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H Weeklp Journal 


THE VETERINARY RECORD 


for the Profession. 


Eprrep spy Winuiam HonrtIna, F.B.C.V.S. 





No. 1244. 


MAY 11, 1912. 


Vor. XXIV. 





UNQUALIFIED ASSISTANTS. 


Two questions, which though quite distinct from 
one another are yet closely allied, are just now 
engaging the attention of our correspondents. One 
is the old problem of how best to increase the prac- 
tical knowledge of our young graduates. The other 
is the recent resolution of the Council against the 
employment of unqualified assistants. The former 
question may be dealt with at length later; at 
present, we are concerned solely with the latter. 

We are in full accord with the repression of the 
practice of employing unqualified assistants. Doubt- 
less some of them are deserving men individually— 
and so, it may be added, are some unqualified men 
who practise independently. But unqualified assist- 
ants as a class are probably nearly, if not quite as 
detrimental to the best interests of the profession 
as are independent unqualified practitioners, though 
the harm they do is less obvious. The general em- 
ployment of unqualified assistants to do strictly 
veterinary work certainly does not raise our pro- 
fession in popular estimation. Again, unqualified 
assistants, occupying positions which should rightly 
be held by qualified men, render it difficult for the 
young graduate to either earn a living or gain pro- 
fessional experience. Finally, we all know that 
unqualified assistants, if the opportunity arises, are 
very apt to commence practice independently ; and 
not a few of the independent unqualified practi- 
tioners, who are still too abundant; have gained 
their knowledge in the service of veterinary sur- 
geons. In giving up unqualified assistants, we 
shall be cutting off a fruitful source of the supply 
of unqualified practitioners. For these and other 
reasons, we are glad that the Council has at last 
decided to take action. 

The Council, of course, will act not against the 
unqualified assistant directly, but against the veteri- 
nary surgeon who employs him. It is not quite 
clear, however, how far the Council are prepared to 
push such action at first. The actual resolution 
passed condemned the practice of ‘employing un- 
qualified assistants in ways calculated to lead the 
public to believe that: these assistants are qualified 
to practise veterinary medicine and surgery.” This 
sounds rather vague; but one of the most influen- 
tial members of Council subsequently defined it as 
meaning that “we are prepared to take action 
against any member of the profession who employs 
an unqualified assistant to do the work which is 
generally done by a qualified assistant,” 





Undoubtedly this stops the employment of the 
unqualified assistant in the form in which he is 
most useful from one point of view and most 
objectionable from another—the man who regularly 
visits cases, performs operations, and, in a word, 
does everything connected with veterinary practice 
except the very few things which can only legally 
be done by a graduate. It is possible, of course, 
that some allowance may be made in individual 
cases for the next few years—that a few unqualified 
assistants of very old standing may receive special 
consideration. But any such lenience, if shown at 
all, will probably be reserved for exceptional cases. 
Practitioners cannot too clearly remember that the 
keeping of unqualified assistants has now practically 
been declared illegal. The veterinary surgeon who 
continues to employ an unqualified assistant— 
whether in his main practice or to manage a branch 
—is risking trouble. The veterinary surgeon who 
deliberately engages a new unqualified assistant is 
simply challenging prosecution. 

There is another type of unqualified assistant to 
be found in most large practices—the mere skilled 
attendant upon animals, who is employed to wash 
dogs, give medicines, and generally perform the 
same sort of services which are allotted to the 
trained nurse of human beings. Of course there is 
no proposal to interfere with these men, who are 
far removed from the really objectionable unqualified 
assistants. So long as their independent work is 
confined to first aid in emergencies, they are valu- 
able in all practices and indispensable in some. But 
it should be remembered that these skilled attendants 
have often developed into unqualified assistants and 
unqualified practitioners in the past—some of the 
men registered under the Act of 1881 came from 
this source—and practitioners employing such aid 
should therefore be careful in the use they make of 
it. A busy practitioner, having such a man upon 
his staff, is constantly tempted to use him for work 
that should be done by a qualified man; and so 
many a flourishing quack has been first made. 
A commendable rule would be—let no unquali- 
fied assistant visit a case, unless to give medicine or 
take other measures prescribed by a qualified man 
after first seeing it. 


PREVENTION OF SADDLE INJURIES. 


It is well known to our readers that the subject 
of saddles and saddle galls is one of the deepest 
interest to the Army Veterinary Corps and to the 
Army at large. So far no saddle is known which 
will not gall; pneumatic pannels give some hope 
in that direction, but there are structural difficul- 
ties in the way. 














702 THE 


VETERINARY RECORD 


May 11, 1912 





It is, therefore, with 
peculiar pleasure that 
we place before our 
readers the latest in gall- 
preventing saddles, de- 
vised by Major Eassie, 
D.S.0.,A.V.C., and which 
is said to protect the 
back so effectively, that 
horses suffering from 
injuries may continue 
at work without retard- 
ing the healing of 
the part. Major Eassie 
has provided the horse 
with a metal skin, 
which is placed on top 
of the felt saddle cloth 
used on all Army horses 
(known as a numnah). 
The saddle rests directly 
on the metal surface, 
while between it and 
the skin lies the num- 
nah. In the illustra- 
tion, A is the saddle 
tree, resting on B a 
thin metal plate which 
takes the shape of the 
back, and of suitable 
width and curve at its 
various parts ; is 
the felt numnah to 
which the armour 
plate is secured. The friction between the saddle 
and the back is expended on the metal surface. 

Trials made of this contrivance in India 
have yielded most satisfactory results, and so far 
no disadvantages have been disclosed. We wish 
it every success; the idea is in accordance with 
physiological necessity and is most ingenious. 








IRRIGATION OF JOINT CAVITY. 


In his address to the Eastern Counties V.M.A. 
on “Some Joint Diseases of the Horse.” 
William Hunting is reported as saying, “I regret 
to say that I have not tried washing the joint out | 
with antiseptics, a course that seems to offer useful | 
possibilities.” 

Seeing no allusion to this point in the dis- 
cussion I am sending you the following history | 
of a case which occurred in my experience in case 
it may prove of interest. 


Subject.—Chestnut gelding, one of nine remounts | 
bought at Mooi River horse fair on 11th Nov., 1909, | 


and left loose with the others in a kraal for the | 
night. Forage was well distributed and the horses | 


fed from the ground. 

Nov. 13th, 1909. Brought to Sick lines at Head- 
quarters with contused skin wounds over orbital 
arch and wing of atlas. Antiseptic lotion and dry 
dressing applied. 

14th. Synovial discharge from wound over 





Mr. | 





orbital arch. Oil of cloves and Zinc oxide applied 
/and sloppy diet ordered. 

15th. Discharge increased, coagulum adherent 
and synovia running freely. Treatment as on 14th- 

16th. Large coagulum, and synovia running 
freely. Treatment as before. 

17th. Coagulun gone. On moving jaws synovia 
| discharges freely, and on slight pressure below 
| wound a quantity of coagulated synovia is squeezed 
‘out. Treatment changed to cold cotton wool swabs 
|soaked in a 1:1000 Hyd. Perchlor. solution and 
_ bandaged in position ; changed twice daily. 

19th. Trace of blood-stained pus in coagulum 
| squeezed out. Treatment as before. 

20th. Blood-stained pus in synovia much in- 
creased and pocket forming below wound. Probe 
| passed into wound to bottom of pocket and point 
|eut down upon. Joint cavity thoroughly irrigated 
| by gravitation with a 1 in 20 solution of Tinet. 
Iodine in distilled water. All aseptic precautions 
| taken, and wound then covered with aseptic dress- 
| ing bandaged i in position. Irrigation twice daily. 

22nd. I left on inspection duty and left instrue- 
| tions for joint to be irrigated from lower (operation 
| wound) once daily, and original wound allowed to 
close. 

28th. Much improved. Original wound almost 
healed, and very slight discharge of clear synovia 
from operation wound during mastication. frriga- 
tion as before. Bandages causing irritation, and 
horse inclined to rub his head, so discontinued 
bandages merely using small flake of cotton wool, 




















May 11, 1912 





THE VETERINARY RECORD 





703 





29th. Clear synovial discharge just percep- 
tible during mastication. Discontinued irrigation. 
Painted wound with Clove oil, and dusted with 
Iodoform and Zinc oxide. 

Nov. 30th to Dec. 6th. Progress satisfactory. 
Wounds gradually healed. Ordinary ration given, 
and horse regaining condition, but unable to open 
mouth more than four inches. 

Dec. 15th. Discharged from sick lines. Unable 
to open mouth as wide as normal, and showing 
slight bony enlargement over tempero-maxillary 
joint. 

31st. Re-admitted on account of poverty and 
weakness. 

Jan. lst to 10th, 1910. Horse continually eat- 
ing, but eating very slowly. Condition improving, 
but possible movements of jaws decreasing and no 
lateral movements of lower jaw possible towards 
injured side. 

Feb. 19th. No improvement. Horse sent to 
graze, and ran at grass until 20th May, when he 
was brought in and returned to duty. Movements 
of jaws much more free, and horse fat. 

April 12th, 1912. Horse is now being used as 
an officer’s charger, and nothing abnormal can be 
seen. 

I have since twice used irrigation with Tinct. 
iodine solution, once successfully, in a case of 
purulent infection of a tendon sheath in front of 
the knee, and once unsuccessfully in the case of 
open hock joint in a mule. 

In view of the above cases, I shall certainly not 
hesitate to resort to irrigation of joint cavities upon 
the first sign of suppuration. I looked upon the 
case of open tempero-maxillary joint as a practic- 
ally hopeless case from the first, owing to the im- 
possibility of keeping it still, and only resorted to 
nrigation as nothing else I could think of ap- 
peared to offer any hope of success. 

J. B. CoLLYER, M.R.C.V.S. 
Vety. Inspector, Natal Police. 

Headquarters Natal Police, 

Pietermaritzburg, 8. Africa. 








PARTURITION CASES IN MARES—EARLY 
USE OF THE KNIFE. 


The following may probably be of some interest, 
as illustrating the advantages accruing from the 
early use of the knife in difficult cases of foaling. 

As is well known, the mare cannot stand nearly 
so much “pulling about” as the cow, and the 
longer neck and limbs of the foal, combined with 
the stronger pains of the mare as compared with 
the cow, make altering the presentation of the 
foetus a much more difficult and arduous task. In 
some cases it is quite impossible, or only accom- 
plished after several hours work, by which time the 
foal is generally dead and the mare in a state of 
collapse. 

Now, I take it that in foaling cases the aim of 
every Veterinary surgeon is primarily to have a 
live mare and foal, failing which, a live mare; and 





when, after a reasonable trial of other means, it is 
found impossible to accomplish delivery. 

The question arises, “How long should those 
other means be exploited before resorting to the 
knife?” 

I think most surgeons accustomed to these cases 
know directly, almost instinctively, whether or not 
the knife will be required. Personally, I employ it 
without any hesitation if after ten or fifteen minutes 
work the foetus cannot be got into proper position. 
Perhaps I may be condemned for being too pre- 
cipitate, but in my opinion results justify the 
means. 

The use of block and pulleys I am afraid is still 
practised, even by some who ought to know better. 
That, and the still more barbarous method of which 
I have heard, viz. yoking a horse to the foal, are, to 
my mind, gross cruelty, and neither more nor less 
than murder of the unfortunate mother. 

Parturition is a natural process, and in using 
force, efforts should be directed towards assisting 
Nature, full advantage being taken of the straining 
of the mare. With men on your ropes you can 
regulate the amount of traction applied (or know 
the reason why), but a lengthened continuous appli- 
cation of force is most unnatural and most detri- 
mental, and should never be employed. 

I record the following cases of dystokia to try and 
show that after removal of a limb or limbs, parturi- 
tion may become comparatively easy, and, what is 
more important, the mare is not subjected to any 
great strain. 

Case I. The foal’s head was doubled back on 
its off side, but could not be reached, the fore legs 
protruding from the vulva as far as the knees. 
Failing to get head forward, I removed the off fore 
limb, skinning it over the scapula and severing the 
muscles in the usual manner. With a hook I was 
then able to reach the head and pass a rope through 
the mouth and over the poll, and so bring it 
forward. 

Case II. The foal lay on its back with the head 
downwards below the brim of the pelvis; and the 
fore legs protruding as in Case I. The off fore leg 
was removed at the shoulder, and the head brought 
up by means of a clasp hook through the lower jaw 
behind the symphysis. 

Case III. This was a breech presentation, the 
foal lying on its near side. I was quite unable to 
ush the foal far enough back to get at the hind 
limbs, which were firmly wedged at the hocks. The 
off leg was removed at the hip joint and the near 
one at the stifle. To add to the difficulties in this 
case, the only way we could keep the mare on her 
feet was by walking her slowly round the yard— 
not a very enviable job on a wet day. 

Case IV. This was practically the same as 
Case I, but occurred in a 16-year-old Shire mare, 
and the foal’s legs had been protruding for ten 
hours when I first saw her. It was n to 
remove both fore legs. The foal was then taken 
away by means of clasp hooks in the upper and 
lower jaws. 

Case V. Here again the fore legs protruded, 





that end is I think best attained by using the knife 





with the head down between them and out of reach. 











704 


THE VETERINARY RECORD 





May 11, 1912 





As in Case IV., both legs were removed at the 
shoulder. By means of traction on a hook fixed in 
the neck I was able to reach the mouth, and the 
rest was easy. 

Case VI. In this case the foal lay on its off side 
with all four legs firmly wedged in the pelvis, so 
that I could reach a little way above the hocks, and 
with difficulty touch the elbows. The head I never 
did feel. In order to make room I cut off both 
hind legs at the hock, and after a good deal of work 
severed both fore limbs at the shoulder. Then, 
while I pushed the sternum back with a repeller, 
assistants pulled on ropes fixed to the lower ends of 
the tibia. On delivery the face of the foal was 
found to be almost semi-circular, due to the 
cramped position the head had occupied pressed 
against the off side. 

The average time taken to effect delivery in these 
cases was about one-and-a-half hours. 

In each case the clotted blood collected in the 
womb (this constitutes a great danger) was care- 
fully removed, and the mare’s genitals thoroughly 
disinfected. The mares themselves were treated 
with laxatives, febrifuges, and internal antiseptics, 
and fed on mashes, and green food where available. 
The shoes were removed, owing to the risk of 
laminitis. 

Recovery in every case was uninterrupted and 
uneventful, except Case I. which had a mild attack 
of laminitis. However she soon recovered, and is 
due to foal again early in May. 

I by no means advocate haphazard employment 
of the knife, but the death of a mare at foaling 
(from whatever cause) does not tend to enhance the 
Veterinary surgeon’s reputation, and I do think 
that a good many mares die annually which might 
be saved by its timely and judicious use. 

ALec McTurk, M.RB.C.V.S. 

Swaffham, Norfolk. 








THE ANCIENT AND MODERN TREATMENT 
OF CANKER. 


It is for mediocrity to talk, but genius to observe. 
Genius has been defined as the capacity for taking 
infinite care and pains. How very wise we now 
all appear since Mr. Pillers has called our attention 
to the success he has obtained by his method of 
treatment of canker? Even though the principles 
and practice of the method may be old, none the 
less Mr. Pillers is just as entitled to credit as if it 
were unknown to his contemporaries. 

Vaccination was used for time immemorial before 
Jenner’s day, but Jenner still retains the credit due 
to him for popularising and defining preventive 
inoculation. Perchloride of mercury was used in 
the treatment of wounds from obscure times, yet 
as its proper use was not defined before Koch's 
time, Koch still deserves the credit rightly accorded 
him. Mr. Pillers has shown us what perseverance 
and thoroughness may accomplish in a particular 
line of treatment. 

Solleysel (Parfait Mareschal, 1733) recommended 
the actual cautery in the treatment of canker; he 








condemned violent caustics as “ harmful and tend- 


ing to make the complaint worse.” Prévost, of 
Geneva, confirmed the efficacy of this method 
(Recueil Vétérinaire, 1828). Since that date 
numerous practitioners have advised it. More 
recently Malcolm, of Birmingham, has brought it 
forward again. 

Every British authority, even including Percival, 
has overlooked the teachings of Richard Hayward 
Budd, veterinary surgeon, of 72 Curtain Road, E.C., 
who wrote a little book, which was published on 
Feb. 14th, 1816, entitled :— 

“A Practical Treatise on the diseases of the foot 
of the horse containing a correct description of their 
nature, causes, and methods of prevention: with 
suggestions of improved plans of treatment, founded 
on physiological principles, etc., etc.” 

He tells us “Those authors who have hitherto 
noticed this affection seem to have had some idea 
that pressure was useful in the application to the 
part; and having ourselves observed the same cir- 
cumstances, we were led to consider its mode of 
action more particularly. It appeared to us that 
the vessels of the part, debilitated and relaxed as 
they generally are, might have derived benefit from 
the support which pressure gave to their sides; 
with this idea, we determined to give it a fair trial, 


“ As affording means of the application of pressure, 
as we have before observed, a bar shoe is necessary; 
and if the sensitive parts have assumed a fungous 
appearance, the application of a small quantity of 
the sulphate of zinc powdered will be of service. 
After the shoe has been applied, therefore, we pro- 
ceed to lay pledgets of tow of an equal thickness, 
one upon another, on the diseased part, till we have 
brought it up to a level with the shoe, or something 
above it; a thin plate of iron, of about an inch and 
a half in breadth, is then to be introduced trans- 
versely under the shoe, which can generally be 
done with ease ; another of the same kind of a pro- 
portionately greater length is to be introduced in 
the opposite direction upon it, the pressure will be 
thus nearly equally applied; but if the disease ex- 
tends only over part of the sole, and a greater 
degree of pressure is necessary to that part, the 
pledgets of tow may be proportionately of greater 
thickness.” 

Speaking of Thrush he says: 

“ Pressure, by the support it gives to the vessels 
secreting the horn, greatly favours the production 
of that horn ; and pressure, applied to the seat of 
this disease, gives the assistance to nature which 
she requires; that assistance, which we have no 
hesitation in saying, will be always adequate to its 
cure.” 

Evidently this was not rare practice in the East 
of London in the early part of the 19th century. 
This author looked upon caustics and astringents 
with general disfavour, but would not say “that 
such applications are never necessary.” 

Whether Budd got his idea from his preceptor, 
Bracy Clark, who practised in Giltspur Street, 
West Smithfield, is not known. It is quite possible 
Clark instilled the idea into his.pupil’s mind. 


, 



















May 11, 1912 


THE VETERINARY RECORD 


795 





Six years later (1822) this masterly and scholarly 
veterinary surgeon and distinguished naturalist 
published his Essay on Canker, which has not 
been mentioned so far by the writer of this critique 
is aware, by any British author. 

Bracy Clark condemned powerful irritants, but 
lauded the plentiful use of tar combined with firm, 
regular and uniform compression. He had a better 
conception of the pathology of canker than the 
majority of the present day practitioners when he 
said this disease was not specific like human cancer 
as some thought. It was, according to him, a 
simple ulceration of the sub-corneal tissue, accom- 
panied by a more or less weakness of those parts 
connected with the formation of horn, and gener- 
ally by irritation of the cells in the vicinity of the 
ulcer. It did not need specific agents but much 
care and attention to destroy the causes of irritation 
and to favour the natural formation of horn on the 
tissues which were deprived of it. Youatt con- 
demned powerful caustics, but advocated pressure. 
Chas. Steel, in Blaine’s Outlines of the Veterinary 
Art (1865) was very strong on this point. 

A similar method of procedure-as outlined by 
Budd in 1816 and by Bracy Clark in 1822, was in 
vogue at least 30 years ago in some of the East 
End of London veterinary establishments, and was 
no doubt handed down from one generation of 
practitioners and farriers to another as mere tradi- 
tion. As a rule those who have had a long experi- 
ience in this direction are very reticent on a practice 
with which they are too familiar. Still, it was the 
traditional teaching, at least by Sir George Brown 
at the Royal Veterinary College, quite 30 years ago, 
Brown having been a pupil of Prof. William Sewell, 
who was a contemporary of Clark and Budd. Iodo- 
form and carbolic acid were in use in the treatment 
of canker at least 30 years ago, even at the Royal 
Veterinary College. 

Prof. Woodruff is somewhat inclined to believe 
in Jowett’s theory as to a spirochaete being the 
cause of canker. This theory has been disproved. 
He brings forward the action of mercury in syphilis 
in man as tending to support—by the action of 
grey powder in canker—the similarity of cause 
between the two spirochaetes. It is quite true that 
at least two spirochaetes are found in the healthy 
genital organs of man; but they are not the cause 
of syphilis, which is due to a treponeme—Treponema 
palliaum—an organism closely resembling the 
spirochaete. Syphilis in man is a generalised 
disease ; canker in the horse is a local disease, con- 
fined to the external surface of the body. Syphilis 
requires systemic treatment, canker simple local 
treatment—pressure and antiseptics. 

Spirochaetes may exist in healthy animals, as 
they do in unhealthy secretions; in transudations 
and exudations; in putrid water or dead organic 
matter. They have been found in the normal as 
well as in the diseased horse, ox, sheep, pig, goat, 
dog, cat, fowl, ete. Their mere presence is not 
any means to be taken as an indication that they 
are the cause of disease. 

Canker by its response to simple external treat- 
ment, carefully and thoroughly, in other words, 


skilfully applied indicates that it is a simple or local 





malady confined to the surface of the body. In 
reality, the lesion is merely granulation tissue, like 
that of the exuberant granulations so frequently 
found following injuries or wounds, especially on 
the anterior surface of the metacarpus, metatarsus, 
hock, ete., where the skin almost comes in imme- 
diate contact with the dense hard, bony or tendinous 
structures of those regions. 

The exuberant granulation tissue in these latter 
parts may be destroyed by the use of powdered 
sulphate of copper and pressure. When neglected, 
or improperly treated, whereby the granulation 
become voluminous, it may be necessary to burn it 
down with the cautery or slough it off en masse 
with powdered arsenic. But care must beused with 
this latter agent. 

Some writers speak well of cement, others of 
plaster of Paris, but nearly all the more recent 
authorities advise caustics or escharotics. But if 
simple, but methodically applied, remedies will 
answer in the successful treatment of canker, why 
go in for heroic, and often irrational and cruel 
methods? If the true horn-forming tissues are 
destroyed, what is the utility of treating a case with 
violent agents ? 

In olden times surgeons and physicians and even 
veterinary surgeons were naturalists, physiologists 
and pathologists combined. Bracy Clark was a 
man of this type, and far in advance of his times ; he 
was a contemporary of Blaine, Moorcroft, Youatt, 
Turner, and many other superior practitioners, who 
laid the foundation of clinical surgery in this 
country and were admired by the veterinary pro- 
fession in other countries. We may at the present 
time be more learned, but are we better observers 
than our forefathers ?—of course, taking into con- 
sideration opportunity. They had no bacteriology 
in those days, but they could in the majority of 
instances observe, diagnose and treat just as well as 
we can at the present day. Certainly in pedal 
surgery and therapeutics we have not advanced one 
bit the last hundred years; any more than we 
have the last-seventy-five years in laryngeal surgery 
and physiology. 

The moral of these facts presented is: Don’t 
ignore the old just for the sake of being in the 
fashion. Modern science proves that many of the 
old ideas were correctly founded by pure clinical 
observation. 

ScrRuTATOR. 








COLIC DUE TO IMPACTION OF THE CCUM 
IN THE HORSE* 


By Prof. A. Gorron, Edinburgh. 


In current literature, impaction of the cecum is 
scarcely mentioned amongst the many abnormal condi- 
tions which give rise to symptoms of colic in the horse. 
The only references which I can find in the literature at 


by | my disposal are so brief and scanty that they throw _no 


light upon it, or on the means by which it may be differ- 
entiated from the many other conditions which cause 
similar symptoms of abdominal pain in the horse. 








*Submitted at the meeting of the Scottish Metropolitan 
Veterinary Association on May 4th. 








706 


THE VETERINARY RECORD 








May iI, I9!2 





Friedberger and Fréhner dismiss the subject in the 
following words—“ fecal stasis in the cecum (unless 
removed) appears regularly to produce rupture of the 
affected bowel,” an opinion which I have reason to 
believe very closely approximates the truth. They do 
not point out or attempt to differentiate in any way 
between the symptoms produced by impaction of the 
cecum and those due to impaction of the intestine in 
other positions along with which it is discussed. Simi- 
larly, Reeks (“Common Colics of the Horse ”) says 
“The present chapter is given over to the description 
of all obstructions of a subacute type that occur in any 
position in the large or double colon, with which, until 
differential means of diagnosis present themselves, I 
include typhilitie or czecal impaction.” Law (“ Veteri- 
nary Medicine”) includes the condition in a general dis- 
cussion on intestinal obstruction with alimentary 
matters. 

There can be little doubt that the comparative rarity 
of impaction of the cecum in the horse accounts for the 
very brief references which have been made to it. 
Experience of four cases has led the writer to think that 
certain symptoms are associated with the condition 
which are more or less peculiar to it, and which permit 
of its almost confident differentiation from other intes 
tinal disorders of the horse to which, in many of its 
features, it bears a close resemblance. Three of these 
cases occurred within a few months of one another, the 
fourth after interval of a couple of years, but the last 
case only came under my personal observation in its 
early stages. It was placed under the care and super- 
vision of my colleague, Prof. Buxton, to whom, before 
leaving town for a short holiday, I expressed my 
opinion as to the character of the case. Prof. Buxton 
reported to me on my return that the course of the 
illness had been the same as that of the cases which 
I am about to describe, and that on post-mortem 
examination exactly similar appearances had been pre: 
sented. It is a curious coincidence that all these cases 
occurred amongst the horses of one firm. 

Briefly: their history is as follows: During the 
twenty-four hours immediately preceding the appear- 
ance of the symptoms of colic the animals had a mild 
attack of diarrhcea at work, from which spontaneous 
recovery had taken place, and after which there had 
been normal action of the bowels. The colicky symp- 
toms manifested were of a mild, subacute type, and 
bore a close resemblance to those seen in impaction of 
the colon. The animals showed a marked desire to lie, 
and when down would lie for an hour or more quite 
quietly. They showed little disposition to wander 
round a loose box when on their feet, but would 
stand still for the most part, and only occasionally 
move uneasily around or scrape with a fore foot. Con- 
tinuous dull pain was manifested in this way day after 
day, the only change observed being in the later stages, 
when the animals lay almost continuously and could 
scarcely be forced on to their feet. A striking feature 
was the small amount of general disturbance apart from 
depression. The shortest case had a duration of eight 
days, whilst the first, which was the longest, lasted 
fourteen days before death. This last animal, a mare, 
examined twelve hours before death had a fairly strong, 
good pulse numbering forty-eight to the minute, a nor- 
mal temperature, respirations normal both in respect of 
frequency and character, whilst the mucous membranes 
showed no appreciable change. Her condition was 
typical of all the cases throughout their course until 
within a few hours of death. 

No feces were passed during the first two or three 
days, and on examination the rectum was found empty. 
The bowels, however, responded tardily, but to all 

rances pe tig to a dose consisting of linseed 





feeces were in small amount only, a fact which 
called for little comment in view of the almost com- 
plete inappetence. Nothwithstanding the apparently 
satisfactory action of the purge and subsequent action 
of the bowels, the dull, uneasy pain, constant lying, 
and inappetance continued, and for this it was at 
first difficult to find a satisfactory explanation. Ona 
first rectal exploration the bowels so far as could be 
felt were normal, and afforded no explanation of the 
symptoms. 

On a further and more thorough examination the 
upper portion of the cecum was felt and easily oy 3 
nised in the lumbar region, near the centre of the ab- 
domen, lying mainly on the right side but projecting a 
little over the middle line. The organ was unusually 
prominent, its walls did not yield to the hand as they 
do under normal conditions, andits contents were firm, 
and clearly not of the natural peasoup-like consistence. 
The full significance of this state of affairs was not 
grasped at first, but it soon became clear that a dis- 
tended cecum, impacted with dry ingesta, accounted for 
the course and symptoms of the case, and that the pur- 
gative though producing purgation had failed to in- 
fluence the condition of the cecum. 

Belladonna, camphor and carminatives did little to 
relieve the continued symptoms of:pain. The adminis- 
tration of oil in combination with stimulants produced 
a soft condition of the feces and their more regular 
passage, but effected no change in the cecum. Food 
was offered, after the first purge acted, in the shape of 
linseed tea, boiled linseed, bran and long hay, but was 
partaken of most sparingly, and later not at all. The 
more rapidly acting purges in the form of eserine and 
arecoline were not tried in the first case, but their 
exhibition in the second and third was not productive 
of any response, nor did they have any effect, so far as 
could be ascertained by rectal exploration and later by 
p.m., on the consistence or amount of food material in 
the impacted organ. 

The cases after dragging along without showing any 
material change from day to day, suddenly developed 
the symptoms which are well known in association with 
rupture of the intestine. The running down pulse, 
drawn anxious expression, short gaspy respirations, 
sweating and muscular tremors were all present, and 
death relieved the animals in a very few hours after 
their development. 

In the third case a method of treatment was tried 
which, because of its novelty, is perhaps of sufficient 
interest to be worth mentioning. The orthodox methods 
of treating impaction had been tried and had failed ; 
the experience of the two preceding cases pointed to the 
probability of an early fatal termination, and it seemed 
worth while applying any method of treatment which 
offered a possibility, however remote, of effecting im- 

rovement. It occurred to me that some benefit might 

derived, if advantage could be taken of the well- 
known physiological fact that the water which a horse 
drinks passes direct to the cecum. If the animal could 
be induced to drink large quantities of water there was 
a possibility, small perhaps, but still a possibility, that 
the liquids by permeating the mass of material impacted 
in the cecum might assist in softening and loosening it 
and thus aid in its removal. With this object in view a 
large dose of common salt was given in water. It had 
the desired effect so far as thirst was concerned, but its 
influence on the condition of the czecum, so far as could 
be judged by rectal examination and - subsequently 
confirmed by post mortem, was not appreciable. 

In making the post-mortem examinations the most 
striking feature on opening the abdomen was the great 
prominence of the cecum. Its contents consisted of 
normal ingesta packed within the organ and containing 
very little moisture, in striking contrast to the peasou 





appea g 
oil followed by aloes. ter the purgation had ceased 


the bowels continued to act, though infrequently, and 


like normal condition of its contents. The organ in 











May 11, 1912 


THE VETERINARY RECORD 


707 





each case was ruptured, and some of the escaped con- 
tents diffused over the peritoneum. The colon was re- 
markably empty, an effect due to the combined action 
of the purge, the subsequent passage of feces and the 
small amount of food consumed. 

Several features of this condition are worth noticing. 
The remarkably small disturbance ot pulse in relation 
to the duration of the case. The failure of the orthodox 
methods of dealing with impaction to influence the con- 
dition of the cecum although purgation was induced 
and was followed by the passage of normal feces. The 
action of the bowels and the almost complete absence of 
general disturbance are misleading and very liable to 
result in an underestimation of the continued and in- 
creasing gravity of the condition under consideration. 

It would not be justifiable to assume that every case 
of impaction of the cecum must end fatally, but it is 
quite clear that when this organ is impacted with food 
material, its walls can only with difficulty be sufficiently 
stimulated to effect the onward movement of its con- 
tents, and that the risk of rupture increases in direct 
relation to the duration of the condition. A _ rectal 
examination permits of diagnosis without great diffi- 
culty, but the continuance of the dull uneasy condition 
and the inappetence after the action of the purge is not 
without a significance which should lead to the examina- 
tion of the condition of the cecum,-if this has not 
already been done. 

It is not suggested that the condition described is 
new, but my own experience and that of those with 
whom I have discussed these cases justifies the conclu- 
sion that it is of infrequent occurrence in the horse. 
Since it receives such scanty reference in veterinar 
literature, I record my experience in the hope that it 
may help a little the recognition of and differentiation 
between the various abnormal conditions which are 
responsible for subacute colic in the horse. 








ABSTRACTS FROM FOREIGN JOURNALS. 


Norges on Livestock INSURANCE IN GERMANY. 
Ex. Bulletin of Intervational Institute of Agri- 
culture, Rome. 


Livestock Insurance originated in private enter- 
prise assisted by Government, and has now assumed 
a place of great importance in the economy of the 
Empire, and is administered as an Imperial affair. 

There are three forms of association : Local, Dis- 
trict and State, all worked on similar lines, the aim 
being to limit cost of administration as far as pos- 
sible, so as to devote the funds to compensation, 
which varies in amount in the local associations 
with the state of agriculture for the time being. 
The best use possible is made of all available parts 
of the carcase, which is assessed when compensat- 
ing, the end aimed at being to enable the owner to 
replace the lost animal with another of similar value. 
Of course there are drawbacks to this action, and 
from an insurance company’s view it is detrimental 
to profits. 

Statistics show that the local associations work 
more satisfactorily than those covering larger areas, 
owing to better knowledge of local conditions on 
the part of the administrators. As a rule they pay 
15 per cent. higher compensation, or practically 10s. 
a head more, their mortality rate is as 2°38 per cent. 
—2'51 per cent. The Government subsidy is allotted 
pro rata, 





In Alsace-Lorraine insurance was started in 1889 
with a capital of £1,500, to deal especially with 
horned stock. The association became very active 
in improving the hygiene of cattle and promoting 
local branches. Government subsidy was either 
fixed or temporary according to local needs. In 3 
years 70 branches had been formed, covering 20,415 
head of stock valued at £321,113. 

In Bavaria, in 1896, the State founded a mutual 
stock insurance scheme, incorporating existing local 
associations ; these latter paid balf the indemnity, 
the State the other half, the value was 7s. 10d. in 
case of dead animals and 8s. 10d. on compulsory 
slaughter, on condition that the carcase produced 
1-15th of its value. The State subsidy commenced 
with £25,000. Sale of products reduced calls by 
34°49 per cent. All classes of stock are accepted, 
horses between 8 months and 15 years, with a 
maximum of £50. 

In the Grand Duchy of Baden cattle insurance is 
regulated by laws passed in 1890 and 1898, by 
which the local associations are treated us subject 
to State contro], and the working is similar to the 
Bavarian, but insurance is compulsory on at least 
2-3rds of the stock owners of a district. Half the 
indemnity comes from the local funds, the other 
from the associated funds, but in case of an epizootic 
the State comes to the aid of the local association, 
for which purpose there is a special reserve of 
£10,000. 

In Wiirtemburg the central agricultural Bureau 
controls the numerous local associations, the State 
subsidy being used for initial expenses and as a 
reserve fund. In 1908 it stood at £2,500. 

In Saxony there is no general livestock insurance, 
but in 1898 such was imposed on beasts for 
slaughter, and in the following year it was extended 
to equine stock. 

Live Stock INsuRANCE IN SwiTzeRLAND. Ex. La 
Clinica Veterinaria. 


In Switzerland livestock insurance is carried on 
by three large mutual associations, two of which 
confine themselves to equine stock, while the third, 
“The Federal Guarantee,” also covers cattle. 
These associations take all risk to which stock are 
exposed, as well as death from disease, accident, 
castration, slaughter by order of the authorities, 
also diminution in value from accident not involving 
death. The three societies, although of different 
nationality, work together but by slightly varying 
methods. 

The Swiss and German adopt the system of fixed 
—— and sliding premium, they guarantee the 
owner full amount insured as long as funds permit, 
and pro rata after due notice in case of deficiency. 

The French society adopts the system of fixed 
premium and sliding indemnity with the reserved 
right of reducing payments during epizootics, etc. 

In 1909 £22,332 were paid as premiums. Insu- 
rance is compulsory and the State grants a subsidy 
in times of stress. In this year 17 Cantons availed 
themselves of this aid, to meet a loss of £100,000, 
The Cantons subscribed £32,000 and the Federal 
Government a similar sum. Insurance against 





708 THE VETERINARY RECORD 








May 11, 1912 








death has bad excellent result in the betterment of 
hygienic conditions of stock, and is rapidly advanc- 
ing, and in some instances can be worked on as 
low a premium as 1 per cent. 


Live Stock InsurANcE, AGRICULTURAL CONFER- 

ENCE, Minan. Ex. La Clinica Veterinaria. 

The Congress appreciates the effectiveness of 
local mutual insurance associations, but asks Govern- 
ment for help in times of epizootics. Also asks for 
Government Veterinary help in stamping out con- 
tagious diseases. Appreciates the efforts of insur- 
ance societies in improving hygienic conditions. 
Considers insurance of beasts for slaughter should 
be compulsory. 


Extract From Report or V. 8. N. Foss, Muni- 
cipal Abattoirs, Ufa, Russia. From the author’s 
original Esperanto. 

The insurance is voluntary and the Government 
subsidises £1 for £1. The premiums are 5d. for 
large stock and 24d. for small stock per bead. 

he result of the year’s workings are, as may be 
imagined, a great increase in the confiscations. 

Formerly the butchers tried to hide cases, while 

now they produce everything they find. 

’ Tuberculosis has been found in 75 head of cattle 
and 1 pig; 9 carcases were entirely condemned, 
5 halves and 2 heads, 62 chest viscera. 

Cysticerci were found in 32 head of cattle and 14 
pigs. Destroyed, 3 cattle and one half; 10 pigs. 
Four pigs were stamped “ measly ” when the para- 
sites were few, only 1, 2, or 3. Four cattle were 
also condemned for peritonitis. Other diseases in 
which only viscera were condemned need not be 
specified, as no payment was made in such cases. 
Income was £116 13s. 6d. and outgoings (as com- 
pensation) £98 16s. 9d., leaving a balance in band 
of £17 16s. 9d. If the time before May had been 
counted when only half compensation was paid the 
account would stand: Income, £136 4s.; Out- 
goings, £104 4s.; Balance, £32. 


Extract FRoM A LETTER FROM Govt. V.S. S. Or- 
LOvsKy, OpEssa. Author’s original Esperanto. 
In reply to your inquiry re Live Stock Insurance 

in Russia, I am very sorry to say it is very unsatis- 

factory. Many local associations have started but 
have closed on account of loss. It has been found 
very difficult to investigate the cause of death, and 
owners have taken unfair advantage of this. Some 
private societies cover animals for fire only, not 
against death or deterioration. 

Lately a new private society has been started in 

Russia for Live Stock Insurance with great aims, 

but it will probably fail because it has no mortality 

tables (there being no reliable ones obtainable) and 
because salaries and swindling claims will swallow 
more than the income. 

Comparing the conditions of Life Insurance, about 
which there is a large amount of literature, one is 
bound to come to the conclusion that to be success- 
ful it must be mutual, under honorary control ; this 
being the system in Germany, where Livestock 





ROYAL COUNTIES 
VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 


An ordinary general meeting was held at the Labora- 
tory of the rd of Agriculture, Alperton, on 
Tuesday, April 16th, by the kind invitation of 
the President, Stewart Stockman, Esq., who occupied 
the chair. There were also present: Messrs. R. C. 
Tennant, S. Slocock, P. J. Simpson, J. Willett, R. Page 
Bull, J. Coleman, W. Pauer, T. B. Goodall, Sidney 
Villar, A. L. Butters, and G. P. Male, Hon. Sec. 
Visitors : Messrs. Brennan de Vine, Charles Roberts, 
and W. G. Wragg. 

The caleaharal ihe previous meeting were taken as 
read and confirmed. 

The Hon. Sc. reported two members in arrear with 
their subscriptions, to both of whom he had written 
and had received a reply from one, who said he had 
intended to resign in 1906. 

It was agreed to allow the matter to stand over for the 
present. eh 

Apologies regretting inability to be present were 
announced from Prof. McCall: Messrs. J. B. Baxter, 
F. W. Hanks, Sydney Pennington, L. Barnard, C. 8. 
Harris, H. FP. Standley, J. H. Parker, W. Wilson, H. C. 
Jagger, James East, John Varney, D. hy ae J. Hatch, 
E. J. Mellett, J. S. Hurndall, and G. E. King. 

Mr. NorkMAN CLIFFORD, M.R.C.V.S., Newbury, was 
unanimously elected a member. 

Capt. O‘RorKE was nominated for election at the next 
meeting, on the proposition of Major Harris, seconded 
by Mr. Male. 

Congresses. The PRESIDENT reported that the Royal 
Sanitary Institute was to meet at York on August 3rd, 
and a Congress of the Royal Institute of Public Health 
was to be held in Berlin from July 24th to the 28th. 

The Hon. Sec. reported that he had been in com- 
munication with Messrs. Thomas Cook and Son, and 
had found that it was possible to attend the meeting 
in Berlin from the Tuesday night until the following 
Monday morning at an inclusive a. of £8 10s. 

r. 


Mr. WILLETT —— that Percy Simpson 
should represent the ssociation at York. 

Mr. Stocock seconded the motion. 

Mr. Stmpson said he might be going to York, and 
under those cirsumstances there need not be any ex- 
pense to the Association. 

The PresipENT thought that if Mr. Simpson attended 
on behalf of the Association the expenses should be 
paid.—The motion was carried. 

The Hon. Sec. said that in view of the International 
Congress a question had been raised as to whether a 
delegate could be sent to Berlin. 

The PresipENT did not think it was worth the 
money. 

Mr. SypNEY VILLaR said he expected to go to Berlin 
and should be glad to represent the Association. 

It was agreed that if Mr. Villar went to Berlin he 
should act as delegate of the Association. 

Next Meeting. The Hon. Sec. read the following 
letter from Mr. C. E. King :— 

“ At present itis my intention to attend the R.C.V.A. 
meeting on the 16th, but as I am pretty oe 6 it will 
— upon train wage and whether I am too 
full up to get away. If I should not be able to turn up 
will you be kind enough to make my excuses and at the 
same time renew my invitation to the Association to 
hold its Summer Meeting at Abingdon. I shall be ve 
pleased if the members will accept my hospitality, and 
will do what I can to make the meeting, if it is decided 
to come, a pleasant and enjoyable one. Oxford is a very 





Insurance is carried on successfully. 


W. R. C. 





good centre, and perhaps it can be arran 
journey from there to Abingdon, which : very beauti- 





to make the 


=a = ws 4 ae. 






> Re Bd ge De Pai eee 


May tt, 1912 


THE VETERINARY RECORD 405 





ful one, by river. I believe the boats take about an 
hour to do the journey, so I should think members 
would arrive here in time for luncheon. With 
kind regards and best wishes for a = meeting, believe 
me, faithfully yours, Geo. Edwd. King.” 

On motion from the Chair, it was agreed that the 
meeting should be held at Abingdon, and on the motion 
of the Hon. SECRETARY. ~ seconded, a hearty vote of 
thanks was accorded to Mr. ing for his kind invitation. 


A Few Nores on Twists oF THE INTESTINES. 
By Mr.J. WiLxert. 
[This appeared in our issue of May 4, p. 691.] 

The PREsIpENT thanked Mr. Willett for his interest- 
ing communication, and said it was beyond him, as he 
pretended to no knowledge in that direction. As was 
well known, when a man dropped out of practice he 
missed seeing many interesting things and had to leave 
the discussion on some subjects to other people. 

Mr. Stocock said the subject was a very important 


one to praciitioners and Mr. Willett had brought forward | g 


some new ideas. For his own part he had never pre- 
tended to be able to distinguish between a twist of the 
large and small intestine so accurately as Mr. Willett 
seemed to believe could be done. Having regard to the 
original work in the paper, and the importance of the 
matter, he thought it would be well to adjourn the dis- 
cussion in order that the paper might be before the 
members prior to the debate. It would be a very poor 
en og to Mr. Willett if the discussion was not a 
one. 

Mr. VILLAR said it was rather a question of time, as 
Mr. Stockman was prepared to give a demonstration 
and that might have to be cut short if the discussion 
was taken on Mr. Willett’s paper at once. 

Mr. WILLETT said he had no objection to the dis- 
cussion being deferred. 

On the proposition of Mr. Slocock, seconded by 
Mr. Villar, the discussion was adjourned to the meeting 
> held in — in the a . ms 

r. Percy Smpson proposed that the paper 
printed and circulated in order that members might 
come better able to discuss it. 

Mr. Siocock seconded the motion, which was carvied. 


SPECIMENS. 


Mr. Percy Simpson exhibited the fractured pelvis of 
a horse, the most ne ng of the case being its 
history. He was telephoned for on a Sunday afternoon 
to see the horse after it had been a on the Friday 
at the Repository in London and driven as far as 
Maidenhead, and had there fallen lame. He was asked 
to write a certificate saying it did not answer to its 
warranty as to being in a fit state to work. To his 
surprise he found nothing below the stifle, but on rock- 
ing the horse detected crepitus, and a rectal examination 
showed fracture of the pelvis. The history had to be 
taken with a grain of salt, because the man desired to 


get rid of his lame horse, but he stated that he bought |i 


e horse and an old ’bus, and the idea struck him to 
buy an old ’bus horse and run the two borses down to 
his place at Swindon by road. He put the horse in at 
the Lane and went as far as Hounslow. The horse was 
a little fidgety at first and went a bit nappy, and he 
wired to say that the horse was not quiet in harness 
and he should return him. He then drove him from 
Hounslow to Maidenhead, a distance of 17 miles, and 
on going up the hill from Maidenhead he notieed the 
horse become distinctly lame, and four miles further 
on it was so lame as to be unable to proceed. The horse 
was destroyed and the —— was found to be very badly 
fractured. He himself believed that the horse was 
nappy, and had the ’bus pulled on to him by the other 
horse, the ’bus hitting him on the rump and causing 





fracture. It was extraordinary that the animal should 
travel a distance of 17 miles on the road before giving in. 

A second specimen was a fracture of one of the five 
bones of the carpus, from a ny which slipped when 
going out of the stable. He thought it was rather 
unusual to get such an extensive fracture. 

Replying to the President, Mr. Simpson said the 
fracture occurred from the stumble. The pony came out 
of the stable, slipped and went down on one knee, and 
the hair was not even taken off the skin. The history 
of the case was out of all proportion to the extent of 
the damage. 

The pony was 12 years of age and the horse five years 
old, and the latter was kept nearly a week before it was 
shot, owing to the possibility of legal proceedings. The 
horse was about 15°2 hands, something like a light 
hunter, and he believed it started sound from London. 
There was no trouble with the diagnosis. In fact he 
had no difficulty in diagnosing either case. 

The Hon. Secretary (Mr. G. P. Male) recalled a case 
— his own experience. When Sevens lunch one 
ay he saw a pony going past the window appearing a 
little stiff behind, and went out and found the man was 
asking for the pony to be shod. On his pointing out 
that it was lame the man replied that it always went a 
bit stiff. On examining the pony per rectum he found 
the symphysis to be fractured. 

At another time he was called in a great hurry 
to see a horse and told the owner there was a frac- 
ture. Some days afterwards he went to the same 
place and asked if the mare had been destroyed and 
was told she had not and was a lot better. The 
owner said he had had somebody else to see her, and had 
been told there was no fracture at all and that she would 

t all right. He made an examination per rectum and 

ound a fracture of the pelvis, which was in about five 
pieces. He thought that showed there need not be so 
much lameness even with so serious a fracture. 

On the motion of the PRESIDENT, a vote of thanks 
was accorded to Mr. Simpson for his interesting 
specimens. 


THE INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS, 1914. 


The PRESIDENT, who is also the Honorary Secretary 
of the International Veterinary Congress to be held in 
London in 1914, raised the question of subscriptions 
towards expenses of this gathering, which he said would 
be very considerable. He stated that at a meeting of 
the Committee at 10 Red Lion Square, it was decided 
to ask the Veterinary Associations throughout the 
country to co-operate in the collection of subscriptions. 
He thought it would be a good arrangement if each 
Society would start to coliect subscriptions from its 
members and send forward the list with amounts as 
subscribed by the members of each particular Society, 
and as he understood that many gentlemen preferred 
to split the subscription up over a period of three years, 
it would be as well to state the gross amount, indicat- 
ing in each case how the generous donor proposed to 
subscribe it. 

Mr. ViiLak said that there were many members like 
himself who belonged to more than one Association 
who would like to subscribe on more than one list. 

The PresipeEnT replied that he was in a similar posi- 
tion, but the matter could easily be arranged according 
to the wishes of the subscriber, and the gross amount 
of a man’s subscription would appear on a general list 
apart from those of the Societies. 

The President started the Association’s list by offering 
to subscribe £20 as a member of the Royal Counties. 
Nine others also promised various sums of from three 
to ten guineas, some of these sums being partial sub- 
scriptions. 

On the proposition of Mr. Willett, seconded by Mr. 





















































Seaiiteinds aie tandiietatediaeen anatase aemamemeeeemomeente 





710 THE VETERINARY RECORD 


May 11, 1912 





Simpson, it was agreed that the Secretary should circu- 
larise the members of the Association with regard to 
the matter, and that a complete list of subscribers 
should be obtained and forwarded to the Honorary 
Treasurer. 

It was announced that the first list of subscribers 
from this Society consisted of nine members, who to- 
gether had promised £80. 





After tea, which was kindly provided by the Presi- 
on the members adjourned to the Laboratory where 
the President exhibited a large number of specimens. 

Mr. StockMAN, going round the specimens, said: 
The first shows the lesions—ulceration and congestion 
—that you see in the stomach and intestines in so-called 
bracken poisoning. I am working to find out what 
this disease really is, but I cannot say with very much 
success so far. This specimen is from an ox, and I 
think about fourteen of its companions died. The 
specimen I show you is the fourth stomach. The 
lesions are always the same. Personally I do not think 
the condition due to bracken poisoning. I have come 
to the conclusion that it may oF poison, but a poison 
of the type of ricin, that is to say, it is a proteid 
vegetable poison which causes general lesions as well 
as local ones and gives rise to a high temperature. 
There is no common poison which produces a rise in 
temperature up to 108, and constantly in this disease 
the temperature goes up to that point. We gathered 
several forage plants from the pastures, and one lot 
that came to the laboratory produced one experi- 
mental case of the disease, but it was not very marked ; 
in fact the animal got better. When it appeared that 
the animal would recover I thought we had better kill 
it and have post-mortem examination, and we found 
typical lesions of so-called bracken poisoning in the 
rectum. It had been fed on a weed called tormentil. 
We obtained some more of this weed, but never produced 
another case. My idea now is that mixed up with that 
weed was the plant that we were looking for, that is 
the actual poison. There is an incubative period vary- 
ing up to three or four days. If you take the animals 
off the ture, cases of the disease do not cease to 
appear for about four days. After the incubation 
period animals begin to be very dull, diarrhoea comes 
on, and there is passing of blood and straining. They 
get quite wild, and finally become comatose before 
death. The illness lasts about 40 to 70 hours after it 
is first noticed. It is usually an acute disease that 
goes on very quickly. It isa seasonal disease. I used 
the bracken from a field in which the disease was noti- 
fied, and at the time it was notified, to feed animals 
at the laboratory, but never produced it with bracken. 
The season is about September to November. A 
curious thing about it is that some cases are reported to 
occur in byres, and in nearly every case there is a 
bracken connection, sometimes there has been litter- 
ing with bracken. I think it is confined to particular 
localities, several of which I know. 

Replying to a statement by a member that he used 
a lar uantity of bracken and had never had a case, 
Mr. eetkinen said he knew that, and if the disease is 
bracken poisoning, it is by bracken under some condi- 
tion which requires to studied, but he did not 
think it was due to bracken. If it is, and I experiment 
with a cwt. of the stuff from the actual place where 
the disase has broken out, as I have done, and at 
the time the disease is occurring in the field, I ought 
to obtain poisoning. We all know that certain plants 
are poisonous only at certain times of the year. It 
may be the ricin type of poisoning, like the castor 
oil seed (if you want to poison a man give him a 
castor oil seed). You can immunise against this 








poison. I believe in Russia it was a common method 
of poisoning. The lesions caused by ricin are general 
inflammation of the mucous membrane of the intes- 
tines, and ulcers and hemorrhages practically through- 
out the whole intestine. There are also subcutaneous 
hemorrhages and higher temperature. 

The next specimen was a typical case of Johne’s dis- 
ease showing the crinkling of the bowel, together with a 
part of the large intestine which did not show the same 
crinkling although it was from the same beast. It 
showed the curious waxy appearance of the bowel. 
It was pointed out that affected animals might show no 
more than a mucous enteritis, the bowel being covered 
with a creamy sort of mucous, and that you may get 
that when you cannot find the bacilli. Infected intes- 
tines had been sent to the laboratory a year ago, and 
portions were fed to two cattle. As the price of feeding 
stuffs was very high, these two cattle were killed a few 
weeks ago as the experiment was thought to have failed, 
for no symptoms were evident. Both were found affected 
on post mortem examination eleven months after feed- 
ing. He had tried the avian tuberculin test in practice, 
but had stopped using it because people had sent up for 
tuberculin and tested all their animals, and when he 
wrote for the results he found they had sold the reactors, 
and had no post mortem evidence to furnish regarding 
the value of the test. 

Replying toa member: What a negative test is worth ? 
he did not know, but if the temperature rose from 102 to 
104 stayed up he thought it was a reaction (tubercu- 
losis excluded). There -was not enough experience of 
the test yet to assess its value. It took us years to work 
out the value of tuberculin in tuberculosis, and we were 
now in the position to work out this test. 

The next specimens shown were specimens of foot 
and mouth disease lesions in the pig, exactly resembling 
what you get in cattle except that the hoof separates at 
an earlier date. Lesions on a pig’s tongue were also 
shown and explained. 

Lesions of Hot and mouth disease in the sheep were 
also shown. 

Lesions of the disease on the teats of cattle were 
shown, and in one case they were co-existent with 
lesions of cowpox. The cattle in life had suffered 
from two diseases, cowpox, and foot and mouth disease. 

(The members then examined a series of microscopic 
slides). 

sy Stockman also demonstrated a rapid method of 
diagnosing mange in horses or scab in sheep. He said: 
This method is not necessary where there are plenty 
of parasites, but when you have few acari and a lot 
of scrapings, and have to wash them free of you 
have to use a good deal of fluid, and it is laborious to 
search the fluid drop by drop under the microscope. 

The method consisted in washing the material with a 
large amount of alkaline fluid, precipitating the solids, 
including the acari, rapidly in a centrifuge, and then 
examining with the microscope the comparatively small 
amount of precipitate for acari. To prevent examining 
the same place on the slide twice, slides ruled into 
squares the size of a low power field are made use of. 

A sheep was exhibited on which the parasites could 
be seen with the naked eye. 

Mr. Stockman also explained and demonstrated the 
way in which abortion vaccine as sent out from the 
laboratory is used in practice. The bacilli are grown 
in a medicine bottle and the bottle is sent out to the 
veterinary surgeon who adds sterile liquid himself. 

He also exhibited an apparatus he had designed for 
sucking the fluid from the bottles directly into the 
hypodermic syringe without contamination. 

















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May 11, 1912 





THE VETERINARY RECORD 711 





CENTRAL VETERINARY ASSOCIATION 
(IRELAND). 


A meeting was held at the Gresham Hotel, Dublin, 
on Wednesday, April 17th. Present: Messrs. John 
Holland, Athy, in the chair ; J. F. Healy, ex-President 
and Treasurer. Midleton: J. W. Nolans, Birr; S. W. 
Percy, Athlone; P. J: Howard, Ennis; J. Dawson, 
Enniskillen ; with Mr. W. W. Kilroy, visitor. 

The minutes of last meeting were read and con- 
firmed. ; 

Apologies were received from Messrs. A. J. Moffett, 
C. Tracy, and B. P. J. Mahony. } 

It was decided to send a subscription of £5 5s. to 
the International Veterinary Congress Fund, and also 
a donation of £2 2s. to the Veterinary Benevolent 

und. 

a Committee was formed consisting of Messrs. 
Holland, Winter, and Healy, to decide what instru- 
ments, if auy, should be bought by the Association, 
and what arrangements should be made for their safe 
keeping and despatch to members requiring them. 

It was arranged, if possible, to hold a practical demon- 
stration at the next meeting, in Cork, on the 9th July, 
Mr. Winter promising to operate by the new method 
on a couple of rigs, if they could be procured for the 
occasion. ; 

The TREASURER produced his accounts, showing a 
balance to credit of over £30, which was considered 
satisfactory. 


Nores on CLInicat Casss, by E. C. WINTER, F.R.C.V.S. 
(Read at the last meeting, March 1st).—Adjourned 
Discussion. 

SrrRIcTURE OF CESOPHAGUS, 


Case I. Subject a hunter gelding, five years old, in 
owner’s possession about three months, taken up from 

ass about a week before. Horse showed symptoms 
of choking in the morning, slavered at the mouth, and 
seomed greatly distressed. I saw him six hours after 
when he was easier, but still would not feed nor drink. 
Gave a little linseed oil with trouble and passed a pro- 
bang, no obstruction in the cesophagus, but great dis- 
tress shown in passing instrument. Tried massage of 
muscles of neck which were rigid, relief in about half-an- 
hour. Horse sold a month afterwards, and lost sight 
of, until he turned up similarly affected in the possession 
of a cavalry officer. Tried massage of the muscles along 
the course of the cesophagus and morphia ‘hypodermic- 
ally into the muscles, with good results. Horse had a 
slight recurrence of the affection a month afterwards, 
and for the last month is apparently all right. Query— 
What is the trouble? No swelling of the cesophageal 
tube is apparent. : 

Case II. A pony hunter gelding, turned out to grass 
all right : on taking him up to get fit he showed great 
distress on being galloped and would not feed after- 
wards. Examination showed rupture of the cesophagus 
and dilatation in its lower third almost in the chest, 
prognosis unfavourable. Operation volunteered, but 
not recommended. Query—What ean be done in 
these cases, owing to the risk of stricture after the 


operation ? 





Mr. S. W. Percy commented on the danger of ad- 
ministering linseed oil in such cases, and in fact on the 
inadvisability of using linseed oil at all in veterinary 

ctice, as, in his opinion, it is a most dangerous drug, 
particular] if not absolutely fresh. He also suggested 
intra-cesophageal injection of cocaine and morphia in 


such cases. : : : 
Mr Howarp mentioned, after conversation with Mr. 


Mr. Winter’s observation, and he agreed practically with 
Mr. Winter’s treatment. stating he had t faith in 
sp Pe the muscles of the neck in at ga de 

Mr. HoLLANp believed that the affection was mainly 
a nervous one, and should be treated with nerve 
sedatives. 

Several members mentioned incidentally cases of 
choking in cattle where nerve sedatives injected into 
the ~~ had a good effect. 

Mr. WINTER, in replying, pointed out that this was 
not an ordinary case bf. choking. He did not see what 
harm a little linseed oil could ibly do, whether the 
case was choking or not. At the same time he agreed 
with Mr. Perey that rancid linseed oil was a very 
dangerous drug, but he would not on that account con- 
demn the oil altogether. 


PicKED-uPp NalIts. 


Case I. A thoroughbred yearling colt picked up a 
six-inch cut nail in the off-hind foot. The nail went 
through the cleft of the frog and out in the pit of the 
heel, performing in its course the operation of frog 
setoning. About two inches from the head the nail had 
bent at right angles and about two inches more stuck 
out above the heel and narrowly escaped wounding the 
fetlock joint. The nail was pulled out, and it took a 
strong pull to get it out, the wound syringed out with a 
strong caustic, and recovery was uneventful. 

Case IJ, A similar case, but with a much smaller 
nail, was met with last week in an officer’s charger. 

Case III. A bay mare, five years old, purchased the 
day before, came in to be shod. The shoeing smith 
found her near fore foot so hot and sore that he directed 
my attention to it. I found a nail in the outside quarter 
and a considerable amount of matter under the sole. 
The wound was treated in the usual way but the matter 
broke out at the coronet two days after, although free 
drainage was effected below, pen the mare got very bad 
with septic infection and both hocks broke out. She 
died a fortnight after. Query—How is it the mare did 
not go lame at the fair or on the road home ? 





This subject did not meet with much discussion, but 
several members present mentioned similar cases in 
their practices. 

With regard to the case of the bay mare, it was in- 
explicable to the members present how the mrre could 
have gone sound up to the time she came in to be shod, 
except that, as Mr. Winter mentioned, she had been 
newly shod on both fore feet and purposely pricked in 
the off one to make her action level. 


FIsTULZ OF THE WITHERS. 


Case I. A brown mare, seven years old, had been 
treated for three months with “washes,” under the 
directions of a registered practitioner in an adjoining 
county. A fistula was discharging midway down the 
near shoulder. The probe revealed three sinuses, one 
running straight up to the withers, six inches long, one 
running back under the cantle of the saddle nine inches 
long, and one a similar length running out along the 
back in an upward and forward direction. A large 
opening was made in front of the shoulder blade and 
the sinuses carefully probed for broken bone or other 
foreign bodies ; none such were found. Crude carbolic 
acid was forced into the sinuses twice a week, and anti- 
septic lotion freely syringed into them meantime and the 
lower opeuing kept patient with plugs of tow. After 
four weeks the sinuses were obliterated and the wound 
allowed to heal. Recovery was perfect, and a blister, to 
restore the wasted muscles, was the only further treat- 
ment necessary. 

Case IJ.—A black van mare met with an accident in 
a collision on Christmas Eve. The stableman treated 





Winter, that he had seen this case before it came under 





the only wound visible—a slight one, midway down the 






; 
; 
| 
; 











712 


THE VETERINARY RECORD 


May II, 1912 





shoulder in front of the scapula—until the 23rd February, 

when the mare was brought to me, as the wound would 
not heal. Examination showed a fistula apparently two 
inches deep and pointing in a forward direction, with a 
fibrous swelling oblong in shape, and not extensive, be- 
hind it. I thought at first that the trouble arose from 
a nidus of pns in the latter swelling, or possibly a foreign 
body. The mare was cast, chloroformed, and the swell- 
ing cut down on. The enlargement proved to be an 
elbow bend of the sinus, which ran from there in an up- 
ward and backward direction deeply under the scapula 
for a distance of ten inches. The probe grated on the 
inner edge of the scapula but no ee bone could be 
found. I tried caustic irrigation with a view to destroy- 
ing the walls of the sinus, and pushed also some crystals 
of sae oy mga of potash well up to the end of it, as 
I thought then. A week afterwards it was evident that 
further trouble existed higher up, as some pus came 
away a short time after the sinus was syringed out. The 
mare was a cast and chloroformed, a further open- 
ing was made in front of the end of the scapula, and a 
long probe ran in under the cartilage easily. A horse 
catheter was then used and this ran easily back to where 
the cantle of the saddle would rest, about two inches 
from the median line. On shaving this spot a distinct 
bruise was seen. A long seton wasrun from here to the 
front of, and under, the scapula. After a few days it 
was found the drainage was not sufficient, and a per- 
pendicular seton was put in behind the shoulder from 
this one to the elbow, and another from the hinder end 
of it to midway down the ribs. A week later another 
seton had to be run from the midway opening (behind 
the scapula) under that bone, and out at the point of the 
shoulder alongside the jugular vein, after a few days this 
seton worked well and some of the others were taken 
out. The case is now progressing favourably despite all 
the butchering. It is evident that one shaft of the 
colliding trap hit the mare behind the saddle and the 
other in front of the shoulder, midway down. The sur- 
prising part of the case is that the mare worked for two 
months all right, and there was no appearance of any 
trouble except the small fistula in front of the shoulder, 
although there was a lot of matter under the skin of the 
back and under the shoulder blade. There has been a 
great amount of sloughing of tissue all along the back, 
and in front of the shoulder, and a great volume of pus 
discharged. 


This gave rise to a very animated discussion, and 
Mr. Winter mentioned that in the subsequent treatment 
of the case he found that liberal irrigation with Peroxide 
of Hydrogen had a better effect on the sinuses than 
anything he had tried up-to-date, and the mare was now 
practically recovered, and looked all right, except for 
wasting of the muscles along the back and on the 
shoulder. 


TUMOURS OF THE SHOULDER. 


Within the last twelve months I have had fcur 
or five cases of tumours about the point of the 
shoulder. In all cases they have involved a great deal 
of muscular tissue and been deep seated, with a nidus 
of pus and necrosed tissue. In no case have I got any 
history of an accident, althongh the original injury must 
have been a severe bruise of some sort, or a punctured 
wound. Extirpation, and complete extirpation at that, 
seems to be the only remedy. Setons seem to do no 
good, and blistering only seems to thicken the skin and 
subcutaneous tissues. Some of the cavities have been 
simply appalling to look at, and the hemorrhage difficult 
to control, but all the cases have done well and gone 
back to work. One such case seemed to originate from 


a collar injury half way up the neck, and the nidus was 
over two inches in. In this case | believe there must 
also have been direct violence from a shaft, although 
there was no history of an accident. If extirpation of 
all diseased or bruised tissue is practised, the resulting 
wound fills up rapidly, but, if any is left, the trouble 
begins all over again. In one case, in the middle of last 
month, a three pound tumour was dangerously close to 
the jugular vein, and blunt dissection had to be resorted 
to as the bleeding obscured the seat of operation, and 
the trouble was too deep seated for the usual hemos- 
tatics to have effect. 

These few rough notes were put together for the 
Meeting on the first of March, and, as I was unable to 
attend that Meeting, the discussion on them was ad- 
journed and orders issued for them to be printed and 
circulated, so as to have a full discussion at the next 
Meeting on the 17th April. 





This item gave rise to rather an animated discussion, 
some Members contending these tumours were due to 
Botriomycosis. Mr. Winter pointed out that he was 
quite familiar with this sort of tumour, or chain of 
tumours, producing Botriomycosis, but the tumours he 
referred to were in every case either Fibromas or 
Myomas, and each tumour had a distinct nidus of pus 
in the centre, was an isolated tumour, and did not recur 
on complete extirpation. 





The Meeting concluded with a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Winter for the trouble he took in putting these 
notes together on very short notice, and the members 
“ese remarked that they appreciated such notes far 

tter than a lengthy paper, which rarely provoked a 
good discussion. 








Alleged False Description of Oats. 





At Croydon Quarter Sessions H. Leslie Hall, corn 
merchant, of Whitehorse Road, Croydon, appealed 
against his conviction by the local magistrates for apply- 
ing a false trade description to certain oats sold to 
Messrs. Hall and Co. (Croydon) (Ltd.) 

The hearing of the case in the Police Court was re- 
ported in The Times of March 13th. 

This was a prosecution by the Board of Agriculture, 
and a fine of £5 was imposed. It was stated that oats 
imported from the River Plate and sold in their natural 
state are properly known as “ Plate oats.” It was, how- 
ever, a common practice to subject them to an artificial 
process, during which water was added. The proper 
trade description of these, according to the prosecution, 
was damped, prepared or watered oats. The oats which 
the defendant ordered and had delivered to him, in- 
invoiced as “P. Plate oats,” were retailed to Messrs. 
Hall as “40lb. Plate oats.” Owing to the added water 
the 100 quarters which were supplied were, in reality, 
only 95 quarters, so that instead of being 20s. 9d. 
quarter, as quoted, the buyers were actually paying 
21s. 10d. The appelant subsequently allowed 5 per cent. 
discount. The appellant claimed that he had acted 
in — good faith, and quite innocently, and that 
“Plate oats” was not an incorrect trade descripticn. 

The Recorder (Mr. R. F. Colam) deferred judgment 
and intimated that he could not see that there been 
fraudulent intent on the appellant’s part. 
that the main point rai should 
High Court, and his judgment would be framed with 
that in view —The Times, 





He thought — 
decided by the — 










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May 11, 1912 


THE VETERINARY RECORD 





DISEASES OF ANIMALS ACTS 1894 ro 1911, SUMMARY OF RETURNS. 








Outbreaks Animals 


Anthrax. Foot- 
and-Mout 
Disease. 


Glanders * B 

Parasitic | Shee,} : 

(including Mange. | Scab. Swine Fever. 
Farcy) 








Period. 





Con-| Re- | Con-| Re- Out- 
itirm’d|ported|firm’d |ported| breaks 


Ani- | Out- | Ani- | Out- | Ani- | Out- | Out- | Slaugh- 
mals. breaks) mals. |breaks| mals. breaks breaks. | tered. * 





Gr. BRITAIN. 
Week ended May4] 12 | 


5 44 92 3 87 992 





Corresponding me 18 | 
week in 190 = 


7 1] 58 
14 1] 29 | 452 
44 | 8] 45 





Total for 18 weeks, 1912 

















- 1911 
Corresponding 
period in 1910 680 


1909 705 





76 293 
135 302 
222 | 883 412 











Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, May 7, 1912. 
* Counties affected, animals attacked: London 2. 























Stafford 1, Surrey 1, Warwick 1. 





IRELAND. Week ended May 4 


Outbreaks 
3 3 102 





1911 
Corresponding Week in 1910 
1909 


2 8 
oes 122 
2 





Total for 18 weeks, 1912 ae 1 


34 244 87 814 








1911 ... 4 
1910 ... 6 
1909 ... | 2 








Corresponding period in 





2 37 227 47 807 
2 32 300 29 807 
‘ 37 262 12 117 























Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, (Veterinary Branch), Dublin, May 6, 1912 


Nore.—The figures for the Current Year are approximate only. 


* As Diseased or Exposed to Infection 








Pharmacy and Poisons Acts (Ireland). 
HaRVEY’s ACONITE-POWDERS. 

At the ( iapeemaed, co. Galway Petty Sessions, before 
Mr. J. B. K. Hill, R.M., and other Magistrates, on 
April 11th, Mr. John Roe, general merchant and publican, 
Oughterard, was summoned at the instance of the Phar- 
maceutical Society of Ireland with (1) keeping open 
shop for retailing or dispensing poisons, and @) balling 
“aconitine, being a preparation of aconite, also emetic 
tartar, both contained in and forming part of an article 
called ‘ Harvey’s Aconite-powders for con’ ” A third 
summons, at the instance of Sergeant James Shea, Royal 
Irish Constabulary, was for selling Harvey’s aconite- 
powders without labelling the packet and entering the 
sale in the poisons book, contrary to the Sale of Poisons 
(Ireland) Act. 

Mr. William oer ogee Meeke, solicitor (of Messrs. A. 
and J. Robinson), who prosecuted on behalf of the Phar- 
maceutical Society, stated the facts of the case, and 
mentioned that the defendant had opened a sealed packet 
of the aconite-powders and had sold the packet opened 
and with one powder short. Even in the case of a person 
licensed under the Act it is necessary, he argued, to sell 
in unbroken packets. .. - 

The evidence of Sergeant Shea was to the effect that 
on November 2nd, 1911, he called at defendant’s shop 
and saw the defendant, whom he asked if aconitine was 
kept in the shop. The defendant, after a pause, replied 
“I keep aconite-powders for horses.” Witness asked 
him how he sold them, and defendant replied, “I don’t 
sell them at all.” Witness asked him to let him see 
them. Defendant took down from a conspicuous portion 
of a shelf in the shop a cardbox box which was marked 


“ Harvey’s Aconite-powders for Horses.” Witness in- 
spected the box and found there were in it two smaller 
cardboard boxes. He told the defendant he would bu 
one of these smal] boxes and asked the price, whic 
defendant stated was 2s. 8d. Witness paid the amount 
and got a receipt. He told the defendant that it was 
illegal to sell the powders without being duly registered. 
The defendant replied, “I do not sell them, but kee 
them for private use.” There was another cardboa 
box which apparently had not been opened, and it con- 
tained more of the powders. Witness saw this on the 
same shelf. On each side of the boxes were tins of 
treacle and a quantity of Ellimau’s embrocation. The 
counter over which he was supplied was the one also 
used for the sale of groceries ; and in the same shop in- 
toxicating liquor was sold and supplied, but not over the 
particular = of the counter used for the sale of 
groceries. The defendant said that when he took over 
the charge of the business from his brother George two 
ears previously the powders were then in the shop. 
he box which witness purchased bore no name and 
address, but was marked “ Harvey’s Aconite-powders 
for Horses” ; one side had the following words : “ These 
powders, as their name implies, contain poisons and are 
so labelled in compliance with the Pharmacy Act.” 
The box was open, and contained five powders instead 
of six. The directions stated that each packet was 
a dose for a horse; 2s. 8d. was the price for a full 
box of six. The powders were in such a conspicuous 
place that they were unquestionably intended for 
sale and not for private use. Witness informed 
the defendant that the legal presumption was that all 
articles in the shop were for sale. The defendant had 





not a licence from the County’ Council, and he did not 











714 


THE VETERINARY RECORD 


May 11, 1912 





tender witness a poisons book. On December 14th 
witness again called at the defendant’s shop and asked 
the defendant if he still kept the aconite powders in the 
shop. The defendant admitted that he did, and witness 
asked him to show them to him ; the defendant did so, 
and witness said that they had been removed from the 
portion of the shop in which he had first seen them and 
were now concealed behind an advertisement picture. 
He told the defendant to remove them at once from 
the Pe 

Mr. Walter Thorp, B.Sc., F.I.C. (Dublin) proved his 
analysis of five Harvey’s aconite powders, which con- 
tained 1 grain of aconitine, or sufficient as a fatal dose 
for at least twenty men ; also tartar emetic. 

The Magistrates held that the charges against the 
defendant had been proved, but suggested that as he 
appeared to have acted inadvertently, a penalty should 
be pressed for in one of the summonses only. 

r. Meeke agreed to withdraw the summons on the 
charge of keeping open shop, and also that under the 
Poisons Act, on the condition that the defendant paid 
the cost of the stamps on the withdrawn summonses, 
and also the fine and costs on the remaining summons 
befort the Court rose. 

The defendant gave this undertaking, and paid into 
Court a fine of £5, with £1 cost on the summons under 
the Pharmacy Act for selling poison withont being pro- 
perly qualified, with 4/6 the cost of the stamps on the 
withdrawn summonses.— The Chemist and Druggist. 





A Crib-Biting Case. 


At Limerick Quarter Sessions, before his Honor 
Younty Court Judge Law-Smith, Robert J. Cotton, 

Brearfield, Co. Roscommon, sued James and Philip 
O’Dea, father and son, residing at Oola, in this county, 
to recover a sum of £50, money paid for a horse pur- 
chased at the last October great Munster fair, the animal 
being warranted sound and turning out to be a wind 
sucker and crib-biter. 

Mr. L. O’B. Kelly (instructed by Mr. E. gx 
solicitor), appeared for the plaintiff, and Mr. P. Kelly 
Gactarsed Mr. William Frewen, solicitor, Tipperary), 
or the defendants. 

Evidence for the yee went to prove that the 
horse, a three-year-old black colt by Pop Off, was pur- 
chased for £65 from a farmer named Duggan, acting for 
the defendants, who are farmers. The colt was sold 
subject to a veterinary examination by Mr. Patrick, v.s., 
Wadkneer. and ed as sound, and to the notification 
that if the horse was a crib-biter or a wind sucker it 
would be sent back. Plaintiff subsequently found the 
animal was a wind sucker and not as such quite value 
for more than £20. Correspondence ensued, and de- 
fendants failing to comply with es age request to 
return the money paid and take back the horse, legal 
proceedings were instituted. It was admitted by the 

laintiff that there was no engagement given with the 

orse, other than a verbal one to the effect that it was 
not a wind sucker or crib-biter. 

The plaintiff was examined and bore out the state- 
ment of counsel. 

Mr. W. Cargill Patrick, v.s., stated he examined the 
colt and certified the animal sound and free from crib- 
biting and wind sucking. He so marked the examina- 
tion, after telling Duggan that if he had either habit he 
should be taken back. A fortnight witness saw the 
horse and found him to be a crib-biter and a wind 
sucker, and most accomplished at both. 

EFENCE. 

Mr. Edmund Duggan, farmer, said he resided at Oola, 
and went with young O’Dea to sell the horse at the fair. 
On the road they met the plaintiff, and another man 
later, who bought the colt for £65. The animal was 
examined by the last witness, who asked was he a crib- 


biter. Witness said it was for the previous witness to 
know that. 

Witness, in answer to a further question, said he knew 
nothing about the horse, other than that he belonged to 
witness’s next door neighbour. Mr. Patrick never said 
that if the colt was a crib-biter or wind sucker he would 
have to take him back. 

Philip O’Dea said he was the owner of the horse, but 
he was not present when the sale was effected. Cotton’s 
brother came subsequently to arrange terms of settle- 
ment, and admitted there was no engagement given at 
the sale. 

By Mr. Kelly : When Cotton’s letter was reeeived to 
take back the Sie that the animal was a wind sucker, 
witness talked to a few about it, and they said not to 
mind it. That was why he did not answer the letter. 

James O’Dea, senr., in answer to Mr. Kelly, said he 
asked Duggan to sell the horse because witness could 
not do so. 

Mr. Kelly said his sons were young men following 
horses for some years, while Duggan was an elderly 
man. Was that the reason to shuffle out of the 
warranty. 

The witness said Duggan was after selling 20 horses 
belonging to neighbours of witness. 

His Honour: An experienced man. 

The witness: And that is the reason I got him to sell 
the horse—a fit man to follow the horses on the road, 
and not have my gossoons hurt. 

His Honour: Duggan was experienced in selling 
horses ?—Yes, after selling 20 of them. 

His Honour: A kuowledgeable man. 

Mr. E.C. Winter, V.S., stated he examined a horse by 
the same dam as this colt, and witness never heard 
that the animal was a crib-biter. Witness never heard 
of a veterinary surgeon giving a certificate that a horse 
was a crib-biter or a windsucker. It was a question 
very rarely asked with rd to long tails, or that a 
young horse reared, as such horses were in the open, was 
a crib-biter. 

His Honour said he was satisfied that the animal was 
a crib-biter and a wind-sucker, and on the day of the 
sale was so. That was the reason that very innocent 
gentleman, Mr. Duggan, was selected to sell the horse 
suffering from this disease at the time. It was now 
proved that the horse was worth only £20, and accord- 
ingly he would give a decree for £48 to cover the ex- 
penses. Doctor Patrick was well known in the midlands, 
and as between his action and that of Mr. Duggan, his 
Honour absolutely believed what Dr. Patrick stated. 

Mr. W. Cargill Patrick : Thank you, my lord. 

It is understood an appeal will be lodged.— Limerick 
Chronicle. 





Claim for Mare’s death. 

At Stowmarket County Court before His Honour 
Judge Eardley Wilmot, John Henry Lewell, Gisling- 
ham, sued the Horse, Carriage, and General Insurance 
Company, Ltd., for £31 9s, 10d., for death of a mare 
under a policy of insurance, and £4 premium on the 
same. Mr. Claughton Scott (instructed by Messrs. Hill 
and Perks, Norwich, solicitors to the Tenant Farmers’ 
Protection Association, Ltd.), appeared for plaintiff, and 
Mr. E. P. Ridley (of Messrs. Birkett, Francis and Ridley) 
for defendants. 

Mr. Claughton Scott, in opening the case, said the claim 
was for £29, in respect of the insurance upon a mare 
named “Smart,” and £4 in respect of the fact that the 
defendants wrongly cancelled a policy upon other horses, 
Plaintiff was a farmer, and had five horses upon his 
farm. He met an agent of the company named Free- 
man, who wanted him to insure his horses. Eventually 





pressed the plaintiff to fill in a proposal form there 






4 








on February 23rd, 1911, plaintiff met Freeman at Ips- BS 
wich, where the matter was again gone into. Freeman ce 












be 


ene YF Oe: 


a 
— 














Bere TEP aeer 


May 11, 1912 


THE VETERINARY RECORD 715 





then. Plaintiff replied that he did not know the exact 
his horses, and suggested that the matter stand 
over over for a week. en Freeman asked what was 
the average age of the animals, and plaintiff replied, 
“about eight or nine years.” This statement, Freeman 
added, was near enough, as the horses would be ex- 
amined, and he filled in the form accordingly, the ages 
being all given as eight, and the height 16 h.h. The com- 
ny sent a veterinary surgeon named Mr. R. Davey to 
inspect the horses, and plaintiff told him that the 
were given between eight and nine. Mr. Davey took a 
report for defendants, and the were accurately 
given, two being nine years, one eight’ one ten, and one 
eleven. That document was sent to the company, and 
the policy was issued on March 2nd, which date it bore. 
Before the premium was paid the Net had full 
knowledge of the age of the mare named Smart, the 
subject of this claim. The mare was found dead after- 
wards in her box, but plaintiff had no idea of the cause 
of herdeath. Knowing she was insured for £25 plaintiff 
thought that the best and fairest way would be to send 
for Mr. Davey. He came, and found that when the 
animal was cut up she had suffered from rupture of the 
bowels. Plaintiff next wrote to the Company saying 
the mare had died, and defendants replied, ‘“ Retain 
carcase until a post-mortem is made by Godbold.” 
Plaintiff went to the premises of a knacker named 
Reed, to which place the carcase had been taken, to tell 
him to keep the carcase, but he was informed it had 
been cut up. He wired the Company, saying the car- 
case had left the farm. An inspector from the company 
came down, and in an extremely unnecessary way sug- 
gested that plaintiff had misrepresented the age of the 
mare, and subsequently informed him that he had no 
claim upon them, and the premium would be forfeited 
as the animal was not correctly described. This anima 
was bought at Mr. Simpson’s sale at Bury St. Edmund’s 
as eight years of age, for 224 guineas. 

Plaintiff was then called, and bore out counsel’s 
statement, saying Freeman filled in the form of proposal 
after he had objected to it. 

R. Davey, horse dealer, said he thought the mare in 
question was eleven years of age. The carcase was re- 
moved to Reed’s place on his instructions. 

Mr. Ridley said the Company were carefully pro- 
tected by their policy against what was unfair, and 
when there was cause for suspicion they could bring the 
case to Court, as in this instance, and hear what the 
other side had to say. 

His Honour said what the Company were suspicious 
about, a little enquiry would have shown was a 
genuine case. 

Mr. Ridley said the Company were entitled to have 
24 hours’ notice before the carcase was parted with. 
It was a condition precedent to any claim under the 

licy. 

P His Honour said the Company might have a claim, 
if there was any, against their agent, for carelessness. 
A horse might be burned to a cinder, and then a man 
would not be able to retain the carcase. He could not 
see any. doubt in this ease, and there was no suggestion 
as to fraud. Judgment was given for plaintiff for 
£25 6s. 8d. 








ARMY VETERINARY SERVICE. 


Extract from London Gazette. 
Wak Orrick, WHITEHALL, May 2. 
RecutaR Forces. ArMy VETERINARY Corps, 
Vet.-Capt. C. H. Hylton-Jolliffe, from Ist Life Guards, 
to be Capt., with precedence next below Capt. G. P. 
Knott. Dated May 4. 
May 7. 


OBITUARY. 


Barton.—On April the 30th, at Upper Norwood, 
Williamina McKay, the beloved wife of Frank Town- 
end Barton, after 18 months illness and suffering, borne 
with splendid courage and devotion. 








CORRESPONDENCE. 


UNQUALIFIED ASSISTANTS. 
Sir, 

The remarks of Mr. Bower on the above subject will be 
read with interest by practitioners. Any attempt to deal 
with the question by the adoption of Cromwellian tactics is 
bound to end in failure. It is not an easy matter to define, 
under the existing law, what duties an unqualified assistant 
may perform, provided his employer does not represent 
him to the public as being qualified. As a matter of fact 
the public prefer an unqualified man with experience, to a 
qualified man who lacks this essential. A large proportion 
of veterinary practice, at any rate in country districts, is 
more concerned with the Art than the Science of the call- 
ing, and this fact is soon ascertained by the young graduate 
if he lack experience in this class of work 

In order to render unqualified assistants a thing of the 
past it is necessary to supply qualified assistants possessing 
at least a sufficient knowledge of practical details. 

Whether the present system of teaching is capable of 
carrying this out is a matter on which opinions may differ. 
One thing is quite certain, viz. that the opportunities for 
obtaining clinical knowledge suitable for country practice 
do not exist in theteaching schools, and the only manner in 
which this knowledge can be obtained is for the student to 
become a pupil with a country practitioner. 

As matters stand at present. it is quite possible for a 
student to become qualified although he may never have 
had any practical acquaintance with obstetrics. True, he 
may know Fleming’s work on the subject from cover to 
cover, and carry in his mind vivid recollection of obstetrical 
diagrams as displayed in the lecture room, but when he 
comes to apply his theoretical knowledge in the stable or 
cow-shed, surrounded by a crowd of wiseacres, he receives 
@ rare awakening. 

The art of the calling cannot be learned from books or 
lectures, but must be acquired by actual observation and by 
assisting at the various details. 

And not only is there the art of dealing with the patients, 
but also the art of pleasing the owners of the animals. 

Now no reasonable individual expects that the young 
graduate could possess these attributes to the same extent 
as the practitioner who has a long experience. But we 
should insist that he has sufficient practical knowledge to 
carry out the ordinary duties of the profession. How 
this to be obtained? By making it compulsory that every 
candidate for the diploma shall produce a Certificate of 
having attended as pupil with a practitioner for a certain 
period. The student of human medicine is not compelled 
to produce such a certificate, but instead he must furnish 
certificates of attendence at hospitals, and also of having 
been in attendance on a certain number of midwifery cases. 
It is impossible to ascertain by either written or oral exa- 
minations the amount of practical knowledge that a student 
possesses with reference to certain subjects, hence the 
system of compulsory attendance is the only way out of the 
difficulty. 

When such certificates are compulsory at the veterinary 
final examination, and when matters are arranged so that 
the clinical examination will be on a par with that exacted 
in human medicine, then indeed the young graduate will 
have nothing to fear from his unqualified rival. 

Lucrative Government posts, appointments in Public 
Health Departments, etc., cannot be obtained by all 
graduates, while in spite of the sdvent of the motor car, 
there is still demand for the private practitioner, provided 





Maj. C. B. M. Harris, p.s.0,, retires on retired pay. 
Dated May 8. 

































































716 


THE. VETERINARY RECORD 








May 11, 1912 








he 1s able to prove his utility to the public. But in order 
to accomplish this he must possess something more than 
an intimate knowledge of text-books, or of the intricate 
science of bacteriology. ‘‘ Colic, castration and cow-calv- 
ing ’’ look simple subjects in books and lectures, but are 
very different in the stable, field and cow-shed, and the 
young graduate soon learns after leaving College that ‘‘ the 
bacteriological tail has not yet succeeded in wagging the 
clinical dog.’’—Yours, etc., 


May 6th, 1912. 


E. Watuis Hoare. 


Sir, 

I see the profession are up in armsagain at the employment 
of unqualified assistants, and if your columns are open to hear 
both sides I think I may be able to shed a little light on the 
subject, and having been one of these ‘‘ outsiders ’’ for six- 
teen years I think I can claim a little knowledge of the con- 
troversy at issue. 

Until the era of motors, we heard nothing of the trumpet 
call to smash the enemy within our gates, but the profession 
now is in very low water owing to electric traction, and 
someone has got to be hanged, and as we are easy to get at, 
they are trying to ring our death knell through no fault of 
our own. 

If ‘‘ the powers that be’’ are so anxious to improve the 
status of the profession why not bring the following gentle- 
men to the tribunal who, of course, are duly qualified : 
The professor of the art at Camden Town who published 
a “wonderfal work’’ in nine volumes with beautiful 
coloured plates at a price to suit all pockets, for the can- 
vasser will call for instalments as desired; qualified men 
on the staff of patent medicine vendors ; qualified men em- 
ploying unqualified assistants to do all the work, and when 
leaving their employ advertising that Mr. Blank was only 
employed to keep the books (qualified men in the bg agro 
please note !) ; qualified men taking contracts at 4/- 
annum, and others of a more generous nature working for 
nothing; qualified men giving free advice through the 
press ; qualified men holding honorary appointments at 
institutions for lost cats, and instructing the charwoman 
how to become a ‘‘ cat specialist: '’ qualified men touting 
for orders at shows and repositories. I think this list 
will do for a start and, if necessary, I can furnish a 
few more. 

It must be remembered that qualified assistants are gener- 
ally “ birds of passage '’ with little or no interest in their 
employer, but for ever on the look out for a Government 
appointment, and then take wing, leaving everything to a 
new man, and of course the practice suffers. Moreover, 
they require the services of an unqualified man to do nearly 
all the work which is consider: d to be infra dig, and it is a 
well known fact that unqualified assistants are not so fond 
of looking upon the wine when it is red. 

If these gentry will put their own house in order, we shal! 
then hear less of the iniquity of the unqualified man, 
— Yours truly, 

** Honr SOIT QUI MAL-Y-PENSE."’ 


VIVISECTION AND THE VETERINARY 
PROFESSION. 
Sir, 

There are two letters from laymen that appear in your 
issue of May 4, that ought not to pass unnoticed. Mr. 
Richardson, writing in The Referee, contrasts one young 
qualified man with the whole army of unqualified operators, 
much to the detriment of the former, and builds up an 
argument, buta very poor one, against the abilities of all 
qualified men. 

Mr. Petley gives away his care by assuming in the last 
paragraph of his letter that the veterinary profession has 
lost its standing and that the unqualified man has been the 
great factor in the fall. As a matter of fact unqualified 
men are not nearly so plentiful as they used to be, and 
those few that exist retain their position and hold of the 
public by some cha’ acteristic, connected most probably with 
the personal equation. 












It is perhaps quite natural that youth should take an 
almost abnormal interest in the matter of emasculation or 
castration. A race of eunuehs would possibly be less 
deeply interested. In nine cases out of ten when you read 
a layman’s letter to the press criticising our profession. this 
matter of castration cropsup. They say our members ought 
to be taught ‘‘ practical surgery—like castration.’’ If one 
were to ask an eminent human surgeon what he thought 
about the surgery of 90 per cent. of veteriuary castrations 
in this country, and especially since the standing method 
became the vogue, I think the answer would be that the 
testicles are truly removed, but the less said about the sur- 
gery of the matter the better. It is because there is so little 
scientific surgery about the operation that the unqualified 
man often competes successfully against the qualified one, 
When I am castrating, or watching others at the job, I 
often think of the travesty of “the art of veterinary sur- 
gery '’ as evidenced in this operation. The public dictate 
largely to us in this matter as to how we shall proceed 
(the layman is excluded from witnessing a human surgeon 
operate) and if we refuse to act as they wish, some eager 
slasher is given the job, or an unqualified man is imported 
into the neighbourhood (occasionally under the aegis of a 
qualified man, who of course does the operation himself, 
but doesn’tcare much about it) from whom the importer 
draws a commission. 

So much for castration and its surgery. Now, what about 
education? Mr. Richardson seems to think that if the 
three years course were substituted for the present four 
years one, and more practical surgery taught, the un- 
qualified man wouldn’t stand as good a chance as he does 
at present, and the young graduate would be better fitted 
to be of use in his profession at once. Less education is a 
cry that will not make headway nowadays, and most men 
will agree that education never made a man @ worse prac- 
tical performer, providing that perseverance, adaptability 
and energy accompany it. 

The matter here, again, is one of the personal equation. 
As to more practisal surgery being taught, it takes a man 
almost a lifetime to became perfect in the art and science. 
Experience alone will make him a master. When he is a 
master he will (if he is a veterinary surgeon) often ask him- 
self scornfully what should these men know about my art? 

Instruction from practical men who are also qualified, 
and some of whom really are capable men, may still be had 
by the graduate who requires it, and pupilage ia not dis- 
couraged but encouraged by the powers that There is 
an old saying. ‘‘ If there were no fools there would be no 
fairs,’’ but the gullible public that thinks it knows will 
always preponderate, although @ 20 years course of instruc- 
tion or longer is really what it wants. As long as the 
gullible and indiscriminating public exists the unqualified 
man will always have a field for the display of his cheap 
attributes. The law can only intervene successfully against 
malpractice by an unqualified man when those who ad- 
minister it and bring the charges under it are educated and 
intelligent enough to appreciatc the full flagrancy of the act 
committed ; and just as it takes a legal gentleman to point 
out a flaw in legal procedure, so it requires veterinary 
evidence to bring home a charge of veterinary mal- 
practice.—Yours faithfully, 

G. Mayan. 





NEW COAL MINES REGULATIONS. 
Sir, 

Probably many veterinary surgeons will now be consult«d 
by their clients concerning the various new guards or they 
tectors for the eyes of ponies working undergronnd. 
should remember that anything to decrease the range ‘a 
sight will increase the risk to the animal. It is necessary 
for the wearer to be able to see anything approaching from 
behind and the amount of room in which to turn round. 
Further, if it will cause any injury or inconvenience having 
to continually look through small wires, or if any of the 
mechanical arrangements can, in case of accident, be driven 
on to the eye to damage it. Also, the conditions of heat 
and moisture will have to be taken into consideration. 
—Yours faithfully, Coxitrery PracriTIoNER.