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Fray, Fesruary 21, 1913 



The American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science:— 
The Study of Man: Proressor T. 

The Geological Society of America:— 
Pleistocene Geology of New York State: 
Proressok HERMAN LERoy ... 290 

The Division of Educational Inquiry under 
the Carnegie Foundation .........eeeeee: 299 

The Milwaukee Meeting of the American 

Chemical Society . 299 
Scientific Notes and News ......eseeeeeees 300 
University and Educational News ......... 302 

Discussion and Correspondence :— 

A Plan for the Encouragement of Medical 
Research: Dr. R. G. Hoskins. Grana de 
Brasile: W. H. Bascock. Concerning Gov- 
ernment Application Blanks: PROFESSOR 
JAMES S, STEVENS ......... 303 

Scientific Books :— 
Greil’s Richtlinien des Entwicklungs- und 
Vererbungsproblems: J. P. McM. Wright 
on the Origin and Antiquity of Man: Pro- 

Special Articles :— 
New and Extinct Birds and Other Species 
from the Pleistocene of Oregon: Dr. R. 

The Entomological Society of America: Pro- 

Societies and Academies :— 

The Botanical Society of Washington: Dr. 
C. L. SHEar, The Torrey Botanical Club: 

MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for 

review should be sent to Professor J. McKeen Cattell, Garrison- 
0n-Hudson, N. 


IN that most amusing and instructive 
dialogue, entitled ‘‘ Thextetus,’’ the author 
Plato makes Socrates enter into a discus- 
sion with the youth by offering help as a 
skillful midwife to deliver him of a true 
and logical answer to the puzzling ques- 
tion: What is knowledge? When the 
youth replies, 

According to my present notion, he who knows 

perceives what he knows, and therefore I should 
say that knowledge is perception, 
Socrates proceeds—perhaps not altogether 
fairly—to identify his doctrine with the 
celebrated saying of Protagoras. This 
saying is about all we know of the positive 
teachings of him who was esteemed to be 
the founder of the Sophists. The proposi- 
tion as expressed in the same Dialogue 
runs as follows: 

Man is the measure of all things; of that which 
is, how it is; of that which is not, how it is not. 

Even in the time of Plato the Sophists 
had translated this proposition into the 
doctrine: For every person, that is true 
and real which appears so to him. From 
this doctrine it was no long step to the 
conclusion, that there is possible for man 
only a subjective and relative, not an ob- 
jective and universal truth. 

From the time of Protagoras to the 
present, the view of the nature, authority, 
and limits, of perception by the senses, 
which his celebrated dictum embodies, has 
been the chief source both of popular and 
of scientific and philosophical scepticism ; 
while the resulting doctrine of the rela- 
tivity of all human knowledge, in its most 

1 Address of the vice-president and chairman of 
Section H—Anthropology and Psychology—Cleve- 
land, 1913. 



essential features, is widely dominant in 
scientific circles at the present time. I 
propose, therefore, to make it the point of 
starting for the consideration of two prob- 
lems: First, What have modern psychology 
and anthropology to say about this theory 
of sense-perception and its resulting or 
allied theory of knowledge? and, second, 
What results from the answer to the first 
question as bearing upon a correct view of 
the relations in which the work of psychol- 
ogy and philosophy—the study of man— 
stands to the work of the other positive 
sciences ? 

But before we even propose in more 
definite form these two problems, let us 
consider in a word our right to group psy- 
chology and anthropology together under 
the common term, ‘‘the study of man.’’ 
That the two sciences have indeed some 
special relations as affiliated and mutually 
dependent and helpful branches of study, 
the very fact of this sectional meeting 
should seem to affirm. Indeed, so intimate 
are the relations between the two that there 
are points—and more than one of such 
points—where it is difficult to draw a line 
between them. If, for example, we speak 
of anthropology as inclusive of a wide 
range of sciences—physiology, ethnology, 
archeology, ethics, religion, ‘‘the rise of 
arts and science, and the history of civil- 
ization’’—of which psychology is only one, 
we are met by the fact that psychology, too, 
has spread itself over the same territory, as 
affording feeding-ground for its insatiable 
appetite. Thus we have come to speak of 
physiological psychology, race psychology, 
the psychology of ethics, art and religion 
and of a so-called applied psychology, 
which undertakes to instruct teachers how 
to teach, doctors how to cure, lawyers how 
to examine witnesses, and even over- 
wrought and neuropathic women how to 

(N.S. Von. XXXVII. No, 947 

control their eccentric and pathological 

Nor can we claim that psychology, as at 
present studied, confines itself to the men. 
tal or subjective side of man, while anthro. 
pology deals rather with the objective and 
with man’s place in nature. For anthro- 
pology falls short of its highest mission 
and most valuable opportunity, if it does 
not itself make a study of the spiritual 
evolution of the race. (I do not, of course, 
employ the words ‘‘spiritual evolution” 
with any cant or even definitely religious 
significance.) Both psychology and an- 
thropology fail of using the only method 
of rendering themselves scientific, if they 
do not proceed according to the lines 
marked out by the conception of develop- 
ment. But without further remark upon 
this subject, we may perhaps agree upon 
the conclusion that the one, psychology, is, 
for scientific purposes, best defined as the 
natural history of the individual mind, or 
soul; and the other, anthropology, as the 
natural history of the race. 

Even this attempt to distinguish the two, 
when reflected upon from the modern sci- 
entific point of view, shows all the more 
clearly how intimate is the relation be- 
tween them. The dependence of anthro- 
pology upon psychology, as one of the sci- 
ences which it must take into the account, 
is pretty generally conceded. But what 
is not so universally acknowledged is 
equally true. This is the dependence of 
psychology upon anthropology. No indi- 
vidual man can fulfil the obligation of the 
ancient motto, ‘‘Know thyself,’’ without 
something approaching a scientific knowl- 
edge of the human species of which he is 
a member; of the acquired or inherent in- 
stinets, tendencies, inhibitions, naive 4s- 
sumptions, emotional yearnings and stri- 
vings, which make up the greater portion 
of the influences controlling the so-called 








Fesrvary 21, 1913] 

nature, and natural history of the self. 
“Know thyself’? means know thyself as 
a man, a member of the human race. And 
the natural history of the individual mind 
or soul, can not be described, much less 
explained, without interpreting it all in 
the light of what we have learned of the 
natural history of the race. 

These remarks may suffice as introduc- 
tory to an answer—confessedly fragmen- 
tary and full of assumptions which need 
proofs from sources lying outside our 
theme—to the two questions raised above. 
The first of these, you will remember, was 
this: What have modern psychology and 
anthropology to say about the view which 
identifies knowledge with sense-perception, 
and about its allied theory of knowledge? 

If by perception by the senses we under- 
stand the mere fact that certain sensations 
form groups and sequences in conscious- 
ness, which have more or less of persistence 
and regularity, the banter of the wise 
Socrates as addressed to the youthful The- 
etetus is not inappropriate in our own day: 
“a say nothing against his doctrine, that what 
appears to each one to be, really is to each one, 
but I wonder that he did not begin his great work 
on Truth with a declaration that a pig or a dog- 
faced baboon or some other strange monster which 
has sensation, is the measure of all things; then, 
when we were reverencing him as a god, he might 
have condescended to inform us that he was no 
wiser than a tadpole and did not even aspire to be 
& man—would not this have produced an over- 
powering effect? For if truth is only sensation, 
and one man’s discernment is as good as an- 
other’s, and no man has any superior right to 
determine whether the opinion of any other is true 
or false, but each man, as we have several times 
repeated, is to himself the sole judge, and every- 
thing that he judges is true and right, why should 
Protagoras himself be preferred to the place of 
instruction, and deserve to be well paid, and we 
poor ignoramuses have to go to him, if each one 
is the measure of his own wisdom? 

Even if we say, I do not mean the sensa- 
tions of a tadpole, or even of a dog-faced 


baboon, but the sensations of a man, we do 
not establish in perception by the senses 
alone a ground for science. The only way 
we can know what the baboon actually sees, 
or otherwise perceives through his senses, 
is by the use of our powers of perception 
as applied to the behavior of the baboon. 
Our claim to superiority over the baboon, 
even if we are descended from him in more 
or less direct line, is based upon the con- 
fidence that our perceptions, as forming a 
ground for a scientific knowledge of things, 
and perhaps for a theory of the universe, 
are more trustworthy and comprehensive 
than are his. The old-fashioned way of 

putting this truth was not so bad after all: 

Man may be an animal; indeed, he un- 
doubtedly is an animal; but man is a 
rational animal. 

Psychology, with its recent more subtle 
analyses, as made possible by the experi- 
mental method, has made it perfectly clear 
that sense-perception in the case of the 
human individual is an exceedingly com- 
plex development, involving all man’s nat- 
ural and acquired capacities and forms of 
functioning. Into every act of the senses 
which gives us intimations, or assured 
knowledge, of real existences and actual 
happenings, there enter many instinctive 
or acquired faiths, leaps to judgment or 
more slowly formed inferences, emotional 
factors expressive of doubt, or certainty, or 
negation, habits favoring or prejudiced 
against this or that conclusion, fleeting or 
more fixed associated images of memory or 
of fancy, and formal or regulating prin- 
ciples, the so-called categories or “‘innate 
ideas’? of the earlier philosophy. But 
above all, if the process of sense-perception 
terminates in conviction of the reality of 
the object perceived, or the actuality of the 
event observed, then this object, or those 
things concerned in the event, are made 
the centers of forces that justify us in 



giving them a place in a world outside of 
our own conscious selves. In other words: 
They are endowed with a will of their own, 
a will that wills not as we will. That all 
this is a species of the personifying of 
things, I have myself no manner of doubt. 

But the knowledge of things as gained 
by the senses in the case of every indi- 
vidual, can not separate itself from the 
knowledge gained in the same way by the 
race of which the individual is a member. 
The motor reactions underlying the faiths 
and assumptions, the accumulated contri- 
butions of the faculties of memory and 
imagination, as all these are incorporated 
into the central nervous system, are mat- 
ters of the development of the race. What 
even the average school-boy sees and hears, 
as well as thinks about and reads into his 
experience with the senses, is not precisely 
the same as that of the boy in ancient 
Egypt or Greece, or even the boy among 
the savage tribes of our own day. Are not 
the sense-perceptions of the believer in 
spiritualistic phenomena and in Christian 
science different from those of the sceptic 
and disbeliever, to-day, even when we place 
them in as nearly as possible identical rela- 
tions to the object to be perceived? Here, 
then, is where anthropology becomes a val- 
uable adjunct to any theory of sense-per- 

As to the theory of the relativity of all 
knowledge as stimulated by and embodied 
in the maxim that man is the measure of 
all things, its falsity or truthfulness de- 
pends entirely upon what is meant by the 
word ‘‘relativity.’”’ In the Theetetus 
Plato makes Protagoras—we do not know 
with what right—base his doctrine on the 
philosophy of Heracleitus. Now, no other 
philosopher of antiquity has been of late 
so re-habilitated in reputation and so 
clothed with honor as has the Ephesian 
Heracleitus. He was the founder of nat- 

(N.S. Vou. XXXVII. No, 947 

ural philosophy among the Greeks, the 
leader of the physicists of the fifth century 

So powerfully impressed was he with the cease. 
less change of things, the transitoriness of all the 
particular, that he sees in it the most universa} 
law of the world, and can only regard the cosmos 
as being involved in continual change, and trans. 

posed into perpetually new shapes. All things are 
in constant flux; nothing has permanence. 

If by the relativity of knowledge, as es- 
tablished by the psychological and anthro- 
pological study of man, we mean that no 
other knowledge is possible for human be- 
ings than that which comes into relation 
with human faculties for knowledge, there 
ean be no objection to, or denial of, so 
obvious a truth. All man’s knowledge of 
mankind and of the rest of the world is 
human knowledge and comes under the 
limitations and conditions of all human 
knowledge. Man’s fields of knowledge 
have boundaries; and what he wins from 
these must be by patient and skillful using 
of the means of culture, his own senses and 
intellect applied to the data of his own 

If by the relativity of knowledge we 
mean also to assert that all knowing is an 
actual relating, an exercise of the function 
of relating activity, and that all things 
known are known as related to other things, 
we are only stating undoubted psycholog- 
ieal facts. These facts are of fundamental 
importance in our interpretation of the 
true meaning of the saying, ‘‘Man is the 
measure of all things.’’ Still further, if 
we mean that all advance in knowledge, 02 
the part of the individual and of the race, 
is related to the past stages and achieve- 
ments of knowing faculty, then, too, we are 
stating a truth on which psychology and 
anthropology may cordially unite. But 
when by the relativity of all knowledge it 
is meant to imply a complete distrust of 

| | 

Fesruary 21, 1913] 

man’s ability to discover and prove any- 
thing about the reality of the world in 
which he lives, or to apprehend with as- 
surance of conviction what is now actually 
taking place within or without, or what has 
actually taken place in the past, we press 
our scepticism and its resulting agnosticism 
far beyond the limits warranted by a 
proper understanding of the Protagorean 
maxim. Man is indeed the measure of all 
things, i. e., so far as things really exist 
for him or actually happen in the real 
world which environs his existence. 

So, then, he who takes his attitude to- 
ward his own science, or toward the prac- 
tical life, from that study of man in which 
psychology and anthropology may cheer- 
fully coneur, will undoubtedly hold to a 
certain theory of the relativity of all 
knowledge. This theory will lead him to 
say: There are a few things of which I 
have perfectly certain and absolutely sure 
knowledge. There are some more—per- 
haps, many more—of which I am reason- 
ably sure; and the surer, the more I grow 
in knowledge. There are yet more of 
which I am in doubt, and about which I 
am holding my mind in suspense and open 
to the conviction which follows upon trust- 
worthy and sufficient evidence. But the 
things I do not know are like a vast and 
limitless sea—to borrow an_ illustration 
from the philosophy of Kant—on the bosom 
of which lies my little island of knowledge 
and opinion. How far future explorers in 
all branches of science may sail that bound- 
less ocean, or what other islands they may 
discover or treasures bring up from its 
depths, I am not going dogmatically to 
Pronounce. That would be to assume more, 
‘n view of our present relations to the past 
and the future of science, than any one is 
Justified in assuming. Besides as a stu- 
dent of man from the anthropological point 



of view, I am taught to be cautiously ag- 
nostic in this regard. 

But when any one says of himself, I 
know absolutely nothing about myself, or 
about things, or about the transactions be- 
tween myself and things, or among things, 
which I am confident have a corresponding 
reality, he appears more modest with refer- 
ence to his own powers than the doctrine 
of the relativity of knowledge requires that 
he should be. And when he goes on to 
say, You, too, know nothing, and can know 
nothing as to what is real and actual, he is 
not altogether polite, not to say flattering, 
toward a fellow aspirant for knowledge. 
But when he proceeds with the declara- 
tion: Neither I, nor you, nor anybody, 
really knows anything, or ever can know 
anything, about the real world and about 
the events assumed actually to occur in 
this world, his agnosticism has indeed 
taken a suicidal turn. For, surely such 
an agnostic knows that he does not know, 
and yet somehow exists in a world about 
which he and all others are in this state of 
perpetual and incurable ignorance; and 
this would seem to imply that I and others 
without number, in the most important 
respects like him, do also exist in an un- 
knowable but undoubtedly actually exist- 
ent world. It seems then that the com- 
plete agnostic is the man who is very sure 
that he can vindicate his agnosticism by 
appeal to some actual, objective standard 
of judgment which he and others possess 
in common. That is to say, while arguing 
from his doctrine that man is the measure 
of all things to the conclusion that no 
knowledge is possible, he involves the other 
very important conclusion or assumption 
that the world is full of actually existent 
rational beings, besides and outside of 

The importance of considerations like 
those just announced is greatly increased 



when we apply them to the relations in 
which the study of man stands to that kind 
of knowledge which is embodied in the so- 
called positive sciences. The term science 
is properly applied to any grouping of 
knowledges to which has been given sys- 
tematic form, and which has been based 
upon evidence that admits of being re- 
viewed, estimated and, if possible, sub- 
mitted to some kind of testing by compari- 
son with other similar experiences. Thus 
science does not essentially differ from 
what we call ordinary knowledge; and 
when we extend the maxim which makes 
man the measure of all things to the posi- 
tive sciences, we do not reduce their proof, 
their claims to acceptance as true pictures 
of reality, to the testimony solely of imme- 
diate sense-perception. No science consists 
solely or chiefly of data that can be seen, 
heard, handled, tasted or smelled. But all 
science, like all knowledge, whether we 
dignify it with the name of science, or not, 
is either envisaged or implied in data of 
concrete and individual experiences. And 
it is man’s reasoning faculties which make 
explicit what is thus implied. For the 
method of all science is rationalistic, in the 
broad meaning of the term. In this work 
of rationalizing, the imagination, the faiths 
of reason, and even the emotional attitudes 
of the human mind toward truth and real- 
ity, play an important part. In every 
individual case, but more emphatically in 
the case of the race in general, every par- 
ticular science is a development, an ever 
growing and never completed achievement 
of the human mind. And to this develop- 
ment, hypothesis, theory, deduction from 
known or assumed principles, are all as 
important and indispensable as is the cor- 
rect and guarded use of the senses in per- 

In the day when our maxim was first 
enunciated, there was no positive science 

(N.S. Vou. XXXVII. No, 947 

of the physical, chemical or historical sort. 
There was much acute observation of phe- 
nomena, especially in the sphere of the 
moral, political and social life of man. 
The ancient Greek maxims for the regula. 
tion of the conduct of life have rarely or 
never been surpassed. The pragmatism of 
that day was in important respects, both 
more dignified and more satisfactory than 
the pragmatism of the present day. The 
Sophists were pragmatists of the most ae- 
complished rank. But neither ancient nor 
modern pragmatism can ever give us s¢i- 
ence, or account for the existence, or the 
estimate of the values of science, properly 
so called. As a commentator on this very 
Dialogue of Plato has said: 

The want of the Greek mind in the fourth cen- 
tury before Christ was not another theory of rest 
or motion, of being or atoms, but rather a philos- 
ophy which could free the mind from the power 
of abstractions and alternatives, and show how far 
rest and how far motion, how far the universal 
principle of being, and the multitudinous principle 
of atoms, entered into the composition of the 
world; which could distinguish between the true 

and false analogy, and allow the negative as well 
as the positive, a place in human thought. 

It is only in comparatively recent times, 
however, that the different sciences of ex- 
ternal nature and of man have devoted 
themselves intelligently and deliberately to 
the supply of that which was the want of 
the ancient Greek world of observation and 
of thought. The Greeks, for example, ob- 
served that a vacuum was created by the 
suction of a piston above the water in a 
pump. But the dictum, ‘‘Nature abhors 
a vacuum,’’ was regarded as a sufticient 
explanation of the fact for more than two 
thousand years, before it was observed 1 
jest by Galileo, that nature did not abhor 
a vacuum beyond ten meters. But Tori- 
celli was the first really to explain the 
phenomenon by bringing it under the lav 
of gravitation. Aristotle had observed— 


FesruarY 21, 1913] 

and how many in our scientific age have 
observed for themselves?—that the sun- 
light, when passed through a small square 
hole, gives a round instead of a square 
image; but he explained the fact simply by 
saying that sunlight has a circular nature. 
It was centuries before astronomy estab- 
lished the true explanation in the fact that 
the sun itself is a cireular body. 

It was a combination of the principle 
sounded like a trumpet-call by Newton— 
‘Abandon substantial forms and occult 
qualities and reduce natural phenomena to 
natural laws’’—with the modification and 
improvement of the Baconian method of 
experimental induction which introduced 
the new era in the positive sciences of ex- 
ternal nature. By following these prin- 
ciples man has made of himself a more 
accurate and faithful measure of all 
things; of that which is, how it is; and of 
that which is not, how it is not. But he 
still needs as much as ever the further 
study of himself, as an individual and as 
a race, in order so to supplement, modify, 
adapt and otherwise improve the principle, 
that all the various classes of that accepted 
and certified knowledge which he calls by 
the name of science, may benefit by this 

I come, therefore, at once to what is the 
main purpose of this paper. It was an- 
nounced in the second of the questions 
proposed at the beginning. This question 
concerns the more fundamental of those 
relations in which the study of man stands 
‘o all the other positive sciences. Gen- 
*ralizing these relations, I will say that the 
study of man as the measure of all things 
‘S entitled to set forth and expound (1) 
the method of science; (2) the limitations 
of science; (3) the ideals of science. And 
what it is entitled to do for science in gen- 
‘ral, it may properly suggest as desirable 



and true for each one of the particular 

Intelligently comprehended and faith- 
fully interpreted, the study of man, the 
measurer, is the only way to find out how 
his measuring-rod ought to be applied to 
the different objects which come before 
him in the different classes of his varied 
experience. Every positive science, and 
we might almost say every subdivision of 
such science, has its special, most satisfae- 
tory mode of procedure in the search for 
truth. That this is of necessity so was 
known to Aristotle as distinctly as it is 
known to any modern man of science. 
Indeed, the principle was never better 
stated than it was by him in the first book 
of the ‘‘Nichomachean Ethics.’’ There 
the great Greek thinker holds that the mat- 
ter of a science, 7. e., the facts or concep- 
tions with which it deals, must determine 
its method or form, according as they 
admit of being stated with more or less 
‘precision’? ("AxpiSea). But the Greek 
word which I have imperfectly translated 
by the English word ‘‘precision’’ means in 
Aristotle’s use of it a combination of math- 
ematical exactness, metaphysical subtlety, 
minuteness of detail and definiteness of 
assertion. And as applied to the form of 
science, or study of one aspect of man, 
namely, the ethical, which he is proposing 
to consider, he distinctly states that mathe- 
matical exactness is quite unsuited to 
ethics; that we must not expect too much 
subtlety, and that too much detail is to be 
avoided. In this respect his view is more 
liberal and more true to the nature, limita- 
tions and ideals of human science than is 
that of Sir Isaac Newton when he insists 
that all ‘‘natural phenomena,’’ including 
the biological, shall be reduced to ‘‘mathe- 
matical laws.’’ For every step in the evo- 
lution of science, as subjected to the con- 
clusions derived from a study of man, 


shows that a knowledge of qualities and 
relations of quality, many of which do not 
admit of a reduction to mathematical laws, 
is an indispensable part of all the sciences 
which deal with natural phenomena. 

Every particular science, and, if you 
please, every form of experiment in each 
one of them all, should be allowed to deter- 
mine its own method in the details of its 
observations, testing the alleged facts, and 
obvious conclusions from the facts. There 
is really no reason for assuming a sort of 
holy mystery about scientific method in 
general, or about any particular scientific 
method. Method is any means of arriving 
at the truth of reality. The greater truths 
of science, as well as of religion, have 
always been revealed to gifted—and for my 
part I am willing to say, inspired—minds, 
as flashes of intuition, fortunate guesses, 
hypotheses which as yet awaited verifica- 
tion but shone with that light which an- 
nounces the clearer vision of the approach- 
ing day. I have always had a sneaking 
sympathy with that schoolboy who, when 
he came home from school snivelling be- 
cause he could not do the sums in mental 
arithmetic set by his teacher, and his 
mother reminded him that, of course, he 
had been taught at home the correct answer 
to them all, replied: ‘‘Yes, of course, I 
know what the answer is, but I can’t get 
the method.’’ 

While, then, we admit the right and 
repose the obligation to any special form 
of technique, as a matter for the particular 
sciences to decide for themselves, we still 
insist that the nature of the human mind 
and of its development in the individual 
and in the race is the source of all the 
experience which determines the successes 
and the failures in the use of every par- 
ticular method in each of the particular 

Still more definite but brief statements 

(N.S. Vou. XXXVIT. No, 947 

with regard to the doctrine of methog 
which the relativity of all knowledge makes 
imperative would seem in place at this 
point. If man is to take even his prelim. 
inary measurement of things, of that which 
is, how it is, and of that which is not, how 
it is not, by sense-perception, he must use 
trained senses with inexhaustible patience, 
and with freedom from prejudice and pro- 
fessional pride and ambition. Some years 
ago the retiring president of the Associa- 
tion of American Naturalists, in his ad- 
dress at the annual banquet, related this 
recent experience of his own. He had 
written to a considerable number of the 
leading biologists in the country, asking 
that they should give him just the bare 
facts as they had observed them, and with 
no admixture of their own views in ex- 
planation, upon a certain matter which he 
was engaged in investigating. ‘‘Even so,” 
said this scientific observer, ‘‘I could not 
get the simple unsophisticated facts re- 
ported.’’ How many biologists and physi- 
ologists in the world at the present time, 
whatever confidence they may have in the 
ability and sincerity as an observer of Dr. 
Bastian, are sure he is giving them just an 
unprejudiced statement of the facts in 
proof of his theory of spontaneous get- 
eration ? 

The psychological study of sense-per- 
ception, as strengthened by the anthrop- 
logical study of man’s progress in knowl 
edge, shows with undoubted clearness, not 
only that the details of every man’s senst- 
perceptions are his very own and quite 
unique, but also that the influence of habit, 
expectation and interest, contributes largely 
to what the senses are bound to perceive. 
But the true doctrine of scientific method 
which follows from the study of man as @ 
measurer of things by his senses, logically 
followed, does -not land us in an absolute 
distrust of the senses, in a gulf of scepti- 



Fesruary 21, 1913] 

cism and agnosticism with regard to all 
human knowledge. The rather should this 
study serve as a reminder, how uncertain 
and slow is the laying of solid foundations 
for the building of the temple of science; 
but also, how solid those foundations, when 
well laid, actually are; and how noble the 
temple which man is erecting toward the 
skies, on these same foundations. 

Among a certain class of psychologists 
and philosophers—I am ashamed to confess 
it-there has been much deprecating and 
even sneering, directed toward the stern 
control of the logical faculties in the dis- 
covery and proof of the nature of reality. 
‘The will to believe,’’ or the leap of emo- 
tion to conclusions affecting the nature of 
reality, has been attractively offered, and 
far too freely accepted, as a substitute in 
science as well as in religion, for the use 
of reason under the control of reason’s 
lawful working. But the study of man 
utters a loud warning against all this. 
Even a truly scientific mind may express 
itself and its findings in an alluring rhe- 
torical style. But such a style can never 
be safely trusted as evidence for, however 
effective it may prove in exposition of, the 
truths of either common life or science and 
philosophy. Logie may be fervid, but it 
must still remain logie, if it is to be offered 
in proof of truth, On the one hand, it is 
true that a purely logical or dialectical 
construction of scientific theory, after the 
Platonie or the Hegelian method, when it 
cuts itself from the bonds which tie it down 
to conerete facts of more or less nearly 
universal experience, is not man’s way to 
measure most faithfully the truth of things. 
But, on the other hand, it is equally the fact 
that only by the use of the intellect, the 
logical or so-called dialectical faculty, can 
the truth be explicated and interpreted as 
it lies hidden in the facts. The history of 
Scientific progress shows beyond all ques- 



tion, that it is not great collectors of facts, 
but great thinkers reasoning concerning the 
meaning of the facts, who have most con- 
tributed to this progress. 

An additional consideration of no small 
importance which is made quite clear by 
the natural history of the individual mind, 
as well as by the natural history of the 
race, is this: Knowledge is not only a mat- 
ter of development, of progressive achieve- 
ment, in the individual and in the race; it 
is also a matter of degrees. Any body of 
knowledge, no matter how strictly it may 
be entitled to the term science, will neces- 
sarily consist of propositions that are made 
with quite different degrees of assurance. 
This truth should always be frankly ac- 
knowledged in the methodical procedure of 
every science. Every positive science will, 
of course, aim to have its different concep- 
tions, so-called laws, and fundamental 
principles hang well together. It will also 
attempt to fortify itself by coming into 
relations of mutual support with the other 
most nearly allied sciences. It will, above 
all, test its own conclusions by the amount 
of agreement which its own best students 
and trained experts have been able to 
reach as exponents of the best intellects of 
the race, in their prolonged and unpreju- 
diced application to the problem of inter- 
preting the experience of the race. But 
every science will also remember that the 
very method of science, as inexorably fixed 
by the nature of man’s intellectual proc- 
esses, makes it necessary to discriminate 
different degrees of knowledge, with shift- 
ing degrees of certainty and changing 
claims to importance, as the knowledge of 
the race advances in clearness and com- 

In this connection it is worth while 
simply to call attention to the fact that the 
mental attitudes of scepticism, criticism 
and agnosticism are indispensable and val- 

| | 


uable factors in all scientific method. 
Every investigator who attempts to em- 
ploy the proper method in measuring the 
things of his special science, is bound to 
be, always a critic, often a sceptic, oftener 
still an agnostic. But every investigator 
is also yet more imperatively bound to be 
eritical, sceptical, agnostic, in right direc- 
tions; and toward the different conven- 
tional opinions, and accepted conceptions 
and laws constituting the body of that 
science, in accordance with the varying 
degrees of evidence and proof. 

One thing more on this point. The 
study of man in any broad and sympa- 
thetic way shows us unmistakably that an 
essential element in all scientific method is 
a certain indestructible confidence of rea- 
son in its own ability, by repeated trials 
and successive approaches, to reach the 
truth of things. Man as the measurer of 
all things is somewhat like those conceited 
tailors to whom we are sometimes com- 
pelled to resort in our efforts to get a per- 
fectly fitting suit of clothes. He is always 
trying on the coat and altering it, until he 
has reached the limit of the cloth he has 
sold us; and then we must be contented 
with his assurance that it fits us perfectly, 
while in our secret thought we are troubled 
with the suspicion that it fits us only fairly 
well. At any rate, for the present the 
process of fitting can no further go. At 
the annual meeting of the British Associa- 
tion in 1904, there were two things, accord- 
ing to the reports in the newspapers, on 
which those in attendance were all agreed. 
One of these was that they had never be- 
fore had quite so fine a time socially; the 
other was, that in none of the branches of 
the association was there any one where all 
the members were in agreement upon any 
one thing. 

Cast a glance over the history of science 

in general, or over the history of any one - 

[N. 8. Von. XXXVII. No, 947 

of the particular sciences. Those who 
scorn philosophy under the pseudonym 
metaphysics are fond of making merry over 
the persistent and universal lack of agree. 
ment on any one point, of the philosophers 
from the beginning of reflective thinking 
until the present time. But the simple 
fact of history is that the more funda. 
mental tenets of philosophy as held by the 
different schools have been far less subject 
to change than have the important concep. 
tions and so-called laws of the particular 
sciences. What enormous changes have 
taken place in all these sciences since the 
improved methods of studying their data 
have gained general acceptance and been 
put into general practise! Each one of 
these sciences is accustomed to boast: In 
the last half century or less we have made 
all things new. And with regard to the 
future of science the words of Scripture 
are scarcely too strong to describe its 
apocalyptic vision : 

And I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for 
the first heaven and the first earth are passed 

All man’s voyage on the sea of knowl- 
edge, for the discovery, mapping out and 
exploiting of the new domains of science. 
is strewn with the wrecks of voyagers in 
the distant or near past. Never before 
were sO many vagaries and _ visionary 
schemes and unproved hypotheses demand- 
ing attention and credence. But never be- 
fore was the fleet of voyagers so numerous. 
so competent, so sound, so sure of its fu- 
ture, as at the present time. How ca! 
such things be? How can the measure! 
always be making such misfits, spoiling * 
much cloth, and annoying so much his 
patient, trustful customers, and yet 
his own immeasurable self-conceit? There 
are two reasons which establish the sui 
cient answer to this question. One of thes 
is the indestructible faith of human reas0” 


Fesruary 21, 1913] SCIENCE . 285 

in itself. It hesitates, it stumbles and 
makes mistakes and either confesses and 
corrects or stubbornly adheres to them; 
but it never despairs or is utterly con- 
founded. The other reason is this: His- 
tory shows that this confidence is more and 
more, in fact, justifying itself. All prog- 
ress in knowledge depends ultimately for 
its justification on this self-confidence of 
human reason; but all actual progress in 
knowledge is a further justification, in fact, 
of the confidence on which it depends. 
Man has faith in himself to know; in exer- 
cise of this faith, he actually attains higher 
and higher degrees of knowledge. While, 
then, constant eriticism, frequent scepti- 
cism, much rather persistent agnosticism, 
are attitudes of the human mind toward 
reality, which should always characterize 
the method of science; scornful criticism, 
despairing scepticism, universal agnosti- 
cism, are essentially antagonistic to the 
true spirit and hopeful method of science. 
And those who cherish such views of the 
relativity of all knowledge are dissenters 
from the one form of faith which underlies 
all particular forms of faith, intellectual, 
social, religious. An ever present and es- 
sential feature of man’s rational being is 
rational faith, or reason’s own confidence 
in itself as the organon of truth. 

While, then, each particular science has 
its own special methods of procedure in 
the diseovery and testing of its own con- 
ceptions and laws, there is a certain uni- 
versal method; or, the rather, there are 
certain general considerations touching a 
universal method, which all must observe. 
Three rules of method, confirmed by the 
Psychological and anthropological study of 
man, provide for the patient, unprejudiced 
use of perception, by way of self-conscious- 
hess and through the sense, of the facts; 
the consistent and controlled use of the 
logical faculties in the interpretation and 
explanation of these facts; and a justi- 

fiable faith in reason as opposed to the 
positions of a despairing agnosticism. It 
is not the ancient Sophistical or the mod- 
ern pragmatic interpretation of the Pro- 
tagorean maxim, Man is measure of ail 
things; of that which is, how it is; and of 
that which is not, how it is not, that can 
guide us into the safe and fruitful method 
to be pursued by the positive sciences. 
But, then, it is a comfort to know that even 
those devotees of these sciences who confess 
a faith in this interpretation, never take 
their faith with any large amount of prac- 
tical seriousness. 

A second important way in which the 
study of man is related to all the sciences 
concerns the limitations of all science. We 
are all familiar with the many mistaken 
predictions as to the limitations of par- 
ticular sciences which have been made in a 
merely empirical way. In the ‘‘Memora- 
bilia’’ Xenophon makes Socrates remark 
upon the impiety of men in trying to de- 
scribe how the gods made the world of 
things; since all knowledge of this sort is 
forever beyond the limits of human fac- 
ulty. In the ‘‘Timzus,’’ however, Plato 
makes Socrates indulge in the wildest spec- 
ulations, in dreams exceeding those of the 
poet and resembling those of the mad- 
house, as to how this same world may have 
been made. No sane student of science 
now believes that the actual limitations of 
science are of either sort—either that as- 
serted in the ‘‘Memorabilia’’ or that no- 
tably transcended in the ‘‘Timeus.’’ It is 
the business of science—a matter of obliga- 
tion rather than a mark of impiety—to 
know how the natural universe was made 
and is being made. But when the mind 
assumes to dream its way into this kind of 
knowledge, it grossly violates the laws 
which inexorably fix for all time its im- 
passable limitations. Within the fields of 
science itself there are constantly occurring 


dogmatic statements as to what is intrinsic- 
ally possible or forever impossible, for the 
endeavors of human knowledge. Have we 
not been told that the distances of the fixed 
stars could never be measured; that the 
achromatism of lenses could not be carried 
beyond a certain point, which has already 
been considerably surpassed; that steam- 
ships could never cross the ocean and air- 
ships never sail the air, in safety; that 
synthetic chemistry in the laboratory could 
never simulate the products of animal and 
vegetable organisms; that the speed of the 
nerve current could never be measured, 
ete., ete. 

But what does all this purely empirical 
way of fixing the limitations of science 
amount to in the respect of justifying our 
attempts to regulate the hopeless waste of 
man’s endeavors to know the forever un- 
knowable? Even to-day we may be just 
as ignorantly—with an ignorance even 
made more exasperating by the fact that 
it is so often the outgrowth of our conceit 
of knowledge—denying the alleged facts 
of telepathy as was Newton when he re- 
fused to explain gravitation as actio dis- 
tans. But whether this or that particular 
prediction come true or not, this is not the 
point. The point is this: that by the study 
of man we are able to fix certain limita- 
tions to all science which are inherent in 
the very nature of man himself and in his 
relations to that larger nature of which he 
is a part. It is to the consideration of 
this sort of limitations that we now devote 
a moment’s attention. 

That the senses, from the nature of the 
psychophysical organism which they serve, 
are limited in capacity, is a matter of 
course. Their anatomical structure and 
their forms of functioning, physiologically 
considered, require that the range and ac- 
euracy of their observation should be con- 
fined within certain limits, both of space 

(N.S. Vou. XXXVII. No, 947 

and of time. In the eye, the size of the 
rods and cones; in the ear, the physical 
construction of the bony and muscular 
parts of the cochlea; in the skin, the fre. 
quency and arrangement of the tempera- 
ture spots and the pressure spots—all these 
special limitations of the organism are lim. 
its to the measuring power of human sense. 
perception. Let these physical limitations 
be changed, either in the direction of im- 
provement or of depreciation, and there 
would still be similar limitations inherent 
in the organic structure of the race, and 
varying with different individual members 
of the race. In all the various realms of 
sense-perception, there will always be that 
which lies beyond, and which ean only be 
conjectured, or at best reasonably inferred, 
but which can never become immediately 
perceived by human senses. Surrounding 
the expanding island of the visible world 
will be the boundless sea of the invisible; 
of that which can be touched and handled, 
the many things that no skin is sensitive 
enough to feel and that no hand can grasp. 

These limitations of the senses set their 
limitations to the pictorial imagination, or 
imaging faculty, as distinguished from 
what logicians have been accustomed to call 
‘pure thought.’’ How things would look, 
the like of which no eye has ever seen; 
how things would sound, the like of which 
no ear has ever heard, will remain ques- 
tions to which the experience of measuring 
all things with the senses can give 0 

But there are other irremovable limite- 
tions to human knowledge which are evel 
more important, although more difficult to 
make obvious. These are limitations i0- 
herent in the very constitution of the intel- 
lectual powers. The intelligence of mat 
has its own way of working, its laws of 
behavior, its inescapable modes of opera- 
tion, to whatever subject it may be applied. 










Fesruary 21, 1913] 

The attempt has indeed been made to ac- 
count for forms, laws, innate ideas—call 
them what you will—as the results of a 
process of evolution. In my judgment, 
such an attempt must always remain a 
complete failure. The so-called primitive 
man in the long gone-by ages reasoned in 
substantially the same way as that in which 
the German professor of physics or the 
American financier or politician reasons 
to-day. Nor does it appear that the savage 
peoples of the present time have essentially 
different minds from our own, or are in- 
trinsically inferior in the acuteness, speed 
and accuracy with which they reason. 
Their limitations, as compared with ours, 
consist chiefly, if not wholly, in the extent 
of the accumulations of experience with a 
wider world of things and of men, which 
lie behind them in history and which con- 
stitute their present environment. But we 
as well as they, and no less truly than they, 
when we measure things by minding them, 
know them only according to the formal 
limitations of our own minds. These lim- 
itations concern the comprehensiveness, the 
certainty, the range, both toward the large 
and toward the small, the simple and the 
complicated. The infinite and the infin- 
itesimal may be symbolized and carried as 
symbols through complex mathematical 
calculations; but they ean never be en- 
visaged by the senses or comprehended by 
the intellect. 

This sort of irremovable limitations sur- 
round all the growth and all the achieve- 
ments of the particular sciences, and might 
be set forth at any length in the discussion 
of the categories of science. But such a 
discussion would be too technical for our 
present purpose and would take us much 
too far afield. 

Some illustration of what is meant will 
serve our present purpose. The history of 
the growth of science for two thousand 



years shows many curious attempts to dis- 
pense with the obligations put upon the 
human intellect by the so-called categories, 
or fundamental and irreducible forms of 
conceiving of reality, that seem to flow 
from the very nature of the intellect itself. 
This effort among the students of physics 
is particularly insistent and even violent 
at the present time. But it is just as cer- 
tainly doomed to failure now as it has ever 
been. For example, we are treated to a 
science of physics which would do away 
with the realistic conceptions of substance 
and cause, and would substitute for them 
the more impressionistic and phenomenal 
conceptions of motion and change. For do 
we not, with our senses, which are the 
measure of all things, of that which is, how 
it is, and of that which is not, how it is not, 
become actually aware of motions and of 
changes? But who ever saw, heard, felt, 
smelled or tasted, of a substance or a cause, 
in the metaphysical meaning of these 
words? Go to, then! Let us banish meta- 
physies and confine our scientific measure- 
ments to what the senses can actually per- 
ceive. But the conception of motion with- 
out this adjunct or underlying conception 
of something real that actually moves, or 
the conception of a change that is not 
caused, or compelled by, or otherwise to be 
attributed to, some actually existent agent, 
is a ghostly and intolerable conception. 
And the world in which relations of motion 
are supposed to be the sole topic for scien- 
tific investigation, is a ghostly and not a 
real world. But we may always observe 
by reading between the lines that the ‘‘sci- 
entist,’’ because he is also a man, and is 
under the limitations of human intellect, 
has allowed to sneak in at the back door 
the very conceptions which he has more or 
less impolitely dismissed from the front. 
He must have a ‘‘that-which’’ as substance 
for his observed motions and as a point of 




attachment for his observed changes. For 
reality is not made up of modern scientific, 
any more than of ancient philosophical, 
abstractions. It is, the rather, a theater in 
which real things are always actually doing 
something to one another, and in which 
each one is having something done to itself. 
There is nothing which the student of phys- 
ieal science more needs to learn from the 
study of man than that he himself is of 
necessity a metaphysician, and can only 
choose between some wisely and well 
thought-out metaphysical views, and a 
naive, crude and misleading metaphysics 
of his own uninstructed self. 

But the final question respecting the 
limitations of science as they are ex- 
pounded by the study of man is this: Are 
they limitations of ignorance or limitations 
of knowledge? In other words, because 
there are inherent and inescapable limita- 
tions to the human intellect, are we to con- 
clude that man as the measure of all things 
ean really know nothing, just that it is and 
how it is, or are we to conclude that his 
knowledge, although never complete and 
all-eomprehensive, is nevertheless knowl- 
edge indeed? And by ‘‘knowledge in- 
deed’’ we mean that the real world and its 
actual happenings are in fact, progres- 
sively being more largely and accurately 
known by the combined achievements of 
the race? The proof of this faith, if there 
be proof, belongs to a department of phi- 
losophy which we are accustomed to call 
epistemology or theory of knowledge. In 
this connection I am only expressing my 
faith when I say that it is the same as the 
faith of the race. 

Finally, the study of man is entitled to 
say what the true and worthy ideals of 
science are. For the scientific mind, the 
tenets of modern pragmatism with respect 
to the nature and meaning of truth can 
never be permanently satisfying. For 

(N.S. XXXVII. No, 947 

science, knowledge has more than a merely 
practical value, and its tests are something 
more, and different from the mere success 
of its practical working. For science, 
knowledge has an ideal value. We are 
wont to express this by speaking of the 
worth of science for science’s own sake. 
But the better, because the truer way to 
express this ideal is to say that knowledge 
as knowledge, and science as science, has 
value for man’s sake. And this is because 
man’s mind craves for, feeds upon, finds 
its satisfaction, uplift and refinement in, 
the growth of knowledge. To the human 
mind, or spirit, when it awakens to a real- 
ization of its eall and its obligation to real- 
ize its own higher forms of privilege, and 
to improve its best opportunity, science 
affords a satisfaction that has a value of its 

This is not to say that science has not 
contributed, and is not bound and glad to 
contribute, to the so-called practical and 
utilitarian in the life of man. Chemistry 
is not pursued with eagerness and satisfac- 
tion, and almost religious awe before the 
mystery of material existence, as a purely 
mereantile affair. But modern chemistry 
is transforming almost every branch of 
modern industry to the great practical 
benefit of mankind. Modern physics is not 
cultivated as the servant of the U. S. Steel 
Corporation, or the General Electric, or 
the Mercantile Marine monopolies. But the 
founders and promoters of these corpora- 
tions owe every dollar of their legitimate 
earnings or of their graft, and the public 
owe all the material benefits which have 
fallen to them from these corporations, 
chiefly to modern physics. 

The satisfaction of man’s rational aspi- 
ration for knowledge is not, however, the 
only ideal which the study of man recom- 
mends for confidence and intelligent pur- 
suit, to the other sciences. Every science, 

pa 4 

Fesruary 21, 1913) 

no matter how seemingly remote from cur- 
rent human interests, and from man’s daily 
life, may reasonably cherish a spirit of 
devotion to the social ideal. In educa- 
tional circles there is just now great debate 
over the comparative values of the studies 
called abstract and those called practical, 
as constituting a preparation for the duties 
and responsibilities of ‘‘real’’ life. While 
admitting the reasonableness of this dis- 
tinction and the value of certain proposals 
to alter the disposal of time and attention 
to be allotted by the average man to the 
two, we wish now to insist upon the 
thought that no form of science need be 
pursued, or ought to be pursued, without 
regard to the relation in which its pursuit 
stands to the social ideal. The pursuit of 
knowledge for knowledge’s sake is itself a 
moral benefit to the normal man. And you 
can never bring about the social ideal, or 
advance far toward it, without discipline 
in the pursuit of knowledge. One of the 
ideals which science prizes and promotes is 
the ideal of a society, and finally of a race, 
which is so disciplined in knowledge that 
it may know how to be wise and upright in 
conduct. For, although such discipline is 
not the whole of what contributes to the 
moral and religious uplift of the race, with- 
out such discipline moral and _ religious 
progress is impossible for the race. 
Hovering over all like a vast but glorious 
cloud that is being illumined, through the 
rising mists, by the rising sun, is the ideal 
to which the combined work of all the sci- 
ences is being directed for its better dis- 
covery and interpretation, the ideal of a 
universal order which has at its core, and 
through all its historical evolution, the 
unity due to rational mind. This concep- 
tion in its modern outlines has been won 
by the toil of thousands of observers and 
thinkers, and slowly expanded and guar- 
anteed, as it were, by the experience of the 


race. It is confessedly incomplete; per- 
haps it will always remain incomplete. 
For reality itself is no closed and once-for- 
all finished affair. But that the world is 

a realization in time and space of some © 

such ideal as science has built up—an ideal 
unity of order, beauty and meaning—this 
is the growing conviction upon which the 
particular sciences, from their different 
points of view, and by their different 
methods, have been converging. 

I must ask your further indulgence while 
I close this paper—already prolonged to an 
excessive length—in a fashion somewhat 
sermonesque, ?. é., with two practical and 
hortatory applications. 

This view of man as the measure of all 
things calls upon those who engage in the 
scientific study of man, whether from the 
psychological or the anthropological point 
of view, for comprehensiveness and catho- 
licity. All the other sciences are becom- 
ing more definitely tributary to the study 
of man. His marvellously complex and 
delicate organism traces its history through 
indefinite ages of evolution to an unknown 
and probably undiscoverable past. The 
description of this organism requires the 
eombined results of the physico-chemical 
and biological sciences. What we call his 
mental and social nature and development 
enlists the efforts of the whole round of the 
psychological and historical sciences. But 
we are not ready for a complete and just 
estimate of the capacity of man as the 
measurer of all things until we have 
studied him as a speaking animal, a being 
with moral, artistic and religious ideals; 
and with a certain limited though genuine 
eapacity for a self-controlled development 
in pursuit of these ideals. In a word, both 
psychology and anthropology are under the 
obligation to extend their studies, in the 
interests of comprehensiveness and catho- 
licity, so as the better to understand and 



master the spiritual nature and the spirit- 
ual development of the individual and of 
the race. 

And, finally, our view of man as the 
measure of all things is an exhortation to 
an increase of sympathy and of sympa- 
thetic cooperation among all the different 
sciences. Of the particular sciences and 
their subordinate branches and subdivi- 
sions, there is an ever-increasing number. 
But their aim is one aim; and in the pur- 
suit of this aim they should be as brethren 
dwelling together in a spirit of friendly 
criticism and also of friendly unity. The 
aim of all human science is the better to 
understand man by himself, and the greater 
nature which environs him; and the better 
to adjust himself to this greater nature, in 
the pursuit of his economic, social, artistic 
and religious ideals. 

I venture to close with the words which 
Plato puts into the mouth of Socrates as 
he closes his conversation with Theetetus: 

But if, Theetetus, you have or wish to have any 
more embryo thoughts, they will be all the better 
for the present investigation; and if you have 
none, you will be soberer and humbler and gentler 
to other men, not fancying that you know what 
you do not know. These are the limits of my art; 
I can no further go; nor do I know aught of the 
things which great and famous men know or have 
known in this or former ages. The office of a 
midwife I, like my mother, have received from 
God; she delivered women, and I deliver men; 
but they must be young and noble and fair. 




Glacial Lakes: Occurrence-——The term 
‘*glacial’’ is used by the writer to inelude 
only lakes which existed by virtue of a 
glacier ice barrier. The lakes and lakelets 
now existing and called ‘‘glacial’’ by some 
authors should be discriminated mostly as 
morainal or drift-barrier lakes. 

(N.S. Vou. XXXVI. No, 947 

The conditions necessary for a glacial 
lake are a valley or depression sloping 
toward and blocked by the ice front. 
These conditions were fulfilled in New 
York on so large a scale, in area and time, 
that the state, it is confidently believed. 
held the largest number and the most re. 
markable succession, with varied outflow, of 
glacial lakes of any district in the world. 
The reason for this superiority is found in 
the peculiar topography of the western part 
of the state. In the great Ontario-Erie 
basin we have a broad depression with its 
lowest passes on the east and west, and 
with a deeply trenched southern slope 
where lie the parallel valleys of the Finger 

The only glacial lakes of which clear evi- 
dence is preserved are those which lay 
against the receding front of the latest ice 
sheet. But it should be clearly understood 
that every ice sheet which transgressed the 
state blocked the waters both during its ad- 
vance and its recession. 

We do not know what portions of the 
Valley-Heads moraine, which now consti- 
tutes the divide and forms the south limits 
of the basin, were left there by Prewiscon- 
sin ice sheets, but we may be quite sure that 
the lakes during the advance of even the 
last glacier were somewhat different in di- 
mensions and relations from those of the 
ice recession, which are the subject of our 
field study. We may also be sure that the 
earliest ice invasion found the series of 
parallel valleys with fairly mature and 
graded forms, and open clear through to 
their heads, and the larger ones heading in 
Pennsylvania. Those earliest  ice-im- 
pounded lakes must have been longer and 
deeper in the valleys than the lakes of later 
episodes, when the valleys had become more 
or less oceupied by glacial and lake de- 
posits. The lacustrine conditions of the 
episodes antedating the Laurentian ice re 


Fesruary 21, 1913] 

treat are as yet a matter of interesting 
speculation. One further difference may be 
noted between the ice-advance and the ice- 
recession lakes. The primitive lakes of the 
ice advance were the lowest in altitude and 
the most northerly in location and with the 
lowest outlets. As the ice advanced and 
closed the outlets the waters were lifted to 
higher levels and pushed southward. The 
last lakes of the ice advance being in the 
heads of the valleys were the smallest, the 
highest, the most detached and most south- 
erly. The lakes of ice-front recession had 
precisely the opposite history. 

Erosional Work.—The lake features that 
are preserved for our study may be dis- 
criminated as erosional and constructional. 
The erosion phenomena are the wave-cut 
cliffs. The glacial lakes were commonly too 
ephemeral or too unsteady in their levels 
to produce conspicuous erosion features. 
However, the larger and longer-lived lakes, 
as Newberry, Warren, Dana and specially 
Iroquois, have left many cliffs. 

Constructional Work.—Beach Ridges, 
embankments of sand and gravel, the bars 
and spits of wave and shore current con- 
struction, are the complement of the ero- 
sion work but are much more common and 
are frequently very prominent features. 
They have long been recognized by the 
people as the work of mysterious waters at 
high altitudes. For long stretches the 
beach ridges have been utilized for ‘‘ridge 
roads,’’ while the level stretches of wave- 
base along the beaches have afforded 
graded paths for railroads and canals. 
The strongest ridges are those of Whittle- 
sey and Warren in the Erie basin, and of 
Iroquois in the Ontario basin. 

Deltas: Of the several shore phenomena 
deltas are the most useful in proving the 
former presence and determining the alti- 
tudes of the extinct lakes. The production 
and size of the delta deposits are not wholly 



conditioned by the size of the receiving 
water body, but by the volume of the 
stream detritus relative to the distributing 
work of the receiving waters. Hence deltas 
may be built in small lakes, and these 
hung-up mounds and terraces of gravel on 
the valley sides serve well to mark the 
shores of lakes that were too ephemeral or 
too small to produce either cliffs or bars. 
Naturally the deltas occur in the courses of 
land streams, and a vertical succession of 
bisected delta terraces commonly indicate 
the falling levels of the lake. Fine ex- 
amples of these gravel terraces are found 
on the slopes of the Finger lakes valleys and 
some of them are conspicuous features, like 
the terraces by Coy glen, visible from the 
Cornell University campus. 

Delta Plains: Genetically related to 
deltas are the plains of gravel, sand or 
clay which may be extended in area and 
indefinite in limits. Such plains usually 
represent wave-base, perhaps twenty feet 
or less beneath the water surface. When 
partially eroded the remnants present ex- 
tended horizontal lines, excellent examples 
of which may be seen throughout the Mo- 
hawk Valley and about the Irondequoit 
Valley east of Rochester, clearly visible 
from the trains on the New York Central 
Railroad. Some of the larger valleys de- 
elining toward Lake Erie exhibit broad 
terraces at various levels. A fine display 
may be seen from the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road from East Aurora up to Machias. 
Evidently such lake plains can occur only 
north of the divide. Some plains similar 
in appearance in the valleys south of the 
divide fall into the categories of outwash 
plains or of river flood plains. 

Scores of examples of detrital plains 
built in glacial waters by the land drain- 
age might be cited. In the Erie basin the 
great plain in the Cattaraugus Valley be- 
low Gowanda and that built by Silver and 


Walnut creeks between Forestville and 
Silver Creek villages may be mentioned. 
A very fine illustration is found on the 
Rochester sheet. The area between the 
Genesee River and Irondequoit Bay and 
between Lake Ontario and Iroquois beach 
(‘‘Ridge Road’’) is the submerged delta 
plain of the Genesee River in Lake Iro- 
quois, now much dissected by present-day 
streams. The flat stretches about Ironde- 
quoit Bay bounded by the 400-feet contour 
are remnants of the silt plain which in I[ro- 
quois time filled the whole breadth of the 

Sandplains built by the ice-border gla- 
cial drainage are also numerous. ‘These 
include, for example, the plains on the 
west side of the Genesee Valley opposite 
Avon; the eroded area north and north- 
west of Geneva; the mesa-like plains in the 
Onondaga Valley at South Onondaga and 
northwest by Cedarvale; and the plain on 
which stands the business part of Syracuse. 

The very extensive and conspicuous sand 
plains and terraces on both sides of the 
Champlain and Hudson valleys, ineluding 
the great delta plain between Schenectady 
and Albany contributed by the Iromohawk 
River, were built in sea-level waters that oc- 
eupied this depression during the time of 
the ice removal. 

Clay Plains: Where the static waters 
were wide and deep so as to permit full 
assorting of the detritus, more or less clay 
was spread over the bottom in the more 
quiet water. The best example is found in 
the Iroquois Lake basin. In the St. Law- 
rence Valley east of Cape Vincent, Alex- 
andria Bay and Ogdensburg are extensive 
stretches of finely laminated and deep 
clays, the glacial origin of which is indi- 
eated by the abundance of lime econcre- 
tions. The heavy clay deposits of the Hud- 
son Valley belong in this class, but were 
deposited in sea-level waters, 

(N.S. Vou. XXXVII. No, 947 

Morainal Lakes.—This class includes the 
hundreds of lakes and lakelets (so-calleq 
ponds) now in existence that are scattered 
over the state and most numerous in the 
Adirondacks. They owe their existence to 
the blockade of valleys or drainage courses 
by glacial drift. The term drift-barrier 
lakes would be the more accurate name. 
Great numbers of such lakes have already 
been obliterated, mostly changed into 
swamps by marl and peat accumulation or 
by detrital filling; and all these lakes are 
doomed to similar ultimate extinction 
either by filling or draining. 

The Finger lakes probably owe their 
origin in part, at least in their upper lev- 
els, to drift barriers. 

Cataract Lakes.—The most singular and 
interesting lakes in the state lie in the 
courses of ancient ice-border rivers. These 
occupy the plunge basins of extinct cata- 
racts. Niagara to-day illustrates the 
method in production of a basin or bowl by 
the excavating work of a large cataract. 
If Niagara River were to be diverted above 
the fall so as to extinguish the cataract a 
rock basin holding a lake would be left in 
the amphitheater beneath what is now the 
‘*Horseshoe’’ falls. South and east of 
Syracuse the predecessors of Niagara 
River plunged over cliffs of the Onondaga 
limestone in their eastward flow and pro- 
duced several plunge basins with lakes, 
two of which outrival Niagara. 

The Jamesville Lake, four miles south- 
east of Syracuse, is a circle of emerald- 
green water about one eighth mile in diam- 
eter, and 60 feet deep, lying in a half- 
circle amphitheater with perpendicular 
rock walls 160 feet high. Two and one 
half miles east of Jamesville Lake, across 
the Butternut Valley, is Blue Lake, resting 
in a eataract basin and rock amphitheater 
equaling the Jamesville in dimensions but 
not so symmetrical. White Lake, one half 





Fepruary 21, 1913] 

mile north of Blue Lake and Round and 
Green lakes nine miles east of Syracuse, 
have basins with low and sloping walls be- 
eause the rocks are the soft Salina shales. 

These lakes were formerly regarded as 
mysterious and with their enclosing amphi- 
theaters were the cause of much specula- 
tion. Their nature was first announced by 
G. K. Gilbert and the first geologic de- 
scription in recognition of their true char- 
acter was by Quereau.*® 

These cataract lakes are very remarkable 
features, and representing as they do an 
ancient drainage of the Great Lakes area, 
held at high levels by the glacier front, 
they have a scientific and educational 
value not yet appreciated. 

Lakes of Complex Origin.—This title 
is intended to include Lake Ontario and 
the larger Finger lakes, as Cayuga and 
Seneca, the genesis of which is not entirely 
clear. The bottoms of these lakes are be- 
low sea-level, and we do not know what 
depth of drift lies yet deeper beneath the 
water. At Watkins a well boring pene- 
trated 1,200 feet without reaching rock, 
which shows drift at a depth 600 feet lower 
than the deepest part of the lake, and 750 
feet beneath sea-level. 

It seems probable that the valleys of the 
Finger lakes are blocked on the north, 
along the drumlin belt, by deep’ drift fill- 
ings, which ean be determined only by 
borings at close intervals. That these val- 
leys were gouged out by ice erosion, even 
by any number of continental ice sheets, 
seems to the writer extremely improbable. 
If they were so deepened, then the basin of 
Lake Ontario was probably also scooped by 
lee erosion. But if the Ontario basin is a 

““Topography and History of Jamesville 
Lake,’’ by E. C. Quereau, Geol. Soc, Am., Bull., 
Vol. 9, pp. 173-182, 1898. See also illustrated 
article by Fairchild in the 20th Ann. Rep., N. Y. 
State Geologist, 1900, pp. 126-129. 


depressed river valley, then the valleys of 
the Finger lakes must be fairly graded to 
the bottom of Ontario and be of similar 
origin. If the Ontario and other basins 
were excavated by river work and weather- 
ing, then it must be admitted that there 
have been great changes in the height and 
attitude of the land in late geologic time. 
But such changes are quite certain. It ap- 
pears probable that the valley-cutting oc- 
curred during a time of land elevation, and 
that the Laurentian and the Finger lakes 
basins are the complex product of land 
warping, land depression, and of glacial 
drift filling. Until the later Tertiary and 
Pleistocene diastrophic movements of the 
area including New York have been de- 
termined and the drift-buried valleys 
mapped by borings the deep lake basins 

may remain the subject of speculation and 



The story of the succession of the glacial 
waters that laved the receding front of the 
Laurentian glacier is a dramatic episode in 
the geologic history. Beginning in small 
pondlings of water in the heads of the val- 
leys along the north side of the morainic 
divide, the lakes were enlarged as the ice 
barrier receded, and were captured, 
drained, blended or otherwise affected by 
changes in outlets. The romantic story can 
not be satisfactorily told in words alone, 
but requires cartographic representation, 
and a series of maps has been constructed 
to show the better known and more striking 
changes in the ice recession and the lake 

The control of the glacial waters de- 
pended on the altitude of the lowest passes 
affording immediate outflow along with the 
relation of these passes to some ultimate 
escape. The waters of the Laurentian 
basin outflow to-day by the St. Lawrence 


(246 feet). With that escape blocked the 
lowest pass is at Rome (460 for the water 
surface) to the Mohawk-Hudson, and 
which for many thousands of years was the 
point of escape of the waters while the ice 
body lay over the St. Lawrence Valley. 
The next higher pass is at Chicago, which 
was occupied by the glacial outflow for a 
very long time, but to reach this ultimate 
escape the Ontario-Erie-Huron waters 
were compelled to cross Michigan by the 
valley of Grand River. 

The lowest pass leading southward in 
New York is at Horseheads, the head of the 
Seneca Valley, leading to the Chemung- 
Susquehanna with altitude of 900 feet. 
These three outlets, Horseheads, Grand 
Valley, Michigan and Rome were the chan- 
nels of ultimate eseape for the waters of 
western and central New York until the ice 
was removed from over Covey Gulf, north 
of the Adirondacks. In immediate control 
of the waters of central New York, the 
Seneeca-Cayuga depression and the Genesee 
basin, there were two localities, the salient 
or highland on the Batavia meridian and 
the highland in the Syracuse district. The 
earliest glacial waters in New York were 
held in the Genesee Valley, and this con- 
tinued for a long time as a distinct basin 
with several successive outlets. 

When we consider the glacial lakes and 
drainage in chronologic order we find that 
the earlier waters were confined in two 
separate basins, the Genesee and the Sen- 
eca-Cayuga. That for a brief time the 
Horseheads outlet (Lake Newberry) prob- 
ably occupied the Genesee Valley, and then 
for a long time the control was alternately 
west on the Batavia meridian or east in the 
Syracuse district. Then, when the ice 
front weakened on the Batavia salient the 
westward control was across Michigan 
(Lake Warren level). All the later flow, 
subsequent to Lake Warren, was eastward 

(N.S. Von. XXXVII. No. 947 

to the Hudson until the northward flow 
through Covey Gulf and the Champlain 
Valley to the Hudson. 

The most extended series of glacial lakes 
was in the Genesee Valley. This long val- 
ley, the surviving example of the Pre. 
pleistocene northward drainage, heads in 
Pennsylvania, at the terminal moraine, 
with altitude on the cols over 2,200 feet, 
and extends across the state to near Roch- 
ester, where it blends into the Ontario low- 
land at about 600 feet altitude. The fall 
of 1,600 feet in a right-line distance of 80 
miles gave opportunity for many sucees- 
sively lower outlets and water planes as the 
ice released passes on the east or west 
borders of the basin. Probably the glacial 
lake history of the Genesee Valley is more 
complicated than is now known, but no less 
than eighteen distinct outlets with corre- 
lating lake levels have been recognized. 
Then the drainage was directly into the 
sea (Gilbert Gulf), and finally into Lake 
Ontario. In this varied outflow the Gene- 
see glacial waters were contributed to sev- 
eral far-separated river systems. Named 
in order of time these are: (1) Pine creek- 
Susquehanna; (2) Alleghany-Ohio-Missis- 
sippi; (3) Canisteo-Chemung-Susque- 
hanna; (4) Erie basin (Lakes Whittlesey 
or Warren)-Michigan basin (Lake Chi- 
cago)-Mississippi; (5) Seneca Valley 
(Lake Newberry)-Susquehanna; (6) Mo- 
hawk-Hudson; (7) Champlain-Hudson; 
(8) Ocean-level waters direct; (9) Lake 
Ontario-St. Lawrence. Some of these 
systems received the Genesee Valley over- 
flow more than once, or by different im- 
mediate outflow, making the twenty stages 
in the drainage history as now understood. 
It would seem unlikely that any other val- 
ley in the world can approach the Genesee 
in the complexity of its drainage history. 

The series of seventeen maps depict the 
waning Laurentian ice sheet with the gla- 



Fesrvary 21, 1913] 

cial and marine waters that lay against its 
receding border. The local lakes in the 
side valleys of the Hudson depression and 
about the Adirondack highland are not 
indicated; and the ice border is more or less 
generalized. The latter is located defi- 
nitely along the lines of the ice-border 



lowed up the Hudson Valley, finally reach- 
ing the Champlain basin and eventually 
uniting with the oceanic waters of the St. 
Lawrence Gulf. The Hudson inlet thus be- 
eame the Hudson-Champlain inlet and 
finally the Hudson-Champlain strait, con- 
necting New York Bay with the Champlain 
Sea. When the ice front backed away 


Drainage Provinces 

Erie | Genesee | Seneca 

Mohawk | Black St. Lawrence Hudson- 

| 1. Three Primary | | 
2. Pennsylvania | 
Ive “3. Wellsville | | | | 
| 4. Belfast-Fillmore ee | | 
| 5. Portage-Nunda . ‘| ; 
"6. Dansville Several Primary 
Whittlesey 7. Mt. Morris-Genesee Newberry | 
8. Newberry Herkimer 
“9. Hall ‘Hall Schoharie | 
10. Vanuxem \Vanuxem Amsterdam | 
Wasvea ‘11. Avon ‘Montezuma —————|Forestport | 
12. Second Vanuxem Second Vanuxem Port Leyden 
13. Warren Warren | Mohawk | 
Dana 14. Dana Dana | rever | | | inlet 
15.) |__| | | 
16. Dawson Troquois Tromohawk 2 | 
17. Iroquois | Lroquois 
7 18. Second Iroquois. Second Iroquois | Second 
Erie | | Iroquois 
19. Gilbert Gulf Gilbert Guif Mohawk Gilbert |Hudson- 
(marine) (marine) | river | Champlain 
20. Ontario Ontario St. Lawronce | 
| | | river 

The accompanying chart shows the time 
relationship of the waters in the several 
basins of the state. The vertical spacing is 
only suggestive of the suecession of the 
waters and their geographic relations, and 
has little significance as to the duration of 
the episodes, 


During the waning of the latest ice sheet 
the Hudson-Champlain Valley and the St. 
Lawrence and Ontario basins were beneath 
the level of the ocean. As the ice front re- 
ceded northward the sea-level waters fol- 

from the Covey Hill promontory the gla- 
cial waters of the Ontario basin, the See- 
ond Iroquois, fell to and became confluent 
with the sea-level waters. The highest 
plane of the sea-level waters in the Ontario 
basin is relatively weak and has not been 
fully determined, but an inferior level of 
long persistence showing heavy bar con- 
struction has been mapped and named 
Gilbert Gulf. This stage, which includes 
the series of strong bars at Covey Hill post- 
office, is depicted in map number 16. 

On the parallel of New York City it ap- 


pears that the land at the time of the ice 
recession was at, or perhaps somewhat 
above, sea-level. Northward the land was 
increasingly below sea-level. The upraised 
and tilted water plane which indicates the 
amount of Pleistocene submergence or of 
Postpleistocene uplift rises steadily from 
zero or present sea-level in the district of 
New York City to over 750 feet on the 
Canadian boundary. 

The supposed absence of marine fossils 
in the Hudson Valley is doubtless due to 
the freshening of the waters by the copious 
glacial and land drainage. Until the epi- 
sode of the Second Iroquois the flood of 
glacial waters of the St. Lawrence basin 
was poured into the Hudson inlet at 
Schenectady. During the Second Iroquois 
the glacial flood was merely shifted to the 
north, and during all the long life of the 
Hudson-Champlain inlet all the fresh 
waters were forced south. However, ma- 
rine fossils are abundant in the Cham- 
plain Valley and are found at altitudes the 
planes of which carry over the Fort Ed- 
ward divide into the Hudson portion of 
the great valley. 

The detrital deposits formed in the ma- 
rine waters are large in volume and area. 
Up the Hudson as far as Catskill the ter- 
races of clay and sand are very conspicuous 
and afford the materials for brick manu- 
facture on an immense scale. North of 
Catskill, in the widening valley, the sum- 
mit sandplains lie back from the river, 
though lower terraces may yet be seen. 
While much of the deeper deposits and 
those in the middle of the valley or be- 
neath the present waters are of glacial 
origin, the heavy visible deposits are 
chiefly the deltas of tributary land 
streams, the greatest being that of the 
Iromohawk at Schenectady-Albany. 

From Troy to Glens Falls the borders of 
the lower valley are buried in a deluge of 

(N.S. Vou. XXXVII. No, 947 

sand, sloping down in terraces toward the 
axis of the valley. Saratoga lies in the 
midst of a vast area of detrital marine ac. 
cumulations. The slow lifting of the yal. 
ley out of the waters gave the latter an ex. 
cellent chance to produce level stretches 
and conspicuous terraces, the latter being 
more prominent as the steeper slopes ap- 
proach the middle of the valley. The 
Champlain portion of the great valley also 
holds vast sandplains, especially on the 
larger rivers, as the Ausable, Saranae and 
Big Chazy. 


The great changes in altitude of the sur. 
face of the state, both before and since the 
glacial occupation, has already been noted. 
The relation of the land movement to the 
burden of the ice cap should be briefly dis- 
cussed. If the earth’s crust is sensitive to 
long-continued pressures, then the thick- 
ness and weight of the ice body becomes an 
important matter. 

Again our lack of knowledge of the dura- 
tion and diastrophie effects of the Prewis- 
consin ice caps limits our discussion to the 
effects of the Laurentian ice body. 

At its maximum the thickness of the ice 
cap over the Adirondacks and the Cham- 
plain. Valley was probably not less than 
10,000 feet. This is equal in weight to 
over 3,000 feet of rock. Southward the ice 
decreased in thickness and weight to zero 
in the region of New York Bay. The 
amount of postglacial uplift increases 
from zero in the district of New York Bay 
to over 750 feet on the north boundary of 
the state. The correspondence between the 
thickness of the ice cap and the amount of 
postglacial uplift of the land is very strik- 
ing and significant. All about the Lauren- 
tian basin the tilted shores of the extinct 
glacial lakes afford us evidence of the dif- 
ferential uplift of the glaciated territory. 


FesBrRuARY 21, 1913] 

The average northward uplift or tilt of 
the marine plane in the Hudson and Cham- 
plain Valley appears to be about two and 
one fourth feet per mile, but some higher 
and as yet uncorrelated shore features in 
the Champlain Valley suggest a deeper 
submergence there and a larger rate of up- 
lift. It seems quite certain that the in- 
crease of the gradient northward that is ap- 
parent west of the Adirondacks must also 
occur on the east of that mountain mass. 
The differential uplift between the Iro- 
quois plane at Rome (460 feet) and at 
Covey Gulf, on the Canadian boundary 
(1,025? feet), is about 565 in a distance of 
149 miles in a direction 33° east of north, 
giving a slant of 3.8 feet per mile. The 
grade from Richland to East Watertown 
is toward 6 feet per mile. 

In east and west direction there is small 
deformation. The Iroquois plane at Ham- 
ilton, Ont., is given as 363 feet. At Rome 
it is 460 feet, which makes an eastward up- 
lift of 100 feet in 225 miles, 0.4 foot per 

The steadiness or uniformity of the tilted 
marine plane in the Hudson and southern 
part of the Champlain valleys is somewhat 
surprising. It does not seem probable that 
all land uplifting was deferred until the 
ice was removed from a stretch of 200 miles 
and that the rise and tilting was that of a 
rigid mass. It would seem more likely that 
as the weight of the ice sheet was slowly 
removed it was followed by a progressive 
wave of land uplift. However, the final 
result of an epeirogenie wave-like uplift 
might be a fairly uniform plane, simula- 
ting that produced by tilting of a rigid 


Land erosion since the ice sheet disap- 
peared is exhibited in wave cutting by the 
lakes and eanyon eutting by diverted 
streams. In postglacial ravines New York 


state excels. We may recall Niagara, the 
three ravines in the course of the Genesee, 
the Ausable chasm, Watkins glen. But 
there are great numbers of glens or steep- 
walled rock gorges throughout the state 
which are quite as interesting and instrue- 
tive as these, even if smaller and unadver- 

When applied to the effects of erosion in 
New York the term ‘‘postglacial’’ needs 
explanation, for much canyon cutting was 
effected while the ice sheet still lingered on 
territory of the state. For example, the 
Portage ravine of the Genesee began cut- 
ting while the ice front was not far away 
on the north. The Mount Morris ravine, 
the ‘‘High Banks,’’ was in the making 
while the ice covered Rochester. And the 
upper (south) section of the Rochester 
canyon was largely cut while Lake Iroquois 
waters prevented the excavation of the 
lower part of the gorge. Certainly a large 
part of the erosional work in central and 
western New York and the Hudson Valley 
occurred while the glacier still covered the 
northern lowlands of the state, including 
the Champlain Valley. 


The first question commonly asked by the 
non-geologist is, ‘‘how long ago?’’ We 
have to admit ignorance of any precise 
measure of geologic time. Geologists have 
learned to think in millions of years, and 
they are not greatly concerned with the 
precise duration of so short a period as the 
glacial or postglacial episode. However, 
precise knowledge is desirable and a yard- 
stick of geologic time must be sought. All 
attempts to use the present rate of canyon 
eutting or cataract recession as an index of 
time have failed, and no data yet discovered 
have much value. 

The history of the ice-front recession 
with its long succession of lakes and well- 


developed river channels compels the ex- 
tension of our estimates of the length of 
glacial time, and all studies on glacial geol- 
ogy have the same result. 

If we take 10,000 years as a moderate 
estimate of the life of Lake Ontario, then 
we must add an equal, and perhaps much 
greater, time for the lifting of the basin 
out of the marine waters. Then we must 
allow at least another 10,000 years for the 
duration of Lake Iroquois; and the 30,000 
years carries us back only to the time when 
the ice sheet was removed from the western 
part of the state. This appears to be but a 
minor portion of the time covered by the 
waning of the glacier, judging from the 
maps and the known history preceding the 
initiation of Lake Iroquois, 

If we assume 75,000 years as the time in 
the waning of the ice sheet, then we seem 
compelled to add an equal time for the in- 
vasion of the ice, with some time in addi- 
tion for the pause at the terminal moraine. 
Most glacialists will probably agree that 
150,000 years for the length of the latest or 
Wisconsin ice epoch is a fair estimate. 
And back of this we have the earlier and 
much longer glacial and _ interglacial 
epochs. The estimates of those best quali- 
fied to judge of the length of Pleistocene 
time are from 500,000 to 1,500,000 years. 


The Pleistocene phenomena of the state 
have been the subject of casual observation 
and publication for over half a century, 
and a bibliography would be too large to 
present here. But the glacial and Pleisto- 
cene is the youngest member of the geologic 
branches of study, and only in recent years 
has the New York State Museum financed 
the glacial study as a distinct line of field- 
work and publication. This assistance, 
however, has been generous and effective, 
as the numerous papers and handsome 

[N. 8. Vou. XXXVII. No, 947 

maps published since 1900, and especially 
since 1905, will bear witness. The only 
elaborate and expensive maps and text pub. 
lished under other auspices than the State 
Museum is the U. S. Geological Survey 
Folio 169, already cited above. A deserip- 
tion of the Moravia quadrangle by Carney 
was published in 1909 by Denison Univer. 
sity, with a sketch map in black and white. 

The more important Pleistocene publica- 
tions of the State Museum are Bulletins 
48, 83, 84 by Woodworth; 154 by Stoller, 
and 106, 111, 127, 145 (in part) and 160 
by Fairchild. Earlier papers by the writer 
are contained in the 20th Annual Report 
of the State Geologist, 1902, 21st Report, 
1903, and the 22d Report, 1904. Previous 
papers by the writer on the Pleistocene 
features of the state were published in the 
Bulletin of this society, beginning in 1895, 
and in other scientific journals. 

For effective future work it is desirable 
that some scheme or far-sighted plan 
should bring all the glacial studies of the 
state into harmonious cooperation for the 
large result. And also that a cartographic 
scheme should be adopted that will secure 
maps as uniform in convention and color as 

Two important subjects requiring syste- 
matic study are the moraines and the drift- 
buried valleys. The state should under- 
take the mapping of the buried valleys. 
It should employ a well-boring outfit to se- 
cure data for accurate profiles of the hard- 
rock surfaces beneath the drift north of the 
Finger lakes, and wherever the Preglacial 
valleys of scientific interest are obscured. 
This would be a unique and popular work 
for the State Museum. The expense of 
such exploration would not be large, while 
the scientific and educational value would 
be great. 

Another duty of the state is the preserva- 
tion intact of the Jamesville and Blue lakes 


Fesruary 21, 1913] 

cataract features. These splendid evi- 
dences of an ancient glacial drainage, ante- 
dating Niagara and corresponding in fune- 
tion, should be made state property and 
preserved for the people. They are scenic 
features of as much beauty and of much 
more educational value than Watkins Glen 
and some other state parks. 


Mr. ANDREW CARNEGIE has given $1,250,000 
to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advance- 
ment of Teaching. The gift was announced 
on the eleventh, at a meeting of the executive 
committee at its offices, 576 Fifth Avenue. 
The gift is in the form of 4 per cent. bonds 
and the income is to be set aside for special 
investigation relative to the purposes of the 
original foundation of pensioning college pro- 

The announcement of the executive com- 
mittee states that the money is to be devoted 
to the endowment of a Division of Educational 
Enquiry and makes permanent provision for 
studies hitherto conducted by the foundation 
out of its general fund. It is the plan of the 
trustees to proceed with the new endowment to 
make other studies similar to those already 
published concerning medical education and 
in particular to study legal education in its 
relation to the supply of lawyers and the cost 
of legal process. 

Mr. Carnegie’s letter to the trustees is as 

January 31, 1913. 
Gentlemen :—Appreciating the valuable results 
of the educational studies of the Foundation and 
being of opinion that it is desirable that a fund 
be established to secure such results and conduct 
such investigations as may aid you in your work 
and realizing that sufficient income may not now 
be available for that purpose, I hereby offer to the 
foundation the sum of one million and a quarter 


dollars four (4) per cent. bonds, to be held and 
used by the foundation upon the following terms: 

I. There shall be organized in the foundation am 
agency for the study of education and educational 
institutions, to be designated the Division of Edu- 
cational Enquiry. 

II. Any endowment or funds conveyed to the 
foundation for the use of such division shall con- 
stitute and be held as a special fund and the 
income alone be used and shall be accounted for 
separately from the general funds of the founda- 
tion and shall be devoted to the purposes herein- 
after named. 

ITI. It shall be the function of the Division of 
Educational Enquiry to conduct studies and to 
make investigations concerning universities, col- 
leges, professional schools, and systems of educa- 
tion generally, to investigate problems of educa- 
tion affecting the improvement of educational 
methods, the advancement of teaching, or better- 
ment of educational standards, and in general to 
investigate and to report upon those educational 
agencies which undertake to deal with the intel- 
lectual, social and moral progress of mankind and 
to publish such results as the trustees may consider 
of value. 

IV. The income of the Division of Educational 
Enquiry shall be used in the expenses incident to 
the performance of the work of the Division of 
Educational Enquiry as hereinbefore set forth, as 
may from time to time be undertaken and pub- 
lished by the foundation, but no part of the income 
of the fund or funds specifically given for the use 
of this division shall be used in the payment of 

It is my purpose to aid the trustees of the 
foundation to conduct their work upon broad lines 
and to enable them to obtain such information as 
will make the whole endowment of the Foundation 
of the greatest possible service to mankind. 

Yours truly, 


Tue forty-seventh annual meeting of the 
American Chemical Society will be held in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, March 25 to 28, inclu- 
sive. A meeting of the council will be held on 
March 24, at the Hotel Pfister, which is the 
hotel headquarters. The meetings will be held 
at Marquette University, Grand Ave. and 11th 


St., where every facility is offered for the 
meetings of the divisions in the center of Mil- 
waukee’s business section. 

Mr. C. H. Hall is chairman of the local com- 
mittee and Mr. P. J. Weber, secretary. The 
finance committee is under the chairmanship 
of Mr. G. N. Prentiss. Reception, registration 
and information committees are under the 
chairmanship of Mr. E. V. Manuel. The com- 
mittee on arrangement has Mr. H. W. Rohde 
as its chairman, Mr. F. E. Layman is chairman 
of the entertainment committee, and Mr. C. R. 
McKee is chairman of the committee on enter- 
tainment of ladies. 

The entertainment committee is planning an 
interesting program, which will be an un- 
doubted success, and special attention is being 
paid to preparations for the entertainment of 
ladies at such times as they can not participate 
in the regular program. Many manufacturing 
plants will be visited, and although no definite 
arrangements can be announced in the present 
circular, it may be stated that Milwaukee con- 
tains important works covering the tanning 
industry, manufacture of iron and steel, by- 
product coke and gas, manufacture of glue, 
manufacture of automobiles and automobile 
parts, automobile tires, packing industry, 
manufacture of refrigerating machinery, gaso- 
line engines, kerosene engines, and shops of 
railroad companies, most of which will be open 
to the members. 

All the divisions will meet. It is probable 
that the Biological Division will be duly 
organized at this meeting. Members are espe- 
cially asked to note the excursion to Madison, 
Wisconsin, on Friday, March 28. The So- 
ciety has a special invitation from President 
Van Hise, of the University of Wisconsin, and 
it is hoped that all those who attend the meet- 
ing will also go to Madison. The city is but 
seventy miles from Milwaukee and is of special 
interest, being the seat of the state capitol, 
the University of Wisconsin, the United States 
Forest Products Laboratory, and the location 
of a large beet-sugar refining plant, which, if 
present information is correct, will be in opera- 
tion at the time of the convention. 

All papers for the meeting must be in the 


(N.S. Vou. XXXVII. No, 947 

secretary’s hands on or before March 7 or in 
the hands of secretaries of divisions by March 
5, in order to be on the program. By vote of 
the council no papers can be presented at the 
meeting that are not printed on the final pro- 

The following are the addresses of the divi- 
sional and sectional secretaries: 

Industrial Division—M. C. Whitaker (pro tem.), 
Columbia University, New York City. 

Physical and Inorganic—R. C. Wells, U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Fertilizer—J. E. Breckenridge, Carteret, N. J. 

Agricultural and Food—G. F. Mason, care of 
Heinz Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Organie—Wm. J. Hale, University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Pharmaceutical—Frank R. Eldred, 3325 Ken- 
wood Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Rubber—Dorris Whipple, care of The Safety 
Insulated Wire and Cable Company, Bayonne, N. J. 

Biological—I. K. Phelps, Bureau of Mines, 40th 
and Butler Sts., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Chemical Education—J. F. Norris, Simmons Col- 
lege, Boston, Mass. 


Sm Davin Git has been elected the first 
honorary member of the Astronomical and 
Astrophysical Society of America. 

Sm Tien, F.R.S., the British 
chemist, has been elected a corresponding 
member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 
St. Petersburg. 

Tue gold medal of the Royal Astronomical 
Society has been awarded to M. Henri Alex- 
andre Deslandres for his investigations of solar 
phenomena and other spectroscopic work. 

Tue Langley medals of the Smithsonian 
Institution are to be conferred on M. Gustav 
Eiffel, the French engineer, and Mr. Glenn H. 
Curtiss, known for his development of the 

Mr. F. W. Hoper, of the Bureau of Ameri- 
ean Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, has 
been elected a corresponding member of the 
Société des Américanistes de Paris. 

Proressor Povutrox, F.R.S., Professor 
Bourne, F.R.S., and Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

21, 1913] 

F.RS., have been appointed to represent 
Oxford University at the International Con- 
gress of Zoology, to be held this year at 

Proressor A. Kerru has been elected presi- 
dent of the Royal Anthropological Institute of 
Great Britain and Ireland. 

Dr. E. B. Rosa, of the Bureau of Standards, 
gave the address of the retiring president be- 
fore the Philosophical Society of Washington 
on February 15. His subject was “ The Func- 
tion of Research and the Regulation of Na- 
tional Monopolies.” 

Proressok CHARLES LapwortH has expressed 
the desire to vacate the chair of geology in 
Birmingham University at the end of the cur- 
rent session. 

The Chemist and Druggist, London, reports 
the appointment, by the Pharmaceutical 
Chemistry Section of the Eighth International 
Congress of Applied Chemistry, of an interna- 
tional commission to continue the inquiry on 
“Variation in the activity of certain toxic 
drugs” and to report at St. Petersburg in 1915. 
The commission named is as follows: Austria, 
Professor Wilhelm Mitlacher; France, Pro- 
fessor E. Bourquelot; Germany, Professor H. 
Thoms; Great Britain, Francis Ransom, 
F.C.S.; Netherlands, Professor L. van Itallie; 
Switzerland, Professor A. Tscheich; United 
States, Dr. Rodney H. True. Three secre- 
taries for the commission were also appointed: 
European Continent, George P. Forrester, 
F.C.S.; Great Britain, Peter MacEnau, 
F.C.S.; United States, Otto Raubenheimer. 

Proressor H. Lovis Jackson, B.S. (Mass. 
Tnst., 05), who has held the position as assist- 
ant professor of chemistry in charge of foods 
at the University of Kansas since 1907, has 
accepted the position of state chemist of Idaho. 

He will go at once to Boise, where the labora- 
tory is located. 

Franz Scunemwer, Jr., ’09, instructor at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has 
accepted the position of sanitary expert to the 
department of surveys and exhibits, Russel 
Sage Foundation. For the lecture work that 
has been carried on by Mr. Schneider, W. C. 


Purdy, professor of biology at Geneva College, 
has been called and will be named assistant in 

THe Peruvian government has officially 
designated Mr. Charles H. T. Townsend 
director of entomological stations in addition 
to his title of government entomologist, ex- 
tending his contract to December 31, 1913. 
A central station of agricultural entomology is 
already established in temporary quarters at 
Lima, for the general investigation of insect 
plagues of agriculture in the central coast 
region. It is intended to maintain the branch 
station of agricultural entomology in the de- 
partment of Piura, for continuing the inves- 
tigation of cotton insects and their enemies. 
A station of medical entomology has been 
established at Chosica, where an investigation 
of the blood-sucking arthropods of the verruga 
zones has already been started to determine 
what species may be the carrier of verruga 
fever. Mr. E. W. Rust has been transferred 
from Piura to Lima, and Mr. J. G. Cateriano 
has been added to the force. Several gradu- 
ates from the School of Agriculture will be 
trained in agricultural entomology, and a 
graduate or two from the School of Medicine 
will be trained in medical entomology at 

THe Museum of Zoology, University of 
Michigan, will send a second expedition to 
Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, Michigan, 
in the summer of 1913, to continue the work 
started in that region in 1912. The 1913 work, 
like that of 1912, will be supported by Hon. 
George Shiras, and the results will be pub- 
lished under the same general title “ Results 
of the Shiras Expeditions to the Whitefish 
Point Region, Michigan.” 

Proressor C. E. McCuiuna, of the University 
of Pennsylvania, lectured before the Society of 
the Sigma Xi of that university on February 7, 
his subject being “ Sex Determination.” 

Tue first lecture of the year before the Ohio 
State University Chapter of Sigma Xi Society 
was given by Dr. A. W. Gilbert, Cornell Uni- 
versity, on the topic “ The Method and Scope 
of Genetics.” The officers of the Ohio State 


University Chapter of the Sigma Xi Society 
this year are Dean David S. White of the 
College of Veterinary Medicine, president; J. 
S. Hine, associate professor of biology, vice- 
president; F. C. Blake, professor of physics, 
treasurer, and James R. Withrow, professor of 
industrial chemistry, secretary. 

Proressor A. M. Tozzer, of Harvard Uni- 
versity, during the mid-year period, gave lec- 
tures before the various societies of the Archeo- 
logical Institute of America in the following 
places: St. John, Halifax, Quebec, Montreal, 
Ottawa, Toronto, Hamilton, Buffalo, Roches- 
ter, Auburn and Syracuse. 

Own February 7, Professor Edward L. Thorn- 
dike, of Teachers College, Columbia Univer- 
sity, delivered in the afternoon a lecture on 
“Social Instincts” before the department of 
psychology of the John Hopkins University; 
and, in the evening he addressed the Educa- 
tional Society of Baltimore on “ Retardation 
and Elimination in High School.” 

Proressor J. S. Pray, chairman of the de- 
partment of landscape gardening of Harvard 
University, gave recently two lectures at the 
University of Illinois on the subjects “ Func- 
tional City Planning” and “ Gardens Old and 

Monsieur J. M. F. pe Puuieny, ingenieur 
en chef des ponts et chaussées, et directeur, 
Mission Francaise d’Ingenieurs aux Etats- 
Unis, New York City, on February 11, de- 
livered an illustrated lecture on “ The Public 
Service of Roads in France,” before the gradu- 
ate students in highway engineering at Colum- 
bia University. 

On February 4 Professor G. H. Parker 
lectured before the Vassar Brothers’ Institute, 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., on “ The Evolution of 
the Nervous System.” 

Tue Alumni Association of the Michigan 
College of Mines has published its January 
number of The M. C. M. Alumnus, which is 
a memorial to Professor George A. Koenig, 
head of the department of chemistry, who died 
in Philadelphia on January 14. The number 
contains a full-page engraving from a late 


[N.S. Von. XXXVII. No, 947 

photograph, a biography and the addresses of 
the memorial service. 

Proressor Jutius Franz, director of the 
astronomical observatory at Breslau, has died 
at the age of sixty-five years. 

Dr. G. pe Lava, the well-known Swedish 
engineer and inventor, has died at the age of 
sixty-seven years. 

Tue Civil Service Commission invites at- 
tention to the regular spring examinations for 
scientific assistant, Department of Agricul- 
ture, to be held April 9 and 10. The entrance 
salaries are from $1,000 to $1,800. Examina- 
tions will be given in the following subjects: 
agronomy, dairying, entomology, farm eco- 
nomics, farm equipment, forage crops, general 
farm management, horticulture, library sci- 
ence, nutrition and calorimetry, plant breed- 
ing, plant pathology, pomology, seed testing, 
soil bacteriology, soil chemistry, soil survey- 
ing. An examination will be held on March 
10 for senior highway engineer, to fill vacan- 
cies as they may occur in this position in the 
office of public roads, Department of Agricul- 
ture, at salaries ranging from $2,000 to $2,400 
a year. 


Tue sum of $75,000 has been subscribed and 
given to Vassar College to endow a chair of 
physical science. 

In a recent issue of Science, mention was 
made of the bequests of Levi N. Stewart, of 
Minneapolis, to Dartmouth, Bowdoin and 
Bates Colleges. In addition Mr. Stewart be- 
queathed $75,000 to Colby College. 

Mr. Dan R. Hanna, proprietor of the Cleve- 
land Leader and News, has offered to the West- 
ern Reserve University ten thousand dollars a 
year for establishing a School of Journalism. 
The school will be coordinated with the other 
professional schools of the university, and will 
be its ninth department. Adelbert College, the 
college of arts and sciences for men, is the 
oldest department. It was founded as Western 

Fesruary 21, 1913] 

Reserve College in 1826, and refounded as 
Adelbert College of Western Reserve Univer- 
sity in 1882. The School of Medicine was 
founded in 1843, the School of Pharmacy in 
1882 and the College for Women in 1888. In 
1892, the School of Law, the Graduate School 
and the Dental School were founded. The 
Library School was founded in 1904. 

Tue actual number of law schools in the 
United States only increased from 102 to 118 
in the decade from 1902 to 1912, according to 
figures compiled at the U. S. Bureau of Educa- 
tion, but the number of students studying 
law in these schools increased from 13,912 to 
20,760 in same period. There were 3,524 
graduates of law schools in 1902 and 4,394 last 
year. Law students, having a collegiate degree, 
doubled in the ten years. Financially the law 
schools show a remarkable advance. The en- 
dowment funds increased from half a million 
to nearly two million dollars; the grounds and 
buildings tripled in value; and the total in- 
come in 1912 was $1,368,000, as against $523,- 
000 in 1902. The 387,000 volumes in the law- 
school libraries of 1902 had grown to 936,000 
in 1912. 

Dr. Freperic Lyman WELLS, assistant in 
pathological psychology at the McLean Hos- 
pital, is conducting a course of lectures and 
discussions on “ Pathological Psychology” at 
Harvard University. 

Dr. Frepertck G. Donnan, F.R.S., has been 
appointed to the chair of general chemistry at 
University College, London, recently vacated 
by Sir William Ramsay, F.R.S. 

Dr. J, Daxry, F.R.S., at present 
assistant professor at London University, has 
been appointed professor of biology at the 
University of Western Australia, Perth. Dr. 
Alexander D. Ross, of Scotland, has been ap- 
pointed professor of mathematics and pope 
in the same institution. 


Jupeine by the number of bequests, 
dowments directed toward that d, 

d en- 



furthering of medical research is an attractive 
field for philanthropic endeavor if not for 
public investment. As one of the rank and 
file who are working toward the advancement 
of medical science I would suggest that no 
method of encouraging such research has 
heretofore been wholly successful. The foun- 
dation of institutes for this purpose is effec- 
tive in case of the favored few who happen to 
be reached, but for most scientists (including 
the clinical variety), who are engaged in 
teaching in medical schools, who constitute 
the great proportion of the working force, 
such foundations are of little assistance. 

The most effective plan would seem to be 
that by which actual accomplishment is re- 
warded without unduly favoring any one. 
Such a result could be achieved by the simple 
expedient of endowing the periodicals de- 
voted to the publication of research so that 
contributed articles could be paid for accord- 
ing to their merit. Such an arrangement 
would obviate the most discouraging feature 
of working in many institutions, the feeling 
that unusual effort is, from a selfish point of 
view, not merely futile but even detrimental, 
in that leisure for reading, recreation and 
family life is sacrificed without compensating 

The plan in operation would be simplicity 
itself. Rewards would go automatically to 
those who earned them. The chief difficulty 
seemingly would be to secure editorial boards 
fair minded enough to decide justly upon the 
merits of each contribution, but that difficulty 
would be by no means insurmountable. In 
any case to assign a value to a given piece of 
research would be much easier than to fore- 
cast which of a dozen men would be accom- 
plishing the most effective work ten years 
later, a forecast which, as a matter of fact, has 
to be made in each instance, before a desirable 
research or teaching position can justly be as- 

It is recognized that the best endeavor can 
not be bought, and that the best rewards of a 
scientific career are not pecuniary—“ but that 
is another story!” Whatever merit there is 
in financial encouragement would seem best 


to be secured by some such as the foregoing 
plan. R. G. 


To THe Epiror or Science: I should be glad 
to learn what grain and what region were 
meant by “grana de Brasile” in the 1193 
commercial treaty between the “ Bononienses” 
and “ Ferrarienses ” copied by Muratori into 
Vol. 2 of his “ Antiquitates Italice,” p. 844. 
He mentions (p. 488) the repetition of the 
same item in a “ charta” of 1198. 

Capmany’s Spanish work on the early ship- 
ping arts, etc., of Barcelona copies in Vol. 2 
several thirteenth century Catalan tariff lists, 
three of which (the earliest 1221) for that and 
other parts, respectively mention, among mis- 
cellaneous commodities, “ Carrega de Brasill,” 
“ faix de bresil” and “cargua de brazil.” 
The usual impost seems to have been two 
solidos. One of these lists mentions “ grana ” 
unqualified. There seems nothing to indicate 
what material was or was not meant, except 
the slight negative value of that reference. 

It is interesting to see the variations of 
orthography in these lists, duplicating those 
of the Brazil west of southern Ireland on the 
fourteenth and fifteenth century maps, though 
Fra Mauro adds berzil and the more southern 
apparently imitative Brazils (Terciera and 
others) exhibit further vagaries of spelling. 
The first appearance of Brazil in geography 
seems to be, so far as reported, south of west 
of Limerick on the 1325 map of Dalorto. 

Was it thence that the “grain” of 1193 
and 1198 was supposed to have come? It ean 
hardly be an error for dyes or dye woods, 
though both grain and dye wood may have 
been associated with the idea and name of 
Brazil, as we still write both India-ink and 
India-rubber. W. H. Bascock 


To THE Eprror or Science: In former times 
when one wished to institute a comparison be- 
tween the various classes of liars, he was ac- 
customed to say “he lies like a horse-thief,” 
or “he lies like a tombstone.” Now, however, 


(N.S. Vou. XXXVII. No. 947 

those of us who are connected with the teach- 
ing profession are given to saying “ he lies like 
a testimonial.” 

It seems a little too bad that one’s natural 
tendency towards mendacity should be ac- 
celerated by no less a person than Uncle Sam. 
Some time ago I was asked to fill out a blank 
for an applicant for a teaching position in the 
Philippine Islands, and among other questions 
asked me were the following: 

8. Is the applicant now, or has he ever been, 
addicted to the use of intoxicating beverages, 
morphine or opium? 

14. Can you state positively that the applicant’s 
character is unimpeachable, and his reputation for 
sobriety and morality unquestionably good? 

The printed directions state that all ques- 
tions must be answered and that to say “I 
don’t know” is unsatisfactory. Now I feel 
confident that the young lady who did me the 
honor to ask me for a testimonial has not been 
addicted to the use of intoxicating beverages, 
morphine, or opium; but I could not make this 
statement as a positive fact about her or any 
other acquaintance of mine. Again, I believe 
the applicant’s character to be unimpeachable, 
but I can not state positively that such is the 
ease. This is a world of surprises and disap- 
pointments. I am most optimistic, but not 
sufficiently so to answer these questions in the 
affirmative. May we not hope that our new 
president-elect will take measures to relieve the 
tender consciences of college professors from 
the great strain that these government blanks 
put upon them? 



Richtlinien des Entwicklungs- und Verer- 
bungsproblems. By Atrrep Greil, Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy, Innsbruck. Jena, Gus- 
tav Fischer. 1912. 2 parts. 

The crude evolutionism of Bonnet gave 
place to the epigenesis of C. F. Woeff, and 
this, too indefinite to give sufficient explana- 
tion of the phenomena of cell differentiation, 
adaptation and inheritance, in turn was sup 
planted by a newer preformationism, at first 

Fepruary 21, 1913] 

also rather crude, but later becoming more 
and more refined, until finally it has become 
almost if not quite metaphysical. To Pro- 
fessor Greil, however, preformationism in any 
of its forms is a stone of stumbling and a 
rock of offense, and in the two volumes now 
before us he attempts to recall the feet of the 
faithful to the paths of epigenesis, by what he 
terms, with insistence, a formal or descriptive 
analysis of the phenomena of development. 

He starts, however, with a basic proposition, 
“the true and fundamental principle of ra- 
tional comparative embryology,” which he ex- 
presses in the words of Haeckel, “ Aus Gleich- 
artigem Ungleichartiges.” He is thus an 
epigenesist of the epigenesists and his method 
of analysis is to proceed from this assumed 
truth to reconstruction of the embryological 
history. The first part of the treatise is prac- 
tically a reprint of a paper recently published 
in the Zoologische Jahrbiicher’* and is a de- 
scription of the phenomena of development as 
seen by a thorough-going epigenesist, who is 
also a firm believer in the biogenetic law. 
In the second part special problems, such as 
adaptation and variability, inheritance and 
sex-determination, are similarly surveyed and 
in a somewhat extended appendix the various 
theories of Roux, R. Hertwig, Rabl, Mehnert, 
Kassawitz, Fick and Godlewski are reviewed 
and criticized, with the same richness of dia- 
lectie that pervades the entire work. 

For the author wields the pen of a ready 
writer, which unfortunately frequently leads 
him into unnecessary repetitions and verbosi- 
ties, which extend over seven hundred pages 
what might have been clearly and forcibly 
presented in perhaps half the space, to the 
greater comfort and satisfaction of the reader. 
But even with due allowance for redundancies, 
the ground covered is so extensive as to pre- 
clude the possibility of a review or even a bare 
enumeration of the various questions dis- 
cussed, and it must suffice to repeat that the 
main thesis of the work is the all-sufficiency 

"A. Greil, ‘‘Ueber allgemeine Richtlinien des 
Entwicklungs- und Vererbungsprobleme,’’ Zool. 
Jahrb. Ba. XXXI., Abt. fiir allgem. Zool. und 
Physiol. der Tiere, 1912. 


of epigenesis. That is the one and only power, 
and formal analysis is its prophet. Professor 
Greil presents a strong case, but it must be 
confessed that he does not and, indeed, in the 
present state of our knowledge, he can not yet 
remove the difficulty that has forced so many 
thinking zoologists into preformationism, 
namely, an explanation of how differentiation 
is possible by epigenesis. One may glibly 
talk of cellular interaction, of effects produced 
by quantity and quality of the food and by the 
outside environment, and of the determina- 
tion resulting for the chemical constitution 
of the ovum, but until we have concrete evi- 
dence of how these or other factors act in the 
production of differentiation epigenesis will 
continue to be no explanation. And, after 
all, if the last named of the above factors be 
admitted, is it not merely carrying preforma- 
tionism back to its ultimate limits and making 
it identical with epigenesis? 
J. P. MoM. 

Origin and Antiquity of Man. By G. 
FrepericK Wricut, D.D., LL.D., F.G.S.A. 
Oberlin, Ohio, Bibliotheca Sacra Company. 
1912. Pp. xx+ 547. Illustrated. 

As an introduction Professor Wright dis- 
cusses the origin and antiquity of the earth. 
He inclines toward a very moderate estimate 
of the length of geologic time and hence of 
the human period, which began when man 
became a tool-user. To him the ancient 
civilizations of Babylonia, Egypt, Crete and 
Central Asia were of a high order. These 
rare blossoms in the springtime of history 
were each nurtured by exceptional geniuses 
instead of being the product of a gradual 

The diversity of languages is invoked as an 

aid in the measurement of man’s antiquity. 
In view of the rapidity with which children 
when isolated invent a language of their own, 
the author believes the evidence of an ex- 
tremely great antiquity of the human race 
drawn from the diversity of language at the 
dawn of history to be far from conclusive. 

In the chapter on the “ Origin of the Races 
of Europe” (p. 105), the author states that 


the stone implements of the Scandinavian 
shell heaps “have usually been polished and 
sharpened by rubbing; this justifying their 
assignment to the ‘smooth stone age.’” The 
fact is, artifacts of polished stone characterize 
a later stage and not the early shell-heap 
phase of the neolithic. Neither do the 
“chipped flint daggers of exquisite form ” and 
the perforated diorite axes (pp. 125-126) come 
from the “kitchen middens,” but from the 
stone cist burials of a later epoch. The state- 
ments that the Cro-Magnon race is of neo- 
lithie age (p. 115) and that it did not appear 
until after the mammoth had become extinct 
(p. 116) would not be admitted by the best 
authorities. Cro-Magnon is paleolithic and 
the mammoth lived on until the close of the 
Magdalenian, as attested by the mural art of 
the caverns, especially at Font-de-Gaume; and 
hence was a contemporary of the Cro-Magnon 
race. In the same paragraph by inference 
one is led to suppose that the engraved figure 
of a reindeer from Thayngen is the work of 
a neolithic craftsman; when on the contrary 
it is paleolithic. 

As might be expected of Professor Wright, 
much space is devoted to man and the Glacial 
period, not only in the old world, but also in 
the new. His estimates of the length of time 
that has elapsed since the beginning of the 
Glacial period are moderate. He believes that 
the Glacial period was practically a unit, 
there being four phases instead of four dis- 
tinct epochs, thus differing from some of the 
most noted living glacialists. The cause of 
the Glacial period is assigned to land eleva- 
tion and its disappearance to a subsidence, 
factors which probably played a réle in the 
great climatic drama, but which might have 
been correlated with other factors such as the 
changing condition of the sun itself and in 
the atmosphere. 

But little space is given to cultural and 
somatic evolution, in which field many impor- 
tant results have recently been achieved. The 
Magdalenian polychrome frescoes on the cav- 
ern ceiling at Altamira are referred to as of 
Aurignacian age, an error into which Sollas 
(“ Ancient Hunters”) also fell. 


Vou. XXXVII. No. 947 

The author’s point of view might possibly 
be best reflected in a few quotations: “Our 
earliest knowledge of man is of a being fully 
formed and in possession of all the faculties 
of his kind” (p. 389). “On the important 
question of man’s first arrival on this planet 
we may for the present possess our minds in 
peace, not a trace of unquestionable evidence 
of his existence having been found in strata 
admittedly older than the Pleistocene” (pp. 
341-2). “The simple arithmetical calcula- 
tions made above show that when once started, 
the dispersion over the world, the diversifica- 
tion of the races, the differentiation of lan- 
guages, and the development of ancient civil- 
ization may easily have come about in the 
course of four or five thousand years, if not 
in half that time, and that the extension of 
prehistoric time for eight thousand years 
affords superabundant opportunity for the 
growth and development of all the peculiari- 
ties and institutions of man as first made 
known to us at the dawn of history” (p. 493). 
“The antiquity of man therefore so far as 
the question depends upon his connection with 
the Glacial epoch, is not proved to be, even 
when we allow a generous margin, greater 
than twelve or fifteen thousand years” (p. 

The chapter preceding the “Summary and 
Conclusion ” treats of “The Biblical Scheme.” 
The work has the welcome merit of an en- 
gaging style, possessing to a degree the charm 
of the author’s personality. Another attract- 
ive feature is the “Appendix” of copious 
notes and references. 

Georce Grant MacCurpy 




Many years ago I published in the Journal 
of the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia 
an account of the fauna of the Oregon desert 
region during Pleistocene time. This account 
was based upon a large collection of fossils 
sent me for the purpose by the late Professor 
E. D. Cope, who, with his assistants and 4 

Fesruary 21, 1913] 

few other naturalists, had brought this val- 
uable material together. By far the greater 
part of this consisted of the fossil bones of 
birds, the mammals and fish having been 
described by Professor Cope in The American 
Naturalist and elsewhere. 

The results of my share of the work have 
long since passed into the literature of the 
subject; and, as these are fully set forth in 
my academy memoir, they need not be espe- 
cially reviewed in this place. It may only be 
noted that I announced, for the first time, the 
discovery of a long list of birds, based on the 
fossils referred to, the majority of which co- 
incided with species and genera of existing 
forms, while a somewhat formidable array 
were extinct and new to science. 

At the time my examination was made, the 
skeletons of existing birds at my command 
were entirely inadequate for the purposes of 
making reliable diagnoses and _ references. 
During the past twenty years, however, such 
material has been vastly increased in our mu- 
seums, especially in the U. S. National Mu- 
seum, and for the use of this in the present 
connection I am much indebted. 

Several years ago, what may be collectively 
designated as the Cope collection from the 
aforesaid region was purchased by the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History in New 
York City for its paleontological department ; 
and only a few months ago Dr. W. D. Mat- 
thew, the curator of that department, shipped 
me to Washington the entire collection for 
the purpose of a complete revision. This task 
is now practically completed, and the object 
of the present article is simply to publish an 
advance abstract as an announcement of the 
additional birds of the region in question, the 
fossil remains of which I have found to exist 
in the aforesaid collection, and a small collec- 
tion from the same localities (Silver and Fos- 
sil lakes), which belongs to the U. S. National 
Museum. The new species will be fully de- 
scribed in the forthcoming contribution on 
the subject, accompanying which will be found 
upwards of 600 figures illustrating the entire 
avifauna of the Pleistocene of Oregon, in so 
far as their fossil remains are concerned. 



The list is as follows, each species in it, with 
one exception, being announced for the first 

. Colymbus parvus (extinct). 
. Podilymbus magnus (extinct). 
. Centrocercus urophasianus. 
. Mergus americanus? 
. Mergus serrator. 
. Mergus sp.? 
Marila americana? 
. Marila valisineria. 
9. Marila marila. 
10. Marila affinis? 
11. Marila collaris? 
12. Charitonetta albeola. 
13. Histrionicus histrionicus. 
14, Polysticta stelleri. 
15. Erismatura jamaicensis. 
16. Branta c. hutchinsi? 
17. Branta c. minima? 
18 Branta bernicla. 
19. Olor columbianus. 
20. Olor buccinator. 
21. Olor matthewi (extinct). 
22. Ardea herodias. 
23. Botaurus lentiginosus. 
24, Aquila chrysaétos. 
25. Haliwetus leucocephalus. 

Erismatura jamaicensis has been previously 
announced by Mr. L. H. Miller in the Bulletin 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Cali- 
fornia. The three new extinct birds found, 
and the descriptions of them, will appear when 
the memoir is published. 


November 18, 1912 


THE seventh annual meeting of the Entomolog- 
ical Society of America was held at Cleveland, 
Ohio, December 31 and January 1, in the audi- 
torium of the Normal School. The meetings were 
all well attended and enthusiastic. The following 
papers were presented: 

C. Berren, Lake Forest University: An Inter- 
esting Feature in the Venation of Helicopsyche, 
the Molannide and the Leptoceride. 

In the trichopterous genus Helicopsyche radius 
of the fore wing is found in primitive condition, 
i. e., R, is simple and the sector is dichotomously 
branched. The homology is but slightly obscured 


by the fact that the cross vein r—m is in direct 
line with the distal part of R,, making the latter 
appear to arise from M. It is suggested that the 
same interpretation should be made in the case of 
the Molannide and the Leptoceride. In these 
families R, has more definitely assumed relations 
with M, with which vein its distal part may be 
wholly fused. This interpretation is based not 
only on comparison with Helicopsyche, but also 
upon the fact that it leaves the ‘‘corneous point’’ 
within cell R,, where it occurs in all other families 
if it oceurs at all. The venation of the hind wings 
of these forms is similarly interpreted. 

Lucy W. SmirH, Mt. Holyoke College: Mating 
and Egg-laying Habits of Perla immarginata. 
In introduction the paper gives a general de- 

scription of the method of keeping adult stoneflies 
under observation in captivity, and of handling 
their eggs. This is followed by a detailed account 
of the genital armature, copulation and egg-laying 
habits of a single species, Perla immarginata. 

ALVAH PETERSON, University of Illinois: Head 
and Mouth Parts of Cephalothrips yucce. 

A preliminary report on the asymmetry of the 
mouth-parts of Thysanoptera. A detailed deserip- 
tion of the anatomy of the mouth-parts and head 
eapsule of Cephalothrips yucca, a species belong- 
ing to the suborder Tubulifera, was given. Nu- 
merous details and parts heretofore undescribed 
as to mandibles, hypopharynx, epipharynx, arms 
of tentorium, ete., were shown. Similar observa- 
tions were made on Anthothrips verbasci in order 
to verify results found in Cephalothrips yucce. 

Comparing the work done by H. Garman on 
Limothrips cerealium, a species of Terebrantia, 
with the work done by Muir and Kershaw on a 
species of Tubulifera, a difference in interpreta- 
tion exists as to whether the asymmetrical parts 
are mandibles or maxille. Muir and Kershaw 
interpret the asymmetrical parts as maxille. 
Observations made by the writer on two species 
of Tubulifera verifies their position in general. 
The writer expects to continue his observations on 
species of the suborder of Terebrantia to deter- 
mine if possible whether the interpretation of H. 
Garman is correct or not. 

J. E. WopsEDALEK, University of Wisconsin: Life 
History and Habits of Trogoderma tarsale, a 
Museum Pest. Read by title. 

LEONARD HASEMAN, University of Missouri: Life 
Cycle and Development of the Tarnished Plant 
Bug, Lygus pratensis Linn. Presented by the 


[N.S. VoL. XXXVII. No, 947 

Owing to the very serious injury to peach and 
pear in the early spring which seemed to be due 
to the work of the tarnished plant-bug, the writer 
has undertaken a careful study of the life cycle, 
habits and development of this insect. The work 
has been carried through the late summer and fal] 
months and will be continued throughout the fol- 
lowing spring and summer. 

In this work it has been found that the tar- 
nished plant-bug breeds largely upon various 
flowering weeds, such as wild asters, daisies and 
mare’s tail (Erigeron canadensis). The tarnished 
plant-bug deposits its eggs in the blossoms of the 
host plant and not in the tissue of the leaves or 
stems. These eggs hatch in from five to seven 
days and the insect passes through five distinct 
nymphal stages in its development in the place of 
four, as other writers have maintained. The insect 
remains in each nymphal stage for about the same 
length of time and completes its growth in from 
thirty to thirty-five days. 

Victork E. SHELFORD, Uniwersity of Chicago: The 
Ontogomy of Elytral Pigmentation in Cicindela. 
The pigment develops in the form of a faint 

pattern, somewhat variable, but with certain 
lighter areas occurring in the same general posi- 
tion in several species. These lighter areas lie 
between the trachee and in certain transverse 
bands; their position corresponds to those of cer- 
tain white markings of Ethiopian and Oriental 

N. L. University of Illinois: The 
Tracheation of the Pupal Wings of some Sa- 

A method of preparing permanent mounts of 
lepidopterous pupal wings was described. The 
pupal wings were removed in the customary man- 
ner and the specimens secured, floated upon clean 
water to straighten the wings and remove any dirt 
which might adhere to them. Then they were 
placed on a clean, untreated glass slide, smoothed 
and allowed to dry, without further treatment. 
The result was a transparent mount showing all 
the tracheoles as well as the trachew. Some of 
these mounts were used as lantern slides, giving 
clear images on the screen. 

It was shown that a greater amount of varia- 
tion was found in the pupal wings than in the 
adult wings. The homologies between the trachee 
and veins, of the specimens shown, was indicated. 

L. B. Watton, Kenyon College: Studies on the 
Mouth-parts of Rhyparobia maderie@ (Blattide) 

Fesruary 21, 1913) 

with a consideration of the Homologies existing 

between the Appendages of the Hexapoda. 

The question as to the homologies existing 
among the paired appendages of the Hexapoda 
has received attention from various investigators, 
and in particular from Hansen, Heymons, Borner, 
Verhoeff and Escherig, none of whom, however, 
have progressed far toward a satisfactory solu- 
tion of the problem. In general it has been ac- 
cepted that the stipes and mentum corresponded 
to the thoracic and abdominal coxe while the 
maxillary and labial palpi were equivalent to the 
trochanter, femur, ete., of the functional leg. 

Studies on Rhyparobia madere, the ‘‘ giant cock- 
roach’’ from Panama, particularly of 10 mm. and 
12 mm. embryos, as well as other investigations 
in connection with the appendages of the Thysan- 
ura, make it evident that the typical appendage 
(mouth parts, thoracic, abdominal, caudal) of the 
Hexapoda consists of seven definite areas best 
represented by the maxille with the galea, lacina, 
ectostipe,’ endostipe, ectocardo, endocardo and 
palpus. Furthermore, the palpus should be homol- 
ogized with the stylus of the thoracic and abdom- 
inal coxe and not with the functional leg, inas- 
much as both palpus and stylus are appendages 
of homodynamous areas (ectostipe, ectomentum, 
meron) while the leg is an appendage of the area 
(endocoxa) corresponding to the endostipes. 

The facts noted suggest the origin of the bira- 
mose appendage of the Hexapoda directly from 
the parapodium of the Polycheta, the notopodium 
and neuropodium arising in connection with the 
dorsal and ventral bundles of sete and corre- 
sponding to the outer (ectal) and inner (endal) 
groups of sclerites as outlined above. It would 
thus appear that the Arthropoda are a polyphyletic 
group, and that the relationship between the ap- 
pendages of the Hexapoda and Crustacea is a 
more remote one than generally accepted in con- 
nection with the studies of Hansen and Borner. 

The historical development of the problem as 
well as the presentation of the facts which would 
Seem to establish the views here advanced, will 
appear in the completed paper, of which this is a 

partial summary. 
JAMES ZETEK, Sanitary Commission Canal Zone: 

“The prefixes ‘‘ecto’’ and ‘‘endo’’ have been 
utilized in an attempt to establish a better nom- 
enclature, while minor changes have been made in 
the terminology of older parts, e. g., ‘‘ectostipes’’ 
‘S a more cumbersome term than ‘‘ectostipe.’’ 



Determining the Flight of Mosquitoes. Read by 

A. RiILEy, Cornell University: Some 
Sources of Laboratory Material for Work on 
the Relation of Insects to Disease. 

The demand for at least elementary courses on 
the relation of insects to disease brings up the 
question as to available laboratory material. 
There is comparatively little difficulty in obtaining 
the parasitic mites, ticks, lice, house-flies, mosqui-- 
toes and fleas in their various stages, but it is 
usually assumed that most of the pathogenic Pro- 
tozoa are tropical species and that nothing can be 
substituted for them in laboratory work. As a 
matter of fact, a number of insect-borne Protozoa 
and worms occur in this country and, together 
with other blood parasites whose life-history is less 
better known, are available for laboratory work. 
The species discussed were Trypanosoma lewisi, a 
widely distributed parasite of brown rats; Trypan- 
osoma rotatorium from the frog; the related 
Crithidia from the ‘‘sheep tick’’; Herpetomonas 
from the house-fly; Monocystis from the seminal 
vesicles of the earthworm as introductory to the 
study of the Hemosporidia; Lankesterella ran- 
arum, Hemogregarina sp.; Proteosoma, Halter- 
idium, Babesia hilaria in the blood of the crow 
and English sparrow, and Dipylidium caninum, 
the double-spored tapeworm of dogs, cats and 

Y. H. Tsou and S. B. Tracker, University of 
Illinois: The Homology of the Body Sete of 
Lepidopterous Larve. 

This paper consisted (1) of a statement of the 
difficulties involved in homologizing the body sete 
of these larve, (2) of a consideration of the 
serial homology of the sete of the different seg- 
ments and (3) of the specific homology in the 
larger groups. Greek letters were employed to 
designate the sete in order to obviate the con- 
fusion which has arisen from the use of numbers 
in different ways by different authors. The pro- 
thorax of Hepialus was shown to represent the 
primitive arrangement of sete and was used as a 
type for determining the homology of the sete on 
the different segments. The authors had studied 
many species and gave figures of four: Hepialus 
lectus and H. humuli of the Jugate, Pseudano- 
phora arcanella of the Tineide and Mamestra 
picta of the Noctuide. Each of these was com- 
pared with the type, segment for segment. This 
is the first time the sete of the prothorax have 
been homologized with those of the other segments. 


ANNA H. Morcan, Mt. Holyoke College: Eggs 
and Egg-laying of May-flies. 

This study of May-fly eggs was made to deter- 
mine the relative fecundity of different species. 
This led to the study of a series of elaborate 
sculpturings found upon the chorion. In several 
species the chorion bears long thread-like exten- 
sions which terminate in viscid spheres or disks. 
These seem to help buoy up the eggs. Threads 
two and three inches long were found. In nature 
these threads are probably entangled in sticks and 
vegetation and this prevents the eggs from being 
covered by silt. In the ovaries of half-grown 
nymphs these structures are well defined and are 
of aid in connecting up the life histories where 
rearing is impossible. 

HERBERT OSBORN, Ohio State University: Notes 
on Cicadide with Especial Reference to the Ohio 

Cicadas constitute a conspicuous element in 
insect fauna and their relation to varied forest 
conditions is discussed especially for the species 
occurring in Ohio. The origin and function of 
the tympanal organs present problems for study 
and the suggestion is made that this structure is 
primarily a secondary sexual character functioning 
in sexual excitation and only incidentally a sound- 
producing organ. 

FrRaNK E, Lutz, American Museum of Natural 
History: On the Biology of Drosophila ampelo- 

This insect is remarkably useful in laboratory 
work, since it can be kept going throughout the 
year on bananas as food and its short life-cycle 
(about ten days to two weeks) enables one to get 
a large number of generations. Sexual difference 
characterizes the insect. Not only do the sexes 
differ in adult color and structure, but they differ 
in the duration of the immature stages, in their 
reactions to light and the age at death. 

E. P. FEut, State Entomologist, New York: Ob- 
servations on the Biology of a Blow-fly and a 

A study of Phormia regina Meign. and Sarco- 
phaga georgina Wied. was undertaken primarily 
for the purpose of obtaining data which could be 
used as a basis for estimating the period a human 
body had laid exposed to the elements in mid- 
summer. Our knowledge of these two species is 
summarized and original data are given on the 
habits and duration of the various stages under 
known climatic conditions. The egg of Phormia 
and the three larval stages and puparium of both 


(N.S. Vou. XXXVIT. No, 947 

species are described and a bibliography of each 

M. PatcoH and WILLIAM C, Woops, Maine 
Agricultural Experiment Station: A Study in 
Antennal Variation. Read by title. 

ALEX. D. MACGILLIVRAy, University of [Illinois: 
Propharynz and Hypopharynez. 

The pharynx after entering the occipital fora- 
men makes a distinct bend toward the mouth. In 
the region of the clypeus it divides transversely, 
one half passes to the clypeo-labral side, the other 
half to the labial side of the mouth, while folds 
extend along each lateral margin and unite with 
the mandibles and maxille. The name of pro- 
pharynx is proposed for the portion lying adja- 
cent to the clypeo-labral part of the mouth and 
hypopharynx is used for the portion lining the 
labial portion. The propharynx consists of three 
parts: frontal lobe, epipharynx and fulcrum. The 
frontal lobe is usually wanting in sucking insects, 
the epipharynx is modified into a tongue or 
piercing organ and the fulcrum into a cuticular 
supporting plate. In the muscids the epipharynx 
and fulerum are located outside of the mouth, the 
proximal end of the fulcrum is attached to the 
distal margin of the labrum. The hypopharynx 
also consists of three parts: lingua, superlingua 
and pharangial sclerites. 

T. L. WAsHBURN, State Entomologist, Minnesota: 
A Few Experiments in Photographing Living 

THomMas J. HEADLEE, New Jersey Agricultural 
Experiment Station: Some Facts Regarding the 
Influence of Temperature and Moisture Changes 
on the Rate of Insect Metabolism. 

While connected with the Kansas State Experi- 
ment Station at Manhattan, the writer found by 
subjection of different groups of the southern 
grain louse (Toxoptera graminum Rodani) to vari- 
ous constant temperatures under constant atmos- 
pheric moisture conditions and other groups to 
various constant percentages of relative humidity 
under constant temperature conditions: (1) that 
the rate of increase in metabolism for each 10° F. 
increase in temperature, starting at 50° F., de- 
creases as the optimum temperature is approached, 
and that while the metabolism of degeneration 
becomes more rapid after the optimum is passed 
the rate of growth is retarded; (2) that a varia- 
tion of from 60 to 62 per cent. in atmospheric 
moisture does not affect the rate of metabolism 
when the creatures have an abundant supply of 
succulent food. 

Fepruary 21, 1913] 

Similar tests of the effect of temperature on 
the rate of metabolism in Lysiphlebus tritici 
Ashm. and of the effect of temperature and mois- 
ture on the rate of metabolism of the chinch bug 
(Blissus leucopterus Say) infected and uninfected 
by the chinch-bug fungus (Sporotrichum globu- 
liferum Speg.) gave similar results. 

J. T. Assort, Washington University: The Strigil 
in Corixide and its Probable Function. Read 
by title. 

Epona MosHer, University of Illinois: The Anat- 
omy of some Lepidopterous Pupe. (Presented 
by Mr. Alvah Peterson.) 

Figures of pupe of three species were shown; 
also figures of the pupe with the cases dissected 
away so as to show the parts underneath. Consid- 
erable difficulty has been encountered in homol- 
ogizing the pupal structures from the external 
appearance, particularly in the case of the fixed 
parts of the head and the appendages of the head 
and thorax. The leg cases were shown to be a 
frequent source of error. Instead of showing 
externally only the cases for the tibie and tarsi, 
as Seudder claims is the case in the butterflies, 
certain forms show the femur cases and either the 
whole or part of the coxal cases in certain pairs 
of legs. What Packard calls the paraclypeal 
pieces, were shown in these forms to contain func- 
tionless mandibles which had their distal margins 
toothed in the ease of Lymantria. 

This detailed anatomical study is to be made 
the basis for a phylogenetic and taxonomic ar- 
rangement of the Lepidoptera based on an exam- 
ination of the characters of the pupe. 

CHARLES K, Bratn, Ohio State University: Some 
Anatomical Studies of Stomoxys calcitrans Lin. 
(Introduced by Professor Herbert Osborn.) 
The external mouth-parts and digestive system 

of both sexes of this species are identical in struc- 
ture, and both sexes suck blood. The external 
mouth-parts consist of maxillary palpi and pro- 
boseis; the latter consisting of labrum, hypo- 
pharynx and the labium. 

The digestive system consists of proboscis, 
pharynx, @sophagus, proventriculus, intestine, rec- 
tum and the appendages, viz., salivary glands, 
sucking stomach and Malpighian tubes. The two 
Malpighian tubules of the left Malpighian tube 
have much thickened ends, which lie dorsally. 
Those of the right side have no such thickened 
ends, The male reproductive organs consist of a 
pair of spherical testes which appear orange- 
colored in dissections, owing to their pigmented 



saes, their ducts leading into the common vesicula 
seminalis, the ejaculatory duct and the penis. 

The female reproductive organs consist of the 
ovaries, oviducts, uterus and ovipesitor, with the 
appendages, the uterine glands and the receptacula 

S. W. Bitsrne, Ohio State University: Observa- 
tions on the Food of Spiders. (Introduced by 
Professor Herbert Osborn). 

Spiders are known to feed upon insects, but 
exact records of kind and quantity of food for 
particular species are very meager. Extended 
observations and records were made during the 
summer and fall of 1912 and data from some of 
these are presented. As an example of the records 
given, grasshoppers constituted 39 per cent. of the 
food of Miranda aurantia, 59 per cent. of the food 
of Agalena nevia and 22 per cent. of the food of 
Aranea trifolium during the period under ob- 

HERBERT OsBoRN, Ohio State University: Observa- 
tions on Insects of a Lake Beach. 

The insect fauna of the Cedar Point Beach of 
Lake Erie is discussed with reference to its deriva- 
tion and adaptation for the conditions presented. 
The insect drift, the migrant and the resident 
members of the association are separated and 
records of species in each group given. 

C. H. TyLer-TOWNSEND, Government Entomolo- 
gist of Peru: The Species-Status and the Spe- 
cies-Concept. Read by title. 

C. H. TyLer-TowNseND, Government Entomolo- 
gist, Peru: A New Application of Taxonomic 
Principles. Read by title. 

The annual public address of the society was 
given on Wednesday evening, January 1 in the 
auditorium of the Normal School by: 

Dr. P. CALvertT, University of Pennsyl- 
vania: An Entomologist in Costa Rica. 

There was briefly recounted certain physical and 
meteorological features of that country which 
render it very favorable for the study of the influ- 
ence of these factors on the distribution and 
habits of plants and animals. A few localities, 
selected from those in which the speaker had 
worked during the year from May, 1909, to May, 
1910, were deseribed and their fruitfulness illus- 
trated by some of the discoveries made of the 
habits and life histories of the Odonata (dragon- 
flies) obtained therein. 

The following officers were elected for the en- 
suing year: 


President—C. J. 8. Bethune. 

First Vice-president—Philip P. Calvert. 

Second Vice-president—W. M. Marshall. 

Secretary-Treasurer—Alex. D. MacGillivray. 

Additional Members of the Executive Committee 
—Herbert Osborn, C. P. Gillette, V. L. Kellogg, 
J. G. Needham, C. T. Brues and Nathan Banks. 

Member of Committee on Nomenclature for 
three years—E. P. Felt. 



THE eighty-fifth regular meeting of the Botan- 
ical Society of Washington was held at the Cosmos 
Club, Tuesday evening, January 7, 1913. 

The following scientific program was presented: 
Dr. Davip GrirFitHs: Performances in Species of 

Opuntia. (Illustrated with lantern slides.) 

This paper will be published in the near future 
as a bulletin of the Bureau of Plant Industry. 

Mr. J. B. Norton: Some Interesting Facts Con- 
cerning the Genus Asparagus. (Illustrated with 
lantern slides.) 

This paper gave a review of the interesting 
features connected with the work of breeding a 
rust-resistant variety of asparagus. Asparagus 
officinalis has never been found to be completely 
immune to the attacks of its rust, Puccinia as- 
paragi. Plants nearly immune to the destructive 
summer stages show no resistance to the ecidial 
stage of the fungus. Resistance seems to be due 
to morphological causes. Related species are at- 
tacked by the rust, but the members of other 
sections of the genus seem immune. The genus 
Asparagus and its relatives are entirely limited 
to the old world, the majority being African. A 
study is being made of the relationships of this 
group and many new characters based en the 
manner of growth, roots, stems, leaf scales, cla- 
dodes, ete., have been found. The arrangement 
of the stomata on.the cladodes is very character- 
istic in the various groups. The old genus As- 
paragus contains several very distinct groups of 
species entitled to generic rank. 

Only one hybrid form of known parentage has 
been secured, a cross between A. officinalis and 
A. davuricus. Many other combinations have 
failed to produce seed. Asparagus grows rapidly 
—some species average nine inches per day. The 
seed germination takes from 12 days with offici- 
nalis to 60 or more days with some African spe- 


(N.S. Vou. XXXVII. No, 947 

cies. Several new ornamental forms were de- 
C. L. 
Corresponding Secretary 


THE meeting of November 12, 1912, was held 
at the American Museum of Natural History, 
President Burgess presided. 

The announced scientific program consisted of 
an illustrated lecture by Dr. J. J. Levison on 
‘*Tree Problems of our City.’’ 

THE meeting of November 27, 1912, was held 
in the laboratory of the New York Botanical 
Garden. Vice-president Barnhart presided. 

The first paper was by Dr. W. A. Maurrill, on 
‘*The Polypores of the Adirondacks.’’ This paper 
has been published in full in the Journal of the 
New York Botanical Garden, 13: 174-178, No- 
vember, 1912. 

The second number was given by Dr. A. B. 
Stout. The subject of his discussion was ‘‘The 
Distribution of Tissues in the Root Tip of Carez 
aquatilis.’’ Several photomicrographs of sections 
of root tips were exhibited, and drawings were 
made to illustrate particular features in the ar- 
rangement of the tissues. 

THE meeting of December 10, 1912, was held 
at the American Museum of Natural History. 
President Burgess presided. 

On the motion of Dr. Southwick the treasurer 
was authorized to draw an order for the sum of 
twenty dollars in favor of Dr. William Mansfield 
to cover the dues as the representative of the club 
to the council of the New York Academy of 

The paper of the evening was on ‘‘Diatoms,’’ 
by Dr. Marshall A. Howe. It was a semi-popular 
account of the principal structural and morpho- 
logical features of diatoms, their distribution and 
habitat, their geological interest and importance, 
the various economic uses of diatomaceous earths, 
ete. The talk was illustrated by about seventy- 
five lantern slides from the collection of the late 
Charles F. Cox. Many of the photographs shown 
were made under high powers of magnification 
and they brought out with much distinctness the 
secondary markings and other minute structural 

details of the walls of various types of diatoms. 
B. O.