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Vou. 89 FrmAy, Marcu 10, 1939 No. 2306 

Contrasts: PROFESSOR FREDERICK G. KEYES ...................... 207 
Samuel Prentiss Baldwin: Proressor Francis H. 
Herrick. Recent Deaths 212 

Scientific Events: 
The Henry G. Lapham Fijian Expedition; The 
Work of the Commonwealth Fund; Standards for 
Photography; Student Affiliate Chapters of the 
American Chemical Society ; The Geological Society 
of America; The Division of the British Associa- 
tion for the Social and International Relations of 

Science 214 
Scientific Notes and News 216 
Discussion : - 

Microfilm Copying of Scientific Literature: Dr. 

ATHERTON SEIDELL. An Easier Method for Making 

an Index: MABEL Hunt DoyLe and Mary A. 

BRADLEY. Evidences of a Pre-ceramic Cultural 

Horizon in Smith County, Kansas: Dr. Loren C. 

Scientific Books: 

Travels of a Plant Explorer: Proressor T. D. A. 


Pilot Fitness for Night Flying: Dr. C. E. Ferrer 

Special Articles: 

Human Toxoplasmosis: Occurrence in Infants as an 

Encephalomyelitis Verification by Transmission to 
Animals: Dr. ABNER WOLF, Dr. Davin COWEN and 
Dr. Beryt Paice. The Localization of Minerals 
in Animal Tissues by the Electron Microscope: Dr. 
Gorpon H. Scott and Dr. DONALD M. PACKER. 
Experimental Proliferative Arthritis in Mice Pro- 
duced by Filtrable Pleuropneumonia-like Microor- 
ganisms: Dr. ALBERT B. SaBin .. 226 

Scientific Apparatus and Laboratory Methods: 
Devices for Visual Comparison of Spectrograms: 
Dr. George E. Davis. A Gasoline-torch Labora- 

SCIENCE: A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advance- 
ment of Science, edited by J. MCKEEN CATTELL and pub 
lished every Friday by 

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Lancaster, Pa. Garrison, N. Y. 
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SCIENCE is the official organ of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science. Information regard- 
ing membership in the Association may be secured from 
the office of the permanent secretary in the Smithsonian 
Institution Building, Washington, D. C 



Any alumnus of Brown would be very sensible of the 
honor of being asked to take part in as important an 
event as we celebrate to-day. When I received the in- 
vitation to speak, my first impulse was to rejoice for 
the opportunity to express my gratitude for the abun- 
dant benefits Brown extended to me some thirty years 
ago. My second thoughts turned to dwell on the sig- 
nificance and meaning of the splendid Metcalf Research 
Laboratory, designed exclusively for graduate study 
and researeh. 

That this addition had long been a practical necessity 
was clear these many years to those who have followed 
at first hand the rise of the department to a position 
of outstanding importance. Because of my nearness 
to the university and my membership on the depart- 
ment’s visiting committee, it was easy to comprehend 

‘An address delivered at Brown University, Provi- 
dence, R. I., on the oceasion of the dedication of the Met- 
ad Research Laboratory of Chemistry on December 28, 

the time and patience expended under what henceforth 
will probably be referred to as “the old conditions.” 
Professor Kraus and his colleagues will no longer 
spend valuable time in effecting the compromises re- 
quired heretofore to provide adequate opportunities 
for a rising level of graduate students. It is a great 
joy to know that the efforts of the staff to promote the 
progress of graduate study and research will take place 
in a setting worthy of Brown University and of the 
man whose wisdom and generosity have made the 
dream of the research laboratory a reality. 
Sometimes it is a salutary procedure to pause occa- 
sionally, as on the present occasion, to survey the steps 
which have led up to the present position. The exer- 
cise puts events in their proper relationship, promotes 
a decent humility, induces a just pride, emphasizes the 
eternal verities, makes for simplicity and enables one 
to lay the course for the future on a more assured basis. 
Brown University was the seventh American college 




of the nine founded before the Revolution, and all were 
established exclusively in response to the need for an 
educated ministry. The college started with a presi- 
dent, James Manning, and one student; without build- 
ings, library or endowment, in the midst of Baptists 
hostile to ministerial education. The charter of the 
college was a document of extraordinary liberality, 
notwithstanding an age of bitter sectarianism in which 
it was written. It provided that the corporation be 
composed of four denominations, prescribing the exact 
number of each to prevent non-Baptists from ousting 
Baptists and vice versa. It stated also that all teachers 
except the president were to be exempt from religious 
tests of any kind. Finally, and most remarkable, was 
the exclusion of all teaching of “sectarian differences 
of opinion,” and “youth of all religious denominations” 
were on an equal footing in every respect. As a com- 
mentary on the present state of tolerance in certain 
parts of the world, the corporation voted on September 
6, 1770, “that the children of Jews may be admitted 
into this Institution and entirely enjoy the freedom of 
their religion without any constraint or imposition 
whatever.” In 1774, by the terms of a ruling, Seventh 

Day Baptists were not required to attend church and 
Quakers were exempted from a law prohibiting stu- 

dents from wearing hats indoors. Tolerance relative 

to science was written into the charter, which stated 
that “the publie teaching shall in general respect the 
seiences.”* This liberal and catholic spirit is remark- 
able, for the temper of the time was quite the contrary. 

Thus, at Yale a student could only be admitted who was 

“grounded in polemical divinity according to the As- 

semblies’ Catechism, Dr. Amos Medulla, and cases of 

conscience,” and similar restrictions existed at each of 
the six colleges whose founding preceded that of 

Chemistry had been taught in medical schools abroad 
in the 1790’s, but instruction in the science at Brown 
does not appear until the medical school was established 
in 1811 under President Asa Messer (1802-1826), in 
the course of whose administration enlarged courses 
were given in mathematics as well as instruction in 
mechanies, astronomy, animal and vegetable physiol- 
ogy, pneumatics, hydrostatics and geology. Moreover, 
the “almost worthless” philosophical apparatus was re- 
placed through the generosity of Nicholas Brown and 
Thomas P. Ives, “adapted for all purposes of illustra- 
tion.” The first laboratory, also due to the generosity 
of Nicholas Brown, was set up in Rhode Island Hall in 
1841, which contained a museum and lecture rooms. 
-This patron’s gifts and bequests amounted in all to 
$160,000 and set an example to friends of Brown and 
other colleges. A sum of possibly eight to ten times 

2Science probably included geography, arithmetic, 
algebra, Euclid, trigonometry, surveying, navigation and 

Vou. 89, No. 2306 

this amount would represent equal purchasing power at 
the present period. | | 

Following the Civil War the physical equipment was 
much improved and the friends of the university gaye 
the library building, Slater Hall, Sayles Hall, Rogers 
Chemical Laboratory, Wilson Hall for Physics, the 
Ladd Observatory. At the close of Benjamin Ap. 
drews’s administration there were nearly a thousand 
students, of which 101 were graduate students and the 
staff had grown to 90. Under W. H. P. Faunce’s ad. 
ministration the university funds were considerably in- 
creased; in 1914 to a total of more than three times 
that in the previous 150 years, while the physical plant 
was further enlarged. 

The foregoing hasty sketch brings us to the moment 
of a great change in the role which the universities of 
the United States were to play in the future; a role, 
we hope, that will last a long time, provided humanity 
is tough enough to resist the collective madness surging 
through the world these twenty years. 

The interval between the Civil War and 1914 was of 
course one of steady development of science, industry 
and transportation in the United States. The country 
depended almost entirely upon Europe for goods of 
exceptional quality, for scientific apparatus, for dyes, 
pharmaceuticals and numerous other products. Grad- 
uate study and systematic research in the universities 
had made a beginning in the 1880’s under the guidance 
of a few German trained chemists, physicists and 
mathematicians. By the turn of the century, however, 

Germany had become the foremost scientific nation in 

the world and was beginning to straddle it like a Colos- 
sus. Nothing apparently could resist the progressively 
dominating influence of Germany in every department 
of art, science, industry and world commerce. An in- 
sistently proclaimed excellence in every field set the 
ultimate standard as German, and the hall-mark of the 
American scholar was a German university degree. 
The models of scientific research and graduate study 
were faithfully copied in the American universities, 
while an increasing stream of freshly Ph.D.’d students 
from Géttingen, Berlin, Heidelberg and elsewhere in 
Germany was not infrequently distinguished by a curi- 
ously accented German speech which often disdained 
American pronunciations of the commonest chemical 
substances. The American student content with grad- 
uate study in an American university was believed to 
be distinctly second rate and was usually offered 
second-rate opportunities, if any. 

Our large-scale manufacturers employed none or few 
scientific men, and employers frequently selected Ger- 
man and Austrian engineers for responsible positions. 
Many manufacturers took over, in their entirety, de- 
velopments perfected abroad for American exploita- 
tion, and in general cut themselves off from the great 

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body of organized and coordinated knowledge brought 
together by thousands of university and industrial in- 
vestigators. When German or other foreign competi- 
tion reduced profits, it was always possible to raise the 

To-day, a scant twenty-five years later, we look back 
on an interesting phenomenon: a miracle, as far as 
pure and applied science is concerned, in every respect 
as striking as the Greek revival some 2,400 years ago. 
From a relatively second- or third-rate contributor to 
scientific advance prior to 1914, the United States is 
now leading the world in nearly all scientific fields, and 
the quality of the product as well as the volume is 
growing steadily. It is a justifiable cause for satis- 
faction to the university, its graduates and friends, 
that Brown has contributed generously to this prog- 
ress in all fields, and particularly in the field of chem- 
istry. It is often the pleasant custom on occasions 
like the present to permit oneself the indulgence of a 
good measure of generous comment. In the presence 
of this audience I shall merely note as every one does 
the fine quality of the physical plant and the esprit de 
corps of the scholarly staff of this early American 
university. The satisfaction arising from the oppor- 
tunities Brown generously offered have grown richer 
with the years, and we may now rejoice that these op- 
portunities are preserved and further enlarged for the 
benefit of the students of the present and the future. 

It would be interesting, did time permit, to digress 
and survey the exploitation of science by industry 
which runs parallel with the extraordinary revival of 
science just cited. Relative to the first decade of the 
century, progress has been striking, but due consider- 
ation of the many aspects of the subject convinces one 
that continued advance in science and industry can not 
be maintained unless scientific methods and an endur- 
ing probity are practiced in the conduct of government, 
in the drafting and application of laws, and in the 
conduct of publie business generally. Indeed the pos- 
sibility is by no means negligible that the effects gen- 
erated in the past six years through the amazing spread 
of irrationality and emotionalism in government may 
have been given sufficient momentum to bring about 
the collapse of as splendid a foundation as ever existed 
for the most alluring prospect in civilization the world 
has ever known. 

It is quite evident that this remarkable period in the 
United States, which the future history of science will 
duly record, is based on a substantial preparatory 
period. We know that this was the case with the 
Greek revival, although the induction period appar- 
ently extended over several centuries, whereas it is 
difficult to assign more than a hundred years at most 
in our own ease. That it should be short seems reason- 
able in view of the character of the people, amongst 



whom were a normally disproportionate number of 
intelligent, independent and courageous men and 

women who were able to function in an atmosphere 

of freedom without restrictive interferences of political 
origin. Generous consideration must also be given to 
the influence of nineteenth century European contri- 
butions to scientific development, often brought directly 
by students returning from study in the foreign uni- 

Only a cursory reading of the Federalist papers is 

enough to show the character, probity and insight of | 

the men available for leadership in the states during 
the eighteenth century. That they would recognize the 
fundamental necessity of providing educational faeili- 
ties for the developing nation goes without saying, and 
the impulse grew finally to a veritable passion. Per- 
haps the stimulating climate of the North Atlantic sea- 
board played its part as well’ as the intellectual and 
moral qualities of the early settlers, but the fact re- 
mains that the progress of the American colleges was 
uninterrupted and scientific work of the first order was 
accomplished in the early period by Franklin, Joseph 
Henry, Priestley, Hare and others. 

As already stated, after the Civil War large numbers 
of our younger men attended the German universities. 
Thus, J. W. Gibbs, A. G. Webster, Rowland and many 
others. came under Helmholtz’s influence, while the 
number of chemists awarded the doctor’s degree grew 
year by year down to 1914. I believe it is substan- 
tially true that in science the influence of these German- 
trained young men provided a technically deep and 
sound foundation which, functioning under American 
conditions, produced American chemistry as well as 
American physics and mathematics. Beginning with 
the turn of the century, their influence had begun to 
have a pronounced accelerating effect on research. 

The presence of a relatively large number of enthusi- 
astic and talented young scientific men in our univer- 
sities is certainly one of the necessary factors for good 
progress, but this alone would have been insufficient to 
account for the American miracle. The factor of tre- 
mendous importance, perhaps even decisive, was 
indubitably the existence of our free institutions, 
financially independent and unhampered by centralized 
bureaucratic control. Their liberating influence over 
successive generations produced a type well suited to 
widening intellectual frontiers. Self-reliance and re- 
sourcefulness probably come to be inherent character- 
isties in a people who have the stamina needed to settle 
a continent in a relatively short time. 

The financial independence of our universities per- 
mits great freedom in the development and exploita- 
tion of a variety of educational objectives which has 
had an extraordinary stimulating effect on our univer- 
sity students, in spite of the fact that good judgment 

Sy Ale 


has not always been exercised. It has also made pos- 
sible abundant laboratory facilities, which accounts for 
the manipulative skill characteristic of the American 
student. The rising prosperity of all classes of the 
rapidly growing population in the midst of unparal- 
leled natural resources is another factor not to be 
neglected. Under such conditions the probability that 
all grades and varieties of talent in the population will 

be given an opportunity to develop is very great. This 

is the fruition of the principle of equality of oppor- 
tunity, without which no society can discover a large 
fraction of the varied abilities latent in its people. 

The phenomenon of the founding and the endowment 
of large numbers of colleges and universities generously 
and consistently supported for three hundred years by 
private enterprise and generosity is certainly without 
parallel in recorded history. The growth of this almost 
universal generous public spirit is moreover a distinctly 
American phenomenon’ and it is responsible for the 
establishment of every sort of institution in the public 
interest. It should be remarked that in isolated in- 
stances free institutions have been established in 
Europe by groups of public-spirited citizens. These at 
the present time have become defunct or seriously 
damaged financially. Where, however, in the estab- 
lished cirele of history can an institution resembling the 
Rockefeller Foundation be found, to name only one 
conspicuous example of a product of private generosity 
characteristic of, shall I say, “economic royalists” and 
“entrenched greed”? Where also does there exist in 
the record of the past a single instance of privately 
endowed organizations establishing research institutes, 
repairing war’s destruction, feeding the starving and 
clothing the naked the world over? It would take more 
than my allotted time this afternoon to even outline the 
manifold beneficences and varied civilizing influences 
that have flowed in an ever-increasing volume from the 
remarkable public spirit characteristic of the citizens 
of the United States. Fundamentally we owe our free 
institutions to the existence of this spirit, and through 
the opportunities afforded, the talented men and women 
of the United States have been given unparalleled 
facilities to exploit their abilities in an atmosphere of 
freedom according to the scale of their inherent abil- 
ities. It is unquestionably our free institutions that 
have provided the essential basis for the greatest sci- 
entifie and industrial awakening on record. 

Brown University is one of the institutions that has 
helped to bring about this great miracle. The question 
arises inevitably : Will the conditions and cireumstances 

8 Private charities and the establishing of independent 
institutions proceeded in England during the nineteenth 
century, but the magnitude of the development was far 
less than in the United States, as would be expected, on 
the basis of the greater natural resources in the latter 

VoL. 89, No. 2306 

which have supported the movement persist and allow 
continued progress? What, for example, is the prog. 
pect that we will often again assemble to rejoice under 
like cireumstances in the gift of a building provided by 
private generosity? Unfortunately we are not without 
indications that influences and trends have been de. 
veloping more or less parallel with the scientific anq 
industrial rise which may eventually erush or even 
destroy the unique qualities of enterprise, courage, 
independence, resource, tolerance and public spirit 
inherently responsible for the American phenomenon, 
These influences for the most part have the appearance 
of being of direct political origin, although fundamen. 
tally, in a country organized as the United States is, 
subversive political influence is traceable either to lack 
of popular understanding and interest or to stupid 
human inability to defer apparent temporary advan- 
tage for future permanent gain. Certainly if the pres- 
ent destructive financial and other governmental 
tendencies continue, the descent from the heights to 
which we are ascending will be spectacularly rapid. It 
can not be overemphasized that processes of destruction 
once in motion come to a halt on levels where the dis- 
tribution of poverty can contrast sharply with the 
widest diffusion of prosperity and well-being ever 
known to mankind. The incentives to public generosity 
are certainly in danger of drying up, due largely to 
unwise fiscal policies, intemperate legislation and in- 
creasingly huge taxes. Little imagination is required 
to foresee that if the trend is not halted, all private 
endowments will be irreparably damaged and the evolu- 
tion of democratic institutions retarded. The loss of 
financial freedom on the part of our universities and 
manifold public institutions involves not only a stag- 
gering material loss to the people of the United States 
but the destruction of social values and the obliteration 
of a civilizing spirit which is sorely needed in a world 
where the terrors of ancient human savagery press 
upon us from every side. __ 

I realize there are those who think otherwise, at 
least in part. The great state universities will be cited 
as examples of politically supported institutions. But 
does any one doubt that they would stand at their 
present level, in serious activities, were it not for the 
example, performance and competition of the indepen- 
dent universities that still serve as models and which 
function for half the college and university students 
in the country. Should any one doubt the dire caiamity 
that would attend the passing of our free institutions, 
let him investigate the opportunities, equipment and 
facilities of European universities at the mercy of 
political functionaries. The experience of residence 
abroad will show the interested observer the utter 
poverty of physical equipment except in a very few 
centers, and also disclose the restrictions and central- 

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zed bureaucratic control that retard progress while 
suppressing enterprise and initiative. University men 
and women abroad too often carry on their scientific 
labors in poverty, with poor facilities and no assistance, 
while burdened with teaching and routine prescribed 
by the political bureaucracy in power at the moment. 
The few of genius and talent upon whose efforts much 
of the prosperity and well-being of the masses depend 
function (in Europe) with difficulty, without adequate 
rewards or incentives, while spiritual evolution and 
advance in physical welfare are slowed to a fraction of 
that possible under our favorable conditions. 

As Arthur D. Little says in his fine essay “The Fifth 
Estate’—“Our civilization is certainly imperiled, but 
there will be no downfall if mankind can be taught to 
follow the light already before it.” “In the past the 
world suffered grievously from lack of knowledge; 
today it suffers from its rejection or misapplication.” 
“With the recognition of the spirituality of science and 
the divinity of research and discovery should come 
larger interests and a new breadth of vision to the aver- 
age man, and to us all an acknowledgment of the stead- 
fast, purposeful striving shown in the development of 
the created world, together with a reverent appreciation 
of man’s privilege to aid and further this development.” 

Professor Kemmerer, of Princeton University, has 
shown in a recent article that the endowments of our 
universities are already in danger and indicated clearly 
the undermining of democratic institutions brought 
about by unsound government financing.* He cites 
what should be an obvious fact, curiously unappre- 
ciated by the holders of 113,000,000 insurance policies, 
that it is the ereditors who must pay ultimately for the 
consequences of unwise fiseal policy. These creditors 
are of course the people who hold bonds, our univer- 
sities and edueational institutions (1 and 4 billion), 
insurance companies (100 billion dollars), hospitals, 
museums, libraries, foundations, religious organiza- 
tions; in faet, every institution holding bonds and 
mortgages. As Professor Kemmerer states: “These 
creditors are our most conservative investing classes— 
classes whose welfare is a matter of such great social 
importance that we protect many of them by special 
laws which restrict the investment of trust funds to a 
limited and supposedly safe field of investments.” 
That the situation is now grave is beyond question. 

There is also the further problem. Where are our 
independent institutions to turn in the future for the 
additional financial support needed to promote re- 
search and improve educational procedures? The 
adoption of the ineome tax formulated on the so-called 
principle of “the eapacity to pay” has, to say the least, 
made it very difficult for generous public-spirited citi- 
zens to give money to the universities or other public 

‘E. W. Kemmerer, Atlantic Monthly, 160: 729, 1937. 


institutions and it has already gone far to promote the 
tendency to “let the government do it.” That is sad 
enough, but the “highly progressive income, inheritance 
and gift taxes on the part of both the national govern- 
ment and the states, taxes whose combined rates in the 
higher brackets are already the highest of any advanced 
country in the world” (to quote Professor Kemmerer) 
makes it likely that the impulse to generous giving will 
soon die for want of the means of reasonable exercise. 

It is in order to ask what can be done to halt the 
danger. In a free country we have the glorious right 
to diseuss a situation, and a danger promptly recog- 
nized is often partly forestalled. In a true democracy 
it is moreover the business of every one to exert himself 
in the public interest according to the measure of indi- 
vidual ability. First: Every citizen should be made 
aware that the qualities of public spirit and public gen- 
erosity so wide-spread in the United States are unique 
in the history of the world, and without parallel any- 
where except to a far lesser degree in England. Sec- 
ond, the examples by suitable classification of our pri- 
vately endowed educational institutions, hospitals, sei- 
entific and medical foundations, charitable and re- 
ligious organizations, museums and student-aid organi- 
zations should be clearly described and the present 
amounts of the endowments given. It is important also 
to give for comparison the number of similar institu- 
tions in the rest of the world with the amounts of their 
endowments, before the war and at present. I under- 
stand Professor P. G. Wright has prepared a report 
under the Duke University Endowment which gives 
data for certain independent institutions in Germany, 
Austria and France. Third, the viciously-false unsup- 
portable statements incessantly promulgated in the 
United States that only a few wealthy individuals pay 
the taxes expended by government should be vigorously 
refuted by appeal to the facts. These facts are avail- 
able, and there are many ways in which their signifi- 
cance and importance can be made clear to every one. 
An important item related to this which seems to have 
escaped the attention of a very large number is that a 
continuation of the present fiscal and other government 
policies is endangering the hundred billion dollars 
worth of insurance back of 113,000,000 widely held 
policies. Fourth, the attention of people should be 
focussed on the relation of our free institutions to the 
publie welfare and to the astounding progress in civil- 
izing influences they have promoted. This can perhaps 
be most strikingly exhibited by comparisons with con- 
ditions in other countries since 1900, and especially the 
contrasting wide-spread prosperity in the United 
States amongst those possessing industry and good- 
will should be made erystal clear by numerical elabora- 
tion. Fifth, much of the criticism about the incompe- 
tence and demagogery of politicians, while too often 

10, 1939 
CH iv, 


justified, should be abandoned for a policy of positive 
assistance to those in public office who are capable and 
sincere. It is commonplace that under our system 
politicians must have “causes,” and other things being 
equal, it is ridiculous to suppose they wilfully prefer 
false,ones. It seems clear that it is the people with 
insight and intelligence who should provide the causes 
and support the politicians who demonstrate their 
sincerity by doing effective work for them in the form 
of providing and disseminating accurate data and in- 
formation relevant in the promotion of all causes which 
will insure the preservation and growth of a free, just 
and liberal society. 

We belong to a group which has been selected by the 
so-called higher educational system of our country. 
Favored by natural endowment we have been enabled 
to utilize magnificent advantages provided by our free 
institutions. Advantages, facilities and an environ- 
ment of freedom which ean exist on the present level 
only as long as the good will, the generosity, the toler- 
ance and the unique public spirit which created them 
are preserved. 

Many of you will join with me in confessing, how- 
ever, that while passively grateful for our advantages, 
we have scarcely done anything actively to insure that 
the advantages we enjoy will be passed on undimin- 
ished and enhanced, to our successors. I am convinced 


Vou. 89, No, 2395 

that the greater part of the men in public office 4, 
not realize the nature or value of that which jg % 
commonplace in our country. It is our duty to take 
action without delay, perhaps through our scientig, 
societies in a concerted effort to preserve our heritage 
of financially free institutions, and save from perish 
the priceless spirit of public generosity which brough 
them to their present flowering. 

The message I bring has a somber cast; perhaps to 
serious a tone at the hour of rejoicing. But we haye 
come upon evil times and see the finest fruit of oy 
labors being misused increasingly to blight the spirit 
of mankind and to blacken his soul. Alas, no on 
wishes more than I do that the poisons distilled int 
the world by addled brains since I trod this campy 
thirty years ago could be spontaneously neutralized, 
We, however, more than any one else, have the imagins. 
tion to envisage the evils and the power to neutralize 
the poisons by uniting and exerting ourselves promptly 
and courageously. In doing so, we will give tangible 
evidence of gratitude for gifts received, and which is 
more important, save from perishing the divine civiliz. 
ing spirit that gave Brown University the Metcalf 
Research Laboratory. 




SAMUEL PRENTISS BALDWIN, widely known for his 
pioneer work in the trapping-and-banding of wild 
birds and for his Research Bird Laboratory, was born 
at Cleveland, Ohio, on October 26, 1868, and died of 
eoronary thrombosis in that city on December 31, 1938. 
He was the son of Charles Candee and Sophia (Pren- 
tiss) Baldwin. 

His father, a judge of the circuit court of appeals, 
was one of the founders and principal supporters of 
the Western Reserve Historical Society and was deeply 
interested in archeology and geology. The son in- 
herited his father’s tastes, and was a trustee of the 
Historical Society from 1907 until the end of his life. 

After graduation from Dartmouth College in 1892, 
Prentiss studied in the Law School of Western Reserve 
University and was the first to receive its degree of 
LL.B. in his class of 1894. For six years he was a 
member of law firms in Cleveland, but withdrew in 
1900, and for a considerable time thereafter was 
engaged more or less continuously in business. 

At intervals in this early period the law had to give 
way to geology, when Mr. Baldwin took part in geo- 
logical expeditions to the Muir Glacier and to New 

Mexico; but after 1900 he returned to his first love, 
natural history, and devoted himself more or less con- 
pletely to ornithology. 

In 1914 Prentiss Baldwin became interested in the 
newly devised method of banding wild birds—eneir- 
cling one of their legs with a numbered, aluminum ring 
—so that, if later recovered and reported, incontrovert- 
ible data upon their wanderings and longevity could be 
secured. In the course of these practises, which wer 
systematically conducted at his Gates Mills farm in 
Ohio, in summer, and at Thomasville, Ga., in winter, 
Dr. Baldwin devised traps for securing large numbers 
of living birds, and originated the method of trapping: 
and-banding adult birds, which by 1920 had become 8 
successful that it was approved by the Biological Su: 
vey. This governmental agency, which took over the 
work of the American Bird-Banding Society in 1921, 
soon became the “clearing house” for the registration 
of the recovered aluminum bands, that began to flow 
from all parts of the country. Asa result of this move 
ment four Bird-Banding Associations, The Inlan(, 
Eastern, Northeastern and Western, were established; 
thus covering a large part of the continent of Nort 
America, and affording all necessary assistance to the! 




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thousands of volunteer workers. It is estimated that 
Dr. Baldwin, who became the honorary president of all 
‘these organizations, and his assistants alone have 
panded between 50,000 and 60,000 individuals. 

Since 1914 Prentiss Baldwin was devoted to the 
intensive study of ornithology at what became known 
js “The Baldwin Bird Research Laboratory” at his 
Gates Mills farm, from which have issued upwards of 
thirty more or less elaborate papers, relating to the 
physiology, development and life-history of birds, and 
based upon his own work and that of his associates. 
The elaborate treatises on “The Physiology of the 
Temperature of Birds,” which involved more than fifty 
thousand determinations, and “The Measurements of 
Birds” appeared in the Scientific Publications of the 
Cleveland Museum of Natural History. 

Dr. Baldwin soon fixed upon the little house wren as 
the one species that was best suited for the study of 
many avian problems, touching distribution, migration, 
anatomy, physiology, development, behavior and, more 
specifically, body-temperature and sexual relations in 
domestic life, to mention some of the subjects which 
had engaged his attention. In short, the house wren, 
through studies at the Baldwin Laboratory, became in 
some measure for ornithology what the diminutive 
fruit-fly, Drosophila, is for the science of heredity or 
s cenetics. The wren, like Drosophila, is easily handled 
and controlled; it nests readily in artificial boxes, 
wherever placed, and can be trapped in its nestbox and 
quickly caught in a hand-net for examination. If it 
does not submit complacently to interference, it seldom 
or never deserts its young. Through the testimony of 
the numbered bands it was shown that house wrens do 
not mate for life, but that on the contrary they often 
change mates between seasons, and even between broods 
of the same year. It was also proved that not more 
than one third of all marked individuals return to their 
nest or to the locality in which the young were hatched 
in two successive years. 

Many ingenious electrical recording devices, originat- 
ing in the Baldwin Laboratory, were used in determin- 
ing the temperature changes which the growing young 
undergo from an early egg-stage to adolescence and in 
recording visits of the parent birds to their nest when 
tending their young. Experimenters in this laboratory 
also perfected an instrument for taking motion pictures 
of the living embryo in ovo, thus showing successive 
stages in embryonic development by use of a micro- 
scope with a camera-attachment, the wren’s egg making 
— subject because of its small size and hardi- 

Dr. Baldwin was a trustee of the Cleveland Museum 
of Natural History for nearly sixteen years, or from 
1923 until his death, and in many ways gave it his 
generous support. He received the degree of D.Se. 
from Dartmouth College in 1932, was a fellow in the 



American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
the Geological Society of America, the American Orni- 
thologists’ Union and the Ohio Academy of Science, 
and was a member of the American Society of Natural- 
ists, the American Society of Zoologists, the British 
Ornithologists’ Union, Deutsche Ornithologische Gesell- 
schaft and the Australasian Ornithological Union. 

Through his efforts and those of his assistants Dr. 
Baldwin had gathered through the years a rich store of 
scientific data upon birdlife, which, if properly edited, 
should make a most outstanding monograph. On this 
achievement Prentiss Baldwin’s mind and heart were 
fixed, and he had worked on it with great singleness of 
purpose for many years. It is to be hoped that this 
work, for which he had labored so industriously, but 
which, unfortunately, he did not live to complete him- 
self, may yet be given to the world. 

Dr. Baldwin was married on February 15, 1898, to 
Miss Lilian Converse, daughter of Leonard Hanna, of 

In his personal relations Prentiss Baldwin will be 
remembered as a loyal friend, who was ever ready to 
extend a helping hand, especially to young men who 
were devoted to science, and was determined that all 
should receive their just dues. He took a broad view 
of his opportunities, and freely gave his time, his effort 
and his means for the protection and preservation of 
the wild life of the countryside. The many friends of 
Dr. and Mrs. Baldwin, and particularly the members 
of Western Reserve University, of which he was a re- 
search associate in biology, can never forget the gener- 
ous hospitality which they have enjoyed in their beauti- 
Francis H. Herrick 

Dr. EpMunp B. Wiison, Da Costa professor emer- 
itus of zoology at Columbia University, died on March 
3 at the age of eighty-two years. 

Dr. CHARLES SUMNER PLUMB, professor emeritus of 
animal husbandry at the Ohio State University, died 
on March 4 in his eighty-ninth year. 

Dr. ARTHUR ALFRED BRYAN, agronomist of the 
Iowa State College, died on February 22. Since 1934 
Dr. Bryan had been in charge of the corn improve- 
ment program carried on by the Iowa Agricultural 
Experiment Station in cooperation with the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture. 

Dr. ARTHUR PHILEMON COLEMAN, professor emer- 
itus of geology and formerly dean of the Faculty of 
Arts of the University of Toronto, died on February 
26 in his eighty-seventh year. 

Howarp Carter, known for his discovery and ex- 
ploration, in association with the fifth Earl of Car- 
narvon, of the tomb of Tut-ankh-Amen, died on 
March 2 at the age of sixty-six years. 

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VoL. 89, No, 934 



On June 27 Dr. C. M. Cooke, Jr., leader and mala- 
ecologist, Mr. Y. Kondo, assistant malacologist, and 
Mr. Elwood C. Zimmerman, entomologist, Bishop 
Museum scientists, departed from Honolulu aboard 
the 8. 8. Monterey for Suva, Fiji, to collect mollusks 
and insects for the museum. The duration of the trip 
was three months. 

The expedition was named for Mr. Henry G. Lap- 
ham, of Boston, in appreciation of his interest and 
financial assistance to the museum’s program of ex- 
ploration in the Pacific. Dr. C. M. Cooke, Jr., also 
gave generously to the fund and personally financed 
exploration in Lau Province. Without the aid of these 
two men it would have been impossible for the staff 
to have made the trip. The museum is greatly indebted 
to them. 

Because of illness at home Dr. Cooke was recalled to 
Honolulu after three weeks in the field. Mr. Zimmer- 
man assumed the post of acting leader and with Mr. 
Kondo and Jacob Ulumira, a Fijian assistant, con- 
tinued exploration, following closely the itinerary made 
up at the beginning of the expedition. 

During the course of the expedition collections were 
made in the following areas: first, Ovalau island; sec- 
ond, Viti Levu, the largest island of Fiji, upon which 
exploration was done in the Rewa, Serua and Tholo 
north districts; and third, in Lau Province, or the 
eastern Fijian islands, where Munia, Vanua Mbalavu, 
Mango, Lakemba, Oneata, Naiau and Moala islands 
were visited. Approximately sixty islands were seen 
and notes were taken on the appearance and, where 
they were viewed closely enough, the extent of the 
forests upon them. 

The expedition was principally one of reconnais- 
sance. It was a preliminary survey of the region, 
and one of its main purposes was to determine the best 
type of exploration for this area and the places where 
intensive field work should be done when funds are 
available for future expeditions. As a result of the 
experience gained in this exploration it will be much 
easier for the staff to plan future Fijian expeditions. 

The staff returned from the field on September 28 
with outstanding success and comprehensive collec- 
tions. It is estimated that the entomologist procured 
approximately twenty-five thousand specimens; the 
number of land shells taken has not yet been ascer- 
tained, but a splendid cross section of the fauna was 
obtained by concentrated work. In entomology and 
malacology many “lost species” were rediscovered 
which evidently had not been collected since the types 
were taken. The museum’s collections of Fijian land 
shells and insects is now second to none in numbers 

and comprehensiveness. Many new species of |gyj § 

shells were collected, and the number of new species af 
insects obtained must be counted by hundreds. 1, 
success of the expedition will not be truly known unjj 
the material has been prepared, specimens studied by 
specialists, data sifted, and the results publish 
These accomplishments will not be realized for many 
years because of the bulk of the material. 

During most of the trip the scientists were fort. 
nate in having favorable weather, but, as is to be ey. 
pected in that region, a number -of collecting day; 
were lost because of unpropitious weather. The ¢. 
pedition was planned for the “dry season” in order ty 
facilitate field work, but, as the drier season comes jp 
the winter, the entomologist found that, with fey 
exceptions, the summer insects, such as many Lepidop. 
tera, buprestid and elaterid beetles and many other, 
were in the nymphal, larval or pupal stages, and adults 
were either rare or entirely unobtainable. The season 
evidently had no effect on land shell collecting. 



THE twentieth annual report of the Commonwealth 
Fund, which was established as a foundation “to do 
something for the welfare of mankind,” during the 
year appropriated $2,277,953 for philanthropic puw- 
poses. More than four fifths of this amount was ¢e- 
voted to the promotion of physical and mental health, 
much the larger share going to medical education, 
medical research, public health and community hos- 
pitals in rural areas. Both the total appropriations 
and the percentage set apart for health purposes were 
the largest in the history of the fund, the endowment 
having been increased in 1937 to approximately $51, 

Expressing his conviction that “some of the most 
important things that can not be done without money 
can not be done with money alone,” the general director 
of the fund reported that in encouraging services (0 
prevent disease and promote health, tae fund “has 
demonstrated repeatedly that money will not create 0 
maintain such services at optimum levels unless « great 
deal more than money is put into them. He writes: 

Foundations have learned that to spend money ef: 
fectively for social ends it is necessary to invest judgment 
and technical skill, in generous quantity, in the choice o 
projects to be aided and in the evaluation of their results 
as a guide to further choices. They are fortunate i 
being able to focus relatively large amounts of technical 
skill on the study and sometimes the shaping of rela 
tively small projects. They are particularly justified ™ 
doing so when the projects in question throw light on the 

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yarcu 10, 1939 

methods which must be used in attacking similar situa- 
tions on a broader scale. What foundations have learned 
about the technique of making money work to buy health 
and other means of social progress may be useful in an era 

of great publie spending. 


A start in the establishment of national standards 
for photography was taken on February 21 by a new 
committee, which met in the Engineering Societies 
Building, New York, and elected as its chairman Dr. 
Loyd A. Jones, of the Eastman Kodak Company. 
The committee was organized by the American Stand- 
ards Association with the Optical Society of America 
taking the leadership in the technical work. Better 
interchangeability of parts and standards defining the 
performance of cameras, light meters, film, developing 
materials and photographic equipment is expected to 
result from work of this committee. 

At the meeting plans were made to set up sub-com- 
mittees which will cover physical dimensions of sensi- 
tive materials and holders; characteristics of sensitive 
materials; the finished photographic product; cameras, 
lenses, shutters, diaphragms, view finders, sizes and 
amounts of light filters, and dimensions of safe-lights ; 
artificial iluminants; processing equipment, and pro- 
jectors and printers. 

The work of this committee is expected not only to 
result in national standards, but will also be the basis 
for American recommendations in connection with in- 
ternational standards for photography. An interna- 
tional committee on photography has already been 
authorized by the International Standards Association, 
with the American Standards Association, which holds 
the secretariat, taking the leadership in its work. The 
committee is also planning to work closely with the 
International Congress of Scientific and Applied 
Photography. The committee set March 24 as the 
date of its next meeting. 


StuDENT affiliate chapters of the American Chem- 
ical Society have been organized in sixteen colleges 
and universities. The society will hold its ninety- 
seventh meeting in Baltimore from April 3 to 7. 

Membership in the chapters reaches 427, while an- 
other 145 affiliated undergraduates are scattered 
throughout twenty-three institutions in the United 
States and Hawaii. The total number of 572 com- 
prises 181 seniors, 178 juniors, 148 sophomores, 58 
freshmen and 7 special students. 

Dr. Charles L. Parsons, secretary of the society, 
Points out that it is evident that this newly organized 
method of procedure for interesting students in their 
Own advaneement is to become an important function 



bearing upon the development of the students in their 
professional consciousness. 

The first group of student affiliates was formed at 
Lafayette College, under the auspices of the Lehigh 
Valley Section of the society. Other chapters have 
been established in Manhattan College, New York 
City; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Union College, 
Schenectady, N. Y.; Rhode Island State College; Al- 
bright College, Pennsylvania; Virginia Polytechnic 
Institute; the University of Kentucky; the Rice In- 
stitute; Ohio Northern University; Central College, 
Missouri; the University of Minnesota; Hamline Uni- 
versity; Colorado State College; the University of 
California, Berkeley, and the California Institute of 

The Rice Institute Chapter, with 63 members, is the 
largest. The University of Kentucky and the Univer- 
sity of California Chapters rank second and third 
with 52 and 51 members, respectively. Next come the 
California Institute of Technology, with 38 members, 
and Lafayette College, with 34 members. 

Dr. John H. Nair, of the Borden Company, Syra- 
euse, N. Y., is chairman of the Committee on Student 
Affiliates, which has supervised the organization of 
the student chapters, all of which are planning active 
programs in 1939. The society will sponsor an em- 
ployment clearing house at the Baltimore convention, 
where student chemists will have an opportunity of 
meeting the personnel staffs of chemical industries. 
The announcement points out that “Personal contact 
is becoming more and more a prerequisite for employ- 
ment. It will be a long time before employers cease 
going first to the colleges, especially those known to 
turn out the best trained chemists. This is particu- 
larly true for young men just out of college, since no 
one but the chemical departments of the colieges 
which they are leaving are able to give them any defi- 
nite recommendation.” 


THE Geological Society of America announces meet- 
ings for 1939 as follows: 

The Geological Society will join with Section E of 
the American Association for the Advancement of 
Seience in the summer meetings to be held in Mil- 
waukee, from June 19 to 24. Plans for field trips are 
being made. Details of the scientifie program and 
excursions will be announeed in a later cireular. 

The council has authorized a joint meeting of the 
society with the Cordilleran Section, to be held at 
Berkeley, Calif., from August 8 to 10, followed by sev- 
eral field excursions. Fellows of the society are urged 
to take advantage of this opportunity and to lend 
encouragement by attending this meeting of the only 
section. Special facilities will be provided for visiting 
features of particular interest under the guidance of 



men intimately acquainted with local problems. It is 
understood that greatly reduced fares will be available 
on the transcontinental railways, and that local accom- 
modations, both in Berkeley and on the excursions, will 
be provided at moderate cost. Plans should be made 
soon. A circular with more complete detail will be 
available shortly. Only one other meeting of some- 
what similar character in the history of the society has 
been held in California. This was held at Berkeley 
and at Stanford University in August, 1915. One 
point of present interest in the record is the fact that 
the number of fellows attending was almost equally 
distributed between the Atlantic seaboard, the central 
region and the Pacific coast, with the advantage to the 
East coast. The Paleontological Society, the Seismo- 

_ logical Society of America and the Society of Keo- 

nomic Geologists expect to meet in Berkeley at the 
same time. 

Because of overlapping time, attention is called to 
the announcement of the Pan-Pacifie Science Congress, 
which will hold meetings in the San Francisco Bay 
Region in July and August (Berkeley, from July 24 to 
August 5, and Stanford, from August 6 to 12). To 
avoid conflict no geological program will be arranged 
by the congress on August 8, 9 and 10, in order that 
those attending may participate in the Geological So- 
ciety meetings. The excursions arranged for these 
meetings will also be made available to registrants of 
the Science Congress. 

The Geological Society calls special attention also to 
the seventh triennial assembly of the International 
Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, which will be held 
in Washington, D. C., from September 4 to 15, under 
the auspices of the American Geophysical Union in co- 
operation with the National Research Council, and with 
support from other sources. 

The council has accepted an invitation extended by 
the University of Minnesota, supported by local edu- 
cational and scientific organizations, to hold the 1939 
annual meeting in Minneapolis. The dates will be 
December 28, 29 and 30. This will be the first meet- 
ing of the society to be held in Minnesota, and the 
fifth held west of the Mississippi River. 

Meetings of the council are regularly held in April 
and October and at the time of the annual meeting. 
Matters to come before the council should be in hand 
well in advance of these dates. It is expected that 

Vou. 89, No. 2306 

the April, 1939, council meeting will be held on the 
fifteenth of the month. 

A series of addresses under the general theme 
“Frontiers of Geology” is being organized for broad. 
easting during March and April through the facilities 
of the National Broadcasting Company. 


It is announced in the London Times that the Dj. 
vision for the Social and International Relations of 
Science, formed within the British Association last 
August, is arranging a program of meetings at which 
topics of immediate interest and importance will be 
discussed. The purpose of the division is to study the 
relationship between science and the community and 
to encourage the application of science to promote the 
well-being of society. 

The first meeting will be held on March 28 at the 
University of Reading, by permission of the Univer. 
sity Council and in cooperation with the National 
Institute for Research in Dairying, and two sessions 
will be devoted to discussion on milk in its nutritional 
and allied aspects. Sir Richard Gregory, chairman 
of the division, and Sir Daniel Hall will preside at the 
sessions, and other speakers will deal with deficiencies 
of diet, health aspects, pasteurization, production, 
cost, economic and social implications. 

It is also proposed to arrange meetings in the early 
summer in London and Manchester for review of the 
social relationships of science and for discussion with 
special reference to pressing problems in industry and 
agriculture. In connection with the Manchester meet- 
ing, Professor H. Levy has been appointed to deliver 
the Alexander Pedler memorial lecture, in which he 
will explain the method of approach in the study of 
the social problems of science, with particular illustra- 
tions of the application of scientific discoveries to 

During the forthcoming meeting of the British As- 
sociation in Dundee (August 30—September 6) the di- 
vision will hold three sessions at which it is proposed 
to consider the coordination of scientifie research, 
population movements and nutrition. Sir Richard 
Gregory will deliver an address on “Science and 
Social Ethies.” 


THE William Withering Lectures of the University 
of Birmingham will be given in late March by Dr. 
Peyton Rous, of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical 
Research. The subject will be “Present Aspects of 
the Cancer Problem.” 

Dr. E. S. Russet, director of research in the British 
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, will give a series 
of five DeLamar Lectures at the School of Hygiene 
and Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University 
on successive days from March 20 to March 24. The 

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| Co 

marcy 10, 1939 

subject will be “Fish Populations and the Effect of 

Proressor AuGust Krocu, of the University of 
Copenhagen, Nobel laureate in 1920, will deliver a 
series of lectures at Swarthmore College under the 
auspices of the Cooper Foundation, on March 16 and 
93, and April 6, 13 and 20, at 8:15 p.m. The subject 
will be “The Comparative Physiology of Respiratory 

MasaryK UNIVERSITY, Czecho-Slovakia, has con- 
ferred on Dr. Francis E. Lloyd, professor emeritus of 
botany, McGill University, the degree of doctor of 
science, honoris causa. 

THE honorary doctorate of the University of Greifs- 
wald has been conferred on Dr. V. F'. K. Bjerknes, pro- 
fessor of physics at the University of Oslo. 

M. EMMANUEL DE MARGERIE has been elected a mem- 
ber of the Section of Mineralogy of the Paris Academy 
of Sciences in succession to the late L. de Launay. 

Durina the dedication ceremony incident to the 
opening of the new buildings of the Pasteur Institute 
at Garches, a suburb of Paris, the minister of public 
health conferred the rank of commander of the Legion 
of Honor on Professor Gaston Louis Ramon, director 
of the branch, in recognition of his work during the 
past fifteen years in immunology, especially the more 
recent contributions, such as vaccination against diph- 
theria and tetanus. 

Proressor W. H. HorrMann, of the Finlay Insti- 
tute, Habana, has been elected an honorary member 
of the Robert Koch Institute, Berlin. 

THE 1938 Lamme Medal of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers has been awarded to Marion A. 
Savage, designing engineer of the General Electric 
Company, “for able and original work in the develop- 
ment and improvement of mechanical construction and 
the efficiency of large high-speed turbine alternators.” 
The medal and certificate will be presented to him at 
the annual summer convention of the institute, which 
is to be held in San Francisco from June 26 to 30. 

A BRONZE bust of Professor Fred Conrad Koch, 
chairman of the department of biochemistry at the 
University of Chicago, was presented to the university 
on February 8 by a group of alumni and friends. 
At the unveiling ceremony, the speakers were Dr. 
Howard M. Sheaff, a 1919 Ph.D. from the department, 
and President Robert Maynard Hutchins. The bust is 
mounted in the lecture room of the Biochemistry Build- 
ing and is a companion to the bust of Professor A. P. 
Mathews, first chairman of the department. 

At the opening clinic for a six weeks graduate course 
in medieine sponsored by the Medical School and the 



Extension Division of the University of North Caro- 
lina, a luncheon was given in honor of Dr. Alfred 
Stengel, vice-president for medical affairs at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 

At the annual election of the California Academy 
of Sciences held on February 15 the following officers 
were elected: President, Dr. F. M. MacFarland; 
1st Vice-president, The Hon. Herbert Hoover; 2nd 
Vice-president, Dr. E. P. Meinecke; Recording Secre- 
tary, Dr. Olaf P. Jenkins; Corresponding Secretary, 
Dr. Charles L. Camp; Treasurer, Francis P. Farqu- 
har; Trustee for five-year term, Mrs. Alexander F. 


Dr. Max JENNINGS PLICE has been appointed asso- 
ciate professor of agronomy at the University of Okla- 
homa, and Pr. Michel Afanasiev, associate professor 
of horticulture. Other appointments include the fol- 
lowing assistant professors: Dr. Gladys Marie Kins- 
man in home economies research, Dr. William Win- 
field Ray in botany and plant pathology and J. Lee 
Brown in horticulture. 

Dr. W. M. BEESON, assistant professor and assistant 
in animal husbandry in the University of Arizona, has 
returned to the University of Idaho as associate pro- 
fessor of animal husbandry, in charge of animal nutri- 
tion and judging. 

Dr. ArtHuR L. BeNTON, of the New York Hospital 
and the department of psychiatry, Cornell University 
Medical College, has been appointed instructor in the 
personnel bureau of the City College of the College of 
the City of New York. 

Dr. Harotp C. Bryant, who has been assistant di- 
rector in Washington of the National Park Service, 
in charge of the Branch of Research and Information, 
has been transferred to Grand Canyon National Park 
as acting superintendent. 

BRADFORD WASHBURN, of Cambridge, geographer 
and explorer, has been appointed executive director of 
the New England Museum of Natural History. Dr. 
Edward Wigglesworth will remain as scientific di- 


Dr. WaAuLpo G. LELAND, secretary of the American 
Council of Learned Societies, recently became a mem- 
ber of the committee of the National Resources Com- 
mittee to study the relations of the Federal Govern- 
ment to scientific research. 

M. N. SHarrner, of the Pennsylvania Topographic 
and Geologic Survey, will serve as secretary-treasurer 
of the Field Conference of Pennsylvania Geologists, 
to succeed Dr. Arthur B. Cleaves, who recently left 
the survey. 

LINCOLN ELLSworTH plans an expedition into the 
Antaretie in 1941, during which he proposes to camp 


218 © SCIENCE 

for the entire winter at the South Pole with “not more 
than two companions, to carry on continuous obser- 
vations of importance in several branches of scientific 

Dr. Grorce H. H. Tare, assistant curator of South 
American mammals of the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History, sailed on February 23 for Paris to ar- 
range for an expedition to the Ivory Coast of Africa 
to collect chimpanzees and mandrill monkeys for 
habitat groups in the museum. He will be joined in 
Paris by Robert Kane, of the department of arts and 
preparation, who has been in East Africa for the last 

Dr. L. C. Graton, professor of mining geology at 
Harvard University, has returned from a journey of 
eight months to islands and bordering countries of the 
South Pacific, where he investigated volcanoes, hot 
springs and fumaroles from the aspect of their con- 
nection with the origin of deep-seated ore deposits. 
He was invited to address scientific audiences in Hono- 
lulu, Hawaii; Nouméa, New Caledonia; Sydney, Aus- 
tralia, and Baguio, Philippines. 

Proressor K. LINDERSTR#gM-LANG, of the Carlsberg 
Laboratory, Copenhagen, will deliver the sixth Harvey 
Society Lecture of the current series at the New York 
Academy of Medicine on March 16. He will speak 
on “Distribution of Enzymes in Tissue and Cells.” 
Dr. Linderstrgm-Lang will also give at Harvard Uni- 
versity the Edward K. Dunham Lectures for the cur- 
rent academic year. 

Dr. CHarLEs H. Best, professor of physiology and 
associate director of the Connaught Laboratories of 
the University of Toronto, gave a lecture on “Heparin 
and Thrombosis” on March 8 before the Yale Medical 

THE Pennsylvania State College is celebrating the 
two hundred and sixth anniversary of the birth of 
Joseph Priestley with the presentation of the thir- 
teenth annual series of Priestley Lectures on March 20 
to 24. The lectures, a series of five, will be given each 
evening at 7:30 p.m. by Dr. Kenneth 8. Cole, asso- 
ciate professor of physiology at the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons, Columbia University. He will 
discuss the interrelationships between physical chem- 
istry and cell membranes. 

THE Section of Physies and Chemistry of the New 
York Academy of Sciences sponsored a conference on 
kinetics in solution on February 24 and 25, 1939, under 
the chairmanship of Professor Victor K. LaMer, 
. Columbia University. The speakers included Profes- 
sors Henry Eyring, Princeton University; J. C. 
Warner, the Carnegie Institute of Technology; S. H. 
Maron, the Case School of Applied Science; P. D. 
Bartlett, Harvard University; L. P. Hammett, Colum- 

VoL. 89, No. 2306 

bia University, and Drs. Irving Roberts, Columbia 
University, and F. H. Westheimer, Chicago. 

Tue fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of the 

Pasteur Institute of Paris will be commemorated op 
March 15, when it will be presided over by the Pregj. 
dent of the French Republic. 

THE biennial assembly of the International College 
of Surgeons will be held in New York at the Hotel 
Roosevelt from May 21 to 24, under the presidency 
of Dr. Andre Crotti, of Columbus, Ohio. 

An International Congress on Magnetism will he 
held in Strasbourg from May 21 to- May 25, under 
the auspices of the International Institute of Intel. 
leetual Cooperation and the Service Central de la 
Recherche scientifique de France. Fifteen reports 
will be presented on paramagnetism, ferromagnetism 
and magneto-optics. The American representatives 
to the congress are Professor J. H. Van Vleck, of 
Harvard University, and Professor 8. J. Barnett, of 
the University of California. 

THE fifth International Congress for the Unity of 
Science will be held at Harvard University from Sep- 
tember 5 to 10. The subject of the congress is “The 
Logic of Science.” Information in regard to it can be 
obtained from Professor C. W. Morris, University of 

In accordance with the results of a poll recently 
taken of the membership of the American Society of 
Zoologists, the 1939 annual meeting of the society will 
be held next December in Columbus, Ohio, in con- 
junction with the meeting of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science. 

THE Association of Southeastern Biologists will hold 
its annual meeting on April 14 and 15 at Duke Uni- 
versity. Titles and abstracts of papers should be sent 
to Donald C. Boughton, Secretary-Treasurer, Univer- 
sity of Georgia, Athens, before March 15. 

A BIOPHYSICS symposium will be held in connection 
with the annual meeting of the Southeastern Section of 
the American Physical Society at the University of 
Georgia, on March 31 and April 1. Dr. Detlev W. 
Bronk, director of the Johnson Foundation for Medical 
Physies of the University of Pennsylvania, has been 
invited to give a paper on “The Physical Basis of Bio- 
logical Organization.” A series of shorter invited 
papers also included on the program are: “Applica- 
tions of Nuclear Physies to Biology,” J. B. Fisk, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina; “The Present Status of 
the Electron Microscope,” Otto Stuhlman, Jr., Uni- 
versity of North Carolina; “Applications of Photogra- 
phy to Medical and Biophysical Problems,” Gilford G. 
Quarles, University of Alabama; “Purification of Bio- 
logical Materials by Centrifuging,” J. W. Beams, Uni- 


gram ( 



July 1 
to the 
visits t 
and pr 
Abbé - 
per Ke 
have t 
soon as 



work ¢ 


to thos 
of scie 

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and so’ 
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the qu 

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10, 1939 

versity of Virginia. In addition there will be a pro- 
m of contributed papers. Dr. Clyde B. Crawley, 
University of Alabama, is chairman of the Biophysics 
Tue 1939 annual summer term of the American 
school of Prehistorie Research will open in Paris on 
| july 1 and close in France on September 9. The 
tentative program includes laboratory work and visits 
io the museums in Paris and Saint-Germain-en-Laye; 
visits to the principal museums and excursions to im- 
portant prehistoric sites in various parts of France, 
and practice in exeavating at two or more sites. The 
Abbé H. Breuil, an authority on Old World prehis- 
tory, Will be in charge of the course, assisted by Har- 
per Kelley, a former student of the school. They will 
have the cooperation of various French specialists. 
Prospective students should apply for enrolment as 
soon as possible. Applications for enrolment and for 
further information should be addressed to George 
t Grant MacCurdy, director, American School of Pre- 
historie Researeh, Old Lyme, Conn. 

We are requested to state that all reprints of the 
work of the late Professor George Barger have been 



deposited in the department of chemistry of the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow, and that copies can be obtained 
by application to the secretary of that department. 

THE Office National des Universités et Ecole Fran- 
caises has offered a graduate fellowship of 18,000 
franes for the study of science at a French univer- 
sity. Two fellowships of a similar amount are being 
offered for study in Paris by the Société des Amis de 
l'Université de Paris; one for a graduate student to 
undertake scientific research and one for a graduate 
student specializing in the study of international rela- 
tions. Application blanks may be secured from the 
Institute of International Education at 2 West 45th 
Street, New York City. The closing date for filing 
applications with complete credentials is April 1. 

A qirt of $100,000 has been made by Bertram J. 
Cahn, of Chicago, toward the fund being raised by 
Northwestern University for the erection of Scott 
Hall, as a tribute to President Walter Dill Scott, who 
will retire next autumn to become president emeritus. 
The sum of $200,000 has been given for the Hall by the 
Woman’s Building Association of the University Guild 
and the sum of $85,500 has been received from various 



ScIENTIFIC research may in certain rare cases be 
pursued for personal gain, but its publication is prac- 
tically always solely for the benefit of others. The real 
problem is to insure its widest possible dissemination 
to those best abie to make use of it for the advancement 
of science. 

By far the largest part of scientific research is pub- 
lished under the auspices of institutions, societies, asso- 
cations, governmental agencies, academies or other 
organizations having for their object either the ad- 
vancement of learning or the industrial applications of 
scientific diseoveries. The supplementary diffusion of 
scientifie literature by means of microfilms is, accord- 
ingly, in entire accord with the aims of those who are 
principally responsible for its publication. 

There are, however, a small number of scientific 
periodicals which are published by private initiative, 
and some of these are copyrighted or prescribe restric- 
tions in regard to copying their contents. It is this 
relatively small number of journals which give rise to 
the question as to the legality of microfilm copying of 
scientifie periodicals. 

In the ease of these, as with research periodicals in 
general, the contributors are very rarely paid and of 
course do not participate in the profits, if any, derived 
from their publication. It may, therefore, be asked 
whether it is the contributors or the publishers who are 

entitled to the protection afforded by copyright. It is 
evident that the contributors do not desire such pro- 
tection and it is certainly rarely possible for the pub- 
lishers to benefit from it. It is, therefore, not clear 
why any publication of scientific research is ever copy- 

Although it was believed that a very small propor- 
tion of scientific periodicals are copyrighted it was de- 
cided to make a survey to ascertain approximately 
what proportion are so protected. For this purpose 
101 periodicals received in the field of biological and 
agricultural chemistry in the library of the Pasteur 
Institute of Paris were examined, and only 15 found to 
bear the copyright mark or make any reservation in 
regard to copying their contents. Of the latter several 
prohibited complete or partial reproduction except by 
authorization. It is probable that many of the copy- 
righted ones would also grant permission for microfilm 
copying if requested. It may be concluded, therefore, 
that the proportion of current scientific periodicals 
restricted in regard to microfilm copying is very small. 

In this connection it may be mentioned that Biblio- 
film Service has been operating in the library of the 
U. 8S. Department of Agriculture for four years and 
has now attained a monthly distribution of more than 
20,000 pages of scientific literature copied from several 
hundred periodicals, for more than a thousand research 
workers in the United States and elsewhere, and has 
never had a complaint of copyright infringement. This 








s ba, 




may be considered good evidence that in so far as scien- 
tific literature is concerned, the limitations of micro- 
film copying imposed by copyright is negligible. 

There is, however, another angle of the subject which 
has been suggested as of perhaps greater importance 
than the legal aspect. That is, the effect which the 
general distribution of the material printed in current 
journals may have upon their cireulation. It can not 
be denied that certain ones, devoted to narrow fields of 
learning, do have great difficulty in securing and earn- 
ing the support necessary for their existence. In these 
eases it is possible that some individuals and even 
libraries would not subscribe to them, if the papers 
they contained could be obtained in the form of miecro- 
films for less than the cost of the subseripiton. These, 
therefore, might be damaged by unrestricted microfilm 

This situation, however, raises the question whether 
the printing of journals which fail to command suffi- 
cient support to pay their way is economically justified. 
There is little doubt that the present system of publish- 
ing certain very highly specialized research is extremely 

wasteful. In the case of journals of interest to a very 
limited number of workers the expense and effort neces- 
sary for their editing, printing, distributing, cataloging 
and conserving in libraries should be weighed against 
the advantage to the small group of persons capable of 
making use of them. Of course if publication by print- 
ing was the only means by which the results of highly 
specialized research could be brought to the attention 
of persons capable of making use of it for the advance- 
ment of science, there would be no question of paying 
the cost, no matter how great. Fortunately, however, 
the development of microfilms has introduced a far 
simpler and more economical plan of distributing such 
reports to other workers. This is by what has come to 
be known as auxiliary publication. By it, the author 
publishes in the widely cireulating printed journals 
only such details of his work as are necessary to 
acquaint others with its scope and conclusions. He 
prepares for an authorized depository a detailed de- 
scription of his experiments, accompanied by tables, 
charts, illustrations or anything else needed to convey 
to others a thorough comprehension of his work. This 
complete report serves for the preparation of microfilm 
copies which are given an identifying number corres- 
ponding to the number which accompanies the printed 
summary of the work. Those who read this brief 
account in the widely circulated journal and desire 
the complete paper simply order a microfilm copy of 
it by number from the authorized depository at a very 
modest price. Only the number of microfilm copies 
that are ordered are made, and only one repository is 
charged with keeping the original paper. ‘Thus the 
cost of printing, distributing and conserving in libra- 

VOL. 89, No, 2306: 

ries voluminous detailed reports of research, of interest 
to only few workers, is completely avoided. 

This plan of publication also has another very im. 
portant advantage. The rising costs of printing and 
increasing number of papers submitted have forced the 
publishers of practically all scientifie periodicals {) 
insist on the greatest possible condensation of the 
papers they print. This results in the publication of 
many papers in such an abbreviated form that theiy 
value to others is diminished. Auxiliary publication 
by microfilm distribution avoids this and insures that 
the work of every investigator is brought in its most 
complete form only to those investigators who are able 
to make best use of it. 

From the above it follows that even though microfilm 
copying may adversely affect the publication of certain 
small numbers of highly specialized journals it provides 
a substitute plan for the diffusion of scientific research 
which is far superior and much more economical than 
the system of publication solely by printing. 

Finally, attention should be called to the fact that 
library collections contain not only current periodicals 
the contents of which are subject to greater diffusion 
by the medium of microfilms, but the accumulated mass 
of scientific literature over many years which micro- 
films can also place at the disposition of those workers 
not having access to such collections. Thus, the ques- 
tion of copyright restriction and possible adverse effect 
of microfilm copying upon a relatively few journals 
should have little weight in appraising the tremendous 
service which microfilm copying in libraries can con- 
tribute to the advancement of learning. 



“Aw easy method for making an index,” described in 
the issue of Science for January 20, involves cutting 
innumerable strips, handling slips of varying sizes 
which would be awkward to alphabetize, working with 
adhesive tape and typing twice. Sticking the entries 
on 11-inch tape would hamper editing, cross-referenc- 
ing and possible transfer of material from one heading 
to another, all of which has to be done after the alpha- 
betizing has been completed. Thus it appears that 
indexing by the proposed method would consume more 
time than it would save. When the work is done by the 
usual one-card-per-entry method there is but one typ- 
ing, alphabetizing is easily done, there is no messing 
with tape or time-consuming cutting, and the easily 
numbered cards can be readily bundled and sent to the 
printer. No typing on sheets is necessary. 

If even a quicker method is desired the following 









and 1 





a A 




of K 




a fe 












to tl 









of w 



suggested : Use typewriter paper on which perfora- 
tions divide each sheet into ten sections. Or, better 
still, use rolls of paper 4 inches or 5 inches wide, with 
perforations 3 inches apart. Type one entry on each 
section, and when the index is completed tear the sec- 
tions apart and arrange the slips alphabetically. These 
slips are a handy working size, can readily be edited 
and rearranged, and then may be sent directly to the 
printer. This method avoids putting a card or slip into 
the typewriter and taking it out for each entry. 

Maset Hunt Dorie 
Mary A. BrApLEy 


A CULTURAL horizon, buried some ten feet or more 
below the top of a twenty-one foot terrace along the 
banks of a small intermittent stream in Smith County, 
Kansas, has been under investigation by a University 
of Kansas field party under the direction of Dr. L. C. 
Eiseley, assistant professor of sociology and anthro- 
pology at the latter institution. The archeological ma- 
terial recovered consists of numerous flakes and rejects, 
a few scrapers and a single point. The material is 
intermixed with the charred and fossilized remains of 
bison and other animals. Although the material sug- 
gests more than a casual occupation of the site, no evi- 
dences of pottery or agriculture were secured. 

According to Dr. H. T., U. Smith, assistant pro- 

march 10, 1939 SCIENCE 221 

fessor of geology at the University of Kansas, who 
conducted geological investigations at the site, the geo- 
morphic changes which have taken place involve the 
following stages: First, a deposition of over ten feet 
of alluvium above the site; second, a lowering of the 
local base level and the formation of a flood plain four- 
teen feet below the top of the fill; third, a second lower- 
ing of base level and the development of a new flood 
plain twenty-one feet below the top of the original fill. 
This flood plain has a width of a hundred yards and is 
entering middle maturity. The geological evidence sug- 
gests that these changes could not have taken place 
much under a minimum of five thousand years ago, 
and the site may actually be older. 

Inasmuch as the point recovered is not Folsom, but 
a well-worked artifact of a size suggesting its use with 
the bow, and as, in addition, there is no reason to refer 
the bison remains recovered to an extinct species, it 
seems reasonable to assign the site a dating later than 
the Folsom culture, but predating by a considerable 
margin the appearance of agriculture in the central 
plains. The importance of the site lies in its contribu- 
tion of additional evidence of the existence of nomadic 
bison hunters in the central plains below the recog- 
nized ceramic cultures, but evidently later in time than 
the Folsom horizon, judging both from the probabie 
use of the bow and the associated remains of a living 
species of bison. At the same time, because of its 
genuine geological antiquity, the site is an added check 
on the postglacial, early Recent fauna associated with 
man in the Plains region. 



The World was my Garden. Travels of a Plant 

Explorer. By Davip FAIRCHILD, assisted by EL1za- 

BETH and ALFRED Kay. Chas. Scribner’s Sons, New 

York and London. Pp. 494. Many illustrations. 


A MorRE charming and interesting autobiography 
could searcely be imagined. Fairchild is not known 
to the world from any great discovery or generaliza- 
tion, such as those of Darwin, Mendel and the Curies; 
but taken all together, his contributions to horticulture 
and thus to human welfare have been so great that he 
deserves to rank with those who have done most for 
their country and the world. The present book, giving 
a connected account of his activities, is especially valu- 
able as showing what has been done, not only by Fair- 
child but also by those who cooperated with him, to all 
of whom full and generous credit is given. The results 
of all this work may be found in every part of the 
United States, where introduced plants are growing 

and producing increasingly valuable crops. It would 
be impossible to estimate the value of the products 
which have been made available to us through Fair- 
child, or to say what limit there may be to their in- 
creasing value, as they become better known, and the 
conditions of their cultivation better understood. 
How are such men produced? Fairchild says: 

Going back through the mists of sixty-odd years, I 
realize that I both had the suitable heredity and was born 
into an environment adapted to the development of a 
naturalist or horticulturist. In other words, my path was 
almost predestined at my birth. I do not believe that I 
consciously chose its direction, but rather wandered down 
its attractive way unconscious where I was going... . 
Had I the choice of a place to be born, a family to be born 
into, and an environment with which to surround myself, 
I could hardly have chosen more wisely than Fate chose 
for me in 1869 when I was born at Michigan State Col- 
lege. My parents belonged to the class to whom the intel- 
lectual future of this country meant more than anything 




else in the world. Asa boy, I heard countless discussions 
in my father’s house concerning some of the most funda- 
mental changes which have taken place in the education of 
the youth of America; discussions among pioneers who 
have left their mark on much that is fine and splendid in 
the civilization of our country. 

When he was ten years old, the family moved to 
Manhattan, Kansas, his father having been made presi- 
dent of the then small agricultural college. Here, as 
he grew up, he was fortunate in coming under the 
influence of some active-minded men, who were con- 
cerned with the practical problems of the farmers. He 
early appreciated the nature of these problems and the 
fact that they had to be solved by scientific research. 
It was the beginning of many things, and, says Fair- 
child: “We were all to be actors and supers in a gigan- 
tic drama. Its importance has meant little to the 
press, which sees news only in the startling headlines 
of the day, but I believe that history will evaluate our 
work more highly, for historians view life in terms of 
related instead of unrelated days.” 

In 1889 he was invited by B. T. Galloway to go to 
Washington, to serve in the Department of Agricul- 
ture, with a salary of a thousand dollars a year. It 
was not a very attractive prospect, and there was some 
hesitation about accepting, but as a matter of fact it 
opened a broad way to new opportunities, and was the 
foundation for the work to which he devoted his life. 
Although the department in those days was poorly 
housed and appeared to be a rather insignificant branch 
of the government service, it included a group of very 
remarkable men, who are now famous in the annals of 
science. One wonders how they got there, and how 
much was due to their native ability, how much to 
the fact that they were pioneers in important fields 
just then beginning to be cultivated in this country. 
It was indeed a wonderful opportunity; the broad 
continent of North America, with all its different con- 
ditions of soil and climate, so rich in its possibilities, 
so poorly developed in comparison to what might easily 
be. No doubt in some directions the prospects ap- 
peared brighter than they actually were, the many 
difficulties not being fully appreciated, but the result- 
ing optimism did no harm, and the outcome has been 
a very notable enrichment of our standard of living. 

Broadly speaking, the problem for agriculture and 
horticulture was to find the crops which it was most 
profitable to grow in each locality. It was not purely 
a question of making money for the farmer, but also 

of serving the public. Whether or not the crops pro- 

duced more income, it was worth a good deal to have 
interesting and diversified foods on the market. In 
different parts of the world, from very early times, 
people had striven to improve their crops, or had 
selected those they preferred. Sometimes nature had 


Vou. 89, No. 2306 

done the selection, as by the survival of hardy varieties 
in a cold climate, or of resistant varieties in the pres. 
ence of parasites. Some of these variously improved 
varieties had been introduced into the United Sta 
with very excellent results, but the world had neve 
been systematically explored for them. 

So any one might have reasoned, but what could he 
done about it? Certainly the American government 
had no idea of initiating such a great enterprise, 
Fairchild, now fairly launched as a scientific worker, 
did not yet see himself as a botanical explorer. He 
wished to go to Europe to inerease his scientific 
knowledge, and the opportunity came when Dr. Stiles 
got him appointed to the Smithsonian table at the 
Naples Zoological Station. The voyage across the At. 
lantic was very stormy, “the roughest and most un- 
comfortable of my life.” “One morning I was amazed 
to see a man standing in the doorway of the second 
officer’s cabin, clad in wrapper and pajamas. It was 
the first pair of pajamas I had ever beheld; heretofore 
every one I had seen attired for slumber had worn a 
nightshirt. Somewhat stunned, I stared at this tall 
stranger in open-mouthed astonishment. . . . He was 
very good looking, standing there in the sunlight, quite 
the distinguished man of the world.” This was Bar. 
bour Lathrop, who nicknamed Fairchild “Fairy,” but 
was himself the good fairy who directed his destiny 
and made his great work possible. When Fairchild 
got acquainted with Lathrop, he told him about his 
various ambitions, and especially how he longed to go 
to Java, but of course could not stand the expense. 
When Fairchild had been at Naples about a month, 
Lathrop turned up, along with Professor Raphael 
Pumpelly, of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Lathrop 
wanted to see what Fairchild was doing, but was not 
much interested in karyokinesis. So he said: “You 
told me on the boat that you wanted to go to Java. 
Have you given up that idea?” Presently he added: 
“T’ve decided to give you a thousand dollars with which 
to go to Java. I want you to understand that I look 
upon this thousand dollars as an investment, nothing 
more. I have had you looked up, and you seem to be 
all right, and when you are ready for the money | will 
send you a letter of credit for that amount.” 

One might suppose that Fairehild would have taken 
the next boat for Java, but he explained to Mr. Lathrop 
that he thought he should continue his training in 
Europe, so as to become better fitted to justify the 
“investment.” So we find him at Breslau, Berlin and 
Bonn, and there is much to tell of his experiences there. 

But “every few months a letter would reach me from 
Mr. Lathrop asking why the devil I had not gone to 
Java.” Eventually, in 1896, the great day came, and 
Fairchild sailed for Java “under Dr. Treub’s chaper- 
onage.” In his work at Buitenzorg, he specialized in 

up ar 
Mr. | 

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10, 1939 

the natural history of termites, finding out some very 
‘nteresting facts. Perhaps he would have become a 
noted entomologist, following the methods of his 
friend, W. M. Wheeler, had not Mr. Lathrop again 
interfered. The next chapter is headed “The Lathrop- 
Fairchild Odyssey Begins.” Mr. Lathrop carried him 
off, and one fateful night as the vessel lay off the Island 
of Penang, the two men had an earnest conversation, 
at the end of which “I had promised Mr. Lathrop that 
I would take up a study of the plants useful to man, 
and together with him, find a way to introduce their 
culture into America. It was a rather vague, ill-de- 
fned agreement, but it was a turning point.” 

We now find the two men spending many years going 
up and down the world, exploring for useful plants. 
Mr. Lathrop had no particular interest in scientific 
research as such, and apparently did not even care 
much for ornamental plants, but no expense or trouble 
seemed too great if it resulted in securing some plant 
valuable as food or for some commercial product. One 
would like to review all these adventures in some detail, 
but they must be left for readers of the book. Mr. 
Lathrop was not always easy to get along with, and 
had an impatient temperament, so that he often wanted 
to leave a place at the very time when Fairchild 
thought it most profitable to stay. But whatever his 
faults, he was a constant friend and supporter, and 
without him, many splendid opportunities would have 
been missed. On the other hand, we must recognize 
that in Fairchild Lathrop found an extraordinary 
treasure, and it is greatly to his credit that he so 
readily appreciated this fact. The book is written in 
a modest vein, but we are amazed at the energy, enter- 
prise and resourcefulness exhibited, and the ability to 
enlist the aid and interest of all sorts of people in many 
countries. The narrative is full of side-lights on the 
people and countries visited; thus, for example, in 
Egypt he visited the palace of Queen Hatshepset 
(1570 B.c.) where he found a bas-relief representing 
the introduction of the incense tree from the land of 


Punt. “A warm feeling of understanding surged 
through me for this woman who, like myself, ap- 
preciated the value and romance of plant introduction. 
Here on the walls of her palace in Thebes, she had com- 
manded a bas-relief to be cut commemorating her im- 
portation of a new tree into her domain. It was quite 
thrilling, for, as far as I know, there are not a half 
dozen memorials commemorating the introduction of 
new plants.” 

At length Fairchild returned to Washington, to 
superintend the now great enterprise which had grown 
up, largely through his activities. “I had expected to 
find it difficult to settle down to a desk in Washington, 
but on the contrary it proved so fascinating that there 
were not hours enough in the days or nights in which 
to accomplish all there was to do. Beside each day’s 
mail, and routine, and reports on my travels to be 
written for future reference, there was the world-wide 
field of plants still waiting to be introduced.” 

On one occasion, he was invited to a dinner party. 
“It was a small party, and I found myself seated beside 
Miss Marian Bell, who had recently returned from New 
York, where she had been working in the studio of 
Gutzon Borglum. Our conversation was largely on 
art, about which I knew nothing but could talk a good 
deal, having traveled with Mr. Lathrop, who was a real 
connoisseur. It was the first chance I had to talk to 
Miss Bell, and I was fascinated by her. . . . I left the 
house, my mind in a whirl, a whirl which has really 
never stopped since. It was the beginning of a part 
of my life which has been completely different and 
vastly more beautiful than anything I had dreamed 

Thus he became a son-in-law of Alexander Graham 
Bell. Of these later happy years, not yet finished, 
much might be said, but I hope I have written enough 
to arouse some of the enthusiasm which should greet 
such a stimulating book. 





A LIGHT sense tester correct in principle and con- 
venient for use is an important instrument for testing 
pilot fitness for night flying. 

_ Important funetions to be tested are: (a) the abil- 
ity to see at night and at low illumination and the 
éffeet of dark adaptation on this ability, and (b) the 
amount and speed of dark adaptation. Nermal or 
better-than-normal sensitivity in light adaptation is 
also important. The eyes that are needed for night 

"From the Research Laboratory of Physiological Optics, 
Baltimore, Md. 

flying are the best of what might be called the normal 
group; that is, of those that have both good dark and 
good light vision. More important than speed and 
range of adaptation, however, is the place in the 
seale of sensitivity at which the adaptive change oc- 
eurs. Some eyes have a good range and speed of 
adaptation, but the adaptive change begins so low in 
the seale of sensitivity that they never attain the de- 

gree of sensitivity that gives the special fitness needed . 

for night flying. 
The ability to see at night and at low illumination 






and the effect of dark adaptation on this ability. In 
general, the ability to see at low illumination may be 
tested by determining the threshold of light sensation, 
or what is often called the light minimum. The effect 
of dark adaptation on this ability may be tested by 
determining the light minimum at the intervals selected 

Vou. 89, No, 235 

In order to show the amount of individual Variatig 
that may be found in the ability to sense light at jy 
ferent intervals in the course of dark adaptation, 
study was made of 206 non-pathologie eases rang 
in age from 9 to 70 years.* The results of this stay 
are given in Fig. 1. The curves in Fig. 1 show x 

10? 10% 
Below 39 years Above 25 otal &roup 
4 y ‘ 
= E 
& E 
& 2 ‘ 
= = = 
= -a < Se 
3 ~ 
13 10 is 0 

Time of Adaptation (Min) 

Time of Adaptation (tain-) 

Time of Adaplation (min) 

Fic. 1. The light minimum for 206 non-pathologie cases, ages 9 to 70 years, at the end of the period of light 
adaptation and after 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes of dark adaptation for the highest, lowest and the 5-, 25, 
50-, 75- and 95-percentile cases: A, for the entire group; B, for the group below 35 years of age; and C, for the 
group above 35 years of age. The light minimum is expressed in lumens entering the eye per sq. mm of stimulus 

for consideration from the beginning of dark adapta- 
tion until the process is complete. The results of 
these determinations when plotted against time in the 
form of a curve give a complete picture of the course 
of adaptation of the eye in question throughout a 
period of time. Thus one can obtain the eye’s sensi- 
tivity at any time from the beginning to the end of 
dark adaptation. Whether one or a number of these 
intervals is chosen for test depends on the purpose 
for which the test is being made. If the eye’s maxi- 
mum sensitivity is wanted approximately, for example, 
the test should be made at the end of an interval of 
20 or 30 minutes.? 

2? The determination of the light minimum for the dis- 

crimination of detail in objects may also be used as a 
test of ocular fitness for night flying. That test, however, 

will not be considered in this paper. Depending on the 
size of detail that is used, the test may be made for either 
foveal or extrafoveal vision. In this connection it may 
be noted that the adaptive change in the fovea has a very 
much smaller range than in the surrounding portions of 

that age above 35 years exerts an important effect o 
the power of the eye to adjust itself for seeing at lov 
illumination. From this it would seem that the tet- 
ing of the light sense renders an additional service i 
helping establish the ease against age as a disqualify: 
ing factor for night flying and of presenting evidence 
against those who wish to continue in this capacity 
beyond their time of fitness. 


Those intimately conversant with the ocular needs 
of the night flyer say that speed is more imporiall 

the retina and that the greater number of objects which 
it is important that the aviator see are extrafoveal in siz 
Both intrafoveal and extrafoveal sizes of test object a 
doubtless needed for a complete study of the eye’s fitness 
for night flying. So far as we know, it has not bea 
determined whether in all cases candidates will be giv" 
the same ranking in a group when tested for foveal and 
extrafoveal powers of adaptation. 

* For the details of this study see C. E. Ferree, @. Rav 
and M. R. Stoll, British Jour. Ophthal., 18: 673-687, 1934: 

me po 
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Bp resent 
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| arcH 10, 1939 

an total amount or range of adaptation. That is, 
hat the night flyer needs more than anything else is 
he power to change his vision quickly from the il- 
B inated cockpit and instrument panel to the outside 
‘orld and back again. In this connection it may be 
oted that the transition from outside back to the 
Hockpit does not present so serious a problem because 
ght adaptation takes place with very much greater 
Mapidity than dark adaptation. What problem there 
E comes from the fact that until sufficient light adap- 
tion has taken place a disturbing dazzle may be 
B esent. In most eases at medium intensities this 
fect will disappear in a few seconds. If found nec- 
sary, a test for this can easily be devised. However, 
n relation to fitness for night flying it is perhaps well 
» point out again that neither speed nor amount of 
hange in sensitivity is as important as place in the 
Beale of sensitivity at which the adaptive change oc- 
burs. That is, it is quite possible that a candidate 
might have a good range and speed of adaptation and 
still a comparatively poor power to see at low illumina- 
Mtion both at the beginning and at the end of dark 
adaptation. Such a person would obviously be unfit 
for night flying. The night flyer should have normal 
br better-than-normal ability to see objects the in- 
stant he looks from the cockpit to the outside world, 
mes well as normal or better-than-normal power to in- 
rease this ability as dark adaptation is prolonged. 
The point should be tested, not assumed; that is, the 
est should be made at the beginning as well as at the 
end of the period of adaptation selected. 
| For testing the amount or range of adaptation the 
ight minimum ean be determined at the beginning of 
adark adaptation and at the end of some interval of 
Bsuitable length, preferably 20 or 30 minutes for the 
mpproximate total range. A good conception of the 
Sanount of adaptation that may be expected in a group 
of non-pathologie observers may be obtained by in- 
Bspecting the curves of Fig. 1; also a fairly good con- 
ception of the range of individual variation in this 
amount, although these curves were not plotted spe- 
ifically to bring out this point. 
For testing speed of adaptation obviously many 
Possibilities are presented. These will be discussed in 
detail in other papers. In this paper we shall limit 
ourselves to the suggestion of a routine procedure 
that will give information on all the essential points 
“8 above as important in rating fitness for night 
The instrument recommended for these determina- 
lions is the Ferree-Rand Light Sense Tester in the 
Simplified form manufactured by the Bausch and 
Lomb Optieal Company (Fig. 2). This instrument 
possesses many unusual features which render it easy 
and convenient to make accurate studies of the light 



Fie. 2. Simplified light sense tester with diagram of 
its optical system. S,, source of light in far position; S8,, 
source of light in near position; A,, intake aperture with 
diffuser; F, battery of filters; Lg, collimating lens; Ly, 
focusing lens; St, plate containing stimulus aperture; E, 

sense and the effect of dark adaptation on the light 
sense. Some of these are: (a) All variable effects due 
to size of pupil, also as far as is possible to accommo- 
dation, distance of projection of the image and condi- 
tion of refraction are eliminated from the results. (b) 
For the determination of amount and rate of adapta- 
tion a pre-exposure field variable in size is provided, 
surrounding and ineluding the test field. (c) The test 
field may be quickly varied in size through a visual 
angle ranging from near zero to 36 degrees and given 
any shape that is desired. (d) A scale is provided in- 
dicating the amount of light entering the eye expressed 
in lumens per sq. mm. of test field. (e) The instru- 
ment can be used with equal facility in any state of 
adaptation, light or dark, and all adjustments can be 
made without interfering with the state of adaptation 
of the observer. Further, all scales can be read by the 
examiner in the dark. (f) The instrument is com- 
pletely self-contained, neat and compact in construc- 
tion and conveniently portable. (g) Provisions are 
also made for producing a wide range of intensity of 
light in both pre-exposure and test fields without 
change in the color or composition of the light, for 
making an objective check on the judgment and for 
checking the constancy of the amount of light deliv- 
ered at the pupillary aperture of the instrument for 
any given reading of the scale. 

The test should be made as follows. After a suitable 
period of adaptation, perhaps 3 to 5 minutes, to the 
pre-exposure field of the instrument, the light mini- 
mum should be determined and then redetermined 
after 2, 3 or 5 minutes of dark adaptation as may be 
desired. From the results obtained, the sensitivity of 
the light-adapted eye may be derived, the rate of gain 



in sensitivity for a given period of dark adaptation, 
and the sensitivity at the end of this period. This 
would seem to give the most important information 
needed; namely, the light sensitivity of the light- 
adapted eye, the sensitivity that may be attained after 
a selected period of dark adaptation and the speed of 
dark adaptation. This information would enable the 
examiner to exclude eyes defective in power to see at 
low illumination when either light-adapted or dark- 
adapted (hemeralopia, avitaminosis, etc.) and to select 
the best of the normal eyes. 

In our thinking as to the comparative importance 
of pilot fitness as a safety factor in aviation, it is well 
to keep in mind a statement made by Major-General 

VOL. 89, No, 2306 

James E. Fechet (Ret.), formerly chief of the U.s 
Army Air Corps.* Discussing the eauses of airplay, 

erashes, he says that in more than half the number o¢ | 

eases these crashes are due to personnel error or {, 
undetermined causes. In the personnel group he ip. 
cludes the pilot, the weather man, the airline opera- 
tions manager and the mechanic. A small per cen; 
of these crashes—less than five, he says—is due j, 
mechanical failure—engine malfunctions, breakage of 
some part of the plane or its essential accessories 
From this it seems that not the plane but its operation 
is chiefly at fault. 

C. E. Ferree 

G. Ranp 




A PROTOZOAN encephalomyelitis in infants, described 
in recent years,!-? has been experimentally transmitted 
to animals and shown to be due to a Toxoplasma. The 
latter is a Protozoan which in smears appears of eres- 
centic shape, measures 4-6 microns in length and 2-3 
microns in width. It is pointed at both ends or has one 
blunt end and has a central chromatin body. Although 
it is of uncertain classification, it is characterized by an 
affinity for many tissues, especially the central nervous 
system, wide-spread geographic distribution and patho- 
genicity for a wide variety of hosts. In spite of the 
last, human infection has not hitherto been established, 
one report being very doubtful.* Its occurrence is now 
proved by the recent transmission of the infection to 
animals from an infant. 

The child became ill at three days of age and de- 
veloped convulsive seizures, disturbances in respiration 
and symptoms of involvement of the spinal cord. 
Terminally, irregular reddish-brown areas were ob- 
served ophthalmosecopically in each macular region. 
The infant died at the age of 31 days. Autopsy, 
- limited to the nervous system, revealed a wide-spread 
encephalomyelitis, characterized by focal areas of in- 
flammation and necrosis, and disseminated miliary 
granulomas. The right eye showed a localized chorio- 
retinitis. A Protozoan morphologically identical with 
Toxoplasma was present in all the lesions. 

Fresh tissue removed from lesions in the cerebral 

* Investigation aided by a grant from the Friedsam 

1A. Wolf and D. Cowen, Bull. Neur. Inst. N. Y., 6: 306, 

2 A. Wolf and D. Cowen, Ibid., 7: 266, 1938. 

8 J. O. W. Bland, Lancet, 219: 52, 1930. 
Exper. Path., 12: 311, 1931. 

Brit. Jour. 

cortex and cervical spinal cord five hours postmortem 
was emulsified in sterile physiological saline. Four 
rabbits, 26 infant mice and 9 rats were inoculated with 

the emulsion intracerebrally. Eighteen infant mice | 

were cannibalized by the mothers, but of the remaining 
8, 6 showed the following evidence of having been 
infected: (1) They became ill and were sacrificed or 
died in from 18 to 40 days. (2) They showed lesions 
in the central nervous system resembling those seen in 
the human ease. (3) Protozoa like those in the ner- 
vous system of the infant were present in the lesions. 
(4) Transmission to rabbits and mice was attempted 
from 4 of these mice and was successful in each in- 
stance, using brain tissue for intracerebral inoculation 
with the production of similar lesions containing para- 
sites, and further successful serial passages. The other 
mice showed a meningo-encephalitis but no parasites. 
Three of the rabbits died in from 9 to 13 days and 
showed a meningo-encephalitis. Parasites were found 
in the lesions in 2 and successful transmission of the 
infection to rabbits and adult mice by intracerebral in- 

oculation of emulsified brain was carried out from each | 

of the 3. The fourth rabbit and the 9 rats showed 
neither clinical nor pathological evidence of infection. 
Excluding 18 cannibalized infant mice and 6 rats dying 
shortly after inoculation apparently of cerebral trauma, 
one finds that 9 or three-fifths of the remaining 15 an! 
mals became infected. That this was not a spontaneous 
infection activated by the inoculations is evidenced by 
(1) the high percentage of infection following the ™- 

oculation of the human material, (2) the fact that tox | 
plasmosis has not been deseribed in rabbits or mice 1" J 

North America and (3) the absence of similar infection 
in many animals of the same stock similarly inoculated 
with other materials. 

‘J. E. Fechet, Flight Surgeon Topics, School of “erg 
tion Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, 1: No. 2, 44-48, 

MarcH 1 

In the 
been car’ 
eumbed, | 
mice ino 
to 3 week 
appear U 
second 01 

In eve 
cells, mo 
and eosi 
fant’s br 
large nut 

In add 
days old 
by the d 
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tigated f 

Six ra 
lation wi 
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with the 
Four mis 
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while 2 r 

case is ¢ 
(1) Its: 
of anim: 
the lesio 
are very 
The suse 
chick to 

range of 

MakcH 10, 1939 

In the first 6 months, 24 serial passages in rabbits 
and 22 in irregularly alternating rabbits and mice have 
heen carried out by intracerebral or combined intra- 
cerebral and intraperitoneal injection of infected brain 
emulsion. Filtrates of emulsions passed through 
Berkefeld “N” filters proved non-infective. Of 148 
rabbits inoeulated, 131, and of 105 mice, all but 2, suc- 
cumbed, the majority in from 5 to 9 days. Of 98 infant 
mice inoculated intracerebrally, 52 or four-fifths of the 
non-cannibalized succumbed, the majority in from 2 
to 3 weeks. In most of the animals, symptoms did not 
appear until the last day of life. These included slug- 
gishness, pareses, tremors, convulsions and respiratory 
difficulties. A rise in temperature beginning on the 
second or third day was noted in the rabbits. 

In every instance, there was a severe disseminated 
encephalomyelitis marked by focal inflammation and 
necrosis. The exudate included lymphocytes, plasma 
cells, mononuclear leucocytes and fewer neutrophiles 
and eosinophiles. Granulomas like those in the in- 
fant’s brain were often observed. Focal inflammatory 
esions were less frequently encountered in the lungs, 
striated museles, heart, spleen and liver. Parasites 
identical with those in the human case were found in 
large numbers in the lesions. Attempts to cuitivate the 
Protozoan on a variety of media free of living cells 

In addition to rabbits and mice, chicks from 1 to 11 
days old and guinea pigs were inoculated intracere- 
brally. These species proved susceptible as evidenced 
by the development of typical histologic lesions con- 
taining parasites. A rhesus monkey injected intra- 
cerebrally and subeutaneously remained well and its 
temperature continued normal. The susceptibility of 
this species to this strain of Toxoplasma is being inves- 
tigated further. 

Six rabbits which did not suecumb to an initial inocu- 
lation were re-inoculated intracerebrally from 1 to 3 
times within 3 weeks to 3 months and all proved to be 
immune. Eight control rabbits and 3 mice injected 
with the same material by the same route succumbed. 
Four mice which did not sueecumb to an initial inocula- 
tion were also re-inoculated intracerebrally and intra- 
peritoneally within 24 to 44 months. All survived, 
while 2 rabbits and 11 mice used as controls succumbed. 

That the microorganism isolated from the human 
case is a Toxoplasma is indicated by the following: 
(1) Its morphology corresponds to that of Toxoplasma 
of animal origin. (2) The course of the disease and 
the lesions produced in the animals inoculated with it 
are very similar to those noted in the same species by 
inoculation of a Toxoplasma of animal origin. (3) 
The susceptibility of the rabbit, mouse, guinea pig and 
chick to this Toxoplasma corresponds to the wide host 
tange of Toxoplasma of animal origin. (4) Convine- 


ing evidence of the nature of the microorganism was 
obtained by cross-immunity experiments. Toxoplasma 
from a guinea pig passaged through mice was kindly 
furnished us by Sabin and Olitsky.* The 6 rabbits and 
4 mice, noted above to be immune to the human strain 
of Toxoplasma, were re-inoculated respectively intra- 
cerebrally, and intracerebrally and intraperitoneally 
with the Sabin-Olitsky strain using infected mouse or 
rabbit brain emulsion. All 10 animals proved to be 
immune. Seven control rabbits and 6 control mice suc- 
cumbed. Conversely, 2 rabbits immunized against the 
Sabin-Olitsky strain proved to be immune to the human 
strain, while two controls suceumbed. Working with 
the same strains of Toxoplasma, Sabin and Olitsky, 
using other methods, have confirmed this cross-immun- 
ity and will report their results in the near future. 
The Protozoan found in the infant might be called 
Toxoplasma hominis, with the reservation that it may 
later prove to be identical with one or all of the animal 

Four other cases':?5-* (respectively from New York 

City, Chicago, Prague and Rio de Janeiro), very simi- 
lar clinically and pathologically to the present case, 
have been shown by two of us to constitute a distinct 
disease entity marked by encephalomyelitis. In one of 
these reports,® the author mentioned focal inflamma- 
tory lesions in the heart, striated muscles and sub- 
cutaneous tissue as well. The lesions in each infant 
contained a parasite morphologically indistinguishable 
from that in the present case. There is little doubt 
then that they too were cases of toxoplasmic encephalo- 
myelitis, although experimental evidence is lacking. 
That there may be other forms of human toxoplasmosis 
is very probable. 

In conelusion, toxoplasmosis has been demonstrated 
in man. It has been shown to occur as a characteristic 
disease of young infants involving the central nervous 
system. The first experimental transmission of a 
human toxoplasmosis to animals is described. 

Davip CowEN 


In recent years there have appeared a number of 
articles on the electron microscope with reference to its 
use in biological investigations. Most of these papers 

4 A. B. Sabin and P. K. Olitsky, Scrence, 85: 336, 1937. 

5 J. Janka, Casopis lekarew ceskyck, 62: 1021, 1923. 

6 C. M. Torres, C. R. Soc. de Biol., 97: 1778, 1927. 

1 Aided by grants from the Rockefeller Foundation and 
the Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation. 


“eet & 
r Page 


have been confined to the possibilities of securing tre- 
mendously high magnification. In these studies the 
absorption of parts of an electron beam by the sub- 
stance traversed gave rise to profile pictures, as it were, 
of bacteria, colloidal suspensions and in several in- 
stances epidermal cells. Another use of this new tool 
was in the examination of surfaces, particularly of 
metals, by means of the pictures resulting from ther- 
mionie excitation of electrons at the metallic surface. 
It occurred to us, about four years ago, that this latter 
adaptation of the electron microscope would be par- 
ticularly useful in localizing minerals in sections of 
animal tissues. 

It has been appreciated for some time that gentle and 
careful ashing of sections of biological tissues gives a 
remarkably faithful picture of the topographie dis- 
tribution of minerals in such materials. Cells and their 
parts can be recognized with little difficulty. If ma- 
terial is prepared by a modification of the Altmann- 
Gersh? frozen dehydration method there is little chance 
that there is any perceptible shift in the cellular loca- 
tion of the inorganic constituents. Since most of the 
inorganic elements in tissues, particularly Na, K, Ca 
and Mg, are excited to thermionic emission of electrons 
at more or less specific temperatures, we expected to 
be able to differentiate between these various elements 
and localize them in cells. With this information at 
hand it seemed advisable to ash sections in vacuo on the 
surface of a barium and strontium coated cathode in 
the electron microscope. 

After many experiments, both with apparatus and 
method, we have been able to secure pictures in which 
cellular structure in striated muscle, gastric mucous 
membrane, nerve and in other tissues can be clearly 
made out. So far the emission, pictures which have 
been obtained have been due to magnesium and calcium 
only. It has been possible to localize these elements 
definitely in the contraction bands of frozen and de- 
hydrated muscle. Epithelial cells of the mucous mem- 
brane of the stomach and intestinal tract show exten- 
sive concentration of magnesium and calcium in the 
free borders of the cells. 

These results are being published in detail elsewhere, 
and the experiments are being continued. 

Gorpon H. Scorr 


A PROGRESSIVE, proliferative polyarthritis bearing 
a clinical and pathological resemblance to human 

21. Gersh, Anat. Rec., 53: 309, 1932. 

VoL. 89, No. 239 

rheumatoid arthritis was produced experimentally jy 
mice with a filtrable, pleuropneumonia-like mieq). 
organism which was recently isolated from the brajy 
of a normal mouse.’ Arthritis can be produced jy 
practically 100 per cent. of mice when 0.5 ce of , 
24-hour culture is injected intravenously or 1 ¢e intra. 
peritoneally. Swelling of the joints may appear 4; 
early as 4 to 5 days. The arthritis is migratory, ney 
joints becoming involved while others recede. Fyj. 
form swellings of isolated digits, seen so often jp 
human rheumatoid arthritis, occur frequently in thes 
mice. The process is progressive and chronic in one 
or more joints, leading often to ankylosis, especially 
in the knees. By the method of “blind passage”? the 
microorganism has been cultivated from chronically 
affected joints as late as 70 days after intravenous jn. 
oculation. Tests revealed that the microorganism does 
not multiply in the brain, viscera, pleura or perito- 
neum. Excepting the arthritis, the mice appear in 
good health and not one of 150 with joint involvement 
has as yet died of the infection. Pathological changes 
are limited to the joints, and, as in the human dis- 
ease, consist chiefly of proliferation in the synovial 
membrane, the capsule, the perichondrium of the ar- 
ticular cartilage, combined with a synchronous pro- 
liferation of the connective tissue and probably endos- 
teum of the epiphyseal marrow directly below the 
joint cartilage. Intracutaneous, subcutaneous, intra- 
muscular or intrathoracic injection or nasal instilla- 
tion with or without ether anesthesia induced neither 
arthritis nor any local or systemie disease. Rabbits 
and guinea-pigs developed neither arthritis, fever or 
other signs of disease after inoculation with large 
amounts of culture. 

A pleuropneumonia-like microorganism recently iso- 
lated from toxoplasma-infected mouse tissues’ differs 
from the strain just described, in that it can also mul- 
tiply in the brain as well as in the serous surfaces of 
the peritoneum, pleura and pericardium with the pro- 
duction of a characteristic exotoxin which has a spe- 
cial affinity for the cerebellum and ean give rise to 
chronic choreiform signs when it does not prove fatal. 
When the rapid toxie death which follows intravenous 
injection of the culture was prevented either by the 
use of older mice (at least 2 months of age) or by in- 
jection of the centrifuged microorganisms, about 30 
per cent. developed an arthritis similar to that pro- 
duced by the other strain. The two strains are not 
serologically identical but possess a common antigel. 
Both strains have been found to pass through 500 my 
but not 396 mu gradocol membranes (kindly supplied 
by Dr. J. H. Bauer), while on one occasion it was p0s- 
sible, by preliminary filtration through a 584 my. mem- 
brane, to obtain a positive filtrate through a 322 my 
membrane; this suggests that the size of the smallest 

1A. B. Sabin, Science, 88: 575, 1938. 


The | 
ogy is 



In tl 
equal t 
vent, a 
are det 
but vis 

It is 
not in 
gap 01 
this re 
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while : 
fect co 
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with t 


this v 





unit eapable of multiplication is in the same range of 
magnitude as that of vaccine virus. 

The necessity of applying similar methods of culti- 
vation and study to human arthritis of unknown etiol- 
ogy is obvious. Whether or not a similar microor- 
ganism shall be found to play a part in related human 


affections, the experimental disease provides a useful 
tool in the investigation of many pertinent questions. 

NEw YorK 



In the commonly used method of photographic spec- 
trophotometry due to Howe, the absorption spectra of 
equal thicknesses of two substances which are to be 
compared, usually a solution and a sample of the sol- 
vent, are photographed side by side in as nearly per- 
fect contact as possible. An essential part of the 
method is to determine the point or points at which the 
spectrograms are equally dark. The points usually 
are determined by visual inspection. They may be lo- 
cated by means of a microdensitometer, with a worth- 
while increase in accuracy under certain conditions; 
but visual determinations are much more rapid and 
usually are sufficiently accurate. 

It is well known that if the two spectrograms are 
not in perfect or nearly perfect contact, without visible 
gap or overlap, the accuracy attainable in visually 
determining the match points is greatly reduced. For 
this reason, great care is taken to obtain the best pos- 
sible contact. This necessitates very careful and ac- 
curate adjustment of the relative positions of the light 
source and other parts of the apparatus. Indeed, 
while satisfactory contacts are usually attainable, per- 
fect contact throughout the entire length of the spectro- 
grams is impossible in practice, since the image spreads 
on the photographie plate to an extent which varies 
with the density. 

Obviously the time and effort involved in obtaining 
accurate absorption data could be reduced greatly by 
eliminating the necessity for excellent contact of the 
spectrograms. A simple device has been found to do 
this very satisfactorily, making it possible to view the 
spectrograms in apparently perfect contact, even when 
there is a wide gap or overlap between them. 

70 EYE 70 EYE 

la’ hi dt 
5S JS 
(A) (B) 
Fig. 1 

The device consists essentially of a biprism (Fig. 
1-A) which is thinnest along the center line e. It is 
made preferably of a single piece of glass, but may 
be made of two prisms carefully ground and joined 
at the thin edges. It is held with its center line parallel 
to the lengths of the spectrograms and directly over 
the gap or overlap. Areas ab, cd, extending per- 
pendicular to the plane of the paper, then appear at 
a’b’, c’d’ in the visual field, with b’ and c’ apparently 
in coincidence. Thus the edges of the areas, at b and ¢, 
appear in perfect contact, with no visible dividing line. 
The area between b and ¢ is invisible. The distance 
from b to ¢ varies with the refracting angle and with 
the distance from biprism to spectrograms. By vary- 
ing this distance, comparisons of the two spectro- 
grams can be made at various distances from the edges. 

The division between the visual areas remains sharp, 
while the distance between biprism and spectrograms 
is varied from zero to at least several millimeters. 
This range can be increased greatly by viewing the 
spectrograms through a small circular aperture (one 
eye) or (using both eyes) a narrow slit extending 
parallel to the center line of the biprism. 

For convenience and accuracy in use, the biprism 
should be mounted in an apparatus in which it can be 
adjusted to any desired position above the photo- 
graphic plate, with its center line parallel to the edges 
of the spectrograms. A low-power lens and a viewing 
aperture may be mounted above the biprism. [llumi- 
nation of the plate should be uniform and by trans- 
mitted light. 

The device can be used also for comparing the in- 
tensities, positions, widths or line shapes of the lines 
in two spectra; in comparing two parts of the same 
spectral line, as a check on uniformity of width and 
of illumination of the slit; in comparing the darken- 
ing at two different wave-lengths in the same spec- 
trum; ete. 

Instead of the biprism, the refracting unit shown in 
Fig. 1-B may be used. This may be made of two 
plane-parallel plates of glass cemented together at an 
angle, or, preferably, of a single piece of glass. Areas 
ab, cd of the spectrograms appear at a’b’, c’d’, in per- 
fect contact, as when using the biprism. This unit is 
less useful than the biprism, however, as the distance 
between b and ¢ can not be varied by varying the dis- 
tance between the device and the spectrograms. 

A biprism which is thickest along the center line 



also may be used. This reverses the images of the two 
areas with respect to the center line. Two images of 
the gap or overlap are seen, on opposite sides of the 
contiguous areas. These images may interfere with 
accurate comparison of the two areas. For this reason 
the biprism first described is preferable. 
GrorGe E. Davis 


THE Biological Survey, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, maintains several research stations at points 
remote from such utilities as gas and electricity. Field 
workers at such stations are handicapped in not being 
able to use Bunsen burners or electrical stoves. This 
difficulty has been overcome at the Delta Migratory 
Waterfowl Refuge, in Louisiana, by utilizing a gaso- 
line-torch stove. The stove was designed and con- 
structed by Timothy Sullivan, a machinist at the refuge 
WPA project. It can be built at little cost, requires 
for heat only an ordinary gasoline “blow-torch” such 
as that used by plumbers, and produces a high heat 
with comparatively little fuel consumption. 

Fig. 1. 

The Sullivan burner utilizes the following materials: 
Materials: Many of these items may be salvaged 
from old machinery or from serap-metal heaps. (1) 
One galvanized iron 34-inch pipe sleeve, 34 inches 
high. (2) One 13-inch pipe elbow. (3) Three pieces 
of %-inch iron pipe, each 13 inches long. (4) Three 

VoL. 89, No. 2306 

pieces of rubber for insulating shoes for the legs ¢ 
the stand. (May be eut from old automobile tip, 
shoe.) (5) Four 2-inch lengths of § x 4 inch iron hy, 
for grate. (6) Collar cut from 43-inch thick ste 
plate, to fit the inside diameter of the 32-inch pip, 

sleeve and with a hole to receive the 13-inch pipe | 

elbow. (Not shown in figure.) 

Assembly: One end of the elbow is welded to the ste] 
collar, and this unit welded to one end of the pipe 
sleeve. This forms the body of the burner, the opm 
end of the elbow being the flame intake, and the uppe 
end of the sleeve the top of the burner. Then the top 
end of the sleeve is cut in four equidistant places t 

receive the lengths of iron bar. These lengths are spot. | 

welded in place and form a grate. The g-inch iron pipe 
is used for the stand, the upper end of each length 
being flattened and riveted to the outside of the lower 
half of the sleeve. The rubber shoes for the feet of the 
tripod stand may be cut with a projection that will fit 
up inside of the bore of the iron piping. 

Use: a gasoline torch is heated and fired, and placed 
so that the end of the barrel is about an inch from the 
flame intake of the burner. The amount of heat may 
be regulated by adjusting the flame of the torch. 

JoHN J. Lyncu 



ALBRIGHT, JoHN G. Physical Meteorology. Pp. xxvii+ 
392. 246 figures. Prentice-Hall. $5.35. 

BEAVER, WILLIAM C. Fundamentals of Biology, Animal 
and Plant. Pp. 896. 299 figures. Mosby. 

DarLineTon, C. D. The Evolution of Genetic Systems. 
Pp. x+149. 26 figures. Cambridge University Press, 
Maemillan. $2.75. 

DOLLARD, JOHN, and others. Frustration and Aggression. 
Pp. viii+ 209. Yale University Press. $2.00. 

GASKELL, AucusTA. Whence? Whither? Why?: A New 
Philosophy Based on the Physical Sciences. Pp. xx+ 
312. Putnam. $2.50. 

Index to A. 8S. T. M. Standards and Tentative Standards, 
January, 1939. Pp. 140. American Society for Test- 
ing Materials, Philadelphia. 

KeEeEsine, Fevix M. The Menomini Indians of Wiscon- 
sin: A Study of Three Centuries of Cultural Contact 
and Change; Vol. X, Memoirs of the American Philo- 
sophical Society, 1939. Pp. xi+261. Illustrated. The 
Society, Philadelphia. 

KLEMPERER, Oro, Editor. Electron Optics. By the Re- 
search Staff of Electric and Musical Industries, Limited. 
Pp. x +107. Illustrated. Cambridge University Press, 
Maemillan. $1.75. 

LANDIS, CARNEY and A, Hunt. The Startle 
Pattern. Pp. x+168. 4 figures. Farrar and Rine- 
hart. $2.50. 

PEARSE, A. 8S. Animal Ecology. Second edition. Pp. 
xii+642. 132 figures. MeGraw-Hill. $5.50. 

ScHEIDEMANN, NorMA V. Lecture Demonstrations [0 
General Psychology. Pp. x+241. 10 figures. Um 
versity of Chicago Press. $2.50. 

WHEEELER, WILLIAM M. Essays in Philosophical Biology: 
Pp. xv +261. Harvard University Press. $3.00. 

YosuimurA, 8. Dissolved Oxygen of the Lake Waiters 

of Japan; Vol. 2, No. 8, Science Reports of the Toky? 
Y 2.00. 

Bunrika Daigaku, Section C. Pp. 63-277. 
University of Literature and Science, Tokyo. 


Vou. 8! 



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Dr. . 

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