the place in the world’s esteem for 
which we are rightfully ambitious. 

This institution is to be welcomed, then, 
not alone for what it will do for medicine, 
and not alone for what it will do indirectly 
for the relief of suffering human beings. 


It is to be welcomed still more for the les- 
sons it will teach to our public opinion; 
for the guidance it will offer toward a 
juster appreciation of the relations be- 
tween theory and practise, between ob- 
servation and reasoning; and for the as- 
surance it affords that generous support is 
to be had in this dear country of ours from 
men of affairs for research of the highest 
and most severe type. 

Of the subjects with which the institute 
is to deal, when we reflect upon their va- 
riety, their far-reaching importance and 
their manifold relationships, can we say 

less than Faraday once wrote to Tyndall: 

Our subjects are so glorious that to work at 
them rejoices and encourages the feeblest, delights 
and enchants the strongest. 


THE educated public needs to obtain a 
clearer idea than it now has of scientific 
research, of its objects and results, and of 
the character and capacity of the men who 
devote themselves to it. The educated 
classes have a tolerably accurate concep- 
tion of research in such subjects as history 
including antiquities, economics, philology, 
law and government; for research in these 
subjects relates chiefly to the past, remote 
or near. The public has also been long 
interested in the inventor’s resourceful and 
persevering habit of mind—the inventor 
who is trying to make some new applica- 
tion of acquired knowledge, or to discover 
a new fact or principle which can be put 
to commercial use. But scientific research 
is somewhat different from these other 
kinds of research. It has deep roots in the 
past; but its object is never to demonstrate 
merely what has been done or said, or to 
obtain a monopolistic profit. Invariably 
its object is to extend the boundaries of 
knowledge, and to win new power over 
nature. It is not chiefly concerned to en- 
large records of the past, or to make them 


more accurate, but rather to use all the 
powers the past has conferred on the hu- 
man spirit to win new power. The past 
gives the scientific investigator his lever 
and the present his fulerum; but his work 
is to take effect on the future, and is to 
give him or his successors a stronger lever 
and a better placed fulerum. As a rule, 
scientific research is earried on with no 
public observation, and as silently as nature 
elaborates and throws out the mantling 
verdure of spring; but on an exceptional 
occasion like this, and in a country which 
has already reaped great benefits from the 
endowment of institutions of education and 
charity by publie-spirited persons, it is 
fitting that the beneficent work of the 
scientific investigator should be accurately 
described, and commended to the favor of 
an enlightened public opinion. 

Let us first consider what mental habits 
and powers the scientific investigator needs 
to have acquired and to keep in exercise, 
or in other words what sort of a mind the 
investigator ought to have. In the first 
place, he needs the faculty and the habit 
of determining and grasping facts, and 
then verifying and digesting them. He 
must next be capable of conceiving hy- 
potheses which will connect his facts, or 
explanations that will group them or ar- 
range them in a series. These hypotheses 
or explanations will come to him as results 
of reflection or of imaginative scheming; 
in the common phrase, ideas will occur to 
him. <A preconceived idea may be a great 
power in experimental researches; but the 
inquirer must have the habit of pursuing 
to verification or disproof all such ideas. 
He must test them by new experiments 
contrived for that purpose. He must ex- 
haust all the adverse hypotheses which 
come to his mind. He must always keep 
in the road that leads to truth, although 
he does not know just where the truth lies. 

(N.S. Vor. XXIV. No. 601. 

If through the play of his imagination he 
gets off the right road, his rigorous experi- 
mentation must bring him back to the safe 
path of the inductive method. He must 
possess patience and reserve, but also en- 
thusiasm and a capacity for eager specula- 
tion. Science has often profited by a sug- 
gestive theory, which was far from being 
true. Indeed, the history of scientific 
progress is full of these profitable theories, 
which have been abandoned one after the 
other; and in all probability the series of 
such theories will prove to be infinite. 
Sometimes theories long forgotten are taken 
up again after the defeat of the later the- 
ories which caused the forgetting of the 
earlier. However it may be in theology, 
it is quite certain that in science there is 
as yet no such thing as final truth. Ac- 
cordingly, investigators in any science need 
an unusual perspicacity or clear-sighted- 
ness in regard to its theories; they need, 
each in his own field, a full knowledge of 
the work already done, and a clear percep- 
tion of the bearings of the most recent dis- 
coveries. This perspicacity is in some 
measure a natural gift; but it is also a 
faculty capable of a high degree of train- 
ing. It sees clearly the approximate truth 
already discovered, and goes forward to 
obtain a closer approximation. 

The general features of scientific re- 
search are similar in all fields, although 
each kind has its peculiar difficulties. The 
field of the individual inquirer need not 
necessarily be wide; although the progress 
of many sciences is often contributory to 
the progress of one, and that investigator 
has a great advantage who is capable of 
seeing clearly the bearings of new discov- 
eries in kindred sciences on the particular 
inguiry he has in hand. It is all-impor- 
tant, however, in all fields, that the investi- 
gator should be capable of seizing on the 
essential parts of the inquiry-—-that is, on 

JuLy 6, 1906./ 

its causative elements, rather than on those 
parts which relate to identification, classi- 
fication and nomenclature. The pioneers 
of science, like the pioneers in exploration 
and colonization, must find their way 
through pathless regions. It is only later 
generations that build smooth roads and 
railways for the transportation of inatten- 
tive multitudes where the pioneer trod 
alone and watchful. The investigator must 
be watchful over minor details and for ap- 
parently insignificant differences and simil- 
itudes. He must know how to find his 
clues in trifling circumstances and illusive 
changes of condition. In these days of 
germs and spores, when micro-organisms 
have been proved to be infinitely important 
in the economy of nature, the investigator, 
and especially the biologist, will probably 
have a peculiar conception of the great 
and the small, or the gross and the minute. 
The infinitely little may often seem to him 
of highest importance, his scale of values 
having no connection with spacial magni- 
tude or gravity. On the other hand, the 
investigator must be keen to discern rela- 
tionships among facts—first among facts 
easily classed as kindred, but then among 
facts which to the common mind are un- 
connected or disconnected. The intellec- 
tual tastes of the true investigator will 
usually include a liking for the elucidation 
of mysteries, and a liking for new and 
adventurous problems. These tastes are 
manifested by men whose walks of life and 
objects of interest are very different; but 
they are not common tastes, any more than 
the faculties needed in such inquiries are 
common. The scientific investigator wins 
pleasure or satisfaction where most men 
and women would find only vexation and 
futile effort. He finds fascinating what 
most men and women would find repellent. 

After a new discovery has been made, 
another and quite different task awaits the 


successful investigator. He desires and 
needs to procure the acceptance of his dis- 
covery by the learned world, and in some 
cases by the commercial world. This is a 
process different from the process of dis- 
covery, and yet kindred. It involves dem- 
onstrations; but these demonstrations re- 
quire a somewhat different sort of imag- 
ining and contriving from that which led 
to the discovery. The discovery was made 
in private; the demonstrations must be 
public. The discovery needed solitary re- 
flection; to procure the acceptance of the 
discovery needs a power of public exposi- 
tion, accompanied by debate and even con- 
troversy. The discovery required indom- 
itable patience and energy in pursuing and 
verifying in rapid succession the concep- 
tions or fancies of genius; the demonstra- 
tion requires skill in discussion, courage in 
accepting public tests, and in taking re- 
sponsibility for risking the property or 
lives of others. 

The history of scientific research amply 
illustrates the stimulating value of con- 
troversy, and the contribution which free 
discussion makes to real progress. Free- 
dom of thought and speech promotes prog- 
ress towards truth in science just as effect- 
ively as it does the gradual attainment of 
truth and justice in government, industries 
and social structure. Time frequently 
shows that both sides were measurably 
right in honest scientific controversies, al- 
though one side win a temporary or even 
an ultimate victory. 

The conditions under which research is 
necessarily performed deprive the investi- 
gators of the stimulus which numbers of 
students give to popular teachers. The 
laboratories of research contain but few 
students; and they are for the most part 
silent and absorbed. Nevertheless, the 
younger investigators have two great satis- 
factions in their work: they follow leaders 


with hearty enthusiasm and loyalty, and 
the generous ones among them also main- 
tain a stimulating comradeship with con- 
temporaries in the same fields. Their num- 
ber is very small in all the contemporane- 
ous fields of inquiry put together; but it is 
on this small number that the real prog- 
ress of any nation in the arts and sciences, 
and, therefore, in civilization and happi- 
ness, ultimately depends. Their Herculean 
labors are self-imposed, and they must set 
their own standards of excellence; for so- 
ciety can not supply men capable of super- 
vising, regulating or stimulating them. 
The ordinary grades of public instruction 
ean be supervised and disciplined; but the 
scientific investigator must be a law unto 
himself. The utmost that governments or 
universities can do for him is to provide 
suitable facilities and conditions for his 
work, and to watch for results. 

Among the numerous varieties of scientific 
research such as chemical, physical, physio- 
graphical, astronomical and_ biological, 
medical research occupies a peculiar place. 
While it avails itself to the utmost of all 
the exact weighings and measurings of the 
other natural sciences, it is foreed to deal 
with innumerable materials and conditions 
which are complicated and made obscure 
by vital forces. It has to deal with objects 
which are alive and with processes of or- 
ganic growth or change. Its evidence can 
not always be exact; its experiments must 
often be complicated and obscured by vital 
reactions; and its results of highest value 
are often incapable of complete demonstra- 
tion in the mathematical, physical or chem- 
ical sense; because dense shades of igno- 
rance darken the environs of the practical 
result. Thus, preventive measures against 
a familiar and definite disease may succeed, 
while the promoting cause of the disease 
remains unknown, and the method of its 
transmission from one victim to another is 
but imperfectly understood. Vaccination 

[N.S. Vor. XXIV. No. 601. 

succeeded when the cause or promoting 
condition of smallpox was unknown. The 
microbe of rabies is unknown, and yet pro- 
tective inoculation against rabies has been 
invented and successfully applied. The 
mere mention of some of the contributory 
inventions and discoveries of the past fifty 
years, such as the principles of fermenta- 
tion, artificial culture solutions, gelatine 
plate cultures, selective cultivation, the 
variety of sterilization conditions for dif- 
ferent organic substances, staining tech- 
nique, immunity through the use of a toxic 
organism that can be cultivated, increasing 
or diminishing at pleasure the virulence 
of a toxic organism, and testing toxins and 
vaccines on living animals, will readily 
satisfy even a sceptical mind that medical 
research has great difficulties of its own to 
encounter in addition to the usual diffi- 
culty of scientific inquiry in general. Bio- 
logical research is, therefore, more arduous 
than physical, chemical or other inorganic 
research, because vital processes are diffi- 
cult to observe accurately, and all the con- 
ditions of experimentation are harder to 
control. The medical investigator must 
often fish in troubled waters; and some- 
times he can not find again the promising 
fishing ground he has once visited, because 
unexpected fog prevents him from seeing 
the intersecting bearings of his desired 

Again, medical research habitually strives 
to arrive at something beyond abstract 
truth. It seeks to promote public and pri- 
vate safety and happiness, and the material 
welfare of society. Its devotees have in 
mind the discovery of means of remedy- 
ing misery or warding off calamity; and 
they also know that whatever contributes 
to health and longevity in any community 
or nation contributes to its industrial pros- 
perity ; so that they are justified in hoping 
for results from their work which will pro- 
mote human welfare. In short, medical 

JuLy 6, 1906.] 

research is research in science which is both 
pure and applied. Some genuine scientists 
affect to despise applied science; and cer- 
tainly it is not discreditable to men of sci- 
ence that they are apt to value discoveries 
which have no popular quality or commer- 
cial utility more highly than those which 
immediately attract the favor of the multi- 
tude by their industrial effects, or by their 
striking novelty combined with intelligibil- 
ity; but all scientists recognize the fact 
that medical research is directly related to 
the largest material interests of the com- 
munity, such as manufacturing, transpor- 
tation, sanitation and the methods of pro- 
viding light, heat and shelter, and of de- 
fending the community against frauds in 
foods, drinks and drugs. Many of its prob- 
lems are economic as well as medical, and 
require in those who study them sound 
judgment in money matters as well as 
knowledge of natural law and skill in sci- 
entific methods of inquiry. Medical re- 
search, therefore, requires in its devotees a 
combination of theoretical power with prac- 
tical power—a capacity for both abstract 
science and applied science. This combina- 
tion is rare but by no means unattainable. 
Indeed, abstruse speculation is almost al- 
ways attractive to masters of the experi- 
mental method. The investigator abso- 
lutely needs a powerful imagination; but 
this imagination must be checked by the 
most rigorous experimentation. 

In spite of the fact that medical re- 
search involves the suffering and death of 
many of the lower animals used for pur- 
poses of study, the work of medical re- 
search is in reality the most humane work 
now done in the world; for its secondary 
objects are to prevent disease in men and 
animals, to defeat the foes of life, to pre- 
vent the industrial losses due to sickness 
and untimely death among men and do- 
mestic animals, and to lessen the anxieties, 
terrors and actual calamities which impair 


or crush out human happiness. The pri- 
mary object in medical research, as indeed 
in all research, is the ascertaining of truth; 
but these secondary objects are ever before 
the mind of the investigator, and through 
them come his greatest satisfactions. These 
satisfactions ought to be shared by men 
who, like the founder of this institute, pro- 
mote medical research by the exercise of 
their sound judgment and good will and 
by their money. 

The achievements of medical research 
since Jenner have been marvelous. See- 
ing what has been done within a cen- 
tury to diminish the mental and bodily 
sufferings of mankind from smallpox, 
diphtheria, rabies, tuberculosis, malaria, 
yellow fever, puerperal fever and typhoid 
fever, and to give surgery safe access 
to every part of the body, we may 
reasonably believe that equal triumphs, 
and even greater, await it in the future. 
May we not hope that America will con- 
tribute her full share to the progress of 
scientific research, finding no obstacle, but 
rather means of furtherance, in her demo- 
cratic institutions? May not we democrats 
find encouragement in the humble origin 
of Franklin, Faraday and Pasteur, and in 
the contributions democratic America has 
already made to anesthesia, surgery, the 
improvement of public water supplies and 
the control of Texas fever, malaria, puer- 
peral fever and yellow fever? May we not 
reasonably expect our country to produce 
many men like Louis Pasteur’s father, a 
private soldier of the first empire and a 
hard-working tanner? In the dedication 
of his best book the great son said to his 
father: ‘‘The efforts I have devoted to 
these investigations and their predecessors 
are the fruit of thy example and thy 
counsel.’’ Let American parents take that 
sentence to heart! And let all Americans 
reflect on another utterance of this greatest 
of contributors to medical science, this ar- 


dent patriot, this independent and indom- 
itable worker, this genuine democrat— 
Pasteur: ‘‘The true demoeracy is_ that 
which permits each individual to put forth 
his maximum of effort.’’ 



A College Algebra. By Henry Burcuarp 

Fine. Ginn & Company. 1905. 

The present day is remarkable for its pro- 
duction of large numbers of mathematical 
text-books. In most cases the aim of the 
writers of these books seems to be to convince 
the student that the subject treated is devoid 
of any element of interest, that it possesses 
no logical sequence, and that memory of a 
large assortment of unconnected facts is the 
only requisite for a sound mathematical train- 
ing. One meets with proofs of theorems 
divided into first, second, ete., steps—an obvi- 
ous attempt to burden the memory at the 
expense of the reasoning faculty, and stress 
is laid on the fact that all problems are ‘ easy,’ 
in fact on examination they appear scarcely 
worth the name of problems. There is not 
the slightest doubt that these harmful books 
are one of the causes of the decrease in mathe- 
matical students at our colleges and univer- 
sities. The books are, unfortunately, given 
a trial somewhere, no matter how bad they 
may be, and one can conceive of no surer way 
of destroying the interest of the young stu- 
dent in the subject. For those who are 
merely general students they are equally de- 
fective. In the forefront of an author’s mind 
should be a desire to develop the reasoning 
faculties. Let us have easy exercises by all 
means, but let us also have exercises which 
will make students think for themselves. Let 
us develop our subject along the easiest se- 
quence, but let us develop it logically. 

Professor Fine’s ‘College Algebra’ is in 
refreshing contrast to such books as I have 
mentioned. He aims at giving an exposition 
at once logical and easy to understand. The 
result is a book that must make the subject 
interesting to the ordinary college student. 
The work is divided into two parts. The first 

[N.S. Vor. XXIV. No. 601. 

consists of 78 pages devoted to the ideas at 
the base of the notion of number, a develop- 
ment of those ideas which are associated with 
the names of Cantor, Dedekind and others. 
This difficult subject has been handled by the 
author with conspicuous clearness, and every 
student of it should make himself familiar 
with these first 78 pages. It is questionable, 
however, whether, even with Professor Fine’s 
exposition, it is possible to make this subject 
really understood by a student who is just 
beginning his college algebra course, and pos- 
sibly the author in later editions may decide 
to present this section as a separate book, 
under a separate title. 

The second part, some 500 pages, is con- 
cerned with algebra proper. It is ‘meant to 
contain everything relating to algebra that a 
student is likely to need during his school and 
college course.’ Even this wide ideal is given 
a wide interpretation, and the last chapter, 
Properties of Continuous Functions, is a fit- 
ting introduction to the calculus. The chap- 
ters on the solution of equations are of special 
interest. The author makes much use of 
graphs, the only way to make clear to the 
student what is implied by the solution of a 
set of equations. It would have been of ad- 
vantage to give a brief account of the gen- 
eralization of the use of graphs to the case of 
three variables, and thus to prepare the mind 
for the idea of a space of more than three 
dimensions. Particularly noteworthy in con- 
nection with graphs is the discussion of in- 
equalities. The idea of a graph as dividing 
the plane into two regions, in one of which 
f(x, y) > 0 in the other < 0, should certainly 
be emphasized in ordinary algebra, before the 
introduction of analytic geometry, as alge- 
braic questions, otherwise unintelligible to the 
learner, become almost intuitive. Observe, 
for instance, the illuminating example on 
page 341. 

The general theory of the solution of equa- 
tions is developed in very effective form; in 
particular the treatment of symmetric equa- 
tions. The important idea is the taking of 
the various simple symmetric functions as 
new auxiliary variables and, after solving for 
these, finding the solutions of a set such as, 

JuLy 6, 1906.] 

for example, z+y=a, zy=b. Here it 
would be of use to point out that xz and y 
are the roots of the quadratic X*—aX +b 
=o, and similarly in the more general case. 
The chapter on convergence of infinite series 
leaves little to be desired. But the author 
might have given Cauchy’s condensation the- 
orem that under certain conditions 

3 Sn) and ES a" f(a") 

converge or diverge together. This has been 
used to discuss the well-known case 

J = 
and is fundamental in the construction of 
the De Morgan criteria. The result of § 953 
may well be obtained by comparison with the 

and a more useful form is: The series con- 
verges or diverges according as 


9 (2,-1)20 

Dr. Fine has, unfortunately, been com- 
pelled to leave the exponential theorem to the 
last few pages of the book, and it would be 
an advantage if more space could be given to 
it in a later edition. Also the more logical 
development in the indicial, binomial and ex- 
ponential theorems, and that of De Moivre 
would be to first prove that if f(x) is any 
function of x which satisfies f(x) K f(y) = 
f(x+y), for all values of z and y, then 
f(x) = [f(1)]? for all values of x; and then 
to apply this in turn to each of the particular 

The book as a whole is admirably complete, 
and for this reason many parts might with 
advantage be omitted on a first reading. 
These parts could be indicated in some man- 
ner, for example by means of asterisks. 




Tue last regular meeting of the New York 

Section of the American Chemical Society was 


held at the Chemists’ Club, 108 West Fifty- 
fifth Street, on Friday, June 8. The chair- 
man, Dr. F. D. Dodge, presided. The follow- 
ing papers were read: 

The Chemical Work of the Bureau of Stan- 
dards: W. A. Noyes. 

The chemical laboratories of the bureau of 
standards were ready for the beginning of 
work in March, 1905. There are at present 
five chemists working in these laboratories. 

Dr. Stokes and Mr. Cain have been working 
upon the standards of purity for chemical re- 
agents. Good progress has been made in se- 
curing cooperation of the chemical manufac- 
turers in this work, and some progress has 
been made in the laboratory in the develop- 
ment of methods for testing for impurities in 
reagents, especially work of this character has 
been done with methods for determining 
traces of iron and work is being conducted 
upon the common acids and alkalies. 

Dr. Waters has worked chiefly with Dr. 
Wolff upon the purification and testing of 
materials for the preparation of standard elec- 
trical cells. He also carried out last year the 
analysis of the argillaceous limestone which 
was distributed for the purpose of improving 
the analytical methods taught in our colleges 
and universities. 

Dr. Weber has analyzed a sample of sulphide 
ore, a zine ore, some agricultural samples for 
sulphur and some samples of white metal. 
These have been distributed chiefly among 
technical or agricultural chemists by different 

The bureau has taken over the standard 
samples of iron which heretofore have been 
distributed by the American Foundrymen’s 
Association, and very careful analyses of these 
samples were made at the bureau by Mr. Cain. 

Arrangements have been partially completed 
with the American Steel Manufacturers’ Asso- 
ciation for the preparation of a series of 
samples of standard steels of the three types, 
Bessemer, basic open hearth and acid open 

Dr. Noyes has been working on the ratio 
between the atomic weights of oxygen and 
hydrogen, and recently he has taken up, in 

oe ee ee mee epee ames 



conjunction with Dr. Weber, some work upon 
the atomic weight of chlorine. 

Silver Platinum Alloys: J. F. THompson and 

Epmunp H. MILuer. 

The authors have investigated the cooling 
curves and micro structure and determined 
the electrical conductivity and specific gravity 
of alloys containing up to 57 per cent. of 

Several series of experiments on the effect 
of parting with nitric or sulphuric acid on 
platinum silver alloys have been run, showing 
(1) that the separation of platinum from 
iridium, gold, ete., in one operation by means 
of alloying with silver and parting in nitric 
acid is impossible, and (2) that analytical 
results on platinum silver alloys based on 
parting with concentrated sulphuric acid are 
incorrect on alloys containing 20 per cent. or 
more of platinum, unless corrected for silver 
retained by the platinum residue. 

Chemical and Physiological Examination of 
the Fruit of Chailletia Tozxicaria: F. B. 
Power and F. Turin. 

The Chailletia Toxicaria grows abundantly 
in West Africa and South America, and be- 
longs to the natural order of Chailletiacee. 
It is known in Sierra Leone as ratsbane. It 
contains a poisonous substance which is fre- 
quently used by the natives of the districts 
where it grows for poisoning one another. 

Domestic animals poisoned by it become 
paralyzed in the hind limbs; subsequently the 
fore limbs and chest muscles are also par- 
alyzed, and death results from paralysis of 
the respiratory center. 

The results of the examination of well- 
authenticated material were as follows: 

No alkaloid, cyano-genetic glucoside, or 
soluble proteid, with poisonous properties, 
could be isolated. 

About two per cent. of fat is present in the 
fruit, in which were found (1) oleo-di-stearin, 
of m.p. 43°; (2) phyto-sterol, C,,H,,O, m.p. 
135°-148° (3) stearic and oleic acids; (4) 
small amounts of formic and butyric acids. 

The alcoholic extract, free from fat, yielded 
a resinous mixture (2.5 per cent. of fruit), 

[N.S. Von. XXIV. No. 601. 

from which nothing crystalline could be ob- 

By successive extraction with chloroform, 
ethyl acetate and alcohol it was, however, re- 
solved into products differing in their physi- 
ological action. 

The chloroform extract had a narcotic or 
paralytic effect: the ethyl acetate extract pro- 
duced delirium and convulsions, the alcoholic 
extract was not distinctly toxic. 

The aqueous extract, free from resin and 
tannin, contained much glucose and was ex- 
tremely poisonous. 

All attempts to separate the sugar from the 
poison were without result. 

The physiological experiments led to the 
following deductions: (1) The fruit contains 
at least two active principles, one of which 
causes cerebral narcosis, and the other cerebral 
excitation, leading to epileptiform convulsions. 
(2) The poison which causes convulsions is 
very slowly excreted, so that a cumulative 
effect is produced by the administration of a 
series of individually innocuous doses. 

Quinazolines from 4-Amino-1, 3-Xylene: J. 

E. Stvctam and M. T. Bocerrt. 

The xylidine was converted into its acetyl 
derivative, and this then oxidized to the acet- 
amino isophthalic acid. The latter yielded an 
anthranil when boiled with excess of acetic 
anhydride, and by condensing this anthranil 
with various primary amines, quinazolines 
were obtained carrying a carboxyl group on 
the benzene nucleus. The amines used were 
ammonia, methylamine, ethylamine and ani- 

Quinazolines from 8-Amino-1, 4-Xylene: J. 

D. Wicarn and M. T. Bogert. 

By a process similar to that outlined above, 
this xylidine was oxidized to the acetamino 
terephthalic acid, which was then changed to 
the anthranil, and the latter condensed with 
primary amines to quinazolines. The quin- 
azolines thus produced differ from those men- 
tioned above in the location of the carboxyl 
group on the benzene nucleus. The amines 
used were ammonia, methylamine, ethylamine 
and aniline. Other quinazolines were ob- 

Juty 6, 1906.] 

tained by heating the amino terephthalic acid 
with formamide, urea, ete. 

Condensation with p-Diamino Terephthalic 
Ester: J. M. Newtson and M. T. Bogert. 
p-Diamino terephthalic ester was condensed 

with phenyl isocyanate, phenyl isothiocyanate, 

and with formamide, giving various complex 
heterocycles. From these substances various 
derivatives were prepared and studied, many 
of which were found to be strongly fluorescent. 

Officers of the section for the year 1906-07 
were elected as follows: 

Chairman—A, A. Breneman. 
Vice-chairman—H. C. Sherman. 
Secretary-Treasurer—C. M. Joyce. 

Executive Committee—G. C. Stone, C. H. 
Kiessig, V. Coblentz, D. Woodman. 
F. H. Povau, 


On May 23, 1906, the club held a special 
meeting in commemoration of the tenth anni- 
versary of the commencement of work in 
the development of the New York Botanical 

The meeting was held in the lecture hall of 
the museum building at the garden, with 
President Rusby presiding. 

After the election of new members the club 
listened to an illustrated lecture by its presi- 
dent on ‘ The History of Botany in New York 

Dr. Rusby presented a historical sketch of 
the development of botany in the city of New 
York, giving special attention to the history 
of local botanical gardens, of the botanical 
department of Columbia College and of the 
Torrey Botanical Club. The earliest local 
work related to the botanical gardens of Col- 
den, Michaux and Hosack, and to the publica- 
tion of local catalogues and floras. .The second 
period was that of text books, manuals and 
other educational works. Out of the associa- 
tions resulting from local work, the Torrey 
Botanical Club developed so gradually that it 
is impossible to fix the date of its actual be- 
ginning. Portraits of its early members were 
exhibited and brief biographical sketches pre- 


sented. Out of the activity of the club and 
of the botanical department of Columbia grew 
the demand for a great botanical garden, 
which was satisfied by the establishment of 
the present New York Botanical Garden. The 
contemporary botanical forces at work in the 
city were briefly described, and their most im- 
portant present needs outlined. The com- 
plete address will be published in Torreya for 
June and July, 1906. 

The lecture was followed by an informal 
reception in the library, and by an inspection 
of the library, laboratories, herbaria and the 
museum exhibits. C. Stuart GaGer, 



To begin with, and to end with, I have no 
opinions to offer, no theory to defend, no pur- 
pose to dispose of a broad and complicated 
problem with a few general sweeps of rhetoric. 
Without such credentials, I dare not appear 
in public under so weary and worn a topic. 
Intercollegiate athletics has had so much 
talking about it and one must be bold in- 
deed—usually too bold—who ventures more 
mere opinion. On whatever phase of educa- 
tion the organization of contemporary experi- 
ence can yield facts, it is an old and perni- 
cious habit to guide practise by mere opinion. 
On such subjects one man’s opinion is about 
as good as that of another, and neither is 
worth much. The quantity of opinion on the 
subject of football is to the quantity of fact 
in about the same relation as the forty thou- 
sand yelling spectators to the little pile of 
men on the gridiron. My present purpose is 
to contribute a body of facts to one single 
phase of the problem. 

Athletics are denounced in arguments as 
numerous and as varied as those recklessly 
put forth on the other side. On both sides 
of the question we hear some reason and much 
exaggeration, some fact and much opinion. 
Those who oppose football as played last fall 
in American schools and colleges hold that the 
game is injurious to healthful student life on 
account of the large number of injuries re- 


ceived in play and practise, on account of ex- 
treme publicity, absurd exaltation of the hero, 
large amounts of money spent, immoral tend- 
encies inherent in the game itself, profes- 
sionalism, and finally because of the harmful 
influences on scholarship. On the last of these 
alleged evils at least, facts are available. 

To aver that trustworthy conclusions on the 
relation of scholarship and athletics can be 
drawn only from hundreds of cases covering 
a number of years would seem a trite observa- 
tion, if one were not daily confronted with 
opinions based on absurdly insufficient data, 
and stoutly maintained. Mrs. A. is perfectly 
sure that all athletics should be abolished, 
because, forsooth, her boy played on a football 
team and failed to pass his examinations, 
Mr. B. regards such an opinion as absurd, 
because he knows of a whole team which failed 
not of promotion. Both are equally firm in 
their opinions and equally regardless of the 
fact that the whole question is a relative one, 
and that general truths can not be established 
by exceptional data. 

It seems, on the other hand, that conclu- 
sions concerning the effect of athletics on 
scholarship might be creditable if based on 
years of experience, scores of studies, hundreds 
of students and thousands of grades, recorded 
by a large number of teachers in several insti- 
tutions. Such conclusions I have gathered 
with great care, and I now offer them for 
what they are worth. 

At Bates College, Lewiston, Me., I exam- 
ined the records in all studies for the past five 
years of the 132 men who have played on the 
baseball and football teams. These records I 
compared with those of all the other male 
students, 620 in number, in all studies for the 
same period. The averages thus reached are 
drawn from 2,030 grades for athletes and 9,320 
grades for others. These grades were made 
up by twenty-five instructors. The table shows 
that in no year is the difference of rank more 
than eight per cent. or less than four per cent., 
and that the average difference is 5.6 per cent., 
always in favor of the men who have not taken 
part in intercollegiate games. 


[N.S. Vor. XXIV. No. 601. 


Athletes. Non-athletes. 
1900-1901 ......... 77 81 
1901-1902 ......... 75 80 
1902-1903 ......... 74 80 
1903-1904 ......... 73 79 
1904-1905 ......... 71 79 
BURR acacccceces 74 79.6 
No. of grades....... 2,030 9,320 
No. of men......... 132 620 

For Bowdoin College a similar table has 
just been compiled by students in education 
at that college, showing the ranks attained by 
all students in all courses for the past five 
years. The averages only are here given. 
The first table represents the ranks of all men 
who played regularly on the football and base- 
ball teams; the second table includes the ranks 
of all other students. The averages are se- 
cured from 18,750 individual ranks, represent- 
ing each year the scholarship records of 280 
men. The tables show that each year the 
rank of the baseball and football players was 
lower than that of the other students, the 
difference varying from one per cent. to five 
per cent. For the whole five years the average 
rank of all athletes in all studies was 77.57; 
that of all other students was 80.37. 


1899-1900 "00-'01 ‘O1-'02 °02-'03 '03-'04 Aver. 
Seniors 85.2 76.438 79.2 78.14 80. 79.79 
Juniors 75. 82.75 75.4 76. 79. 77.63 
Sophomores 78.67 79.14 77. 71.57 78.5 76.97 
Freshmen 75.3 84 77.5 69. 71.5 75.6 
Whole college 81.1 79.16 76.68 73.67 77.2 77.57 
Seniors 82.6 81.51 82.09 82.09 84.5 82.5 
Juniors 86. 80.07 79. 79.8 83. 81.51 
Sophomores 82. 79.47 78.20 78.74 79. 79.5 
Freshmen 79.7 81. 75.97 74.98 80.5 82.4 
Whole college 82.05 80.51 78.59 78.88 81.7 80.37 

All the varied secondary schools for which 
I have adequate returns show similar records. 
At Bridgton Academy, a rural school of the 
old type, the ranks for four years show that 
the athletes are one per cent. below the other 
students. At Thomaston, a typical high 
school for small cities, the athletes for four 
years fell three per cent. below the others. 

JuLty 6, 1906.] 

At Westbrook Seminary, a private city school, 
the athletes are slightly below the others. At 
Hebron Academy, the largest in Maine, the 
athletes, for a period of three years, fell five 
per cent. below the non-athletes. In all the 
secondary schools for which I have trust- 
worthy records, the athletes fall lower, but 
never more than five per cent. lower, than 
other students. 

These facts regarding the relative scholar- 
ship of athletes and non-athletes cover the 
records of about two thousand students in six 
institutions for five years. The facts were 
gathered by twenty men of varied opinions on 
the question, who were not endeavoring to 
make the figures prove any theory or support 
any opinion. So far as the facts go, they are 
authentic. They overthrow two thirds of the 
@ priort assumptions regarding the excessive 
injury of intercollegiate games to the scholar- 
ship of the men who play. 

WituiaM Trurant Foster. 



A pEscripTion of this cartilage in a recent 
article by Whipple (‘ The Ypsiloid Apparatus 
of Urodeles,’ Biol. Bull., May, 1906) differs 
radically from the description by Reese (‘ The 
Anatomy of Cryptobranchus, American Nat- 
uralist, April, 1906). According to Whipple 
the cartilage has the typical Y-shape common 
to urodeles, being bifurcated at the anterior 
end; according to Reese it is rod-shaped. 
Having an abundance of material at my dis- 
posal, I examined this apparatus in a number 
of specimens. In every case the cartilage is 
Y-shaped, but with a marked difference in the 
structure of the anterior and posterior regions: 
the posterior portion, forming the stem of the 
Y, consists of a stout rod of cartilage; the 
expanded V-shaped anterior portion is very 
thin. In a dry preparation this thin expanded 
anterior portion would probably shrivel up 
and might be easily detached and hence over- 
looked; the remaining portion would then 
answer the description given by Reese. It is 


evident that in its entirety this apparatus has 
the typical urodele form. 
B. G. Smiru. 



THE writer has received notice from a cor- 
respondent in Alabama of the finding, near 
Selma, in that state, of a heretofore unde- 
scribed meteorite. The mass is reported as 
weighing upwards of 300 pounds, and is of 
Brezina’s kugel chondrite type, much resem- 
bling the well-known stone from Tieschitz, in 
Moravia. It will be known as the Selma, 
Alabama, stone. A detailed description will 

be published later. 



THREE years ago, on January 3, 1903, 
it was my sad duty to read before this section 
of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, at its meeting in Washing- 
ton, a notice of the death of Mr. Heber R. 
Bishop, accompanied by a brief description of 
his remarkable collection of jade objects (see 
Amer. Anthropologist, N. S., Vol. 5, January- 
March, 1903, pp. 111-117). See also the 
Metropolitan Museum Bulletin for May, 1906.’ 

Since that.time this magnificent collection, 
which was presented by Mr. Bishop during his 
lifetime to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
in New York, has been arranged and installed. 
He made a large donation for this purpose, 
and had had prepared and fitted up for its 
suitable exhibition the northeast room on the 
second floor of the new wing of the museum 

*Read before the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, New Orleans meeting, 
December 31, 1905. 

*See the printed catalogue of the Heber R. 
Bishop Collection of Jade. By George F. Kunz. 
Occasional Notes No. 2, Bull. Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art, May, 1906, pp. 1-8. 8vo. Three 


building, to be known as Bishop Hall. ' This 
room he had arranged and decorated by the 
noted firm of Allard Fréres, of Paris, to make 
it the finest example on this continent of the 
style of Louis XV. The collection is here 
placed in some fifteen elegant cases, of gilt 
bronze and plate glass, all in Louis XV. style, 
which with the decorations of the room, illus- 
trate a permanence and richness of material 
never excelled in the time of the artistic 
French monarch himself. 

In my notice before mentioned, reference 
was made to the remarkable volume describing 
this collection, and to the studies and re- 
searches in connection with it provided for 
and sustained by Mr. Bishop. It is a pleasure 
to me to be able to state that at the present 
time the entire edition of this unique work, 
limited to one hundred copies, is not only 
printed but bound. The two copies required 
by law, in order to secure the copyright, are 
already placed in the National Library; and 
by January 2 the whole edition of this sump- 
tuous publication, so valuable from both a 
scientific and an artistic standpoint, will be 
distributed, or at least on its way, to the 
crowned heads and the important public insti- 
tutions that are to receive copies by the terms 
of Mr. Bishop’s will. In no case will the 
book go to any private individual, and in no 
case will it be sold. 

The two volumes (stately folios)* are print- 
ed on the finest quality of linen paper, and 
weigh respectively 69 and 55 pounds, or 124 
pounds together. They contain 570 pages 
(Vol. L., 277 pp.; Vol. IL., 293 pp.), measuring 
19-15/16 by 26-1/4 inches. There are 150 
full-page illustrations, in the highest style 
of execution—water-color, etching and litho- 
graph, and nearly 300 pen-and-ink sketches 
in the text. In cost, this great work is double 
that of the monumental folio of Audubon’s 
‘Birds of America,’ amounting to about 
$2,000 a copy, and stands alone as perhaps the 
greatest volume ever issued, and certainly the 
greatest catalogue of a collection in any 

** Catalog and Investigations in Jade,’ pub- 
lished by Heber R. Bishop (folio), New York, 

[N.S. Von. XXIV. No. 601. 

branch of science or art. The total expense 
of 100 copies being $185,000. 

The preparation of this great work was 
made possible by the princely liberality of 
Mr. Bishop, who had planned it fully since 
about 1886. To carry out these plans to their 
completion in the final distribution now to be 
made, has taken, therefore, just about twenty 
years. No expense nor care was spared in the 
execution; some thirty scientific men and art 
specialists, both in Europe and America, were 
engaged to contribute their views upon vari- 
ous aspects of the whole subject; and the 
illustrations were prepared in. the finest pos- 
sible manner, Chinese and Japanese artists 
being employed to execute many of them, and 
color experts being freely consulted, with the 
supervision of Mr. Bishop himself. 

The catalogue has, moreover, a special value 
from the fact that all the scientific investiga- 
tions described therein were made upon ma- 
terial taken from specimens in the collection 
itself. These studies were in charge of the 
writer, assisted by a number of scientific 
specialists of the highest standing, and deal 
with all the physical properties of the dif- 
ferent varieties of jade. 

A full list of collaborators is as follows: 

Dr. George Frederick Kunz, in charge of the 
mineralogical and archeological articles and de- 

Dr. Stephen W. Bushell, G.M.G. (Chinese arti- 

Dr. Robert Lilley (editor). 

Tadamasa Hayashi (Chinese and Japanese). 

Dr. William Hallock, professor of physics in 
Columbia University, New York. 

Dr. S. L. Penfield, M.A., professor of mineral- 
ogy, Yale University. 

Dr. Henry W. Foote, Sheffield Scientific School 
at Yale University. 

Dr. Joseph P. Iddings, professor of petrology at 
University of Chicago. 

Professor F. W. Clarke, chief chemist, U. S. 
Geological Survey. 

Mr. Ira Harvey Woolson, adjunct professor of 
engineering at Columbia University. 

Mr. Logan Waller Page, expert in charge of 
physical tests, Division of Chemistry, Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

JuLy 6, 1906.] 

Dr. Charles Palache, professor of petrography, 
Harvard University. 

Mr. Louis V. Pirsson, professor of petrography, 
Yale University. 

Dr. Henry S. Washington, petrographer. 

Professor L. von Jaczewski, professor of min- 
eralogy and geology at the University of Ekater- 
inoslav, St. Petersburg. 

Herrn Geheimrath Dr. A. B. Meyer, director 
Kénigliches Zoologisches und Anthropologisch- 
Ethnographisches Museum, Dresden. 

Herrn Dr. Max Bauer, director Mineralogisches 
Institut der Kdénigliches Universitit, Marburg 

Mr. Robinson, artist. 

Dr. Thomas Wilson, late curator, Division of 
Prehistoric Archeology, Smithsonian Institution, 
_U. 8. National Museum, Washington. 

Dr. Joseph Edkins, of Shanghai. 

Professor A. Damour, of Paris. 

Dr. Ludwig Leiner, curator of Rosegarten Mu- 
seum, Constance. 

Mrs. Zella Nuttall, Peabody Museum, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Miss Eliza Scidmore. 

Dr. F. Berwerth, Mineralogisches Abtheilung, 
Hof Museum, Vienna. 

Professor Ernst Weinschenk, professor of 
petrography at the Mineralogisches Institut, 

The Field Columbian Museum, Chicago. 
The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 
The Museum of Natural History, New York. 

The following French etchers were repre- 
sented: Sulpis, Guerard, Richard, Piquet, 
Le Rat, Coutry and a number of plates by 
Smillie of the United States. 

The lithographs are by Prang & Co., and 
Forbes & Co., of Boston. 

Name of maker of paper, the finest hand- 
made linen paper, especially made by the L. L. 
Brown Paper Co., Adams, Mass. 

Name of printer, Theo. L. De Vinne & Co., 
Lafayette Place, New York. It is the most 
important work that has ever come from the 
De Vinne press. 

Name of binders, Stikeman & Co., New 
York. Bound in full Levant with exquisite 
tooling. No hundred volumes have ever re- 
ceived such stately bindings of green Levant 
as was produced by Stikeman & Co. 


The tools for the decorations by George W. 
De Lacey. 

A series (twelve full-page) of water-color 
sketches of all the processes of working jade 
in every possible manner was made in China 
by Chinese artists. 

The original lithographic color plates were 
laid out on the lines of ‘Gems and Precious 
Stones of North America.’ 

Among great illustrated books there are, 
Audubon’s folio of birds, Svenegrodzkoi, 
‘Byzantine Animals,’ published in Russia, 
Gould’s ‘ Birds of Many Lands,’ the great il- 
lustrated catalogue of Chinese porcelain of 
the Walters collection, issued by Mr. Henry 
Walters, the treasures of Tzarkoe Zelo, by the 
Russian governor, catalogue of the J. P. 
Morgan collection of Oriental porcelains. 
Magnificent as these all are, each in its own 
way, none of them possesses the great variety 
of artistic illustrations as does the great Heber 
R. Bishop catalogue. 

This whole work, from its inception by Mr. 
Bishop in 1886 to the final distribution of the 
volumes, has required about twenty years. 
It is a cause for much satisfaction that the 
enterprise has been so fully and successfully 
completed, along the lines which he laid down; 
but it is also a source of profound regret that 
he could not himself have lived to witness its 
final place. 

This whole cost has been met by the lib- 
erality of Mr. Bishop’s provision, carried out 
by the care and thoughtfulness of his three 
executors, Messrs. Moses Taylor, Frank C. 
Bishop and Alexander James Patterson. 

I must here express my thanks and appre- 
ciation to Mr. Alexander James Patterson, who 
has been untiring in his zeal and carefulness 
throughout the entire carrying out of Mr. 
Bishop’s wishes, both written and unwritten, 
and to whose courtesy I am indebted for many 
of these facts, furnished me for the prepara- 
tion of this article. 

Georce Freperick Kunz. 


THE measure of doubt which has all along 
attached to the character and constitution of 



the rock-mass which built up the great Pelean 
monolith may probably now be considered re- 
moved. <A period of many months’ quietude 
into which the voleano has entered has also 
permitted of a closer approach to its center 
theater of activity than has hitherto been pos- 
sible, and given access to parts the study of 
which can now be made directly rather than 
inferentially. The Pelée obelisk exists to-day 
only in its basal wreck, the jagged crest which 
still protrudes in a partially severed connec- 
tion from the summit of the supporting dome, 
and in a wilderness of débris, composed of 
small and giant fragments, which covers much 
of the surface of the dome and fills in a con- 
siderable part of the cireumvallating hollow 
(rainure) that separates the dome from the 
bounding wall of the ancient crater-basin. 
On the twenty-seventh of February of this 
year, following an unusually easy ascent of 
the voleano, I succeeded in gaining the floor 
of the old crater by climbing over the sharp 
aréte of the northeast wall, and was soon 
among the boulder-masses of the destroyed 
obelisk. Fragments from two to three feet 
in diameter to others measuring ten, twenty 
or thirty feet, were everywhere, and they all 
showed practically the same _ construction. 
The rock is a compact, light-gray, and vir- 
tually holocrystalline hypersthene-andesite, 
devoid of vesicles or of any vesicular or ob- 
sidian-like structure, and having a fine-grained 
base. So far as an absolute reference is made 
possible, it seems to belong to Lacroix’s type 
IV. (quartzitic andesites) of the ejected ma- 
terial from the voleano.’ Of course, it can 
be that in parts of the débris that are now 
covered up and no longer accessible fragments 
might occur that are more or less vesicular 
or secoriaceous in character, but in the very 
large number of blocks that were examined 
by me and my associate none having this char- 
acter was detected. 

Climbing over the boulders, somewhat in 
the form of stepping-stones, we gained a con- 

Professor L. V. Pirsson, of the Sheffield Scien- 
tifie School, has kindly looked over some of the 
material for me. A more detailed study of the 
rock will be made at a future day. 

[N.S. Vor. XXIV. No. 601. 

siderable height on the dome itself, passing a 
number of fumarolic vents from which the 
disengagement of vapor was still fairly active. 
Clumps of diminutive fern are now beginning 
to grow about these. The partially free flows 
of lava which enter as ribbed-structures into 
the mass of the dome appear likewise as 
compact andesite. I may remark here that 
the sound of the falling masses which has 
been likened to that produced by the breaking 
of glass and porcelain, and from which a 
possible vesicular structure was inferred, is 
that given out by the compact andesite. 

As regards the origin and method of forma- 
tion of the extruded andesite monolith, while 
recognizing that the criteria for distinguish- 
ing between a newly-made rock and one of 
ancient date are not necessarily apparent or 
of a nature to yield positive evidence, I have 
no reason to change the view that I have else- 
where expressed’ that it represented an ancient 
plug or core that had been lifted up in the 
manner of the giant granite mass (and 
domite?) of the Puy Chopine, of the Auvergne. 

For the benefit of vulcanologists and seis- 
mologists who are preparing catalogues of 
eruptions and general volcanic disturbances it 
may be proper to add that, despite reports to 
the contrary, Pelée had not been in activity in 
the early part of this year, and it took no part, 
so far as outward appearances were concerned, 
in the events which were associated with the 
earthquakes in St. Lucia and Martinique on 
February 16. The dome in its upper parts is 
still quietly disengaging vapor. 



On May 27 the third meeting of the Com- 
mission for Brain Investigation was held at 
Vienna. This commission is one of several 
established by the International Association 
of Academies and has for its purpose the 
advancement of neurological research, espe- 
cially by the establishment of central insti- 
tutes in the various countries, as well as by 

2In Scrence and in my ‘ Tower of Pelée.’ 

Jury 6, 1906.] 

the coordination of investigations in the field 
of neurology. 

The first session was held in the Imperial 
Academy of Sciences. Professor Waldeyer 
presided and there were present: 

Donaldson (Philadelphia), Ehlers (Géttingen), 
Flechsig (Leipsic), Langley (Cambridge),  v. 
Monakow (Ziirich), Munk (Berlin), Obersteiner 
(Vienna), Retzius (Stockholm). 

The members of the commission unable to 
attend were: 

Bechteren (St. Petersburg), Edinger (Frank- 
furt-am-Main), van Gehuchten (Louvain), Golgi 
(Pavia), Mall (Baltimore), Minot (Boston), 
Ramon y Cajal (Madrid), Raymond (Paris), 
Sherrington (Liverpool). 

The first session was devoted to the further 
organization of the commission and to the 
presentation of reports on the scientific and 
financial resources of the several institutes 
and laboratories there represented. Steps were 
taken also to facilitate intercommunication 
between the various institutes. 

May 28 the second session was held in the 
Neurological Laboratory directed by Professor 
Obersteiner. The commission was enlarged 
by making the number of members from each 
country more nearly representative of the ex- 
tent of the neurological work. 

At the suggestion of Professor Langley a 
committee on the revision of some points in 
the neurological nomenclature was formed, 
with Professor Waldeyer as chairman. . 

It was decided to make English, French, 
German or Italian the official language of the 
commission—according to the place of meet- 

The commission then adjourned to meet 
three years hence at the call of the academy 
in charge. 


Tuurspay, June 14, at the Hotel West- 
minster, Boston, a dinner was given to Pro- 
fessor W. T. Sedgwick, by his former students 
in the biological department of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, of which he 
has been the head since 1883. The occasion 


was the twenty-fifth anniversary of the receipt 
of his doctor’s degree from Johns Hopkins 

Sixty former students of Professor Sedg- 
wick’s at the institute were present, in- 
cluding, among others, Professor FE. O. 
Jordan and Professor A. P. Mathews, of 
the University of Chicago; Professor Sev- 
erance Burrage, of Purdue University; 
Professor G. N. Calkins, of Columbia Uni- 
versity, and Messrs. G. W. Fuller, G. C. 
Whipple and Allen Hazen, of New York; 
M. O. Leighton, of the United States Geolog- 
ical Survey; Dr. E. C. Levy, city bacteriolo- 
gist of Richmond, Va.; F. F. Longley, su- 
perintendent of the Washington filter plant; 
W. S. Johnson, of the Massachusetts State 
Board of Health; B. R. Rickards, city bac- 
teriologist of ssoston; Dr. Augustus Wads- 
worth, of the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, New York; Dr. F. S. Hollis, of the 
Yale Medical School; E. E. Lochridge, engi- 
neer of the Springfield water department; 
Dr. F. W. White, of Boston; Dr. J. A. Rock- 
well, Jr., of Cambridge; Edward G. Gardiner 
and Robert S. Weston, of Boston; Dr. Robert 
P. Bigelow; Professor Theodore Hough, of 
Simmons College; Professor B. E. Stone, of 
Amherst; S. D. Gage, of the Lawrence Ex- 
periment Station, and Professor S. C. Pres- 
cott, Professor C.-E. A. Winslow and Earle 
B. Phelps of the institute. 

There were also present as guests, former 
President D. C. Gilman, of Johns Hopkins 
University; Professor S. F. Clarke, of 
Williams College; President Henry Lefavour, 
of Simmons College; Dr. L. P. Kinnicutt, of 
the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and Dr. 
Francis H. Williams, of the corporation of 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Dr. Calkins acted as toastmaster. President 
Gilman, who conferred Professor Sedgwick’s 
doctor’s degree in 1881, and Professor Clarke, 
who was a student with him, spoke of the 
early days of Johns Hopkins University, to 
which the biological department of the Insti- 
tute, through Professor Sedgwick, owes its 
inspiration. Mr. G. W. Fuller, Professor E. 
O. Jordan, Professor A. P. Mathews, Mrs. 


Stanley McCormick and Professor C.-E. A. 
Winslow made brief addresses expressing the 
regard and affection of the former students 
of the department for its head. 

The evening closed with a speech-by Pro- 
fessor Sedgwick himself in which he expressed 
his appreciation of the occasion, and spoke of 
his connection with the great university at 
Baltimore and the great technical school in 
Boston, and of the duty which now rests upon 
the biological department of the institute, to 
train men for the conduct of the sanitary 
reforms which are spreading so rapidly all 
over the union. 

The chief event of the oceasion was the 
presentation of a volume of biological studies, 
‘ dedicated by his pupils to William Thompson 
Sedgwick, to express their regard and admira- 
tion for him as a friend, teacher, investigator 
and public-spirited citizen, and also to affirm 
their loyalty to the ideals for which he has 
always stood.’ The volume, which has been 
prepared in secret and was a complete surprise 
to its recipient, has been published at the 
University of Chicago press under the editor- 
ship of Professor E. O. Jordan. It contains 
nineteen original contributions to biology and 
sanitary science, the authors and titles being 
as follows: 

GARY N. CALKINS: ‘ Paramecium aurelia and 
Paramecium caudatum.’ 

Harrison G. Dyar: ‘The Life-History of a 
Cochlidian Moth, Adoneta bicaudata Dyar.’ 

GrorGe W. FULLER: ‘ Experimental Methods as 
Applied to Water- and Sewage-Works for large 

MARSHALL O. LetauTon: ‘The Futility of a 
Sanitary Water Analysis as a Test of Potability.’ 

GeorGE C. WutppLe: ‘The Value of a Pure 

A. P. Matuews: ‘A Contribution to the Gen- 
eral Principles of the Pharmacodynamics of Salts 
and Drugs.’ 

Percy G. Stites and Cart 8. MILLIKEN: ‘ An 
Instance of the Apparent Antitoxie Action of 

EpwIn O,. JORDAN: 
terial Enzymes.’ 

C.-E. A. Wrinstow and ANNE F. Rogers: ‘A 
Statistical Study of Generic Characters in the 

‘Experiments with Bac- 

[N.S. Vor. XXIV. No. 601. 

SamMvueL C. Prescott: ‘The Occurrence of Or- 
ganisms of Sanitary Significance on Grains.’ 

STEPHEN DeM. Gace: ‘ A Study of the Numbers 
of Bacteria Developing at Different Temperatures 
and of the Ratios between Such Numbers with 
Reference to Their Significance in the Interpre- 
tation of Water Analysis.’ 

C.-E. A. Winstow and E. E. Locurince: ‘ The 
Toxie Effect of Certain Acids upon Typhoid and 
Colon Bacilli in Relation to the Degree of Their 

Earte B. Puetrs: ‘The Inhibiting Effect of 
Certain Organic Substances upon the Germicidal 
Action of Copper Sulphate.’ 

Danie D. Jackson: ‘A New Solution for the 
Presumptive Test for Bacillus Coli.’ 

Henry S. Ayers: ‘ B. Coli in Market Oysters.’ 

Aveustus WapswortH: ‘Studies on Simple 
and Differential Methods of Staining Encapsu- 
lated Pneumococci in Smear and Section.’ 

Artuur I. Kenpati: ‘An Apparatus for Test- 
ing the Value of Fumigating Agents.’ 

TueoporeE Hoven and Ciara E. Ham: ‘The 
Effect of Subcutaneous Injections of Water, Ring- 
ers Fluid, and Ten Per Cent. Solution of Ethyl 
Alcohol upon the Course of Fatigue in the Ex- 
cised Muscles of the Frog.’ 

Burt R. Ricxarps: ‘ Notes on a Case of Ap- 
parent Pulmonary Tuberculosis Associated with 
the Constant Presence of Diphtheria-Like Organ- 
isms in the Sputum.’ 


Yate University has conferred the degree 
of doctor of science on Professor Henry H. 
Donaldson, head of the department of neurol- 
ogy of the Wistar Institute of Anatomy, of 
the University of Pennsylvania, and on Dr. 
Francis Bacon, professor of surgery in the 
Yale Medical School; and the degree of doe- 
tor of laws on Dr. William W. Keen, pro- 
fessor of surgery at Jefferson Medical College, 

AmuHerstT CoLLeGe conferred its doctorate 
of science on Dr. James Furman Kemp, pro- 
fessor of geology at Columbia University, and 
its doctorate of laws on Dr. Walter F. Will- 
cox, professor of political economy and sta- 
tistics at Cornell University. 

WesLeyan University has conferred the de- 
gree of doctor of science on Dr. Ch. Wardell 
Stiles, of the Public Health and Marine Hos- 

JuLy 6, 1906.] 

pital Service; on Edward Dennett Rowe, of 
the National Bureau of Standards, and on 
Dr. A. C. True, of the Office of Experiment 
Stations, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Harvarp University has conferred its doc- 
torate of laws on Professor G. H. Palmer, 
professor of ethics at the university. 

At the recent commencement of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan the honorary degree of 
doctor of science was conferred upon Professor 
William A. Locy, of Northwestern University. 

Proressor Ernest RUTHERFORD has received 
the degree of doctor of laws from the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin. 

DartmMoutH CoLLece has conferred the de- 
gree of doctor of science on Dr. Warren 
Upham, librarian of the Minnesota Historical 

Mr. F. C. S. Scuitter, tutor at Corpus 
Christi College, has received the degree of 
D.Se. from Oxford University. 

THE University of Dublin will confer the 
honorary degree of Se.D. on Colonel David 
Bruce, C.B., professor of tropical medicine at 
the Army Medical College; Professor J. H. 
Poincaré, professor of mathematics and as- 
tronomy at the Sorbonne; Mr. E. T. Whit- 
taker, F.R.S., fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, astronomer royal of Ireland; and Dr. 
A. E. Wright, F.R.S., pathologist and bac- 
teriologist at St. Mary’s Hospital, London. 

Tue University of Manchester will confer 
the degree of D.Sc. on Dr. Emil Fischer, pro- 
fessor of organic chemistry in the University 
of Berlin, and on Dr. Adolf von Baeyer, pro- 
fessor of organic chemistry in the University 
of Munich. 

Proressor Simon NeEwcoms has been elected 
a member of the board of overseers of Har- 
vard College. 

Dr. Wm. McMurtrir, vice-president of the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science in 1895 and president of the American 
Chemical Society in 1900, has been elected a 
trustee of Lafayette College. 

DurRING commencement week at Harvard 
University, the research students of Professor 
E. H. Hall presented him with a silver loving 


cup. The occasion was the completion of 
twenty-five years of service in the department 
of physics of the university. The cup bore 
the following inscription: 

6e To 
Edwin Herbert Hall 
From his research students 
In testimony 
of their esteem and gratitude; 
In appreciation 
of his work in the field of discovery; 

his quarter-century of service 

in behalf of Harvard University. 

His life an. inspiration.” 

Dr. Georce MackLoskiz, from 1875 pro- 
fessor of biology at Princeton University, has 
been appointed professor emeritus. 

THE prize of the Peter Wilhelm Miiller 
foundation at Frankfort, consisting of a gold 
medal and 9,000 Marks, and awarded for the 
most important contributions to science, has 
been given to Dr. Ludwig Boltzmann, pro- 
fessor of theoretical physics at Vienna. 

Dr. StuTzer, assistant in the geological in- 
stitute of the Freiburg (Saxony) Mining 
School, has been awarded a grant of 2,000 
Marks by the committee of the Carnegie fund, 
to enable him to continue his investigations 
on iron deposits in Lapland. 

Proressor F. B. Crocker, of Columbia 
University, has sailed for England. He will 
attend the meeting of the Institution of Elec- 
trical Engineers of Great Britain. 

Dr. ALEXANDER HILL, master of Downing 
College, Cambridge, has gone to West Aus- 
tralia to give university extension courses and 
to awaken interest in the establishment of a 
university in the colony. 

Proressor A. Beret has been made acting 
director of the Leipzig Museum of Ethnology, 
in the room of the late Professor Obst. 

Dr. Francesco Porro, professor at the Uni- 
versity of Genoa, has been appointed director 
of the National Observatory at La Plata. 

At the Institute for the Experimental In- 
vestigation of Cancer at Heidelberg, Freiherr 
von Dungern, M.D., has been appointed head 
of the scientific department, and Privatdocent 


von Wasielewski, head of the department of 
parasitological research. 

Proressor Epwarp C. Pickrertine, director 
of the Harvard College Observatory, was se- 
lected to deliver the Phi Beta Kappa oration 
at Harvard University on June 28. 

AccorDING to the London Times an opinion 
has been widely expressed, both in Oxford and 
elsewhere, that the services rendered to arche- 
ology by Dr. Arthur John Evans should be 
commemorated by a portrait to be deposited 
in the Ashmolean Museum, of which he has 
for nearly a quarter of a century been keeper. 
The discoveries at Knossos are alone more 
than sufficient to justify this step; but Dr. 
Evans’s achievements as a numismatist, his- 
torian and traveler have also earned for him 
the admiration of scholars. It is felt, more- 
over, that no more appropriate place for a 
memorial of him could be selected than the in- 
stitution which has been raised, in the period 
during which he has presided over it, and 
mainly as the result of his energy, generosity 
and tact, to a place in the front rank amongst 
European museums. A committee, of which 
Dr. G. A. Macmillan (St. Martin’s Street, 
London, W. C.) is the honorary treasurer, has 
been formed to promote the object in view. 
The portrait will be painted by Sir W. B. 
Richmond, and a_ reproduction in _ photo- 
gravure will be sent to every subscriber. 

WE regret to record the death of Lieutenant 
Forbes Tulloch, R.A.M.C., which occurred in 
the Queen Alexandra Military Hospital, Mill- 
bank, on June 20. Lieutenant Tulloch con- 
tracted sleeping sickness in Uganda, where he 
had been sent under the auspices of the 
Colonial Office as a member of a commission 
appointed to investigate the causes of the dis- 
ease and the means of prevention. 

Tue death, at the age of seventy-nine years, 
is announced of Sir George Thomas Brown, 
C.B., who was for many years chief of the 
Veterinary Department of the Privy Council 
and afterwards of the Board of Agriculture. 

Nature reports the death of M. Edouard 
Piette, the distinguished archeologist, in his 
eightieth year. M. Piette was well known for 
his discoveries of prehistoric remains, among 

[N.S. Vou. XXIV. No. 601. 

which may be mentioned those in the caverns 
of Mas d’Azil (Ariége) and of Brassempouy 
(Landes). Before his death M. Piette pre- 
sented his invaluable collections to the Mu- 
seum of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. 

THE senate committee on foreign relations 
has authorized Senator Bacon to report favor- 
ably the protocol providing for the establish- 
ment of an international institute of agricul- 
ture at Rome, Italy. There are about forty 
governments party to the arrangement. Stud- 
ies will be made of all kinds of plant life and 
means of extermination of insects and other 
pests. The institute will receive the reports 
of the agricultural bureaus and societies of all 
countries. The Italian government will sup- 
ply the buildings and the cost to other gov- 
ernments will be about $5,000 a year each. 

THE annual general meeting of the Royal 
Statistical Society was held on June 19 under 
the presidency of Major Craigie, C.B. Sir 
Richard Martin was elected president of the 
society for the ensuing session. The society’s 
Guy medal in silver was awarded to Dr. W. 
N. Shaw, F.R.S., for his paper, entitled ‘ The 
Seasons in the British Isles since 1878,’ read 
before the society in March, 1905. The sub- 
ject of the essays for the Howard medal com- 
petition, 1906-7, was announced to be ‘ The 
Reformative Effect in Criminality of Recent 
Prison Administration.’ This competition is 
open to the public. Professor Edgeworth 
afterwards read a paper on ‘ The Generalized 
Law of Error.’ 

WE learn from Nature that at the seventy- 
eighth meeting of the Association of German 
Men of Science and Physicians, which will be 
held this year on September 16-22 in Stutt- 
gart, there will be an exhibition of scientific 
and medical appliances and subjects as in 
previous years. The Kénig Karls Hall of the 
Kéniglicher Landesgewerbemuseum has been 
set apart for the purpose. All announcements 
and communications may be addressed to the 
president of the exhibition committee, Dr. 
Lampert, Archivstrasse 3, Stuttgart, from 
whom further particulars may be obtained. 

A CORRESPONDENT of the London Times 
writes from Si-ning, in the province of Kan- 

Juty 6, 1906.] 

su, under date of April 6: “Dr. Albert Tafel, 
the eminent German geologist and explorer, 
who has traveled in many parts of Asia, and 
who took part in the expedition to Tibet in 
1904 with Lieutenant Filchreer, when they 
barely escaped with their lives, has again just 
left this border city for the Tsaidam and 
Tibet. In January last he visited the Koko 
Nor in order to ascertain the depths of the 
lake at different places. His camp was at- 
tacked one evening by Tibetan robbers, and a 
hand-to-hand fight ensued. In trying to 
rescue one of his men Dr. Tafel received a 
sword wound in the forehead, and the attack 
was not repulsed without some difficulty. In 
Shan-si Dr. Tafel found some very interesting 
and rare fossils, and he has also secured some 
good photographs of a large waterfall on the 
Yellow River in the north of that province.” 

Nature states that the Society of German 
Engineers, which with its 20,000 members is 
now the largest technical society in the world, 
celebrated on June 11-14 the completion of 
the fiftieth year of its existence. The opening 
ceremony was held in the Reichstag building 
in Berlin, under the presidency of Dr. A. 
Slaby. Congratulatory addresses were deliv- 
ered by the Prussian Home Secretary, the 
Prussian Minister of Education, the Ober- 
biirgermeister of Berlin and the rector of the 
Berlin Technical School, as well as by nu- 
merous representatives of kindred societies in 
Germany and other countries, Mr. Bennet 
Brough (Iron and Steel Institute) speaking 
for the British societies and Professor K. E. 
Hilgard (American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers) for the American. The proceedings 
terminated with a lecture by Dr. W. von 
Oechelhauser on technical work past and pres- 
ent, in which he compared the engineering 
works of the ancients with those of modern 
times, and endeavored to forecast what the 
future of engineering would be. On June 12 
a lecture was given by Dr. A. Riedler, on the 
development and present importance of the 
steam turbine; and on June 13 papers were 
read by Professor Muthmann, on methods of 
dealing with atmospheric nitrogen; and by 
Dr. Hoffmann, on the utilization of power in 
mines and metallurgical works. Throughout 


the week an elaborate program of visits, ex- 
cursions and social functions was arranged 
for the 1,231 members and 464 ladies who took 
part in the meeting. The German Emperor 
honored the society by accepting the Grashof 
gold miedal, and by conferring decorations on 
the president and other prominent members. 
An interesting history of the society is given 
in Engineering of June 8. The growth of the 
society has certainly been remarkable. It was 
founded in 1856 at Alexisbad, in the Hartz, 
by twenty-three young engineers. Friedrich 
Euler was elected the first president, and 
Franz Grashof the first secretary and editor, 
the work of the society being carried on in the 
secretary’s private study. The society now has 
a stately house of its own and a staff of forty- 
seven officials. Its weekly journal last year 
cost £26,162 for publishing and £6,425 for 


At the recent alumni meeting at Harvard 
University, it was stated that during the year 
graduates had contributed $1,801,539.89 to the 
productive funds of the university, and that 
$88,116.09 had been received for immediate 
use, making a total of $1,889,655.98. This 
sum does not include the more than $113,000 
that the class of ’81 has given to the univer- 
sity to be used as the corporation sees fit. It 
was also announced that through an anony- 
mous gift of $60,000 from a graduate and the 
cooperation of the city of Boston, a boulevard 
100 feet wide with a forty-foot drive and broad 
park space and walks, will be laid out from the 
Fenway to Longwood Avenue as an approach 
to the new Harvard Medical School buildings. 

Ir was announced by President Hadley at 
the Yale Alumni dinner that the total of the 
alumni fund for the year amounted to $129,237 
as compared with the $53,500 announced a 
year ago. 

A Funp of $150,000, of which Mr. Carnegie 
contributed $75,000, has been raised at Am- 
herst College and will be used to provide for 
the work in geology and biology. It is planned 
to spend $100,000 on a building and to use the 
balance of the money as an endowment fund. 

32 - SCIENCE. 

Ar the Radeliffe College commencement 
President Briggs announced that the requisite 
sun of $75,000 to secure Mr. Andrew Car- 
negie’s gift for a college library had been 

Mrs. Loutsa N, Butuarp has given Harvard 
University Medical School $52,000 to establish 
a chair of neuropathology. 

We learn from the Journal of the American 
Medical Association that the University of 
California has transferred from San Fran- 
cisco to Berkeley all instruction in the first 
two years of the college of medicine. Stu- 
dents desiring admission to the medical de- 
partment of the university must have com- 
pleted certain studies in physics, chemistry, 
zoology, German and French, which ordinarily 
require two years of residence at a university 
or college of good standing. The first two 
years of the strictly professional work is de- 
voted to anatomy, physiology and pathology. 
As heretofore, the work of the last two years 
of the medical course will be carried on in 
San Francisco. 

ForEIGN papers state that the council of the 
University of Paris has definitely approved of 
the scheme for the extension of the university. 
This will include the construction of an insti- 
tute of chemistry covering an area of 9,000 
square meters. Here will be established the 
various departments of chemistry belonging 
to the faculty of science and the department 
of applied chemistry which, since its creation, 
been provisionally installed in some 
sheds. The cost of this will be 3,000,000 
frances, which will be divided between the city 
of Paris and the state. The extension scheme 
also includes the acquisition by the university, 
in view of future necessities, of a plot of land 
of 14,000 square meters. Towards the cost of 
this land the university will pay 1,900,000 
francs and the city 700,000 francs, to which 
will be added the donation from the Prince 
of Monaco. On a portion of this area will be 
erected the Institute of Oceanography, founded 
by the Prince of Monaco. 

Ar the meeting of the University Court of 
Edinburgh on June 17 an addition was made 
to the teaching staff of the university by the 


[N.S. Von. XXIV. No. 601. 

establishment of an independent lectureship 
in general and experimental psychology in 
connection with the philosophical department. 
The funds for the lecturer’s salary are mainly 
supplied by the Combe trustees, who have also 
contributed £300 towards the equipment of a 
laboratory. In consideration of this generous 
assistance the court resolved that the lecture- 
ship should be called the George Combe lec- 
tureship. George Combe, known as the au- 
thor of ‘The Constitution of Man,’ was the 
chief representative of phrenology in Great 
Britain in the first half of last century. He 
left funds, which have considerably increased 
since his death, for promoting the knowledge 
of man’s mental and organic constitution in 
relation to the external universe and its laws, 
and for diffusing that knowledge as widely as 
possible. Besides experimental teaching and 
research, it ‘is expected that the lectureship 
will be largely utilized in connection with the 
training of teachers. An appointment will be 
made in time for work to begin next session. 

Dr. G. H. Parker has been promoted to a 
full professorship of zoology at Harvard Uni- 

Proressor Epwarp Octavius Sisson, Ph.D., 
who has recently been elected head of the de- 
partment of education in the University of 
Washington, is a native of England. He re- 
ceived his education in schools of this country. 
In 1886 he received the degree of bachelor of 
science in the Kansas Agricultural College. 
From 1886-91 he was teacher and principal in 
publie schools. 

Dr. VatpemMarR Kocu has been appointed to 
the chair of physiological chemistry in the 
University of Chicago. 

At Bowdoin College, Dr. Walter T. Tobie, 
of Portland, has been elected professor of 
anatomy and Dr. Thomas J, Burrage, also of 
Portland, assistant demonstrator of sistology. 

Dr. Georce A. Fatkiner Nutratu, F.R.S., 
has been appointed reader in hygiene for five 
years in Cambridge University. 

Proressor Hans Cuarrl, of Prague, has been 
appointed professor of pathology in the Uni- 
versity of Strasburg as successor to Professor 
von Recklinghausen.