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August 1956 + Volume 3 + Number 2 




















The News in Review 







Wor_LD Topay—Part II 








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Secretary-General’s Trip 

SKJOLD concluded a two-week visit 
to United Nations member countries 
in Eastern and Central Europe on July 
12, when he arrived in Geneva for the 
summer session of the Economic and 
Social Council. Mr. Hammarskjold’s 
itinerary included Warsaw, Stockholm, 
Helsinki, Moscow, Kiev, Minsk, 
Prague, Vienna and Belgrade. He was 
accompanied by Lennart Finnmark, 
Personal Assistant and Chief of the 
General Assembly Affairs Section, and 
William Ranallo, Personal Aide. Un- 
der-Secretary Ilya Tchernychev joined 
the Secretary-General’s party in Mos- 
cow, and Dragoslav Protitch, Under- 
Secretary for Political and Security 
Affairs, joined for the Vienna-Belgrade 
portion of the trip. Under-Secretary 
Ralph Bunche met with Mr. Hammar- 
skjold in Geneva, to attend meetings 
on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. 

On July 19 the Secretary-General 
began a short series of visits to Jerusa- 
lem, Cairo and Amman, following 
which he returned to Geneva. 

Before his departure from New 
York, the Secretary-General noted that 
he had received invitations from other 
countries, such as Albania, Hungary, 
Bulgaria and Rumania. He said that 
he would not have time to visit them 
on this trip, but that he hoped he 
would be able to do so at a later date. 

Security Council 

B* a vote of two in favor, seven 
against and two abstentions, the 
Security Council on June 26 decided 
against taking up the question of a 
“threat to peace” in Algeria. Thir- 
teen Asian and African Members 
of the United Nations had requested 
that the Council consider what they 
regarded as a “grave situation” in 
that country. They said that the situa- 
tion in Algeria had worsened since 
April 12, when the matter had been 
called to the attention of the Council 
as involving a threat to peace and se- 
curity, infringement of the basic right 
of self-determination, and violation of 
other fundamental human rights. 
France held that the matter was 
strictly within her domestic jurisdic- 
tion and that there was no threat to 
international peace and_ security. 

UNR—August 1956 

Therefore France said, the Council 
was not competent to intervene. (See 
page 41.) 

Morocco and Tunisia 

{> Security Council voted unani- 
mously on July 20 to recommend 
the admission of Morocco to the 
United Nations. The recommendation 
will be considered by the General As- 
sembly at its next session, scheduled 
to begin on November 12. Also on the 
Assembly’s agenda at that time will be 
the membership of the Sudan, which 
was approved unanimously by the Se- 
curity Council last February. 

Morocco applied for membership 
on July 13, and the Security Council’s 
vote was on a resolution submitted by 

Another north African state, Tu- 
nisia, applied for United Nations mem- 
bership on July 20. 

World Economic Survey 

HE problem of mass poverty in a 

large part of the world continues 
to be as stubborn as ever, according to 
the “World Economic Survey, 1955,” 
published in July by the United Na- 
tions. The study (see page 14) raises 
the question of whether present pro- 
grams represent the best that can be 
done toward world-wide economic de- 

The “Survey,” which provided back- 
ground for discussion of the world 
economic situation by the Economic 
and Social Council’s twenty-second 
session, held in Geneva, also reviews 
the ten-year period following World 
War II. It notes that: 

. . » The total volume of output of 
factories, farms and mines in the 
private enterprise economies rose by 
about two-thirds from the prewar pe- 
riod to 1954. 

. . . The gap in production between 
the developed and underdeveloped 
areas has been growing. 

. . . The expansion of world trade 
during the past ten years has been 
much more rapid than in the corre- 
sponding years after World War I. 

. . » Increases in industrial produc- 
tion in the centrally-planned econo- 
mies have been relatively large, but 
not directly comparable to the growth 
in private enterprise economies. 

Two United Nations regional stud- 
ies also supplied basic economic infor- 
mation for ECosoc’s Geneva meetings, 
reviewing conditions in Africa and the 
Middle East. (See pages 24 and 27.) 

Speaking before the Council on 
July 16 as it began debate on the 
world economic situation, Secretary- 
General Dag Hammarskjold declared: 

“Never in the history of man has 
his economic pulse been so quick, 
never has he shown so great a degree 
of flexibility or so rapid and continu- 
ous an increase in work efficiency.” 
But, he said, unfortunately “the 
achievement in stabilizing the national 
economies of the developed countries 
finds no parallel in the stabilization 
of the national economies of the 
underdeveloped countries. Nor has 
sufficient progress been made in sta- 
bilizing and integrating the world 
economy as a whole.” 

Disarmament Talks Called 

EW disarmament talks between 

Canada, France, the Soviet 
Union, the United Kingdom and the 
United States are called for in a reso- 
lution adopted on July 16 by the 
United Nations Disarmament Com- 
mission. The purpose of the talks is 
to widen the areas of agreement be- 
tween the various disarmament pro- 
posals made so far. (See page 53.) 

Ten countries voted for the resolu- 
tion, submitted by Peru, with the 
Soviet Union voting against it and 
Yugoslavia abstaining. 

Earlier, the Commission had heard 
an announcement by the Soviet Union 
that it was ready to accept, as a first 
step, manpower ceilings of 2.5 million 
men for the United States and the 
U.S.S.R., and of 750,000 for France 
and the United Kingdom. 

Atomic Energy 

HE next meetings of the Secretary- 

General’s Advisory Committee on 
the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy 
are scheduled to begin on September 
28 at United Nations Headquarters. 
The principal item on the Commit- 
tee’s agenda is discussion of plans for 
a second international technical con- 
ference like that held last year in 

The Advisory Committee is com- 
posed of representatives of seven na- 
tions: Brazil, Canada, France, India, 
the U.S.S.R., the United Kingdom and 
the United States. 

Pacific Islands Trust Territory 

A FOUR-MAN Visiting mission which 

studied conditions in trusteeship 
areas in the Pacific early this year re- 
ports that laudable political advances 
have taken place in the Pacific Islands 
Trust Territory, but that a number of 
“major problems” remain to be solved. 
The Territory is administered under 
the authority of the United States. (See 
page 46.) 

The Mission’s unanimous report says 
that one of the problems concerns the 
Marshall Islands, and stems from the 
displacement of islanders as a result 
of atomic and thermo-nuclear tests. 
In the case of the Rongelap people, 
the displacement has been temporary, 
and their return home is expected to 
take place before the end of the year. 
People of Eniwetok, transferred to the 
island of Ujelong, appear to be making 
a satisfactory adjustment. But people 
from Bikini, transferred to Kili, appear 
to have grievances “of a serious na- 
ture.” Their new site, the Mission re- 
port declares, has “obvious disadvan- 
tages”—among them the fact that Kili 
is a high island without a reef, hazar- 
dous for the landing of boats, with 
fishing facilities forty miles away at 
Jaluit Atoll. Another problem is the 
division of the administration of the 
Territory between civil and naval au- 
thorities, which has created travel 
difficulties for the Islanders. 

During one of the public meetings 
held by the Mission with members of 
the Palau Congress, a light touch was 
provided by a woman member of the 
Congress. She said there was a Palauan 
who had studied under a United Na- 
tions Technical Assistance Fellowship, 
and who subsequently became assistant 
public defender. But on the other hand, 
she said, there was no comparably 
trained public prosecutor, and her com- 
plaint was that too many defendants in 
the local courts were being acquitted. 

The Visting Mission was composed 
of Sir John Macpherson (United King- 
dom), Chairman; Daniel Massonet 
(Belgium); Jose Rolz (Guatamala); 
and M. E. Chacko (India). 

New Guinea 

bb task of integrating the indigen- 
ous people of New Guinea into the 
modern world “represents a challenge 
and an opportunity that are perhaps 
without parallel in the history of under- 
developed dependent areas.” This is 
the view of the Visiting Mission to 
Trust Territories in the Pacific, which 
paid a ten week visit to the Trust 

Territory of New Guinea in February, 
March and April this year. The Ad- 
ministering Authority of the Territory 
is Australia. 

The Mission’s report takes note of 
the rugged terrain of New Guinea, and 
the lack of extended contact between 
most of the region’s 1,241,615 inhabi- 
tants and the outside world. Even now, 
the report says, some New Guineans 
are only just emerging from stone age 

However, ther are a number of posi- 
tive factors “which throw a new and 
encouraging light on the situation,” the 
Mission believes. In the newly-pene- 
trated areas of the country there are 
no old colonial traditions regulating 
the relations of the indigenous and 
non-indigenous peoples. The residents 
of the highlands and the interior are 
impressed with the wealth and techni- 
cal knowledge of the newcomers, but 
have no sense of inferiority. And they 
are “full of enthusiasm and confidence 
about the wonderful avenues of change 
and development which the new ways 
are opening up for them.” 

The unanimous report of the Mis- 
sion warns, however, that this enor- 
mous wealth of enthusiasm and good 
will; which could make the transition 
from stone age ways to modern ways 
painless, “runs the risk of drying up if 
development is not sufficiently rapid.” 
Australian officials are aware of the 
situation and “clamoring for more per- 
sonnel, administrators, educators, doc- 
tors, agricultural extension people, 
equipment and funds.” The Mission 
feels “that at this time in history when 
the Charter of the United Nations and 
the Trusteeship system have intro- 
duced new ideas and new ideals, the 
international community has a special 
responsibility to help the Administering 
Authority” to fulfil its task. 


[gee of New Guinea in the Pacific, 
165 miles from Ocean Island, the 
nearest land, lies the tiny Trust Terri- 
tory of Nauru, an island of slightly 
more than 5,000 acres surrounded by 
a coral reef. The primary economic 
problems of the islanders center around 
Nauru’s phosphate deposits, on which 
the population is almost entirely de- 
pendent. The Australian Government 
supervises the affairs of the Territory 
under agreement between the three 
administering powers—Australia, New 
Zealand and the United Kingdom. 
The Pacific Visiting Mission found 
that the material rehabilitation of the 
island, which was badly damaged dur- 
ing World War II, has been completely 
achieved. But the problem of the fu- 
ture of Nauruans is a vexing one. Only 
eleven percent of the land area is suit- 
able for crop cultivation, and it is 
estimated that the phosphate deposits 

will be exhausted in forty or fifty years. 

The Administering Authority and 
Nauruans themselves recognize that 
eventual resettlement of the population 
may be the only answer. Nauruans are 
tending toward resettlement as a group 
in Australia rather than on another 
island. Australian officials noted that 
the search for an adequate resettlement 
area is continuing. They observed that 
it would not be possible for Nauruans 
to preserve their identity in Australia, 
which follows a policy of assimilation. 

During Trusteeship discussion of the 
question, the Administering Authority 
estimated that phosphate royalties paid 
into the Nauruan Community Long- 
Term Investment Fund will amount to 
three million pounds by the year 2000. 
The Special Representative of Australia 
declared that the Administering Au- 
thority “accepts without reservation” 
the responsibilities connected with re- 
settlement of the Nauruan people, such 
as buying land, buliding houses and 
schools, and the provision of any as- 
sistance they might need until they are 
firmly established in their new homes. 


F egenney Trust Territories whose prog- 

ress came under the review of the 
Trusteeship Council at its eighteenth 
session, Somaliland under Italian Ad- 
ministration received its share of close 
scrutiny. The Council had before it the 
annual report of the Administering 
Authority, and a report of the United 
Nations Advisory Council for Somali- 
land. Present as the discussion began 
were Enrico Anzilotti, Administrator 
of the Trust Territory; Vittorio Zadotti, 
Special Representative of the Adminis- 
tering Authority; and four indigenous 
members of the Somali Government— 
Abdullah Issa (Prime Minister), Aden 
Abdullah Osman (President of the 
Legislative Assembly), Abdi Nur 
(Vice-President of the Assembly), and 
Omar Mohallim (Assembly Secretary). 
Stressed throughout the discussion were 
progress toward independence (sched- 
uled for 1960) achieved by the Terri- 
tory and the considerable social and 
economic problems that remain to be 
coped with. 

The Trusteeship Council particularly 
commended the Administering Author- 
ity for efforts toward political develop- 
ment and self-government in the Terri- 
tory. It took note of limitation of 
powers which exist in regard to the 
Executive and Legislative branches of 
the Somali Government, and wel- 
comed the explanation that these were 
in large measure temporary in charac- 
ter. The Council also expressed the 
hope that direct elections would be 
feasible by 1958, and that further 
consideration be given to the use of 
the Somali language in primary educa- 
tion. (See page 60.) 

UNR—August 1956 

South West Africa 

ep General Assembly’s Committee 
on South West Africa again took 
up the question of South West Africa 
in a series of meetings which began on 
June 28. The territory is administered 
by the Union of South Africa under a 
League of Nations mandate. All other 
such mandated territories have either 
become independent or have been 
placed under the International Trustee- 
ship System. Following refusal of the 
South African Government to propose 
a trusteeship agreement for South West 
Africa, the General Assembly in 1953 
established the Committee on South 
West Africa. The Committee’s rules of 
procedure provide that if no annual 
report on the territory has been re- 
ceived from the South African Gov- 
ernment by May 20 of each year, the 
Committee shall examine such infor- 
mation as is available. 

In its report to the General Assem- 
bly, the Committee states: “For the 
third year in succession, the Commit- 
tee has been unable to escape the 
conclusion that conditions in the terri- 
tory after nearly four decades of ad- 
ministration under the Mandates Sys- 
tem, are for the most part—and par- 
ticularly for the ‘Native’ majority — 
still far from meeting in a reasonable 
way the standards of either endeavor 
or achievement implicit in the pur- 
poses of the Mandates System. . . .” 

The report declares that the indigen- 
ous inhabitants of South West Africa 
have no part whatsoever in the man- 
agement of the territory’s affairs, that 
their opportunities are limited by re- 
strictive law as well as inadequacy of 
technical facilities, and that the main 
efforts being made by the Administra- 
tion are “directed almost exclusively 
in favor of the ‘European’ inhabitants, 
often at the expense of the ‘Native’ 

The Committee approved a letter to 
be sent to the South African Govern- 
ment expressing continued readiness 
to negotiate the question of placing 
South West Africa under the Trustee- 
ship System. 

Korean War Dead Honored 

A BRONZE plaque commemorating 

the men of sixteen nations who 
lost their lives while fighting with the 
United Nations Command in Korea 
was unveiled in the General Assembly 
Building on June 21. The plaque is on 
a wall next to a tablet honoring Count 
Folke Bernadotte, United Nations me- 
diator in Palestine who was assassi- 
nated in 1948 while carrying out his 
mission. On the other side of the Ber- 
nadotte tablet is a plaque dedicated on 
June 19 in memory of United Nations 
military observers and staff members 
who lost their lives in pursuance of 
their duties. (See page 44.) 

UNR—August 1956 

Charter Revision Asked 

be General Assembly has been 
asked by a number of Latin Amer- 
ican states and Spain to consider 
amending the United Nations Charter 
and the Statutes of the International 
Court of Justice and the International 
Law Commission, with a view to in- 
creasing the membership of four 
United Nations bodies. Increases were 
proposed for the Security Council, the 
Economic and Social Council, the In- 
ternational Court and the Law Com- 

The requests were made in four 
separate letters made public on June 
28. In explanatory memoranda, the 
sponsoring states drew attention to the 
“substantial increase” in United Na- 
tion membership last year and added: 
“It is probable that more Members 
will be admitted in the near future.” 
The request was made, they said, 
“with a view to maintaining a satis- 
factory distribution in the membership 
of some 
the United’ Nations, and to facilitating 
the participation of new Members in 
the work of those organs.” 

Technical Assistance Increase 

PN cone ny of the Expanded Pro- 
gram of Technical Assistance 
reached an all-time high in 1955. 
Measured in dollars, the Expanded 
Program expended $25.8 million dur- 
ing that year compared with $19.5 
million in 1954. There were 2,108 
technical experts at work in 1955, 
twenty per cent more than in the pre- 
vious highest year. Fellowships num- 
bered 2,431, fifteen per cent greater 
than the previous record number. One 
hundred one countries and territories 
received assistance in various fields; 
among them were thirty-nine terri- 
tories with dependent status. 

These facts were presented to the 
Technical Assistance Committee of the 
Economic and Social Council in Ge- 
neva by David Owen, Executive Chair- 
man of the Technical Assistance Board, 
in introducing TAB’s annual report. 
(See page 6.) It was felt by the Ex- 
ecutive Secretary that the increase in 
the activities of the Expanded Program 
was a reflection of larger financial 
resources and greater efficiency in ad- 

Convention on Family Support 

.NEW international convention on 
family support was signed on 
June 20 by representatives of fifteen 
governments at a ceremony at United 
Nations Headquarters, with six other 
countries announcing their intention to 
sign in the near future. 
The Convention on the Recovery 
Abroad of Maintenance, as it is offi- 

f the principal organs of ° 

cially known, is designed to alleviate 
the lot of dependents abandoned by 
bread-winners who have moved to an- 
other country. It will enable depend- 
ents to obtain and enforce judgments 
from abroad. (See page 65.) 

The new instrument, adopted unani- 
mously by the Conference on Mainte- 
nance Obligations, was hailed as a 
significant step towards the solution of 
a grave humanitarian problem. The 
President of the Conference, Serenat 
Gunewardene of Ceylon, said it would 
help “a large number of people affect- 
ed by the want of some machinery 
which would bring relief to their door.” 

The fifteen signatories at the Head- 
quarters ceremony were: Bolivia, 
Cambodia, Ceylon, Cuba, the Dom- 
inican Republic, Ecuador, El Sal- 
vador, the Federal Republic of Ger- 
many, Greece, Israel, Mexico, Monaco, 
the Netherlands, the Philippines, and 
Vatican City. The six others which an- 
nounced their intention of signing 
shortly were: Denmark, Norway, Swe- 
den, Japan, Italy and France. 


tpn Economic and Social Council 
on July 13 discussed the Annual 
report of the United Nations High 
Commissioner for Refugees and 
adopted a resolution urging all gov- 
ernments to continue their support of 
the refugee agency. The resolution 
deplored the premature death of the 
late High Commissioner, Dr. G. J. 
van Heuven Goedhart, who died in 
Geneva on July 8 (see page 59); re- 
affirmed the Council’s interest in solv- 
ing permanently and as soon as possi- 
ble the refugee problem; and asked 
governments to do all in their power 
toward this end. 

James M. Read, Deputy High Com- 
missioner, ennumerated achievements 
of the past year, but stressed the diffi- 
culties resulting from insufficient in- 
ternational contributions. For 1956, 
he noted, contributions failed by $3.4 
million to meet the target of $5,549,- 
553. If there were no improvement 
before the end of the year, he feared 
that more than sixty per cent of the 
program planned could not be put 
into effect. 

The United States announced that 
it would pay $1.5 million as its 1956 
contribution. Norway declared that 
if necessary funds were forthcoming, 
refugee camps in Europe could be 
liquidated by 1958, and with this ob- 
jective in view it was prepared to in- 
crease its contribution. 

Bank Anniversary 

UNE 25 marked the tenth anniver- 
J sary of the official beginning of 
operations of the International Bank 
for Reconstruction and Development. 

During those ten years the Bank 
made 149 loans totaling $2,645 million 
for postwar reconstruction or eco- 
nomic development in_ thirty-seven 
countries and six territories. 

African regions received fifteen 
loans amounting to $347.2 million; 
Asia received twenty-seven loans total- 
ing $386.2 million; Australia was the 
recipient of four loans amounting to 
$258.5 million; European countries 
had forty-three loans adding up to 
$979.3 million; and the Western Hemi- 
sphere, sixty loans aggregating $673.9 

Forced Labor 

cf International Labor Organiza- 
tion’s 39th General Conference, 
meeting in Geneva in June, agreed 
unanimously that a new international 
convention should be drawn up to out- 
law forced labor, concentration camps, 
and deportation of national minorities 
for political and other reasons. 

Representatives of governments, em- 
ployers’ organizations and workers’ 
organizations who comprise the mem- 
bership in the International Labor Or- 
ganization adopted a set of conclusions 
on forced labor, placed final adoption 
of a new convention on the subject on 
the agenda of the 1957 Conference, 
and asked the 110 Governing Body to 
consider revision of the 1930 Conven- 
tion on forced labor. 

Among the conclusions of the Con- 
ference were the following: 

. .. A new international instrument 
on forced labor should take the form 
of a convention. 

. . . The preamble should affirm the 
principle that forced or compulsory 
labor constitutes a violation of the 
rights of man as ennunciated in the 
United Nations Charter. 

. . . The convention should provide 
that every 1Lo member that ratifies it 
undertakes not to make use of forced 
or compulsory labor, concentration 
camps, or the deportation of national 
minorities as a means of political coer- 
cion or education, as a punishment for 
political views or ideological opposition 
to the established system, as a method 
of mobilizing or disciplining labor, or 
as a means of discrimination against 
racial, social, national or religious 

The 110 General Conference also 
adopted a series of conclusions on the 
need for international action for the 
protection and integration of indigen- 
ous peoples in independent countries. 
The Conference unanimously adopted 
a resolution recognizing the “profound 
impact” of automation on all aspects 
of social and labor policy, and urging 
action to help the world adjust itself 
in an orderly manner to technological 


Technical Aid by ILO 

4 he International Labor Organiza- 
tion, in its tenth report to the 
United Nations, declares that 1955 set 
a record in the volume of assistance 
provided by the Organization to its 
member countries. According to the 
report, the year was “the best since 
the Organization began to participate 
in the Expanded Program of Technical 

At the end of 1955, mo had 165 
experts in the field compared with 
ninety-four at the end of 1954. Equip- 
ment worth $287,000 was provided or 
ordered during the year for use on 
technical assistance projects, “almost 
double the value of the equipment sup- 
plied in 1954.” Fellowships, worker- 
trainee awards and study grants totaled 
573 in 1955, compared with 496 the 
previous year. 

Besides sharing in the Expanded 
Program, ILO is continuing its own 
technical assistance projects, financed 
under its own budget. 


HE Republic of Korea’s only re- 

finery for treating gold- and silver- 
bearing sulfide ores of copper and lead 
will receive equipment that will prac- 
tically double the value of some of the 
ores processed and affect the develop- 
ment of the country’s entire metal- 
mining industry. The refinery is the 
Chang Hang Smelter at Kunsan. With 
an allocation of $1,460,000 from the 
United Nations Korean Reconstruction 
Agency, the plant will be modernized 
to reduce smelter costs, permit the 
processing of lower-grade ores, and 
eventually enable the miners to get 
more money for their output. 

UNnKRA has also allocated funds 
which will help double the enrollment 
of a nursing school in Seoul. The pres- 
ent facilities of the school accommo- 
date a maximum of thirty students. 
The projected new building, made pos- 
sible by contributions of $5,000 from 
UNKRA and $3,000 from the National 
Catholic Welfare Conference, will pro- 
vide all the necessary class-room space 
and an additional dormitory. 

Rice for East Pakistan Relief 

HE United Nations Children’s Fund 

has approved an emergency alloca- 
tion of $594,000 to provide a daily 
rice ration for children and mothers 
in famine-threatened East Pakistan. 
The appropriation will buy 7,862,000 
pounds of rice to feed 116,000 persons 
from late June through most of Sep- 
tember. In addition to this assistance, 
skim milk powder previously shipped 
to Pakistan by UNICEF for relief feed- 
ing is being used to help meet the 

Conditions in East Pakistan are be- 
lieved to be the worst since 1943, when 
over 2,000,000 people died in the 
Province of Bengal. The shortage of 
rice is estimated at about 700,000 tons, 
compared with 200,000 tons in recent 
years, and starvation has been reported 
in many villages. The crop crisis is the 
result of devastating floods in the area 
in 1954 and 1955, and of destruction 
by insects during the latter year. The 
emergency is expected to continue 
through November. 

East Pakistan will spend about $4 
million on emergency relief, and has 
already bought 155,000 tons of rice 
from the United States and Burma. 
The United States is contributing 
60,000 tons of rice, the Soviet Union 
20,000 tons, India 5,000 tons, and the 
U. S. National Catholic Welfare Con- 
ference 4,000 tons. In addition, India 
has loaned 15,000 tons of rice, 9,000 
tons have been purchased from private 
sources, and 70,000 tons have been 
transferred from West Pakistan. 

Eradication of Malaria 

A STRATEGY for total war against 
malaria, with the aim of eradi- 
cating the disease throughout the 
world, has been drawn up by the 
World Health Organization’s Commit- 
tee on Malaria, which recently ended 
its sixth session in Athens. 

The nine-member group is of the 
opinion that malaria eradication is 
feasible. The sums needed to achieve 
the objective in a definite time, al- 
though substantial, would be much less 
than the cost of continued malaria 
control on a less intensive basis, the 
Committee said. Several international 
and national agencies, such as UNICEF, 
the United Nations Technical Assist- 
ance Program, and the United States 
International Cooperation Administra- 
tion, are prepared to assist govern- 
ments that join in such an effort. 

The Committee noted that malaria- 
carrying mosquitoes are developing a 
resistance to insecticides such as DDT, 
and this is one of the factors in favor 
of an overall attack on the problem. 
The Committee declared that tech- 
niques are available to wipe out ma- 
laria before insecticides in use cease 
altogether to be effective. 

Meanwhile, a $227,000 allocation 
for malaria eradication in Ecuador 
has been approved by the United Na- 
tions Children’s Fund. Approximately 
1.5 million persons, more than half of 
Ecuador’s population, live in areas 
subject to the disease. The Govern- 
ment has provided a malaria service 
to carry out the eradication campaign 
and has given assurance of financial 
and legislative support. 

The UNICEF appropriation, for the 
first year of a four-year campaign, 

UNR—August 1956 

will provide dieldrin, vehicles, out- 
board motors, sprayers, protection 
equipment and miscellaneous labora- 
tory supplies. Total UNICEF assistance 
for the four-year period is expected 
to be approximately $680,000, while 
Ecuador will expend about three times 
that amount. 

Inland Navigation Convention 

A" international convention to facili- 
tate inland navigation between 
Asian countries was signed on June 
22 at the Sala Santitham (Peace Hall) 
in Bangkok under the auspices of the 
Economic Commission for Asia and 
the Far East. Nations whose repre- 
sentatives signed the Convention were 
Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, 
Thailand and Viet Nam. Other Asian 
countries have indicated their willing- 
ness to join the agreement at a later 

Dr. P. S. Lokanathan, ECAFE’s retir- 
ing Executive Secretary, observed that 
the Convention marked “a new chap- 
ter” in the Commission’s history. It is 
the first convention drafted and signed 
under ECAFE auspices. 

Under the terms of the Convention, 
the signatory nations agree to measure 
inland waterway vessels operating un- 
der their flag according to certain 
standard principles, to accept certifi- 
cates of foreign vessels issued by other 
contracting states, and to organize 
their services in such a way that the 
Convention can be put into effect with- 
in a year of signature. 

Dr. Lokanathan, scheduled to retire 
from his post as Executive Secretary 
of ECAFE at the end of July, left Bang- 
kok on June 30 to attend the summer 
session of the Economic and Social 
Council in Geneva. 

It was announced at United Nations 
Headquarters on July 6 that Chakra- 
varthi V. Narasimban of India has 
been appointed as the New Executive 
Secretary of ECAFE. 

Air Navigation “Task Force” 

HE Assembly of the International 
Civil Aviation Organization meet- 
ing in Caracas, has accepted a United 
States proposal for creation of an 
international air navigation panel of 
experts as a means of meeting urgent 
problems along the world’s airways. 
The plan calls for a special panel 
of six or seven specialists to function 
under the authority and direction of 
the 1cao Council, with the President 
of the Council as Chairman of the 

In proposing the “Task Force” plan, 
the United States representatives said 
that plans would have to be made to 
meet the future navigation require- 
ments for jet aircraft with cruising 
speeds approaching 600 miles per 

UNR—August 1956 

hour and weights approaching 300,000 
pounds. Such aircraft are expected to 
be in service in three or four years. 
In twenty years, the spokesmen said, 
an airplane with a range of 125,000 
miles and a maximum weight of one 
half million to one million pounds 
should be in service. And air freighters 
with atomic power might be expected 
within a decade. 

The cost of establishing the panel 
will increase the Icao budget by 

Antibiotics for Fisheries 

"ho possibility of using long-range 
trawlers as floating laboratories 
for testing the usefulness of anti- 
biotics in preserving fish has been 
discussed by a meeting of experts from 
thirty countries, sponsored by the Food 
and Agriculture Organization. 

The proposal was made at the In- 
ternational Meeting of Fish Processing 
Technologists held in Rotterdam, 
which heard papers from technologists 
of various countries where experiments 
with antibiotics, bacteriostatic ices, 
and dips have been carried out. 

The papers showed that the use. of 
antibiotics may help considerably in 
keeping fish in a fresh condition over 
periods two or three times as long as 
is possible with conventional ice stor- 
age methods. 

One problem was to devise a meth- 
od which would ensure that any anti- 
biotic residue left in processed fish 
would be so small as to be harmless 
to human beings. The use of trawlers 
as experimental laboratories on long 
fishing trips was suggested for the 
purpose of testing the efficacy of the 
antibiotic treatment and the element 
of health risk due to residue. 

Tariffs Cut 

| enemy countries have reduced 
import duties on educational, sci- 
entific and cultural materials in tariff 
negotiations at the recently concluded 
conference of contracting parties to 
the General Agreement on Traiffs and 
Trade, held at Geneva. The Director- 
General of UNESCO had asked the con- 
ference to consider tariff reduction on 
such materials. 

Under the new schedule of con- 
cessions, duties have been reduced by 
the United States on maps and charts; 
by Chile and Sweden on films; by 
Belgium, the German Federal Repub- 
lic, Italy, Luxembourg and the Nether- 
lands on sound recordings; by the 
German Federal Republic, Norway, 
Sweden and the United Kingdom on 
radio receivers or parts; by Japan on 
television receivers; by Sweden, the 
United Kingdom and the United States 
on certain musical instruments; by 

Australia, Canada, France, Italy, 
Sweden and the United States on vari- 
Ous scientific instruments; by Canada 
on newsprint; and by the United 
Kingdom on printing paper. 

Mathematics Teaching 
W AYs of teaching mathematics in 
secondary schools were discussed 
by the 19th International Conference 
on Public Education jointly convened 
in Geneva on July 9 by UNESCO and 
the International Bureau of Educa- 
tion. The selection of mathematics for 
consideration by the Conference, 
along with other agenda items, re- 
flects a growing feeling that much 
improvement is required in teaching 
methods in this field, UNESCO officials 
said. They noted that the teaching of 
mathematics is getting added attention 
today because of the growing demand 
for scientists and technicians to staff 
industrial and research plants. 

U. N. News Seminar 

TWO-WEEKS seminar for news per- 
sonnel, conducted by the United 
Nations, opened in Geneva on July 23. 
Twenty senior editors and radio di- 
rectors from twenty countries partici- 
pated in the course, which was to be 
addressed by Secretary-General Dag 
Hammarskjold and other -officials. 
The seminar is the first of its kind 
organized under United Nations ad- 
visory services in the field of human 
rights established last year by the Gen- 
eral Assembly. It is part of a news 
personnel program initiated by the 
Economic and Social Council to help 
develop “wider knowledge of the work 
of the United Nations, of foreign 
countries, and of international affairs 
with a view to promoting friendly 
relations among nations,” with due 
emphasis given to the promotion of 
freedom of information. (See page 69.) 

Milk Technicians’ Centre 
oe and prospective milk- 

plant managers from central and 
southeastern Europe and the eastern 
Mediterranean area have begun work 
at a training centre in Zagreb, Yugo- 
slavia, sponsored by the Food and 
Agriculture Organization in coopera- 
tion with the Yugoslav Government. 
The centre is designed to encourage 
greater production and consumption 
of milk products in a region where 
there is now an overall shortage. 

Participants will study latest de- 
velopments in the production, process- 
ing and distribution of milk. Instruc- 
tion will deal with feeding, breeding 
and health of livestock; management 
of milk plants; testing, processing, 
marketing and distribution of milk 
products; and public health aspects 
of production and distribution. 


HE year 1955 witnessed a striking increase in the 

general level of activities carried out under the tech- 
nical assistance program which is operated by the 
United Nations and seven specialized agencies and 
financed from voluntary contributions by governments. 
A total of $25.8 million was set aside for the year—the 
highest annual figure yet recorded during the five years 
in which this joint skill-sharing operation known as the 
expanded program of technical assistance had been in 
existence. Contributions to the amount of $27.9 million 
were pledged by 71 governments, as compared with $25 
million in 1954, 

Technical aid in one form or another was rendered 
to 101 countries and territories during 1955, and about 
1,400 experts were at work by the end of that year to 
help promote better living conditions through improve- 
ments in agricultural and industrial production, in 
health and educational services, in the fields of public 
administration and communications. 

These facts are given in the latest report of the Tech- 
nical Assistance Board which coordinates activities un- 
der the expanded program. The eighth of its kind, the 
report was prepared for the eighteen-member Technical 
Assistance Committee, a standing subsidiary organ of 
the Economic and Social Council. 

Scope and Accomplishments 

[he amount of technical assistance provided by the 
United Nations Technical Assistance Administration 
and the seven specialized agencies sharing in the funds 
for the expanded program, the report also notes, is 
small in relation to the priority needs of the less de- 
veloped countries. The technical assistance projects 
made possible under the program, moreover, form part 
of the larger national development plans of the govern- 
ments aided. It is therefore not possible to isolate the 
impact of the aid rendered on the economic develop- 
ment of the assisted countries. Nor can it be measured 
in precise terms. Nevertheless, the scope of the program 
and some of its accomplishments to date may be illus- 
trated by the following examples. 

Progress Reviewed in Suri ey 

of Operations for 1955 

In Yugoslavia, expert assistance resulted in doubling 
one plant’s output of cylinder blocks for internal com- 
bustion engines and in reducing production costs at an 
electrical equipment factory by more than 50. million 
dinars a year. In Jordan, the monthly production of 
phosphate from the Ruseifa mines has been raised from 
2,000 tons to 20,000 tons. Venezuela has been helped 
to establish what will eventually be the largest fertilizer 
and insecticide factory in South America. In the farm 
mechanization plan of the State of Uttar Pradesh in 
India some of the field workshops have increased their 
output by nearly 300 per cent and more than 500 in- 
structors and operators have been trained by interna- 
tional experts. 

In East Pakistan work is proceeding on a pilot area 
of 230,000 acres on the right bank of the Ganges where 
approximately one-fifth of the main irrigation canal has 
been excavated in cooperation with the United States 
International Cooperation Administration and the Co- 
lombo Plan; it is expected that irrigation water will 
be available in the Kushtia area by the end of the 
present year. 

Agricultural Advances 

In Egypt programs for increasing wheat and rice pro- 
duction have been undertaken, and in Ethiopia a de- 
velopment scheme for coffee cultivation has been 
started. Cotton cultivation experiments in Yugoslavia 
have given a substantially increased yield per acre. In 
Central America and Mexico, technical assistance ex- 

perts have helped the local authorities to keep the locust 
plague under control everywhere but in Northern Hon- 

UNR—August 1956 

duras. Supplies of vaccine to control animal diseases 
have been built up in Afghanistan, Austria, Burma, 
Ceylon, Ethiopia, Honduras, India, Iraq, Pakistan, 
Thailand and Yugoslavia. 

In Colombia, an educational program of radio broad- 
casts is in operation. In Somaliland, the education of 
nomads is being introduced. In Haiti, over 1,000 rural 
teachers attended courses. 

UNR—August 1956 

The development of air communications is one of Ethiopia’s 

answers to its transport problems. Technical assistance for 

this effort has been obtained from the International Civil Aviation 
Organization, Picture shows scene in aircraft maintenance class where 
Ethiopian students are being trained by ICAO instructor from Denmark. 

Technical assistance provided under the program 
helped the Government of Burma to launch a social 
security scheme, assisted Iran in the adoption of a new 
social insurance law and Mexico and Turkey in estab- 
lishing training centres in labor administration. 

During 1955, about 500,000 persons were treated for 
trachoma in Morocco and Tunisia and a high per- 
centage of cures has been reported. Epidemic malaria is 


no longer prevalent in about half of the island terri- 
tories of the Caribbean and about two-fifths of the esti- 
mated population of South-East Asia now benefits from 
anti-malaria preventive measures. And in India, it is 
estimated, over 40,000,000 people have been given at 
least some elementary health education by anti-tuber- 
culosis teams organized with international assistance. 

International Character of Program 

As in previous years, the report again emphasizes 
that the expanded program calls upon the resources of 
the world in recruiting experts and placing fellows. This 
is illustrated by the fact that in 1955, experts came 
from 69 countries and territories and that fellows 
studied in 94 countries and territories. Thus, while 
Egypt, India and Mexico received 87, 80 and 36 ex- 
perts respectively, they themselves supplied 47, 59 and 
22 experts. “The truly international character of the 
expanded program,” says the report, “can be illus- 
trated by the fact that a vocational training specialist 
from Brazil served in Turkey, and Israeli expert on 
environment sanitation was assigned to India, a Leban- 
ese engineer worked in Tanganyika, a Pakistani agricul- 
tural statistician in Liberia, a Peruvian cotton expert 
in Ethiopia and a Turkish expert in steel production 
in Afghanistan.” 

The fellowship program has the same international 
features, with an Afghan studying public administration 
in India, a Yemenite being trained in banking in Egypt 
and an Ethiopian studying medicine in Lebanon. As a 
result of inquiries addressed to governments on the 
employment of such fellows after their return home, it 
was learned that over 80 per cent of them have been 
employed in positions where their training and experi- 
ence abroad enabled them to be of greater service to 
their countries. 

Special attention, adds the report, has been paid to 
coordination with other technical assistance programs 
and to avoiding overlapping. Examples of this in 1955: 
the World Health Organization worked in Cambodia 
to develop the Royal School of Medicine with the Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration and a French 
economic mission; in Pakistan, the Food and Agri- 
culture Organization worked with the International Co- 
operation Administration and the Colombo Plan in 

reclaiming waterlogged and saline land in 

Planning and Management 
} heen ; onsiderable improver 
the exp inded 
tions had to 
ile x the first half of 1955. This 
general improvement enabled the administrators of the 

program, for the first time since the early days of 

existence, to carry out all save a small proportion of the 
planned operations. 

The methods used by the Technical Assistance Board 
(TAB) in planning the 1955 program were a forerunner 
of the new country-programming procedure adopted by 
the Economic and Social Council in July 1954. 

While the participating organizations continued to 
exercise day-to-day responsibility for their respective 
segments of the program, TAB and its Secretariat, at 
United Nations Headquarters and in the field, were 
again responsible for overall coordination. TAB, the 
report states, found it possible to carry out its new 
responsibilities with regard to country-programming with 
even fewer meetings than in former years and the ratio 
of TAB secretariat expenses to the expenses of the pro- 
gram as a whole has fallen. The Tas field service, how- 
ever, has been strengthened by an increase from 23 to 
26 in the number of field offices covering 12 more 
countries and territories, and the TAB Resident Repre- 
sentatives and Liaison Officers have played an increas- 
ingly important role. 

“The expanded program of technical assistance is 
not only a great adventure in international and eco- 
nomic cooperation,” declares the report. “It is an im- 
portant experiment in combined action by eight inter- 
national organizations. The year 1955 brought with it 
enlarged opportunities of service, new responsibilities 
and some difficult problems for all the participants. 
Nevertheless it may be said that the arrangements 
worked well and that their effectiveness in the future 
would seem to be assured, whatever the level of field 
activity any expansion of available resources makes 

Use of Funds 

Approximately two-thirds of the expenditure on proj- 
ects was used to send experts to countries requesting 
their aid, while more than half of the remaining funds 
was devoted to the award of fellowships and scholar- 

he field of activity upon which the largest sum was 
spent, 6.3 per cent of the total, was land and water use, 

ith farm machinery and tools. An almost equal 
amount (6.1 per cent of the total) was devoted to 

turing, processing and mining, while the third 
' 1 was the 5.8 per 
tional training. Other | 

nditure in terms of activity 
ng fields 
oduction ease control 
duction and prot n (4.6 
tration er cent), civil 
estry (3.8 per cent), fisheries 

ia and insect control (3.1 per 

vement in the financial situation in 1955 

»nabled the participating org inizations somewhat to in- 

rease their provision of equipment needed in connec- 

h their field activities. The total value of equip- 
nent supplied during 1955 amounted to $2,390,000 as 
-ompared with a previous record figure of $1,701,000 
in 1953. It is felt, the report notes, that the provision 
of a considerable quantity of training equipment is a 

UNR—August 1956 

vital part of such technical assistance activities as the 
setting up of a laboratory or a demonstration centre; 
and it is increasingly realized that enduring economic 
progress can hardly be achieved without an investment 
in equipment to strengthen such basic institutions. 
Examples of essential equipment supplied under the 
program in 1955 are electronic equipment for India, 
sawmill machinery for Brazil and Ceylon, farm 
machinery for Burma, Chile and Pakistan and forestry 
equipment for Syria. 

The TAB report also includes a statement by each of 
the organizations participating in the expanded program. 
These are given in outline below. 

Technical Assistance Administration 

The statement by the United Nations Technical As- 
sistance Administration (TAA) reveals a “quite startling 
variety of economic activities” for which the United 
Nations has recruited experts of placed fellows—power 
production, ports and shipping and public finance in 
one country, mineral resources and statistics in another, 
textiles and fabricated metals in a third. The year under 
review is difficult to describe in terms of general trends, 
since country-programming means that individual gov- 
ernments turn to the United Nations for assistance where 
the latter is most needed in connection with their own 
national programs. There is also a problem of evalua- 

tion: “Who can measure what proportion of the success 
or failure of a vast program for the development, say 
of a national network of transport, should be attributed 
to the work of a TAA expert in the repair and mainte- 
nance of road making machinery?” 

In many instances assistance has led to the establish- 
ment of permanent institutions or to recurring series of 
meetings and, in such cases, it is expected that interna- 
tional assistance will gradually be withdrawn. Examples 
are the Central American Institute for Industrial Re- 
search in Technology in Guatemala which is sponsored 
jointly by the five Central American republics and will 
be assisted by TAA during its early years, and the Rail- 
way Operations Training Centre in Pakistan. 

In some cases, however, the international element 
provided by the expanded program has been regarded 
as so essential a feature that continuing requests begin 
to acquire almost a traditional quality. Examples are 
highway development training centres in Turkey and 
housing and technological seminars in Denmark. 

During 1955, TAA continued to work closely with the 
three United Nations regional economic commissions 
and a start was made on the administrative problem of 
relating the deliberations of those bodies to the country- 
programming procedure. 

Many governments have set up organizations—usual- 
ly known as “national committees”—to facilitate the 


The following table shows how the costs of aid provided under the expanded technical assist- 
ance program were distributed between various regions in 1953, 1954 and 1955. 

nillions) N 
Africa 497 8.4 
Asia and the Far East 5,719 32.1 
Europe 568 8.8 
Latin America .793 26.9 
Middle East 3,528 19.8 
Inter-Regional 713 4.0 

TOTALS 7,818 100.0 

1954 1955 
$ (millions) N $ (millions) 

1,279 8.5 1,809 
4,650 30.8 6,622 31.1 
1,500 9.9 1,706 8.0 
3,921 25.9 5,631 26.4 
3,252 zi 4,676 21.9 
509 3.4 .866 4.1 

15,111 100.0 21,310 100.0 

Expenditures on various types of aid rendered under the expanded technical assistance program 

are indicated by the table below. 

I Xperts 
Equipment and 



1954 Cost 1955 Cost 
$ $ 
(millions) / No. (millions) 

11,194 . ,108 14,250 
431 4,670 

9.1 . 11.2 

100.0 > 100.0 

Indian weaver in Ecuador at work in school for 
master weavers at Quito set up with aid of 
handicrafts expert provided by 

International Labor Organization. 

recruitment of experts and the placing of fellows. These 
committees have made a major contribution to the pro- 
gram. Every expert or fellow with whom they have 
dealt has become known to them as a person, has kept 
in touch with them after completion of the project and 
has been asked whenever practicable to help succeeding 
experts and fellows. 

Calling 1955 an “encouraging” year, TAA reports 
that it took a first look at the possible impact of atomic 
energy on technical assistance and also gave thought 
to the technical assistance aspects of new proposals 
for increasing capital investment. 

International Labor Organization 

Three main features characterized the activities of 
the International Labor Organization (ILO): general 
expansion, increased emphasis in helping to set up 
permanent or semi-permanent training institutions and 
intensification of evaluation work on methods and re- 

During 1955, Lo had 238 experts on assignment; 
of these, 144 were engaged during the year, as com- 
pared with 180 and 70 respectively. The number of 
fellows declined slightly, but there were 306 worker- 
trainees as against 259 in 1954, and 153 grants for 
attendance at training courses and seminars as com- 
pared with 122 the previous year. 


The composition of the program remained prac- 
tically the same in accordance with government priori- 
ties, 50.9 per cent of the total expenditure being used 
for manpower organization, including vocational train- 
ing and 24.1 per cent in connection with labor condi- 
tions and administration. 

Further emphasis was given to assistance for govern- 
ments in establishing long-term training institutions. 
Thus, ILO assisted the Government of Burma in estab- 
lishing a training centre for the maintenance of diesel 
equipment used in inland water transport, a centre 
which will extend its facilities to other Asian countries. 
In Yugoslavia, the emphasis was shifted from the train- 
ing of foremen and supervisors abroad to training 
within the country. 

At the request of governments, ILO missions made 
surveys and formulated recommendations for action. 

A special inquiry was undertaken to evaluate the 
results of ILO programs in Burma, Guatemala, Iran and 
Libya. The 1Lo Governing Body decided that a similar in- 
quiry covering India and Turkey should be conducted 
in 1956 and that the progress report on the Andean- 
Indian mission should also be submitted to it. A wealth 
of detailed material on the short and long-term results 
of ILO assistance has been collected and the inquiry 
enabled both ILo and the government concerned to dis- 
cover in what respects certain projects had failed to 
achieve the results expected and the reasons therefor. 

Food and Agriculture Organization 

The chief feature of the operations carried out in 
1955 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 
was a trend away from surveys towards operational 
participation in national development activities. Fao 
experts were becoming mainly “doers,” not observers 
gathering material for reports. This is shown by the 
fact that an irrigation engineer on the Ganges-Kobadak 
multi-purpose power development project is responsible 
for the actual construction of irrigation works, while 
an Icelandic trawler captain serving in Ceylon puts to 
sea with the fishing fleet. 

Both expenditure and recruitment of experts in- 
creased; there were 256 experts in the field on January 
1, 1955, and 421 at the end of the year. 

The development of fundamental institutions is con- 
sidered of primary importance to the utilization of 
technical assistance and FAO projects such as those in 
Ethiopia, Honduras and Libya are concerned with the 
establishment of agricultural administration and related 
services. The establishment of such institutions, accord- 
ing to the report, emphasizes once again that the lack 
of trained staff is an even more serious obstacle to 
economic development in many countries than is the 
lack of investment capital. The absence of such staff, 
particularly at the intermediate level of plant managers, 
engineering assistants and foremen and agricultural 
extension agents is the real bottleneck in the process of 
economic development. In no direction could the 
expanded program be broadened to better advantage 
than by an increase in training activities. In line with 

UNR—August 1956 

this need, FAO gave 491 fellowships in 1955 as against 
258 the previous year and, had larger resources been 
available, a further 60 fellowships could have been 

Cooperation with bilateral programs such as that of 
the International Cooperation Administration and with 
the Colombo Plan continues in a number of FAO pro- 
grams. Thus, the Canadian Government has enabled 
Ceylon to translate into practice the recommendations 
of FAO experts by supplying engines for 42 fishing 
boats. Also in Ceylon, tractors, heavy earth-moving 
equipment and farm machinery provided by Australia 
and the United Kingdom are being used and serviced 
under the supervision of an FAO engineer. 

Increasing experience with the program has empha- 
sized the necessity of granting longer-term contracts to 
experts. Most FAO projects are now connected with the 
establishment and growth of agricultural institutions 
which are in their nature slow to mature and many of 
which will require expert supervision for years to come, 
while such problems as those of the arid zones involving 
crops, forestry, pasture and fodder, land and water use 
and range development, are obviously not limited to a 
period of 12 months. 

UNESCO's Operations 

The year 1955 saw a marked increase in the activi- 
ties of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
Cultural Organization (UNESCO), with 97 projects in 
operation on December 31, 1955, as compared with 60 
at the beginning of the year, and 177 experts in the 
field as against 125. Assistance was sought for the first 
time by such countries as British Guiana, Chile, Ethi- 
opia, the Gold Coast, Honduras, Malaya, Paraguay, 
Sierra Leone, Uganda and Vietnam. Sierra Leone was 
helped in teacher-training, Ethiopia in basic education 
and the Gold Coast in the provision of follow-up read- 
ing material for its mass education campaign. 

Five years’ experience has shown the advantages of 
a more effective decentralization. As an example, the 
report cites the Joint UNEsco-Liberian Educational 
Project which controls all UNESCO missions in Liberia 
under the UNESCO head of mission and a Liberian Gov- 
ernment official. In Brazil, a semi-autonomous organ- 
ization is responsible for the development of the 
Amazon Basin with the assistance of FAO and UNESCO 
experts. Such organizations provide an excellent chan- 
nel for advising governments on all matters of future 
planning, the report declares. 

The number of fellows increased from 57 in 1954 
to 222 in 1955 and several collective fellowship pro- 
grams were organized. Sixty-nine experts on education 
from Yugoslavia, chosen on the basis of their future 
roles in the development of Yugoslav school reform, 
were enabled to study school systems in 11 countries 
of western Europe and the United States. Of particular 
interest also was the training at UNESCO House for 
three months of six educational officials from Costa 
Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua 
and Panama, who will form the international secretariat 

UNR—August 1956 

of the Committee on Education for Central America 
and Panama. 

A working party appointed by the UNESCO Executive 
Board in November 1955 and consisting of seven mem- 
bers of the Board representing Brazil, France, Iran, 
Japan, the Netherlands, Spain and the United States 
made certain specific recommendations for future 
development of the program. One suggestion was that 
special importance be given to studying the social and 
cultural situations in countries receiving technical 
assistance. Without such studies, program administra- 
tors and experts cannot be fully aware of the nature 
or extent of the technological changes which their 
efforts may bring about. The working party rec- 
ommended that the objective of the expanded program 
should be redefined as economic and social develop- 
ment. This would make it possible to admit the social 
sciences as an important additional field of operation 
for UNESCO and invaluable work could then be done in 
evaluating the effectiveness of UNESCO projects. 

The working party also urged that explicit recogni- 
tion should be given to the unique role of education in 
stimulating and maintaining the generative power which 
is fundamental to a society’s economic progress. Rais- 
ing the general level of education increases a country’s 
social mobility, creates incentives and encourages the 
flow of new talent essential to economic productivity. 

Should there be any substantial increase in funds, 
the working party suggested, technical assistance could 
do a great service by creating or helping to expand 
local, national or regional institutions for educational 
training and research, while UNESCO could support 
major expansions of primary and secondary education 
by organizing, staffing and equipping model schools. 

Specialists sent by the Food and Agriculture Organi- 
zation are giving instruction in use and maintenance of 
tractors supplied by Australia under the Colombo Plan 

for a tractor station at Anuradhapura, Ceylon. 

+ % 


The working party also recommended that a change 
in the terminology of the expanded program be con- 
sidered, pointing out that the term “technical” is not 
always understood, “assistance” does not adequately 
describe the cooperative nature of the program and 
the words “underdeveloped countries” are open to 

Aviation Organization 

The experience of the International Civil Aviation 
Organization (ICAO) in 1955 confirmed the view that 
there are three principal obstacles to the development 
of civil aviation: lack of trained technical staff, in- 
adequate administration and lack of equipment. ICAO 
continued to give assistance in overcoming the first two 
obstacles and, in an effort to overcome the third, 
advised governments on the general performance of 
different types of equipment. Shortage of equipment is 
not, however, as great an obstacle as the lack of trained 
staff and inadequate administration. 

Nineteen countries in all received technical assistance 
from experts, of whom 71 were in the field at the end 
of 1955. 

Training has not become stereotyped in traditional 
courses. It has been necessary to take account of 
changes such as the swing away from wireless telegraphy 
towards radio telephony and radio-teletype, and the 
training of radio operators has been modified accord- 
ingly. It has also been found necessary to supplement 
the standard courses of civil aviation schools, largely 
on account of the lack of general technical education 
in some countries. For example, experts have to give 
instruction in the installation and maintenance of power 
supplies and in the operation of telephone systems, for 
which specialists are usually available elsewhere. 

The main aim has been to maintain a balance be- 
tween the training of staff and the installation of 
equipment, but there were some cases in which this 
has not proved possible. The end of 1955 saw a con- 
siderable increase in the number of experts, particularly 
engineers and technicians, sent to help with the in- 
stallation, operation and maintenance of equipment. 
These experts also aided in strengthening administra- 
tions by providing on-the-job instruction, by giving 
advice on problems as they arose and by making sug- 
gestions on the organization of operational and ad- 
ministrative services. 

Fellowships were mainly awarded for the advanced 
training of key personnel. In two countries, civil avia- 
tion advisers had as their principal task the building up 
of the administrations. The results of this work were 
seen in the appointment of qualified counterpart staff 
to such posts as chief of regular maintenance services, 
chief of radio operations and chief of air traffic services. 
Meteorologists were also appointed as independent or 
dependent forecasters, engineers joined aircraft in- 
spection departments and a number of nationals of 
assisted countries became instructors. At least one 
national civil aviation law was enacted in the course 
of the year. 


World Health Agency 

In all, a field staff of 356 from 39 nationalities was 
engaged on the projects of the World Health Organiza- 

tion (WHO) in 1955. As in previous years, governments 
receiving technical assistance also made available to 
WHO the services of medical and other specialists for 
field assignments elsewhere. Thus, Brazil gave 14 of 
her nationals, India 13, Egypt 12 and Chile 11. In 
1955, 545 fellowships were awarded as compared with 
278 the previous year. 

Under the expanded program, WHO cooperated with 
governments chiefly in connection with training health 
workers, controlling diseases causing economic loss and 
strengthening national health services. 

Without trained staff, the report discloses, any plans 
for the expansion of health services are unrealistic, and 
WHO continued its long-term program to strengthen the 

Disfiguring disease of yaws, of which this child is a 
victim, is being checked in Far East with aid of World 
Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund. 

UNR—August 1956 

resources of countries for such training. Examples of 
WHO action in this field were the malaria control train- 
ing course organized at Yaounde in cooperation with 
the French Government and the medical service of the 
Cameroons, and the sanitary engineering seminar held 
in San Juan under the auspices of the Government of 
Puerto Rico—the first of its kind in that area. 

WHO continued to give technical advice in mass cam- 
paigns for the control or eradication of malaria and 
yaws and the control of bilharziasis, trachoma, tuber- 
culosis and other communicable diseases. 

During 1955, a very important part of WHO’s work 
continued to be the assistance given to governments to 
introduce national health legislation, to set up national 
health programs and to plan or administer local health 
services. There are large areas in Africa and Asia where 
hundreds of millions of people live in rural conditions 
in which health services are unknown. For this reason 
one of the chief aims of governments is to provide at 
least a minimum of public health services to their 
rural populations, and WHO assisted governments for 
this purpose in rural areas of Afghanistan, the British 
West Indies, Burma, Colombia, Honduras and Uruguay, 
while field staff were appointed to advise on the sani- 
tation programs in Japan and Saudi Arabia. 

The main development in 1955 affecting the control 
of communicable diseases was the new approach to 
the malaria program adopted by the Eighth World 
Health Assembly. The Assembly decided that, as re- 
sistance to insecticides by anopheline mosquitoes can 
now be considered an established fact, the only rational 
plan was to aim at the eradication of disease in the 
shortest possible time, wherever this was technically 
possible. The first steps were taken by WHO to render 
technical assistance in putting the new plan into opera- 
tion in individual countries and to provide opportunities 
for the coordinated mobilization of the world’s re- 
sources in this malaria eradication campaign. 

During the year, a total of nearly 991 nurses was 
provided to help in the training of nurses and to enable 
local teachers to continue the educational programs 
after the withdrawal of international aid. 

The year 1955 also witnessed the opening of an en- 
tirely new field of WHO activity, the public health 
aspects of nuclear energy, and in November, wHo 
sponsored a training course for health physicists organ- 
ized by the Swedish Government in cooperation with 
the United States Atomic Energy Commission. 

Telecommunication Union 

In participating in the expanded program, the In- 
ternational Telecommunication Union (1Tu) has gath- 
ered some important information on the role of tele- 
communications in economic development. The ad- 
vances made in such areas with the help of technical 
assistance in various sectors of the economy create a 
growing need for telegraph and telephone services. The 
number of new telephone subscribers and the waiting 
list of applicants, says the report, are an indication of 
needs which result from the development of economic 

UNR—August 1956 

activity and the raising of living standards. Requests 
for the improvement or construction of trunk lines 
connecting isolated areas of a country reflect the desire 
of such areas, hitherto depending on their own re- 
sources, for participation in the national life. 

Financing of telecommunication systems and the 
shortage or absence of skilled labor are major difficul- 
ties encountered by governments. In 1955, 1ru sought 
to place the main emphasis on the training of staff, and 
the 25 fellows who received such training in 10 host 
countries were part of the technical training program 
necessary to develop telecommunications. Of the 20 
experts provided by ITU to nine governments, five were 
principally concerned with the training of operating 
staff; and in other countries the experts either gave in- 
struction themselves in existing technical schools or 
trained local staff serving as their assistants to continue 
their work after their departure. In telecommunications 
a relatively long period is required to carry out plans 
owing to the need for constructing and installing com- 
plicated equipment. Missions are often lengthy and 
can be shortened only in special cases. In planning 
technical assistance on telecommunications, it must be 
borne in mind that such assistance can be effective 
only if it is continued throughout the time necessary to 
produce concrete achievements. 

World Meteorological Organization 

The year 1955 saw a marked increase, too, in the 
technical assistance activities of the World Meteorologi- 
cal Organization (WMO). Twenty-two expert advisers 
in a wide range of meteorological subjects gave advice 
in 23 separate countries and territories, while 36 officers 
from various meteorological services studied abroad 
with wMo fellowships. 

Much of the effort of these experts was directed 
toward advising on organizational and administrative 
problems facing the meteorological services of various 
governments, This was partly due to the late entry of 
WMO into the technical assistance field, and emphasis 
will no doubt shift in the future to the more technical 
and professional problems involved in the application 
of meteorological knowledge to the economy of the 
country concerned. This trend is already noticeable in 
increasing demands for technical assistance concerning 
the application of meteorology to agricultural needs and 
to the development and utilization of water resources. 

The increasing use being made of wMo fellowships, 
is evidence of the sincere efforts of individual countries 
to improve their meteorological services. 

Negotiations during the year resulted in the provision 
of funds for a hurricane seminar to be held in the 
Dominican Republic in 1956, the first regional project 
requiring meteorological technical assistance. In view of 
the regional character of many meteorological problems, 
there is an ever-widening field for regional projects, 
and these will probably continue to form a major part 
of the wMo technical assistance program. It is evident, 
the report concludes, that there is much scope for the 
further development of technical aid in meterology. 


United Nations Survey 

% om +s 7 ——— 
of a Decade’s FT rogress 

and Continuin gl -roblems 

of Economic Development 

HERE is little doubt that the record of economic 

progress in the decade following the Second World 
War is superior to that of the ten years after World 
War I. The history of the period after 1939-45, does 
not, however, justify untempered optimism. Indeed, it 
is a matter for serious concern, for, as the United 
Nations World Economic Survey, 1955, points out, the 
problem of mass poverty in a large part of the world 
remains as stubborn as ever, despite the record of un- 
paralleled economic growth. 

The Survey, prepared by the United Nations Depart- 
ment of Economic and Social Affairs, makes a special 
analysis of world economic developments in the post- 
war decade in connection with the celebration of the 
tenth ‘anniversary of the Economic and Social Council 
at its twenty-second session which opened in Geneva 
on July 9. The report also examines world economic 
trends during 1955, and it provided the main back- 
ground information for the Council’s annual discussion 
of conditions of the world economy. 

The review of the postwar decade reveals, in addi- 
tion, that total output of factories, farms and mines in 
the private enterprise economies rose by about two- 
thirds between the prewar period and 1954. At the 
same time, however, there has been a growing gap in 
production between the developed and the under- 
developed economies. 

Meanwhile, world trade during the last ten years has 
expanded much more rapidly than in the corresponding 
period following the First World War. 

Another point brought out by the Survey is that there 
have been relatively large increases in the imdustrial 
output of the centrally planned economies, though not 
directly comparable with the growth occurring in private 
enterprise economies. 

The examination of the current world economic sit- 
uation shows that expansion was the keynote of change 
during 1955 in the industrially developed private enter- 
prise areas, and that developments in the less developed 
areas were uneven. The outlook for 1956 in the de- 
veloped countries, however, is for a slowing-down in 
expansion. As a result, some of the less developed 
economies foresee a setback in their export markets. 

As for the centrally planned economies in 1955, it 
is reported that industrial expansion and better har- 
vests contributed to higher activity, and that plans 
under way continued to provide for rapid growth in 
heavy industry, with greater emphasis than before in 

What follows is a summary of many of the salient 
points made by the Survey, the eighth in a series of 
comprehensive reviews of world economic conditions 
published by the United Nations. 

UNR—August 1956 

The Postwar Decade 

|S om AGE and destruction in the Second World War 

were greater than in the First World War. Eco- 
nomic recovery after World War II, however, was more 
rapid. It was also more wide-spread. Nevertheless, as 
the World Economic Survey warns, the history of the 
period does not justify untempered optimism. On the 
contrary, it provides ground for serious concern. The 
growth that has taken place has been only partly due to 
favorable long-term forces; to a significant extent it has 
been based on special and temporary supports. In only 
a few of the underdeveloped countries has per capita 
economic growth been consolidated to a point where it 
may be considered self-cumulating. 

The world has, however, become capable of support- 
ing a far larger population than ever before, the Survey 
notes, Industrial output has made great strides. In the 
underdeveloped countries, perhaps the most significant 
advance to date lies not so much in the physical ex- 
pansion of productive capacity as in the evolution of a 
social climate favorable to economic development. In 
the industrial countries full employment has been main- 
tained, and the growth in productivity and employment 
has produced substantial increases in per capita incomes 
and brought some progress in international economic 

Political tensions, on the other hand, have led to a 
division of the world economy into two virtually isolated 
sectors, each devoting a considerable proportion of 
resources to military rather than civilian uses. The prob- 
lem of international economic balance remains far from 
solved. Economic growth in underdeveloped countries 
has not kept pace with the rate in industrial countries. 
Moreover, the Survey stresses, it would be imprudent 
to project the record of the first postwar decade into 
the second, especially insofar as favorable developments 
in the past ten years have been the result of purely 
short-term influences. 

Rapid Growth and Fluctuations 

As for the matter of economic stability, the record of 
the postwar period is one of rapid growth accompanied 
by oscillation between inflationary and deflationary pres- 
sures in industrial countries. Fluctuations in the demand 
of the developed countries have had adverse effects on 
the economic development of underdeveloped countries, 
particularly through the extreme fluctuations in export 
prices for primary products. 

“Significant as the postwar decade of growth has been 

UNR—August 1956 

in other respects,” the Survey adds, “it cannot yet be 
said that the world has effectively come to grips with 
the problem of economic development.” In this, as in 
other economic problems, the primary responsibility 
rests with the countries themselves. Cumulative eco- 
nomic growth cannot be imported from without. It must 
be nourished from within. 

At the same time, the Survey declares, it is universally 
recognized that the responsibility is not confined to un- 
derdeveloped countries. It is shared by the whole world. 
While international help has been forthcoming in many 
ways — private and public, bilaterally and multi- 
laterally—it may be questioned whether the scope and 
scale of present programs represent the world’s opti- 
mum towards the accepted objective of economic 

Output in Private Enterprise Economies 

Examining production trends in private enterprise 
economies, the Survey divides the postwar decade into 
four phases: immediate postwar crises; the general 
awakening to the long-term character of postwar eco- 
nomic problems; the raw materials boom and collapse 
associated with the Korean hostilities; and the current 

The Second World War left agricultural production 
disorganized. In Europe industry was hit no less hard 
than agriculture. Reconstruction and rehabilitation of 
production and trade proceeded more rapidly than after 
the First World War, due in large measure to interna- 
tional aid. 

In 1949 it became clear that certain basic problems 
had not disappeared. International disequilibrium took 
the form of a world-wide dollar shortage. Western Eu- 
rope’s recovery did not suffice to solve this problem. 
That was because of structural changes in world produc- 
tion and trade which limited the scope for trade 
exchanges between western Europe and the rest of the 
non-dollar world. In many underdeveloped countries 
expansion of productive capacity was temporarily 
checked by a drop in export revenues that was generated 
by a brief recession in the United States. 

From mid-1950 to the end of 1952 the situation was 
dominated by the raw materials boom and its collapse 
and the period of readjustment associated with Korean 
hostilities. During the boom phase, demand was most 
intense in the United States. The expansion of output 
in western Europe did not lag far behind, however, and 


in the underdeveloped countries output expanded, 
though more slowly, under the stimulus of higher export 
earnings. When it became evident that military opera- 
tions and outlays would be limited, the raw materials 
boom collapsed. 

Since about 1953 the world has embarked on a new 
phase of expansion. This was interrupted—though only 
briefly—by a mild recession in the United States in 
1953-54 which lasted about a year. But it had little 
adverse effect on the world economy. In the course of 
1955-56, this world-wide expansion once again revived 
fears of inflationary pressure and balance of payments 
deficits in western European countries. 

Rise in Production 

Total production of factories, farms and mines in the 
private enterprise economies rose by about two-thirds 
in volume from the prewar period to 1954, the Survey 
notes. The increase since 1948 has been about as large 
as the rise from the prewar level to 1948. Growth has 
been more rapid in the developed than in the underde- 
veloped countries, especially in the phase before 1948. 

The production rise of the developed countries 
since 1948 has been higher in western Europe than in 
North America. But whereas the former had not yet 
fully recovered the prewar aggregate level of output in 
1948, the latter had already exceeded that level by more 
than two-thirds. North American production in 1954 
was more than twice as high as before the war; in west- 
ern Europe the increase was about 40 per cent. 

The information available indicates that the growth in 
the aggregate output of underdeveloped countries since 
the prewar period is of the same order of magnitude as 
in western Europe. Largely owing to the expansion of 
petroleum and other mineral production, expansion 
since 1948 has been greatest in the Middle East and 
African regions. The rate was also high for most of 
Latin America. In south-eastern Asia, from 1948 to 
1954, the rate was somewhat higher than that achieved 
during the same period in Latin America as a whole. 

Population growth absorbed a substanial proportion 
of the rise in output, especially in underdeveloped 

Increase in Investment 

Investment in developed countries expanded sub- 
stantially compared with the immediate prewar years. 
In North America the expansion had already taken 
place by 1948. In western Europe, however, nearly all 
the rise in investment occurred since 1948. In under- 
developed regions, capital formation has also risen 
significantly. South-eastern Asia, with a much lower 
per capita average income than Latin America, has not 
been able to devote as large a proportion to investment 
as Latin America. 

Everywhere, the Survey points out, the rate of growth 
in primary production has lagged very considerably be- 
hind that of manufacturing. Since primary production 
accounts for about four-fifths of the total commodity 
output of the underdeveloped countries but for less than 
one-third of the total in the developed regions, the dis- 

crepancies make for a considerable lag in total output 
of the less developed countries. 
Reasons for Lag 

There are two main reasons for the lag between 
manufacturing and primary production. At higher levels 
of income the demand for food rises proportionately 
less than the demand for other goods. Further, the raw 
material content of manufacturing has declined due to 
economies in the use of raw materials. That is the 
result of technological progress, of a greater amount of 
reprocessing of already used materials, of the substitu- 
tion of synthetic for natural materials, and of more 
elaborate fabrication of final output. 

The chief force contributing to postwar growth, 
according to the Survey, has been the expansion in 
manufacturing. Under the influence of expanded capital 
formation and defence expenditures the highest rates of 
growth during the postwar years in both western Europe 
and North America have been established by the chemi- 
cal and engineering industries. Staple consumer goods 
industries have been slow in expanding. Partly that is 
because private incomes have risen less than national 
output and partly it is because the rise in demand for 
these products has not paralleled the rise in private 
real incomes. 

In the less developed countries where manufacturing 
is mainly directed to the production of consumer goods, 
gains have been sufficient, in certain products, to raise 
the share of this group of countries in the total produc- 
tion of the private enterprise economies. Increases in 
output of heavy industry, on the other hand, have been 
overshadowed by developments in the economically 
advanced regions. 

International Trade and Payments 

The expansion of world trade during the past ten 
years has been much more rapid than during the cor- 
responding years following the First World War, the 
Survey declares. By 1955 the total volume of world 
trade was about 50 per cent higher than in 1938 and 
1948. In contrast, by 1928—the tenth full year after 
the end of the First World War—the volume of world 
trade was less than 30 per cent above the level of 1913. 

Trade has been held back much less than might have 
been expected by the various limitations and controls 
that have prevailed. Indeed, a careful examination of the 
lag between world trade and world output since 1938 
shows that a major part of the lag is due to factors 
which have nothing to do with trade restrictions. 

Factors Respensible 

One of these factors is that a larger share of world 
output is now being produced in countries whose im- 
ports are small in relation to their output or income. A 
second factor is the lag in food consumption in relation 
to income, together with the reduction in the raw mate- 
rial import content of manufacturing which has accom- 
panied the structural shift in the industrial countries 
from light to heavy industries; consequently, trade in 
primary products has lagged in relation to total world 

UNR—August 1956 


Expansion of trade in postwar years was considerably aided by the growth of the shipping industry. 

UNR—August 1956 

trade and still more in relation to world manufacturing 

This, the Survey emphasizes however, does not mean 
that the impact of restrictive national policies upon the 
growth of international trade has been unimportant. 
Nevertheless, most countries are now spending a higher 
fraction of their incomes on imports than in 1937, and 
those spending a smaller proportion do not consist 
exclusively of countries maintaining import controls. 

While trade in primary products has fallen behind, 
trade in manufactured goods has risen rapidly. By 1954, 
exports of manufactures from the leading producers 
were about half as large again as in 1948 and about 60 
per cent above the 1938 level. The major change in the 
composition of these exports since 1938 has been a 
sharp decline in the share of textiles and a great increase 
in exports of machinery, transport equipment and 

These shifts, according to the Survey, correspond to 
the lag in world consumption in relation to world pro- 
duction brought about by rates of capital formation and 
defence expenditure which were much higher than those 
prevailing in 1938. Moreover, underdeveloped countries 
have been able to promote factory production of tex- 
tiles and conserve limited foreign exchange resources 
for purchases of capital equipment. 

The rise since 1938 in the capacity of underdeveloped 
countries to import has not only been due to the ex- 
pansion in the volume of their exports. It is also due to 
a substantial improvement in their terms of trade, The 
characteristic instability of the exports of primary pro- 
ducing countries did not, however, diminish with the 

favorable price trends and general economic expansion 
of the postwar period. 

Characteristic Feature 

One of the characteristic features of the way the 
world economy has developed since the First World 
War has been the dividing up of the world market into 
compartments of varying degrees of exclusiveness, the 
Survey points out. About three-fifths of world exports 
in 1953 consisted of the exchanges within each of the 
three main trading areas—the centrally planned econo- 
mies, the dollar area and the European Payments Union 
area (EPU). A common characteristic of these three 
areas is that each involves an industrial core together 
with affiliated areas possessing more or less comple- 
mentary economies. 

In addition, less than one-fifth of world trade in 1953 
consisted of the trade between these three main areas. 
The remainder, amounting to rather more than one- 
fifth of the total, consisted of the trade of the rest of 
the world. 

The share of trade among EPU members in the world 
total was no higher in 1953-54 than in 1938. By con- 
trast the relative importance of trade among the dollar 
area countries doubled. The centrally planned 
economies, meanwhile, greatly increased their trade with 
one another as part of a general process of integration 
within the area as a whole and as an offset to the decline 
in east-west trade. 

rhe physical reconstruction of the various economies 
of the world after the war seems to have been more 
easily accomplished than the achievement of a balance 
in international transactions, While the recovery in pro- 
duction has been accompanied by a marked improve- 
ment in balances of payments, the problem of what has 
been called the “concealed” dollar gap seems to persist. 
At the current level of exchange and trade restrictions, 
the residual dollar gap on commercial transactions was 
approximately $2.4 billion in 1954 and $3.4 billion in 
1955. This did not give rise to serious difficulties be- 
cause the “gap” was substantially less than the total of 
economic aid and military expenditures overseas of the 
United States Government. 

Part of the persistent imbalance in international trade 
and payments, in the Survey’s opinion, has its roots in 
efforts to promote capital investment and industrial 
development. It is not unnatural for countries, espe- 
cially the underdeveloped ones, to take the view that the 
concept of international balance was too narrowly con- 
ceived in the past; and that an adequate rate of eco- 
nomic growth is itself an indispensable ingredient of 
“international balance.” 

Trends in Centrally Planned Economies 

In eastern Europe and mainland China the postwar 
decade was characterized by radical institutional changes 
and by a rapid expansion of industry. Nationalization of 
industry and trade as well as collectivization of agri- 
culture, says the Survey, resulted in concentrating eco- 
nomic power in the hands of central authorities and 
made it possible to plan economic development on a 
comprehensive scale, 

The first postwar plans were drawn up separately in 
each country. Later, more attention was paid to the 
requirements of other countries in the area. Not until 
1955, however, did several countries for the first time 
prepare their plans in close cooperation with one an- 
other. Yugoslavia, which up to 1950 used the same 
methods of planning as the other countries, changed its 
methods substantially; the specific planning of the out- 
put of each enterprise was abandoned and the manage- 
ments of enterprises became free to determine output 
and prices. 

The Survey discerns three distinct periods of develop- 
ment in the centrally planned economies from 1945 to 
1955: the period of reconstruction, which ended about 
1949; the period of rapid expansion from about 1950 
to 1953; followed by a period since mid-1953 of a gen- 
eral slowing down of the rate of expansion. This classi- 
fication, however, does not apply to mainland China nor 
to Yugoslavia. 

Although the damage inflicted upon the eastern Eu- 
ropean economies during the Second World War was 
considerably greater than during the First World War, 
the reconstruction period was much shorter. After 
World War I, according to the Survey, a period from 
six to 20 years was required for individual countries 
to regain their 1913 levels of production. But after 
World War II recovery was achieved in most countries 
by 1948. 

UNR—August 1956 

Although the aim of the reconstruction plans was 
primarily to restore and to exceed the prewar levels of 
output, all countries of the area tended from the begin- 
ning to alter the structure of their economies in order 
to achieve a more balanced relationship between various 

Nature of Long-Term Plans 

From the beginning the long-term development plans 
of eastern Europe called for rates of increase in output 
of producers’ goods which were higher than for con- 
sumers’ goods or of agriculture. By 1950, partly under 
the impact of the deterioration of international relations, 
the targets set for producers’ goods were considerably 

Military expenditure increased sharply, the Survey 
declares. In many sectors of the economies of the cen- 
trally planned areas, bottlenecks developed, hampering 
further rapid growth. The rapid rise in investment and 
in military expenditure in the face of considerably 
slower increases in consumer supplies led to inflationary 
pressures in several countries and to a decline in real 
wages from 1950 to 1953. Only in the U.S.S.R. did 
prices decline and real wages increase throughout the 
period since 1947. 

New Policy 

The new economic policy, introduced in the second 
half of 1953, was designed to eliminate disporportions 
between various sectors of the economy in order to pre- 
pare the ground for a further rapid expansion, the Sur- 
vey states. This was to be achieved by a general slowing 
down in the rate of growth, by reducing the spread be- 
tween the output of consumer and producer goods and, 
within the latter, between the output of engineering 
products and that of fuel, power and basic materials. 
The output of agriculture was to be substantially in- 

The implementation of this policy resulted in in- 
creases in real wages and consumption in 1954; bottle- 
necks in fuel, power and basic materials were reduced. 

Increases in industrial production recorded from the 
prewar years to 1954 ranged well over 100 per cent; for 
the U.S.S.R. the increase amounted to nearly 190 per 
cent. For the other eastern European countries the aver- 
age rise was over 150 per cent. While these increases 
are on the whole considerably larger than the average 
for the private enterprise economies, the Survey notes, 
no direct comparison between the rates of growth is in 
fact possible owing to major differences in methods of 
computation of the indices. . 

While industrial output expanded at a high rate 
throughout the postwar decade, the average rates of 
growth declined perceptibly in the course of the period. 
This reflected the transition from recovery to expansion 
and, especially during the second half of the decade, 
the gradual absorption of unused resources. 

In Yugoslavia, the pattern of growth was similar to 
that of the other centrally planned economies up to 
1949. The very small increase in output in 1950 and 
the decline in 1951 and 1952 resulted from poor har- 

UNR—August 1956 

vests and difficulties in securing imported raw materials 
and fuel subsequent to the severance of economic rela- 
tions by the other countries of eastern Europe. 

In mainland China, where intensive industrialization 
began much later, industrial output increased rapdily 
during 1950-1953. In 1954, however, the rate of ex- 
pansion declined. 

Contrast in Farm Output 

In contrast to the extremely rapid expansion of in- 
dustry, agricultural production increased very slightly 
as compared with prewar years, and was a major prob- 
lem in all the centrally planned economies during the 
postwar decade. At the end of the war agricultural out- 
put was considerably below prewar levels. During the 
first half of the postwar decade, it recovered at a rapid 
rate in most countries of the group, generally reaching 
85 to 90 per cent of prewar levels. 

During the following period, however, the rate of 
recovery slackened and the prewar level of output has 
generally been reached only recently. Output in the 
U.S.S.R. rose 10 per cent above the prewar level by 
1952 and did not show any significant further increases 
until 1955, In mainland China, agricultural production 
recovered rapidly after 1949, reaching a level one-sixth 
above that of 1936 by 1954. 

The Survey explains that the considerable lag in agri- 
culture was the effect of a relatively low rate of invest- 
ment as well as of the fiscal and price policies applied 
to agriculture. The high level of compulsory deliveries 
at low prices had a depressing effect on all members of 
the group. In the eastern European countries which 
began to organize collective farming after the war, col- 
lectivization by administrative pressures rather than on 
a voluntary basis also acted as an obstacle to the ex- 
pansion of output. 

In the course of 1953, however, economic policy to- 
wards agriculture was changed. Supplies of machinery 
and building materials, as well as of fertilizers, increased 
substantially. The area under cultivation was expanded, 
and further withdrawal of manpower from agriculture 
was abandoned, There was also a reduction in com- 
pulsory deliveries and taxes and an increase in prices 
paid to the peasants. 

Decisive Influence 

The existence of close political ties among the cen- 
trally planned economies has been a decisive influence 
in the creation of a separate, virtually self-contained, 
trading area, says the Survey. This was reinforced by 
the strategic trade restrictions imposed by the west. At 
the end of the postwar decade the total volume of the 
trade of the centrally planned economies was more 
than 2.5 times higher than before the war, while their 
trade with the rest of the world was less than half its 
prewar level. 

The most significant expansion in foreign trade oc- 
curred in the U.S.S.R. where the total volume in 1954 
was more than four times as large as before the war. 

Trade with the rest of the world declined from 1949 
to 1953. Not until the third quarter of 1953 did a 

recovery begin. During the entire postwar decade west- 
ern Europe was the major trading area in the foreign 
commerce of the centrally planned economies of eastern 

The most striking postwar development in the com- 

modity pattern of trade of the centrally planned 
economies has been the increase in exports of ma- 
chinery and equipment. In contrast, exports of food- 
stuffs have fallen in most of the countries as compared 
to the prewar period. 

Recent Economic Currents 

N addition to analyzing developments in the world 

economy in the ten years following the Second 
World War, the World Economic Survey also examines 
recent and current trends in the industrially developed 
private enterprise economies, in the primary producing 
countries—Africa, Asia (not counting mainland China 
and Japan), Latin America, Australia and New Zea- 
land—and in the centrally planned economies. 

Private Enterprise Economies 

Expansion was the keynote of economic change 
during 1955 in the industrially developed private enter- 
prise economies, the Survey observes. 

In western Europe as a whole the rate of growth was 
higher than in 1953 and 1954, despite the appearance 
of a slack in some countries toward the end of 1955. 
In North America, following the recession of 1953/54, 
the recovery in industrial production in 1955 raised 
output beyond the peak postwar level attained during 
the first half of 1953. 

The expansion in western Europe was initially stimu- 
lated and sustained by a housing boom, Later, the rise 
in consumer expenditure on durable goods and in 
industrial investment became thé major factors. As the 
upswing gathered momentum, most of the industrially 
developed countries adopted measures to restrain do- 
mestic demand. As a result there was a slowing down in 
some countries of the rate of increase in both invest- 
ment and durable goods consumption. 

The rate of increase in real national product accel- 
erated in 1955 in Belgium, France, Italy and the 
Netherlands, where it ranged from 3 to 7 per cent, and 
in western Germany where it reached 11 per cent. 

In other countries the rate of increase in 1955 was 
less than in 1954, amounting to only 2 to 3 per cent 
for Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom, and to 
less than 1 per cent for Denmark. In North America, 
the increase was 6 per cent for the United States and 
9 per cent for Canada. Economic activity in Japan 
also accelerated in 1955. 

The outstanding feature of the increase in consump- 
tion, according to the Survey, was the shift towards 
durable goods, especially passenger cars. In western 
Europe, this shift was fostered by the rise in incomes, 
by the increase in the supply and variety of durable 

consumer goods and the rapidly expanding volume of 
consumer credit. 

The role played by consumer credit in facilitating 
the sales of durable consumer goods was even more 
important in North America where the volume of such 
credit outstanding increased by $6 billion in 1955, 
approximately double the average of previous postwar 

The shift in industrial production caused by the in- 
crease in industrial investment and in consumption of 
durable goods brought about relatively larger expan- 
sion of the output of engineering industries than of 
industrial output as a whole. This in turn resulted in a 
rising demand for the two most important basic mate- 
rials, steel and coal. Shortages developed in some 
countries, necessitating higher imports. 

The rising demand for labor in several Europen 
countries had to be satisfied mainly through transfer 
of manpower from other industries. By contrast, the 
increase in employment in the United States and Canada 
in 1955 (being the outcome of a general recovery from 
the previous recession) was more evenly spread among 
the various sectors of the economy. 

Foreign Trade Patterns 

In western Europe, the changes in the pattern of 
production and demand considerably affected the com- 
position and direction of foreign trade. The volume of 
trade in machinery, transport equipment and basic ma- 
terials for the engineering industries rose rapidly but 
there was little tendency for change in the import de- 
mand for non-durable manufactured consumer goods 
and the raw materials required for their production. 

In North America, imports fluctuated in sympathy 
with domestic production from 1953 to 1955. The 
shifts in the composition of imports, however, were not 
as pronounced as in western Europe. The changes in 
composition affected the geographic distribution of the 
trade of industrial countries; intra-western European 
trade increased, partly to alleviate bottlenecks, and so 
did western European imports from North America. 
On the other hand, imports from primary producing 
countries did not rise in proportion to imports from 
industrial countries. 

In Canada and the United States the cost of living 
scarcely changed in 1954-55; in most western European 

UNR—August 1956 

countries the increase did not exceed 2 per cent. In 
North America, according to the Survey, the stability 
of retail prices resulted from two offsetting influences: 
a small rise in the price of services, and a decline in 
the price of food and certain manufactured goods. In 
most western European countries import prices re- 
mained fairly stable, and despite appreciable increases 
in wages, prices of manufactured industrial goods re- 
mained stable as a result of the substantial rise in out- 
put per man-hour. 

To slow down the pace of expansion and, in some 
cases, to counter balance-of-payments difficulties, re- 
liance was placed chiefly on monetary techniques. Dis- 
count rates were raised generally. Central banks insisted 
on certain liquidity quotas and asked other banks to 
curb their loans. In some cases, specific restrictions 
were introduced to check building. In Norway and 
Sweden special investment taxes were applied to slow 
down private investment. A new feature was the at- 
tempt to exert a downward pressure on prices in west- 
ern Germany and the Netherlands by deliberately 
encouraging imports of consumer goods. The Survey 
considers that not enough sufficient time has elapsed to 
permit an evaluation of the general effect of the anti- 
inflationary measures. 

Outlook For 1956 

Examining the outlook for 1956, it points out that 
industrial output and trade in the industrial countries 
are expected by governments to continue to rise but 
at a somewhat lower rate than during the past two 
years. Such information as was available at the end of 
April 1956 suggested that this expectation was being 
fulfilled in the early months of the current year. 

On the demand side, consumption is not expected to 
increase as rapidly as in 1955, nor, indeed, is invest- 
ment, except in North America. Significant “cross- 
currents” in the United States early in 1956 consisted 
of rising business fixed investment and declining demand 
for passenger cars and new housing. Governments have 
not expressed concern that the expected levels of total 
demand will be insufficient to maintain output at full 
employment levels. 

Trends In Primary Producing Areas 

Since it was the heavy industries and those producing 
durable goods that in general experienced the largest 
relative increase in industrial countries, the Survey 
notes, the most marked rise in demand for raw mate- 
rials imported from the primary producing countries 
was for metals and rubber. The only other category of 
materials in which demand increased and prices were 
firm throughout the period was that of petroleum and 
its products. 

The markets for most of the foods and fibres re- 
mained weak, though beef and mutton prices were 
fairly firm and stocks of butter and certain other edible 
oils were drawn down during the year, On the whole, 
production was unresponsive to market changes, so that 

UNR—August 1956 

there were sizable movements in prices or stocks or 

A significant force on the market for certain primary 
products, according to the Survey, was the heightened 
demand of the U.S.S.R. and some of the eastern Eu- 
ropean countries which became important purchasers 
from several underdeveloped countries. The commodities 
chiefly affected—sugar, cotton, rice, grain—were among 
those in which prices were weak and stocks tended to 
accumulate in exporting countries. 

Trade Developments 

In the first three-quarters of 1955, the value of ex- 
ports from primary producing countries was 5 per cent 
above that of the corresponding period of 1954, whereas 
exports from the industrial countries increased by 12 
per cent. 

One of the postwar characteristics of the import pat- 
tern of the primary producing countries has been the 
tendency for capital goods to claim an increasing share 
of available exchange. This continued during the period 
under review especially in countries in which there was 
some acceleration of development programs—India, 
Iraq and Pakistan, for example. On the average, the 
rate of imports of machinery and transport equipment 
in the first nine months of 1955 was about 6 per cent 
above that of the corresponding period in 1954 and 
about 13 per cent higher than in 1953. 

For the primary exporting countries as a group, the 
terms of trade remained relatively stable. But there 
were considerable variations among individual countries 
as the result of divergent movements in commodity 
prices. Between 1954 and 1955, for example, increases 
of over 10 per cent in export unit values were enjoyed 
by several of the rubber or mineral exporting countries, 
while decreases of over 10 per cent were registered not 
only in the coffee and cocoa exporting countries but also 
in those exporting wool. 

Deteriorations in the terms of trade, adds the Survey, 
aggravated payment difficulties in a number of coun- 
tries in which imports were high or increasing (such as 
Australia, Colombia and New Zealand), but were off- 
set by cuts in imports in others (Brazil and Burma) 
and were cushioned by the adequacy of exchange re- 
serves in the Gold Coast and Nigeria. Many of the 
countries that had improved their trade balance in 
1954—rubber, mineral, petroleum and tea exporters 
in particular—achieved a more active (or less passive) 
balance in 1955, too. 

On the whole, inflationary pressures in primary pro- 
ducing areas increased during 1955. In addition to the 
countries where inflation was of long standing, several 
others experienced rising price levels as a result of 
high levels of investment and consumption pressing on 
limited resources. 

Rises In Production 

Though precise information is lacking, it would seem 
that the period was characterized by widespread though, 
in many cases, smali increases in production. As far as 

manufacturing output is concerned, the expansion tend- 
ed to be greatest in those countries in which the indus- 
trialization process is of relatively recent origin. 

In general, postwar trends in the composition of out- 
put and in industrial investment appear to have been 
maintained in 1954 and 1955, with the production of 
capital goods continuing to spread. On the other hand, 
the lag in the development of power facilities remained 
a source of bottlenecks in some primary producing 

By and large, food production was markedly higher 
in 1953/54 than in 1952/53; the 1954/55 harvest 
brought a further gain to a number of countries. The 
disinflationary consequences of a general rise in food 
production were most pronounced in Asia. 

Where inflationary forces were strongest—as in Bo- 
livia, Chile, Indonesia, South Korea and Uruguay— 
the basic cause frequently lay in unbalanced govern- 
ment budgets, the Survey points out. In India, however, 
the budgetary shortfall, though increasing, did not 

prove to be inflationary—thanks to good harvests, an 

appreciable increase in industrial production and 

cheaper imports. 

As far as the outlook of primary producing areas 
for 1956 is concerned, the prospective slackening in 
the rate of expansion in the industrial countries may 
cause some fall in demand for several of the commodi- 
ties that enjoyed particularly firm markets in 1955. 
Though in many cases an absolute decline in consump- 
tion does not seem to be envisaged, even small changes 
in current or expected demand may precipitate large 
changes in price. 

In view of the strong forces tending to keep export 
prices of industrial countries from falling, says the 
Survey, no major improvement in the overall terms of 
trade for primary producing countries in 1956 is sug- 
gested by current trends; on the contrary, some deteri- 
Oration is indicated for exporters of a number of 
important primary products. 

Trends In Centrally Planned Economies 

In all the centrally planned economies, the World 
Economic Survey points out, economic activity rose 
significantly in 1955. Higher output per man and, to 
a lesser extent, higher employment helped to raise 
industrial output. Farm yields in most countries of the 
group recovered, and in several countries agriculture 
accounted for a bigger share of the national income 
than in preceding years. 

Industrial production continued to increase in 1955 
in all the centrally planned economies. 

In Bulgaria, Poland and the Soviet Union, the rate 
of increase was approximately the same as in 1954, 
and in eastern Germany slightly lower, but in those 
countries which had experienced a substantial decline 
in the rate of growth in 1954—Czechoslovakia, Hun- 
gary, Romania—the rate accelerated during 1955. 

The only country where the rate of expansion fell 
sharply was mainland China. While in 1953 industrial 
production in mainland China had risen by 32 per cent, 


in 1954 it increased by 17 per cent, and in 1955 by 
only 7 per cent. This slackening in the rate of growth, 
according to the Survey, was largely the effect of the 
rapid absorption of unused productive capacity which 
had existed in appreciable amounts at the beginning 
of the current plan of development, especially in con- 
sumer goods industries. 

Output Of Producer Goods 

In contrast to 1954, the output of producer goods 
in 1955 increased faster than that of consumer goods 
in several centrally planned economies, The most strik- 
ing change occurred in the USSR where, until 1954, 
differences in the rates achieved by these two sectors 
have been rather small, whereas in 1955 the output of 
producer goods expanded at a rate 1.6 times higher 
than that of consumer goods. 

The rise in industrial production achieved in all 
centrally planned economies except Yugoslavia in 1955 
was due chiefly to a substantial increase in output per 
man. The improvement was due not only to a reduction 
in bottlenecks but also to more stringent enforcement 
of regulations linking wage increases to productivity. 

Partly responsible for the important recovery in 
agricultural production of most countries of the group, 
the Survey reports, were improved weather conditions 
and more favorable policies towards agriculture, in- 
cluding substantial increases in supply of fertilizers, 
farm machinery, equipment and building materials, 
reduced taxation and delivery quotas, higher govern- 
ment prices for farm produce and an increasing supply 
of industrial consumer goods to the countryside. 

In most centrally planned economies, the share of 
investment in national income declined not only in 
1954 but also, in several cases, in 1955. In the USSR, 
the share of investment in national income which fell 
substantially in 1953, was increased in 1954, but again 
reduced in 1955. Mainland China and Yugoslavia were 
the only countries of this group where investment 
increased in relation to national income both in 1954 
and 1955. 

Plans for 1956, the Survey states, represent a de- 
parture from policies applied during the previous two 
years. The most significant change in countries for 
which information is available is the very sharp increase 
in investment both in absolute terms and in relation 
to national income. While it is planned to increase 
national income by 8 per cent in Czechoslovakia, 
6 per cent in Hungary and probably more than 9 per 
cent in eastern Germany, investment in these countries 
is to increase by 20, 30 and 40 per cent respectively. 
The largest rises are planned for engineering and in- 
dustries producing basic materials, fuel, and power. 

Trade Expansion 

The total trade of the centrally planned economies 
continued to expand in 1955. In contrast to the trend 
prevailing during most of the postwar decade, however, 
trade with the rest of the world expanded more than 
the trade within the group; for the first half of 1955 

UNR—August 1956 

it was 15 per cent higher than for the same period in 

At the new level, however, this trade probably still 
represented not more than 30 per cent of the total 
trade of the centrally planned economies. The trade 
of these economies with countries belonging to the 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation 
(OEEC) rose 17 per cent in the first half of 1955 and 
accounted for 50 per cent of their trade with the rest 
of the world. 

Trade with North America increased by one-third 
from the very low level to which it had fallen in 1954. 
Trade with the world outside western Europe and 
North America went up by about 10 per cent during 
the first half of 1955 and accounted for one-third of 
total east-west trade. The increases were chiefly with 
Burma, India, Indonesia, Japan and Egypt. Trade with 
Latin America, which had grown considerably in 1954, 
did not rise further during the first half of 1955. 

In embarking on new five-year plans the countries 
of eastern Europe have sought to secure a greater 
coordination and division of labor among themselves 
than had prevailed in the past. The sixth five-year plan 
of the USSR in many respects follows the pattern 
adopted for the two preceding five-year plans, provid- 
ing for higher rates of expansion in heavy rather than 
in consumer goods industries, and for a more rapid 
advance in investment than in income. The most im- 
portant difference from the preceding plans is to be 
found in the exceptionally high targets set for agri- 

It is also clear, the Survey continues, that a larger 
proportion of the rise in production than in the pas! 
is to be obtained by increases in productivity and a 
smaller proportion through growth in employment. 

Plans For Industry 

It is planned to raise the total output of industry 
at an average rate of 10.5 per cent per annum during 
the next five years, compared with a rate of 13 per 
cent recorded from 1950 to 1955. According to the 
Survey, output per man in industry is planned to rise 
50 per cent during the period, the same target as was 
set though not actually realized in the previous plan. 
The 70 per cent increase in agricultural output planned 
for the next five years compares with the 40 to 50 per 
cent increase projected in the preceding plan and the 
considerably smaller increase actually achieved. This 
rise is to be obtained by the expansion of the area under 
crops and by a rise in yields. 

The only indication of the planned increase in con- 
sumption of goods is the target set for retail sales in 
state and cooperative trade, which is to increase by 
50 per cent from 1955 to 1960. 

The Survey also gives information on the new five- 
year plan of Romania and on the plan of main’ ind 
China for 1953-1957. The latter plan, which is due to be 
completed one year ahead of schedule, stresses invest- 
ment in large-scale heavy industry and is designed to 
achieve a considerable increase in the share of industry 
in total output. 

Charter of New Finance 

The Charter of the International Finance Corpora- 
tion—intended to entourage the growth of productive 
private enterprise, especially in the less developed 
countries — has now come into force. It went into 
effect on July 20, 1956, when the required number 
of at least 30 governments had completed action for 

On that day France and the German Federal Re- 
public took the necessary action, thereby bringing to 31 
the number of governments doing so. Altogether, the 
capital subscriptions to the Corporation, which will 
function as an affiliate of the International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development, now amount to $78,- 
366,000. A minimum capital subscription of $75,000,- 
000 in all was needed for the Corporation’s Charter to 

UNR—August 1956 

Corporation Now In Force 

come into effect. A total capital of $100,000,000 has 
been authorized. 

The required number of members and capital being 
assured, the organization of the Corporation can now 

The 31 countries which have completed action for 
membership are: Australia, Bolivia, Canada, Ceylon, 
Columbia, Costa Rica, Denmark, the Dominican Re- 
public, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Finland, 
France, the German Federal Republic, Guatemala, 
Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, India, Japan, Jordan, Mexico, 
Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Sweden, 
the United Kingdom and the United States. 

In addition, twenty other countries have indicated 
their willingness to become members. 

Encouraging Progress in Mid-East Economies 

( ontinuing Rise m Oral € Jutput Increases Income 

rT HE continuing great increase in oil production in the 

Middle East and the improved terms of payment 
for the principal producing countries—Iran, Iraq, 
Kuwait, Saudi Arabia—have caused income to rise regu- 
larly and markedly in most of them in recent years. But 
for those countries of the region which are predomi- 
nantly agricultural and do not export oil—including 
Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, the Sudan, Syria and Turkey— 
the increase in income was less steady and was strongly 
influenced by such short-term factors as terms of trade 
and weather. 

For the whole of the Middle East, however, the long- 
term economic aspects “remain rather favorable” and 
progress toward making use of the great potentialities 
for its economic development has been encouraging. 

These are among the main conclusions of a new sur- 
vey entitled, Economic Development in the Middle 
East, 1954 and 1955, Prepared by the United Nations 
Bureau of Economic Affairs, it formed part of the back- 
ground documentation for discussion of the world eco- 
nomic situation at the session of the Economic and 
Social Council which opened in Geneva on July 9. 

“Most Spectacular Element’ 

The oil revenues, amounting to approximately $800 
million a year in direct contributions to governments, 
are described as “the most spectacular element” in the 
favorable long-run economic prospects in the Middle 
East as a whole. Experience, says the report, has shown 
that the rate at which oil revenues accrue is far greater 
than the rate at which they can be effectively used for 
development and that, in some of the Persian Gulf 
states, “the revenues even outstrip the foreseeable 
potentialities of development.” 

Thus in one way or another, either through official 
schemes or private initiative, “the oil revenues of the 
Persian Gulf states are gradually filtering through to 
other countries of the region with wider investment 
possibilities. The current size and probable future 
expansion of these revenues suggest that they could be 
a potent factor in the economic development of the 

The pace of development during the past few years 
“has unmistakenly quickened,” the survey continues, 
noting that the large development schemes now com- 
ing to fruition or in prospect—including the High Dam 
on the Nile, the Habbaniya Dam on the Euphrates and 
the Wadi Tharthar Dam on the Tigris (both com- 
pleted in 1956), and the Huleh Reclamation Scheme 


nearing completion in Israel—may help to start a 
cumulative process of economic improvement in the 
area as a whole. 

The present economic difficulties of some of the 
countries of the area, the survey states, are typical of 
underdeveloped countries “determined to press on with 
large schemes of public investment in the interest of 
rapid economic development and should be viewed in 
relation to long-term prospects.” 

These difficulties, however, “are not lessened by the 
unsettled political situation in the Middle East with its 
accompaniment of heavy defence expenditures,” which 
have in several countries contributed to inflationary 
pressures leading to balance of payments difficulties 
deriving from the unsaleability of high-priced exports 
and scarcity of foreign exchange. 

Difficulties in the marketing of exports, says the 
report, “appear in part responsible for the shift towards 
eastern European countries in the direction of the trade 
of Egypt and Turkey, although various other Middle 
East governments have also recently made bilateral or 
barter agreements with these countries.” 


An analysis of agricultural production in the area 
during 1954 shows that output decreased in Turkey, 
and to some extent, also in Iran, while in the other 
countries of the region it increased considerably. 

The setback in Turkish production resulted from a 
severe drought which reduced total grain crops from 
14.6 million tons in 1953 to 9.6 million in 1954, and 
the output of leguminous plants by 16 per cent. There 
was, however, some increase in production of oil- 
seeds, citrus fruits and cotton. In Iran, wheat pro- 
duction dropped from 2.24 million tons to 2.10 million, 
but the rice crop rose from 500,000 tons to 526,000 
tons. In Egypt the wheat and rice crops were larger, 
due in great part to higher yields; the cotton crop also 
increased following an expansion in the cultivated area. 
In Israel, citrus fruit production rose from 300,000 to 
470,000 tons, while the increases in wheat, barley and 
olive crops ranged from 13 to 50 per cent. In Lebanon, 
the production of citrus fruits rose from 75,000 to 
100,000 tons, and the wheat crop considerably sur- 
passed the 1953 level because of higher yields. In Syria, 
the barley, cotton and oil-seed crops were above the 
1953 level by 35 to 70 per cent. In Iraq, wheat pro- 
duction advanced from 760,000 to 1,160,000 tons. 

In 1955, however, there seems to have been a com- 
plete reversal of the situation. In Turkey, agricultural 

UNR—August 1956 

production considerably exceeded the 1954 figures, 
while Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria suffered 
from unfavorable weather conditions. In Iraq, wheat 
production fell by 60 per cent, the barley crop by 
nearly 40 per cent, and the rice crop by 45 per cent. 
In Israel, barley production fell from 90,000 tons in 
1954 to 40,000 tons in 1955, and citrus fruit output 
declined from 472,000 to 390,000 tons. In Jordan, the 
wheat crop dropped from 233,000 to 79,000 tons, in 
Syria from 965,000 to 600,000 tons. In Lebanon, the 
fruit and legume crops sustained losses ranging from 40 
to 50 per cent. Only in Egypt did agricultural pro- 
duction seem to have deveioped at approximately the 
same rate as in 1954. On the other hand, the crops of 
cereals in Turkey rose from 9.6 to 13.1 million tons. 

Some improvements in the methods and conditions 
of agricultural production have been achieved in the 
last two years in the region. In relation to what has to 
be done in this field, however, the achievements in 
general were rather modest. 


Industry, on the other hand, appears to have made 
rather rapid progress in the region as a whole during 
1954, and there were indications that the rate of prog- 
ress was accelerated in 1955. Industrial development 
was largely concentrated in Egypt, Israel and Turkey, 
and the expansion was greater in the output of capital 
and intermediary goods, such as cement, steel and fer- 
tilizers, than of consumer goods. Investments required 
for development of industry came largely from domestic 
sources, a great part from the governments themselves. 

In Egypt, production of electricity, yarns, textiles, 
paper products, soap, sugar, iron, cement and fertilizers 
increased while that of glasswares and alcoholic drinks 

In Iran, industrial and mining activities (excluding 
petroleum) experienced a setback in 1954 and early 
1955, but there has been an improvement more recently. 
In Iraq, industrial activity showed considerable prog- 
ress throughout the period, and consumption of electric 
power in industrial enterprises (excluding the petro- 
leum industry) increased by 23 per cent. 

In Israel, industrial output continued to increase in 
1954 and 1955, although the rate of increase declined 
somewhat. The net value of industrial and mining out- 
put went up from £I 219 million (Israeli pounds) to 
£I 270 million, but investment fell from £I 70 million 
in 1953 to £1 68 million in 1954. In Lebanon, industrial 
production showed little change in 1954, while in Syria 
production as a whole increased but faced some diffi- 
culties because of slow sales. In Turkey, industrial 
and mining production in 1954 was 6.5 per cent higher 
than in 1953, and it appears to have been more rapid 
in the mechanized industries and in the electric gen- 
erating sector than in other industrial branches. The 
expansion in 1954 and 1955 took place despite some 
difficulties created by the shortage of foreign currency. 

On the subject of marine traffic, the report notes that 
only Egypt, Turkey and, to some extent, Israel have a 

UNR—August 1956 

merchant navy of significance, and the available figures 
show that in 1954 tonnage has grown in Turkey while 
declining somewhat in Israel. 

Suez Canal traffic has expanded consistently during 
the years under review, according to the report. The 
number of passages rose in 1954 by 3.8 per cent over 
1953, while net tonnage of ships passing through the 
Canal increased by 10.3 per cent. 


Production of crude petroleum in the Middle East 
rose by 12.8 per cent in 1954 and by 17.6 per cent in 
1955, as compared with the rises in world output of 
2.8 per cent and 10.1 per cent respectively. The greatest 
expansion within the region in 1955 took place in Iran; 
despite this rise, however, Iranian production was less 
than 10 per cent of the region’s total in 1955 as com- 
pared with 36.4 per cent in 1950. Production of crude 
petroleum in 1955 amounted to 33.8 million tons in 
Iraq, 47.0 million in Saudi Arabia, 55.0 million in 
Kuwait, 162.1 million in the whole Middle East. Total 
world output came to 788.5 million tons. 

In 1955, the Middle East processed 5.7 per cent of 
the refined products of the world, as compared with 4.8 
per cent in 1954 and 8.1 per cent in 1950. Production 
of the major refined products in the region amounted 
to nearly 40 million metric tons, showing a rise of one- 
third over the 1954 output. The region’s refined output 
regained its 1950 level after a drastic decline in 1951 
and 1952 owing to the shutdown of the Abadan refinery 
in Iran, but the percentage of crude processed to total 
production of crude petroleum was only 26 per cent in 
1955 as against 48 per cent in 1950. The increase in 
output of refined products came mainly from the Aba- 
dan and Aden refineries. 

Some progress was also made during the period to- 
wards the use and conservation of natural gas and 
refinery gas, produced in large quantities in conjunction 
with the production and refining of petroleum in the 
region, hitherto almost entirely wasted. 

Exports and Revenue 

The estimated total value of petroleum exports from 
the crude and refined petroleum exporting countries of 
the Middle East increased to the equivalent of over 
$2.5 billion in 1955, showing a rise of 20 per cent and 
40 per cent over the exports of 1954 and 1953 
respectively. The quantity of exports of crude petroleum 
increased from 104 million metric tons in 1953 to 117 
million in 1954 and approximately 135 million in 1955. 
Exports of crude petroleum to western Europe in- 
creased from 74 million tons in 1953 to 82 million in 
1954, to the western hemisphere from 12 million to 13 
million, to the Middle East from 9 million to 12 million 
and to the Far East from 4 million to 7 million. 

The total direct and indirect petroleum revenues to 
the Middle Eastern countries between 1951 and 1955 
amounted to $3.5 billion. In 1955, the revenues were 
estimated at over one billion dollars, of which $880 
million represented direct payments to governments and 

the balance consisted of wages to employees and pur- 
chases of local goods and services. 

Increased exploration and drilling activities in the 
Middle East as a whole during 1954 and 1955 led to 
the discovery of new petroleum reservoirs in Kuwait, 
Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Egypt and Israel. According to an 
estimate published in January 1956, the region’s crude 

petroleum reserves, recoverable by methods currently 

in use and under present economic conditions, amounted 
to 231 million barrels. A lower estimate, however, 
placed the reserves at 126 billion barrels. According 
to earlier estimates, United States controlled companies 
had access to 64 per cent of the region’s proved 
reserves, British and Dutch-controlled companies to 31 
per cent, and French companies to most of the remain- 
ing 5 per cent. 
Foreign Trade and Payments 

The value of all exports, including oil, increased by 
7 per cent in 1954 and by a further 12 per cent in the 
first two quarters of 1955, while the corresponding 
rates for world exports were 3.5 and 5.8 per cent 
respectively. Excluding oil, however, the value of 
exports from the Middle East showed little change for 
the whole period. There was a small improvement in 
the regional terms of trade which, however, still 
remained far below their post-war record level of 1951. 

The two countries which, by reason of the size of 
their foreign trade, to a great extent determine the 
movements of the regional totals are Egypt and Turkey. 
In Egypt, the value of exports rose very slightly in 
1954 but decreased in the first half of 1955; in Turkey, 
exports dropped in 1954 and declined further in 1955. 
Export values in Egypt and in some other countries of 
the region were strongly influenced by changes in the 
quantity of cotton exports which declined in 1954 and 
again during the first half of 1955, while Turkey’s 
export earnings were affected mainly by the decline in 
grain exports. 

The composition of imports continued to be in- 
fluenced in 1954 and 1955 by the long-term changes 
taking place in many countries of the region, such as 
increasing industrialization and mechanization, gradual 
improvement of production methods in agriculture and 
rising demand due to population growth and in some 
cases to increased per capita income. It was, moreover, 
affected by government restrictions and by short-term 
factors such as the level of agricultural output in a 
given year. 

The most notable change iin the direction of the 
region’s foreign commerce was the increase in trade 
from 1953 onwards with the group of countries con- 
sisting of mainland China, the USSR and other eastern 
European countries. In the first seven months of 1955 
eastern Europe accounted for over 26.7 per cent of 
Turkey’s exports as against 7.4 per cent in 1953 and 
16.5 per cent in 1954. The same eastern European 
countries and mainland China purchased, in the first 
three quarters of 1955, 24.9 per cent of Egypt’s total 
exports as compared with 12.2 per cent in 1953 and 

14.2 per cent in 1954. Other trends were the growth of 
trade within the region, and the declining trade with 
western Europe (with the exception of west Germany 
in 1954) as well as with Canada and the United States. 

The payments position of the Middle Eastern coun- 
tries with respect to the major monetary areas is difficult 
to establish, the survey observes, as very few of them 
publish relevant regional data. But, it says, it may be 
inferred that Egypt, Israel and Iraq reduced their dollar 
deficit in 1954 while the payments positions of Syria 
and Turkey with respect to the dollar area deteriorated 
somewhat. In Turkey, moreover, the large trade deficit 
with the European Payments Union countries, though 
decreasing in 1954, still remained considerable. 

As to development endeavors, the survey points out 
that, despite many differences in the development pro- 
grams launched by the various countries of the region, 
they do have certain elements in common. The two 
largest categories of development expenditure in every 
case are agriculture (including irrigation) and transport. 
Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon and Syria all give the 
major emphasis to agriculture, irrigation and improved 
use of water resources, as is to be expected in countries 
which have similar problems such as a rapidly in- 
creasing population, an arid climate, and sharp fluc- 
tuations in water supply. In Iran and Turkey, the 
largest expenditures are for transport and communica- 
tions, since the broad extent and irregular terrain of 
these countries have made poor communications a con- 
siderable obstacle to development. 

Differing Ways of Financing 

The programs differ widely, on the other hand, in 
their methods of financing. In the case of Iran and Iraq, 
assuming continued oil production at the current level 
or above, foreign currency is no problem and the diffi- 
culty is one of obtaining enough domestic resources and 
of finding enough trained people. Syria may also per- 
haps be able to finance most of its present program 
from oil transit revenues, while Lebanon will ‘receive 
some foreign exchange from this source. In the case of 
countries without oil revenues, the financial situation, 
both internal and external, is as a rule much tighter. 
The full implementation of their plans depends on the 
availability of loans or grants from abroad. 

In Egypt, the building of a high dam on the Nile, 
now in the planning stage, “is likely to overshadow all 
its other projects,” the report declares. Expected to take 
ten years in construction, “the project is so vast, both 
in terms of proportion of investment which it will 
absorb and the contribution which it will make to 
effective demand and national income, that its effects 
may be expected to be felt in almost all sectors of the 
Egyptian economy.” 

Iran, Iraq and Syria have adopted long-term invest- 
ment plans affecting a number of sectors of the econ- 
omy and covering definite periods. Israel, Lebanon and 
Turkey, on the other hand, have a variety of plans for 
different sectors of their economies and different 

UNR—August 1956 

Suri ey of a Continent: 

Economic Activity in Africa 

FIVE per cent increase in the net national income 
of the Union of South Africa, a ten per cent ex- 
pansion in the exports of tropical Africa, and the 
aggravation of the economic situation in Algeria, 
Tunisia and Morocco as a result of internal strife are 
reported in the “Review of Economic Activity in Africa 
1954-1955,” published July 12 by the United Nations. 
This report is one of several studies serving as back- 
ground for discussion of the world economic situation 
at the twenty-second session of the Economic and 
Social Council which opened in Geneva on July 9. 
The definition of Africa employed in the report ex- 
cludes Egypt. 

The Review states that agricultural production, which 
accounts for the greater part of employment and in- 
come, was slightly higher in 1954-55 than in the 
previous year. The rate of annual increase, however, 
was lower than in any year since 1948, while agri- 
cultural output for the world as a whole remained 
unchanged during the same period. 

Mineral production was at a higher level in 1954 
than in 1953 and continued to increase in the first half 
of 1955, mainly because of a higher export demand 
arising from increased industrial activities in Europe 
and North America. 

The Review points to rising costs, labor shortages 
and unrest, and inadequate transport facilities as limit- 
ing factors which, in varying degrees in different terri- 
tories, affected mineral production. The rate of expan- 
sion of African production was higher than that for the 
world as a whole. 

There was little expansion in known energy re- 
sources during 1954 and 1955. Coal production in- 
creased by about 2 per cent, and output of electric energy 
increased in the aggregate by about 11 per cent in 
1954. The Review states that wide possibilities exist 
for the utilization of nuclear power, especially for 
mining and irrigation purposes, in areas remote from 
sources of coal and hydro-electric power. 

UNR—August 1956 

Manufacturing output continued to expand during 
1954 and 1955, but the Review stresses that in manu- 
facturing for local consumption most African territories 
are faced with the problem of finding an adequate 
market for their products locally, since per capita 
income is low and the volume of demand often too 
small to warrant the establishment of local factories. 

African exports, which constitute about 6 per cent 
of world total, expanded at a greater rate than world 
exports in 1954—8.6 per cent as against 5.6 per cent— 
but in the first half of 1955 the increase was only 2 
per cent as against 6.6 for the world as a whole. As a 
result of a 3 per cent rise in prices of primary products 
and a 2 per cent decline in manufactured products, the 
trade position of African countries, which are mainly 
sellers of primary products, improved. 

The Review notes that trade with countries of the 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation and 
North America, which accounts for about four-fifths 
of African imports and three quarters of African 
exports, experienced a slight relative decline in their 
share of the total, but not in absolute value, in 1954 
compared to 1953. Trade with eastern Europe, mostly 
the U.S.S.R., became relatively more important both 
in African exports and imports. Intra-African trade 
expanded by 5 per cent in 1954. 

The Review remarks that, as in previous years, the 
emphasis in development plans generally was on the 
provision of basic facilities, particularly communica- 
tions, with a tendency to pay greater attention to social 
services, particularly housing, and to research on re- 

Because of the great diversity of climate, natural 
resources, peoples and modes of life in Africa, the 
continent is divided into three broad regions for the 
purposes of the more detailed analysis of economic 
activity during the period 1954/1955. These are the 
Union of South Africa, with the Federation of Rhodesia 


and Nyasaland; tropical Africa; and Algeria, Morocco, 
Tunisia, with Libya. 

Union of South Africa 

The Review states that the relative importance of 
mining rose for the first time in four years, as output 
expanded by 11 per cent in value, mostly because of 
the opening of new mines producing gold and atomic 
materials in the Orange Free State. Agricultural output 
declined substantially in value, largely on account of 
lower returns from sales of maize and wool. Manufac- 
turing production which had expanded continuously 
since 1951 continued its upward trend. 

The general increase in economic activity was ac- 
companied by inflationary pressures; an important ele- 
ment in this trend was the shortage of labor. On the 
other hand, and despite the relaxation in import con- 
trols, the deficit in the Union’s balance of payments on 
current account declined from $30 million in 1954 
to $28 million in 1955, largely because of an increase 
in net gold output. 

The year 1954/1955 was a good one for the Federa- 
tion of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. National income in- 
creased by 12 per cent in 1954, and data available for 
1955 suggest a further increase. Since export prices 
in general increased more than import prices, there 
was an improvement in the terms of trade. 

Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Libya 

The Review points out that the growth of population 
has been at a more rapid rate than that of agricultural 
production, and although it is estimated that a further 
expansion of the area under cultivation amounting to 
some 2 million hectares (about 5 million acres) may 
be possible in Morocco, any increase in the area under 
cultivation in Algeria and Tunisia is severely limited 
and any significant expansion of agricultural produc- 
tion in these territories must arise from increased yields. 

With the exception of Tunisia, the Review finds little 
evidence of any improvement in the balance of trade, 
the adverse nature of which amounts to about half the 
value of exports in the case of Algeria and about 
two-thirds of the value of exports in the case of 

In Algeria and Tunisia, which formerly balanced their 
ordinary budgets and had a surplus for transfer to their 
extraordinary budgets, budgetary deficits have been re- 
corded in recent years and continued in 1954/1955. 
These deficits are made good by France, which also 
provides a large part of the development plan expendi- 
ture. However, despite expenditure of the order of 
$1.75 billion in the last three years on such plans, 
investment in the public section of the economy needs 
to be supplemented by private investment, the Review 
states, and it is precisely this type of investment which 
recent political disturbances have adversely affected. 

More than anything else, the Review adds, Algeria, 
Morocco and Tunisia require a period free from in- 
ternal strife which may permit the return of a measure 
of confidence, and enable their economies, with the 

assistance of an increased volume of public investment, 
to overcome the stagnation which has characterized the 
period under review. 

The Libyan economy is of a deficit nature, and, in 
the absence of a substantial capital inflow and of invisi- 
ble exports, financial assistance from abroad is neces- 
sary to correct the adverse balance. During 1954, this 
assistance exceeded $14 million, of which more than 
$10 million was from the United Kingdom. During 
1955 a further grant-in-aid of $10.5 million was re- 
ceived from the United Kingdom, and $8 million from 
the United States. 

Tropical Africa 

The Review notes that, although there was no uni- 
form trend in primary product prices during 1954, 
average prices of many important African exports, 
notably cocoa, coffee, tea, iron ore and rubber, were 
higher than in 1953. Import prices were generally lower 
than in 1953, so there was an improvement in the terms 
of trade of most African countries. In 1955 there was 
little change in the level of export earnings. 

In general, mineral prices, particularly those of 
copper, tin, manganese and zinc, showed an upward 
trend in 1955, while agricultural prices tended to de- 
cline. The effect of these price movements, the Review 
states, was to reduce the purchasing power of the 
majority of Africans in the cash sector of the economy 
and to allow some expansion of profits in the mining 
industry which is operated by Europeans. 

Public investment continued to expand in 1954 in 
the Belgian and British territories, although there was 
a decline in investment in French tropical African terri- 
tories as the first development plans came to an end 
and the second plans had not gathered momentum. 

Available data suggest a general increase in public 
investment in 1955. There are indications that private 
investment in most territories was maintained, particu- 
larly in areas of European settlement. 

Agricultural Production 

The slight increase in agricultural output in Africa 
resulted mainly from the expansion of production of 
export crops, the Review points out. Thus, production 
of dollar-earning crops, such as sisal and pyrethrum, 
and to a lesser extent cocoa, increased, while do!lar- 
earning commodities, such as sugar and cotton, also 

A large part of African agricultural production is 
for subsistence only, and yields in general are low. 
Throughout Africa, the system of land tenure, involv- 
ing fragmentary holdings and lack of freehold tenure, 
are barrier to any appreciable expansion of agricultural 
production, the Review states. However, in some terri- 
tories, efforts are being made to improve farming 
methods through demonstration farms where new tech- 
niques are taught and improved seed and stock are 
distributed. Soil conservation and irrigation measures 
are being increasingly introduced, and intensive research 
in plant diseases is being carried on both within Africa 

UNR—August 1956 

and in the metropolitan countries with African de- 
pendent territories. Still, the Review cautions, tribal 
customs and systems of land tenure are barriers which 
will not be removed quickly. 

In its survey of production trends, the Review says 
that ground-nut production declined from 2.9 million 
metric tons in 1953/54 to 2.7 million metric tons in 
1954/55, reducing the African share in world produc- 
tion from 27 to 25 per cent. The decline was due mainly 
to adverse weather in West Africa and Nigeria, the two 
major producers of the region. On the other hand, out- 
put of palm oil rose by 9.3 per cent to an estimated 900 
thousand metric tons in 1954, about 80 per cent of 
total world production. Output of olive oil in 1954, 
however, was 20 per cent below the level of 1953. 
In Tunisia, the major African producer and principal 
world exporter, olive oil production fell by 43 per cent 
to 52,000 metric tons from the high level of the previ- 
ous year. 

The African contribution to world production of 
cotton and wool is relatively small, says the Review, 
but about 58 per cent of the world production of sisal 
originates in Africa. Sisal production continued to in- 
crease, chiefly because of the expansion of production 
in Tanganyika, and amounted to 290,000 metric tons. 

Output of cocoa beans, which in recent years has 
contributed more than 60 per cent of the world total, 
was slightly higher than in 1953. Under the stimulus 
of rising prices early in 1954, governments of many 
territories took measures to promote new plantings of 
coffee. As a result, the production of coffee beans in 
1954/55 was more than 10 per cent higher than in the 
previous year and accounted for more than 17 per cent 
of total world production. Increased production in 
French West Africa reflected the investment there in 
recent years. In Dahomey, more than 12 million francs 
were invested between 1951 and 1955 in improvements 
to coffee-producing areas. The acreage under coffee in 
the Belgian Congo increased during 1954 by 12 per 
cent, the greater part of the expansion being due to 
European plantings. 

The rising trend in sugar production continued and 
was about 10 per cent higher than in 1953/54. The net 
increase of 160,000 tons was mostly due to expanded 
production in the Union of South Africa. 

Raw rubber output increased by about 10 per cent 
to about 86,000 metric tons in 1954 in response to 
higher prices, the principal increases being in Liberia 
and the Belgian Congo. 

Fuel, Power, Secondary Industries 

The development of the wide possibilities for use of 
nuclear power, especially for mining and irrigation pur- 
poses, will call for the utilization of small-size reactors 
and is accordingly dependent on technological progress 
in this field and on the price at which these reactors 
will be obtainable, the Review says. 

It states that drilling for oil in French North Africa 
showed considerable expansion in 1954: drillings in the 

UNR—August 1956 

Sahara increased from 3,900 meters to 30,000 meters. 
Deposits of oil were discovered near Benefica in 
Angola during 1955 after three years of exploration, 
and a refinery capable of handling one million tons of 
crude oil annually is to be constructed at Luanda. 

Oil exploratory concessions covering a total of 35 
million acres were granted by the Libyan Government 
to United States oil companies in 1955. 

Output of electricity in 1954, states the Review, 
totaled 22,700 million kilowatt hours, 11 per cent higher 
than in 1953, and continued to expand during the first 
half of 1955. In the Union of South Africa, which 
accounts for about two-thirds of the total production in 
Africa, output was 10 per cent higher in 1953 than 
in 1952. In the Belgian Congo, the 1954 output ex- 
panded by 20 per cent above the 1953 level, and in the 
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland production 
expanded by about 12 per cent. 

Commenting on secondary industries, the Review 
says that in most dependent territories manufacturing 
industries remained in the early stage of development, 
consisting mostly of establishments for the preparation 
of food-stuffs, cotton textiles and building materials 
and for the primary processing of products for export. 
Conditions for the expansion of secondary industries 
are most favorable in the Union of South Africa and 
the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, both of 
which have high per capita national income in compari- 
son with other African countries and have in varying 
degrees developed iron and steel and chemical in- 

Industrialization, says the Review, is dependent prin- 
cipally on the availability of capital, accessible raw 
materials, skilled labor, managerial skill, power and a 
market for products. In most African countries, many 
of these requirements are inadequate, but governments 
are in general aware of this lack and are taking steps 
to overcome it. 

Mineral Production 

Mineral exploration during 1954 and 1955 resulted 
in discovery of new deposits of asbestos, coal, diamonds, 
gold, phosphate and vermiculite in the Federation of 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland; asbestos, barytes, diamonds 
and manganese in South West Africa; thorium in 
Kenya; bauxite in French West Africa; and manganese 
in Algeria, French Equatorial Africa and British Somali- 
land. In Uganda the mineral complex at Sukulu, con- 
taining pyrochlore, apatite and magnetite, is being 
explored; in Tanganyika, investigations into the mineral 
resources of the Uluguru mountains are being con- 
ducted with United Nations Technical Assistance aid. 

For Africa as a whole, there were significant increases 
in 1954 in the output of antimony, bauxite, cobalt, cop- 
per, gold, lead, nickel, tungsten and phosphate rock; 
production of iron ore, tin and zinc declined. The 
increase in world production of diamonds and phos- 
phate rock was entirely due to the expansion of African 
production, which was also responsible for 98 per cent 

and 96 per cent respectively of the increase in antimony 
and gold. Similarly, increases in world production of 
copper, cobalt, asbestos and lead were mainly accounted 
for by the expansion of African production. On the 
other hand, almost half of the decline in world produc- 
tion of manganese was attributable to the decline in 
African production. 

The Review notes that output of uranium in the 
Union of South Africa rose sharply in 1954 and con- 
tinued to rise in 1955—profits from uranium mining 
went from 1.8 million pounds in 1953 to 8.1 million 
pounds in 1954. By July 1955 twenty-six mining com- 
panies were providing ores and slimes for treatment in 
the eight extracting plants which were to be added 
in 1955. 

Foreign Trade 

In the first half of 1955, African exports were valued 
at $2,418 million—$48 million more than in the cor- 
responding period of 1954. Increases occurred in the 
Union of South Africa ($43 million), Algeria ($33 
million), French Morocco ($26 million), the Federa- 
tion of Rhodesia and Nyasaland ($18 million) and the 
Sudan ($13 million); but there were decreases in the 
Gold Coast ($27 million), Nigeria ($26 million), 
Madagascar ($16 million), Tunisia ($10 million) and 
Angola ($8 million). 

The principal exports of Africa in terms of value in 
1954 were oil seeds, cocoa, copper, coffee, cotton, wool 
and hair, fruits and nuts, wine, sugar and diamonds. 
The Review points out that the range of exports is nar- 
row, for eleven principal items acount for about 60 per 
cent of the total export value in 1954. Ground nuts 
were responsible for more than 90 per cent of the 
export earnings in Gambia, as was sugar in Mauritius, 
and in the majority of African countries three products 
accounted for more than 50 per cent of the total value 
of exports. 

Rise in Imports 

The increase in export earnings and acceleration in 
the rate of development, together with a general relaxa- 
tion of import controls, resulted in a rise in African 
imports of 4.8 per cent between 1953 and 1954. In the 
Union of South Africa, the value of imports rose by 
$38 million or 3 per cent. The aggregate increase in 
British Africa amounted to $109 million, most of it 
occurring in British West Africa and the Federation of 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Among French territories, 
continued increases in imports were reported by those 
south of the Sahara and by Algeria, while imports into 
French Morocco declined. Imports into the Belgian 
Congo decreased slightly in the same period. 

In contrast to exports, African imports comprise 
chiefly manufactured goods, the most important group 
being machinery and transport equipment (about one- 
third of the total) and textiles. 

rade with the sterling area outside Africa declined 
both in value and as a percentage of African exports 


and imports, the Review reports. One factor in the 
decline in dollar imports to British territories was the 
increased competition from non-dollar sources, espe- 
cially from Japan, Western Germany and Italy, all of 
which were regaining part of the trade they had lost in 
the war and immediate post-war years. As an example, 
imports of standard cotton fabrics into the Gold Coast 
and Nigeria from the United Kingdom fell in value 
from 15 million pounds in 1953 to 8.8 million pounds 
in 1954, while those from India and Japan increased 
from 6.7 million pounds to 10.5 million pounds. 

The Review notes that African imports from dollar 
sources increased in value but declined in proportionate 
share from 1953 to 1954; those from the United States 
and Canada fell from 11.1 per cent of total imports to 
10.9 per cent. 

In 1954, the value of African exports to the dollar 
area was about at the same level as in 1953. In the 
case of British Africa, dollar exports declined from a 
total of $216.1 million in 1953 to $189.3 million in 
1954, mainly because of a sharp fall in the value of 
exports to the United States of manganese ore, timber 
and cocoa from the Gold Coast and of copper, asbestos 
and chrome ore from the Federation of Rhodesia and 
Nyasaland. The Gold Coast and the Federation, to- 
gether with Nigeria, are the leading dollar earners 
among British territories. 

In addition to earning dollars for export, dependent 
territories in Africa are exporters of dollar-saving com- 
modities to OEEC countries, especially to the metropoli- 
tan countries. Exports of cotton, copper, coffee, sugar, 
tobacco and vegetable oils to OFEC countries increased 
in volume and value in 1954. 

The largest source of African imports among OEFEC 
countries continued to be France. Imports from that 
country rose from $1,280 million in 1953 to $1,380 
million in 1954. Imports from France were higher in 
most areas of Africa in 1954, but, in particular, larger 
percentages of imports into British and Portuguese ter- 
ritories came from France. Imports to and exports from 
Western Germany, Italy and the Netherlands continued 
to increase. 

Intra-African trade, one-tenth of total African trade, 
rose in 1954 by about 5 per cent. An important flow 
of this trade is concerned with the Union of South 
Africa, with its advanced industrialization and its com- 
munications with adjacent areas. 

Another important part of the network of intra- 
African trade is the shipments to and from French 
North Africa. In 1954, exports from Algeria, French 
Morocco and Tunisia to the rest of Africa, which con- 
stitute about two-fifths of the aggregate exports of those 
territories, declined by about 10 per cent from the 
1953 level. 

Investment Planning 

Programs of capital expenditure adopted by African 
countries since the war are not development plans so 
much as capital work programs, the Review states. 
Their general aims are to get to know more about the 

UNR—August 1956 

Construction of one of the world’s largest dams 

at the Kariba Gorge on the Zambesi River, south of 
Victoria Falls, for a hydroelectric project in the 
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. 

resources of each territory; to protect known resources 
and to ensure their most efficient use; to improve and 
enlarge basic equipment, particularly communications; 
to improve the health education and living conditions of 
the population; to improve agriculture, stock breeding 
and existing industries; and to develop the most profit- 
able new sources of production and new forms of 
wealth, and thus generally to broaden and strengthen 
the economy of the territories so as to make them less 
sensitive to fluctuations in the world economy. 

Extensive Capital Development 

Expenditure on development plans in British de- 
pendent territories, excluding the Federation of Rhodesia 
and Nyasaland, was about $150 million in 1954. The 
Review records the following progress: port improve- 
ments were completed in Nigeria and at Freetown in 
Sierra Leone; a new airport was opened at Dar-es- 
Salaam; in Tanganyika, the projected Southern Province 
Railway, together with the port of Mtwara, went into 
service; also new radio circuits between Nigeria and the 
United Kingdom and radio photo-telegraphic circuits 
between the Gold Coast and the United Kingdom 
were opened. 

A ten-year development plan for the Belgian Congo 
drawn up in 1954 provides for an expenditure of $970 
million, with emphasis on communications, particularly 

UNR—August 1956 

rail and water transport. The Review notes that work 
on port expansion and improvements continued, that 
the Kamina-Kabalo rail link was nearing completion at 
the end of 1955, that the completion of the Tshopo falls 
hydroelectric scheme and of part of the Zonzo scheme 
resulted in a significant increase in the total production 
of electric energy, and that 7,656 houses were com- 
pleted in 1954, compared with 3,988 in the pre- 
vious year. 

Public investment in French territories south of the 
Sahara in 1954 decreased by about 14 per cent com- 
pared with the previous year. In French West Africa 
priority was given to improvement and expansion of 
the road and rail network. It is expected, for example, 
that diesel locomotives will completely replace steam 
locomotives by the end of 1956. Public investment in 
French Equatorial Africa was at a lower rate than in 
1953: the principal fields of investment were com- 
munications, agriculture and expansion of hydroelec- 
tric schemes, the latter mainly in Djoue, which provides 
electricity for Brazzaville and Bouali. 

In Algeria, the main fields of investment were agri- 
culture, mineral research, communications and housing. 
In Morocco, expenditure on irrigation was at a higher 
level than in 1953. The Bin-el-Ouidane dam was in- 
augurated in 1955 and will eventually provide irriga- 
tion for an area of 370,000 acres in the Beni Moussa 

Meeting Transport Needs 

In Libya a five-year capital development program 
was drawn up in 1953 providing for the expenditure of 
some $18 million. The plan is financed by grants, prin- 
cipally from the United Kingdom, which makes an 
annual grant-in-aid of $10.5 million, and the United 
States, which made $4 million available during the year 
1954/55 and has undertaken to grant $4 million an- 
nually for the period 1955/1960 as part of a $40 mil- 
lion loan over a 20-year period. 

Although there is no development in the Union of 
South Africa similar to that in dependent Africa, the 
public sector accounts for a significant proportion of the 
total investment, the Review states. Loan account ex- 
penditure amounted to $83 million in the year ended 
March 1955. 

One of the major limitations on development in the 
Union is the need for the expansion of the com- 
munications network. Despite an expenditure of 320 
million pounds during the last ten years, the railways 
are still incapable of meeting the transport needs of the 
country, which have expanded by some 55 per cent 
since 1945. Assisted by loans from the International 
Bank, the Government, under the Railways and Har- 
bors Administration, has embarked on a new three-year 
program aimed at extending freight-carrying capacity 
by some 16 per cent at the end of 1956. 

International Pathways to Human Progress 

peeaneenans, action has devel- 
oped new methods and forms, 
Secretary-General Dag Hammar- 
skjold has written in an introductory 
statement to a general review of the 
development and coordination of 
the economic, social and human 
rights programs and activities of the 
United Nations and the specialized 
agencies, prepared for the tenth 
anniversary session of the Economic 
and Social Council. The session 
opened on July 9 in Geneva. 

As examples of the new forms of 
international action, Mr. Hammar- 
skjold cited sharing skills in the 
technical assistance program for eco- 
nomic development, peaceful uses 
of atomic energy, providing supplies 
and equipment for programs bene- 
fiting children, the use and conser- 
vation of water and community de- 

“The claims of the whole so-called 
underdeveloped world to rapidly im- 
proved standards of life and a re- 
moval of inequalities, and their de- 
mand for help in creating conditions 
that make this possible, are insist- 
ent,” Mr. Hammarskjold said, “and 
it is in the interest of the whole 
world that they be met generously. 
One great lesson of the past ten 
years is that they can in large meas- 
ure be met, and met efficiently and 
effectively through international ac- 

Mr. Hammarskjold said that there 
had been welcome progress towards 
universality in the programs and 
membership of the various interna- 
tional organizations, the agencies 
advancing steadily and the United 
Nations having gained sixteen new 


A pprasal by Secretary-C seneral 

members. He pointed out that the 
work falling mainly within the com- 
petence of the specialized agencies 
had been summarized for the Council 
in separate annual reports but he left 
no doubt of the important role played 
by the agencies in international ac- 
tion. Among the major problems 
and tasks concerning the United Na- 
tions itself or in association with the 
specialized agencies, within the last 
year, he said, were the peaceful uses 
of atomic energy; financing econom- 
ic development; annual reporting to 
the Council on world economic con- 
ditions; promotion of industrializa- 
tion and productivity; water utiliza- 
tion and conservation; community 
development; problems of urbaniza- 
tion and demographic problems and 
international measures for further 
advancing the cause of human rights. 
While conceding that it was diffi- 
cult to appraise the precise influence 
of international action on economic 
and social progress since World 
War II, Mr. Hammarskjold asserted 
that it was certain that such action 
had proved itself effective over a 
wide field and in many counrties. 
“One must be on guard against 
claiming too much credit for the 
international organizations them- 
selves, which represent a collective 
expression of the policies and atti- 
tudes of governments,” Mr. Ham- 
marskjold warned. “Nevertheless, if 
economic and social progress in the 
last decade appears to be more 
solidly based, and more in harmony 
with new forces, than the progress 
achieved in the 1920’s now seems in 
retrospect, part of the difference 
must be ascribed to action through 

international organizations. The ex- 
perience of the 1930's, the experi- 
ence of the war, the new techniques 
taught and learned in both periods, 
the emergence of the underdevel- 
oped countries and their ‘revolution 
of rising expectations’ — all these 
together have obviously provided a 
new and stimulating setting in which 
the international organizations have 
been directed and encouraged by 
governments to do their work,” the 
Secretary-General observed. 

The use of atomic energy, a field 
in which studies are being made on 
health aspects and personnel needs, 
together with water control and utili- 
zation, on which the Secretariat and 
several agencies are working, was in 
many areas an essential condition of 
any significant acceleration of the 
rate of industrialization, a field in 
which the initiative shown by the 
Council “has stimulated great inter- 
est among the underdeveloped coun- 

Industrialization, however, is not 
simply a tool that can be handed 
over from one society to another, 
Mr. Hammarskjold suggested. It is 
also a way of life with implications 
beyond the economic field and with 
potentialities for harm as well as 
good. “Due attention must therefore 
be given in our work to the social 
aspects of the industrialization pro- 
cess to questions of housing, labor, 
migration, social services, education 
and the various other social prob- 
lems that become particularly urgent 
during the transition from one type 
of economy to another.” 

One of these problems is urban- 
ization—“not necessarily a goal to 

UNR—August 1956 

be universally sought today, at least 
not in the chaotic form in which it 
so often appears”’—and Mr. Ham- 
marskjold said that he viewed the 
process of development as one re- 
quiring balanced and coordinated ac- 
tion in a variety of fields, that is, one 
of organic growth of a total society. 

Such a growth, he said, demands 
complete cooperation and “this ne- 
cessity has been made into a virtue 
in the case of what is known today 
as community development,” which 
has emerged as an empirical princi- 
ple from efforts at development in 
rural areas and which is now a major 
focus of United Nations activity in 
the social field. Other aids to im- 
provement in that field include the 
development of statistical informa- 
tion in particular demographic data 
gathered in conjunction with the 
population census to be taken 
around 1960, a task aided by two 
regional seminars held in Bandung 
and Rio de Janeiro. 

“There is no doubt that as a 
result of measures taken by the 
Council, international efforts and re- 
sources are now far better concen- 
trated on objectives of major impor- 
tance than in the early years,” Mr. 
Hammarskjold said. 

He welcomed the early prospect 
of the establishment of an Interna- 
tional Finance Corporation which, 
through the International Bank, will 
seek relationship with the United 
Nations as a specialized agency. 
Mr. Hammarskjold predicted that 
the Corporation would contribute 
notably to the process of industrial- 
ization in underdeveloped countries. 
He noted that the promotion of in- 
ternational trade is one of the Coun- 
cil’s priority programs and hoped 
that appropriate international ar- 
rangements in that field might be 
made shortly so as to fill a gap that 
has too long existed in the machin- 
ery for international cooperation. 

To help the United Nations pur- 
sue its overriding program priority 
—development of underdeveloped 
countries—Mr. Hammarskjold sug- 
gested consideration of a new long- 
term approach to the organization 
of international economic aid with 
strong emphasis on development of 
a special international service to 

UNR—August 1956 

assist governments in the tremen- 
dous problem of administration. 
This, he proposed, would be a 
career service under international 
responsibility open to qualified men 
and women of any nationality who 
would work as officials in the na- 
tional administrations of underdevel- 
oped countries. Mr. Hammarskjold 
said that the lack of adequate gove- 
ernment machinery to administer 
ambitious economic development 
plans often threatens their success. 

Other suggestions by Mr. Ham- 

marskjold were that the United Na- 
tions and the specialized agencies 
pay more attention to the develop- 
ment of international programs in 
Africa, where there have been little 
more than the beginnings of effec- 
tive international action; and in the 
Middle East, where in due course 
it will be possible for the United 
Nations Department of Economic 
and Social Affairs and the Tech- 

nical Assistance Administration to 
have a combined office served by a 
permanently resident staff. 

Mr. Hammarskjold reviewed the 
work of the Council in the past ten 
years in the development and co- 
ordination of the activities of the 
United Nations and the specialized 
agencies. For the future, Mr. Ham- 
marskjold pointed out that in re- 
spect of international technical as- 
sistance activities alone, as_ the 
Technical Assistance Board has 
brought out, resources many times 

. 4 


The Secretary-General 

the size of those now available are 
called for. “I hope it may now be 
possible to consider the problem of 
international aid from a broader 
angle and to reappraise the whole 
scale of the action that should be 
undertaken through the United Na- 
tions organizations in favor of the 
economic and social development of 
the underdeveloped countries,” Mr. 
Hammarskjold concluded. 

The Rhine River—one of the world’s most vital “highways” 


and the 

World ‘Today 

for travel and commerce. 

International cooperation in the development and use 
of water resources is a priority program of the United 
Nations and the interested specialized agencies. An ex- 
ample of action contemplated is contained in a resolu- 
tion passed last summer by the Economic and Social 
Council. The resolution urges the Secretary-General 
and the specialized agencies to continue consultation on 
water resources and calls the attention of governments 
to the importane of demineralization of saline water 
and utilization of subsoil water, Another provision re- 
quests the Secretary-General to constitute a panel of 
experts to review the implications of river basin develop- 
ment and to advise on the proper action, including the 
possibility of convening an international conference for 
exchange of experience and data. In this second part of 
a two-part article, the REVIEW presents a detailed sum- 
mary of past and present international action to make 

better use of the earth’s most vital liquid—water. 

UNR—August 1956 

A GLANCE at the map will show arid zones as rela- 
. tively empty, while river basins tend to be crowded 
and, in many cases, dangerously over-crowded. Here 
again, the raindrop, forming into waterways, has dictated 
where man would settle in his great communities. The 
rivers have given him water for his fields and for his 
home, but they have also offered him highways for 
travel and commerce which have played an important 
part in the mingling of his cultures. Even now, water 
transport along the world’s rivers and canals is still one 
of the leading methods by which goods are moved— 
agricultural produce to the market, raw materials to 
the factory and manufactured goods to the shops. 

Quite a considerable proportion of mankind spends its 
entire life from birth to death on little river craft. This 
is especially true in South East Asia and the Far East, 
where numerous travellers have described the pictures- 
que, floating population that moves with merchandise 
up and down the congested waterways from sunrise to 

The Transport and Communications Commission of 
the United Nations and the corresponding Division of 
the Secretariat, closely follows problems connected 
with the world’s inland waterways. The Division pub- 
lishes relevant statistics and the quarterly Transport 
and Communications Review. Inland waterways have 
also been studied by the Regional Economic Commis- 
sions, one of which, ECAFE, publishes a quarterly Trans- 
port Bulletin. 

A number of countries have asked the United Na- 
tions for assistance on inland navigation problems as a 
part of their economic development programs. Ten ex- 
perts in South East Asia and the Far East were sent 
by the United Nations and ECAFE on a three month 
study tour in Asia, Europe and North America, while 
a United Nations expert recommended to the Govern- 
ment of India the establishment of an Inland Water 
Transport Demonstration Centre. The United Nations 
has also provided the services of a firm of naval archi- 
tects in the Netherlands to work out and test designs 
for special barges and tugs to be used on the Indian 
waterways. Similar advice was sought from the United 
Nations by Pakistan, and another United Nations expert 
travelled by canoe along the tropical waterways of 
Bolivia. His mission was to advise the Government on 
the best sites for the building of river ports and on the 
most suitable type of river craft to transport that coun- 
try’s minerals and timber downstream. 

Apart from these assignments with a limited objec- 
tive, experts have been provided by the United Nations to 
advise such countries as Pakistan, Indonesia and Bolivia 
on multi-purpose water development to provide for 
urban water supplies, irrigation facilities and water-con- 
suming industries. 

The amount of water daily consumed by industry 
would come as a surprise to many people. Here we 
have as striking a proof as any of man’s dependence on 
the raindrop. “Water is the key to our present civiliza- 
tion,” said Mr. Carl G. Paulsen, Chief of the Water 

UNR—August 1956 

Resource Division of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey. It is believed that some 325,000 million kilowatt 
hours of energy are consumed every year by industrial 
and domestic users, yet this huge figure does not amount 
to more than five per cent of the world’s potential 
resources in waterpower. The demand for water in in- 
dustry grows from year to year, as industrialization 
develops and cities expand. In the United States, more 
water is now used in industry than in agriculture and a 
commission estimated that by 1975 industry will be 
using two-thirds of all the available fresh water. By that 
time, it is estimated that the daily demand for all pur- 
poses may well have doubled, although in many parts 
of the country the total use of water is already reaching 
physical or economic limits. By weight of material han- 
died, the water supply industry in the United States is 
already seven times as big as all other industries put to- 
gether. In that country, ten gallons of water are required 
to produce one gallon of petrol, twenty-four gallons to 
produce a pound of paper, seventy gallons to make a 
pound of woolen cloth and 65,000 gallons to produce 
a single ton of highly finished steel. 

Principal Industrial Uses 

There are five principal uses for which industry re- 
quires a supply of water—cooling, processing, steam 
generation, sanitary services, and fire protection and 
miscellaneous requirements such as air conditioning. 
The Bureau of Economic Affairs quotes a study of a 
large number of industries which showed that one-third 
of the water used by industry was for cooling and an 
equal amount for processing. In recent years, large 
amounts of water have been required for air conditioning 
a large building may use for this purpose as much 


Water in industry: cooling sheets of steel as they roll 
through the conveyors in a mill at Denain, France. 


water in a single day as 1s normally required by a city 
of 25,000 people. 

Without an adequate supply of water, other raw mate- 
rials and human labor itself remain unused and idle. In 
any industrial program, the development of national 
or regional water resources is a first essential and this 
problem must be in the minds of government and 
United Nations technical assistance planners from the 
first stages of their cooperation. Quite apart from the 
use of water for irrigation, an important new demand 
is arising for better urban water supplies wherever in- 
dustrialization is causing a growth in the population 
of cities. This is a problem for which a solution has 
often to be found speedily, both for industrial and 
health reasons. 

All cities are confronted by the problem of how to 
dispose of their waste materials and those which have 
no adequate system of waste disposal soon suffer the 
consequences in terms of disease and inadequate living 
conditions. The great industrial centres constantly pour 
out waste chemicals which must be disposed of before 
the’ can affect health, while the waste products of a 
city’s population offer another gigantic disposal problem. 
London is faced each day with the task of dealing with 
some 400 million gallons of human waste alone. In all 
the town-planning projects to which the United Nations 
has been asked to contribute expert advice, this ques- 
tion of waste disposal and sanitation has been amongst 
the first problems to be considered and it plays a very 
great part in the plans for better environmental sanita- 
tion worked out by wHo. 

Turning Waste to Man’s Use 

The waste material from cities must be treated to 
destroy germs if it is not to breed continuing disease, 
and the essential factor in this process is oxygen. The 
latter is provided by mechanical means requiring the 
use of expensive power. Engineers have tried to re- 
duce the cost of this operation by allowing the waste 
materials to absorb oxygen from the air in large ponds, 
before being discharged into streams and other water- 
courses. It was found that the carbon dioxide released 
from the waste material encouraged the growth of cer- 
tain simple green plants called algae. These minute 
plants, through the action of sunlight, enable the bac- 
teria present in the waste materials to do their cleansing 
work more effectively than if the algae were not present. 

This discovery may turn out to be one of the most 
remarkable of our time. The sanitary engineer has hopes 
of using the algae at virtually no cost to complete a 
breaking down process which formerly entailed very 
heavy expense. 

Other possibilities opened up by the sanitary engi- 
neers’ discovery have been discussed by FAO and WHO. 
These agencies are concerned with the rapid increase 
in world population and the widespread under-nourish- 
ment and consequent lack of resistance to disease, 
which already exist. Algae may provide one of the 
richest and cheapest sources of food available to man. 


They have a protein content of some fifty-five per cent 
and can be harvested every two days. While the normal 
crop yield on most of the world’s farms is less than 
two tons annually per acre, algae culture in waste 
material has yielded up to thirty-six tons. No city can 
avoid producing these waste materials and so far those 
with the most advanced engineering systems have been 
able to dispose of it only at a great cost in time, money 
and effort. Perhaps the very increase of our cities may, 
paradoxically, offer a means of providing a great and 
growing supply of essential protein from algae grown 
in waste material and water. Human waste products 
contain chemicals valuable for plant life which, in turn, 
use them to build essential human food. The greater the 
population, the greater the number of food-growing 
plants which can draw sustenance from its waste prod- 
ucts. There is at least a possibility that we may reduce 
man’s lack of protein by turning the sewage of his cities 
to practical use. 

Algae, however, also constitute a threat to man and 
nature in certain conditions. Their effects have been 
noted in some of the mountain lakes of Switzerland. As 
in the human body, certain chemico-biological actions 
are continually taking place beneath the surface of lakes 
and a lake may become sick from the action of a poison 
and thus be a menace to the welfare of man. Increasing 
quantities of waste material pouring into the lake water 
have caused an overproduction of.algae, which thrive 
upon some of the chemicals released by the waste ma- 
terial. When the dead plants sink through the water, the 
lake does not contain enough oxygen in soluble form to 
provide for the chemico-biological digestion of this 
vegetable matter. Digestion, therefore, takes place by 
means of bacteriological processes during which one of 
the products, hydrogen sulfide, acts as a poison both to 
plants and animals and throws the lake’s chemico- 
biological system out of balance. A dark sludge forms 
on the bottom, on which the eggs deposited by those 
types of fish most highly regarded as a source of food 
suffocate and rot, instead of undergoing further develop- 
ment. An ugly vegetation of masses of algae grows 
along the lake shores and the surroundings, made pic- 
turesque for thousands of years by the deep blue lakes, 
lose a good deal of their charm. The “sickness” of cer- 
tain lakes due to an explosive increase in the quantity 
of algae points to a danger against which man must 
protect himself, but most specialists in this field do not 
see in these developments a threat to the value of algae 
in general as an aid to human waste disposal and as a 
potential source of food for mankind. 

We have watched the raindrop turn into water, the 
bringer of blessings, and into water that carries sudden 
or lingering death. Industrial chemicals poured out 
from man’s factories and the waste products of man 
himself are not the only threats that may lie concealed 
in the waters. So vital is the need for a safe water sup- 
ply that World Health Day in 1955 was devoted, at the 
instigation of WHO, to spreading an understanding of 
what safe water means to human health. 

It is estimated that in India alone 4,000 people die 

UNR—August 1956 

The vitamin content of seaweeds being analyzed by a 
researcher at work at Split, Yugoslavia. 

every day from water-borne diseases. This means about 2 
million people a year in a single country, where 50 million 

persons annually suffer from such diseases. Only about 
six per cent of India’s people enjoy the benefit of a safe 
water supply and barely one-sixth of India’s towns have 
this advantage, even on an incomplete scale. Examples 
are by no means lacking elsewhere of what this implies 
in terms of health. During four out of the five years 
from 1940-44, water-borne diseases were the leading 
cause of death in Venezuela, where official surveys 
showed that three-quarters of the population were with- 
out safe water supplies. Sanitary engineers calcluated 
that the provision of safe water would return eight times 
the sum invested, while two million people would be 
receiving seven times the amount of water they pre- 
viously had—and that water would be safe. Over great 
areas of Asia, the working housewife spends nearly a 
quarter of her active hours in finding and bringing water. 
With unremitting effort, she draws it from rivers, canals 
and tanks which in most cases are constantly polluted. 
As a result, water-borne disease in her family ranks next 
in importance to malaria. The Deputy Director of 
WHO’s Regional Office for South East Asia, Dr. S. F. 
Chellapah, has said that a solution would be found for 
half the ill health in that region if safe drinking water 
could be provided and if man’s food could also be 
protected against contamination. 

It is only in quite recent times that even the most 
medically advanced countries have brought this situa- 
tion under control. In the United States, the number of 

UNR—August 1956 

city dwellers provided with safe water more than 
doubled between 1900 and 1940, while water-borne 
diseases and deaths from this cause were reduced by 
ninety per cent. The danger, however, is still present, 
waiting for an opportunity to strike. In 1937, a momen- 
tary breakdown in the water purification system of 
Croydon, a London suburb, let loose a serious epidemic 
of typhoid fever; in the years immediately following 
World War II, 25,000 people died annually in Europe 
from the same cause. 

The connection of water with certain diseases was 
first established about 100 years ago. In the summer of 
1854, cholera broke out in a London parish, and, within 
ten days, 500 people had died from the disease. A Lon- 
don physician, Dr. John Snow, rejecting the view that 
cholera was caused by foul odors, advanced the revolu- 
tionary theory that it was conveyed through water. Most 
of the inhabitants of the parish drew water from a street 
pump. When Dr. Snow had the handle removed from 
this pump, the epidemic quickly came to an end. A few 
years later, Dr. William Budd established that the 
enteric fevers could be transmitted by the same means. 
The public health movement which resulted from these 
discoveries in England led to a marked decline in water- 
borne disease. The death rate from enteric fevers fell 
from 395 to less than one per million of the population. 
Typhoid, once general throughout the United States, has 
become so rare that few medical students can ever 
observe a case during their years of training. 

What Is Safe Drinking Water? 

The battle against unsafe water has been won in 
some countries, but in others it is only beginning. At the 
Fundamental Education Centre on Lake Patzcuaro in 
Mexico, health workers attempted to persuade the in- 
habitants of nearby villages not to draw water from the 
lake. They were received in at least one instance with 
volleys of stones and the villagers closed their doors 
against them. Soon, a typhoid epidemic claimed several 
victims in the village. Some of the village women then 
inquired if what they had overheard behind closed doors 
was true and if the typhoid could really be due to the 
lake water, as the health workers had declared. Finally, 
the villagers agreed to accept advice and, with the help 
of the Governor of the region, they sank a well. A 
subsequent outbreak of typhoid passed their village by 
and the womenfolk can now be seen waiting patiently by 
their well long after midnight in the dry season. The 
evidence has convinced them. Nothing would now in- 
duce a single villager to drink from the lake. 

As to what constitutes safe drinking water, there are 
almost as many standards as there are tests. WHO 
is engaged in a world-wide study of the possibility of 
establishing international standards for the quality of 
drinking water, a proposition that formed the basis of a 
meeting held in Manila in April 1956. It is possible, 
WHO believes, to draft approvable international stand- 
ards of quality and uniform methods of examining 


In Iraq, as elsewhere, efforts have been stepped up to 
wipe out the costly disease of malaria. 

Man himself is the source of practically all water- 
borne disease. His habit of living in communities leaves 
him exposed to the ill-effects of impurities put in the 
water supply by his own friends and neighbors. The 
micro-organisms causing cholera, typhoid and certain 
forms of dysentery are not naturally present in the 
water. They get there by accident or human careless- 
ness, and it is relatively easy to remove them. The 
agents of these diseases are passed into the water in the 
waste products of a human being and are taken in by 
another through the water which he drinks or which 
contaminates his food. Man does not have to be actively 
ill to be the cause of infection and may still carry and 
transmit disease after convalescence. In some countries, 
as many as ten per cent of the people regularly produce 
the bacilli of typhoid. In others, certain worm infections 
spread through water are practically universal and there 
are areas where it is believed that half the effort of 
cultivating food goes to sustain the intestinal worms 
that keep the people sick. 

Breaking this simple chain would save millions of 
lives each year. It is in the very countries where in- 
creased agricultural and industrial production is most 
necessary that water-borne disease often renders a large 
percentage of the potential producers chronically sick. 
So long as water supplies and sanitation remain inade- 
quate, there will be little hope of improvement. More- 
over, the consequences of using unsafe water are 
enormously costly to the under-developed countries and 
are a major obstacle in the path of their progress. 

Even the safest water is never “pure” in a chemical 
sense and, besides removing harmful bacteria from drink- 
ing water, we must maintain the percentage of dissolved 
minerals and other substances below the level at which 
it could have harmful effects on man. 


Just as the waters of the earth are part of a giant cycle 
from cloud to earth and back to cloud, so are the water 
molecules of our bodies dynamic links in life process. 
Water comprises about seventy per cent of the human 
body and one half of these water molecules are replaced 
every eight days. It is therefore clear that substances pres- 
ent in drinking water can be of the greatest importance to 
human health. Of all these substances naturally present 
in water supplies, fluorine may prove to be one of the 
most interesting. When present in a concentration of 
about one part per million, it has been shown to reduce 
by some two thirds tooth decay among children drink- 
ing the water. As a result, fluorine is now being increas- 
ingly introduced in careful doses into water supplies 
which do not naturally contain it. This is not being done 
without opposition, as the compounds of fluorine which 
are added to water are poisonous in massive doses. 
However, scientists say that there is no evidence of any 
toxic effects resulting from a concentration of fluorine 
as small as that recommended to arrest dental decay. In 
fact, one leading chemist, A. P. Black, Head of the 
Department of Chemistry of the University of Florida, 
in an article written for the WHO Newsletter, went so 
far as to say: “History will report the addition to 
fluorides to public water supplies for the reduction of 
dental decay as one of the great landmarks in the his- 
tory of public health of the world, not only in this 
generation but in this century.” 

The Eradication of Malaria 

One of the greatest tasks faced in international techni- 
cal assistance programs is helping governments to pro- 
vide safe water for the world’s peoples, but the heal prob- 
lem is relation to water does not end when safe drinking 
water is available to all. There are two widespread and 
immensely costly diseases associated with water in a 
different way from those we have have been considering 
—malaria and bilharziasis, also known as schisto- 
somiasis. WHO, through its Regional Offices, is helping 
in the campaign against both. 

The most widespread is malaria, the mosquito car- 
riers of which breed especially in swampy areas. Few 
illnesses cause as much human suffering and economic 
loss. Apart from actual deaths due to it, malaria greatly 
reduces resistance to other diseases. It prevents children 
from attaining their full mental development and it 
undermines the ability of adults to grow sufficient food 
or to earn a full wage. Its economic effects are dis- 
astrous in many countries. A single Egyptian plantation 
lost the equivalent of $600,000 in 1942-43, because 
most of the laborers were prostrated with malaria and 
one-third of the sugar cane and half of the wheat crop 
could not be harvested. 

Since the mosquitoes breed near water, drainage of 
their chosen swamps has proved successful in certain 
areas. More than 50,000 people settled on the formerly 
deserted Pontine Marshes near Rome, after drainage 
operations. Draining, however, is usually expensive and 
sometimes even impracticable. 

UNR—August 1956 

It would appear that there are about 580 million 
people—more than one-fifth of the world’s population 
—exposed to the risk of malaria. Experts believe that 
now is the time to launch a campaign for its complete 
eradication from many parts of the world within a given 
time limit. Already, the carrier-mosquitoes in certain 
regions are developing immunity to DDT and the ex- 
perts have urged that mankind may still have time, 
perhaps five years, to exterminate the disease before 
mosquitoes develop this immunity on a really alarming 
scale. In 1955, the World Health Assembly and UNICEF 
both agreed to support a world-wide plan with this ob- 
jective. If successful, such a campaign will have enor- 
mous repercussions on human welfare and on the eco- 
nomic development of vast areas of the globe. 

Less well-known than malaria, but equally damaging, 
is another disease of hot countries which is transmitted 
to man through water. This disease is variously known 
as bilharziasis and schistosomiasis. It is caused by a 
minute worm which gets in the human bloodstream and 
profoundly affects the victim’s physical and mental 
powers. At least 150 million people suffer from this 
disease, which is usually caught in childhood or in 
adolescence and then develops progressively. If the suf- 
ferers do not die, they are incapacitated by the time 
they reach the most productive period of their life. At 
present, there is no known cure for this disease and, 
since most of the sufferers are agricultural workers, the 
drain on their health has a serious effect on food 

The parasite which causes this disease spends part 
of its life cycle in the body of a small variety of snail, 
which lives in stagnant or softly flowing water. Leaving 
the snail, immense numbers of the tiny organisms swim 
about in the water and some of them penetrate the skin 

Avoiding waters infested with parasite-carrying snails 
is often difficult for the workers in hot countries. 

UNR—August 1956 

of human beings or domestic animals. The parasite 
works its way into the bloodstream and eventually lays 
its eggs in the intestinal veins. From here, it maxes its 
escape with the waste products of the body into the 
stagnant water, where the host snails are waiting for it, 
to complete its life cycle. 

Anyone who walks or washes in water where there 
are snails is in constant danger of infection. Sometimes, 
the local population cannot avoid this contact. In the 
Philippines farmers are obliged to walk through their 
wet rice paddies, while many children must wade 
through swampy areas on their way to school. In Egypt, 
the fellahin live in close contact with the irrigation 
canals which are the source of their livelihood. More 
than half the people of Egypt are afflicted with one of 
two forms of the disease known there, and many with 
both. It is indirectly responsible for some twenty per cent 
of all deaths in the country and for an estimated: loss of 
Egyptian £ 80 million every year. 

War on Parasite-Carrying Snail 

WHO experts are at work on bilharziasis control proj- 
ects at Leyte in the Philippines and at Calioub, near 
Cairo. Leyte was chosen because the area consists of 
plains through which slow rivers meander, forming rice 
paddies and uncultivated swamps. The rich grass and 
lush tropical vegetation are an ideal habitat for snails 
and bilharziasis is rife. WHO's experts are working with 
Philippine scientists to collect information on the 
biology and life of the snail which will make it possible 
to interrupt the life cycle of the disease-bearing parasite. 

The problem is extremely complex. No non-toxic and 
easily administered drug exists to attack the parasite in 
the human body and it is largely this fact which has led 
researchers to concentrate on the snail. Chemicals which 
might destroy a large proportion of snails in the water 
cannot be used, because they would also damage the 
rice crop. Cutting the rich grass and vegetation tends to 
drive many of the snails from their favorite haunts and 
this method is being tried in association with agricultural 
experts who are advising Philippine farmers on im- 
proved rice cultivation by the introduction of such tech- 
niques as thorough weeding of the paddies. However, 
a few infected snails may do great damage to human 
health and this method alone does not offer more than 
a partial remedy. 

To prevent pollution of the water by human beings 
would require the introduction of a comprehensive 
sanitation system and would inevitably take a long time. 
The experts are therefore working to devise a means by 
which the snail can be ousted or have its own life cycle 
interrupted in some way, so that it can no longer act 
as host to the parasite. For this purpose, the WHO 
expert, Dr. Norman Hairston, says that a scientist fight- 
ing this problem must “learn to think like a snail.” The 
collection of data about these snails is a laborious proc- 
ess and, although the experts are confident of success, 
they anticipate no lightning victory. 

The patience of the wxo bilharziasis researchers is 
typical of that which nearly all technical assistance ex- 


perts have to show. In most cases, they are obliged, 
like their counterparts in the countries concerned, to 
struggle with slender resources against vast problems. 
The great majority of them have little reason to hope 
for complete success during their assignment of a few 
months or even years. The most they can achieve is 
often to lay the foundations for future constructive 
work. When they leave for home, such experts are well 
satisfied to know that their advice has been useful to 
the government which invited them. A few, however, 
have the satisfaction of seeing results, sometimes very 
striking results, in the small area of their pilot project. 
They know that this project will be multipled in other 
areas after they have gone, until eventually whole coun- 
tries will have received the benefits they came to bring. 

Rural Electrification 

Now. and again, the exceptional happens. In a single 
sentence, an expert may report one episode which lights 
up his whole endeavor and makes clear the objective 
of an entire project. In the case of one expert, G. P. 
Print, of the United Kingdom, that moment came when 
he saw a hand reaching for a switch. The hand was that 
of a Yugoslav villager. For the first time, he was touch- 
ing an electric light switch in his own home. Mr. Print 
has spoken of the pride with which such a villager sees 
his house flooded with light thanks to a rural electrifica- 
tion scheme and he has also told of the satisfaction felt 
by a United Nations expert whose advice had helped 
to bring this transformation about. 

Before leaving his assignment, Mr. Print forecast 
some of the changes likely to occur in these Yugoslav 
villages as the result of harnessing that country’s moun- 

tain rivers to produce electricity. Cheap electric light 
will enable the women to earn extra money by making 
the embroidery for which Yugoslavia is famous and 
they will be helped in their household tasks by a com- 
munal electric laundry. Power from the same source 
will irrigate garden plots and make it easier to raise 
vegetables for home use or for sale. 

Ihe same United Nations expert foresaw that even 
UNESCO’s battle against ignorance in many parts of the 
world would be made easier as electrification spreads. 
Electric light will encourage reading, with all its in- 
calculable consequences, both in the individual iife and 
in the national culture. Electric current will also lead to 
a demand for radio receivers on an increasing scale and 
the touch of another switch will bring a whole new 
world of entertainment and instruction into millions of 
hitherto isolated homes. The showing of educational 
films becomes possible even in hastily improvised con- 
ditions, once an electric supply has been provided. 
Broader horizons and new interests make the conditions 
of rural living profoundly different from what past cen- 
turies of isolation have imposed on so many villagers. 

In its headlong career from cloud back to cloud, the 
raindrop performs many essential services for mankind. 
It bears his laden craft along the rivers, it keeps the 
wheels of his great factories turning and it changes the 
very color of his planet from brown to green. Perhaps, 
however, its most unexpected gift is this power which 
it offers man, through electricity, to participate in the 
joys and sorrows of his fellow-men beyond the mountain 
or across the globe and even to thrust further and 
further back the frontiers of his own knowledge and 


The old and the new at a power relay station of the Jablanica hydroelectric system in Yugoslavia. 

UNR—August 1956 

Security Council Decides 

Not to Consider 


HE “grave situation” in Algeria was brought to the 

attention of the Security Council on April 12 by 
seventeen African and Asian Members of the United 
Nations which contended that deteriorating conditions 
there were likely to endanger peace and security in the 
area. The United Nations, they submitted, could not 
remain indifferent to the situation which, they said, also 
involved the infringement of the basic right of self- 
determination and constituted a flagrant violation of 
other fundamental human rights. 

The states in the group were Afghanistan, Burma, 
Ceylon, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, 
Lebanon, Libya, Pakistan, the Philippines, Saudi 
Arabia, Syria, Thailand and Yemen. 

Two months later, on June 13, thirteen Members— 
the same group, without Burma, Ceylon, India and 
the Philippines—asked for a meeting of the Council to 
consider the situation under Article 35, paragraph 1, 
of the Charter, which provides that any Member may 
bring any dispute, or any situation which might lead to 
international friction or give rise to a dispute, to the 
attention of the Council or of the General Assembly. 

They requested Council action in view of the ag- 
gravated situation which, they contended, had further 
worsened because of the nature and scope of recent 
French military actions which had resulted in grievous 
loss of human life. They regarded immediate considera- 
tion as essential. 

Earlier Developments 

As reviewed in the earlier explanatory memorandum 
of April 12, developments had taken place as follows: 

On January 5, 1955, Saudi Arabia brought the ques- 
tion to the attention of the Council and reserved the 
right to request the calling of a meeting to consider it. 

At the Bandung Conference in April 1955, the Asian- 
African states declared their support of the rights of the 
people of Algeria to self-determination and independ- 
ence and urged the French Government to bring about 
a peaceful settlement of the issue without delay. 

“As this question continued to remain unsolved,” 
the memorandum continued, “the Bandung powers had 

UNR—August 1956 

to resort to the United Nations for a peaceful settlement 
based on law and justice and in conformity with the 
legitimate wishes and aspirations of the Algerian 

By a majority vote, the General Assembly decided 
to place the question of Algeria on the agenda of its 
tenth session, but later, “inspired by the new construc- 
tive steps taken by France on the questions of Tunisia 
and Morocco,” the Asian-African states, along with 
other states, agreed to postpone discussion. Such a 
move, they said, was also intended to give France an 
opportunity to reconsider its policy on the question of 

Despite this gesture of conciliation, however, they 
added, the French Government “persisted in ignoring 
the legitimate demands of the Algerian people and the 
appeals of the Bandung Conference.” Consequently, 
the deterioration continued. 

“Because of the gravity of the situation, the rep- 
resentatives of the Asian-African states met on January 
25, 1956,” the memorandum recalled. “They reviewed 
the situation and, in a statement, expressed their ‘grave 
concern’ that ‘no improvement in the situation has 
taken place.’ The group expressed the hope ‘that the 
French Government will take expeditious action to 
find a satisfactory and just solution to the question of 
Algeria.’ ” 

Despite those repeated appeals, however, the mem- 
orandum observed, the French Government “refused 
to enter into negotiations with the representatives of 
the Algerian people to meet their legitimate demands” 
and instead “intensified the use of force in its policy of 

“Reports from Algeria,” it added, “put the total cas- 
ualties, as a result of this policy, at thousands of killed 
and wounded. Pitched battles and skirmishes are occur- 
ring every day. The French Government is deploying 
more and more troops to Algeria, and casualties are 
mounting as military operations continue throughout 
the country. Algeria appears to be in a state of siege.” 

The Council held two meetings on June 26. At the 
beginning, Arkady A. Sobolev, of the U.S.S.R., pro- 
posed that discussion of the question be postponed 


indefinitely on the understanding that the Council might 
be convened after consultation between members and 
the President. He felt that the Council needed more 
time to discuss the situation or to collect the necessary 

Dr. Djalal Abdoh, Iran’s representative in the Coun 
cil who spoke for all thirteen of the sponsoring states, 
emphasized that the discussion should take place as a 
matter of urgency, in accordance with their request. 
However, in a spirit of cooperation, he would not 
object to the U.S.S.R. proposal. He expressed the hope 
that “in the meantime genuine efforts will be made to 
ensure greater harmony, both in the Security Council 
and outside it, on the Algerian question.” 

Hervé Alphand, of France, on the other hand, 
pointed out that the request had been received from the 
thirteen states on June 18 and contended that there was 
no justification for further delay and that there could 
be no question of adjourning a meeting for which the 
agenda had not even been adopted. 

He was supported by Joseph Nisot, of Belgium, and 
Sir Pierson Dixon, of the United Kingdom. 

Only the Soviet Union voted in favor of the pro- 
posal, the effect of which would have been to adjourn 
the meeting without deciding on an agenda. Australia, 
Belgium, Cuba, France, Peru, the United Kingdom and 
the United States voted against, and China, Iran and 
Yugoslavia abstained. The proposal was therefore lost 
by a vote of 1-7, with 3 abstentions. 

When the Council then turned to its provisional 
agenda, Mr. Alphand requested it not to include the 
thirteen-delegation complaint and expressed the hope 
that the provisional agenda would not be adopted. 

“Sovereignty Did Not Disappear” 

“The French Government,” he said, “considers that 
Algerian affairs are matters essentially within the do- 
mestic jurisdiction of France.” 

For his part, Dr. Abdoh pointed out that Algeria was 
an independent country before French forces landed 
there in 1830. 

“When France conquered Algeria,” he declared, “the 
sovereignty which was vested in the Algerian people 
did not disappear; it merely remained dormant and 
was able to be reawakened by a national movement 
like the one now taking place.” Maintaining that “the 
whole world recognizes that the right of a people to 
self-determination is an inalienable right,” he said that 
the question the Council was asked to examine was 
“purely a colonial one, since Algeria forms part of the 
French colonial empire.” 

Dr. Abdoh also contended that if the French argu- 
ment that Algeria lay within its domestic jurisdiction 
could be validly invoked, “the legitimacy of the very 
existence of many countries in this Council, and also 
of many United Nations Member states, might easily 
be contested.” 

After citing examples, including that of the United 
States which, he said, “established its existence as a 
great sovereign state by revolting against England, of 


which it had formed an integral part,” he declared: 
“Besides, if one accepts the French point of view, 
colonialism would have found an easy way of per- 
petuating itself, since all any colonial state would have 
to do would be to confer on the inhabitants of one of 
its territories so-called equal status with the citizens of 
the ‘mother country’ and thus prolong its domination 
of that people.” 

Dr. Abdoh went on to maintain that the fact that a 
reference to the settlement of the Algerian problem was 
contained in the Franco-Soviet communique issued on 
May 19, after the visit of French Premier Guy Mollet 
to Moscow, showed that France “accepted, tacitly at 
least, the idea that the Algerian problem could not be 
considered as an essentially French affair.” 

He told the Council that when the African and Asian 
nations agreed at the tenth Assembly session to post- 
pone consideration of the Algerian question, they cher- 
ished the hope that France would take measures there 
similar to those enacted in Tunisia and Morocco. How- 
ever, he continued, those hopes had proved vain. Mili- 
tary measures had been expanded, and the armed con- 
flict had “attained the proportions of a colonial war.” 

“If we take into account the extent of the military 
operations and the resulting loss of life,’ Dr. Abdoh 
declared, “we can but conclude that we are faced with 
a full-scale war, with all its consequences at both the 
national and the international level. Even if there were 
any doubts about the status of Algeria, this war would 
still be a full-scale civil war. Nothing in international 
law prevents a civil war from assuming, in certain cases, 
the character of a conflict whose effects go beyond the 
national level to the international level.” 

Drawing attention to the “grave repercussions” of 
the “war in Algeria” on Tunisia and Morocco, Dr. 
Abdoh added: “Not only that, but the Algerian tragedy 
is passing beyond North Africa and threatens to set 
the whole African continent on fire.” 

He went on to emphasize the solidarity between the 
Afro-Asian peoples and the Algerian people, saying: 
“There is talk now of the possibility that the Arab states 
might consider a cultural and economic boycott of 
France. The workers’ unions refuse to load or supply 
provisions to French ships in the Suez Canal. The 
Syrian Government has suspended the delivery of wheat 
to France. Violent attacks against France are being 
made more and more frequently in the press, in the 
streets, at public meetings and in the parliaments of the 
Afro-Asian countries. 

“Is it possible for the Council to ignore all these 
implications of the war in Algeria without failing in 
the duty which the United Nations Charter has con- 
ferred on it with regard to the maintenance of interna- 
tional peace and security?” 

The Council, he said, must include the question in 
its agenda so as to determine, as stipulated in Article 
34 of the Charter, if continuance of the situation threat- 
ened the maintenance of international peace and 
security—something the Council could not decide until 
the question was included in the agenda. 

UNR—August 1956 

Mr. Alphand, on the other hand, said there had been 
no change in the position which France had taken on 
several occasions regarding the problem of the com- 
petence of the United Nations in regard to the domestic 
affairs of Member states. A violation of the principle 
of non-intervention in the domestic affairs of a state, 
he declared, “would mean the end of peace and the end 
of the United Nations also.” 

French sovereignty over Algeria, he stated, had been 
exercised for more than 120 years, and had been 
“implicitly or explicitly recognized by all members of 
the international community.” He added that all states 
which had requested the permission of France to open 
consulates in Algeria had recognized that sovereignty. 

“Maintaining Public Order’’ 

“France is doing no more in Algeria than exercising 
one of the most normal attributes of domestic sov- 
ereignty,” Mr. Alphand asserted. “It is endeavoring to 
maintain public order which has been disturbed by 
rebellious citizens; it is trying to prevent, or, if that has 
proved impossible, to punish the killings, the brutalities, 
fires and robberies which certain French-Algerians are 
committing against other French-Algerians, whether 
Christians or Mohammedans. 

“Is there any need to repeat that it would be the 
most dangerous of precedents to recognize the right of 
the United Nations to intervene between the government 
of a state and those of its citizens who are disturbing 
the peace? It would be a fatal precedent, for in time it 
might be turned against any one of us.” 

Denying that France had a colonialist program for 
Algeria, he declared: “France is not a colonialist power. 
It seeks merely to achieve progress for all in peace, as 

its entire history shows. Its work, the essential 
aim it has set itself, would be jeopardized, perhaps 
irretrievably, by the intervention of third parties, by the 
intervention of the United Nations.” 

Regarding the Franco-Soviet communique, Mr. Al- 
phand said this related merely to conversations the 
precise purpose of which was to demonstrate that the 
Algerian question lay essentially within French jur- 

He contended that not even the thirteen applicant 
states had been bold enough to make the claim that the 
situation in Algeria was likely to endanger “inter- 
national” peace and security. Their letter requesting 
Council consideration, he said, stated that “the situation 
had deteriorated to the extent that the United Nations 
could not remain indifferent to the threat to peace and 
security.” Only if a situation were a threat to “inter- 
national” peace and security could it come within the 
purview of the Security Council. 

“In truth,” the French representative observed, “the 
maintenance of order in any province of any one of the 
seventy-six Member states could not in itself affect 
international peace and security. To conceive of a dis- 
turbance of international peace, either the forces of the 
state concerned would have to go beyond its frontiers 

UNR—August 1956 

improperly in their operations, or third states would 
have to intervene in the rebellion.” 

Furthermore, he said, neither the violation of fun- 
damental human rights nor the denial of the right of 
self-determination was a matter within the competence 
of the Security Council. 

The French position was supported by the repre- 
sentatives of Cuba, Peru, the United Kingdom, Belgium 
and the United States, Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., of the 
United States, emphasized that it was the desire of his 
delegation “that a truly constructive solution for Algeria 
should be found as soon as possible.” 

“I am sure,” he said, “that we would not wish to take 
any action or conduct ourselves in such a way as to 
impede the attainment of the objective which we all 

The Afro-Asian countries received the support of 
Mr. Sobolev, who declared that, in order to determine 
whether or not a threat to peace existed, “the parties 
must be heard and the matter must be discussed in the 
Security Council.” 

Dr. Joza Brilej, of Yugoslavia, who abstained, said it 
appeared rather doubtful that a Council discussion “at 
the present moment . . . with the possibly acrimonious 
debate and resulting stiffening of attitudes that might 
ensue, would really serve the cause of an early and sat- 
isfactory settlement.” A similar stand was taken by 
Dr. T. F. Tsiang, of China, who also abstained. 

For Just, Peaceful Solutions 

After the vote of 2-7, with 2 abstentions, the Presi- 
dent of the Council, Dr. E. Ronald Walker, of Australia, 

“The Council has decided against the inscription of the 
agenda item concerning Algeria, as proposed by thir- 
teen governments. The debate, although relating to a 
subject charged with emotion, has been for the most 
part commendably restrained. From the statements we 
have heard today, it will be clear that this decision of 
the Council does not reflect any indifference towards 
the human sufferings arising from the present situation 
in Algeria or any lack of consideration for the coun- 
tries that submitted this matter to the Council. 

“The Council’s decision is founded on an assessment 
of the specific responsibilities of the Security Council 
under the Charter for the maintenance of international 
peace and security. Various members have expressed 
their gravest doubts regarding the opportuneness of plac- 
ing the matter on our agenda as a method of assisting 
in the solution of the Algerian situation and also 
regarding the legal competence of the Security Council 
to consider this question, in view of paragraph 7 of 
Article 2 of the Charter. 

“I am sure that we personally and the countries we 
represent all feel the deepest concern in our hearts over 
recent events in Algeria and share a common hope and 
confidence that, in accordance with the expressed 
determination of the French Government, these grave 
problems may be brought to just and peaceful solutions 
as speedily as possible.” 


The men of many countries 
who gave their lives in the 
service of the United Nations 
are honored by these plaques. 
“In the memory of their sacri- 
fice,” declared Secretary-Gen- 
eral Dag Hammarskiold, “we 
can seek to be worthy in our 
service to the building of a 
peace that will endure.” 

The United 


a ee 


of M 

‘Y,, | a 
of _ 
Who Died oe * 

UNR—August 1956 

HESE two memorial plaques were dedicated at United 

Nations Headquarters on June 19 and 21. The first 
is in memory of United Nations military observers and 
members of the Secretariat who lost their lives while 
serving the United Nations on its missions of observa- 
tion, mediation and conciliation. The second is in re- 
membrance of the men of the armed forces of the 
Member states who died in Korea in the service of the 
United Nations. The plaques are in the public lobby of 
the General Assembly building on a wall adjacent to 
the entrace to the Meditation Room. 

Three years before, a plaque in memory of Count 
Folke Bernadotte, United Nations Mediator in Pales- 
tine, which had originally been placed at the temporary 
headquarters of the United Nations at Lake Success, 
was rededicated. 

Among the others besides the Mediator who lost 
their lives on missions of peace for the United Nations 
were thirteen officers of the armed forces of France, the 
United States, the United Kingdom and Belgium, as- 

signed by their Governments for service as United 
Nations military observers; two crew members of a 
British plane chartered by the United Nations; and 
seven members of the Secretariat who died on United 
Nations missions in Palestine, Greece, India-Pakistan 
and Somaliland. 

Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold and Dr. E. 
Ronald Walker, of Australia, President of the Security 
Council for June, took part in both dedication cere- 
monies. In addition, France’s permanent representative 
to the Umted Nations, Hervé Alphand, spoke at the 
first unveiling on behalf of those nations which had 
assigned military observers to the United Nations. 

“In honoring these dead,” said Mr. Hammarskjold, 
“we do more than pay fitting 
respect to the memory of 
their devoted service: we 
affirm a living ideal. We af- 
firm the abundant worth of 
the tasks of mediation and 
conciliation to which they 
gave their service. And we 
assert our faith in the ulti- 
mate triumph of understand- 
ing and goodwill as living 
realities of true peace.” 

Mr. Alphand declared: 

“May the example of these 
observers and members of the 

UNR—August 1956 

Secretariat, who died on the field of honor, be a daily re- 
minder to us of our Organization’s ideal: understanding 
among the people in the observance of justice and peace.” 

At the second ceremony Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., 
permanent representative of the United States to the 
United Nations, spoke on behalf of the United States, 
which, at the request of the Security Council, had been 
responsible for the unified command of all United Na- 
tions and Republic of Korea forces in Korea. 

“The passage of time since these men died,” he said, 
“has made it all the clearer that this victory was worth 
winning. At stake was the very existence of this Organ- 
ization, the United Nations. At stake was the question 
of whether peace-loving nations could band themselves 
together to repel a ruthless and unprincipled aggression 
—or whether the doctrine that might makes right would 
triumph and, having triumphed in Korea, would then 
without much doubt spread to the rest of the world.” 

“An occasion such as this one is a poignant re- 
minder,” observed the Secretary-General, “that behind 
every historic action, national or international, is the 
individual human being, each giving of his courage and 
his devotion. Those whom we honor today were called 
upon by their Governments to fight, as loyal citizens of 
their own countries, for a common cause. In devoted 
service they made the supreme sacrifice. 

“To their memory it is fitting that we should pay 
simple and humble tribute. We cannot recall the lives 
they gave, and only in a small and imperfect measure 
can we share the grief of those they loved and left 
behind. But in paying them honor, we can resolve to 
remember always their example of selfless service. In 
the memory of their devotion we can find cause to 
renew our own. In the memory of their sacrifice, we can 

seek to be worthy in our 
service to the building of a 
peace that will endure.” 

“The fallen,” declared Dr. 
Walker, “belong to their own 
people, but they belong also 
to us all. Their lives and 
their sacrifice were dedicated 
not only to their own coun- 
tries, but also to that wider 
loyalty, which, in time to 
come, will unite all men and 
women into one peaceful fam- 
ily. We shall not forget them.” 


Modermzng Without Uprooting’ 

The Challenge in the Pacific Islands 

_— rCHING over three million square miles of ocean 
north of New Guinea and Australia are more than 
2,000 small islands with a combined land area of ] 
square miles, and an indigenous population of 6 
Together they constitute the Trust Territory of 
Pacific Islands, which has been administered by 
United States since the end of the Second World Wat 

Among paramount administrative problems are the 
“modernizing” of life without uprooting Micronesian 
cultural patterns, political development toward self- 
rule, and encouragement of the Islanders to develop 
their economy to the greatest extent that natural re- 
sources will allow. 

The Trust Territory comprises three main Micro- 
nesian island groups—the Marshalls, the Marianas and 
the Carolines. Prior to the Trusteeship agreement which 
placed them under United States administration, the 
Islands had a long history of foreign rule. Four cen- 
turies ago, Spain made Guam a regular food and water 
stop for vessels plying between Mexico and the Philip- 
pines, and a hundred years later began to set up garri- 
sons throughout the Marianas, claiming the Carolines 
and the Marshalls as well. In 1885 Germany took over 
the Marshalls, and in 1899 acquired the Carolines and 
the Northern Marianas by purchase. At the end of the 
first World War the Islands became a League of Nations 
Mandate under Japanese administration, During the 
second World War the United States occupied the 
islands in the course of military operations, and on 
November 6, 1946, announced its readiness to place 
them under United Nations Trusteeship. The agreement 
entered into force six months later. 

When the Trusteeship Council met this summer it 
had before it two reports on the Territory—the annual 
report of the Administering Authority and the report 
of a United Nations Visiting Mission which had spent 
approximately four weeks there during February 
and March 

The Visiting Mission was composed of Sir John 
Macpherson (United Kingdom ) , Chairman; Daniel Mas- 


sonet (Belgium); Jose Rolz (Guatemala); and M. I 
Chacko (India). Previous Missions from the Trustee 

ship Council had visited the area in 1950 and 1953 

United States Report 

In reviewing the developments of the past year and 
general conditions in the Pacific Islands, the report of 
the Administering Authority says that all persons in 
the Trust Territory “are subject to the same laws, 
whether they be citizens, resident non-citizens, or visi- 
tors. . . . Indigenous inhabitants enjoy equal and greater 
rights in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands than 
nationals of the metropolitan country. Nationals of the 
metropolitan country and all other non-indigenous resi- 
dents are restricted from owning land in the Trust 
Territory or from entering business in competition with 
indigenous enterprise, excepting those persons who may 
have established permanent residence prior to the 
present administration.” 

The United States report states that its policy is 
to “permit and encourage all political advancement 
toward a goal of self-government which evolves through 
the will, the needs, and the desires of the inhabitants.” 
Present political-social structures in each island society 
have “evolved through centuries of functioning to meet 
the needs of its members,” it says. “The Trust Territory 
Government encourages inhabitants of the Territory 
to retain intrinsically valuable features of political struc- 
ture and organization,” at the same time encouraging 
“the learning and understanding of other cultures to 
foster the wise selection, adaptation and application” of 
features useful to the island population. 

It remains the policy of the Administering Authority 
to “employ Micronesians in all positions as quickly as 
their knowledge, skills and experience are compatible 
with sound administrative practices.” The report notes 
as an example of this policy that during the year under 
review a Micronesian Educational Minister and a Micro- 
nesian Director of Public Health have replaced United 
States personnel in the Marshalls District. In Saipan 

UNR—August 1956 

the manager and assistant manager of the Saipan branch 
of the Bank of America are Saipanese. “Progress has 
been particularly noteworthy in the field of medicine 
and public health and in the employment of medical 
practitioners to carry on many of the functions formerly 
carried on by United States personnel,” the report says. 

Other Observations 

Other observations of the United States report are 

Political advancement: The process of political ad- 
vancement must be gradual “in order not to incite social 
revolution which might well destroy the whole structure 
of indigenous societies.” Members of local advisory 
bodies participate more freely and frequently, “with 
less regard for individual social status or traditional 
rank of fellow members.” Women’s organizations are 
stimulating greater women’s interest in all local gov- 
ernment affairs. 

Social advancement: Disease rates continue to de- 
cline and birth rates to increase, reflecting improving 
health conditions. Facilities have been or are being 
completed in each district to permit the return of lepers 
and mental patients to their home communities. A pro- 
gram is being established to examine all Micronesians 

and vaccinate them against tuberculosis 

Education: Education departments in the districts 
have been reorganized. American personnel are being 
used as teacher-trainers, with actual teaching functions 
falling more and more to Micronesians themselves. A 
considerable amount of printed material in the vernacu- 
lar has been produced in each district. And “plans 
are being formulated for the establishment in the near 
future of permanent buildings and facilities for the 
Pacific Islands Central School at a better location which 
will permit more extensive programs in agriculture and 
other special training.” 

Administration: The shift of the trust Territory head- 
quarters from Honolulu to Guam has been completed, 
and all levels of administrative organization have been 

reorganized, with a resulting increase in efficiency 

Visiting Mission’s Report 

The Visiting Mission’s report to the Trusteeship 
Council expresses general approval of the development 
of local political responsibility in the Territory, and 
takes note of various practical administrative problems. 

“The small size of inhabited or inhabitable land and 
the manner in which it is spread over a large ocean 
area, the equally small size of. the population and its 
diversity of languages and cultural backgrounds, and 
the relative poverty of the islands on which they live 


The Visiting Mission which reported on conditions in the Pacific Islands to the Trusteeship Council. Left to right: 
Sir John Macpherson (United Kingdom), Chairman; Jose Rolz (Guatamala); Daniel Massonet (Belgium); M. E. 
Chacko (India). 

UNR—August 1956 


are the main factors which determine the present prob- 
lems of the Trust Territory,” the report declares. 

It observes that better transportation and communi- 
cations facilities between the islands seem to be required 
for both coordinated development and the formation 
of any kind of territorial consciousness on the part of 
the population. Even so, it appeared to the Mission that 
ultimate development of the Territory would be limited 
by the generally poor land and the absence of other 
resources such as minerals. 

The Mission commented that facilities now available 
to the Territory exceed by far its own means of sup- 
porting them, and require heavy subsidy from the 
United States Government. It had noted, the Mission 
said, a tendency on the part of the Administering Au- 
thority to emphasize the need to reduce the Territory’s 
heavy deficit. Such a reduction, unless achieved by in- 
creasing local revenues, would require a reduction of 
present appropriations. 

“While the Mission appreciates the fact that the 
Administering Authority is already appropriating funds 
to cover the deficit of the Territory,” the report says, 
“It feels that the budget still fails to provide sufficient 
funds for essential economic and social development. 
The natural resources of the Territory are limited, but 
the islands are of such strategic value to the Administer- 
ing Authority that it should, in the Mission’s view, 
increase its appropriations so that the development of 
the Territory is not hampered.” 

The Visiting Mission praised advances in the politi- 
cal field, such as the replacement of a number of 
traditional chiefs by elected magistrates, and the grant- 
ing of the charter in 1955 to the Palau Congress, em- 
powering it to promulgate local legislation. The Mission 
“welcomes this and similar developments which have 
taken place in recent years in the Saipan, Truk, Ponape, 
and the Marshall Islands Districts,” the report says, 
“and hopes that these measures will be extended to 
the remaining Districts of Rota and Yap.” 

At present, emphasis in the Territory is on the de- 
velopment of political education and institutions, and 
with this the report is in agreement. “The slow growth 
of a territorial consciousness at this stage need not in 
itself be regarded as a serious defect inherent in the 
political structure now in existence,” it says; “indeed, 
its development by means of education and a gradual 
process of evolutiou may in the end be all the sounder.” 

Special Problems 

One present problem of which the Mission took note 
is the division of the Territory’s administration between 
civil and naval authorities, resulting, in effect, in the 
separation of the Marianas group into two districts 
deriving administrative authority from two different 
sources. One of the difficulties resulting from this 
situation has to do with travel documents required by 
citizens of the Territory wishing to enter Guam and the 
Saipan District. The Mission said that complaints were 
voiced over these difficulties, since the people of the 


Marianas group are linked to each other and to Guam 
both economically and culturally, and depend on Guam 
as a market for their produce and as a source of em- 
ployment opportunities. The Mission report “wonders 
whether, if it could be arranged without prejudice to 
essential security requirements, the interests of the Sai- 
pan District would not be better served by the transfer 
of the administration of the district to the civil govern- 
ment of the Trust Territory.” 

Another problem which the Visiting Mission regards 
as of first importance “stems from the displacement of 
islanders as a result of atomic and thermonuclear tests 
which have been conducted in the Pacific Island Prov- 
ing Grounds established there.” In the case of the 
Rongelap people, transferred from their island in 1954 
when they suffered the unforeseen ill effects from radio- 
active fallout from thermonucleur tests, the displace- 
ment was of a temporary nature. However, in the case 
of people transferred from Bikini and Eniwetok it was 
likely to be permanent. 

The Mission report notes that the Rongelap people 
have been well cared for in regard to essential require- 
ments and health. It urges that steps be taken to ensure 
adequate housing and other assistance for them when 
they are returned to Rongelap before the end of this 

People transferred from Bikini to the island of Kili 
appeared to the Mission to have grievances of a 
“serious nature.” The is:and of Kili has “obvious dis- 
advantages,” the report says, among them the fact that 
it is a high island without a reef, hazardous for the 
landing of boats. Fishing facilities are available at 
Jaluit Atoll, forty miles distant, but adequate transpor- 
tation between the areas is not available. 

Islanders from Eniwetok, transferred to Ujelong, 
appear to be making a satisfactory adjustment, the re- 
port states. 

The Visiting Mission urged that the Administering 
Authority give urgent consideration to the Islanders’ 
claims in regard to Japanese currency, postal savings 
and bonds which so far have not been redeemed, and 
to their claims for compensation for loss of life and 
property damage due to war action. 

Administration’s Policy 

As general examination of the United States’ annual 
report began, the Trusteeship Council heard a statement 
by Delmas H. Nucker, Acting High Commissioner of 
the Territory and the U. S. Special Representative, who 
outlined activities of the Administration since July 1, 
1955, not covered in the report itself. He said a “much 
more efficient administration” was now in effect as a 
result of the centralization of headquarters on Guam. 
The Administration’s economic policy, he declared, 
“centers around the principle of encouraging Micro- 
nesians to expand and develop their own economy to 
the greatest extent their natural resources and their 
own capabilities will allow.” The Administration con- 
tinues to render substantial assistance to local trading 
and commercial firms to provide their early self- 

UNR—August 1956 

sufficiency. Since agriculture is the chief economic 
activity, “continued emphasis has been placed on the 
overall strengthening of our agricultural program,” Mr. 
Nucker told the Council. 

Describing progress toward self-government, he con- 
cluded by reiterating that the aim “is to show the 
Micronesians how to live better as Micronesians. 

We recognize also that while the old way of life is 
changing, the change must be a gradual evolutionary 
process so that the new Micronesia which emerges is 
brought about without too severe a disruption and modi- 
fication of Micronesian ways of thoughts and customs.” 

The Council also heard Alfonso R. Oiterong, 
Director of Education of the District of Palau Island. 
Outlining the educational programs in the area, he said 
people of the Territory owed a great deal to the 
Government and to the United Nations for the student 
scholarships and fellowships granted every year. He 
noted that ninety-five percent of all teachers and educa- 
tion administrators are Micronesians. 

Members of the Council questioned the U.S. 
Special Representative on a number of points raised 
by the annual report and the report of the Visiting 

UNR—August 1956 

Dancers at a celebration on the Island of Yap. Although 
modern ways are coming in, old traditions are not being 

needlessly uprooted. 

Replying to a question by the Soviet Union repre- 
sentative, Vasily F. Grubyakov, Mr. Nucker explained 
the difficulties in the way of at once establishing a 
single political body for the entire Territory. Such a 
body was to be looked for in the foreseeable future, 
he said. But the diversity of the many islands and the 
differences: in language and culture were too great to 
be ruled out of immediate calculations. As to when the 
territory might become self-governing, the Special 
Representative declared he would not care at this time 
to suggest a specific date. He reminded the Council that 
there were in the Territory approximately 60,000 peo- 
ple scattered over a wide ocean area. He made clear 
that it was the hope of the Administration that, through 
constant and progressive changes, a time would come 
when Micronesians would be self-governing. Mason 

Sears, the United States regular representative on the 
Council, added that the United States intended to put 


Outpatient clinic on Palau Island. No charge is made 
for preventive inoculations, pre-school and school clinics, 


for communicable disease and many other 


into effect intermediate target dates for implementation 
from year to year. 

Max H. Dorsinville, representative of Haiti, referred 
to the passage of the Visiting Mission’s report com 
menting on grievances of the people of Bikini who 
were transferred to Kili. Mr. Nucker observed that the 
reason these islanders were not altogether satisfied with 
Kili was that the island is smaller than Bikini, it lack 
a lagoon, and life is different. However, he said, the 
were adjusting themselves to Kili in a reasonably sati 
factory way. Within the past two months the Admir 
istration had made available to them a fifty-foot diese! 
operated ship capable of carrying seventeen tons 0 
copra. The vessel was also equipped to fish in deep 

Chacko of 
India asked whether any of the islanders had to be 

In regard to recent nuclear tests, M. I 
moved as a result, and whether any of them had suf 

Mr. Nucker replied that no one was 

fered ill effects 
moved before, during or after the tests, and that 
had received no reports on adverse effects of radio- 

land holdings, the 

Questioned on the subject of 

Special Representative declared that during the past 

vear thousands of acres of land had been made avail 
able to the people under homesteading programs and 
He said that 

Administration consisted of 

other lands has been returned to them 

lands now held by the 

land previously held by the Japanese administration. 
Regarding settlement of claims for money and securi- 

ties acquired by Micronesians under the Japanese occu- 


pation, a question put by Alfred Claeys-Bouuaert of 
Belgium, the Special Representative said the Adminis- 
tration had practically completed arrangements for pay- 
ing these claims. He hoped that he would be able to 
settle the claims upon his return to the Territory. 

As to schools, the Special Representative said in 
answer to a question by the Indian representative that 
the Administration was attempting to better the inade- 
quate physical equipment by working with the munici- 
palities and getting them to take action. Mr. Nucker 
stressed that in the Territory a school building did not 
necessarily mean an elaborate structure. It could be 
built from local materials and need not be costly. He 
said also that besides encouraging local communities 
to assume responsibility for support of local education, 
the Administration also aided them. However, in view 
of the comments of the Visiting Mission, he said, he 
would take a new look at the program. 

During the course of the general debate following 
the questions, the Council continued discussion of the 
reports and the explanations given by the U. S. Special 
representative, and on June 27 appointed a drafting 
committee, composed of Australia, China, Haiti and 
Italy to prepare a report on the Pacific Islands in the 
light of the discussions. 

Conclusions and Recommendations 

In its general conclusions and recommendations, the 

Trusteeship Council noted with satisfaction the over-all 

progress made during the period under review, particu- 
larly commending the Administration for “the excellent 
relationship which it has established with the people 
of the Territory.” 

In regard to displacement of population due to 
nuclear experiments, the Council expressed satisfaction 
that the people of Rongelap who suffered ill effects 
from the experiments in 1954 are continuing to receive 
medical and other assistance, and that they will be able 
to return to their islai.d this year. The Council took 
note of the dissatisfactions of the Bikini people now 
0.1 the island of Kili, and of the Administration’s expec- 
tation that their condition would be improved in the 
immediate future by the provision of adequate sea trans- 
portation between Kili and Jaluit. The condition of the 
people of 

expected to improve with the operation of a new 

Eniwetok, now settled on Ujelong, is 
inter-district boat. With regard to the recent nuclear 
experiments which have taken place in the territory, 
the Council took note of the declaration made by the 
Administering Authority regarding the adequacy of 
precautionary measures. 

The Council hoped that legislation for an Organic 
Act for the Territory, which might come into being 
by 1960, would contiaue to be prepared in consultation 
with qualified representatives of the population. It 
endorsed the view of the Visiting Mission that the slow 
growth of a territorial consciousness need not in itself 
be regarded as a serious defect, and that its develop- 
ment by means of education and a gradual process of 

UNR—August 1956 

evolution might in the end be all the sounder. It con- 
sidered, however, that this growth might be encouraged 
and accelerated by the holding of inter-district confer- 
ences, and by the preparation of a special book for 
use in the schools, as suggested by the Mission. 

The Council was of the opinion that the holding of 
another inter-district council would be advantageous for 
the Territory, and endorsed the recommendation of the 
Visiting Mission that the Administering Authority con- 
sider convening such a conference soon. 

It recommended that the Administering Authority 
consider establishing a territory-wide political body 
based on universal suffrage. It observed that some 
administrative departments have already been located 
in the Territory, but that the Administering Authority 
has no present plan to move its headquarters from 
Guam to a site within the Territory, and it reiterated 
the hope that such a move would soon be possible. The 
Council was satisfied that progress had been made in 
establishing local political bodies and in granting char- 
ters to municipalities. It recommended, however, that 
more uniformity be achieved in the terms of office of 
elected representatives, as well as in functions and 
procedures of the municipalities. In regard to suffrage 
and elections, the Council noted with satisfaction that 
the number of elected representatives to local political 

bodies had been further increased during the year, and 
it hoped that the remaining appointed members would 

soon be selected by the elective process. 

Ponape Island: 

A technician in 

charge of water 
operations inspects 

a locally manufactured 
bamboo life-float, 
required on all inter- 
island small craft. 

Economic and Social Advancement 

The Trusteeship Council took account of the fact 
that the resources of the Pacific Islands Territory are 
limited, that the four-fifths of the budget are derived 
from contributions of the Administering Authority, and 
that even greater subsidies might be needed for speeding 
up development programs. It voiced the hope that the 
Administering Authority would continue its efforts to 
develop the Territory’s resources by all possible means, 
such as improvement of agriculture, diversification of 
export crops, and exploration of industrial possibilities. 

Specifically the Council recommended that the Ad- 
ministering Authority continue to emphasize agricul- 
tural development, “and to spare no effort to increase 
and to improve the production of copra and cocoa.” 
It stressed the need for more qualified agricultural 
experts to coordinate planning, to combat pests and 
plant diseases, and to endeavor further to diversify 
export crops. 

Industrial development, too, was urged. The Council 
recommended that the Administering Authority “take 
energetic steps to explore, encourage and accelerate the 
industrial development of the Territory,” particularly 
in the fields of manganese and bauxite mining, fishing, 
canneries, trochus production and handicrafts. Improve- 
ment of shipping facilities was noted, but further close 
attention to this aspect of the economic life was sug- 

gested. Steps to remedy unsatisfactory conditions of 

Copra is one of the mainstays of the economy of the Pacific Islands Trust Territory. Locally-owned vessels of this 
type are used for inter-island trade in copra, trade goods and passengers. 

roads were also called for, the Council said. 
It was noted “with satisfaction” that the Administer- 
ing Authority had given assurances that all claims 

relating to Japanese bonds and postal savings will be 
settled before the end of the year. The Administration 
was urged to negotiate a settlement of war damage 

claims with the Japanese Government at the earliest 
possible time. 

The Administering Authority was commended for 
its success in improving health conditions generally, and 
in reducing the incidence of tuberculosis, and for its 
policy of staffing medical services with Micronesians. 
Hope was expressed that Micronesians soon would be 
able to obtain full medical and dental degrees. The plan 


of the Administration for a territory-wide BCG vaccina- 
tion program was welcomed. 

In education, the Council felt that more qualified 
Americans should be added to the teaching staff, and 
that more funds should be made available for school 
buildings and teaching aids. It welcomed the fact that 
new buildings would soon be erected in Ponape to 
house the Pacific Islands Central School. 

Previous recommendations of the Council that every 
effort be made to enable Micronesians to obtain higher 
education were reiterated. It was also recommended 
that the Administering Authority continue to make 
available a larger number of scholarships, particularly 
in the field of medical studies. 

UNR—August 1956 


continued narrowing of differences sought 

sb Disarmament Commission on July 16, by a vote 

of 10 to 1 (U.S.S.R.), with 1 abstention (Yugo- 
slavia), instructed its Sub-Committee to study the vari- 
ous proposals made during the current session of the 
Commission and report to the Commission. The pro- 
posal, a compromise resolution (for the text, see page 
72) submitted by Dr. Victor Belaunde, of Peru, was 
adopted at the eleventh meeting of the current session of 
the Disarmament Commission, which opened on July 3. 

The Disarmament Commission had not met since 
January 23, 1956, when, in pursuance of a General 
Assembly resolution of December 16, 1955, it had 
decided to reconvene its Sub-Committee which would 
submit to the Commission an interim progress report 
after about six weeks. The Sub-Committee, composed 
of Canada, France, the U.S.S.R., the United Kingdom 
and the United States, met in London between March 
19 and May 4, and on the latter date unanimously ap- 
proved its third report to the Commission. The report 
showed that the Sub-Committee was determined to con- 
tinue its efforts to seek agreement on disarmament, 
despite the fact that the divergent positions of its mem- 
bers had not been reconciled. 

The Peruvian proposal, which its author described as 
“purely procedural” and providing for the Disarmament 
Sub-Committee to examine all proposals at present be- 
fore the Commission without passing judgment on any 
of them, expresses the Commission’s appreciation of the 
Sub-Committee’s efforts reflected in its third report. It 
states that the Commission considers that a draft resolu- 
tion introduced on July 3 by Canada, France, the United 
Kingdom and the United States sets forth the principles 
upon which an effective program for the regulation 
and limitation of all arms and armed forces can be 
based. The resolution expresses the conviction that a 
reconciliation of the opposing views is both possible and 
necessary; asks the Sub-Committee to study the pro- 
posals now before the Disarmament Commission, 

UNR—August 1956 

“taking account of the principles affrmed therein and 
striving to increase the area of agreements”; and re- 
quests the Sub-Committee to report to the Commission, 
which will then examine all proposals presented up to 
its next session. 

In explaining his vote against the Peruvian draft, 
Andrei A. Gromyko, Soviet First Deputy Foreign Min- 
ister, declared that this was a “one-sided” resolution 
which reflected only the view of one side and in fact 
gave approval to this view. This resolution, he said, 
could not serve as a basis for agreement. 

Djura Nincic, of Yugoslavia, said his delegation could 
not support the Peruvian resolution because it contained 
controversial elements of substance, whereas the best 
way for the Commission to proceed would have been 
to pass a purely procedural motion simply requesting 
the Sub-Committee to continue its work and to examine 
all proposals before the Disarmament Commission. The 
Peruvian draft in addition, he argued, endorsed the 
views expressed only in one resolution—the four-Power 
proposal—although the Commission had not taken any 
decision on that particular resolution or on any other 

A motion by Jules Moch, of France, submitted prior 
to the vote on the Peruvian proposal, to recess the 
Commission for consultations among the authors of the 
various resolutions before the Commission with a view 
to drafting an agreed text, was rejected. The vote was 4 
in favor (Cuba, France, the U.S.S.R. and Yugoslavia), 
4 against (Belgium, Canada, the United Kingdom and 
the United States), and 4 abstentions (Australia, China, 
Iran and Peru). The outcome of this vote was termed 
by Mr. Moch a “clumsy error” on the part of those who 
wanted peace, and as indicating a “will for numerical 
victory” rather than a “desire for conciliation.” 

The Commission, in addition to the Peruvian pro- 
posal, had before it a joint draft resolution by Canada, 
France, the United Kingdom and the United States— 

with Australian amendments, and a joint amendment by 
Australia, Canada, France, the United Kingdom and the 
United States; a Soviet draft resolution; and a Yugo- 
slav draft resolution. 

At the request of India, the Commission also agreed 
without objection to invite the representative of India 
to make a statement to the Commission on his Govern- 
ment’s proposals for a cessation of nuclear tests and the 
establishment of an armaments truce. 

Joint Four-Power Proposal 

Anthony Nutting, Minister of State for Foreign Af- 
fairs of the United Kingdom, opening the debate in the 
Disarmament Commission, on July 3 introduced in the 
name of Canada, France, the United Kingdom and the 
United States, the joint draft resolution which reaffirmed 
the basic principles enunciated on May 4, 1956, in a 
joint declaration of the same four Powers at the close 
of the Sub-Committee’s sessions in London. 

The four-Power declaration noted six points which 
they considered prerequisites to disarmament. These 
were: (1) disarmament must proceed by stages, with 
progress from one stage to another depending upon the 
satisfactory completion of the preceding stage and upon 
the development of confidence through the settlement 
of major political problems; (2) the program should 
begin with reductions of armed forces to levels feasible 
in the present unsettled world conditions, with further 
reductions as world conditions improved; (3) under 
proper safeguards, the program must provide at an 
appropriate stage for stopping the build-up of stock- 
piles of nuclear weapons and devoting all future pro- 
duction of nuclear material to peaceful uses; (4) the 
program must provide for a strong control organization 

with inspection rights, including aerial reconnaissance, 
with the control measures providing particularly against 
major surprise attack; (5) preliminary demonstration of 

inspection methods on a limited scale to help develop 
an effective control system; and (6) provision to be 
made for the suspension of the program if a major state 
fails to carry out its obligations or if a threat to the 
peace, a breach of the peace or an act of aggression 
should occur. 

Mr. Nutting stated that towards the conclusion of the 
talks by the Disarmament Sub-Committee, it had be- 
come obvious to the Western delegations that the 
cleavage between them and the Soviet Union upon a 
detailed disarmament program could not at that time be 
resolved The Western delegations therefore decided 
that the time had come to get back to basic principles, 
as the best way to make a fresh start. Accordingly the 
four Western Powers tabled in the Sub-Committee the 
declaration; this must guide the Sub-Committee in its 
detailed consideration of the disarmament problem. 

The Western Powers, he declared, had always taken 
the view that a comprehensive disarmament program 
must include all possible and practicable measures of 
nuclear as well as conventional disarmament. While 
conceding that it had been found impossible to control 
the elimination of past production of nuclear weapons, 
he stated that the new Soviet plan introduced in the 

Sub-Committee last March left out nuclear disarmament 
altogether. He urged that a settlement on atomic prob- 
lems be reached quickly. No facet of the armaments 
problem was more dangerous or could more easily and 
speedily get out of hand than nuclear weapons. Over 
the past eleven years, three countries [the U.S.S.R., the 
United Kingdom and the United States] had developed 
the secret of nuclear destruction and vast quantities of 
nuclear stockpiles had been amassed. How long would 
it be only three countries, he asked. If nothing were 
done in the near future to get to grips with this problem 
and to stop further production of these weapons, no- 
body could foretell how widespread this ghastly secret 
and the stockpiles would become within the next 
eleven years. 

The other sponsors of the joint draft spoke in sup- 
port of it. Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., of the United States, 
stated that his Government believed that the London 
Sub-Committee meetings did some good, but far more 
could have been accomplished had the Soviet Union 
been able to agree to the standards for disarmament 
accepted by the great majority. 

The menace of nuclear weapons must be curbed; the 
quota of conventional armaments and armed forces 
should be fixed by negotiation and verified by inspec- 
tion; the reduction of armaments should be carried out 
by stages, having in mind the realities of world political 
conditions; and there must be an inspection device 
which would assure each side that the other was actually 
doing what it promised to do. President Eisenhower’s 
“open-skies” plan, he said, was such a device; the world 
had acclaimed it and the world waited for Soviet accept- 
ance of it. If something like that had been in effect in 
the last fifteen years, “there would probably have been 
no Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, no communist 
attack on Korea, and no Hitlerite attack on the Soviet 
Union, or on Belgium, or on France, or on the United 
Kingdom, or on Yugoslavia.” If it were in effect today, 
“it would lower to the vanishing point the chances of 
an outbreak of the kind of war from which the world 
has most to fear: a nuclear war between the Soviet 
Union and the United States.” He urged the Soviet 
leaders to help develop a fair, thorough inspection sys- 
tem in the air, so that “air power will in truth become 
peace power.” Mr. Lodge reaffirmed the American peo- 
ple’s faith in the efforts of the United Nations to find 
the way to peace through disarmament. 

Mr. Lodge later stressed the urgent need for solving 
the arms problem. He said that the Commission could 
not afford to let much more time go by. The long-range 
guided missile was already looming on the scene. When 
it became a standard weapon, no nation would have 
more than fifteen minutes to get ready to defend itself 
and to hit back. 

Paul Martin, Minister for National Health and Wel- 
fare of Canada, expressed concern over the continuance 
of the deadlock on disarmament, and emphasized the 
growing sense of urgency in deliberations on this prob- 
lem. The urgency, he said, “results from the sober reali- 
zation that with the tremendous pace of scientific 
development, particularly in the field of nuclear and 

UNR—August 1956 

thermonuclear armaments and in the means of deliver- 
ing them, the world may be rapidly approaching the 
point of no return—the time when the effective control 
of disarmament may no longer be feasible.” The need 
for early and effective action was imperative. 

If the decision of the Soviet Union to reduce its forces 
by 1,200,000 before next year was the expression of 

a genuine desire “to follow a more moderate policy in 

the future and to renounce aggressive designs,” it was 
to be welcomed as far as it went. He declared, however, 
that disarmament meant reductions, and 
“unilateral reductions do not necessarily mean dis- 


Mr. Martin stated that there was some evidence that 
new forces were at work in the Soviet Union, “that the 
rigidities of thought and policy of the Stalinist era are 
now dark shadows of the past.” In their approach to dis- 
armament today, the Soviet Union leaders faced a test 
of the new spirit alive in the Soviet Union. The new 
“openess” which had recently been expressed in high 
level visits and increased contact with the outside world. 
stood in remarkable contrast to the “closed doors of 
the past.” He hoped that this principle would now be 
applied, “on the limited, reciprocal and collective basis 
on which it is so vitally needed, to permit us to begin 
an effectively supervised disarmament program.” 

Possible Future Progress 

Jules Moch, of France, declared that the further the 
practical measures of disarmament were examined, the 
more numerous were the obstacles that arose. He then 
defined the existing situation and traced the broad lines 
of possible future progress towards disarmament. 

Speaking of President Eisenhower’s open-skies pro- 
posal, Mr. Moch observed that he had made no secret 
of his doubts as to its possible success, and events had 
confirmed his view. In some cases, he said, aerial in- 
spection would be a convenient method of investigation, 
but in others its value would be slight. As long as it 
remained effective, priority in its application must be 
given in the sensitive sectors where concentrations of 
conventional forces are normally to be effected. This 
amounted to proposing regular aerial reconnaissance 
over “Western Europe and along the border between 
the two worlds in Scandinavia, in Thrace and in the 
Middle East.” Added to this—“for the sake of reciproc- 
ity rather than effectiveness—a zone in America equal 
in size to the small area of the Soviet Union which is 
included in the sensitive sectors, we can imagine a 
compromise between the ‘all’ proposed by one side and 
the ‘nothing’ proposed by the other, with possibilities of 
subsequently extending the photographed sector.” 

Mr. Moch, while preferring a comprehensive plan, 
did not object to the trend towards a partial plan of 
disarmament. He stressed the French view, however, 
that any first stage of disarmament that provided for 
reductions in conventional armaments must also pro- 
vide for freezing stockpiles of nuclear weapons and halt- 
ing their manufacture. He concluded that the French 
formula for disarmament applied to partial plans as well 

UNR—August 1956 

as to a comprehensive plan. That formula was: “No 
control without disarmament; no disarmament without 
control; but, progressively, all disarmament that could 
be currently controlled.” 

E. Ronald Walker, of Australia, stated that Aus- 
tralia’s geographical situation and its regional security 
problems have an important influence upon Australia’s 
assessment of such problems as those relating to the 
levels of forces and those arising from the development 
of nuclear weapons. 

Australia recognized that the question of force levels 
in any agreed disarmament plan must obviously be the 
subject first of negotiation between the great Powers. 
Until some progress was made in actual reductions it 
would be difficult to determine what the ultimate levels 
should be; and in Australia’s view those levels would 
need to take account of the responsibilities of the great 
Powers in relation to collective security problems in 
Asia as well as in other areas. It was common knowl- 
edge, he said, “that present Communist military man- 
power in Asia, particularly if Soviet Asia is included, 
enormously outweighs the military strength maintained 
by the non-Communist countries in Asia and the Pacific 
area. Very considerable political consequences might 
flow from sanctifying such military predominance 
through levels of forces arrived at in purely global 
terms.” The prohibition of nuclear weapons should be 
preceded and accompanied by major reductions in con- 
ventional weapons and forces to agreed levels, carried 
out to an agreed time-table, and subject to effective 
international control of a kind that inspires the con- 
fidence of all nations. 

Mr. Walker expressed support for the four-Power 
proposal, and submitted amendments to the joint text 
which in his opinion would clarify and strengthen its 

The joint amendment of Australia, Canada, France, 
the United Kingdom and the United States proposed 
amending the third operative paragraph of the four- 
Power proposal. The original wording of this paragraph 
said that “at an appropriate stage” the disarmament 
program should provide under proper safeguards that 
the buildup of stockpiles of nuclear weapons would be 
stopped and all future production of nuclear materials 
devoted to peaceful uses. The new joint amendment 
would say that this should be done “at appropriate 
stages” of the disarmament program. The amendment 
would also add at the end of the same operative par- 
agraph of the four-Power draft that limitations would 
be imposed on the testing of nuclear weapons. 

Anthony Nutting, who introduced the joint amend- 
ment, explained that while the United Kingdom did not 
take an alarmist view of the effects on human health 
and life of nuclear explosions, his Government none- 
theless felt that, partly for health reasons and partly also 
as a first step towards getting to grips with the problem 
of nuclear weapons, some system of limiting test ex- 
plosions should be agreed upon and put into operation 
by the Powers concerned. 

Other representatives expressing support for the joint 
four-Power proposal were T. F. Tsiang, of China; 


Djalal Abdoh, of Iran; Joseph Nisot, of Belgium; Emilio 
Nufiez-Portuondo, of Cuba; and Victor Andres Bel- 
aunde, of Peru. 

U.S.S.R. Proposal 

Mr. Gromyko, of the U.S.S.R., put the responsibility 
for the lack of progress on disarmament on the Western 
Powers which, he charged, had turned their back on their 
own proposals once they had been accepted by the 
U.S.S.R. Opposing the four-Power proposal, he declared 
that its adoption would be the “bell tolling the doom of 
the disarmament problem.” The sense of that proposal 
would be to drop the question of disarmament from the 
agenda of the United Nations, pending the solution of 
other outstanding international political problems. The 
problem, however, called for a rapid and immediate 
solution, and this solution could not be made subject 
to the solution of other problems. 

The Western proposals, he charged, made the solu- 
tion of the disarmament problem subject to the solution 
of such international political problems as the German 
problem, and problems of the Far, Near and Middle 
East. To make the problem of German unification, for 
example, a condition of reduction of armed forces 
meant wrecking in advance any solution on disarma- 
ment. Success in the field of disarmament, he said, would 
facilitate and enhance the possibilities of solving the 
German problem. 

A statement of the Soviet Government of May 14, he 
declared, indicated that within one year, by May 5, 
1957, the armed forces of the Soviet Union would be 
reduced by 1.2 million men, over and above the reduc- 
tion of 640,000 men carried out by the Soviet Union in 
1955. Armaments, military technology and other mili- 
tary expenditures in the state budget would be reduced 
proportionately. This decision, he said, was a striking 
proof of the eagerness of the Soviet Union to live in 
peace and friendship with other peoples. 

Mr. Gromyko urged the adoption of a declaration 
under which all United Nations Members would under- 
take in their international relations to refrain from the 
use or threat of force, and of atomic and hydrogen 
weapons. Non-members of the United Nations were also 
asked to join in this declaration. 

In a later intervention, Mr. Gromyko declared that 
the Soviet Union was prepared to accept the levels for 
armed forces proposed by the Western Powers; that is, 
2.5 million men each for the United States, China and 
the U.S.S.R.; and 750,000 each for the United Kingdom 
and France. He added, however, that the level of the 
armed forces of all other states should not exceed a 
maximum of 200,000. In accepting the Western figures 
for the first step, the Soviet Union hoped that would 
facilitate a second step of reductions to 1.5 million for 
three Powers and 650,000 for the other two. 

The Soviet declaration of a reduction in forces was 
welcomed by a number of representatives who said that 
their Governments would study it carefully. Mr. Lodge 
added, however, that the Soviet Union had not yet ac- 
cepted international inspection, and therefore his dele- 
gation could not tell whether the new Soviet statement 


meant a serious step towards disarmament or was just 
“an empty phrase.” And Anthony Nutting pointed out 
that the maximum of 200,000 for other states had never 
appeared in any Western proposals; it was a Soviet 
figure. The figures for the forces of other states, he 
declared, have always been a matter for discussion and 
negotiation with the states themselves. 

Mr. Gromyko accused the Western Powers of pre- 
venting the settlement of outstanding political issues so 
as to perpetuate the armaments race. He also attacked 
regional organizations such as NATO, SEATO, and the 
Baghdad Pact. He charged that the Western Powers had 
progressively withdrawn from their earlier promises to 
disarm, and that they were focussing their attention on 
inspection and control rather than upon actual reduc- 
tions in armed forces. 

As regards President Eisenhower’s open-skies plan, 
he declared that the “proposal for aerial photography 
has in general no connection whatever with the reduc- 
tion of armaments, and its realization would reduce 
neither the armed forces of states by a single soldier 
nor their armaments by a single rifle.” He stated that 
aerial photography, with flights being carried out over 
the territories of other states, could only inflame the 
lust for war and war psychosis and facilitate a further 
armaments race. The actual meaning of the proposal 
was to divert the attention of the peoples “from the real 
tasks of reducing armaments and prohibiting atomic 
and hydrogen weapons.” 

Mr. Gromyko also objected to the Western Powers’ 
proposal that disarmament should be carried out in 
stages, depending on the settlement of political diver- 
gencies and controversial international problems. He 
argued that the United States, principally, opposed nor- 
malization of the whole international atmosphere. The 
Western Powers, he said, desired to solve the problem 
of German unification at the expense of the interests 
of the German Democratic Republic. The ruling circles 
in the United States were doing everything possible to 
prevent entry into the United Nations of the Chinese 
People’s Republic, with its population of 600 million. 
He declared that the Chiang Kai-shek “clique” found 
shelter on the island of Taiwan, an island occupied by 
United States military forces. 

The reason for the strained situation in Vietnam was 
that the United States rejected the Geneva agreement of 
July 1954 to hold unification elections in Vietnam. The 
United States “encourages the unlawful acts of its 
stooge, Ngo Dinh Diem; it is bringing armaments into 
South Vietnam and settling down in that territory as 
its master.” 

So long as the “United States-created aggressive bloc 
of SEATO exists,” he said, “no Asian country is safe from 
rude interference by colonial Powers into its affairs.” 
With regard to the Near and Middle East, the same 

purposes. of increasing tensions were served by the 
“notorious Baghdad Pact.” This bloc, he declared, “is 
designed to preserve the positions of British and Ameri- 
can monopolies in the Arab East.” 

The allegation that the maintenance by the members 
of the “Atlantic bloc of inflated armed forces” was 

UNR—-August 1956 

caused by the interests of the security of those states, 
Mr. Gromyko stated, contradicted the actual situation. 

He also stated that military appropriations meant 
multimillion dollar orders and fabulous profits for the 
monopolies. In order to justify the highly profitable 
armaments race, the “monopolist circles make every 
effort to frustrate the settlement of urgent political prob- 
lems, to sharpen the differences between Powers, to 
hamper the normalization of inter-state relations, and 
to continue the cold war.” 

In conclusion, Mr. Gromyko summarized the Soviet 
position on disarmament in four propositions as fol- 

(1) The great Powers should assume a solemn 
obligation not to use atomic and hydrogen weapons; 
they should be unconditionally prohibited. The U.S.S.R. 
proposed the conclusion of agreements on (a) the pro- 
hibition of weapons of mass destruction, elimination 
of all stocks of atomic bombs and the cessation of their 
production; and (b) the immediate cessation of all tests 
of atomic and hydrogen weapons. 

(2) The armed forces of the great Powers should be 
reduced, The U.S.S.R. agreed that the level of armed 
forces should be established now for the Soviet Union, 
the United States and China at the level of 2.5 million 
men each; for the United Kingdom and France, 
750,000 men each; for other countries no more than 
150,000 to 200,000 men each, in order that as a second 
step the armed forces of the United States, the People’s 
Republic of China and the Soviet Union should be 
reduced to the level of 1 million to 1.5 million each and 
those of the United Kingdom and France to 650,000 
men each. Armaments and military expenditures of all 
these countries should be reduced correspondingly. 

(3) Effective control over the prohibition of atomic 
weapons and reduction of armaments and armed forces 
should be established. The Commission was reminded 
of the Soviet proposals submitted to it last March 27, 
which provided for the establishment of an international 
control organ with vast rights and powers, including the 
right of inspection of military units, of stores of mili- 
tary equipment and ammunition and of land, naval and 
air bases and military plants. 

(4) The Soviet Government called anew upon all 
Powers to accept the Soviet declaration calling upon all 
States to renounce the use of atomic and hydrogen 
weapons and to refrain from the use or threat of force. 

Britain, Iran, France, China, Canada, Australia, the 
United States and Peru in turn expressed regrets at Mr. 
Gromyko’s approach. They disputed the Soviet rep- 
resentative’s contention that such defence agreements as 
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Baghdad 
Pact and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization con- 
stituted “aggressive” blocs, dedicated to the main- 
tenance of armed force throughout the world. 

Mr. Walker, of Australia, expressed regret that Mr. 
Gromyko had considered it desirable “to distract at- 
tention from the particular proposals which he has 
invited the Commission to consider by misleading and 
unfounded statements of this kind.” Paul Martin, of 

UNR—August 1956 

Canada, declared that the Commission “must not be 
diverted from the main purpose for which we have 
come to this particular series of meetings.” Mr. Belaunde, 
of Peru, said the “acrimonious and bitter” debate had 
been on “general policy and politics rather than . . . on 
disarmament.” Mr. Tsiang, of China, observed that the 
speech was, in fact, “a summary of all the political 
propaganda that the Soviet Union has spread through 
the organs of the United Nations.” 

Mr. Lodge called Mr. Gromyko’s talk “a scurrilous 
attack on my country in the very worst traditions of 
Stalinism.” He declared that the idea that prosperity in 
America could be maintained only by having a war and 
war orders was an utter figment of the imagination, and 
was the product of the crudest and most childish pro- 
paganda. Referring to Mr. Gromyko’s “absolutely un- 
founded strictures against the United States policy in 
Asia,” he said: “He certainly is in no position to pass 
judgment on others as long as the people of the satellite 
states are held in an iron bondage, from which the 
heroic Poles in the last few weeks have been trying to 
escape, with the applause, I might say, of lovers of 
freedom all over the world.” 

Mr. Walker replied to Mr. Gromyko’s assertions 
about sEATO by declaring that the Organization “was 
created by the conditions that prevailed in Asia in recent 
years and by the consciousness of the countries of Asia 
of the threats that existed to their continued indepen- 

Mr. Abdoh, of Iran, answered the Soviet representa- 
tive’s allegations regarding the Baghdad Pact by assur- 
ing Mr. Gromyko that Iran joined the alliance “not 
only to assure our own self-defence but to link ourselves 
with other countries with which we have certain ties 
in common, in order to accelerate our economic de- 
velopment.” Referring to the “bitter experiences of the 
past,” he reminded Mr. Gromyko that in 1946 Iran 
had been obliged to ask the Security Council to request 
the Soviet Union “to withdraw its troops from our Prov- 
ince of Azerbaijan.” 

Mr. Nutting, speaking as the representative of an- 
other member of the Baghdad Pact, associated himself 
with Mr. Abdoh’s remarks. 

Yugoslav Proposal 

Joza Brilej, of Yugoslavia, urged that limited initial 
agreements be sought on those aspects of the disarma- 
ment problem where success was most likely to be 
reached. He agreed that this would not be a substitute 
for a more comprehensive program, but declared that 
the time had come for a realistic and practical approach 
to the problem. He submitted a draft resolution which 
urged the Disarmament Sub-Committee to resume de- 
tailed consideration of specific disarmament measures. 
The resolution would instruct the Sub-Committee to 
seek agreement on “such initial disarmament measures 
as are now feasible and such forms and degrees of con- 
trol as are required for these measures.” The resolution 
directed the Sub-Committee’s attention particularly to a 
reduction of conventional arms and armed forces, the 


cessation of tests of nuclear weapons “as well as other 
practicable measures in the field of nuclear armaments” 
and the reduction of military budgets throughout the 
world. Such action would contribute to the implementa- 
tion of the General Assembly directive of 1955 for the 
draft of an overall disarmament plan, the resolution 


Indian Statement 

In his appeal for the suspension of nuclear test ex- 
plosions, V. K. Krishna Menon, of India, cited a num- 
ber of scientific opinions to show the cumulative and 

irreparable damage they were capable of inflicting. “We 

have no right,” he declared, “to go on laying down the 
foundations of destruction which is beyond our control, 
lasting through generations and probably leaving results 
which in themselves have a chain reaction, creating 
worse results.” In addition to moral and scientific rea- 
sons for halting test explosions, he also maintained that 
suspension of the tests would constitute a first step 
towards nuclear disarmament, for by taking that step, 
the process would be reversed. Such a step would be 
a measure having a far greater psychological aad politi- 
cal importance than any architectural plan of control, 
supervision or inspection. He added that it would echo 
throughout the world that a great step had been taken 
to reverse the engines of destruction. The step could 
be taken without having to worry about the problem 
of control since large-scale explosions could not be 
concealed. Moreover, it would ease the fears arising 
from other countries developing nuclear weapons. So 
far as the United States and the Soviet Union were 
concerned, they had such large stockpiles of weapons 
that further tests would be futile. 

On the establishment of an armaments truce, Mr. 
Menon urged a token step. He suggested that the two 
great Powers who now possessed a considerable stock 
of nuclear weapons, should agree to dismantle a lim- 
ited number of them, even if only a few, and use the 
fissionable material they contained for peaceful pur- 
poses. He also proposed a truce by means of budgetary 
reductions, and the voluntary submission to and pub- 
lication by the United Nations of the military expendi- 
ture of Member States, so that the world would know 
who is spending most on arms. As a further measure, 
Mr. Menon expressed the hope that it would be pos- 
sible for the nuclear Powers to assure the world that 
there would be no trade in these weapons, that there 
would be no supply of them to other countries, from 
where they could go to still other countries, so that they 
would be distributed generally. The Indian Government, 
stated Mr. Menon, also approved of unilateral re- 
ductions in armed forces and armaments. 

Mr. Menon referred to the recent announcement by 
the United Kingdom that the Western Powers were pre- 
pared to advocate the limitation of nuclear tests at an 
appropriate stage of a disarmament program. While 
conceding that the limitation of any evil was in itself 
good, the Indian representative maintained that in this 
particular case, limitation was something that com- 


pletely destroyed the argument for a remedy. Limitation 
introduced questions of control, and was morally and 
politically wrong. 

fributes weie paid by a number of representatives to 
Mr. Menon’s speech and to his sense of urgency. Never- 
theless, some representatives, including those of France, 
the United Kingdom and the United States, insisted that 
a ban on nuclear test explosions would be meaningless 
unless it were accompanied by prohibition of the manu- 
facture of nuclear weapons. Mr. Moch also pointed out 
that some smaller sized nuclear explosions could not 
be detected. The Disarmament Sub-Committee, Mr. 
Moch declared, could study three practical measures: 
(1) invite experts to recommend within a short time a 
limitation on the number, nature and power of test 
explosions; (2) prohibit national explosions for mili- 
tary purposes, provided this were closely coupled with 
a controlled ban on the manufacture of weapons; and 
(3) continue to allow test explosions for peaceful pur- 
poses, provided they were effected under the supervision 
of an international control organ charged with verifying 
the innocuous nature of the explosion and its peaceful 

Mr. Gromyko said his Government favored the In- 
dian proposals regarding cessation of nuclear weapons 
tests, and he declared that if the Western Powers con- 
tinued to frustrate agreement on a cessation of these 
tests, tests would naturally be continued, including tests 
in the U.S.S.R. 

Several representatives welcomed the work of the 
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of 
Atomic Radiation, established by the General Assembly 
in 1955. Mr. Walker, of Australia, submitted that since 
the Committee’s work was at present at an early stage, 
the whole question of the effects of weapon tests was 
in a sense sub judice from the United Nations point of 
view. Any definitive view of the United Nations must 
take into account reports from all countries, he added. 

Representatives of the United States and the United 
Kingdom emphasized that scientists in their countries 
had found that there was at present no cause for alarm 
as a result of the test explosions. Mr. Nutting said that 
the United Kingdom therefore felt that the danger to 
health from test explosions was not a present danger 
and it did not seem likely to become a danger if the 
tests continued at the present rate. It was essential, how- 
ever, to prevent an increase in the tests. To that end, 
the United Kingdom was ready to operate a partial dis- 
armament agreement, which could be concluded and 
carried out without delay and without awaiting any 
other agreements, and which would include a provision 
for regulating and limiting nuclear test explosions. 

James J. Wadsworth, of the United States, told the 
Disarmament Commission that, until an agreement was 
reached to eliminate or limit nuclear weapons under 
proper safeguards, his Government would continue to 
test these weapons that are essential for the national 
defence of the United States and the security of the 
free world. Mr. Wadsworth stated that the United States 

(Continued on page 68) 

UNR—August 1956 

Dr. G. J. van Heuven Goedhart 

] R. G. J. VAN HEUVEN GOEDHART died unexpect- 

edly in Geneva on July 8. He had been United 
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees since January 
1951, and before that had been a member of Nether- 
lands delegations to the General Assembly and to the 
United Nations Conference on Freedom of Information. 
In 1947-48 Dr. van Heuven Goedhart was Chairman 
of the United Nations Subcommission on Freedom of 
Information and of the Press. During the Second World 
War he edited an underground paper, Het Parool, as 
part of his courageous work with the Netherlands 
resistance movement. In 1955, the Office of the High 
Commissioner was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 
1954. In the same year Dr. van Heuven Goedhart per- 
sonally received the Wateler Peace Prize from the 
Carnegie Foundation in The Hague. 

“He was a vigorous opponent of tyranny of any kind, 
and never failed to express his views when he thought 
that any injustice was being committed,” said Hans 
Engen, of Norway, President of the Economic and 
Social Council, which opened its tenth-anniversary ses- 
sion in Geneva on July 9. 


UNR—August 1956 

Judge Hsu Mo 

peer loss to the United Nations was suffered 

+ with the death of Judge Hsu Mo, of the Interna- 

tional Court of Justice, at The Hague on June 28. 
Judge Hsu, who had law degrees from universities in 
China, Australia and the United States, was elected a 
member of the Court at the first election of judges on 
February 6, 1946. He was reelected in 1948 for a 
further term of nine years. 

Judge Hsu participated at Washington in April 1945 
in the work of the United Nations Committee of Jurists 
preparing a draft statute of the Court, and in the same 
year he was adviser to the Chinese delegation to the 
United Nations Conference on International Organiza- 
tion in San Francisco. Judge Hsu’s work with the 
United Nations was preceded by a distinguished educa- 
tional, judicial and diplomatic career, during which he 
held ambassadorial posts in Australia and Turkey. 

While Professor of International Law in Nankai Uni- 
versity, Tientsin (1922-1925), Judge Hsu wrote articles 
on legal and political subjects for Chinese newspapers 
and magazines, and was also the author of: “Notes on 
China’s Diplomatic History.” 

The Trust T erritory of Somaliland 

Prepares for 1960 

( N April 1, 1950, when Italy became the Admin- 

istering Authority under the United Nations of 
what was formerly Italian Somaliland, the prerequisites 
for creating a new political organization within a brief 
period of time were non-existent or insufficiently de- 
lineated. It was necessary to imbue the Somali popula- 
tion with a new political consciousness and a sense of 
responsible participation in public life, while at the same 
time paying respect to Somali traditions and customs 
which did not conflict with ordered and peaceful co- 
existence as an indispensable basis for attainment of all 
civil progress 

The Somali people demonstrated at an early date 
that they are capable of thinking in terms of national 
unity. Political parties with national needs and welfare 
in mind have undoubtedly contributed much to the 
gradual political evolution of the Somali people. 

The feeling of national unity was demonstrated in 
the political elections for the institution of the Legis- 
lative Assembly, an organization entrusted today with 
the drafting of laws. According to the principle con- 
tained in Article 4 of the Declaration of Constitutional 
Principles annexed to the Trusteeship Agreement, the 
Territorial Council—a merely advisory body nominated 
by the Administrator—was to take part in drafting 
the laws of the Territory “until an elective Assembly 
was instituted”. Today this Assembly, which includes 
freely-elected representatives of the political parties, 
votes and approves laws, and has therefore assumed 
the definite character of an elective body, with legis- 
lative functions. 

The system adopted for the election of the Legis- 
lative Assembly, which was the object of careful exami- 
nation before the pre-existing Territorial Council, 
appeared to suit the country’s specific conditions. A 
fundamental fact had to be reckoned with: namely, 
that since a major part of the population consists of 
nomads or semi-nomads, farmers and shepherds spread 
over a vast territory and living far from inhabited 
centres, it would be impossible to apply a single voting 
system—that is, the desirable system of direct elections 
The rural populations therefore chose their electoral 
representatives in their traditional gatherings (shirs); 
the inhabitants of municipal centres, who had already 
availed themselves of their right to vote in the adminis- 

trative elections, participated singly in the elections by 
direct vote. 

[he tasks that face the Legislative Assembly are 
not light—the creating of legislation suited to the 
country’s special requirements. 

Many fundamental regulations were approved in the 
past by the Territorial Council, and this has contributed 
good elements in the understanding of problems of 
general interest. 

But now that a legislative-elective body endowed 
with a greater sense of responsibility has been formed, 
it is necessary to give the country a compendium of 
laws that prove good and effective for the Govern- 
ment’s activity in its various sectors. 

Appropriate committees, established in 1955, have 
elaborated and brought to completion many ordinances 
which will be submitted to the approval of the Legis- 
lative Assembly; among them, of fundamental import- 
ance, are the Agricultural Ordinance, the Civil Code, 
the Penal Code, the Court Rules of Procedure, and the 
Public Security Ordinance. 

The Government of Somaliland 

The satisfactory outcome of the election of the Legis- 
lative Assembly, which was inaugurated on April 30, 
and the degree of political maturity shown by the Somali 
people entailed, as a necessary consequence, the direct, 
active and responsible participation of the population in 
the administration of public affairs. 

The achieved “Somalization” of many offices and 
services, both central and peripheral, and the experi- 
ence acquired by Somali officials in public administra- 
tion, further convinced the Administration that it would 
be possible to speed up the program of entrusting tasks 
of direct responsibility to political exponents who have 
earned the confidence of the people through the elec- 

The Administrator of Somaliland, under Law No. 1 
of May 7, 1956, unanimously voted by the Legislative 
Assembly, instituted the Government of Somaliland. 

The Government is composed of the Prime Minister 
and other Ministers, who collectively form the Council 
of Ministers. 

The Somali Government is entrusted by law with the 

UNR—August 1956 

Inhabitants of Somaliland, 
scheduled to become independent 
in 1960, went to the polls 

last February to elect a 
70-member Legislative Assembly. 
Party candidates campaigned 

with banners like this 

in the streets of Mogadiscio. 

task of ensuring the internal administration of the 
Territory, with full responsibility and with but a few 
restrictions deriving from the Trusteeship Agreement 
itself and concerning matters in which the direct re- 
sponsibility of the Administering Authority obtains. 

The law, inasmuch as its contents are substantially 
constitutional, affirms the general principles that juri- 
dically characterize the Government, and is integrated 
with other provisions that determine the number, the 
attributes and the organization of the Ministries. 

An Italian Counselor is assigned by law to each 
Minister, to assist the Government in the early phases 
of its activity and to ensure, in relation to the responsi- 
bilities of each Minister, the coordinated functioning of 
the various organizations. 

On May 17 the Administrator of Somaliland nomi- 
nated as Prime Minister the Deputy Abdullah Issa, 
and appointed the following officials: Deputy Hagi 
Mussa Bogor, Minister of the Interior; Deputy Scek Alli 
Giumale Barale, Minister for Social Affairs; Deputy 
Hagi Farah Ali Omar, Minister for Economic Affairs; 
Deputy Salad Abdi Mahamud, Minister of Finance; 
Deputy Abdi Nur, Minister for General Affairs. 

The Government of Somaliland does not entirely ab- 
sorb the attributions of the Trusteeship Administration; 
a few matters—such as international relations, Italian 
State employees, and Italian Government contributions 
to Somaliland—remain under the direction of the 
Italian Administration, in the narrow sense of the word, 

UNR—August 1956 

and must of necessity be dealt with by Italian offices. 
The present political organization foresees a division 
of the Somali Government into Ministries entrusted 
with the management of the various sectors which di- 
rectly affect the public life of the Territory; and for the 
aforesaid reasons, the institution of special offices to 
deal with specific matters of interest, directly or exclu- 
sively to the Italian Administration. The co-existence 
of the two organizations is of a transitory order. 

Social and Economic Problems 

With the recent institution of the legislative and 
executive bodies, problems of a social and economic 
order can be faced, no doubt, with the direct participa- 
tion of elements representing the will of the people. 
This goes for problems of general interest as well as 
for local problems. The municipalities established in 
the Territory are gradually developing a consciousness 
of participation in the solution of local problems. 

The District Councils—composed of chiefs elected in 
traditional shirs, of political representatives, of repre- 
sentatives of the economic categories, and of religious 
and cultural exponents—contribute increasingly to the 
solution of questions affecting the single Districts in 
the fields of economy, education, public health and 
labor, as in the field of local tradition and custom. 

In considering the problems of a social and economic 

order, one must take into account the country’s 
conditions and special requirements, particularly in the 


light of the traditional structure of the populations. 

A large part of the population of Somaliland consists 
of nomads who move from one region to another in 
search of pasture and water. The existence of nomad- 
ism is one of the most important aspects of the social 
and economic picture of the Territory; it is at present 
the object of study and research, with the cooperation 
of international organizations. Efforts are being made 
to determine how the living conditions of the nomads 
may be improved, and how these people may be more 
closely integrated into national life. On the other hand, 
rural populations of a stable nature, particularly those 
who live in urban centres, are capable of participating 
in public life and of appreciating the benefits which 
derive from initiative taken in the social and economic 

The general plan of action to raise the standard of 
living among nomad people seems to be oricnted to- 
wards a participation of these people in the productive 
development of the Territory (technical assistance for 
the expansion of animal husbandry, increase of water 
supply with the excavation of new wells, development 
of industries connected with animal husbandry) and 
towards their inclusion, as far as possible, in the bene- 
fits deriving from progress in the field of public health 
and education. 

In the overall picture of social progress, programs 
have been put into effect, and will be further intensified, 
for a campaign against the more widespread diseases in 
malaria campaign was conducted in the first few months 

malaria and tuberculosis. A large anti- 

of 1956, with the assistance of international organiza- 

The preparation of qualified persons for the per- 
formance of responsible functions in public administra- 

tion is continuous, especially through the courses of 
the Superior Institute of Juridical, Economic and Social 
Instruction. At the same time particular attention is 
given to the development of schools of a professional 
order. Special courses were attended by Administration 
personnel with the purpose of raising their degree of 

cultural and administrative preparation. 

In some of its aspects, the problem of the Territory’s 
economy is far from easy to solve. The economic re- 
sources consist essentially of livestock and farm prod- 
ucts, which are closely dependent on the rhythm of 
the seasons. Plans for development are being put into 
effect along lines traced in 1954, through investments 
in the various sectors. A reasonable program for the ex- 
cavation of wells will achieve an increase of the water 
supply with the purpose of enlarging as much as possi- 
ble the livestock capital, which is the country’s main 

In the field of agriculture, the enactment of the pro- 
grams set up with the constitution of a Fund for the 
Exploitation of Somaliland—pursuant to the Agree- 
ment stipulated in 1954 between Italy and the United 
States—has reclaimed for the Somali people land 
situated along and between the rivers Uebi Scebeli and 
Giuba, by means of canalization and drainage, and with 
the establishment of agricultural centres. The Adminis- 

Technical training of Somali personnel in agricultural methods, animal husbandry and industry is a part of the 
Administration's program to help prepare the Trust Territory for independence in 1960. Here students of the 
Marine and Fisheries School receive instruction in Mogadiscio Harbor. 


UNR—August 1956 

tration thereby intends to improve the value of land 
that can add considerably to the development of pro- 
duction, not only with the purpose of raising the local 
standard of living but also in order to bring about, 
within the next few years, an improvement of the coun- 
try’s monetary situation which, at present, is still rather 

A Mission of the International Bank visited Somali- 
land from March 9 to April 16, and acquired direct 
knowledge of local problems; upon the conclusions 
reached by the bank it will be possible to establish a 
definition of the Territory’s requirements in relation 
to its future development within the frame of the 
country’s effective possibilities. 

Council Recommendations and Conclusions 

F° LOWING general debate in the Trusteeship Council 

on the Trust Territory of Somaliland in June, the 
Council approved a series of conclusions and recom- 
mendations regarding the Territory for inclusion in its 
next report to the General Assembly. 

It generally applauded the rapid progress of the 
Territory toward independence and commended the 
Administering Authority and the Somali people for 
steps that have been taken so far in setting up new 

In regard to the Territory’s political advancement, 
the Council congratulated the Administering Authority 
and the Somali population for establishing a Legislative 
Assembly and a Somali Government four years before 
the independence date of 1960; 

. . . Noted that existing limitations on the powers of 
the Somali Government are essential at present for the 
Administering Authority to discharge its own responsi- 
bilities, and that a more specific definition of the Gov- 
ernment’s powers will be drawn up when conditions 

. . . Observed that wide legislative powers have been 
given to the Legislative Assembly, and welcomed the 
statement of the Administration that limitations on the 
exercise of Assembly powers are of a temporary nature; 

... Appreciated “the sense of responsibility and good 
will” of the political parties in the recent general 

Expressed the hope that general elections 
projected for 1958 will uniformly provide for direct 
rather than “indirect” balloting, that the Somali Gov- 
ernment will give consideration to the suffrage of adult 
women, and that in drafting new electoral laws the 
Somali Government will take all possible steps to 
prevent balloting irregularities; 

. . . Commended the increase of municipal adminis- 
trations from thirty-five to forty-five, noting that rules 
governing municipal administration have been com- 

Lauded the fact that the administration of re- 
gions and districts has been turned over to Somali 
civil servants, that a Court of Justice has been estab- 
lished as the highest tribunal in the Territory, and that 
independence of the judiciary from the executive power 
has been assured. 

UNR—August 1956 

Economic Conditions 

In the field of economics the Trusteeship Council 
observed continued progress under the Administering 
Authority’s plans for development, and noted the finan- 
cial and technical assistance received from Italy, the 
United States and Egypt; 

. . . Expressed concern at the adverse economic con- 
dition of the Territory, and proposed to continue con- 
sideration of this situation when the report of the Inter- 
national Bank becomes available; 

. . . Urged the Administration and the Somali Gov- 
ernment to “explore all possible means of increasing 
revenue,” including new taxes, and of reducing expendi- 
tures, at the same time “increasing within the limits of 
budgetary appropriations funds allocated to economic 
and social development”; 

. . » Took note of the adverse trade balance of the 
Territory, and recommended that the Administration 
should examine ways and means of increasing earnings 
and reducing expenditure of foreign exchange; 

. Noted with satisfaction progress in agriculture, 
animal husbandry and water supplies, and the establish- 
ment of a meat-packing plant; it hoped further that the 
size and movement of herds would be regulated, and 
that the pace of economic development among nomads 
would be accelerated by development of marketing 
facilities and better methods of processing hides; 

. . . Observed the steps taken by the Administering 
Authority to clear up land titles; 

. . . Expressed continuing interest in prospecting for 
oil in commercially exploitable quantities. 

Social Conditions 

The Trusteeship Council observed that steady prog- 
ress has been made generally in the improvement of 
the Territory’s social conditions, and that valuable 
assistance has been given by United Nations specialized 

. . . Approved of the Administration’s view that en- 
couragement of nomadic people to participate more 
fully in the life of the Territory is an important step 
in the solution of the problem of nomadism itself; 

. . . Noted that Somali women enjoy many funda- 
mental rights and freedoms, and that increasing num- 


When the Trusteeship Council on June 11 began its annual examination of conditions 

in Somaliland, four members of the new Somali Government were present: Abdullah 

Issa, Prime Minister; Aden Abdullah Osman, President of the Legislative Assembly; 

Abdi Nur, Assembly Vice President; and Omar Mohallim, Secretary of the Assembly 

Here Mr. Osman is addressing the Trusteeship Council. Behind him are Vittorio 
Zaddoti (left), Italy’s Special Represenative, and Mr. Mohallim 

bers of women are being educated and are king nd that particular attention should be given to the 

practical interest in political party activities; it expresse problem of educating the children of nomads, It took 

the hope that Somali women will soon enjoy full par appreciative note of assistance given by UNESCO and the 

cipation in community life; Governments of Italy and Egypt in attacking the educa- 
Expressed interest in a c nittee establis! tion problems of the Territory. 

study further labor legislatior nd ur: lactment of In regard to the difference of opinion among Somali 

such legislation as soon as possible; leaders on the development of the Somali language in 

Applauded progress in the field public healt! written form and as a medium of instruction, the Council 

and preventive medicine, noted the assistance given ittention to the view of the United Nations Edu- 

WHO and UNICEF, and urg ! $101 t training nal, Sci ic and Cultural Organization that “many 

program for medical an ) per periments in this fi iducted in many countries 

res Other than the 

tion reduces the effec- 

tends to discourage 

mental education, 


UNR—August 1956 

International Convention on F amily Support 

Ameliorates Desertion Problem 

A’ important milestone in the humanitarian field was 

passed at United Nations Headquarters early this 
summer with the adoption of a new international conven- 
tion on family support, culminating more than twenty- 
five years of dedicated effort on the part of individuals, 
social service societies and relief agencies from all over 
the world. 

The twenty-one-article Convention on the Recovery 
Abroad of Maintenance is designed to alleviate the 
plight of families left destitute by a breadwinner who 
has moved to another country. By the practical method 
of establishing a “transmitting agency” in one country 
and a “receiving agency” in another, the Convention 
will provide the means through which a dependent may 
obtain support without prohibitive costs and intermin- 
able legal complications. 

The chief difficulty facing abandoned dependents— 
mainly wives and children—is the necessity for action 
across international boundaries. Dissimilarity of legal 
systems, not to mention staggering prosecution costs, 
have baffled social service organizations working over 
this problem for a long period of years. The mass 
dislocations brought about by the Second World War, 
together with the factor of foreign military forces in 
various countries, have multiplied desertion cases by the 
thousand-fold. Thus those who have worked, hoped and 

dreamed for the « 

blishment of an international legal 
means for assisting abandoned dependents view the new 

United N 

toward the solution of a gravy 

Convention as a shining achievement 
e humanitarian problem. 
yn on the Recovery Abroad of Main- 
1 procedure whereby a “claimant”— 

y appl smitting 

agency” located in the country where lives. The 
transmitting agen would forward the documents to a 
“receiving ¢ located in the country to which her 
defaulting hu d has moved. The receiving agency 


would take all appropri: 


te steps to obtain payment from 
the husband, and if necessary, 

would bring 

suit against 
him before the appropriate tril A support order 
would be enforcible in the same manner as if the claim- 
in re a resident of the country in which the debtor 


The above procedure will involve no change in the 
domestic laws of the contracting states. The designation 
of receiving and transmitting agencies will be left to the 
contracting states after the latter have ratified or acceded 
to the Convention. 

A further significant feature of the Convention is that 
it safeguards the claimant against the payment of ex- 
orbitant legal fees. Article 9 provides that claimants 
“shall be accorded equal treatment and the same exemp- 
tions in the payments of costs and charges as are given 
to residents or nationals of the state where the proceed- 
ings are pending.” The article goes on to state that 
claimants will not be required to furnish any bonds or 
deposit payments as security for costs, and that the 
transmitting and receiving agencies of countries con- 
cerned shall not charge any fees for services rendered 
under the Convention. Article 10 explains that “the 
highest priority” will be accorded “to the transfer of 
funds payable as maintenance or to cover expenses in 
respect of proceedings under the Convention.” 

“Amazing Achievement” 

Thirty-two governments participated in the recent 
United Nations Conference on Maintenance Obliga- 
tions, and fifteen of them signed the Convention on 
June 20, the day the conference was concluded. Nine 
other governments were represented by observers and 
also attending were delegates from the International 
Labor Organization, the International Institute for the 
Unification of Private Law, the Inter-governmental Com- 
mittee for European Migration and twenty-one non- 
vovernmental organi Elected as the conference 
president was Sir Senerat Gunewardene, of Ceylon. On 
the concluding day, he pointed out that, considering the 
wide variety of legal systems represented, it was “an 
ymazing achievement” for the conference to have 
reached unanimity on such a complicated subject within 
the short period of three weeks. 

[his achievement was possible, however, only be- 
cause of the impressive backlog of long and earnest 
work which had preceded the conference. The draft 
Convention prepared by a Committee of Experts meet- 
ing in Geneva in 1952, was built on a foundation laid 


as far back as 1926, when the League of Nations began 
a study of legal means which would make it easier for 
dependents to obtain support from a defaulter abroad. 
Closely allied with this study project were the Interna- 
tional Association for the Protection of Children and 
the International Social Service (then known as the 
International Migration Service). It was at the sug- 
gestion of the latter that the League of Nations, in 1929, 
asked the International Institute for the Unification of 
Private Law in Rome to work on the legal aspects of 
maintenance support across state boundaries. 

The Rome Institute, after a preliminary survey, con- 
vened a Committee of Experts which held two sessions, 
one at Brussels in 1937 and the other at Santa Margher- 
ita Ligure, in 1938, where a draft Convention was 
drawn up. The work was interrupted by the Second 
World War, adding its cruel toll of evidence of the need 
for relief in millions of new desertion cases. 

United Nations Accepts Challenge 

Ten years later, in 1948, the United Nations, taking 
up the challenge inherited from the League of Nations, 
asked the Institute at Rome to resume work on the 
1938 draft and to bring the document up to date. At the 
specific request of the Economic and Social Council’s 
Social Commission, the Rome Institute again convened 
a Committee of Experts, which met at The Hague in 
November 1949 and prepared a revised draft conven- 
tion. The text of this was circulated to various govern- 
ments for comment. At that time the United States 
suggested that a procedure similar to the one followed 
between its own states concerning reciprocal support 
laws might be used as a basis for an international con- 

After studying the text of the Rome Institute draft 
convention at its August 1951 session, the Economic 
and Social Council requested the United Nations Secre- 
tary-General to draw up a working draft and convene 
a Committee of Experts “with a view to formulating, on 
the basis of the working draft or drafts prepared by the 
Secretary-General, the text of a model convention or 
model reciprocal law, or both.” 

The Secretary-General prepared two working drafts 
from which the Committee of Experts, meeting in 
Geneva in August 1952, prepared two conventions, one 
a draft Convention of the Recovery Abroad of Claims 
for Maintenance and the other a model Convention on 
the Enforcement Abroad of Maintenance Orders. Both 
of these documents were discussed at the Economic and 
Social Council’s meeting in April 1954, and the model 
Convention was recommended to governments as a 
guide for the preparation of bilateral treaties or uniform 
laws to be enacted by individual states. 

With respect to the draft Convention on the Recovery 
Abroad of Claims for Maintenance, the Council re- 
quested the Secretary-General “to ascertain from states 
Members of the United Nations and those non-Members 
of the United Nations which are members of specialized 
agencies whether they consider it desirable to convene 
a conference of plenipotentiaries to complete the draft- 
ing of the Convention on the Recovery Abroad of 


Claims for Maintenance, and whether they are pre- 
pared to attend such a conference.” 

Conference Invitations Issued 

In May 1955, after the results of the Secretary-Gen- 
eral’s consultations were reported, the Economic and 
Social Council decided to call such a conference of 
plenipotentiaries to complete the drafting of and to sign 
the Convention on the Recovery Abroad of Claims for 
Maintenance. The printed text of the draft Convention 
drawn up by the Committee of Experts was attached to 
the Secretary-General’s letter of invitation to the con- 
ference, dated November 15, 1955. 

In addition to Members of the United Nations and 
members of specialized United Nations agencies, invita- 
tions were also issued to the Hague Conference on 
Private International Law, the International Institute 
for the Unification of Private Law, the interested spe- 
cialized agencies and non-governmental organizations 
having consultative status with the Economic and Social 

The governments of the following states Members of 
the United Nations were represented at the conference, 
which opened at Headquarters on May 29; Afghanistan, 
Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Cambodia, Cey- 
lon, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, 
the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, 
Greece, Iran, Israel, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, 
Norway, the Philippines, Sweden, Uruguay and Yugo- 
slavia—twenty-seven, slightly more than one third of the 
United Nations’ seventy-six Member states. Non-mem- 
ber governments which sent plenipotentiary delegations 
were the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the Re- 
public of Korea, Monaco and Vatican City. Eight United 
Nations Member states sent observers: Canada, Czech- 
oslovakia, Guatemala, Lebanon, Peru, Turkey, the 
United Kingdom and Venezuela; and Switzerland, a 
non-member state, also sent an observer. 

The International Labor Organization participated in 
the conference without the right to vote, as did the 
Inter-governmental Committee for European Migration 
and the International Institute for the Unification of 
Private Law, and the following non-governmental 
organizations: International Confederation of Free 
Trade Unions, International Federation of Christian 
Trade Unions, World Federation of Trade Unions, 
Catholic International Union for Social Service, Com- 
mission of the Churches on International Affairs, Co- 
ordinating Board of Jewish Organizations, Interna- 
tional Catholic Migration Commission, International 
Conference Catholic Charities, International Council of 
Women, International Federation “Amies de la Jeune 
Fille,” International Federation of University Women, 
International Federation of Women Lawyers, Interna- 
tional Social Service, International Union for Child 
Welfare, Liaison Committee of Women’s International 
Organizations, Pan-Pacific South East Asia Women’s 
Association, Salvation Army, World Alliance of Young 
Men’s Christian Associations, World Jewish Congress, 
World Union of Catholic Organizations and World 
Young Women’s Christian Association. 

UNR—August 1956 

Two of the countries most keenly interested in the 
conference were Japan and West Germany, where the 
high proportion of unwed mothers and illegitimate chil- 
dren left in war’s aftermath constitutes an acute eco- 
nomic and social problem for both nations. Other 
nations in the Far East where war has caused family 
dislocation are Korea, Cambodia and the Republic of 
China. The constant flux of immigration and emigration 
groups in the South American countries keeps the fam- 
ily maintenance problem constantly in the forefront 
there, while the newly formed state of Israel has unique 
problems in this respect. 

Scandinavian Treaty 

The five Scandinavian countries represented at the 
conference have already in force between them a con- 
vention concluded in 1931, whereby, if a national of 
Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway or Sweden fails to 
support his wife or his children, regardless of whether 
the latter are illegitimate, and if he goes to live in any- 
one of the five other countries, he is subject to rules vir- 
tually as strict as those in the country which he left. 
At the opening of the conference, Erik Dons, of the 
Norwegian delegation, reminded the other delegates 
that it had been a representative of his country who 
had formally proposed the convening of the conference 
to the Economic and Social Council. 

At one of the early meetings, Dr. Mario Matteucci, 
of Italy, who is Secretary-General of the International 
Institute for the Unification of Private Law and was 
a member of the Committee of Experts who had drawn 
up the draft convention, expressed regret at the ab- 
sence of the United States as well as of the United 
Kingdom and other states of the Commonwealth. 

The Committee of Experts which met in Geneva 
in August of 1952 to prepare the draft Convention 
included a member from the United Kingdom and one 
from the United States. Professor Kurt Lipstein, Trinity 
College, Cambridge, replaced Professor Harold Cooke 
Gutteridge, University of Cambridge, who was unable 
to attend, and the American member was Professor 
Hessel Yntema, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, who was elected vice-chairman of the com- 
mittee. The chairman was the late Professor Eduard 
Maurits Meijers, Leyden, Netherlands, one of the 
world’s most renowned authorities on international and 
comparative law, to whose memory many of the mem- 
bers paid warm tribute during the recent conference. 

Other members of the Committee of Experts were 
Mrs. Marcelle Kraemer-Bach, member of the bar in 
Paris, France; Anis Saleh, Director-General at the 
Ministry of Justice, Beirut, Lebanon; and Professor 
Francisco Clementino de Santiago Dantas, member of 
the Bar, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During the 1952 Gene- 
va session, lasted from August 18 to 28, the 
Secretary-General of the United Nations was represent- 
ed by Paolo Contini, of the Legal Department, as legal 
adviser, and by Witold Langrod, of the Department 
of Social Affairs, as Secretary of the Committee. 

UNR—August 1956 

The non-governmental organizations have been most 
vocal in their demands for an international legal instru- 
ment to help enforce maintenance claims, One of the 
most eloquent speakers at the June conference was 
William T. Kirk, General Director of the International 
Social Service. Recalling that the International Social 
Service had first been established in 1924, Mr. Kirk 
said that his agency had been dealing with separated 
families, deserted wives and children, illegitimate child- 
ren and other similar problems for more than thirty- 
five years. 

During the year 1955 alone, reported Mr. Kirk, the 
International Social Service handled 45,600 cases in 
seventy-two different countries, These cases involved 
problems so widely spread that, in his opinion, only 
a multilateral agreement could deal with them in a 
practical fashion. The social agencies, he said, are 
powerless in the face of the vast numbers of persons 
who have fied from their own homes to dodge family 

Among the typical examples given by the Interna- 
tional Social Service Director was that of a White 
Russian refugee in Austria who acknowledged paternity 
of a baby girl and was required to pay maintenance 
for her to her mother. These payments, fixed by the 
Austrian courts, were paid regularly by the man until 
two years later he emigrated to Australia where he 
married, started a new life and completely washed his 
hands of his daughter in Austria. As there was no 
legal means of enforcing in Australia the sentence 
passed in Austria, the mother, who was living in miser- 

able conditions, was obliged to separate from her child, 
who was placed in a foster-care home by a court order. 

In another case, a father contacted in Brazil by the 
International Social Service was frank to admit that, 
unless legally coerced, he would do nothing about the 
wife and child he had deserted in Israel. 

It is the strong opinion of many social agency work- 
ers that the existence of international machinery for 
the enforcement of maintenance obligations would have 
effect without the necessity to take court action in every 
case. Some men will be deterred from deliberately 
migrating across national boundaries if they know they 
will not, by so doing, escape their legal responsibilities 
in the country they have left. 

Effect On Public Funds 

In addition to the moral and psychological hardships 
resulting from desertion cases, Mr. Kirk pointed out 
that the care of abandoned families through foster 
homes and state support constitutes an enormous drain 
on the public funds of all countries concerned. An 
illustration of this is the practical value of the reciprocal 
state laws now obtaining in the United States to enforce 
the support of dependents. The first of these laws was 
passed in 1949, and in 1951, the Domestic Relations 
Court in New York City handled 939 cases and col- 
lected $80,000 for dependents under the Reciprocal 
Support Law. In 1952, this court handled 1,528 cases 


under this law and collected $219,000, In 1953, the 
cases numbered 2,216, and the collections were $500,- 

While the problem of children born out of wedlock 
was discussed at length during the United Nations con- 
ference, it was also clearly brought out that unwed moth- 
ers and illegitimate children are not the only victims 
of non-support to be affected by the new Convention. 
In many countries the problem of indigent aged persons 
is an acute one, and parents who have been left behind 
in mass migration projects often have children in other 
countries who are well able to contribute something 
to their support. And, as Mrs. Marcelle Kraemer-Bach 
of the French delegation pointed out, it would be 
illogical for a well-to-do wife not to support a disabled 
husband incapable of earning his own living. 

Convention Flexible 

In the draft Convention prepared by the Geneva 
Committee of Experts the “claimant” was designated 
as the person who claims to be entitled to maintenance 

by an “ascendant, descendant or spouse.” This defini- 
tion, however, resulted in a good deal of discussion as 
to the exact nature of a family group: whether or not 
this should be extended to include brothers and sisters 
or other close relatives, and whether or not divorced 
spouses and their respective children entered into the 
picture. Hence, in its finally adopted form, the Con- 
vention omits all mention of “ascendants, descendants 
and spouses” in connection with the “claimant,” leaving 
these matters to be determined by the laws of the 
countries concerned. 

Because of its extreme flexibility, the Convention 
on the Recovery Abroad of Maintenance is believed 
by its supporters to be an extremely practical document. 
Article 14 provides that the instrument will come into 
force within thirty days after it has been ratified by 
three governments. The door has been left open for 
other governments to adhere to the Convention by 
providing that it may be acceded to “at any time,” so 
no time limit is placed on the later entry of further 
interested states. 


continued narrowing 

(Continued from page 58 ) 

was convinced that, on the basis of careful considera- 
tion, the question of tests was inseparable from that of 
a larger agreement. At the same time, the United States, 
he declared, would continue to work, as it did in the 
past, for an agreement to bring the nuclear threat under 
control, in which the limitation of tests must be an in- 
tegral part. In the meantime, the United States would 
do everything in its power to ensure that radiation from 
all sources, including nuclear tests, does not arise above 

tolerable levels. 

idoption of the Peruvian Proposal 

In submitting his draft resolution, Mr. Belaunde 
explained that the Disarmament Commission should not 
end its series of meetings on a note of pessimism and 
disillusion, especially since there had been a narrowing 

of differences. He declared that with a little patience 


of differences sought 

and perseverance, the Commission could ultimately 
reach agreement. 

To the Soviet contention that the Peruvian draft did 
not reflect the Soviet point of view, several representa- 
tives, including those of Belgium, Canada, Iran, Peru 
and the United Kingdom, considered that the Peruvian 
draft reserved everybody’s point of view and did not 
call on anyone to abandon his position. Mr. Nutting 
maintained that the draft covered all the proposals the 
Soviet Union had made or might want to make in the 
future, as well as the proposals of other countries. Mr. 
Lodge pointed out that the four-Power draft resolution 
would not be withdrawn, nor was there any need for 
the other resolutions to be withdrawn. They could all 
be transmited to the Sub-Committee. The United States 
would have preferred to have had the four-Power draft 
adopted, he said, but it would support the Peruvian 
resolution in the interests of harmony. 

UNR—August 1956 


6 bee first United Nations Seminar for News Person- 

nel, attended by twenty distinguished editors and 
radio officers from as many different countries, nomi- 
nated by their respective governments, met for two 
weeks in Geneva from July 23 through August 8. The 
seminar was addressed by Secretary-General Dag Ham- 
marskjold, the President and Committee Chairmen of 
the Economic and Social Council, the Directors-General 
of a number of specialized agencies, United Nations 
Under-Secretaries, and the Executive Secretaries of the 
three Regional Economic Commissions. 

The Seminar had its genesis in the Economic and 
Social Council’s resolution to set up “advisory Services 
in the field of human rights,” and had as its purpose 
development of “a wider knowledge of the work of the 
United Nations, of foreign countries and of international 
affairs, with a view to promoting friendly relations 
among nations based on the purposes and principles of 
the United Nations,” with due emphasis given to the 
promotion of freedom of information. 

The program consisted of a series of morning and 
afternoon meetings at which key addresses by authorita- 
tive speakers were followed by question-and-answer dis- 
cussion periods. The seminarists were accorded all the 
facilities of accredited press and radio correspandents to 
enable them to write for the press or to broadcast; inter- 
views with representatives to the twenty-second session 
of the Economic and Social Council were arranged, as 
well as visits to the headquarters of the specialized 
agencies in Geneva. A special week-end study tour was 
arranged in cooperation with the Swiss Government. 
Seminarists were invited to attend Council meetings 
whenever possible, and the Seminar program, concen- 
trating on world economic and social progress, was 
closely related to the major issues before the Council. 

Although the plan for the Seminar was not fully con- 
solidated until early May of this year, the response from 
governments was enthusiastic. After approval of the 
project by the Economic and Social Council, the Sec- 
retary-General wrote to the Foreign Ministers of Mem- 
ber states, inquiring whether they wished news personnel 
from their countries to participate, and requesting that 
if so, they nominate candidates. 

In order to make arrangements for the Seminar it was 
necessary to receive answers almost immediately. Not- 
withstanding this difficulty, thirty-seven countries an- 
swered within four weeks requesting participation. Out 
of the nominations received—some countries had nomi- 
nated as many as five—the Secretary-General had to 
make his selection. 

Since funds were limited and, equally, the time for 
preparatory work, it was decided that twenty fellowships 
should be the maximum number for this first Seminar. 

UNR—August 1956 

The twenty participants were selected with due regard 
to wide geographic distribution and professional quali- 
fications. It was made clear that seminarists were chosen 
as individuals, not specifically as representatives of their 
countries, or even, necessarily, as spokesmen of their 
newspapers or radio services. They were, rather, 
selected as a group of information experts, meeting to 
study the United Nations and to exchange ideas among 
themselves on the topics discussed. 

In addition to the establishment of a program of 
news-personnel Seminars, the Economic and Social 
Council also has endorsed the provision, in collaboration 
with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
Cultural Organization, of such services as expert aid 
and fellowships in the news gathering field. These are 
envisaged as part of the advisory services in the field of 
human rights program, which also includes the promo- 
tion of the rights of women, the eradication of discrim- 
ination and the protection of minorities. 

The Participants 

Of the twenty nominees, two were women: Mrs. 
Lydia Surichan Na-Rnong, of Thailand, Representative 
of Agence France Presse in Bangkok, and Miss Kath- 
leen Teltsch, of the United States, on the United Na- 
tions Bureau of the New York Times. The other par- 
ticipants included: Alberto F. Rivas, Argentina, former 
editor of La Razon, Buenos Aires, and President of the 
Asociacon de Peridistas; Paula Filho, Brazil, Director, 
Correio da Manha, Rio de Janeiro, and Vice-President 
of the Brazilian Press Association; Raul Ferrada, Chile, 
Managing Director of La Nacion, Santiago; Jiri Nedela, 
Czechoslovakia, Editor, Foreign Division, Czech Radio, 
Prague; Gunnar Naesselund-Hansen, Denmark, Chief of 
Foreign News Service of Ritzkaus Bureau, Danish News 
Agency; Mohamed Abdel Kader, Egypt, Director, News 
Section, Egyptian Broadcasting Corporation; Paul Per- 
ronnet, France, Editor, Journale Parle and Chief of For- 
eign Services, Radio Diffusion Television Francaise; 
D. P. Wagle, India, General Manager, Press Trust of 
India; Sutojo, Indonesia, Director, Overseas Service, 
Radio Republik Indonesia; Abdol-Rassool Azimi, Iran, 
editor Kehyan, Teheran, Ghalib Naoum Sakriah, Iraq, 
News Editor, Iraq Broadcasting Station; Moshe Pearl- 
man, Israel, Director, Government Information Services, 
E. Evenhuis, Netherlands, Editor-in-Chief, Leeuwarder 
Courant, Leeuwarder; R. C. Sayers, New Zealand, As- 
sistant Editor, Auckland Star, Auckland; Mohsin Ali, 
Pakistan, Editor, Morning News, Karachi; Gonzalo 
Rodriguez Castillo, Spain, Office of Information, Min- 
istry of Foreign Affairs; B. K. Shtal, U.S.S.R., Chief, 
Foreign News Department, TASS Agency, and Djordje 
Vukmanovic, Yugoslavia, Secretariate of Information, 
Federal Executive Council. 

The following United Nations publications are suggested for readers who wish more background informa- 
tion on articles which appear in this issue of the UNITED NATIONS REVIEW. United Nations publica- 
tions are obtainable from sales agents listed on the back inside cover; specialized agency publications may 
be obtained from many of these agents or by writing to the headquarters of the agency. Almost all 
publications may be purchased by visitors at the bookshop in United Nations Headquarters. 


Wor_p Economic Survey, 1955. 2/0 
pp. U.N. Sales No. 1956.11.C.1. 
Price: $2.00, 14/-, Sw. fr. 8.50. 

This report is the eighth in a series 
of comprehensive reviews of world 
economic conditions published by the 
United Nations. Part I reviews the 
growth of production and trade, dur- 
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private enterprise economies and in 
the centrally planned economies. Part 
II is devoted to an examination of 
recent developments in the world 

(A complete listing of the World 
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Mippte East, 1954-1955. 1/49 pp. 
U.N. Sales No. 1956.11.C.2. Price 
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A general description of trends in 
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Mippie East, 1945 to 1954. 236 
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Price: $2.50, 17/6, Sw. fr. 10.00. 

A review of the main economic 
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1945 to 1954. It also reports on the 
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Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey. 


1954-1955. 100 pp. U.N. Sales No. 
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This report, issued as a supplement 
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reviews the growth of economic ac- 
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noting differences in the economic 
structure of the principal regions— 


northern, tropical and southern Africa 
—and the differing rates of develop- 
ment in each region. (The report ex- 
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islands in the Atlantic and Indian 
Oceans.) There is also a statistical 
appendix, consisting of some twenty- 
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of the economy in annual and, where 
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Arrica, 1950 to 1954. 146 pp. 
U.N. Sales No. 1955.11.C.3. Price: 
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A review of the growth of economic 
activity in Africa in the five-year 
period 1950 to 1954. 


202 pp. U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washineton, D.C. Price: 70¢. 

This report, covering July 1, 1954. 
to June 30, 1955, is the eighth annual 
report by the United States to the 
United Nations, pursuant to Article 88 
of the Chafter, on the administration 
of the Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands. (See also listing in the Re- 
view, Vol. 2, No. 2, August 1955, 
p. 85.) 


See listings in the Review, October 
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1956, Vol. 3, No. 1, p. 58. 


Sales No. 1954. 11.F.1. Price: 80¢, 
6/-, Sw. fr. 3.00. 

This report analyzes the problem 
of rural electrification in the various 
countries of Asia and the Far East. 
Technical and economic questions re- 
lating to electric power development 
in rural areas are discussed and suit- 
able methods and practices suggested. 
Financial considerations relating to 
rural electrification projects are dealt 

with in some detail. Contains numer- 
ous charts and tables. 

Resources. 466 pp. clothhound. 
U.N. Sales No. 1950.11.B.5. Price: 
$4.50, 32/6, Sw. fr. 18.00. 

Proceedings of the Water Resources 
Section of the Conference: The Ap- 
praisal of Water Resources; Water 
Supply and Pollution Problems; Com- 
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A Symposium; Drainage Basin 
Management; Water Control Struc- 
tures; Flood Control] and Navigation; 
Irrigation and Drainage; Hvdro Power 
and Other Water Uses; List of Con- 

ca. 14/7 pp. U.N. Sales No. 1953. 
VIli.1. Price: $1.50, 11/-, Sw. fr. 

This report reviews the main fea- 
tures of inland water transport in 
Europe and the United States and 
their applicability to Burma, India, 
Pakistan, Thailand and Vietnam. The 
report is a result of a study tour 
(August-November 1951) made bv a 
group of experts who made an on-the- 
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trip to Europe and the United States. 


pp. Official Records, Economic and 
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$1.00, 7/-, Sw. fr. 4.00. 

The Technical Assistance Board 
describes the progress and develop- 
ments of the Expanded Programme of 
Technical Assistance for Economic 
Development during 1955. The report 
also contains some details of activities 
to be undertaken in 1956 and brief 
indications of plans for 1957. 

UNR—August 1956 


SG ee ee 



(Convened by the Secretary-Gen- 
eral in accordance with resolution 
155/C VIII of the Economic and 
Social Council. ) 

Provisional agenda includes: 1. 
Treatment of types of offenders 
against whom society needs par- 
ticular protection: (a) habitual 
offenders, and (b) abnormal of- 
fenders. 2. Treatment of young 
adult offenders. 


Provisional agenda includes: Com- 
pletion of the drafting of the Sup- 
plementary Convention on the 
Abolition of Slavery, the Slave 
Trade and Institutions and Prac- 
tices Similar to Slavery; adoption 
and signature of the Supplemen- 
tary Convention and of the Final 
Act of the Conference. 

AUGUST 14-31 


ous Goons. Geneva. 

Agenda includes: Examination of 
views and comments from govern- 
ments and international organiza- 
tions on the report of the Commit- 
tee of Experts, and establishment 
of final recommendations; pro- 
cedure for keeping the list of prin- 
cipal dangerous goods up to date; 
further consideration of the prob- 
lem of packaging. 


(Convened by the Secretary-Gen- 
eral in accordance with General 
Assembly resolution 415 (V) ). 
Provisional agenda includes: Pres- 
entation of the report on the ac- 
tivities of specialized agencies and 
non - governmental organizations 
and statement of the U.N. pro- 
gram of work; discussion on the 
cooperation between the partici- 
pating organizations and the U.N.., 
and on the coordination of activi- 



Seventh session. 

UNR—August 1956 


ENERGY AGENCY. Headquarters. 



ENERGY, Headquarters. 



ciL. Headquarters. 

COMMITTEES Headquarters. 


CoaL. Geneva. 







ICES BY ROAD. Geneva. 

LARATION. Geneva. 


TEE. Geneva. 




FoopsTuFFs. Geneva. 






REGION. Bangkok. 


NING. Bangkok. 



OF WorK. Geneva. 

IZATION. Havana. 




Soits. USSR. 

The seminar and tour will deal 
with the role of forests and shel- 
terbelts in the protection and use 
of the soil in semi-arid zones. Par- 
ticipants will study forest manage- 
ment problems in connection with 
soil protection and utilization in 
these zones, the methods used, and 
the results achieved in the USSR. 



Costa Rica. 

Twenty-fifth session. 



Fourth session. 


The purpose of the Centre is to 
provide the opportunity for senior 
men engaged in agricultural engi- 
neering work to study and discuss 
the organization, management and 
operational problems connected 
with farm mechanization and land 
development projects, to seek ad- 
vice on the types of equipment 


most suitable under various soils, 
climatic and operational conditions 
and to study maintenance require- 
ments and techniques. 

Special session to appoint a new 


FAO/WHO, Tokyo. 

SEPTEMBER 26-OCTOBER 6 (tentative) CPP 









GION. Bangkok. 








GENETICS. Copenhagen. 


TIONS. Caracas 

Seventh session 

ON NurRsING. Mexico City 

Sixth session 

TARY BUREAU. Guatemala 
Iwenty-ninth meeting of the Ex- 
cutive Committee Working 
Party of the Regional Committee 
of the Directing Council. 




CHILD, Geneva 

TEE “a.” Teheran. 


Ninth session 

SOUTHEAST Asia, Tokyo. 

BUREAU. Guatemala 
rhirtieth meeting of the Executive 
Committee—Working Party of the 
Regional Committee of the Direct 
ing Council. 




ASSEMBLY. Warsaw. 



-ROFESSION. Manila. 
Theme: The Teacher and the Well- 
being of Society. 

[welfth Conference. 

International symposium on alge 

braic topology and its applications. 


AUGUST 10-18 
and Carbisdale. 

Rally and conference. Subjects 
How can youth hostels meet the 
needs of today’s youth; How to in- 
crease usage of youth hostels in 
the off-season. 


Ninth annual meeting. Theme 

Mental health at home and school 




Colloquium on X-ray microscopy. 

ENTOMOLOGY. Montreal. 


Annual conference. 

hage mn 




Loch Lomond 

yMCa’s. Winchester. 
International Young Men’s Con 
4 Social Study for Women from 
the East. 

Law ASSOCIATION. Dubrovnik. 


NOMICAL UNION. Stockholm. 
Symposium on_ electromagnetic 

phenomena in cosmical physics. 

NATIONS. Gmunden, Austria. 

Garmish-Partenkirchen, Germany. 


ric Society. Aix-en-Provence. 

ocy. Louvain, Belgium 


Resolution Adopted by the 
Disarmament Commission 
on July 16, 1956 

The Disarmament Commission, 

Having studied the Third Report of 
the Disarmament Sub-Committee, 

Recording its appreciation of the Sub 
Committee’s efforts, 

Considering that new proposals have 
been formulated and proposed in the 
course of its current sessions, 

Considering that the resolution intro- 
duced on July 3 by the United Kingdom, 
Canada, France and the United States, 
as amended, sets forth the principles 
upon which an effective program for the 
regulation and limitation of all arms and 
armed forces can be based, 

Welcoming the narrowing of differ- 
ences on certain aspects of the disarma- 
ment problem that has been achieved 
both in the Sub-Committee discussions 
and in the present session of the Dis- 
armament Commission, 

Noting that major difficulties remain 
to be solved before agreement is reached 
on an international disarmament pro- 
gram with safeguards which will ensure 
the faithful observance of the program 
by all States, 

Convinced that a reconciliation of the 
opposing points of view is both possible 
and necessary, 

Recalling the terms of resolution 914 
(X) adopted by the General Assembly 
on December 16, 1955, 

Asks the Sub-Committee to study these 
propositions at the appropriate time, 
taking account of the principles affirmed 
therein and striving to increase the area 
of agreements; and 

Requests the Sub-Committee to report 
to the Commission which will then ex- 
amine the various resolutions and pro- 
posals already presented to it or which 
shall have been presented between now 
and its next session. 

UNR—August 1956 



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Editions A. Pédone, 13, rue Soufflot, Paris V. 

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Librairie “A la Caravelle,” Port-au-Prince 

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Oxford Book & Stationery Co., New Delhi and 

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Maruzen Company, lLtd., 6 
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Bookshop, 28 Stadion Street 

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Mr. Chin-Sook Chung, President, Eul-Yoo Pub- 

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Librairie Universelle, Beyrouth. 

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Librairie J. Schummer, Luxembourg. 

Editorial Hermes S.A., Ignacio Mariscal 41, 
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N.V. Martinus Nijhoff, Lange Voorhout 9, 


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Thomas & Thomas, Karachi, 3. 


Jose Menéndez, Plaza de Arango, Panama 

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Libreria Internacional del Perd, S.A., Lima and 


Alemar’s Book Store, 749 Rizal 


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Libreria Bosch, 11 Ronda Universidad, Barce- 

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C. E. Fritze’s Kungl. Hovbokhandel A-B, Freds- 
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Librairie Payot S.A., Lausanne, Genéve. 
Hans Raunhardt, Kirchgasse 17, Zirich 1. 

Librairie Universelle, Damas. 


Pramuvan Mit Ltd., 55 Chakrawat Road, Wat 
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Librairie Hachette, 469 Istiklal Caddesi, Beyoglu, 


Van Schaik’s Bookstore (Pty.), Ltd., Box 724 


H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London, 
S.E. 1 (and at H.M.S.O. Shops). 


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Representacién de Editoriales, Prof. H. D’Elia, 
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Libreria del Este, Av. Miranda, No. 52, Edf. 
Galipaén, Caracas. 


Papeterie-Librairie Nouvelle, Albert Portail 
Boite postale 283, Saigon. 


Cankarjeva Zalozba, Ljubljana, Slovenia 
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Prosvjeta,”” Izdavacka Knijizara No. 5, Trg 
Bratstva i Ledinstva, Zagreb. 

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Comparatively rapid recovery from war damage has been a feature of the world 

economy since 1945, as evidenced by reconstruction of Italy’s ports. Here a Dutch 
freighter loads bags of cement at Genoa. Railroad freight cars marked “Europ” be- 
long to a pool for use, without discrimination, by all countries in the pool, which 

was set up under the aegis of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.