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———_____ ____ 

Fripay, SEPTEMBER 10, 1915 

Conservation and the Veterinarian: Dr. PIERRE 
A. FIsH 

Quantity and Quality: Proressor G. A. 


Frederic Ward Putnam: PROFESSOR FRANZ 


oeereewreeeee eee eewn een wn eee enenneereeene 

Paul Ehrlich 

eevee eeereeeewnewn ene eeenewneneee 

The New York Botanical Garden 

“etree eee wee 

Scientific Notes and News 

University and Educational News 

“ee ee ew wee 

Discussion and Correspondence :— 

Mass as Quantity of Matter: Proressor L. 
M. Hoskins. Is Sivapithecus Pilgrim an 
Ancestor of Man? Dr. WILLIAM K. Gree- 
orY. Castle and Wright on Crossing-over in 
Rats: Dr. A. H. STURTEVANT ............ 340 
Scientific Books :— 

A Monograph cf the Existing Crinoids: 


The National Academy of Sciences: PROFESSOR 


“ee ee eee eee wweenene 

Special Articles :— 

Intracellular Digestion and Assimilation in 
Amphibian Embryos: Dr. Grorce E. Coe- 
HILL. Trains of Beating Light Waves: Pro- 
CRE, GA OD ong ic ce eed ek ceases. 
Society of American Bacteriologists: Dr. A. 

EAE IE owe aie 0 cos 5 0 bers cc ne cee 

MSS. intended for publication and books, ete., intended for 
review should be sent to Professor J. McKeen Cattell, Garrison- 
on-Hudson, N. Y. 


As civilization advances and freer com- 
merce develops with other nations, new 
conditions arise. New dangers menace our 
plant as well asouranimalfoodsupply. As 
farmers must now contend with the San 
José scale and other insect pests which 
formerly caused no concern but now 
threaten his fruit and other crops, so must 
the veterinarian realize that new dangers 
in the form of foreign diseases as rinder- 
pest, foot and mouth disease, trypanosomes 
and possibly others may at any time invade 
our territory. Aside from the possibility 
of the danger of this foreign invasion, the 
diseases already established here in the 
form of glanders, anthrax, tuberculosis, 
abortion and sterility are sufficient cause 
for the most serious apprehension. The 
condition may soon arrive, if it has not 
already arrived, when, in certain sections, 
it will be difficult to maintain the normal 
size of the herds, letting alone the question 
of surplus stock for the market, because of 
the ravages of bovine diseases. If there is or 
should be difficulty in maintaining the size 
of the herds as they now are, the problem 
of rearing surplus animals is indeed a 
serious one. 

The old order changeth. The day when 
the only desirable practise was in the city, 
and this was concerned principally with 
the horse, has gone by. While the automo- 
bile has undoubtedly affected city practise, 
it is no more likely to supplant the horse 

1A portion of the president’s address presented 
at the twenty-sixth annual meeting of the New 
York State Veterinary Medical Society, Ithaca, 
N. Y., August 3, 1915. 


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than did the trolley cars and bicycles. 
Aside from his use as a beast of burden, the 
horse will still be indispensable in safe- 
guarding human lives by the production of 
serums and antitoxins. Within our own 
generation there was a time when the price 
of farm products sank almost to the vanish- 
ing point. In some of the northwestern 
states, it was reported, horses could not be 
given away and many were turned loose 
upon the plains and mountain-sides to gain 
what sustenance they could. This was not 
far from the period when the automobile 
first began to attract notice, and although 
the automobiles have shown a phenomenal 
increase in number, the census returns 
show, also, a marked increase in the num- 
ber of horses and a still greater increase in 
their value. The demand for horses from 
this country in connection with the Eu- 
ropean war will serve to stimulate their 
production, and for a period after the war 
we may expect a further demand in order 
to restock the countries that are now being 
devastated. With his master the horse has 
taken an important part in war and the 
conquest of nations. Like his master he is 
subject to death and fearful injury. It is 
therefore no more than an act of justice 
that in the present war an organization 
known as the blue cross has been effected 
for the purpose of aiding wounded horses. 
Above all is humaneness. This quality 
needs cultivation in time of peace as well 
as war and veterinarians will do well to 
consider it not only in their own practise, 
but by showing a sympathetic interest and 
activity in local humane societies. 

While the civilized world has shuddered 
at the horrors of the trenches of the Eu- 
ropean warfare, there has been a tragedy 
of the trenches in our own country which, 
although not seriously involving human 
life, has nevertheless caused great hard- 

[N. S. Vout. XLII. No. 1080 

ship and paralyzed agricultural pursuits 
in certain localities. 

The lives of thousands of our domes- 
ticated animals have been sacrificed, threat- 
ening more or less seriously our food and 
milk supply. This foreign invasion of an 
insidious infectious disease has necessitated 
the expenditure of a vast amount of money 
and has invoked the highest skill and 
strategy of the veterinary profession to ex- 
terminate an enemy so fatal to our re- 

Although the trenches have been filled 
and the green sod of the pasture marks 
the lasting resting-place of the many vic- 
tims of the foot and mouth disease, there 
remains an aftermath of bitterness on the 
part of many stockmen and others who 
have suffered loss from the ravages of the 
disease and the restrictions imposed by the 
quarantine. This bitterness has been di- 
rected largely toward the Bureau of Animal 
Industry, because of delay in diagnosis and 
quarantine restrictions. The sentiment of 
hostility has been crystallized in a resolu- 
tion adopted by the National Society of 
Record Associations representing thirty- 
four pure-bred-stock breeder’s associations 
with a combined membership of 110,000 
breeders of pure-bred live stock in the 
United States. 

This resolution puts the association ‘‘on 
record as favoring and strenuously urging 
that the live-stock interests . . . be repre- 
sented in an official capacity in the United 
States Department of Agriculture by an as- 
sistant Secretary of Agriculture who shall 
be a practical stockman, and not a scien- 
tist by profession, such officer to be the 
ranking officer in immediate charge of the 
live-stock interests and sanitary regulations 
administered by the Bureau of Animal In- 

A second resolution ‘‘urges the adoption 
of state and national legislation providing 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

for just compensation at market value for 
all stock, pedigreed or otherwise, destroyed 
by state or nation, in the work of extirpa- 
ting animal diseases; such compensation 
to be fixed by two appraisers, one ap- 
pointed by the sanitary authorities and the 
other by the owner of the stock, ete.’’ 

The bitterness: has apparently been in- 
tensified by the appraisals of the agents of 
‘the bureau, unsatisfactory to the owners of 
pure-bred and high-grade live stock. There 
are apparently two questions involved: 
one is the delay in diagnosis and quaran- 
tine, the other is the matter of the appraisal 
of prize cattle. Thus far only one side of 
the question has been heard and it would 
seem fitting that judgment of the bureau 
should be suspended until the report of the 
committee of investigation is available. 
Whatever the blame for the outbreak, there 
can be no serious criticism of the efforts of 
the veterinarians to eradicate-it. All that 
was humanly possible was done to check 
its progress after the disease was deter- 
mined, and it is only fair to render credit 
for what has been accomplished. We do 
not believe the veterinarians should be de- 
posed as administrators of sanitary affairs. 
We do not behieve a stockman, ‘‘not a 
scientist,’’ no matter how high his business 
qualifications, could have rendered more 
efficient service in cleaning up the outbreak 
than have the veterinarians. 

Sanitary administration is one thing; ap- 
praisal is another. Appraising does not 
come in the veterinary curriculum. We 
believe the two should not be confused. 
The second resolution of the National 
Records Association is an admission that 
the remedy for this cause of bitterness is 
legislation by the states and nation and in 
this remedy the stockman may expect the 
hearty cooperation of the veterinarian. It 
is gratifying at this time to say that New 
York state is the first to enact legislation of 


this character. Because appraisals are not 
satisfactory is no reason why veterinarians 
should be displaced in the administration 
of sanitary affairs. The remedy is in 

Lamentable as this experience with foot 
and mouth disease has been, it points the 
way clearly, among other things, to the 
fact that a technical veterinary education 
should be built upon something more than 
a grammar-school foundation. Something 
more than the general education of a child 
of thirteen or fourteen years should form 
the basis of a preparation for technical 
studies which are to fit him to stand as a 
bulwark of protection between insidious 
diseases, on the one hand, and the health of 
millions of dollars’ worth of live stock, on 
the other. 

Some years ago a former Secretary of 
Agriculture, with the idea of improving the 

service of the United States Veterinary In- . 

spectors, through a committee of veterina- 
rians, formulated certain changes in the 
curricula of the veterinary schools. The 
recommendations of the committee were 
converted into regulations by the Secretary 
of Agriculture and the United States Civil 
Service Commission. Although it was stated 
that there was no desire to control the 
schools, but merely to make known the re- 
quirements of the government for grad- 
uates who planned to enter the service of 
the Bureau of Animal Industry as vet- 
erinary inspectors, the effect was much the 
same as control, as apparently none of the 
intitutions were desirous of being omitted 
from the list of eligible schools as pub- 
lished by the department. We have always 
felt that the secretary erred in regarding 
the curriculum as more important than 
the man. 

To improve conditions it would seem 
logical that the effort should begin at the 
foundation and that it should be unneces- 






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sary for outbreaks of animal diseases in- 
volving millions of dollars of property to 
force home to us the fundamental knowl- 
edge that it is the quality of the man that 

One basic step toward the prevention of 
a repetition of serious outbreaks in the 
future is the requirement of at least a high- 
school rather than a grammar-school foun- 
dation for a proper veterinary education. 
The National Society of Record Associa- 
tions, representing 110,000 breeders of 
pure-bred live stock, and the Secretary of 
Agriculture may do well to consider seri- 
ously an agitation for and an insistence 
upon a better fundamental education for 
those who are to enter veterinary work. 
The veterinary can not take its place with 
other learned professions until it conforms 
to the same standard of requirements. The 
fault has been with the system. The weak 
link in the educational chain has been the 
low entrance requirements. With this link 
strengthened, with a strong foundation 
upon which to build the veterinary curri- 
eulum, there is hope for the future. 

A further safeguard against outbreaks of 
infectious diseases is the establishment of a 
system of district veterinarians on a plan 
similar to that in use in some foreign coun- 
tries. If county agents are of benefit in 
the progress of agriculture, if the twenty 
health supervisors of the state are of service 
in the physical uplift of the population by 
preventing and restricting human diseases, 
then it is equally important in the conser- 
vation of our resources that there should be 
district veterinarians. The duty of a dis- 
trict veterinarian should be to keep a close 
supervision over all transactions involving 
the possible introduction and spread of in- 
fectious diseases of animals as well as other 
matters pertaining to them. He should 
also have supervision over a state meat in- 
spection service. Bovine tuberculosis alone, 

[N. 8. Vou. XLII. No. 1080 

the control of which is estimated to cost the 
state about $3,000,000 annually, would 
warrant the services of a skilled veterina- 
rian in each district. Such an arrange- 
ment is not an experiment; its efficiency 
has already been demonstrated in other 

As pointed out by Dr. Moore,’ the wide 
distribution of foot and mouth disease has 
illustrated in a striking manner the neces- 
sity of having a competent veterinarian in 
each district to guard against such infec- 
tions. Had there been a competent district 
vetermmarian in the county where foot and 
mouth disease first appeared last August, it 
is highly probable that its spread would 
have been checked before its virus had 
been so widely disseminated. If by this 
extra precautionary measure one per cent. 
of the loss from such diseases could be 
prevented, the amount it would save the 
state would many times overpay the ex- 
pense of such service. A bill embodying 
the features just enumerated was before 
the legislature at its last session, but, un- 
fortunately, failed to become a law. 

In no other profession, perhaps, are there 
as many temptations in the way of com- 
mercialism as in the veterinary profession. 
The desire to win and retain the good will 
of certain clients, who may themselves be 
dishonest and are willing to pay for dis- 
honest tests and falsified records, may 
serve as a pitfall for a weak veterinarian. 
Opportunities are not wanting in the case 
of glandered horses, tubercular cattle, cer- 
tified milk and other instances for veterina- 
rians intentionally or through carelessness, 
indifference or criminal negligence to in- 
flict great damage upon the public and 
bring their own profession into disrepnte. 
Human life may pay the toll of this neg- 
ligence. Falsified records and incompetent 
tests may brand the person making them as 

2 Cornell Veterinarian, April, 1915. 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

an unconscious murderer of little children. 
Greater criminality than this can no man 
possess: that he jeopardize the lives of his 
kind for the sake of money. In no pro- 
fession is there greater need for self-control 
and the exercise of the strictest honesty and 
personal integrity. 

The conservation of our domesticated 
animals and their products is of the highest 
importance to the welfare of our nation. 
The following figures are taken from the 
census of 1910. They are the latest official 
figures available, although probably inac- 
curate at the present time. During the 
last five years there has probably been an 
increase in the number of veterinarians. 
In this period, also, there has probably been 
a decrease in the number of some of the 
domesticated animals because of the rav- 
ages of foot and mouth disease and estab- 
lished diseases as well as a decline, more or 
less fluctuating, in production. 

The figures show that in 1910 there were 
in this country on farms and not on farms 
206,646,069 domesticated animals, includ- 
ing cattle, horses, mules, asses, burros, 
swine, sheep, and goats, with a valuation 
of $5,296,421,619. With 11,652 veterina- 
rians in this country, we have a ratio of one 
veterinarian to 17,734 animals, or in finan- 
cial terms one veterinarian to $454,550 of 
animal valuation. While this average is 
higher in some parts and much less in 
others, it serves to emphasize the fact that 
a great responsibility rests upon the vet- 
erinarian if he is to assist, not merely in 
the conservation of much valuable animal 
stock already in existence, but in promoting 
a still greater production. The necessity 
for this is obvious in the case of the animals 
used for food. The census returns show a 
decrease of 8.7 per cent, in the number of 
cattle on farms with an increase of 1.6 per 
cent. in their valuation; a decrease of 7.4 
per cent. in swine with an increase of 72.1 



per cent. in their valuation, and a decrease 
of 14.7 per cent. in sheep with an increase 
of 36.8 per cent. in their valuation. Horses, 
mules, asses and burros have increased in 
number during this period and their valua- 
tion shows a much higher percentage of in- 
crease than in the case of the food animals. 

It has been figured that our average 
disease loss of live stock in the United 
States is $150,000,000 and our exposure 
loss $44,000,000, a total of nearly $200,- 
000,000 annually. It is evident that few 
industries could endure such proportionate 
losses and survive. The largest toll has 
been taken from the food-producing an- 
imals. We may assume that practically 
all losses from exposure are preventable 
and that this item will diminish as the 
open-range boundaries contract and better 
provision is made for the winter sustenance 
of stock. 

The checking of the disease loss is a 
slower and more serious matter and it is 
here that the services of the veterinarian are 
necessary. To meet this obligation he 
must be something more than an uned- 
ucated, practical horse doctor more or less 
successful in the treatment of spavins, ring- 
bones, colies and other routine cases of 
practise. He must be able to see beyond 
the educational horizon which treats only 
of routine practise and, with a proper 
blending of scientific and practical train- 
ing, show an appreciation not only of per- 
sonal but community interest in the animal 
resources of our country. 


ITHaca, N. Y. 


PROFESSOR Eun Bore, who visited America 
in 1912 as one of the inaugural lecturers at 
the opening of the Rice Institute of Houston, 
Texas, recently embodied some of his impres- 
sions about America in an article under the 

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above title, published in the April, 1915, num- 
ber of the Revue du Mois. As this article was 
written by a Frenchman after the beginning 
of the great European War, it has naturally 
been very much influenced by feelings aroused 
by events connected with this war. 

The central thought of the article is that 
there is a great tendency to lay too much stress 
on quantity and too little on quality in speak- 
ing about scientific achievements. It is per- 
haps natural, under the conditions existing 
while the article was written, that the author 
concluded that the Germans had done most 
during the last forty years to acclimatize in 
Europe the conception which makes quantity 
the sole criterion for the social, intellectual 
and moral values of the people. Many Ameri- 
can readers may however regret to find that 
this conception is said to be of American 
origin, even if this statement is modified by 
the fact that the most cultured Americans are 
striving to habituate their countrymen to 
judgments based on quality. 

Among the illustrations given by Professor 
Borel in support of his contention that the 
Germans have in recent years unduly empha- 
sized quantity is the following small table, 
which aims to give the approximate number of 
letters in an average volume of certain im- 
portant mathematical periodicals: 

Mathematische Annalen ..1,680,000 
American Journal ......... 1,014,000 
Journal de Mathématiques. .1,012,000 
Acta Mathematica ........ 980,000 
Journal fiir Mathematik ... 875,000 
Annali di Matematica .... 825,000 

This table was first published at the end of 
the “Generalregister” to the first fifty 
volumes of the Mathematische Annalen. About 
two years after its publication the Transac- 
tions of the American Mathematical Society 
began to appear in volumes involving a much 
larger number of letters than the American 
Journal, which occupies the second place in 
the given list. While it may be questioned 
whether it is desirable to direct special atten- 
tion to the mere size of the volumes of a 
periodical the given table has at least an indi- 
rect value, since it furnishes an interesting 

[N. 8. Vou. XLII. No, 1080 

concrete illustration of the meaning of a 

As questions relating to quantity are much 
more easily treated by statistical methods than 
those relating to quality, the growing popular- 
ity of statistical methods, even in educational 
matters, seems to be a sign that we are at 
present placing too much emphasis on quan- 
tity at the expense of quality. Mental inert- 
ness naturally leads to considerations of quan- 
tity rather than of quality. It is much easier 
to enumerate the books and articles written 
by a certain man than to exhibit the value and 
influence of these publications. It is easier 
to estimate a man’s wealth in dollars than to 
determine the merits of his intellectual con- 
tributions or his moral influence on his fellows. 
It is easier to give the number of students at 
a university and the size of the budget than 
to estimate the value of the work done at the 

In view of the fact that questions of quan- 
tity are usually much easier than those re- 
lating to quality, it is perhaps the more sur- 
prising to find that Professor Borel attributes 
to America the origin of the conception which 
makes quantity the unique criterion for social, 
intellectual and moral values of the people. 
If this criticism is not deserved it should cer- 
tainly not pass unanswered, for the implica- 
tions which it involves are fundamental and 
far-reaching. The fact that the criticism was 
made by a man of very high scientific standing, 
who recently spent some time in our midst 
and in company with some of our leading men, 
makes it all the more noteworthy. 

It is perhaps especially interesting that the 
tendency to make quantity the sole criterion 
for intellectual values should be regarded as 
being of American origin. Intellectual leader- 
ship even along somewhat baneful lines im- 
plies vigorous intellectual life, and it is of 
some interest to find that we are credited 
with such life by a competent observer. As 
Professor Borel is a mathematician it would 
appear probable that his conclusions in regard 
to the intellectual activities of a people would 
be largely influenced by their mathematical 
productiveness. It can, however, not be said 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

that the quantity of mathematical output on 
the part of the Americans is, or has ever been, 
such as to justify the statement that the con- 
ception of making quantity the sole criterion 
in regard to mathematical activity originated 
with us. As regards quantity we never had 
any mathematical writer who could be com- 
pared with Euler, Cauchy, or Cayley. 

It is true that in recent years the quantity 
of American mathematical literature has in- 
creased rapidly, but the same is true in regard 
to this literature in several other countries, 
As evidence of the fact that the United States 
is not inclined.even at the present time, to go 
to excess in regard to the quantity of its 
mathematical literature we refer to the recent 
publications under the general direction of the 
International Commission on the Teaching of 
Mathematics. At the Paris Conference held 
in April, 1914, the extent of these publications 
reported by various countries was as follows: 

Country No. of Pages 
A en eer 3,822 
I iid sic 9 basen wine 690 
RY hi a es 160 000 aoreoks 348 
EE ig i on vn cw #0 wikia aie 107 
EE kk hohe inc en 60 thse means 165 
WD ME ck vce ceeccceowes 670 
MP sa Ri bo b ovine ca caecaees 674 
a Near rae 151 
ek ees eee ae 130 
PBN Mia's OT VAS 853 
BD i> nt he ees Kees lew e 253 
ch, din ace Wa kh s0: 0 4a ie eta 788 
i te ahi ae onde Gnd 16 
eo on isn we ial 254 
I hal a nics odie & nao Ome 229 
SIE cis dv 4 o's cen bmne pep 812 

As questions relating to teaching offer 
unusual opportunities for extensive publica- 
tions the above table is very instructive as 
regards tendencies towards quantity along 
mathematical lines. It seems therefore un- 

likely that Professor Borel had mathematics 
in mind when he referred to our undue em- 
phasis on quantity. It is much more likely 
that he was impressed by the fact that our 
conversation and our newspapers are so largely 
confined to questions of quantity. In a com- 
paratively new country the changes as regard 



quantity are so rapid as to attract wide atten- 
tion, and these changes furnish the easiest 
topics of conversation. Changes as regards 
quality may be no less rapid but they furnish 
less harmless subjects of conversation in view 
of inherent difficulties and room for differences 
of opinion. 

It is perhaps unfortunate that our conversa- 
tion even in regard to intellectual matters is 
so commonly directed by a desire to offend no 
one instead of by a desire to call attention to 
what is very important. The thoughtful for- 
eigner who comes into our midst is thus nat- 
urally impressed by the fact that we so com- 
monly speak of harmless quantity instead of 
the more important quality. Some years ago 
while talking with a great French mathemati- 
cian I was much impressed by the fact that, 
in speaking about two of his eminent col- 
leagues, he was very free in saying which of 
the two he regarded as the more eminent. I 
felt then that in America I would probably not 
have found such voluntary reference to such a 
delicate matter. 

The seriousness of this question becomes 
apparent if it is observed that the tendency to 
refrain from referring to quality in a public 
way is reflected to some extent in the life of 
the people. If in a university community, for 
instance, it is regarded as undesirable to refer 
to the quality of the work of the various mem- 
bers of the faculty, and if the quantity of 
salary is the sole index of relative standing, 
there is apt to be little effort on the part of the 
younger men to attain to a greater degree 
of efficiency. Many questions of quality 
appear shocking only in view of their 
newness. After they have passed into the 
stream of allowable conversation topics they 
are not likely to offend anyone and they often 
serve a useful purpose. In fact, the inefficiency 
of a university professor often becomes a per- 
fectly harmless topic. The danger lies in the 
early stages towards such publicity as regards 
the true conditions, and it is here where there 
is usually the greatest field of usefulness. 

The greatness of a nation in the intellectual 
and moral life is largely influenced by its em- 
phasis on quality. Professor Borel urges that 

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it is the duty of France to restore the preém- 
inence of quality and he points out that the 
way towards this end is easy. In fact his sug- 
gestions are “to give to quality opportunity to 
manifest itself, do not hide it under a bushel, 
for men never refuse to recognize the intel- 
lectual or moral superiority Which is pointed 
out to them; their natural sentiments of 
equality and justice, far from being shocked 
by this, are exalted thereby. The young 
people, in particular, regard themselves united 
with the comrade whom they have learnt to 
appreciate; far from being jealous of his suc- 
cess, they are happy with him.” 

These suggestions should be equally useful 
among us where the need of reform is even 
more evident than in France. Our great 
western state universities are doubtless espe- 
cially in danger of being overwhelmed by judg- 
ments of quantity, in view of their very direct 
contact with the public. They present there- 
fore unusually important centers for emphasis 
on quality, and for guarding against being ab- 
sorbed in the work which admits of exhibition 
in attractive circulars presenting statistical 
data in regard to quantity. Public references 
to quality of work and to the deeper joys and 
compensations of intellectual life are especially 
needed in these institutions. 

The very rapid growth of our educational 
institutions has naturally led to an abnormal 
interest in changes in quantity. It is so easy 
and harmless to speak of the increase in the 
material equipment. It is much more difficult 
and delicate to make clear that the intellectual 
advances made by the faculty have kept pace 
with these material advances, or that the moral 
and intellectual influences surrounding the 
students are better than they were in former 
years. These latter questions involve com- 
parisons, and they frequently lead at first to 
differences of opinion. They are, however, the 
more important, and the foreign scholars who 
may be in our midst will judge us very largely 
by the way we deal with these questions of 
quality. It will be very unfortunate if we con- 
tinue to impress these men as we seem to have 
impressed Professor Borel, especially since 


[N. 8. Vou. XLII. No. 1080 

superficial attitude, at least, as far as they re- 
late to our intellectual and moral life. 
G. A. Minuer 



Witn Professor Putnam, who died on Au- 
gust 14, at the age of seventy-six years, the last 
of the three men has passed away who may 
well be called the founders of modern anthro- 
pology in America: Brinton, Powell and Put- 
nam. Brinton in Philadelphia, with keen, 
analytic mind, full of imagination, with wide 
interests, opened up ever new fields and prob- 
lems and stimulated through his personal influ- 
ence the work of others and paved the way to 
the recognition of anthropology as a scientific 
study. Powell performed the great service of 
organizing the anthropological work of the 
government by founding the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy and providing in this manner the means 
for scientific research. With rare insight he 
selected an unusually gifted group of men 
around himself, and to their labors we owe the 
fundamental data on which modern American 
ethnology has been built up. Through the 
sheer force of his personality he impressed 
some of his fundamental philosophic views 
and some of his methods upon his collabo- 
rators not only in the Bureau of Ethnology, 
but in a much wider group of scientists that 
came under his influence, and gave in this 
manner to anthropological studies a definite 
direction that may still be recognized. 

Professor Putnam’s contributions were of an- 
other kind. Taught in the Agassiz school of 
independent search for facts, he took up anthro- 
pological studies with that enthusiastic wor- 
ship of material data as the indispensable basis 
for inductive studies that has dominated his 
life and that, together with his skill ag an or- 
ganizer, have made him the most potent factor 
in the development of anthropological institu- 
tions all over the country. Owing to the trend 
of his mind, his interests centered in the ob- 
jective, tangible sides of anthropology and, 
therefore, his chief contribution lies in the 
development of museum work. The search for 


such impressions seem to represent only our well authenticated Indian material and his in- 

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SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

terest in biological problems led him to lay 
particular stress upon archeological evidence, 
and in this field he did his most noteworthy 

The Peabody Museum of American Archeol- 
ogy and Ethnology is, perhaps more than any- 
thing else, a monument of his life work, for in 
it are manifested the varied phases of his 
many-sided interest in the history of mankind, 
as exhibited by man’s handiwork and by the 
remains of the races of man. The osteological 
department, surpassed only by the old collec- 
tions of the Army Medical Museum in Wash- 
ington, the materials relating to the study of 
the antiquity of man in America which he 
pursued with unconquerable tenacity, the col- 
lections from the mound and village sites of 
Ohio, the ample and valuable material from 
Mexico and Central America, the old New 
England collections, archeological as well as 
ethnological, not to mention others, indicate 
the lines of his own scientific activities. 

In one respect he revolutionized American 
museum methods. While it has been cus- 
tomary to enlarge collections by purchase, he 
inaugurated scientific expeditions, the prime 
object of which was the discovery of scientific 
facts that were sustained by the evidences of 
collections. Journeys for the purpose of col- 
lecting had been made before his time, but he 
had the courage to emphasize that in museum 
expeditions, as in other scientific work, the 
method must be determined not by the num- 
ber of specimens likely to be secured, but by 
the objects of the inquiry. To him the mu- 
seum was the storehouse in which the mate- 
rials accumulated by scientific research were 
cared for, digested and made accessible to the 
student. His constant insistance on this 
point of view gave to his museum work special 

The development of the Peabody Museum 
and his wide acquaintance among American 
men of science and among those interested in 
the advancement of science, brought it about 
that his capacity as an organizer was sought 
in other centers in which there was a growing 
interest in archeology and anthropology. It 

was he who laid the foundation to the Field — 



Museum of Natural History by organizing the 
Anthropological Department of the World’s 
Columbian Exposition in Chicago. There he 
solved the difficult task of bringing together 
in a short time material illustrating prehis- 
toric America as well as the primitive life of 
the historic American Indian. With this ac- 
cumulation of material he combined scientific 
investigation that bore fruit in later times in 
the intensive work among Indian tribes car- 
ried on by a number of institutions. Some of 
the important archeological results of this 
period still await publication. Together with 
the treasures of the Peabody Museum and 
those of the Museums of Ohio they will eluci- 
date a remarkable period in the history of early 
America, the thorough exploration of which 
was begun and carried along for years by Pro- 
fessor Putnam. Unfavorable conditions pre- 
vented the completion of this work that was 
always near to his heart. The opportunities 
offered by the World’s Columbian Exposition 
enabled him also to advance the work of se- 
curing replicas of the monuments of Central 
America, a subject to which he devoted much 
of his time and energies. 

At the close of the World’s Fair he was 
called to New York to organize the anthropo- 
logical work of the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History, and here we find him introducing 
the same methods of development that had 
been so effective in building up the Peabody 
Museum as a center of scientific research. The 
field investigations of the New York Museum 
extended beyond the narrow limits of the 
North American continent and inaugurated a 
period of active scientific research. 

His great success as an organizer brought 
it about that when the development of anthro- 
pological work, partly owing to his influence, 
was planned in the University of California, 
he was called upon to take a vigorous part in 
the formulation of plans for a museum and 
for the scientific work of the newly founded 
department of anthropology which followed 
much the same lines as those inaugurated by 
him in other institutions. 

While these four large institutions had the 
benefit of the stimulus of his sustained per- 



sonal efforts, many others were helped by his 
advice and assistance. 

Professor Putnam’s influence has been great 
in still other ways. He succeeded in having 
anthropology recognized by Harvard Univer- 
sity as a regular subject of instruction, with 
the result that an ever-increasing number of 
students became interested in this subject. 
His influence as a lecturer was, however, not 
as great as that of his personal contact with 
students. Through his sympathy with the 
personal interests of younger men, through his 
eagerness to help them along on the arduous 
path of the young scientist, he associated with 
himself a large number of young anthropolo- 
gists who were filled with that enthusiasm for 
the unbiased collection of data that character- 
ized his own work. The precedent set by Har- 
vard University, and at the same time by 
Clark University, and Professor Putnam’s un- 
ceasing agitation have done much to introduce 
anthropology as a subject of study in our uni- 
versities. Men who have grown up as his stu- 
dents are now found in many American and 
Canadian institutions. 

Professor Putnam’s activities were not by 
any means confined to the field of his own re- 
searches, but he took a lively interest in the 
advancement of scientific work in the whole 
country. This quality, his genius as an or- 
ganizer, and his sympathetic nature brought 
him into prominence in the work of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence, of which he was for many years perma- 
nent secretary and which he made a most efli- 
cient means of promoting and extending the 
influence of science. It is a well-marked 
period of scientific development that his in- 
cumbency of the secretaryship represents: the 
extensive and gradual deepening of scientific 
interest. It covers the period preparatory to 
the specialization of more modern times that 
makes the American Association more an ad- 
ministrative clearing house of special scientific 
bodies than an agency that promotes popular 
interest and that gives to the young scientist 
the opportunity to gain his first laurels. 

For several years Professor Putnam had 
been ailing, but his robust nature withstood 

[N. S. Vou. XLIT. No. 1080 

vigorously the attacks of an insidious disease. 
On the occasion of his seventieth birthday his 
many friends gave expression to their warm 
feelings towards him by the publication of an 
anniversary volume containing contributions 
from almost all American anthropologists. 
His influence, that of a sane and sober scien- 
tist who values facts higher than fancies will 
be lasting, and we honor and love one who has 
helped to lay the foundations on which we are 
permitted to build. 
Franz Boas 


Paut Enruicn was a genius of the first 
order. While he was still a student of medi- 
cine, the problems presented by the affinity of 
lead for certain tissues attracted his attention. 
From speculating on the nature of this affin- 
ity, his interest grew to include protoplasmic 
affinities in general, and thus was determined 
the direction his genius should take. 

Some of the notable results of his early in- 
vestigations are discoveries in bacterial stain- 
ing methods, which proved of great value to 
Koch and which, ever since, have been in 
daily use everywhere; the micro-chemical 
differentiation of leukocytes, on which rests 
the study of the blood for clinical purposes; 
the development of the methylene blue reaction 
of living tissues, and the formulation of that 
unique conception of protoplasmic structure 
and function on which he based the great side- 
chain theory which he advanced to explain the 
reactions in immunity and other phenomena. 

What might be termed the second phase of 
Ehrlich’s work concerned investigations in 
immunity under the guidance of the side-chain 
conception. No better illustration of the prac- 
tical usefulness of the imagination in creating 
a successful working hypothesis can be given 
than the results achieved by Ehrlich in the 
field of immunity. Perhaps the usefulness is 
seen most clearly in the standardization of 

1 From the Journal of the American Medical As- 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

diphtheria antitoxin, which was a direct out- 
come of experiments devised according to the 
side-chain idea. Ehrlich’s method, to the ex- 
clusion of others, is used all over the world; 
but the influence of the work carried out to 
test the side-chain theory of Ehrlich and 
his pupils still dominates investigation in all 
branches of immunity and the practical use 
of the knowledge obtained therefrom. 

The side-chain theory is so well known that 
it is not necessary to restate it except in the 
most succinct form. A toxin or other antigen 
is without action on the animal body unless 
bound by molecular chains in the cells— 
receptors. But when so bound, the antigen 
causes injury to the cell, and subsequent re- 
pair, in the course of which there is an over- 
production of receptors, which, passing into 
the blood and lymph, constitute the antibody 
for the antigen in question, because the anti- 
gen is now bound and neutralized or destroyed 
before it can reach the cell. As expressed by 
Behring, antibodies are free cell receptors, and 
the elements which, when situated in the cells, 
are essential for the action of toxins, for in- 
stance, are also the means of healing when 
free in the blood. In accord with the prin- 
ciples of this theory, Ehrlich’s vivid mind 
coined numerous new words, which proved 
helpful in the discussion of new facts and 
ideas, and which soon passed into current 
international usage. 

Ehrlich’s last work was the development of 
the experimental chemotherapy of syphilis and 
certain other spirochetal infections. To dis- 
cuss this wonderful work fully in all its rami- 
fications is not possible at this time. The scien- 
tific world has accepted “the development 
through a lengthy series of systematic bio- 
chemical experiments, based on original con- 
ceptions of the affinities of cellular constitu- 
ents, of a successful chemotherapy of impor- 
tant human infections, by direct attack on the 
parasites by substances specially built up for 
that purpose and introduced from without,” as 
the fitting culmination of the tireless activities 
of an altogether unique investigative spirit. 
As pointed out elsewhere, Ehrlich’s results in 
experimental chemotherapy fully justify Hux- 



ley’s prediction in 1881 that through discov- 
eries in therapeutics it would become possible 
“to introduce into the economy a molecular 
mechanism which, like a cunningly contrived 
torpedo, shall find its way to some particular 
group of living elements and cause an explo- 
sion among them, leaving the rest untouched.” 

Paul Ehrlich will live in the history of civili- 
zation as one of the great investigators, genial, 
creative, fertile, excelling in “that boldness of 
the scientific use of the imagination which 
alone can extend beyond the obvious fact and 
reveal the unknown,” one of the great bene- 
factors of mankind. 


Tue New York Botanical Garden at Bronx 
Park is celebrating this week the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of its foundation. The first ses- 
sion was opened at nine o’clock Monday morn- 
ing, September 6, with registration of dele- 
gates in the library, followed by an inspec- 
tion of museums, laboratories, library and 
herbaria, with special reference to the exhibi- 
tion of painting of plant life by Mary E. 
Eaton in the herbarium, and the Charles 
Finney Cox collection of Darwiniana. After 
lunch in the Museum Building the delegates 
and guests were formally welcomed by W. 
Gilman Thompson, president of the board of 
managers; by Henry H. Rusby, chairman of 
the scientific directors, and by Thomas W. 
Whittle, commissioner of parks for the Bronx. 

- Dr. N. L. Britton, director-in-chief, then read 

“ A History of the New York Botanical Gar- 

Tuesday, September 7, was set for the read- 
ing of papers. According to the program these 
included: “ Mechanism and Conditions of 
Growth,” by D. T. MacDougal; “ Mosses from 
Florida,” by Elizabeth G. Britton; “ Direct- 
ing Factors in the Teaching of Botany,” by 
Arthur H. Chivers; “ Flora of the Mammoth 
Cave, Kentucky,” by R. Ellsworth Call; “ Tri- 
assic Plants from Sonora, Mexico,” by Edwin 
W. Humphreys, and “ A White-Cedar Swamp 
on Long Island and Its Significance,” by Nor- 
man Taylor; “On the Nature of Types,” by 

ree Mp 

| ae - te pee Tt YS ti vane 


Sia als scl Sk 
ate aE 


R. A. Harper, and “Present Status of the 
Problem of the Effect of Radium Rays on 
Plant Life,” by OC. Stuart Gager. 

Wednesday, September 8, was to be given 
up to a study of the flora of sand dunes and 
salt marshes on Crooke’s Point, S. I., the ex- 
cursion being planned in cooperation with the 
Staten Island Association of Arts and Sci- 
ences. On Thursday the reading of papers 
was to be resumed, including Clifford H. Farr 
on “Cell-Division: Bipartition and Quadri- 
partition in Pollen Mother-Cells,” and “ Ecol- 
ogy and the New Soil Fertility,” by Charles 
B. Lipman; John K. Small on “ Recent Ex- 
plorations in Southern Florida”; H. Hus on 
“A New Interpretation of Fascination”; 
P. A. Rydberg on “ Life Zones in the Rocky 
Mountains”; Fred J. Seaver on “ Bermuda 
Fungi,” and Karl F. Kellerman on “ Coopera- 
tion in the Control of Plant Diseases.” 

Following tea at the mansion, an inspection 
of the nurseries, arboretum, propagating 
houses, conservatory range and the Bronx 
River valley as far as Hemlock Forest will be 
made. A smoker at the Faculty Club, Colum- 
bia University, will be held in the evening. On 
Friday, September 10, the entire day will be 
devoted to a visit to the pine barrens of New 
Jersey, under the guidance of the field com- 
mittee of the Torrey Botanical Club. On 
Saturday the delegates will visit the Brooklyn 
Botanic Garden. 


Dr. Jacques Logs, of the Rockefeller Insti- 
tute for Medical Research, has been elected a 
foreign fellow of the Linnean Society, London. 

Proressor W. A. Bone has been elected 
president of the chemistry section of the Brit- 
ish Association at the meeting held in Man- 
chester this week, taking the place of Pro- 
fessor H. B. Baker who is unavoidably pre- 
vented from attending the meeting. 

Tue South African medal, founded by the 
British Association in 1905, for scientific re- 
search in South Africa, was awarded at the 
Pretoria meeting of the South African Asso- 

[N. 8. Vou. XLII. No. 1080 

ciation, to Mr. C. P. Lounsbury for his ento- 
mological investigations. 

Proressor J. C. ArtHurR, who has been in 
college and experiment-station work for nearly 
forty years, and for the last twenty-eight 
years has held the chair of professor of veget- 
able physiology and pathology in Purdue Uni- 
versity and chief of the botanical department 
of the Indiana Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion, retires on the first of September to be- 
come professor emeritus of botany in the same 
institution under the provisions of the Car- 
negie Foundation. He will continue the re- 
searches on plant rusts which have been in 
progress for a number of years. His successor 
in the experiment station will be Professor H. 
S. Jackson, of Corvallis, Ore. 

Tue Experiment Station Record states that 
there has been held at the Iowa College of 
Agriculture a special convocation in honor of 
those members of the faculty who have been 
in service for at least a quarter of a century. 
The guests of honor were Vice-president E. W. 
Stanton, in service since 1874; General J. R. 
Lincoln, commandant, Henry Knapp, secre- 
tary, both in service since 1883; A. A. Ben- 
nett, professor emeritus of chemistry, in serv- 
ice since 1885, and Dr. L. H. Pammel, pro- 
fessor of botany and botanist, in service since 

Ir is stated in Nature that the sum of £140 
has been given to the Royal Society of Arts 
by Mr. R. Le Neve Foster for the purpose of 
founding a prize in commemoration of his 
father, Mr. Peter Le Neve Foster, who was 
secretary of the society from 1853 to 1879. 
The council has decided to offer the prize 
(consisting of £10 and the society’s silver 
medal) for a paper on “ Zine: Its Production 
and Industrial Applications.” 

Tue Vienna Academy of Sciences has made 
a grant of about $800 to Professor R. Poech 
to enable him to conduct anthropological re- 
searches among the various races comprising 
the Russian prisoners of war. 

Ir is stated in Terrestrial Magnetism that 
M. Lecointe, director of the Royal Observatory 
of Belgium, at Uccles, near Brussels, is at 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

present interned in Holland. He had served 
in the war as a major of artillery in the Belgian 
army, and took part in the retreat from 

Dr. WarmpBoid, of Berlin, has been ap- 
pointed rector of the Agricultural School at 

Proressor Scumipt, of Marburg, has been 
awarded the doctorate of engineering by the 
Brunswick School of Technology, in recogni- 
tion of his services to pharmaceutical chemis- 

Proressor OpPENHEIM, of Berlin, has been 
made an honorary member of the Buenos Aires 
Society for Psychiatry and Neurology. 

’ Henry G. Knicut, dean of the Wyoming 
College of Agriculture and director of the sta- 
tion, O. L. Prien, veterinarian, and J. E. 
McWilliams, acting animal husbandman, have 
been granted a year’s leave of absence begin- 
ning September 1, to be spent in study at the 
University of Illinois, Northwestern Univer- 
sity and the Michigan Agricultural College, 
respectively. President C. A. Duniway, of the 
university, will act as director of the station 
during this period. 

WE learn from Nature that a munitions in- 
ventions branch of the British ministry has 
been constituted, with Mr. E. W. Moir as 
comptroller. The branch will have the duty 
of considering projects for inventions relating 
to munitions for warfare on land or matters 
appertaining thereto. The comptroller and 
staff of the branch will be assisted in their 
work of examination, and, if thought neces- 
sary, in the investigation and development of 
any projects that may be considered worthy of 
being developed, by a panel of honorary scien- 
tific and other experts. The following have 
accepted Mr. Lloyd George’s invitation to act 
on this panel: Colonel Goold Adams, Mr. 
Horace Darwin, Mr. M. Duckham, Mr. W. 
Duddell, Dr. S. Z. de Ferranti, Dr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, Sir R. Hadfield, Dr. J. S. Hal- 
dane, Colonel N. B. Heffernan, Sir A. Ken- 
nedy, Mr. F, W. Lanchester, Dr. A. P. Laurie, 
Professor Vivian B. Lewes, Mr. M. Longridge, 
Mr. W. H. Maw, Sir Hiram Maxim, Captain 


Moore, Sir H. Norman, Mr. F. G. Ogilvie, 
Major-General G. K. Scott-Moncrieff, Mr. W. 
Stokes, Mr. J. Swinburne, Sir J. J. Thomson, 
Mr. A. J. Walter, Mr. C. J. Wilson. 

THE president of the British board of agri- 
culture and fisheries has appointed a com- 
mittee consisting of Lord Middleton, chair- 
man, Mr. Henry Chaplin, Sir Ailwyn Fel- 
lowes, the Hon. Alexander Parker, Major Sir 
M. Burrell, Bart., Sir G. Greenall, Bart., and 
Captain M. S. Adye to consider and advise the 
board as to the steps which should be taken to 
secure the production and maintenance in 
England and Wales of a supply of horses 
suitable and sufficient for military purposes. 
Mr. E. B. Wilson, of the board of agriculture 
and fisheries, has been appointed secretary of 
the committee. 

Dr. Herman Fiscuer, of the German Hos- 
pital, New York, will head an expedition, con- 
sisting of twenty surgeons and nurses, to be 
sent under the auspices of the “ American 
Physicians Committee” to Germany and 
Austria. The expedition acts in cooperation 
with the American Red Cross. 

JULIUS VON Payer, the distinguished polar 
explorer and artist, has died in Vienna at the 
age of seventy-three years. He was a member 
of the Austrian Antarctic expedition which in 
1871 discovered Franz Joseph Land. 

Proressor Guipo GOLDSCHMIEDT, director of 
the first chemical institute of the University 
of Vienna, well known for his work in organic 
chemistry, died, after a prolonged illness, on 
August 6, at the age of sixty-five years. Pro- 
fessor and Mrs. Goldschmiedt visited this 
country in 1912, at the time of the Eighth 
International Congress of Applied Chemistry, 
and made many friends in scientific circles. 

THERE have been killed in the war Dr. Emil 
Lask, associate professor of philosophy at 
Heidelberg; Dr. Waldemar Conrad, docent for 
philosophy at Halle; Dr. Hugo Schuitze, scien- 
tific assistant in the Reichsanstalt; Professor 
Bartel, director of the Archeological Institute 
of Frankfort; Dr. Deimler, docent in the Munich 
School of Technology, and Dr. O. Bondy, 
docent for gynecology in the University of 


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Breslau, and Dr. Kar] Muenk, chemist in the 
Prussian Geological Survey. 

It is said that the Nobel prizes for the pres- 
ent year will not be awarded. From next year 
the prizes will be reduced by about $5,000, 
representing the amount of the new Swedish 
defence tax. 

In a letter to the London Times, Sir Henry 
E. Roscoe, who was president of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science 
when it met in Manchester twenty-five years 
ago, writes: “The pressing importance of the 
organization of scientific method and research 
has now become recognized both by govern- 
ment and the public. Your columns have been 
generously open to distinguished scientific 
opinion as to this necessity. The more impor- 
tant scientific societies are busily engaged in 
forming committees of their members to aid 
government departments, whilst these latter 
have called in specially qualified experts from 
all branches of scientific inquiry to aid min- 
isters and departmental officials in carrying 
out the new duties which the present position 
entails. So far, so good. But more remains 
to be done. A general conference of the lead- 
ers and workers in British science needs to be 
added. Of the importance of such conference 
and of the ensuing personal contact at the 
present moment there can not be two opinions. 
Such an opportunity will present itself at the 
forthcoming eighty-fifth meeting of the great 
annual Congress of British Science to be held 
in Manchester on September 7. This year the 
meeting will be stripped of all but its scien- 
tific activities, and these, if properly utilized, 
can not fail to be of essential use to the coun- 
try, for it is by the personal intercourse of 
scientific men of all kinds that stimulus is 
aroused and progress made. It is, therefore, 
confidently expected that at the September 
meeting every branch of British scientific 
activity will be fully represented, so that the 
expression of their united opinion may be 
given with no uncertain voice.” 

Tue board of directors of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, as we learn 
from the Electrical World, held in New York 
on August 10, its first meeting of the adminis- 

[N. 8. Vout. XLII. No. 1080 

trative year which began on August 1. Presi- 
dent John J. Carty announced his appoint- 
ments on the various institute committees for 
the administrative year. The chairmen of the 
committees appointed are as follows: Finance, 
Mr. J. Franklin Stevens, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
library, Dr. Samuel Sheldon, Brooklyn, N. Y.; 
meetings and papers, Mr. L. T. Robinson, 
Schenectady, N. Y.; editing, Professor H. H. 
Norris, New York; board of examiners, Dr. A. 
S. McAllister, New York; sections, Mr. H. A. 
Hornor, Philadelphia, Pa.; standards, Pro- 
fessor C. A. Adams, Cambridge, Mass.; code, 
Mr. Farley Osgood, Newark, N. J.; law, Mr. 
G. H. Stockbridge, New York; power stations, 
Mr. C. F. Uebelacker, New York ; transmission, 
Mr. P. H. Thomas, New York; railway, Pro- 
fessor D. C. Jackson, Boston, Mass.; protec- 
tive apparatus, Dr. E. E. F. Creighton, 
Schenectady, N. Y.; electric lighting, Dr. Clay- 
ton H. Sharp, New York; telegraphy and tele- 
phony, Mr. G. M. Yorke, New York; indus- 
trial power, Mr. David B. Rushmore, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y.; use of electricity in marine work, 
Mr. C. S. McDowell, New York; electro- 
chemics, Professor A. F. Ganz, Hoboken, N. 
J.; electrophysics, Mr, John B. Whitehead, 
Baltimore, Md.; records and appraisals of 
properties, Mr. Philander Betts, Newark, N. 
J.; educational, Professor V. Karapetoff, 
Ithaca, N. Y.; public-policy committee, Mr. 
Calvert Townley, New York; development of 
water-powers, Mr. Calvert Townley, New 
York; patents, Mr. Ralph D. Mershon, New 
York; membership, Mr. W. A. Hall, Lynn, 
Mass.; historical museum, Mr. T. C. Martin, 
New York; United States national committee, 
International Electrotechnical Commission, 
Mr. C. O. Mailloux, New York; relations of 
consulting engineers, Dr. L. B. Stillwell, New 
York; code of principles of professions] con- 
duct, Professor George F. Sever, New York; 
hazards from lightning, Professor Elihu 
Thomson, Swampscott, Mass.; reserve corps 
of engineers, Mr. Bion J. Arnold, Chicago, 
TIll.; constitutional revision, Mr. Bancroft 
Gherardi, New York. Representatives were 
also appointed on various joint committees 
and other bodies. 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

Ow1ne to the increasing demand, on the part 
of astronomers, chemists and physicists, for 
accurate values of the wave-lengths of the 
lines in the spectra of iron and other elements, 
the Bureau of Standards has taken up the 
work of determining standards of wave length. 
This work is being done in accordance with 
the recommendations of the International 
Wave-length Committee. The spectrograms 
were obtained in Marseilles in the laboratcries 
of Buisson and Faby, the pioneers in this 
work. The plates were measured at the Bureau 
of Standards. This is rather a difficult re- 
gion of the spectrum to observe, lying entirely 
in the ultra-violet. Apparatus necessary to do 
this work has recently been installed in the 
Bureau of Standards, and wave-length deter- 
minations of the highest accuracy are being 
made throughout the spectrum, including those 
rays which are too short to be visible and also 
those which are longer than any that the eye 
can see. A pamphlet upon this subject has 
just been issued as Scientific Paper No. 251, 
copies of which may be obtained without 
charge from the Bureau of Standards, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

THe Paris correspondent of the London 
Times writes that the Pasteur Institute pre- 
sents rather a dead appearance at present. 
Most of the laboratory assistants have de- 
parted for the front, where, indeed, two doc- 
tors have met their death. There has been in 
consequence a slackening of experimental 
work, as well as a corresponding diminution 
in the running expenses of the establishment. 
A large part of the famous menagerie has dis- 
appeared. Quantities of rabbits, rats and mice 
still exist, but the ourang-outangs, amongst 
others, have ceased to be, as they were expen- 
sive to keep as prospective fields for experi 
ment after the war. A large department of 
the institute is now engaged in cultures for 
serums for use on the battlefield. 

THE annual grants made by parliament 
specifically for scientific investigations and re- 
lated services amount to about £100,000, and 
the details of the estimates for 1915-16 are 
shown in the subjoined table which we repro- 
duce from Nature. 


Royal Society: 

(i) (a) Scientific Investigations ..... £4,000 
(b) Scientific Publications ....... 1,000 

(ti) Magnetic Observatory at Eskdale- 
| a SS ES ee ee 1,000 
(iii) National Physical Laboratory ..... 7,000 

(iw) Aeronautical Section of the National 
Physical Laboratory ........... 9,425 
Meteorological Office ..........2ecseeee. 22,500 
Royal Geographical Society ............. 1,250 
Royal Academy of Music ............... 500 
Royal College of Music ..............+6- 500 

Marine Biological Association of the 
United Kingdom .............. 500 
Royal Society of Edinburgh ............. 600 
Scottish Meteorological Society .......... 100 
SER ED wa bie Sa dnecetesccede 1,600 
Royal Irish Academy of Music .......... 300 
Royal Zoological Society of Ireland ........ 500 
Royal Hiberian Academy ................ 300 

British School at Athens ................ 500 

British School at Rome ................. 500 
Royal Scottish Geographical Society ...... 200 
National Library of Wales .............. 8,200 
National Museum of Wales .............. 17,300 
Solar Physics Observatory .............. 3,000 
RY SUI 5 hh cea Gk os ahececeacess- 400 
School of Oriental Studies ............ 1,500 
North Sea Fisheries Investigation ...... 1,250 
Transantarctic Expedition, 1914-15 ..... 5,000 
Edinburgh Observatory .............ee00- 1,657 


THE Dominion of Canada has, as we learn 
from the Experiment Station Record, appro- 
priated $3,308,000 for agriculture for the year 
1915-16, $785,000 of which is for the mainte- 
nance of experiment farms, $550,000 for the 
development of the live-stock industry, $540,- 
000 for the “health of animals,” $280,000 for 
exhibitions, $275,000 for the administration 
and enforcement of the meat and canned-foods 
act, and $200,000 for the encouragement of 
cold-storage warehouses. The appropriation 
includes $150,000 for the development of the 
dairying industries and the improvement in 
transportation, sale and trade of food and 
other agricultural products, $140,000 to enforce 
the seed act, $113,000 for the fruit branch, 
$100,000 for the administration and enforce- 
ment of the destructive insect and pest aet, 
$25,000 for the administration and carrying 
out of the provisions of the agricultural-in- 

Ep eee eee 

Poe Ae eer | 

ESSER ea ea 

eta Ds 


struction act, $25,000 for the National Biolog- 
ical Laboratory, $20,000 to assist in the main- 
tenance of the International Institute of Agri- 
culture, $20,000 for entomology, $15,000 for 
publications, and $70,000 for exhibits, repairs, 
ete. A further $900,000 is allotted under the 
agricultural-instruction act. The new build- 
ing at the Ontario Veterinary College is now 
in use. It is a five-story brick structure with 
134-foot frontage and 900,000 cu. ft. capacity, 
and cost about $250,000. It contains several 
large laboratories, an assembly room seating 
500, an infirmary for horses, offices, etc. At 
the Nova Scotia Agricultural College, a new 
science building 130 by 50 feet, with labora- 
tories for chemistry, soil physics, entomology, 
plant diseases and home economics, an as- 
sembly hall seating 250, offices, classrooms, 
ete., is nearing completion. 

THE Forest Service has sent a warning 
that more than half of the forest fires in the 
United States are due to carelessness or other 
preventable causes, starting from campers, 
railroad locomotives, brush burning, incen- 
diaries and sawmills. This statement is based 
on an analysis of statistics compiled from the 
forest records of the last season, when more 
than 7,000 fires were reported on national for- 
ests alone and approximately 10,000 on state 
and private holdings in the eighteen states 
which received federal cooperation in fire 
protection under the Weeks law, namely, 
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, 
Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, Michi- 
gan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota, 
Montana, Idaho, Washington and Oregon. 
Forest fires destroy millions of dollars’ worth 
of timber and other property every year, and 
in some years cause considerable loss of life. 
It has been estimated from the best informa- 
tion obtainable that forest fires last year 
burned over an area of approximately 6,000,000 
acres with a total loss of at least $9,500,000. 

Nature states that the Ipswich Museum has 
for some time past made a very strong fea- 
ture of the department of prehistoric archeol- 
ogy, and has collected extensively from the 
uniquely rich district of East Suffolk. The mu- 

[N. S. Vou. XLII. No. 1080 

seum collections now include a large and rep- 
resentative series of pre-Paleolithic and Paleo- 
lithic flint implements, and also numerous ex- 
amples of specimens referable to the later Cave 
and Neolithic periods. Among the later addi- 
tions may be noted a large series of imple- 
ments, bones, etc., from the Grimes Graves 
flint mines, Mousteir flints from Baker’s Hole 
pit in the Thames Valley, and implements of 
different ages presented by Dr. A. E. Peake 
and Rev. H. G. O. Kendall. The museum au- 
thorities have just purchased the entire series 
of local specimens, and the Paleolithic imple- 
ments from the Dovercourt gravels collected 
by the late Lieutenant-Colonel Underwood, of 
Ipswich, and these make a very valuable addi- 
tion to the collections. The skeleton of the 
Neolithic (or early Bronze age) youth found 
with an ornamented drinking vessel by Mr. 
Reid Moir at Wherstead, near Ipswich, is now 
on exhibition, together with other interesting 
human skulls, and the remains of extinct ani- 

Tue Bureau of Standards has published a 
paper entitled “Characteristics of Radiation 
Pyrometers,” giving the results of careful 
study of this type of temperature measuring 
instrument. Such a study was considered 
urgent on account of the extensive use of 
radiation pyrometers in the technical indus- 
tries. These instruments are widely used in 
the temperature control of the various proc- 
esses involved in iron and steel manufacture, 
alloy foundry work, glass, ceramics and brick 
manufacture, smelting, gas works, steam 
generation, lamp manufacture, etc. Many of 
the instruments examined show different tem- 
perature readings for different focusing or 
sighting distances. Errors thus occasioned 
may amount to several hundred degrees. The 
effect of dirt upon the lenses and mirrors is of 
serious importance. The question as to 
whether the pyrometer absorbs all the heat 
radiation falling upon it is discussed, and the 
theory of the instrument, and the connection 
of the behavior of the pyrometer with the theo- 
retical radiation laws are given. The Bureau 
receives a large number of these instruments 
for test and standardization, from various 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

technical industries located throughout the 
country. Heretofore this testing required 
about three days for a single instrument on 
account of the difficulty in heating a furnace 
to an exactly uniform temperature. A new 
method has now been developed which permits 
a satisfactory standardization of a radiation 
pyrometer within one hour. Many sugges- 
tions are given for minimizing the errors to 
which the pyrometer is subject, and it is 
shown that this type of instrument suitably 
designed, adequately calibrated, and correctly 
used, is a trustworthy pyrometer having many 
advantages over other types of temperature 
measuring devices, both for scientific and 
technical use. 

THE government’s herd of buffalo on the 
Wichita National Forest, in Oklahoma, which 
is also a federal game preserve, has been in- 
creased by the arrival of ten calves, according 
to a report received by the Forest Service from 
the supervisor in charge. The herd, which now 
comprises sixty-two specimens of the almost 
extinct bison, is in good condition, says the 
supervisor, and promises to continue increasing 
at a rapid rate. Eight of the calves are 
females, bringing the number of heifers and 
cows up to thirty. The bulls number thirty- 
two and have been placed by themselves in a 
pasture which has just been fenced in for them. 
Three years ago the buffalo herd on the Wichita 
Forest was little more than half as large as it 
is now. It is said that the other game animals 
in the preserve, including the elk and antelope, 
also are increasing, due to the protection 
afforded, not only against hunters, but against 
wolves, wild cats and other predatory animals, 
which committed serious depredations from the 
establishment of the preserve in 1905 until 
measures were taken to stop them. In pro- 
tecting the game from predatory animals, the 
wardens and forest officers are also promoting 
the interests of local stockmen, who graze sev- 
eral thousand head of cattle on certain allotted 
areas within the preserve. 

Nature says of the Harvard College Observ- 
atory: “ Anything concerning this famous in- 
stitution can not fail to be of interest, and 
thus we welcome a reprint from the Harvard 


Alumni Bulletin, March 10, 1915, of two art- 
icles, one by the director, Professor Pickering, 
and the other over the initials ‘J. D. M.’ deal- 
ing with the observatory and its work respec- 
tively. Founded in 1840 by W. C. Bond, with 
the help of thirty subscriptions of £20 each, 
the endowments now amount to £200,000, and 
the annual income exceeds £10,000, yet, we are 
told, ‘there has never been a time ... when 
funds ... were needed more than they are to- 
day.’ In addition to the well-known Arequipa 
Station in Peru, where the 24-in. photographic 
doublet has been mounted, a station in Jamaica 
has recently been founded for visual work. No 
fewer than seventy complete quarto volumes 
of Annals have been published and eight others 
are in preparation, whilst about 200 circulars 
have been issued. Concerning the progress of 
the Draper Catalogue, we are informed that 
down to March 1, 1915, Miss Cannon had classi- 
fied no fewer than 188,350 stellar spectra.” 


Captain ©. F. Batuere, fellow of Exeter 
College, Oxford, who was killed in action on 
July 2, bequeathed £1,000 to the college. 

AccorDING to the London Times Sir A. H. 
Church has bequeathed to fellows of Lincoln 
College, Oxford, £500; to the Waynflete pro- 
fessor of mineralogy in the university £100 for 
the purchase of apparatus and mineral speci- 
mens, together with the testator’s optical in- 
struments, mineral specimens and chemical 
apparatus; and £100 to the curators of the 
Ashmolean Museum. 

Dr. T. C. Hess, professor of physics at the 
Northern State Normal School, Marquette, 
Michigan, has been granted his sabbatical year 
and will devote it to study at Columbia Uni- 

New appointments at Bedford College, Lon- 
don, as we learn from Nature, inelude: assist- 
ant lecturer in physics, Miss M. O. Saltmarsh; 
demonstrator in physics, Miss M. Baxter; 
demonstrators in physiology, Miss Hartwell 
and Miss Tweedy; demonstrator in geology, 
Miss I. Lowe. 


Be phe mon re tags sey Spm ate 
tage Te a Se ey 





Dr. H. G. Earue has been appointed to the 
chair of physiology in the University of Hong- 


TuHat the words “quantity of matter” are 
of service in explaining the significance of 
“mass ” in dynamics has been assumed either 
explicity or tacitly by many authorities, in- 
cluding Newton, Maxwell, Kelvin, Tait and 
Clifford, and this view is obviously held by 
several of those who have contributed to the 
recent discussion in Science. There are, 
however, those who dissent from this view,? 
maintaining that the word mass as used in 
dynamics has no meaning except that given to 
it by the “law of acceleration” (Newton’s 
second law), and that the statement that “ the 
mass of a body is a measure of its quantity of 
matter” contributes nothing to our under- 
standing of the definition. My present object 
is to call attention to a consideration which 
appears to be lost sight of by those who take 
this latter position. This consideration, stated 
briefly, is that the mass of a body is distributed 
in a perfectly definite way among the individ- 

1 The dissenting view is vigorously advocated by 
Professor Huntington in his latest letter (ScIENCE, 
July 30, 1915). It should be noted that this 
question is aside from the question whether mass 
should appear in the fundamental equations. 
Whatever definition of mass may be adopted, the 
fact remains that the quantity ordinarily called 
mass is a part of the fundamental data of dynam- 
ies. That Professor Huntington’s formulation 
of principles obscures this fact is my chief reason 
for dissenting from it. Further discussion of this 
point by me would, however, be a reiteration of 
what has been said in a former communication 
(Scrence, April 23, 1915). Any reader who is 
interested in Professor Huntington’s reference to 
my text-book on theoretical mechanics may find 
by consulting the book that the explanation of the 
laws of motion contained in it is substantially that 
which I have recently favored in the pages of 
SCIENCE; but it is my present belief that the notion 
of quantity of matter might have been used more 
effectively in this book, as well as in most other 
text-books that are known to me. 

[N. 8S. Vou. XLII. No. 1080 

ual portions of matter of which the body is 

Dynamics deals with the motions of bodies, 
By a body we mean any connected aggregate 
of matter. Without attempting to define mat- 
ter, we recognize the applicability to it of the 
notions that the whole is greater than any 
part and the whole is equal to the sum of its 
parts. These are quantitative notions; and it 
will be seen that they are an essential part of 
the notion of mass which we habitually use in 
interpreting the second law of motion. 

Consider the following proposition: 

I. If two bodies be acted upon by equal 
forces, the body having the greater mass will 
have the lesser acceleration. 

According to one view this is merely an ar- 
bitrary definition of the meaning of greater 
and less as applied to mass; i. e., the state- 
ment that “the mass of a body A ig greater 
than that of a body B” is held to mean noth- 
ing more than that “if A and B be acted upon 
by equal forces the acceleration of A will be 
less than that of B.” If, however, we are to 
regard proposition I. as having any applica- 
tion to actual physical bodies, it is easy to 
show that it is not a mere definition, but a 
partial expression of a physical law, enabling 
us in certain cases to make predictions. Thus, 
suppose material to be removed from a body A, 
leaving a body B; we know that, if a certain 
force be applied to A and an equal force after- 
ward to B, the acceleration of B will be greater 
than that of A; and the truth of this is recog- 
nized because we know that B contains less 
material than A. That is, in applying I. to 
this case we associate with mass the notion of 
quantity of matter. 

Consider now the following more definitely 
quantitative proposition : 

Il. If different bodies are acted upon by 
equal forces, the resulting accelerations are in 
the inverse ratios of the masses of the bodies. 

The interpretation we put upon this proposi- 
tion becomes evident from a consideration of 
particular cases. 

As a first illustration let A be a body which, 
when acted upon by a force F, has the accelera- 
tion a; and suppose A to be divided into two 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

bodies B and C and that forces equal to F, ap- 
plied to B and C, cause accelerations a’, a”. 
We recognize the truth of the following state- 
ments about the values of a’ and a”: 

Both a’ and a” are greater than a. 

Tf one of the accelerations a’, a” is less than 
2a the other is greater than 2a. 

Tf a’ and a” are equal, each is equal to 2a. 

The accelerations satisfy the equation 1/a’ 
+1/a"=1/a. (This of course includes the 
three preceding statements.) 

These statements are consequences of II.; 
but the reason we recognize this is because we 
recognize that A contains more matter than 
either B or C, and that the sum of the quan- 
tities of matter of B and C is equal to that of 
A. That is, in interpreting II. we regard 
mass as a measure of quantity of matter. 

As another illustration, let A and B be any 
two distinct bodies such that when equal forces 
are applied to them the acceleration of A is 
less than that of B. Proposition II. tells 
us that the mass of A is greater than that of 
B; but is there any reason for saying that A 
contains more matter than B? There is this 
reason: We know that, by removing from A 
some quantity of matter, there will remain a 
body A’ such that, if equal forces be applied to 
A’ and B, their accelerations will be equal; or 
by adding to B some quantity of matter there 
will be produced a body B’ such that, if equal 
forces be applied to A and B’, their accelera- 
tions will be equal. Moreover, we know that 
the matter which must be taken from A to pro- 
duce A’, and that which must be added to B 
to produce B’, have equal masses m as tested 
by II.; and that if the accelerations of A 
and B due to equal forces F are a’ and a”, a 
body of mass m acted upon by a force F would 
have an acceleration a such that 1/a=1/a’ — 
1/a”. These facts are all recognized as 
consequences of II. because we regard mass 
as therein used to be a measure of quantity 
of matter; they would not follow if our notion 
of mass were derived wholly from proposition 
IT. itself. 

The significance of mass in the second law 
of motion is sometimes stated in the following 



III. The forces required to give equal ac- 
celerations to different bodies are proportional 
to their masses. 

It is easy to cite illustrative cases showing 
that in applying this proposition also we in- 
terpret mass as a measure of the matter of 
which bodies are composed. Thus the state- 
ment that “body A has three times the mass 
of body B” means more than that “body A 
requires three times as much force as body B 
to give it a specified acceleration”; it means 
that the material contained in body A might 
be made into three bodies, each of which would 
require the same force as body B to give it a 
specified acceleration. 

It is of course true that an important part 
of the import of propositions II. and III. 
consists in giving precision to the definition of 
mass. But the illustrations which have been 
given show that the preliminary definition of 
mass as quantity of matter is not without 
important meaning, and serves a useful pur- 
pose in explaining the significance of mass in 
the laws of motion. 

L. M. Hoskrxs 

August 5, 1915 


In the “Records of the Geological Survey 
of India ” for February, 1915, Dr. Guy E. Pil- 
grim has described the fossil anthropoids of 
India, including several new forms of great 
interest from the Lower, Middle and Upper 
Siwaliks. Through the kindness of Dr. Pil- 
grim the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory has received casts of his types and prin- 
cipal specimens of Siwalik anthropoids, con- 
sisting of fragments of jaws and isolated 
molars. These casts, together with Dr. Pil- 
grim’s excellent illustrations, have enabled the 
writer to make a critical comparison of the 
extinct Indian anthropoids with the existing 
anthropoids and with recent and extinct races 
of man. 

Pilgrim describes several new species of 
Dryopithecus, a genus characteristic of the 
Upper Miocene of Europe. Its known range 

is thus extended to the Upper Miocene of 


pee 8 Serie ait ki OA Sila sy — “ce Fe 
es Shih a idekggh sh tse eye en paige 4 = ay wh ae Ee ete ee ee ee Se aon Br ip 
SiS PAT Sah iccneat ew Mee i RAO eS RR Ma CER fat SL eos ky Ret 338 



India. One of these Indian species of Dry- 
opithecus (D. punjabicus) is apparently re- 
lated to the gorilla; another (D. giganteus), 
perhaps to the chimpanzee; an allied genus, 
Paleosimia, bears a significant resemblance to 
the orang; a fourth type, Palewopithecus siva- 
lensis Lydekker, is a synthetic form with re- 
semblances to the gorilla, chimpanzee and gib- 
bon. In the reviewer’s opinion all these are 
more primitive than any of their modern 
relatives and indicate that in the Upper Mio- 
cene northern India was not far from the 
center of evolution of the anthropoids and 

The important genus and species Sivapithe- 
cus indicus, from the Lower and Middle 
Siwaliks, rests upon fragments of the lower 


[N. S. Vou. XLII. No. 1080 

this being inferred from the fact that two of 
the F, pink-eyed yellows, when mated to red- 
eyed yellows of stock, “ produced only red-eyed 
(yellow) offspring.” This result must mean 
either that these two rats were not sufficiently 
tested, and were not really double recessives; 
or else, if they were double recessives, that 
there had been crossing over in both sexes of 
F, rats. As to the first possibility, the crucial 
point is the number of red-eyed offspring pro- 
duced in the test mating. Unless this number 
was large enough to completely rule out the 
possibility of the F, pink-eyed rats having been 
only heterozygous for the red-eye factor, the 

second alternative is not necessarily true. If 

the second possibility be true it follows that 
the relation of crossing over to sex determina- 

tp Reet wi 

ip ec a or 

Pe ee ee ae 

i SE Re Mian AE NEL AT Eee 
Te FONE ee ae ey Es 

A Seas 


ge pratlpm tpn 
fee Sareea 1 Ed 

- By OU are FN se Su 
MP Pts PAB X As Te NS 


careful study of the evidence he believes Dr. 
Pilgrim has erred in attributing the above- 
mentioned human characteristics to Sivapithe- 
cus, the jaw of which, in the reviewer’s 
opinion, should be restored rather after the 
pattern of the female orang jaw. The evi- 
dence for this conclusion will be given else- 
where. The reviewer would also dissent from 
Dr. Pilgrim’s allocation of Sivapithecus to the 
Hominide, preferring to place it by definition 
in the Simiide, since it had ape-like canines 
and front premolars, and, as the reviewer inter- 
prets the evidence, also an ape-like symphysis. 
WituuMm K. Grecory 


In a recent number of Science (August 6) 
Castle and Wright describe a case of linkage 
in rats. One point of general interest indi- 
cated by their results is not pointed out by 
these authors; namely, that crossing over occurs 
in both sexes. This conclusion depends on the 
appearance, in F, of their cross (red-eyed 
yellow by pink-eyed yellow), of doubly recessive 
rats. They state that two such rats appeared, 

5 jaw and dentition. From these Dr. Pilgrim tion is different here from that in Drosophila 
me has attempted a restoration of the lower jaw (Morgan) and the silkworm moth (Tanaka), 
i, 4 that shows a subhuman divergence of the op- where no crossing over occurs in the sex which 
Ke By posite rami and a very short, man-like sym- ig heterozygous for the sex factors! (male in 
a physis. Pilgrim regards this genus as in or Drosophila, female in the silkworm moth). 
By a near the ancestral line of Homo sapiens. Since the evidence from sex-linkage and cytol- 
| The reviewer regrets to report that after a ogy shows that in several mammals (man, cat, 

ete.) the male is heterozygous for the sex 
factor, we should expect, if the relation to 
crossing over is a general one, that no crossing 
over would take place in the male mammal. 
A. H. Sturtevant 
August, 1915 


A Monograph of the Existing Crinoids. YVol- 
umel. The Comatulids: Part1. By Austin 
Hopart Criark, Assistant Curator, Division 
of Marine Invertebrates, United States Na- 
tional Museum. Bulletin 82. Washington, 
Government Printing Office. 1915. 4to. 
Pp. vi-+ 486; with 513 text-figures, and 17 

The last general treatise upon the Recent 
Crinoids is contained in the monumental 
volumes of P. Herbert Carpenter upon the 
“Stalked Crinoids and the Comatule,” pub- 
lished in 1884 and 1888 by the British gov- 
ernment as part of the results of the voyage of 
H. M. 8. Challenger. Although based chiefly 

1See Sturtevant, A. H., Amer. Nat., XLIX., 

ekeih ter. re J Piao 03 a 
Pils al 


SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

upon the Challenger collections, these volumes 
constituted a thorough monograph of the 
group as it was known at those dates. During 
the ensuing quarter of a century extraordinary 
activity in marine exploration has prevailed in 
all the oceans, resulting in an enormous in- 
crease of material for study—both in the way 
of specimens, and of accurate records of oc- 
currence and distribution, by which the influ- 
ence of depth, temperature and ocean currents 
upon the growth and modification of crinoid 
faunas can be studied in a manner not 
hitherto possible. New species and genera 
have thus been brought to light to an extent 
wholly unexpected. With this great multipli- 
cation of new forms, it has become increas- 
ingly evident to those interested in the sub- 
ject that the criteria employed for discrimi- 
nation of the Fossil Crinoids are only appli- 
cable in a limited degree to the Recent, and that 
some new method of treating the latter is re- 
quired in order to adequately deal with the 
new facts. The practical working out of such 
a method is perhaps the most important gen- 
eral result of Mr. Clark’s researches; this will 
be fully developed in his monograph, of which 
the present volume is the introductory part, to 
be followed by others treating systematically 
the genera and species of the Comatulids and 
Stalked Crinoids, 

Much of the work to be embodied in the 
subsequent volumes has already been done, and 
the results published in preliminary form in a 
series of papers appearing in various American 
and foreign journals during the past eight 
years, which give evidence of the extraordinary 
energy with which the author has prosecuted 
his studies. These publications, beginning 
with the description of the new genus Ptilo- 
crinus in June, 1907, now amount to a total 
of 114 papers, of which 23 were issued in jour- 
nals of England, Denmark, France, Holland, 
Germany, Monaco, India, New South Wales 
and western Australia. Some of these are 
really treatises in permanent form—notably 
that upon the “COrinoids of the Indian 
Ocean,” a fine quarto volume of 325 pages and 
59 figures, published in 1912 by the trustees 
of the Indian Museum at Calcutta; this was 


based upon the collections made during a num- 
ber of years by the Royal Indian Marine Sur- 
vey steamer Investigator, and placed by the 
authorities of the museum in Mr. Clark’s 
hands for description. Another quarto work 
of 209 pages and 10 plates is “ Die Crinoiden 
der Antarktis,” published in Germany upon 
the collections made by the steamer Gauss, of 
the Deutsche Sudpolar-Expedition, which were 
sent to the author for investigation. A paper 
upon a collection of crinoids from the Zoolog- 
ical Museum of Copenhagen was published in 
the “ Vidensk Medd. fra den Naturhist. i 
Kjébenhaven,” 1909; one of 100 pages on the 
“Recent Crinoids of Australia,” in the Me- 
moirs of the Australian Museum at Sydney, 
in 1911; and another in the same year on the 
“ Crinoidea ” of the Hamburg Southwest Aus- 
tralian Expedition was published as Band IIL., 
Lieferung 13, of the scientific results of that 

Of the remaining 91 papers published in 
America, the greater part have appeared in 
the Proceedings of the U. S. National Mu- 
seum. Out of the total number of papers, 69 
have been upon collections examined. Some 
idea of the wide range of the researches upon 
which this monograph is founded may be had 
from an enumeration of the collections, and 
of material from expeditions which have been 
studied. In addition to the already large col- 
lections of the United States Bureau of Fish- 
eries, and of the National Museum, accumu- 
lated by the dredgings of various Coast Sur- 
vey and Fisheries vessels, including the recent 
cruises of the Albatross in the Pacific Ocean, 
the following foreign museum and special col- 
lections have been placed at Mr. Clark’s dis- 
posal and sent by their owners to Washington 
for his use: Zoological Museum, Copenhagen; 
Hamburg Museum, containing the types of 
Hartlaub’s species; Museum fiir Naturkunde, 
Berlin, containing the type material of 
Johannes Miiller’s classical works upon the 
recent crinoids; Indian Museum, Calcutta; 
Australian Museum, Sydney; Western Aus- 
tralian Museum and Art Gallery, Perth; Sv. 
Gad collection from Singapore; Svensson col- 
lection from East Asia, Copenhagen. Also the 



hie hee _— 
SIE TRE eb eer oe 


si ath Tet tah ae yet oh 
Pw Se WEEN f ay 
“ok aM 88 « om 

ih ta 

nae ‘ 
pox At 
ek - 
. ’ 
SS hed a Ss oh of 2s emly x eesse . 
Vo panne bh Pel cri Lhe ee Te te ae ee Seer i 
feo ae a Bits. SIS » Bk Ogee dye Tet ee ieee os ee ee 

ick 4 is ad A 
F.5d oe 59S cogs ee er ee yo Nee: : 
I ie Nh ce SORE BIE TIE IT 2S 1 DEERE i alan dig pate on 

Sor ey ene 
Een HEI 

vitor, ‘SS Rivle 
bP se ~ 

ean’ Frat ewes ft 

[ haa ft ee on 
, ae ee ie tte 


material collected by the following special ex- 
peditions, which has been sent to Mr. Clark 
from time to time for description: Jngol 
(Danish), Greenland and Northwest Atlantic; 
Danish expeditions to Siam and to the Danish 
West Indies; Investigator and Golden Crown 
(Indian), Indian Ocean; Helga (Irish), West 
Ireland; Siboga (Dutch), East Indies; Gauss 
(German) Antarctic; Gazelle (German), East 
Indies and Australia; Golden Hind (Japan- 
ese); Endeavor (Australia). It may be re- 
marked in passing that in consideration of 
the work done upon the collections of these 
various expeditions, a liberal portion of the 
specimens has in all cases been left in Mr. 
Clark’s hands, which have been placed by him 
in the National Museum; and that as a result 
of these accessions this museum now possesses 
a far more extensive and varied collection of 
the Recent Crinoids than any other institution 
in the world. 

The author’s method of treatment, and the 
classification proposed by him, have gained 
general acceptance by the leading authorities 
upon the recent crinoids, and his new genera 
have been adopted in practise by Dr. Hubert 
Lyman Clark, of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge; and in Europe by Dr. 
Theodor Mortensen, of Copenhagen; Pro- 
fessor Ludwig Doederlein, of Strassburg; Dr. 
August Reichensperger, of Bonn; Professors 
Rene Koehler and C. Vasey, of Lyons. Dr. 
Mortensen and Professor Doederlein turned 
over the extensive Danish and German collec- 
tions under their control to Mr. Clark for de- 
scription ; and the magnificent collections made 
by the Marine Survey steamers of the Indian 
government were placed in his hands for study 
and publication upon the suggestion of Dr. 
F. A. Bather, the distinguished crinoid author- 
ity of the British Museum. 

In the way of technical equipment for this 
work Mr. Clark has unusual advantages. In 
addition to a general zoological training he had 
the benefit of experience in collecting birds 
and insects in Europe, the West Indies and 
South America. After this he served as nat- 
uralist upon the steamer Albatross of the U. S. 
Fish Commission during a cruise of some 15,- 

[N. 8S. Vou. XLII. No. 1080 

000 miles, prosecuting extensive and continual 
dredgings along the coasts of Alaska, the Aleu- 
tian Islands, Kamschatka, Japan and Korea, 
and returning via the Hawaiian Islands. On 
these voyages vast numbers of crinoids were 
taken, and the personal knowledge of their 
occurrence and distribution thus gained by the 
future author enlisted his interest in the in- 
tensive study of these organisms, to which he 
has since given his chief attention. By way of 
further necessary preparation Mr. Clark in 
1910 visited the chief museums of Europe, and 
studied at first hand all the collections of his- 
toric interest containing types and other ma. 
terial used by previous authors from Lamarck 
and Miiller to those of the present day, includ- 
ing the specimens from the Challenger and 
other British exploring steamers which had 
been studied by Sir Wyville Thomson and the 
two Carpenters. Detailed reports of the ex- 
amination of several of these collections were 
published in the Proceedings of the National 
Museum, and the Smithsonian Miscellaneous 
Collections, and in journals of the museums 

The present volume, as already stated, is to 
a large extent introductory, and is chiefly de- 
voted to the comatulids, or unstalked crinoids. 
After a very full historical introduction, a 
table of the terms employed in the description 
of a comatulid, and a discussion of the rela- 
tive status of the crinoids as a zoological unit, 
there is an instructive explanation of the 
proper way to study a comatulid for purpose 
of identification. Then follows an elaborate 
treatise upon the structure and anatomy of 
the crinoids, in the course of which many new 
facts ascertained from dissections and other 
observations by the author are brought out. 
The illustrations, embracing a total of 602 
figures, are prepared with great care for the 
purpose of definite information. Witia some 
experience in this line as to the fossil crinoids, 
the present writer is able to bear testimony to 
the immense labor involved in the preparation 
of these figures, especially those illustrating 
the minute anatomy of the crinoid skeleton, 
drawn by the author himself. No such lucid 
representation of these structures for the re- 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

cent crinoids generally has ever been given be- 

There is not space to review the questions 
of zoological relationships discussed—some of 
which are speculative, and will doubtless meet 
with criticism—nor the many new discoveries 
touching the structure and characters of the 
crinoid organism, which testify to the indus- 
try of the author. Among the more general 
conclusions to which these researches have 
led, the following may be mentioned: . 

1. The Crinoids of the recent seas are far 
more numerous, both in individuals and in 
species, than is commonly supposed, and their 
relative importance does not fall short of that 
of the other echinoderm groups. 

2. The Crinoids, after a paleontological 
record almost without a parallel for duration 
and for variety in development, are repre- 
sented in the recent seas chiefly by two highly 
aberrant types, viz: (1) the Pentacrinites, 
which have departed widely from their proto- 
types by enormously increasing the length of 
the column through the indefinite reduplication 
of the first stem joint, or proximale; and (2) 
the Comatulids, which have departed just as 
widely by discarding the column and com- 
pressing what is virtually the entire column 
of the pentacrinites within the compass of a 
single highly cirriferous proximale. Thus 
while the two groups are parallel to each other, 
and are descended from the same ancestral 
stock, and represent the same phylogenetic 
stage, during their development they have di- 
verged from their phylogenetic mean in ex- 
actly opposite directions; and both groups are 
therefore far removed from the direct line 
representing the progressive development of 
the class. 

3. These two aberrant types dominate the 
recent seas to such a degree that in compari- 
son with them all the other types become rela- 
tively insignificant. The comatulids, although 
in their relation to the fossil crinoids merely 
an inconspicuous family, far outnumber all of 
the other existing crinoids taken together, at 
the same time extending through a much 
wider geographical, bathymetrical and thermal 
range. They exist in a vast array of diverse 



forms, none of which depart in any great de- 
gree from the general structure of the group, 
so that their classification necessitates the 
creation of numerous subfamilies, and fam- 
ilies, and higher groups, which are not syste- 
matically comparable to similar groups in the 
stalked crinoids. 

4. Among the Recent Crinoids the calyx, 
usually reduced to insignificant proportions, is 
of comparatively little systematic value—the 
classification being placed chiefly upon the 
column (or homologous structures), and the 
proximal pinnules. This is, broadly speaking, 
the reverse of the conditions in the fossil 
forms, and this fact involves the recognition 
of characters for the differentiation of species 
and genera wholly different from those em- 
ployed in dealing with the fossils. The appli- 
cation of these criteria to the study of the col- 
lections and material above mentioned has re- 
sulted in the proposal of nearly 100 new gen- 
era, and the description of several hundred 
species new to science, among the comatulids 
alone, the systematic treatment and illustra- 
tion of which are to follow in a succeeding vol- 

5. The author believes the echinoderms to 
be a highly abberrant offshoot from a primitive 
crustacean stock, and that they are far from 
being the anomalous creatures they are com- 
monly considered. 

The thanks of all students of the echino- 
derms are due to the authorities of the Na- 
tional Museum for their liberality in facilita- 
ting the publication of the results of these re- 
searches in so thorough and comprehensive a 
manner, and in thus giving to the scientific 
public a work which is destined to take rank 
with the great monographs following the 
Challenger Expedition—a series which in its 
entirety stands as one of the finest contribu- 
tions to the knowledge of marine zoology ever 


Tue eighth number of Volume 1 of the 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sci- 
ences contained the following articles: 

2 Aidgahaoin wy a Serre) aero 

ass TN yt as Sec Ph a Hy De ob 
Tete apres e hinee ae 

ind ok wise 
Pecans oat 
Pints Caer 

Peat hs : Cis «hd DM? AM Be eee Poe ae bart * fy 
8s Taken S 5 EE EIS Gk ER tle OTIS as eee eee os 

ak 2 cay MF Wage nr ete ye - J 






Gas Fi) WR 


1. Weber’s Law and Antagonistic Salt Action: 
Jacques Loes, Rockefeller Institute for 
Medical Research, New York. 

The author had shown that the ratio of the 
concentrations of antagonistic ions must re- 
main within certain limits for the normal 
functioning of an organism. It is here shown 
that these limits remain approximately con- 
stant as the concentration of one of the ions 
is changed. 

2. The Polarized Fluorescence of Ammonium 
Uranyl Chloride: E. L. NicHots and H. L. 
Howes, Physical Laboratory, Cornell Uni- 

The remarkable fluorescence spectrum of 
this salt is described in considerable detail; 
observations being made at + 20° C. and 
— 185°. 

3. The Linguistic Classification of Potta- 
watomi: TruMAN MICHELSON, Bureau of 
American Ethnology, Washington. 

By study of the so-called “ verbal pronouns,” 
which afford most satisfactory classificatory 
criteria, it is shown that Pottawatomi belongs 
to the Ojibwa Group of Central Algonquian 

4. The Light Curve of XX Cygni as a Con- 
tribution to the Study of Cepheid Variation: 
Haritow SHAPLeY and MartHa Betz SxHap- 
LEY, Mount Wilson Solar Observatory, Car- 
negie Institution of Washington. 

The form of the maximum of brightness in 
XX cygni is variable from period to period 
and thus suggests the hypothesis that the 
periodic light and spectrum variations in this 
and other Cepheid variables should be ascribed 
to internal vibrations producing irregularities 
in luminosity instead of to double star phe- 

5. The Feebly Inhibited. III. Inheritance of 
Temperament; with Special Reference to 
Twins and Suicides: C. B. Davenport, Sta- 
tion for Experimental Evolution, Carnegie 
Institution of Washington. 

A statistical study of 89 family histories, 
affording 147 matings, leads to the conclu- 
sion that temperament is inherited as though 
there were in the germ plasm a factor H# 

[N. S. Vou. XLII. No. 1089 

which induces the more or less periodie occur- 
rence of an excited condition and its absence, 
e, which results in a calmness; also a factor (0 
which makes for normal cheerfulness and its 
absence which permits a more or less periodic 
depression, the factors behaving as though in 
different chromosomes, so that they are in- 
herited independently. 

6. Second Type Stars of Low Mean Density: 
Hartow SHapiey, Mount Wilson Solar Ob- 
servatory, Carnegie Institution of Wash- 

Because of its bearing on the question of 
the order of stellar evolution, the density of 
stars of the second spectral type is discussed 
from the standpoint of the dependability of the 
observation and theoretical work that is the 
basis of the derivation of occasional extremely 
low values. 

7. On the Pathological Action of Arsenicals 
upon the Adrenals: Wape H. Brown and 
Louise Pearce, Rockefeller Institute for 
Medical Research, New York. 

That arsenicals of diverse chemical consti- 
tution exert pronounced pathological action 
upon the adrenals has not been generally 
recognized. It appears from these observa- 
tions that the adrenotropic action of arsenicals 
is one of the most constant and important fea- 
tures of arsenical intoxication, and it is sug- 
gested that therapeutic doses of some arsen- 
icals may be found to produce definite stimu- 
lation of the adrenal glands, 

8. Variations in the Character and Distribu- 
tion of the Renal Lesions produced by Com- 
pounds; LovuIsE Pearce and Wape H. Browy, 
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, 
New York. 

Not all compounds of arsenic produce vas- 
cular lesions; some are capable of producing 
tubular nephritis; the difference in the patho- 
genic action being explainable only upon the 
basis of the chemical constitution of the differ- 
ent compounds of arsenic. 

9. Seven Points on a Twisted Cubic Curve: 
H. S. Wurre, Department of Mathematics, 

Vassar College. 
If seven points on a twisted cubic be joined, 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

two and two, by twenty-one lines, then any 

seven planes that contain these twenty-one 

lines will osculate a second cubic curve. 
Epwix BipweELt WILSON 



By means of a double stain of janus green 
and neutral red in an isotonic salt solution, 
the initial dilution of each stain being about 
1:10,000, the yolk globules in the living cells 
of Amblystoma embryos may be differentiated 
into two types, which, for convenience of de- 
scription, I designate as “alpha” and “ beta” 
globules. The alpha globules stain selectively 
with janus green, at first greenish blue and 
then pinkish, presumably upon reduction of 
the dye. The beta globules stain selectively 
with the neutral red, and are by far the more 
numerous in the cell. When the same dyes 
are used singly in a dilution of 1:30,000 the 
alpha globules are relatively inert towards the 
red, and the beta globules are not stained by 
the green. In smears of living embryos which 
have been fixed upon the cover glass with the 
acetic-osmic bichromate mixture and stained 
with acid fuchsin according to the method of 
Bensley,? for mitochondria, the beta globules 
stain a deep, brilliant red while the alpha 
globules take on a duller tint, bordering on 
similarly differentiated in sections prepared ac- 
cording to this method. 

In smears of living cells which have been 

1 When this paper was written I was not ac- 
quainted with the contribution of C. Saint-Hilaire: 
‘Ueber die Veriinderungen der Dotterkérner der 
Amphibien bei der intracelluliiren Verdauung,’’ 
Zoologische Jahrbiicher, Abt. f. Allg. Zool. wu. 
Physiol., B. 34, Heft 2. After a careful study of 
his results I am convinced that Saint-Hilaire has 
not seen my ‘‘alpha bodies.’’ Otherwise, my ob- 
servations, in many respects, are in striking agree- 
ment with his. The differences in matters of inter- 

pretation ean not be discussed here. 

* Bensley, R. R., ‘‘Studies on the Pancreas of 
the Guinea Pig,’’ American Journal of Anatomy, 
Vol. 12, No. 3. 


The two types of globules may be . 


stained in janus green, alpha globules may be 
found here and there with deeply stained, blue 
excrescences upon their surface. These struc- 
tures may be described as “alpha bodies.” 
These are particularly distinct after the glob- 
ule on which they occur has begun to take 
on the pinkish tint. They frequently appear 
as rows of slightly elongated masses connected 
by slender threads of the same kind of sub- 
stance. In optical section some of them seem 
to dip into the substance of the globule while 
others project in varying degree above it. 
Some even have a very slight attachment to 
the globule. In other instances similarly 
staining substance is arranged in relatively 
coarse bands with ragged outline, a condition 
to which I shall refer again in considering the 
toxic action of the dye. 

The different forms of alpha bodies I regard 
as indicative of different stages in their 
development. I have seen them in numerous 
cases arranged in rows over the surface of the 
globule as separate and distinct bodies. In 
this condition they have the form and color of 
mitochondria in the same preparation. In 
one instance, in fact, after I had begun to 
draw a globule with these separate and distinct 
alpha globules on its surface, I observed that 
some of the alpha bodies were changing their 
position relative to each other, and, giving con- 
tinuous and close observation to those bodies, 
I saw some of them break loose from the 
globule and become indistinguishable in form 
and color from mitochondria which appeared 
elsewhere in the same preparation. Alpha 
bodies are visible also in smears and sections 
made according to Bensley’s method for mito- 
chondria as noted above. 

Similarly there appear on some beta globules 
structures which may be called “ beta bodies.” 
These stain a deep red in contrast with the 
more delicately tinted body of the globule. 
In some respects they resemble in general 
structure the alpha bodies, but they are of a 
coarser nature. In some instances there is a 
hull of this substance around the greater part 
of the globule. Upon other globules it appears 
in ridges or as a chain of angular bodies. In 
smears of living cells I have seen beta bodies, 

Tu Pn a APY et 4 
bad a "Se a elo ee pes 
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5 i ae OORT ae PPS ee BONE Pe Aas sty he = Pease ee corte EIS OREN ERE MI TA EY Yea 


i sa festa 

ts SSE rege rece ee ei “at, f Lor Var alee} Gay) 2 
Sis Se tae ee nate Wry oe 
na the cbt catia Ryo et ete PALS SEG Ta pte ot Sekaes 

Poth, See Bio 

NO Sli coy dive 

be eateee tev nk 
eet eae 

Woes a ike? he 
AEM Me: sage 

ee See 

Rae sh hes ciy Sh i gai 
Coe ESN tO al AL RRM CARR hal aan aaa 

ae ne RI ATE WS 

ie eae 


also, break loose from the globule. In the 
free condition they become indistinguishable 
from the free bodies which are abundant in the 
cells of amphibian embryos and which are 
ordinarily regarded as pigment. These pig- 
ment granules, although having a color of 
their own, at least upon their surface, stain 
deeply with neutral red. The beta bodies give 
the reaction for fat with Herxheimer’s method. 

That the beta bodies can not be degeneration 
products in the strict sense is evidenced by the 
fact that yolk globules remain intact for a 
long period in dishes of putrefying embryos, 
and that, in this condition, they do not stain 
selectively in neutral red and nothing like beta 
bodies can be found upon them. However, 
such globules, taken from disintegrating em- 
bryos, after they have been ingested by large 
protozoa, stain selectively in the food vacuoles 
of the living organism. In fact, large ciliates 
which have been feeding in dishes where em- 
bryos are disintegrating in a solution of neu- 
tral red, become gorged with deep red granules 
in dense masses. In one instance I have seen 
a swimming ciliate discharge a number of 
these granules, apparently as dejecta. 

In the study of the reaction to janus green 
of yolk globules that have been ingested by 
protozoa I have met difficulties which have not 
been entirely overcome, but in one large ciliate 
I have succeeded in getting the reaction of two 
food vacuoles to the double stain of janus 
green and neutral red. In this case the sur- 
face of the globule stained a dense red and the 
other contents of the vacuole around the yolk 
globule a faint blue which changed in time to 
faint pink. The latter reaction was delicate 
but unmistakable. 

A study of the artificial digestion, also, of 
yolk globules which have been taken from 
dead embryos supports the view that the selec- 
tive staining of yolk globules and the bodies 
on their surface is due to processes of diges- 
tion. When such globules are digested in a 
mixture of pancreatin and neutral red many 
stain selectively and bodies appear on their 
surface which resemble beta bodies in living 
preparations. With prolonged digestion in 
pancreatin and neutral red the solution be- 

[N. 8. Vou. XLII. No. 1080 

comes yellow, and the core of the digesting 
globules yellow, while the bodies on their sur- 
face are deep red. Such reactions do not 
occur in digestion with pepsin in solution with 
neutral red, either with or without the addition 
of hydrochloric acid, although there is positive 
evidence of digestion in the mixture. Diges- 
tion with pepsin and janus green, however, 
brings about selective staining of globules 
which, during digestion, break up into very 
small bodies. These bodies stain a deep blue 
or blue-green. Such bodies occur, also, upon 
the surface of more faintly stained blue glob- 
ules, in which case they resemble the alpha 
bodies of living preparations. Although they 
are usually larger than the typical alpha 
bodies, some of them are of about the same 

In preparations of living cells stained with 
the double stain of neutral red and janus green 
I have on several occasions found an individ- 
ual globule which had both alpha and beta 
bodies attached, the alpha bodies situated in 
bluish areas and the beta bodies in regions of 
fainter red. One such globule I had under 
observation for over eight and one half hours. 
During the latter part of this period beta 
bodies became detached from the globule 
while the globule became much reduced in size 
and retained the bluish tint over a relatively 
larger area than formerly. During this time 
an alpha body, also, disappeared from the 
surface of the globule, but it could not be 
recognized afterwards in the free condition as 
were the beta bodies. The latter, in the free 
condition, assumed the characteristics of the 
so-called pigment granules in the same prep- 

These preliminary observations have left a 
strong conviction in my mind that, in the 
digestion and assimilation of yolk in these 
embryos, enzymes effect a cleavage of the super- 
ficial substance of the globule; that, following 
this cleavage, the end-products of the process 
segregate into alpha bodies on the one hand 
and beta bodies on the other, and that the 
alpha bodies, probably undergoing some 
chemical change in the meantime, become free 
as mitochondria in the process of assimilation 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

into protoplasm, while the beta bodies are at 
this stage of development essentially a residue 
which later in cytomorphosis, possibly only 
after the circulatory system has assumed its 
nutritive réle, may undergo further digestion. 

This interpretation is further supported by 
the fact that janus green manifests much 
greater toxicity than does neutral red when 
embryos are grown in like dilutions of these 
dyes. This difference in toxic action becomes 
intelligible when one recognizes that it is the 
processes that are leading up to the construc- 
tion of protoplasm that are obstructed by the 
reaction of janus green with the cell, whereas 
it is only the residue, so to speak, of these 
processes that is attacked by the neutral red. 
The latter dye has, however, a very considerable 
toxic action, the intracellular effects of which 
can be readily recognized. The yolk globules 
of embryos that have grown some time in a 
solution of neutral red have enormous, deeply 
stained red excrescences upon their surface. 
Many small structures like beta bodies in the 
fresh smears of living cells occur also under 
such conditions. The excessively large ex- 
crescences, which form large buds and separate 
into deeply staining, small globules, can not 
be regarded, of course, as perfectly normal. 
Neither are they degeneration products in the 
strict sense, for, as noted above, they do not 
occur on globules of degenerating tissues. 
They should be regarded, rather, as the result 
of normal processes that have been obstructed 
by the reaction of the products with the dye. 
That there is a more stable chemical compound 
established here is evidenced by the fact that 
these excreseences can be fixed with ammo- 
nium molybdate and preserved in microscopic 
sections, whereas neutral red stains of other 
structures in the cell can not be preserved by 
this method. Unusually large excrescences, 
also, which I have frequently seen on alpha 
globules, are probably the expression of the 
toxic action of janus green. 

The experiments which have led me into 
this field began as a search for a method of 
detecting polarity in cells and physiological 
gradients within the embryo, my purpose being 
to correlate my work on the growth of the 


reflex arc in its relation to the development 
of behavior with recent researches upon gra- 
dients in lower organisms, particularly by 
Child. In their bearing upon this original 
plan my results seem to justify the use of 
janus green and neutral red as indicators of 
digestion and assimilation of yolk in amphib- 
ian embryos. Beyond this, it seems to me, my 
observations give a clue, not only to the 
mechanism of intracellular digestion and as- 
similation of yolk, but also to the nature of 
the toxic action of the dyes that have been 
employed. My observations, however, are not 
presented here as conclusive evidence. They 
require critical review and extensive corrobora- 
tion. But, awaiting the opportunity of an- 
other season, I feel justified in making this 
preliminary report, particularly in the hope of 
enlisting the interest of other biologists in the 
amphibian embryo as a unique source of in- 
formation upon important phases of cellular 
biology. It would be interesting to know, for 
instance, the cytological side of the toxic 
action of the phenolic compounds which Gort- 
ner and Banta‘ used on amphibian embryos. 
With reference to mitochondria, my interpre- 
tation that they are derived in the amphibian 
embryo from yolk through the formation of 
structure which I call “alpha bodies” is 
wholly in accord with the conclusion of Cowdry® 
that mitochondria are associated with me- 
tabolism, and it is not at variance with the 
observations of M. R. and W. H. Lewis® that 

8Child, C. M., ‘‘Studies on the Dynamic 
Morphogenesis and Inheritance in Experimental 
Reproduction, VIII., Dynamic Factors in Head- 
determination in Planaria,’’ The Journal of Ez- 
perimental Zoology, Vol. 17, No. 1. 

4Gortner, R. A., and Banta, A. M., ‘‘ Notes on 
the Toxicity of Dilute Solutions of Certain Pheno- 
lic Compounds, ete.,’’ Biochemical Bulletin, Vol. 
3, Nos. 11, 12. 

5Cowdry, E. V., ‘‘The Comparative Distribu- 
tion of Mitochondria in Spinal Ganglion Cells of 
Vertebrates,’’ The American Journal of Anatomy, 
Vol. 17, No. 1. 

6 Lewis, M. R., and W. H., ‘‘ Mitochondria (and 
Other Cytoplasmic Structures) in Tissue Cul- 
tures,’’ The American Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 
17, No. 3. 

a Oe 
; ne” 
Miran * 


mitochondria in the cells of the chick embryo 
increase in size and divide by fission, when 
the cells are grown in vitro. If, as my obser- 
vations indicate, mitochondria are involved in 
the anabolic phase of metabolism, one would 
expect them to grow in the cell of the chick 
embryo by accretion from end products of 
digestion absorbed by the cell; whereas in the 
amphibian embryo the food is stored within 
the cell as relatively stable substance and the 
whole transformation from food to protoplasm 
must take place in situ. So long as the cell is 
nourished from yolk which it contains, the 
mitochondria, I believe, grow upon the surface 
of the yolk globule. They may be certain end 
products of digestion, or they may be synthe- 
sized out of certain of the end products of 
digestion. However, before accepting this 
hypothesis it is important to know whether 
mitochondria occur in cells which have been 
deprived of their yolk by centrifuging. The 
work of Banta and Gortner,’ and particularly 
that of Jenkinson,® upon the development of 
centrifuged amphibian eggs should be ex- 
tended into the cytological field to determine 
wherein the mechanism is deficient in those 
cells which do not develop normally. Further- 
more, the interpretations here offered, in so far 
as they relate to mitochondria, must be quali- 
fied by the consideration that their validity 
rests largely upon the nature of the bodies in 
the protoplasms which I have regarded as 
mitochondria. My judgment on this point is 
based upon the use of janus green as a vital 
stain and of Bensley’s acetic-osmic-bichromate 
method, the two methods which, taken to- 
gether, seem to be accepted as the nearest ap- 
proximation to a specific test for mitochondria 
now at our command. But regardless of 
theoretical considerations, the observations 

7 Banta, A. M., and Gortner, R. A., ‘* Accessory 
Appendages and Other Abnormalities Produced 
in Amphibian Larve through the Action of Centrif- 
ugal Force,’’ The Journal of Experimental Zool- 
ogy, Vol. 18, No. 3. 

8 Jenkinson, J. W., ‘‘The Relation between the 
Structure and the Development of Centrifuged 
Eggs of the Frog,’’ Quarterly Journal of Micro- 
scopical Science, April, 1914. 


[N. 8. Vou. XLII. No. 1080 

which have been described are, I believe, sub- 
stantially correct, and they are presented in 
this form with the hope of stimulating in- 
terest in a field of study which affords peculiar 
opportunity for making a definite advance in 
our knowledge of the mechanics of the cell, 
particularly in relation to the growth of the 
Gerorce E. Cocuiny 


IF two spectra, having the same longitudinal 
axis but reversed in color (i. e., respectively 
red-violet and violet-red), are brought to inter- 
fere, the interference should occur only along 
the single transverse line of coincidence and 
therefore be inappreciable. If it is visible, 
then light waves of slightly different wave- 
lengths, lying symmetrically on either side of 
the common transverse axis, must also be capa- 
ble of interference in optics, in complete anal- 
ogy with the case of musical beats in acoustics. 
After long searching I found that the occur- 
rence of the phenomenon in question can be 
shown experimentally. Its scintillating ap- 
pearance is exceedingly striking. It is com- 
plete within a transverse strip of the spectrum 
but one half to one third the width of the 
sodium lines. It partakes of the general char- 
acters of elliptic interferences however, except 
that the ellipses are now extremely eccentric 
(needle-shaped in other words) and confined to 
a single color. If the given width be regarded 
as the distance between two fringes and esti- 
mated as d\=2.4 &K 10-8 em., if x be the dis- 
tance along the axis of propagation within 
which one reenforcement occurs, then 

x= */dd = 36 XK 10-*/2.4 K 10° == .15 em., 

or the limiting group wave-length of the light 
waves is over a millimeter. Details and allied 
results, for which there is no room here, will be 
found in. the complete paper, now in the hands 
of The American Journal of Science. 

Cart Barus 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

Sanitary Bacteriology 
Under the supervision of W. W. Ford 
Bacteria in City, Country and Indoor Air: WIL- 


The New York State Commission on Ventilation 
under the direction of Professor C.-E. A. Winslow 
undertook a systematic examination of the air in 
and about New York City. During the survey 353 
samples of air were examined and may be roughly 
divided as follows: 

1, CRRA. cide taxes 0 134 samples. 
2. Country air ....... 85 samples. 
ee eee 87 samples. 
4. Factory air ....... 47 samples. 

The samples were collected and examined ac- 
cording to the methods prdposed by the Committee 
on Standard Methods for the Examination of Air 
of the American Public Health Association. In 
each examination 5 cu. ft. of air were pumped 
through a sand filter by (1) hand pump in the 
field, (2) power pump in factories and offices. 
Samples were plated on gelatin and litmus lactose 
agar and plated at 20° C. and 37° C., respectively. 

Summary of Results 

Sl ciamealiinn per Cu. Ft. Strep 

Source No.| .; . per 100 

co | Per Cent. | © | Per Cent. | Gy. Ft 

Below 125 Bel 25 ting 

5, per Cu. Ft & saree. aad 

Country.......| 85, 56) (94%) |30| (94%) | 12 

Ge. 134! 72] (82%) |32| (98%) | 11 

Offices......... 87| 94/ (80%) 80) (90%) | 22 

Factories... 47/113} (82%) i“ (92%) | 43 

Schools!......|684) 96] (78%) |—| .....0 30 

1. Microorganisms developing at 20° C. on gela- 
tine are generally under 50 per cu. ft., rarely over 
100 per eu. ft. 

2. Microorganisms developing at 37° ©. are 
rarely over 50 per cu. ft. 

3. Number of Streptococci equals 10 per 100 
eu. ft. 

4. Air of occupied spaces contains more bacteria 
than open spaces and shows greater fluctuations. 

1 From Baskerville and Winslow school-room air 
examination in New York City, in which same 
methods were employed. 



The Efficiency of Endo’s Medium in Detecting 
Members of the Colon Group: G. C. SUPPLEE. 
Fifty-three cultures were studied and identified. 

Twenty-nine of these were found to belong to the 
colon group. Eleven were closely allied forms, but 
could not be included within the group if strict 
adherence to the classification was observed. Three 
were coccus forms; four were of the acid pep- 
tonizing type and two failed to ferment any of 
the sugars and produced no change in milk. The 
data were not complete from four of the cultures. 

Representatives of the colon types and the acid 
peptonizing type were plated upon Endo’s me- 
dium after different degrees of attenuation. The 
results of these experiments showed fhat the in- 
tensity of the reaction was weakened as the at- 
tenuation increased. The color reaction of the 
aerogenes and acidi lacti types tended to fade to a 
white or pink. The fading took place much 
sooner if the colony developed on the surface or if 
the culture was at its greatest vigor. 

Since sub-surface development gave rise to many 
doubtful reacting colonies, two hundred and thir- 
teen such colonies were studied and fifty-seven per 
cent. were found not to belong to the colon group. 

From experiments with pure and mixed cul- 
tures of the colon varieties it was found that about 
a plus four tenths acidity gave the maximum num- 
ber of reactions. 

Organisms which Do Not Belong to the Colon 
Group and Produce Black Fields on Zsculin- 
Bilesalt Media: J. VANDERLECK. 

In the summer of 1913 more than 3,000 esculin- 
agar plates made of milk were examined and 700 
eolonies selected for further study. As a resnlt 10 
organisms were found to produce black colonies 
on esculin-bilesalt media at blood heat inside 48 
hours and which did not have the least relation to 
the colon group. These organisms showed hardly 
any action in milk, gas production in sugars was 
absent in the majority and sometimes liquefaction 
combined with alkalinity was present. These or- 
ganisms came from one milk district—Huntingdon 
—and could not be recovered from that source in 
the following spring. However, another exception 
appeared for a short time in large numbers. This 
organism was in many respects closely related to 
the colon group, produced first acid in milk fol- 
lowed by alkaline digestion and formed gas in 
saccharose. Altogether 135 organisms were tested 
in the examination. 

Working at lower temperature and keeping the 
plates for at least 5 days, more exceptions would 
appear, 7 of which were carefully studied. Col- 


onies appearing in water samples were also tested, 
but among 250 test cultures no exceptions were 
encountered. Our conclusions of these exhaustive 
tests are that the esculin-bilesalt test is thoroughly 
reliable. Out of 1,200 samples analyzed only in 
one case a wrong impression was obtained on ac- 
count of the presence of some exceptional organ- 
ism. A full description of this investigation will 
appear in the Centralblatt fiir Bakteriologie. 
Numbers and Efficiency of B. bulgaricus Organ- 
isms in Commercial Preparations Examined Dur- 

ing the Period January-June, 1914: RutTu C. 


The number and efficiency in acid production of 
B. bulgaricus in commercial preparations are an 
index of the value of the preparations. 

Forty commercial preparations, the products of 
twenty-three firms, were examined between Jan- 
uary 15, 1914, and June 1, 1914. These samples 
were collected fresh from the manufacturers and 
held under conditions of temperature and humid- 
ity which are practicable for commercial handling. 
They contained, in the case of dry cultures, from 
none to 250,000 living B. bulgaricus per gram; in 
the case of liquid cultures, from 2,300 to 320,000,- 
000 per c.c.; in the case of sour milk drinks, from 
800 to 790,000,000. 

The maximum acidity produced in milk by the 
B. bulgaricus in these preparations varied from 
1.20 per cent. to 3.41 per cent. acid calculated as 
lactic. The ability of the B. bulgaricus to pro- 
duce acid was decreased in the old preparations. 
The amount of decreases averaged 38.5 per cent. 
in the case of dry cultures kept on ice for two 
months, and 26.4 per cent. in the case of liquid 
preparations kept on ice for two weeks. 

The strains producing different degrees of acid- 
ity were examined for differences in morphology, 
staining properties and curd production in milk, 
which would indicate that they were separate or- 
ganisms, but no such differences were found. 

Agglutination Studies of Milk from Cows Affected 
with Contagious Abortion: L. H. CooLEncGe. 
Milk studied was obtained from a herd in which 

a high percentage of animals have repeatedly 

given positive complement fixation and agglutina- 

tion tests for contagious abortion and having a 

record of frequent abortions. 

The milk from each quarter of 61 cows has been 
examined at intervals during the last 6 months. 
Of these the milk of 18 (30 per cent.) has given a 
positive agglutination test with Bact. abortus, in 
one or more quarters, at some time, or during this 
period. The power of the milk of one quarter to 


[N. S. Vou. XLIT. No. 1089 

agglutinate the abortion bacterium has been ob- 
served to spread to another quarter and finally to 
all four; it has also been observed to gradually die 
out. Milk drawn at about the middle of the milk. 
ing has the strongest agglutinating reaction. 

An attempt to demonstrate the presence of Bact. 
abortus in milk that agglutinates the organism has 
resulted as follows. Out of 18 quarters the milk 
of which agglutinate the abortion bacterium the 
milk of 14 produce lesions in guinea-pigs which 
are like the typical lesions caused by a pure cul- 
ture of Bact. abortus. 

In the 7 cows whose milk has gradually acquired 
the power of agglutinating the abortion bacterium 
during this experiment one or both of the rear 
quarters have been the first to show agglutination. 
This suggests contamination of the rear quarters 
by genital discharges. 

The Presence of Bacillus abortus in Milk: Atice 

C. EVANs. 

Special methods of plating milk samples which 
were drawn aseptically have shown that the ba- 
cillus of contagious abortion occurs commonly in 
certified milk in the vicinity of Washington, D. C., 
and Chicago, Ill. These organisms grow profusely 
en serum agar plates. About 30 per cent. of the 
samples of milk from two certified dairies near 
Chicago, which were plated on serum agar, showed 
this organism to be present in milk at the time of 
drawing from the udder, in numbers varying from 
110 to 4,300 per cubic centimeter. In one sample 
taken from a herd which does not produce certified 
milk, 50,000 of the Bacillus abortus were found 
per cubic centimeter. This organism grows abun- 
dantly in the cream layer, with the formation of 
acid, but it grows sparingly in milk from which 
the cream has been removed. Four per cent. of 
lactic acid in the milk does not check the multipli- 
eation of Bacillus abortus in the cream layer. 

The Influence of Milk and Carbohydrate Feeding 
on the Bacteriology of the Intestine: L&o F. 

The intestinal flora of white rats and of fowls is 
determined in a very large measure by the diet. 
White rats that were fed ordinary white bread 
and green vegetable food exhibited an intéstinal 
flora which closely resembles that of man. Soon 
after the diet was changed to mixed grain 4 
marked transformation took place. When to the 
diet of bread and vegetables a liberal amount of 
milk‘ or of lactose was added the ordinary mixed 
flora quickly became simplified, and often pre- 
sented the picture of only two or three types of 
bacteria, namely B. bifidus of Tissier and B. acido- 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

philus of Moro. During continued milk or lactose 
feeding the acidophilus type may give way even- 
tually to B. bifidus. Similar results were obtained 
in the domestic fowl, the acidophilus bacillus being 
the most prominent. The feeding of other carbo- 
hydrates, dextrose, maltose, levulose, dextrin and 
starch did not bring about such a change. 

The feeding of bacteria, even in large numbers, 
will in itself exert very little if any influence on 
the intestinal flora. B. bulgaricus suspensions ob- 
tained from plain agar growths could be recovered 
only occasionally from the feces, and then in very 
small numbers only. On the other hand, when 
sterile milk, whether sweet or sour, was fed to 
white rats which exhibited the usual mixed flora in 
which organisms of the acidophilus type were very 
few or absent, B. acidophilus, which in many re- 
spects is practically indistinguishable from B. 
bulgaricus, rapidly made its appearance in the in- 
testine and for a time occurred there in relatively 
large numbers, 

A Simple Test for B. sporogenes in Milk and 

The sample of milk to be tested is placed in a 
sterile test tube, and enough solid paraffin is added 
to make when melted, a layer one eighth of an inch 
in thickness. The tubes are then placed in the 
Arnold and heated at 80° C. for ten minutes. 
After heating, they are cooled rapidly; this canses 
the melted paraffin to solidify and form a cover 
which effectively excludes atmospheric oxygen. 
The cultures are then incubated at 37° C. for 24 
hours. If B. sporogenes is present, it digests the 
lactose and forms gas which lifts the paraffin plug. 

The test is simple, cheap and easy of applica- 
tion. When applied to market milk it gave the 
following results: 

90 samples of 5:c.c. milk each gave 28 per cent. 

112 samples of 10 ¢.c. milk each gave 37.5 per 
cent. positive. 

34 samples of 15 ¢.c. milk each gave 50 per cent. 

Utensils as a Source of Bacterial Contamination 
of Milk: M. J. Prucua, H. A. Harpine, H. M. 

This investigation attempted to measure the 
amount of bacterial contamination received by the 
milk from the utensils in which it was handled be- 
tween the cow and the milk bottle. 

The utensils were carefully washed in the ordi- 
nary way, being scrubbed with brush in a warm 
Solution of Wyandotte and then rinsed out with 
warm water. 



In the accompanying table is given the summary 
of the experiments. 

All Utensils Sterile 


per C.c 
1. Milk leaving the barn ............4-- 2,558 
PO MIs ncn wikis Hh deka eadanees 3,875 

Utensils Washed—Only Bottles Sterile 

3. Increase due to pails ............... 57,077 
4. Increase up to clarifier ............. 15,353 
5. Increase due to clarifier ............. 172,763 
6. Increase due to cooler .............. 19,841 
7. Increase due to bottler .............. 247,611 
eS a ry 515,203 

An Improvement in the Composition of Lactose 

Bile: THomas W. MELIa. 

Lactose bile, as employed at present, has certain 

First: The bile is not always fresh. 

Second: The media, after sterilization, contains 
a heavy sediment in the fermentation tubes which 
interferes with the development of the test. 

Third: Many authors have criticized the inhibit- 
ing power of the bile salts upon B. coli. 

In regard to the first disadvantage it was found 
best to purchase ox gall from freshly slaughtered 
animals and have it delivered within a few hours 
to the laboratory. It is then evaporated to dryness 
in a vacuum dryer and stored away in one pound 
airtight containers. The bile will keep indefinitely. 

The sediment present in fresh bile and in the 
sterilized media was found to contain mucin, lime 
salts and broken gall stones (cholesterine) prob- 
ably formed by the streptococcus growth. The bile 
should be settled and only the clear supernatant 
liquid used. 

The sediment in the fermentation tubes may be 
prevented by making a five per cent. instead of a 
ten per cent. solution of bile media. 

The known inhibiting power of bile salts led to 
an investigation of the best strength of bile media 
to employ. 

Table showing relative efficiency of the five and 
ten per cent. bile media on ordinary quality of 
drinking waters (60 in number) 

Five Per Cent. Dried Ten Per Cent. Dried 

| Ox Gall Ox Gall 

| Ge. C.c. | Cc. | Cc. | Cc. | Cue. 

| O01 1.0 10 =s«Ou 1,0 10 
24 hour results... 2% | 22% | 50% | 2% | 16% |31% 
48 hour results... 13% | 31% | 75% | 7% | 18% |40% 
72 hour results..| 15% | 49% | 82% | 9% | 27% |51% 


Attenuated B. coli is more readily shown, also 
less interference from overgrowths in the five-per- 
cent. bile media. 

Infection and Immunity 
Under the supervision of J. A. Kolmer 

The Parasite of Oral Endamebiasis. Endameba 
gingwalis (Gros): ALLEN J. SMITH, M.D., AND 
M. T. Barrett, D.D.S. 

The authors present a detailed comparison of 
the amebiform organisms which have been an- 
nounced as discovered in the human mouth and re- 
lated parts, including the amebe of Gros (1849), 
of Steinberg (1862), of Grassi (1879), of Flexner 
(1892), Kartulis (1893), of Prowazek (1904) and 
of Verdun and Bruyant (1907). They conclude 
that of these all save the last are really specifically 
identical and therefore propose as the proper 
nomenclature for this organism Endameba gingi- 
valis (Gros) with synonyms: Amiba buccalis 
Steinberg, 1862; Ameba dentalis Grassi, 1879; 
Entameba kartulisi Déflein (Ameba mazilaris 
Kartulis, 1907); and Entameba buccalis Prow- 
azek, 1904. The organism is an ameba which 
ordinarily is of 30 or 35 micromillimeters in diam- 
eter in the resting stage, has a fairly differentiated 
ectosarcous periphery, a granular endosarc, full of 
nutrition vacuoles in which are found bacteria, rem- 
nants of leucocytie nuclei and red blood cells or 
their detritus. There is no contractile vacuole. 
The nucleus is small, usually central or subcentral, 
but occasionally excentric; is seen with difficulty if 
at all in the unstained specimen; is poor in chro- 
matin and vesicular in appearance, with small cen- 
tral ‘‘binnenkérper’’ and a delicate but irregularly 
thickened chromatic membrane. The pseudopodia 
are ordinarily single or few, broadly lobose to long 
and digitate; cellular and pseudopodial motility 
active but variable; reproduction surely by binary 
division and by gemmation; persisting cysts 
formed, but no reproduction cysts as yet observed. 
Habitat in the pus of pyorrhea pockets, on the 
neighboring mucous and dental surfaces, in the 
tonsils, in the abscesses of the jaw, etc. 

The writers urge their inability to distinguish 
morphologically between Endameba gingivalis 
(Gros) and Endameba histolytica Schaudinn. 
While stating this view of morphological indistin- 
guishability, the writers are unwilling to declare 
general biological identity, although they suspect 
it; and acknowledge that such identity, if estab- 


[N. S. Vou. XLII. No. 1080 

lished, would open the door to need for important 
revision of our present ideas in regard to ame@bic 

The Production and Detection of Specific Fer. 
ments for the Typhoid-coli Group: Grorege H. 

The results of the application of the Abderhalden 
reaction to the investigation of three important 
problems were presented, namely: 

1. To what degree does the property of specific- 
ity extend among ferments produced in the body 
through resistance to infective agents? 

2. Which method of administration—intra- 
venous, intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous—is the 
most effective for immunization? 

3. Is there any difference in rapidity of action 
between living bacteria, killed bacteria and killed 
sensitized bacteria when used for immunization? 

As regards specificity of ferments, reference is 
made to previous work with Staphyloccus, Strepto- 
coccus, Pneumococcus, Micrococcus catarrhalis and 
B. influenze in which a complete specificity of fer- 
ments was demonstrated. In the present instance 
rabbits were immunized against B. coli communis, 
B. coli communior, paratyphoid bacillus A, paraty- 
phoid bacillus B, and two strains of typhoid ba- 
cillus known as the Hopkins and Rawlings strains. 
The results of these experiments would indicate that 
ferments produced as a result of injections with 
the bacteria employed are highly specific. 

The experiments with the different methods of 
injection, and with living, killed unsensitized and 
killed sensitized bacteria were conducted as fol- 

The typhoid bacillus (Rawlings strain) was the 
organism employed. Doses of 50 million were 
given intravenously, intraperitoneally, and sub- 
cutaneously. The animals were bled at stated in- 
tervals and the serums tested by the Abderhalden 
method for specific ferments. 

From this work it appears that the intravenous 
method of administration is most rapid in its re- 
sults, and the subcutaneous gives the slowest re- 
sponse, and that the killed sensitized bacteria are 
most potent in inducing a rapid formation of fer- 

In verification of this latter conclusion, subcu- 
taneous injections were given, simultaneously, of 
killed typhoid and killed paratyphoid B, of killed 
typhoid and killed sensitized paratyphoid B, of 
sensitized typhoid and killed paratyphoid B, and 
killed sensitized paratyphoid B. When killed un- 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

sensitized organisms of both types were injected, 
ferments for paratyphoid B appeared in 33 hours, 
and for typhoid in 36 hours. When killed unsensi- 
tized typhoid and killed sensitized paratyphoid B 
were employed specific ferments for paratyphoid 
B appeared after 16 hours, and for typhoid after 
35 hours. When killed sensitized typhoid and 
killed unsensitized paratyphoid B were injected 
ferments for typhoid were demonstrable after 17 
hours, and for paratyphoid B after 36 hours. 
With the final combination in which both types 
were sensitized the serums showed specific ferments 
for both kinds of bacteria after 18 hours. 

The above experiments indicate that previous 
treatment of the bacteria with immune serum 
renders them more susceptible to assimilation by 
the body and thus enables them to bring about a 
more rapid formation of the specific ferments 
which may be detected by the Abderhalden test. 

Recent Studies on Pellagra: J. F. Stuer, P. E. 

The theory that pellagra is due to the ingestion 
of maize or maize products, either good or spoiled, 
is wholly inadequate to explain the distribution of 
the disease actually observed in Spartanburg 
County, 8. C. : 

The conception that pellagra is a specific infec- 
tious disease in some way transmissible from per- 
son to person is strongly supported by our obser- 
vations. The higher incidence of pellagra in the 
more populous districts and its occurrence in defi- 
nite foci are in accord with this view. Definite 
tendency to self-limitation of the attack of pel- 
lagra without specific treatment and without 
change in diet is very evident in many cases, and 
especially so in children. 

The manner of origin of pellagra in its endemic 
foci from year to year indicates that the disease 
spreads from old cases as centers and that it is, 
as a rule, transmitted through relatively short dis- 
tances, within the same house or to the house next 
door. The disease spreads most rapidly in com- 
munities. without efficient provisions for sewage 
disposal and spreads hardly at all in communities 
with sanitary sewer systems. 

We have been unable to produce a recognizable 
attack of pellagra in any experimental animal, 
nor have we as yet recognized the specific infec- 
tious agent of the disease. 

The Schick Toxin Reaction for Immunity in Diph- 
theria: JOHN A. KOLMER AND Emity L. Mosu- 

Schick has proposed a simple clinical test for 
immunity to diphtheria consisting in the intracu- 



taneous injection of 1/50th the minimal lethal 
dose of toxin for a guinea-pig. If there is less 
than 1/30th of a unit of antitoxin in each cubic 
centimeter of the patient’s serum, the injected 
toxin acts as an irritant and produces an inflam- 
matory reaction. If 1/30th of a unit or more 
antitoxin is present the toxin is neutralized, no 
reaction follows and the individual is regarded as 
being immune to diphtheria. 

The test has been advocated as a means of test- 
ing the response of active immunization with 
toxin-antitoxin mixtures and to detect susceptibil- 
ity to diphtheria. 

The objects of this study were as follows: 

1. To apply the toxin skin test to a large num- 
ber of apparently normal persons to determine 
susceptibility to diphtheria at different ages. 

2. To determine quantitatively the antitoxin 
content of the blood serum of persons reacting 
positively, slightly positively, doubtfully and neg- 
atively in order to further study the toxin test 
under conditions where the quantity of antitoxin 
in the blood is known. 

3. To study the degree and duration of im- 
munity to diphtheria in normal persons following 
an injection of diphtheria antitoxin. 

4. To study the degree and duration of im- 
munity among persons suffering with scarlet fever 
and receiving an injection of diphtheria antitoxin. 

5. To study immunity during and following an 
attack of diphtheria. 

6. To study the practical value of the toxin skin 
test in determining which persons should be im- 
munized with antitoxin when exposed to diph- 

I. In all 1,265 inoculations were made. Of 
these 447 were among persons most of whom 
were healthy and well; a few were suffering with 
various chronic diseases and were tested while in 
various hospitals in Philadelphia. 

The reaction has demonstrated that children be- 
tween the ages of one and eight years are most 
susceptible to diphtheria. 

II. The serums of a number of persons were 
tested for antitoxin content with the following 

(a) The serums of persons reacting negatively 
to the toxin test usually contained at least 1/20th 
of a unit of antitoxin per cubic centimeter of 

(b) The serums of persons reacting weakly 
positive to the toxin test usually contain from 
1/40th to 1/160th of a unit of antitoxin per cubic 
centimeter of serum. 


(c) The serums of persons reacting strongly 
positive were found to contain less than 1/30th of 
a unit per cubic centimeter of serum and fre- 
quently none at all could be detected. 

These results corroborate those of Schick, Park 
and Zingher. 

III. The duration of passive immunity to diph- 
theria was studied in 106 persons by applying the 
toxin skin test at varying intervals after the ad- 
ministration of 1,250 units of antitoxin subcu- 

The immunity conferred was apparently efficient 
for ten days; after this interval antitoxin rapidly 
disappeared, so that after four to six weeks the 
immunity may be regarded as having entirely dis- 

IV. The toxin skin test was applied to 362 per- 
sons in the various stages of scarlet fever and at 
varying intervals of time following the subcutane- 
ous injection of 2,500 units of antitoxin to study 
the duration of passive immunity in scarlet fever. 

It was found that in scarlet fever passive im- 
munity following an injection of diphtheria anti- 
toxin is of shorter duration than that induced 
among normal children in that 10 per cent. of the 
former are susceptible within ten days after re- 
ceiving antitoxin. 

V. The toxin test was also applied to 350 per- 
sons, mostly children, suffering with diphtheria 
and receiving from 10,000 to 100,000 units of anti- 
toxin by subcutaneous injection. The high percent- 
age of positive reactions during the first ten days 
of the disease and after large doses of antitoxin 
was quite surprising. As a general rule these oc- 
eurred among children with severe infections. It 
was also found that patients were in general just 
as susceptible after an attack of diphtheria as be- 
fore; in other words, it would appear that the body 
cells produce little or no homologous antitoxin and 
the immune antitoxin is soon eliminated. 

VI. Practical experience with a small epidemic 
of diphtheria has increased our confidence in the 
toxin test as a means of detecting persons suscept- 
ible to diphtheria. The chief practical value and 
application of this test is the detection of non- 
immune individuals and immunizing those only 
instead of all persons indiscriminately. The reac- 
tion has a special field of usefulness in hospitals 
and wards for the care of children. 

While cultures were made of a large number of 
the persons tested, there was found no constant re- 
lation between the occurrence of diphtheria bacilli 
in the upper air passages and the toxin test. 


[N. S. Vou. XLII. No. 1080 

The Mechanism of Abderhalden Reaction: J, 


When the placenta and serum of a pregnant indi- 
vidual are placed on ice, instead of the thermostat, 
the Ninhydrin reaction substances do not appear 
in dialysate. The analysis of the ingredients, how- 
ever, shows that both the serum and placenta 
underwent changes—namely, placenta was sensi- 
tized by fixing upon itself the specific substances 
from the serum, and the serum was exhausted of 
its specific substances. Such a serum, moreover, 
when separated from placenta and transferred to 
37° shows gradual deterioration of its comple- 
ment, and parallel with it, the increase of dialyz- 
able Ninhydrin reacting substances as the incuba- 

' tion at 37° goes on. Similar tendency to apparent 

autodigestion can be produced also in any normal 
serum by placing it for a certain time in contact 
with sensitized placenta (but not with normal 
placenta). The absorption by the placenta of 
specific constituents of pregnant serum is not due 
to a mechanical absorption, but is strictly specific, 
at least within certain quantitative limits. 

The action of this specific union between the 
substratum and specific constituents of the serum 
upon the residue of the serum is such that the 
normal antitrypsin of the serum is inactivated (or 
absorbed) and the normal proteolytic ferment is 
set free. The action of this non-specific ferment 
upon the residue of the serum is responsible for 
the appearance of dialyzable substances. This ac- 
tion of the ferment upon the serum can be ar- 
rested in the Abderhalden test by the addition of 
any substance acting as antitrypsin, as, for in- 
stance, the serum albumen or serum lipoids, both 
in the pure form and in the form of excess of 
whole normal serum. The products of such auto- 
digestion of the serum are toxic to homologous 
animals, and their appearance can be made evi- 
dent by the biological tests (anaphylaxis).1 

Do Bacteria Produce Pyrogenic Poisons? D. H. 

BerGcey, M.D. 

It is believed that the pyrogenic substances act 
by (a) the stimulation of the heat-producing cen- 
ters, or, (0) the inhibition of heat dissipation 
through conduction, radiation and evaporation, or 
(c) by the combination of these two processes. 

It is well known that the injection of animals 
with distilled water, or with sterile bouillon leads 
to fever production. Hence it was thought prob- 
able that it might be possible to show the presence 
of fever-producing poisons in a filtered bouillon 

1 The protocols will appear in one of the follow- 
ing numbers of the J. of Exper. Med. 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

culture of Bacillus typhosus, if the filtrate pro- 
duced a uniformly higher degree of febrile reac- 
tion than did the sterile bouillon, before bacteria 
had been grown in it. 

It was also thought possible that the presence of 
fever-producing substances in the culture filtrate 
could be demonstrated by treating animals for 
some time with these filtrates and then using -the 
serum of these animals to inhibit the fever pro- 
duction in normal animals by injecting serum and 
filtrate at the same time. 

It was soon determined that the serum even of 
normal animals of the same species injected into 
healthy animals in itself caused a febrile reaction. 

It was not possible to demonstrate definitely that 
typhoid bacillus produces soluble toxin which is 
responsible for the febrile reaction in typhoid 

It seems more probable that the febrile reaction 
is due to substances liberated from the tissue cells 
under the influence of the organisms. 

How Bacterial Vaccines Act: E. C. L. MILuEr, M.D. 

The protein of the dead germ bodies contained 
in ordinary bacterial vaccines probably produces 
specific immunity. The degree of this immunity is 
probably slight and the question is raised whether 
the immunity measures the entire therapeutic value 
of the vaccine. The fact that well-washed bacteria 
have much less tendency to cause a reaction is taken 
as evidence that besides the dead germs there are 
reaction-producing or pyrogenetic substances in 
the vaccines. The fact that bacterial vaccines must 
usually be administered in doses that produce some 
reaction is taken as indicating that the pyrogenetic 
substances have some part in the improvement. 
One way in which they may aid is in making the 
immunity effective and this may be either by focal 
or general reactions. It is suggested that the ex- 
istence of these two constituents in bacterial vac- 
cines should be more generally recognized so that 
they may be used separately or together, as may be 

A Contribution to the Pathogenesis of the Avian 
Tubercle Bacterium: L. R. HIMMELBERGER AND 
L, A. MosHER. 

The communication deals with the pathogenic 
effects of living cultures of avian tubercle bacteria 
on rabbits. The problem was undertaken to study 
the type of tuberculosis, whether generalized or 
localized, produced by intravenous injection of 
living bacteria of the avian type. 

The work presented in the communication in- 
volves the results obtained by intravenous injec- 
tion of thirty animals. With but one exception all 


developed a generalized tuberculosis, usually termi- 

nating fatally in from twenty to one hundred days. 

In classifying the type of disease produced, the 

nature and distribution of the lesions and the 

course of the disease in the animal were the eri- 
teria used. 

In view of the results obtained the authors de- 
sire to suggest that the use of avian cultures in 
cattle immunization is unsafe both from an eco- 
nomic and public-health point of view. From the 
economic standpoint great danger of infecting by 
vaccination exists since the senior author? has 
previously shown that calves can be infected by 
tubercular material from avian sources. From the 
public health point of view it is reasonable to sup- 
pose that the avian type of organism would prove 
equally as pathogenic for humans as the bovine 

Reciprocal Relations of Virulent and Avirulent 
Cultures in Active Immunization: Putmir B. 

This paper presented data to show that among 
seventeen non-virulent strains of the fowl cholera 
organism only one (Culture 52) possessed an im- 
munizing value, but that the immunizing value of 
this one was perfect, in so far as inoculatien with 
rabbits with 0.000,000,01 ¢.c. produced permanent 
active immunity against the most virulent strain 
obtainable. When tested against other virulent 
strains, Culture 52 protected in many cases, but 
the point was especially emphasized that in all 
eases in which Culture 52 alone failed to protect, 
perfect immunity was developed through inocula- 
tion with Culture 52, followed, after an appropriate 
time, by inoculation with Culture 48. By the use 
of one or the other method, rabbits may now for 
the first time be permanently protected against 
any virulent strain of the fowl cholera bacterium 
yet obtained. 

These experimental results were used as the basis 
for more general observations. 

1. On the possibility of more efficient active im- 
munization in many communicable diseases by dis- 
covery of what may be termed ‘‘Immunizing 

2. On the varied physiological characteristics 
which may be possessed by microorganisms mani- 
festing identical morphological, cultural and bio- 
chemical features. 

3. On the heretofore unconfirmed experiments 
of Pasteur regarding the possibility of immuniza- 
tion against fowl cholera by means of non-virulent 
cultural material. 

2 Cent. f. Bakt. Erst. Ab., Bd. 73. 


Symposium with Section K, A. A. A. 8. 
Under the supervision of C.-E. A. Winslow 
Ventilation in Its Relation to Air-borne Diseases: 

Dr. A, C. ABBOTT. 

In several hospitals for the care of contagious 
diseases in England, France, and in one in partic- 
ular in this country, it has been conclusively dem- 
onstrated that certain of the so-called ‘‘air-borne’’ 
diseases of different natures may be treated side 
by side in the same ward without fear of greater 
transmission than commonly occurs when they are 
treated in separate wards. Obviously such observa- 
tions justify grave doubts of the aerial conveyance 
of disease. 

Though we do not know the causative agents of 
the majority of the so-called ‘‘air-borne’’ diseases, 
yet presumably they are particulate and never 
gaseous in nature. Therefore, they behave in the 
air, when they get there, just as do other sus- 
pended particles. 

From information obtained through the study of 
another phase of the subject we know that a num- 
ber of diseases may be conveyed through the air, 
but here it is always through the agency of insects 
acting as vectors or as hosts for the infective para- 
sites. This, obviously, has more to do with wire 
screens than with ventilation. 

In the light of the foregoing, I do not believe 
that ventilation has anything whatever to do with 
either the transmission of the so-called ‘‘air- 
borne’’ diseases, or the lessening of their trans- 
mission, and I am further of the opinion that 
transmission by way of the air, strictly speaking, 
is of infinitely less importance than transmission 
by animate and inanimate carriers that have been 
in intimate contact with the patient. 

Some Fundamental Physical Factors in the Prob- 
lem of the Control of Atmospheric Environment: 

The physical problem of heat dissipation from 
the body is conditioned externally by four prime 
factors; temperature, humidity, velocity of air 
movement and radiation. Experimental determi- 
nation of the mutual relationship and individual 
influence of the first three of these is reported. 

A simple air conditioning apparatus furnished 
the experimental air at temperatures of 8° to 40° 
C., relative humidities 30 per cent. to 90 per cent. 
saturation and velocities up to 250 em. per second. 
The heat loss was determined from a continuously 
moist skin surface exposed to these various air 
conditions. The surface formed the only exposed 
portion of a calorimeter in which accurate thermo- 


[N. 8. Vou. XLIL. No. 1080 

control was provided, the actual heat lost being 
compensated electrically and determined by noting 
the volume of gas produced electrolytically by the 
passage of the same heating current through di- 
lute sulphuric acid. The results between 20° and 
40° are expressed by the following equation: 

¢,  v[.0072 (46.7 — p) + .00294(37 —t)]. 

¢, is the heat loss in calories per minute per 
sq. centimeter. 

v, the velocity of movement in centimeters per 

p, the absolute humidity in milligrams per 
liter, and 

t, the temperature Centigrade. 

Below 20° « complicating humidity relation was 
developed and at lower temperatures this relation 
reversed the one found above, so that increasing 
humidity brought about increasing heat loss, 
This latter relation has not yet been formulated. 

Standards of Ventilation in the Light of Recent 

Research: C.-E. A. WINSLOW. 

The investigations of the New York State Com- 
mission on Ventilation have indicated that even 
quite extreme conditions of heat and humidity 
(86° with 80 per cent. relative humidity) have no 
measurable effect upon the rate of respiration; 
dead space in the lungs; acidosis of the blood; 
respiratory quotient; rate of digestion and rate of 
heat production (both measured by oxygen con- 
sumption); protein metabolism (measured by de- 
termination of creatinine in the urine) or skin 

On the other hand, the working of the circula- 
tory and heat-regulating machinery of the body 
was markedly influenced by even a slight increase 
in room temperature, as, for example, from 68° to 
75° with 50 per cent. relative humidity in both 
cases. In a hot room (86°—80 per cent. relative 
humidity) the rectal body temperature usually 
rose during the period of observation; in a warm 
room (75°—50 per cent. relative humidity) it re- 
mained on the whole about constant; in a cool 
room (68°—50 per cent. relative humidity) it fell. 
The average body temperatures attained under 
these three-room conditions were 37.41‘, 36.99° 
and 37.73°, respectively. The increase of heart rate 
on passing from a reclining to a standing posi- 
tion became greater by an average of 7 beats dur- 
ing a sojourn in the hot room, while it became less 
by an average of 3 beats in the warm room and by 
an average of 7 beats in the cool room. 

Elaborate psychological tests failed entirely to 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1915] 

show any effect of even the severe 86°—80 per 
cent. relative humidity conditions upon the power 
to do mental work under the pressure of a maxi- 
mum efficiency test. 

The results with physical work (lifting dumb 
bells and riding a stationary bicycle) were much 
more definite. Again maximum effort tests showed 
no appreciable influence of room temperature but 
when the subjects had a choice they accomplished 
15 per cent. less work at 75° and 37 per cent. less 
at 86° than at 68°. 

As to the effect of stagnant air contaminated 
by a group of subjects so as to contain an average 
of from 20 to 60 parts of carbon dioxide per 10,000 
the observations of the commission are entirely 
negative so far as the physiological and psycho- 
logical and efficiency tests above mentioned are con- 
cerned. In certain experiments the appetite of the 
subjects as measured. by the amount of food con- 
sumed when a standard luncheon is served to them 
seemed to be reduced in the stagnant air. 

Recent research has, on the whole, strengthened 
rather than weakened the arguments for ventila- 
tion. It has shown, however, that the physical 
quality of the air as well as the amount should be 
_ considered. Temperature standards must come 
into more general use, and a rise above 70° must 
be recognized as a sign that discomfort is being 
produced and efficiency decreased and vitality low- 

Symposium with Sections C and K, A. A. A. 8. 
The Lower Organisms in Relation to Man’s 

Under the supervision of John Johnson. 

Theories of Fermentation: C. L, ALSBERG. 

There are two types of theories of fermentation. 
One deals with the mechanism by which the sub- 
stance fermented is converted into the end prod- 
ucts of fermentation. The other deals with the 
physiological role which fermentation plays in the 
life of the fermentation organism. The latter only 
was considered in the paper. 

The great question which has always confronted 
the investigator in judging the physiological sig- 
nificance of fermentation is the diffieulty of ex- 
plaining why enormous quantities of material are 
attacked by a relatively small mass of fermenta- 
tion organisms. Until recently most investigators 
have looked at this question only from the point 
of view of matter, and not from the point of view 
of energy. 

In the present paper it is suggested that fer- 
mentation is nothing other than the expression of 


the metabolism of energy of a microorganism. 
In the case of microorganisms in which the surface 
as compared with the mass is very great, the energy 
requirements must of necessity be enormous. 
Moreover, microorganisms live in a liquid medium 
which is an excellent conductor of heat. There- 
fore, the radiation losses of microorganisms must 
be excessive. Taking these factors into considera- 
tion it is easy to understand why a small mass of 
organisms converts a relatively large mass of mate- 
rial in its effort to satisfy the energy requirements 
of its protoplasm. 

The Bacteria of the Intestinal Tract of Man: A. I. 


It has been stated that the average healthy 
adult on a normal mixed diet excretes daily in the 
feces a number of bacteria, which have been vari- 
ously estimated from 128 billion to 33 trillion. 
It is very certain that this number of bacteria is 
not taken in the food, and, furthermore, the fecal 
organisms are not necessarily the same as those 
found in the food. Hence the conclusion is reached 
that there must be a very great daily proliferation 
of bacteria in the intestinal tract. 

The question naturally presents itself, why is . 

there such a tremendous growth of bacteria daily, 
and why is it that the bacteria taken in with the 
food are not those which appear in the fecal con- 
tents? A rapid survey of the life history of the 
intestinal bacteria will explain at least some of 
the facts. At birth the intestinal content, the 
meconium, is sterile. Very shortly after birth bac- 
teria make their appearance in the mouth of the 
new born, and organisms appear in the meconium 
from four to twenty hours post partum, depending 
upon environmental conditions. This is a period 
of mixed infection, and the number of organisms 
in the meconium increases rapidly after the first 
food enters the intestinal tract. After two to three 
days post partum, when the intestinal tract has be- 
come thoroughly permeated with milk, the organ- 
isms observed in the feces—for the meconium has 
largely disappeared by this time—begin to assume 
a monotony of form and a regularity of type, 
which contrasts sharply with the preceding period 
of mixed infection. 

The types of bacteria which constitute the nor- 
mal fecal flora of the nursling are few in number 
and definite in their chemical characters. The most 
prominent of these, B. bifidus, so-called because of 
its developmental peculiarities in artificial media, 
is a strict anaerobe. 

B. bifidus is an organism which does not thrive 
in artificial media in the absence of sugars, and it 

1 ee aR emt 


is not surprising to find, therefore, that as the 
breast-fed infant becomes older and its dietary de- 
mands more varied, B. bifidus tends to disappear 
from the fecal mass. In the case of bottle-fed 
babies, this disappearance practically coincides 
with the substitution of cow’s milk for human 
milk. The decrease in the typical nursling organ- 
isms is accompanied by an increase in the numbers 
of B. coli which then dominate the intestinal tract 
and form about 80 per cent., roughly, of the total 
living fecal organisms of adolescence, and which 
persist in this proportion in normal individuals 
until death. 

B. coli differs from B. bifidus in one noteworthy 
respect. B. coli can grow equally well in media 
containing protein and utilizable carbohydrate, or 
in media from which utilizable carbohydrates are 
excluded. It can accommodate its metabolism to 
the varying foods presented to it in the intestinal 
contents. This plasticity of the colon bacillus and 
its ability to develop in the average intestinal con- 
tents, explains in a satisfactory manner the domi- 
nance of this organism throughout life. 

Turning now to the distribution of bacteria in 
the intestinal tract of the normal adult, it is found 
that the stomach contents are practically sterile 
under normal conditions. When the hydrochloric 
acid acidity of the stomach contents becomes 
diminished through disease, it is found that the 
numbers of bacteria in the stomach contents may 
increase greatly. The duodenum also during those 
periods when it is empty is practically sterile. 
The bacteria population increases as duodenal di- 
gestion increases, and diminishes as the duodenal 
contents are passed on to the lower levels. 

The greatest number of living bacteria is found 
in the region of the ileocecal valve and the ascend- 
ing branch of the colon. Here the contents stag- 
nate, as it were, and they eventually become so 
desiccated through the withdrawal of water that 
bacterial life is retarded. 

The significance of the intestinal flora has been 
variously interpreted. Nuttall and Thierfelder 
delivered guinea-pigs by Cwsarean section and 
attempted to raise them in a sterile environment 
on sterile food. For two weeks these sterile guinea- 
pigs increased in weight and appeared to be rea- 
sonably healthy. These observers drew the con- 
clusion that the intestinal bacteria were not neces- 
sary for the well-being of these guinea-pigs at 
least. These experiments were not accepted by 
Schottelius as being conclusive. He claimed that 
the experiments were not carried on long enough. 
Schottelius experimented with chicks hatched from 


[N. 8. Vou. XLII. No. 1080 

sterile eggs divided into three groups. These 
were incubated under sterile conditions, and the 
chicks developing from one group were kept in an 
absolutely sterile environment and fed on sterile 
food; a second group were kept under the same 
conditions for ten days and then fed with jn- 
fected food; the third group were controls and 
were kept under ordinary conditions. The first 
group, the sterile chicks, did well for ten days, but 
after that time their development was seriously re- 
tarded. The second group also did well for ten 
days, and then, as the first group began to exhibit 
signs of abnormalities, they were placed on in- 
fected food: they gained rapidly. The third 
group, kept under ordinary conditions, did well 
from the start. Schottelius believed that his ex- 
periments showed that the intestinal bacteria were 
necessary for the development and well-being of 

Madame Metchnikoff made similar observa- 
tions on tadpoles, and Moro performed the same 
experiments with turtles. These observers agree 
with Schottelius that the intestinal flora appear to 
be necessary for the well-being of the animals they 
experimented on. 

A line of evidence which is somewhat different 
from this was brought forward by Levin. He ex- 
amined the fecal contents of many Arctic mammals 
in the Arctic regions, and he found few or no bac- 
teria in them. 

Attempts have been made to sterilize the intes- 
tinal contents of man, either by administering ster- 
ile food or by the use of antiseptics, but this line 
of experimentation has not been successful. 

From the individual point of view the intestinal 
flora under ordinary conditions are innocuous, and 
perhaps even to a moderate degree protective. But 
under abnormal conditions, when progressively 
pathogenic bacteria gain a foothold in the intestinal 
tract, the intestinal flora may become a menace to 
health and may become a matter of real concern 
to the health of communities. 

The General Mechanism of the Action of Fer- 
ments—Enzyme Action: C. 8. Hupson. 

A discussion of the chemical changes involved 
in the action of enzymes. 

Use of Bacteria in the Treatment of Textile 

Fibers: F, P. GorHam. 

Microorganisms in Their Application to Agricul- 
ture: C. E. MARSHALL.’ 

Professor Marshall’s complete paper has been 
published in ScrENCE.