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Social Security 


Bulletin 


August 1947 


Vol. 10 No. 8 


Changes in Resources of Beneficiary Groups in 
St. Louis 


Factors Influencing Trends in Employment of 


the A ged 


FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY 
SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 


WASHINGTON, D.C, 





Social Security Operations 


INDIVIDUALS RECEIVING PAYMENTS 


OLD-AGE AND SURVIVORS INSURANCE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 
MILLIONS OF RECIPIENTS 


MILLIONS OF BENEFICIARIES 
d oat 2.5 


2:3) Wem (aaa ae ieee ies aires aa IS 





OLD-AGE ASSISTANCE 





AID TO DEPENDEN CHILOREN 
(CHILDREN) 











Pd 
“SURVIVOR BENEFITS | 
ae : | | AID TO THE BLIND 
at ae a | a Oe Oe sO ES NE esa: ite eee omen 
i940 41 ‘42 43 44 | 1940 41 42 43 44 45 ‘46 47 #1940 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 




















SOCIAL SECURITY PAYMENTS 


OLD-AGE AND SURVIVORS INSURANCE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 


MILLIONS OF DOLLARS MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 
= 1150 


sor” | | Pag Cue eee tN T I T 


| 











OLD-AGE ASSISTANCE 








[ ~] 


} | 
RETIREMENT BENEFITS | | AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN 
1 | 





—s 
—— 





—_——_—— 
0 ——— “T _ SURVIVOR BENEFITS | | | | | | | | 


l 


1940 ‘41 42 43 44 45 46 47 1940 41 42 43 44 45 #46 47 #1940 41 42 43 44 








' | AIO TO THE BLIND 4 \ 





rm 


4. 








J i. 
45 46 47 


*Old-age and survivors insurance, beneficiaries actually receiving monthly benefits 
(current-payment status) and amount of their benefits during month; unemployment 
insurance, average weekly number of beneficiaries for the month and gross benefits 
paid during the month under all State laws; public assistance, recipients and payments 
under all State programs. 











Social Security Bulletin 





Volume 10 


August 1947 


Number 8 





Social Security in Review 


The Month of July 


Business activity continued on a 
very high level through July, and 
there was no indication of an ap- 
proaching downturn in nonagricul- 
tural employment. Despite the prom- 
ising outlook for the immediate fu- 
ture, however, recent economic trends 
were of serious concern. Two de- 
velopments were particularly disturb- 
ing: the new wave of rising prices— 
especially in the group of “28 basic 
commodities,” which are most sensi- 
tive to changes in business condi- 
tions—and the decline in manufac- 
turing production. 

Even if these developments were 
purely temporary, they marked a 
slowing down in the progress of this 
country’s economic. readjustment. 
Continuation of this readjustment— 
liquidation of the postwar boom—im- 
plies falling prices and rising produc- 
tivity of labor. Progress in this direc- 
tion has been interrupted by a sudden 
rise in inflationary pressures bol- 
stered by the increased demand for 
American products abroad, deterio- 
rating outlook for the next harvest, 
international frictions, and the re- 
cent increase in wage rates in coal 
mining and the iron and steel in- 
dustry. Temporary shortages of raw 
materials and parts contributed to 
those pressures by slowing down the 
flow of finished goods to consumers. 

These new developments hardly 
affected the level of employment in 
July. Unemployment is now concen- 
trated in industries that are passing 
through the process of liquidating 
their overexpansion at the beginning 
of reconversion. The sorest point has 
been the textile and clothing indus- 
tries, especially those producing 
women’s apparel, which have, how- 
ever, already covered a large part of 
the road back to normalcy and are 
climbing out of the slump. Develop- 


757828—47——1 


ments in the women’s apparel indus- 
tries are characteristic of what has 
occurred or is yet to take place in 
other industries. 

Because of the rise in earnings of 
working women, these industries 
were fairly busy during the war. Their 
combined production index rose from 
100 in 1939 and 1940 to 119 in 1942 
and 143 in the following year. Under 
the impact of shortages of materials 
and labor, it dropped in 1944 and 
reached a low point of 94 in the 
second quarter of 1945. In March 
1946, it soared to 193. That steep rise 
after the end of the war was to be 
anticipated, but production could 
not, of course, be maintained at that 
level. Because of the growth of pop- 


ulation and higher level cf consump- 
tion, the present demand for clothing 
may be 30 to 40 percent higher than 
before the war, but it could not be ex- 
pected to remain 93 percent over the 
prewar level—which explains the con- 
traction of those industries in the sec- 
ond half of the year. In December 
1946 the combined index dropped to 
111, and in many lines of production 
the output fell below the prewar mark. 
This reaction to the immediate post- 
war overexpansion was precipitated 
by the reluctance of consumers to 
pay prices which in their opinion were 
not justified by the quality of the 
product. The drop in production was 
only temporary, however. A revival 
developed in the early spring, and 
production indexes now are approach- 
ing the levels at which they can be 
stabilized. This type of readjustment, 





In this issue: 


SOcIAL SECURITY IN REVIEW: 
The month of July 
June in review 


by Lelia M. Easson 


Mushkin and Alan Berman 
EMPLOYMENT SECURITY: 


State programs 


Nonfarm placements 


PuBLIc ASSISTANCE: 


Program operations 
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DATA: 


Personal income 
Civil-service refunds 


1945 and 1946 
RECENT PUBLICATIONS 





CHANGES IN THE RESOURCES OF BENEFICIARY GROUPS IN ST. Lovts, 


Factors INFLUENCING TRENDS IN EMPLOYMENT OF THE AGED, by S. J. 


Unemployment claims and benefits 


Veterans’ unemployment allowances 


OLD-AGE AND SURVIVORS INSURANCE: 


Employment and earnings in covered industries 

Employers, workers, and wages, first quarter, 1947 

Monthly benefits in current-payment status, June 1947, and 
benefits awarded, April—June 1947 


Changes in public assistance, September 1946—January 1947____ 


Social security and other income payments 


Social insurance and related payments 
Estimated pay rolls in covered employment, first quarter, 1947_ 


Financial operations, fiscal year 1946-47 
Number of persons in covered and noncovered employment in 














Social Security 





Number of claimants for unemployment benefits, August 1945—July 26, 1947 





MILLIONS OF CLAIMS 
2.5 





WEEKLY AVERAGE FOR 
EACH MONTH 





BY WEEKS 
| 











| COMPENSABLE CLAIMS 

















+t — —_ 
INITIAL CLAIMS —+ 


0 SSS ee 














| | | | 
Eee ee Teese 





SEPT. DEC. MAR. JUNE SEPT. DEC.4 
1945 1946 JAN 


taking place in one industry after an- 
other over a considerable period of 
time, has caused unemployment in- 
surance claims loads to remain at rel- 
atively high levels despite the low 
volume of unemployment. 

During July, unemployment insur- 


ance operations were characterized 


by only minor fluctuations in the 
weekly numbers of initial, waiting- 
period, and compensable claims. 


Initial | Waiting-| Compen 








Week ended— slat | period | sable 
. | claims | Claims | claims 
June 7 | 293,734 | 112,111 | 1, 051, 959 
June 14.__..____.--- | 199,027 | 132,864 | 1,027,345 
June 21 190, 896 | 144,432 | 1,025, 381 
June 28... 189,403 | 132, 254 | 1,027, 133 
| | 
i | 219,345 | 118,341 | 974, 985 
i} ee | 224,619 | 134,365 | 1,031, 823 
LS | ee ieee | 196,210 | 149, 026 | 1,043, 837 
ee | 224, 968 


129, 675 | 1, 014, 016 





The July average of 216,000 initial 
claims per week was higher than the 
annual averages for 1939 and 1940 
(188,000 and 214,000), when unem- 
ployment was much heavier than now. 
On the. other hand, the average 
weekly number of continued claims 
(1,149,000) was lower than in 1940 
(1,282,000) despite the fact that since 
1940 many States have increased the 
potential duration of benefit pay- 
ments. These figures indicate that 
comparatively large numbers of work- 
ers covered by State unemployment 
insurance are laid off each week but 


om vB 5 
MAY JUNE 
1947 


9 2 6 30 3 27 " 25 8 22 
JULY AUG. SEPT. ocT. NOV. 


6 20 
OEC. 

a large proportion go back to, or find, 
jobs before the end of the waiting pe- 
riod and others remain unemployed 
for relatively brief spells. Such a pat- 
tern of unemployment is not surpris- 
ing in an economic system undergoing 
considerable readjustment on a high 
level of industrial activity. 


June in Review 


Civilian employment in June 
reached a total of more than 60 mil- 
lion, according to estimates of the 
Bureau of the Census, while the in- 
flux of boys and girls into the labor 
market for the vacation period caused 
unemployment to rise from 1,960,000 
to 2,555,000. Large-scale shifts in the 
labor force and continuance of lay- 
offs in some industries whose postwar 
production has not yet stabilized kept 
claims and benefits in the State un- 
employment insurance systems at 
comparatively high levels. Yet the 
seasonal revival apparently predom- 
inated over the large-scale lay-offs. 
The weekly number of both initial 
claims—adjusted for the beginning 
of new benefit years in several 
States—and of waiting-period claims 
declined slowly from the first half of 
May to early June in all parts of the 
country. The total number of con- 
tinued claims rose from May to June, 
on the other hand. The increase was 
due partly to administrative factors 
but mainly to increases in about half 


the Eastern States, especially those 
manufacturing nondurable goods. 
The increases were sufficient to more 
than offset declines in 34 other States. 
For the first time since July 1946 the 
average weekly number of benefi- 
ciaries went just above a million, and 
benefit expenditures rose for the 
fourth consecutive month, amounting 
to $73.6 million as against $72.3 mil- 
lion in May. In June 1946, on the 
other hand, disbursements totaled $93 
million and payments went to a 
weekly average of 1,174,000 bene- 
ficiaries. 


UNDER OLD-AGE AND SURVIVORS insur- 
ance, more than 1.8 million persons 
were receiving current payments at 
the end of June at a monthly rate of 
$35.1 million. A year earlier, at the 
end of the fiscal year 1945-46, 
monthly benefits of $28.2 million were 
being paid to 1.5 million beneficiaries. 

Awards of monthly benefits during 
the second quarter of 1947 were 15 
percent above the number in the pre- 
ceding quarter but slightly less than 
in the second quarter of 1946. The 
decrease came in awards of primary 
and wife’s benefits, since more sur- 
vivor benefits of all types were 
awarded, particularly parent’s bene- 
fits, for which eligibility requirements 
were liberalized under the 1946 
amendments. 


In JUNE, for the first time in the his- 
tory of the program, the number of 
children receiving aid to dependent 
children passed the million mark. 
Slight increases occurred also in the 
case loads of the other two assistance 
programs under the Social Security 
Act; the number of aged recipients 
reached an all-time high, and the 
number of persons receiving aid to the 
blind was almost at the September 
1942 peak. The amount of payments 
under each of the three programs also 
increased slightly. The number of 
recipients and amount of payments 
under general assistance, on the other 
hand, continued their decline of the 
2 preceding months. Payments un- 


der all four programs during June 
increased about $392,000 from the 
May total to more than $122 million; 
for June 1946, payments totaled $94.7 
million. 





Bulletin, August 1947 


a 





Changes in the Resources of Beneficiary 


Groups in St. Louis 


By Lelia M. Easson* 


IN THE LATE SPRING OF 1944, represen- 
tatives of the Bureau of Old-Age and 
Survivors Insurance called for a sec- 
ond time at the homes of a group of 
old-age and survivors insurance bene- 
ficiaries in St. Louis. This resurvey 
came 214 years after the first survey’ 
and approximately 4 years after the 
persons visited had become entitled 
to benefits. It was made to determine 
what changes had occurred in the re- 
sources of the aged and the widowed 
with the passage of time and how 
these groups had been affected by the 
heavy wartime demand for labor. 

The information from the survey 
shows that, on the whole, the dollar 
incomes of beneficiaries were larger 
in 1944 than they had been in 1941. 
The various beneficiary types differed 
widely, however, in the extent to 
which their incomes had risen. The 
men with nonentitled wives and the 
widows with entitled children had the 
greatest proportionate gains in dollar 
income. The percentage increase in 
the median income of nonmarried 
men, female primary beneficiaries, 
and aged widows was smaller, but not 
as small as that for couples with the 
wife entitled. Despite the increases, 
the incomes of most of the beneficiary 
groups were still relatively low. Of 
the aged beneficiaries with no earn- 
ings in either survey year, the major- 
ity had about the same dollar incomes 
in each year. 

The improvement in income oc- 
curred chiefly because of increased 
employment opportunities during the 
war; many had more earnings in the 
resurvey year. Independent income 
from such relatively permanent 
sources as rents, stocks, bonds, and 
other assets showed some increase on 
the average, but this change was only 


*Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors In- 
surance, Analysis Division. 


1Summarized as part of the study of 
beneficiaries in 7 cities in the Bulletins 
of July 1943 and January, April, Sep- 
tember, and November 1945. See also 
the Bulletin for January 1946, “Costs of 
Medical Care of Old-Age and Survivors 
Insurance Beneficiaries in St. Louis and 
12 Ohio Cities.” 


a minor factor in the gain in average 
total income. Public assistance pay- 
ments were considerably higher in 
most instances, but, except for women 
primary beneficiaries, there was no 
substantial increase in the proportion 
receiving assistance. Gifts and allow- 
ances from servicemen and women 
also accounted for some of the total 
gain. Average income from all other 
sources, including old-age and sur- 
vivors insurance, had declined some- 
what. 

The rise in the cost of living, how- 
ever, had an important effect on the 
real income of the _ beneficiaries. 
When this change is taken into ac- 
count, from a third to two-thirds of 
the beneficiary groups of the several 
types were in less favorable economic 
circumstances in the resurvey year 
than they had been in 1941. Real in- 
comes were larger, nevertheless, for 
half or more of two groups—the men 
with nonentitled wives and the widows 
with entitled children. Roughly a 
fourth of the beneficiaries of other 
types had higher real incomes. 

Almost three-fourths of the aged 
widows resurveyed in St. Louis and al- 
most half the beneficiaries of each of 
the other types shared households 
with relatives. Many of these bene- 
ficiaries probably benefited materially 
from the increases in the incomes of 
the relatives. It was found, however, 
that while a few beneficiary groups 
had combined households with rela- 
tives in the period between the first 
and second surveys, a larger number 
had dissolved such joint living ar- 
rangements. 

The two beneficiary types with the 
largest average increase in income 
(men with nonentitled wives and wid- 
ows with children) apparently had 
been able, on the average, to reduce 
their debts or to save a little during 
the intervening period. For benefi- 
ciaries of other types, on the average, 
the net worth was no higher, and it 
was possibly lower, than at the time 
of the first interview if unrealized 
profits are discounted. 

The major changes in the resources 


of these beneficiaries probably were 
peculiar to a period of industrial ex- 
pansion characterized by full employ- 
ment. In a period of stable or declin- 
ing employment, the changes in the 
circumstances of the beneficiaries no 
doubt would have been considerably 
different. At the time of the second 
interviews, held about a year before 
the surrender of Germany, some aged 
persons who had been working were 
already being separated from employ- 
ment, while others were complaining 
that the work they did was too hard 
for them; some said they continued 
to work because they needed the 
money, and others only because their 
employers needed their services. 
Nearly two-thirds of the aged primary 
beneficiaries, however, did not work 
or, if they worked, earned no more 
than $150 during the year. 


Table 1.—Reasons for eliminating 301 
beneficiary groups from the analysis of 
change in resources } 











a Number 
Reason for elimination of groups 

Total number of beneficiary groups 
included in the 1941 survey. ..____- 804 
Included in the analysis of change- --.---- 503 
Eliminated from the analysis of change_- 301 
TIER TG I oa aso ckccsacnenitstes 208 
Me, See Fen 61 
Address unknown. -.._.___.-------- 3 
Not at home on successive visits- _- 5 


Moved from city or living on rural 
FOUSCS,... =~ - oon na esene=a<- 41 
Temporarily away from St. Louis 


6 
Too ill to be interviewed_____.-..-- 6 
Information refused or inadequate- -- 23 
Schedules incomplete-_.........._-- 5 
Refused interview----_...........-- 7 
Unaccountable change in assets___- ll 
Change in type of beneficiary group ?_ 124 
Current widow remarried_____.__-- 11 
Beneficiary child not in mother’s 
care 1 


Entitled child of primary benefi- 
ciary with nonentitled wife be- 


Cg a See i ne 16 
Nonentitled wife became entitled_- 50 
Male primary beneficiary married _- 4 


Male primary beneficiary died, 
leaving entitled widow____._____- 26 
Male primary beneficiary died, 
leaving widow and child____ 
Entitled wife died, leaving male 





primary beneficiary___.._.......- ll 
Nonentitled wife died, leaving male 
primary beneficiary-............- 4 
Benefits terminated__..............-- 93 
Beneficiary died, no entitled sur- 
RA BRE ead SO PR AT. 8S 72 
Last or only beneficiary child 
ettaimne@ Gg0 BO... ooo 5 ced canue 21 





1 Data are for a survey year ended October- 
November 1941 and a second survey year ended 
April-June 1944. 

2 A change in the number or identity of persons in 
beneficiary groups consisting of a widow and entitled 
children was not a cause for elimination. 








Social Security 





Under conditions of moderate or 
large-scale unemployment, it is likely 
that, on the average, the income of 
aged beneficiaries from earnings 
would decline over a 2'4-year period. 
In such circumstances, also, it is likely 
that a much larger number would 
have applied for public assistance. In 
a period of industrial stability or con- 
traction, some assets would have had 
a lower market value and brought a 
smaller income return than under 
wartime conditions. Possibly, how- 
ever, the proportion of beneficiaries 
living with relatives would not have 
been widely different. Some “dou- 
bling up” occurred in the wartime pe- 
riod of housing shortage as well as in 
the less prosperous year of 1941. Sim- 
ilarly, other factors affecting the pro- 
portion of beneficiaries living with 
relatives, such as the departure of 
sons and daughters for military serv- 
ice or war employment, and the return 
home of daughters in the absence of 
husbands, tended to offset each other. 

The first St. Louis survey, made in 
November and December 1941, in- 
cluded 804 beneficiaries of the major 
benefit types who were awarded bene- 
fits in 1940.27 The original sample cov- 
ered about half the beneficiary groups 
in St. Louis who were awarded bene- 
fits in 1940. In the resurvey, which 
commenced in May 1944, the group 
comprised as many of the 804 bene- 
ficiary groups as were currently en- 
titled to benefits and could be inter- 
viewed in St. Louis. In all, 301 of the 
beneficiary groups covered in the first 
survey were not revisited or for vari- 
ous other reasons have been omitted 
from the present analysis (table 1). 
Of the original 804 beneficiary groups, 
8 percent were not interviewed a sec- 
ond time because they were away from 
the city, either permanently or tem- 
porarily, or because the primary ben- 
eficiary or widow was too ill to be 
interviewed, although payments were 
still being made on the account. 
Another 3 percent of the beneficiaries 
either refused information or gave 
information inadequate for analysis. 
In the case of 12 percent of the bene- 


2See the Bulletin, July 1948, for a dis- 
cussion of the selection of the sample. 


7 


ficiary groups, benefits had been ter- 
minated either because the benefici- 
ary interviewed in 1941 had died leav- 
ing no entitled survivor or because a 


last or only beneficiary child had at- 
tained age 18. In 15 percent of the 
cases the composition of the bene- 
ficiary group had changed so as to 


Table 2.—Income: Percentage distribution of identical beneficiary groups, by amount of 
income, first and second survey years, St, Louis 





Type and income of beneficiary group 





Male primary beneficiaries: 2 
Total number 





Median 
Mean 


Nonmarried: 
Total number 


Total percent 


ones tani S000. 25 2 ee 
300-599 


Married, wife entitled: 
OM TNNON : on os  oe cee cece ccdend 


BS a ae ee ae 


CO Le RR gp 
300-599, 


Mean 


Married, wife not entitled: 
Total number 





Female primary beneficiaries: 
Total number 


See footnotes at end of table. 









































First Second 
survey survey 
year year 

en packsdeL Seen Leetens aoe 315 315 
cesarean ba eta nate en 100. 0 100.0 
10.8 7.0 
39.0 29. 8 
21.9 21.3 
10.5 9.5 
6.7 10.5 
7.9 15.6 
3.2 6.3 
hiisien hte wee ate ae eee Abe $602 $764 
Sewn mac otwaenenemdcseeten see 819 1,066 
ia ica carat cneela ea ae eae 99 99 
ward emeato se ou 100.0 100.0 
nee She paageta aan aacee ee 25.3 14.1 
eenbhecneageoe axe 42.4 41.4 
iter Nei stinca as Secka ee eee 18,2 19.2 
RRS EI E See Mee 8.1 9.1 
insect sarta wide xanticcasee te eee 1.0 8.1 
ay Hie ARR Nee 4.0 8.1 
imine teks avsgiee cena edee Bele Ieaciaonedee 
z $418 $5455 
ee Ne eta, esc canedose ewe 671 718 
bi tesascketteosoee 127 127 
ae ae 100.0 100.0 
ie .8 .8 
Sencha aneee aeeseeaeee ae 40.9 33.1 
o 29. 1 29.1 
Aceon eae haan ead 11.0 7.9 
ea athohdeirane cant ee 6.3 ae 
ee Faience Sache a eee 8.7 17.3 
arnt Wey be Sree Ste eared 3.1 4.7 
obeiaee $664 $760 
et eS oer ee 878 1,028 
Se eee ee 86 86 
160.0 100.0 
9.3 8.1 
33.7 12.8 
16.3 12.8 
11.6 12.8 
11.6 17.4 
11.6 20.9 
5.8 15.1 
$730 $1, 302 
1,001 1, 487 
79 
100.0 
27.8 
39.2 
21.5 
6.3 
2.5 
1.3 
1.3 
PN Oe ER or ee Pe eee $492 
en ee re ee ae ee el 554 





Bulletin, August 1947 





alter its classification according to 
family benefit status.* 

These exclusions left for study the 
schedules of 503 beneficiary groups 
identical as to beneficiary type 
throughout both surveys. 

The resources in the survey years 
of the beneficiaries studied were un- 
doubtedly representative of all bene- 
ficiaries in St. Louis who were 
awarded benefits in 1940. In some in- 
stances the data are shown as per- 
centage distributions even though 
they represent very few cases. For 
these types, however, even a complete 
enumeration in the first survey would 
not have provided a large number of 
cases for analysis. The beneficiary 
groups were made up of the same 
members as at the time of the earlier 
survey, except that in widow-child 
beneficiary groups a few children had 


*Such shifts in classification resulted 
from the death of a male primary bene- 
ficiary or his wife, a wife’s entitlement 
to benefits, attainment of age 18 by an 
only entitled child, or the marriage of a 
single man. For example, a married 
man—with wife entitled or nonentitled— 
would have been reclassified as a “non- 
married man” if his wife had died in the 
interim between surveys. 


reached age 18 and were no longer 
classed as members of the group. 

The beneficiaries were, of course, 
2% years older than when first visited. 
At the end of the resurvey year,‘ the 
median age of men with entitled wives 
was 73; of nonmarried men, 71; and 
of men whose wives were not eligible 
to receive benefits, 70. For women 
who were beneficiaries on their own 
wage records the median age was 70 
years; for aged widows, 71; and for 
the younger widows with entitled 
children, 42. The needs of these per- 
sons for consumption goods and serv- 
ices could be assumed to have re- 
mained relatively stable except for a 
general increase in the need of chil- 
dren for most consumption items and 
a probable increase in the need of the 
aged for medical care. Of the pri- 
mary beneficiaries, 37 percent of the 
men and 53 percent of the women had 
reported themselves unable to work 
at the end of the first survey year; 
these proportions had increased to 51 
and 66 percent, respectively, at the 
end of the resurvey year. 


*The period of the resurvey year was 
May-July 1943 to April-June 1944, the 
exact 12-month period depending on the 
date of the interview. 


Table 2.—Income: Percentage distribution of identical beneficiary groups, by amount of 
income, first and second survey years,' St. Louis—Continued 



























| First Second 
Type and income of beneficiary group survey survey 
year year 
Aged widows: 
| Ie ere eee dae anne ane. cece ne ee ee 34 34 
SPR Ne ao sis en bess ae ea ee ene ee wee ~~ 100.0!  —«:100.0 
Tees then -$o00.....=...............-- Aiatsedanstcdacsas eaecka tees career etaeeay 58.8 41.2 
 " Re See SR 20. 6 35.3 
SERA EP SSE oe CRE REE, oe Oe 9 eee oe ee = eG Per ere ] 11.8 11.8 
LL RE RIS RETIN Se tne oi eae eo ell SEEPS 2.9 
I Ne es 8 eee knee ee oe pa Saat 5.9 
1,500-2,309_...........- iat babhasn eeeanaantcudideenaas aac 8.8 2.9 
I I 5 css osc cele oe pages eee ro da cue suadelaunaehecwaaasans eee 
ihc ciceridinhieonakeaets an $275 $345 
5 eee Soecun shisadwandyitasasages aadswe sat 467 94 
Widows with entitled children: | 
OE RIN 5a hacia acnli aalaeon ii ecaeasnanaabanuabadsoadaseas | 75 75 
UN dsc ket oe ia Se es ee eS hea aed aananeeae | 100.0 100.0 
er nag 2: oo A set bP S ee ee ; | 4.3 43 
Cts cad eakaaasdsonbancdes oda sige siceuanweieavadedeatadabiaandon 28.0 9.3 
600-899 _- awl 24.0 21.3 
900-1,199 se) 17.3 10.7 
1,200-1,499_ a 17.3 12.0 
1,500-2,399__ 10.7 29.3 
FTE MNS 6 nx cad cence sasactevauianscakuabesadehgegeeunannesakeuntewenanene= 1.3 16.0 
I Seite ch cui oan eae eud a bean end eae ease aiaanae ean ae $865 $1, 872 
FE itciihacin cians nna cnnantdinemennamgianinian iinbanuatnniandidagginaasuaimuijeamn 989 1,510 





1 First survey year ended in October-November 
1941, second survey year ended in April-June 1944, 


2 Includes 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male 
primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled 
children. 


In the analysis of change in the 
economic status of families over a 
period of time, errors and omissions 
in the survey data (admittedly pres- 
ent in most survey data) assume more 
importance than in the analysis of 
economic status at a point of time. 
Casual errors in reports of income or 
assets as of any one time are not 
likely to affect the average greatly. 
On the other hand, in computing the 
amount of change in income or assets 
between one survey year and another, 
an error occurring in one survey but 
not in the other may seriously mis- 
represent the extent of the change 
that actually occurred between the 
two years. 

Experience in the St. Louis surveys 
indicates that reporting tends to be 
more nearly accurate at the time of a 
revisit than in a first survey. Inter- 
viewers have had an opportunity to 
study the earlier schedule and conse- 
quently are in position to draw out 
information that otherwise might be 
overlooked. In some instances, from 
information obtained in 1944, it was 
possible to make adjustments to cor- 
rect for earlier reporting errors. 
Since the errors found were largely 
in the direction of underreporting in 
1941, the amount of undiscovered 
error May be assumed to have the 
effect of understating the decrease or 
overstating the increase in resources. 
The data presented, nevertheless, are 
believed to be sufficiently reliable to 
show the general direction and ap- 
proximate extent of change in the 
economic status of the several bene- 
ficiary types. 


Income 


Although a large proportion of the 
beneficiary groups received less than 
$600 in total income during both sur- 
vey years, fewer were in this low in- 
come class in the second year (table 
2). The average income for each type 
of beneficiary group was higher in the 
second survey year, but the extent of 
the rise varied greatly among the 
several types. While the rise in me- 
dian income for beneficiaries of four 
types amounted to not more than $127, 
it was $507 for younger widows and 
$572 for men with nonentitled wives. 

Seventy-five percent of the 
younger widows and 67 percent of the ° 
couples with only the husband en- 





6 


Social Security 





titled had higher dollar incomes® in 
the second than in the first survey 
year; for 17 and 16 percent, respec- 
tively, incomes were at least $1,200 
higher (table 3). Among the bene- 
ficiaries of other types, 48 percent of 
the nonmarried men, 49 percent of the 
women who were beneficiaries on 
their own wage records, 39 percent of 
the entitled couples, and 29 percent of 
the aged widows had higher incomes. 
Relatively few of these four benefi- 
ciary types, however—only 3 percent 
of the nonmarried men and 5 per- 
cent of the entitled couples—had in- 
creases of as much as $1,200. 

Except for the younger widows and 
the couples in which the wife was not 
entitled, a substantial proportion of 
the beneficiary groups of each type 
(from 36 percent of the nonmarried 
men to 50 percent of the aged widows) 
had practically the same dollar in- 
comes. The range in the proportions 
having lower incomes in the second 
survey is not large—from 13 percent 
(female primary beneficiaries) to 22 
percent (entitled couples). A num- 
ber of these groups, however, had in- 
comes lower by $600 or more. 


5To allow for possible reporting errors 
and avoid including among beneficiaries 
with a change in income those whose in- 
come had changed insignificantly, income 
amounting to within $50 of the amount 
received during the first survey is de- 
scribed in the text as “practically the 
same.” Incomes that increased by $50 
or more are described as “higher,” and 
those that decreased by $50 or more are 
described as “lower.” 


In general, the beneficiary groups 
that had increases in dollar income 
tended to be those with relatively low 
or relatively high incomes in the first 
survey year, rather than those in the 
middle income classes. Beneficiary 
groups with low incomes in 1941 in- 
cluded some who were unemployed in 
1941 though able to work, but had 
some earnings in 1944, and some who 
subsequently received substantial aid 
from public assistance. Among those 
with relatively high incomes in 1941 
were a good many who had jobs in 1941 
but had increased earnings in 1943-44. 


Earnings and Occupation 


Earnings were chiefly responsible 
for the higher average dollar incomes 
in the resurvey year. The widow-child 
beneficiary groups more than tripled 
their average income from this source; 
entitled couples more than doubled 
theirs; and nonmarried men nearly 
doubled theirs. Female primary bene- 
ficiary groups received on the average 
nearly two-thirds more in earnings 
than in 1941, but there was almost no 
change for the aged widows. 

More beneficiary group members 
were working, more had full-time em- 
ployment throughout the survey year 
or worked more weeks in the year, and 
the rates of pay were higher. The 
chief earner in beneficiary groups that 
comprised more than one potential 
earner was usually the husband or, in 
the case of widows with dependent 
children, the widow herself. Nonen- 


Table 3.—Change in income: Percentage distribution of identical beneficiary groups by 
amount of change in income, second as compared with first survey year, St. Louis 





Male primary beneficiaries | 


| 





Amount of change in income 


varried | ba . 
married | entitled | entitled | 





Total number 


ee nes 
$1,200 or more---__-.---- 
600-1,199____. eee 7 
eee 9.5 | a 
200-299 5.4 | :s 


Total percent__._---- weeds | 100.0 
[ : 


| Total! | Non- 
| 

| 
|_as| 

| 

| 

| 

| 

| 


_, RTE eS ee é 8.6 
ee 
Less than $50 change , 
0 Pee ee 
$50-99 
100-199 


aa 
1c 
OM Re HH HOM 





48002 2c 
1,200 or more-- 


] 
| Married, Married,| benefi- | widows 











| primary | Aged with 
entitled 


| 
| 

Female | | Widows 
| children 


wife wife not | ciaries 


| 

| 

—— |__| 
| | 





127 | 86 79 34 | 75 
100. 0 


100.0 | 100.0 100. 0 


2Q 
5) 


or) 
= 


aI 


= 


‘ 
4. 
1, 


2 


mth 


Cn MW oO 


_ 


see 
+ Or BD CO 4 00 He NICO OC 


toc 


“I orb 
NAW ONNINNSS 


nN 
Ha 00 OW WO RST ORM RAID | 


‘ 
‘ 
nh to 
to 








1 Includes 3 beneficiary 
children. 


groups consisting of male primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled 


titled wives and children under 18, 
however, also made significant contri- 
butions to beneficiary group incomes, 
particularly in the resurvey year. The 
earnings of the individual members of 
the beneficiary groups are discussed in 
the following paragraphs. 

Male primary beneficiaries.—The 
entitled men of the three types dif- 
fered rather markedly in their earn- 
ings records (tables 4,5,6,and 7). As 
compared with nonmarried men and 
men with entitled wives, a larger pro- 
portion of men with nonentitled wives 
worked at some time during each 
survey year, and on the average they 
earned more money. From 50 per- 
cent in the first survey year, the pro- 
portion of men of this type who had 
earnings increased to 56 percent in 
the second survey year. The propor- 
tion who were full-time workers rose 
sharply, from 7 to 31 percent, while 
relatively fewer worked part time. Of 
these men with nonentitled wives— 
who on the average were somewhat 
younger than the other types of men 
beneficiaries—44 percent had higher 
earnings in the second than in the first 
survey year; 30 percent had at least 
$600 more from this source. For 17 
percent, on the other hand, income 
from employment declined or ceased, 
while 1 percent earned about the 
same amount.’ Thirty-seven percent 
had no earnings in either survey year. 
In each year a substantial proportion 
of the wives who were not eligible for 
benefits supplemented their hus- 
bands’ earnings. A somewhat larger 
proportion of these wives were work- 
ing in the second survey year—28 per- 
cent as compared with 22 percent in 
the first. Their median earnings 
were $630 in 1943-44 as compared 
with $383 in the year before Pearl 
Harbor. The earnings of nonentitled 
wives averaged about a fifth of the 
total beneficiary-group earnings in 
each period. 

Among men with entitled wives, 
the proportion of men beneficiaries 
employed all or part of the survey 
year increased from 33 percent in 
1941 to 37 percent in 1943-44. As 
compared with only 4 percent in the 





® Beneficiaries who had no earnings in 
one survey year but who earned more 
than $50 in the other year are included 
among those with changes in earnings. 








Bulletin, August 1947 


7 





earlier period, as much as 16 percent 
worked full time during the latter 
period; the number of part-time 
workers among these men declined. 
Only a fourth of the men with en- 
titled wives—in contrast to 44 per- 
cent of the men with nonentitled 
wives—had higher earnings than in 
the earlier year. Seventeen percent 
earned at least $600 more; 10 percent 
earned the same amount. For 9 per- 
cent, income from this source had 
decreased more than $50, while 55 
percent had no earnings in either sur- 
vey year. Entitled wives—who, it 
should be remembered, were at least 
age 65 in the earlier survey—contrib- 
uted little to the family earnings in the 
first survey year and even less during 
the second. Their earnings com- 
prised, on the average, 4 percent of 
the total beneficiary-group earnings 
in 1941 and less than 1 percent in 
1943-44, 

Nearly half (48 percent) of the 
nonmarried men worked at some time 
during the second survey year, as 
compared with 37 percent in the first 
survey year. As in the case of the 
men with entitled wives, only 4 per- 
cent in 1941 but as many as 17 percent 
in 1943-44 worked full time; fewer 
worked only part time. A third of 
the nonmarried men earned more in 
the second survey year than in the 
first, and 15 percent earned at least 
$609 more. Nine percent earned 
about the same amount, and the earn- 
ings of another 9 percent dropped 
more than $50; 49 percent had no 
earnings in either survey year. 

The occupations of the primary 
beneficiaries were in general what 
might be expected of a group of aged 
persons, all of whom had been in 
covered employment only a few years 
before they went on the beneficiary 
rolls. Table 8 shows the percentage 
distribution of the employed primary 
beneficiaries according to occupation 
in the first and second survey years. 

Comparing the two survey periods, 
a smaller proportion of the employed 
beneficiaries worked during the sec- 
ond year in the occupational groups 
that call for greater responsibility or 
skill, while a larger proportion were 
in occupations demanding less skill or, 
as in the case of protective service 
workers, less physical energy. There 
was a tendency, however, for the men 


to continue in the same type of work 
(table 9). Of the 124 men who had 
been employed at some time during 
the year before Pearl Harbor, 170 
worked in the same occupational 
group in the resurvey year. The up- 
grading of employees during the war 
brought some shifting of male bene- 
ficiaries who in the first period had 
been laborers or service workers (not 
domestic or protective) into positions 
requiring more skill or greater re- 
sponsibility. During the resurvey 
year, one of the two men who had had 
work relief in 1941 earned $1,050 and 


the other $1,625 in noncovered em- 
ployment. 

The 41 men who worked in 1943-44 
but not in 1941 had taken jobs in the 
following occupational groups: 


Number 

Proprietors, managers, and Officials, 
CROCS TAR cnnen 
Clerical, sales, and kindred workers__ 
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred 
WORNGES ° .2cc6eessaseseeeesea 
Operatives and kindred workers. 
Domestic service workers 
Protective service workers_..-..--_-- 
Service workers, except domestic and 
PROLOGUE a ciicccciciiccmmonsinnenen 
Laborers, except farm_...-.......... 9 


o-~ 


aran 


Table 4.—Percent of beneficiary groups with income from specified sources and average 
amount of such income, second survey year, St. Louis 





Male primary 





beneficiaries 






























































|\F — Widows 
: : | : Aged | with en- 
com Pas; | Ag t 
Source of income | Non- | Ms arried, | | Married, | m Y |widows| titled 
_ . | | ban i- F 
Total!| mar- | wife en- | wife not | alain children 
ried titled | entitled | 
Percent of beneficiary groups 
| re . a oT l 
Old-age and survivors insurance benefits_- 86.3 | 87.9 92.9 74.4 97.5} 100.0 100.0 
Retirement pay---.-..-- eamnee 16.8 16.2 | 18.1 16.3 See ee ee 
Veterans pensions.................--.=5-- 1.6 a | _ ¢ See 
Union pensions.--- 2.5 | 1.0 | 3.9 | RS bec 
Income from assets -| 40.3) 364) 417) 43.0] 36.7) 58.8 34.7 
Interest on savings deposits. ...-..... 23.2} 26.3 22.0 | 22.1} 25.3 35.3 22.7 
Rent -- ch espa 19.7 14.1 22.0 | 23.3 15.2 | 20.6 13.3 
Dividends and bond interest..--------- | 3 8.1 13. 4 10.5 | 15.2 20.6 8.0 
Other investment income--.----- = 1.3 1.0 8 | 2.3 |-- 2.9 | 8.0 
Other independent, permanent income... 1.6 | 0 | 1.6 | 1.2 | 2.5 - } 1.3 
| RTD. FA Ee 50.8 5) 37.8 | 70.9 | 40.5 11.8 | 81.3 
Gifts- 16. 2 | | Le 11.6 20.3 | 14.7} 12.0 
Allowances and contributions from mem- | | | } © 
bers of the armed forces. ..........--- 2.5 | ai 3.1 | OF Pcscas 2.9 | 10.7 
Public assistance and private relief_...--- 9.2] 13.1 | 7.1 &3:) Ma 5.9 | 1.3 
l | | 1 
} 
Mean amount for beneficiary groups with specified income 
| ] | Nl 
Old-age and survivors insurance benefits.-| $328 $256 $411 | $270 | $192 | $231 | $420 
Tin OO kk cee encaee | 568 452 | 506 801 | | ee ees eee 
Veterans peneime................008-4-: | *590 bf | MEPEES ED, CPR ETE TAS 
Union pensions : 7 *34 *480 } cf ee eee _ ---- 
Income from assets- athnstedas 235 | 158 | 330 61 226 286 
Interest on savings deposits.........---| 17 | 19 | 9 | 6 | 16 26 
Rent “ae | 294 | 221 371 73 | *241 272 
Dividends bond interest.......--- | 286 | 245 | *506 | ) *358 *425 
Other investment income. - - - a *82/ *150 | 7 i... *130 *283 
Other independent, permanent income...| *490 | 150 | | *1,200 | 468 ae 564 
Earnings--.- ee NS SER eas 977 | 636 1, 254 16 *544 1,024 
Gifts- = 169 | 78 156 | 79} *198 *167 
Allowances and contributions from mem- | | | ~~ 
bers of the armed forces. -__...--.---- *544 ; “477 *610 | *148 452 
Public assistance and private relief.._.- - 239 | 202 *262 | *279 264 *256 *260 
| | 
Median amount for beneficiary groups with specified income 
} ceaia | ee en, 291)2 ry g 
Old-age and survivors insurance benefits.| $330 $267 $438 $274 $203 | $210 $398 
PI I ire cine ear te eleaapeiel oid 480 308 360 | 618 | pene epee 
Bi ere *720 TOE 8. a adaclddeedand Peeeiansen 
Union pensions ae eee *312 | *480 *144 | “GSS ||-----.. ~---25-|--220--- =- 
TIneouse from desets..._................-. 83 | 83 | 83 | 139 | 54 | 82 | 38 
Interest on savings deposits. .-...--- | 7 | 6 | 8 | 4} d 12 3 
(RIES eae! eer as 194 196 | 17 | 290 | 74)  *269 | 196 
Dividends and bond interest-..-.....-- 60 *140 | 69 *30 | 48 “31 | *338 
Other investment income_-_----...----- “a *83 *150 *100 #38 | : *130 : 71 
Other independent, cmon income. "450 | *150 "475 | 1,200 |  *468 |..--...-| 564 
Earnings ee. F 794 | 324 | 766 1,107 | 398 | *562 | 984 
Gifts RS er 62 42 | 154 | 44 | 54 | *78 | 60 
Allowances and contributions from mem- | | | | i 
bers of the armed forces_-_.------.--.-- #535 | | *528 | *585 P % 48 | wad 
Public assistance 231 | 192 *270 | *266 246 | *256 | 260 


and private relief---- --| 





*A verage based on less than 10 cases. 


1 Includes 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male 
primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled 
children. 





Social Security 





Female primary beneficiaries.—Of 
the 79 women among the primary 
beneficiaries, 38 percent had some em- 
ployment in 1943-44, as against 32 
percent in the year before Pearl] Har- 
bor. Fourteen of the 25 women who 
had some employment in the first sur- 
vey year had the same type of work 


in the resurvey year, including 2 who 
had boarders or roomers; the number 
employed as operatives or kindred 
workers had increased. About a 
fourth of the women were earning 
more money than in the earlier pe- 
riod, but their increases tended to be 
smaller than those of the employed 


Table 5.—Average beneficiary-group income from Specified sources, second survey year, 
and average net change from income in first survey year, St. Louis 



































Male primary beneficiaries A 
a seca | Widows 
: , | Agec with en- 
Source of income Non- | Married, | Married, ok. widows| titled 
Total!| mar- | wife en- | wife not ciari children 
ried | titled | entitled si 
Average (mean) income from specified source 
ME... ddniamatiescussouesaiaces $1, 065 $718 $1, 023 $1, 487 $554 | $494 | $1, 510 
Old-age and survivors insurance benefits_. 283 225 382 201 187 231 | 420 
oe tee ee ip, SELENE 96 73 92 130 
Veterans’ pensions. - _ SORE: RACES 26 
Union pensions. - --- 9 5 12 8 
Income from assets..........---.-.------- 95 58 93 142 
—" on savings deposits-_-......--.- 4 5 5 2 
| 2S a ee 58 31 61 86 11 50 36 
Dividends and bond interest __ r 32 20 27 53 10 74 34 
Other investment income. -----......-- 1 2 1 ; i Poem 4 23 
Other independent, permanent income ?_- 8 3 7 14 ae 8 
Ee ee ee 496 308 357 890 209 64 833 
Se ee eee 27 16 39 18 16 29 20 
Allowances and contributions from mem- 
bers of the armed forces----_.......-- | 15 _ * eee 4 48 
Public assistance and private relief_____- 22 27 19 23 53 15 3 
| ae 6 4 7 7 3 18 78 
Average net change for all beneficiary groups 
BE iiaansdicnascbceueackene aces | $245 $147 $144 $486 $115 $27 $530 
Old-age and survivors insurance benefits.| —41 —19 —47 —54 —8 -5 —101 
SS —6 0 -7 —11 Oto coskeacesce sen 
J gS D lvnectouninwscunaces Eee SE Swesiebonusnens 
OS eae -1 -1 1 | CO Seen Seana 
Income from assets......................- 12 1 7 34 7 6 | 30 
Interest on savings deposits. .......- p -1 1 -3 -1 -1 -1)] —2 
| Se Se aa 6 -1 8 11 4 8 | 10 
Dividends and bond interest-_-..._..- 6 —1 2 22 3 —6 | 8 
Other investment income. 1 1 @) i eee 4 | 14 
Other independent, permanent income? 1 0 —1 v1 —— 0 
aes Seles as pode lend otha pained pdlanevien SS iaus inks 260 147 184 484 80 | a3 576 
a arr 4 10 —4 5 5 12 15 
Allowances and contributions from mem- | 
bers of the armed forces_.-......- 15 ee 4 | 48 
Public assistance and private relief- 8 11 40 10 | -8 
All other income. .......................- —11 —25 —10 —2 | —30 

















ange for beneficiary groups with specified income 























TEE ie te an eRe $245 $147 $144 $486 $115 $27 $530 
Old-age and survivors insurance benefits- —41 —19 —48 —56 —8 —5 —101 
pce th EEE —33 0 —41 —51 
Veterans’ pensions. -- a | Ce eee : *218 
Union pensions. - —40 | *—60 *14 *—180 
Income from assets..-.--.------------.--- 7 1 14 72 

Interest on savings deposits. -__.....-.- —4 4 12 —2 

Ree at 30 -5 38 45 

Dividends and bond interest___- at 50 -9 13 *209 

Other investment income- - ---- -| *31 *66 *—10 *38 
Other independent, permanent income? *92 0 *—7 *600 
OS SS 451 285 384 622 
JE Sie ee eae 22 43 —21 32 
Allowances and contributions from mem- 

bers of the armed forces__ _- es <n "477 | *148 *452 
Public assistance and private relief_____- 106 93 102 *137 199 *170 *—145 
All other income. ....................... —75 —34 —72 —97 —74| *—84 —208 


























* Average based on less than 10 cases. 

1 Includes 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male 
primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled 
children. 


2 Represents payments from private annuities, 
insurance, trusts, and workmen’s compensation that 
were expected to continue for the lifetime of the re- 
cipient. 

3 Less than $0.50. 


men beneficiaries. Nine percent of 
the women had about the same earn- 
ings as in the first survey year, and 8 
percent had decreases in income from 
this source. Fifty-eight percent had 
no earnings in either year. 

Six of the women receiving pri- 
mary benefits were married. Four of 
the husbands worked in the first year, 
three in the second. The earnings of 
one husband had risen from $1,658 
to $1,857 and of another from $1,292 
to $2,080. The third husband, who 
was reported as tubercular, earned 
$787 in the first year but only $100 in 


‘the second. Another husband earned 


$104 in 1941 but nothing in the re- 
survey year. Two others were in- 
valids. 

Aged widows.— The only aged 
widows who had earnings of any sort 
were a few who kept roomers. One 
who had a little income from this 
source in 1941 did not have a roomer 
during the resurvey year, but three 
others continued to rent rooms, which 
brought in most of their income. An- 
other widow took in a roomer for a 
short. time during the resurvey year. 

Widows with entitled children.— 
Among the 75 widows with entitled 
children who were included in both 
surveys, only 30 (40 percent) had any 
employment during the earlier period 
but 50 (67 percent) were employed at 
least part of the time during the re- 
survey year. Four of the 30 who 
worked in 1941 no longer had employ- 
ment. They had quit because of va- 
rious combinations of reasons, includ- 
ing ill health, relatively high survivor 
benefits, and the presence of older 
children to help support them and 
their dependent children. Twenty- 
four of the 45 who had no earnings 
during the first period had found at 
least occasional employment by the 
time of the second survey. Fifty-six 
percent of the widows with entitled 
children had higher earnings in the 
second period than in the first. 
Thirty-six percent had _ increases 
amounting to $600 or more. Seven 
percent had about the same earnings, 
and 9 percent earned less; 28 percent 
had no income in either year from this 
source. 


Except for one widow with an in- 
come of $5,500, the incomes of the 
widows with no earnings in the resur- 
vey year were all low when the num- 




















wa ES eve we ST Oa 





Bulletin, August 1947 


7 





ber of children to be supported is 
taken into consideration. Conse- 
quently it may be assumed that there 
was sufficient financial incentive for 
24 of the 25 to have secured employ- 
ment were it not for responsibilities 
which they considered more import- 
ant than the added income; in many 
cases, also, they received payment in 
kind for the services they rendered 
in the home. 

Most of these 25 widowed mothers 
were apparently homemakers for rel- 
atively large families. In 6 of these 
families there were 4 persons, in 5 
families 5 persons, in 3 families 6 per- 
sons, and in 1 family 9 persons. In 
about half the 25 families in which 
the widow reported no earnings, old- 
er children who were living at home 
were employed, or the widow and her 
children were living with members 
of her own family. Only 1 of these 
25 widows, but 11 of the 50 who did 
work in 1943-44 were working at the 
time of the death of their husbands. 
Nine of the 25 widows with no earn- 
ings reported some health difficulty. 

Supplementary earnings of children 
under 18 were important to the wid- 
ow-child beneficiary groups. Twen- 
ty-eight percent of such groups in 
1943-44, as against 21 percent in 1941, 
included children under 18 who 
worked, usually part time. More- 
over, as a result both of greater em- 
ployment opportunity and the fact 
that tne children were 2% years old- 
er, the median earnings of the work- 
ing children were $733 in the resurvey 
year, in contrast to $453 in the first 
period. In spite of these increases, 
children’s earnings comprised only 25 
percent of total earnings of the wid- 
ow-child beneficiary groups in 1943- 
44, whereas they had made up 37 per- 
cent of the total in 1941. 


Independent Income From Rela- 
tively Permanent Sources 


A little more than 40 percent of the 
couples and almost 60 percent of the 
aged widows in the second survey year 
had at least some income from sav- 
ings deposits or from stocks, bonds, 
real estate, or loans; slightly more 
than a third of the nonmarried men, 
women primary beneficiaries, and 
widows with entitled children had 
such income (table 4). 

Half the nonmarried men, entitled 


T57828—47 





9 
~“ 


Table 6.—Change in earnings: Percentage distribution of identical primary beneficiaries 
and widows by amount ppt viet in earnings,' second as compared with first survey 


year, St. Louis 


























Male primary beneficiaries | 

Female , Widows 
. . | | pri- Aged with 

Amount of change in earnings Non- Married, | Married,| mary |widows| entitled 
Total?/ mar- | wife en- | wife not | benefi- | children 

ried | titled entitled | ciaries | 

| 
Total number..............----.----- 315| 99 | 427 s6|  79|  34| 75 
Total percent...............--.--__-- 100.0 | 100.0} 100.0] 100.0 100.0| 100.0 | 100.0 
No earnings in either year_.__._....____.- 47.6 48.5 55.1 37.2 58.2 85.3 28.0 
52.4 51.5 44.9 62.8 41.8 14.7 72.0 
34.0] 33.3 | 26.0 44.2] 25.3 8.8 56.0 
8.9 4.0 8.6 15.1 3 | ee 14.7 
11.4 11.2 8.6 | 15.1 + |) Re 21.3 
4.1] 4.0] 2.4 | Sal. €S6c 2.7 
7.3 13. 2 | 4.7 | 4.7 12.7 8.8 13.3 
2.2 1.0 | 1.6 3.5 > | Sener 4.0 
Less than $50.................--...---- | 73] 91 10.2 | ss] 461... 6.7 
si oo cige ae oe 1.1} 9.1} 3.7] 17.4] 76] 5.9 9.3 
Sg, Te ee 1.6 1.0 | 1.6 | 2.3 | Se Sis oe 
(| SSS Pare tee 4.4 3.0 2.4 9.3 1.3 5.9 4.0 
ea rates eS 1.3 , | | See 2.3 _ § , Rees 5.3 
Se ae ae ae 1.6 1.0 2.4 Rad Ladseicancs Rewemeacuaaoeelee ae 
EE aes 2.2 2.0 2.4 + | RE RRA Reece sh 


























1 Includes work relief wages from the Works Prog- 
ress Administration and the National Youth 
Administration, 


couples, and aged widows who had in- 
come from assets received less than 
$83 from this source. For men whose 
wives were under age 65 and who had 
income from assets, the median 
amount was $139. Half the 29 women 
primary beneficiaries with such in- 
come received less than $54, while of 
the mothers of entitled children who 
received income from assets, half did 
not receive as much as $38. 

Most of those who reported money 
income from assets received substan- 
tially the same dollar amount in the 
second as in the first survey year 
(table 10). For the beneficiaries of 
each type, however, income from as- 
sets averaged slightly more in the sec- 


2 Includes 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male 
primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled 
children, 


ond than in the earlier survey period 
(table 5). 

Not more than 35 percent of the 
beneficiaries of any type (table 4) 
reported interest on money in a sav- 
ings institution, such as a bank, sav- 
ings and loan or building and loan 
association, credit union, or the Postal 
Savings System. In the main, the 
same persons had income from de- 
posits in both survey years, though 
some new accounts were reported 
while others were closed out. Except 
for the nonmarried men, the average 
income of each beneficiary type from 
savings deposits decreased. The de- 
crease was caused partly by the lower 
rates of interest during the second 


Table 7.—Change in employment status: Percentage distribution of identical primary 
beneficiaries and widows with entitled children, by employment status during first and 


second survey years, St. Louis 


























| | 
| | | Employed ! 
\_ Unem- 
: r Total > dloyed 
Type of beneficiary group Number oumuant JF irst Second Pech 
Both | year and | 1 
years nai year anc years 
: second not first 
Male primary beneficiaries 3. ............--- 315 100.0 33.3 6.0 13.0 47.6 
| ee 99 100.0 34.3 3.0 14.1 48.5 
Married, wife entitled. -.........--.-.-.--- 127 100.0 25.2 7.9 11.8 55.1 
Married, wife not entitled. ............--- 86 100.0 43.0 7.0 12.8 37.2 
Female primary beneficiaries--~...-......--- 79 100.0 27.8 3.8 10.1 58. 2 
Widows with entitled children.._....-...--.- 75 100.0 34.7 5.3 32.0 28.0 
! 











1 Employed at some time during the survey year. 


2 Includes 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled 


children. 





10 


Social Security 





Table 8.—Occupational group of employed primary beneficiaries: Percentage distribution 
by occupational group, first and second survey years, St. Louis 





Male primary Female p 
beneficiaries beneficiari 





Occupational group ! F | 











First | Second | First 
| Survey | survey survey | 
| year | year | year | ye ar 
Fe = = fete ee Se 
| 
NNR INERT es a oui sen enaanneadensresbhaedscstedes | 124 146 | 25 | 30 
as Ellas | | 
Total percent... ..........- Soaakabecas | 100.0} 100.0] 100.0 100. 0 


Professional and semiprofessional__.....................-------- 
Proprietors, managers, and officials, except farm_._____-- 
Clerical, sales, and kindred workers_-_..._......---.------ 
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers_--_.-__- 
Operatives and kindred workers _ -_- 
Domestic service workers 
Protective service workers -..-.............-.....--- 
Service workers except domestic and pr otective 
Laborers except mine and farm_- 
Miscellaneous 4 





1 Occupations are classified according to the Palmer 
convertibility list of occupations. See Gladys R. 
Palmer, “The Convertibility List of Occupations 
and the Problems of Developing It,’’ Journal of the 
American Statistical Association, December 1939, 
pp. 693-708. 


2 Includes 10 percent with roomers”and’ boarders. 
3 Includes 13 percent with roomersand, boarders. 
4 One beneficiary served on a jury. 


survey period. Also, the beneficiaries 
as a whole had reduced their deposits. 
There is some reason to believe, more- 


over, that at the time of the second 
interview the beneficiaries gave a 
franker and fuller report of their cash 


Table 9.—Change in employment status and occupational group of identical primary 
tone second as compared with first survey year, St. Louis 

































































- Employment status and occupational group 
in second survey year 
Employment status and occupational group in - 
first survey year Total Employed ! | 
| Unem- 
Total | Same sili Different | Ployed 
pation | occupation 
Male primary beneficiaries 

| | 
RANG aisrprwinaii sn stnicnimcoiicinhcatieg 315 146 | 70 | 35 | 169 
~nemplovyed............s... extiianmeniactcnlee 191 41 | ipaere cf ies Pe . 150 
RUN ce Oe a ec acconeg 124 105 | 70 | 35 19 
Professional and semiprofessional _-___-_..-....----- 4 4 4 | Bee ee : ae 
Proprietors, managers, and officials, except farm_-_- 7 7 4 | 3 | eae 
Clerical, sales, and kindred workers___--...--..--- 21 17 | il | 6 | 4 
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers. - aa 36 29 22 | 7 7 
Operatives and kindred workers_..........-_----- 11 9 i es 3 
BESSON MADD MONIES os oo we cen ccbbloas- =i sacsuae aS. | en 
Protective service workers_-__- ” 6 5 | 3 | 2 | 1 
Service workers except domesti c ‘and protective.- — 19 16 8 | 8 3 
Laborers except mine and farm. 19 17 9 | 8 2 
Miscellaneous. -_.-....---.--- 1 14), ae. : 1 | peuccaute 

Bibs ct | | 

Female primary beneficiaries 

| | 
NN ete See acs cee tnccsneee 79 | 30 | 14 | 8 | 49 
SS (Ee a ee ee See) 54 7 ae on | 46 
eS Ses a a ere 25 22 | 14 | 8 | 3 
Professional and semiprofessional_-----....-..._.-_|-.----- aaa a aa ri aaa 
Proprietors, managers, and officials, except farm _- 1 | 1 e Dies cereale 

Clerical, sales, and kindred workers_-_.........--- 4 4] 3 | 1 | 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers. -.--.-- 1 1 | 1 | 
Operatives and kindred workers_._........---.---- & 7 | 6 | 1 1 
Domestic service workers___--- Cee 5 | 4 | 2.) 2} 1 
Protective service workers__.__..._..-.-..--.-----.]--.-- ee Bs pees | = 
Service workers except domestic and d protective... hiss 5 4 | 2) 2 1 
Laborers except mine and farm______-_-----.--_--- 1 | Pt sotetnes Rel So foe 

Miscellaneous.._.......------- i Se ee fe 5 ae nay mee eee 














' Employed at some time during the survey year. 





savings and income derived from sav- 
ings; and since they tended to under- 
state the amount in the earlier year, 
the actual shrinkage in income from 
this particular source may have been 
greater than that shown in table 5. 

Rents added more, on the average, 
to the primary beneficiary groups’ 
spendable funds during the resurvey 
year than income from all other as- 
sets. Compared with all other kinds 
of income, rents ranked fourth high- 
est in average amount for all bene- 
ficiary types except female primary 
beneficiaries and widows with chil- 
dren. From 13 to 23 percent of the 
various types of beneficiary groups 
either rented out at least one dwelling 
unit in the structure in which they 
lived or else owned other real estate 
which they rented to tenants (table 
4). For four types, the average 
(mean) net return to the real prop- 
erty holders ranged from $221 to 
$274; and the median amounts of net 
rent were about $200. Outside this 
range were the real estate owners 
among the men with nonentitled 
wives; they derived an average of 
$371 from this source, and half of 
them got more than $290. At the 
other extreme, the women who had 
qualified for benefits on their own 
wage records had little income from 
rental property; those with such 
property had, on the average, an an- 
nual net return of only $74. 

The majority of the landlords in 
most beneficiary types had higher in- 
comes from rental property in the 
second survey year. The increases 
were sufficient in amount to more 
than offset the decreases, so that all 
types of beneficiaries except nonmar- 
ried men owed at least a portion of 
their higher average dollar incomes 
during the resurvey year to a net 
gain in returns from real estate. 

Of the 503 beneficiary groups, 60 
(12 percent) owned some stocks and 
bonds from which interest or divi- 
dends were received. Only 8 percent 
of the nonmarried men and the wid- 
ows with children, but as much as 21 
percent of the aged widows, received 
bond interest or stock dividends. The 
corresponding proportions for bene- 
ficiaries of other types fall between 
these limits. The income data do not 
include the increase in the redemp- 











| 
| 





Bulletin, August 1947 11 





tion value of war savings bonds on 
which interest is not paid periodically. 
Among the small group of bene- 


Table 10.—Change in income from assets: Percentage distribution of identical beneficiary 
groups by amount of change in income from assets, second as compared with first survey 
year, St. Louis 













































ficiaries who held income-paying — es | | | 
iiaie primary beneliciaries ltr | | 
stocks and bonds, only a few had sub- the ; E ag Widows 
it s 2 bet ¢ Amount of change in income are | Aged | with en- 
stantial returns. The majority of from assets a | Non- | Married, | Married, Porane | lwidows| titled - 
stock or bondholders received less Total'| mar- | wife en- | wife not | cinries | children 
P ried titled | entitled — 
than $100 in the resurvey year. One- ___ 
fifth received more than $500, but Totalnumber..........--------------} 315] 99| 127 86 79 | 34 75 
they represented less r en | 
y nee ed le than 3 percent Tote) potent... .-<nccccudsdacsdeaceat WES } 100. 0 | 100.0 100.0 100.0 | 100. 0 100.0 
of all beneficiary groups. i ———— ———|—_— 
me ‘ No income from assets in either year- . -- 55.9 61.6 52.8 53. 5 54.4 35.3 50.7 
The average amount of income Income from assets in one or both years..| 44.1 38.4 47.2 46.5| 45.6] 64.7 49.3 
+ i Increase 0 8.6 5.1 7.1 15.1 10.1 14.7 9.3 
from stocks and bonds declined for Less than $50 change__._......-.....--- 30. 2 28.3 33.1 27.9 32.9 41.2 34.7 
the nonmarried men and aged widows Decrease of $50 or more_........-------- 5.4 | 5.1 7.1 3.5 2.5 8.8 5.3 
but increased for beneficiaries of all 
other types. The increases were —" 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled 
mostly attributable to small invest- 
ments of funds saved since the earlier women; 8 men received $1,200 or a month more than at the time of the 
| survey or transferred from other more. Eleven of the 53 menand5of_ earlier survey; the amounts they re- 








types of assets. Some beneficiaries 
received larger returns from certain 
securities than in 1941, and others 
had shifted their investments to se- 
curities with a higher current return. 
The decreases were attributable 
chiefly to sale of securities to obtain 
funds either for living or for rein- 
vestment, particularly in war savings 
bonds. 

Other income that normally could 
be counted on also showed some 
change with the passage of time. As 
a whole, however, the dollar income 
from these sources proved to be highly 
stable (tables 4 and 5). 

Retirement pay and pensions had 
provided substantial and continuous 
income for some of the beneficiaries. 
Almost all who received retirement 
pay at the time of the earlier survey 
continued to receive the same 
amounts. For the most part, the 
former employers were large indus- 
trial and public utility concerns whose 
retirement programs had been in 
effect over a considerable period of 
time. During the second survey year, 
70 primary beneficiaries received re- 
tirement pay; they constituted 17 per- 
cent of the men and 22 percent of the 
women in that group.’ On the aver- 
age, the payments amounted to $568 
for the men and $233 for the women 
who received such income. The me- 
dian annual income from this source 
in the resurvey year was $480 for the 
retired men and $228 for the retired 








7In the surveys in the other 6 cities, a 
higher percentage of men than women 
primary beneficiaries were receiving re- 
tirement pay. 


the 17 women who received retire- 
ment pay had been employed in a 
large factory; each received $260 in 
retirement pay during each survey 
year. 

Four beneficiaries who received re- 
tirement pay during the earlier sur- 
vey year were no longer receiving it; 
in one case, ownership of the company 
had changed hands, and in three 
cases the companies had discontin- 
ued payments. On the other hand, 
one primary beneficiary who quit 
working in 1940 after 48 years as a 
saleswoman in a local department 
store was placed on the store’s pen- 
sion roll in 1943 to receive retirement 
pay at the rate of $25 a month. Some 
adjustments had been made in 
amounts paid to persons who were 
recipients in both survey years. One 
beneficiary’s retirement pay had been 
reduced from $1,017 to $960. A sec- 
ond man had been retired at full pay 
($1,508) for a limited time, but in 
the second survey year his annual 
income from this source was $513. 
Three beneficiaries were receiving 
more from retirement pay because the 
payments had not started in the be- 
ginning months of the first survey 
year, and the monthly payment of 
one of the three also had been in- 
creased. 

Union pensions were a significant 
source of income for several of the 
men. Eight had received such pen- 
sions throughout both survey periods, 
and four of them received the same 
amounts, namely, $624, $480, and, in 
two cases, $144. Three union pen- 
sioners were receiving from $3 to $8 


ceived in the second survey year were 
$567, $120, and $72. One of the eight 
had sustained a downward adjust- 
ment from $1,040 to $595, but the 
earlier payments may have been in 
part accident insurance. Two men 
who had small union pensions in 
1941 (totaling $48 and $120) were no 
longer receiving them, although they 
had not returned to work. 

Only 5 of the 315 aged men received 
veterans’ pensions during the resur- 
vey period. Three of them were mar- 
ried Spanish-American War veter- 
ans whose pensions during the resur- 
vey period totaled $720 to $750, while 
2 were World War I veterans receiv- 
ing $360 and $400. The pensions of 4 
of the 5 had been raised somewhat 
since the first survey. The Spanish- 
American War veterans, whose 
monthly pension rate had been $60, 
would in the future receive $75, or 
$900 a year, as a result of Public 
Law 242, approved March 1, 1944. 

Annuities reported were few in num- 
ber but dependable. Two aged men 
received annuity incomes of $120 and 
$500, respectively. One woman bene- 
ficiary, a former bookkeeper, received 
$240, and another, who lived economi- 
cally and earned more than $600 dur- 
ing the survey year from part-time 
employment as a hat trimmer, re- 
ported annuity income of $696 during 
each survey period. A widowed Ne- 
gro, aged 55 and the mother of a 
dependent child, received $564 in each 
survey period from an annuity pur- 
chased by her deceased husband, 
which was conditioned upon her re- 
maining single. 





12 


Social Security 





Two aged couples had incomes 
amounting to $450 and $1,200 from 
trust funds; these amounts were $140 
less and $600 more, respectively, than 
in the earlier period. One widower 
had been assured by his wife’s will of 
the right to live in a small home that 
she had owned jointly with a sister. 


Supplemental Income 


All but 2 of the 34 aged beneficiary 
groups who received public or private 
assistance ® in 1941 were still receiv- 
ing aid in 1943-44 (tables 4, 5, and 
11). By the latter period, moreover, 
15 other aged beneficiary groups had 
become recipients, making a total of 
47 who received public or private as- 
sistance in the resurvey year. Of 
these 47 beneficiary groups, 45 re- 
ceived old-age assistance. The bene- 
ficiaries receiving aid in the second 
period comprised 6-8 percent of the 
aged widows and married couples, 13 
percent of the nonmarried men, and 
20 percent of the female primary ben- 
eficiaries. The amounts paid to the 
aged recipients of the 5 types, on the 
average, ranged from $202 to $279. 

One nonmarried man no longer re- 
ceived assistance; he had regular em- 
ployment in the resurvey year. Two 
others, who had little in addition to 
their old-age and survivors insurance 
benefits, had resorted to public as- 
sistance since the earlier survey. An 
entitled couple who had received pub- 
lic assistance to the extent of $300 in 
1941, depended in 1943-44 entirely on 
their insurance benefits ($199) and 
funds from two employed daughters 
with whom they lived; the daughters 
earned substantially more in the re- 
survey year than in 1941. Four other 
entitled couples, with little income 
other than their insurance benefits, 
had become recipients of public aid 
since 1941. One couple in which the 
wife was not entitled also had applied 
for and was receiving old-age assist- 
ance. Eight women primary benefi- 
ciaries became public assistance re- 
cipients in the period between the 
two surveys; five of the eight had 
sought assistance soon after entitle- 
ment but had not received it by Oc- 
tober or November 1941. One out of 
every five of the female primary bene- 


8 Assistance was in cash, sometimes sup- 
plemented in 1941 with stamps for cotton 
and other surplus commodities. 


Table 11.—Pxblic assistance and private 


relief: Percentage distribution of identical 


beneficiary groups by receipt of assistance, first and second survey years, St. Louis 

















Received assistance Did not 
N Total pony 
: Num- ota assis 
Type of beneficiary group ber | percent] One or Both First year| Second ance 
both ease and not | yearand| either 
years | second | not first | year 
Male primary beneficiaries !....____.__- 315 | 100.0 9.8 2.2 90. 2 
Nonmarried 99 | 100.0 14.1 2.0 85,9 
Married, wife entitled_........._-..__- 127 | 100.0 7.9 3.1 92.1 
Married, wife not entitled _.____- 86 | 100.0 8.1 1.2 91.9 
Female primary beneficiaries... 79 | 100.0 20.3 10.1 79.7 
pS eee P 34] 100.0 7) a. | ee Sere 94.1 
Widows with entitled children. -________- 75 | 100.0 5.3 1.3 94.7 





























1 Includes 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male 
children. 


ficiaries visited in St. Louis in 1944 
was almost entirely dependent on old- 
age and survivors insurance benefits 
and old-age assistance. The two aged 
widows who were recipients of old-age 
assistance in 1941 continued to re- 
ceive partial support from this source. 

The three widow-child beneficiary 
groups who received aid to dependent 
children at the time of the earlier sur- 
vey were independent of organized as- 
sistance by the beginning of the resur- 
vey period. One had an income of $875 
($567 from survivors insurance and 
$265 from laundry done in her home) ; 
the second, besides receiving $403 in 
family insurance benefits, earned $194 
as a domestic worker and had a young 
daughter who was working. The third 
widow earned $240 in domestic work, 
had $527 from survivors insurance, 


primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife and entitled 


and received contributions from the 
two older children in the family, who 
were regularly employed. Only one 
of the 75 younger widows had applied 
for aid for her children since the first 
survey; she had been granted $5 a 
week. She earned $1,412 during the 
second survey year, and the children 
had $362 in survivors insurance bene- 
fits. The son, however, had under- 
gone an operation, which was fol- 
lowed by pneumonia, and at the end 
of the resurvey period the widow owed 
nearly $1,000, chiefly for sickness ex- 
pense. 

Most of the beneficiary groups who 
received public or private assistance 
in both survey years received substan- 
tially more in dollar amounts during 
the second period. The increases 
were accounted for principally by the 


Table 12.—Change in real income:' Percentage distribution of identical beneficiary 
groups}by amount of change in real income, second as compared with first survey year, 


























St. Louis 
| 
| Male primary beneficiaries Female Wises 
‘ : ma Dri- Aged wit om 
Amount of change in real income | Non- | Married, | Married, Benen widows| titled 
Total?| mar- | wife en- | wife not aon children 
| ried | titled | entitled | “@™es 
‘TOtal MUMMIES... 52: -----5-2-2 315 99 127 86 79 34 75 
Total percent-.-_---- 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 
Ee Oe | 34.9] 28.3 28.3 51.2] 20.1] 23.5 58.7 
$1,200 or more-- 4.4 1.0 3.9 Og See: eee 8.0 
600-1,199_....-- 8.6 8.1 3.1 17.4 Be be cnues 18.7 
300-599. ......- 7.9 5.1 9.4 + |) res 2.9 16.0 
200-299. _...._- 3.5 2.0 2.4 7.0 10.1 2.9 2.7 
100-199_....._-- 5.1 6.1 3.9 4.7 7.6 5.9 5.3 
_. ae 5.4 6.1 6.5 4.7 7.6 11.8 8.0 
Less than $50____- 13.3 24. 2 5.5 11.6 36. 7 32.4 9.3 
Decreases. .---- - 51.7 47.5 66. 1 37.2 34.2 44.1 32.0 
$50-99_........- 16.8 22. 2 22.0 3.5 i Pad 20.6 4.0 
100-199... 16.8 14.1 21.3 14.0 12.7 14.7 8.0 
200-299........- 5.4 4.0 9.4 1.2 1.3 2.9 y 
300-599_......-- 7.3 5.1 y | 10.5 2.5 2.9 14.7 
600-1,199_.___- 3.2 1.0 3.9 SS 2 eee 2.9 2.7 
oy ae ee 2.2 1.0 2.4 Lt SEA ME ete es 


























1 The dollar amount of income in the survey year 
ended April-June 1944 was adjusted on the basis of 
ba Bureau of Labor Statistics consumers’ price 
ndex. 


2 Includes 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male 
pees beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled 
children. 








Bulletin, August 1947 


13 





fact that some beneficiaries who re- 
ceived assistance only part of the first 
survey year received it throughout the 
entire resurvey year, and by higher 
monthly payments in the second pe- 
riod than in the first. 

Relatives outside the household 
made generous contributions toward 
the support of some _ beneficiaries. 
Some of these contributions were 
made periodically, while others were 
gifts for special purposes, such as 
payment for medical care, insurance 
premiums, and in one case, a trip. 
During the second survey year, from 
12 to 20 percent of the beneficiaries in 
the several types reported gifts from 
relatives, ranging from $1 to $1,300. 
Most of the beneficiaries who had 
help from relatives outside the house- 
hold received less than $100 from this 
source. On the whole, gifts were an 


unimportant source of beneficiary in- 
come. 

Much higher dollar income from 
this source was reported for the sec- 
ond than for the first survey year. 
Part of the increase shown by the 
data appears to be accounted for by 
more detailed reporting in the second 
survey, but undoubtedly there was 
some increase in the amount of such 
income. 

Allowances and contributions from 
sons and daughters in the armed 
services furnished a few beneficiary 
groups, particularly widows with en- 
titled children, with a temporary 
source of supplementary income. The 
majority of beneficiary groups, how- 
ever, with whom persons who were in 
the armed services in 1944 had lived 
in 1941 did not receive any depend- 
ents’ benefits. For full-year recipi- 


Table 13.—Change in income of aged identical beneficiary groups with no earnings during 
either survey year: Percentage distribution by amount of change in dollar income*and 
real income, second as compared with first survey year, St. Louis 





Male primary beneficiaries 



























































| 
| | Female 
. sare primary Aged 
Amount of change in income | Aan | Married, | Married,| benefi- | widows 
Total 2 cama i] _ wife wife not | ciaries 
| anes | entitled | entitled 
cee eagane = aaa 
| Dollar income 
IE Sock ccdceswadewacaapens | 133 | 48 66 19 43 29 
po ee eee ree Rae pet | 100.0 100. 0 100. 0 *100.0 100. 0 *100.0 
Li Oe renee ae ee | 24.8] 25.0 15.2|  *57.9 25.6 *24.1 
 ) aS | L\ | aa 1.5 tS *3.4 
ig ea |) Eee . [4 ee ebiialainy *6.9 
200-299... .. 4.5 6.2 3.0 *5.3 7.0 *3.4 
100-199_____- 7.5 10. 4 4.5 *10.5 7.0 *6.9 
60-99........ camaro aaa " eae 9.8 8.3 4.5 *31.6 11.6 *3.4 
Less than $50_ - Le , 59.4 60. 4 65. 2 *36.8 60. 5 *58. 6 
Decreases. -_-- ar " 15.8 14.6 19.7 *5.3 14.0 *17.2 
$50-99_____- 8.3 10.4 3S i ee 9.3 *6.9 
100-199___- 6.0 4.2 SD Sees 4.7 *6.9 
200-299... ._- ye 1.5 
300-599. __ 8 eae 
ee ner Rea ee ee ERR Rae! Ur a _ Sai 
Real income 
Total number - - -- ss erctinia ts ppiaae ee re eee 33 48 | 66 | 19 | 43 29 
Total percent.........-.-------------------- 100.0} 100.0] 100.0] *100.0} 100.0 *100.0 
an nial se! 83| 83 7.6 *10.5 | 11.6 *20.7 
: BACT E EW oa || Sainene Same Tams") | Dania Soe gaa 43.4 
5 a 3.0 sniciinaaipa 2.3 *3.4 
L Sauaatre -8 2.1 aor 4.7 *6.9 
ania i ovcanacawces 5 6.2 4.5 aden 4.7 *6.9 
Less than $50- ----.-- 17.3 29. 2 4.5 *31.6 48.8 *34.5 
Decreases. - -- z 74.4 62.5 87.9 *57.9 39. 5 *44.8 
$50-99____- 32.3 31.2 37.9 *15.8 23.3 *24.1 
100-199_____ 28.6 25.0 31.8 *26.3 14.0 *13.8 
200-299 (2 || er 12.1 *5.3 } oD eee 
800-599_......- 6.8 6.2 6.1 TE Bisceusee 
OSL TRIE: Femi SRE Kees: Rees | ‘ *3.4 

















*Percentage distribution based on fewer than 30 
cases. 

1 The dollar amount of income in the survey year 
ended April-June 1944 was adjusted on the basis of 
the BLS consumers’ price index. 


* Includes 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male 
primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled 
children. 


ents, income from this source during 
the resurvey year totaled at least $444 
for widows with children and $535 
for aged couples. In the earlier sur- 
vey year, these parents had in most 
cases received payments for board 
and room from the young people be- 
fore they joined the armed forces. 
When, however, these payments are 
weighed roughly against the esti- 
mated cost of their board and room 
while living at home, the balance, 
which represents the probable net 
contribution to the beneficiary group, 
was usually less than the allowance 
or contribution received by the bene- 
ficiaries from servicemen in the re- 
survey year. Consequently, as be- 
tween the two years, the recipients 
could be considered to have had in- 
creased income® from their sons or 
daughters in the armed services. The 
number affected was: three couples, 
wives entitled; four couples, wives not 
entitled; and seven widows with en- 
titled children. In addition, one aged 
widow, one younger widow, and one 
entitled couple received allowances 
during part of the resurvey year. 
The checks were then discontinued 
because the sons married and their 
payments were transferred to their 
wives. The comparative prosperity 
of beneficiary groups receiving $40 
and $50 a month in dependents’ al- 
lowances would not continue very 
long unless these servicemen and 
women, when they returned home, 
made larger net contributions to the 
household than they had in 1941. 


Change in Real Income 


From the foregoing analysis of the 
changes in the income of beneficiary 
groups, it is clear that a significant 
proportion of the beneficiaries of each 
type had higher dollar incomes in the 
second than in the first survey year. 
The substantial increases were almost 
entirely the result of earnings. All the 
men beneficiaries and all the younger 
widows whose total incomes had in- 
creased by at least $1,200 had earned 


®The increase shown in table 5 over- 
states the situation, since the total of 
allowances and contributions from mem- 
bers of the armed forces in 1943-44 is 
shown as an increase for the reason that 
their net contributions to the benefi- 
ciaries while in the household in 1941 
were not included with beneficiary-group 
income. 





14 P 


Social Security 





Table 14.—Median income of relatives: in the households of beneficiary groups and 
average number of relatives in household, first and second survey years, St. Louis 





Type of beneficiary group 


Median income of 


Average number of 
relatives in household 


relatives in household 





| 
First year |Second year| First year — year 





Male primary beneficiaries ? 
Nonmarried_._---- aes 
Married, wife entitled_ 


Married, wife not SO a eae AE, 


Female primary beneficiaries ___- 
Aged widows... é 
Widows with entitled children 








$1, 429 $1, 966 2. 21 2.14 

1, 344 2, 203 2. 43 2. 44 

1, 560 2, 118 2.32 2. 33 

1, 407 1,617 1.79 1, 52 

acre 916 1, 585 1. 93 1.75 
see 1,013 1, 859 1.98 2. 22 
769 1,719 1.69 1.71 











1 Relatives of the beneficiary group in a single 
household are considered as a unit. 


at least that much more in 1944 than 
in 1941. The larger decreases in in- 
come were chiefly the result of loss or 
partial loss of earnings. For example, 
23 of the 30 primary beneficiaries and 
younger widows whose incomes were 
at least $300 smaller in 1944 earned 
at least $300 less than in 1941. Al- 
though income received from most of 
the other sources was, on the average, 
higher during the second survey year, 
the average increases were compara- 
tively small. 

This rise in dollar income of bene- 
ficiaries, however, does not signify a 
proportionate rise in their possible 
level of living, because the cost of 
goods, rents, and services also rose 
substantially. Table 12 shows the pro- 
portion of beneficiary groups whose 
incomes were lower than in the first 
survey year, after the resurvey-year 
income of each beneficiary group had 
been deflated by the percentage rise in 
the cost of living * between the mid- 


10 The consumers’ price index of the Bu- 
reau of Labor Statistics was used. 


2 Includes 3 bereficiary groups consisting of male 
primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled 
children, 


points of the two survey years. It 
shows also the proportion of benefi- 
ciaries who presumably were able to 
improve their level of living because 
the income they had was enough 
greater in the second year to more 
than compensate for the rise in the 
cost of living. 

While 48 percent and 49 percent, 
respectively, of the nonmarried men 
and the women who were beneficiaries 
on their own wage records had higher 
dollar incomes in 1944 than in the 
first period, only 28 and 29 percent 
had sufficiently large increases to 
more than offset the price increases. 
Thirty-nine percent of the entitled 
couples had higher dollar incomes, 
but because of the rise in the cost of 
living only 28 percent could have im- 
proved their level of living from their 
income. Among the couples with 
only the husband entitled, however, 
two-thirds had higher dollar incomes 
and half presumably could have im- 
proved their level of living. 

Relatively fewer (29 percent) of 


Table 15.—Net worth: Percentage distribution of identical beneficiary groups by net 
worth, second survey year, St. Louis 









































Male primary beneficiaries 
| Female Widows 
pri- Aged with 
Net worth Non- | Married, | Married,| mary |widows; entitled 
Total!| mar- | wife en- | wife not | benefi- children 
ried titled entitled | ciaries 

a ee 315 99 127 86 79 34 | 75 
Total percent............-..--------- | 100.0] 100.0] 100.0} 100.0] 100.0} 100.0] 100.0 
Liabilities exceed assets. -.....-...------- 3.5 1.0 5.5 3.5 1.3 12.0 
No assets or liabilities ?_...............-..]| 29.5 45.5 23.6 20.9 43.0 23. 5 18.7 
Positive net worth. ..-...-------- sins 67.0 53.5 70.9 75.6 55.7 76.5 69.3 
ess than $1,000. ............=- ~ 16. 5 19.2 15.0 15.1 30. 4 14.7 29. 3 
recta cee ot ties ot 29.5 18.2 31.5 38.4 22.8 38. 2 21.3 
Oe) — ee 15.2 10.1 17.3 18.6 1.3 14.7 10.7 
en cacknnninn cicanargiaem iene 5.7 6.1 7.1 3.5 1.3 8.8 8.0 
ey cee ee $1,000 $80 £1,700 2, 038 $45 | $2,398 $3382 

















1 Includes 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male 
beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled children. 


Includes beneficiary groups whose assets and 


liabilities balance. 


the aged widows than of beneficiaries 
of any other type had an increase in 
dollar income; one-fourth (24 per- 
cent) had enough higher incomes to 
permit them to improve their level 
of living, but only to a relatively small 
extent. At the other extreme, three- 
fourths of the widows with entitled 
children had higher dollar incomes 
during the resurvey year. After ad- 
justment for price changes, almost 
60 percent apparently could have paid 
for consumption goods in greater 
quantity or of better quality than at 
the earlier date. The requirements 
of the children in these families, how- 
ever, were probably greater because 
they were older. A few children had 
reached 18 years of age and were no 
longer members of the beneficiary 
group, but the decrease in the cost 
of the group’s total requirements be- 
cause of loss in numbers probably did 
not, on the av -rage, offset the increase 
in cost because of the advancing age 
of the remaining children. 

Despite the increases in dollar in- 
comes, two-thirds of the entitled 
couples and nearly half the aged wid- 
Ows and nonmarried men had incomes 
during the resurvey year which would 
actually buy less than they would have 
during the first survey year. About 
a third of the men with wife entitled, 
female primary beneficiaries, and 
widows with children were at a disad- 
vantage in the second survey year, 
when their purchasing power in the 
two periods is compared. 

Because earned income was so im- 
portant to so many beneficiaries, par- 
ticularly during the resurvey year, and 
because large earnings are not charac- 
teristic of aged beneficiaries, it is of 
interest to note the change in income 
of those who had no earnings in either 
survey year. In each type except cou- 
ples with only the husband entitled, 
60 percent of these selected benefi- 
ciary groups had roughly the same 
dollar income in both survey years 
(table 13). When the rise in the cost 
of living is considered, almost 90 per- 
cent of the entitled couples with no 
earnings probably had less purchas- 
ing power from current income than 
they had just before Pearl Harbor. 
For the other three types of retired 
beneficiaries, the proportions ranged 
downward to 40 percent for retired 
women. 





amatew Oo of ot 


i eb fae 


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an ah Gt bt ok UelCUlUC et lCUelC Of 





Bulletin, August 1947 


15 





in the Household and 
Their Incomes 


Relatives 


The living arrangements of the ben- 
eficiary groups considerably affected 
their possible level of living, because 
living with others usually reduced 
their expenses for shelter and house- 
hold operation and frequently, in ef- 
fect, afforded them financial help from 
the relatives in the household. Dur- 
ing the resurvey year, 45 percent of 
the male primary beneficiary groups 
and 44 percent of the women who were 
beneficiaries on their own wage rec- 
ords shared joint households with rel- 
atives. Among widows, 48 percent of 
those with dependent children and 71 
percent of the aged shared a home 
with older children or other relatives. 

A few (23) beneficiary groups who 
had been living by themselves at the 
time of the interview in 1941 were liv- 
ing with others during the second sur- 
vey year. Sometimes this change was 
brought about by the return of an 
adult child to the home and some- 
times by the beneficiary group’s mov- 
ing to the home of relatives. On the 
other hand, a much larger number 
(47) of the beneficiary groups had 
discontinued sharing a home with rel- 
atives outside the beneficiary group 
and were living alone at the time of 
the second interview. Changes of this 
sort were caused by the entrance of 
sons and daughters into the armed 
forces or by dissolutions of the joint 
households for economic or emotional 
reasons. Thus, on the whole, dissolu- 
tions of joint households were twice 
as numerous as the new joint living 
arrangements entered into. As the 
result of these changes in family com- 
position, for 5 types of beneficiaries 
the proportion “living with others” 
declined during the interim; net de- 
creases numbered 3 for both the non- 
married men and the aged widows, 
4 for the couples with only the hus- 
band entitled, 6 for the women pri- 
mary beneficiaries, and 11 for the 
widows with entitled children. The 
number of beneficiaries of the sixth 
type (entitled couples) who shared 
homes with relatives increased by 4. 

When beneficiaries and relatives did 
share households, in some instances 
part of the incomes of the relatives 
went to improve the level of living 
of the beneficiaries but in other in- 


stances the relatives in the household 
had little or no income and were a 
financial burden to the beneficiaries. 
Data from the earlier St. Louis sur- 
vey show that, for all types except 
nonmarried men and aged widows, the 
number of households in which the 


relatives had more adequate incomes 
than the beneficiary group was at 
least twice the number of households 
with the reverse situation. For non- 
married men and aged widows, the 
proportion in which the beneficiaries 
nad the more adequate incomes was 


Table 16.—Percent of identical beneficiary groups with specified assets and liabilities, 
average value at the end of the second survey year, and average net change, second as 


compared with first survey year, St. Louis 

























































| 
Male primary beneficiaries 
“ore eea | Widows 
a ith , | Aged | with en- 
Type of assets and liabilities Non- | Married, | Married, Rare: |widows| titled 
Total!| mar- | wife en- | wife not | 2°00 | children 
ried titled | entitled | “ES | 
} } | 
Se a ee eee 315} 99 | 127 | s6| 79 | 34 | 75 
Percent of beneficiary group 
Positive net worth coaedwaa 67.0} 53.5 | 70.9 | 75.6 55.7 76.5 | 69.3 
fe EE SEL RE 67.9] 535] 72.4 76.7| 55.7] 76.5 | 72.0 
Cash on hand and on deposit -._._ - 46.3} 41.4] 50. 4 7 41.8] 55.9 | 42.7 
Owner-occupied real estate ‘ 42.2 21.2 | 50. 4 5 10.1} 41.2) 32.0 
Equity in other real estate. -- —_ 11.4 9.1 | 14.2 5 | 8.9} 14.7 9.3 
Stoeks and bonds ate 422] 33.3] 46.5 | 45.3] 27.8] 38.2 53.3 
Government bonds... - ; 362|) 28.3] 38.6 40.7 | 22.8 26.5 | 50.7 
Stocks and other bonds rf | 10.8 8.1 | 13. 4 10. 5 12.7 | 20. 6 | 8.0 
Other assets... | 3.5 3.0 | 2.4 5.8 |. |} 5.9 | 8.0 
Liabilit ies__ “a | 20; 61{| 228| 326)  @3| 235| 347 
Unpaid bills | 5.4 1.0 (aa 8.1 | 1.3) 88] 21.3 
Mortgage on home--__- . J 12.7 3.0 13.4 | 23.3 3.8} 14.7} 13.3 
Other liabilities ; 4.8 3.0 6.3 4.7, 38 2.9 | 5.3 
Median value for beneficiary groups with specified items 
ENDS 3 5c danwi cade eaemanaiee $2,966 | $1,998 $3, 125 $3, 258 $562 $4, 039 
Assets__._- 7 2 --| 3,644] 2,073 | 3, 875 4, 400 | 994 | 4,300 
Cash on hand and on deposit 400 | 400 425 300 | 225 | 450 | 
Owner-occupied real estate 3, 500 | 75 3, 500 4,000 | *1,500 | 4,500 | 
Equity in other real estate. -- re i 2, 338 *3, 000 | *2,000 | *1, 750 | 
Stocks and bonds: } | | | 
Government bonds. 225 225 225 150 | 326 *131 | 140 
Stoeks and other bonds 1, 264 | *3, 658 1, 268 | *375 1, 074 *600 | *6, 204 
Other assets -- 300 | *300| *1,225 *200 | | *2,024 | *2. 875 
Liabilities ; 930 | 488 | 750 | 1,350 | *350 *850 145 
Unpaid bills = 70 | *56 *92 *50 | *40 *15 50 
Mortgage n home 1,638 | *2, 500 | 1, 200 1,875 | *1,100 | *1,400 | 1, 600 
Other liabilities 200 *350 *206 *93 *200 *600 | *152 
Mean value for all beneficiary groups 
| | | | 
Net worth o-e-ecee ----| $3,100 | $2, 167 | $3, 495 | $3, 633 | $828 | $4, 692 | $3, 150 
Assets... pains: aecancecl SGC) 2960 3,730| 4,174| 866] 4,918 | 3, 394 
Cash on hand and on deposit._......_- 409 452 465 | 293 174 | 595 385 
Owner-occupied real estate 1, 641 804 1, 904 | 2, 233 | 231 1, 991 | 1, 364 
Equity in other real estate | 121 317 | 519 | 412 | 193 277 334 
Stocks and bonds | 845 630 | 816 | 1, 139 | 268 | 1,935 | 858 
Other assets 50 41 | 26 | | ee Ge || 453 
Liabilities 266 77 | 235 540 39 | 226 | 244 
Unpaid bills 9 1 | 19 5 | 1 | 2 | 24 
Mortgage on home - 245 57 203 531 | 32 206 212 
Other liabilities aaa 13 20 13 5 | 6 18 8 
| | 
| Average net change 
| | | | at 
eR eee a ares $265 $12 $313 | $487 | —$45 | $6 | $514 
TET 5 icin ctssumaans engine ipo etapa ala tain | 248 27 279 463 | —56 —95 | 284 
Cash on hand and on deposit | —116 —86 | —165 | —s0 —73|; —62| —139 
Owner-occupied real estate 149 48 137 | 287 —35 | —438 | 90 
Equity in other real estate —13 —3 | 65 | —139 | 9} 34] 53 
Stocks and bonds 238 | 93 | 270 | 364 43 | 334 | 264 
Other assets-- —10 —-25 | —27 31 | 36 | 16 
Liabilities | -17 14 —33 —24 —12 —101 —229 
Unpaid bills } —15 —) -12 —34 a —14 | pe 
Mortgage on home . } 11 4] —15 61 | —§ | —104 —220 
Other liabilities Be --| —13 11 | — —él —1 18 —4 





*Average based on less than 10 cases. _ 
1 Includes 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male 
children. 


primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled 





16 





Social Security 





Table 17.—Average equity in real estate 
as percent of average net worth, end of 
second survey year, St. Louis 





| Owner- | 





—— | =. 
- ; anc | occupie 
Type of beneficiary group | eontal shal 
| Teal estate 
| estate 
Male primary beneficiaries !__ 58.6 45.0 
Nonmarried men---.-_..-..-- 49.1 34.5 
Married, wife entitled __.___- 63.5 48.7 
Married, wife not entitled __- 58. 2 46.8 
Female primary beneficiaries_- 47.3 24.0 
4 Ee 43.9 38.0 
47.2 36.6 


Widows with entitled children - 





1 Includes 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male 
primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled 
children. 


nearly as large as the proportion in 
which the relatives had the more ade- 
quate incomes. 

In the resurvey year the relatives 
were, on the average, better able 
financially to help the beneficiaries 
with whom they lived than in 1941. 
The average dollar income of rela- 
tives in the family was markedly 
higher (table 14), while the average 
number of relatives per joint house- 
hold was the same or smaller except 
in the case of relatives living with 
aged widows. Consequently the in- 
creased dollar income of the relatives 
was not offset by an increase in the 
number of persons whose needs had 
to be met out of the added income. 

Despite the rise in the cost of liv- 
ing, the average income of the rela- 
tives living with beneficiary groups of 
all types but one probably was suf- 
ficient to provide a better living than 
in the first survey period. For the 
couples with the wife not entitled, the 
proportion whose relatives in the 
household had low incomes (less than 
$600) was larger in 1944 than in 1941 
but, as a slight offset, the average 
number of relatives per beneficiary 
couple declined from 1.79 to 1.52. 

It may be concluded that, as a re- 
sult of the increases in the income of 
relatives with whom beneficiary 
groups lived, some of the beneficiary 
groups probably enjoyed a higher 
level of living in the second than in 
the first survey year, even though 
their own incomes may not have in- 
creased. A possible exception are the 
couples in which only the husband was 
entitled, but their economic situation 
generally had improved in other 
ways. 


Net Worth 


At the time of the second interview, 
from 69 to 76 percent of the married 
couples and widows of both types had 
money or owned property or securi- 
ties exceeding in value the amount of 
their outstanding obligations (table 
15). A little more than half of the 
nonmarried men and of the women 
who were beneficiaries on their own 
wage records were similarly situated. 

A majority of those who reported 
assets valued them at less than $5,000. 
On the average, the beneficiary’s home 
was his most valuable asset (tables 
16 and 17). Many beneficiaries, also, 
had some cash on hand or on deposit, 
held stocks and bonds, or owned ten- 
ant-occupied real estate. A few in 
each type had other assets—usually 
a loan to a relative, a mortgage on a 
piece of property they had sold, a 
small business, or some money left 
with an insurance company at inter- 
est. The debts reported by the bene- 
ficiaries, other than a mortgage on a 
home, were typically store accounts, 
medical bills, and loans from institu- 
tions and friends. 

The number of beneficiary groups 
whose assets exceeded their liabili- 
ties was larger at the end of the sec- 
ond survey year than at the end of 
the first. The beneficiary groups of 
three types (the two types of married 
couples and widows with entitled chil- 
dren) reported a net worth higher, on 


the average, by several hundred dol- 
lars. Only the women primary bene- 
ficiaries were, on the average, worse 
off in this respect (table 16). 

In these generalizations on differ- 
ences in net worth of the beneficiaries 
at the end of the two survey periods, 
effect is given to changes in both the 
market value of stocks and bonds and 
the beneficiary’s opinion of the mar- 
ket value of his real estate. If real 
estate is valued at approximate 1941 
prices as indicated by the 1941 sched- 
ules, and if the value of stocks and 
bonds is discounted by the amount of 
estimated unrealized profit since 1941, 
the average amount of change in net 
worth is less favorable for the bene- 
ficiaries than is indicated in table 16. 
Men with nonentitled wives, however, 
had apparently been able, on the 
average, to accumulate some new 
savings or to pay off some debts. The 
proportion who were better off was 
substantially larger than the propor- 
tion who were worse off, and the aver- 
age real improvement in their finan- 
cial position amounted to more than 
$300. The younger widows also had 
bettered their real financial position, 
on the average, by nearly $200; how- 
ever, the proportion who were worse 
off was about the same as the propor- 
tion who were better off. 

On the other hand, most of the im- 
provement in the financial position of 
the entitled couples shown in table 16 
is wiped out if the estimated net un- 


Table 18.—Home ownership: Percentage distribution of identical beneficiary groups 
by home ownership and living arrangements at end of first and second survey years, 


St. Louis 





First survey year | 




















Second survey year 
| 
| Owning homes Owning homes 
Type of beneficiary |Num- . e . 
group ber a Shar- =. Shar- 
Total | “ing ee ing | Total ing Liv- ing 
homes] Total| ing — homes} Total| ing | ,their 
alone | 70mes alone | bomes 
| with with 
| | | others others 
Male primary benefi- 

C5 ee 315 | 100.0 60.6 39. 4 21.0 18.4 | 100.0 57.8 42.2 23.5 18.7 
Nonmarried-__-__-__-- 99 | 100.0 | 80.8 19.2 3.0 16.2} 100.0} 78.7) 21.3 6.1 15.2 
Married, wife en- 

i es 127 | 100.0 | 50.4 49.6 | 30.7 18.9 | 100.0 | 49.6] 50.4] 30.7 19.7 
Married, wife not 

entitied............ 86 | 100.0} 53.5 46.5 26. 7 19.8} 100.0} 46.5] 53.5] 32.6 20.9 

Female primary bene- 

| eee 79 | 100.0} 89.9 10.1 3.8 6.3 | 100.0} 89.9 10.1 3.8 6.3 
Aged widows.........- 34 | 100.0 47.1 52.9 14.7 38.2 | 100.0 58.8 41.2 11.8 29. 4 
Widows with entitled 

CS ccc 75 | 100.0} 68.0] 32.0 12.0 20.0 | 100.0} 68.0] 32.0 13.3 18.7 









































— 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled 
children. 





Bulletin, August 1947 


17 





Table 19.—Deficits: Percentage distribution of identical beneficiary groups by use of 


assets and debts incurred for living expenses, first and second survey years, St. Louis 















































Used assets Incurred debts 
Type of beneficiary group — Total First | Second First | Second 
Both| year year |Neither} Both | year year |Neither 
yearsjand notjand not} year | years |and notjand not} year 
second | first second | first 
Male primary _benefici- 
eS 315 | 100.0 | 10.5 17.8 6.3 65.4 0.3 10. 2 2.5 87.0 
iio” aa 99 | 100.0} 81 15. 2 6.1 {2 eee 5.1 4: 94.9 
Married, wife entitled....| 127 | 100.0 | 14.2 18.9 6.3 60. 6 s 11.8 4.7 82.7 
Married, wife not entitled 86 | 100.0} 8&1 19.8 7.0 See 11.6 2.3 86.0 
Female primary benefici- 
| RG aE 79 | 100.0 | 10.1 19.0 2.5 OT 10. 1 2.5 87.3 
Aged widows............... 34 | 100.0 | 20.6 41.2 5.9 7 |, | eens 88. 2 
Widows with entitled chil- 
a EE a a oe: OE 75 | 100.0 | 12.0 25.3 5.3 57.3 2.7 13.3 6.7 77.3 
1 Includes 3 beneficiary groups consisting of male primary beneficiary, nonentitled wife, and entitled chil- 


ren. 


realized capital gains are deducted. 
The proportion of beneficiaries of this 
type who were really better off (about 
a third) was only slightly larger than 
the proportion worse off. After asim- 
ilar adjustment in the change in net 
worth of aged widows and nonmar- 
ried men, these types, on the average, 
appeared to be in a less favorable po- 
sition in 1944; also, in each instance, a 
larger proportion was probably worse 
off than better off. For women pri- 
mary beneficiaries,.estimated unreal- 
ized capital gains and losses about 
counterbalanced each other, so that 
their average reduction in net worth 
was about as shown on table 16; about 
a fifth had saved a little or paid off 
some obligations, but a fourth were 
apparently worse off. 

Three-fourths of those who had im- 
proved their financial position (disre- 
garding market changes) had been 
employed at least for a short time in 
one of the two survey years. Of those 
who were worse off, nearly as many 
had some earnings as had none, al- 
though in many cases the earnings 
were negligible. Among the benefi- 
ciary groups who had not used any of 
their assets or gone into debt in the 
interim, the proportions with and 
without earnings were about equal. 

The preceding comparisons of net 
worth are made as of the end of the 
two survey years. When the financ- 
ing of deficits in income by use of as- 
sets or creation of debts is considered, 
it wil] be noted that recourse to these 
methods of bolstering up the level of 
living had declined from the first to 
the second survey year (table 19). 
While the proportion of beneficiaries 


757828 — 47——2 


who had used assets in the first sur- 
vey year ranged from 15 percent of the 
nonmarried men to 41 percent of the 
aged widows, no more than 7 percent 
of any type used up any of their cap- 
ital during the resurvey year. Reduc- 
tions in the proportions who used as- 
sets to supplement current income 
were greater among the three types 
of women beneficiaries than among 
the three types of men beneficiaries. 
The amounts used in the resurvey year 
varied greatly, ranging as high as 
$2,000. 

Five percent of the nonmarried men 
and from 10 to 13 percent of the bene- 
ficiaries of other types had gone into 
debt during the first survey year to 
defray current living expenses; in the 
resurvey year, none of the aged widows 
and nonmarried men and only 2 per- 
cent of the female primary benefi- 
ciaries and the men with entitled wives 
had financed deficits by these means. 
Corresponding proportions for en- 
titled couples and the younger widows 
were 5 and 7 percent. 


Conclusions 


The period that began about a year 
before Pearl Harbor and ended in the 
early summer of 1944 was one of rising 
prices and rapid change toward a large 
labor force with full employment. The 
beneficiaries themselves had aged 
somewhat in these 2% years, but the 
period was too short for many new dis- 
abilities to have occurred or for the 
assets of most to have been depleted by 
emergencies. Because the resurvey 
included only those who were well 
enough to be interviewed and still liv- 
ing in St. Louis, some of the seriously 


disabled and some who had economic 
reasons for changing their living ar- 
rangements were excluded from the 
group of identical beneficiaries whose 
records were analyzed. 

The average income of the identical 
beneficiaries had risen; for over half 
the men with nonentitled wives and 
younger widows and for a fourth of the 
beneficiaries of other types, it had 
risen proportionately more than the 
cost of living. Increased earnings and, 
to a much smaller extent, larger re- 
ceipts from assets, public assistance, 
and relatives’ contributions accounted 
for the change. The value of the ben- 
eficiaries’ assets also was reported as 
higher, on the average, than in 1941; 
this change came primarily from the 
rise in the market value of stocks and 
real estate formerly held, rather than 
from new savings. 

If the period under consideration 
had been one of industrial stability or 
contraction, or if a longer time had 
elapsed between the two surveys, the 
changes in the income and assets of 
the beneficiaries would not have been 
the same as in this period; the pro- 
portion of beneficiaries who would 
have maintained or bettered their fi- 
nancial condition, at least from non- 
relief sources, doubtless would have 
been smaller than shown by the two St. 
Louis surveys. ‘The over-all effects 
of the wartime economy had greater 
weight in the change in the economic 
status of the beneficiaries as a group 
than failing health with attendant 
disablement for work and use of as- 
sets. 

The years from 1941 to 1944 had 
definite advantages for studying the 
attitude of aged beneficiaries toward 
employment as contrasted with com- 
plete retirement. The extent to which 
aged beneficiaries in relatively good 
health are employed usually depends 
not only on their own desire to work 
but also on employment opportunities. 
In the war period, most aged persons, 
if able-bodied, could find work if they 
wished. The rising cost of living dur- 
ing the period studied made it neces- 
sary for beneficiaries to add to their 
income in the second survey year if 
they wished to maintain their 1941 
level of living. Moreover, the 1941 in- 
comes of some were too low to provide 
the basic necessities of life even at pre- 





18 


Social Security 





war prices. The surveys show that re- 
tired or partially retired workers who 
were physically able went to work in 
the war period or had more regular 
employment than in 1941. This situ- 
ation supports the presumption that, 


as a rule, persons over 65 years of age 
prefer work to other alternatives open 
to them, namely, living below their 
customary standard on their retire- 
ment incomes or, if in need, asking aid 
from relatives or public assistance. 





Factors Influencing Trends in 
Employment of the Aged 


By S. J. Mushkin and Alan Berman* 


THE FUTURE costs of the old-age and 
survivors insurance program under 
the Social Security Act will depend in 
considerable measure on the extent 
to which aged persons choose to re- 
main in gainful covered employment 
rather than to retire and receive an 
annuity under the insurance system. 
In turn, the aged worker’s decision to 
retire or to keep on working is in- 
fluenced by a number of factors. 
There is evidence that many of the 
aged now on the benefit rolls are those 
unable, because of their physical con- 
dition, to remain in covered employ- 
ment. Many other aged workers, 
however, are able to work and, unless 
they have other resources, the small 
average benefit payable under the in- 
surance program, coupled with rising 
living costs, compels them to continue 
in employment as long as jobs are 
available.* 


As of June 1947, about 800,000 aged 
workers were receiving retirement 
benefits under the old-age and sur- 
vivors insurance program; in addi- 
tion, approximately a million workers 
were eligible to receive such benefits 
but elected instead to remain in cov- 
ered employment. Despite the large 
number of aged persons with insured 
status who preferred active employ- 
ment to retirement, it is significant 
that approximately 20 percent of all 
men 65 years or older were receiving 
retirement benefits under the old-age 


*Bureau of Research and Statistics, 
Division of Finance and Economic Stud- 
ies. 

1See Edna C. Wentworth, “Why Bene- 
ficiaries Retire,” Social Security Bulletin, 
January 1945, pp. 16-20, and “Why Bene- 
ficiaries Returned to Work,” April 1945, 
pp. 12-18. 


and survivors insurance program or 
under the related programs of the 
railroad, civil-service, or State and lo- 
cal retirement systems. An addi- 
tional 20 percent of the aged men 
in the population were receiving old- 
age assistance as of June 1947. Simi- 
larly, about 35 percent of the aged 
women were in receipt of benefits un- 
der social insurance and related 
retirement programs or were receiv- 
ing old-age assistance. 

Long-range planning of the Federal 
program of old-age and survivors in- 
surance requires estimates of the flow 
of contributions and benefits and of 
the growth in reserves for many dec- 
ades ahead. The distribution of ages 
at which persons will retire and re- 
ceive benefits is one of a Series of 
many assumptions that form a com- 
ponent part of these long-range pro- 
jections. 

An understanding of the trends in 
employment status of the aged over 
the past decades can be gained only 
by reference to the many changes 
that have occurred in demographic 
factors, in the basic employment 
structure of the economy, in social 
policy, and in individual and com- 
munity attitudes. 

The decennial censuses for the pe- 
riod 1870-1940, coupled with the es- 
timates for more recent years by the 
Bureau of the Census in the Monthly 
Report on the Labor Force, provide a 
basis for observing the historical 
trend in the work status of the aged. 
Since the decennial censuses except 
that for 1940 were taken at approxi- 
mately the same level of business ac- 
tivity, they generally furnish a uni- 
form frame of reference for gauging 
secular employment and industrial 


trends.* However, between the census 
of 1870 and the last one in 1940, there 
were changes in scope, in methods of 
enumeration and processing of re- 
turns, and in methods of presenting 
resultant occupational statistics. The 
occupational data used in this study 
are largely those available from a 
study made by Alba M. Edwards for 
the Bureau of the Census,’ in which 
occupations listed in the censuses 
from 1870 to 1930 were arranged as 
nearly as practicable according to 
similar data in the 1930 census, with 
estimates when necessary for under- 
enumeration and for interpolated age 
groups. The age breaks used here for 
particular occupations for those years 
came from unrevised census material, 
but these data were in turn revised in 
accordance with Mr. Edwards’ esti- 
mates for aggregate overenumeration 
or underenumeration for each of the 
years. 

The data for 1940 are those pre- 
sented in the 1940 census report on 
the labor force. These data differ only 
slightly from the adjusted 1940 figures 
prepared later by Mr. Edwards. 

For female gainful workers and the 
female labor force, the figures used 
here exclude unpaid family workers. 
They were eliminated from the em- 
ployment data both because they were 
not “employed” in the same sense as 
other gainful workers and because 
their inclusion would have made the 
data less comparable from census year 
to census year. A correction for male 
unpaid family workers was not made, 
since in the aggregate such workers 
do not represent a significant propor- 
tion of all male workers.‘ 

The data as adjusted are summa- 
rized in table 1, which shows the num- 


2 Clarence Long, Size of the Labor Force: 
Under Changing Incomes and Employ- 
ment, rough draft presented to the Con- 
ference on Research in Income and 
Wealth, November 1946. 

3 Sixteenth Census of the United States, 
1940: Population, Comparative Occupa- 
tion Statistics for the United States, 1870 
to 1940. 

4Censuses before 1910 had no occupa- 
tional listing for unpaid family workers. 
For 1910-30, female unpaid family workers 
constituted almost the entire group of 
female farm laborers. Therefore, for the 
censuses before 1910, female farm laborers 
are considered in this study as unpaid 
family workers and subtracted from total 
employment data for women workers. 





OmdiwWnri amt Oo Ne KF Se ewe OOtPt es At Re rt tot OO Knots 


rm 





Bulletin, August 1947 


19 





ber of aged persons in the working 
population and aged workers as a per- 
cent of all aged persons in the country. 
Over the entire period 1870-1940 the 
number of men 65 years or older in- 
creased at a relatively greater rate 
than did the total male population, 
but the proportion of aged men in the 
working force declined. In 1870, 80.6 
percent of the aged men were work- 
ing; in 1910, 63.7 percent, and in 1940, 
41.5 percent. During the same period, 
percentages of aged women who were 
working moved somewhat more er- 
ratically. Starting from a low in 1870, 
the percentages rose until 1910, de- 
clined from 1910 to 1940, and rose once 
more for 1947. In absolute numbers 
there was a rise, in general, for both 
men and women throughout this pe- 
riod. In April 1947, approximately 
2.8 million persons 65 years and over, 
or 27 percent of the aged population, 
were in the labor force. Of this num- 
ber, 2.4 million were men, who com- 
prised 48.4 percent of all aged men. 
These figures reflect the residue of 
wartime demands on the civilian 
population to engage in productive 
employment and the favorable em- 


Table 1.—Men and women 65 years of 
age and over who were gainfully occupied 
or in the labor force in the United States, 
1870-1947 


[See limitations discussed in text] 





Aged persons who were gainfully 
occupied or in the labor force ! 





Number 
(in thousands) 


Percent of aged 
population 


Year 




















Men | Women | Men | Women 
(ee 2 481 234 | 280.6 25.8 
|. ae 2665 250 | 276.7 25.8 
eee 911 91 73.8 he 
1900 1, 064 129 68. 4 8.5 
ee 1, 266 168 63.7 8.6 
1920- 1, 494 192 60. 2 7.9 
Se 1, 939 262 58.3 7.9 
1940_ 1,829 268 41.5 5.8 
| 2, 390 3 435 48.4 8.0 














1 1870-1930 data are for gainfully occupied; 1940 and 
1947 data relate to the labor force. Excludes unpaid 
female family workers. : 

2 Percents were estimated from trend lines, and 


applied to population of men and women 65 years of 
age and over. The 1870 population was corrected 
for underenumeration (see Comparative Occupation 


Statistics for the United States, 1870 to 1940, p.91, table 
14, footnote 5). ; 

3 Assuming 5,000 unpaid family workers. 

Source: Bureau of the Census. Data for 1870-1940 
from Sixteenth Census ofthe United States, 1940: Popu- 
lation, Comparative Occupation Statistics for the 
United States, 1870 to 1940, and decennial occupation 
census reports; data for 1947 from supplement to the 
Monthly Report on the Labor Force, Population: 
MRLF No. 59-S, June 3, 1947. 


Table 2.—Men and women 65 years of age 
and over who were gainfully occupied 
in nonagricultural industries or who 
were in the nonagricultural labor 
force, as percent of urban and rural non- 
farm population 65 years of age and over, 
1920-40 





























Men and women 65 years of age and over 
| : Nonagricul- 
| | Ps tural gainful- 
Urban and | nonagricul- pf oy 

rural non- | tural indus- force, as per- 
Year farm popu- | tries or non- cent of 
lation ! (in | agricultural urban and 
thousands) labor force rural none 
(in thou- 
sands) farm popu- 
‘ lation 
ten] Waren] | en 
Wom- Wom- Wom- 
| Men | ‘en | Men | ‘on2 | Mer] en 
iid —) a 
ji, 700 | 1,847 | 842 143 | 49.5 7.7 
1930... .../2,424 | 2,658 |1, 164 212 | 48.0 8.0 
, [* 272 | 3,768 {1,139 239 | 34.8 6.3 











1 Census classifications, 1920-40, for urban, rural 
nonfarm, and rural farm are not strictly comparable. 
2 Excludes unpaid family workers. 


Source: Bureau of the-Census. Sizteenth Census 
of the United States, 1940: Population, Vol. 2, Pt. 1, 
U. S. Summary; Comparative Occupation Statistics 
Jor the United States, 1870 to 1940; and decennial oc- 
cupation census reports. 


ployment opportunities 
workers. 

The trend in the work status of the 
aged in the nonagricultural sector of 
the economy is of more direct interest 
than the aggregate employment trend 
in evaluating the development of Fed- 
eral old-age and survivors insurance, 
since agricultural workers are not as 
yet covered under that system. There 
‘5, however, no adequate way of meas- 
uring the employment trends of aged 
workers in industry and commerce. 
Although data are available on the 
employment of aged workers by indus- 
try, comparison among industries is 
difficult because of the movement of 
retired farmers from farms to towns 
and cities and the lesser movement of 
industrial and commercial workers to 
towns and rural farm areas when they 
retire. 

By way of approximating the trend 
in employment of aged workers in 
nonagricultura] industries, the num- 
ber of aged persons engaged in such 
industries was compared with the non- 
farm aged population (table 2). In 
1920, 49.5 percent of all aged men in 
urban and rural nonfarm areas were 
gainfully employed. Between 1920 
and 1930, this proportion declined by 
only 1.5 percentage points, while the 
proportion of gainfully employed 


for older 


women 65 years of age and over in 
urban and rural nonfarm areas in- 
creased slightly —0.3 percentage 
points. A sharper decline in the em- 
ployment of the aged occurred by 1940. 
Census data for that year show a de- 
cline of 13.2 percentage points from 
1930 in the number of aged men in the 
nonagricultural labor force and of 1.7 
percentage points for aged women 
workers. These changes parallel 
those indicated by the data on aged 
men and women workers in all pur- 
suits shown in table 1. 

In evaluating the sharp decline from 
1930 to 1940, two major qualifications 
must be considered, namely, the count 
of aged in the population and of aged 
in the labor force. The Sixteenth 
Population Census gives the following 
qualification on the count of the aged: 


A comparison of the 1940 age data 
for the United States with a compu- 
tation of the expected survivors from 
the 1930 population indicates that the 
number of persons enumerated in 
1940 as 65 years of age and over was 
appreciably in excess of the number 
that might be expected to have sur- 
vived from the group 55 years old and 
over in 1930. This comparison also 
indicates that the number of persons 
55 to 64 years of age in 1940 was some- 
what smaller than the number that 
might be expected to have survived 
from the age group 45 to 54 years in 
1930. It is possible that the enact- 
ment of old-age insurance and old- 
age assistance legislation during the 
decade may have led to some over- 
statement of age in 1940 by persons 
actually 55 to 64 years old, but it is 
also possible that persons in this age 
range may have understated their 
ages in 1930. 


Concerning the aged in the labor 
force, the Bureau of the Census says: 


For persons over 65 years of age, 
and to some extent for those 55 to 
64 years old, the statistics on employ- 
ment status are less reliable and less 
meaningful than for younger persons. 
In these age classes it is difficult to 
draw the line between able-bodied 
persons seeking work and disabled 
and retired persons no longer in the 
labor force. Moreover, many men in 
these age groups at the time of the 
census had been forced into retire- 
ment because of their inability to 
compete with younger workers, al- 
though they were still able and will- 
ing to work. Many of these prema- 
turely retired workers should be con- 
sidered as part of the Nation’s poten- 
tial labor supply in periods of labor 


5 Sizteenth Census of the United States, 
1940: Population, Vol. 4, Pt. 1, U. S. Sum- 
mary. 





20 


Social Security 





shortage, although they were not ac- 
tively seeking work at the time of the 
1940 census.° 

Because of the lack of census data 
on the age distribution of urban and 
rural nonfarm population before 1920, 
another measure was developed in 
this study to isolate the influence of 
farm employment on the employment 
trends of the aged. For each of the 
census years 1870-1940 the proportion 
of aged men to all men gainfully oc- 
cupied (or in the labor force) was 
computed separately for agricultural 
and nonagricultural pursuits. These 
two percentages for each census year 
were then applied respectively to 
modified figures for all males in agri- 
cultural and nonagricultural classifi- 
cations.’ The resulting numbers of 
aged men gainfully occupied in the 
two categories were added together 
for each census year and then ex- 
pressed as percentages of the total 
aged male population (see tabula- 
tion). The same procedure was fol- 


6 Sixteenth Census of the United States, 
1940: Population, Vol. 3, Pt. 1, U. S. Sum- 
mary. 

™The modified agricultural gainfully 
occupied figures were based on the per- 
centage of the total male population en- 
gaged in agriculture in 1940 applied to 
the various total male populations of 
each census year. Then the modified 
figures for the nonagricultural gainfully 
occupied were obtained by subtracting 
the derived modified figure for agricul- 
tural gainfully occupied from the reported 
total gainfully occupied in the census. 


Table 3.—Men and women 65 _ of 
age and over: Total number an — 
mo total population in the United States, 











Table 4.—Percent of total population 
gainfully occupied or in the labor force 
and percent of gainfully occupied or in 
the labor force, 65 years of age and over, 
by sex, for the United States, by decennial 
years 1870-1940, 1947 





Percent of gain- 
fully occupied or 
in the labor 
force, 65 years 
of age and over 


Percent of total 
population gain- 
fuly occupied or 


Year in the labor force 

















Men | Women | Men | Women 
54.7 7.5 4.4 2.3 
57.8 8.4 4.5 2.4 
60. 2 11.3 4.7 2.7 
61.2 12.4 4.5 2.6 
63. 2 14.9 4.2 2.5 
62.7 15.4 4.4 2.4 
61.3 16.9 5.1 2.6 
60.5 18.9 4.6 2.2 
60. 4 21.6 5.6 | 2.8 











1 Represents percents of total population in the 
labor force and of labor force 65 years of age and over. 

2 Same as footnote 1 except that labor-force data 
apply to civilians only. 


Source: Data for 1870-1940 from Sizteenth Census 
of the United States, 1940: Population, Comparative 
Occupation Statistics for the United States, 1870 to 
1940, and decennial occupation census reports; data 
for 1947 from supplement to the Monthly Report on 
the Labor Force, Population: MRLF No. 59-8, 
June 3, 1947; and Population, Special Reports, Series 
P-46, No. 7, Sept. 15, 1946, 


lowed to obtain the percents for the 
aged women who were estimated to be 
gainfully occupied. The method used 
assumes that the proportion of aged 
persons in agriculture and in nonagri- 
cultural industries would be the same 
as those indicated by each census de- 
spite the assumed. 1940 distribution 
between industry and agriculture 
for each census year of employment. 
On the basis of this analysis, the per- 
cents of aged men and women gain- 
fully occupied or in the labor force 
were as follows: 























1870-1947 Year Men Women 
1870 ese: aus SBT 72 
Population 65 years of age and over «Pe cen neve er ae fore 56.6 63 
Gon tceenescapueaes 62.1 6.5 
Year Number Percent of total 1900_....---------------- 60.2 6.8 
oe (in thousands) population SOR oe eee osc scones 56.8 7.5 
- 2 a re ener ae 56.2 6.6 
Men | Women | Men | Women 1930__------------------- 56.1 14 
= os a 41.5 5.8 
597 595 3.0 % 

868 856 34 .. Although by this method the propor- 
oat) sari os 32 tion of aged men gainfully occupied 
L 986 L 064 4.2 4.4 or in the labor force is shown to de- 
3395| 3309| 54 #7 cline, the decline from 1870 to 1930 is 

4,377 6.6 7.0 

7.1 77 




















Source: Bureau of the Census. Data for 1870-1930 
from Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940: 
Population, Comparative Occupation Statistics for the 
United States, 1870 to 1940; data for 1940 and 1947 
from Population, Special Reports, Series P-46, No. 7, 
Sept. 15, 1946. 


small; table 1, on the other hand, 
indicates a steep and continuous de- 
crease. For women the tabulation 
would seem to be in agreement with 
table 1; in both instances the trend 
values are rather indeterminate. 


Demographic Factors 


In the 70-year period from 1870 to 
1940, the proportion of aged persons 
in the population more than doubled 
(table 3). The proportion of aged 
men rose from 3.0 percent of the male 
population in 1870 to 6.6 percent in 
1940, and the proportion of aged 
women in the female population rose 
from 3.0 percent to 7.0 percent. In 
the 60-year period from 1940 to 2000 
the proportion of the aged in the pop- 
ulation is expected to double again— 
from 6.6 to 11.7 percent for men and 
from 7.0 to 14.6 percent for women? 

The aged have constituted an in- 
creasing proportion of the total labor 
force over the past decades. Although 
the proportion of aged men who were 
working has declined over the decades, 
workers 65 years and over have ac- 
counted for a slightly rising percent 
of the total male labor force (table 4). 
Women workers aged 65 and over, in 
contrast, have represented a fairly 
constant proportion of the female la- 
bor force. 

The age distribution of persons 65 
years and over is an important factor 
in determining their employment 
status, since their age determines in 
part their availability for work. 

While the median age of the popu- 
lation rose from 20 years in 1870 to 
29 years in 1940, the median age of 
those aged 65 and over remained al- 
most constant—about 171.2 for men 


®’ Bureau of the Census. Population, 
Special Reports, Series P-46, No. 7, Sept. 
15, 1946. 


Table 5.—Mean and median age of 
population 65 years of age and over and 
median age of total population, 1870-1940 




















Mean age | Median age ae 
of the aged | of the aged population 
Year 
Wom- Wom- Wom- 
Men pos Men en Men en 

oe 172.2 {172.7 | 71.1 71.6 | 20.2 20.1 
a 72.0 72.6 | 71.1 71.7 | 21.2 20.7 
a 72.1 72.6 | 71.4 71.6 | 22.3 21.6 
1900. ... 72.1 72.4 | 71.2 71.5 | 23.3 22.4 
1910. ....| 72.1 72.4 | 71.1 71.5 | 24.6 23. 5 
72.0 72.6 | 71.2 71.7 | 25.8 24.7 
108... ..- 72.0 72.4 | 71.2 71.6 | 26.7 26. 2 
1940....- 72.1 72.4 | 71.3 71.6 | 29.1 29.0 














1 Unrevised population count. 


Source: Bureau of the Census. Sizteenth Census 


of the United States, 1940: Population, Vol. 2, Pt. 1, 
U. S. Summary; and census reports of number of 
inbabitants, 1870-1940. 








wee 


onNN Oe ONS ‘ 


of 


Bulletin, August 1947 


21 





and 71.6 for women (table 5). The 
relative stability of the age distribu- 
tion among the aged suggests that 
increasing age has not been a factor 
in the decline in the proportion of 
aged in the working force during this 
period. The intermediate population 
estimates prepared by the Bureau of 
the Census, based on earlier National 
Resources Planning Board estimates, 
indicate that by the year 2000 the 
median age of the aged will have in- 
creased by about 1 year. 


Economic Factors 


The gradual transition of the Na- 
tion from an agricultural to a primar- 
ily industrial economy has had a 
significant influence on the aggre- 
gate trends in the employment status 
of the aged. With industrialization 
came mechanization and a rational- 
ization of industrial processes. A va- 
riety of such forces reduced the pos- 
sible areas of work for those 65 years 
and over. On the other hand, the 
greater opportunity for employment 
in consumer services of various kinds 
and in the professions and the marked 
reduction in hours of work are fac- 
tors that should be favorable for the 
older worker. 

The relative decline in agricultural 
employment over the past decades 
has undoubtedly had an. important 
influence on the employment status 
of the aged. Individuals can be use- 
ful on the farm to a considerably 
more advanced age than is possible 
in industry. The chances for work 
were accordingly greater when a large 
segment of the working force of the 
Nation was engaged in farming than 
at present, when industrial and com- 
mercial pursuits predominate and 
large-scale enterprise has narrowed 
the area of effective self-employment. 

From 1870 to 1947 the proportion 
of the male population at work in 
agriculture dropped more than 170 
percent. In 1870, 43.5 percent of all 
men who were working were employed 
in agriculture and by 1947, 12.0 per- 
cent. In 1870, 6.4 million men were 
employed in agriculture. The num- 
ber reached a peak—10.4 million—in 
1910 and then declined to 6.9 million 
in 1947. During the same period, 
1870-1947, total male employment 
increased fourfold. 

When unpaid family workers are 


excluded, employment of women in 
agriculture has been relatively insig- 
nificant throughout the entire period 
1870-1947. In 1870, 0.2 percent of the 
female population of working age was 
engaged in agriculture; in 1920, 1.3 
percent; and in 1947, 0.6 percent. 
There was a continued rise in female 
agricultural employment until 1920, 
when the figure stood at 500,000. 
From then until 1940 it declined. 
During the war, all-time highs were 
reached, but by April 1947 the number 
had dropped off to 350,000. Over the 
period 1870-1947 all female employ- 
ment rose from 1.5 million to 15.4 
million. 

The decline in employment opPpor- 
tunities for the aged that accompa- 
nied the decline in the importance of 
agriculture in the economy has been 
offset, in part, by the growth in other 
types of occupations in which the aged 
have been able to engage in produc- 
tive employment. Nonagricultural 
self-employment, in which the aged 
can set their own conditions and pace 
of work, has shown some increase. 
Chart 1 illustrates the broad changes 
in patterns of employment that have 
occurred from 1910 to 1940. The rela- 
tive number of professional persons 
increased about 50 percent. The pro- 
portion of proprietors in wholesale 
and retail trade also went up some- 
what. The continued importance of 
self-employment as an occupation for 
the aged is illustrated by the fact that 
55 percent of all aged men employed 
in 1940 were employers or “Own-ac- 
count” workers.’ Other occupations 
in which there was a concentration 
of aged workers include the apparel 
and accessory shops, finance and 
real estate, and various personal serv- 
ices, as well as the professions. 

The differences in the age distribu- 


tion of workers in different industries 


suggest a variety of factors that in- 
fluence job opportunities for aged 
persons or those approaching retire- 
ment age. These include such fac- 
tors as the historical influx of various 
national groups into specific indus- 
tries, such as that of Jewish immi- 
grant workers into the clothing trades 
at the turn of the twentieth century, 


® Sixteenth Census of the United States, 
1940: Population, The Labor Force (Sam- 
ple Statistics), table 11. 


the effects of seniority provisions and 
union and industry restrictions on the 
training of new workers in skilled 
trades, the physical requirements of 
an occupation in relation to the ca- 
pacity of the older worker, and the 
importance of skills that permit the 
aged to keep their jobs in specific 
industries. Table 6 shows the median 
age of the employed labor force, ex- 
cluding emergency workers, for indus- 
tries in which at least 5 percent of 
the workers were aged 65 or over. Of 
this group, agriculture was by far the 
most important, with 41 percent of all 
employed men 65 years of age and 
over. The median age of all men en- 
gaged in agriculture was 39.4 years. 
The second most important group, 
from the standpoint of employment 
of the aged, was insurance and real 
estate, which accounted for 3 percent 
of the aged employed men in 1940; 
the median age of the men in this 
industry was 43.2 years. As a whole, 
the table reflects the concentration 
of aged men in services, trades, pro- 
fessions, and agriculture. In only 
three industries—agriculture, hotels 
and lodging places, and certain non- 
profit organizations—did aged women 
account for as much as 5 percent of 
all the women employees. 

Employment opportunities for the 
aged are affected not only by the gen- 
eral patterns of employment but also 
by the changes in industrial proc- 
esses. The dilution of skills reflected 
in the relative growth in the number 
of semiskilled workers as compared 
with the relative decline in the num- 
ber of skilled workers has lessened the 
opportunity of skilled older workers 
to compete for jobs. Along with the 
dilution of skills, the increasing speed 
of industrial processes has acted as a 
deterrent to the employment of older 
workers. 

However, increased mechanization 
of industry and the application of 
mass production techniques have been 
accompanied by a steady reduction 
in working hours. From 1870 to 1940 
the average weekly hours of employ- 
ment dropped more than one-third, 
from 66.3 to 43.0 hours.” While, thus 
far, the reduction in the workweek 
has not seemingly altered the declin- 





10 J, Frederic Dewhurst and Associates, 
America’s Needs and Resources, p. 28, 
table 3. (Twentieth Centurv Fund.) 





22 


Social Security 





ing trend in employment of persons 
aged 65 and over, with further reduc- 
tion in the workwcek, workers may 
find continued employment possible 
even after reaching age 65. 

The chances of aged persons’ find- 
ing jobs are tied in very closely with 
the national employment situation. 
The influences of cyclical fluctuations 
on employment trends of the aged 
are sharply revealed by the situation 
of older workers in 1940 and that in 
subsequent years. In the depression 
of the 1930’s many aged persons lost 
their jobs and were forced into re- 
tirement. These withdrawals are re- 


flected in the sharp drop in the pro- 
portion of aged workers in the labor 
force in 1940. The favorable econom- 
ic climate during the war created em- 
ployment opportunities for the aged 
as well as for other workers, and the 
proportion of the aged in the labor 
force increased and in 1947 was above 
the 1940 level. The Nation is com- 
mitted to a policy of fostering maxi- 
mum production, purchasing power, 
and employment through the cooper- 
ative efforts of industry, agriculture, 
labor, consumers, and government. 
The continued enjoyment of a high 
level of production and employment 


Chart oe distribution of persons aged 14 and over gainfully occupied in 


1910, 1920, an 


1930 and in the labor force in 1940, by social-economic groups 












































































PERCENT 
100 
PROFESSIONAL PERSONS 
PROPRIETORS, MANAGERS, : 
AND OFFICIALS 
so 
4 CLERKS AND KINDRED 
WORKERS 
60 
SKILLED WORKERS 
40 
ZA SEMISKILLED WORKERS 
20 
UNSKILLED WORKERS 
18) 




















1910 1920 1930 1940 


Source: Bureau of the Census. Sizteenth Census of the United States, 1940: Population, Comparative 
Occupation Statistics for the United States, 1870 to 1940. 


would maintain favorable job oppor- 
tunities for the aged. A prosperous 
Nation, however, can afford the lux- 
ury of allowing its aged citizens to 
choose between gainful employment 
and retirement and leisure. 


Socio-Economic Policies 


Protective Federal and State legis- 
lation relating to minimum wages, 
working conditions, accident preven- 
tion, lighting, sanitation, and rest pe- 
riods also influences the conditions 
surrounding employment and both the 
suitability of aged persons for work 
and their decisions to remain on the 
job. 

With the growth in labor-union or- 
ganization, seniority provisions estab- 
lished by labor-management agree- 
ments have assumed increasing im- 
portance in recent years. These pro- 
visions generally operate to safeguard 
the jobs of older workers during pe- 
riods of lay-offs and rehiring. This 
is especially true since older workers 
are generally less mobile; labor turn- 
over among the upper age groups 
tends to be substantially lower than 
that in the younger age groups. 

The rapid development and exten- 
sion of retirement plans in the past 
decade or so have undoubtedly influ- 
enced retirement practices. Private 
industrial pensions for the aged were 
first introduced about 1875. In its 
initial stages the pension movement 
grew rather slowly; by 1900 only about 
a dozen plans had been set up, by 1920 
about 270 were in force, by 1935 there 
were approximately 750 voluntary 
pension plans in operation. The ma- 
jority of the workers covered by these 
plans were employed in the large 
heavy industries, however, and at no 
time before 1935 were more than 15 
percent of the employees in industrial, 
commercial, and transportation estab- 
lishments covered.” In 1935, Federal 
legislation set up retirement programs 
for all workers in industry, commerce, 
and rail transportation. In 1946, 41.5 
million workers had insured status un- 
der the old-age and survivors insur- 
ance program,” 1.75 million jobs were 


1 Committee on Economic Security, 
Social Security in America, pp. 172-173. 

2 Excluding veterans insured under sec- 
tion 210 of the 1946 amendments to the 
Social Security Act. 





o> 


wo 


P 


G 


-~ Pm nr maw 485 fF St OX 


a a a ee a ee ae 





Balletin, August 1947 


23 





Table 6.—Percentage distribution of all 
aged employed men and women and 
median age of employed men and women 
(excluding emergency workers) in indus- 
tries in which 5 percent or more of the 
workers were aged 65 and over, 1940 








Percent 
Meal nek all 
7 Median) aged em- 
Sex and industry age ployed 
men or 
women 
All employed men aged 65 
ka, ERS Sh NSS 38.3 100.0 
pe ee eee 39.4 41.0 
Leather and leather products 
except footwear (manufactur- 
| | ERE Pate A aes 38. 4 3 
Apparel and accessories stores__- 41.4 1.0 
Hardware, farm implements, 
and building material retail- 
| ee A een 39.1 11 
Other retail stores..........____- 38.7 2.2 
Finance, insurance, and real 
estate: 
Insurance and real estate. _...| 43.2 3.3 


Business and repair services, 
except automobiles_____..._- 39.7 1.2 
Personal services: 
Domestic service_-__..........- 
Hotels and lodging places_- 
Miscellaneous personal serv- 
a eee 42.6 1.3 
— and. related serv- 


40.3 11 
39.0 9 


Medical and other health 
Sa, eee 41.5 2.0 

Legal, engineering, and miscel- 
— professional serv- 








pe ar ae ee 41.2 a 
Charitable, religious, and 
membership organizations._. 45.8 1.6 
Government (not elsewhere | 
ce eens | 41.9 “7 
All other industries _ _ | 40.2 
All employed women aged | 
65 and over_-_.............] 3 100.0 
Fe ee 35. 4 12.2 
Hotels and lodging places______- | 43.3 7.9 
Charitable, religious, and mem- 
bership organizations-.....___- |} 39.0 3.2 
All other industries _-...........|........ 76.7 








Source: Bureau of the Census. Sizteenth Census 
, 4 the United States, 1940: Population, Vol. 3, The 
Labor Force, Pt. 1, U.S. Summary, table 80. 


covered under railroad retirement, 
2.25 million under Federal civil-serv- 
ice and related systems, and 2 million 
under State and local retirement 
plans. In addition, many private in- 
dustry plans have been adopted or 
amended to provide supplementary 
retirement benefits for their employ- 
ees. In 1946 there were about 7,500 
such plans in operation, or 10 times 
the number in effect in 1935. 
Retirement plans meet an essential 
need for security of workers in their 
old age if they are unable to work or if 
they lose their earnings through un- 
employment. Such programs facili- 
tate the retirement of older persons 
whose continued employment might 
lead to inefficiency in production proc- 
esses or, as in the railroad industry, 


might be hazardous to public safety. 
These plans also provide a basic in- 
come to aged individuals who retire 
voluntarily. 


Psychological Factors 


More intangible influences affecting 
trends in employment of the aged are 
the psychological and social factors 
that determine the availability of the 
aged for gainful employment. Most 
people want to be one of the group 
and to act as the other members of 
the group do; if most of the older 
members of the community have jobs, 
the jobless old person feels he is the 
“odd” one and out of his group’s ac- 
tivities. Community sentiment, the 
attitude of society, opinions of friends 
and family all contribute to shaping 
the motivation of the older worker 
to seek or continue in employment. 
The wartime delay in retirement and 
the return of many aged workers to 
employment after they had retired 
demonstrated the importance of com- 
munity sentiments on the employ- 
ment of the aged. Patterns of thought 
concerning the work status of the 
aged generally evolve slowly and are 
conditioned in turn by earlier experi- 
ences. The declining trend in em- 
ployment of the aged over the past 
70 years occurred within the frame- 
work of an age distribution of popula- 
tion in which the aged, though in- 
creasing in relative importance, rep- 
resented only a small percent of the 
total population. In another four or 
five decades, when the aged are ex- 
pected to represent more than 13 per- 
cent of the population, the increase 
in their relative importance may alter 
their attitude toward remaining in the 
labor market, and the attitude of in- 
dustry toward fostering favorable 
work conditions for aged persons may 
also alter, thereby encouraging a 
larger participation of the aged in 
employment. 

Contributing to the desire for em- 
ployment on the part of the aged, 
along with the necessity of family 
and self-support, are the desire for 
self-expression and the need to make 
a contribution to society. On the 
other hand, with increased leisure 
time resulting from the shortening of 
the workweek, recreation habits and 
hobbies take on greater importance 
in the normal life of adults. Habits 


of leisure and established hobbies, 
when they exist, reduce the pressure 
on older persons to maintain active 
interests through gainful employment 
and accordingly make the environ- 
ment for retirement more favorable. 


Summary 


The proportion of all aged persons 
who are engaged in gainful employ- 
ment has declined fairly steadily over 
the past seven decades. This decline 
was interrupted by the demand for 
rapid expansion of the labor force 
during two world wars but was accel- 
erated by the depression of the 1930’s. 
Many factors—demographic, econom- 
ic, social, and psychological—are re- 
flected in this historical trend. As 
older citizens become an increasing- 
ly large proportion of the total popu- 
lation, however, the earlier trend 
may very possibly be reversed. Em- 
ployment policies and practices that 
were satisfactory when only 3 percent 
of the population was 65 years and 
over and the median age of the popu- 
lation was about 20 may prove unsat- 
isfactory when more than 13 percent 
of the population is in the older ages 
and the median age of the population 
rises to 37 or 38 years. In the past, 
job opportunities for the aged dimin- 
ished with the relative decline in ag- 
ricultural employment, the growth of 
large-scale industries, and the devel- 
opment of mass-production tech- 
niques. However, many factors—in- 
cluding the growth in professional 
employments and in employment in 
the trades and service industries, the 
shortening of the workweek, and the 
improvement in working conditions— 
may create a more favorable environ- 
ment for employment of the older 
worker. Improved health of the pop- 
ulation and of the aged would increase 
the availability of the aged for work. 
The growth in application of senior- 
ity rules in industries and in provi- 
sions for retirement annuities for the 
aged, as well as changes in psycholog- 
ical and community sentiments to- 
ward their employment, will also have 
a profound influence on their em- 
ployment status in the future. What- 
ever changes occur in the proportion 
of the aged employed in the labor 
force will significantly affect the costs 
of the old-age and survivors insur- 
ance program. 





24 


Social Security 





Employment Security 


Unemployment Claims 
and Benefits 


State Programs 

Total initial claims for State un- 
employment insurance declined 
sharply during June, from 1,166,000 to 
878,000. If, however, New York’s 
transitional claims for the new bene- 
fit year—which do not represent new 
unemployment — are excluded from 
both months, the decline was only 
from 886,400 to 871,500. Continued 
claims, on the other hand, edged up 
by 104,000 to 4,906,000, though 34 
States, including all those west of the 
Mississippi River but Louisiana, re- 
ported fewer claims than in May. 
These declines were more than offset, 
however, by the increases in about half 
the Eastern States, particularly those 
manufacturing nondurable goods. 
Part of the increase for the country 
as a whole may be attributed to the 
fact that the June totals include 
claims rescheduled from Memorial 
Day, when the claims offices were 
closed. The number of weeks of un- 
employment compensated during the 
month rose by 67,000 to a total of 
4,219,000. Asa result, benefit expend- 
itures increased, as in the 3 preceding 
months, going up from $72.3 million 
to $73.6 million. The average weekly 
number of beneficiaries rose from 
940,000 to 1,006,000. This was the 
first time since July 1946 that the 
number was more than a million. 

In spite of partial set-backs, indus- 
try has been working at a level of 
more-than-full employment. Large- 
scale shifts of the labor force, how- 
ever, and lay-offs of workers at a much 
higher rate than might be anticipated 
at the present level of business activity 
have caused the comparatively high 
levels of claims and benefits. The 
number both of initial claims, ad- 
justed for transitional claims for new 
benefit years, and of waiting-period 
claims declined slowly from the first 
half of May to early June in all parts 
of the country, suggesting that the 
seasonal revival was greater than the 
lay-offs in single industries passing 
through liquidation. The downward 
trend in initial and waiting-period 


claims has not been reflected, how- 
ever, in the number of compensable 
claims, which has remained relatively 
steady. 

According to the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics, a vigorous spurt in housing 
activity took place in June, and the 
seasonal slump in some consumer soft 
goods leveled off. The continued mild 
seasonal downturn of the past few 
months in the textile industry was 
reflected in the claims levels in the 
New England area. About 75,000 new 
housing units were started in June, an 
increase of 2,500 over the postwar 
record set in May and more than in 
any other month since the boom days 
of the 1920’s. The rise was particu- 
larly significant because June often 
marks the beginning of a seasonal de- 
cline in the construction industry. 
Census estimates of unemployment 
rose from 1,960,000 to 2,555,000, but 
this rise was due primarily to the 
entrance of boys and girls into the 
labor force at the end of the school 
term. On the other hand, seasonal 
expansions, superimposed on the de- 
mand generated by high incomes and 
the pressing backlog of needs, pushed 
civilian employment above 60 million 
during June. 

Total initial claims declined 288,000 
during June, but when New York’s 
transitional claims are eliminated 


from both May and June figures the 
decline was only 14,500. Virginia re- 
ported the largest decrease, 11,000, 
but this shift was merely a return to 
a more normal level, since the May 
totals were inflated by claims from 
persons whose claims were in active 
status at the close of the old benefit 
year. The Massachusetts decline of 
8,700 conformed to the usual pattern 
for the third month of the benefit 
year. Although all but one of the 
New England States reported a taper- 
ing off in initial claims during June, 
the current volume of initial claims 
in those States remained relatively 
high in comparison with the levels 
before the beginning of the new bene- 
fit years and the seasonal slump in 
textile manufacturing. The decrease 
of 5,300 in California’s initial claims 
marked the second successive month 
this State has reported a significant 
decline, which occurred despite sev- 
eral large trade disputes and lay-offs 
in the Los Angeles area. New York’s 
total initial claims dropped 257,100, 
but correction for the new benefit 
year’s transitional claims left an ac- 
tual increase of 16,600, attributed to 
the heavy filing attending the new 
benefit year. Oregon’s jump of 10,400 
in initial claims was due entirely to 
claims filed in advance for the new 
benefit year, which begins July 1. 
The rise of 104,000 in continued 
claims was highlighted by the in- 
crease of 90,700 in New York. The 
beginning of the new benefit year and 


Table 1.—Summary of unemployment insurance operations, June 1947 














Exhaustions- - 


Benefits paid 7 





Amount of change from— 
Item Number or 
amount 

May 1947 June 1946 
piinbitan caw ‘ais 1 878, 000 — 288, 000 +117, 000 
RE RRRERNSN EASE EN ER SehGhnEsahaCweodwumawasa waneonae 1 592, 000 — 254, 000 +14, 000 
Additional _ SPST ee a ee ee ee 1 286, 000 —34, 000 +103, 000 
RN ooo oa Sothink cna uaoacwb ote 1 4, 906, 000 +104, 000 —489, 000 
UII coc ecb ti co a dabeacaoce 1 548, 000 +57, 000 +69, 000 
a eee eee 1 4, 358, 000 +46, 000 — 558, 000 
Weeks compensated. ._........._- 4 4, 219, 000 +67, 000 —869, 000 
Total unemployment_--___._._.___- 4 4, 003, 000 +58, 000 —905, 000 
Other than total —r ment 5__ 4 216, 000 +8, 000 +36, 000 
a a eee i 4 543, 000 +160, 000 +23, 000 
IES a ae Re I eS 4 103, 000 —5, 000 —57, 000 
Weekly average beneficiaries ®...__........._..-------.-- 4 1, 006, 000 +66, 000 — 168, 000 
Pe aa aien wutbinca nda malnmninwaduadeweclaian 4 $73, 559, 000 +$1, 264, 000 —$19, 423, 000 
Benefits paid since first payable §._____.....-_...-.-2-_-- ee, | ree, Sera 
Funds available as of June 30_.............--..---------- $7, 030, 834,417 | —$32, 068, 609 ““4$298, 105, 545 














1 Includes estimates for Illinois and Ohio. 
3 Excludes Texas, which has no provision for filing 
additional claims, and Ohio before September 1946. 
3 Excludes Maryland, which has no provision for 
filing waiting-period claims. 
4 Includes estimate for Maine and Vermont; also 
for New York for total es only 
‘Excludes Montana, which has no prov ision for 


payment of other than total unemployment. 


6 Before July 1946, computed from weeks compen- 
sated in the calendar month; beginning July 1946, 
computed from weeks compensated in the weeks 
ended during the month. 

? Gross: not adjusted for voided benefit checks, 

8 Net: adjusted for voided benefit checks. 




















Bulletin, August 1947 





25 





the continuation of the seasonal slump 
in the apparel industry were probably 
the principal factors. The jump of 


Table 2.—Initial claims received in local offices, by State, 
June 1947 


[Data reported by State agencies; corrected to July 16, 1947] 






































Total ! | New 
|—_;—— 
; Amount of change Inter- 
Region and from— state | Wo 
State All Women| as All a 
claim- claim- | per- | claim- | | eines 
ants May June ants oe ants ants 
1947 1946 total 
Total 3_____. 878, 000 |—288, 000 |+117, 000 |408, 000 4.6 |592, 000 |277, 000 
Region I: . 
Cc —840 +4, 507 6, 249 4.7 9, 641 5, 212 
—1, 861 +2, 656 3, 051 3.9 3, 112 1, 617 
—8, 691 | +21, 686 | 22,960 2.5 | 36, 246 | 18,342 
—1, 943 +2, 236 1, 733 7.0 2, 279 1, 251 
+92 1} 433 4, 449 4.5 7, 085 3, 537 
—585 +691 601 | 10.5 844 493 
+183 +324 639 | 9.9] 1,065 563 
\ +2, 216 | +20, 201 | 22,092 4.4 | 29,101 | 14, 192 
—257, 061 | +57, 619 [132,943 | 2.2 |150, 067 | 80,319 
—4, 375 —241 | 31, 144 2.8 | 66,821 | 20, 453 
+16 +197 646 | 23.7 1, 204 623 
—2, 284 +1, 413 4, 775 3.5 8, 057 3, 593 
+1, 125 +9, 012 8, 936 4.1 | 10, 299 6, 781 
—10, 981 —254 2, 856 8.7 4, 959 2, 764 
+889 | —2,574 1, 727 9.3 5, 282 1, 455 
} 
+16 —183 3,065 | 10.7 5, 417 2, 564 
—5, 278 | —35, 407 | 16, 656 2. 29, 949 | 11,194 
q ™ ; as | 7 ies ae ee ies aie ai 
. See eT EO SENEAEOE Heer er! eee eee eee ad 
+291 —767 5, 956 3.8 8, 786 3, 741 
— 284 —2, 922 2, 352 5.4 | 43,107 | 41, 592 
—963 | —2, 569 2, 730 9.1 6, 326 2, 232 
+1, 013 +3, 191 5, 794 | 17.0 9, O91 4, 517 
+491 +-5, 673 6, 078 4.7 7, 883 4,377 
+124 +1, 114 1, 921 | 10.8 2, 801 1, 509 
+753 +2, 204 2, 266 9.5 3, 715 1, 843 
+928 +2, 911 5, 320 ne 8, 524 4, 080 
+281 —1, 908 1,103 | 10.0 1, 549 732 
—327 —1,116 1, 574 7.6 2, 972 1, 250 
—38 —807 380 | 13.2 556 281 
N —29 —241 66 | 30.3 82 46 
—45 —210 56 | 48.0 112 50 
+357 —732 1,120 | 18.4 3, 361 939 
—369 —2, 476 1,122 | 26.4 2, 041 900 
—650 +4, 590 | 10,618 5.5 | 12, 415 5, 916 
—302 —2, 516 1, 657 | 17.9 3, 452 1, 297 
+625 —586 2, 742 6.0 6, 289 2, 361 
+47 +73 35.6 567 184 
+168 —636 4, 418 9.7 | 11, 266 4, 418 
—340 —834 598 | 30.1 1, 222 531 
—7 —305 420 | 26.7 431 264 
— 286 —497 270 | 18.3 368 202 
+147 —175 531 | 17.6 789 375 
-8 —61 128 | 28.9 204 106 
—162 +300 980 | 37.4 
—5, 255 | +23, 991 | 41, 885 5.7 
—35 +319 329 | 37.8 
+10, 422 | +10, 785 6, 746 5.6 
— 259 0 2,770} 8.7 
Regions XIII 
and XIV: 
Alaska... __--- 95 —5 +19 45 | 18.9 49 28 
Hawaii... _-- 327 +52 +256 109 8.0 276 88 






































‘Includes additional claims except in Texas, which has no provision for 
filing such claims. 

2 Includes estimates for Illinois and Ohio; data not received. 

3 Data not received. 

4 Since Wisconsin has no provision for a benefit year, a new claim is a claim 
requiring a determination of benefit amount and duration, as well as eligibility 
for benefits, on a per employer basis. 





42,700 in Massachusetts was the sec- 
ond largest in the Nation. Dullness 
in the leather and textile industries 





was a factor. Outstanding decreases 
in continued claims were reported by 
the three Pacific Coast States—21,700 


Table 3.—Continued claims received in local offices, by State, 
June 1947 


[Data reported by State agencies; corrected to July 16, 1947] 









































Total ! Compensable 
Amount of Inter- 
Region and change from— state 
State All Women| as All |Women 
claim- claim- | per- | claim- | claim- 
ants May June ants a ants ants 
1947 1946 total 2 
Tete 4........ 4,906,000) -+-104, 000) —489, 000}2,504,000} 4. 9]4,358,000|2,225,000 
Region I: 
Conn. ......... 73,085) -++8, 880) +22,905) 39,864) 3.5) 65,032) 35,090 
49,936) —3,798) +15,139) 28, 682 2.9) 47,676) 27,478 
379, 680} +42, 686|-+-144, 407] 190, 838 1. 8} 339, 652] 168, 980 
31,178} +2 138 +23, 468} 16, 800 6.2} 28,441) 15,340 
70, 393} —1, 224) +4,108} 37, 294 3.8} 64,538) 34, 156 
10, 619 +1, 077 +3, 884 5, 380 6.5 9, 864 4, 926 
6, 770 —-& 40) 2, 333 3, 213 8.2 6, 333 2, 997 
316, 331 +12, 849] 439, 743) 172,049 3.3 292) 609} 160, 294 
1,034,366} +-90, 666) +24 58, 033) 551, 123 2. 6} 824, 189) 439, 698 
413, 137) +15, 685} —99, 041) 183,479} 3.5 375, 470) 167,177 
14, 070) —902} +4,518} 7,297) 11.2) 13,255) 6,870 
73, 793) -++7,057| —32,813) 37,716 2.6| 73,793) 37,716 
86,188) +7, 952) +34,931] 64,072 4.1) 75,841) 56,752 
55, 113} +17,321) —17,072| 38,679 6.3} 50,649) 35,932 
48,442) -+1,328) —38,912) 13,840} 10.3) 46,797) 13,417 
49, 073 —307| —35,888} 24,197) 13.5) 45,848) 22,397 
158, 976} —13, 510|—295, 743} 62, 327 4.1) 141,375) 56, 569 











49,065} —899} —51,534| 25,405] 7.4] 44,124] 23, 155 
22,316] —1, 229] —29,306| 12,906] 8.7| 18,614] 10,679 
+12, 455| 23,780] 8.1] 51,668] 21,867 

| 420,198] 33,340] 17.2] 55,186] 30,568 

423/377] 41,423] 4.2] 52,499] 34, 146 

—130| 11,583] 14.2] 16,679] 9, 108 

—578| 8,662| 14.6] 14,051] 7,492 

94,012) —3,394] +4,893] 49,686] 7.2] 88,318] 46,739 





16,517} —1, 049 —i, 240} 8,095) 10.3) 14,324, 6,961 
16, 982 62 3 7.0} 15,001 7, 424 
4, 523 15.9} 4,042) 2,295 
1, 048 34.4 1, 018 577 
1, 249 58. 4 1, 197 674 
24, 939 22.8] 23,729) 8,155 
20, 744 27.1) 19,759} 8, 463 
130, 178 § 8.3} 112,142) 50, 645 
24,939} —2, 708 —30, 053; 8,776} 16.4] 22,640) 7,979 
32, 892 +11} —15, 644) 12,139) 8.0) 28,856) 10,533 
3, 549 —531| —2,355) 1,104) 39.3) 3,346 
40, 696] —5, 136) —26,307| 18,396) 19.3) 33,596] 15,316 
9, 849 —323) —7,849} 4,099) 22.9) 8,582) 3,620 
5,961; —1, 980 —413} 3,821] 21.6) 5,421 3, 465 
5,372} —2,534) —6,990) 2,936) 21.2) 4,927) 2,765 
6,653) —1,672| —9,164) 3,476) 13.5) 6,478) 3,392 


1, 446 — 660 —797 756} 18.9) 1,3 


9,825} —2,547} —3,356] 4,410) 49.5] 9,283) 4,170 
725, 150} —16, 363} +92, 029} 368,961] 4.5) 681, 196} 348, 598 
4, 582 —963 +676) 1,853} 32.8] 4,387) 1,779 
33, 944 —12, 819] —30,998] 14,752} 13.8] 31,458) 13,816 
76, 065| —21, 725) —63, 803] 33,194) 6.2) 73,774] 32,262 


7 554 296 
-1} 2,008) 1,341 





599 —441 +279 320} 18. 
178 —445} +1,721) 1,395) 7. 


























1 Includes waiting-period claims except in Maryland, which has no provision 
for filing such claims; in some States includes claims for more than 1 week. 

2 Total continued claims in some States include claims for more than 1 week. 

3 Includes estimates for Illinois and Ohio: data not received. 

4 Data not received. 





26 





Social Security 





in Washington, 16,400 in California, 
and 12,800 in Oregon. 

The relative incidence of insured 
unemployment rose from 3.9 percent 


for May to 4.0 percent for June. This 
estimate is the ratio of insured un- 
employment during the week includ- 
ing the eighth to average covered em- 


ployment during the year 1946. The 
national rise was entirely due to the 
increases in the Eastern States, since 
all States west of the Mississippi River 


Table 4.—Number of weeks compensated and amount of benefits paid for all types of unemployment, and average weekly payment for 


total unemployment, by State, June 1947 


[Data reported by State agencies; corrected to July 16, 1947] 



























































































| Average weekly 
| Weeks compensated for unemployment Benefits paid ! payment for total 
unemployment 
Region and State Amount of change Amount of change 
rom— from— 
All Women All Women All Women 
claimants claimants | claimants claimants |claimants|claimants 
May June May June 
1947 1946 1947 1946 
ce a et i ae 4, 219, 000 | +67,000 |—869, 000 2, 167,000 |$73, 559,000 | +-$1, 264,000 |—$19, 423, 000 |$35, 941, 000 $17.71 $16. 92 
Region I: 
copertiont Bape tee iA ey Be 57,292 | +7,214 | —25, 780 29,523 | 1,067,652 +119, 904 —664, 880 477, 317 18. 83 16. 41 
| EE SEL: a See, SRL Ae aes Ha ei ten) Pe ree: Bee 
Massachusetts 305, 420 | +28, 395 | +83, 641 (3) 6, 383, 420 +531, 321 +1, 700, 479 (3) 21.80 (3) 
PHEW MEDUIIINO oe cc cccccae- 25,800 | +6,009 | +20, 007 13, 326 409, 738 +104, 032 +333, 187 192, 555 16. 60 15. 29 
Rhode Island : +3, 224 —580 33,663 | 1,029, 271 +57, 268 —35, 200 540, 811 16.81 16. 41 
cn ek TEE EEE CEE TR AEET:, TERETE (me is, aa S| esa eet! Ne cee) SONS SS | Peo aca WRN Sa ee 
Region II-III: 
12 eS a a eee —649 —2, 381 2, 724 80, 526 —9, 832 —46, 906 34, 315 14. 51 12.81 
New Jersey_- , 216 | +32, 303 —9, 677 161, 528 5, 755, 688 +602, 949 — 551, 888 2, 868, 005 19. 32 18. 20 
fe Sa 822, 296 +3, 717 |+196, 629 (3) 15, 508, 164 +128, 730 +3, 588, 513 | ee CEES Eee 7 ee 
errant - 366, 142 | +35,071 |—118, 890 178,066 | 6,172,930 +590, 027 —2, 647,692 | 2,668, 703 17. 04 15.15 
egion 
District of Columbia__________.-_______-- 14, 581 —442 | +5,727 7,145 238, 642 —8, 362 +85, 068 109, 089 16. 32 15. 34 
Maryland 73, 893 +7, 769 | —56, 285 38, 185 1, 295, 396 +174, 791 —1, 116, 986 581, 381 18. 02 15.71 
North Carolina 66, 279 +6, 727 | +16, 482 49, 983 716, 142 +77, 352 +171, 038 502, 472 11.03 10. 27 
J ae 50, 250 | +22,767 | —16, 598 36, 170 581, 483 +250, 068 — 250, 269 396, 251 11. 68 11.05 
niet Virginia 37, 930 +844 | —27, 392 11,719 563, 566 +15, 093 —487, 884 150, 343 15. 28 13, 43 
egion 
Kentucky Pen Pa OE Le SN 36, 554 —2,647 | —18, 289 19, 012 383, 801 —27, 683 — 283, 606 186, 878 10. 63 9. 94 
Michigan. 139, 563 | —14, 124 |—282, 291 54,801 | 2, 584, 585 —235, 142 | —6, 130, 268 981, 203 19. 60 18. 55 
aco yy 94,728 | +5,017 |—150, 420 37,013 | 1, 587, 223 +83, 887 | —2, 947, 432 553, 412 16. 93 15. 14 
egion 
Lo UE ee eee 275,495 | +30, 460 |—161, 915 153,175 | 4,849,820 +493, 562 | —3, 169,022 | 2, 589,804 18. 07 18.16 
LE SE eS ee eee 40,201 | +3,491 | —62,776 20, 460 638, 978 +56, 237 | —1, 232, 838 294, 752 16. 42 14. 98 
Wisconsin 17, 127 —346 | —19, 253 9, 909 270, 863 —7, 671 —357, 292 141, 181 16. 37 14.85 
Region VII: | 
OOS ee eee ee 48, 698 +683 | —13, 339 20, 545 691, 557 15, 713 | —305, 330 256, 915 14. 46 12.75 
UME or eS a a 44,770 —710 | +15, 751 25, 143 590, 619 | —13, 699 +191, 415 314, 744 13. 34 12. 67 
Lo eee eee 47,859 | +3,351 | +18, 029 32, 824 612,032} +43, 574 4177, 743 393, 497 13.04 12. 22 
i] OS Ree r See eae eR Y oo 13,209 | —3,229} +2, 160 7, 646 154, 500 | —41, 852 +14, 801 82, 432 12.15 11. 34 
South Oarolina ..............._..-.-... 16, 893 —1, 343 +5, 945 9, 133 229, 251 | —11, 505 +81, 145 111, 420 13.71 12. 34 
_ | eee eee ee x 78, 941 —5, 589 +9, 657 43, 325 998, 261 | —61, 933 +89, 420 504, 875 12. 84 11. 88 
Region VIII: 
Iowa. 12, 607 — 257 —8,314 6, 003 175, 936 —141, 604 75, 135 14. 25 12. 86 
Minnesota _ 28, 245 —5,016 | —21,724 14, 009 404, 815 | —412, 371 188, 605 14. 64 13. 83 
Nebraska________- 5, 413 —1, 496 —5, 531 3, 135 76, 029 | —95, 868 41, 198 14. 34 13. 41 
North Dakota 630 —735 —373 324 10, 092 | g —6, 040 4,712 16. 66 15. 49 
South Dakota 599 —253 —212 384 7, 571 5 —2, 543 4, 606 12. 90 12. 30 
Region IX: } 
ce, = SE eee | 19,970 —4,429 | +4, 158 7,109 266, 286 | +77, 447 85, 057 13. 48 12. 07 
ae aren 17, 916 —2,787 | —32,020 6, 879 257, 449 | | — 484, 245 89, 474 14. 63 13. 25 
ae | 99,268 | —2,616 +807 47, 921 1, 601, 086 | 3 | —16, 064 708, 998 16. 41 15. 19 
Oklahoma____________- | 34, 250 | —10,009 | —14, 572 12, 838 547, 400 | j — 260, 521 191, 618 16. 16 15. 12 
Region X: | | 
Louisiana _ -_-___ | 41, 256 +765 | —21,081 13, 435 558, 324 | —395, 747 157, 174 13. 66 11.87 
New Mexico...._._______- | 2, 334 —779 +568 77 30, 498 | +1, 070 8, 930 13.14 11. 64 
Weras._ tk. --| 47,704 | —8,746 | —39,750 20, 374 634, 052 | —720, 762 237, 341 13. 62 11.94 
Region XI: 
Colorado : zs 7 | 7,510 +1, 365 —4, 878 3, 151 113, 670 | —58, 315 43, 212 15. 27 13. 84 
ee 3,718 —2, 101 +1, 046 2, 674 52, 460 | | +14, 985 35, 147 14.18 13. 21 
Monts ana. | 4, 231 —1,910 —2, 992 2, 404 61, 709 | | —32, 592 31, 447 14. 58 13. 08 
Jtah _- 6, 402 —1, 386 —8, 088 3, 198 139, 227 5 | — 180, 187 64, 797 22. 24 20. 84 
Mair ee eh ne | 1552 418 —112 621 28, 001 —7, 666 | 3,015 10, 150 18.25} 16.96 
Region XII: | | 
Se kee ees | 5, 233 —837 —3, 561 2, 182 72, 472 —12, 167 —53, 078 28, 865 13. 95 | 13. 35 
SaaS eee 940 | 72 27, 352 356, 625 | 12, 447, 427 | —63, 224 +326, 866 | 6,¢ 18. 68 | 18. 20 
Nevada __- | 9 | +1, 033 1, 339 71,058 | +20, 123 18. 36 | 17. 29 
0 See ae 298 | | —62, 575 11, 523 405, 603 | —1, 096, 173 j 15.73 14.75 
a a 70, 210 ~38, 235 —101, 072 31, 161 1, 384, 226 —2, 249, 466 536, 611 19. 99 17. 42 
Regions XIII and XIV: | 
Ee | 333 | —1,152 —30 510 29, 053 c +7, 647 10, 685 22. 10 21.05 
Hawaii__________. : 514 | +10 | +1,843 1,610 38, 392 +2, 662 +25, 212 | 20, 216 | 17. 67 14. 94 





1 Gross: not adjusted for voided benefit checks and transfers under interstate 
combined wage plan. 
2 Includes estimates for weeks compensated and benefits paid for Maine, 
Massachusetts, and Vermont, and for weeks compensated and benefits paid for 


Maine, New York, 
claimants in Mass: ichusetts. 
3 Data not received. 


women claimants in New York; also estimates for average weekly payment for 
and Vermont, 


and for average weekly payment for women 





Bulletin, August 1947 


27 





except Colorado, Louisiana, and Ok- 
lahoma showed a decline. 

The weekly number of beneficiaries 
receiving a benefit check ranged be- 
tween 984,000 and 1,044,000 during the 
4 weeks ended June 28. The monthly 
average jumped from 940,000 in May 
to 1,006,000 in June, the first time it 
has reached the million mark since 
July 1946. New benefit years in sev- 
eral States apparently influenced 
considerably the number of benefici- 
aries, since the 10 States which began 
new benefit years in April and May 
showed significant increases. 

Despite the fact that only 19 States 
reported an increase in benefits paid, 
total benefits rose $1.3 million to $73.6 
million during June. Four States— 
California, Massachusetts, New York, 
and Pennsylvania—accounted for 
more than half the total benefits paid. 
Women received more than half the 
benefits in 15 of the 47 States for 
which data are available. June bene- 
fits in Massachusetts, New Jersey, 
and Pennsylvania exceeded those for 
May by a half million or more. Wash- 
ington, with a decline of $734,800, was 
the only State reporting a decrease 
of as much as half a million. 

During the April—June 1947 quar- 
ter, 70 cents was paid in benefits for 
every dollar collected, in comparison 
with 95 cents in the preceding quar- 
ter. Only 5 States—Alabama, Cali- 
fornia, the District of Columbia, 
Massachusetts, and Oklahoma—paid 
more in benefits than they collected 
during the quarter, as compared with 
12 States, including these 5, in Jan- 
uary—March. At the other extreme 
were 14 States where April—June 
benefit expenditures were less than 
one-third the collections. Colorado, 
Hawaii, New Mexico, and South 
Dakota each paid out less than one- 
fifth of the amounts collected. 

Funds available for payment of 
benefits totaled $7,031 million on June 
30, about $127 million more than the 
amount on hand on March 31 and an 
all-time high. The funds for New 
York passed the billion mark, and 
California, Ohio, and Pennsylvania 
each had more than half a billion. In 
addition to the 30-percent excess of 
collections over benefit disbursements 
during the quarter, interest of $33.6 
million was earned by State trust 
funds during the period. 


Table 5.—State unemployment insurance funds available for benefits as of June 30, 1947, 
contributions and interest, benefits paid, and ratio of benefits to contributions, April- 


June 1947, by State} 


[Corrected to July 25, 1947] 



















































































Funds available for Benefits as 
benefits? (in Income, April-June 1947 3 percent of 
thousands) contributions 

a — 
, po Cumu- 
Region and State Assount — lative 
Asof |ofchange| Contribu- | Gq ntripu- 1947 8 April- | since 
June 30, from tions and ‘sha Interest . June | begin- 
1947 Mar. 31, | interest 4 1947 ning 
1947 of pro- 
gram 
Total 6 $7, 030, 834|+-$127, 211/$342, 657, 397/$309, 066, 2281833, 591, 169/$215, 255, 381 69.6 39.7 
Region I: | 
a 193, 515 +6, 665 9, 480, 449 8, 556, 987 923, 462 2, 815, 757 32. 9 28.5 
Maine.._......- 39, 061 +305} 1,873,424) 1, 684, 809 188,615] 1,573, 747 93. 4 40.8 
| ae 186, 123 —6, 275) 10,088, 739 9, 174, 701 914,038) 16, 363, 574 178. 4 55. 4 
| i Jee 26, 488 +17 1, 068, 676 942, 370 126, 306 894, 256 94.9 32.1 
| > =a 81,145} +1,636| 4,132,374] 3, 748, 345 029} 2, 496, 827 66. 6 42.0 
Vt... She pe 14, 783 +230 607, 250 536, 629 70, 621 377, 248 70. 3 26.9 
Region II-III: 
(| 13, 993 +72 343, 374 277, 023 66, 351 271, 132 97.9 33.3 
Wee...:. 450,291} +8,660| 24,627,935] 22,464,960) 2,162,975] 15, 968, 450 71.1 35. 2 
|. > 1,006,401] +33,862] 78, 280,456) 73,507,735] 4,772,721| 44,418, 651 60. 4 45.7 
aaa 601,111) +8, 103] 25,921,737] 23,056,521/ 2,865,216] 17,735,575 76.9 40.8 
Region IV: 
Dist. of Col....-- 45, 042 —55 712, 704 497, 450 215, 254 767, 456 154.3 25. 0 
| ae 117, 924 +1, 008 4, 327, 046 3, 762, 863 564, 183 3, 312, 017 88.0 40.5 
128,587; +3,014| 4,920,698] 4,305, 469 615, 229} 1,907, 159 44.3 22. 4 
74, 571 +1, 925 3, 197, 650 2, 843, 153 354, 497 1, 264, 495 44.5 32. 2 
73,805} +1,661| 3,404,947) 3,053,746 351,201} 1,748,733 57.3 39.5 
98,060} +2,130} 3,318,586) 2,851,823 466,763} 1,131,196 39.7 23.8 
221, 967 +8,951| 16,906,938} 15,855,867) 1,051,071 7, 955, 975 50. 2 64.1 
514, 128} -+14,089] 18,999, 840) 16, 546, 652) 2, 453, 188 4, 910, 508 29.7 26.1 
487, 040 +2, 367) 15, 194, 189) 2, 339, 159} 12,827,079 99.8 39.9 
183, 085 +1, 886 3, 705, 268 p 8, 876, 496 1, 819, 080 64.3 36. 6 
198, 238 +4, 038 4,886,591) 3,936, 665 949, 926 849, 189 21.6 19.4 
56, 317 +228} 2,187,771 1, 916, 094 271, 677 1, 959, 869 102.3 50.8 
69, 549 +2,044| 3,741,000} 3,410,422 330, 578 1, 696, 979 49.8 33. 4 
: 91,316 2,168} 3,898, 418| 3, 461, 243 437,175 1, 725, 754 49.9 26.9 
3S 35, 229 +1, 524 2, 037,488] 1,870,496 166, 992 513, 742 27.5 27.3 
8.C : 46, 473 +1, 148 1, 836, 425} 1, 616, 873 219, 552 689, 071 42.6 23.6 
Tenn__- 95,790} +1,495} 4,632,859) 4,172,731 460,128} 3,129, 500 75.0 37.4 
Region VIII: | 
ae 71, 526 +2, 182 2,778,084) 2,439,783) 338, 301 596, 148) 24.4 28.0 
Minn_____. | 106,922} +2,966) 4,449,822} 3,945,555] 504,267) 1, 478, 040 37.5 36. 2 
Nebr_____. | 28, 988) +852 1,170,605} 1,032, 701) 137, 904 318, 630) 30.9 26. 1 
N. Dak... | 6, 400} +217 296, 087 266, 538) 29, 549 78, 891) 29.6 31.0 
S. Dak___. | 7, 526 +208 246, 848} 210, 817| 36, 031 38,797; 18.4 20.6 
Region IX: 
Spe | 33, 416) +688! 1,576,363} 1,417,082 159, 281 887, 330 62.6 33.7 
Kans____ | 53, 545) +861| 1,791,785} 1,536,058} 255, 727 928, 345) 60. 4 33. 5 
Mo ies | 159,751; +1,255| 6,342,074) 5,572, 501 769, 573} 5, 087, 438) 91.3 33.6 
Okla ae oo 41, 413) +65) 1,718,679 1, 525, 059} 193, 620 1, 653, 863} 108. 4 46.7 
Region X: } | | 
La. 82, 886| +1, 618| 3,310,036) 2,914,716} 395,320) 1,692,524 58.1 39.8 
N. Mex 14, 096} +701} 812, 645 745, 935 66, 710 111, 986 15.0 24.9 
Tex : 165,656} +3, 048) 5, 206, 282) 4, 413, 185 793,097; 2, 139, 067 48.5 30. 2 
Region XI: | | | 
Colo______- 43,173 +1,404| 1,660,800 1, 455, 684 205, 116 255, 951 17.6 25.0 
Idaho... ..... 19, 278} +701) 961, 265 869, 933 91, 332} 260, 938 30.0 32. 5 
Mont--_._- 24, 189) +612 900, 965| 786, 928 114, 037} 289, 344 36.8 30. 6 
Utah_____. 30, 571| +1, 333} 1,868,654| 1,723,777 144, 877| 535, 497 31.1 34.1 
Wyo ; | 9, 870 +203 310, 586} 263, 547 47, 039) 108, 215} 41.1 30. 6 
Region XII: | 
Avis... -.3 23, 385 +851 1, 102, 461} 991, 255} 250, 973} 25.3 28.9 
Calif | 6 708,559} —1,405| 37,607,092} 34, 199,719 } 39,012,200) 114.1 44.9 
Nev | 12, 233 +238 476, 009 417, 672 { | 236, 081} 56.5 27.5 
Oreg__.._.. 71,863} +1,845] 3,677,785] 3, 333,973 343,812) 1, 832, 514 55.0 39.5 
Wash______ 134,741| +2)838] 8,930,582) 8, 284, 443 646,139} 6, 092, 130 73.5 44.3 
Regions XIII and | } 
XIV: | 
Alaska ..<....- 9, 773} +329 474, 065| 428, 902| 45, 163 144, 965) 33.8 19.9 
Hawaii__......- | 21,008 +553 654, 901) on 99, 955 102, 495} 18. 5) 6.5 














1 Data reported by State agencies except interest, 
which is credited and reported by the Treasury. 

2 Represents sum 6f balances at end of month in 
State clearing account and benefit-payment account 
and in State account in Federal unempioyment trust 
fund. 

3 Represents contributions, penalties, and interest 
collected from employers, and contributions from 
employees. Adjusted for refunds and for dishonored 
contribution checks. Current contribution rates 
(percent of taxable wages) are: for employers, 2.7 


percent except in Michigan, where rate is 3.0 per- 





cent; for employees, 1.0 percent in Alabama and New 
Jersey. Experience rating, operative in 46 States, 
modifies above rates. All States collect contribu- 
tions either wholly or in part on quarterly basis. 

4 Interest represents earnings of funds in State ac- 
counts in Federal unemployment trust fund and is 
credited at end of each quarter. 

5 Net: adjusted for voided benefit checks and 
transfers under interstate combined wage plan. 

6 Excludes $200,000 withdrawn in California for 
payment of disability benefits. 





28 





Social Security 





Veterans’ Unemployment Allow- 


ances 


During June, $58.5 million was ex- 
pended for veterans’ unemployment 
allowances. This amount, represent- 
ing payments for nearly 3 million 
weeks of unemployment, was the 
smallest amount paid in any month 
since December 1945 and was 8 per- 
cent less than the May total of $63.7 


million, which compensated for 3.2 
million weeks of unemployment. All 
States except Hawaii, North Carolina, 
Puerto Rico, and Tennessee shared in 
the decline both in amounts paid and 
in weeks compensated. 

Initial claims, which rose for the 
first time this year, were 39 percent 
more than the number filed in May. 
This large increase, in which all 
States shared except Alaska, Idaho, 


Table 6.—Number of individuals compensated for unemployment during weeks ended in 
June 1947 


[Data reported by State agencies; corrected to July 16, 1947] 
























































All types of unemployment Total unemployment 
Region and State = j 
June7 | June 14] June 21 | June 28; June7/| June 14 | June 21 | June 28 
|, RR ae 1, 044, 000 | 984, 000 |1,014,000 | $84,000 | 991,000 | 955,000 | 970,000 | 934, 900 
Region I: | 
Connecticut...............- 12, 650 11,976 14, 299 14, 986 12, 285 11, 571 13, 837 14, 610 
paamne*.___..... . | Rana ae CR om (SNES! pees, Seen: ele OER 
Massachusetts_-.........-- 76,378 | 75,751 75,152 | 72,655 | 70,839 | 69,931 | 69,250 | 67,145 
New Hampshire. 5,173 | 5, 074 7, 897 6, 840 4, 733 4, 576 7,118 6, 163 
node Isang ._.............- 15,009 | 15,371 14, 105 15, 147 14, 139 14, 523 13, 25S 14, 260 
| eae, Veet Berea, (EERSTE, eRe |e Pea Eee (ee 
Region I-III: } 
Delaware___- 23 | 1,339 1, 297 1, 253 1,455 , 278 1, 227 1, 206 
New Jersey. 75, 749 75, 219 74, 158 60, 568 72, 357 72, 118 70, 931 
New York 9 | 182, 468 4 641 | 205, 331 3) (3) ( 3) 
Pennsylvania.............- 83, 625 90, 575 85, 434 85, 917 82,535 | 87,850 | 82,662] 83,524 
Region IV: | 
District of Columbia_--_--- 3, 467 | 3,422 3, 236 2, 881 3, 392 3, 365 3, 169 2, 834 
ee 20, 534 16, 810 17, 092 16, 689 19,171 15, 830 15, 813 15, 656 
North Carolina- Siena ian aaa 15, 491 14, 159 16, 428 18, 404 14, 848 13, 545 15, 611 17, 532 
aes 9,670 | 12,315 13, 811 12, 422 9, 422 11, 964 13, 462 11, 943 
Rein Virgini: Se ees 9,458 | 9,963 6, 988 9, 908 8, 859 9, 356 6, 057 9, 238 
egion | 
Kentucky Se a ae ee ae : 10,301 | 5,457 13, 615 7, 181 9,915 5,394 13, 016 6, 994 
ee 40, 416 | 29, 283 35, 262 28, 516 32, 428 25, 761 32, 055 25, 750 
Ree oe 26,806 | 20,405 22, 048 21, £86 26, 183 19, 945 21, 498 21, 407 
Region VI: 
a 69, 039 61, 817 66, 574 66, 451 65, 859 57, 856 62, 338 62, 712 
eae 12, 315 8, 628 8, 973 8, 411 11, 521 7,973 8, 279 7, 836 
| SS ae 4,910 3, 915 4, 047 3,886 4, 273 3, 342 3, 519 3, 510 
Region VII: 
oe 8, 739 13, 250 12,325 12, 210 8, 332 12, 552 11, 787 11, 639 
| 10, 545 10, 061 10, 672 11,785 10, 225 9, 750 10, 35° 11,415 
SS eee =e 10, 640 11, 208 12, 898 11, 215 10, 204 10, 498 12, 102 10, 601 
ae 2 2, 256 3, 303 3,749 3, 243 1, 994 2, 963 3, 355 2, 899 
South Carolina______ é 2, 850 4, 646 4, 650 4, 247 2,774 4, 541 4, 531 4,117 
eae 11,712 | 18,690 25,422 | 20,119 | 11,185 | 18,061 24, 537 19, 122 
Region VIII: 
0 Eee 3, 302 2, 947 2, 978 2, 988 3, 099 2, 752 2, 783 2, 793 
Minnesota.._............._- 7,752 | 6,653 6, 441 6, 017 7, 233 6, 287 6, 061 5, 638 
OO ee 1, 261 1,349 1, 238 1,184 1,194 1, 251 1, 153 1,114 
eoren weakota............... 202 132 134 162 181 115 112 143 
South Dakota. -_.........-.- 175 155 125 110 152 140 117 100 
Region IX: 
Arkansas } 4,472 5, 907 4, 599 4,013 4, 339 5, 736 4, 482 3, 840 
Kansas__....... 5, 608 4,011 4, 054 3. 704 5, 342 3, 827 3, 861 3, 475 
Missouri 25, 576 25, 309 22, 112 22, 424 25, 068 24, 439 21, 168 21, 48 
Oklahoma 8, 269 4,749 12, 805 8, 427 8, 020 4,586 | 12,424 8, 098 
Region X: 
ae ee 11, 622 9,909 10, = 9,327 | 11,308 9, 680 9, 747 8, 981 
ew BMexioo.......<.......- 611 445 442 502 432 614 43 
a ar 13,654 | 11,046 11, 308 10,546 | 12,820] 10,172} 10,556 9, 758 
Region XI: 
| Ee Ae eee 2, 056 1,772 1, 861 1, 637 1, 964 1,724 1,807 1, 594 
1,199 801 959 625 1,165 787 928 614 
906 595 758 699 906 595 758 699 
1,913 1,454 1,322 1,438 1, 696 1, 299 1, 255 1,362 
Wyoming a a 415 423 353 291 361 334 288 263 
RegionXII: 
SS eee 1, 380 1, 256 1,151 1, 209 1,344 1, 228 1,128 1, 163 
ROMRONEIOB. «oc cnacvenncncn 184, 292 | 157,459 | 145,756 | 135,229 | 176, 534 | 151,324 | 140,022 | 130,388 
“ere 1, 094 1, 008 791 906 1,056 979 768 
UR tee eee 7, 123 5,196 6, 163 6,479 6, 754 4, 966 5, 798 6, 095 
Washington. ___...........- 15,092 | 20,632 16, 198 15, 403 | 14,445] 19,749] 15,287] 14,575 
Regions XIII and XIV 
ES 349 383 256 288 341 367 251 277 
See e 601 449 893 571 438 391 633 402 

















1 The number of individuals is assumed to be iden- 
tical with the number of weeks compensated, which 
may result in a slight overstatement. 


2 Includes estimates for Maine and Vermont, and 
also for total unem eee only in New York. 
3 Data not availabl 





and Nevada, was caused chiefly by 
the reentry of veterans into the labor 
force after the end of the school year. 

Continued claims went down slight- 
ly and were at the lowest level since 
December 1945. All but 10 States— 
Alabama, Connecticut, Florida, Ha- 


Table 7.—Unemployment in week ended 
June 14, 1947, as reflected by continued 
claims for unemployment insurance’ as 
percent of average monthly covered 
employment in 1946 



































Average 
monthly; Claims 
covered | as per- 
Region and State | Claims! — a 
(in jemploy- 
thou- | ment 
sands) 
POU ii icc cnndinns 1, 180, 723 |29, 555. 4 4.0 
Region I: 
Connecticut--_-_.-.--- 16, 878 590.9 2.9 
eas bate 12, 054 164.6 7.3 
Massachusetts... - - 88, 500 | 1,398.2 6.3 
New Hampshire--.--- 6, 995 125.3 6.6 
Rhode Island....---- 16, 601 227.8 7.3 
2, 542 60. 5 4.2 
1, 584 82.4 1.9 
68, 448 | 1,182.1 5.8 
253, 207 | 4,007.0 6.3 
iv 102, 474 | 2,778.6 3.7 
Region IV: 
District of Columbia 3, 154 209. 3 1.5 
Paeryiend........-.. 17, 374 516.7 3.4 
North Carolina.....-| 20, 803 581.4 3.6 
i. | - 14, 089 436.2 3.2 
West Virginia. _.--_- 11, 157 342.1 3.3 
Region V: 
Kentucky........... 12, 420 332. 9 3.7 
Michigan-. 36, 359 | 1, 419.6 2.6 
eee 29, 400 | 2,012.2 1.5 
Region VI 
ae 73,480 | 2,191.6 3.4 
ree 11, 094 792.5 1.4 
Li 5, 221 660. 2 -8 
Region VII: 
i eee 14, 368 372.4 3.9 
ae | 14,384 333.7 4.3 
Gaping oo 20: | 15,464] 473.3 3.3 
Mississippi-_--..--..-- | 5, 049 163.8 3.1 
South Carolina--_---- 5, 876 274.5 2.1 
cee | 26, 838 456.1 5.9 
Region VIII: 
SRE Aree 3, 906 307.1 1.3 
Mipnesote........... 7,614 493. 2 1.5 
[ 1, 378 142, 2 1.0 
North Dakota..---.-- 234 34.7 oe 
South Dakota aaain 295 42.3 ot 
Region [X 
ee 5, 638 188. 1 3.0 
Ee 4, 6 204. 4 2.3 
i 31, 104 708. 1 4.4 
Oklahoma..--.-....-...- 10, 205 230.7 4.4 
Region X: 
—_ ee eee 12, 386 363.9 3.4 
i 860 72.1 1.2 
15, 968 986. 3 1.6 
Region XI: 
Colorado 2, 420 169. 1 1.4 
Tdeho....... 1, 435 79.9 1.8 
Montana._- 1, 223 82.0 1.5 
. 1, 483 105.9 1.4 
re 335 45.6 By 
Region XII: 
Arizona . 2.6 
California - -- 33. 7.4 
Nevada_. 36. 2.9 
CL. -oinnnecuswce q 2.8 
Washington_......-- 18, 682 482.1 3.9 











1 Estimated number of continued claims for un- 
employment in the week in which the 8th of the 
month falls. 

3 Estimated number of workers in covered employ- 
ment in the pay period of each type (weekly, semi- 
monthly, etc.) ending nearest the 15th of the month; 
corrected to June 2, 1947. 





Bulletin, August 1947 


29 





waii, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New 
Jersey, New York, North Carolina, 
and Puerto Rico—reported declines 
during the month. 





Nonfarm Placements 


Nonfarm placements rose 2.6 per- 
cent in June to a total of 453,390, the 
highest since October 1946. Thirty 
States reported more placements than 
in May, while 19 reported declines. 
Employment in nonfarm industries as 
reported by the Bureau of the Census 


has been increasing each month since 
February 1947 and reached an all- 
time high of 49.7 million in June, a 
little less than 1 percent more than 
in May. 

Veterans’ placements totaled 
158,103 in June, 2.2 percent fewer 
than in May. Although 20 States 
Placed more veterans than in the 
preceding month, 29 made fewer 
placements. The Bureau of the Cen- 
sus reports that the proportion of 
male veterans who are in the labor 
force has been gradually approaching 
that of nonveteran males of the same 
ages who are in the labor force. The 


Table 8.—Claims and payments for veterans’ unemployment allowances, June 1947 











































Por , Weeks 
Initial Continued bi 
State claims lain —- Payments 
TOONS sick ica dobak neces cdesedcseceasenchessnlassuuel 492,924 | 3,020,538 | 2,938,529 | $58, 508, 548 
PIN 55 oo oo ca eg ack ncn eccnucuasseecocesusenen 8, 956 70, 071 63, 304 1, 262, 754 
[ee 100 748 671 13,3 
Arizona... 2,777 11, 657 11, 534 229, 315 
IR sist i ce wacuwasadacuiuaksnasmes 5, 072 47, 456 48, 928 975, 745 
Es Cilniinin iris 5h oid aeiniimeeeineamindinglaanan 40, 403 268, 511 242, 813 4, 824, 269 
en oo no onsndeceunaccaauucuaneund 2, 859 12, 592 12, 207 42, 523 
Pos addencu sa tukakseammennan 7,832 24,914 20, 797 413, 518 
(| Ee ere aa 937 4,739 4, 652 91, 792 
District of Columbia... .................. 1, 282 15, 817 16, 239 323, 848 
isis taco cccndnsdnnedadacapentitemancnikeacnasae 11, 703 80, 427 68, 108 1, 359, 154 
oF. g eesiss dosti ocqceeeeseuasuescarseeaes 9, 390 68, 571 66, 737 1,331, 450 
Hawaii-_-_-- 634 2, 488 2, 420 48, 251 
Idaho... 400 2, 263 2, 103 41,718 
Mllinois_--- 20, 744 111, 729 101, 073 2, 003, 783 
Indiana. -- 11, 268 35, 515 34, 191 677, 516 
IgWG....<-. 3, 520 11, 479 10, 616 210, 009 
Kansas 3, 414 19, 901 19, 934 395, 459 
Kentucky-- 6, 607 55, 813 48, 751 72, 042 
Louisiana-- 8, 607 47, 008 80, 925 1, 612, 786 
SL thc at nactenaghsededatmuetonakadekbamoldenenebis 3, 399 22, 732 22, 459 443, 345 
I ci 25 sacha sean bea sia en ee blantgea ala 3, 300 , 88 29, 741 591, 980 
Massachusetts... ....-...-.- 22, 937 144, 907 132, 083 2, 625, 906 
(EEE 22,719 89, 767 90, 490 1, 801, 601 
ee 6, 473 30, 683 30, 715 608, 575 
a ug ee dates eas ex te cs 4, 809 27, 219 23, 401 466, 207 
[CO =a 17, 897 94, 024 87,718 1, 741, 744 
pS ee eee 3, 288 3, , 882 
2 0 eee 1, 257 4, 229 4,114 81, 266 
| : 2,120 2, 262 44, 842 
DE Ia a 5 iis Khin cciicctnemenguncaeaseneabonseae 2, 512 10, 822 8, 637 170, 335 
i cichcinisnnctdd cannon aiaemneendannininaae 19, 846 145, 522 139, 587 2, 784, 837 
New Mexico... 1, 998 11, 768 9, 084 180, 700 
[=a 89, 071 427, 383 410, 032 8, 168, 741 
North Carolina 10, 106 51, 648 48, 063 957, 408 
North Dakota_..._- 250 933 839 16, 532 
| aa 14, 698 102, 245 88,975 | 1,770,374 
Oklahoma. -.-.-- 6, 370 51, 871 59, 381 1, 182, 179 
| aes 6, 093 15, 395 14, 786 93, 086 
Pennsylvania. - 41, 427 353, 279 347,175 | 6,934, 690 
FI Eo icin kendo necandcanddcosencntsctaasdecaauwaudas 5,795 34, 592 42, 165 842, 245 
Pe ee os oa eeadensks ie ccameneaaeeen 4,190 29, 087 29, 004 578, 845 
South Carolina_- 5, 666 25, 981 44, 542 888, 770 
South Dakota--- 507 3, 530 3, 279 65, 304 
Tennessee. .---- 8, 248 93, 393 92, 402 1, 843, 526 
TEER... .a2- 14, 948 140, 576 144, 810 2, 882, 340 
Utah... 1, 977 5,375 5, 027 99, 559 
Vermont. 820 4,219 3, 918 77, 396 
Virginia.__..-. 5, 341 41, 278 42, 408 844, 060 
I otc ccudinstenceaceatndan 6, 077 29, 550 27, 887 551, 984 
, Uf ee ae eae 9, 336 80, 704 76, 025 1, 516, 080 
CE EAA 6, 735 20, 060 17, 512 345, 301 
IIE cack ie nA vadbudtngs dos ecdbeumuanenadeceaneciaes 9 77 746 14, 648 





1 Represents activities under provisions of title V of the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944; excludes 


data for self-employed veterans. 


Source: Data reported to the Readjustment Allowance Service, Veterans Administration, by unemploy- 
ment insurance agencies in 48 States, the District of Columbia, Alaska, and Hawaii, and by the Veterans Ad- 


ministration for Puerto Rico. 


proportions in June were about 92 and 
96 percent, respectively. 

Placements of women totaled 
145,727—6.3 percent more than in 
May. Thirty-five States shared in the 
increase, while 14 reported declines. 
Ten States reported increases of more 
than 30 percent, while in only one 
State was there a decline of as much 
as 16 percent. According to the Bu- 
reau of the Census, about 18.1 million 
women were in the labor force in June, 
the highest number since the end of 
1945. 


Table 9.—Nonfarm placements by State, 















June 1947 
U.S. Employment Serv- Total | Wo- Jet- 
ice region and State | men | erans 1 
Total_..._...........|453, 390 |145, 727 | 158, 103 
Region I: 
Connecticut_..........- 6,722 | 2,594 2, 093 
Se -| 3,996 | 1,212 1,324 


Massachusetts___- 


8,158 | 3,193 3,001 
New Hampshire_. 534 800 






















Rhode Island__-_- -| 2,129 1, 237 507 
Vermont. ............<< 1, 900 289 970 
Region II 
OO) a 53,697 | 29,9382 | 11,587 
Region III: 
Delaware__._- ---| 1,025 498 304 
New Jersey __..- ---| 12,076 | 6,429 3, 063 
Pennsylvania_...._....- 20,663 | 7,884 7, 586 
Region IV: 
District of Columbia.-..| 3,672] 1,515 999 
Maryland.._.........-- 5,312} 1,471 1,911 
North Carolina_.._...-- 9,166 | 2,758 3, 241 
> ae: 7,379 | 2,407 2, 588 
West Virginia. ....___. 3, 023 975 1,170 
Region V: 
Kentucky.............. 2, 985 767 1, 239 
Michigan -- 14, 534 | 2,822 6, 541 
A EEE RES 25,087 | 6,917 8, 344 
Region VI: 
CS ae 15,028 | 4,155 6, 099 
i ae 9,398 | 2,890 3, 258 
. ee 10,312 | 3,014 4, 286 
Region VII: 
i eae 13,126 | 3,258 4,112 
i... Res 9,263 | 3,311 3, 198 
Ce 7,586 | 2,487 2,277 
i 6,455 | 1,847 2, 307 
South Carolina..._...-- 6, 690 1, 634 2, 214 
ee 3, 139 4, 364 
Region VIII: 
Se 3, 245 
Wainnesote. .............- 4, 188 
Nebraska.........- 860 1, 792 
North Dakota... 591 
South Dakota 703 
Region IX: 
eee 2, 406. 
Kansas. -...... 2, 943 
Missouri-_-... 2, 591 
Oklahoma 4, 104 
Region X: 
PS ees 1, 798 
1, 255 
13, 666 
3 eee 2, 622 
Idaho--.....- 1, 552 
Montana-- . 1, 129 
i 549 946 
3... eee 3 642 
Region XII: 
pO ae 92' 1,604 
California... 13, 236 
Nevada- -.- 702 
Oregon. ._.-- 3, 827 
Washington.-._..-.....- 3, 178 

















1 Represents placements of veterans of all wars. 


Source: Department of Labor, U. S. Employment 
Service. 





30 


Social Security 





Old-Age and Survivors Insurance 


Employment and Earnings in Cov- 
ered Industries 


Estimates of workers with taxable 
wages in a quarter and of their total 
and average amount of taxable wages, 
prepared each quarter by the Bureau 
of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance. 


provide a basic time series that is 
used in estimating Bureau work loads, 
amount of wage credits and tax col- 
lections, and other . administrative 
factors related to taxable wages and 
employment. This time series con- 
sists mainly of administrative data 
and is therefore difficult to use in in- 


Table 1.—Estimated number of employers! and workers and estimated amount of wages 
in industries covered by old-age and survivors insurance, by specified period, 1940-47 


[Corrected to Aug. 1, 1947] 












































| Workers -agne 2 | All workers Total wages in 
- with tax- Taxable wages ? employed covered industry 
pence hang able wages |_ ees _____| in covered oo 
Year and quarter 4, : during industries 
—* wages ? (in period 2 . | Average during ;, | Average 
thousands) ; Total (in fod (i Total (in 
(in thou- | millions) ceed period (in | millions) per 
sands) worker | thousands) worker 
1940 2, 500 35,393 | $32,974 $932 35,393 | $35, 668 $1, 008 
1941 2, 646 40,976 | 41,848 1, 021 40,976 | 45, 463 1,110 
amm 2, 655 46,363 | 52,939 1,112 46,363 | 58, 219 1, 256 
1943... : 2, 394 47,656 | 62,423 1,310 47,656 | 69,653 1, 462 
<) —e 2, 469 46,296 | 64, 426 1,392 46,296 | 73,349 1, 584 
RRR ROR tat Le 2,614 46, 392 62, 945 1, 357 46, 392 71, 560 1, 543 
19463....... 3, 000 49,500 | 68, 985 1, 394 49,500 | 79, 420 1, 604 
1940 
ary-March.--- 2, 069 27,314 8, 060 295 27,314 8, 226 301 
rn mg Es 2,141 28, 345 8, 094 286 28, 402 8, 474 298 
July-September-- Laemene 2, 167 29, 542 8, 222 278 29, 758 8, 874 298 
October-December... -- 2,177 30, 280 8, 598 284 30,765 | 10,094 328 
1941 
y-March---- 2, 188 30, 389 9, 587 315 30, 389 9, 752 321 
pe a He ease 2, 249 32,634 | 10, 285 315 32,704 | 10,764 329 
July-September... .------ 2, 284 34, 522 10, 824 314 34,780} 11,699 336 
October-December-.------ 2, 267 34, 051 11, 153 328 34,716 | 13, 249 382 
1942 
7 ary-March.--.--.----- 2, 204 33, 771 12, 112 359 33, 771 12, 364 366 
ro asi ot 2, 183 35, 509 13, 163 371 35, 578 13, 833 389 
July-September-------- 2,119 36, 977 13, 786 373 37, 263 15, 050 404 
October-December- .- 2, 038 36, 656 13, 878 379 37, 607 16, 972 451 
1943 
ary-March---- 1,971 36, 537 15, 462 423 36, 537 15, 760 431 
ee tena. z= es 2, 008 37, 483 16, 561 442 37, 557 17, 400 463 
July-September- .-.------- 1, 998 37, 682 15, 838 42 38, 057 17, 498 460 
October-December. ---- 2, 001 36, 016 14, 562 404 37, 593 18, 995 505 
1944 | 
anuary-March_- 2,010 36, 326 17, 362 478 36, 326 17, 696 487 
a 2 2, 048 17, 284 468 36, 992 18, 185 492 
July-September_.--- 2, 038 16, 243 435 37,752 | 18,359 486 
October-December-- 2, 039 13, 537 380 37, 789 19, 109 506 
1945 
ary-March.-- 2, 076 17, 874 499 18 262 509 
yee Meg eis i ; 2, 123 17, 541 489 18 558 516 
July-September-.--------- 2, 176 14, 982 420 17, 261 476 
October-December--- 2, 199 12, 548 373 17, 478 486 
1946 
anuary—Martch 3____--- 2, 270 | 36, 430 16, 840 462 36, 430 17, 414 478 
porn Ma {NER nee 2, 440 38, 055 17, 695 465 38, 153 19, 003 | 498 
July-September 3_ __- : 2, 440 | 39, 670 17, 750 447 40, 228 20, 363 506 
October-December 3------ 2, 530 | 38, 000 16, 700 439 40, 300 22, 640 562 
1947 | | 
| 
> 40,500 | 20, 900 | 516 | 40,500 | 21, 600 | 533 
| | | 


January-March 3__. | 2, 550 
| | 


| 





1 Number corresponds to number of employer 
returns. A return may relate to more than 1 estab- 
lishment if employer operates several separate 
establishments but reports for concern as a whole. 


2 Quarterly and annual data for 1937-39 were 
presented in the Bulletin for February 1947, p. 31. 
3 Preliminary. 


terpreting economic changes in terms 
of employment and earnings in cov- 
ered ii dustries. 

Taxable wages and number of em- 
ployees with taxable wages differ from 
total earnings and number of workers 
in covered employment, because of 
the provision in the Social Security 
Act that limits the taxable wages of 
an employee to $3,000 from any single 
employer. While the exclusion of 
wages above $3,000 has relatively little 
effect on the data for the first quarter 
of each year, because only a few 
workers receive more than $3,000 in 
the first quarter, it becomes signifi- 
cant later in the year. By the fourth 
quarter of 1943, for example, the pro- 
vision excluded as much as 4 percent 
of all the workers and 23 percent of 
the total wages in covered employ- 
ment in that quarter. In the last 
several years the number of workers 
with annual taxable wages of $3,000 
or more has increased considerably, 
so that the data on taxable wages and 
employment under old-age and sur- 
vivors insurance have been increas- 
ingly affected by this limitation. 

The seasonal pattern of the old-age 
and survivors insurance figures is 
therefore quite different from the ac- 
tual pattern of all workers in covered 
industries. The fourth-quarter fig- 
ures on taxable wages and employees 
with taxable wages have been com- 
paratively low, while actual nonagri- 
cultural employment and earnings 
have been relatively high in that 
quarter. Likewise, since many work- 
ers earned $3,000 or more by the end 
of the first or second quarter, these 
workers are generally not included in 
figures for the second and third quar- 
ters. Moreover, the total and average 
taxable wage figures have tended to 
decrease from the first to the fourth 
quarters, while the total earnings and 
average earnings per worker in cov- 
ered industry have shown a consid- 
erably different trend. 

The Bureau of Old-Age and Sur- 
vivors Insurance has for some time 
been preparing estimates of total pay 
rolls in covered industries. They are 
published quarterly in the BULLETIN in 
the table showing estimated pay rolls 
in employment covered by selected so- 
cial insurance and related programs 
in relation to all wages and salaries. 
Recently figures for workers with tax- 











Bulletin, August 1947 


31 





able wages have been adjusted for the 
$3,000 provision. These figures are 
compared with the administrative, un- 
adjusted series in table 1. The ad- 
justed series shows ail workers in cov- 
ered employment with their tolal 
wages earned in covered industries, 
while the unadjusted series shows only 
workers with taxable wages and the 
amount of their taxable wages. 

Estimates of total employment were 
prepared by adding to the number of 
workers with taxable wages an esti- 
mated number who had wages in cov- 
ered industry that were not taxable. 
In determining the number to be 
added, use was made of special tabula- 
tions for workers with $3,000 or more 
a year, classified by pattern of quar- 
ters of employment. In these tabula- 
tions it was assumed that the workers 
who had already earned as much as 
$3,000 in a given quarter, but were not 
reported for subsequent quarters, ac- 
tually were employed in covered in- 
dustry in each of the remaining quar- 
ters in the years. The bias in the data 
introduced by this assumption is negli- 
gible, because of the regularity of em- 
ployment of the higher-paid wage 
workers. 


Employers, Workers, and Wages, 
First Quarter, 1947 


There were 40.5 million workers in 
covered employment during January— 
March 1947, a number larger than in 
any previous quarter and 20 percent 
larger than the total for the entire 
calendar year 1939. This significant 
rise in covered employment is in line 
with the upward trend in nonagricul- 
tural employment, notably manufac- 
turing, which has been reflected in 
record peacetime production. The 
number of workers with taxable 
wages during the quarter exceeded 
the number in the first and fourth 
quarters of 1946 by 11.2 and 6.6 per- 
cent, respectively. The number of 
workers employed in covered indus- 
try was 0.5 percent larger than in the 
preceding quarter. 

Average taxable wages in January— 
March 1947—estimated at $516 per 
worker—were also higher than in any 
previous quarter. This average was 
almost three-fifths of the average for 
the entire year 1939. It was 11.7 per- 
cent higher than the average for the 
first quarter of 1946, but part of this 
rise is explained by the fact that work 


stoppages resulted in reduced factory 
pay rolls in the earlier quarter. Es- 
timated total taxable wages amounted 
to $20.9 billion, a gain of 24 per- 
cent over the first quarter of 1946. 
Total and average wages in covered 
industry—as contrasted with taxable 
wages—are estimated at $21.6 billion 
and $533, respectively, in each case a 
decline of about 5 percent from the 
fourth quarter of 1946. This decline 
followed the usual seasonal pattern, 
which is affected by end-of-year 
bonus payments and holiday-season 
overtime. 

Almost 2.6 million employers re- 
ported taxable wages paid during the 
first quarter of 1947, an increase of 12 
percent over the first quarter and 1 
percent over the fourth quarter of 
1946. This rise was a continuation of 
the postwar upward trend. 


Monthly Benefits in Current-Pay- 
ment Status, June 1947, and 
Benefits Awarded, April-June 
1947 

At the end of June, more than 1.8 


million persons had monthly benefits 
totaling $35.1 million in current-pay- 


Table 2.—Montbly benefits in current-payment status ' at the end of the month, by type of benefit and month, June 1946—June 1947, and 
monthly benefit actions, by type of benefit, June 1947 








[Amounts in thousands; data corrected to July 15, 1947] 
































































| | 
Total Primary | Wife’s | Child’s Widow's pecmpte current} Parent’s 
Ee ee) Le ee See en nee _s 
Item | ‘~ | } we | N | we | N | ws | 
I wr Num | +| -NUum- ’ +| .NUmMm- | " ..um- } .Num- |} .Num- 
| Number cme her | Amount} her is her wean her jAmount| her Amount} aa! | Amount 
| —|- ——_|- | ——— —_-|— soot yates ——— ‘on agian: Pe See Sree ee | eee 
Monthly benefits in current-payment 
status at end of month: | 
1946 | | | | 
) Eee ee | . 8} 632, 038/$15, 443. 3} 193, 241/$2, 496. 6] 431, 202)$5, 391. 2| 110, 168)$2, 225.9} 128, 688/$2, 565.8) 6,748 $88. 1 
July_.__. picew | 646, 996} 15, 833. 2, 560. 1} 433, 533) 5,420.1) 113, 092) 2, 284. 5} 129, 437) 2. 2 6, 875 90.0 
August_-- sediamaded . 1] 661, 781) 16, 212. 2, 627. 8} 436, 144] 5, 450. 5} 116, 213) 2, 347.9) 129, 882} 1 6, 964 91.1 
September... - 5] 673, 438} ). 2, 679. 7| 442, 905) 5, 118, 839} 2, 400. 7} 130, 070) 4 9} 7,066 92.6 
October_-_-__- 685, 626) .3| 451, 4 5, 121,951} 2, 464. 0 9, 52 6 7, 204 94.5 
November. ------ 3] 695, 132} 5. 0} 457, 120) 5, 124, 451] 2, 515. 0} 128, 0} 7,300 95. 8 
December. - - - -- 701,705) 17, 229.6) 2 9 alas 5, 804. 0) 127, 046) 2, 568.3) 128, 410 8} 7,398 97.3 
JURGOET. « ...-.-- ‘ | 1, 672,301) 31, 694. 8) 717, 570) 57) 2, 868.3) 467, 532) 5, 882.2) 130,017) 2,629.1) 128,959) 2, 591.6 7, 466 98.3 
February ..____- ~__-| 1,708, 848] 32, 467. 2] 737, 315} 3} 2,953.4) 473, 903] oe 4 133, 043) 2, 692. 5} 129,908) 2,614.5) 7, 671 101.2 
March........_- __| 1,738, 841} 33, 099. 1] 753, 091} 87| 3, 015. 5) 479, 946) 6, 057. 4| 135, 634) 2, 746. 6) 130, 668) 2,634.6) 7,915 104. 7 
| Seer .--| 1,771, 600) 33, 769.7) 767, 780) | 3, 080. 2| 487, 755) 6, 165. 8] 139, 357} 2, 823. 6] 132, 079] 2, 667.9 8, 288 110.0 
|.) DR ees eRe ee 1, 805, 219 34, 480. 2) 784, 083 24) 3,148.4) 404,959) 6, 266.7) 142,857) 2, 896. 2) 133, 443) 2,700.0) 8, 653 115.0 
Se Ae oe ca ukoamel | 1, 832, 285) 35, 071. 5) 797, 927 34| 3, 206. 0] 499, 246) 6, 328. ] 146, 124) 2,965.6} 134, 673) 2,730.4 8, 951 119. 2 
} } } 
} 
Monthly benefit actions, June 1947: | | oad ' | 7 =o Seine r ; 
In force 2 beginning of month------- | 2, 034, 052) 39, 325.9} 906,434) 22, 478. 6| 271 787) 3, 554. 3} 522, 986} 6, 612. 8} 145, 270} 2,943.8) 178, 815] 3, 620.1 8, 760 116.3 
Benefits awarded in month_- --=---| 47, 431 968.4} 21, 867) 564. 4 7, 566) 101 t| 10,019} — 136. 0} 3, 938) 81.7| 3, 671 79. 6 7 5.2 
Entitlements terminated 3_ - coma 14, 722 273.0 4, 954 123.6) 2, 567) 33.2} 4,010 53. 1) 631 11.6) 2,493 50. 6 67 -') 
Net adjustments 4... .....--- - —188 9.5} —117 5.7 —33| 8) —33) 2.2 oJ =—.1] oD —2| (8) 
In foree end of month --| 2, 066, 573] 40, 030. 8| 923, 230 22, 925. 2| 276, 753] 3,623.4) 528, 962) 6, 607.9} 148, 574) 3, 013.7] 179, 993} 3,650.0} 9, 061 120. 6 
! ! ' | | 








1 Benefit in current-payment status is subject to no deduction or only to de- 
duction of fixed amount which is less than current month’s benefit. 

2 Represents total benefits awarded (including benefits in current, deferred, 
and conditional-payment status) after adjustment for subsequent changes in 
number and amount of benefits (see footnote 4) and terminations (see footnote 
3), cumulative from January 1940. 


3 Benefit is terminated when a beneficiary dies or loses entitlement for some 
other reason. 

4 Adjustments result from operation of maximum and minimum provisions 
and from recomputations and administrative actions. 

5 Less than $50. 





32 





Social Security 





ment status (table 2). Monthly bene- 
fits were awarded to 47,400 persons in 
June, 5,800 less than in May. For each 
type of benefit, fewer awards were 
processed in June than in May; the 
percentage decrease ranged from 5.4 
percent for widow’s benefits to 17.2 
percent for parent’s benefits. 

During the second quarter of 1947 
almost 153,000 monthly benefits were 
awarded (table 3), 15 percent more 
than in the preceding quarter but 
slightly less than the number awarded 
in the second quarter of 1946. Fewer 
awards of primary and of wife’s bene- 
fits, but more awards of all types of 
survivor benefits, were processed dur- 
ing April—June 1947 than in the corre- 
sponding quarter of 1946. Awards of 
parent’s benefits showed the greatest 
proportionate increase, mainly be- 
cause the provisions of the 1946 
amendments, effective with applica- 
tions filed after January 1, 1947, liber- 
alized the eligibility conditions. For- 
merly a parent must have been 
“wholly” dependent on the deceased 
wage earner; the amendments 
changed this requirement to “chiefly” 
dependent. More parent’s benefits 
were awarded during the first half of 
1947 than in the entire year 1946. 

Almost $37.7 million was certified in 
June for monthly benefit payments 
and $2.4 million for lump-sum death 
payments. These amounts include 
$190,000 certified for monthly benefits 
and $145,000 for lump-sum payments 
payable to survivors of veterans of 
World War II under section 210 of the 
1946 amendments to the Social Secu- 
rity Act. The following quarterly fig- 
ures show the increase in payments 
since September 1946, when the first 
of such payments were certified: 

















Amounts certified 
cified period 
Year and spe pe Monthly an 
benefits | ~ a 
1946: 
nen $3, 490 $15, 545 
October-December-_.-.-.-..---- 199, 178 446, 174 
1947: 
January-March.--........-.- 459, 645 607,010 
eS Eee 591,807 | 576,344 








Table 3.—Number of monthly benefits and lump-sum death payments awarded, by type 
of benefit, 1940-47 


[Corrected to July 15, 1947] 

















Monthly benefits Lump- 
sum 
Year and quarter ! death 
A rie.y $9.99, : 1. | Widow’s , pay- 

Total | Primary | Wife’s | Child’s | Widow’s picsceheds Parent’s mante 2 

254, 984 132, 335 34, 555 59, 382 4, 600 23, 260 852 75, 095 

269, 286 114, 660 36, 213 75, 619 11, 020 30, 502 1, 272 117, 303 

258, 116 99, 622 33, 250 77, 384 14, 774 31, 820 1, 266 134, 991 

262, 865 89, 070 31, 916 85, 619 19, 576 35, 420 1, 264 163, 011 

318, 949 110, 097 40, 349 99, 676 24, 759 42, 649 1,419 205, 177 

462, 463 185, 174 63, 068 127, 514 , 844 55, 108 1, 755 247, 012 

547,150 | 258, 980 88, 515 114, 875 38, 823 44, 190 1, 767 250, 706 

a. (a ee 75, 807 25, 474 9, 401 23, 978 6, 416 10, 225 313 47, 342 

Apr.-June-.. 79, 003 27, 907 10, 150 24, 442 6, 086 10, 067 351 48, 976 

sniy-Sept.............- 78, 976 27, 607 10, 066 24, 589 5, 804 10, 559 351 52, 444 

ie i ee ee 85, 163 29, 109 10, 732 26, 667 6, 453 11, 798 404 56, 415 
1945 

OS) eee 104, 064 35, 613 12, 587 33, 025 7, 730 14, 689 420 65, 695 

te ea 117, 857 41, 116 14, 454 37, 208 7,954 16, 614 511 69, 770 

SUAP-BODG Ko ccccccnnane 106, 782 44, 493 14, 908 28, 058 6, 821 12, 096 406 54, 750 

eee ea 133, 760 63, 952 21, 119 20, 223 7, 339 11, 709 418 56, 797 
1946 

SS | ee re 147, 229 72, 379 28, 553 30, 091 8, 805 12, 006 395 64, 185 

LCOS Cee 155, 036 75, 641 25, 222 31, 452 10, 306 11, 966 449 67, 543 

eee 132, 627 62, 541 21, 809 27, 222 10, 020 10, 579 456 58, 382 

a ree 112, 258 48, 419 17,931 | 26,110 9, 692 9, 639 467 60, 596 
1947 

CS | Coa are 133, 217 62, 106 22, 136 27, 548 10, 404 10, 293 730 60, 357 

Apr -JUNe... occ cae 152, 847 69, 319 24, 383 33, 202 12, 525 12, 173 1, 245 61, 729 





























1 Quarterly data for 1940-43 were presented in the 
Bulletin for February 1947, p. 29. 


2 Under 1939 and 1946 amendments. 





Public Assistance 


Changes in Public Assist- 
ance, September 1946- 
January 1947 


The amendments to the public as- 
sistance titles of the Social Security 
Act passed in August 1946 helped the 
States to finance increases in both 
assistance payments and number of 
recipients. Despite the fact that the 
States had relatively short notice to 
change their maximums on individual 
assistance payments and their as- 
sistance standards to take advantage 
of the new legislation, many of them 
had passed on to recipients the full 
benefit of the Federal increase by 
January and nearly all had passed on 
substantial shares of the additional 
money. The increased Federal par- 
ticipation helped some States to fi- 


nance immediate increases for which 
procedures were already under way 
and in other States provided an in- 
centive for initiating new policies. 
Under the amendments the maxi- 
mum payment in which the Federal 
Government will participate was 
raised from $40 to $45 for aged and 
blind recipients. For aid to dependent 
children, the maximum amounts sub- 
ject to Federal participation were 
raised from $18 for one child in a 
family and $12 more for each addi- 
tional child to $24 for the first child 
and $15 for each additional child. 
The Federal sharing ratio also was 
changed. For old-age assistance and 
aid to the blind, the Federal share was 
set at two-thirds of the first $15 of 
the average payment per aged or 
blind recipient and one-half the 
balance ‘of matchable expenditures. 








Bulletin, August 1947 
















































































































































































































33 
Table 1.—Puxblic assistance in the United States, by month, June 1946—June 1947} 
ia | | | ; l 
| Aid to Sepentens | } lon , Aid . Sepeetens | ata t Gen- 
— , Old-age | en | Aid tothe | General | 1... oe ean beta) OO 
Year and month Total assistance | a aan — blind assistance Total ry ———_____—__ aes assist- 
| Families | Children | Families | Children | = 
Number of recipients | Percentage change from previous month 
2,108,216 | 311, 294 | 799, 414 73, 945 | ee | 404] 41.4 +1.6| +0.7 —1.6 
2,116,505 | 314,516 | 806, 558 74, 406 279, 000 |.....-.- | +.4 +1.0 +.9 +.6 +.2 
| 2, 126, 635 816, 886 74, 823 280, 000 |.-...-- | +. 5 +1.3 +13] +.6 +.4 
September --.....--- 2, 134, 585 | 75, 253 PO +.4 +1.5 +1.5]) +.6 +.8 
| s eee 2,155,890 | < 75, 705 290, 000 |......-- +1.0 2.0 +1.8 +.6 +2.8 
November... ----.--- 2, 174, 616 337, 197 76, 165 298, 000 |......-- +.9 +2.3 2.1) +.6 +2.8 
PE iateniceccuacacuvecseus bivaseissavewan 2, 195,806 | 346, 235 76, 680 315, 000 |.....-.. } +1.0. 2.7 2.7) +.7 +5.5 
| 
2, 212,945 | 354,378 | 905, 855 76, 986 336, 000 +.8 2.4 23), +.4 +6.6 
2, 227, 868 363, 649 929, 705 77, 272 344, 000 +.7 2.6 2.6] +.4 +2.7 
2, 243, 392 374, 387 957, 134 77, 677 344, 000 |_- +.7 +3.0 +3.0 | +.5 —-.1 
2, 255, 525 384, 053 979, 620 77, 954 339, 000 |. +.5 2.6 2.3) +.5 —1.6 
2, 259,677 | 391,312 | 996,959 78, 648 338, 000 +.2 +1.9 +1.8| +.9 =—.3 
2, 271, 007 396, 148 |1, 009, 475 79, 153 335, 000 +.5 +1.2 +1.3 +.6 -.7 
| ! 
| Amount of assistance | Percentage change from previous month 
1946 l ] l | l 
Se: Senne gap eee ween | $94, 690, 769 |$66, 363, 812 | $16, 717, 480 | $2,517,477 | $9,092,000 | +0.5 +0.7 | +1.5 | +1.0 —3.3 
i | Re taal 95, 779, 264 | 66, 985, 744 16, 862, 803 | 2,541, 717 9, 389,000 | +1.1 +.9 9 +1.0 +3.3 
August........ ‘ 97, 110, 506 | 67, 663, 188 | 17, 225, 179 2, 567, 139 9,655,000 | +1.4 +1.0 | 2.1 |} +1.0 +2.8 
September. --- 98, 954, 449 | 68, 634, 794 17, 918, 209 | 2,604, 446 9, 797,000 | +1.9 | +1.4 +4.0 | +1.5 +1.5 
October....--- -| 107,498, 562 | 74, 219, 285 19, 731, 668 | 2,714,606 | 10, 833,000 +8.6 +8.1 | +10.1 +4. 2 +10.6 
November - é 110, 385, 737 | 76, 080, 252 20, 411, 575 | 2,762,910 | 11, 131,000 2.7) +2.5 | +3. 4 |} +1.8 | 2.7 
| ee eee | 114,314,109 | 77, 531,118 21, 545, 133 | 2,811,858 | 12, 426, 000 +3.6 | +1.9 +5.6 +1.8 |} +11.6 
| 
CS a ee 116, 678, 504 | 78,314, 543 22, 085, 013 2, 829, 948 | 13,449,000 | +2.1 | +1.0 2.5 +.6 +8.2 
February... 118, 228, 265 | 78, 962, 347 22, 786, 969 2, 851, 949 | 13, 627, 000 +13) +.8 +3. 2 +.8 +1.3 
March. ....- 121, 027, 434 | 80, 732, 176 23, 712, 901 2, 920, 357 | 13, 662, 000 +2.4 | +2.2 +4.1 +2. 4 +.3 
7 121, 883, 758 | 81, 165, 674 24, 118, 180 2, 943, 904 | 13, 656, 000 +.7 +.5 +1.7 +.8 (2) 
i  ——— aa .-| 122, 025, 637 | 81, 159, 125 24, 295, 503 2,971, 009 | 13, 600, 000 +1] @ 7 +.9 —.4 
EES Ee te eee one 122, 417, 222 | 81, 842, 124 24, 434, 095 | 3,001,003 | 13,140,000; +.3|) +.8 +.6 +1.0 —3.4 
| 
1 Data subject to revision. Excludes programs administered without Federal 2 Decrease of less than 0.05 percent. 
participation in States administering such programs concurrently with programs 
under the Social Security Act. 
Table 2.—Old-age assistance: Recipients and payments to recipients, by State, June 1947 } 
| Payments to re- Percentage change from— _|| | | Payments to re- | Percentage change from— 
cipients 8 . 1} | cipients 8 
| | 
Number | || | Number | | | 
State of recipi- May 1947 in— | June 1946 in— | State | of recipi- | May 1947 in— | June 1946 in— 
ents Total | Aver- ents | Total | Aver- | 
amount age r re } amount | age r a! x . 
7 ean Amount ‘ys Amount || 3 |Amount 4 Amount 
| | | | 
| ] 
Teel....... 2, 271, 007) $81, 842, 1241 $36.04) +0. 5 +0.8| +7.7 S| Se 113, 897] $3, 992, 110) $35.05] +0.7 +1.1 +8. 1) +33. 2 
| —| ae 10, 663 403, 102! 37.80) —.1 +.5) —.3 +15. 6 
52,299] 917,100] 17.541 +1.3|  +.9/+35.2} +36.4 || Nebr...22222222- 25,241] 1,016, 503} 40.27) +.1 +.9) +3.9} +29.7 
1, 357 53,994) 39.79) +.4 —10.9) —.7 —3.7 | eee 2, 011) 95,459} 47.47) +1.2 +1.3) +3.3 +26. 2 
10, 654 506, 924) 47.58) +.9 +.7| +9.3) +341 | 3 ee 6, 754) 247, 864) 36.70} +.2 +4. 7) +2.5 +20. 3 
40, 098 731, 648} 18.25) +2.6 +1.9)+45.4) +55.9 
172,463} 9,074,122) 52.61] +1.0} +1.0) +6.3} +17.3 || N.J_.-...-....-- 23, 094 941,228] 40.76) +.1 +.6) +.7) +23.3 
42, 608 2,774,117) 65.11) +.6; -+10.6) +5.6) +65.7 || N. Mex_.-....-- 8, 025 287, 708} 35.85) +2.0 +2. 0)+19.3 +37. 5 
14, 991 657, 709) 43.87) +. 5) +1.3 2.1 rd ee ere 107, 934 5, 071, 550) 46.99) (3) —.4) +3.6 +29. 5 
1, 201 27,213) 22.66) +. 3} +3. 6) +1.2 HIG T We OW nncaccance 38, 607 696, 920} 18.05) +1.9 +2. 5/-+17.3 +51. 9 
2, 334 93,513} 40.07] +1. 4} 2.0 2.5, +21.9 || N. Dak. ...-.-- 8, 925 352,097) 39.45} +.4 +.9| +2.4 +15.4 
52, 670 1, 927,131} 36.59) +1. 5| +1.9\+14.7| +87.4 i SESS 121, 602 4, 810, 111| 39. 56) +. 5 +1.0} +4.3 +29. 1 
| ee 95,349) 4,036, 440) 42.33) +.6 +.7}+16.0} +31.1 
76, 741 1, 307, 652) 17.04, +.1 —.1)+10. 0 a re 5 930,211) 41.87) —1.0 —2.7| +5.7 +12. 0 
1, 700} 60,150} 35.38} +1.1 +2.3/+13.6) -+59.8 |} Pa__.._-.---..- 3, 057, 653| 33.96} +.1) ©) +4.7;) +15.0 
10, 520} 438,797) 41.71) +.2) (%) 460 +60 B. bs.....<60.5- 331, 757} 39.66) +.7 +1. 5/+10.5) +23.5 
126,495} 5,004,997) 39.57) (3) +.1) +1.3} +17.9 || 
50, 588) 1, 534,479) 30.33) —.2 +.4| —7.3) +6.1 i 598, 476| +2.3 +2.2 +26. 4) +59. 0 
48, 295 1, 918, 432} 39.72) (2) +.8 —.1} +16.8 | ie 407, 634) } —5 —1.3;) —.8) +181 
33, 890 1, 177, 506) 34.74) +.6 +1.1/+14.9 +29. 8 J, See 864, 702| | +.9) +. 7/422. 5 +38. 1 
47, 285 821, 730} 17.38] +1.4 +1.4| +6.9 57.6 | 1 SSS 5, 608, 230} 2) +.4! +.4| +6.2) +28.3 
49,310} 1,197, 246| 24.28) +1.6 +2. 2|+-29, 9 Cl. 532, 585} a =. —.9 —1.7 +6.1 
15, 158 518, 524) 34.21) —1.2 —1.3) +1.0) +12.0 || Vt.............. 167, 162 ; —8 —.8) $3.9) +33.2 
| | \ aS 279, 397 | +.8 +1.0} +6.2| +22.4 
11,819 364,915) 30.88) +.8 +1. 6| +2.4 FEL6 fF We accccccce 3, 480, 325 —-.9 —.3| +.6 —.4 
84, 767 4, 289, 240| 50.60) +.3 +.1) +6.6) +15.1 , »& , eer 20, 696 312, 118 +1.0 +1.0} +9.2 —4.3 
93, 539} 3,361,850) 35.94] +.3 +.3) +4.6) +12.0 is , 47,137} 1,696, 911 (8) +.4) +1.9) +17.7 
53,970} 2, 000, 894) 37.07) (8) Pat Bee +9. 2 3, 766 183, 485} +.2 +.1) +6.9 +33. 9 
39, ™” 680, 7 17. + +.7) +12) +42. 7 +48.7 || | 
1 | 
1 For definitions of terms see the Bulletin, July 1945, pp. 27-28. All data subject 2 Increase of less than 0.05 percent. 
to revision. ? Decrease of less than 0.05 percent. 





34 





Social Security 





For aid to dependent children, the 
Federal share became two-thirds of 
the first $9 of the average payment 
per child, plus one-half the balance 
within the maximums. 


Changes in State Policy 


Changes in State policy following 
the amendments generally took the 
form of (1) an increase in the amounts 
that agencies would pay for specific 
requirements of recipients or in the 
proportion of need met, ahd (2) a 
liberalization of State maximums. 
These changes occurred singly and in 
different combinations in the various 
States. Most commonly the assist- 
ance agency raised the amount pro- 
vided for certain requirements of re- 
cipients. About three-fifths of the 
States increased the allowances for 
food, and increases for clothing were 
second in frequency. In addition to 
raising cost figures, or in a few in- 
stances in lieu of this step, several 
States provided for additional items 
needed by recipients, made previously 
permissive items mandatory, or in- 
creased the proportion of need met. 

Revising cost figures or raising the 
proportion of need met did not benefit 
recipients already receiving maximum 
amounts. Only in States without 
maximums could all payments be in- 
creased. Many other States, however, 
lifted maximums when increased Fed- 
eral participation became available. 
In all, between September and the end 
of January, 24 States raised their 
maximums for old-age assistance, 20 
States those for aid to the blind, and 
14 States those for aid to dependent 
children.’ Nevertheless, maximums 
differed widely among the States even 
after these changes. In January, 
maximums ranged from $23 to $90 for 
aged recipients, from $30 to $90 for 
the blind, and from $15 to $135 for 
one-child families. 

As a result of these State actions 
and of the Federal amendments, as- 
sistance payments increased more 
markedly in the last quarter of 1946 
than in any other quarter since 1936. 
From September, the last month in 
which the old provisions for Federal 
matching were effective, to January 


1 Two other States, Louisiana and South 
Dakota, raised the maximums for aid to 
dependent children for families of a speci- 
fied size. 


1947, the average payment for the 
Nation increased $3.24 for old-age as- 
sistance, $2.76 for aid to the blind, 
and $6.90 per family or $2.77 per child 
for aid to dependent children. The 
change in the national average was, 
of course, made up of unequal changes 
in State averages. The number of 
States with specified change in aver- 
age payments from September 1946 to 
January 1947 was as follows: 





| | 
| | Aid to 
Old- | Aid | depend- 
age ent 
| assist- children 
ance (per 
child) 





Amount of change in 
average payment 


to | 

the 
blind | 
| 











$6. 00 or more 


Increase: | 





2. 00- 20 
|) rere 
Less than 1.00---_...-| 


OW OATES 
~I 
NF onnnre 


_ 





Decreass............. | 


aw 
np 
to 


Although some of the States with 
the largest increases were among 
those that had previously made the 
highest payments, substantial in- 
creases also occurred in States where 
payments had been low—in Ken- 
tucky, for example. Nine of the 10 
States with lowest per capita income 
reported increases in all average pay- 
ments; in the tenth, where averages 
increased for old-age assistance and 
aid to the blind, the average payment 
per child remained unchanged but the 
number of children aided increased 
more than 23 percent. 

The size of the increases in pay- 
ments during the 4 months depended 
on the type of action taken by the 
State to raise payments and on 
whether increases in case loads, lim- 
its on the amount of individual pay- 
ments, or limitations of funds pre- 
vented or restricted the application of 


the measures adopted. In a few 
States, action was postponed until 
after January 1947 or was incomplete 
because changes in individual pay- 
ments were deferred until they could 
be made in the course of the usual 
review of case loads. 

In many States the necessity for 
dividing funds between payments to 
new applicants and increases in pay- 
ments to all recipients limited the 
amounts of these individual increases. 
From September to January the 
number of aged recipients increased 
nearly 4 percent; blind recipients, 
nearly 3 percent; and dependent chil- 
dren, more than 9 percent. Increases 
of more than 10 percent were re- 
ported by 5 States in the old-age 
assistance rolls and by 19 States in 
the rolls for aid to dependent chil- 
dren. 


Changes in Expenditures, by Source 
of Funds? 

These increases in assistance pay- 
ments and in number of recipients 
raised total public assistance expend- 
itures from $87 million in Septem- 
ber 1946 to $101 million in January 
1947—almost 16 percent. For the 
country as a whole the increase in 
total expenditures resulted entirely 
from an increase in Federal funds, 
which—primarily because of the 
amendments—rose about 36 percent; 
State and local expenditures re- 
mained about the same. The largest 
increase in total expenditures (24 
percent) was for aid to dependent 
children, for which the States spent 
more from State and local funds in 
January than in September. Rises in 
total costs for old-age assistance and 
aid to the blind were substantial but 
somewhat smaller, 14 and 11 percent, 


? Discussion of source of funds excludes 
Alaska and Hawaii, for which data on 
per capita income are not available. 


Table 3.—Average payment in January 1947 and change in average payment, September 
1946-January 1947, by program and source of funds 





























Average payment in January Amount of change from 
1947 from— September 1946 
Program nT | ae 
Al | Federal ‘State and| All | Federal {State and 
( . | 
funds et Seoye funds | tants | funds | funds | fants 
Sees BERR Gs Beri, peer naby 

Old-age assistance re $335. 38 ane , 1 $16.28 | +$3.24 1 +$4.16 z —$0. 92 
Ald to dependent children (per child). 24. 38 5 4 63 +2. 77} +3.16 —.39 
BOO CG NENO ANI oc cos ota cunannanema ete 36. 40 19. 18 2) + . 76 | +4. 11 —1.35 








Bulletin, August 1947 35 





respectively; States and localities ments generally have been consid- 
reduced somewhat their funds for ered more nearly adequate than those 
these programs, under which pay- for aid to dependent children. 


In general, the increases in Fed- 
eral funds, together with increased 
State and local expenditures in some 

















































































Table 4.—General assistance: Cases and payments to cases, by Table 5.—Aid to the blind: Recipients and payments to recipients, 
State, — 1947 } by State, June 1947 } 
| ; | 
| a a S -— | Percentage change from— . a onto Si | Percentage change from— 
" ” | Num- | —— o ee Shay rare Num- pie malas re } 
State ber of | | | May 1947 in— | June 1946 in— State hen te | May 1947 in— | June 1946 in— 
ecipl- 
ata | Potal | Aver- |— are x) eal ea } ents Total Aver- | | : 
| |} amount | 88€ | Nuom- Num- | } | amount age | num. | | Num- | 
| | ber hee ber | 4mount | ‘| her aa ber | Amount 
——_ —_—— —! Se ae caters —- —_—o SS a a | 
Total?_._.. |335, 000 \$13, 140,000 |s39. 18 —0.7 —3.4 |+20.5 Total. ..... } 70, 153 $3, 001, 003 Laid n | +0.6 | +41.0 | 42 7.0 +19.2 
, 869 | \4aa] 41.2 5 Total, 47 | | 
43 | TES 6; —7.9| States 2__| 37.8 +.7 +1.1 | +7.8 | +24.1 
339 | +8.4 | +14.4 Ratan SR 
is a —.1 4 20.00 | +1.0 +1.7 |+18.1 +29. 5 
2 | —1.7 | (4) 97. 29 +.5 +.6 |+17.1 +44.0 
56 | —3.1] 3.9 | 21.27] 41.5] +42.0/4+23.4| +382 
>| —2.2 —3.4 404, 702 | 62.84 | +1.5 +1.4 | +9.1 +18.3 
—3.9 —5.4 | 3 5 0 +21.7 |—11.4 +10.1 
+5.9 +5.5 |+60.1 +8.4 | +3.6 +2.8 
seas +4.8 (3) (8) 
| | me () | +86) +248 
2, ewer ae! 42,306 | —1.2 —.7 |413.2 | +2.0 [411.2 | +33.0 
Hawaii_____ | 967 | 46, 129 | +2.8 | -1 |+51.3 | sy | +5.1/ +36.1 
Idaho 7._- | 515 14, 887 | —1.0 | 2| +2.2 
Nl ----| 23,100 | 1,000, 749 | |} —.9] 4.5 |+17.7 } (3) Qe | @ 
Ind.8 -..-| 8,767 | 201,326 | 22 | —4.5 | 3.5 | —3.4 | -1.81464| 4422 
lows | 4,307 109, 008 —2.2 | .8 | +9.6 200,026 | 41.20 | #1 ii welvoae | 414.1 
| eee 4, 849 205, 436 | —.5 | —.4 |+32.2 61,678 | 32.31 | 3 | +.6 | —1.0 | +38 
; eae ~_| 62,000 | 6 33, 000 | oe OB 7 <4) Al eel oe 
L@....---...-.-| $573 | 188,400 | 21.16 | 41.1 +1.7 |+14.8 9 4.7) 443 193.7 
Maine. .._-- ..| 2,264} 86,730 | 38.31 | —3.9] —7.0 |+15.5 2] 41.3149.9] +51.5 
| °3| +20/48.6! 4431.8 
/* 7 a | 7, 834 | 269. 07 0 | 34.35 —2.2 | —2.6 |+19.7 | 3h =i 6 tate I +21 
Mass f 14,887} : g | }—2.1}) —7.7 |+14.6 | 8 —.7 | +26 | +10.4 
Mich ----| 21,262 | *827, 935 | | —.9}] 9.7 |+16.7 | | 
Minn --| 5,919 214, 969 | 36.32 | —3.7| —5.7 |+13.5 9} +25 [411.1] +4207 
Miss... .. 474 | } 10.12 |4+11.5 | +10.7 |+31.7 6 | +.6|+7.1| +19.4 
Mo.*. 11,188 | 2757440 | 24.62 | +24] +4.4 |+24.5 +8 —61+436| +15.0 
Mont ; 1,198 | 32,640 | 27.25 | +4.4| +5.0 |+13.6 42.2] +24(|427.5! +323 
Nebr-_- --| 1,580} 41,121 | 26.03 | —8.0] —7.8]—13.3] —-1.9 | Mo.._........-|82'950| 688 500 |630.00|.......|.--_- stein) Geo) a: 
Ls 5 ae 282 | 6,065 | 21.51] +41] +.6 |+12.4 | 473 9.5 | "49374 
N. H-- a.) 2,18 35,465 | 31.03 | —2.8| —7.8 |+10.3 4 42.4] 443 429.2 
| | | et ee | (3) (3) (3) 
N.J.8 —2.4 —.7 |+17.6 | 3 | +7 +48} 24.8 
N. Mex. 9 41.7] 41.8 |+31.4 2| 412/471) 4203 
: i eee +2.0 | —.3 |+49.4 | } 
N. C__. |} —3.7} —7.9 |+11.2 | .3| +5.2 1420.8! +67.2 
N. Dak : | —4.0 | 4] 41.3 0} +.2/49.6] +4345 
Ohio | —1.8 | 6 |+18.9 1] —.4] +9.6 | 134.8 
Okla. (11) FO , 7 ; } —11])46.7] +13.1 
Oreg —3.3 ~5 |—10.7 116,105 | 36.02 +1.1 | +4.1 +31.6 
Pa. .. —2.4 6 |+18.2 104, 875 | 42.91 | +2.0 |4+21.4 | +41.9 
= ee | —7.0 | 1 |+27.1 19,051 | 49.61 | —3.4 | +4.3 | +6.4 
0 | 39.76 +.6| +6.2 | 4.9 
SC. 2: +3.5 | +5.2 |+26.6 41. 25 +4.1 |+23.4 | +45.5 
S. Dak... }—10.1 | 9} +9.8 23. 98 |} +1.0 |4+14.7| +29.9 
Tenn 6 6 12,700 al tant 
ex 6 62, 000 | | 6, 368 -—.5| —1.3 —.9 +22.7 
Utah.__. —1.9 | +7.2 39, 342 +.8| +1.0/+9.4| +246 
Vt | | —18.3 |—21.2 166, 786 |} +.4] +.5148.3] +27.9 
Vac. J —.4 |+10.9 7, 081 | +.7 +1.5 | 44.3 +23.0 
Wash__...-. 2| 340, 892 > | +4.5 | —8.4 3, 602 Oo |} —21485) +227 
W.Va 71, 189 | |} —2.9] +6.8 5, 33 +12} +2.8/4+13.7| +33.7 
Wis... | 160,977 —7.9 | —5.4 —1.1 | +.3/+41.3] +43.6 
Wyo bv aten | 18, 755 | —3.4 2 +.1 | +.4 | +4.0 —3.4 
: _— — s a om —.1] +.8 | —3.4 +12.0 
1 For definitions of terms see the Pulletin, July 1945, pp. 27-28. All data Lt. eee 99 @® | @© |-10.8) +121 
subject to revision. eS A, eee) ee Tee Pee ee 
2 Partly estimated; does not represent sum < State figures becaus pe 
des ps ments for, and an estimated number of cases receiving, medica —— : ; ie 
excludes citalization, and burial only in Indiana and New Jersey be. For definitions of terms see the Bulletin, July 1945 }, Dp. 27-28. Figures in 
3 State program only; excludes program administered by local officials. italics represent programs administered without Federal ps artic ipation. Data 
4 Decrease of less than 0.05 percent. exclude program administered without Federal participation in Connecticut, 
5 Based on actual reports including an estimated 97 percent of cases and 98 which administers such program concurrently with program under the Social 
wen avments Security Act. Alaska does not administer aid to the blind. All data subject 
percent of payments. ity 
6 Estimated. to revision. 
cludes assist¢ ance’ » in kind and cases receiving assistance in kind only and, ae ae ’ oy Se ee ee inictratior 
Pt. Price: 2s, cash payments and cases receiving cs ish payments. peek 2 Under plans approved by the Social Security Administration. 
of payments shown represents about 60 percent o f tot tal 3 Average payment not calculated on base of less than 50 recipients; percent- 
8 Includes unknow n number of cases receiving medical care, hospitalization, age change, on less than 100 recipients. 
and burial only, and total payme nts for these services. i ‘A 
9 Excludes a few cases and small amount of local funds not administered by 4 Increase of less than 0.05 percent. 
State agency. 5 Rcti > 
10 Includes eases receiving medical care only. : ’ Estimated. 
11 Excludes estimated duplication between programs; 3,048 cases were aided 6 Represents statutory monthly pension of $30 per recipient; excludes pay- 
by county commissioners and 4,106 cases under program administered by ment for other than a month. 
State Board of Public Welfare. Average per case and percentage change in 
number of cases not computed. 





36 


Social Security 





States, resulted in comparatively 
large percentage increases in total 
expenditures in States with low per 
capita income and in smaller in- 
creases in States with high per capita 
income. Of the 20 States with the 


highest increases in total costs (20 
percent or more), 13 were among the 
lowest 20 in per capita income. In 5 
of these 13 States, increases in total 
expenditures resulted from rises in 
State and local as well as in Federal 


Table 6.—Aid to dependent children: Recipients and payments to recipients, by State, 
June 1947} 











































































































Number of Payments to > ss a 
recipients | recipients Percentage change from 
| May 1947 in— June 1946 in— 
State | ES 9 RR | etait 
Fami- A ‘ota age umber of— Number of— 
lies ines amount | per |__ = _| 
} family Amount Amount 
Fami-| Chil- Fami-} Chil- 
| } lies | dren lies | dren 
| aes Pe se a eee) 
| | 
Total___...._....] 396, 148/1, 009, 475/$24,434,095) $61. 68 +121 +1.3 +0. 6 27..3| +26. 3 +46. 2 
Total, 50 States 2_| 396, 098|1, 009, 360/24, 432, 515) 61. 68 +1. 2) +1.3 +. 6) 27. 3} +26. 3} +46. 2 
| Bibles 
Alabama.........---- 8,106} 22,740; 255,141] 31.48) +41.1] +1.5] +1.2| +20.1| 420.2) +32.2 
Ateekra.......... . 229 559} 7,171) 31.31) +3.6 +2 —31. 9}+102. 7| +80. 9 +31.0 
Arizona. -__-_.-- 2,391) 6,876} 111,814) 46.76) +.3| +.1 +.1] +31.3) +30. 7 +55. 5 
Arkansas_..___.- 6,915} 18,278 249, 745) 36.12) +3.6) +3.4 +3. 2) +52, 3) +50. 4 +94. 7 
California__.__.- +t 052| 26, 830) 1,121,494) 101.47) +4.7) +4.1 +5. 8} +38. 4) +33.1) -+58.2 
Colorado.__..--- -| 4,081 11,225} 279,931) 68.59} —.9| —.7 —.8| $12.1) +13.2} +24.7 
Connecticut _._-- : 2, 809 7, 188 261,416; 93.06) +1.3) +4.0 +1.4 2.7; +6.8) +5.3 
Delaware... .........- 248) 669; 216,800) (3) —.8| —.9 (3) —9.2) —14.6 (3) 
District of Columbia 1, 392) 4,131} 103,374) 74.26) +65.2} +5.0 +5.3! +76.2) +68.5) +100.9 
aes: 10, 767; 26, as 380, 549) 35.34) +7.6) +7.5 +7. | +62 1 +65. 2) +68. 7 
Georgia_....-- z 6,501} 16, 719| 229,497) 35.30 +.7 +.7 +. 4} +36.0) +37.8 +75.9 
Hawaii-_....... 963} 2, 916) 89,617} 93.06) 2.7) +2.4 +3.1) +46.1) +41.3) +89.5 
| US See 2 1, 754! 4,519! 137,598) 78.45 —.3} —1.5 —.8) +22.7| +18. 7 +55. 4 
Hitnols........... 22,662} 56, 246) 1,781,895) 78.63) —2.2) —1.6 —1.9) +4.0) +6.1 +19. 4 
Indiana_........ 7,622| 18,764 323, 834) 42.49 +.4 +.6 +4. 2) +15.6| +17.6 +28. 1 
ea ae . 4,277| 10,940 148,279) 34.67 +.4 —-.1 —.2| +19. 5] +18.8 22.4 
Kansas__.....- = 4,779} 12,118} 337,899) 70.70 +.9) +1.0 +1.2| +36. 9) +34.9) +69.3 
Kentucky. i 9,152} 23,507; 320,831) 35.06) +4.6) +4.5 +4.0} +59.9) +56.2) +162.4 
Louisiana. -__- ot he 897) 30, 797 542,275) 45.58) +1.4) +1.5 +1.6) +25.0) +22.6) +58.0 
eae — 5, 415 169, 670} 89.87) —1.3) —1.3 —-1.9 — +20. " +49.1 
Maryland...........- 4, 839} 13, 903 233, 637] 48.28 +.2 +.2 +. 2) +26.6) +25. | +61.5 
Massachusetts _- a 250) 22,944) 884,129) 95.58) +1.3) +1.3 +1.3) +12.1) +11. 4 +27.0 
ichigan__..__- 20, 060) 7, 789) 1, 561, 293) 77.83 +.5 +.6 +. 5) +19.0] +18. 5| +34. 2 
Minnesota -- 5,922) 15, 107} 330,701) 55.84 +.5 +. +.4) +15. 2) +15. 5} +19.1 
Mississippi-_- P 5,518] 14, 615] 145, 854] 26.43) +4.1) +2. Jf +4.0) +62.3) +63. 5 +63. 3 
Missouri___... -| 19,979 52,169) 668,590) 33.46 2.1) +1. 9) +1.9| +34. 0| +32. 9 +23. 8 
Montana_____. 1, 700) 4,492) 114,277) 67.22; +1.2) +1.1 +2.3) +17.2) +15. 8} +44.0 
Nebraska... _- "| 3,144] 7,436] 255,383] 81.23} +.2| (4) +.1] +23: 5) +228] +50.8 
Dere0A........<-.-.. 50} 115 1,580} $81.60) (5) (4) () ot we) 
New Hampshire- - -_- 1, 102 2, 804} 86,455) 78.45 +.3 +.1 4) baeis +16.8 +29.3 
New Jersey_-..-..-.-- 4,115) 10, 629) 322,988) 78.49) +1.6 2.0 +2.9 +13.9| +16.6) +37.2 
New Mexico-- a 3, 659 9,583} 177,592) 48.54) +2.3) +2.2 +2. i +27.8| +27.7| +70.0 
New York.--_.._.-.-. 40, 125 93, 539) 3,932,903) 98.02) +2.1) +1.5 —1.1} +39. 4] +34.0 +68. 3 
North Carolina... 7, 684 21,918] 272, 339) 35.44) -+1.7| +2.2 +2. 2| +19. 5) +24.8 +51. 1 
North Dakota 1, 663 4, 561) 124, 560) 74.90 —.4| +1.3 +1. 2) +12. 3} +10. 5 +37. 6 
Sees 9, 352 25, 654 617, 733} 66.05} +. 9} +.8 +.9) +13.2) +11. 7] +29. 1 
Oklahoma... 27,834) 67,211) 1,251,907) 44.98) +2.1) 2.0 2.0) +40.7| +39. 2) +80. 7 
Oregon one 2, 342 5, 958 210,167) 89.74) —4.4) —3. s * —5.3) +63. 7| +68. 0) +71.2 
Pennsylvania. _____- 38,955} 99, 802) 2, 809, 460} 72.12; —.3) —.1) (4) +23. 0) +-20. 3} +35. 0 
Rhode Island-_------- 2, 411) 6,045) 186,792! 77. 47| +2.9) +3. 2) +3. ° +36. 4) +33.6) +54.2 
| | 
South Carolina... _-- 5, 529 15, 366 152, 575) 27. 60) 2.7; +3.0 +3.0 see +21. i +49. 4 
South Dakota_._.__-- 1, 880 4, 642) 86, 532) 46. 03} —3.7| —3.3 —3. 6} +11. 1| +10.8) +26.8 
Tennessee... _- --| 13,425) 36,024) 471,035) 35.09) +.4) +.6 +.4| +14.4) +16. 3| +37. 8 
14, 073 35, 452| 587, 308} 41. 73| +2.3) +2. 0} 1.7| +50.6; +53.5) +148. 4 
2, 439) 6, 550 224, 463} 92. 03) +.2 +. 7| (®) | +17. 2) +17. 4| +41. 5 
WerMOMS. ..ccncceness- 685) 1, 888 31, 743) 46.34) +1.6) +1.2 +1. 0} +12. 5) +16.5 +46. 0 
_. Saas 4, 504) 13, 118) 177,719| 39.46 +.4 +.9 +1. 6} +18.3) +20.3 +36. 0 
Washington_-__...._- 7,317| 17,647 765, 611) 104. 63 +.3 +.3 —3. 3) +40. 6) +37.9) +48.2 
West Virginia 9, 584) 26,272 276,991; 28.90 +.8 +.7 +1. i +19. 8) +18. 1) +9. 6 
Wisconsin 7, 156 17,911} 571,250) 79.83) —.6 -.1 —.4) +12.9) +13. 9 +40. 0 
Wyoming 367) i, ee 31,698} 86.37) —4.2) —3.1 —3. 7 +14. | +17. 3) +63. 2 

















1 For definitions of terms see the Bulletin, July 
1945, pp. 27-28. Figures in italics represent program 
administered without Federal participation. Data 
exclude programs administered without Federal 
participation in Florida, Kentucky, and Nebraska, 
which administer such programs concurrently with 
programs under the Social Security Act. All data 
subject to revision. 

2 Under plans approved by the Social Security 
Administration. 


3 Includes an estimated amount to compensate for 
reduction in payments because of change in payment 
dates. Average payment and percentage change not 
computed. 

4 Decrease of less than 0.05 percent. 

5 Percentage change not calculated on base of less 
than 100 families. 

6 Increase of less than 0.05 percent. 


funds; State and local funds re- 
mained about the same in 2 of the 
13 States and declined in the remain- 


Table 7.—Recipient rates for specified 
types of public assistance in the con- 
tinental United States, by State, June 1947 






































Chil- . 
Recip- | dren re- come 
ients of | ceiving enewal 
old-age | aidto | Se 
assist- | depend- — 
ance | ent chil- #100000. 
State per 1,000 | dren per esti- 
popula- 1,000 mated 
tionaged | popula- | Givi; 
é5and |‘ tion | civilian 
over! | under 18| Populs 
years 3 tion 
inne 214 23 547 
DING. 02 ccaks 325 19 | 206 
Aes... 2. snes 361 28 779 
Ayvianens............ 316 25 195 
California_-_.....--- 245 12 545 
Colorado. _---- eer 409 30 646 
Connecticut-------- 99 14 
Delaware........--- 52 8 
District of Colum- 

_ ee 47 20 192 
ee 325  , er ee 
ee 415 14 | 173 
. | eee 277 25 153 

187 25 581 
159 17 598 
188 15 443 
oe 190 22 488 
Kentucky_...._..-- 224 , | ee 
Louisiana 352 33 440 
Maine..__..._- ‘ 183 19 686 
Maryland ‘ 83 21 923 
Massachusetts_-_.. 203 18 653 
Michigan...._.-...-. 23 26 836 
Minnesota__ 219 18 534 
Mississippi-- = 300 17 35 
Missouri-_.--- 314 47 701 
Montana. --- 237 28 373 
Nebraska---- : 207 19 258 
js SS 219 3 454 
New Hampshire.... 130 19 525 
New Jersey-....-..-- 67 9 296 
New Mexico----.-- 290 42 520 
eS 97 26 921 
North Caroline 206 15 165 
North Dakota 192 20 
me oo 195 12 615 
Oklahoma. ai 574 —aEE 
a, ars 200 17 531 
Pennsylvania-.._.- 113 32 566 
Rhode Island_--.-- 131 28 839 
South Carolina. ___- 305 19 309 
South Dakota_-_-_-- 243 23 348 
Tennessee 239 , ih Se oe 
Texas 474 ew 
Utah 341 26 432 
Vermont...-- hate 151 17 456 
| ee 88 12 252 
Washington______-- 373 31 508 
West Virginia _---- | 174 36 475 
Wisconsin___...__- | 170 18 349 
Wyoming.-....--- | 232 12 295 





1 Population aged 65 and over as of April 1947 
estimated by the Social Security Administration. 
Rate is an understatement for some States because 
only 1 recipient is reported when a single payment is 
made to husband and wife, both 65 or over. The 
number of such payments, however, has decreased 
since September 1946. 

2 Population under 18 as of April 1947 estimated by 
the Social Security Administration. For Nevada, 
rate is for program administered without Federal 
participation. 

§ Civilian population as of July 1946 estimated by 
the Bureau of the Census. For Indiana and New 
Jersey, rates include unknown number of persons 
receiving medical care, hospitalization, and burial 
only. Number of persons aided not currently 
available for Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, 
Kentucky, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas. , 











saa oma as ak Oe Go 


tnt bet OS CD cr 


Bulletin, August 1947 


sf 





ing 6. On the other hand, 12 of the 
21 States reporting increases of less 
than 15 percent were among the 20 
States with highest per capita in- 
come, and all but 6 were among the 
upper half of the States in wealth; 
only 1 of the 21 States was among the 
10 lowest-income States. 





Number of States with percentage 
increase in total expenditures, Sep- 








Rank in tember 1946-January 1947, of — 
per 
capita 
income | Tess | 10.0- | 15.0- | 20.0- | 25.0- | 39. 
a C € € 
jw 14.9 | 19.9 | 24.9 | 29.9 | Or 
Total.- | 8 13 8 8 8 4 
41-49___ | seer ee : 5 3 
i | a ia 1 3 2 2 1 
21-30_-_. | 3 3 1 3 ee bore 
11-20..--...| 4 3 1 1 
1-10... | 3 4 1 2 =e) Se 

















This general relationship between 
the wealth of the States and the per- 
centage increase in total expenditures 
resulted almost entirely from the fact 
that, with some exceptions, the lower- 
income States have relatively low 
average payments and the richer 
States, higher payments. The method 
of determining Federal funds under 
the amendments gives a higher pro- 
portion of Federal funds to States with 
low average payments than to those 
with high. The more a State increases 
its expenditures beyond $15 per re- 
cipient for old-age assistance and aid 
to the blind and $9 per child for aid to 
dependent children, the lower, pro- 
portionately, will be its share of Fed- 
eral funds under the formula. If the 
States with low resources were to make 
average payments equal to those in 
the more wealthy States, therefore, 
there would be no relation under the 
amendments between the proportion 
of Federal funds received by the States 
and their relative wealth. 

Federal funds.—In both high and 
low-income States, Federal funds in- 
creased substantially under’ the 
amendments. In 19 States, including 
each of the 10 States with lowest fi- 
nancial resources, the increase in Fed- 
eral funds was 40 percent or more. 
The range for these 10 States was from 
45.3 percent in Alabama, where ex- 
penditures from State and local funds 
decreased substantially, to 97.4 per- 
cent in Kentucky, where State and 
local funds increased more than 16 
percent. On the other hand, only 1 of 


the 10 richest States received an in- 
crease of 40 percent or more; in 9 of 
them, however, Federal funds went 
up at least 26 percent. 





Number of States with percentage 
increase in expenditures from Fed- 
eral funds of— 











Rank in per | 
capita income | | | 
| than | 250 | 30.0- | 35.0 | 4° 
orp | 29.9 | 34.9 | 39.9 
25.0 | more 
Total. 3 | o| ou | 7 19 

41-49__- 9 
31-40__.--- | = 6 
21-30__- 2 4 


~ 
nore w 
= bho 














The percent of total costs borne by 
the Federal Government was larger in 
January than in September for all 
programs in all States. In 9 of the 12 
States with least economic resources, 
the Federal share increased from half 
the total expenditures in September 
1946 to more than 60 percent in Janu- 
ary 1947. These 9 States received the 
largest proportionate rise in the Fed- 
eral share. In January, Federal funds 
met 60-65 percent of total public as- 
sistance expenditures in 10 States, 
50-60 percent in 22 States, and less 
than half in the remaining 17 States. 
The range was from 39.8 percent in 
New York to 64.8 percent in Georgia. 

For the States as a group, Federal 
funds represented more than 50 per- 
cent of the costs of old-age assistance 
and aid to the blind, but only 40 per- 
cent of the costs of aid to dependent 
children, for which maximums limit- 
ing Federal participation are still well 
below the amounts the States find 
necessary to meet need. For old-age 
assistance, no State received less than 
40 percent of total expenditures from 
Federal funds; for aid to the blind, 
only 1 State received less than that 
proportion. On the other hand, 21 





Federal funds as per- 
































| cent of— 
| Total expend-| Expendi- 
: itures tures 
Program within 
| limits for 
Sg | Federal 
| Sep- | Janu- rer) 
tember| ary participa- 
| 1946 | 1947 | “lon, Jan- 
| uary 1947 
| 
NR aissiicisadiaiainest | 43.2] 51.0 57.9 
Old-age assistance ______-- | 46.5 | 54.0 57.6 
Aid todependent children} 30.5 | 40.0 59.3 
Aid to the blind_........| 44.8 §2.7 57.5 








States received less than 40 percent of 
their expenditures for aid to depend- 
ent children, and 13 States received 
from the Federal Government less 
than one-third of their expenditures 
under that program. Of the 21 States 
in which the Federal Government met 
less than 40 percent of the expendi- 
tures for dependent children, 3 were 
among the lower half of the States in 
per capita income. 

State and local funds. — The 
amounts spent from State and local 
funds increased in 21 States, 8 of 
which reported rises of more than 10 
percent; 4 of the 8 were among the 
lowest 20 States in per capita income. 
Although 28 States decreased State 
and local expenditures, the declines 
were less than 10 percent in 20 States 
and in 14 of these States, less than 5 
percent. While 2 of the 10 poorest 
States increased State and local ex- 
penditures by more than 10 percent, 
only 1 decreased its share of the total 
by so large a proportion. 





Number of States with percent- 

age change in expenditures 

Rank in per from State and local funds of— 
capita income 









































| 
15.00r} 10.0- | -,, * 
more 14.9 | 5.0-9.9 | 0.1-4.9 
| 
Decrease 
Total 3 | 5 6 14 
41-49_. See 3 2 
31-40_-.--- 1 | 1 | 1 3 
; ee Aero ae | eee 3 
To eS) ee : i See | 4 
1-10 7 eae 2 | 2 
| 
Increase 
a Tene 
Total-. 4 | 4 | 2 | il 
41-49 1 | 1 1 
31-40 1 | Pe 2 
21-30_..-- 1 | eae 2 
i See Hee ce . 2 3 
1-10-_..- 1 | 1 | Lae 3 





The small change in expenditures 
from State and local funds for the 
Nation as a whole for all programs 
combined did not apply uniformly to 
each of the three programs. States 
increased their contribution for aid 
to dependent children by almost 7 
percent from September to January 
and decreased expenditures for old- 
age assistance and aid to the blind. 
Twenty-nine States spent more from 
State and local funds for aid to de- 
pendent children, while considerably 
fewer, 19and 15, respectively, in- 





38 





Social Security 





creased expenditures for old-age as- 
sistance and aid to the blind. For 
the States as a group, however, the 
increase for aid to dependent children 
almost canceled out the combined de- 
creases for the other two programs, 
so that the net change was only 
$73,000, or one-tenth of 1 percent of 
total State-local expenditures. 























] j 
Change i f | ova. | oe] 
ange in amount o Id- | to de- : 
State-local expend- All age | pend- — . 
itures, September Pro- | assist- ent to the 
1946-January 1947 | 88™S) ance | chil- blind 
dren 
Increase: | | | 
Number of States__} a) 19 29 | 15 
Amount (in thou- | | 
EEE. $1, 308 | $666 |$1, 026 $17.8 
Decrease: | | 
Number of States_- 30 | 32 | 21 32 
Amount (in thou- | 
sands). ..-.....-.]$1,381 |$1,511 | $199 | $73.3 
Net change (in thou- | 
eS EE aS —$73 |—$845 +8827 hee 5 





Average padyments.—All the in- 
crease from September to January in 
average payments for each of the 
three types of assistance came from 
Federal funds. The average amount 
per recipient paid from State and 
local funds declined, even for aid to 
dependent children, for which total 
expenditures from non - Federal 
sources Were greater in January than 
in September. Thus the increase in 
the amount per recipient from all 
sources of funds was smaller than the 
average rise per recipient in Federal 
funds. Part of the additional Federal 
money not used to raise payments, 
and all the increase in State-local 
funds for aid to dependent children, 
went to increase the number of per- 
sons receiving aid. 

If there had been no increase in the 
number of recipients and the States 
and localities had spent as much from 
their own funds in January as in 
September, the maximum increase in 
average payments for old-age assist- 
ance and aid to the blind would have 
been $5 and in the average per child, 
between $3 and $4. Twenty-one 
States increased the average per child 
by $3 or more, while 10 and 6 States, 
respectively, raised their averages for 
old-age assistance and aid to the 
blind $5 or more. In addition, in- 
creases within 10 cents of the maxi- 
mum rise were granted in 3 States for 


Table 8.—Amount of expenditures for 
assistance payments, September 1946 and 
January 1947, and percentage change, 
by source of funds 


[Amounts in thousands] 





| 
| Percent- 
| | age 











> ‘i Janu- | Sep- | change, 
E oe" Spam ary | tember | Septem- 
1947 1946 | ber 1946- 
| January 
| 1947 
| | 
All programs, total-_-.__| $101,146 |$87, 427 +15.7 
Federal funds__..--.| 51,591 | 37, 799 +36. 5 
State-local funds____- 49, 555 | 49, 628 -.1 
Old-age assistance, 

o_o: 77, 347 | 67,986 +13.8 
Federal funds__.....| 41,801 | 31, 595 +32.3 
State-local funds.....| 35, 546 | 36,391 —2.3 

Aid to dependent chil- 

dren, total. _..__.-. 21,625 | 17,479 +23. 7 
Federal funds___..-. 8, 644 5, 325 +62. 3 
State-local funds__._- 12,981 | 12, 154 +6.8 

Aid to the blind, total. 2,174 1, 962 +10.8 
Federal funds_-_-_-.-- 1, 146 879 +30. 4 
State-local funds... 1,028 | 1,083 —5.1 








old-age assistance, in 1 State for aid 
to dependent children, and in 1 State 
for aid to the blind. 





Program Operations 


In each of the special types of pub- 
lic assistance, small increases occurred 
during June in the total number of 
recipients and the amount of pay- 
ments. With these increases the num- 
ber of aged recipients and the number 
of children receiving aid to dependent 
children reached all-time highs; the 
latter, for the first time, passed a mil- 
lion. The case load for aid to the blind 
nearly equaled its peak, which had oc- 
curred in September 1942. In con- 
trast, the total general assistance case 
load dropped slightly for the fourth 
consecutive month and was lower than 
in June 1942. In 19 large cities that 
aid more than one-third of all the 
general assistance cases, the loads con- 
tinued to rise, although the June in- 
creases were small. 

Because the number of aged per- 
sons and the number of children in 
the population have also increased, 
the proportions aided in each of these 
age groups were no larger than in June 
1942. In June 1947, aged recipients 
represented 21.4 percent of the total 
aged population; 2.3 percent of all 
children under 18 received aid to de- 


pendent children. Fourteen Southern 
and Western States aided 300 or more 
aged persons per 1,000 in the popula- 
tion. Seven States in the industrial 
East, on the other hand, aided less 
than 100 per 1,000 aged persons. 
State recipient rates for aid to de- 
pendent children were over 30 in 9 
States and less than 10 in 3 States. 
They do not; however, follow as 
marked a regional pattern as do the 
old-age assistance rates. 

About one-half of 1 percent of the 
total civilian population in the United 
States received general assistance. 
State rates ranged from as low as 35 
persons per 100,000 population in Mis- 
sissippi to 921 and 923 in New York 
and Maryland, respectively. Rates in 
Washington and Oregon were the 
highest reported in December 1946 but 
were below average in June 1947 
chiefly because of transfers of cases 
from general assistance to the special - 
types of public assistance. Compara- 
bility with rates for preceding years is 
impaired by wartime fluctuations in 
the civilian population base. About 
one-third of the estimated blind pop- 
ulation received aid to the blind. 
Since estimates of blind population 
are not available for a year later than 
1940, State rates for this program have 
not been computed for June. 

Average payments of old-age as- 
sistance and aid to the blind were a 
few cents higher than in May, while 
the averages for aid to dependent 
children and_ general assistance 
dropped somewhat. Earnings in sea- 
sonal employment doubtless resulted 
in some reductions in these payments. 

Repeated slight declines in the na- 
tional average for aid to dependent 
children each month since March 
reflect, also, retrenchment measures 
adopted by several States, chiefly be- 
cause appropriations were below the 
amounts estimated to be needed or 
because of other legislative action. 
Only in Alaska, Delaware, and West 
Virginia, however, had such retrench- 
ment wiped out the increases in aver- 
age payments that followed the 1946 
amendments to the Social Security 
Act. The average payment for all 


States for June was $2.59 per child or 
$6.27 per family above the average for 
September 1946. 

















Bulletin, August 1947 


39 





Social and Economic Data 


Social Security and Other 
Income Payments 
Personal Income 


The Office of Business Economics 
of the Department of Commerce has 
recently completed an extensive re- 
vision of its national income and re- 
lated series. Beginning with this is- 
sue of the BULLETIN, data from the 
series—previously presented as in- 
come payments to individuals—are 
given on the new basis of “personal 
income.” The revisions embody al- 
terations in underlying concepts as 
well as in statistical procedures and 
the use of the latest available source 
data. The changes, so far as they 
affect the income payments series, 
are outlined briefly in the following 
paragraphs. 

The term “income payments to in- 
dividuals” has been changed to “per- 
sonal income,” as mentioned above. 
Personal income is defined as “the 
current income received by persons 
from all sources, inclusive of trans- 
fers from government and business 
but exclusive of transfers among per- 
sons. Not only individuals (including 
owners of unincorporated enter- 
prises), but nonprofit institutions, 
private trust funds, and private pen- 
sion and welfare funds are classified 
as ‘persons.’ Personal income is 
measured as the sum of wage and sal- 
ary receipts, other labor income, pro- 
prietors’ and rental income, interest 
and dividends, and transfer pay- 
ments.” 

New terminology has been intro- 
duced, and the total has been distribu- 
ted differently. Consequently the fig- 
ures are not comparable with data for 
earlier periods as presented in pre- 
vious tables in the BULLETIN. The 
major items of personal income, and 
differences between the new and old 
series in terms of reallocation of cer- 
tain items or changes in terminology, 
are outlined below according to the 
segments shown in table 1. 


1 Revised national income data, with a 
detailed description of the new series, 
appear in the National Income Supple- 
ment to the July 1947 Survey of Current 
Business, published by the Department 
of Commerce. 


Employees’ income (formerly “com- 
pensation of employees”) .—This cat- 
egory of personal income now includes 
the value of food and personal cloth- 
ing furnished to members of the 
armed forces, formerly omitted en- 
tirely, and the Government contribu- 
tion to payments to dependents of 
members of the armed forces, for- 
merly included in “military and sub- 
sistence allowances.” The amount 
paid to doctors under the emergency 
maternity and infant care program is 
also included in employees’ income; 
the entire amount paid under this 
program was formerly included under 
“military allowances.” 

This series differs from the sum of 
the Commerce Department’s “wage 
and salary receipts” and “other labor 
income” in that it excludes compen- 
sation for injuries (workmen’s com- 
pensation), included here in “social 
insurance and related payments,” 


and work relief earnings of persons 
who were employed by WPA, NYA, 
and CCC, included here in the “public 
aid” segment, and in that it includes 
the emergency maternity and infant 
care payments referred to above. 
Proprietors’ and rental income.— 
This segment, formerly termed “en- 
trepreneurial income, net rents, and 
royalties,” now includes imputed net 
rents for owner-occupied homes. 
Personal interest income and divi- 
dends.—This segment was formerly 
termed “dividends and interest.” 
Public aid—The public aid seg- 
ment includes payments under the 
three special public assistance pro- 
grams, general assistance payments, 
work relief earnings of persons who 
were employed by WPA, NYA, and 
CCC, the value of food stamps under 
the food stamp plan, and subsistence 
erants to farmers under the Farm 
Security Administration program. 
Included in the new series, but not in 
the old, are payments for care of 
children in private foster homes. 


Table 1.—Personal income, by specified period, 1940-47 


[In billions; seasonally adiusted, at annual rates] 




















| 
| > Soci ; 
Employ- Proprie- | re — , nes Miscele 
Year and month | Total | ees’ a | income — and ee 
|income!| renta and . related anmmen’ 
} come dividends | payments 3 pay : 
34... a ee fame | | 
1940 8.3 | $47.6 $9.4 $2.7 | $1.7 | $0. 6 
1941 5.3 | 60.0 | 9.9 2.4 | 1.6 | 6 
we... 2.2 | 80. 2 | 9.7 Ey 1.8 an 
1943 | 9.4} 104.0] 10.0 1.0 1.6 | 7 
1944 .9| 116.0 | 10.7 | 1.0 | 1.8 | 1.0 
186... .6| 117.6 11.6 1.0 | 2.9 1.4 
1946. | ~2 112.5 | 3.3 | 1.2 | 7.2 1.2 
| 
1946 | } | 
June. ---- scoaccessel, SEES) 27 13. 2 1.2] 7.6 | La 
je | 179.0 | 112.3 13.3 1.3 001 £3 
August-_.....-- > 180.9 | 114.6 13.3 L2@ 7.5 1.4 
September. -- 178.5} 115.2 | 13.3 1.2} 7.3 2.0 
October. _---- | 1840] 115.6] 13.3 1.3 | 7.1 1.4 
November- - - .... 1984) HZ3] 13.5 1.3 | 7.3 | 1.4 
December-. : = 189.9 | 118.8 | 13.7 1.4 | 7.5 1.3 
| 
1947 } | 
0, eee 190.3 | 118.9 46.6 | 13.9 1.4! 8.1 1.4 
February...------------ | 190.7] 119.3 46.8 | 14.0 1.4 | 7.9 1.3 
Mardgi...........-.- | 191.8 119.3 47.7 14.0 1.5 | 7.9 1.4 
7" eee = 190.2 | 118. 5 46.9 14.0 1.5 | 7.9 | 1.4 
May...--- i ; 191.5 120.0 46.9 14.0 1.5 | 7.6 1.5 
June___----- 193.0 | 120.8 47.3 14.0 1.5 | 7.5 1.9 
| | 





1 Civilian and military pay in cash and in kind 
in the continental United States and pay of Federal 
civilian and military personnel stationed abroad, 
other labor income (except compensation for inju- 
ries), mustering-out pay, and terminal-leave pay. 
Military pay includes the Government’s contribu- 
tion to allowances for dependents of enlisted person- 
nel. Civilian wages and salaries exclude work relief 
earnings and are after deduction of employee contri- 
butions to social insurance and related programs. 


2 Payments to recipients under 3 special public 
assistance programs and general assistance. In- 
cludes earnings of personsemployed by WPA, NYA, 
and CCC, value of food and cotton stamps, subsist- 
ence grants to farmers, and payments for care of 
children in private foster homes. 


3Includes payments of old-age and survivors 
insurance, railroad retirement, Federal, State, and 
local retirement, veterans’ pensions and compensa- 
tion, workmen’s compensation, State sickness com- 
pensation, State and railroad unemployment insur- 
ance, and readjustment and subsistence allowances 
to veterans under the Servicemen’s Readjustment 
Act. 

4 Includes veterans’ bonus (Federal and State), 
payments under the Government life insurance, 
national service life insurance, and military and naval 
insurance programs, the Government’s contribution 
to nonprofit organizations, and business transfer 
payments. 

Office of 


Source: Department of Commerce, 


Business Economics. 





40 





Social Security 





Table 2.—Selected social insurance and related programs, by specified period, 1940-47 


[In thousands; data corrected to Aug. 26, 1947] 


















































































Retirement, disability, and survivor programs ee 
: Read- 
Monthly retirement and dis- : 
ability benefits 1 Survivor benefits wi =. 
State | State ar, | allow- 
Year and : Service-| road 
month Total Monthly Lump-sum ® sick- — men’s | Unem- ps to 
‘ Civil ness | Ploy: | Read- | ploy- en pre 
Social — Serv- | Veter- : ‘ ae a a ned just- | ment ys 
Secu- | potire-| ice | a0S Ad-| gooigy| Rail- | voter- | social Rail- Civil | Veter- | otion| ance ment | Insur-| ons 
rity | “ment | Com- | minis- | Gooy- | 08d | ans ad-| Secu- | 709d | Service| ansAd-|j0 oi! laws | Act? | ance 
Act 3 3 | mis- | trations} ©; Retire- ; ; Retire-| Com- | minis- Act 33 
Act? | sion 4 bef 5 | ment = : re ment | mis- | tra- 
Act? Act sion 4 | tion 10 
Number of beneficiaries 
1946 
Ee ees 841.3 180. 6 99.1] 2,130.4] 660.8 4.5 789. 8 16. 2 1.7 2.7 5.1 7.4, 1,174.1) 1,781.5 74.9) 261.8 
July... f 861.2 181.6 100.5} 2,179.7) 666.7 4.5 790.0 15.1 Lt 2.6 4.2 6.6} 1,068.7] 1,724.3 42.6 326.8 
August--....-].. oi 881.2 182. 5 101.6} 2,203.1] 672.7 4.5 804.7 15. 6} je 2.2 5. 4| 5.8 980.2} 1,669.2 49.1 332. 5 
September._- ‘ 897.2 183. 4 102.7} 2,237.2} 682.0 4.5 817.4 12.9 1.4 Ry 5.3) 4.8 838.9] 1,492.2 51.8 249.9 
October .....- ae “ 913.6 184. 2 103.9] 2,262.6) 692.8 4.5 830. 1 16.6 1.4 2.1 6. 3 4.7 765.3) 1,097.5 57.4 191.2 
November-..|_-- é 926.5) 184.6) 104.9] 2,287.8) 700. 4.5 842.2) 13.3 12 1.6 5.3 4.4 709. 6 932. 7 54.9 156.9 
December--.-}.....-..-- 935.6} 185.0 106.5} 2,314.4] 706.7 4.5 849. 4 15.1 8 1.6} 6.0 6.4 747.9 987.9 70.3 155.4 
1947 
a 956. 6 185.2 108.2} 2,332.2) 715.7 4. 871.3 15.8 9 2.0 7.0 17.3 892.6) 1,148.6 88. 2 167.0 
i a ee 983.0 185.8 107.6} 2,346.2) 725.8 11.6 873.1 14.0 1.4 1.2 6.3 21.8 911.3} 1,148.9 83.1 172.0 
3. 186. 3 109.0} 2,352.9] 735.0 22.1 876.9 16.7 -6 1.8 7.3 23. 5) 975.4] 1,073.0 75.6 231.0 
188.6 110.5} 2,356.1] 747.9 28. 2 878.8 19.9 | 1.6 8.0 26.0 929.8 903. 3 69. 1 223.6 
191.9 111.6} 2,355.6) 759.9 32.1 886. 8 19. 2) 8 1 | 7.9) 26.9 940. 3 752, 2 48.3 248.6 
194.1 112.0) 2,354.3) 768.7 37.1 896.8 16.0 1.4 1.8 8.1 25.8) 1,006.0 712.9 39.5 257.1 
Amount of benefits 15 
| 
$1, 188, 702| $21, 074/$114, 166} $62,019] $317,851) $7, 784) $1,448) $105, 696/$11, 736) $2,497) $5,810} $3, 960)_...... >, | Sf a 
1, 085, 488] 55,141) 119,912} 64,933) 320, 561) 25, 454 1,559} 111,799) 13, 328 3, 421 6, 170 | See , ) ae 2 ee 
1, 130,721} 80,305) 122,806) 68,115) 325, 265) 41, 702 1,603} 111,193) 15, 038 4,114 6, 108 ey 344, 084)......... | en 
921, 463) 97,257) 125,795) 72,961) 331,350] 57, 763 1, 704} 116, 133) 17, 830 5, 560 7, 344 4, 350) $2, 857 i. =e ._ | Ee 
1, 119, 684} 119,009) 129,707] 78,081] 456,279) 76, 942 1,765} 144, 302) 22, 146 6, 591 7, 863 4,784) 5,035 62, 385 $4, 113 582 $102 
2, 067, 434) 157,391) 137,140) 85,742] 697, 830/104, 231 1,772} 254, 238] 26,135} 8,138] 10, 244 5,049) 4,669) 445,866) 114,955) 2,359 11, 675 
5, 152, 223} 230, 285] 149,188] 96, 418)1, 268, 984/130, 139 1,817| 333,640) 27, 267 9,127) 13,992) 7,491) 4, 766)1, 095, 475)1, 491,294) 39,917] 252,424 
453, 730} 18,129) 12,101 7,987; 98, 554) 10, 082 144 25, 986) 2, 335 792 1, 473 492 533 92,982} 150,063) 4,414 27, 663 
461, 203} 18,586) 12,175 8,020} 101, 726) 10, 186 144 26,455) 2, 187 818 1,477 450 477 88, 408] 152, 648 2, 479 34, 965 
August-...... 449,195) 19,036) 12, 241 8,112} 103, 976) 10, 290 145 26,324) 2, 266 854 1, 213 797 417 78,047) 148,016 3,179 34, 281 
September... 419, 623) 19,389) 12,314 8,342} 117, 547) 10, 436 145} 30,687) 1,892 692 987 787 339} 63,216} 124,082} 3,409) 25,359 
October...... 400, 748} 19,765) 12,375 8, 364) 124,720) 10, 609 146 31,066) 2,476 745 1, 211 928 337 64, 433] 100, 380 3, 902 19, 292 
November... 368, 858} 20,048) 12, 407 8,421} 133,700) 10, 729 145 30, 737| 1,986 661 1,180} | 800 316 54, 097 74, 421 3, 618 15, 591 
December- -- 385, 208) 20,248} 12,442) 8,568) 136, 762| 10,833 145 29, 760) 2, 266 439 1,071 890 468 59,370} 81, 964 4, 665 15, 317 
1947 
January ---.- 434,613] 20,712; 12,988) 8,592) 139,853) 10,983 147} 32,226) 2,387 519 1, 416] 161, 040 1, 297 74, 760} 106, 586 5, 685 15, 421 
February -.-- 408,057} 21,311] 13,035 8,794} 140, 143] 11, 156 355 31,840} 2,119 798 896 16940} 1,571 65, 910 88, 364 4, 851 15, 975 
ee 424,185] 21,785} 13,079 8,874] 142, 166) 11,314 663 32,031} 2, 533 334 1, 269} 161,090) 1,872 71, 545 89, 052 4, 954 21, 624 
| rn 415, 386) 22,238) 13, 241 8, 984} 140,691) 11, 532 840} 31,805) 3,026 487 1, 279} 161,200} 2,176 71, 569} 78,806) 4,299) 23,213 
ETERS 403,917) 22,743) 13,482 8, 956)!6 141, 962) 11, 736 951} 16 34,047) 2,940 307 834] 161,180) 2,167 72, 295 63, 722 3, 107 23, 489 
a 397, es 23,173) 13,632} 8, 896)18 138, 993] 11, 898 1,075] 16 33,205) 2, 437 501 1, 374| 181,210) 2,072 73,559) 58,509} 2,490 24, 241 





























1 Old-age retirement benefits under all acts, disability retirement benefits un- 
der the Railroad Retirement and the Civil Service Retirement Acts, and dis- 
ability payments to veterans. 

4 Primary and wife’s benefits and benefits to children of primary beneficiaries. 
Partly estimated. 

3 Age and disability annuitants and pensioners in current-payment status at 
end of month, and amounts certified, minus cancellations, during year. 

4 Retirement and disability benefits include survivor benefits under joint and 
survivor elections. Payments principally from civil-service retirement and 
disability fund but also from Canal Zone and Alaska Railroad retirement and 
disability funds administered by the Civil Service Commission. Monthly 
retirement payments include accrued annuities to date of death paid to survivors. 
—— to employees leaving the service are not included; see table 5, p. 42 of 

s issue. 

5 Veterans’ pensions and compensation. 

6 Widow’s, widow’s current, parent’s, and child’s benefits. Partly estimated. 

7 Annuities to widows under joint and survivor elections, 12-month death-bene- 
fit annuities to widows and next of kin, and, beginning February 1947, widow’s, 
widow’s current, parent’s, and child’s benefits in current-payment status. 

§ Payments to widows, parents, and children of deceased veterans. 

* Number of decedents on whose account lump-sum payments were made, and 
amount certified for payment. 

10 Payments for burial of deceased veterans. 


11 Compensation for temporary disabilit 
April 1943 and in California beginning December 1946. Number represents 
average weekly number of beneficiaries. Annual amounts adjusted for voided 
benefit checks; monthly amounts not adjusted. 

18 Readjustment allowances to unemployed veterans only. Number repre- 
sents ae weekly number of continued claims during weeks ended in the 
month. 

13 Number represents average number of persons receiving benefits for unem- 
ployment in a ‘14-day registration period. Annual amounts adjusted for under- 
payments and recoveries of overpayments; monthly figures not adjusted. 

144 Number before January 1947 represents number of veterans paid during 
month; number beginning January 1947 represents number of claims paid during 
month under the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act. 

18 Payments to individuals: annual and lump-sum payments (amounts certi- 
fied, including retroactive payments) and monthly payments in current-pay- 
ment status, under the Social Security and the Railroad Retirement Acts; 
amounts certified under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act; disburse- 
ments minus cancellations, under the Civil Service Commission and the Vet- 
erans Administration programs; checks issued by State agencies, under State 
unemployment insurance and State sickness compensation programs and under 
the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act. 

16 Preliminary estimate. @ 


Source: Based on reports of administrative agencies. 


payable in Rhode Island beginning 











Bulletin, August 1947 




















41 
Social insurance and related pay- Table 3.—Payments under social insurance and related programs, 1946! 
=e i 
ments.—The major items of personal [In thousands; corrected to July 15, 1947] 
income included in this segment are __ : 
payments of old-age and survivors in- | gueview ner 
surance, railroad retirement, Federal, Retire- | pisapil- ments Unem- 
- Socata Total ment cage - |ployment| Re- 
State, and local government retire- vere = pay- a l insurance | funds 
ment (including armed forces retire- eee Monthly| LUMP-| payments 
ment), veterans’ pensions and com- = —————————— ——— 
pensation, workmen’s compensation, Alb pwoevenie:..- - 222s 53 2$5, 994, 879 |$718, 197 |$1, 504,763 |$546, 789 |$74, 377 |$2, 626, 685 |$271, 644 
State sickness compensation, State oe ca pa survivors insurance... 387, 601 | 290,285 |........... » 4 SF 5 2 ee eee 
‘ ™ Railroad retirement_...........---- 160, 144 | 117,800 31, 400 ee S| eee 
and railroad unemployment insur Federal PUROEIIOIG, « ..ccccnnccncacs 438, 054 | 160,742 21, 983 | gf. * | See 
ance, and readjustment and sub- Civil-cervice systems Lalas een 349,004 | 74,242 21, 983 198 ; "| SRE 
: ° ther contributory..........-..-- 4,050 | 31,500 3 Se 
sistence allowances under the GI Bill. F Noneontributory.. eee gepttiest © Lb eo 
; ;: oan tate and local government 4.___--- 235,000 | 152,000 15, 000 21,000 | 16,000 j......----- 
Miscellaneous income payments. Veterans’ pensions.....-.....------ 1,610,115 | § 57,370 | 1,211,614 | 333,640 | 7,491 |......-...- 
This is a new segment and includes saouens compensation... - eee —— ‘ @ bose 
ate sickness compensation 7. ..-_-.- S| ee eee, ee eee Ree . 
payments under the Government life State unemployment insurance... 1,095, 475 |- 1,095, 475 |- 
; : : ‘ bes ailroad unemployment insurance. 39, 917 39, 917 
insurance, national service life insur Servicemen’s readjustment allow- 
ance, and military and naval insur- I a nica nts sncnngcneaseee #9, 749, 07 fs -. 5. = Sen ee| Sennen in| aaaere 1,491, 294 


ance programs, the veterans’ bonus, 
Government contributions to non- 
profit organizations, and business 
transfer payments. 

The table on income payments, 
which appears each month in the 
BULLETIN, has been completely revised 
in this issue to incorporate these 
changes. In addition the monthly 
data are now expressed in the form 
of seasonally adjusted annual rates *— 
seasonally adjusted monthly figures 
were presented in previous tables—to 
facilitate comparisons of the level of 
income during a particular month 
with annual totals. 


Social Insurance and Related Pay- 
ments 


Payments in June 1947.—Disburse- 
ments under the selected social insur- 
ance and related programs declined 
for the third successive month and 
totaled $397 million in June (table 2). 
The total was 124% percent less than 
that a year earlier, primarily as a re- 
sult of a 46-percent decline in unem- 
ployment insurance benefits and a 
12-percent drop in allowances to self- 
employed veterans. 

Monthly retirement benefits under 
the Social Security Act numbered 
1,063,600 in June and were paid at a 
monthly rate of $23.2 million. These 
totals represent a 26-percent increase 
in the number of beneficiaries and a 
28-percent gain in amount of pay- 
ments as compared with the levels a 
year earlier. The number of veterans 


? Monthly figures may be computed by 
dividing the annual rate for a month by 
12. 


























1 Data partly estimated; total differs from total in 
table 2 because some programs included in this table 
are excluded from that table. 

2Includes allowances of $252,424,000 to self- 
employed veterans. 

3 Retirement payments include a small but un- 
known amount of disability payments under non- 
contributory systems and disability and survivor 
payments under contributory systems. 

4 For fiscal year, which usually ends in June. 
receiving pensions and compensation 
declined slightly for the second suc- 
cessive month. The decrease is at- 
tributable primarily to a slight drop 
in the number of veterans of World 
War II receiving pensions on account 
of service-connected disability; the 
total number in June was one-tenth 
above that a year earlier, however. 
Payments to disabled veterans appear 
to have leveled off; in each of the first 
6 months of 1947, these payments 
have amounted to about $140 mil- 
lion. 

The 768,700 survivors of workers 
covered by old-age and survivors in- 
surance received monthly benefits to- 
taling $11.9 million in June, 16 and 
18 percent, respectively, above the 
levels a year earlier. Payments to 
widows aged 65 and over and to par- 
ents of deceased wage earners were 
nearly one-third more numerous than 
in June 1946; and payments to chil- 
dren of deceased workers increased 15 
percent. 

The number of beneficiaries under 
the State unemployment insurance 
programs exceeded 1 million a week 
for the first time since July 1946. Dis- 
bursements increased for the fourth 
successive month but were one-fifth 
less than in June 1946. Allowances 
paid to unemployed veterans, on the 
other hand, stood at the lowest point 


§ Payments to Spanish-American War veterans 
retired for age. 

6 A small but unknown amount of lump-sum pay- 
ments included with monthly payments. 

7 Benefits first payable in April 1943 in Rhode 
Island and in December 1946 in California. 

8 Allowances to unemployed and self-employed 
veterans under provisions of title V of the Service- 
men’s Readjustment Act. 


since December 1945 and were 61 per- 
cent below the amount a year earlier. 
Allowances paid to self-employed vet- 
erans also were below the amount a 
year earlier, though they have been 
rising slowly since January. 

Payments in 1946.—Nearly $6 bil- 
lion was disbursed in 1946 under so- 
cial insurance and related programs 
(table 3). Veterans and their sur- 
vivors received almost $3.4 billion—56 
percent of the total expended. The 
amount paid under the veterans’ pro- 
grams was about equally divided be- 
tween pensions and compensation and 
readjustment allowances; about 90 
percent of this amount went to living 
veterans and the remainder to sur- 
vivors of veterans. State unemploy- 
ment insurance benefits accounted for 
18 percent of the $6 billion expended 
in 1946, and retirement and survivor 
payments under old-age and surviv- 
ors insurance, 6.5 percent. 

Among the risks covered by the pro- 
grams in 1946, unemployment was re- 
sponsible for the largest share (44 
percent) of total disbursements; of 
this total, allowances to unemployed 
veterans accounted for 25 percent, 
payments under the State unemploy- 
ment insurance programs for 18 per- 
cent, and unemployment benefits to 
railroad workers for less than 1 per- 
cent. 





42 





Social Security 





About one-fourth of the $6 billion 
expended in 1946 was paid under the 
programs for permanent and tempo- 
rary disability. Veterans received 80 
percent of the disability payments, 
and all but 5 percent of the remainder 
was paid under the workmen’s com- 
pensation programs as a result of 
work-connected injuries. 

Retirement benefits accounted for 
12 percent of the total paid under 
social insurance and related pro- 
grams. Nearly one-third of the re- 
tirement payments were made under 


old-age and _ survivors insurance, 
slightly more than one-fifth under 
the programs for Federal civilian and 
military personnel, and another one- 
fifth under State and local govern- 
ment retirement systems. 

Survivor benefits (including lump- 
sum death payments) represented 
about 10 percent of total disburse- 
ments. More than half of these 
benefits were paid by the Veterans 
Administration to survivors of vet- 
erans. 

Eighty-eight percent of the refunds 


Table 4.—Estimated pay rolls in employment covered by selected programs ' in relation to 
civilian wages and salaries, by specified period, 1938-47 


[Data corrected to Aug. 1, 1947] 


















































Wages and salaries 2 Pay rolls covered by— 
P Railroad 
rio. . : 
Period | a Old-age and|State unem-| retirement 
Total Civilian 3 | survivors | ployment | and unem 
insurance 4} insurance 5| ployment 
| | | insurance 6 
! : s11: 
. Amount (in millions) 
| 
Calendar year: | | | 
Ue RE RA OnE Cre 2 Oe ee $42, 812 | $42, 442 $26, 200 | $2, 028 
lS pesaueenes | 45,745 | 45,347 29, 069 | 2, 161 
1940 __. 49, 587 48,996 32, 450 | 2 , 240 
1941 | 51, 708 £9, 846 42, 146 | 2. , 687 
1942 81,6 75,396 54, 796 | 3, 382 
1943 | ! 3 90, 850 66, 117 | 4, 085 
1944 | 7 5E 69,139 | 4, 507 
1945 537 | 66, 643 | 4, 514 
1946 3 | 72, 269 | 4, 866 
25, 668 | 7 | 17,414 15, sae | 1, 140 
26,911 | 17,393 1, 206 
28, 135 | | | 18, 488 | 1, 267 
30, 429 | 20, 500 | 1, 263 
| | | | 
| 
| 28,798 | 27,633 | 21, 600 19, 850 | 1, 206 
| dead ben: pat toda 
Percent of civilian wages and salaries 
Cale nd rvear | — iti ‘i ia — 
1938_._. 100. 0 68.4 61.7 | 4.8 
1939 100.0 71,1 64. 1 4.8 
1940 ae 100.0 72.8 66. 2 4.6 
1941 100. 0 76.0 70.4 4.5 
Pater ok Gis 100. 0 | 77.2 72.7 | 4.5 
1943 | 100.0 | 76.7 72.8 | 4.5 
1944 | | 100.0 76.1 71.8 | 4.7 
1945 | 100. 0 | 75. 2 70.1 | 4.7 
1946 | 100. 0 77.0 70.1 | fwd 
1946 | | | | | 
January- M arch } = 100.0 6.7 | 70.0 | 5.0 
April-Jun ~ | =al 100.0 | 69.7 | 4.8 
July-September as 100.0 | | 69.8 | 1.8 
October-December ig 100.0 | | 70.6 4.3 
Ih | | | 
1947 } | | | 
January-March. __...._...-- ek eee | 100.0 | 78. 2 | 71.8 1.4 
1 1 | 
1 Includes data for Alaska and Haw Pay rolls in excess of $3,000 earned in employment covered by 


covered by State unemployment insurance programs 
in these 2 Territories have ranged from $18 million to 
$78 million a quarter. 

2 Total represents estimated wages and salaries 
paid in cash and in kind in contine ntal United States 
and, in addition, pay of Federal civilian and military 
personnel in all other areas; civ n wages and 








salaries include employee contributions to social 
insurance and related programs. 

3 Quarterly data have been adjusted to correct for 
distribution of bonus payments. 

‘ Taxable wages plus estimated nontaxable wages 


program. 
5 Taxable wages plus nontaxable wages earned in 
employment covered by program; excludes earnings 
of railroad workers covered by State laws through 
June 1939. Data for 1946 and 1947 preliminary. 
6 Taxable wages plus nontaxable wages in excess 

of $300a month. Data for 1946 and 1947 preliminary. 

Source: Data on wages and salaries from the Office 
of Business Economics, Department of Commerce; 
data on pay rolls for selected programs based on re- 
ports of administrative agencies. 





Table 5.—Number and amount of civil- 
service refunds, by specified period, 
1940-47 } 


[In thousands] 





Refunds 
Period 
| Number } Amount 











Calendar year: 
NS eee 17.8 $3, 277 
ee Re 32.4 4,616 
Sra 67.3 6, 357 
oe 204.3 10, 809 
: | SARS eee 704. 2 42, 156 
1 Ee eee ee 858. 1 80, 992 
a ae es 1, 599.5 238, 594 
January June §.........-.- 1, 052.8 140, 423 
July -December___._..--_- 546.7 98, 171 
1947: 

January-June.......... a 398. 3 81. 130 
January -.....--- ee | 58. 2 14, 577 
Pobrusry.. ...-.-.<..<. 66.2 13, 170 
March 68.5 13, 448 
April_- 82.6 15, 268 
May..- 62.5 12, 341 
| eR Ee Eee 60. 2 12, 326 











1 Refunds principally from civil-service retirement 
and disability fund but also from Canal Zone and 
Alaska Railroad retirement and disability funds ad- 
ministered by the Civil Service Commission. 

2 Excludes War Department refunds for July- 
December; see footnote 3. 

3Includes $13,926,000 refunded during the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1946, to 183,500 civilian employees 
of the War Department; monthly data not available. 

Source: Civil Service Commission. 


of employees’ contributions were 
made by the Civil Service Commis- 
sion to workers who were formerly 
covered by the Federal civil-service, 
Alaska Railroad, or Canal Zone re- 
tirement system and who had left the 
service. 


Estimated Pay Rolls in Covered Em- 
ployment, First Quarter, 1947 


Revised data on wages and salaries 
have recently been made available by 
the Department of Commerce and are 
shown in the BuLuetin for the first 
time in this issue (table 4). This table 
differs in a few other respects from 
those in previous issues of the BUL- 
LETIN. Separation of total pay-roll 
data into military pay rolls and civil- 
ian wages and salaries was not possi- 
ble during the war for reasons of 
national security; beginning with this 
issue, civilian wages and salaries are 
shown separately and are used as a 
base for the percentage of pay rolis 
covered by old-age and survivors in- 
surance, State unemployment insur- 
ance, and the railroad retirement and 
unemployment insurance programs. 
Also, data on pay rolls covered by the 
Railroad Retirement and Railroad 
Unemployment Insurance Acts are 











Bulletin, August 1947 


43 





listed only once, since coverage under 
the two programs is identical. 

Total wages and salaries in 1946 fell 
5 percent below the record level of the 
preceding year. Civilian wages and 
salaries increased 8 percent, while 
military pay dropped from a high of 
$22.4 billion in 1945 to $8 billion in 
1946; in the first quarter of 1947, they 
stood at about $1.2 billion. 

Civilian wage and salary payments 
quickly recovered after an immediate 
postwar decline; in the first quarter of 
1947 these payments totaled $27.6 bil- 
lion and were one-fifth higher than in 
the corresponding quarter a year 
earlier. There was the usual seasonal 
drop in first-quarter wages from the 
level of the preceding 3 months. 

Pay rolls covered by old-age and 
survivors insurance—$21.6 billion in 
the first quarter —were 24 percent 
above those a year earlier. Increas- 
ing at a more rapid rate than did civil- 
ian wages as a whole, covered wages 
represented 78.2 percent of civilian 


wages and salaries in the first quarter 
of 1947 and 76.7 percent of the Janu- 
ary—March 1946 total. 

Nearly 92 percent ($19.8 billion) of 
the wages covered by the Federal old- 
age and survivors insurance program 
were also covered by the State unem- 
ployment insurance systems. This 
amount represented slightly more 
than 72 percent of all civilian wage 
and salary payments in the first quar- 
ter of 1947; a year earlier the State 
programs covered about 70 percent of 
the total. Experience in the prewar 
years indicated that roughly 10 per- 
cent of the wages covered by old-age 
and survivors insurance were not cov- 
ered by State unemployment insur- 
ance laws. 

Pay rolls covered by the Railroad 
Retirement and Railroad Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Acts during the first 
quarter totaled $1.2 billion—6 percent 
more than those a year earlier. As 
compared with levels in the earlier 
year, railroad earnings increased at 


Table 6.—Federal appropriations and expenditures under Social Security Administration 
programs, by specified period, 1945-47 ' 


{In thousands} 





Item 








: | Cees 


Administrative expenses... _-. 


tio 


Dep Saat of Commere e, , Bureau of the C ensus_...- 


Department of the Treasury § 


Grants to States_- 


Unemployment insurance administration _-__.......-- 


Old-age assistance 

Aid to the blind 

Aid to dependent children = 
Maternal and child health services. - 
Services for crippled children 

Child welfare services 

Emergency maternity and infant care 


Benefit payments, old-age and survivors insurance 


F — Security Agency, Social Security Administra- 








































1 Transfer of the Children’s Bureau to th e Federal 





Security Agency beeame e effective on July 16, 1946; 
1915-46 data for progr: iministered by the 
Children’s Bureau (maternal an 1ild health serv- 


ices, services for crippled ch ildre ‘n, child welfare 
services, and emergency maternity and infant care) 
included to permit comparison between figures for 
2 years. 

2 Excludes unexpended balance of appropriations 
for preceding fiscal year. 

3 Includes expenditures from unexpended balance 
of appropriations for preceding fiscal year. 

4 Represents appropriations and expenditures for 
salaries and allotments and expenditures from the 
Federal Security Agency and Department of Labor 
appropriations for printing and binding, penalty 
mail, and traveling expenses. 

5 Amounts expended by the Treasury in admin- 





Fiscal year 194546 | Fiscal year 1946-47 
| 
Secs al 
| Expendi- | Expendi- 
Appropria-| tures Appropria-| —_ tures 
tions 2 through tions 2 through 
| June’ June 3 
$908, 828 | $895, 979 | $1, 161, 506 #2, 211, 046 
31, 833 | ), 211 38, 73 50, 428 
et Sea ied 
chee 31, 688 30, 144 38, 583 38, 679 
3 145 | 118 | 150 255 
=a (*) | 8, 949 (8) 11, 494 
- 56, 485 | 715,773| 7 
ecm — | $< | = 
| 98, 121 86 £8,109 | 59, 
| { if 615, 707 
me ) 619, 000 14, 940 
a \| | , | 113, 404 
wi 5, 6, 293 811,000 10, 699 
| 3 4,186 | 87, 500 | AG, 
1 ) 1, 285 | § 3, 500 | 2,016 
46, 164 | &, 050 | 16, 664 | 10, 953 
| ! 

9 320, 51 2 10 9 425, 582 | 9 425, 582 
istering title II of the Social Security Act and the 
Federal Insurance Cont rik utions Act, reimbursed 
from old-age and survivors insurance trust fund to 


general fund ofthe Tre isury 
6 Not available because not separated from appro- 
priat ions for ot her purpose 
ncludes $1,078,965 
ment of Labor a 
for em ployment officer 


asfe rred from the Depart- 
ment for expenditures 
and services. 
















8 Maximum grants authorized b »y Social Security 
Act Amendments of | 946; ctua ul uppropriations were 
$12,705,000, $8 167,500, ¢ 1nd $4,127,500. 

® Actual payments from old- age and survivors 


insurance trust fund. 

Source: Federal appropriation acts and 1946-47 
budget (appropriations); Daily Statement of the U.S. 
Treasury and \ aietees from administrative agencies 
(expenditures 


a less rapid rate than did all civilian 
wages and salaries and consequently 
formed a smaller proportion—4.4 
percent—of the total than in the first 
quarter of 1946, when they repre- 
sented 5 percent of the total. 


Civil-Service Refunds 


In the fiscal year 1946-47 the num- 
ber of civil-service refunds fell one- 
third below that in the preceding fis- 
cal year, while payments registered a 
3-percent decline (table 5). During 
the first half of 1947, refunds of em- 
ployees’ contributions numbered 
398,300—27 percent less than in the 
preceding 6 months; the $81 million 
disbursed was 17 percent below the 
amount in the earlier period. 





Financial Operations, 
Fiscal Year 1946-47 


Reflecting the high levels of em- 
ployment and wages, both Federal 
insurance contributions and Federal 
unemployment taxes during the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1947, were the 
highest for any fiscal year since the 
beginning of the program. The 
Treasury Department reported col- 
lection of Federal insurance contri- 
butions of $1.5 billion, 18 percent 
more than in the preceding fiscal 
year (table 9). In the last quarter 
April-June), collections were al- 
one-fourth more than in the 
paige se months of 1946. Fed- 
yal unemployment taxes of $185 
cate during the year were only 
slightly more than in fiscal year 
1945-46 


most 


Old-Age and Survivors Insnrance 


Trust Fund 


The — of the old-age and 
survivors insurance trust fund in 
June amounted to $108 million, of 
which $100 million represented inter- 
est earned on investments and $8 
million the appropriation of Federal 
insurance contributions. While re- 
ceipts were slightly less, benefit 
checks of $39 million cashed by the 
Treasury were more than in June a 
year ago (table 10). The $65 million 
excess of receipts over expenditures 
during the month raised the fund’s 





44 


Social Security 





assets to $8.8 billion at the end of the 
month. 

Considerable investment activity 
took place as usual in June. Govern- 
ment securities totaling $5.9 billion 
held by the fund matured at the end 
of the month. They consisted of $3.4 
billion of 1%-percent special certifi- 
cates of indebtedness, $1.1 billion of 
2-percent special certificates, and 
$1.4 billion of special Treasury notes 
at interest rates ranging from 1% 
percent to 2% percent. In their 
place the fund acquired $6.0 billion 
of 2-percent special certificates of 
indebtedness maturing June 30, 1948. 
Other Government securities in the 
fund’s portfolio at the end of the 
month were $1.6 billion of 242-percent 
long-term regular Treasury bonds 


Table 8.—Social security trust fund investments and interest-bearing public debt, as of 
June 30, 1947 

















Investments as of Investments as of 
June 30, 1946 Net acqui- June 30, 1947 
P ne pad 
seal year 
Item Average 1946-47 Average 
Amount (in| interest (in Amount (in| interest 
millions) rate millions) | millions) rate 
(percent) (percent) 
Total interest-bearing public debt. ..._.- $268, 111 1.996 | —$12,998 255, 113 2.107 
Securities acquired by social security trust 
funds: 
Old-age and survivors insurance trust fund 7, 549 2. 049 +1, 194 8, 742 2.078 
Unemployment trust fund. .......-...-_- 7, 409 1,935 +443 7, 852 2.045 
Allother interest-bearing securities. _......_- | eee —14, 635 8 eee eee 























Source: Daily Statement of the U. S, Treasury. 


and $1.1 billion of 1%-percent special 

Treasury notes maturing June 30, 

1948. 
These 


investment transactions 


Table 7.—Contributions and taxes under selected social insurance and related programs, 
by specified period, 1936-47 


[In thousands} 


























Re mais —— a, eae Unemployment insurance 
Period | Railroad 
Federal Federal Taxeson | State un- Federal | unemploy- 
insurance |civil-service| carriers employ- | unemploy-| ment in- 
contribu- | contribu- | and their | ment con- ment surance 
tions! tions? employees |tributions?| taxes contribu- 
tions 
| 
Cumulative through June 1947_-| $9, 860, 225 | $3,011,072 | $2,111, 219 |$10, 442, 316 |5$1, 420, 873 $829, 164 
Fiscal year: 
2 ee 194, 346 35, 604 345 (6) XS 
1937-38 _... 614, 406 111, 847 150, 132 (8) ht 
1938-39 ____ 530, 358 115, 290 109, 257 803, 007 8 
1939-40... 604, 6¢4 131,822 120, 967 853, £55 107, 523 49, 167 
ees 690, 655 148, 687 136, 942 888, 450 97, 677 68, 162 
dE 8$5, 619 190, 498 170, 012 1, 093, 901 119, 944 84, 738 
ESS 1, 130, 495 335, 1E8 208, 795 1, 217, 737 158, 361 102, 710 
ds eS SEES 1, 292, 122 445, 951 267, 065 1, 353, 272 179, 909 121, 518 
ree eee 1, 309, 919 486, 719 285, 038 1, 251, 958 184, 544 131,993 
| a 1, 238, 218 528, 049 282, 610 1, 009, 091 179, 930 129, 126 
CS ES | 1,459, 492 481, 448 380,057 | 1,001, 504 184, 823 141, 750 
1946 | 
aoa ag a 6, 634 22, 872 65, 240 5, 828 1, 440 30, 622 
SSS ere rere | 62, 317 7 244, 223 2, 257 95, 266 2, 245 65 
Se Sere eae 284, 345 23, 617 7,617 154, 956 9, 998 786 
0 eee &, 339 20, 234 75, 540 5, 510 1,145 35, 164 
a ee eS | 69, 952 16, 410 2, 137 92, 214 2, 213 138 
276, 193 23, 754 4, 720 110, 690 9,325 1,159 
7, 185 23, 028 77,772 10, 097 789 34,776 
42, 263 21, 551 1,499 91, 516 14, 399 29 
266, 183 21, 218 4, 927 125, 902 115, 847 1, 137 
25, 377 20, 653 76, 784 6, 286 12, 044 34,175 
69, 005 23, 936 , 608 110, 021 3, 548 351 
340, 382 19, 761 12, 185 191, 462 11, 924 1,481 
| 7,950 23, 064 112, 011 7, 584 1,347 32, 487 
| } 

















1 Represents contributions of employees and em- 
ployers in employments covered by old-age and 
survivors insurance. 

1 Represents employee and Government contri- 
butions to the civil-service, Canal Zone, and Alaska 
Railroad retirement and disability funds; in recent 
years Government contributions are made in July 
for the entire fiscal year. 

3 Represents deposits in State clearing accounts of 
contributions plus penalties and interest collected 
from employers and, through April 1946, contribu- 
tions from employees in 4 States; employee contri- 
butions beginning May 21, 1946, in California and 
beginning July 1, 1946, in Rhode Island are deposited 
in the respective State sickness insurance funds. 
sg reported by State agencies; corrected to July 

ie 


4 Represents taxes paid by employers under the 
Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 

§ Includes $40,561,886 collected in fiscal years 1936- 
37 and 1937-38 and subsequently refunded to States 
which did not collect taxes on 1936 pay rolls and in 
which employers paid full tax to the Federal Govern- 


ent. 
, a _ available by separate years but included in 
otal. 

7 Represents July contributions of $21.5 million 
from employers, and contributions for fiscal year 
1946-47 of $221.5 million from the Federal Govern- 
ment and of $1.2 million from the District of Colum- 
bia for certain District Government employees. 


Source: Daily Statement of the U. S. Treasury, 
unless otherwise noted. 


changed considerably the composi- 
tion of the fund’s holdings. The 
changes were for the most part a con- 
tinuation of trends evident in imme- 
diately preceding years. At the be- 
ginning of the fiscal year the special 
certificates represented 45 percent of 
all investments and were almost 70 
percent by the end of the year. On 
the other hand, the proportion of 214- 
percent bonds declined from 22 per- 
cent to 19 percent during the same 
period, and the ratio of special 1%- 
percent Treasury notes dropped from 
18 to 13 percent. 

That portion of the fund’s receipts 
not needed for immediate benefit pay- 
ments is invested in Government se- 
curities, and during 1946-47 invest- 
ments were made in the last month of 
each quarter. In October 1946 there 
was a small redemption. The total 
amount of new securities acquired 
was $1.2 billion and consisted wholly 
of 2-percent special certificates. 

The old-age and survivors insur- 
ance trust fund’s receipts for the year 
exceeded disbursements by approxi- 
mately $1.2 billion. Receipts totaled 
more than $1.6 billion, consisting of 
$1.5 billion of appropriations and $163 
million in interest on investments. 
Disbursements comprised $426 mil- 
lion for benefits and $41 million for 
administrative expenses. Comparison 
with income and outgo in the pre- 
ceding fiscal year discloses that, while 
receipts in 1946-47 were 17 percent 
higher, expenditures increased 30 per- 
cent. Benefit checks cashed in- 
creased by a larger dollar amount in 
1946-47 than in any other year to 
date. Checks cashed by the Treasury 


each month increased fairly steadily, 











n- hen ek: nek aot lh 





Bulletin, August 1947 


45 





from $33 million in July 1946 to $39 
million in June 1947. 


Unemployment Trust Fund 


Following the usual seasonal pat- 
tern, June deposits of $18 million by 
the States to their accounts in the 
unemployment trust fund were far be- 
low their withdrawals of $77 million 
for benefit payments (table 11). 
However, the State accounts were 
credited with $63 million of interest 
during the month, and the account 
balances increased by $4 million to 
$7.0 billion. The railroad unemploy- 
ment insurance account also in- 
creased, by $34 million, and the fund’s 
total assets, which equal the sum of 
the balances in the 51 State accounts 
and the railroad account, rose to $7.9 
billion by June 30. 

On June 10 and 16, the fund bought 
$15 million of 2-percent special cer- 
tificates, maturing at the end of the 
month. On June 25, $50 million of 
1%-percent special certificates was 
redeemed to meet State withdrawals. 
At the end of the month, when the 
fund’s holdings of $7,059 million in 
1%-percent and 2-percent special cer- 
tificates matured, it acquired $7,142 
million of 2-percent special certifi- 
cates maturing June 30, 1948. In ad- 
dition to the special certificates, the 
fund also held $710 million of 24-per- 
cent long-term Treasury bonds. Thus 
the special certificates represented 91 
percent of all fund investments, ap- 
proximately the same percentage as 
at the beginning of the fiscal year. 
The average rate of interest on the 
fund investments was 2.045 percent 
at the end of the month, as compared 
with 1.935 percent on June 30, 1946. 

The financial operations of the fund 
in the last quarter of the fiscal year 
differed markedly from those in April- 
June 1946. The States deposited con- 
siderably more in their accounts and 
withdrew considerably less for benefit 
payments. 

For the fiscal year as a whole, finan- 
cial operations resulted in a rise of 
$420 million in the fund’s assets, as 
compared with a $134 million increase 
in 1945-46. Receipts were approxi- 
mately the same in both years, but 
withdrawals were considerably greater 
in 1945-46, when the States drew out 


more than $1.1 billion for unemploy- 
ment benefits. In 1946—47, the States 
made deposits of $1.0 billion and with- 
drew $0.8 billion for benefits. In ad- 
dition, their accounts were credited 
with $131 million of interest earned 
on the fund’s investments in Govern- 
ment securities. The Railroad Re- 
tirement Board deposited $128 million 
in the railroad workers’ account, 
which earned interest of $15 million; 
disbursements for railroad unemploy- 
ment insurance amounted to $52 mil- 
lion. The excess of receipts over ex- 
penditures during the year made pos- 
sible the acquisition of the net amount 
of $443 million of additional securi- 
ties, raising the fund’s total invest- 
ments to $7.9 billion. 


Investments and the Public Debt 


As the holdings of special certifi- 
cates of indebtedness increase in each 
fund, the interest rate on the funds’ 
investments becomes more dependent 


on the average interest rate of the 
interest-bearing public debt of the 
United States. The law for interest 
rates on special obligations specifies 
that they “shall bear interest at a rate 
equal to the average rate of interest 
. . . borne by all interest-bearing ob- 
ligations of the United States... 
except that where such average rate 
is not a multiple of one-eighth of 1 
percent, the rate of interest of such 
special obligations shall be the mul- 
tiple of one-eighth of 1 percent next 
lower than such average rate.” Thus, 
on June 30, 1947, when the interest 
rate on the public debt was 2.107 per- 
cent, the average interest rate on the 
old-age and survivors insurance trust 
fund’s investments was 2.078 percent 
and that on the unemployment trust 
fund’s investments, 2.045 percent. Of 
the total $255.1 billion interest-bear- 
ing public debt outstanding on June 
30, the two funds together held $16.6 
billion, or 6.5 percent. 


Table 9.—Cash income and outgo:! Total Federal and Social Security Administration 
programs, fiscal years 1945-47, and by quarter, July 1946—June 1947 


{In millions] 























| 1946-47 
| 
Classification 1945-46 | gee beet 
Total | Septem- | Decem- a April- 
ber ber March June 
CT I oo nico cccusacnddpenwnadaaonuas $48,103 | $47,208 | $10,417 $9,952 | $15, 084 $11, 755 
CN EI ee meen een ear 2, 428 2, 649 624 579 702 744 
Federal insurance contributions--_----- 1, 238 1, 459 355 353 334 417 
Federal unemployment taxes. -...--- 180 185 13 12 142 17 
Deposits in unemployment trust fund ?_- 1, 010 1, 005 256 213 226 310 
I iicirntacacnntiacsasatinaisanacaans 45, 675 44, 559 9, 793 9, 373 14, 382 11,011 
CN I ori etig tn enensnseeenenas 65, 921 39, 871 8, 838 8, 769 9, 869 12, 395 
Socialsecurity 3__.._..--------- sistant 2, 024 2, 029 522 457 493 552 
Social Security Administration... ...--- 565 77 194 185 176 218 
Administrative expenses ¢ : 2 39 9 10 9 10 
Pe ee ee 536 735 185 175 166 209 
Unemployment insurance adminis- 

OO EEL TELE ere 56 60 17 14 18 10 
9 eee 361 516 130 123 112 150 
PC a 10 15 4 3 3 4 
Aid to dependent children --- 59 113 26 29 24 35 
Maternal — = welfare nae ee 50 31 7 6 8 10 
s withdrawals from unemployment 

a aenemtcenn ett 1, 129 818 224 169 210 214 
-age and survivors insurance benefit 
age is datinln chiens demieninedin Ais amen 321 426 101 101 107 116 
Administrative expenses, Department 
SU NE Qi cacacetccodimicensas 9 11 2 2 4 3 
| CREST ITEP ESS PES AS 63, 897 37, 842 8, 316 8, 311 9, 376 11, 843 























1 Cash income and outgo represent flow of cash, 
exclusive of borrowed cash, into and out of the Treas- 
ury. Data include expenditures from trust funds, 
exclude transactions between Government agencies 
(i. e., transfers to trust accounts from general funds, 
investment of funds in special issues, repayment of 
sums borrowed) and other transactions, such as is- 
suance or redemption of public-debt obligations 
other than redemptions of adjusted-service bonds. 

2 Deposits by States of contributions collected 
under State unemployment insurance laws, 

3 Federal expenditures administered chiefly by 
the Social Security Administration. Includes ad- 
ministrative expenses of the Bureau of the Census 


in connection with searching census records for old- 
age and survivors insurance; these expenses amount- 
ed to less than $260,000 during the fiscal year 1946-47, 

4 Data for 1945-46 for Children’s Bureau included 
to permit comparison between figures for the 2 years. 

4 Maternal and child health services, services for 
crippled children, child welfare services, and emer- 
gency maternity and infant care. 

In connection with old-age and survivors insur- 
ance. 


Source: Total Federal cash income and outgo from 
Rulletin of the Treasury Department; other data from 
Daily Statement of the U. S. Treasury. 








46 Social Security 





Table 10.—Status of the old-age and survivors insurance trust fund, by specified period, 1937-47 


{In thousands] 


















































| Receipts | Expenditures | Assets 
| | — ——e —— SS 
—— | | Net total of | : 
Period | Transfers and} | ies. Cash with Credit of 
| appropria- | Interest | Benefit gr ea ny U.S. oo disbursing | fund account Total assets 
| tions to trust} received | payments | Prac pent on officer at | at end of at end of 
fund ! | Re sipiaiti acquired 2 | nd of period | period period 
— a | i — aoe 
Cumulative, January 1937-June 1947__...-......------- $9, 719, 007 $839, 744 | $1,529,578 | $231, 158 $8, 742, 334 $48, 376 $7,305 | $8, 798, 015 
Fiscz . year: | 
SD ER ee ee es ey eee 265, 000 2, 262 Uy epee errr 267, 100 73 62 267, 235 
9° . S , ne a 387, 000 15, 412 J | =e: 395, 200 1, 931 113, 012 777, 243 
Oo ae a idvianastadanecuexen 503, 000 26, 951 13, 892 | asm aia aaital 514, 900 3, 036 66 1, 180, 302 
i ae. Ss a piaeiuchadeet ce mseiite: 550, 000 42, 489 15, 805 12, 288 560, 900 6, 098 500 1, 744, 698 
1940-41__._- TES ean sacesacaunss EA eS Nee SLE | 688, 141 55, 958 64, 342 26, 840 642, 500 10, 778 6, 238 2, 397, 615 
ame? ee 895, 619 71, 007 110, 281 26, 766 821, 034 20, 384 5,176 | 3,227,194 
ee Spits pial ining tos apn pail | 1, 130, 495 87, 403 149, 304 27, 492 1, 035, 200 24,495 6, 966 4, 268, 296 
TN noo 8 oe oeicn cn cnawecnmacnusssneeeceo<tees | 1, 292, 122 103, 177 184, 597 32, 607 1, 172, 036 21, 384 16, 136 5, 446, 391 
1044-45_........-.--.----------- woe n en nnn ene eee 1, 309, 919 123, 854 239, 834 26, 950 1, 137, 411 35, 092 32, 007 6, 613, 381 
"2 i ara Be OEE A GS 1, 238, 218 147, 766 320, 510 37, 427 1, 002, 453 49, 167 43, 527 7, 641, 428 
(Ee See eee es Ean ee 1, 459, 492 163, 466 425, 582 40, 788 1, 193, 600 48, 376 7,305 8, 798, 015 
1946 
RR TR A oa ee a 6, 634 106, 415 31, 212 3, 853 329, 310 49, 167 43, 527 7, 641, 428 
AE a REELS hh ers, 33, 333 Se SEES 56, 133 64,548 | 7,689, 416 
August > | eee 34, 553 Sf 52, 828 313, 966 7, 915, 528 
Sentember._..-..-..<... _ 8, 339 9, 242 33, 407 2, 890 290, 000 56, 622 1, 456 7, 896, 817 
ctober : 69, 952 60 33, 832 3, 679 —10, 000 46, 303 54,273 | 7, 929,312 
November i ee 33, 529 SS i ae 44, 652 295, 320 8, 168, 700 
December 7, 185 11, 238 33, 587 3, 741 250, 000 51, 845 19, 222 8, 149, 801 
January 42, 263 33, 665 34, 164 on] Ee A 52, 393 56, 420 8, 187, 547 
February ; oe | ee 35, 574 5 ae: 51, 597 283,920 | 8,414,252 
ee ee EN mean 25, 377 9, 242 37, 138 3, 927 240, 000 48, 306 40, 766 8, 407, 806 
“\ ERE ES Ie | 38, 817 of ee 46, 880 68, 612 8, 434, 226 
“ee en | ead cman casspate obese ee | a 38, 651 i RE CREE 5 53, 322 360, 574 | 8, 732, 630 
A ARERR ESO a EAE DEP LE 7 7, 950 100, 020 38, 995 3, 590 423, 600 48, 376 7,305 | 8, 798, 015 
1 Beginning July 1940, trust fund appropriations equal taxes collected under the 2 Includes accrued interest: minus figures represent net total of securities re- 
Federal Insurance Contributions Act. deemed. 


Source: Daily Statement of the U. S. Treasury. 


Table 11.—Status of the unemployment trust fund, by specified period, 1936-47 


{In thousands] 





Net total 


| State accounts 
| Total of U.S. 


| Railroad unemployment insurance 






























































eee account 
fe fis ende 
Period os ee — balances “a 
Hl rr} at end o e r 3alance Benefit | Balance 
period securities | * eriod | Deposits | Interest | _ With- at end of | Deposits | Mterest | “pay. | at end of 
| acquired! | P P credited | drawals ? | period I | credited | =. period 23 
| } | 
| 
Cumulative, January 1936-June 1947 $7, 869, 044 | $7,852,000 | $17,044 |$10, 555, 527 | $729,274 |4$4,275,309 | $7,009, 547 | $746,262 | $62,738 | $113,472 | $859, 498 
Fiscal year: 
1036-87 | 312, 389 293, 386 94 291, 703 2, 737 1, 000 312, 389 
1937-38 -- | 884, 247 559, 705 12, 247 747, 660 15, 172 190, 975 884, 247 
1938-39_- | 1, 280, 539 395, 000 13, 539 811, 251 26, 837 441, 795 1, 280, 539 
1939-40. | 1,724, 862 443,000 | 14. 862 859, 864 37, 524 484, 764 | 1,693. 163 
1940-41 2, 283, 658 563, 000 10, 658 892,023 | 45,893 537, 343 | 2, 093, 736 
1941-42 3, 150, 103 866, 000 11, 103 1, 095, 991 61, 998 368, 070 2. 883, 654 
1942-43 4, 372, 460 1, 228, 000 5, 460 1, 217, 686 75. 563 174, 334 4, 002, 570 
1943-44 5, 878, 778 1, 503, 000 8, 778 1, 349, 307 88, 526 60,000 | 5, 380, 403 
1944-45_- 7, 315, 258 1, 437, 173 8, 084 1, 256,003 | 113, 140 70,492 | 6, 679, 054 
1945 7, 449, 120 101, 827 40, 120 1,009,909 | 130,373 1, 128, 720 6, 690, 672 116, 214 13, 220 17, 197 758, 448 
1946-47 | 7,869, 044 443.000 | 17,044] 1,005, 273 | 131,419 | 817,817 | 7,009,547 | 127,576 | 15,469 | 51,657 | 859, 498 
| | 
1946 | : | | 
NS Re at ee 25,816 | 40, 120 9,930 | 60, 816 90,966 | 6, 690, | 27,559] 6,374 4,094 | 758, 448 
ES are eee —50, 000 50, 916 40, 043 | 25 83,915 | 6, 646, | 58 | 3 4, 744 763, 091 
CE i ee | 135,000 | 41, 267 2 ee 80,418 | 6. 774, 356 740 |_- | 9994 | 760, 907 
0 Se eee ae —5, 000 26, 467 8, 377 | 3, 434 | 59.870 | 6,726,301 | 31,616 375 3, 733 789, 166 
et itl Ae aS 2 | —25, 000 27, 752 42, 045 161 | 462. 57 | 6, 706, 150 | 124 18 3.794 | 785, 602 
ct i SS Re a ee eee | 49 | 100, 000 27, 949 be 51,620 | 6, 808, 880 | | ae 3, 576 783, 069 
December - -.-...-...----------------- | 7, 586, 255 |-.........-- 21, 255 16,824 | 4,603 | 55, 367 | 6, 774, 940 | 31, 299 | 522 4.597 810, 315 
| | | | 
1947 | ed ee | | nf | 
SE ELE AAO 7,609,624 | 15,000 30, 624 37, 189 | 56, 708 70,436 | 6,798, 401 28 | 6,597 | 811, 293 
OS eee aes 7,714,173 | 100, 000 35, 173 eek eee 65,416 | 6, 906, 967 | 1 02? |...._. 807, 206 
Ee oe eee : 7, 683,489 | —25, 000 29, 489 14, 964 | 3, 449 | 74,950 | 6, 850, 429 30, 758 401 | 833, 060 
Ripe E Es, Fae ee SG 7,650,124 | 25,000] 21,124 42, 575 | 212 71,141 | 6,822,075 317 25 | 828, 049 
ES ea adie 7, 831, 181 175, 000 27, 181 249, 282 |... 65, 811 7, 005, 546 a | $825, 635 
| a ee ee aR ee 7, 869, 044 | 48, 000 17, 044 17,690 | 62,827 76,516 | 7,009, 547 29, 239 7, 528 859, 498 
1 Includes accrued interest; minus figures represent net total of securities 3 Includes transfers from railroad unemployment insurance administration 
redeemed. und amounting to $56,864,000. 
2 Includes transfers from State accounts to railroad unemployment insurance ‘Includes withdrawals by California of $200,000 for disability insurance 
account amounting to $107,161,000. benefits. 


Source: Daily Statement of the U. S. Treasury. 














DOr Qomrewe' 





Bulletin, August 1947 


47 





Number of Persons in Covered 
and Noncovered Employment 
in 1945 and 1946" 

The Social Security Administration, 
in connection with its responsibility 
for program planning, particularly on 
extension of coverage, has a continu- 
ing need for statistical data on the 
noncovered groups in the labor force. 
Statistics for employment in covered 
industries on several different bases— 
for a month, a quarter, or a year—are 
available from regular quarterly re- 
ports from employers. Only monthly 
data are regularly available for the 
noncovered groups of workers; data 
for employment in an average week 
during July-December 1945 and Jan- 
uary—June 1946, based on the Monthly 
Report of the Labor Force of the Cen- 
sus Bureau, were published in the 
BULLETIN for November 1946. 

To provide a measure of the total 
number of workers who were employed 
at any time during the year, separately 
for covered and noncovered groups, 
the Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors 
Insurance has recently prepared esti- 
mates based on data from various 
sources. The calendar-year figures 
provide a realistic measure of the total 
number of workers who would be 
affected at some time during the year 
by the taxing and coverage provisions 
of the Social Security Act. If cover- 
age were extended to a specified non- 
covered industry, for example, all the 
workers employed in that industry 
would receive either additional wage 
credits or their first wage credits. 
Earnings of those who had been em- 
ployed only in the specified noncov- 
ered group and had had no previous 
covered employment would be tax- 
able for the first time. Figures on 
employment at some time during the 
year are therefore essential in esti- 
mating potential tax yield and costs of 
extended coverage. 

The estimates show that about 71 
million persons were employed for pay 
in the United States (including work- 
ers in Alaska and Hawaii covered un- 
der old-age and survivors insurance) 


*Prepared by Analysis Division, Bureau 
of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance. 


at some time during the year 1945 and 
75 million in 1946. The Census Bu- 
reau MRLF indicates that an average 
of about 55 million were employed in 
a week in 1946. It is apparent that 
many workers shift in and out of paid 
employment in the course of a year. 

About 65 percent of all the 70-odd 
million workers in 1945 and in 1946 
received some wages in covered em- 
ployment. About 10 percent of this 
group also earned pay in noncovered 
employment. In order of size, as 
measured by employees, the group of 
agricultural workers was first, gov- 
ernment workers next, and the self- 
employed in nonagricultural industry 
third. 


Sources and Methods ' 


Estimates of employment at some 
time during 1945 or 1946 were derived 
by a variety of methods, utilizing 
basic data from a number of Govern- 
ment agencies. Before these estimates 
were compiled, certain governmental 
agencies prepared data of the required 
type in relation to specified industrial 
groups. The Bureau of Old-Age and 
Survivors Insurance, for example, pre- 
pared estimates regularly on covered 
employment. The Bureau of Agricul- 
tural Economics estimated from Cen- 
sus data the number of hired workers 
in agriculture at some time during 
1945. The Railroad Retirement Board 
supplied estimates of railroad employ- 
ment for both 1945 and 1946. The 
Civil Service Commission had data on 
personnel employed in the Federal 
Government as of the first of the year 
and the number of accessions during 
the year, and from these data it was 
possible to estimate with considerable 
accuracy the number of different 
workers employed during the year by 
the Federal Government. The em- 
ployment figures for the remaining 
groups (self-employment, nonprofit, 
domestic service, and others) were 
estimated by applying turn-over rates 
to monthly data, derived largely from 
the Census Bureau MRLF. 


1A detailed description of the methods 
of estimation, assumptions, and sources 
is available upon request from the Bu- 
reau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, 
Equitable Building, Baltimore 2, Md. 


Table 12.—Estimated number of person‘ 
employed at some time during year in 
employment covered by old-age and 
survivors insurance and in noncovered 
employment, 1945 and 1946 


[In thousands; corrected to June 10, 1947] 





| | 

















Type of employment | 1945 | 1946 
| | 
Total, all paid civilian em- | 
ployment !__...............- | 71,000 | 75, 000 
| re 
Covered by old-age and surviv- | 
ors insurance ?__._.._..__-- seal 46,392 | 49, 500 
Not covered by old-age and sur- 
vivors insurance.............-- | 29, 500 | 30,000 
Railroads and other carriers cov- | 
ered by railroad retirement | 
aE Leno | 3,050 | 2,900 
Dea E ET 9, 500 9, 300 
i, ea 4, 100 3, 500 
Farm operators 3... .........-..- | 6,000 6, 300 
| 
Self-employed nonagriculture____.. | 6,000} 7,200 
| 
Ci cssgta catenin dees | 8, 200 | 7,800 
| oo RIDE. | 4,400 | 3, 700 
Stuy Gi NOC sn cesinnnennne 4, 000 4, 300 
a eT PEST | 850 | 950 
Religious, charitable, member- | | 
| RES Eee te. 20 220 
Medical and health services_-_.--| 430 520 
Educational......-...----.---.-. 240 | 280 
ae See IE ne 3,200 | 2,950 
Domestic service-...---.-.------ 3,000} 2,7 
|, Eee 180 | 210 
Forestry and fishing...........--} 60 | 50 





1 Components do not add to totals because per- 
sons are counted in more than 1 classification if they 
worked in more than 1 type of employment. Ex- 
cludes unpaid family workers. 

2 Includes Alaska and Hawaii; all other data for 
noncovered groups refer to the continental United 
States only. 

3 Includes share croppers. 


The methods used in making these 
estimates have been reviewed by em- 
ployment statisticians throughout the 
Government, and their comments 
have been taken into consideration. 
While the estimates are subject to 
error because of sampling variations, 
incomplete data, assumptions, and 
methods of estimating, it is believed 
that even the roughest of the esti- 
mates are subject to an error of less 
than 10 percent while the best esti- 
mates probably vary by less than 1 
percent; the over-all estimates are 
subject to an error of about 3 percent. 
Considering the primary purpose of 
the estimates, a study of the effects of 
coverage extension, the degree of er- 
ror is not unreasonable. 

Allowances for duplications result- 
ing from the shift of workers from one 
industrial group to another have been 
made in all totals presented in table 
12. 





48 





Recent Publications in the Field of ! 


Social Security’ 


General 


INTERNATIONAL LABOR OFFICE. Report 
of the Director-General. Geneva: 
The Office, 1947. 120 pp. (Inter- 
national Labor Conference, Thir- 
tieth Session, Geneva, 1947. Re- 
port I.) 

A survey of world economic condi- 
tions and trends in social policy 
serves as the background for a sum- 
mary of ILO activities. 

Kuznets, Stmon. National Product 
Since 1869. New York: National 
Bureau of Economic Research, 
1946. 239 pp. $3. 

Statistical tables, with introduc- 
tory notes describing sources of data 
and procedures, in four parts—an- 
nual estimates of national product, 
1919-43, tables by decades for 1869- 
1938, a discussion of the proportion 
of services in the flow of goods to 
consumers, and an analysis of na- 
tional wealth since 1880 to show the 
formation of capital by categories of 
users. 


WiiutiamMs, GeEoRGE Crorr. A Social 
Interpretation of South Carolina. 
Columbia: University of South 
Carolina Press, 1946. 238 pp. $3. 
Shows the “social implications of 

the natural resources and the human 
activities of South Carolina.” In- 
cludes material on population, public 
health, economic and social condi- 
tions, poverty, and public welfare. 


Retirement and Old Age 


AMERICAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION. “Pa- 
pers and Proceedings of the Fifty- 
ninth Annual Meeting...” Amer- 
ican Economic Review, Menasha, 
Wis., Vol. 37, May 1947, pp. 1-781. 
$1.50. 

Includes a section on the financial 
and economic aspects of social security 
which consists of two papers: Social 
Security in an Unstable World, by 
Lewis Meriam, and Financing Social 
Security, by Eliot J. Swan, followed by 
discussion by Harley J. Lutz, Selma 


*The inclusion of prices of publica- 
tions in this list is intended as a service 
to the reader, but any orders must be 
directed to publishers or booksellers and 
not to the Social Security Administra- 
tion: or the Federal Security Agency. 
Federal publications for which prices are 
listed should be ordered from the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U. S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 


Mushkin, M. C. Urquhart, Edwin E. 
Witte, Ewan Clague, and Gerhard 
Colm. 


K.LumpP, THEODORE. “The Future of 
the Older Worker.” Geriatrics, 
Minneapolis, Vol. 2, May—Juuie 1947, 
pp. 165-172. $1. 

Emphasizes the importance of the 
aged group and the need for more re- 
search into the problems of aging. 
Stresses the fact that aging is an indi- 
vidual process and that chronological 
age is no indication of mental and 
physical ability. 


Employment Security 
DERBER, MILTON, and NETREBA, SIDNEY. 
‘Money and Real Weekly Earnings 
During Defense, War, and Recon- 
version Periods.” Monthly Labor 
Review, Washington, Vol. 64, June 
1947, pp. 983-996. 30 cents. 


“Employment Service Organization.” 
International Labour Review, Ge- 
neva, Vol. 55, May 1947, pp. 373-395. 
50 cents. 

A survey of the employment service 
in nonmetropolitan territories and 
in Austria, China, Poland, the United 
States, and Yugoslavia. 


“Federal-State Relationships.” Em- 
ployment Service Review, Washing- 
ton, Vol. 14, June 1947, pp. 3-19. 
10 cents. 

A symposium by Federal and State 
administrators, including Robert C. 
Goodwin, William Haber, Stanley 
Rector, J. H. Bond, R. G. Wagenet, 
and Perry Faulkner, on the function- 
ing of a Federal-State system of em- 
ployment service. 


Public Welfare and Relief 


NATIONAL COUNCIL oF SOCIAL SERVICE. ° 


New Opportunities? Annual Re- 

port . .. 1945-46. - London: The 

Council, 1946. 38 pp. Is. 

The annual report of the coordi- 
nating and counseling agency for 
British social service organizations. 


ROSNER, HENRY J. “Shadow Over the 
Nation.” Survey Graphic, New 
York, Vol. 36, June 1947, pp. 330- 
332 f. 40 cents. 

Analyzes the reasons for the in- 
crease in general relief.cases and sets 
forth three concepts to guide the 
thinking of both citizens and public 
welfare officials. 


SHIMBERG, Myra E., and LocxkitTT, AL- 
FRED G. “Some Are Unable To 
Work.” Public Welfare, Chicago, 
Vol. 5, July 1947, pp. 154-156. 50 
cents. 

A study of the potential employ- 
ment capacities of single unattached 
persons receiving home relief in New 
York City. 


Health and Medical Care 


“Commission on the Care of Chron- 
ically Ill Persons Submits 10-Point 
Program for Next Biennium.” Pub- 
lic Aid in Illinois, Springfield, Vol. 
14, May 1947, pp. 1-4. 

The Commission’s recommendations 
for providing adequate services and 
facilities and for extended research 
into the causes of chronic disease. 
Davis, MicHaEL M. “Health Insurance 

as Miners Know It.” Survey 

Graphic, New York, Vol. 36, June 

1947, pp. 353-355 f. 50 cents. 

Comments on the health conditions 
and medical care facilities of miners as 
revealed by the report of the Coal 
Mines Administration. 

DUBLIN, Lovuts I., and VANE, ROBERT J. 
“Occupational Mortality Experience 
of Insured Wage Earners.” Monthly 
Labor Review, Washington, Vol. 64, 
June 1947, pp. 1003-1018. 30 cents. 
Based on a Metropolitan Life Insur- 

ance Company study of mortality ex- 

perience among white male wage 

earners during 1937-39. 

Dunn, HALBerTL. “Health and Social 
Statistics for the City.” American 
Journal of Public Health, New York, 
Vol. 37, June 1947, pp. 739-743. 50 
cents. | 
Discusses the present and potential 

use of the census tracts statistics col- 

lected and maintained by the Bureau 
of the Census. 

New YoRK ACADEMY OF MEDICINE. 
COMMITTEE ON MEDICINE AND THE 
CHANGING ORDER. Medicine in the 
Changing Order. New York: The 
Commonwealth Fund, 1947. 240 
pp. $2. 

The Committee’s report surveys the 
present health of the Nation, analyzes 
the quantity of medical services avail- 
able, and recommends measures best 
adapted to meet the country’s need 
for more and better medical care. 
Discusses medical care in urban and 
rural areas, the extension of public 
health services, the quality of medical 
care, preventive medicine, hospitals, 
nursing services, and medical insur- 
ance. The Committee favors the ex- 
tension of voluntary prepayment 
plans, rather than compulsory insur- 
ance. 


U, S$. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1947 





aan 





pe i We ee een ree 








FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY 


Washington, D. C. 


SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 


ARTHUR J. ALTMEYER, Commissioner 


Wittiam L. Mircnetr, Deputy Commissioner 


Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Bureau of Research and Statistics 
Oscar C. Pocar, Director I. S. Farx, Director 


Bureau of Public Assistance Bureau of Accounts and Audits 
Jang M. Hoey, Director Leonarp J. Witsert, Director 
Bureau of Employment Security Informational Service 
R. G. Wacenet, Director Rosert Huse, Director 
Children’s Bureau Office of the Actuary 
Katuarine F. Lenroor, Chief Rosert J. Myers, Actuarial Consultant 


Office of Appeals Council 
Josep E, McExvain, Chairman 





The Socrax Security Butxetin is published monthly under authority of Public Reso- 
lution No. 57, approved May 11, 1922 (42 Stat. 541), as amended by section 307, Public 
Act 212, 72d Congress, approved June 30, 1932. This publication is approved by the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget. 


The Buxietin is prepared in the Periodic Publications Section, under the supervision 
of Jessica H. Barr, Chief of the Division of Publications and Review. It reports current 
data on operations of the Social Security Administration and the results of research and 
analysis pertinent to the social security program, and is issued primarily for distribution 
to agencies directly concerned with the administration of the Social Security Act. State- 
ments in articles do not necessarily reflect final conclusions or official policies of the Social 
Security Administration. Any part of this publication may be reproduced with appropriate 
credit to the BULLETIN. 


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Issues of the Soctat Securrry YEARBOOK, an annual calendar-year supplement to the 
BuLueTIN, ate sold separately by the Superintendent of Documents as follows: 1939, 50 
cents; 1940 and 1941, 70 cents each; 1942, 50 cents; 1943, out of print; 1944, 50 cents; and 
1945, 75 cents. 

















Publications of the Social Security 
Administration 


Purchase orders for publications with prices listed should be accom- 
panied by remittance in check or money order and addressed to the 
Superintendent of Documents, U. S$. Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D. C. Requests for other publications listed should 
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Periodicals 


Social Security Bulletin. Monthly. Subscription Unemployment Compensation Interpretation Service— 
price, $2.00 in United States, Canada, and The Benefit Series. Bureau of Employment 
Mexico; $2.75 in all other countries. Single Security. Monthly. Subscription price, $3.50 
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The Child. Children’s Bureau. Monthly. Sub- 
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Security. Weekly. Processed. 


Annual Report of the Federal Security Agency, Section 
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Social Security Yearbook, 1945. (Seventh annual tions of Public Agencies in Selected Large Cittes. 
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Employment Security Activities. Bureau of Em- Reasons for Opening Cases for Assistance. Bureau 
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Principles Underlying Labor-Dispute Disqualifica- Public Assistance Developments Set New Goals for 
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Women Claimants—Problems in Determining Avail- Characteristics of State Plans for Old-Age Assistance, 
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