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joseph Str 


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joseph Miu 
Art Direct 
Edward K 


Juestions & Answers _——.. 


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This colorful 12-page booklet titled reasons for using Ticonium. An excel- 
“Questions and Answers About Ti- lent piece of Literature, yours for the 
conium,’’ fully illustrating the 7 big asking. 

413 N 


Opinions « 

iter: . 



joseph Strack 

ontributing Editors, 

hur H. Levine, D.D.S. 
joseph Murray, D.D.S. 

Art Director, 
Edward Kasper 

November 1958 Vol. XVII No. 11 



“It's much more resultful to 
apply the ‘soft’ approach dur- 

ing the early weeks than to 
bring in dollars through a ‘get 
tough’ method later on.” 1 


A report on the promising 
studies of an Ohio State Uni- 
versity dental research team 4 


Now is the time to give serious 
thought to thisimportant chore 5 


These days convention time 
means fun and education for 
both dentist and dental wife 7 


An unusual, interesting feature 
about some of America’s dis- 
tinguished women dentists 8 


Questions and answers about 
prepayment plans. An execu- 
tive and a participating dentist 
comment on their experiences 14 

413 N. Pearl St., Albany 1, N. Y. 





Opinions expressed by contributors to TIC 
™agazine do not necessarily reflect the 
views of the publishers. 


THE | 
MENTAL (23% 



Bringing in the fees charged patients for professional services 
is not an automatic process. Because the individual characteris- 
tics of human beings are involved, some special efforts are called 
for if this money is to be kept flowing in with profitable prompt- 
ness. As investigations among dentists have disclosed, these ac- 
tivities pay off, especially when they are made a regular part of 
office procedure. 

CASH CONSCIOUSNFss: One eastern dentist, for instance, makes 
it a habit to say to each patient as he steps from the operating 
room chair, “That will be x-dollars, please.” Asa result, more than 
75 percent of his professional services are on a cash basis. This per- 
centage is tending upward as his casual references to the fee sub- 
ject prompts some, to whom he normally mails bills, to reach for 
their wallets and clear up obligations of modest amounts. This 
practitioner is convinced that the financial factors involved in all 
dental operations should be made a part of chair-side conversa- 
tions. Here is his rationale: “In spite of the emphasis placed today 
on ‘credit living,’ patients expect to pay cash for most of the prod- 
ucts and services they order.”” He backs up this claim by citing 
food and staples purchased at supermarkets, lubrication and gaso- 
line bought at service stations, laundry, utilities, cosmetics, theatre 
tickets, most vacation travel. In stressing the importance of creat- 
ing a cash consciousness among patients, the dentist points out: 
“When dental services are not paid for at the time they are per- 
formed, the bill that is mailed later goes into competition with all 
the others the patient receives.” In addition, the cost of billing, 
bookkeeping, and collection represents expenses that tend to re- 
duce the dentist’s net income. 

BILL PROMPTLY: Collecting for professional services performed 
on a billing basis improves considerably when the billing is coupled 
with an understanding of human nature. This is the reason a 
young practitioner in a new suburban development devotes sev- 
eral minutes each evening to preparing and mailing bills for work 
done that day. “I reason it this way,” he explains. “When a man 
buys a shirt and pays the clerk four dollars there is no ‘pain’ in 
the payment because it represents an exchange. However,” he 
says, “if the customer had to pay money after having the shirt a 
month or more his reactions would be much different.” By getting 
his bills into the hands of patients while the benefits of the pro- 

Page One 

ve Cc November 1958 

fessional services are fresh in their minds, he has 
found that payments are made more promptly and, 
he believes, more willingly. 

There is still another practical reason for this 
practice of billing promptly. By sending out the 
charges while the services are clearly remembered, 
there is less possibility of overlooking a fee or having 
bills pile up until the dentist or his assistant must 
devote hours to clearing up the task. But perhaps 
the most practical reason for abandoning once-a- 
month or twice-a-month billing is the fact that it is 
no longer considered good business procedure. To 
keep their invoicing on a current basis, some com- 
mercial organizations now use a system of order 
writing that produces 
a duplicate which be- 
comes an invoice that is 
mailed within twenty- 
four hours. Since bill- 
ing is part of the busi- 
ness side of a_profes- 
sional practice, the den- 
tist is simply keeping in 
step with progress when 
he applies equally mod- 
ern techniques. 

bill by itself will not 
prompt some patients 
to reach immediately 
for their checkbooks 
But there is a method 
used by some dentists 
that helps bring a bill 
for professional services 
forcefully to the atten- 
tion of the slow-paying 
patient. This involves 
a very short note, mailed 
out three weeks after 
the date of the bill, 
which is as follows: 

Dear Mr. Patterson: 

In reviewing our 
books we find that 
there is in your 
name an outstanding account for $00.00. 

To verify our records will you please confirm 
this charge for professional services in the space 

Thank you. 


Very truly yours, 

Your account record as indicated above is 
GCOPrect «i... 

This request is accompanied by a stamped, ad- 

Page Two 



dressed envelope and the note itself is mailed out 
over the name of the dental office assistant. In one 
office it was found that more than half (57 percent) 
of the envelopes were returned with checks for the 
amounts due the dentist, and of the total number 
sent over a six-months’ period, less than 2 percent 
were ignored. Incidentally, not one of the patients 
claimed an error had been made. In offices where 
only a few of the “reminder” notes need be sent 
out in a month, the requests can be individually 
typed without the time-cost becoming important, 
but a form may be substituted if a quantity is in- 

A less subtle reminder of delinquency is used by a 
dentist who practices 
in a residential area of 
a town of 100,000 popu- 
lation. It is his convic- 
tion that an unpaid ac- 
count approaches the 
danger stage as it nears 
the forty-fifth day from 
the date of billing. 
“Even if some condi- 
tion exists that makes 
it impractical for the 
patient to pay,” he says, 
“I feel it is better to 
have the entire matter 
brought out into the 
open than for me to 
worry along in ignor- 
ance.” To accomplish 
this the dentist sets up 
a time for an office in- 
terview which he an- 
nounces in a letter read- 
ing something like this: 

Dear Mr. Wilkins: 

This Thursday 
evening I will be 
in my office be- 

tween eight and 
nine, although I have 
made no appointments 
for this period. I have 
arranged this so you may stop by—and perhaps 
bring along your check for the $00.00 for which 
you were billed on (date) 
Since this time has been set aside for you exclu- 
sively, Mr. Wilkins, I know I can depend on 
your coming in. 

Thank you. 

Very truly yours, 

peric dc 

very | 
bit lo 
hel pi 

If 1 

The obligation indicated by this special interview 
period is intentional, yet any possibility of embar- 
rassment is eliminated by the “exclusive” arrange- 
ments. This reminder of delinquency produces a 
very high percentage of response even though few 
appear at the office. Instead, checks are mailed in 
before the specified evening or the patients tele- 
phone to promise a definite payment date or ex- 
plain why it will be necessary for them to delay a 
bit longer. In addition to the monetary return, the 
dentist feels the technique has mental benefits in 
helping him learn “where I stand.” 

If the timing of these collection efforts at three 
weeks and at forty-five days seem early for such ac- 
tivities, this promptness is based on the experience 

of credit authorities. As one man who has devoted 
a score of years to collecting overdue accounts states: 
“As a bill grows older it becomes proportionately 
harder—and more costly—to collect. It’s much more 
resultful to apply the ‘soft’ approach during the 
early weeks than to bring in dollars through a ‘get 
tough’ method later on.” This is particularly true 
in a dental practice, where the good-will and the 
early return of the patient are important. 

And, in addition to all these facts, the present 
condition of the economy calls for billing and collec- 
tion practices geared to meet the immediate situa- 

3841 Aspen Street 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 


I'm always amazed how well a surgical extraction 
will heal uneventfully in one patient and a simple 
extraction will cause days of discomfort in another. 

A well-made and well-matched porcelain jacket is 
the most beautiful thing I find in dentistry. 

If someone would invent a simple suction device 
we could attach to our handpiece every time we 
grind gold, we’d do as well as the old-timers who 
stored gold dust in their thick rugs. 

Whenever a patient asks me what dentifrice I use, 
I always tell him that I use whatever samples I get. 

I wish some manufacturers of dentifrices that ad- 

vertise on television would spend some time demon- 
strating correct toothbrushing instead of the “magic” 
of their products. 

Unfortunately, progress to many dentists seems to 
be synonymous with gadgets—or why would they buy 
every new item on the market only to discard them 
the next year? 

Why do patients always fracture a denture tooth 
when eating bread—soft bread? 

Why is it that whenever a filling falls out a pa- 
tient usually starts by saying, “The filling you put 

What kind of man makes a good “family dentist’? 
A survey of mothers revealed the following desirable 
traits they looked for in a “family dentist”: (1) 
arrangement of enough time so that the entire 
family can be checked at the same visit, rather than 
separate appointments for each child; (2) a close 
patient-doctor relationship wherein the dentist him- 
self takes the time to explain the oral condition and 
needs of each member of the family; (3) willingness 
to arrange a family budget plan; and (4) a pleasant, 
friendly demeanor with the children. 

M. J.T. 

Page Three 

November 1958 CEE’ 

ve Cc November 1958 


Text and Photos by Authenticated News 

An Ohio State University dental research team 
has isolated a chemical substance in human saliva 
that inhibits or destroys bacteria commonly asso- 
ciated with tooth decay, Doctor Gordon E. Green, 
bacteriologist and member of the University’s Col- 
lege of Dentistry faculty, reported recently. Doctor 
Green is chief investigator of a six-year-old study 
aimed at learning why some people are seemingly 
“immune” to tooth decay. 

The anti-bacterial factor was described as a chem- 
ical entity which is found in the “globulin fraction” 
of saliva and is apparently peculiar to caries-immune 

Research findings indicate that the substance is a 
protein, or associated with protein, Doctor Green 

Its further identity has not yet been established, 
although the university scientist and his associates 
were able to separate it from caries-immune saliva 
and test its biologic activities. 

Since 1952 the dental researchers have made a 
series of studies to compare the bacteria in the 
mouths of both caries-immune and caries-susceptible 
persons, and to determine effects of salivary compo- 
nents on oral organisms. The “susceptibles’” are 
adults with evidence of considerable tooth decay as 
revealed through clinical examinations. 

Most striking difference in bacterial content of the 
mouths of the two groups of subjects was earlier 
found to be the significantly greater number of lac- 
tobacilli in the saliva of the caries-susceptible. These 
acid-producing bacteria were much lower in number 
and sometimes non-existent in the saliva of caries- 
immune subjects. 

Previous culture studies and laboratory tests in- 
dicated that a ‘“‘substance or mechanism” exists in the 
saliva of the caries-immune persons which could 
change the decay-producing potential of lactoba- 
cilli, and possibly other acid-producing organisms, 
by reducing their numbers and their ability to pro- 
duce acid. 

Recent studies show that the chemical substance, 
which the researchers have now isolated, attaches 
itself to lactobacilli immediately upon contact with 
caries-immune saliva. Growth of these cells also was 
inhibited when they were removed from the saliva 
and placed in other culture media. 

Page Four 

Doctor Gordon E. Green 

Especially significant is the finding that cells 
treated with caries-immune saliva could be inhibited 
in growth or destroyed when placed in caries-sus- 
ceptible saliva. Mixing of fractions of saliva from 
both types of subjects indicate that there is no simi- 
lar anti-bacterial factor in the mouths of the sus- 


Next step in the research study, according to Doc- 
tor Green, is to attempt to discover the source of this 
chemical substance which destroys or controls bac- 
terial growth, and the amounts that can be found in 
the saliva of persons with different tooth-decay rates. 

Doctor Hamilton B. G. Robinson, associate dean 
of the College of Dentistry at Ohio State, is super- 
vising the study. It is part of a larger research project, 
sponsored by Proctor & Gamble Co., dealing with 
causes and control of tooth decay. 

he’s § 

of a ( 
are r 

It is 
the | 


hristmas Card 



At this time—and no later!—a dentist should start 
giving serious thought to the kind of Christmas card 
he’s going to send to his list of patients. Perhaps his 
wife or office assistant may take over this responsi- 

Certainly this gesture is both inexpensive and gen- 
erally welcomed by those remembered by a dentist. 
Probably few patients will critically note the absence 
of a Christmas greeting from their dentist and, there- 
fore, a dentist may “safely” fail to send out cards. 
This misses the point by a wide margin. When cards 
are received, patients will feel a certain warmth, how- 
ever momentary, that their dentist indeed has re- 
membered them, that they are not entirely unim- 
portant in his busy professional or personal life. 

Aside from the sentimental reasons for sending out 
Christmas cards, it represents good public relations. 
It is doubtful wisdom to pass up this once-in-a-year 
opportunity, even if a dentist cannot fully enter into 
the spirit of the season at the early date necessary to 
place a Christmas card order. 

The choice of the Christmas card to be sent to pa- 
tients should not be a hurried one. It may be neces- 

sary to look over several competing lines before the 
“just right” card is found. 

A few words may not be amiss about various types 
of cards available for a dentist’s imprint. These range 
from religious themes to cards of .a non-religious 
character. An almost limitless number of non-re- 
ligious cards are in excellent taste, reflect credit on 
the senders. These include both domestic and im- 
ported cards depicting famous buildings, scenic 
views by various reproduction processes. Many fa- 
mous painters now execute paintings especially for 
Christmas card reproduction. 

In addition, there are humorous cards available, 
some in bad taste. Others are flippant, if not disre- 
spectful of the Christmas season and its spiritual 
significance. Some of these cards are harmless enough 
and may be sent out on a highly selective basis to a 
few patients or friends. It is extremely risky to 
blanket a patient list with such cards, considering 
the probable adverse reaction by many patients. 
Even the harmlessly humorous card may give unex- 
pected offense in some quarters. Most patients, in 
varying degree, have religious ties and convictions. 

Page Five 


AY | nba aS) 


These are strengthened as the Christmas season ap- 
proaches. They may be extremely resentful of any 
card which flippantly assails their convictions and 
beliefs or seems to. 

On the other hand, a dentist may hesitate to send 
out to his patient list a religious card. He may wisely 
settle on a non-religious card which is artistically ex- 
ecuted and in conservative good taste. Or, he may 
compromise by using a card in which, for example, 
a church appears somewhere in the scene as an inci- 
dental part of the whole, and one of uncertain de- 
nominational identification. 

Finally, as a concession to certain faiths, no card 
should be used in which Christmas is abbreviated. 
This, too, can give unintentional offense to some 

For a dentist’s personal mailing list (including 
those who are both patients and friends or close ac- 
quaintances) personal choice may be exercised, with 
less restraint than earlier cautioned. They may be 
less conservative and less impersonal than for a pa- 
tient, list. A family imprint rather than a profes- 
sional one should be used. 

A dentist may wisely extend his Christmas card 
list to include certain non-patients who, neverthe- 
less, he values either professionally or personally. 
These may include elevator starters or operators, 
building janitors, professional colleagues, office 
neighbors, civic and club leaders, certain physicians, 
school nurses, druggists, and others. 

While not, strictly speaking, germane, at least a 
few persons who have served a dentist through the 
year may deserve small tokens of appreciation slip- 
ped inside a Christmas card. Some gift-giving is ob- 
viously getting out of hand. Nevertheless, some per- 
sons who, by their services and thoughtfulness, 
should be remembered, are not. This is a matter for 
a dentist to determine for himself. 

In selecting Christmas cards, good taste has no 
price tag. It is not necessary to go overboard in buy- 
ing Christmas cards; neither should false economy 
be practiced. A small fraction of 1 percent of grass 
receipts should defray all costs of Christmas cards, 
result in getting a card which favorably reflects on 
the sender while giving pleasure to patients. The 
slight postage saving considered, it is probably better 
to send cards first-class. 

(Editor’s Note: The Drawing Board, P. O. Box 505, Dallas, 
Texas, specializes in cards designed especially for dentists.) 

P. O. Drawer 307 
Beaumont, California 

the § 









A Conventional Story 


November means crisp autumn weather, football 
games, Thanksgiving Day—and the national dental 
convention in Dallas, Texas. From all parts of the 
country, dentists and their wives have migrated to 
the great State of Texas for the event. It is fun time 
and educational time as well. 

A dental convention coaxes dentists from the con- 
centration and confinement of their work and allows 
them to relax and be stimulated at the same time. 
They exchange ideas, reminiscences, and anecdotes 
(some good—some bad). They laugh more than 
usual. Many of them give clinics, make speeches, and 
preside at meetings. Their voices are hoarse for days 
from all the extra conversation in smoke-filled rooms, 
and their hands ache from shaking hands with old 
friends they haven't seen for months. Their tensions 
disappear, and their wives find them much easier to 
live with. 

For this reason, if for no other, the wives of dent- 
ists heartily approve of conventions. Of course, they 
are particularly partial to conventions away from 
home, for when their husbands attend they usually 
are invited to go along for the ride and some of the 
fun. When the conventions are at home, many wives 
manage to get in on some of the evening festivities— 
cocktails, dinner, dancing. 

However, a large percentage of dental wives in 
times past have stayed at home, going about their 
own affairs quite as if a dental convention were not 
in town, paying little attention to the plans and prob- 
lems of the profession. 

Little by little, through the years, all that has 
changed. With the formation of women’s auxiliaries, 
affliated with the various dental societies, the ma- 
jority of dental wives have become actively inter- 
ested in dental problems, especially those related to 
dental health, and when a dental convention takes 
place, the various dental auxiliaries have a conven- 
tion of their own at the same time to discuss their 
plans in relation to the larger dental health picture. 

After being an auxiliary member for a good many 
years, (a very laggard member, we confess) , this year 
we personaily attended an auxiliary convention for 
the first time, and were we amazed—and was it fun! 

When the dentist in the family started off jauntily 
on Monday morning for the convention headquar- 

ters to attend an eight-thirty breakfast with members 
of his particular dental specialty, we were not far 
behind him. We had a date ourselves at the Dental 
Health Brunch which was the opening event of the 
dental auxiliary meeting at a prominent midtown 

It was a stimulating affair, with crowds of vital 
wives of dentists pouring through the doors of the 
hotel, arms filled with flowers and props with which 
they planned to illustrate cleverly the progress they 
had been making in their dental health programs. 
It was fun to line up to register and receive our 
badges and have coffee served in the foyer to revive 
our early morning spirits until the doors of the din- 
ing room opened and we could be fed. 

The food was delicious, the company at our table 
most stimulating. Everyone seemed to have accom- 
plished an enormous number of things before com- 
ing to this early morning event. Everyone appeared 
to be filled with enthusiasm and good-will. Everyone 
had on a new hat. 

The program was excellent. Group after group 
put on their skits dramatizing their dental health ac- 
tivities. A prominent dentist, who had foregone his 
own convention to speak at ours, told us how im- 
portant we women were in the over-all dental health 
picture, especially in preventive dentistry. He praised 
the large amount of money we yearly poured into the 
program and the work we had been doing in the past. 
At the same time he challenged us with the reminder 
that the growing birth rate meant far more effort 
(and money) in the future. 

Then came elections, and we dishanded, to meet 
the next day for installation of officers and a report 
on the National Association of Dental Auxiliaries 
by the president, Mrs. Cecil W. Neff. A fashion show, 
like a dab of whipped cream, topped off the affair. 

When the dentist in the family came home from 
his day at the big dental convention downtown, no 
longer did we listen enviously to the account of his 
stimulating day. Instead, we sat on the edge of our 
chair waiting. We had a conventional story of our 
own and could hardly wait to tell it. 

1993 Lucile Avenue 
Los Angeles 39, California 

Page Seven 

November 1958 AI Cc 

Doctor Helen E. Myers 

Doctor C. Marcella Heller was raised in Ideal, 
South Dakota, and now practices in Faith, South 
Dakota. An ideal and a faith were possibly the at- 
tributes that made Doctor Heller the only woman 
dentist currently following her profession in the en- 
tire state of South Dakota. 

As such, she is one of slightly over 2,000 women 
dentists in the United States (1950 census), a num- 
ber comprising less than 3 percent of the nation’s 
total. By comparison, 80 percent of Finland's den- 
tists are women and perhaps 45 percent of Vene- 
zuela’s. Nor is this ratio destined for an early change, 
as only slightly over 100 women students were en- 
rolled in U.S. dental colleges during the past scho- 
lastic year; less than | percent. 

Doctor Heller’s parents were homesteaders in 
Ideal, South Dakota. She grew up there and gradu- 
ated from high school. She attended business college 
in Nebraska and worked in Omaha until she ac- 
qjuired sufficient funds for college. In three years she 
earned an A.B. degree in economics from the Uni- 
versity of Redlands (California). During World 
War II she served in the American Red Cross club 
program in Hawaii and Guam. For a short period, 
when the war ended, she taught in an Army school 
in Hawaii, then rejoined the American Red Cross 
for four years in Japan, Europe, New Orleans, and 

About this time she decided upon a dental career. 
In 1952 she was admitted to Northwestern Univer- 
sity Dental School after completing prerequisite sci- 
ence courses at the University of Arkansas. She joined 
a small “accelerated” group that completed four 
years of study in three, receiving her degree of D.D.S. 
in 1955. After qualifying for an Illinois license, she 
associated with an established dentist in the Chicago 
Loop district. A year later she took the South Dakota 
examinations, given at the State Penitentiary, and 

In the next few days, Doctor Heller made a quick 

Page Eight 

Doctor C. Marcella Heller 



tour of her native state and felt so completely at 
home, so wonderfully free in the land of the big sky, 
that she decided to return. She settled down in Faith, 
home to some 600 souls, and set up her office in the 
Memorial Hospital. There had been no dentist in 
Faith for over two years. Her nearest colleague is 
located seventy miles north in Lemmon, while an- 
other practices over 100 miles east. The townfolk of 
Faith and the neighboring ranchers keep the only 

woman dentist in South Dakota quite busy. 

Doctor Heller is of the opinion that, with so many 
women in the national working force, an increasing 
number should consider the profession of dentistry. 
As a dentist, she likes to feel that she is providing a 
useful and necessary health service; she likes people, 
likes to work with her hands, and likes the indepen- 
dence of her own practice. She has a word of encour- 
agement for the older student and the one with a 
limited bank account. She herself began dental 
school when she was past thirty and was probably 
the oldest in her class of some ninety-five men. She 

got | 

of N 

of b 



Doctor Ruth D. Carter 



had no financial assistance in her college work and 
got by with a part-time job during school and with 
savings from her earning years. 

Meet Doctor Kinninger 

There are some 525 schools and over 500,000 stu- 
dents in the Los Angeles school system. It is the 
second largest in the nation, surpassed only by that 
of New York City. The dental health education of 
this vast set-up is under the direction of a dentist 
supervisor, Doctor Alice Kinninger, graduate of the 
University of Southern California School of Den- 
tistry, former orthodontist, and mother of two teen- 
age daughters. 

The dentist supervisor works under the director 
of health education and health services branch (a 
physician) and formulates and directs the school 
dental program; supervises school dentists and dental 
hygienists as to school dental examinations and den- 
tal health education; advises physicians, nurses, 

Doctor Henriette Poetsch 

teachers, and others as to their participation in den- 
tal health education; coordinates the activities of the 
dental section with other educational sections; 
adopts or prepares dental health education materials 
and, finally, cooperates with public and private den- 
tal individuals and organizations in the utilization 
of community resources for improving dental health 
education and health services. 

In a school system as large as Los Angeles this is 
a big job. 

One of the more interesting projects of this de- 
partment is the annual “Smile of the Year” contest, 
adopted by many school systems since it was origin- 
ated in Los Angeles some six years ago. Each year 
the principals of junior and senior high schools are 
invited to join in sponsoring this event. Currently, 
there are fifty-two schools cooperating in the pro- 
gram, in which two winners will be selected, a boy 
and a girl. It is perhaps incidental that attractive and 
healthy teeth make for a winning smile. 

Doctor Kinninger graduated from dental school in 
1928, practiced orthodontics for a number of years, 
then retired temporarily to raise a family. She is to- 
day the mother of two teen-age daughters, the elder 
of which just recently returned from a year’s ex- 
change scholarship in Denmark. 


Here Is Doctor Myers 

Doctor Helen E. Myers of Lancaster, Pa., is sym- 
bolic of, and perhaps the one person most responsible 
for, an entirely new field of endeavor for the woman 
dentist, one that is slightly over a decade old: the 

Doctor Myers is the first and only woman dentist 
to serve in the U.S. Army. From the time she grad- 
uated from ‘Temple University (class of ’41) until 
she was commissioned a captain in 1951, she cam- 
paigned for the right of women to serve. Even during 
the war emergency there were no provisions for do- 

Page Nine 

CEC November 1958 

Probably the first woman in the United 
States to practice dentistry was Emeline 
Roberts Jones. She was married in 1854 to 
a dentist in New Haven, Connecticut, and 
assisted him in his work. When he died in 
1864, she carried on his practice. 

The first woman to receive a dental de- 
gree in the United States was Lucy Hobbs 
Faylor of Cincinnati. At first no dental col- 
lege would accept her, just as medical schools 
refused to enroll women in the beginning. 
She proceeded to serve an apprenticeship 
with a Doctor Wardle in her home town. 


She moved to Iowa and was invited to mem- 
bership in the dental association of that 
state. Finally, she was admitted to the Ohio 
Dental College and received her degree in 

By 1880, women were fairly generally ac- 
cepted in the dental schools. Though most 
women pioneers in dentistry were Euro- 
peans, by 1892 there were enough United 
States women dentists to form the Women’s 
Dental Association, the forerunner of the 
Association of American Women Dentists. 

ing so. By 1951, however, legislation was enacted and 
regulations changed so that women could be accepted 
into the dental corps. 

During World War II, the U.S. Navy did have 
two women naval reserve dentists on duty: one at 
the Great Lakes Naval Training Center (1944 to 
1946) and the other at the San Diego Naval Hospital 
(1944 to 1946). One of these has since resigned her 
commission, while the other is on inactive status in 
the grade of commander. 

Doctor Myers’ career is a tightly interwoven triad 
of aviation, dentistry, and the military. Her interest 
in dentistry undoubtedly derived in part from her 
dentist-father, but also from her passion for flying 
and the need for an independent income to finance 
it. Perhaps her battle to become the Army’s first lady 
dentist is a sublimation of her campaign to allow 
women into military aviation. 

Doctor Myers graduated from Temple University 
in 1941 and interned in oral surgery in Philadelphia. 
She located in Lancaster and has practiced there ever 
since, except for her stint in the service, presently 
limiting herself to exodontics and prosthetics, as well 
as operating her own laboratory. 

On Sunday she and her retired father conduct a 
“rocking chair” dental practice on the open porch 
of her Pennsylvania Dutch grandfather’s dairy farm 
at Christiana amidst the chattering of squirrels and 

Her hiatus in the Army was distinguished by her 
uniqueness—she was the first and the only one—by 
her insistence on attending the officers’ orientation 
course and participating in crawling the infiltration 
course, and by her overseas service in Trieste and 
Japan. On the boat to Europe she fashioned a den- 
ture for one of the seamen with ship’s tools and ma- 
terials picked up in Naples. 

Most of her spare time has been devoted to avia- 

Page Ten 

tion from her own Piper Cruiser and Culver Cadet 
in the 1940's through courtesy flights in military craft 
while in the service up to the present with the Lan- 
caster Civil Air Patrol. Any day now she hopes again 
to own her own plane, finances permitting. 

She feels her career in dentistry, in the military, 
and in aviation has helped to implement the credo 
of the International Soroptimist Association, of 
which she is a member: 

“To promote a universal spirit of friend- 
ship and service as being conducive to inter- 
national peace.” 

This Is Doctor Rachlin 

There is today but one woman dentist on active 
duty with the military. She is Captain Raya Rach- 
lin, serving presently in Athens, Greece, having gone 
on active duty with the U.S. Air Force Reserve in 
January 1954. Captain Rachlin is a general prac 

Doctor Alice Kinninger supervising dental examination of children. 


no \ 





» in 


Commander Sara G. Krout, first woman dentist to serve in the 
U. S. military. 

titioner and graduated from Howard University in 

During the past five years, the U. S. Public Health 
Service has had three women dentists, two of them 
serving as dental interns (1955 and 1956), both re- 
signing at the end of their terms. Presently, there are 
no women dentists on duty. 

Both Major Myers (inactive, Army Reserve) and 
Captain Rachlin (active, Air Corps Reserve) main- 
tain that they have asked for no special considera- 
tion because they are women, and have received 
none. The rules and regulations of the four services 
take the same position. However, there are some dif- 
ferences that should be kept in mind. One military 
bulletin puts it this way: the dentist most desired by 
the military is the one who is career-minded; mar- 
riage tending to divert the female officer to family 
pursuits. Pregnancy requires mandatory discharge 
from the service. If married and the husband is also 

Captain Raya Rachlin, then Lieutenant Rachlin, being commissioned 
in 1953. 

in the military, joint assignment to the same base is 
not always possible. Finally, female applicants may 
not have dependents under age eighteen. In the 
Navy, too, women dentists are not assigned to duty 
on board ships or with units of the Fleet Marine 

Women, understandably, wear uniforms different 
from those of male dental officers. They are similar 
to those of the WACS, WAVES, and WAFS. 

Introducing Doctor Poetsch 

Doctor Henriette Poetsch is a graduate, class of ’52, 
of the Faculdade de Odontologia de Pelotas da Uni- 
versidade da Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). She re- 
cently returned to her home, having finished a one- 
year scholarship at the University of Alabama, doing 
graduate work in pedodontics. These fellowships 
are granted to outstanding students by the Rotary 
International Foundation to promote education and 
international friendship. 

In Brazil students are admitted to the four-year 
university course after four years of high school and 
three years of colegio (college) , the latter being pre- 
university courses in basic subjects, not pre-dental 
as such. Many women are enrolled in dentistry, with 
the number increasing yearly. Most of the women 
graduates are in private practice. (In the United 
States about two-fifths are self-employed.) 

Doctor Poetsch recommends dentistry as a profes- 
sion for women because of its many branches and 
specialties and because of the flexibility of its hours, 
allowing for a combination of career and other ac- 

A Mother-Son Combination 

Doctor E. Pearle Bishop and Doctor Donald K. 
Bishop, dentists in Denver, Colorado, form the only 
mother-son combination in the nation. They share 
an office. 

After thirty-five years of practice, Doctor Pearle 
feels there is no other profession, especially for wo- 
men, “so gratifying.” She comes from a family of 
dentists and physicians, although she first studied 
music and education. However, with two children to 
support, she was unable to make a living in teaching 
either music or school. In 1913 she went to work in 
the University of Denver dental laboratory and in 
1917 entered dental school. Despite her duties as 
mother, lab assistant, instructor, and student, she 
graduated in 1921 highest in her class. 

“Dentistry is an outstanding profession for wom- 
en,” concludes Doctor Bishop, “from both humani- 
tarian and financial viewpoints. I don’t think I’ve 
ever heard of a woman dentist who hasn't been a suc- 
cess.” However, she does make this reservation: “To 
be a dentist takes considerable mechanical ability, 

Page Eleven 

November 1958 zg EC 

z & Cc November 1958 

Upsilon Alpha Sorority was founded in 
1919 at a time when considerably more wo- 
men attended dental schools. Chapters are 
currently active at the Universities of Cali- 
fornia, Minnesota, Illinois, Southern Cali- 
fornia, Texas, and at Northwestern and 
Marquette universities. The chapters at the 
Universities of Toronto and Pittsburgh are 

Like the dental fraternities, membership 
is by invitation. Chapters can be formed 
only in schools with at least three women 
students. As a result, no new chapters have 
appeared for quite some time. However, a 
chapter remains active so long as the alum- 
nae members (local and non-resident) carry 
on, even though no women are in school. 
Currently, membership is at its lowest: un- 


der 200. 

Upsilon Alpha tries to stimulate interest 
in dentistry among women; to assist under- 
graduate women while in school and, at 
graduation, to promote study clubs; to keep 
in touch with women dentists in areas iso- 
lated from other women dentists, and to 
serve as a strong tie between its members 

The Association of American Women 
Dentists was founded in 1921 and is open to 
any woman dentist who is a member of the 
American Dental Association. It has no sci- 
entific program (essays, clinics) and meets 
in conjunction with the annual A.D.A. con- 
vention. Its purposes are similar to those of 
Upsilon Alpha and both have scholarship 
loan funds. 

a liking for dentistry, and lots of hard work—both 
mental and physical.” 

This ls Doctor Carter 

Doctor Ruth Durley Carter has rolled up an im- 
pressive list of firsts to her credit during the past 
decade: in college she was the first president of Beta 
Kappa Chi (science honorary) ; in private practice 
she was the first woman president of the Mound City 
Dental Society; also, she was the first woman presi- 
dent of the Mid-Western States Dental Association, 
the first Negro admitted to membership in the St. 
Louis Dental Society, the first woman admitted to 
St. Louis University’s Graduate School of Dentistry 
(in orthodontics) , and the second woman admitted 
to the undergraduate school. 

Doctor Carter, born in Tennessee, was reared 
there, in Ohio, and in West Virginia. In college she 
was active in her sorority, on the debating team, in 
the French and German clubs, the Y.W.C.A., the 
N.A.A.C.P., and on the swimming team. She gradu- 
ated with honors in pedodontics in 1948 from the 
School of Dentistry of Tennessee’s Meharry Medical 
College and began private practice in St. Louis. 

She then entered the city health service, doing 
dentistry for children. It was soon obvious that the 
set-up was inadequate to serve all the people of the 
community and Doctor Carter supplied the neces- 
sary inside data so that the interested civic organiza- 
tions could launch a campaign to remedy the discrep- 
ancy. The city administration responded by institut- 

Page Twelve 

ing a completely integrated public health service in 
St. Louis. 

In 1950, Doctor Carter applied for membership 
in the St. Louis Dental Society, a component of the 
Missouri State Association and American Dental 
Association. Heretofore members of her race were 
not accepted. A spirited debate followed, both in the 
society and out. Editorials appeared in the daily 
press, as well as statements by the president of the 
society. In 1951 an amendment to the constitution 
was passed admitting all qualified dentists regardless 
of creed, color or national origin. 

Doctor Carter is currently completing her gradu- 
ate course in orthodontics and plans to practice either 
in St. Louis or Los Angeles. She is married and has 
two daughters. 

Doctor Barkann 

Doctor Lillian Barkann of New York City, who 

chas practiced dentistry for over forty years and has 

lectured in periodontics for over twenty-five years, 
is frankly disappointed that so few women enter 
dentistry and is at a loss to explain it. She notes, for 
example, that the Columbia University School of 
Dental and Oral Surgery, in which she has taught in 
the past, does not accept women students. 

It was Doctor Barkann who, in a recent lecture 
tour, discovered that 80 percent of Finland’s dentists 
are women, and are quite up-to-date in their den- 
tal training and skills. She also visited Venezuela re- 
cently on a lecture tour and found tha: 40 percent 

of the 

to be 

and f 
one I 



of the students at the University of Zula School of 
Dentistry at Maracaibo are women. 

Doctor Barkann feels that young women will have 
to be sold on dentistry as a career, that there is a 
need for dentists, that women are more and more 
seeking new careers, that women have the digital 
dexterity needed for the field and, being “gentle 
creatures,” they would minister kindly to their pa- 

And Here Is Doctor Rizzo 

Doctor Dorothy R. Rizzo, Chicago pedodontist 
and former secretary of the A.A.W.D., is a product of 
one method of entering the field of dentistry: the 
gradualist school. She started out as a part-time den- 


tal assistant while attending high school. Upon grad- 
uation she became a full-time assistant for several 
years. She then studied dental hygiene, graduated, 
and practiced in that field. Finally she took up den- 
tistry, which is now her profession. 

Not only is there a shortage of women dentists 
and women dental students, but also a shortage of 
literature on the subject. Doctors Dorothea Radusch 
of Minneapolis and Mildred Dickerson of Washing- 
ton, D. C., are ever willing to remedy this lack and 
the author is ever grateful to them for their assist- 


240 So. La Cienega Boulevard 
East Beverly Hills, California 

Thanks be for egg yolk and albumen 

That help to keep teeth sound and human! 
Thanks be for apple, tangerine, 

And pear that help to keep them clean! 

As host I glow with gratitude 

For all the minerals in the food! 

Yet, since I must face sugar, starch, 

Inevitably I will be arch 

\nd add my living might be poor 

If no one yielded to their lure! 

So praise the celery and the fruit 

And blessings on the crown and root! 
But should my guests pause long on pie, 
[ shall not bow my head and cry, 

But gracefully accept my lot— 

And open office on the dot! 

November 1958 vi € 

by Helen Harrington 

Page Thirteen 


PB, eva 



Many dentists are skeptical about prepayment 
dental plans of whatever kind. In fact this resistance 
is one of the major reasons why these plans have not 
spread at a faster pace than they have. Some inter- 
esting commentary on this situation comes from 
Doctor Bissel B. Palmer, originator and president of 
Group Health Dental Insurance, Inc. Doctor Palmer 
started out twenty years ago to develop a plan that 
would bring complete dental care to a large part 
of the population that otherwise would not receive 
that care. He also sought to develop in that plan a 
pilot program that would meet the needs for pre- 
payment dental health care he believed labor, con- 
sumer, and other groups would soon be seeking. 

Although the First District Dental Society of New 
York has given its approval to Doctor Palmer’s 
GHDI Plan and although more than 5,000 dentists 
in New York City and twelve surrounding counties 
are participating in the program, there still are a 
number of non-participating dentists who are du- 
bious about GHDI and all other prepayment sys- 

Doctor Palmer, who must have the patience of 
Job, the wisdom of Solomon, and the diplomacy of 
Lord Chesterfield after his two-decade struggle, has 
answered more questions than an army of TV quiz 
contestants. Those questions have been shot at him 
by dental society representatives, charitable organ- 
ization people, insurance executives, dental labor- 
atory owners, dentists, patients, researchers, actu- 
aries, editors, reporters, public officials, legislators, 
welfare authorities, lawyers, politicians, and a host 
of others. 

One question that is always being asked in one 
form or another is this: “Isn’t GHDI and all other 
prepayment plans a step towards socialized dentis- 

Here is how Doctor Palmer answers it: 

“On the contrary. Thevoluntary health insurance 
movement in the United States has all but stopped 
the compulsory health insurance movement in both 

Page Fourteen 


ie - 


the medical care and surgical care fields. 

“But dentistry has lagged behind in the voluntary 
prepayment movement. This is why corporation and 
union-sponsored closed panel, contract forms of 
dentistry have been spreading. These new patterns 
of dental services are meeting a need, a need that, ob- 
viously, was not being met before. 

“The fact that but one out of every three persons 
in the United States sees a dentist in the course of 
the year, and that even a smaller proportion of the 
population receives adequate dental care regularly, 
means that there is a problem which is begging for 
solution. Let us, the dentists of the United States, 
provide the leadership for that solution. If we don’t, 
others will. GHDI is one way one group of dentists 
hope to make needed dental care available and to 
keep dental practice private and free in the process.” 

The Committee on Dental Health Care Programs 
for Groups of the Dental Society of the State of New 
York commented on this plan and other plans* last 
November as follows: 

“This first plan, as well as the others which fol- 
lowed it, were originally projected as pilot studies, to 
determine actuarial figures in the utilization of a 
plan of this kind, with their very low fee schedules 
for providing dental care. The question that de- 
velops is: when does a pilot study with unrealistic 
fees become an established pattern of acceptance on 
an economically unsound basis from which it would 
be difficult for the profession to recover? The longer 

. this situation continues, the greater will be the possi- 

bility of lowering the standard of performance of the 

“Whereas there can be no question of the highest 
motives on the part of individuals interested only in 
the greater distribution of dental health care serv- 
ices, it remains the conviction of this chairman, that 
dentistry, with its tremendous backlog of accumu- 
lated needs and prejudices, both physical and men- 
tal, can best be approached through the child, to let 

* Dental Insurance Plan, Inc. and Green Shield Dental Plan. 

he program develop with the patient to adulthood, 
rough the mechanism of compulsory recall.” 

_ Some time before the committee's report appeared, 
* Doctor Palmer had on numerous occasions faced the 
| question, “Why are the fee schedules in GHDI lower 
‘than those in private practice?” 

' The answer is that prepayment plans are new; 
there is no background of experience on which to 
draw. Consequently all such plans today are more 

“No. The medical and surgical insurance plans 
have not had the slightest effect on the regular fees 
of physicians and surgeons. Millions of medical pa- 
tients insured under these plans know that the fee 
schedules of these plans differ from the regular fee 
schedules of the participating physicians and sur- 
geons. Every physician, every surgeon, and every 
dentist participating in prepayment programsmakes 
it very clear that the prepayment plan fees are spe- 

or less pilot programs, experimental projects, and cial fees available only to patients who are insured 

thus all procedures must be conservative: “Before under the plan.” 

we can run we must crawl or, at the most, walk.” The GHDI schedule of fees carries the following 

Doctor Palmer explains further: “Our schedule notice for all insured patients to read: 
of fees—subject to re- “The following list 
view in the light of ex- of fees to be paid to 
perience—is only for pa- ON BRACES Participating Dentists 
ary tients who have a gross > : and Participating Den- 
ind family income of $5,000 Titian beauties, glamorous blondes, tal Specialists is not to 
of or less Above this in- Who do not keep their teeth in bonds, be confused with the 
ms come, the participating May find some mousy small brunette normal fees charged pa- 
ob- dentist is completely Getting romance they thought to get. tients by those dentists. 
unrestricted in his Nor is this a commit- 
ons fees.” — Frank M. Arovet —— ment of dentists to ren- 
ol Doctor Palmer points der services at these fees 
the out that private dental to other than insured 
rly, fees vary greatly as between communities and even patients of families having a gross annual income of 
for neighborhoods and no fee schedule could be devised $5,000 or less. The differential between the fees list- 
tes, to fit any and all of these variations. He says that ed below and the fees normally charged for non-in- 
n't, much of the income from these prepayment plans sured patients represents the contribution of the 
Sts represent “new dental money” that helps to increase dental profession to the operation of the GHDI 
to the participating dentist’s income, to fill unused Plan.” 
ss." chair-time, and to utilize ancillary personnel, mak- Another question dentists ask quite often is this: 
ums ing the dentist’s work easier, more productive, and “Can any dentist become a participating dentist in 
jew more profitable. such a voluntary prepayment plan?” 
last He also stresses that dentists ought to give their The answer: “Yes, any dentist registered or li- 
moral support to any ethical, sound movement that censed to practice in his State.” 
tol- combats compulsory health insurance. Dentists And another question: “How long must a dentist 
» to should also devote a certain amount of their time agree to act as a participating dentist?” 
fa to the lower income groups, at lower than their nor- The answer: “Under the GHDI Plan, the Par- 
iles mal fees, he believes. “If this can be done on other ticipating Dentist Agreement may be terminated by 
de- than a ‘charity’ basis, so much the better,’”” he com- the dentist or the GHDI at any time on 30 days’ 
stic ments. And finally, he points out, such programs as notice.” 
on GHDI serve not only employees but the executives A number of dentists, apparently concerned about 
uld of the corporations which employ them. Such exec- fitting these new patients into reguiar office hour 
ger utives benefit from the idemnity the prepayment schedules, have asked: “How many patients must | 
)SSI- plan offers in meeting part of their dental bills. “The take under the GHDI Plan?” 
the participating dentist has everything to gain,” Doctor The answer: “No more than you desire.” 

Palmer sums up, “while the dentist who does not Dentists will be interested in the experiences and 
rest participate risks the loss of patients who join the pre- opinions of Doctor John P. Traugott, who has been 
yin payment plan and consequently turn from the non- a participating dentist in GHDI since it started in 
erv- participating dentist to the participating dentist for the summer of 1954. 
hat their dental services.” He comments on one bread-and-butter phase of 
nu Another query usually made in connection with the plan that some dentists have been concerned 
en- fees is: “Won't such a fee schedule actually tend to about: 
let reduce dental fees—become the standard fee sched- “I have had several patients who were enrolled in 

ule in private practice?” 

Jan. 2 . 
Doctor Palmer’s answer is reassuring: 

the Plan. These patients were in my practice before 
they become enrolled and all are of families having 

Page Fifteen 

November 1958 g t 4 Cc 

ve Cc November 1958 

above $5,000 annual income. Because of this factor, 
according to the Participating Dentist’s Agreement, 
there was no restriction on my fees and those charged 
were my usual ones. 

“The services rendered consisted of prophylaxes, 
X-rays, gold and porcelain inlays as well as fixed 
bridges. Although there has been uneasiness among 
some members of the profession because patients, 
aware of the special schedule of fees for families hav- 
ing under $5,000 annual income, might not take 
kindly to the fact that I was charging my usual fees, 
my experience has been entirely pleasant in this re- 
spect. In no case has any mention been made by the 
GHDI patients about the difference between the 
fees charged and those appearing in the GHDI sched- 
ule. In most instances the difference was consider- 
able. It was not necessary for me to lower my usual 
fees and the patients seemed pleased that part of the 
costs would be indemnified by GHDI. In all in- 
stances in which GHDI paid part of the fee, the dif- 
ference was paid by the patient.” 

Discussing the paperwork involved, Doctor Trau- 
gott says: “Another early fear expressed by some 
dentists was that the completion of claim forms 
would be an arduous, time-consuming procedure. I 
have not found this to be so. Of course any insur- 
ance claim form must state when and what services 
were rendered, but the GHDI form is so set up that 
the subscriber fills in all the other required informa- 
tion and the dentist’s part is comparatively simple.” 

He underlines a fact often cited by Doctor Palmer, 
that the GHDI fee schedule does not tend to depress 
the regular fees of dentists. He says: “Although my 
GHDI patients are fully aware of the schedule of 
fees of the Plan, the matter has never come up in 
conversation. Apparently, it is an understood and 
accepted fact that the fees paid to dentists by GHDI 
represent an insurance benefit and are not to be 
confused with private practice fees.” He adds: “In 
this group (under $5,000 income) we find the great- 
est neglect of dental care and consequently, in the 
full development of the Plan, the important increase 
in the percentage of the population seeking dental 
care will offset any difference in the fees. It seems 
clear, therefore, that the important factor is the ef- 

Page Sixteen 

fect that GHDI will have on the incomes of the 
dentists, and I am confident that it will be favor- 

Doctor Traugott sums up as follows: 

“T have been glad to be one of the more than 3,700 
participating dentists in GHDI for a number of 
reasons. First, I am in accord with the general phi- 
losophy underlying the Plan. I believe that dentists 
have a responsibility to understand the problem of 
providing dental care for the middle-low income 
groups and should participate in any sound pro- 
grams activated for this purpose. It must be remem- 
bered that dentistry is a monopoly. Under the State 
law it can be practiced only by those who meet cer- 
tain educational requirements. Consequently, den- 
tists alone are in a position to solve this problem. 
In our system of government, the granting of a mo- 
nopoly carries with it a demand for responsibility. 
It is because I recognize that this responsibility ex- 
tends to the individual dentist that I am glad to 
have the opportunity of taking my share. 

“Should the dental profession fail to meet this re- 
sponsibility and should the problem of providing 
dental care for large groups in the population re- 
main unsolved, the history of both medicine and den- 
tistry demonstrates clearly that the government 
granting the monopoly will, if necessary, take over 
any responsibility which the professions fail to meet. 
A trend has been established in meeting such health 
problems by the institution of the voluntary prepay- 
ment system. An astonishing proportion of the pop- 
ulation is already enrolled in the various hospital 
and medical plans. The consciousness of the need 
for a prepayment dental plan is apparent in many 
directions, and the dental profession must be ready 
to fulfill its role.” 

A Dentist’s Experience in Administering a Prepayment Dental 
Plan.” Paper read before the American Public Health Asso- 
ciation, Atlantic City, N. J., November 13, 1956. 
“Dental Health Care Programs for Groups,” The New York 
State Dental Journal, Vol. 23, No. 9, November 1957. 
“Why I Participate in the Group Health Dental Insurance 
(GHDI) Plan,” John P. Traugott, D.D.S., Annals of Dentistry, 
Vol. XVI, No. 1, March 1957. 





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