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Vol. 134, No. 3490 


6 NOV 1 61961 

Cont Copy / 

ros i ge oe 
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SCIENCE is published weekly by the AAAS, 1515 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington 5, D.C. Second-class postage paid at Washington, D.C., and 
additional mailing office. Annual subscriptions: $8.50; foreign postage, $1.50; Canadian postage, 75¢. 


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» the 

17 November 1961, Volume 134, Number 3490 SCIENCE: 



Science and the News 

Book Reviews 


Association Affairs 



The Search and the End Product 

Bae NE KAD ates aca eines Ate EE eee cS Pee ee 1591 
reas ceciesInCiON:. WO, NE. PV OLmene ios oe eins 3. Si ea Sw oe we Se anew 1593 

Stellar scintillation is shown to be a good indicator of the upper-air 

winds near the tropopause. 
reriVe  PACIIGROI Rr C DPMP cco. alk cc vie oo Ce Os cl we 1599 

The exclusion principle is recast in the context of a generalized scheme 

for interspecific interactions. 

Money for Space: The Program’s Managers Fear the Public Does Not Understand 

the Issue; Overhead Costs: Intangibles Make It Difficult To Compute Cost of 

MEPEEVONGIEY | ROREHRGIE oe ee ae ee od 5 Ge IE ees 1602 
Psychology’s Role in Economic Development: E. E. Hagen ...................... 1608 

Is there an identifiable personality trait that promotes or retards. 

economic progress in societies? 

J. H. Young’s The Toadstool Millionaires, reviewed by G. Sonnedecker; 

RRM RENO WE ec ees ae tart Oe Mora ity otae sehen Sy a OR ae Eee ee 
Depressant Agent from Walnut Hulls: B. A. Westfall, R. L. Russell, T. K. Auyong .... 1617 
Proof of an Adaptive Linkage Association: M. Levitan .......0....... ccc cceees 1617 
Effect of Verbalization on Reversal Shifts in Children: 

Pee PREP ARM OS TREE es es sss ook ved os Rn as oa teen eee 1619 
Electron Diffraction from Coals: S$. Ergun and J. T. McCartney ...............004. 1620 
Accumulation of Potassium Anaerobically by Renal Medullary Slices: 

Becca Cl Ble ST ERE ke oie DLR. Rect alec eee 1622 
Effects of Context on the Subjective Equation of Auditory and Visual Intensities: 

R. Smita ond A. H. Hardy.) 052... coal dk eae Se Er ae 1623 
Coesite Discoveries Establish Cryptovolcanics as Fossil Meteorite Craters: 

A.J. Cohen, T. E. Bunch, A. M. Reid oe Se te Sree eater nce 1624 
Electroretinogram of the Visually Deprived Cat: B. L. Baxter and A. H. Riesen ....... 1626 
Predictions of the Growth Model for Normal Chicken Growth: J. L. Kavanau ..... 1627 
An Age-Dependent Change in the Response of Fern eo to Red Light: 

dg. iieoiialler and DeR. Wrignt 5. oc nce ces. shy .. lnk 2 ge eee 1629 
izcm Annual Meeting: Program: Sammary «25 ...:095..)<0.« sew ne sisthi nds + Sai ee ee 1630 

Ruectronm Microscopy; Forthcoming: Hvents: . . 2 ie-.c.. sss. can TA A en te Wal 1636 

Mold after a megashatter cone on a southeast face of McCray quarry at Kentland, 
Indiana. The megashatter cone has been blasted away by quarrying operations. The mold 
impression is partially covered with a thin coating of injected breccia. The exposed 
dimensions of this cone structure are 28 feet at the base and 160 feet high. See page 1624. 

Said Svante Arrhenius: “The change of the logarithm of a chemical reaction rate constant 
with respect to temperature, is inversely proportional to the square of the absolute temperature.” 

The aerospace industry is searching constantly for strong, light-weight, heat-resistant materials. Finely-spun glass fiber, 
bonded with a plastic binder, is beginning to exhibit superior properties. Until recently the glass fiber has been far more 
heat-resistant than any binder. 

Scientists at Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, however, have developed a compatible binder. This now makes it 
necessary for the glass-producing industry to evolve a glass to match its superior heat-resistance. 

Comparable successes are being achieved in dozens of disciplines in which Lockheed is engaged. As Systems Manager 
for the DISCOVERER, MIDAS, and other satellites, and the POLARIS FBM, Lockheed probes all areas of aerospace endeavor. 

Lockheed Missiles & Space Company is located on the beautiful San Francisco Peninsula, in Sunnyvale and Palo Alto, 
California. Why not investigate future possibilities at Lockheed? Write Research and Development Staff, Dept. M-30D, 
962 West El Camino Real, Sunnyvale, California. U.S. citizenship or existing Department of Defense industrial security 
clearance required. An Equal Opportunity Employer. 



Systems Manager for the Navy POLARIS FBM and the Air Force AGENA Satellite in the DISCOVERER and MIDAS 
programs. Other current programs include SAINT, ADVENT and such NASA projects as OGO, OAO, ECHO, and NIMBUS. 


1588 SCIENCE, VOL. 134 






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1590 SCIENCE, VOL, 134 

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17 November 1961, Volume 134, Number 3490 


Board of Directors 

CHAUNCEY D. LEAKE, Retiring President, Chairman 
THOMAS Park, President 
Paut M. Gross, President Elect 

PauL A. SCHERER, Treasurer 
DaeEL WoLFLe, Executive Officer 

Editorial Board 

KonraD B. KrauskopF H. Burr STEINBACH 
Epwin M. LERNER WILLIAM L. Straus, Jr. 
Puitip M. Morse Epwarp L. TaTtuM 

Editorial Staff 

DaEL WOLFLE Hans NussBauM 

Publisher Business . Manager 

Associate Editor Managing Editor 
ELLEN E.° MurPuy, Assistant Editor 

Nancy TEIMOURIAN, Assistant to the Editor 

News: Howarp Marco.ts, DaNnriEL S. GREEN- 

Book Reviews: Sarau S. DEES 

Editorial Assistants: Suet E. BERKE, Nancy S. 
RicH, JoHN E. RINGLE, ConraD YuUNG-Kwal 

Staff Assistants: LiLLiAN Hsu, GENEVIEVE M. 

Advertising Staff 
Eart J. ScHeraGo, Director 
BERNICE SCHWARTZ, Production Manager 

Sales: RicHarp L. CHarLtes (New York, N.Y., 
PE 6-1858); C. RicHarp CaLuis (Old Bridge, N.J., 
CL 4-3680); Hersert BURKLUND (Chicago, III., 
DE 17-4973); DiILLENBECK-GALAVAN (Los Angeles, 
Calif.,. DU 5-3991) 

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Editorial correspondence should be addressed 
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The AAAS assumes no responsibility for the safety 
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Copyright © 1961 by the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science. 


The Search and the End Product 

Human groups that admit of a multiplicity of values and purposes are 
inevitably confronted by two perplexing tasks: they must assign relative 
weights to individual goals and allocate priorities in the use of their 
group’s resources. A democratic society assumes that ordinary citizens 
as well as policy makers are, at least on an intuitive level, capable of 
making such evaluations in a rational and commensurable fashion and 
that they do so not wholly on the basis of individual self-interest. What 
are the most suitable common measures on which a society can base 
its decisions? Specifically, what are appropriate indices for comparison 
when we deal with science and its possible applications? 

Support for the broad spectrum of scientific research now greatly 
exceeds a just-noticeable fraction of our national budget. Thus it becomes 
necessary to decide each year what fraction of a finite amount of re- 
sources is to be allocated to the search itself, to research facilities, 
and to the communication and application of research results already 
available, and how much is to be set aside for the education of the 
young. One must also decide how much is to be allocated to the various 
component parts of the total scientific effort, and it is here that groups 
who are interested in different end products make themselves heard. 

Most scientists are notably and justifiably reluctant to extrapolate 
from their laboratory experience to the benefits that society may eventual- 
ly derive from their search. They would feel uneasy were they asked to 
prescribe an ideal “mix” of physical, life, and behavioral sciences. On 
the other hand, they are also aware that easily measurable quantities 
are not always the most useful ones. They are, therefore, not overly 
impressed by the fact that it is obviously easier to assess the cost of 
research, of an education—or for that matter of human well-being and 
freedom—than to estimate the value of these commodities; accurate 
ledger entries do not necessarily constitute correct bases for decision 

This state of affairs threatens to leave us without a common language 
—we might almost say without a common currency other than the dollar. 
We can, of course, take the view that the values involved are intangible 
and imponderable and that only a nation adequately trained in science 
might get more than a vague impression in terms of attitudes, expecta- 
tions, and hopes. Can we really do no better job of translating what 
science has wrought than to refer to megatons or appliances on a per 
capita basis? Here is a challenge to the ingenuity of our scientific ad- 
visory boards and science administrators. Here also is a challenge to 
social scientists and humanists. Let us look for new significant indicators 
of scientific and technological progress. Let us try to convey how the 
search for scientific knowledge constitutes, in modern. societies, one of 
the most basic commitments to a better future for mankind. There is 
little chance that we shall find an all-encompassing index or formula, 
but we need to experiment with a variety of partially valid yet broadly 
comprehensible measures. 

We can scarcely hope to achieve voluntary planning for the benefit 
of: both a free science and a free society as long as we have so few 
tools for convincing our fellow citizens that without search today there 
may be no end products tomorrow.—WaALTER A. ROSENBLITH, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology. 


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17 NC 


Except for dilution by the inter- 
vening space, the light from a star 
suffers little until it impinges upon the 
earth’s atmosphere. In the short time 
required for the light to traverse the 
atmosphere, what was originally a 
plane-parallel wavefront becomes trans- 
formed into a corrugated wavefront 
by the refractive inhomogeneities which 
it encounters. When such a wavefront 
is sampled through the finite aperture 
of a telescope, several effects can be 
noted. The quality of the image 
formed by the telescope deteriorates 
from that predicted by physical optics; 
the image becomes enlarged and under- 
goes changes in size and position, since 
the direction of the normal of the 
wavefront is no longer constant, either 
in space or time. Furthermore, when 
the turbulence causing the refractive 
fluctuations is at a great distance from 
the telescope, of the order of kilo- 
meters, the intensity of the wavefront 
also becomes variable in both space 
and time. 

This latter effect can be observed 
by viewing the illumination . pattern 
from a bright star directly at the tele- 
scope aperture. The pattern appears 
to be crossed by a system of rapidly 
moving shadows and consequently is 
often called the shadow-band pattern. 
The total intensity of the telescopic 
image becomes variable; depending 
upon the sample of the shadow pattern 
selected by the telescope instant by 
instant. This variation in total inten- 
sity is called scintillation—or twinkling 
When the shadow pattern of a star is 
sampled directly with the eye. In the 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

17 November 1961, Volume 134, Number 3490 

Stellar Scintillation 

Stellar scintillation is shown to be a good indicator 
of the upper-air winds near the tropopause. 

W. M. Protheroe 

latter instance, the effective frequency 
of variation is cut off near 16 cycles 
per second, due to the time response 
of the eye. Scintillation may be studied 
either by measuring the fluctuations in 
image intensity for a given telescope 
aperture (J, 2) or by measuring the 
shadow-band pattern directly (3-5). 
The results of both types of measure- 
ment are discussed here. 

General Characteristics of 

Stellar Scintillation 

While the observational charac- 
teristics of stellar scintillation have 
been discussed in detail elsewhere (J, 
2), it may be of interest to summarize 
some of these briefly. The more quanti- 
tative measurements have _ generally 
been made by means of photoelectric 
photometers. The fluctuating portion 
of the output current from the photo- 
cell, when corrected for shot noise, is 
directly proportional to the intensity 
variations of the shadow pattern in- 
tegrated over the telescope aperture. 
This output signal is readily analyzed, 
with regard both to amplitude and to 
frequency distribution, by the tech- 
niques commonly applied to noise 

The amplitude of the scintillation 
signal varies greatly from night to 
night and is strongly dependent upon 
both the size of the aperture and the 
altitude of the star above the horizon. 
For small apertures, say 1 to 3 inches, 
the peak-to-peak fluctuations of the 
signal as compared to the mean light 


level are of the order of 50 to 150 
percent for stars near the zenith and 
can increase to several hundred per- 
cent for stars near the horizon. As 
larger apertures are used, the inherent 
fluctuations in the shadow pattern 
tend to average out; thus, the peak- 
to-peak amplitude for stars near the 
zenith may decrease to the order of 10 
to 20 percent for apertures of 10 to 
20 inches. The root mean square devia- 
tions of the signal are of the order of 
30 percent for small apertures and fall 
off to the order of 5 to 10 percent for 
apertures measured in tens of inches. 
The strength of the scintillation also 
tends to increase whenever the wind 
field in the vicinity of the tropopause 
is strong, and hence, on the average, 
for mid-latitudes in the Northern 
Hemisphere, winter scintillation is 
stronger than summer scintillation. 

The distribution of the scintillation 
signal with respect to frequency—that 
is, its Fourier spectrum—is another 
interesting parameter. This is likewise 
strongly influenced by size of aperture 
and by altitude and is even more 
strongly influenced by the wind field 
than is the total amplitude, or strength, 
of the scintillation signal. In general, 
for stars near the zenith, where small 
apertures are used the Fourier spec- 
tra tend to have a constant strength 
at frequencies from zero to around 
100 cy/sec, with a decreasing strength 
from there to about 500 to 1000 cy/sec, 
where the amplitude becomes zero. On 
the other hand, when large apertures 
are used, the flat part of the spectrum 
extends to only 10 to 50 cy/sec, and 
the zero point is reached at anywhere 
from 100 to 500 cy/sec. The decrease 
in high-frequency components with in- 
crease in aperture size is readily ex- 
plained as an aperture-smoothing ef- 

As stars at lower altitudes are ob- 
served, the low-frequency components 
increase rapidly as the high-frequency 
components decline, and although the 
total bandwidth of the noise signal is 
quickly reduced, the low-frequency 

The author is vice dean of the Graduate 
School of Arts and Sciences and associate pro- 
fessor of astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 


components increase at such a rate 
that the total noise signal over all fre- 
quencies still increases. 

A seasonal variation in the frequency 
distribution of the scintillation signals 
was first noted by Mikesell, who ob- 
served that the cutoff point of the 
Fourier spectrum (that is, the point at 
which the amplitude goes to zero) oc- 
curs at higher frequencies during the 
winter. Since the upper-air wind speeds 
are known to be higher during the 
winter season, the seasonal variation 
of the crossover led to a search for a 
correlation of wind speeds with stellar 
scintillation. Another clue to such a 
correlation was suggested by the ob- 
servations of Mikesell, Hoag, and Hall 
(6), who showed by placing a slit over 
the telescope aperture, that a directional 
effect was associated with scintillation. 
When the slit was in one position, the 
spectrum of the signal was characteristic 
of the signal from a large aperture; 
when the slit was at right angles to this 
position, the spectrum was more char- 
acteristic of a spectrum associated with 
a small aperture. Hosfeld (7) showed 
that this directivity was in fact related 
to the upper-air winds. 

In searching for a suitable corre- 
lation parameter of the scintillation sig- 
nal, other than the directivity effect, 
it was found that neither the amplitude 
of the signal (either total or at speci- 
fied frequencies) nor the cutoff fre- 
quency gave reliable correlations of a 
quantitative nature with the upper-air 
winds, although definite trends in the 
data were readily noted (2). The am- 
plitude of the high-frequency com- 

ponents and the cutout frequency in 
general increased when the upper-air 
wind speeds increased. Unfortunately 
these parameters are strongly influ- 
enced by the total strength of the 
scintillation, and since the scintillation 
signal can show rather large fluctua- 
tions in magnitude over short inter- 
vals of time, it becomes quite difficult 
to say whether the particular values 
measured reflect a change in strength 
of the signal or a change in the upper- 
air winds. 

A quantitative description of the 
shape of the curve that was not strong- 
ly influenced by a variation of the sig- 
nal amplitude was desired. In 1955 I 
proposed that the ratio of signal 
strength in a high-frequency band to 
signal strength in a low-frequency band 
be used as the correlate with wind 
speed, and I showed that this did in- 
dicate a relationship between scintil- 
lation and upper-air wind speeds in the 
vicinity of the tropopause that could 
be used as a measure of the wind speed 
(2). The wind speed was determined 
by taking geostrophic winds from the 
standard upper-air charts, the best cor- 
relation occurring for winds at the 
200-millibar level. Since the geostro- 
phic winds are, at best, only approx- 
imations to the true winds, it was de- 
cided to undertake a new program of 
observations which were to be made as 
nearly simultaneous with the upper- 
air wind soundings as possible, It was 
hoped that by such a procedure a 
definitive correlation might be made 
between the scintillation and the up- 
per-air wind speeds. 

3 ’ 904 
300- G 
2 70- 
240-4 J 
2 F 60 
° = 
o yt 50- 
& 180+ E 
s oI 405 
= 1204 vs 
© CPS-I10 204 
& GMD-1 
t@) tT t as T as 1 0 
fe) 60 120 180 240 300 360 n 

SLIT ANGLE (@ oR @+180) 

Fig. 1 (left). Correlation of slit angle with wind direction for the Bedford data. Fig. 2 (right). Correlation of scintillation ratio) 

with wind speeds for the Bedford data. 

Observational Program and Results 

Preliminary tests, made at the Stu- 
dents’ Observatory of the University 
of Pennsylvania, indicated that the di- 
rectional effect was measurable with 
a slit as small as 1 by 4 inches. Conse- 
quently the scintillation measurements 
were made with a small-aperture tel- 
escope—one with a 4-inch aperture, as 
contrasted with the 12-inch aperture 
previously used. 

The measuring equipment consisted 
of the 4-inch patrol camera of the Stu- 
dents’ Observatory and a photoelectric 
photometer. A removable slit, 1 by 4 
inches, which could be motor-driven 
through 190 degrees, was mounted 
over the objective. This mechanism 
was oriented in such a way that the 
zero fiducial of the slit was aligned 
with the direction of the true north 
when the telescope was in the meridian. 
The photocell output was amplified, 
and the noise-signal strength was meas- 
ured in three pass bands, centered, 
respectively, at 10, 100, and 300 
cy/sec. The ratio of the 100-cy/sec 
signal to the 10-cy/sec signal proved 
insensitive to the upper-air winds, es- 
pecially at high wind speeds, and hence 
only the 300-cy/sec to 10-cy/sec ra- 
tios were used in the final correlations. 

A normal observation consisted of 
two parts, a slit observation and a 
full-aperture observation. During the 
slit observation, the long axis of the 
1- by 4-inch slit was rotated from the 
north to the south orientation and back. 
The output of the 300-cy/sec channel 
was observed, and the angular position 


© CPS-10 
& GMD-! 




of tl 


at tl 

tio o 

30 | 

in 01 

of ‘n 

of tl 
in w 



17 NC 


, as 

y 4 

1/ sec 
5 eS 
C (ra. 
d of 
nd a 
r the 
f the 
n the 



1 ratios 

VOL. 1 

of the slit corresponding to the mini- 
mum signal was noted when the slit 
was being driven in both the direct and 
the reverse modes. These two values 
were then averaged in order to re- 
move the effect of a 10-second resist- 
ance-capacitance smoothing network 
at the channel output. This value was 
correlated with the upper-air wind di- 

The other part of the observational 
set consisted of a 5-minute reading 
with the full 4-inch aperture. The sig- 
nals from both the 10 and the 300- 
cy/sec channels were corrected for in- 
strumental noise by noting their values 
when the photocell was illuminated by 
a constant lamp adjusted to the mean 
illumination level of the star. The ra- 
tio of the high-frequency channel to the 
low-frequency channel was correlated 
with the magnitude of the wind veloci- 

The scintillation observations were 
timed to occur as close as possible to 
30 minutes after the normal release 
time of the balloons used for the 0300 
Z upper-air soundings for the Phila- 
delphia area. The balloons were re- 
leased at a point approximately 10 
miles due west of the observatory and 
were tracked by GMD-1 Rawinsonde 
equipment. The stars were always ob- 
served within 30 degrees of the zenith 
in order to insure that the layers caus- 
ing the scintillation were being ob- 
served essentially normal to their strat- 
ification. This removed the necessity 
of making troublesome projection cor- 

Observations were made on 207 
nights over 20 months, during which 
period radiosonde wind measurements 
were available for the Philadelphia 
area. Only 104 of the observations 
could be used, however, mostly be- 
cause of inadequate meteorological 
data (the result, primarily, of failure 
of the balloon to reach sufficient alti- 
tude). Preliminary study of the data 
indicated that when the time differences 
between the balloon launchings and the 
scintillation observations were too 
great, discordant results were obtained. 
Consequently, only those observations 
in which the times of launching and of 
observation agreed to within 1 hour 
were used. This resulted in a final usable 
number of 67 observations. 

In order to try to circumvent this 
problem of large attrition of the data 
and also to remove the objection of 
lack of control over the balloon sound- 
ings, it was decided to construct an 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

Table 1. Comparison of the results of the scintillation and wind correlations obtained with 
the GMD-1 equipment at the University of Pennsylvania and with the GMD-1 and CPS-10 

equipment at Bedford. 

Observa- Winds»ced (m/sec) Prob- Wind direction (deg) Prob- 
tions able able 
error error 
(No.) a b p (m/sec) a B r (deg) 
University of Pennsylvania (GMD-1 equipment) 
67 32.6+0.7 0.49+0.04 0.795 5.3 5.6 0.990 0.988 5.6 
Bedford (CPS-10 or GMD-1 equipment) 
46 596+08 0.50 + 0.02 0.957 4.1 5.3 0.998 0.994 6.4 

instrument to be used at the Laurence 
G. Hanscom Field at Bedford, Massa- 
chusetts. Suitable meteorological equip- 
ment was in use at that field, and there 
was a further advantage in that a CPS- 
10 radar type wind-sounding instrument 
was available. This instrument gives 
reliable measures in high-velocity wind 
fields where the GMD-1 equipment 
becomes inaccurate. The scintillation 
equipment had the same aperture as 
that used at the University of Penn- 
sylvania and was designed to be semi- 
automatic in its operation. 

A total of 46 observations were made 
with this equipment on 36 nights. Of 
these observations, 22 were made in 
conjunction with the GMD-1 equipment, 
and 24 were made with the CPS-10 
equipment. Observations for which the 
time of scintillation measurement dif- 
fered by more than 1 hour from a time 
30 minutes after the balloon release are 


9708 METERS 

8690 METERS 

- 24 
a 4 
& 0-4 

1O- 12 

13 14 15 

Fig. 3. Distribution of shear layer heights 
used in the wind correlations. The layers 
were chosen for each observation by se- 
lecting the layer at which the maximum 
vector gradient occurred in the vertical 
wind profile. 

not included in the above number. Ob- 
servations made at times differing from 
the desired time by % to 1 hour were 
given half weight in the reductions. It 
was also decided to give half weight to 
observations made in conjunction with 
GMD-1 soundings when the wind 
speeds were in excess of 60 meters per 
second. There were nine such half- 
weight observations in the 46 observa- 
tions available for analysis. 

The two sets of data—University of 
Pennsylvania and Bedford—were re- 
duced separately. While only the Bed- 
ford results are shown in Figs. 1 and 
2, the final results for both locations 
will be discussed. Both sets of data 
gave the best correlation when values 
for winds at the maximum vector gra- 
dient were used. 

The wind direction versus the slit 
angle (or the slit angle increased by 
180 degrees since the sense of the mo- 
tion of the pattern is indeterminable by 
this technique) was fitted by a linear 

A=a-+ pé 

where A is the wind direction, a and 8 
are constants, and @ is the slit angle. 
The scatter diagram of the wind di- 
rection plotted against the slit angle 
for the Bedford data is presented in 
Fig. 1. The dashed line is the line of 
perfect correlation, while the solid 
line is the line fitted to the data by 
least squares. As given in Table 1, the 
resulting correlation coefficients r, for 
both the University of Pennsylvania and 
the Bedford data, are quite high. These 
values are beyond those expected from 
chance occurrence, as may be seen by 
noting that the odds are 100 to 1 that 
the correlation coefficient for the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania data will not 
exceed 0.312 if the wind direction and 
slit angle are not related and, similarly 
that the correlation coefficient will not 
exceed 0.393 for the Bedford data. The 
probable errors of 5.6 and 6.4 degrees, 
respectively, are well within the limits 


of errors usually associated with the 
meteorological data. 

The plot of wind speed against the 
scintillation ratio was fitted by a re- 
lation of the form 

V = aR’ 
where V is the wind speed in meters 
per second, a and b are constants, and 
R is the ratio of the 300-cy/sec com- 
ponent to the 10-cy/sec component. 

The plot for the Bedford data is 
shown in Fig. 2, where the solid curve, 
of the form given above, was fitted by 
least squares. The indices of correla- 
tion p for the University of Pennsyl- 
vania and Bedford data, given in Table 
1, are 0.795 and 0.957, respectively. 
The statistical significance of these re- 

sults can be demonstrated by the fact 
that the odds are 1000 to 3 that the 
value for the University of Pennsyl- 
vania data will lie between 0.611 and 
0.898 and that the value for the Bed- 
ford data will lie between 0.941 and 
0.968. The probable errors of estimate 
for the two sets, 5.3 and 4.1 meters 
per second, respectively, are again well 
within the usual limits of uncertainty 
in the meteorological data. The dif- 
ference in the a coefficients for the two 
locations arises from a difference in 
calibration of the two systems, which 
were somewhat different in design. 
The distribution of the heights of 
the shear layers used in the correla- 
tion is presented in Fig. 3. The mean 
height for both observing sites is 



= e 170° 

6.04 My 



°o 80° 


ee | 

Pie oe ere) Oe 


a | 7 i t i] ' 1 , 
O 200 400 600 800 

80-4 \\ 





i: teeoeo 



pa | 

\ if . 1 . 1 : q 
O 200 400 600 800 

T Lee aay 
1000 1200 1400 


Pes ar 


pes eae Se | 


T i ‘ i ‘ if as i ' 
O 200 400 600 800 




OR LBS gE Ogee 
O 200 400 _ 600 800 

209 3 
eg 1000 1200 1400 1600 

7 Coocoee 


Fig. 4. Harmonic spectra of the photocell signal for the six lens-grating combinations 

on 1 and 2 February 1959. 

tT | , | , | , , 
200 400 600 800 



"200 400 600 800 

around 9000 meters, 

which is near 
the tropopause. That the turbulence 
causing stellar scintillation is expected 
to be at a considerable distance from 
the telescope has already been pre- 
dicted by Keller (8) and Tatarsky (9). 

Image distortion is, however, caused 
by refractive inhomogeneities at all 
layers, even within the telescope itself. 
While ‘the correlations between the 
scintillation parameters and the wind 
speeds are quite good, it is not yet 
possible to state that there is a 1-to-1 
relationship between the wind speed 
and the scintillation ratios. This is ob- 
vious from Fig. 2, where individual 
points may have relatively large de- 
viations from the predicted values. That 
relatively large deviations may be 
found is, however, to be expected. In 
the first place, while an attempt was 
made to insure that the balloon sound-. 
ings and the scintillation measurements 
would be as nearly simultaneous as 
possible, deviations as large as 1 hour 
had to be tolerated in order to have a 
statistically significant sample. It is well 
known that the upper-air wind fields 
can undergo large fluctuations in short 
periods of time. For example, on one 
night when multiple balloon sound- 
ings were made at Bedford, the wind 
underwent a vector change of 25 meters 
per second in the tropospheric region 
in 52 minutes. This is undoubtedly an 
extreme illustration, but it does indi- 
cate the relatively large effects en- 
countered. Possibly more important 
than the time fluctuations of the wind 
field are its spatial fluctuations. These 
are particularly troublesome when high 
winds exist, since the sounding balloon 
may be transported tens of miles away 
from the observing site by the general 
wind movement while the telescope 
is looking through the wind field di- 
rectly over the site. Another factor is 
the possibility of changes in the struc- 
ture of the shadow-band pattern from 
night to night. The fact that the corre- 
lation is as good as it is indicates that 
the pattern structures on_ different 
nights can be expected to be quite simi- 
lar. This relative constancy of structure 
was verified by the Optical Fourier 
Analyzer measurements described in 
the next section. Even though it is still 
not possible to state that the relation- 
ships given above are definitive and 
could be used for actual measurement 
of the upper winds, it does appear 
safe to conclude that stellar scintillation 
is an excellent indicator of the winds at 
the maximum-vector shear layer. 




was f 
ind- F 

ve a 
y an 
ld di- 
tor is 
s that 
> simi- 
ved in 
is still 
ye and 
finds at 

VOL. 134 

Optical Fourier Analyzer 

The observations just described do 
not give any direct information about 
the shadow-band pattern structure and 
hence about the atmospheric turbulence 
causing it. In order to make studies 
of the pattern structure, the Optical 
Fourier Analyzer was designed. 

This is .an instrument which _per- 
mits measurement of the spatial pow- 
er spectrum of the shadow-band pat- 
tern (5). It is essentially the optical 
analog of an electrical filter. Briefly, 
it functions by imaging the shadow- 
band pattern from a given star upon a 
transmission grating. Ideally, the grat- 
ing should have a sinusoidal transmis- 
sion function in one direction and a 
constant transmission function _ per- 
pendicular to that direction. The grat- 
ing actually used, however, was a Ron- 
chi grating—that is, one that has a 
square-wave transmission function rath- 
er than a sinusoidal one. The total 
light transmitted by the grating is the 
product of the grating transmission 
function and the spatial intensity func- 
tion of the shadow pattern. If this 
light is measured by a photocell, an 
electrical signal is generated which is 
proportional to the instantaneous prod- 
uct of the two functions. It is obvious 
that for a sinusoidal transmission func- 
tion this signal is nothing more than 
the intergrand of the Fourier integral 
for that portion of the shadow pattern 
which is imaged on the grating, and 
that it corresponds to the wavelength 
associated with the grating spacing. 
When a square-wave transmission func- 
tion is used, the odd harmonics of the 
principal spatial frequency of the grat- 
ing are also introduced, but fortunately 
for the observations under discussion, 
it can be shown that the higher har- 
monics are of no measurable impor- 
tance. Since the shadow pattern is time- 
dependent, the output of the photocell 
will also fluctuate with time. The time 
average of the fluctuating signal will be 
telated to the strength of the spatial 
component of the shadow-band pat- 
tern, having a wave number correspond- 
ing to that’ of the transmission filter 
(5). The effective band pass of the 
spatial filter will be a function of the 
shape and size of the shadow pattern 
analyzed: the larger the sample, the 
narrower the effective band pass of the 

If the pattern is now imagined to 

translation along the direction of density 
variation of the grating, the output of 
the photocell will contain a constant 
frequency signal. The strength of the 
signal will be related to the strength of 
the shadow-band element size corre- 
sponding to the wave number of the 
grating. The frequency of the signal will 
be related to the element size and the 
velocity of translation according to the 


where V is the translational velocity of 
the pattern, 7 is the linear size of the 
pattern corresponding to the wave 
number of the grating, and f is the 
frequency of the photocell output sig- 
nal in cycles per second. 

In practice, the pattern undergoes 
a change with time as well as with 
translation, and hence the contribu- 
tions to the fluctuating portion of the 
photocell output will be made over a 

5.0 F FEB 24-25 
2.0 / 
-, BA(w) 
F Ba (w) 
0.0 [ee aay a 
r 0.5 1.0 
~ t= w cm! 
50r FEB 26-27 
as ? By(w) 
lO 7 
- oO Bo(w) 
4 0.5 1.0 
<= 40 w cm! 

wide frequency range. The strength of 
the pattern element will thus be re- 
lated to the total strength of the fluc- 
tuating signal taken over all frequen- 
cies, while the predominating frequen- 
cy will permit determination of the 
pattern velocity according to the ex- 
pression just given. The half-width of 
the signal about this enhanced peak 
will depend upon the band pass of the 
optical filter and the rate of the growth 
and decay of the pattern. 

In order to determine the complete 
spatial power spectrum of the shadow- 
band pattern it is necessary to have 
gratings corresponding to as many dif- 
ferent wave numbers as are required 
to give the desired coverage. Those of 
small wave number—that is, of large 
element size—are limited by the pat- 
tern sample available. The practical 
limit is reached when the sample size 
is about three times the element size. 
The lowest possible spatial frequency in 

FEB 25-26 

FEB 27-28 

/ By(w) 

- P Ba(w) 

a = —\—— na 
- *0. 1.0 

t 0.5 z 

WwW cm 

be fixed—that is, to be without forma- Fig. 5. Representative spatial power spectra of the shadow-band pattern on four nights 
tion or decay of pattern elements—in in February 1959. 

‘17 NOVEMBER 1961 


Table 2. Characteristic wavelengths and 
spatial frequencies of the available lens- 
grating combinations. 
Lens* — frequency 
Coarse grating (25 lines/inch) 
Short 21.08 0.298 
Medium 14.94 0.420 
Long 10.77 0.583 
Fine grating (50 lines/ inch) 
Short 10.54 0.596 
Medium 7.47 0.840 
Long 5.38 1.165 
* Focal lengths (in inches) as follows: short, 

2; medium, 3; long, 4. 

the work described here was thus 
0.298 cm™ (or a wavelength of 21.08 
cm), since the telescope used for the 
measurements was the 28-inch reflector 
of the Flower and Cook Observatory. 

Six spatial frequencies were used by 
combining two gratings, designated 
fine and coarse, and three projection 
lenses, designated short, medium, and 
long. The known optical magnification 
of the projection lenses permitted re- 
lation of the image of the shadow- 
band pattern to the true dimensions 
of the pattern. The spatial frequencies 
and element sizes that were thus avail- 
able are given in Table 2. 

The observations were made with 
the analyzing gratings in two orienta- 
tions: in one position, which gave the 
smallest high-frequency output from 
the photocell, the constant axis of the 
grating was aligned with the pattern 
motion; in the other position the axis 
was perpendicular to the pattern mo- 
tion. The same procedure was followed 
for all six grating-lens combinations. As 
long as the pattern is not too asym- 
metric, the analysis with the gratings in 
these two positions is sufficient for 
measuring the two-dimensional power 

The output from the photocell was 
recorded on magnetic tape and, sub- 
sequently, upon repetitive playback, a 
harmonic analysis of the 12 recorded 
signals, two signals for each of the six 
grating-lens combinations, was made. 
Examples of the spectra for the 12 
signals recorded on the night of 1 
February 1960 are shown in Fig. 4. 
The output of the harmonic analyzer 
used to measure the signal strength of 
the photocell is plotted against fre- 
quency. The open circles represent the 
case when the square-wave transmission 
function of the grating is aligned with 
the pattern motion; the solid circles, the 


case when the grating is at right angles 
to this orientation. The frequency of 
the signal peaks is directly proportional 
to the wave number, as would be pre- 
dicted by the relation between pattern 
velocity and grating spacing. The calcu- 
lated pattern velocity averaged over the 
combinations was 70.5 + 1.07 meters 
per second at a direction of 80 (or 260) 
degrees measured clockwise from the 
north. Measurements of this type were 
made on 18 nights and gave values 
for the pattern speed and direction 
consistent with upper-air wind speeds. 
A direct comparison with the winds 
was not possible since radiosonde meas- 
urements were no longer being made 
in the Philadelphia area. On only one 
night was the pattern speed found to 
be indeterminable by this method. On 
eight nights, however, multiple peaks 
were found, indicating the possibility 
that several patterns were being super- 
imposed. Multiple patterns of this sort 
tend to give rise to bad measurements 
when observed by the other technique 
described in the preceding section. 

The spectra of the type represented 
in Fig. 4 were integrated numerically 
to determine the total signal strength. 
If the shadow pattern is not radically 
asymmetrical, the two-dimensional 
power spectrum may be written 

B (w, ») = Bo (w) + Bz (w) cos 2 (¢ — 4) 

where Bo is the symmetrical component 
of the pattern, B: is the asymmetrical 
component, » is the spatial frequency, 
¢ is the azimuthal angle of the pattern, 
and @ is the azimuth of the pattern 

Four representative spatial power 
spectra are shown in Fig. 5. It may be 
noted that the asymmetrical component 
B: (wm) is quite small in amplitude and 
that the symmetrical component peaks 
near » = 0.5 cm”. This peaking was 
noted on all but four of the 18 nights; 
the element size corresponding to the 
average of the spatial frequencies at 
which the peaks occurred was 15.6 
centimeters. The peak element sizes, 
when the peaks were measurable, 
ranged from 12.8 to 17.7 centimeters, 
and of course the peak element size 
must have been greater than 21.1 centi- 
meters on the four nights on which the 
peak occurred outside the range of 

Analysis of the half-widths of the 
frequency peaks, on the assumption 
that the pattern growth and decay is 

exponential: in character, leads to the 
conclusion that the pattern elements 
have lifetimes measurable in millisec- 
onds to tens of milliseconds. The 
shadow patterns are therefore quite 
transitory in nature, not only because 
of their rapid motion but also because 
of their rapid structural change. This 
introduces difficulties when other meth- 
ods, such as that of determining the 
autocorrelation function of the pat- 
tern by means of two telescopes of 
variable separation, are attempted in 
order to extend the power spectrum 
into the long-wavelength region (4). 
If the longer-wavelength measurements 
are desired, it appears that the best 
way to obtain them is to use. the 
Optical Fourier Analyzer with a large 
telescope aperture. 

Summary and Conclusions 

The ratio of the stellar scintillation 
signal in a frequency band centered at 
300 cy/sec to the signal in a band 
centered at 10 cy/sec generated when 
a star near the zenith is observed with 
a 4-inch circular aperture has been 
shown to be dependent upon the upper- 
air winds. These ratios are capable of 
indicating the wind speeds at the level 
of maximum vector gradient with an 
accuracy comparable to that normally 
attained by conventional radiosonde 
measurements. Furthermore, when a 
1- by 4-inch slit is placed over the 
telescope aperture, the wind direction, 
but not its sense, may be determined 
by noting the alignment of the long 
axis of the slit which gives the mini- 
mum 300-cy/sec signal. 

The Optical Fourier Analyzer, a 
device which permits measurements of 
the two-dimensional spatial power 
spectrum >. the shadow-band pattern, 
has given data upon the spatial and 
temporal structure of shadow-band 
patterns. The shadow-band pattern ele- 
ments are characterized by a size of 
15 to 16 centimeters and have a life- 
time of the order of several to 10 
milliseconds. A direct determination of 
the velocity of the pattern motion 
across the telescope is also possible 
and indicates that the pattern velocities 
are comparable to the upper-air wind 
velocities. The observational results on 
some nights can best be interpreted 
on the basis of two or more simultane- 
ous patterns moving with different ve- 
locities (10). 




off 1 
ern | 
of t 




17 NC 

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ze of 
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o 10 
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nt ve- 

OL. 134 

References and Notes 

1. A. H. Mikesell, “The scintillation of star- 
light,” U.S. Naval Observatory Publs. ser. 
2, vol. 17, pt. 4 (1955). 

W. M. Protheroe, “Preliminary report on 
stellar scintillation,” Contribs. Perkins Ob- 
servatory, Ohio Wesleyan Univ. and Ohio 
State Univ. Tl, No. 4 (1955). 

, J. Optical Soc. Am. 45, 171 (1955). 
E. Barnhart, G. Keller, W. E. Mitchell, 



4. P. 

Jr., “Investigation of upper air turbulence 
by the method of analyzing stellar scintilla- 
tion shadow patterns,” Air Force Cambridge 

Research Center, Bedford, Mass., Tech. 
Rept. (1954). 
5. W. M. Protheroe and K. Y. Chen, “The 

correlation of stellar shadow-band patterns 
with upper air winds and turbulence,” ibid. 

6. A. H. Mikesell, A. A. Hoag, J. S. Hall, 
J. Optical Soc. Am. 41, 689 (1951). 

Competitive Exclusion 

The exclusion principle is recast in the context of 
a generalized scheme for interspecific interactions. 

The colloquy in these pages (/) con- 
cerning the newly denominated but 
ancient theory of “competitive exclu- 
sion” has generated a_ controversy 
which appears to have resulted in a 
standoff. One wonders if the reason 
may not be implicit in A. N. White- 
head’s remarks when he admonished 
his contemporaries for living off the 
intellectual capital accumulated in the 
17th century, warning that any culture 
was doomed which could not throw 
off the inertia of habitual thinking and 
burst through the facade of its own 
concepts. Exclusion theory is contro- 
versial, it would seem, not so much 
because it isn’t intuitionally reason- 
able or, for the most part, empirically 
expressed, but rather because it is 
couched in an archaic context of 19th- 
century dogma within which circular 
reasoning is the only alternative to 
progress (in terms acceptable to mod- 
ern apprehension of scientific episteme). 
This circularity is reflected in the 
earliest and latest formulations of the 
exclusion principle: 

. it is the most closely-allied forms— 
varieties of the same species, and species 
of the same genus or related genera— 
Which, from having nearly the same struc- 
ture, constitution and habits, generally 
come into severest competition with each 

other; consequently, each new variety or 
Species, during the progress of its forma- 

The author is associate professor of marine 
science, College of William and Mary, at the 
eel Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

Bernard C. Patten 

tion, will generally press hardest on its 
nearest kindred, and tend to exterminate 
them. [Darwin, 1859] 

[Since] complete competitors cannot 
coexist . ecological differentiation is 
the necessary condition for coexistence. 
[Hardin, 1960] 

Thus the total achievement of a century 
of thought amounts to providing the 
contrapositive of the original proposi- 

The exclusion principle is regarded 
in this article as a legacy from the 
past, whose continued recognition at 
“law” status can only interfere with a 
healthy development of concepts whose 
further disquisition it tends to block. 
Therefore it should be relegated as 
prudently and expeditiously as pos- 
sible to a de-emphasized position in a 
broader, more modern framework. A 
tentative step in this direction is pro- 
vided, which casts exclusion in a con- 
text which includes also the coopera- 
tive aspects of interspecific phenomena. 
Strong reliance on cybernetic models 
as formulated by Ashby (2) is acknowl- 

Consider a universe Y of entropy 
states, some at higher and others at 
lower levels of potential. Discrete en- 
claves of high potential (the sun for 
example) represent sources of uncon- 
strained variety (information, negen- 
tropy) which transmit to low-potential 
sinks comprising states of maximally 
constrained variety (entropy). Let 
the subset y represent the biological 

7. R. Hosfeld, “Scintillation, stellar shadow 
bands, and winds aloft,” paper presented 
before the American Astronomical Society, 
20-23 June 1954. 

. G. E. Keller, Astron. J. 58 (1 July 1953). 
. V. I. Tatarsky, Proc. Acad. Sct. U.S.S.R. 
120, 289 (1958). 

10. The work described in this article was 
supported in part by the Geophysics Re- 
search Directorate of the U.S. Air Force 
Research and Development Command. 

\o oo 

states in Y at intermediate potentials. 
This collectivity, consisting of states 
of partially constrained variety, pos- 
sesses the capacity to impose con- 
straint upon information and so to 
generate entropy—an accomplishment, 
as will be shown, which requires an 
information store which y seeks to 
maintain (and extend) contrary to 
the gradient of potential. The situation 
is analogous to a two-person von Neu- 
mann game of the non-zero-sum type 
(3) in which y simultaneously seeks to 
gain information from Y for use in 
blocking its gain of information from 
Y. Solution of this paradox constitutes 
the fundamental problem of regulation. 
Two basic principles are involved: the 
law of entropy and the law of requisite 
variety. These laws are best discussed 
against a background of the nature of 
vs organization. 

Consider, as a functional element of 
v, “species” A, which regulates a set 
of essential variables within a favorable 
range a beyond which A fails to sur- 
vive. The subset @ corresponds to a 
Hutchinsonian niche (4). Disturbances 
D, in the form of information from 
the environment Y, threaten to drive 
the states of A outside of a. If D may 
be visualized as acting through some 
dynamic system P, a protocol charac- 
teristic of Y, then the initial diagram 
of immediate effects takes the form 

[oP [A] 

A forms another dynamic system R, a 
regulator which can be ‘coupled to P 
to produce a machine capable of block- 
ing the flow of variety to the essential 

Ps [P ] ‘\ 
[oO] a [4] 

The “game” takes the following se- 
quence: (i) the environment Y makes 
an arbitrary move D; (ii) K assumes 
a value determined by D’s value; and 


(iii) P determines the outcome: which 
is or is not in a. The process is inces- 
sant, and the sequence of events con- 
stituting the “life’ of any discrete 
informational unit a of A may be rep- 
resented as 

D; a: D2 a2 Ds... 

—a sequence which continues until a 
falls outside of a. It is noteworthy that 
A’s regulation need not be perfect; it 
only has to be “good enough” (and, 
disturbingly, the a’s are freely expend- 

“Good enough” regulation may be 
of two kinds: a priori and a posteriori. 
In the former, D and R act simultane- 
ously on P to produce a state change 
in A. The strategy of this defense 
against variety is that of a gambler— 
playing the odds. A regulator of limited 
capacity is employed to handle variety 
within a certain fixed range (say, for 
example, three standard deviations). 
This is cheap regulation, and when D 
exceeds the range of R’s effectiveness, 
the essential variables fall beyond a 
and many or all of the a’s fail to sur- 
vive. This kind of regulation is com- 
monplace in biology, and disturbances 
of uncommon magnitude lead to 
“cycles” of rarity and abundance, and 
to such catastrophic phenomena as 
mass mortalities. Essential to a pro- 
gram of a priori regulation is a re- 
siduum of variety stored in very 
effective (n standard deviations) regu- 
lators, such as resistant seeds and 
spores, to function as_ information 
sources for repopulation when the 
D’s return again to normal levels. 

Regulation a posteriori is much 
more sophisticated, and the entity 
regulated has far more integrity and is 
far less expendable. This is error-con- 
trolled regulation in which D produces, 
through P, a perturbation in A, which 
then transmits information concerning 
its displacement to R, which then acts 
on P to correct the error in A’s tra- 
jectory. Like a priori regulation, this 
control by negative feedback is not 
perfect; in fact, the method relies on 
error. Perfect control in this case cor- 
responds to no control! A diagram of 
immediate effects 

illustrates the closed loop ARPA. 
Regulation by error is most keenly 

developed in the higher behavioral 
phenomena of higher organisms, but 


it is also important, although more sub- 
tle, at the ecological level. An excellent 
example is provided by Cruikshank’s 
data on the abundance of three species 
of warbler in successive years in Maine, 
cited by MacArthur (5). The trajec- 
tories (where i represents increased 
abundance over the preceding year, 
and d, decrease) were 

Myrtle didiiiddididi 

Black-throated green iidididdidi 

Blackburnian idiididididd 
for which the corresponding matrices 
of transition probabilities are 

Vv | _d i 
d | 17 .67 
i .83 33 
Black-throated green 
Vv | d i 
d | .20 .80 
i .80 .20 
Vv | d i 
d | .20 .83 
i .80 17 

These matrices show clearly that each 
species of warbler tends to increase 
when it is rare and to decrease when 
it is common, a neat illustration of 
feedback control at the population 

Laws Basic to Regulation 

Let us return now to the two laws 
basic to regulation—the entropy law 
and the law of requisite variety. As dis- 
cussed earlier, external variety can 
only be blocked by internal variety 
supplied to a regulator. The law of 
requisite variety (2) fixes exactly the 
amount of regulation achievable by 
establishing the lower limit to which 
A’s variety can be depressed; it is 

D’s variety 
R’s variety 

This principle is isomorphic with Shan- 
non’s (6) theorem 10 concerning the 
data-handling capacity of correction 
channels. For a given D, therefore, R’s 
variety must be commensurately high in 
order for A’s states to be constrained 
within a. Should A falter in providing 
the necessary information when it is 
needed, it fails to survive—that is, 
it ceases to continue as a functional 
entity of v. The entropy law, a general 
principle of which the second law of 
thermodynamics is but a_ particular 
expression, works against A’s regulatory 

gradient against which required variety 
must be accumulated. That this law 
operates automatically as soon as con- 
vergence occurs in a transformation is 
shown by the following transformation: 

efficacy by passively providing 


in which the operand has a variety of 
1.6 bits per element (—3/3 log: 1/3) 
and the transform a variety of 0.9 bits 
per element (—1/3 logs 1/3—2/3 log: 
2/3). A second application of operator 
T produces a variety of zero, the maxi- 
mum entropy condition. 

A more concrete example may be 
obtained from biochemistry. When, in 
the tricarboxylic acid cycle, succinate 
is transformed to fumarate, some 36 
kilocalories per mole are _ liberated, 
representing an entropy gain which 

cannot be reversed within the limited. 

framework of the Krebs system. For 
the cycle to continue, new variety in 
the form of pyruvate from the glyco- 
lytic chain must be provided. This 
comes, ultimately, from Y. 

The foregoing conditions under 
which A must preserve its integrity are 
basic to the following proposition, upon 
which an approach to the competitive 
exclusion concept may be based. The 
proposition, a suggested working hy- 
pothesis, is that selective advantage 
accrues to those elements of v which 
regulate best, in the sense of achieving 
unit stability at the lowest cost in in- 
formation. We shall examine _inter- 
specific phenomena in relation to this 

Let us consider another species, B, 
having niche £. Several relationships 
are possible between A and B. If the 
phase spaces a and @ have no points 
in common in space and time, A and 
B are completely independent. But 
when the niches overlap to some de- 
gree spatially and temporally, the 
species interact, which is to say that 
their components become coupled to 
form a new machine AB of epispecific 
proportions. A biocenose—that is, an 
ecological community T—may be re- 
garded as a large functional element 
of y made up of the combined coupling 
of numerous species with intersecting 
niches (CT =AB . . Z). Hence Tf; 
like each of its components, is itself a 
self-regulating device which strives to 
maintain at lowest possible cost its 
essential variables within a favorable 
range y (a 8B. . . £). Competition, and 
the antithesis cooperation, may be de- 
fined in terms of the total success of 


y i 
its ¢ 



17 NO 





1 in- 


3, 5; 
f the 


e de- 


2d to 
is, an 
ye Te- 
ice T, 
tself a 
ves to 
rst its 
n, and 
be de- 
‘ess of 

JOL. 134 

T in meeting that goal. If efficacy in 
regulation of any coupling AB is 
greater than the combined efficacy of 
its elements before interaction (that is, 
A+B), then the interaction is favor- 
able—cooperative—and will tend to 
be perpetuated. Cooperative interac- 
tions generally occur when A and B 
are only remotely related—that is, 
when a and 8 do not overlap appre- 
ciably. When niches are similar, how- 
ever, a couplet may prove to have 
reduced regulatory capacity, and [T 
tends to revert to a more favorable 
state by eliminating one of the com- 
petitors—the one which, functioning 
separately, is the least effective regu- 
lator. This is the exclusion principle— 
a modern expression of the “struggle 
for existence.” 

Experimental Evidence 

The best experimental evidence for 
the validity of the theory has been 
provided by the work of Thomas Park 
and his colleagues (7) with flour 
beetles. In every experiment in which 
two closely allied species of beetle 
were forced to cohabit a limited en- 
vironment, one of the species survived 
while the other was eliminated. In a 
given experimental situation, however, 
it was not always the same species 
which survived. But (and this is of 
the utmost significance) the species 
surviving most often was the one which 
sustained higher densities when grown 
alone under conditions of temperature 
and humidity identical to those for the 
other species. An exception to this 
tule was observed in treatment 5 (7), 
in which the species which survived 
most often in competition was the one 
which, grown alone, maintained the 
lower density. A possible explanation 
for this, and also for the seemingly 
stochastic nature of the general result 
(only at the environmental extremes 
did the same species win every con- 
test) may be that a “head count” is 
probably a pretty crude measure of 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

exposition of competitive exclusion 
(1), stated, “No two species can re- 
main sympatric indefinitely whether or 
not they compete.” Park and his co- 
workers did not rule out this considera- 
tion in the case of the Tribolium model. 
When the model is viewed as a Mar- 
kovian machine, the prediction is that 
over an infinitely long time either the 
beetles must succumb or their popula- 
tion must grow to infinity. Comparing 
this with the experimental results 
(maximum duration 1860 days), Park 
and his associates conclude that either 
(i) the probabilities of growth, death, 
and passage from state A: to Ain do 
not depend solely upon the state of the 
operand but depend also on the his- 
tory of the population prior to A:, or 
(ii) the period of observation was 
much less than infinite. The authors 
“guess” in favor of the second alter- 
native; their position is strengthened by 
the fact that the first is cybernetically 
unsound: any transition depends only 
on the state of the operand at the time 
the operator acts. The fact that exclu- 
sion always occurred in a short time 
relative to the total potential life of 
each culture indicates that the ultimate 
disappearance of an element A from 
the community [T as the normal conse- 
quence of the latter’s evolution toward 
a more favorable position with respect 
to the working hypothesis is inadmis- 
sible as an argument against competi- 
tive exclusion. 

Let it be noted in conclusion that 
nothing in the cybernetic model pre- 
sented precludes the possibility of pas- 
sive coexistence between A and B. As 
a matter of fact, if competitive inter- 
action lies at one coupling extreme 
and cooperation at the other, then 
what is more natural than that at some 
point intermediate in the continuum 
there be a coupling in which AB is 
neither less nor more effective in total 
regulatory capacity than A + B? Hence, 
such models as Skellam’s describing 
coexistence (8) are not necessarily 
incompatible with the exclusion prin- 

in his rebuttal to Hardin’s 


Two species, A and B, interact when 
their niches a and @ intersect in space 
and time. The composite element AB 
may be either more, less, or equally 
effective in regulation. It is suggested 
that the first condition exists when the 
overlap between a@ and £ is small; this 
leads, on a large scale, to complex 
biocenotic phenomena in which com- 
ponents of a tremendously diversified 
biota may coexist. The coupling AB 
is likely, on the other hand, to be 
antagonistic to optimization of regula- 
tion by the whole community; in this 
case, it is postulated, one of the com- 
ponents (the less effective regulator 
acting alone) is purged. This is com- 
petitive exclusion, and it develops 
when a and 8 intersect greatly. Between 
these extremes of cooperation and 
competition lies an area of niche in- 
tersection in which AB is not much 
better or worse than A or B alone. 
This case gives rise to passive coex- 
istence of A and B. These are the ex- 
tremes; even a cursory consideration 
of the permutational possibilities for 
niche intersection gives an immediate 
concept of the overwhelming variety 
of possible interspecific interactions 
and a glimpse of the dangers inherent 
in overemphasizing a single aspect. It 
is therefore advocated that the prin- 
ciple of competitive exclusion be re- 
garded as only a small segment of a 
broad class of interspecific phenomena 


References and Notes 

1. G. Hardin, Science 131, 1292 (1960); L. C. 
Cole, ibid. 132, 348 (1960); D. B. O. Savile, 
ibid. 132, 1761 (1960); ibid., assorted letters. 

2. W. R. Ashby, An Introduction to Cybernetics 
(Wiley, New York, 1958). 

3. J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory 
of Games and Economic Behavior (Prince- 
ton Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947). 

4. G. E. Hutchinson, Cold Spring Harbor Sym- 
posia Quant. Biol. 22 (1957), 415 (1957). 

5. R. H. MacArthur, Ecology 39, 599 (1958). 

6. C. E. Shannon, The Mathematical Theory 
of Communication (Univ. of Illinois Press, 
Urbana, 1949). 

7. J. Neyman, T. Park, E. L. Scott, Gen. Sys- 
tems 3, 152 (1958). 

8. J. G. Skellam, Biometrika 38, 196 (1951). 

9. This report is contribution No. 106 from the 
Virginia Institute of Marine Science. 


Science and the News 

Money for Space: The Program’s 
Managers Fear the Public Does 
Not Understand the Issue 

The space budget next year will be 
about double what it is this year: about 
$3 to $3.5 billion compared to $1.7 
billion during the current year. The 
figures are a bit higher than those 
talked about when the President pro- 
posed the accelerated program last 
spring, but they are not surprising, and 
Congress will almost certainly accept 
them without too much fuss. The Ad- 
ministration put a great deal of em- 
phasis last year on the point that it 
would make no sense for Congress 
to provide the money for the first year 
of the accelerated program unless it 
were prepared to follow through with 
the even larger appropriations that 
would become necessary in succeeding 
years to keep to the accelerated time 
schedule. This did not put Congress 
under a legally binding commitment 
to continue support for the program, 
but as a practical matter the commit- 
ment was implied when Congress put 
up the first year’s appropriation, and 
the Administration is likely to get the 
money it asks for. Nevertheless, there 
is a good deal of anxiety within the 
space agency and General Shriever’s 
Air Force Research and Development 
Command, which has charge of most 
Defense Department space programs, 
that the public does not really under- 
stand where the money for space is go- 
ing, and why it is, in the Administra- 
tion’s view at least, well worth spend- 

At the American Rocket Society 
meeting in New York last month, 
Shriever, Wernher Von Braun, and 
Hugh Dryden, chief scientist at the 
Space Agency, all gave pretty much 
the same reply when they were asked 
to wind up a panel discussion of the 
space program by suggesting what they 
would wish for the space program 


above all in the coming year: all three 
men spoke of a hope that the public 
would come to understand what is 
involved in the space program, for 
without this, they suggested, continued 
support for the program would be 
threatened. What bothered them was 
that a great many people seemed to 
think of the entire space program as 
an elaborate stunt in which $20 billion 
would be spent to put one man on the 
moon. All the panelists were plainly 
concerned that the public does not un- 
derstand the difference between what 
would be the overt sign of the project’s 
success—that is, sending a man to the 
moon and bringing him back—and 
the thing that is really being bought for 
the $20 billion: the major advances in 
science and technology that will make 
the first trip possible. The interesting 
thing about this problem is that al- 
though the public misunderstanding 
seems to be widespread, it does not 
present any serious obstacle as yet to 
the Administration’s getting the money 
it wants for the program. 
Congressmen concerned with the 
space program regularly warn the Ad- 
ministration that they are getting a 
good deal of mail from voters who 
think the project is a stunt and not 
worth the money, but the lack of un- 
derstanding has an almost secret status: 
there is no real public debate on the 
wisdom of the accelerated program, 
and no sign that any is developing. 
Last year the program swept through 
Congress with no difficulty at all, de- 
spite the concern expressed by a num- 
ber of important Congressmen, who 
said they were having trouble explain- 
ing the program to their constituents. 
What has happened is that there is 
an overwhelming coalition of political 
forces behind the space program, so 
overwhelming that the doubts that 
exist among the public are almost 
never articulated by a source com- 
manding the attention of a large share 

of the public. The space program has 
come to be accepted by all the major 
political factions as an aspect of the 
Cold War. The Kennedy Administration 
is under attack for not pursuing the 
Cold War with sufficient vigor. The re- 
sult is that even its strongest opponents, 
since they accept the assurances of the 
Defense Department that developments 
in space will have major military im- 
plications, have no desire to exploit 
the public’s misunderstanding of what 
is being bought for the $20 billion 
that will eventually be spent on the 
moon program. The space officials are 
anxious to clear up the public’s mis- 
understanding, and so to remove even 
the possibility of its being exploited, 
but although their anxiety is under- 

standable, they really do not seem to | 

have much to worry about. 

In all this former President Eisen- 
hower occupies a peculiar position. He 
is the one major political figure in the 
country who is outspokenly against the 
space program. Last week he told an 
audience at Case Institute of Tech- 
nology that he could not understand 
why the Administration, at a_ time 
when the federal budget seemed to be 
getting out of hand, should choose to 
challenge the Russians to a race to the 
moon. The remark struck a sympathetic 
note for the audience, or at least part 
of the audience. It brought the only 
outburst of applause that came during 
his 30-minute talk. 

A couple of weeks earlier, while 
campaigning for the Republican can- 
didate for mayor of New York, Eisen- 
hower had sought to ridicule both the 
space program and the Peace Corps 
by suggesting that as long as the Ad- 
ministration was so interested in ex- 
periments in space, it might try send- 
ing the Peace Corps to the moon. 
About the same time, the New York 
Times printed a long story summariz- 
ing the results of a series of interviews 
with the general and members of his 
staff. The Times reported that Eisen- 
hower felt the sole reason for the moon 
program was that the Administration 
was looking for any excuse to spend 
more money. 

But there has been no sign at all 
that Eisenhower, despite his promi 
nence, has succeeded in arousing any 
significant popular opposition to the 
space program, despite fears of the 
space officials that there is a good deal 
of latent opposition around just waiting 
for a leader to bring it to life. This is 








to | 


it | 





sen- |) 
the | 

1 an 
o be 
e to 
) the 

h the 
. Ad- 
1 eX 
yf his 

at all 
g any 
o the 
yf the 
d deal 
This is 

‘OL. 13 

not really surprising, for at the moment 
Eisenhower is a captain with no lieuten- 
ants. Like an advertising man who wants 
to sell some toothpaste, a politician who 
wants to sell an idea has to keep re- 
peating it over and over again, and 
see to it that the same idea is echoed 
over and over again by his followers. 
But there is no one to pick up Eisen- 
hower’s lead, either among other major 
political figures or in the mass-circula- 
tion press, for there is no significant 
faction in American politics that shares 
his view that the Administration has 
no better reason for supporting the 
space program than as an excuse to 
spend money. 

What public discussion there has been 
on the space program has not been on 
the overall question of whether too 
much emphasis is being put on the 
whole business, but on matters of de- 
tail, such as the technical question of 
how to get to the moon most efficiently 
and the administrative question of how 
to deal with the sometimes conflicting 
jurisdictional claims of the civilian 
Space Agency and the Air Force. 

On getting to the moon, Von Braun's 
longstanding advocacy of the rendez- 
vous technique has been gaining ground. 
Rendezvous involves launching the final 
moon rocket and the passenger capsule 
in two or more segments, having them 
join together while in orbit, and from 
orbit launch themselves toward the 
moon. The alternative is to use one very 
large rocket to send the vehicle directly 
to the moon. A decision has been made 
to push about equally in both directions 
for the time being. Until now the major 
emphasis has been on the direct ap- 
proach and the necessary development 
of a big rocket to carry it out. 

On the jurisdictional question, the 
Air Force has been pushing hard for a 
greater role in the space effort. So far 
it has been getting no noticeable sup- 
port from the Department of Defense, 
but a good deal of support from 
Lyndon Johnson, whose duties as vice 
president include the chairmanship of 
the Space Council. The details of the 
coming federal budget will give an idea 
of what success, if any, the Air Force 
has had in pressing its view that no 
useful line can be drawn between the 
military and civilian space programs, 
and therefore that nothing should be 
considered automatically unsuitable 
for development by the Air Force. The 
civilian Space Agency, of course, takes 
a different view of the situation —H.M. 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

Overhead Costs: Intangibles 
Make It Difficult To Compute 
Cost of University Research 

Officials of the University of Chicago 
reacted angrily last week to a report 
that the university may turn a profit 
under a new federal contract for opera- 
tion of Argonne National Laboratory. 

The possibility was stated in a New 
York Times report which revealed that 
the Atomic Energy Commission had 
agreed to give the university a ““manage- 
ment allowance,” in lieu of the overhead 
allowance provided for in the expiring 
contract. Under the old contract, the 
university received about $500,000 an- 
nually for the indirect, or overhead, 
costs incurred in operating the $50- 
million-a-year laboratory. The univer- 
sity has repeatedly complained, as have 
almost all institutions doing research 
for the government, that this overhead 
allowance is niggardly and fails to re- 
flect a considerable portion of the “hid- 
den” costs of research. 

In negotiations for the new contract, 
the University of Chicago sought an 
overhead allowance of $1.6 million. 
This figure, according to university offi- 
cials, was based on the general expan- 
sion of university activities since the 
contract was last under review, and on 
the university’s contention that the AEC 
had been fairly miserly last time in its 
interpretation of indirect costs related 
to Argonne National Laboratory. 

The AEC’s accountants, however, 
saw justification for an increase of only 
$100,000 in the current allowance. The 
university then proposed that point-by- 
point accounting be abandoned, and 
that the university be given a lump al- 
lowance of $1.2 million. This proposal 
was accepted by the AEC, reportedly 
by a 3 to 2 vote of the commissioners. 
The attendant news report stated that 
the AEC “has adopted a policy opening 
the door for universities to make a 
profit on their management of the com- 
mission’s national laboratories.” To 
this, university officials reply that even 
the increased sum is inadequate and 
that the suggestion of profit is pre- 
posterous. They also point out that the 
University of Chicago is by no means 
the pioneer in receiving a management 
allowance from the AEC. In past years, 
this provision has been written into 
AEC contracts with the University of 
California, which operates Los Alamos 
Scientific Laboratory and the Lawrence 
Radiation Laboratory, and Associated 

Universities, Inc., which operates 
Brookhaven National Laboratory. 

The differing points of view on over- 
head costs illuminate the fact that this 
computation is probably as much an 
affair of the heart as it is of the ac- 
countant’s tape. Underlying the issue, 
in this and similar cases, are conflicting 
concepts of the nature of university re- 
search. Government budget officers, in- 
terested in making their funds go as far 
as possible, tend to view university re- 
search as something that, financially, at 
least, can be isolated from the over- 
all university environment. University 
budget officials, seeking to make their 
funds go as far as possible, take a 
broader view of just how much indirect 
support the university environment af- 
fords specific research efforts. 

The uncertainties of what constitutes 
justifiable overhead costs are matched 
by the uncertainties of what criteria 
should be applied in computing them. 
In theory, the basic document is an 
equally damned and praised Bureau of 
the Budget publication which recom- 
mends, but does not require, the appli- 
cation of certain standards. Standing 
aloof from the bureau’s recommenda- 
tions are the Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare and the Na- 
tional Science Foundation. Health, Edu- 
cation, and Welfare limits its overhead 
costs on grants and contracts to 15 per- 
cent, a figure which is widely considered 
to be inadequate, but which strikes the 
fancy of Representative Fogarty, chair- 
man of the appropriations subcommit- 
tee that passes on HEW funds. The 
National Science Foundation pays 20 
percent, but there are indications that 
NSF is coming to the conclusion that 
this figure is too low, and it may pro- 
vide for an increase in the near future. 

Just what other departments and 
agencies pay is not easily arrived at. 
One government official who is familiar 
with the practices of a number of fed- 
eral agencies contends that, for a given 
piece of research, a university could 
find itself receiving over 70 percent in 
overhead costs from the Department of 
Defense, 20 percent from NSF, and 15 
percent from HEW. 

The Bureau of the Budget guidelines 
are looked upon by many university 
officials as completely to their liking, 
and their fervent wish is that budget 
officers would take the guidelines to 
heart. In the 22 pages of specifications 
for computing costs, sufficient latitude 
is present to justify a happy agreement 


between any generous government 
budget officer and any straitened uni- 
versity counterpart. The difficulty is 
that the two come to the bargaining 
table with differing interests. Not so 
pleased with the Bureau of the Budget 
guidelines are the budget officers of a 
number of universities, especially 
smaller ones, who look upon the docu- 
ment as an accountant’s nightmare. 

On the generally recognized indirect 
costs such as heat, light, janitorial serv- 
ice, and procurement of help, there is 
little disagreement. From there on, 
however, the possible interpretations 
lead some government budget officials 
to the conclusion that the universities 
are seeking to milk them, and university 
Officials to the conclusion that some 
government officials are ignorant of 
what makes a university tick. 

In the University of Chicago nego- 
tiations with the AEC, one matter of 
contention was the question of how 
much the AEC should pay in indirect 
costs for the support which the univer- 
sity library provides for Argonne 
Laboratory, which is some 35 miles 
away from the campus. It was the 
AEC’s contention that the university 
library is of little significance in the 
operation of the laboratory, which has 
its own local library facilities. This in- 
terpretation of the library’s relationship 
to Argonne sends despair through uni- 
versity officials, who find it difficult to 
convince cost accountants that a univer- 
sity cannot be dissected. 

On an even more subtle point, the 
intangible, unascertainable support that 
one element of a university lends to 
another simply through the informal 
personal relationships that develop 
among its people, there is no convincing 
the cost accountants. 

“How,” asked one official, “can you 
explain the value that’s derived from 
having people on a physics project in a 
position where they can consult with 
people in the mathematics department? 
There’s no dollars-and-cents value that 
can be assigned to that. But it’s indirect 
support, if anything is indirect support. 
When pennies are pinched on the work 
that a university does for the govern- 
ment, the result is belt tightening that 
can subtly affect the government work.” 

In support of their case for the in- 
tangible benefits that research derives 
from a university environment, univer- 
sity officials point out that profit-mak- 
ing firms holding government contracts 
frequently develop formal as well as 
informal relationships with nearby uni- 


versities. The benefits flow both ways, 
of course, and defy cost analysis, but 
they support the contention that the 
presence of the campus is a plus for 
the researcher carrying out a specific 
government project. 

Some government officials feel that 
universities tend to exaggerate the over- 
head expense involved in carrying out 
federally financed research projects, 
especially at large-scale research facili- 
ties, such as the AEC’s national labora- 
tories. These, they point out, are fre- 
quently located some distance from the 
main campus, and they have developed 
into largely self-contained units that re- 
quire little support from the parent in- 
stitution. In regard to on-campus, small- 
scale research projects, those skeptical 
of the universities’ pleas argue that gov- 
ernment money has brought unparal- 
leled prosperity into university science. 
Like Representative Fogarty, who is 
skeptical of the claim that HEW’s 15 
percent limit is inadequate, they say 
that they do not notice any significant 
number of universities declining the op- 
portunity to undertake government 
work,. despite the size of the overhead 

The question of a fair allowance 
draws various figures. Fogariy’s com- 
mittee was told last spring that a limited 
survey of small institutions placed their 
average overhead costs at 42 percent; 
larger institutions reported theirs at 
34 percent. The National Science 
Foundation is preparing a study that is 
expected to offer a broader consensus. 

In the meantime, the views of the 
universities are being coordinated and 
pushed for the first time in Washington 
through the Committee on Govern- 
mental Relations of the National Fed- 
eration of College and University Busi- 
ness Officers. This organization is try- 
ing to get across a message that so far 
has received little attention. Although 
the Administration has paid lip service 
to the universities’ pleas, the case for 
enlarging HEW’s 15-percent overhéad 
allowance got lost on the crowded and 
noisy route between the White House 
and Capitol Hill. The funds sought by 
the Administration for the HEW over- 
head increase were paltry in relation 
to overall research expenditures. And 
in the Senate-House conference on the 
measure, the Senators who had backed 
an increase showed no willingness to 
fight for their point. A more forceful 
presentation of the universities’ case 
might have made a difference in the 

Civil Defense: The Confusion 
Will Not Be Easily Dissipated 

The Administration’s desire to chart 
a civil defense program for the nation 
was bogged down this week in the 
vast uncertainties that bedevil any at- 
tempt to foresee and prepare for the 
havoc of a nuclear attack. 

One element of the program—a sur- 
vey of existing structures that would 
offer fallout protection—was reported 
to be moving along; but in its insistence 
on individual and family efforts for 
survival, the Administration found that 
it had sown considerable confusion. 
The details on just what each house- 
hold should do in behalf of its own 
survival have not yet been put forth 
by the Administration. Into the breach 
has stepped an array of experts with 

advice ranging from nothing to pre- 

scriptions for elaborate shelters. Life 
magazine reports that 97 out of every 
100 persons can be saved through 
proper preparation; Tom T. Stonier of 
the Rockefeller Institute, reporting on 
behalf of the Scientists’ Committee for 
Radiation Information, estimated that 
the fire storm produced by a 20-mega- 
ton blast at New York’s~ Columbus 
Circle would kill 6 million of the city’s 
8 million residents. Additional lives, 
he said, would be lost in the city’s 

While the debate is being carried 
on by nongovernmental parties, the 
Administration’s civil defense planners 
are cautiously picking their way toward 
what will be the “official” government 
policy on civil defense. Their difficul- 
ties are illustrated by the fact that a 
civil defense booklet which is to be 
sent to every family has now been in 
preparation for about 3 months; until 
recently, it was expected that it would 
be completed this month, but in the 
Office of Emergency Planning it is 
now estimated that the publication will 
not be ready until December, possibly 
later. OEP officials say that before the 
booklet is sent to every household in 
the United States, it will probably be 
subjected to a pilot testing, which may 
well result in further changes and de- 

Regardless of the date of distribu- 
tion, it is unlikely that widespread 
harmony will be achieved by any of- 
ficial design for coping with the un- 
known. From some critics of the Ad- 
ministration’s slowness has come the 
happy thought that a few well-chosen 
statements would end public confusion 


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VOL. 134 

in this area. Among the planners, how- 
ever, there is the knowledge that no 
matter how much wisdom they com- 
press into the civil defense booklet, 
the uncertainties are such that an 
honest approach will not produce any- 
thing resembling Life’s conclusions. 
And if an attempt is made to down- 
grade the destructiveness of nuclear 
weapons, the inevitable confrontation 
of well-founded, conflicting views will 
undermine public confidence in the 
entire program. 

Further complicating the task of the 
planners is the fact that it must be 
conceded at the outset that for a vast 
number of people—those in an im- 
mediate target area—no preparation 
can be beneficial; while for those out- 
side the target area, survival is pred- 
icated on a number of highly optimistic 
assumptions, including that of no fol- 
low-up attacks. 

The caution with which the Presi- 
dent is approaching the overall subject 
is illustrated by what he said at his 
news conference last week. In reply to 
a question on what could be done to 
dispel public confusion on civil de- 
fense, he stated that “it’s very difficult 
in a large country, with varying prob- 
lems of geography, with 180 million 
people, to suddenly organize a civil 
defense program. . . . I stated in July 
that we were going to send a book giv- 
ing the latest information that we had 
to every household. . . . We are very 
conscious of the difficulties. We are 
very conscious of the desire of people 
to have accurate and precise informa- 

Whatever accuracy and _ precision 
may be achieved by the planners, con- 
fusion is, unfortunately, an inevitable 
by-product of any attempt to prepare 
the civilian population for the un- 
knowns of nuclear warfare. The con- 
fusion is likely to be with us long after 
the booklet and the policy have been 

Last year the Supreme Court refused 
to judge Connecticut’s birth-control law 
on the grounds that the law was not be- 
ing enforced, and that nobody’s rights 
were being infringed upon. The ruling 
followed well-established precedents in- 
tended to discourage unnecessary liti- 
gation. This month the law was invoked, 
for the first time in this century, against 
a birth-control clinic in New Haven, 
and a court ruling on the constitutional 
question now becomes almost inevit- 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 


A dental clinic for emotionally dis- 
turbed patients, or for individuals who 
have fears so severe that they are un- 
able to undergo usual dental treatment, 
opened this month as an affiliate of the 
Columbia University School of Dental 
and Oral Surgery. The staff, in an effort 
to reduce unfavorable dental associa- 
tions, will work in street clothes and 
use amnesic drugs, general anesthetics, 
and specialized equipment. (Dental 
Clinic, Grand Central Hospital, 321 E. 
42 St., New York 17) 

An installation for ground-based scat- 
ter radar explorations of upper atmos- 
phere and outer space is being con- 
structed by the National Bureau of 
Standards and the Peruvian Instituto 
Geofisico de Huancayo. The new Jica- 
marca Observatory will have a 6-million 
watt pulse transmitter and a 22-acre 
antenna, and will be used to measure 
the intensity of the earth’s magnetic 
field, to observe radar echoes from the 
sun’s corona and from solar gas clouds, 
to study small-scale irregularities in the 
outer atmosphere, and to search for 
radio stars one magnitude weaker than 
those observed to date. The observatory, 
located at a site 17 miles east of Lima, 
Peru, is expected to be operational in 
December 1961. 

Training and career development op- 
portunities in the U.S. Public Health 
Service’s mental health program are 
outlined in Careers in Psychiatry, re- 
cently published by the National Insti- 
tutes of Health. The booklet includes 
descriptions of locations, types, and 
major phases of the programs; methods 
of candidate selection; and 

the pay 
scale and residencies available. (NIH, 
Office of Research Information, Be- 

thesda 14, Md.) 

Iodine-125, a relatively new radio- 
isotope previously available only in 
research quantities, is currently being 
produced at Oak Ridge National 
Laboratory for $1 per millicurie on 
a production basis. (ORNL, P.O. Box 
X, Oak Ridge, Tenn.) 

A curriculum guide on establishing 
electronics training programs in second- 
ary schools has been published by the 
Radio Corporation of America. The 
volume contains outlines of sample 
courses, a checklist of considerations in 

launching such a program, laboratory 
equipment requirements, and a descrip- 
tion of available training devices. (RCA 
Audio Products, Meadow Lands, Pa. 

Grants, Fellowships, and Awards 

Applications are being accepted for 
the 1962 Organization for Economic 
Cooperation and Development (OECD) 
senior visiting fellowships in science 
and technology (excluding social sci- 
ence, economics, psychology, pharmacy, 
and medicine). Candidates, to be nom- 
inated by scientific or technical institu- 
tions in the United States, its territories, 
or possessions, must be senior staff sci- 
entists, engineers, or mathematicians 
who (i) are citizens or nationals of the 
U.S. as of 2 April 1962; (ii) have full 
professional standing in the field with 
which the fellowship is to be concerned: 
and (iii) have at least 5 years of pro- 
fessional research or teaching experi- 
ence. Recipients will spend from 8 
weeks to 6 months studying new tech- 
niques and developments at research 
institutions, primarily in countries that 
are members of, or cooperating with, 
the OECD (Austria, Belgium, Canada, 
Denmark, France, West Germany, 
Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxem- 
bourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Por- 
tugal, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, the 
United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia). 
Deadline: 5 January 1962. (Fellowship 
Office, National Academy of Sciences, 
Washington 25, D.C.) 

Applications are now being accepted 
for graduate research fellowships, as- 
sistantships, and scholarships in for- 
estry for 1962-63. Research fellow- 
ships carry minimum annual stipends 
of $2100; 9-month _ assistantships, 
$1700-$2000; scholarships, $300. 
Deadline: / March 1962. (Associate 
Dean for Graduate Studies, New 
York State University College of For- 
estry, Syracuse 10) 

Applications are now being accepted 
for the 1962 Lalor Foundation awards 
given for research on fertility and the 
basic phenomena involved in the funda- 
mental biochemicai and physiological 
mechanisms that are concerned with 
the early stages of reproduction in 
various forms of life. The awards, rang- 
ing up to $8000 per year, will be given 
to members of university and college 
faculty and staff, with preference to 


those who are under 41 years of age. 

The foundation will also grant post- 
doctorate summer or short-term re- 
search awards, which will be limited to 
$1000 for single applicants (male or 
female); $1200 for a married man work- 
ing at his home institution; and $1350 
for a married man whose principal pro- 
gram is at another institution. Deadline: 
15 January 1962. (Lalor Foundation, 
4400 Lancaster Pike, Wilmington 5, 

Fifty Shell merit fellowships at Stan- 
ford University are available for high 
school science and mathematics teach- 
ers who wish to obtain advanced study 
in their teaching fields. The fellowships, 
awarded on a regional basis, provide 
full tuition for the 1962 summer ses- 
sion, board and lodging, transportation 
allowance (not to exceed $150),-and a 
$500 cash stipend. Applicants must 
have a bachelor of science degree and 
a minimum of 5 years’ teaching exper- 
ience. Deadline: 4 January 1962. (Paul 
D. Hurd, Shell Merit Programs, Stan- 
ford University, Stanford, California) 

The 1962 North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization fellowships for the study of 
science abroad will again be adminis- 
tered by the National Science Founda- 
tion. Applicants, who must have a doc- 
toral degree or equivalent experience, 
are encouraged to study in a NATO- 
member country, although considera- 
tion will be given to those planning to 
study elsewhere. Fellows will receive 
$5000 for full-year tenures and $3750 
for the academic year, plus limited de- 
pendency and round-trip travel allow- 
ances. Deadline: 18 December 1961. 
(Fellowship Office, National Academy 
of Sciences, Washington 25, D.C.) 

Applications are now being accepted 
for the 1962 foreign fellowships for 
medical students, available to all stu- 
dents who have satisfactorily completed 
their junior year of medical education. 
The program, sponsored by Smith 
Kline & French Laboratories in Phila- 
delphia, provides clinical experience 
abroad for an average period of 12 
weeks. The amount of the grant is 
determined according to individual ex- 
pense and need, varying with different 
programs and locations. Deadline for 
receipt of applications (to be obtained 
from school deans): 31 December 
1961. (Association of American Medi- 
cal Colleges, 2530 Ridge Ave., Evans- 
ton, Ill.) 


Applications are being accepted for 
grants-in-aid of research in arctic and 
subarctic North America and Antarc- 
tica. Proposals which include field stud- 
ies are particularly welcomed. (Arctic 
Institute of North America, 1530 P St., 
NW, Washington 5, D.C.) 

Applications are being accepted for - 
the 1962-63 research fellowships in 
psychometrics leading to the Ph.D. de- 
gree. Fellows will be engaged in training 
and research with Princeton Univer- 
sity’s educational testing service on a 
part-time basis during the academic year 
and full-time during two of the summer 
months. Stipends are $3750 per year 
plus allowances for dependent children. 
Deadline for receipt of applications and 
supporting material: 5 January 1962. 
(Psychometric Fellowship Program, Ed- 
ucational Testing Service, Princeton, 

Applications for the 1962-63 Na- 
tional Science Foundation graduate and 
postdoctoral fellowships are currently 
being accepted. Fellowships will be 
awarded in the mathematical, physical, 
medical, biological, and engineering 
sciences; and in anthropology, geogra- 
phy, psychology (excluding clinical 
psychology), sociology (not including 
social work), economics (excluding 
business administration), and the his- 
tory and philosophy of science. Appli- 
cants, who must be U.S. citizens, are 
required to take the graduate record 
examinations which will be evaluated 
by appointees of the National Academy 
of Sciences—National Research Council. 
A brochure describing the fellowships 
is available from the National Science 
Foundation, Washington 25, D.C. 

Deadline for receipt of applications: 
5 January 1962. (Fellowship Office, 
NAS-NRC, 2101 Constitution Ave., 
NW, Washington 25, D.C.) 

The U.S. Public Health Service has 
published a brochure outlining re- 
search and training grants in environ- 
mental health—air pollution, environ- 
mental engineering and food protec- 
tion, occupational health, radiological 
health, and water supply and pollution 
control. (Office of Resource Develop- 
ment, Bureau of State Services, PHS, 
Washington 25, D.C.) 

Fellowships for advanced training in 
health physics for 1962-63, leading to 
the doctoral degree, are available 
through the U.S. Atomic Energy Com- 

mission. Applicants, preferably under 
32 years of age, must have a.minimum 
of 2 years’ experience in health phys- 
ics (exclusive of training), and should 
be currently working in the field. A 
stipend of $4000 will be awarded for 
the first year, and may be renewed for 
up to 3 years. Deadline: 1 February 
1962. (Fellowship Office, Oak Ridge 
Institute of Nuclear Studies, Oak Ridge, 

The National Science Foundation is 
offering fellowships for secondary 
school teachers of science and mathe- 
matics. The fellowships, established to 
support summer study in the mathe- 
matical, physical, and biological sciences 
at institutions chosen by the fellows, 
will begin in 1962 and continue for a 
maximum of 3 successive summers. Ap- 
plicants must hold a bachelor’s degree 

or its equivalent, and have at least 3. 

years of secondary-school teaching ex- 
perience. Stipends of $75 will be pro- 
vided for each week of tenure, plus 
travel, tuition, and dependency allow- 
ances. Deadline: 5 January 1962. Re- 
cipients, to be chosen by AAAS-ap- 
pointed panelists, will be notified by 15 
March. (Secondary School Fellowships, 
AAAS, 1515 Massachusetis Ave., NW, 
Washington 5, D.C.) 


An international field institute for 
U.S. college and university geology 
teachers will be conduct~«: in the Swiss 
Alps during the summe: of 1962. The 
8-week program, sponsored by the 
American Geological Institute under a 
National Science Foundation grant, will 
provide an opportunity for geological 
study of the Alps and adjacent field 
areas of France, Italy, and Austria, un- 
der the leadership of Swiss scientists. 
Participants will receive travel and sub- 
sistence allowances. Deadline: J Feb- 
ruary 1962. (D. L. Blackstone, Jr. 
AGI-IFI-Alps 1962, c/o Dept. of Geol- 
ogy, University of Wyoming, Laramie) 

The 3rd international course on 
freeze-drying will be presented from 17 
to 28 July 1962 in Lyon, France. Lec 
tures covering basic theory, research, 
and industrial applications will be de- 
livered in both French and English by 
authorities from France, England, Ger 
many, and the United States. (H. T. 
Meryman, Naval Medical Research In- 
stitute, Bethesda 14, Md.) 



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New Journals 

Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 1, No. 1, 
June 1961. F. Seitelberger, Managing 
Ed., World Federation of Neurology. 
Springer, Heidelberger Platz 3, West 
Berlin, Germany. Irregular. Maximum 
price per volume, DM 180. 

Bulletin on Bibliography, Documen- 
tation and Terminology, vol. 1, No. 2, 
May 1961. Department of Natural Sci- 
ences, UNESCO, Place de Fontenoy, 
Paris 7°, France. Free of charge. 

Cahiers du Pacifique, No. 3, June 
1961. Museum National d’Histoire Na- 
turelle, 57, rue Cuvier, Paris 5°, France. 

Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 
1, No. 1, July 1961. S. S. Kety, Ed. 
Pergamon Press, Headington Hill Hall, 
Oxford, England. $20 per year. 

Journal of the National Research 
Council of Thailand, vol. 1, No. 1, 
1960. B. Kalakicha, Ed. Office of the 
National Research Council, Phya Thai, 
Rama VI Road, Bangkok, Thailand. 
Quarterly. $5 per annum. 

National Institute of Animal Health 
Quarterly, vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1961. 
S. Ishii, director. Extension and Infor- 
mation Service, National Institute of 
Animal Health, Kodaira-machi, Kita- 
tama-gun, Tokyo, Japan. 

Problems of Psychology (translation 
journal), vol. 1, No. 1, June 1961. N. 
O’Connor, Ed., Pergamon Press, Head- 
ington Hill Hall, Oxford, England. 
Quarterly. $12 per issue; $40 per year. 

Quarterly Journal of Crude Drug 
Research, vol. 1, No. 1, 1961. E. F. 
Steinmetz, Ed. E. F. Steinmetz, 347 
Keizersgracht, Amsterdam (Nether- 
lands). $6.90 per annum. 

Scientists in the News 

Frederick N. Andrews, professor of 
animal physiology and head of the 
dairy department, has been named head 
of the recently formed department of 
animal sciences at Purdue, effective in 
January 1962. The new department 
combines the present separate depart- 
ments of animal, dairy, and poultry 
science. J. Holmes Martin, head of 
poultry science at the university, will 
become assistant head and coordinator 
of genetic investigations in the depart- 

Robert F. Tebbe, of Gordon College 
in West Pakistan, is a visiting professor 
of chemistry for 1961-62 at Western 
Reserve University. 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

R. Karl Honaman, engineer and re- 
tired director of publications for Bell 
Telephone Laboratories, has been elect- 
ed chairman of the board and chief 
executive officer of Floating Floors, 
Inc., in New York, producers of envi- 
ronmental facilities for data processing 

Carl E. Ludwig, professor of life sci- 
ence and chairman of the department 
at Sacramento (California) State Col- 
lege, is serving as guest research profes- 
sor at the West German Zoologisches 
Institut der Universitat Wiirzburg, dur- 
ing his 1961-62 sabbatical leave. R. 
Darby, assistant professor of life sci- 
ence, is acting chairman of the depart- 

Harvey A. Neville, chief administra- 
tive officer and former director of the 
institute of research at Lehigh Univer- 
sity, has been appointed the ninth 
president of the university. 

Morris E. Rose, former chief physi- 
cist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 
has joined the University of Virginia 
faculty as professor of physics. 

Max Bender, senior research chemist 
with the American Cyanamid Com- 
pany, has been appointed assistant pro- 
fessor of chemistry at Fairleigh Dick- 
inson University. 

Recently appointed associate profes- 
sors in the University of Maryland’s 
department of physics: 

Rolfe E. Glover, III, of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. 

Gianni Quareni, of the University 
of Bologna. 

Margaret Waggoner, 

Gaurang Yodh, of Carnegie Institute 
of Technology. 

of Stanford 

John T. Cowles, former professor of 
psychology and director of educational 
planning and health professions at the 
University of Pittsburgh, has been 
elected president of the Maurice Falk 
Medical Fund in Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Raymond C. Grills, chemist, has 
been appointed to the newly created 
position of manager of new ventures 
in the Du Pont Company’s film depart- 
ment. He was previously vice presi- 
dent and general manager of Ducilo 
S.A.LC., the company’s Argentine 

Bert R. Boone, retired public health 
officer with the U.S. Public Health 
Service, has become assistant. dean for 
research at Temple University Medical 

Virgil Heniser, former science de- 
partment head at the Thomas Carr 
Howe High School in Indianapolis, has 
been appointed a coordinator for 
school science at Indiana University. 

Recent Deaths 

Thomas H. Bartilson, 62; assistant di- 
rector of the U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture’s animal husbandry research 
division at Beltsville, Md.; 9 Oct. 

Edward L. Corey, 59; -professor of 
physiology at the University of Virginia 
School of Medicine; 28 Apr. 

Glen H. Hoppin, 81; engineer for- 
merly with the U.S. Naval Ordnance 
Laboratory; 31 Oct. 

Paul J. Kiefer, Sr., 74; retired profes- 
sor of engineering and thermodynamics 
at the Naval Academy’s postgraduate 
school; 4 Sept. 

Roscoe E. Lewis, 57; former chemis- 
try teacher and chairman of the social 
science department at Hampton (Va.) 
Institute from 1945 to 1953; 14 Sept. 

Walter L. Lowry, 54; recently ap- 
pointed dean of the school of engineer- 
ing at Clemson College; 14 Sept. 

Jeanette B. Obenchain, 85; former 
research associate professor of neurol- 
ogy at the University of Chicago and 
assistant professor of neurology at 
Western Reserve University; 29 Sept. 

Vaux Owen, Jr., 34; geologist with 
the U.S. Geological Survey; 28 Oct. 

Ernest Schwarz, 71; mammalogist 
and former lecturer in epidemiology at 
U.S. Naval Medical School in Bethesda, 
Md.; 23 Sept. 

Edward H. Smith, 72; former direc- 
tor of the Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution (Mass.); 29 Oct. 

Erratum: The annual index to products adver- 
tised in Science [134, 1253 (20 Oct. 1961)] con- 
tains an error in the listings for counters on 
page 1266. The counters now listed under “Coun- 
ters, Whole Body,” which were advertised at 
various times during 1961 by Packard Instrument 
Co., Inc., and Nuclear Chicago Corp., should, 
with one exception, have appeared under “‘Coun- 
ters, Liquid Scintillation, Automatic.” The ex- 
ception is that the last entry for Packard Instru- 
ment Co. (15 Sept., 702) should remain under 
“Counters, Whole Body.” 

Erratum: In the announcement on the Na- 
tional Rehabilitation Research-Training Center 
[Science 134, 1351 (27 Oct. 1961)], the U.S. 
Public Health Service was erroneously credited 
with establishing the center. The center was es- 
tablished by the U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare’s Office of Vocational 



Psychology’s Role th 

Economic Development 

Is there an identifiable personality trait that 
promotes or retards economic progress in societies? 

It is a remarkable project for a 
scholar to attempt “to isolate certain 
psychological factors and to demon- 
strate rigorously by quantitative meth- 
ods that these factors are generally im- 
portant in economic development.” 
This attempt David C. McClelland be- 
gan 15 years or so ago. In The Achiev- 
ing Society (Van Nostrand, Princeton, 
N.J., 1961. 527 pp. $7.95) McClelland 
weaves the many threads of his pro- 
digious labors into a tapestry intended 
to portray his thesis comprehensively 
and persuasively. 

Some persons, he indicates, are char- 
acterized in greater degree than others 
by the “achievement motive,” and some 
are characterized in greater degree than 
others by what David Riesman has 
termed “other-directedness.” The fre- 
quency with which these two character- 
istics are present in personality varies 
among societies. The rate of economic 
progress of a society tends to depend 
on their presence and depends very lit- 
tle on factors which other students of 
economic development have thought 
important. Moreover, we know what 
type of childhood environment causes 
the achievement motive to appear in an 
individual, and perhaps we also know 
what circumstances inculcate other- 
directedness; and we can exercise some 
limited influence on both. So the 
argument of the book runs. I am not 
convinced that McClelland’s evidence 
supports all of his conclusions and 
recommendations, but I am thoroughly 
convinced of the importance of the 
analysis presented. 

Apart from equating the achieve- 
ment motive to “an inner concern with 
achievement,” McClelland nowhere in 
the book defines it. Perhaps with sci- 


Everett E. Hagen 

entific caution he would define it 
simply as that which is measured by 
the tests he administers. The person 
who is characterized by achievement 
motivation is more drawn to problems 
than another person, and he feels more 
satisfaction in the process of solving 
them (but not necessarily in the reward 
he may obtain by solving them). Social 
psychologists are in fair agreement that 
there is such an identifiable characteris- 
tic, that it operates largely in the indi- 
vidual’s unconscious processes (so that 
the individual is apt to err in estimating 
the degree to which he possesses it), 
and that it can be measured with a 
certain degree of accuracy. Under lab- 
oratory conditions McClelland meas- 
ures it convincingly by certain “pro- 
jective tests” and demonstrates a high 
correlation with certain traits of be- 
havior, but for the data used to com- 
pare the degree of achievement moti- 
vation present in different societies, he 
relies mainly on obtaining identical 
types of writing from them (for ex- 
ample, among the writings used are 
poetry, public funeral speeches, and 
third grade readers), from which he 
determines how often, per 100 words, 
achievement-related ideas, as rather 
rigorously defined, appear in each. 

Scope and Method 

He takes the world from the time of 
ancient Greece to the present as his 
laboratory. A brief discussion of two of 
his major studies will illustrate his 
method. Collecting second to fourth 
grade readers in use in 23 nontropical 
countries about 1925 and those in use 
in a larger number of such countries in 

1950, he proceeded to evaluate the 
achievement motivation reflected in the 
stories prepared for school use in each 
country. As one measure of economic 
growth in each of the same countries 
from 1925 to 1950, he took gain in 
national income per capita (Colin 
Clark’s estimates, expressed in “interna- 

~ tional units”). By the statistical method 

of simple correlation, he then computed 
the gain in per capita income that each 
country might have been expected to 
attain in view of its initial level of 
income. He regarded the amount by 
which the country exceeded or fell 
short of the expected increase as meas- 
uring its over- or under-achievement, 
and he found that the scores of the 23 
countries for achievement motivation, 
based on the readers, correlated highly 
with their degree of over- or under- 
achievement. Similarly, the scores for 

achievement motivation in 1925 cor-— 

related highly with the degree of over- 
or under-achievement in increasing the 
production of electricity from 1929 to 
1950, and achievement motivation in 
1950 correlated highly with the degree 
of over- or under-achievement in the 
production of electricity from 1952 to 
1958. ; 

In studying the ancient world, Mc- 
Clelland used a broader time scale. He 
measured the achievement motivation 
expressed in the literature of Greece 
during three time periods: 900 to 475 
B.C., 475 to 362 B.c., and 362 to 100 
B.c. It declined steadily. Then, meas- 
uring Greece’s economic prowess by 
the size of her trade area in the sixth, 
fifth, and fourth centuries, respectively, 
he found economic expansion from the 
sixth to the fifth centuries and contrac- 
tion from the fifth to the fourth. The 
expansion, he concludes, was due to the 
high degree of achievement motivation 
found in the earliest period and the 
contraction to the subsequent decline 
in achievement motivation. 

By similar methods, he finds similar 
relationships between achievement moti- 
vation and economic prowess in Spain 
in the late Middle Ages, in England 

from 1500 to 1833 (economic change f 

lagged 50 years behind change in the 
need to achieve), in the United States 
between 1800 and 1950, and in Peru 
from 800 B.c. to A.D. 700. He adduces 
much other evidence as well, but these 
are some of the main pieces. 

The author is professor of economics at Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology and_ senior 
eo member at its Center for International 






| to I 

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his : 
in v 

on | 
a sc 
(if t 
to e 

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) to 
. in 
2 to 

; by 
1 the 

| ment 
growth? Because, McClelland suggests, 

o the 
| the 



n the 

| “Protestant ethic” 

Economics of Personality 

In the materials he analyzed, McClel- 
land also finds evidence concerning the 
relationship between other personality 
characteristics and economic prowess. 
His evidence casts doubt on various 
hypotheses occasionally suggested in the 
literature, but it convinces him that one 
type of social change is highly favorable 
to development. Economic develop- 
ment will progress if “the force which 
holds society together has shifted from 

| tradition, particularly impersonal insti- 

tutional tradition, to public opinion 
which helps define changing and func- 
tionally specific interpersonal relation- 
ships.” In other words, change in a 
society from “tradition-directedness” 
to “other-directedness” is not merely a 
feature of advanced urban culture as 
Riesman suggests; it is an early change 
which portends economic development. 

, Having uncovered this relationship, as 

he thinks, McClelland asks why it 
should be so; he finds reasons satisfying 

| to him, which, for reasons of space, I 

shall not summarize. 
Why should a high degree of achieve- 
motivation lead to economic 

his studies of individuals that have high 
achievement motivation show that these 
individuals like to take moderate risks 
in which their abilities can influence the 
outcome, to carry on energetic and 
novel instrumental activity, to assume 
Tresponsibility, to undertake actions in 
which success or failure can be meas- 
ured, and to anticipate future possi- 
bilities. These are precisely the desires 
that can be satisfied in entrepreneurial 
business positions, and persons having 
high achievement motivation are there- 
fore drawn to such positions. 

How is achievement motivation in- 
culcated in an individual? It depends, 
McClelland suggests, basing his sugges- 
tions on a considerable amount of em- 
pirical research by social psychologists, 
on childhood training. To summarize 
overly simply a chapter’s discussion, 
achievement motivation will emerge in 
a son if his father is not dominating 
(if the father is, the son will learn not 
to exercise initiative), if his mother is 
highly “nurturant,” and above all if she 
insists that, beginning at an early age, 
but not too early, the son accomplish 
things for himself and rewards him with 
love when he does so. Since the 
stresses individual 
Tesponsibility and should, McClelland 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

thinks, lead parents to insist on early 
achievement by their children, he con- 
cludes that the association which Weber 
noted between the Protestant ethic 
and economic advance is a true causal 

How then may economic growth be 
accelerated? By an ideological campaign 
and the emancipation of women, to 
Overcome resistances to modernization; 
by building factories rather than cottage 
industry, in order to break up tradi- 
tional patterns; by introducing wide- 
spread use of motors, to interest men in 
new things; and by improving trans- 
portation and communication, creating 
a free press, and introducing group 
play in schools and elsewhere, to create 
other-directedness. He has fewer sug- 
gestions for the inculcation of achieve- 
ment motivation. Change in the educa- 
tional system is of doubtful help. One 
study suggests that talking to a man 
about his fantasies, and thus increasing 
his achievement motivation, improves 
his subsequent performance. Lastly, 
McClelland recommends that _ the 
United States government subcontract 
to American business enterprises the 
job of providing technical aid to low- 
income countries. The business enter- 
prises, he suggests, will send men with 
high achievement motivation, and these 
men may set manpower standards for 
the companies being aided, which 
would bring indigenous men who have 
the highest achievement motivation into 
effective roles. 


The work is open to criticisms of 
several types. First, some of the statisti- 
cal methods and deductions leave some- 
thing to be desired. As noted above, 
McClelland calculates a simple regres- 
sion between two variables, then a 
second between achievement motivation 
and deviations from the regression line, 
a procedure which gives spurious results 
if the achievement motivation and the 
variable first used are correlated, as 
they almost certainly are in this case. 
In his introductory chapter, he uses 
simple correlations to test the associa- 
tion of various factors with economic 
growth, whereas multiple correlations 
are surely ‘called for. He makes a 
variety of conversions of data to forms 
he finds more convenient, without, it 
seems to me, adequately justifying the 
procedure. Lastly, not all of his histori- 

cal data fit his theory, unless he assumes 
no lag in the 20th century between the 
presence of the achievement motive and 
its effect on economic growth; in his 
study of England, a lag of 50 years; 
and in his study of ancient Greece, a 
lag of some 300 years. He offers no 
explanation of the differences. (Con- 
ceivably they are justified.) No one 
who knows McClelland’s work would 
have other than the highest respect for 
his scrupulous professional honesty, 
but there are unconscious biases, and 
one wonders how much weaker the 
evidence would look if an equally 
honest man, unconvinced of McClel- 
land’s thesis, took the various sets of 
raw data and analyzed the same rela- 
tionships. A workable model of life is 
probably more complex than McCle!- 
land’s, but there is evidence in addition 
to that which he presents in this book 
to suggest that he has hold of an im- 
portant aspect of the truth. 

Secondly, the theoretical structure 
for the analysis of personality is some- 
what inchoate. The evidence concern- 
ing the relationship between childhood 
environment and need for achievement 
is convincing, within its limited scope, 
but in much other discussion of per- 
sonality characteristics one finds oniy 
the most casual attention to whether 
the characteristics being analyzed could 
coexist in an individual. His discussion 
of how to influence personality suffers 
from the same neglect of the modern 
theory of personality and its formation. 
Great controversies remain in this field, 
but it is no longer a field in which rec- 
ommendations are justified without ref- 
erence to basic theory. 

Lastly, the book lacks style. A book 
in which there are occasional sentences 
like the following needs editing: “Ap- 
parently we have here stumbled across, 
in quite a roundabout way, a funda- 
mental value attitude. . . .” 

Yet this is a book of ideas and 
evidence that cannot be ignored. Too 
many economists have believed that 
low-income countries fail to develop 
simply because they are too poor to 
finance development or have markets 
too small to induce investment; too 
many scientists or engineers have 
thought that, by the injection of a 
little scientific method or a little system 
analysis, the problem could readily be 
solved; and so on. No such person with 
an open mind who reads this book, or 
who reads selected chapters that interest 
him, will be quite as naive thereafter. 


Medical Americana 

The Toadstool Millionaires. A social 
history of patent medicines in Amer- 
ica before federal regulation. James 
Harvey Young. Princeton Univer- 
sity Press, Princeton, N.J., 1961. xii 
+ 282 pp. Illus. $6. 

“Somebody buys all the quack medi- 
cines,” wrote Oliver Wendell Holmes, 
“that build palaces for the mushroom, 
say rather, the toadstool millionaires.” 
This tragicomic quip supplies a title 
with appropriate overtones for the de- 
finitive, interesting book by James Har- 
vey Young, chairman of the history 
department at Emory University. Like 
Holmes’ epigram, Young’s book con- 
veys significant information without be- 
ing dull. It should satisfy the .reader 
lured by its main title, just as it should 
fulfill the promise of its subtitle for the 
more serious seeker. 

The book ought to be in public and 
college libraries, for I think anyone 
who wants to read a single book on 
the social history of patent medicines 
would do well to read this one. Even 
those already rather knowledgeable on 
the subject will find it valuable. 

The author divides his account of 
American patent medicines before 
1906 into five parts: 

About a third of the book, devoted 
to the early period, covers English pat- 
ent medicines in Colonial America, the 
American beginnings—under the stim- 
ulus of such colorful characters as 
Thomas Dyott and Samuel Thomson— 
the relationship of the press to nostrum 
peddlers, and the early voices of criti- 

The heyday of the nostrum kings, 
before federal regulation (occupying 
about a fourth of the book), is viewed 
in relation to the Civil War and its 
aftermath, outdoor advertising, al- 
manacs published under patent-medi- 
cine auspices, and the quackish use of 
the germ theory. Here we meet such 
“toadstool millionaires” as William 
Swaim, Benjamin Brandreth, Henry T. 
Helmbold, and David Hostetter. 

A third part of the book (about 14 
percent of the total) discusses promo- 
tional methodssand psychology, includ- 
ing the techniques of medicine shows. 
Then we follow the rising tide of criti- 
cism against excesses (about 15 per- 
cent), which culminated in the Federal 
Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906. A 
factual epilogue (about 5 percent of the 


total) permits the reader to form an im- 
pression of the rather massive reform 
that occurred during the ensuing half 

Throughout the book the author 
draws upon a wide range of primary, 
and secondary, sources. Neither he nor 
the publisher tries to hide the precise. 
and judicious documentation. In addi- 
tion to the footnotes, an admirable 
bibliographic essay (7 pages) and an 
adequate index enhance the reference 
value of this readable book. 

Young’s book takes a clear lead over 
Stewart Holbrook’s The Golden Age 
of Quackery (Macmillan, New York, 
1959) through the documentation and 
wider range of sources, a more mature 
historical style, and a better index. 
Both books are similar in length, scope, 
and time span, but they are organized 

A sumptuous pictorial supplement to 
The Toadstool Millionaires, rather than 
a competitor, may be found in Gerald 
Carson’s new book, One for a Man, 
Two for a Horse (Doubleday, Garden 
City, N.Y., 1961), which has as its sub- 
title “A pictorial history, grave and 
comic, of patent medicines.” In Car- 
son’s volume we see the old style nos- 
trum hucksters’ rolling and redolent 
phrases in their original typography 
and pictorial setting. 

Yet it is The Toadstool Millionaires 
that gives us the picture most memo- 
rable, and worth remembering. It is 
a historical picture that moves and 
flashes color, leaving a sense of the 
futility of free enterprise misdirected 
and of medication misused in hands 
that achieve “success” more by ex- 
ploiting than by mitigating our vanities 
and afflictions. 

School of Pharmacy, 
University of Wisconsin 


Biochemists’ Handbook. Compiled by 
171 contributors. Cyril Long, Ed. 
Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1961. 
xxii + 1192 pp. Illus. $25. 

Truly a superb synthesis of contribu- 
tions by authorities in their respective 
fields, this book is more than a hand- 
book; it is a portable, concisely written 
encyclopedia of factual biochemical in- 
formation. It has many useful tables of 


data, but more important, it also has 
unembellished, critical discussions of 
facts and principles. More specifically, 
the book has six main sections and an 
excellent index. 

“Chemical Data.” Here, in addition 
to tabulations of physicochemical data 
and the composition of buffers and salt 
solutions, there are discussions of phys- 
icochemical topics and procedures. 

“Data on Individual Enzymes.” Fol- 
lowing a brief discussion of enzyme 
kinetics, nearly 300 enzymes are in- 
dividually considered, and references to 
pertinent original papers are given. 

“Metabolic Pathways.” The pathways, 
as elaborated through 1959, for car- 
bohydrate, lipid, and protein utilization 
and biosynthesis are verbally and dia- 
grammatically presented. With these 
summations available for reference, ex- 

tensions and changes as they appear in. 

current journals will be more under- 
standable and appreciated. 

“Chemical Composition of Animal 
Tissues and Related Data.” Anyone who 
has sought through the literature for 
quantitative data on the composition of 
various tissues will be sincerely grateful 
for the comprehensive tabulations in 
this section. 

“Chemical Composition of Plant 
Tissues and Related Data.” The 
thoroughness with which this volume 
covers the field is evidenced by the fact 
that plants are included. 

“Physiological and Nutritional Data.” 
The composition of foods, the effect of 
disease on the chemical composition of 
human blood, and the determination of 
the intra- and extracellular chemical 
components in tissues without disorgan- 
ization are a few of the subjects con- 
sidered in this section. 

The index is excellent and usable, 
and by using it, one can quickly find the 
desired information on a point of inter- 
est. A further important feature of the 
book is the comprehensive bibliography. 
The references pertaining to a particu- 
lar subject or table follow the discussion 
or table. 

Instead of expounding on the merits 
and probable usefulness of the book | 
suggest that those whose interest is in 
biochemistry, physiology, and allied 
disciplines sample the contents for 
themselves. It will be a pleasant experi- 
ence. I recommend the handbook with- 
out hesitation. 

Rockefeller Institute, 
New York 




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‘OL. 14 

Smirnov’s Treatise Abridged 

Linear Algebra and Group Theory. V. 
I. Smirnov. Revised, edited, and 
adapted by Richard A. Silverman. 
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961. x 
+ 464 pp. Illus. $12.50. 

This book represents a selection of 
material from V. I. Smirnov’s encyclo- 
pedic six-volume Course in Higher 
Mathematics. The first part of the book 
deals with linear equations and deter- 
minants and gives a good treatment of 
simultaneous linear equations using de- 
terminants. Part 2 gives a fairly ex- 
haustive treatment of matrix theory, 
using extensively the results of deter- 
minants and linear equations from the 
first part. The material given includes 
the reductions to the various canonical 
forms; eigenvalues; orthogonal, unitary, 
and Hermitian matrices; covariance, 
contravariance, and tensor algebra. 
Numerous applications are discussed, 
including linear differential equations, 
Jacobians, and small oscillations. 

Part 3 is on group theory and is the 
most valuable part of the book, for the 
material in the first two parts is fairly 
standard and easily available from 
many sources, while the material on 
group theory is not readily accessible 
to the American student. The various 
notions of group theory are introduced, 
but the author is primarily interested 
in the classical groups, particularly the 
rotation and Lorentz groups. The ma- 
terial includes representations (includ- 
ing the connection of representations 
of the rotation group with Laplace’s 
equation), infinitesimal transformations, 
and invariant integration. 

The topics chosen for emphasis are 
those that are of importance in applied 
mathematics and theoretical physics, 
and the style is such that the theoretical 
physicist or engineer will feel at home 
reading this book. One must also agree 
With the editor that, despite this, there 
is nothing in the volume the pure 
mathematician can ignore. 

I do differ with Smirnov in taste 
about the presentation of linear algebra 
and matrix theory: The author, like 
most Russian textbook writers, prefers 
a treatment that is very concrete and 
Computational, intimately bound up 
With coordinates and making intensive 
use of determinants. The linear algebra 
and geometric interpretations seem to 
come in by the side door, and the 
teader must look to other books for 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

the chaste elegance of the abstract ap- 
proach to linear algebra with its geo- 
metric flavor and largely coordinate- 
free treatment. It is possible to overdo 
the abstract approach, however, and 
Smirnov’s handling of tensor algebra is 
refreshingly simple. 

Silverman is to be congratulated not 
only for the smoothly reading transla- 
tion but also for the exercises he and a 
number of collaborators have collected 
and constructed for the English edition 
of this volume. They are excellent and 
range from elementary ones that illus- 
trate points in the text to sophisticated 
ones that explore areas beyond those 
considered in the text. 

Department of Mathematics, 
Stanford University 

To the Western Sea 

The Natural History of the Lewis and 
Clark Expedition. Raymond Darwin 
Burroughs, Ed. Michigan State Uni- 
versity Press, East Lansing, 1961. 
xii + 340 pp. $7.50. 

Lewis and Clark’s contribution to 
American natural history, judged 
“slight” by some commentators, in the 
words of Elliott Coues brought about 
our “first acquaintance with a large 
number of species.” No experienced 
scientist was attached to the expedition, 
but Lewis exerted himself in observing 
and collecting natural history objects. 
The loss of some collections during the 
journey and the subsequent destruction 
of others (in P. T. Barnum’s museum! 
and elsewhere) can only be regretted. 
In this volume Burroughs has prepared 
a card catalog in book form of the 
vertebrate populations encountered, 
from bears and buffaloes down to Bufo. 
The Lewis and Clark zoological record 
(the “natural history” of the book’s title 
is blind in its botanical eye) is listed 
chronologically, with each quotation 
geographically localized for each 
species. These quotations are laced to- 
gether with Burrough’s commentary 
and with useful reports from explorers 
of the period: Bradbury (but not Nut- 
tall), Prince Maximilian—consistently 
misspelled—and Townsend (but not 
James, or Say, or Drummond via Rich- 
ardson). Burroughs also provides a 50- 
page introduction which amounts to 
a condensed diary of the expedition; 

a quantitative summary of the “game 
killed”; appendixes of archival mate- 
rials relating to the expedition; chapter 
notes; and an index. It is unfortunate 
that the vernacular names used ° by 
Lewis and Clark, such as lark-wood- 
pecker, are not indexed. Warning: 
parentheses replace square brackets in 
quotations from Thwaites and others. 
Many notable zoological studies—for 
example, Harry Harris’s work on the 
California condor and Samuel Rhoads’s 
annotated edition of Ord’s North 
American Zoology—have been over- 

The crowded stage of natural history 
in Jeffersonian America, now reason- 
ably well documented, is only partially 
unfolded in this book. There were 
Lewis’s death, General Clark’s involve- 
ment in Missouri Territory, the bank- 
ruptcy of the Philadelphia bookseller, 
and Professor Barton’s procrastination. 
Jefferson’s frustration over the delayed 
publication of the expedition’s scientific 
results was matched only by the pub- 
lic’s clamor to learn of the discoveries. 
Meanwhile, Alexander Wilson pub- 
lished the “new” birds and Rafinesque 
described three mammals without bene- 
fit of specimens. Professional conflicts 
broke out between George Ord and 
Richard Harlan, and veiled silence 
separated Harlan and Godman. Aside 
from incidental mention, Barton, God- 
man, Harlan, Ord, and Rafinesque are 
hardly noticed, though they were all 
players filling key roles in the thrilling 
drama of Lewis and Clark’s crossing 
to the Western Sea. 

Department of Botany, 
Tulane University 

Interdisciplinary Approach 

Interfacial Phenomena. J. T. Davies 
and E. K. Rideal. Academic Press, 
New York, 1961. xiii +474 pp. 
Illus. $14. 

This is a well-written monograph, 
which presents a modern treatment of 
a fairly wide range of phenomena as- 
sociated with interfaces of interest to 
chemists, chemical engineers, physi- 
cists, and biologists. It is organized in 
the form of eight rather long chapters 
entitled “The physics of surfaces”; 
“Electrostatic phenomena”; “Electro- 
kinetic phenomena”; “Adsorption at 


liquid surfaces”; “Properties of mono- 
layers”; “Reactions at liquid interfaces”; 
“Diffusion through interfaces”; and 
“Disperse systems and adhesion.” As 
might be anticipated from authors who 
are well known for their outstanding 
work in colloid and surface chemistry, 
the material is soundly developed and 
written with authority, and the litera- 
ture is well covered. The book, more- 
over, is unusually good as monographs 
in colloid chemistry go, in that the au- 
thors have taken pains to provide a 
fuller thermodynamic treatment than 
is commonly given. 

Biologists and biophysicists will find 
much to interest them in chapters 4, 5, 
6, and 7, which deal with phenomena 
that are characteristic of many biologi- 
cal systems, particularly of those in 
which diffusion across interfaces is im- 
portant. Chemical engineers will find 
much that is of value in the chapters 
dealing with electrical effects, aerosols, 
emulsions, foaming, and friction. 

References to the literature are col- 
lected at the end of each chapter, and 
the indexing is of a high quality. The 
line drawings used as illustrations are 
clean and attractive, but there are a 
few half-tones that leave something to 
be desired in crispness. I do not know 
whether this is due to the method of 
reproduction or to the quality of the 
original photographs. 

The price of the book, $14, is cer- 
tainly high; regrettably, this is charac- 
teristic of most monographs these days. 
Despite its price I strongly recommend 
it to those readers who are interested 
in surface chemistry. 

Department of Chemistry, 
Stanford University 

Miscellaneous Publications 

(Inquiries concerning these publications should be 
addressed, not to Science, but to the publisher 
or agency sponsoring the publication.) 

Australia. Commonwealth Scientific and 
Industrial Research Organization. Bulle- 
tin, No. 283, “The ecosystem of the 
coastal lowlands (“Wallum”) of southern 
Queensland,” J. E. Coaldrake, 148 pp., 
map. Research Review (for the year ending 
30 June 1960), 418 pp. CSIRO, Mel- 
bourne, 1961. 

Belgium. Institut Royal Météorologique 
Publications, Series B, No. 33. “Un Hygro- 
métre de grande sensibilité,” S. de Backer. 
The Institute, Brussels, 1961. 10 pp. 

Canada. Dominion Observatories, Vic- 
toria. Publications of the Dominion As- 
trophysical Observatory. vol. 11, No. 16, 
“Curve of growth of Cs absorption bands 
applied to the problem of the C”/C”® 


abundance ratio,” John L. Climenhaga, 
pp. 307-337, $0.25; No. 17, “The light- 
ratio and secondary spectrum of the 
eclipsing binary zeta Aurigae,” E. K. Lee 
and K. O. Wright, pp. 339-351; No. 18, 
“Some spectroscopic observations of the 
supergiants 67 Ophiuchi, 55 Cygni and x? 
Orionis,” Anne B. Underhill, pp. 353-361. 
Department of Mines and Technical Sur- 
veys, Ottawa, Canada, 1960. 

Canada, National Research Council and 
Medical Research Council. NRC No. 6390. 
Report on University Support, 1960-61. 
Natl. Research Council, Ottawa, Canada, 
1961. 123 pp. $0.50. Total research sup- 
port by the councils at Canadian universi- 
ties, $10,477,031 (an increase of $1.11 
million over the previous year); direct 
support for science and_ engineering, 
$7,169,402 (82 percent for research grants 
to approximately 800 university staff mem- 
bers and the remainder for more than 
800 graduate scholarships and fellowships. 
Medical research awards totaled $2,307,- 
467 (300 research grants and support of 
52 medical research fellows and 20 re- 
search associates). Indirect support (publi- 
cation of scientific journals, contributions 
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17 NO 


‘OL. 134 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 


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Denver, 26-31 December 1961 

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Depressant Agent from Walnut Hulls 

Abstract. Crushed unripe walnut hulls 
(Juglans nigra), when extracted with ether, 
yield an extract which sedates or at least 
depresses the movements of Daphnia mag- 
na, leopard frogs, perch, catfish, goldfish, 
mice, rats, and rabbits. One purified de- 
pressant compound, 5-hydroxy-1,4-naph- 
thoquinone (juglone), has been isolated 
and tested on most of these species. 

Crushed unripe walnut hulls (Juglans 
nigra) have been used for generations 
in various types of folk medicine, in- 
cluding treatment of fungus infections 
(1). In certain regions of the United 
States fresh walnut hulls are employed 
illegally to immobilize fish, and conse- 
quently take them from small streams 
and impoundments. The fish gradually 
lose equilibrium and awareness to 
changes in environment, and _ finally 
can be caught by hand. When placed 
in fresh water, many of these animals 
seem to recover fully. The use of wal- 
nut hulls in folk medicine and as a 
depressant of fish initiated our interest 
in extracting the active principle from 
green walnut hulls, testing it on differ- 
ent species of fish, and assessing its 
effects on several other species of 

After using several extractive sol- 
vents—including water, acetone, ethyl 
alcohol, chloroform, diethyl oxide, and 
petroleum ether—diethyl oxide (ether, 
U.S.P.) and petroleum ether were 
judged the two best solvents for extract- 
ing the active principles from fresh, 
finely ground walnut hulls. After the 

Instructions for preparing reports. Begin the re- 
port with an abstract of from 45 to 55 words. The 
abstract should not repeat phrases employed in 
the title. It should work with the title to give the 
reader a summary of the results presented in the 
report proper. 

Type manuscripts double-spaced and submit one 
tibbon copy and one carbon copy. 

Limit the report proper to the equivalent of 
1200 words. This space includes that occupied by 
illustrative material as well as by the references 
and notes. 

Limit illustrative material to one 2-column fig- 
ure (that is, a figure whose width equals two col- 
umns of text) or to one 2-column table or to two 
l-column illustrations, which may consist of two 
figures or two tables or one of each. 

For further details see “Suggestions to contrib- 
utors” [Science 125, 16 (1957)]. 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 


hulls had been macerated in ether, the 
solvent was allowed to evaporate at 
room temperature, leaving a dark, scaly 
residue. One kilogram of the fresh hulls 
extracted with 1.4 kg of ether yielded 
2.13 g of residue. This residue produced 
the typical depression in young yellow 
perch (Perca flavescens), channel cat 
fish (Ictalurus punctatus), and goldfish 
(Carassius auratus). All of these fishes 
could be depressed markedly by the 
water-soluble fraction from 7 to 15 mg 
of the dried ether extract per liter of 
tap water. Perch were the most sensitive 
and goldfish the most resistant of the 
fishes tested. The small amount of ex- 
tract used in these tests produced no 
measurable effect on the pH or oxygen 
content of the water. 

A study was made also to determine 
whether this material would be specific 
for fishes or would have a similar effect 
on more primitive organisms (Daphnia 
magna) and more highly developed 
animals (frogs and mammals). Daph- 
nia were immobilized and, if not placed 
in fresh water, would die when exposed 
to approximately the same concentra- 
tion that was lethal to perch. The water- 
soluble fraction was dissolved in saline 
(0.7 percent) and injected into frogs. 
The frogs became quiet and recovered 
in a few hours, providing the dose did 
not exceed 1 mg/g of body weight. 
Albino mice and rats also were sedated 
after intraperitoneal injection of this 
substance dissolved in corn oil. 

Attempts are being made to separate 
the sedative principles from this ether 
extract. One purified compound, 5- 
hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (juglone), 
has been isolated to date. This juglone 
was separated from the crude ether ex- 
tract by sublimation and then identified 
by melting point, infrared spectropho- 
tometry, and crystalline studies by com- 
paring it -with known samples of 
synthesized 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoqui- 
none. One gram of the crude ether 
extract yielded 0.156 g of the 5-hy- 
droxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. Although it 
has been known for years that juglone 

occurs in various species of the walnut 
tree (2), published work on the phar- 
macological actions of this naphthoqui- 
none does not include a sedative effect. 

Our purified 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphtho- 
quinone was tested on goldfish (LDso = 
0.2 mg/liter of water in the aquarium), 
mice (LD = 0.25 mg/100 g of body 
weight), and rats, and was found to 
have a calming or sedative effect in 
all of these species. Rabbits were in- 
jected intravenously with 0.07 mg of 
juglone (in 5-percent glucose solution) 
per kilogram of body weight. This re- 
sulted in tranquilization and general 
quietude of the animals for a period of 
2 to 3 hours. Although sedation is 
produced by quite small amounts, the 
toxicity is such that profound sleep 
cannot be produced with less than lethal 
doses in these mammals. 

Although the purified juglone pro- 
duces sedation, there seems to be a 
difference between the quality of de- 
pression produced by the crude mate- 
rial and that produced by juglone. This 
suggests the presence of compounds 
other than juglone which may have 
synergistic action (3). 

Department of Physiology and 
Pharmacology, University of Missouri 
School of Medicine, Columbia 

References and Notes 

1. Personal communications—used against “ring 
worm”; W. A. N. Dorland, American Iilus- 
trated Medical Dictionary (Saunders, Phil- 
adelphia, ed. 22, 1951), p. 772. 

2. A. B. Massey, Phytopathology 15, 773 (1925); 
E. F. Davis, Am. J. Botany 15, 620 (1928). 

. This research was supported in part by Na- 
tional Institutes of Health grant MY-4295 

24 July 1961 

Proof of an Adaptive 
Linkage Association 

Abstract. Linked X-chromosome inver- 
sions of an eastern woods fly, Drosophila 
robusta, occur in'two different nonrandom 
arrays. Since only one can be the non- 
random condition expected on the ap- 
proach toward random equilibrium, at least 
one of the observed arrays must have an 
adaptive basis. 

It is fashionable in modern evolution- 
ary genetics to state: “The raw mate- 
rials of evolution arise by mutation and 
recombination” and then to proceed to 
discuss how alleles may change fre- 
quencies under directional or nondirec- 
tional forces. Very little attention has 



XL-|XR >>XLXR-2 



XL-1-XR <~ XL XR-2 


Fig. 1. Three possible pathways of linkage phylogeny 

been paid to the question of how com- 
binations of alleles produced by recom- 
bination—and surely few if any major 
adaptions have been produced by single 
loci—are incorporated into the genome. 
Especially lacking have been empirical 
studies of linkage situations. Undoubt- 
edly the mathematicians of genetics 
early discouraged such studies by dem- 
onstrating that linked combinations 
would disintegrate to random frequen- 
cies unless selection could overcome the 
crossover rate. Many a geneticist has 
concluded that crossover rates are 
usually so large that only the accident 
of close proximity of loci (by trans- 
location or other shifts of arrangement) 
or abandonment of sexual reproduction 
could achieve the conditions for effec- 
tive selection for linkage combinations. 
Were linked loci encountered in a non- 
random condition, other geneticists 
probably realized, one could not readily 
distinguish whether the observed data 
represented an adaptive development or 
merely a stage in the mathematically 
predicted breakdown of the linkages to 

Table 1. 

The latter was my predicament when 
I wandered innocently into this prob- 
lem. Studying the linked gene arrange- 
ments (chromosomes varying by para- 
centric inversions) in Blacksburg, Va., 
populations of Drosophila robusta Stur- 
tevant, I found three different nonran- 
dom associations in the same population 
(1). In spite of circumstantial evidence 
pointing to an adaptive basis for the 
associations, the doubt remained—that 
is, the doubt that they were merely his- 
torical relics on their journey toward 
random equilibrium. Data from a D. 
robusta population in the Great Smoky 
Mountain National Park near Gatlin- 
burg, Tenn., prove, however, that at 
least one of the associations is adaptive. 

The Blacksburg and Gatlinburg pop- 
ulations contain appreciable, fairly simi- 
lar, quantities of two widespread gene 
arrangements of the left arm of the 
X-chromosome, XL and XL-/, of the 
two right-arm arrangements, XR and 
XR-2 (2), and of all of the four pos- 
sible combinations between them. In 
Table 1 the numbers of the combina- 
tions in two woods near Blacksburg and 

Actual (a) and expected* (e) numbers of X-chromosomes in adult D. robusta from 

two woods near Blacksburg, Va. (1950-55), and from a woods at a 2000-foot elevation in 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park near Gatlinburg, Tenn. (1958). 

Blacksburg Gatlinburg 
Chromosome i mo a Heth Woods April 1958 August 1958 
a e a e a é a e 

XL*XR 247 212.4 197 162.2 7 15.0 47 87.5 
XL*XR-2 553 587.6 403 437.8 30 22.0 160 119.5 
XL-1°*XR 214 248.6 221 255.8 38 30.0 186 145.5 
XL-1*XR-2 724 689.4 726 691.2 36 44.0 158 198.5 
Total 1738 1738.0 1547 1547.0 111 111.0 551 551.0 

Chi-squaret 14. -2t 16.7 10. 8t 52.0 

* © Expected on the assumption that left- and right-arm arrangements are independent. 
goodness-of-fit of a to e in each sample; each has 1 degree of freedom. 


+ Chi-square testing 
t Highly significant (P< .01). 






(see text). 

in a woods at a 2000-foot elevation near 
Gatlinburg are compared with the num- 

ber expected in each sample on the > 

assumption of randomness. Whereas 
both of the Blacksburg populations 
contain a highly significant excess of 
the so-called “coupling” combinations, 
XL°XR and XL-I-XR-2, and corre- 
sponding deficiency of the “repulsion” 
types, XL:XR-2 and XL-1-XR, the Gat- 
linburg flies exhibit the reverse situa- 
tion: excess of the “repulsion” types 
and deficiency of the “coupling” ones. 
The differences from expected are high- 
ly significant. An association of the 
Blacksburg type apparently exists also 
in a Lexington, Ky., population (/) 
and, in an extreme form, in a popula- 
tion from the Piedmont region of Vir- 
ginia (3). In 1959 the Gatlinburg 
result was repeated at the 2000-foot 
woods, and this association pattern was 
found in collections from other loca- 
tions near Gatlinburg and from the Blue 
Ridge Mountains of Georgia (3). 

The exact phylogeny of the gene ar- 
rangements of D. robusta is not known, 
but XZ and XR are probably ancestral 
to XL-] and XR-2 (4). Hence the link- 
age phylogeny could have followed 
three pathways. In the first two (Fig. 
1, A and B) both coupling types ap- 
peared, followed by (bracket) the for- 
mation of the missing repulsion type by 
crossing over between them. In the 
third (Fig. 1C), both repulsion types 
appeared independently, followed by 
formation of the missing coupling type 
by crossing over. 

Schemes A and B may be termed 
“couplings first” and scheme C “repul- 
sions first.” Under any scheme the 
fourth linkage would be produced by 
crossing over in the available double- 


2a eee 






it 1 


Ss Ge 






jat- ] 
nes. § 

> ar- 
; ap- 
ye by 

1 by 


. the 
d by 

ML. 134 

heterozygotes, and until it achieves its 
random frequency the population would 
present a nonrandom association. Once 
formed, incidentally, the two “couplings 
first” schemes are indistinguishable from 
one another, because, under the 2-by-2 
contingency table, the two coupling or 
two repulsion types show equal devia- 
tion from expected, no matter which 
single linkage is responsible for the de- 
ficiency or excess. Similarly, the argu- 
ments do not depend on the assumption 
that XL°XR is the oldest combination. 
XL-I1*XR-2. may be substituted for 
XL*XR in any scheme; having a repul- 
sion linkage ancestral means merely that 
the possible phylogenies consist of two 
“repulsions first” alternatives and one 
“couplings first” instead of the reverse. 

The crucial point is, however, that 
only one of the possible phylogenies 
could have occurred, for, unlike point 
mutations, which presumably recur 
again and again in the species phy- 
logeny, inversions are probably unique 
events. For one thing, spontaneous 
chromosome aberrations are much rarer 
than spontaneous mutations. In addi- 
tion, the chances of repeating identical 
breaks necessary for an exact copy of 
an inversion are infinitesimal. It follows 
that only one kind of nonrandom asso- 
ciation attributable to the historical 
process of building up the fourth link- 
age combination by crossing over is 
possible, either one in which the coup- 
ling types are deficient, the phylogeny 
having been “repulsions first,” or else 
one in which the repulsion types are 
deficient, the phylogeny having been 
“couplings first.” This means that at 
least one of the associations, the Blacks- 
burg type or the Gatlinburg, is not the 
historical association. It must be a 
newly evolved, adaptive one, since natu- 
ral selection, or at least selective migra- 
tion, must be postulated in order to 
maintain a linkage association in the 
face of the randomizing tendency of 

This demonstration achieves the other 
side of the coin of the typical evolution 
problem. Usually the adaptive trait is 
noticed, and the surmise is made that 
it resulted from selection for interacting 
loci, number and location unknown. 
Here the interacting loci are known to 
be linked, but the adaptive traits pro- 
duced by their interaction are unknown. 
Some evidence exists, however, that in 
Blacksburg, at least, the X-chromosome 
association is involved in D. robusta’s 
seasonal adaptations to the environment 
(5). It is also likely that selection for 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

the associations has been accompanied 
by selection for chiasma suppression. 
The region between the right- and left- 
arm arrangements available for crossing 
over includes more than 20 percent of 
the X-chromosome euchromatin, yet 
less than | percent crossovers (6) are 
obtained (7). 

Anatomy Department, 
Woman's Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 

References and Notes 

1. For review, see M. Levitan, Cold Spring Harbor 
Symposia Quant. Biol. 23, 251 (1958). 

2. The gene arrangements and their distribution 
were originally described by H. L. Carson and 
H. D. Stalker [Evolution 1, 113 (1947)] and 
recently reviewed by H. L. Carson [Advances 
in Genetics 9, 1 (1958)]. 

. Unpublished data currently 
for publication. 

4. H. L. Carson and H. D. Stalker, Evolution 1, 
113 (1947). 

. M. Levitan, Anat. Record 127, 430 (1957). 

, Genetics 43, 620 (1958). 

. This study was aided by grants No. G-4857 
and G-12384 from the National Science Foun- 
dation. I am also grateful for the assistance 
of Eleanor Lippman, Shirley Campbell, Vera 
Menough, and Dolores Brennan in rechecking 
the Gatlinburg data. Mrs. Brennan was also 
very helpful in preparing the manuscript, and 
Th. Dobzhansky and H. D. Stalker Were kind 
enough to read it and suggest improvements. 

13 February 1961 


being rechecked 


Effect of Verbalization on 
Reversal Shifts in Children 

Abstract. Two questions were asked: 
(i) Would naming stimuli in a discrimina- 
tion reversal influence the performance of 
4- and 7-year-old children, and (ii) if so, 
would the influence be different for these 
two age groups? The results indicate a 
positive answer to the first question and an 
equivocal answer to the second. 

There is considerable current interest 
among psychologists in the behavioral 
analysis of processes that mediate be- 
tween the external stimulus and the 
overt response. One method developed 
for such analysis is the reversal-non- 
reversal shift technique (7), which was 
adapted in the following manner to the 
present research. Forty-eight nursery 
school children (mean age, 56 months) 
and 48 second-grade children (mean age, 
91 months) were required to learn two 
successive discriminations. The stimuli, 
two-dimensional squares, varying in 
area (1 in.* and 3 in.’) and brightness 
(black and white), were presented in a 
portable discrimination apparatus which 
displayed ‘two squares simultaneously. 
The child chose one of them by pressing 
a lever that pointed at his choice. A 
marble served as reinforcement. As 
illustrated in Fig. 1, the first discrimina- 

_tion presented one stimulus pair that 

differed simultaneously on two dimen- 
sions. The second discrimination pre- 
sented this same pair with the rein- 
forcement pattern reversed or another 
pair that also differed simultaneously 
on the same dimensions; the two pairs 
were presented in random alternation. 
Stimulus preferences were controlled 
by suitable counterbalancing. 

The major experimental variable was 
the kind of verbal label the children 
were instructed to apply to the correct 
stimulus during the initial discrimina- 
tion. These labels, which were always 
appropriate to the first discrimination, 
could be arranged to be descriptive of 
either the relevant or irrelevant dimen- 
sion in the second discrimination. For 
example, if a child was trained to be a 
relevant verbalizer, he was presented 
with the reinforcement pattern illus- 
trated in Fig. 1 and instructed to tell 
the experimenter, before making a 
choice, whether the large or the small 
one was correct. He soon learned to 
precede his choices with the appropriate 
label which, in this instance, would be 
“large.” Since in the second discrimina- 
tion “small” was the correct stimulus, 
the label referred to the dimension that 
was to become relevant. If a child was 
trained to be an irrelevant verbalizer, 
he was asked in the first discrimination 
to tell whether the white or the black 
one was correct. He would thus learn 
to say “black,” which was descriptive 
of the dimension that was to become 
irrelevant. One-third of the children at 
each age level were randomly assigned 
to be relevant verbalizers, one-third to 
be irrelevant verbalizers, and the re- 
mainder to a no-verbalization group 
who learned with no verbal labels of- 
fered or required. 

All groups learned the first discrimi- 



: LI 
Fig. 1. Illustration of the experimental 

procedure showing one of the stimulus- 
reinforcement patterns used. 


.. a 4 Year Olds 
Bit 7 Year Olds 


Number of Trials to Criterion 

10 | 
0 HE 3 
Relevant None Irrelevant 
Verbalization Condition 
Fig. 2. Effect of verbalization on the ac- 

quisition of a reversal shift for 4- and 
7-year-old children. 

nation to a criterion of nine out of ten 
successive correct responses, after 
which the second discrimination was 
immediately presented without any 
further instruction or ostensible break 
in the procedure. 

Previous research has found that 
when no verbalization is required, 
young children perform a reversal shift 
more slowly than older children (2). 
This finding is confirmed by the dif- 
ference between the 4- and 7-year-old, 
no-verbalization groups of the present 
study (p < .05). To account for these 
developmental differences it has been 
suggested that older children are more 
likely than younger children to make 
covert mediating responses that facili- 
tate such shifts (/, 2). 

One likely mediating mechanism is 
language. The results shown in Fig. 2 
lend considerable support to _ this 
hypothesis. For both ages combined, 
relevant labels facilitated and irrelevant 
labels retarded the shift. These dif- 
ferences, as assessed by analysis of vari- 
ance, were highly significant (p < .005). 
Apparently, spoken labels that refer to 
conceptual dimensions can mediate a 
reversal shift in children. 

Having demonstrated that their own 
spoken words are an effective source of 
stimulation for children and that the 
experimental procedure employed is 
sensitive to this effect, it is appropriate 
to raise questions about possible dif- 
ferences in responsiveness associated 
with age. Luria (3), a Soviet psycholo- 
gist, has proposed that in the early 
stages of child development speech is 
merely a means of communication; not 


until about 5 years of age does it be- 
come a regulator of actions. According 
to his thesis the effects of verbalization 
in our experiment should be different 
for the two age levels. While the re- 
sults in Fig. 2 suggest that they are dif- 
ferent, the implied statistical interaction 
falls short of significance (.0S<p< 
.10). Consequently, definitive conclu- 
sions must await further research. There 
are, however, some interesting relation- 
ships suggested, if not confirmed by 
these data. For the 7-year-olds, relevant 
verbalization was no better than no 
verbalization. This result is consistent 
with the hypothesis that at this age level 
children are likely spontaneously to 
supply relevant mediators and, there- 
fore, need no help from the outside. 
For the 4-year-olds, relevant verbaliza- 
tion did show a positive influence. This 
influence was so small, however, that it 
only decreased slightly rather than 
eliminated the difference between the 

Irrelevant verbalization interfered 
with the performance of both age 

groups. The effect for the younger chil- 
dren was again in the right direction 
but rather weak. For the older children 
the interference due to irrelevant verba- 
lization was potent,. as would be ex- 
pected if they were particularly sensitive 
to their own words. 

In general, the analysis by age in- 
dicates that, at both age levels, the be- 
havior of the children was regulated 
by their verbalizations. Although no 
statistically significant evidence indi- 
cated that the extent of the regulation 
was different for the two age groups, 
this possibility must still be considered 

Department of Psychology, New York 
University, New York 
Department of Psychology, 
Barnard College, Columbia University, 
New York 

References and Notes 

1. H. H. Kendler and M. F. D’Amato, J. Exptl. 
Psychol. 49, 165 (1955); A. H. Buss, ibid. 52, 
162 (1956); H. H. Kendler and T. S. Kendler, 
Psychol. Rev., in press. 
2. T. S. Kendler and H. H. Kendler, J. Exptl. 
Psychol, 58, 56 (1959); T. S. Kendler, H. H. 
Kendler, D. Wells, J. Comp. and Physiol. 
Psychol. 53, 83 (1960); T. S. Kendler, H. H. 
Kendler, B. Learnard, Am. J. Psychol., in press. 
3. A. R. Luria, in Psychology in the Soviet Union, 
B. Simon, Ed. (Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, 
Calif., 1957), p. 115. 

. This study was supported by grants from the 
National Science Foundation and the Office of 
Naval Research. 

2 August 1961 


Electron Diffraction from Coals 

Abstract. Electron diffraction patterns 
have been obtained for coals of different 
rank by transmission through ultrathin 
sections 500 to 2000 angstroms thick. Anal- 
ysis of these patterns for the distribution 
of atoms in coals by Debye radial distribu- 
tion functions should furnish information 
complementary to that derived from x-ray 
studies, considering the differences in wave- 
length of the radiation involved and the 
different mechanisms governing the diffrac- 

Because fast electrons have much 
shorter wavelengths than x-rays and 
their diffraction is proportional to the 
potential within the crystal (or mole- 
cule) rather than to the electron density 
of the atoms, electron diffraction is a 
powerful tool in solid-state studies. 
Heretofore, attempts to obtain electron 
diffraction patterns of coal have not 
been successful. 
metschek (/) reported that finely di- 
vided coal preparations § graphitized 
upon exposure to an electron beam. 
Westrik (2) reported a diffraction pat- 
tern from a bituminous coal showing 
a distinct hexagonal crystallinity; the a 
spacing of the hexagonal lattice was 
5.2 A compared with 2.46 A of graph- 
ite. The pattern was most likely pro- 
duced by impurities either already pres- 
ent in the coal or introduced during 
preparation (3). 

Electron diffraction patterns can be 
obtained by reflection from the sur- 
face of solid specimens. The reflection 
pattern of an anthracite is shown in 
Fig. la. The pattern reveals clearly 
the usual (002), (10), and (11) (4) 
reflections of aromatic molecules as 
shown in the densitometer tracing (Fig. 
1b). not penetrate more 
than several hundred angstroms, and 
the surface of the specimen is not 
uniform on the scale of depth of pene- 
tration; therefore, the electrons pass 
through excrescences on the surface. 
The process has much more the char- 
acter of transmission than reflection. 
However, in this method the geometry 
of the scattering portion of the sample 
is undefined, and the distance from 
specimen to plate is uncertain because 
the diffraction patterns obtained are 
limited to scattering angles of a few 
degrees. In addition to these uncer- 
tainties, obtaining diffraction patterns 
from coal surfaces is extremely difficult 
—that is, it is a hit-or-miss process. 

Well-defined electron diffraction pat- 
terns can be obtained by using uniform 
sections sufficiently thin to permit trans- 


Mackowsky and Ne- : 











Fig. 1. (a) Reflection electron diffraction 
tracing of the same pattern. 

mission of electrons. The difficulty in 
obtaining such sections is probably the 
reason coals have not heretofore been 
studied by electron diffraction. With 
the development of techniques of ob- 
taining ultrathin sections of coals of 
various ranks (5), it is now possible 
to make such studies. These sections 
vary in thickness from 500 to 2000 A. 
Difficulties previously encountered with 
granular samples are avoided with ultra- 
thin sections. Impurities are not intro- 
duced as in grinding, and the ultrathin 
sections do not absorb enough energy 
to cause changes. Preliminary qualita- 
tive results are reported here. In Fig. 2 
are shown the diffraction patterns of 
vitrinite components of a high volatile 
A bituminous coal, an anthracite, and 
a meta-anthracite. The pattern of the 
high volatile A bituminous coal reveals 
only the (002), (10), and (11) reflec- 
tions clearly. The pattern of the anthra- 
cite reveals the (002), (10), (004), 
(11), (006), (20), (21), (30); and 
(22) reflections of stacked aromatic 
molecules (indexing was done by exam- 
ining the negative). The rings belong- 

INTENSITY, arbitrary units 





0 0.2 0.4 

it 1 


as 2 sin8 

pattern of an anthracite. (b) Densitometer 

ing to the (002) and (004) reflections, 
the first and third (very diffuse) rings 
from the central spot, are uneven in 
darkening, that is, more or less crescent 
shaped, indicating an anisotropic struc- 
ture and preferential orientation in the 
sample. This is in accordance with 
observations made of x-ray reflections 
from slab specimens cut from an anthra- 
cite block. The meta-anthracite pattern 
shows sharp rings corresponding to the 
three-dimensional reflections of graph- 
ite. The following reflections are pres- 
ent: (002), (100), (101), (004), 
(103), (110), (112), (201), (114), 
(121), (300), and (220). These peaks 
are the same as those seen in an x-ray 
diffraction pattern of this meta-anthra- 

Because the relation between the 
radial distribution functions of the po- 
tential and those of the total charge 
(atom) distribution is established (6), 
electron diffraction provides two bases 
for the Fourier synthesis. For noncrys- 
talline materials the synthesis desired 
most is that for the distribution of the 
atoms. Representing the distribution of 

Fig. 2. Electron diffraction pattern from ultrathin sections of (a) a high volatile A 
bituminous coal, (b) an anthracite, (c) a meta-anthracite. 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

atoms about any one atom by a density 
function p(r) such that 4nrp(r) dr is 
the number of atoms between r and 
r+ dr from the atom under considera- 
tion, the intensity i(s) in atomic units 
can be expressed as 

si(s) =2 i: rp(r) sin(2a7sr) dr (1) 

where s is defined from s = (2 sin 8)/A, 
6 being one-half of the scattering angle 
and 2 the wavelength. Applying the 
Fourier inversion 

rp(r) =2 if si(s) sin (2a7sr) ds (2) 

The experimentally determined values 
of i(s) are due to the deviation of p 
from po, the average density of the 
sample; therefore Eq. 2 should be modi- 
fied as 

4zr[p(r) — po] = Sar f si(s) sin(2qsr) ds 

Equation 3 can be evaluated numeri- 
cally by the use of a computer provided 
i(s) can be obtained from the experi- 
mentally observed scattering intensities 
and provided these intensities extend to 
a large value of s beyond which i(s) 
essentially is zero. The latter require- 
ment is the result of the integral calling 
for i(s) values extending to s= o. In 
the case of x-rays i(s) can be calculated 
directly from the observed intensities, 
but the range of s is limited; Smax = 1.28 
A” for CuKa radiation and 2.79 A™ for 
MoKa radiation. For electrons, how- 
ever, i(s) is generally determined in- 
directly and thus is subject to uncertain- 
ties, but owing to the shorter wave- 
length of electrons, scattered intensities 
extend to much larger values of s, 4 A™ 
or larger. Because of the uncertainties, 
quantitative interpretations of the elec- 
tron diffraction patterns are being ap- 
proached cautiously. Preliminary to 
meaningful diffraction analyses, i(s) 
values obtained from electron and x-ray 
patterns will be compared in the region 
of s where they overlap. If these results 
can be reconciled satisfactorily, it is 
believed that information gained from 
the extended range of electron diffrac- 
tion will be an important complement 
to that derived from x-ray studies. 

J. T. McCarTNEY 
Pittsburgh Coal Research Center, 
U.S. Bureau of Mines, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

References and Notes 

. M. T. Mackowsky and T. Nemetschek, Natur- 
wissenschaften 43, 442 (1956); T. Nemetschek 
and M. T. Mackowsky, Brennstoff-Chem. 39, 
53 (1958). 

. R. Westrik, Brennstoff-Chem. 39, special edi- 
tion S32 (1958). 

3 , private communication. 

. The two-dimensional (hk) notation is in ac- 
cordance with that used by B. E. Warren 
[Phys. Rev. 59, 693 (1941)]. 

5. J. T. McCartney, R. E. Walline, S. Ergun, 
U.S. Bur. Mines Rept. Invest. 5885 (1961). 

6. H. Viervoll, Acta Cryst. 8, 56 (1955). 

24 May 1961 

Accumulation of Potassium 
Anaerobically by 
Renal Medullary Slices 

Abstract. Potassium accumulation oc- 
curred in leached slices of the inner 
medulla of the dog kidney incubated under 
anaerobic conditions at 37°C with glucose 
as substrate, but was blocked by inhibitors 
of glycolysis. Aerobically, only slight ac- 
cumulation occurred with succinate as sub- 
strate at 37°C, and this was blocked by 
dinitrophenol. These findings were in con- 
trast to those obtained with kidney cortex 
slices under the same conditions. 

Recent work from this laboratory (7) 
showed that tissue slices of the inner 
zone of the medulla of the dog kidney 
have a high rate of anaerobic glycolysis 
and a low rate of oxygen consumption 
when compared to slices of the cortex 
of the kidney. It was further found that 
increasing the osmolality of the medium 
by addition of sodium chloride caused 
no diminution in the rate of glycolysis 
of the medullary slices until the osmo- 
lality exceeded 1100 to 1300 mosm/kg 
of water; the cortical slices, on the other 
hand, were inhibited progressively as 
osmolality was increased above the con- 
trol level of 300 mosm/kg of water. 
Respiration was similarly inhibited in 
both types of slices by increasing 

These findings, considered with other 
evidence derived from physiological in- 
vestigations, suggest that the renal 
medulla in situ derives its energy in a 
milieu of high osmolality mainly from 
anaerobic pathways. In view of the role 
of the loops of Henle and the collecting 
ducts in the countercurrent mechanism 
for urinary concentration, we have «on- 
ducted studies concerned with the iden- 
tification and characterization of active 
transport systems for ions in this tissue. 
In the course of these studies, a novel 
type of potassium accumulation has 
been found, an accumulation that ap- 
pears to be dependent upon anaerobic 
rather than aerobic metabolism. This 
report is based on studies of this system 


and compares it to the system for potas- 
sium accumulation in the kidney cortex 
previously described by Mudge (2) and 
by Whittam and Davies (3). 

Tissue slices of the dog kidney cortex 
and inner medulla, prepared as de- 
scribed elsewhere (/), were incubated 
in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate medium 
without substrate for 30 minutes at 
O°C and gassed with either N2-COs or 
O.-CO: (see Table 1). These leached 
slices were then transferred to fresh 
Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate medium 
containing substrate and reincubated for 
an additional 45-minute period under 
conditions shown in Table 1. Then the 
slices were removed, blotted, weighed, 
and dried. Potassium was measured on 
nitric acid digests of the tissue and on 
the medium by internal standard flame 

Table 1 shows that leached slices of 
the inner mcdulla reaccumulate potas- 
sium when incubated under anaerobic 
conditions (at 37°C) with glucose as 
substrate. This reaccumulation of po- 
tassium, although it never reached in 
vivo levels, was blocked by iodoacetate, 
fluoride, or ouabain, or by carrying out 
the incubation at O°C. Pitressin had 
no effect. Increasing the osmolality to 
1.02 or to 2.10 osm/kg of water by 
addition of sodium chloride blocked 
reaccumulation. This effect is probably 

not mediated specifically through failure 
of energy metabolism, since previous 
studies (J) have shown that osmolali- 
ties in the range of 1.0 osm/kg of water 
do not inhibit anaerobic glycolysis in 
medullary slices. 

When leached slices of the inner 
medulla were incubated aerobically with 
succinate as substrate they showed only 
slight accumulation of potassium com- 
pared with that observed anaerobically. 
Further losses of potassium occurred 
from leached slices incubated at 0°C, 
at 37°C, in the presence of dinitro- 
phenol, or greatly increased osmolality. 

Comparative studies of slices of the 
kidney cortex showed a different pattern 
of behavior from that observed in the 
inner medullary slices. Anaerobic incu- 
bation of leached cortical slices caused 
a loss of potassium; iodoacetate, fluo- 
ride, and high osmolality all increased 

the loss, while ouabain and Pitressin || 

had no effect beyond that observed for 
the control. When the incubation was 
carried out anaerobically at O0°C, the 
loss was less than that observed at 37°C, 

Aerobically the results confirm, those 
previously reported by others (2,3). Re- 
accumulation of potassium occurred in 
the complete medium at 37°C but not 
at O°C. Losses of potassium occurred 
from leached slices in the presence of 
dinitrophenol or increased osmolality. 

Table 1. Influence of various factors upon potassium reaccumulation in leached slices of inner 
medulla and cortex of the dog kidney. The slices were leached in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate medium 
without substrate at 0°C for 30 min. Further incubations were then carried out in a complete medium 
composed of Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate medium with 10mM glucose (anaerobic incubations) or 
10mM succinate (aerobic incubations). The potassium concentration of the complete medium was 
6 to 7 meq /lit. Gas phases were 5 percent CO: in either 95 percent O2 or N2 at 37°C and 2.8 percent 
CO): in either 97.2 percent O2 or N2 at 0°C. inhibitor concentrations were: iodoacetate, 1.7 X 10-3M; 
sodium fluoride, 5 X 10-2M; ouabain, 10-°M; Pitressin (Parke Davis), 0.2 unit /ml; dinitrophenol, 
2 X 10-4M; osmolality of the medium was increased by addition of sodium chloride. The con- 

centration gradient for potassium was computed as follows: 

(umole K*/g of tissue water) + 

(umole K*+/ml of medium). No appreciable change in the pattern of the data results if the con- 
tribution of the extracellular space is neglected in this calculation. The gradient for fresh tissue was 
calculated by using the determined values for serum potassium. Data shown represent mean and 
standard deviation; the numbers in parentheses represent the number of experiments. 


Concentration gradient for Kt 

Inner medulla Cortex 

Fresh tissue 

After leaching at 0°C, gassed with N2-CO2 
Further anaerobic incubations: 

At 37°C 

At 0°C 

With iodoacetate 

With fluoride 

With ouabain 

With Pitressin 

At 1.02 osmolal 

At 2.10 osmolal 

After leaching at 0°C, gassed with O2-CO2 
Further aerobic incubations: 

At 37°C 

At 0°C 

With dinitrophenol 

At 1.04 osmolal 

At 1.68 osmolal 

«17,50 = 0.40 (15) 
6.15 + 0.59 (11) 

9.91 + 0.35 (21) 
2.21 + 0.10 (11) 

+ 0.13 (9) | 2.67 + 0.05 (12) 
+ 0.13 (6) 5.57 + 0.37 (4) 
+ 0.03 (3) 1.71 + 0.04 (3) 
+ 0.02 (3) 1.88 + 0.05 (3) 
+ 0.04 (3) 2.83 + 0.07 (2) 
+ 0.10 (3) 2.70 + 0.09 (3) 
+ 0.07 (3) 2.23 + 0.14 (2) 
+ 0.06 (3) 1.43 + 0.06 (3) 

+ 0.03 (2) 6.25 + 0.55 (2) 

+ 0.10 (2) 
+ 0.17 (2) 
= 0.14 (2) 
+ 0.07 (2) 
1.20 + 0.01 (2) 

14.10 + 0.70 (2) 
4.00 + 0.14 (2) 
2.93 = 0.12 (2) 
2.19 += 0.18 (2) 
1.49 + 0.02 (2) 


Ss) or 
1 was 
er) + 
e was 
1 and 

) (15) 
) (11) 

5 (12) 
7 (4) 
4 (3) 
5 (3) 
7 (2) 
9 (3) 
4 (2) 
6 (3) 

5 (2) 

0 (2) 
4 (2) 
2 (2) 
8 (2) 
2 (2) 

YL. 134 

The results of these experiments dem- 
onstrate that inner medullary slices can 
accumulate potassium against concen- 
tration gradients and that this accumu- 
lation is dependent upon anaerobic 
rather than aerobic energy metabolism. 
Departments of Biochemistry and 
Physiology, University of Pennsylvania 
School of Medicine, Philadelphia 

References and Notes 

1. E. L. Kean, P. H. Adams, R. W. Winters, 
R. E. Davies, Biochim. et Biophys, Acta, in 

2. G. H. Mudge, Am. J. Physiol. 165, 113 (1951); 
167, 206 (1951). 

. R. Whittam and R. E. Davies, Biochem, J. 55, 
880 (1953). 

4. This work was supported by U.S. Public Health 
Service grant No. R.G.-7106. One of us 
(E.L.K.) holds a Karr fellowship in biochem- 
istry from Smith Kline and French Laboratories. 

22 June 1961 


Effects of Context on the 
Subjective Equation of 
Auditory and Visual Intensities 

Abstract. Thirty-six subjects were in- 
structed to equate the loudness of a pure 
tone with the brightness of an illuminated 
field. Eighteen of the subjects had been 
given brief preliminary experience with 
tones of low intensity; the remaining 18, 
with tones of high intensity. A significant 
and substantial effect upon equation was 

Several recent studies have suggested 
that “sensory magnitude” is a self-evi- 
dent dimension, susceptible of direct 
introspective evaluation even by in- 
experienced subjects (J). Such subjects 

} are capable of consistent judgments of 

“sensory magnitude”; furthermore, they 
seem to be able to match the intensity 
of a sensation in one modality with that 
of a sensation in another in a manner 
consistent with their first-order judg- 

Without disputing the basic data, 
Warren (2) has vigorously questioned 
the presumption that they represent a 
sensory dimension, rather than an es- 
sentially perceptual continuum. Garner 
(3), also, has emphasized that judg- 
ments of this sort can be “reliable” with- 
out being “valid” and has demonstrated 
that the context in which direct judg- 
ments of sensory intensity are made 
can have a radical influence upon their 
magnitudes. We have investigated, anal- 
ogously, the effects of context upon the 
cross-modality equation of “sensory 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

Thirty-six female undergraduates 
were divided at random into two groups 
(“low” and “high’) of 18 members 
each, and each subject was tested in- 
dividually in a soundproof, lightproof 
room. A subject of either group was 
seated alone in the experimental room, 
the experimenter maintaining contact 
with her by means of a Teletalk com- 
munication system. After a dark-adap- 
tion period of 3 minutes, the subject 
began a series of visual judgments. At 
a distance of 18 inches from her eyes, 
she was presented with an illuminated 
disk, 1.5 inches in diameter (visual 
angle, 4°48’), produced by passing the 
beam from a 200-watt slide projector 
through an Eastman No. 58 Wratten 
(“green”) filter and then through a 
small port in the exterior wall of the 
experimental room; the beam was fi- 
nally used to illuminate from the rear 
a translucent plastic screen, set in the 
interior wall of the room and masked 
down to form the circular patch de- 
scribed. The intensity of the projector’s 
beam was controlled by use of a Gen- 
eral Radio Variac, monitored by elec- 
tronic voltmeter; filtering of the beam 
served to prevent perceptible changes 
of hue in the stimulus. On each trial, 
the subject was first presented with a 
stimulus of 15 db (reference level, 0.15 
mlam) for 2 seconds, and then immedi- 
ately with one of either 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 
25, or 30 db for a further 2 seconds; 
all the timing of stimuli was accom- 
plished automatically by a Hunter 
timer. The subject was asked to esti- 
mate the sensory intensity of the second 
stimulus on a scale which took that of 
the first arbitrarily as 10. Each com- 
parison-stimulus was presented five 
times, in a random order unique to 
each subject; thus, she was required to 
make 35 visual judgments. 

In a similar fashion, the subject next 
undertook 35 auditory estimations. 
Tones of 1024 cycles whose purity had 
been verified by oscilloscope were 
administered monaurally, with a West- 
ern Electric 6B audiometer as a source. 
A subject in the low group judged stim- 
uli of either 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, or 
55 db (reference level, normal thresh- 
old) with respect to a standard of 40 
db; a subject in the high group judged 
stimuli of 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, or 85 
db against a standard of 70 db. Again, 
there were five estimates at each possi- 
ble level, randomly ordered; again, 
each standard was arbitrarily labeled 10. 

As a final task, the subject per- 
formed 15 cross-modality equations. A 

High Group 

Low Group 


° i 1 
° 1S 30 


Fig. 1. Mean sound intensities required for 
equation with each of three light intensi- 
ties, for each group of subjects (N = 18 
per group). Vertical bars indicate + co. 

visual stimulus at the level of 0, 15, or 
30 db was presented for 2 seconds, 
along with a tone of 55 db. At the sub- 
ject’s direction, this tone was altered in 
5-db steps in additional simultaneous 
administrations until she was satisfied 
that a match in sensory intensities had 
been achieved. To obviate the possibil- 
ity of mere “semantic matches” in this 
phase of the experiment, instructions 
emphasized that the numbers previously 
assigned to the stimuli were now of no 
significance and that they were to be 
ignored in making the cross-modality 
matches. Visual levels were ordered at 
random; there were five equations of 
sound with light at each of the three 
levels of brightness. 

After each subject had made five 
judgments or five equations at each 
level of stimulation, the five values were 
averaged to provide a single score for 

the subject at that level. Figure 1 







= Sound Sound 

(ow! (nigh! 
















P 1 1 j n 1 all r 1 
o ” 20 30 « 30 60 rT eo °° 


Fig. 2. Mean estimates of relative sensory 
magnitudes for light (function at left; 
N = 36, standard = 15 db), for sound at 
low level (middie function; N = 18, 
standard = 40 db), and for sound at high 
level (function at right; N = 18, standard 
= 70 db). 


shows the means of these scores for 
each group, at each level of illumina- 
tion, in the task of equating sound with 
light; vertical bars indicate + 1 ¢ at each 
point. To reach subjective equations 
with the same levels of illumination, 
the high group required systematically 
greater intensities of sound than the 
low group. When a single composite 
score (mean of the subject’s three devi- 
ations from the respective over-all 
means at the three levels of illumina- 
tion) is assigned to each subject, the 
mean of such scores is +3.74 db (co = 
2.82) for the high group and (neces- 
sarily) —3.74 db (o = 2.57) for the low 
group; t = 8.31, and p < .051. 

Subsidiary results may be of some 
interest. Figure 2 summarizes the first- 
order estimations of relative magnitude 
for light (N=36), for sound at the 
lower level (N = 18), and for sound at 
the higher level (N = 18). The graphi- 
cal points indicate mean scores (4), 
and the straight lines have been fitted 
by the method of orthogonal polyno- 
mials (5). The slope of the light line 
is .50; and the slopes of the low-level 
and high-level sound lines are, respec- 
tively, .40 and .43, considered in terms 
of acoustic energy. Results for individ- 
ual subjects are not shown. Among all 
36, however, mean slope of individual 
light function was .49; the range of in- 
dividual slopes was from .24 to .78 
(o =.11). Among the 18 subjects in 
the low group, mean slope of sound 
function was .39 (range, .18 to .56; 
o=.11), and among the 18 subjects 
in the high group, mean slope of sound 
function was .42 (range, .23 to .60; 
o =.10). Again, all slopes were com- 
puted by the method of orthogonal 

It would appear that the cross-mo- 
dality equation of “sensory magnitude” 
is a- process strongly subject to con- 
textual effects and thus presumably not 
an absolute judgment of sensory qual- 
ity. We suspect that the slopes of our 
light and sound lines are somewhat 
larger than usually reported (/, 6; al- 
though see 7), too, because of the con- 
text (a narrow range of stimulus 
values) in which they were obtained. 
Finally, the great variability among 
slopes of individual light and sound 
functions is worthy of note; such 
variability is not suggestive of a simple 
sensory process (8). 

Department of Psychology, 
Woman’s College of the University of 
North Carolina, Greensboro 


References and Notes 


see S. S. Stevens, Am. 
(1960); Science 133, . 80 

For recent reviews, 
Scientist 48, 226 

2. R. M. Warren, Am. J. Psychol. 71, 675 (1958). 
[See also Ref. 7] 

W. R. Garner, J. Exptl. Psychol. 48, 218 (1954). 
There was not sufficient skewness in our dis- 
tributions of scores to warrant the use of the 
median, rather than the more sensitive mean, 
as the measure of central tendency. In any 
case, the results cited here remain essentially 
unchanged if one computes and _ considers 
medians rather than means. 

5. W. S. Ray, An Introduction to Experimental 
Design (Macmillan, New York, 1960), p. 195. 
We are indebted to Professor Ray for his 
statistical advice throughout this investigation. 
J. W. Onley, Science 132, 1668 (1960). 

R. M. Warren and E. C. Poulton, Am. J. 
Psychol. 73, 380 (1960). 

. This paper was presented at the meetings of 
the Southeastern Psychological Association, 
13 April 1961. 

August 1961 





Coesite Discoveries Establish 
Cryptovolcanics as Fossil 
Meterorite Craters 

Abstract. Discovery of coesite in St. 
Peter sandstone from the central uplift of 
the Kentland structure, Newton County, 
Indiana, and in shatter cones of Lilley 
dolomite of Middle Silurian age from the 
central uplift of the Serpent Mound struc- 
ture near Sinking Springs, Ohio, proves 
that shatter cones are evidence of meteorite 

The association of the high-pressure 
silica polymorph, coesite, with meteo- 
rite craters is now widely accepted, a 
little more than a year after this im- 
portant discovery by E. C. T. Chao 
and associates (/). Coesite has been 
found by these workers at Canyon 
Diablo (Barringer) Crater, Arizona, the 
Rieskessel of Miocene age in Germany, 
Wabar Crater in Saudi Arabia, 
Bosumtwi (Ashanti) Crater in Ghana, 
and at the artificial Teapot Ess Crater 
at the Nevada Proving Ground. This 
work has recently been summarized 
by Dietz (2). 

Shatter cones, first discovered at the 
Steinheim Basin early in this century, 
have been associated with many crypto- 
volcanic structures by Dietz (3). Shatter 
cones are associated with six of these 
structures in the United States. Chao 
discovered a small fragment of shat- 
tered sandstone in the fallout at Canyon 
Diablo Crater (2). 

Coesite was concentrated from a 
Serpent Mound shatter cone that 
weighed over 2 Ib by dissolving the 
carbonate in hydrochloric acid. The 
residue was treated by methods de- 
scribed by Chao and co-workers (4). 
Sufficient material was recovered for 
petrographic identification and photo- 
micrography. Small individual grains in 


the acid residue have a mean refractive 
index of 1.591 and show the strain 
characteristic of natural coesite. In the 
specimens collected the coesite content 
appears to be only 10 parts per mil- 
lion. An x-ray rotation photograph 
was taken of a hand-picked grain which 
gave the ‘reflections for the 3.1-A d 
spacing, the strongest reflection of 
coesite. The x-ray diffraction spots 
were of low intensity; therefore it was 
assumed that coesite is present as small 
inclusions in the large grain. The re- 
fractive index of the grain is 1.560, and 
the grain is amorphous, as the only pat- 
tern on the x-ray film other than that 
of coesite is a diffuse halo. Core drilling 
of this uplift might yield material of 
higher coesite content. 

The low coesite content in the 
Serpent Mound material prompted a 
field trip to the McCray quarry in the 
Kentland structure, 3 miles east of 
Kentland, Indiana. 
tected optically in St. Peter sandstone 
and in breccia. The finest fraction 
(—320 mesh) from St. Peter sandstone 
(about 98 percent silica) was found 
to contain most of the coesite. The 
residue after hydrofluoric acid treat- 
ment consisted predominantly of zircon 
with smaller amounts of tourmaline and 
coesite. Table 1 shows the seven d spac- 
ings of coesite with which zircon and 
tourmaline did not interfere. In addi- 
tion there are four coesite lines coin- 
cident with zircon and two with tourma- 
line. Comparison with Boyd and Eng- 

Table 1. Comparison of x-ray diffraction 
powder data (d spacing and intensity) be- 
tween Kentland coesite (as found in this 

study) and synthetic coesite (as found by § 

Boyd and England, 5). 

Kentland coesite 

Synthetic coesite 

6.19 > 
4.37 2 
3.436 52 
3.099 100 

* Intensity: M, moderate; VS, very strong; W, 
weak; VW, very weak. 

Intensity Intensity* 

3.438 M 
3.089 VS 
2.77 Ww 

wre oo 



1.84 Vw 

1.79 WwW 



Coesite was de-' 



in | 









ig; W, 

imeaters at 

land’s data (5) shows excellent agree- 
ment (see Table 1). Figure 1 is a pho- 
tomicrograph of a coesite grain from the 
St. Peter sandstone. The highest con- 
centration of coesite found in Kent- 
land material is 100 parts per million, 
in the St. Peter sandstone of Middle 
Ordovician age. 

The two coesite discoveries reported 
here are from material in which the 
concentration is from 2 to 3 orders of 
magnitude more dilute than reported 
earlier in meteorite crater glasses (/, 4). 
They may also represent the oldest 
sources of natural coesite now known. 
The Serpent Mound structure is post- 
Lower Mississippian and pre-Illinoian 
and the Kentland structure is post- 
Middle Ordovician and pre-Pleistocene 
in age. 

The largest shatter cone at Kentland 
described by Dietz is 6 feet long (2). 
However, Shrock (6), even in 1937, 
suggested that the “great curved fault 
surfaces in the McCray quarry have 
essentially the same characteristics as 
the small shatter cones and are believed 
to have been formed in the same way 
by the same forces.” Dietz discovered 
small shatter cones as float on the cen- 
tral uplift of Serpent Mound in 1959 

We believe that the central uplift re- 
maining at Kentland is an imbrication 
of megashatter cones. The photograph 
on the cover of this issue of Science 
shows the mold of the top of one of the 
smaller megashatter cones. This is one 
unit of several conical structures that 
comprise a large megashatter cone 
which is a large portion of the extreme 
southeast face of McCray quarry. The 
exposed over-all dimensions of this 
large megashatter cone are 250 feet 
wide at the quarry floor and 160 feet 
high. The root extends downward below 
the quarry floor for an unknown dis- 

From a reconnaisance field observa- 
tion, several characteristics pertaining 
to vertical uplift (1500 feet, according 
to Shrock, 6) and intense rock failure 
are apparent. Numerous drag folds 
occur along high angle normal faults 
which appear to radiate outward from 
the center of impact. The Platteville 
carbonates, which in normal stratigra- 
phic sequence overlie the Glenwood 
and St. Peter sandstones, have de- 
veloped fracture cleavage and envelop 
the observable megashatter cones, the 
apexes of which all point upward. The 
bedding of these carbonates parallels 
the surfaces of the megashatter cones. 
This indicates that those beds that now 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 


Fig. 1. A photomicrograph (taken slightly out of focus) of coesite from St. Peter sand- 
stone, Kentland, Indiana, in 1.591 immersion oil. The grain diameter is 79 yu. 

constitute the megashatter cones have 
been displaced upward, causing defor- 
mation of the originally overlying strata. 
Complex fractures were also observed 
in the sandstone of the megashatter 
cones. Thus the entire uplift may have 
been one large megamegacone contain- 
ing a small central crater produced by 
the explosive jet of the meteorite when 
it reached its maximum penetration. 
This uplifted structure in the center of 
a large crater thus would have many 
megacones which were thrust upward 
and outward together from this center, 
the voids between cones being filled 
with folded and compressed overlying 
strata. The interstices then remaining 
in the entire mass were instantly in- 
jected with compressed breccia. No 
shatter cones were observed in any of 
the breccia at the quarry, which in- 
dicates that the breccia was injected 
after the explosive impact. Without the 
present large quarrying operation this 
magnificent and geologically awe-inspir- 
ing structure would be hidden. 

The McKee quarry, situated about 
1100 feet to the east of McCray quarry, 
has many small shatter cones ranging 
in size from a few inches to several feet 
long, mostly pointing horizontally away 
from the center of the disturbance. The 
shatter cones are in Platteville carbon- 
ates which elsewhere overlie the St. 
Peter sandstone. This outcrop may have 

been displaced as a unit from near the 
center of the explosion. 

Further study and core drilling of 
these features offers the most economi- 
cal way of attaining some understand- 
ing of the root structures and central 
uplifts of terrestrial and lunar craters. 
These six known structures in the 
United States are indeed invaluable but 
as-yet unexploited national scientific 
assets to those interested in the cosmo- 
sciences (7). 

Mellon Institute, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

References and Notes 

1. E. C. T. Chao, E. M. Shoemaker, 

Madsen, Science 132, 220 (1960). 

R. S. Dietz, Sci. American 205, No. 2, 51 


, Science 131, 1781 (1960). 

. E. C. T. Chao, J. J. Fahey, J. Littler, Science 
133, 882 (1961). 

5. F. R. Boyd and J. L. England, J. Geophys. 
Research 65, 749 (1960). 

6. R. S. Shrock, Am. Midland Naturalist 18, 471 

B. M. 




7. Mr. Karl Hoover of the Ohio Geological 
Survey is thanked for taking one of us 

(A.J.C.) to the central uplift of the Serpent 
Mound structure and helping collect shatter 
cones on a muddy December day in 1960. The 
quarry officials at McCray quarry and Mr. 
McKee, owner of the small quarry, are thanked 
for their cooperation during our visit. This 
work was supported by grant NsG-47-60 from 
the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 

28 September 1961 

Electroretinogram of the 
Visually Deprived Cat 

Abstract. Cats kept in darkness from 
birth show a subnormal b-wave in the 
electroretinogram to 4 weeks of age but 
quickly develop the full response upon 
stimulation. When the cats are kept with- 
out light for 1 year, the response recovers 
slowly after intense stimulation. A 2-day 
exposure to light is sufficient to reverse 
this diminution in response. 

Zetterstr6m (/) reported that the 
appearance of the electroretinogram can 
be delayed considerably by rearing ani- 
mals in darkness. She found that the 
electroretinogram was suppressed in 
dark-reared kittens or, if present, was 
of longer latency than that of light- 
reared controls during the first 4 weeks 
of life. A striking finding was that dif- 
ferences between the electroretino- 
grams of light-reared and of dark-reared 

Fig. 1. (Left) An electroretinogram from a 
control animal: (from top) five recordings 
taken at 10-second intervals. (Right) Re- 
cordings obtained, under the same condi- 
tions, from an animal reared in darkness 
for 1 year. The change in amplitude of 
the b-wave (upward deflection) during the 
series is evident. Time calibration, 50 
cy/sec; amplitude calibration, 200 uv. 
The break in the bottom line of each 
record indicates onset of the light flash. 


animals vanished if the dark-reared ani- 
mals were subjected to one testing ses- 
sion, which consisted of about 30 flashes 
of light distributed over a period of 
3 hours. It was not possible to delay 
the appearance of the electroretinogram 
beyond 4 weeks of age by dark rearing; 
kittens kept in darkness until they were 
more than 4 weeks old before being 
exposed to light showed an electroreti- 
nogram comparable to that of controls 
of the same age. Zetterstrém’s meas- 
urements were all confined to the b- 
wave; the a-wave is not recorded until 
a later age. The effects of long-term 
dark rearing were not investigated. 

In the study reported here, ten kit- 
tens were raised from birth in the lab- 
oratory, five in continuous darkness and 
five controls in the normally lighted 
animal room. At 1 year of age all the 
animals were anesthetized with sodium 
pentobarbital (Nembutal) and electro- 
retinograms were obtained with a cor- 
neal electrode. Stimuli at five different 
intensities (see Fig. 1) were produced 
with a Grass PS-1 photic stimulator. 
All the animals were first light-adapted 
and then dark-adapted for 1 minute be- 
fore testing began. 

It was found that there were no sig- 
nificant differences between the electro- 
retinograms of the two groups of ani- 
mals when 1 minute elapsed between 
stimuli. When, however, a series of five 
flashes at the higher intensities was pre- 
sented at the rate of one every 10 sec- 
onds, there was a diminution in the 
amplitude of the b-wave following the 
earlier flashes (Fig. 1). The effect was 
not observed with flashes at the two 
lowest intensities. 

The differences between the groups at 
the three highest intensities were shown 
by rank analysis of variance to be sig- 
nificant at better than the .01 level. 
Averaged results for the two groups 
are shown in Fig. 2. No significant dif- 
ferences in either latency or amplitude 
were found for the a-waves of light- 
reared and dark-reared animals. When 
the dark-reared animals were placed in 
the lighted animal room it was found 
that exposure to 48 hours of illumina- 
tion was sufficient to eliminate the 
diminution of the b-wave response to a 
train of high-intensity stimuli. 

It is interesting to note that the 
change in amplitude of the b-wave dur- 
ing a train of stimuli found in the dark- 
reared animal is similar to the change 
found by Horsten and Winkelman (2) 
to be produced in the cat during im- 
paired oxygen supply and referred to 
by them as the “exhaustion phenome- 

non.” Thus, it is suggested that exclu- 
sion of adequate stimulus to the cat 
retina during post-partum maturation 
produces some sort of deficiency in 
retinal metabolism, but one which is 
reversed upon surprisingly short ex- 
posure to light. 

Glucose and oxygen were once 
thought to be the primary, if not the 
exclusive, requirements for the func- 
tional metabolism of retinal and central 
neurons. More recently, ribonucleic 
acid and protein have been found to 
participate in such metabolism (3). 
Hellstr6m and Zetterstr6m suggest spe- 
cifically that a primary correlation may 
exist between the level of the sulfhydryl 
groups in the retina and the appearance 
of the electroretinogram. Levels of ri- 
bonucleic acid in the nuclei and cyto- 
plasm of ganglion cells are quickly al- 
tered by variations in the functional 
demands imposed by _ stimulation. 
Chronic depression of protein and ribo- 
nucleic acid follows prolonged visual 
deprivation, but the study under dis- 
cussion and others carried on in our 
laboratory (4) lead to the conclusion 
that, until such depression is extreme, 
normal physiological functions of neu- 

500+ —- 
> 400 
wW 300+ @——e INTENSITY 1 
4 o——o INTENSITY 2 
a 200+ e---- INTENSITY 5 
look e—-—e INTENSITY 22 
re} n 1 1 1 1 
' 2 3 4 5 
Se Oe 
L ae 
‘ 400 “ Paes ee docarno=® 
~ a a rn 
cs iy mig 7 -— 
wy OOF eae aeony 
a} o——« INTENSITY | ~— 
E 200k o——o INTENSITY 2 
= @-----@ INTENSITY 5 
100k = o= =o INTENSITY 11 
o—.—e INTENSITY 22 
° 1 i i 1 i 
\ 2 3 4 5 


Fig. 2. (A) Averaged data for control 
group: amplitude of b-wave as a function 
of the order of flash in a series. (B) Aver- 
aged data for dark-reared group: the 
change in amplitude of the b-wave during 
a series at high intensities of stimulation 
is clear. Intensity of stimulus light is given 
in lumen-seconds per square foot (data 
from manufacturer). 




— WF PR 8 Ue RR BOA ee Oe Oe ot 



ao =. => 



OL. 134 

Try ae ee 

ral transmission may not be impaired. 
The more intimate relations between 
neurons may, however, be affected in 
such a way that only tests of complex 
perceptual processes will reveal the 
visual deficits produced by visual depri- 
vation (5). 
Bruce L. BAXTER 
Department of Psychology, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois 

References and Notes 

1. B. Zetterstrém, Acta Physiol. Scand. 35, 272 
(1955); B. Hellstrém and B. Zetterstrém, 
Exptl. Cell Research 10, 248 (1956). 

2.G. P. M. Horsten and J. E. Winkelman, 
A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 57, 557 (1957). 

. K. Bech, Anat. Skr. 2, 59 (1955); S. O. Bratt- 
gard, Acta Radiol. Suppl. 96, 1 (1952); H. 
Hydén, in J. Brachet and A. E. Mirsky, The 
Cell (Academic Press, New York, 1960), vol. 4. 

4. B. Baxter, thesis, Univ. of Chicago (1959); 
A. H. Riesen, Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 30, 23 

5. A. H. Riesen, J. Nervous Mental Disease 132, 
21 (1961). This investigation was supported 
by grant No. B-1590 from the National In- 
stitute of Neurological Di 

July 1961 


and Blind 


Predictions of the Growth Model 
for Normal Chicken Growth 

Abstract. The model of growth control 
advanced by Weiss and Kavanau has been 
further evaluated with an I.B.M. 7090 
computer. Predictions for the concentra- 
tion of growth-inhibiting substances and 
their quantitative distribution in the ani- 
mal are in good agreement with known 
developmental changes. Results are being 
used to predict the course of compensa- 
tory organ growth in the immature ani- 

The theory of growth control ad- 
vanced by Weiss (/) has been formu- 
lated into a set of three simultaneous 
differential equations by Weiss. and 
Kavanau (2). The mathematical model 
extends beyond a mere representation 
of normal growth to growth disturb- 
ances and regulation and dissects the 
growth problem into a series of detailed 
questions which lend themselves to ex- 
periment. Some of these questions con- 
cern changes in volume of body fluids 
and concentration of postulated growth- 
inhibiting substances. Predictions for 
these changes based upon data for 
normal chicken growth follow. 

The basic assumptions upon which 
the model was predicated are: 

1) The gain in mass of a living sys- 
tem is the net balance of mass “pro- 
duced” and retained over mass “de- 
stroyed” and otherwise lost. 

2) The mass M of the system consists 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

of two functionally different com- 
ponents: The generative mass G, com- 
prising the instruments of protoplasmic 
reproduction, and the differentiated 
mass D, derived from G and consisting 
of terminal products and other deriva- 
tives that do not reproduce. 

3) Each specific cell type reproduces 
its protoplasm through the self-duplica- 
tion and catalytic activity of “templates” 
characteristic of that cell type. Each 
cell also produces specific, freely dif- 
fusible “antitemplates” which can in- 
hibit the activity of the corresponding 
templates, and which become distributed 
in the “dilution pool” V (which in- 
cludes the blood, lymph, intercellular 
fluids, and other parts of the body to 
which they gain access). 

4) The antitemplates regulate growth 
by a negative feedback mechanism, in 
which their increasing populations 
render an increasing proportion of the 
homologous templates ineffective, re- 
sulting in a corresponding decline in 
growth rate. 

5) Attainment of terminal size rep- 
resents a stationary equilibrium between 
incremental and decremental growth 

6) The generative mass, and the dif- 
ferentiated mass including the anti- 
templates, undergo continual metabolic 
degradation and replacement. 

Recently, predictions of the model 
were determined for compensatory 
organ growth in the adult (3). By rea- 
son of the model’s explicitness, several 
possible mechanisms considered in the 
more general scheme of growth control 
(2) were ruled out as unrealistic. For 
example, of the various alternative 
sources of production of the anti- 
templates, all were ruled out except the 
generative mass. 

The model reproduces a number of 
phenomena observed in the compensa- 
tory response to disturbance of equili- 
brium of organ systems. Thus it re- 
produces the spurt of compensatory 
growth of an organ system after arti- 
ficial reduction and the spontaneous 
resumption of organ growth after 
artificial lowering of antitemplate con- 
centration at terminal equilibrium 
[observed in liver plasmapheresis ex- 
periments with adult rats (4)]. It pre- 
dicts that compensatory organ growth 
will proceed in an undulatory fashion 
and accounts for the heretofore unex- 
plained secondary spurt of growth (after 
the first week or so) in partially hepa- 
tectomized rats. It accounts for the fact 
that liver cell-protein synthesis in the re- 
generating rat liver attains its maximum 

rate before plasma-protein synthesis 
does (5), and it predicts the decrease in 
rate of regeneration of organ mass with 
increasing age. Additionally, the model 
has directed attention to a number of 
questions to be decided by future ex- 
periments (3). 

In point of fact, the model represents 
a class of systems controlled by nega- 
tive feedback. In a formal sense it is 
equally valid for alternative biological 
systems, requiring for conversion mere- 
ly simplification or reassignment of sig- 
nificance, or both, of variables and 
parameters. For this reason, and in view 
of the increasing weight of evidence for 
negative feedback control of growth 
processes (1,6), investigations of its 
predictions, stability, and general be- 
havior after disturbances of equilibrium 
are significant for current. studies. 

Evaluation of the model for com- 
pensatory organ growth in the adult 
was undertaken first because the simul- 
taneous differential equations (2) de- 
scribing the adult system are relatively 
simple. Although the stability of this 
process in the adult has been verified 
for a wide range of mass reductions 
and other disturbances, it remains to 
determine predictions for compensatory 
organ growth in the immature animal. 
These are of particular interest because 
almost all experimentation is carried 
out with immature, rapidly growing 

In order to solve the differential 
equations of the model it is necessary 
to specify the daily rate of catabolic 
loss of antitemplates, ks, and the num- 
ber x of antitemplates required to in- 
activate each template. Since these are 
not known, solutions for the adult sys- 
tem had to be scanned with a range of 
biologically feasible values (3). These 
solutions, in turn, indicated probable 
limits for the two parameters. Accord- 
ingly, the values 1014, 21%, and 32 
percent for ks (half lives of 6%, 3%, 
and 2% days), and 4, 8, and 16 for x, 
were chosen for the present study. 

To predict the course of compensa- 
tory organ growth in the immature 
animal, it is necessary to fit the model 
to the data for normal chicken growth, 
for each combination of values of ks 
and x. Each value of x generates a curve 
for the antitemplate concentration C, 
and each value of ks a curve for the 
number of antitemplates 7 present in 
the system during growth (2, Eqs. 4, 
6a, and 21). From this information, 
nine curves for the growth in volume 
of the dilution pool V can be derived 


The findings for C, J, and V have in- 
terest beyond being prerequisite for 
computing compensatory organ growth 
in the immature animal, for they serve 
as additional criteria of the biological 
plausibility of the model and its specific 
solutions. The prediction of unreason- 
able values for them would have ruled 
out as inconsistent certain combina- 
tions of the parameters ks and x. 

The new results, determined with the 
I.B.M. 7090 of the U.C.L.A. comput- 
ing facility (7), are shown in Fig. 1. It 
is evident that C must build up much 
more rapidly than either M or G; the 
higher the order of the reaction of in- 
hibition of templates by antitemplates 
(that is, the larger x), the more rapid 
the increase must be. At hatching, values 
of C for x = 4, 8, and 16, are 63, 79, 
and 89 percent of the adult equilibrium 

value, respectively. Abrupt changes in 
the curves at hatching reflect the 
abrupt slowing of the growth rate of the 
chick at this time (2). 

Of the family of nine curves for V, 
only three are plotted in Fig. 1. The 
other six lie in the narrow range be- 
tween the inner and outer curves. Ail 
these curves lie close to the curve for 
G. For the case x= 4, ks = 32 per- 
cent, the maximum difference between 
points on the curves for V and G is 
only 1.8 percent. 

A more readily visualized entity than 
V is the fraction of the total volume of 
the animal (Vr) occupied by V, namely, 
V/Vr (the fraction of the chicken oc- 
cupied by blood, lymph, and so forth. 
To derive curves for this quantity (2, 
Eq. 26), several approximations must 
be made. Of the nine curves obtained, 

100 25 
it Ly zi 
|i HATCHING jo3 
90 2i 
i ie | * 
=80 7 
ied = 
& i 
zi S 
re] 453 
% 8 
7 2 
Ww > 
270 GENERATIVE 4i3& 
eT Ya MASS, G—> pe 
oO \ \ oa 
a if a 
WW \ ‘ 
a ty \ 
LTA " it 
1 \ ‘\ 
\ ae 2 4 
1 \ xs Cc ol 
ee ‘ 
60. Ng Ss 49 
\ - 
| \ ween ee ‘al 
Senn-- RC" Pies / 
ar AL uATCHING pile | | oe ry Gael Spe al DN eer 
50! lL l l 1 j i l l l l 
(0) 40 ~ 80 120 DAYS 200 240 280 

Fig. 1. Curves for the changes in C, G, M, V, and V/V7r predicted by the model for 
normal chicken growth. Values for ks and x are indicated conventionally by the coeffi- 
cients (rounded off to 11, 21, and 32) and exponents of C, respectively. The right ordi- 
nate scale applies only to the curves for the relative volume of the dilution pool, V/Vr. 
The dashed horizontal line denotes its limiting value of 6 percent. 


three are plotted, including the limiting 
curves of the family. These curves in- 
dicate that a relatively large fraction of 
the chick embryo must be permeated 
by the antitemplates. Upon the basis of 
an assumed final value of 6 percent in 
the adult chicken (that is, roughly twice 
the blood volume), values for V/Vr in 
the 12-day-old chick embryo range be- 
tween 7.5 and 18.5 percent; at hatching 
they range between 6.7 and 12.6 per- 
cent. These high early values are in 
good agreement with the known rela- 
tive increase in solid bulk during de- 
velopment, as well as with the existence 
of an accessory fluid system in the ex- 
traembryonic area prior to hatching. 

These predictions for chicken growth 
are biologically plausible. The ranges 
into which the values fall are sufficient- 
ly well delimited to permit ready ex- 
perimental testing. Exploratory tests 
are feasible at the present time but 
critical tests must await the identifica- 
tion of the antitemplates. Promising in 
this connection is Glinos’s tentative 
identification of liver growth-regulating 
substances with components of the 
plasma proteins (4). 

Further explorations of the model 
are under way. These should more nar- 
rowly restrict the range of possible 
combinations of values of x and ks, and, 
consequently, of V and C. Additionally, 
they will predict the course of com- 
pensatory organ growth in the immature 
animal. These results will provide more 
useful reference points for past and 
future experimentation than do_ the 
findings for the adult (8). 

Department of Zoology, 
University of California, Los Angeles 

References and Notes 

1. P. Weiss, in Biological Specificity and Growth, 
E. G. Butler, Ed. (Princeton Univ. Press, 
Princeton, N.J., 1955), p. 195. 

2. P. Weiss and J. L. Kavanau, J. Gen. Physiol. 
41, 1 (1957). 

3. J. L. Kavanau, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 46, 
1658 (1960). 

4. A. D. Glinos, in The Chemical Basis of De- 
velopment (Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 
1958), p. 813. 

5. A. L. Greenbaum, F. C. Greenwood, E. D. 
Harkness, J. Physiol. (London) 125, 251 

6. M. Abercrombie, Symposia Soc. Exptl. Biol. 
11, 235 (1957); W. S. Bullough and E. B. 
Laurence, Exptl. Cell Research 21, 394 (1960); 
S. M. Rose, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 20, 653 
(1958); M. M. Swann, Cancer Research 18, 
1118 (1958); A. Tyler, in The Beginnings of 
Embryonic Development (AAAS Symp. Publ. 
44), A. Tyler, C. B. Metz, and R. C. von 
Borstel, Eds. (AAAS, Washington, D.C., 
1957), p. 341. 

7. I am indebted to Mr. Bruce Fink for the 
Fortran program for these studies. 

. This work was supported by the National 
Science Foundation (Grant G-14533) and by 
Cancer Research Funds of the University of 

14 August 1961 


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17 NO" 






t De- 

yr the 

nd by 
sity of 

An Age-Dependent Change in the 
Response of Fern Gametophytes 
to Red Light 

Abstract. When gametophytes of Onoclea 
sensibilis are grown in darkness a filament 
of a few cells develops which elongates at 
a constant rate. Low dosages of red light 
given at the beginning of growth increase 
the rate of elongation. After about 12 days 
in darkness, however, gametophytes show 
a decreased growth rate when given red 

Spores of Onoclea sensibilis require 
light for germination. If sufficient light 
is given to insure germination and the 
spores are then placed in darkness, the 
gametophytes develop a characteristic 
form. No further cell divisions occur, 
and the gametophyte consists of a fila- 
ment of one to three very elongated 

cells. Mohr (J) found that the game- 

tophyte of Dryopteris filix-mas, grow- 
ing On a mineral medium under con- 
tinuous red light, produced a long fila- 
ment of few cells, similar to but longer 

than plants growing in the dark. A dif- 

ferent effect of red light was shown 
with gametophytes of O. sensibilis by 
Miller and Miller (2). Gametophytes 
germinated and grown for several days 
under white light and then transferred 
to darkness make only a small increase 
in area and cell number. Low dosages 
of red light (20 min per 24 hours, about 
400 erg cm™ sec") permit growth and 
cell division in otherwise total dark- 
ness when sucrose is present in the 
medium; without sucrose red light is 
ineffective. The effect of red light is 
reversible by far red irradiation. 

In Mohr’s paper red light was shown 
to increase the “etiolated” character of 
the gametophyte, while Miller and Mil- 
ler found a promotion by red light of 
the type of growth characteristic of 
light-grown gametophytes. We carried 
out experiments to determine whether 
the red-light effect reported by Mohr 
was found also with gametophytes of 
0. sensibilis. During the course of this 
work we determined that the nature of 
the effect of red light on filament elonga- 
tion varies with the age of the game- 
tophytes at the time red-light treat- 
ment is begun. 

The method of spore sterilization 
and composition of the Knop’s mineral 
medium used have been described (2). 
The light treatment for ~ germination 
was given in an air-conditioned growth 
toom at a temperature of 25° + 2°C, 
with a photoperiod of 16 hours. Light 
was from white fluorescent tubes, about 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

400 ft-ca. Spores were exposed to 
light for 2 days on distilled H.O, 
then. transferred to Knop’s solution 
with or without 1-percent sucrose and 
placed in an air-conditioned dark room 
(25° + 2°C). Red light was given from 
one 15-watt red fluorescent tube at a 
distance of 10 cm. Growth measure- 
ments were made by projecting the 
images of gametophytes under a micro- 
scope onto a sheet of paper with an 
inclinable drawing mirror. The lengths 
of the gametophytes were traced on 
the paper and later measured with a 
flexible plastic rule. The actual size 
was calculated from the known magni- 
fication of the microscopic image. 

In total darkness the filaments in- 
crease in length at approximately a 
constant rate for at least 3 weeks. 
In Knop’s solution the growth rate 
is about 0.02 mm/day; the addition of 
l-percent sucrose produces a _ higher 
rate of elongation, about 0.04 mm/ day. 

The effect of red light (15 min/6 
hr) is dependent on the length of time 
the gametophytes have been growing 
in darkness. This is illustrated in Fig. 
1, in which each point represents the 
average of measurements of 25 game- 
tophytes. In this experiment gameto- 
phytes were grown on Knop’s medium 
plus 1-percent sucrose. The solid 
circles represent growth in total dark- 
ness. At the times indicated by the 
arrows (0, 7, and 12 days in darkness) 
some of the gametophytes were start- 
ed under the red light regime, which 
was continued for 4 to 5 days. 
The triangles show the elongation of 
red-light-treated gametophytes. If red 
light is given at the beginning of the 
growth period, the rate of elongation 
is considerably higher than that of the 
dark controls. After 7 days in dark- 
ness, red light has little effect on elonga- 
tion, and after 12 days red light in- 
hibits filament elongation compared 
with the dark-grown gametophytes. 
These effects of red light are inde- 
pendent of sucrose and take place as 
well on plain Knop’s solution. 

It is possible to study three effects 
of red light on gametophytes of O. 
sensibilis. If the gametophytes are treat- 
ed, as in the present paper—2 days 
light, then darkness—one may produce 
an inhibition or promotion of filament 
elongation, depending on when the 
red light is given. If the gametophytes 
develop longer in white light, so that 
cell division in two planes has been 
initiated, red light then promotes cell 

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g (ge 
igs OOP Se . 
rs ’ Ce 
mee f° 
A , 
O° 2 4 €. 66 @°@ 4M 

Fig. 1. Growth in length of dark-grown 
(circles) and red-light-treated (triangles) 
fern protonemata. Arrows indicate begin- 
ning of light treatment for samples at 
different ages. 

division (2). Whether these effects are 
distinct or are aspects of the same proc- 
ess deserves further study. 

The age-dependent promotion or in- 
hibition of filament elongation has an 
interesting parallel in higher plants. 
Thomson (3, 4) showed that red light 
increased the rate of elongation of very 
young internodes of oats and peas but 
inhibited the elongation of older inter- 
nodes. One unresolved question point- 
ed out by Thomson (4) is whether the 
increased rate of elongation of young 
internodes is a direct effect of red 
light or a correlative phenomenon fe- 
sulting from the inhibition of the low- 
er internodes. It is clear that the red 
light promotion of filament elongation 
is a direct effect, since the irradiation 
of young and old gametophytes is 
obligately separated in time. This fea- 
ture is absent in irradiation studies of 
whole higher plants where many inter- 
nodes of different developmental stages 
are present at the time of irradiation 
and during subsequent growth. If one 
is dealing with the same phenomenon 
in ferns and higher plants, the stimu- 
lation of young internode elongation 
by red light most probably represents 
a direct effect of light on the cells (5). 

Osborn Botanical Laboratory, Yale 
University, New Haven, Connecticut 

References and Notes 

1. H. Mohr, Planta 47, 127 (1956). 
2. J. H. Miller and P. M. Miller, Am. J. Botany 

48, 154 (1961). 

3. B. F. Thomson, ibid. 38, 635 (1951); 41, 
326 (1954). 

4. , ibid. 46, 740 (1959). 

5. The participation of one of us (D.R.W.) 
was made possible by a grant under the Na- 
tional Science Foundation’s undergraduate 
research participation program. 

2 August 1961 


128th Annual Meeting: 

Program Summary 

Zoological Sciences (F) 
Wednesday 27 December 

Biologists’ Smoker. Joint program of 
AAAS Sections F—Zoological Sciences 
and G-Botanical Sciences, and all bio- 
logical societies. Arranged by Tyler A. 
Woolley, Colorado State University, and 
Paul W. Winston, University of Colo- 
rado. Financed by donations from zool- 
ogy and biology departments at -Colo- 
rado State University, University of 
Colorado, University of Denver, Colo- 
rado College, and Colorado State Col- 

Friday 29 December 

Zoologists’ Dinner and Vice Presi- 
dential Address of Section F. Program 
of AAAS Section F-Zoological Sci- 
ences, cosponsored by the zoological 
societies meeting at Denver. Arranged 
by George W. Wharton, Ohio State 
University. C. Ladd Prosser, president, 
American Society of Zoologists, will 
preside. Human values and human 
genetics, Jack Schultz, Institute for Can- 
cer Research, Philadelphia, and vice 
president for Section F. The business 
meetings of both the American Society 
of Zoologists and Section F will imme- 
diately follow the Zoologists’ Dinner. 

Section F is a cosponsor of the sym- 
posia of the American Society of Zool- 
ogists, the Society of Protozoologists, 
and the Society of Systematic Zoology. 
It is also a cosponsor of the symposium 
of Alpha Epsilon Delta, Career Oppor- 
tunities in the Health Professions, 28 
December, and of the interdisciplinary 
symposia on Existing Levels of Radio- 
activity in Man and His Environment 
and Geochemical Evolution, both 28 

American Society of Zoologists 

Thursday 28 December 
Concurrent sessions for contributed 
I: Animal Behavior and Sociobiol- 
ogy, I. Joint session of the Division of 

Animal Behavior and Sociobiology of 
the American Society of Zoologists and 
of the Section of Animal Behavior and 
Sociobiology of the Ecological Society 
of America, cosponsored by AAAS 
Section I—Psychology. George Barlow, 
University of Illinois, will preside. 

II: Histology, Cytology, and Genetics. 
Sheila J. Counce, Yale University, will 

III: Demonstrations. Use of I.B.M. 
cards for custom-made _ bibliographic 
punch card systems, Hermann Meyer. 
Ultrastructure of nerve and satellite 
cells of spinal ganglia of rats treated 
with malononitrile, V. L. van Breemen 
and J. Hiraoka. 

IV: Animal Behavior and Sociobiol- 
ogy, II. (Sponsorship as in Session I.) 
Bernard Greenberg, Roosevelt Univer- 
sity, will preside. 

V: Invertebrate Zoology, Parasitol- 
ogy, and Protozoology. Clarence J. 
Goodnight, Purdue University, will 

28-29 December 

Neurosecretion, a three-session sym- 
posium. Joint program of the Divisions 
of Comparative Physiology and Com- 
parative Endocrinology of the Ameri- 
can Society of Zoologists, cosponsored 
by the Society of General Physiologists 
and AAAS Section F—Zoological Sci- 
ences. Arranged by Nancy S. Milburn, 
Tufts University. 

Part I, Berta Scharrer, Albert Ein- 
stein College of Medicine, presiding. 
Neurosecretion in Lumbricus terrestris, 
Ernst Scharrer and Stanley Brown. Ex- 
perimental studies of the neurosecretory 
activities of the thoracic ganglion of a 
crab, Hemigrapsus, Kunio Matsumoto. 
A thoracic neurosecretory complex in 
brachyura, Donald Maynard. Effects of 
the pericardial neurosecretory substance 
on the crustacean heart, Ian Cooke. 
The neurosecretory system of Leuco- 
phaea maderae and its role in neuro- 
endocrine integration, Berta Scharrer. 

Part II. Ernst Scharrer, Albert Ein- 
stein College of Medicine, presiding. 
Fine structure of cells within the pars 


intercerebralis of Blaberus  craniifer 
(Blattaria), Robert B. Willey and George 
B. Chapman. A cytochemical study of 
neurosecretory and other neuroplasmic 
inclusions in Periplaneta americana, 
Rudolph Pipa. Neuroendocrine control 
of mating behavior in cockroaches, 
Robert Barth. Control of efferent activ- 
ity in the cockroach cercal ganglion by 

_ extracts of the corpora cardiaca, Nancy 

S. Milburn. 

Part III. Aubrey Gorbman, Barnard 
College, Columbia University, presid- 
ing. The caudal neurosecretory system 
of fishes, Howard A. Bern and Noboru 
Takasugi. The seasonal secretory cycle 
of the nucleus lateralis tuberis of the 
hypothalamus and its relation to repro- 
duction in the eastern brook trout, 
Salvelinus fontinalis, Dorothy C. Billen- 
stein. Inhibitory control of pars inter- 
media activity by the brain, William 
Etkin. Neurosecretion in birds, Donald § 
S. Farner and Andreas Oksche. Actions - 
of neurohypophyseal hormones on the 
membrane of the toad bladder, Alex- 
ander Leaf. 

Friday 29 December 

Vertebrate Locomotion, Program of 
the Division of Vertebrate Morphology 
of the American Society of Zoologists, 
cosponsored by AAAS Section F—Zoo- 
logical Sciences. Arranged by D. Dwight 
Davis, Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum, who will preside. Swimming and 
the origin of paired appendages, J. R. 
Nursall. Discussion: Hydrodynamic 
models for the evolution of body form 
in scombroid fishes, Vladimir Walters. 
Walking, running, and jumping, Milton 
Hildebrand. Discussion: T. H. Eaton, 
Jr. Gliding and flight in vertebrates, 
D. B. O. Savile. Discussion: Harvey I. 
Fisher. Locomotion without limbs, Carl 
Gans. Discussion: Walter Auffenberg. 
Bipedal locomotion, Richard C. Snyder. 
Discussion: E. Lloyd Dubrul. 

Evolutionary Changes in the Hor- 
monal and Neural Bases of Reproduc- 
tive Behavior, symposium. Joint pro- 
gram of the Division of Animal 
Behavior and Sociobiology of the 
American Society of Zoologists and the 
Section of Animal Behavior and Socio- 
biology of the Ecological Society of 
America, cosponsored by AAAS Sec- 
tions F—Zoological Sciences and I—Psy- 
chology. Arranged by William C. 
Young, University of Kansas, who will 
preside. Neural and hormonal factors in 
sexual behavior in lower vertebrates, 
Lester R. Aronson. Physiological regu- 
lation of reproductive behavior in birds, 
Daniel S. Lehrman. Neural and _hor- 


monal factors in sexual behavior in 
mammals, Robert W. Goy. Sex and the 
nervous system, Karl H. Pribram. 

ranged by Alexander G. Bearn, Rocke- 
feller Institute and Oscar Touster, Van- 
derbilt University. The parts of this 

ciety of Systematic Zoology, cospon- 
sored by the American Society of Zool- 
ogists and AAAS Section F—Zoological 

ic Concurrent sessions for contributed are: I: Structure and Specific Action of Sciences. Arranged by Richard E. 
a, papers. DNA; II and III: Gene-Protein Rela- Blackwelder, Southern Illinois Univer- 
ol VI: Animal Behavior and Sociobiol- tionships; IV: Tissue Culture, Immu-__ sity, who will preside. Behavioral study 
8, ogy, III. (Sponsorship as in Session I.) nological and Evolutionary Aspects. in cricket classification, Richard D. 
v- William Etkin, Albert Einstein College Library and Book Lounge, jointly Alexander. Distributional data in tro- 
Ny of Medicine, will preside. sponsored by the American Society of globite classification, Thomas C. Barr, 
Cy VII: Developmental Biology, I. An- Zoologists and the Society of Syste- Jr. Nonmorphological data in anuran 
; tone G. Jacobson, University of Texas, matic Zoology. Open Wednesday, 27 classification, W. Frank Blair. Repro- 
rd will preside. December, through Saturday, 30 De- ductive data in classification, H. B. 
'd- VIII: Vertebrate Morphology. Rich- cember. Boudreaux. Precipitin testing and clas- 

ard C. Snyder, University of Washing- 
ton, will preside. 

IX: Comparative Physiology, I. Ar- 
thropod physiology. Nancy S. Milburn, 
Tufts University, will preside. 

Saturday 30 December 
Cellular Endocrinology, symposium. 

Society of Protozoologists 

Program chairman: Norman D. Levine. 

Wednesday 27 December 

sification, Alan A. Boyden. Host plant 
relations as data for butterfly classifica- 
tion, John C. Downey. Anatomical data 
in duck classification, Philip S. Hum- 
phrey. Ecological data in classification, 
Alan J. Kohn. Nonmorphological data 
in fish classification, Robert R. Miller. 

er- Session for Contributed Papers, I. Breeding systems in tundra shorebird 
am Program of the Division of Compara- William Trager, Rockefeller Institute, classification, Frank A. Pitelka. Crystal- 
ald tive Endocrinology of the American presiding. lographic data in echinoderm classi- 

Society of Zoologists, cosponsored by 
AAAS Section F—Zoological Sciences. 

Arranged by Paul A. Wright, University - 

of New Hampshire, who will preside. 
The role of ionic factors in hormone 
action on the vertebrate melanophore, 

Biochemical Phyletic Markers among 
the Protozoa, round table symposium. 
Program of the Society of Protozoolo- 
gists, cosponsored by AAAS Section 
F-Zoological Sciences. Arranged by 
Seymour H. Hutner, who will preside. 

fication, David M. Raup. Molecular 
structure of proteins as data for clas- 
sification, Charles G. Sibley. Osteolog- 
ical data in mammal classification, 
Howard J. Stains. (The order of speak- 
ers will be announced.) 

of Ronald R. Novales. Influence of the Are there biochemical boundaries to a 
ogy parathyroids on frog bone, Roy V. Tal- phylum protozoa? Ellsworth C. Dough- Thursday 28 December 
ists, mage and Reiko Yoshida. Cellular ef- erty. Which protozoa (if any) should be Coffee Hour for all systematists and 
.00- |} fects of the thyroid hormone in different called humanoid? Seymour H. Hutner. their guests. 
ight organs and species, Henry Lardy and Biochemical intimations of the phylo- 
Mu- § Ya-Pin Lee. Biochemical changes at the genetic position of the ciliates, George Friday 29 December 

y I. 

Hor- § 


d the 


cellular level induced by androgens, 
Charles D. Kochakian. Mechanism of 
Action of estrogens, Claude Villee. 

Concurrent sessions for contributed 

X: Comparative Physiology, II. James 

Case, State University of Iowa, will 

XI: Developmental Biology, II. Ste- 
phen Subtelny, Institute for Cancer Re- 

search, Philadelphia, will preside. 
XII: Comparative 

will preside. 

XIII: Comparative Physiology, II. 
Donald S. Farner, Washington State 

University, will preside. 

XIV: Developmental Biology, III. 
Douglas E. Kelly, University of Colo- 

tado, will preside. 

Dorothy Price, University of Chicago, 

G. Holz, Jr. Biochemical taxonomy of 
trichomonads, John J. Lee. 

Executive Committee Dinner and 

Friday 29 December 

Contributed Papers, II. Daniel M. 
Lilly, St. John’s University, Jamaica, 
New York, presiding. 

Annual Luncheon 

Contributed Papers, III. Robert Sam- 
uels, University of Colorado Medical 

School, presiding. 

Saturday 30 December 

Contributed Papers, IV. Theodore L. 

Jahn, University of California, 
Angeles, presiding. 

and Business 

Biogeography of the Philippine Is- 
lands, two-session symposium. Program 
of the Society of Systematic Zoology, 
cosponsored by the American Society 
of Zoologists and AAAS Section F- 
Zoological Sciences. Arranged by Wal- 
ter C. Brown, Natural History Museum, 
Stanford University and Menlo College, 
Menlo Park, California, symposium 
chairman; Alan E. Leviton, California 
Academy of Sciences; and Charles F. 
Lytle, Tulane University. i 

Part I. R. Tucker Abbott, Academ 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
presiding. Geology and geological his- 
tory, Grant W. Corby. Phytogeography, 
Sidney F. Glassman. Recent mollusks, 
R. Tucker Abbott. Cephalopods, Gil- 
bert L. Voss. 

Part II. Walter C. Brown presiding. 

y of 
i & 
> will 
ors in 

In addition, 54 papers will be read 
by title. 

The American Society of Zoologists 
is a cosponsor of the symposia of the 
Society of Protozoologists and the So- 
ciety of Systematic Zoology, and also 
of the Section on Medical Science’s 
four-session symposium, Physiological 
and Biochemical Aspects of Human 
Genetics, 29 and 30 December. Ar- 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

Fresh-water fishes and Philippine zoo- 
geography, George S. Myers. Reptiles, 
Walter C. Brown. Birds, Kenneth C. 
Parkes. Mammals, David H. Johnson. 
Summary of the symposium, Walter C. 

Society of Systematic Zoology 

Program chairman: Charles F. Lytle, 
Tulane University, New Orleans, Lou- 

27-28 December 

The Data of Classification, three- 
session symposium. Program of the So- 

Saturday 30 December 

Annual Breakfast and Business 
Meeting. Contributed Papers. 

YL. 134 1631 

Zoological and 
Botanical Sciences (FG) 
Section FG—Societies related to both 

zoological sciences, F, and botanical 
sciences, G. 

American Society of Naturalists 

Wednesday 27 December 

President Address. Ernst W. Cas- 
pari, University of Rochester, presiding. 
Man’s ecological niche, Marston Bates, 
professor of zoology, University of 
Michigan; president, American Society 
of Naturalists. 

Business Meeting. Marston Bates will 

Beta Beta Beta Biological Society 

Wednesday 27 December 

Biennial Business Meeting. H. P. 
Sturdivant will preside. 

Luncheon and Address. H. P. Sturdi- 
vant, presiding. Radiation, research, and 
reason, Martin W. Fleck, University of 
New Mexico. 

Bio (Biomedical Information- 
Processing Organization) 

Wednesday 27 December 

Invited Papers. Arranged by Robert 
S. Ledley, president, National Biomedi- 
cal Research Foundation, Silver Spring, 
Md., who will preside. A theory of 
thinking and the automatic classifica- 
tion of neuropsychiatric behavior dis- 
orders, Henry J. Mark. The use of a 
digital computer for the analysis of 
genetic linkage in man, Roger W. Sher- 
win. Patient data processing in the 
hospital, Charles J. Roach. Computer 
aids to biochemistry, Robert S. Ledley. 

Biometric Society, Western 
North American Region 

Program chairman: Franklin Gray- 
bill, director, statistical laboratory, 
Colorado State University, Fort Collins. 

Thursday 28 December 

Invited Papers, Session I: Scott 
Urquhart, Colorado State University, 
presiding. Quantitative genetic studies 
on four traits in sugar beets, William 
Davis and Herbert Bush. Prediction of 


gamma fractionated-dose LDso’s, W. L. 
LeStourgeon and J. F. Spalding. 

Session II: Joint program of the 
Biometric Society, .Western North 
American Region, and the American 
Statistical Association, cosponsored by 
AAAS Section K—Social and Economic 
Sciences. James A. Niederjohn, Ideal 
Cement Company, Denver, presiding... 
On a generalization of the Poisson dis- 
tribution, George E. Bardwell. Estima- 
tion of multiple contrasts using the 
multivariate ?f-distribution, Olive Jean 
Dunn. Canonical correlations and their 
relationship to factor analysis, F. Reid 

The Biometric Society, WNAR, is a 
cosponsor of the program of the Ameri- 
can Statistical Association. 

Ecological Society of America 

Chairman, Committee on Meetings: 
Richard §. Miller, University of Sas- 
katchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. 

Wednesday 27 December 

Contributed Papers, Session I: Gen- 
eral Ecology. Ernest M. Kuhinka, Dick- 
inson College, presiding. 

Session If (concurrent): Animal 
Ecology. Paul W. Winston, University 
of Colorado, presiding. 

Session III: Animal Behavior and 
Sociobiology, I. Joint session of the 
Section of Animal Behavior and Socio- 
biology and the Division of Animal 
Behavior and Sociobiology of the Amer- 
ican Society of Zoologists, cosponsored 
by AAAS Section I-Psychology. 

27-29 December 

North American Arctic-Alpine 
Ecology, symposium in several parts; all 
sessions of the symposium arranged by 
the local committee of the Ecological 
Society of America. 

Introduction: The Arctic-Alpine En- 
vironment, William S. Cooper, Univer- 
sity of Colorado, presiding. Introduc- 
tion and remarks, Robert W. Pennak. 
Solar and thermal radiation in the 
Alpine tundra, David M. Gates. Botani- 
cal evidence of glacier activity at 
Mount Ranier, Washington, Robert W. 
Sigafoos and E. L. Hendricks. Solar 
radiation and Alpine plant tempera- 
tures, Frank B. Salisbury. The accumu- 
lation of snow in Alpine areas, M. 
Martinelli, Jr. The environment of the 
Himalayan Tibetan frontier, Lawrence 
W. Swan. Ecological diagnostics of 
Alpine lakes, Robert W. Pennak. The 


Alpine and Subalpine climax region 
environments of the Front Range, 
Colorado, John W. Marr. 

Part I: Pattern and Process in Arctic- 
Alpine Vegetation, session I. Eilif Dahl, 
Agricultural College of Norway, Volle- 
bekk, presiding. Alpine ecosystems of 
the northern Rocky Mountains, Richard 
D. Taber, Robert S. Hoffman, Thomas 
J. Nimlos, and Samuel Bamberg. 
Landscape relationships of vegetation 
and soils in the forest-tundra ecotone, 
Upper Firth River, Alaska and Canada, 
Royal E. Shanks and James V. Drew. 
Turf hummocks in northeastern Green- 
land, Hugh M. Raup. Primary pro- 
ductivity in cirque lakes of the Klamath 
Mountains, California, Charles R. 
Goldman. Net primary production and 
efficiency of tundra plant communities, 
Lawrence C. Bliss. The effects of visitor 

impact on Rocky Mountain. Alpine, 

tundra, Beatrice E. Willard. Alpine 
plant communities in relation to cryo- 
pedogenic patterns and _ processes, 
Philip L. Johnson. 

Part I (cont.) Pattern and Process 
in Arctic-Alpine Vegetation, session Il 
(concurrent with part II). Herbert C. 
Hanson, Berthoud, Colorado, presiding. 
Investigations of Arctic and Antarctic 
vegetation by the Institute of Polar 
Studies, Emanuel D. Rudolph and J. 
McCormick. Mycotrophy of Alpine 
shrubs in the Cascade Mountains, 
James M. Trappe. Successional po- 

tential resulting from differential seed- J 

ling establishment in Alpine tundra 
stands, William S. Osburn. The influ- 
ence of frost action on plant distribu- 
tion in northwestern Alaska, Albert W. 
Johnson. An _ ordination of Alpine 
vegetation, Richard T. Ward. Ecologi- 
cal study of forest-tundra ecotone at 
Small Tree Lake, Northwest Territories, 
J. S. Maini. Alpine and Subalpine vege- 
tation patterns in the White Mountains 
of California, H. A. Mooney, G. S&t. 
Andre, and R. D. Wright. Quantitative 
aspects of the Alpine vegetation of 
Iztaccihuatl and Popocatepetl, John H. 
Beaman. Comparative ecology of Arctic 
and Alpine plants, W. D. Billings. 
Part II: Ecology of Arctic-Alpine In- 
vertebrates and Birds (concurrent with 
part I, session II). Robert W. Pennak, 
University of Colorado, presiding. 
Arctic and Subarctic examples of inter- 
tidal zonation, D. V. Ellis. Altitudinal 
succession of Colorado Orthoptera in 
relation to Hopkins’s bioclimatic lav, 
Gordon Alexander. High-altitude ant 
faunas of Colorado, Robert E. Gregg. 
Distribution and ecology of Arctic- 


17 Ne 


Dine | q 
pine | 

n Il 
d J. 

rt W. 

Program notes for some sections 
have appeared in previous issues 
of Science: “Chemistry” and 
“Mathematics and Related Pro- 
grams,” 27 October, page 1376; 
“Physics” and “Astronomy,” 3 
November, page 1438; and “Agri- 
culture,” “Geography,” and “Ge- 
ology,” 10 November, page 1534. 

On page 1616 of this issue ap- 
pears a coupon which readers can 
mail in to obtain hotel reserva- 
tions for the annual meeting. 

ne at 
x. St. 
yn of 
hn H. 

ne In- 
t with 
era in 
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le ant 

JOL. 134 

Alpine butterflies, F. Martin Brown. 
Some ecological aspects of predation 
by shrikes in Arctic Alaska, Tom J. 
Cade. Competition in the genus Ster- 
corarius in northern Alaska, William J. 
Maher. Distribution, overlap, and hy- 

bridization of two species of redpolls , 

in Alaska, Paul H. Baldwin. 

Part III: Ecology of Arctic-Alpine 
Mammals (concurrent with part I, 
session III). Hugo Rodeck, University 
of Colorado, presiding. Ecology of the 
terrestrial mammals of the Cape 
Thompson region, Alaska, William O. 
Pruitt, Jr. Food habits and some Alpine 
tundra vegetation interrelationships of 
the Colorado pika, Mark W. Paddock. 
The effects of continuous light upon 
24-hour activity of Arctic mammals, 
G. Edgar Folk. Ecological mechanisms 
in Arctic microtine cycles, Frank A. 
Pitelka. Caribou year-life history of the 
barren-ground caribou (Rangifer arctic- 
us), William O. Pruitt, Jr. 

Part I (cont.) Pattern and Process in 
Arctic-Alpine Vegetation, session III 
(concurrent with part III). W. D. Bill- 
ings, Duke University, presiding. Con- 
siderations of pattern and process in 
subarctic Alaskan vegetation, W. S. 
Benninghoff. Vegetation gradients in 
Arctic Alaska, John Cantlon. The 
Nunatak theory reconsidered from a 
biogeographic and geologic point of 
view, Eilif Dahl. The vegetation of the 
Nelchina caribou range, Herbert C. 
Hanson. Alpine floristic components of 
the southern Rocky Mountains, William 
A. Weber. 

Thursday 28 December 

Contributed Papers, Session I: Ani- 
mal Behavior and Sociobiology, II. 

Session II: Plant Ecology, John W. 
Marr, University of Colorado, presid- 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

Friday 29 December 
Motion Pictures: Animal Behavior 
and Sociobiology, III. 

Mountain Lake Biological Station 

Director: James L. Riopel, Univer- 
sity of Virginia, Charlottesville. 

Program chairman: Horton H. 
Hobbs, Jr., University of Virginia. 

Friday 29 December 

Breakfast. Annual meeting of former 
students, investigators, and staff. 

National Association of 

Biology Teachers 
The program of the NABT will be 

found in the coordinated programs of 
the Science Teaching Societies, to ap- 
pear in a subsequent issue. 

Society of General Physiologists 

The society is a cosponsor of the 
symposium on Neurosecretion, of the 
American Society of Zoologists. 

Botanical Sciences (G) 
Tuesday 26 December 

Session for Contributed Papers. Har- 
riet B. Creighton, Wellesley College, 
will preside. 

Wednesday 27 December 

Plant Biology Today: Advances and 
Challenges, symposium. Joint program 
of AAAS Section G—Botanical Sciences 
and the Botanical Society of America. 
Arranged by Harriet B. Creighton, 
Wellesley College, who will preside. 

Part I: The control of plant growth 
by environment, Anton Lang. Molec- 
ular botany, James F. Bonner. The 
problem of cell development, William 
A. Jensen. 

Part II: “Biological clocks” in plants, 
Beatrice M. Sweeney. Photosynthesis, 
Lawrence Bogorad. Translocation: The 
movement of dissolved substances with- 
in plants, Frank B. Salisbury. 

Botanists’ Luncheon and Vice Presi- 
dential Address. Speaker, James F. 
Bonner, California Institute of Tech- 

Biologists’ Smoker. Joint program of 
AAAS Sections F—Zoological Sciences 
and G-Botanical Sciences, and all bio- 

logical societies. Arranged by Tyler A. 
Woolley, Colorado State University, 
and Paul W. Winston, University of 
Colorado. Financed by donations from 
zoology and biology departments at 
Colorado State University, University 
of Colorado, University of Denver, 
Colorado College, and Colorado State 

Section G is a cosponsor of the two 
interdisciplinary symposia, Geochem- 
ical Evolution and Existing Levels of 
Radioactivity in Man and His Environ- 

Medical Sciences (N) 

29 and 30 December 

Physiological and Biochemical As- 
pects of Human Genetics. Four-session 
symposium of AAAS Section N—Medi- 
cal Sciences, cosponsored by AAAS Sec- 
tions C—Chemistry, H—Anthropology, 
and Nd-Dentistry, and by the Ameri- 
can Society of Zoologists. Arranged by 
Alexander G. Bearn, Rockefeller Insti- 
tute, and Oscar Touster, Vanderbilt 

Part I: Structure and Specific Action 
of DNA, Gunther S. Stent, University 
of California, Berkeley, presiding. The 
biological aspects of the reversible de- 
naturation of DNA, J. Marmur. Studies 
of the process of replication of a single- 
stranded DNA, R. L. Sinsheimer. The 
priming role of DNA and RNA in 
ribonucleic acid biosynthesis, J. J. Hur- 
witz. The control of genetic activity, 
A. E. Mirsky. 

Part II: Gene-Protein Relationships, 
session I, A. G. Bearn, Rockefeller In- 
stitute, presiding. The role of gene- 
specific DNA in the cell-free synthesis 
of 8-galactosidase, G. D. Novelli. The 
gene and protein structure, David M. 
Bonner. Gene-protein relationships in 
human hemoglobin, C. Baglioni. Genet- 
ic and biochemical aspects of hapto- 
globins, O. Smithies. 

Part III: Gene-Protein Relationships, 
session II. B. Childs, Johns Hopkins 
Hospital, presiding. Genetic control of 
variations in gamma globulins, A. G. 
Steinberg. Variants of human glucose- 
6-phosphate dehydrogenase, H. N. 
Kirkman. Population genetics of glu- 
cose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase defi- 
ciency, A. G. Motulsky, Genetics and 
specificities of antibodies, R. Ceppellini. 

Part IV: Tissue Culture and Immu- 
nological and Evolutionary Aspects, T. 
Dobzhansky, Columbia University, pre- 



Editor: Howard B. Sprague 1959 
6” x 9”, 424 pp., 37 illus., index, cloth. 
Price $9.00, AAAS members’ cash or- 
ders $8.00. AAAS Symposium Volume 
No. 53. 

This volume is intended as a review of 
knowledge on many aspects of grass- 
lands resources. The 44 authors were 
selected by their own professional col- 
leagues as being particularly competent 
to present the respective subjects. 
Thirty-seven papers are arranged under 
these chapter headings: 
1. Sciences in Support of Grassland 
2. Forage Production 
Humid Regions 
3. Engineering Aspects of Grassland 

4. Forage Utilization and Related Ani- 
mal Nutrition Problems 

5. Evaluation of the Nutritive Signifi- 
cance of Forages 

6. Grassiand Climatology 
7. Ecology of Grasslands 
8. Range Management 

in Temperate 

British Agents: Bailey Bros. & Swinfen, Ltd., 
Hyde House, W. Central Street, 

London, W.C.1 

AAAS, 1515 Mass. Ave., NW, 
Washington 5, D.C. 

The Model MPS is a precision instru- 

ment designed to meet the exacting 

requirements of science, education 

and industry. Ideal for work in chemis- 

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® Polaroid analyzer: in sliding mount 
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® Stage: 115mm diameter, revolves 
360°, reads to 6’ with vernier 

* 2 Compensators: quarter-wave 
plate and first order red plate 

© Focusing: both coarse and fine 

Quantity prices on three or more 

Accessory mechanical stage $14.75 



t Please rush UNITRON’s Microscope Catalog 4-W-3 | 
E Name. i 
| Company. j 
if Address. I 
City. State. 
(ais tas ello ci ai can can GA Aa 

Vice Presidential Address. Genetic 
variations in human structure and func- 
tion and their influence on medical 
care, John B. Youmans, director of sci- 
entific activities, American Medical As- 
sociation; vice president for Section N. 
Presentation of the 17th Theobald 
Smith Award. Genetic studies with hu- 
man cells, T. T. Puck. Immunological 
aspects of human genetics, R. D. Owen.- 
Origin and development of isozymes, 
C. L. Markert. 

Alpha Epsilon Delta 
Thursday 28 December 

Career Opportunities in the Health 
Professions. Program of Alpha Epsilon 
Delta, cosponsored by AAAS Sections 
C-Chemistry, F-—Zoological Sciences, 
N—Medical Sciences, and Nd—Dentistry, 
and by Beta Beta Beta Biological So- 
ciety. Arranged by Norman F, Witt, 
professor of chemistry, University of 
Colorado, national president, who will 
preside. Medical needs for the future, 
A. N. Taylor. Dental needs for the 
future, Reidar F. Sognnaes. Panel dis- 
cussion: Opportunities in medicine, 
Reginald H. Fitz, moderator. Panel 
members: Philip B. Price, Bill C. 
Garoutte, and Philip E. Smith. Panel 
discussion: Opportunities in dentistry, 
Hamilton B. G. Robinson, moderator. 
Panel members: Willard C. Fleming, 
Harold J. Noyes, and Ben C. Mc- 

Luncheon and Address. 
lenges and opportunities 

The chal- 
in medical 

education, Robert J. Glaser, vice presi- 

dent for medical affairs, and dean, 
School of Medicine, University of Colo- 
rado Medical Center, Denver. 

Conferences with Admissions Offi- 
cials. Visit to University of Colorado 
Medical Center. 

American Physiological Society 

The Society has arranged a joint pro- 
gram for session II of the American 
Astronautical Society’s three-session 
symposium on Manned Lunar Flight. 
The Society is the cosponsor of sessions 
I and III of the symposium [Science, 
134, 1438 (3 Nov. 1961)]. 

American Psychiatric Association 
Program chairman: David A. Ham- 

burg, Stanford Medical Center, Palo 
Alto, California. 

Wednesday 27 December 

Genetics and Evolution in Relation to 
Human Behavior. Two sessions: Pro- 
gram of the Committee on Research of 
the American Psychiatric Association, 
cosponsored by AAAS Section I-Psy- 
chology,. and the American Anthro- 
pological Association. 

Session I, David A. Hamburg, pre- 
siding. An outline of human evolution, 
S. L. Washburn. Baboon behavior, S. 
L. Washburn and Irven DeVore. Evolu- 
tion of primate social behavior, Irven 

Session II. Evolution of culture in 
Africa, J. Desmond Clark. Selective 
forces in the evolution of man, Ernst 
W. Caspari. What is “inheritance of 
behavior’? Theodosius Dobzhansky. 

Dentistry (Nd) 

Oral Aspects of Genetics. Two-ses- 
sion symposium of AAAS Section Nd- 
Dentistry, cosponsored by AAAS Sec- 
tion N—Medical Sciences, the American 
College of Dentists, American Dental 
Association, and the International Asso- 
ciation for Dental Research, North 
American Division. 

Program chairman: Albert A. Dahl- 
berg, University of Chicago. 

Wednesday 27 December 

Session I, Albert A. Dahlberg, pre- f 

siding. Recent advances in dental ge- 
netics, Carl J. Witkop, Jr. The respective 

roles of twin, sibling, family, and popvu- ff 

lation methods in dento-medical studies, 
Richard H. Osborne. Effects of heredity 
and environment on the development of 
the dentition, Jerome D. Niswandetr. 
Chromosome nondisjunctions and oral 
anomalies, Robert Gorlin. The effec- 
tiveness of selection in producing lab- 
oratory stocks genetically uniform for 
resistance or susceptibility to dental 
caries, Harrison R. Hunt and Samuel 

Session II, Albert A. Dahlberg, pre- 
siding. Family studies of the facial com- 

plex, Bertram Hanna. Some clinical} 

aspects of genetic research in dentistry, 
Sidney L. Horowitz. Third molar poly- 
morphism and dental genetics, Stanley 
M. Garn and Arthur B. Lewis. The reg: 
ulative changes in tooth germs grown 
in tissue culture, Shirley Glasstone 
Hughes. Discussion by symposium pat- 

Section Nd is a cosponsor of the 
program of Alpha Epsilon Delta, of 
Section N’s four-session symposium, 







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pre- F 
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OL. 134 

Physiological and Biochemical Aspects 
of Human Genetics, and of the inter- 
disciplinary symposium, Existing Levels 
of Radioactivity in Man and His En- 

Pharmacy (Np) 
Wednesday 27 December 

Contributed Papers: Hospital Phar- 
macy. Arranged by George F. Arch- 
ambault, Don E. Francke, and Joseph 
A. Oddis. 

Session I: George F. Archambault, 

Hospital Pharmacy, Session II: Don 
E. Francke, presiding. 

Vice Presidential Address of Section 
Np. George F. Archambault, presiding. 
Pharmacy and_ hospital pharmacy, 
Joseph A. Oddis, American Society of 
Hospital Pharmacists; Division of Hos- 
pital Pharmacy, American Pharmaceu- 
tical Association: and Vice President of 
Section Np. 

Thursday 28: December 

One of the four interdisciplinary 
symposia at the Denver meeting has 
been the responsibility of Section Np. 
The Interdisciplinary Symposium in the 
Biological-Medical Sciences, Existing 
Levels of Radioactivity in Man and His 
Environment: Measurement and Signifi- 
cance, is a joint program of AAAS 
Sections Np—Pharmacy, F-—Zoological 
Sciences, G—Botanical Sciences, H—An- 
thropology, I-—Psychology, N—Medical 
Sciences, Nd—Dentistry, O—Agriculture, 
and Q—Education. Arranged by John E. 
Christian, Purdue University, who will 
preside. Introductory remarks and 
radioisotope demonstrations, John E. 
Christian. Radioactivity levels in ‘man 
and his environment—contribution and 
potential hazards of reactor and isotope- 
powered vehicles, Wright H. Langham. 
Existing levels of cosmic-ray produced 
radioactivity—present and potential ap- 
plications to archeology, meteorology, 
geochronology, and oceanography, 
James R. Arnold. Measurements of the 
existing radioactivity of people and 
foods. Applications of nondestructive 
measurements of body composition 
(potassium, lean, fat, water), medical 
diagnosis, age studies,. and fall-out 
studies. Ernest C. Anderson. The rela- 
tionship of existing radiation levels to 
carcinogenesis, P. R. J. Burch. Ques- 
tion and discussion session. 

The seven remaining sessions of the 
program of AAAS Section Np-—Phar- 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

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Association of Boards of Pharmacy. 

Friday 29 December 

Contributed Papers. Arranged by 
John E. Christian. John Autian, Univer- 
sity of Texas, and Wayne Kessler, Pur- 
due University, presiding. 

Electron Microscopy . 

The 19th annual meeting of the Elec- 
tron Microscope Society of America 
was held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 
from 23 to 26 August 1961. This meet- 
ing brought together more than 706 
active workers in electron microscopy 
from 24 states, Canada, Australia, 
Great Britain, Belgium, Germany, and 




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Japan. It was the largest meeting in the 
history of the society. There were ten 
general sessions of contributed papers 
(five in the biological fields, five in non- 
biological areas), a special session on 
techniques, and three symposia. There 
were 19 scientific exhibits and some 
180 contributed papers on the tech- 
niques and applications of the electron 
to studies in _ biology, 
chemistry, medicine, cancer, metallurgy, 
electron diffraction, and related fields. 

In the symposium on the contribu- 
tion of electron microscopy to polymer 
morphology, organized by R. G. Scott 
(Du Pont Experimental Station), seven 
experts in this field discussed, respec- 
tively, x-ray diffraction as applied to 
polymers, spherulites, electron diffrac- 
tion as applied to single crystals, the 
morphology of polymers, fiber micros- 
copy, and electron diffraction as ap- 
plied to synthetic fibers. 
posium summarized the new phases of 
technology and applications of electron 
microscopy in the field of polymer 

Rubin Borasky (University of Illi- 
nois) arranged and directed the sym- 

posium on ultrastructure of protein ° 

fibers. The papers on physical, chemi- 
cal, and mechanical properties of pro- 
tein fibers in muscle and keratin sum- 
marized the recent contributions to the 
science of fiber structure. 

The symposium on the fine structure 
of viruses, arranged by A. F. Howatson 
(University of Toronto), was especial- 
ly noteworthy in that the presentation 
of papers on recent advances in fine 
structure, animal virus structure, elec- 
tron microscopy of nucleic acids and 
proteins, structures of bacteriophages, 
and studies on the fine structure of foot- 
and-mouth-disease virus brought to- 
gether, in a very logical sequence, in- 
formation on the recent improvements in 
the techniques of replication, shadow- 
casting, thin sectioning, and “negative- 
contrast” staining and their application 
and interrelationships in obtaining new 
information on the structure of viruses. 

President D...Maxwell Teague and 
president-elect Keith R. Porter and the 
organizing committee announced plans 
and arrangements for the 5th Interna- 
tional Congress for Electron Micros- 
copy, to be held in Philadelphia from 
29 August through 5 September 1962. 

The Electron Microscope Society of 
America will be host to the Interna- 
tional Federation of Electron Micro- 
scope Societies at this congress, which 
will emphasize the new and unique 


This sym- ' 

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SCIENCES in Communist China 


4 chapters 


SCIENCES. 7 chapters 


SCIENCES. 4 chapters 


5 chapters 

6 chapters 

* If you are not a member of the AAAS, you may 
join now, and order this volume at the special 
member price. Enclose $8.50 dues for your first 

This new AAAS symposium volume represents a systematic 
effort on the part of American scientists, many of them of 
Chinese origin, to give a clear, unified account of material 
gleaned from about 250,000 pages of scientific journals and 
books published in Continental China. 

Until now, information about science and scientific develop- 
ment under Communist control has not been available to 
Western scientists because of the language barrier, and be- 
cause so few copies of relevant books and journals have 
been available. 

This volume presents a heretofore unavailable opportunity 
to assess a decade of science in Communist China. 

Price: $14.00* ($12, prepaid, for AAAS members) 

Individual membership in the AAAS offers many 
benefits in addition to savings on AAAS volumes. It 
includes Science, and the quarterly AAAS Bulletin. 

year of membership, along with payment for the 


Order today from 

1515 Massachusetts Avenue, NW 

American Association for the Advancement of Science 
Washington 5, D.C. 







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at a 


OL. 134 

contributions of electron microscopy in 
many areas of science. The organizing 
committee co-chairmen are T. F. 
Anderson and J. H. Reisner; S. S. 
Breese, Jr., is program chairman. 
Limited funds will be available to assist 
enrolled students of electron micros- 
copy in the United States in attending 
the congress. Requests for information 
should be addressed to Fifth Interna- 
tional Congress for Electron Micros- 
copy, 7701 Burholme Ave., Philadel- 
phia 11, Pa. 

Parke, Davis and Company, 
Detroit, Michigan 

Forthcoming Events 


29-7. Communication Wires and Cables, 
symp., Asbury Park, N.J. (H. Kingsley, 
U.S. Army Research and Development 
Laboratory, Fort Monmouth, N.J.) 

29-1. Western Surgical Assoc., San 
Francisco, Calif. (W. W. Carroll, 700 N. 
Michigan Ave., Chicago 11, III.) 

30. American Geographical Soc., New 
York, N.Y. (C. W. Bastable, Columbia 
Univ., New York 27) 

30-1. Conference on Graduate Medical 
Education, Philadelphia, Pa. (P. Nemir, 
Jr., Dean, Graduate School of Medicine, 
Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia) 

30-1. Vehicular Communications, Min- 
neapolis, Minn. (J. Kahnke, Minneapolis- 
Honeywell, Aero Div., 1541 Edgewater 
Ave., St. Paul 13, Minn.) 


1. Symposium on Insulin, New York 
Diabetes Assoc., New York, N.Y. (New 
York Diabetes Assoc., 104 E. 40 St., New 
York 16) 

1-2. Linguistic Circle of New York, 7th 
annual conf., New York, N.Y. (L. Urdang, 
Random House, Inc., 501 Madison Ave., 
New York 22) 

2. International College of Surgeons, 
intern. executive council, Chicago, Ill. (H. 
E. Turner, 1516 Lake Shore Dr., Chicago) 

2. New York State Registry of Medical 
Technologists, annual seminar, New York, 
N.Y. (S. H. Keeling, 1719 Midland Ave., 
Syracuse, N.Y.) 

2-7. American Acad. of Dermatology 
and Syphilology, annual, Chicago, Ill. (R. 
R. Kierland, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, 

3-6. American Inst. of Chemical Engi- 
neers, New York, N.Y. (F. J. Van Ant- 
+ AICE, 345 E. 47 St., New York 

4-6. Institute of the Aerospace Sci- 
ences, Aerospace Support and Operations, 
natl., Orlando, Fla. (R. J. Kotowski, 318 
Virginia Dr., Melbourne, Fla.) 

4-8. International Colloquium on Ionic 
Bombardment, Bellevue, France. (Natl. 
Scientific Research Center, 15 Quai Ana- 
tole France, Paris 7°, France) 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

4-9. Mathematics Instruction at Second- 
ary and University Levels, Inter-American 
conf., Bogota, Colombia. (M. Alonso, 
Div. of Science Development, Pan Ameri- 
can Union, Washington 6) 

4-9. World Federation of Neurology, 
Problem Commission of Tropical Neu- 
rology, Buenos Aires, Argentina. (P. 
Bailey, Natl. Inst. of Neurological Diseases 
and Blindness, Bethedsa, Md.) 

4-16. Inter-American Conf. on Educa- 
tion and Economic and Social Develop- 
ment, Santiago, Chile. (U.S. National Com- 
mission for UNESCO, Dept. of State, 
Washington 25) 

4-16. Latin American - Phytotechnical 
Meeting, Sth, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 
(U. C. Garcia, Organizing Committee, 
Rivadavia 1439, Buenos Aires) 

5-7. Building Research Inst., Washing- 
ton, D.C. (Scientific Liaison Office, Natl. 
Research Council, Sussex Dr., Ottawa, 

5-8. United States and Japan Atomic 
Industrial Forums on Nuclear Power, 2nd 
conf., Tokyo, Japan. (C. Robbins, Execu- 
tive Manager, Atomic Industrial Forum, 
3 E. 54 St., New York 22) 

6-7. UNESCO Intern. Non-Govern- 
mental Organizations on Extension of In- 
tern. Collaboration in Education, Science 
and Culture to Africa, Paris France. (Place 
de Fontenoy, Paris 7°) 

6-8. Conference on Document Copying 
by Photography, London, England. (A. 
J. O. Axford, Ozalid Co., Longston Rd., 
Loughton, Essex, England) 

6-8. Electrical Furnace Steel Conf., 
19th, American Inst. of Mining, Metal- 
lurgical and Petroleum Engineers, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. (Scientific Liaison Office, Natl. 
Research Council, Sussex Dr., Ottawa, 

6-8. Latin-American Congr. of Patho- 
logical Anatomy, 3rd, Medellin, Colombia. 
(A. C. Henao, Laboratorio de Anatomia 
Patolégica, Rua Botucatu 720, Sao Paulo, 

6-8. National Institutes of Health Symp. 
on Neuroendocrinology, Miami, Fla. (A 
V. Nalbandov, 102 Animal Genetics, Univ. 
of Illinois, Urbana) 

6-12. American Acad. of Optometry, 
Chicago, Ill. (C. C. Koch, 1506-08 Fo- 
shay Tower, Minneapolis 2, Minn.) 

6-16. Food and Agriculture Organi- 
zation of the U.N. World Health Organi- 
zation, Nutrition Conf. for the Far East, 
5th, Hyderabad, India. (Intern. Agency Li- 
aison Branch, Office of Director General, 
FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 
Rome, Italy) 

6-16. Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion of the U.N., Far East Meeting on 
Animal. Production and Health, 3rd, 
Bangkok, Thailand. (Intern. Agency Liai- 
son Branch, Office of Director General, 
FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 
Rome, Italy) 

7-8. Symposium on Sintered High-Tem- 
perature Oxidation-Resistant Materials, 
London, England. (S. C. Guilan, Powder 
Metallurgy Joint Group, Inst. of Metals, 
17 Belgrave Sq., London) 

7-9. American Chemical Soc. South- 
west-Southeast regional meeting, New Or- 
leans, La. (P. D. Accardo, California 
Chemical Co., Oronite Div., Belle Chasse, 


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many carrier-free and high specific activ- 
ity products. 

Now Available—Scandium-46 at $0.20 per 
millicurie; I-131 at $0.40 per mc.; tech- 
netium (as element or ammonium per- 
technetate) $100 a gram; calcium-47, with 
less than 5% Ca-45, $200 per mc. 


More than 200 stable isotopes available 
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to: Isotopes Division, Oak Ridge 
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7-9. New York Acad. of Sciences Conf. 
on the Cervix, New York, N.Y. (W. R. 
Lang, Jefferson Medical College, Philadel- 
phia, Pa.) 

7-9. Texas Acad. of Science, Galveston. 
(D. E. Edmondson, Mathematics Dept., 
115 Bendect Hall, Univ. of Texas, Aus- 
tin 12) 

8. Food and Agriculture Organization 
of the U.N., Advisory Group on Training 
in Home Economics and Social Work, 
Rome, Italy. (Intern. Agency Liaison 
Branch, Office of Director General, FAO, 
Viale delie Terme di Caracalla, Rome) 

8-9. American Rheumatism Assoc., in- 
terim session, Washington, D.C. (F. E. De- 
martini, 622 W. 168 St., New York 32) 

8-9. Association for Research in Nerv- 
ous and Mental Diseases, annual, New 
York, N.Y. (Scientific Liaison Office, Natl. 
Research Council, Sussex Dr., Ottawa, 

8-9. Symposium on Plasma Membrane, 
New York, N.Y. (A. P. Fishman, New 
York Heart Assoc., 10 Columbus Circle, 
New York 19) 

8-10. American Psychoanalytic Assoc., 
New York, N.Y. (D. Beres, 151 Central 
Park W., New York 23) J 

9-10. Academy of Psychoanalysis, New 
York, N.Y. (J. H. Merin, 125 E. 65 St., 
New York 21) 

10-13. American Phytopathological Soc., 
Biloxi, Miss. (G. A. Zentmyer, Dept. of 




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253 Norfolk Street, Cambridge, Mass. 

Plant: Pathology, Univ. of California, 
Riverside) ; 

10-14. Psychosomatic Medicine Symp., 
6th, Philadelphia, Pa. (Miss M. R. Car- 
mosin, Hahnemann Medical College and 
Hospital, 235 N. 15 St., Philadelphia 2, 

10-17. Latin American Congr. on Mi- 
crobiology, 2nd, San José, Costa Rica. 
(J. L. De Abate, Secretary General, Apart- 
ado 1404, San José) 

11. Society of Photographic Scientists 
and Engineers, Washington, D.C. (C. M. 
Bailey, Rte. 4, Box 404, Fairfax, Va.) 

11-15. Agricultural and Public Health 
Aspects of Radioactive Contamination in 
Normal and Emergency Situations, tech- 
nical seminar, The Hague, Netherlands. 
(Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
U.N., Intern. Agency Liaison Branch, Of- 
fice of the Director General, Viale delle 
Terme di Caracalla, Rome: Italy) 

11-15. Symposium on Organization of 
Agricultural Research, Muguga, Kenya. 
(Commission for Technical Cooperation 
in Africa South of the Sahara, Pvt. Mail 
Bag 2359, Lagos, Nigeria) 

11-16. Tonospheric Soundings in the In-- 
tern. Geophysical Year/Intern. Geophysi- 
cal Cooperation—1959 Symp., Nice, France. 
(A. H. Shapley, URSI World-Wide Sound- 
ings Commission, Central Radio Prop- 
agation Laboratory, Natl. Bureau of 
Standards, Boulder, Colo.) 

12-14. Association for Computing Ma- 
chinery, eastern joint computer conf, 
Washington, D.C. (B. Oldfield, 1I.B.M. 
Corp., 326 E. Montgomery, Rockville, 

12-15. American Soc. of Agricultural 
Engineers, Chicago, Ill. (J. L. Butt, ASAE, 
420 Main St., St. Joseph, Mich.) 

13. American Acad. of Arts and Sci- 
ences, Brookline, Mass. (J. L. Oncley, 280 
Newton St., Brookline 46) 

15-16. Oklahoma Acad. of Science, 
Stillwater. (D. Buck, Northern Oklahoma 
Junior College, Tonkawa) 

17-18. International Congr. of Com- 
parative Pathology, 9th, Paris, France. (L. 
Grollet, Comité International Permanent 
des Congrés de Pathologie Compareé, 63 
Avenue de Villiers, Paris 17°) 

19-23. Inter-American Congr. of Psy- 
chology, 7th, Monterrey, Mexico. (G. M. 
Gilbert, Psychology Dept., Long Island 
Univ., Brooklyn 1, N.Y.) 

22-29. Plant Tissue and Organ Culture, 
intern. symp., New Delhi, India. (P. Ma- 
heshwari, Univ. of Delhi, Delhi) 

26-28. History of Science Soc., annual, 
Washington, D.C. (J. C. Greene, 1121 
Iowa Ave., Ames, Iowa) 

26-31. American Assoc. for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, annual, Denver, 
Colo. (R. L. Taytor, AAAS, 1515 Massa- 
chusetts Ave., NW, Washington 5) 

The following 35 meetings are being 
held in conjunction with the AAAS an- 
nual meeting. 

AAAS Southwestern and Rocky Moun- 
tain Div., Committee on Desert and Arid 
Zones Research (M. G. Anderson, Uni- 
versity Biological Station, Pulston, Mich). 
26-31 Dec. 

Alpha Epsilon Delta (M. L. Moore, 7 
Brookside Circle, Bronxville, N.Y.). 28 




. in 

1 of 

> In-. 




, 280 


e. (L. 
é, 63 

— Psy- 
5. M. 

>» Ma- 


e Ad 

AS an- 

id Arid 
1, Uni- 

oore, 7 
Y.). 2 

VOL. 134 

American Assoc. of Clinical Chemists 
(R. L. Dryer, State Univ. of Iowa, Dept. 
of Biochemistry, Iowa City). 26-27 Dec. 

American Astronautical Soc. (J. Camp- 
bell III, R.C.A., Front and Cooper Sts., 
Bldg. 10-7, Camden, N.J.). 26-30 Dec. 

American Astronomical Soc. (H. J. 
Smith, Yale Observatory, 135 Prospect St., 
New Haven, Conn.). 27-30 Dec. 

American Economic Assoc. (J. W. Bell, 
Northwestern Univ., Evanston, Ill.). 26 

American Educational Research Assoc. 
(G. T. Buswell, 1201 16 St., NW, Wash- 
ington 6). 30 Dec. 

American Meteorological Soc. (J. M. 
Austin, Dept. of Meteorology, Massachu- 
setts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge 39). 
26-31 Dec. 

American Nature Study Soc. (B. Schultz, 
Dept. of Biology, Western Michigan Univ., 
Kalamazoo). 26-30 Dec. 

American Physiological Soc. (R. G. 
Daggs, APS, 9650 Wisconsin Ave., Wash- 
ington 14). 28 Dec. 

American Political Science Assoc., (E. 
M. Kirkpatrick, 1726 Massachusetts Ave., 
NW, Washington 6). 27 Dec. 

American Psychiatric Assoc. (M. Ross, 
APA, 1700 18 St., NW, Washington 9). 
27 Dec. 

American Soc. of Criminology (J. 
Chwast, New York Inst. of Criminology, 
115-117 W. 42 St., New York 36). 29- 
30 Dec. 

American Soc. of Naturalists (E. L. 
Green, Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Lab- 
oratory, Bar Harbor, Maine). 27 Dec. 

American Soc. of Zoologists (C. B. 
Metz, Dept. of Oceanography, Florida 
State Univ., Tallahassee). 28-30 Dec. 

American Sociological Assoc. (T. Par- 
sons, Emerson Hall, Cambridge 38, Mass.). 
28-29 Dec. 

American Statistical Assoc. (D. C. Riley, 
ASA, 1757 K St., NW, Washington 6). 29- 
30 Dec. - 

Association of American Geographers, 
Great Plains-—Rocky Mountain Div., (M. 
F. Burrill, AAG, 1785 Massachusetts Ave., 
NW, Washington, D.C.). 29-30 Dec. 

Beta Beta Beta Biological Soc. (F. G. 
Brooks, Box 515, Ansonia Station, New 
York 23). 27 Dec. 

Colorado-Wyoming Acad. of Science (R. 
G. Beidleman, Zoology Dept., Colorado 
College, Colorado Springs). 

Ecological Soc. of America (J. E. Cant- 
lon, Dept. of Botany and Applied Pa- 
thology, Michigan State Univ., E. Lan- 
sing). 26-30 Dec. 

Institute of Management Sciences (W. 
Smith, Inst. of Science and Technology, 
Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor). 29 Dec. 

Mathematical Assoc: of America, Com- 
mittee on Undergraduate Program in 
Mathematics (H. L. Alder, MAA, Univ. of 
California, Davis). 30 Dec. 

National Assoc. of Biology Teachers (H. 
C. Kranzer, Temple Univ., Philadelphia 
22, Pa.). 26-30 Dec. 3 

National Assoc. for Research in Science 
Teaching (H. A. Branson, Dept. of Phys- 
- Howard Univ., Washington 1). 26-30 


National Assoc. of Science Writers (D. 
J. Dunham, Cleveland Press, Cleveland 
14, Ohio). 

National Science Teachers Assoc. (M. 

17 NOVEMBER 1961 

T. Ballou, Ball State Teachers College, 
Muncie, Ind.). 26-30 Dec. 

National Speleological Soc. (D. N. Cour- 
noyer, 2318 N. Kenmore St., Arlington 1, 
Va.). 29 Dec. 

Scientific Research Soc. of America (D. 
B. Prentice, 51 Prospect St., New Haven, 
Conn.). 29 Dec. 

Sigma Delta Epsilon (B. L. McLaugh- 
lin, 702 Butternut St., NW, Washington 
12). 26-30 Dec. 

Society of Protozoologists (N. D. Le- 
vine, College of Veterinary Medicine, 
Univ. of Illinois, Urbana). 27-30 Dec. 

Society of the Sigma Xi (T. T. Holme, 
51 Prospect St., Yale Univ., New Haven, 
Conn.). 29 Dec. 

Society of Systematic Zoology (R. T. 
Abbott, Acad. of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia 3, Pa.). 27—30 Dec. 

Tau Beta Pi Assoc. (R. H. Nagel, Univ. 
of Tennessee, Knoxville). 29 Dec. 

United Chapters of Phi Beta Kappa (C. 
Billman, 1811 Q St., NW, Washington 9). 
29 Dec. 

27-29. American Folklore Soc., Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. (T. P. Coffin, 110 Bennett Hall, 
Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 4) 

27-29. American Geophysical Union, 
Ist Western natl., Los Angeles, Calif. (A. 
N. Sayre, U.S. Geological Survey, Wash- 
ington 25) 

(See issue of 20 October for comprehensive list) 


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Abstracts on four Laboratory investigations: 

OPTICAL Gordon Jacobs, an Electronics 

Laboratory communications en- 
COMMUNI- gineer, recently reported that a 
CATIONS ruby laser burst system using 

350 watts of primary power can 
provide a range of 10,000 nautical miles at 400 - 
bits per second. In an experimental system 
development at the Laboratory a KDP crystal 
was used to modulate the light source fre- 
quencies up to 200 mc. The optical receiver 
utilized a multiplier phototube. Mr. Jacobs 
stated that future improvements in light 
sources offer an enormous potential for opti- 
cal communications. A considerable technical 
effort is required in many areas: e.g. atmos- 
pheric propagation, wide-band modulation 
and wide-band detection. 

ADAPTIVE ~ Thomas Bray, of the Electronics 
Devices & Networks group, pre- 
NEURON sented a paper a short time ago 
COMPONENT describing “An Electro-Optical 
i Shift Register” which employs 
an adaptive neuron component. This artificial 
neuron utilizes optoelectronic elements as 
analog multipliers. (Extremely low volume is 
an advantage of this Shift Register: a 20-input 
component consisting of more than 40 analog 
multipliers and 20 analog memory elements 
occupies about 2.5 cubic inches.) This work 
of Mr. Bray's is part of the Laboratory’s en- 
deavor in the field of new logic and memory 
techniques development. 



A SCHEME ...has ee prciere by of ene 
Dickey, radar consultant wit 
TO CREATE A the Laboratory. He suggested 
“RADIOWAVE ‘2 powerful earth-based trans- 
mitter be employed to beam 
ATMOSPHERE” microwave energy at the 
moon. The interaction of 
Ae nee incident and reflected en- 
ergy near the lunar surface would create a 
stationary radiowave pattern...which would 
be sensed by an incoming spacecraft. This 
new technique can provide a simple, light- 
weight device capable of performing all sen- 
sory functions needed to achieve soft lunar 
landings.” (First reported at IRE Convention 
in March 1961, theoretical work is continuing 
on this concept.) 

THE ee > engineers, 
headed by Jerome J. Suran, 
CARDIAC Manager of the Electronic 
PACEMAKER Applications Laboratory, devel- 
oped this device to control the 
beat of the human heart. Itis the first surgically 
implantable unit whose rate can be adjusted 
by the patient to accommodate strenuous 
activities, such as stair-climbing. Its success- 
ful use was described in the May ’61 issue of 
LIFE MAGAZINE. A continuing program of 
cooperation with medical researchers is now 
part of the Laboratory effort. It includes work 
on mechanisms that will stimulate other mus- 
cles which have suffered deterioration (from 
paralytic disease or injury) and the develop- 
ment of new diagnostic techniques. 



Can You Denne Boundaries For Paeetponi ae 

Investigators at General Electric’s Electronics Laboratory believe that no technology is so “remote” that it may not one 
day contribute to advances in one of the many diverse areas conveniently labeled “electronics” today. The “oneness” of 
all science is a matter of conviction at the Laboratory, to both Staff Members. and Management. The result is an enriching 
collaboration among individuals trained in many fields, from biochemistry to microwaves, from molecular physics to 
metallurgy, from geophysics to thermionics. ® Indicative of the breadth-of the Laboratory’s interests and accom- 
plishments are the above abstracts on recent investigations by members of the stafi. Some of this work is now being 
carried into advance development stages @™ Scientists and engineers (with PhD or MS) attracted by an opportunity to 
pursue investigations in a stimulating intellectual climate with colleagues from many fields are invited to inquire about 
INSTRUMENTATION @® Write in confidence to: Mr. Richard J. Sullivan, Dept. 74-T, General Electric’s Electronics 
Laboratory, Electronics Park, Syracuse, New York. “An Equal Opportunity Employer.” 


1642 SCIENCE, VOL. 134 


” of 
8 to 
ty to 
L DE. 
ES e 


‘OL. 134 

Editor L. P. Reitz 

references, Cloth 


. Biological Control of Pests 


and genes 

AAAS Symposium Volume No. 61 


274 + xii pp., 11 illus., 11 tables, 6 x 9, index 
Price $5.75; AAAS members’ prepaid orders 

Presented by the Section on Agriculture at the Indian- 
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Openings in Terre Haute, Indiana; Groton, 
Connecticut; and Maywood, New Jersey. At 
least three years post-graduate experience 

1. M.D. or Ph.D. fully qualified to conduct research on 
virus purification and characterization, synthesis of 
viral nucleic acids, analytical biophysical method- 
ology and related subjects. Sound working knowledge 
of nucleoprotein chemistry essential, 

2. Ph.D. or M.D. to work on mode of action of anti- 
viral compounds and antimetabolites. Good back- 
ground in nucleic acid or pyramidive chemistry as 
well as familiarity with quantitative viral techniques 

Ph.D. with sound classical training in virology to work 
in cancer research program. 

M.D. or Ph.D. with knowledge of clinical or labora- 
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Address résumés (salary requirements included) to: 

Chas. Pfizer & Co., Inc. 
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Mr. R. C. Allen 


CLASSIFIED: Positions Wanted 25¢ per 
word, minimum charge $4. Use of Box 
Number counts as 10 additional words. 
Payment in advance is required. 

COPY for ads must reach SCIENCE 2 weeks 
before issue date (Friday of every week). 

DISPLAY: Positions Open. Rates listed be- 
low—no charge for Box Number. Rates 
net. No agency commission allowed for 
ads under 4 inches. No cash discount. 
Minimum ad: 1 inch. Ads over 1 inch 
will be billed to the nearest quarter 
inch. Frequency rate will apply to only 
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issue (Friday of every week). 

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as follows: 

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1515 Massachusetts Ave., NW 
Washington 5, D.C. 

Mil) ~FELLOWsHrPs — (iil 

Predoctoral and Postdoctoral Felléwships in Medi- 
cal Physics. Opportunities are available to_do 
graduate work in the basic medical sciences. Em- 
Phasis is on the fields of radiation biology, radia- 
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Fellowship suppor is offered for study programs 
leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in medical 
Physics and also for postdoctoral research. Sti- 
pends vary with training and dependents. Write 
to Chairman, Department of Radiology, Medi- 
cal Center, University of California, Los Angeles 
%4, California. 

wii, —*ELLOwsHips jill 

Applications now being accepted for graduate 
study in Biochemical Pharmacology leading to 
Ph.D degree. Prerequisites are a B.S. degree in 
chemistry or biology with a strong chemistry 
background. Research programs in progress on 
amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism, bio- 
chemical genetics, smooth muscle physiology, 
mechanism of enzyme action, and mechanism of 
drug action. Fellowships available witk an initial 
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offering for the 1962-63 academic session, four 
scholarships, and possibly more, for students of 
marked ability interested in research problems to 
do with Northern Canada. This work may be in 
any field of the biological, physical, or social 
sciences or the humanities and will be carried 
out under the supervision of a department of 
the University of Saskatchewan. 

Applicants who have no postgraduate experi- 
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least 1 year of postgraduate research training are 
eligible to apply for scholarships of the value of 
$2200 for 12 months. Essential equipment and 
traveling expenses incurred while carrying out a 
research project will be looked after by the In- 

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a graduate student who holds a scholarship from 
some other source. 

Further information and application forms may 
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documents must be received not later than 
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Coordinator of Research. Ph.D. chemistry, 1941. 

Outstanding record in industrial, university, and 

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German Pharmacologist, M.D. and Chemist. Aca- 
demic and 6 years’ industrial experience. General 
pharmacology, pharmacology, _ especially 
EEG, desires appointment as senior pharmacolo- 
gist. Box 216, SCIENCE x 

(a) Ph.D. Agronomist; trained in radioisotopes, 
nuclear physics; research and university teaching 
experience. (b) Ph.D. Zoologist (Parasitology, 
Entomology) experienced in research and teaching 
at university level. (Please write for information 
regarding these and other scientists in all fields; 
nationwide and very active service.) Science Divi- 
sion, The Medical Bureau, Inc., Burneice Larson, 
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11, Minois. 

(MN «POSITIONS OPEN |iiiiiiill 

BIOLOGY—A mature man capable of managing, 
directing, and developing a division of a growing 
and expanding midwestern scientific supply com- 
pany in the preparation of microscopic slides for 
biology, botany, and zoology for classes in sec- 
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must have vast background experience in this 
field. This is a permanent and key position which 
includes a stock option plan, a reasonable salary, 
and an opportunity to participate in ownership 
without capital investment; opportunities are un- 
limited for research in new techniques and devel- 
opments. An M.D., Ph.D., or the equivalent. In 
reply give age, educational background, availabil- 
ity, starting salary expected, willingness to relo- 
cate, and an experience résumé with references. 
Replies will be held in strict confidence and no 
interviews will be granted without the above in- 

1] NOVEMBER 1961 

formation. Reply to Box 214, SCIENCE. 

Wii POstT1ONS OPEN [ffl 

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Ph.D. Outstanding ability in virology, bac- 
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York State vacation area. Excellent company 
benefits. Salary open. 

Please send résumé to Mr. C. E. Alford, Di- 
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Sterling-Winthrop Research Institute 
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Man with B.S. in chemistry or medical 
technology and 2 to 5 years’ clinical labora- 
tory experience needed to handle analysis 
of blood, serum, and so forth, deriving from 
clinical research program. Some travel in- 
volved. Write, sending complete résumé, to 
Technical Personnel Manager, Parke, Davis 
& Company, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 


Organize and direct radiological health ac- 
tivities for Oregon State Board of Health. 
Regulations enforcement, source inspection, 
shielding and waste disposal review, labora- 
tory, training program, public information. 
One year graduate health physics training, 
two years responsible experience. Salary 
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Building, Salem, Oregon. 



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Examiner’s office. Research opportunity and 
possible medical school affiliation available. 
Salary $9000-$10,000 plus Civil Service 
benefits. Contact Robert M. Greendyke, 
M. Medical Examiner, County of Mon- 
roe, 70 Clarissa St., Rochester 14, N.Y. 

ANT with master’s degree in a biological 
science and experience or training in 
virology, serology, and tissue culture for 
respiratory virus disease project. Tuition- 
free courses after 1 year. Write Personnel, 
University of Vermont 
Burlington, Vermont 

PHYSICS—A mature man with teaching experi- 
ence on the secondary and collegiate levels in 
physics and mathematics to take management 
responsibility with a growing and expanding mid- 
western scientific supply company.“‘He must know 
the needs of modern educational curricula in 
these subjects and have the initiative to plan and 
develop new teaching equipment and supplies. 
This is a permanent and key position which in- 
cludes a stock option plan, a reasonable salary, 
and an opportunity to participate in ownership 
without capital investment. Opportunities are un- 
limited for research, M.S., Ph.D., or the equiva- 
lent are preferred. In reply, give age, educational 
background, availability, starting salary expected 

willingness to relocate, and an experience résumé 
with references. Replies will be held in strict con- 
fidence and no interviews will be granted without 
the rg information. Reply to Box 215, 

The Market Place 


DISPLAY: Insertions must be at least 1 
inch in depth. Weekly invoices will be 
sent on a charge account basis—pro- 
vided that satisfactory credit is es- 

Single insertion $48.00 per inch 
4 times in 1 year 44.00 per inch 
13 times in 1 year 42.00 per inch 
26 times in 1 year 40.00 per inch 

PROOFS: If copy is to be set, and proofs 
submitted for approval, complete copy 
and cuts must be received 4 weeks in 
advance of issue date (Friday of each 
week); complete plates no later than 3 
weeks in advance of issue date. 




Ph.D. (pharmacology or physiology) to be 
responsible for pharmacologic research pro- 
gram involving biologic evaluation of novel 
enzymes for possible medical use. Principal 
duties would include development and im- 
plementation of a comprehensive enzyme 
screening and evaluation program. Will re- 
port directly to the Director of Pharmaco- 
logic Research. Midwestern metropolitan 
location. Excellent community and. research 
facilities. Reply to R. M. Gesler, 

Baxter Laboratories, Inc. 
Morton Grove, Iil. 

Effective 1 January 1962 

The rates for advertising in the Positions 
Open section of Science will be increased 
to $50 per inch. 

"From the hand of the veterinarian 
\ \\, 
to research”® 

albino rats 

(Caesarean derived) 

(Wistar descendants) 


@ Only Charles River CD animals used 

@Rigidly controlled environment 
(same bldg.) birth to surgery. 

@ High speed surgery by graduate biologists, 
@10 years experience animal surgery. 
@ Overnight air service from Boston 

* Trade Mark Reg. U. S. Patent Office 


1018 Beacon St., Brookline 46, Mass. RE. 4-2000 

Henry L. Foster, D.V.M., President 

(Sprague-Dawley descendants) 


Direct shipment collector to purchaser insures 
largest, freshest, most disease-free materials. 
SPECIALS SHIPPED ALL YEAR: Triturus $7.50 12, 
Desmognathus $7.50 12, Ambystoma adults 
$9.00 6, Ambystoma larvae $7.50 12, $25.00 50; 
Live bats $10.00 10. Ambystoma hatching eggs 
Sept.-April $5.00 50; Early eggs Nov.-April 
$10.00 100. 

Customer pays transportation; no other charge 



TEod and Toxicology + Pharmacology 
Du, Nutrition + Biochemistry * Bacteriology 
FEB esearch 

BERNARD |. OSER, Ph.0., Director 
tmeenronarae | Maurice Avenue at 58" Street 
T Wining 4-0800 Maspeth 78, New York City 



Your sets and files of 
scientific journals 

are needed by our library and institutional cus- 
tomers. Please send us lists and description of 
periodical files you are willing to sell at high mar- 
ket prices. Write Dept. A3S, CANNER’S, Inc. 
Boston 20, Massachusetts 


Sets, Runs and Volumes bought at top prices. 
Your wants supplied from 
our Back Files of over 3,000,000 periodicals. 
Abrahams Magazine Service N. Y. 3, N. Y. 



Edited by R. F. Sognnaes, 

526 pages with 283 illustrations, 
references, and index; $9.75 

$8.50 cash orders from AAAS members 


Edited by Allan D. Bass & Gordon K. Moe, 

372 pages with 147 illustrations, references, 
and index; $7.50 

$6.50 cash orders from AAAS members 

Order today from 


1515 Massachusetts Ave., NW 
Washington 5, D.C. 




to « 





OL. 134 

Miles Laboratories’ recently-completed research 
center—an extension of present research facilities — 
will become the headquarters for our growing organi- 
zation’s expanding pharmaceutical research activities. 
Equipped with modern laboratory tools and designed 
to encourage interdisciplinary exchange of informa- 
tion and ideas, this new facility will provide an 
unusually fine research environment. Our competent 
professional staff is encouraged to apply creative 
research approaches in advancing man’s knowledge 
in Biology, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Enzymology, 
Microbiology, Immunology, Pharmacology and Physi- 
ology. The company’s continuing goal will be the 
development of pharmaceutical products by advanc- 
ing the state of the art through creative research. 

Inquiries may be directed in complete confidence to: 
Dr. R. F. McCracken 
Coordinator of Management Recruitment 
(Personal discussions can be arranged at your 
convenience, including. Saturdays, in Elkhart, Indiana) 


1127 Myrtle Street, Elkhart, Indiana 

An Equal Opportunity Employer 

If you are a qualified 
scientist and believe 
Miles Laboratories, Inc. = 
may offer you a challenging 
position, you are invited 

to investigate these openings: 


Will be responsible for staffing and leading a group of immunologists 
in a research program leading towards applications in the diagnosis and 
treatment of diseases. Must have a Ph.D. and/or M.D. degree plus 
several years’ experience. 


Principal responsibilities will involve conducting independent research 
programs for new enzyme products, to improve existing enzyme prod- 
ucts and investigation of enzyme components, separation, purification, 
optimum performance, specificity studies and assay procedures. Must 
possess a Ph.D. in chemistry or biochemistry plus several years’ experi- 
ence in enzymological research. 


To define research objectives and programs and engage in basic and 
applied research. Should hold a Ph.D. in chemistry and several years’ 
experience in organic synthesis, polymers, resins, and/or plasticizers. 


Will work closely with laboratory chemists in collecting, evaluating, 
organizing and presenting scientific information pertinent to a current 
or proposed program having potential diagnostic or therapeutic interest. 
Must have Ph.D. in organic or medicinal chemistry or in a biological 
science. While previous science information experience is desirable, 
it is not a prerequisite. 


Will perform various functions under guidance of research biochemist 
in enzyme analysis, isolation and screening. Must have a minimum 
of B.S. in chemistry and interest in biochemical, pharmaceutical or 
medical research. 

Will be responsible for carrying out clinical chemical investigations in 

connection with laboratory evaluations of new drugs. Should possess 
a B.S. in chemistry or biology plus experience as a medical technologist. 

* Ames Company, Inc. is an ethical pharmaceutical division of Miles Laboratories, Inc. 

Our new Research Center is located in Elkhart, Indiana, a clean, progressive city of 40,000 people. In Elkhart, schools are among the best 
in the middle west and year ‘round cultural and recreational activities for the whole family are only minutes from your door. 



oxygen flask 
i on combustions 


e Utilizes focused infrared beam for ignition 

e Flask shielded completely during ignition 
and combustion 

¢ Takes flasks 500 to 2000 ml capacity 



Showing 6471-P10 Ogg Flask 
in position (Flask not included) 

Thomas-Ogg. For combustion of organic mate- 
rials in a closed oxygen flask completely shielded 
within a safety cabinet. Utilizes a focused infrared 
beam from a built-in 150-watt lamp and special 
black paper sample wrappers for rapid ignition in 
an oxygen-charged clamp-closed flask. Vertical 
alignment of the sample in the beam, and push- 
button firing are done from outside the cabinet 
after door is fastened. 

Cabinet is of metal, 12144 X 8 X 16 inches high 
overall, with transparent acrylic plastic door with 
full-length hinge, baffled vents and spring-loaded 
latch. Lamp is mounted in housing with screw 
crank elevating device; fixed focusing reflector is 
sealed within lamp envelope. Inclined platform 
tilts flask to bring sample close to lamp. Flask can 
be adjusted from front to rear from outside cabinet. 

Designed for use with Thomas-Ogg combustion 
Flask, but accommodates any flask up to 2000 ml, 
such as Thomas-Lisk, in which stopper can be 
clamped securely. 

6472-B. Safety Igniter, Thomas-Ogg, as de- 
scribed, with flask platform, infrared filter, 100 
black ‘paper sample wrappers, extra lamp bulb, 
3-wire cord, 3-prong plug with adapter and direc- 
tions for use, but without combustion flask. For 
115 volts 165.00 

6471-P10. 6474-G10. 
OXYGEN COMBUSTION FLASKS,* Thomas-Ogg, of borosilicate 
glass, conical, designed especially for use in Ogg Safety Igniter but can also 
be used separately. Mouth is formed by socket of spherical joint 35/25, and 
stopper fabricated from matching ball member. Stopper has extension with 
hook for suspending the detachable sample carrier. Carrier is of perforated 
platinum sheet 134 inches long xX %-inch wide. Stopper is held securel 
during combustion by Thomas Pinch Clamp and can be tilted to permit 
easy release of vacuum following combustion. 

6471-P10. Oxygen Flask, Thomas-Ogg, as described, 500 ml capacity, complete with 
stopper, clamp and platinum sample carrier, but without sample wrappers 41.70 
Each, in lots of 12 or mo! 

6471- P15. Ditto, but 1006 ml capacity 
Each, in lots of 12 or more 

OXYGEN COMBUSTION FLASKS, Thomas-Lisk, of borosilicate glass 
with side arm to take rubber balloon for safe expansion of gases. Dedenal 
for determination of pesticide residues in 50 to 100 mg plant extracts but 
suitable for general samples requiring 1000 or 2000 ml of oxygen. See Donald 
J. Lisk, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 8, No. 2 (1960), p. 119. With 
mouth formed by socket of spherical joint 35/25 and stopper fabricated 
from matching ball member. Stopper has extension into which is sealed the 
stem of a platinum sample carrier, U-shape, 18 X 20 mm. Can be used 
with Infrared Igniter or separately. 

6474-G10. Oxygen Flask, Thomas-Lisk, as described, round bottom, 1000 ml fate 
complete with stopper, clamp and 144 rubber balloons, but’ without sample wrappers. 54. 

6474-G20. Ditto, round bottom, 2000 ml capacity 
6474-G30. Ditto, conical, 1000 ml capacity 

6471-Q25. Sample Wrappers, Black Paper. Quickly absorb heat for pow infrared 
ignition. Die-cut from unsized paper, with integral fuse. Sample area 82 X 80 mm, with fuse 
8 X 38 mm. Per box of 100 

10% discount in lots of 12 15% discount in lots of 72 

ere applied for. Based on developments by Clyde L. Ogg and associates, Eastern Utilization Research Fact be ohn Division, 

-S.D.A., Philadelphia, Pa. Described at the International Symposium on Mier 



basa u More and more laboratories rely on oer 

August, 1961, 


Laboratory Apparatus and Reagents