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The Western 

Literature, Education and Art. 

H. H. MORGAN, Epitror 

ST. LOUIS, MAY, 1878. 

Shakespeare’s Tragedies—King Lear. By D, J. Snider 271 
Why the Sea Complains—a poem. Simeon Tucker Clark 285 
Sonnet. By Lewis J. Block 286 
Lady Macheth—a study in character. By Grace C, Bibb...............006. 0008 287 
Thought on Pessimism and Educational Reforms. By W. T. Harris 304 
Paris in America. By 5S. E. Cole 312 
Editorial Department 
OS PORT G iriicae cise teninn sdntteats cassis secdeesene Sodctsotnnsdidiatetendiains 319 

weey 324 
REE OS GE esses cinssbdpltdoins datddar oniccbsceces sosvap gases ade 327 

cv ceecces cbesencseseceoce eccséénene 333 

6 ae SS P-<S ) 

Notices of Societies......... seecvecccees 

Books added to Public School Library 




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Prospectus of “The Western.” 

The Western Publishing Association having purchased the right to publish 
‘THE WESTERN,” hope to conduct the magazine in consonance with the best 
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Vol. 1, No. 1, New Series, will be issued January 1, 1875. The subscription 
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THE WESTERN will aim to represent the various intellectual interests of St. 
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editorial department, the best results in all fields of intellectual effort. 

H. H. Morgan, Editor and Publisher. 
W. T. Harris, 

D. J. Snider, 

Z. G. Willson, Assistant Editors. 
F. E. Cook, 

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Contents of January Number. 

Art-Criticism, = - - . H. H. Morgan. 
Cupid and Psyche, a Poem, -_ - - FF. E. Cook. 
The Carnival, - - - - - W. T. Harris. 
The Relation of Physical Salmons to ae Life, B. V. B. Dixon. 
Shakespeare’s Tragedies; Romeo and Juliet, - D. J. Snider. 
Editorial Department. 

Contents of February Number. 

Sbakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, - - D. J. Snider. 
Tantalus—a poem, - - Lewis J. Block, 
The Theatre in Blackfriars, - oe . - Grace C. Bibb. 
On the Relation of the Will to the Intellect, & - Wm.T. Harris. 

Ancient and Modern Ethics, - - - - 2Z.G. Wilson. 
Rditorial Department. 

Contents of March Number, 

Shakespeare’s King Lear, - D. J. Snider. 
Stella—a poem, - - - F. E. Cook. 
J. J. Rousssau, - - 8. E. Cole. 
Dante, - : - - - L. F. Soldan, 
Editoria) Department. 

Contents of f April Number. 

The Necessity for the Specialist, and the nature of his Comple— 

mentary Education, - - - - H. H. Morgan. 
The Quest—a poem, - . . - Lewis J. Block. 
Thoughts on the Music of Beethoven, - - Wn. T. Harris, 
The Lincoln Monument at Springfield, - Thomas Davidson. 
Shakespeare’s ae Lear, - - D. J. Snider. 
Dante, - - - - - L, F. Soldan: 
Editorial Department. 

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‘The Western. 

MAY, 1878. 



Continued from the April Number.) 

We have reached in our analysis the second grand 
movement of the play, which will depict the re-action 
against the successful but guilty children, and will show 
the completed retribution. The ethical world is lying 
in ruins, falsehood is triumphant, honesty banished, all 
moral ties destroyed, and the Family disrupted. Chaos 
seems to have come again. But from this chaos the 
elements are beginning to coalesce, which will restore 
order and vindicate the shattered institutions of man’s 
rational nature. The faithful children were unjustly 
cast off by their parents, and the latter have been pun- 
ished for their wrong. But thus a new guilt has arisen, 
that of the faithless children, whose punishment must 
now also be portrayed. For, in their case, the same 
law of retribution holds good which was observed in 
the case of their parents. 

But who are to be the instruments of their chastise- 

272 The Western. 

ment? The faithful children will return and seek to 
avenge the wrongs and recover the rights of themselves 
and of their parents. This attempt will constitute the 
second movement: it is an attempt to restore the dis- 
rupted Family. Thus the circle of the whole action is 
complete; it begins with the wrong done to the faithful 
children, and ends with putting into their hands the re- 
tribution. But the effort will not be fully successful, 
the parents can not be completely restored to their for- 
mer condition, for their deed is essentially the same as 
that of their faithless children. 

In this second movement also there are two main 
threads, though they are different from the two threads 
of the first movement, which are composed of the fam- 
ilies of Lear and Gloster. Now the faithless members 
of both families coalesce, and also the faithful members 
of both families are thrown together: Edmund unites 
and works with Regan and Goneril on the one hand, 
and on the other hand Edgar sympathizes with, if he 
does not aid the party of Cordelia. These two sides 
collide, the faithless children are victorious in the ex- 
ternal conflict, but the daughters perish in a struggle 
between themselves, and Edmund falls in single combat 
with his brother. 

Beginning, therefore, with the first thread, we ob- 
serve that it is composed of the faithful children, Edgar 
and Cordelia, together with the groups of which each 
one is the central figure. Both are similar in conduct 
and character, both now bring aid and solace to their 
afflicted parents who, however, have done them the 
deepest wrong. But their fidelity never falters, their 
duty cannot give way to revenge or indifference. Such 
has been their action from the beginning, such it will re- 

Shakespeare's Tragedies. 273 

main to the end. Their profoundest principle is to be 
true to the Family: Edgar to Gloster, Cordelia to 
Lear. Restoration, internal and external, for their pa- 
rents, is the great object of their endeavor. The two 
fathers are to be brought back to their previous circum- 
stances of honor and power, if possible; at least, they 
are to be solaced, comforted, and restored in mind. 
Hence a great change is observable in this portion of 
the drama. The tremendous upheavals of volcanic pas- 
sion have ceased, and in their stead the tenderest emo- 
tions of affection and pity stir the breast. The action 
becomes more quiet and more pathetic ; tears succeed 
to wrath, loving devotion to ingratitude. 

First, then, let us follow the group which mainly con- 
sists of Edgar and his father. They are almost inde- 
pendent through the whole of the second movement, 
and can be easily separated from the rest of the action. 
Edgar still retains the disguise of mad Tom; he is 
thinking of Lear, and prefers his own state, ‘‘better un- 
known to be contemned, than still contemned and flat- 
tered.” He would chose the reality, however bitter, to 
a false appearance, however agreeable, so deep is the 
truth and sincerity of his character. But who is this 
wretched, mutilated man who meets him here upon the 
wild heath? It is his father, Gloster, blind, fleeing 
from the cruelty of his own son, accompanied by a 
faithful tenant as a guide. The father’s thoughts are 
occupied about his injured child; he is humbled to the 
earth by his misfortunes, and still more by his own 
deeds ; as in the case of Lear, calamity has tmade his 
sympathy universal, his heart is full of commiseration 
-for the poor and lowly, he thinks of the poor beggar 
(who was the disguised Edgar) in the storm. But his 

274 The Western. 

chief mental state consists in the belief that he is the 
victim of an almighty yet cruel power above: 

“‘As flies to wanton boys, are we to the Gods, 

They kill us for their sport.’’ 
Such a creed is the fruit of his superstition, of his 
belief in external determination. For if God be the 
immediate cause, then misfortune can only be Divine 
persecution, and hope is impossible. It therefore lies 
deep in the characters of Lear and Gloster that the one 
ends in insanity, the other in despair. 

Gloster therefore wishes to end the unequal contest 
by ending his own existence, and hence his desire is to 
reach the precipice of Dover. But it is the object of 
Edgar, who now acts as his leader instead of the aged 
tenant, to rescue him from despair and to reconcile him 
again with the world. Then will follow the disclosure 
of the disguised son, when the father can endure the 
recognitian. Consequently Edgar practices an artifice 
upon the old, blind man—makes him believe that he 
has fallen down the lofty cliff, that he has been pre- 
served by the miraculous interposition of the Gods, that, 
in fine, he must be the object of their special care and 
protection. It is true that the son skillfully makes use 
of his father’s weakness, namely, superstition, to effect 
his pious purpose ; this motive is particularly apparent 
in the description of the fiend whose eyes 

“Were two full moons; he had a thousand noses, 

Horns whelked and waved like the enridged sea ; 
It was some fiend” 

and truly it was a fiend, despair, which lured him to the 
precipice. But Gloster is cured, he is now ready to ac- 
cept life anew, and to endure every species of affliction ; 

Shakespeare's Tragedies. 275 

he seems also to abandon his notion of a Divine perse- 

cution directed against himself. 

Gloster again meets Lear, mad, roaming at large over 
the country, though Cordelia is seeking to get posses- 
sion of his person in order to restore him. It is the 
last time that the two ill-fated parents come together, 
both have touched the lowest depths of misfortune, 
both are now found and cared for by the children to 
whom they have done the greatest injustice. Finally 
Edgar performs the highest filial act, he saves his father 
from death at the hands of Oswald and slays the assas- 
sin. Thus he has rescued the mind within from de- 
spair, and preserved the body without from destruction. 
He may hence be said to have restored his parent to 
existence ; filial duty now reaches in him its climax. 
But the roar of battle is heard around them; Edgar 
puts his father in a place of safety and goes out to ob- 
serve the result of the conflict. He does not seem to 
have participated in the fight, he keeps aloof from the 
collision with the State, and hence is preserved at the 
end of the play. The great end of all his efforts is the 
personal security and mental repose of his parent. 

Finally the son reveals himself, can we wonder that 
the old blind father could not support the conflict, 
could not endure the joy and the grief of the recogni- 
tion? Gloster, therefore, can not be restored to the 
Family whose essence he has so deeply violated, his 
heart breaks in the process, his emotional nature can not 
bear up under the contradictory feelings of his situation. 
His inability to make this transition is the logical ne- 
cessity of his character. Gloster is not a bad, but a weak 
man. He has unwittingly been made the instrument of 
the disruption of his own family. Hence, if he be re- 

276 The Western. 

stored to it, there is the same possibility of his disrupt. 
ing it again, for this result is the fruit of his intellectual! 
weakness. It should also be observed that Edgar is no 
longer the unsophisticated youth who was so com- 
pletely outwitted by the Bastard. He has learned to 
disguise himself and to assume a wonderful variety of 
characters; the number and skill of the deceptions 
which he practices upon his father to accomplish the 
most unselfish and pious ends, are startling to the rigid 
moralist. His education has been severe but thorough, 
and when he now comes to meet Edmund, he is pre- 

Gloster therefore perishes, the victim of his faithless 
son, who in his turn must meet with retribution. To 
Edgar remains this final duty of destroying the instru- 
ment of destruction, a negative but necessary result of 
his principle. For that principle is the restoration of 
the disrupted family, which, however, since the death 
of Gloster is impossible; but the cause of the disrup- 
tion as well as of his own wrongs stil] exists and must 
be removed. Thus Edgar, though declaring openly the 
primal guilt of his father, slays his illegitimate brother. 
The leading element of his character is fidelity to 
Family, here in the form of devotion to parent, whose 
enemies he destroys and whose mind he rescues from 

Similar is the purpose and also the character of Cor- 
delia, who is the main figure in the second group of this 
first thread, which group we are now ready to consider. 
She, too, is the faithful, yet injured child; she, too, 
seeks the internal and external restoration of her father. 
But she goes a step further than Edgar, she assails the 
State in her attempt to recover the rights of Lear. She 

a iia So 




Water ate 

Shakespeare's Tragedies. 277 

thus falls into guilt which leads tojthe most fatal conse- 
quences. Her endeavor has three different phases, re- 
storation of her parent to reason, to Family, and to 

First of all, the attempt must be made to cure the 
insanity of Lear. He seems to be wandering alone 
over the country, without care or guidance; his talk, 
though wild and incoherent, is mainly connected with 
his lost authority, with the cruelty of his daughters and 
in general with the utter perversity of the ethical world 
which he, in his raving mood, scoffs at and condemns 
with sarcastic bitterness. The Poet has thus intimated 
the cause of his madness, as well as the means of its 
cure: restore him to a daughter’s love and to the im- 
age of respect and power, and the ground of his 
insanity is removed. These are just the spiritual med- 
icines which Cordelia administers to him after sufficient 
physical repose ; in the pathetic scene when he awakens, 
she asks for his blessing with the deepest affection, and 
assures him that he is again in his own kingdom. Lear 
is thus restored to reason and to Family with its love, 
the original cause of madness is taken away. 

It is manifest that Cordelia is different trom what she 
was in the First Act; a new element of her nature 
seems to have developed itself. Previously we saw her 
rigid moral code and her intellectuality brought into the 
greatest prominence; now her character in its softer 
and more beautiful features is shown, we behold her de- 
votion to parent as well as her intense emotional nature, 
which, however, she is able to keep under perfect con- 
trol. Still the germ of this new trait can be fourd in 
her earlier declarations and demeanor. In the first 

278 The Western. 

scene, that of the partition, she repeatedly expresses 
her affection for her father : 

‘*What shall Cordelia speak? Love and be silent,” etc. 

It is not merely the physical repose prescribed by the 
doctor which clears up the clouded intellect of Lear, it 
is the presence of Cordelia who brings with her a double 
restoration, that of subjective affection on the one hand 
and that of objective institutions on the other. It was 
the loss of these, through the conduct of Regan and 
Goneril, which shattered his reason; sanity therefore 
returns with the return of Cordelia. 

But her third purpose is that which ruins her cause. 
She brings a French army into England to secure to her 
father his right, as she says, by which she evidently 
means, to place him again on the throne. She thus as- 
sails the highest ethical institution of man, the State, and 
unwittingly commits herself the greatest wrong. More- 
over Lear had resigned his power, and divided his King- 
dom ; he had no longer any just claim to the crown. 
Her invasion of the country rouses up against her the 
head of the State, Albany, who was otherwise favorable 
both to her and to Lear. But he had to defend his 
own realm, though he hates his associates, and loves 
those who are fighting against him. Had Cordelia been 
satisfied with the restoration of her father to his reason 
and to his family, Albany would have given her both 
aid and sympathy. However much we may admire her 
character and regret her fate, however indignant we 
may be against her two sisters, still we must in the end 
say, she did wrong, she violated the majesty of the State, 
in her affection for parent she attempted to destroy the 
higher principle for sake of the lower. The result is, 
she loses the battle, is taken prisoner and perishes. 

snl Pia ALLO RIN 


AE aie nhl ta a a 

ee ee ee 

ete Be nl A a i 

ee ets ee en 

a dinciacral tate Fro inliaien 

Shakespeare's Tragedies. 279 

The death of Cordelia is often felt to be unjustifiable, 
and the play was once altered to suit this feeling. But 
a true comprehension of the nature of Dramatic Art 
will vindicate the Poet. The end of Tragedy is not that 
somebody get killed, or even that a villain be brought 
to justice; it must show the collision of two ethical 
principles, both of which have validity in the reason of 
man. The individuals who are the representatives of 
these conflicting principles are brought into a struggle 
which admits of no mediation; both, from one point 
of view, are in the right, and yet both from another 
point of view are in the wrong; the deeper, more uni- 
versal thought must decide the conflict, and triumph in 
the end, for strife can not be eternal. Cordelia’s pro- 
foundest impulse is devotion to Family, a very lofty 
principle of action; but she is led by it into a collision 
with the State, a still higher principle. Undoubtedly 
these two elements ought to be harmonized, if possible ; 
but Tragedy means that they cannot always be har- 
monized, and hence the lesser must be subordinated by 
violence and by death. 

Cordelia is therefore a truly tragic character, whom 
we are compelled to condemn, though we shed tears 
over her fate. But she is something more, she is the 
tragic female character, for her collision is peculiar to her 
sex. The Family is the highest ethical principle of 
woman as woman; at least it has been hitherto in the 
history of the world, even though we may think that 
this state of things will be changed in the future. The 
readers of her own sex therefore will always feel, per- 
haps ought always to feel that she is in the right, that 
her death is unjustifiable. Let us contrast her action 
with that of Albany who is a man and holds to the other 

280 The Western. 

principle, the State. He too is indignant at the con- 
duct of Goneril and Regan, he sympathizes deeply with 
the misfortunes of Lear, and wishes well to the efforts 
of Cordelia for the restoration of her father. But a 
French army means the ruin of his country, at least its 
control from without, he therefore is compelled to make 
the choice, he takes the State as his ethical principle, 
though he has to act with those whom he hates, and 
against those whom he loves. Albany and Cordelia 
hence collide; it is the collision of man and woman, 
both of whom are the representatives of the essential 
ethical principles of their respective sexes. It is also to 
a certain extent the collision between emotion and 
reason. Our feelings go along with Cordelia, even Al- 
bany’s feelings went along with Cordelia, for the Fam- 
ily is the realm of affection and must always call forth 
the emotions of man; still intelligence must control 
sentiment, and subordinate it to the higher end. The 
consequences of their actions are seen in the catastrophe ; 
Cordelia perishes, while Albany survives as the ruler of 
his country. 

But our next anxious inquiry is concerning the fate 
of Lear. He has recovered from insanity through his 
daughter's love ; what will be his condition, now that 
she is gone? He relapses momentarily into madness ; 
but this is not the end: he can not again be disrupted 
from the Family. His affection for Cordelia is most 
intense, he cares not for prison and captivity, if she 
only be with him, her presence has become to him life 
itself. Hence when he is convinced that she is dead, 
his heart breaks over her corpse, an end similar to that 
of Gloster. The first disruption of Lear’s domestic 
ties cost him his reason, the second now costs him his 

Shakespeare's Tragedies. 288 

life. It is however, his own primal wrong which 
reaches through the whole play and at last strikes the 
fatal blow. Such is the first thread with its two very 
similar groups of faithful children. 

There remains finally the second thread of the second 
movement to be considered. The faithless children of 
both families have come together, similarity of charac- 
ter naturally attracts them to one another. Edmund and 
the two sisters therefore constitute the heads of this 
group, to which also Albany must be added, though he 
only belongs to it partially. An external conflict has 
arisen with Cordelia, the nature and grounds of which 
have already been given; in it they were successful, as 
they happened to be the supporters of the State in con- 
junction with Albany. But the internal conflict has also 
arisen, as it must arise under the circumstances. The 
unity of the faithless can not be permanent, they must 
be true to the deepest principle of their character, and 
hence must be faithless to one another. This gives the 
struggle among themselves, which the poet has also de- 
veloped, to make the delineation logical and complete. 

The two sisters have become fired with the most in- 
tense jeaiousy and enmity in their endeavors to obtain 
the love of Edmund; they are playing false to each 
other, and Edmund is playing false to both. The prin- 
ciple of them all is falsehood, what else can be expect- 
ed but mutual treachery? But Goneril and Regan are 
now shown in a further yet very consistent development 
of character: their faithlessness becomes universal. 
Having been faithless to their father, they naturally 
become faithless to the Family in all its relations ; 
hence they are now portrayed as violating the great fun- 
damental virtue of the Family, chastity. Infidelity to- 

282 The Western. 

ward parent is deepened into infidelity toward husband, 
and the very possibility of any ethical ties is annihilated. 
Their former conduct has therefore adequately mo- 
tived this final development. For them every condition 
of the Family is destroyed, daughterhood has long since 
perished, now wifehood passes away. Union with them 
is impossible, even for the Bastard, as he himself inti- 
mates. What remains? Only Death, for every substan- 
tial element of existence is gone. Goneril, always the 
prime mover, destroys her sister with poison, as before 
she brought ruin upon her father ; and when she knows 
that her intrigue with Edmund is discovered by her 
husband, she speedily thrusts a dagger into her own 
bosom. Such is the end of the two faithless sisters ; 
both perished in a struggle with each other for the pos- 
session of an infamous villain who was faithless to both. 

But Edmund remains, his success has been without a 
parallel, he may well believe that his lucky destiny can- 
not be arrested. Hitherto he has obtained all the hon- 
ors, titles, and property of the family of Gloster; now 
his object is the possession of the State. He fights 
bravely against the French invasion for a crown which 
he regards as his own, and to remove every obstacle 
which might arise in his path after the victory, he orders 
Lear and Cordelia to be put to death. This conduct 
brings him into direct conflict with Albany the present 
head of the State, whose life he has before sought to 
destroy. But Albany according to the spirit of the 
play can not be his slayer; this can only be his brother 
Edgar whose father he has deceived, betrayed and out- 
raged, and who therefore now appears as the avenger of 
the Family. The Poet is thus careful to make the first 
wrong of Edmund to return and to involve him in its in- 

wotnce eo nh 

ee ote 

Shakespeare's Tragedies. 28% 

exhorable retribution. The Bastard in the course.of 
his career has assailed quite all the ethical institutions 
of man; he believed that the world was entirely con- 
trolled by management, and not by principle; hence his 
sole faith was in Lis own subjective cunning. His fate, 
though long deferred, is the necessary consequence of 
such a character; some one armed with the vengeance 
of violated right destroys him. Such is the outcome of 
the three faithless children. 

The conduct and fate of Kent in this second move- 
ment seem to be left somewhat indefinite. The Poet, 
however, carefully informs us that it is so intended : 

“‘50me dear cause 
Will in concealment wrap me up a while.” 

No active participation in the war is manifested by 
him, though he visits the camp of Cordelia. His de- 
votion appears now to be to Lear as an individual ; 
still the drama indicates little one way or the other. 
Some critics have even imagined that his death is given 
in the play, but this is certainly a mistake and also a 
misunderstanding. The truth is, the Poet wishés to 
preserve all the faithful; but to do so consistently, he 
must keep them out of the collision with the State 
which was the fatal deed of Cordelia. Hence the con- 
duct of both Kent and Edgar in regard to the war is 
left in obscurity, though their devotion is still brought 
forward in the strongest light. They therefore survive 
with Albany who defends the State and yet at the same 
time respects the Family. 

The action has now completed its revolution and 
brought back to all the leading characters the conse- 
quences of their deeds ; the double guilt and the double 
retribution have been fully portrayed. The treatment 

284 The Western. 

of children by parents and of parents by children is the 
theme; both fidelity and infidelity are shown in their 
most extreme manifestation. Two families are taken, 
that of the monarch and that of the subject ; the former 
develops within itself its own collisions, free from any 
external restraint, and hence exhibits the truest and 
most complete result; the latter is largely influenced 
and determined in its course by authority, but an au- 
thority which is itself poisoned with domestic conflict. 
The exhaustiveness of the treatment is worthy of care- 
ful study; Regan is faithless to parent, Goneril is faith- 
less to both parent and husband, Cordelia is true to 
both, yet assails another ethical principle, the State. 
The two sons and the two sons-in-law exhibit also dis- 
tinct phases of the domestic tie; they are still further 
divided by the fundamental theme of the play into the 
faithful and faithless; that is, a son and a son-in-law 
belong to each side. But it is a curious fact that one 
very important relation of the Family is wholly omit- 
ted; no mother appears anywhere; sonhood, daughter- 
hood, wifehood, fatherhood are all present, but the ten- 
derest bond of existence, motherhood, is wanting. The 
Poet evidently does not need it, for the action is al- 
ready sufficiently full and complicated ; perhaps too the 
character of the mother may be supposed to re-appear 
in some of her children, as for example in Cordelia, who 
is so different from her father. But one cannot help 
commending the true instinct, or it may be judgment, 
which keeps such a mild and tender relation out of the 
cauldron of passion and ingratitude which seethes with 
such destructive energy in this appalling drama. 


Why the Sea Complains, 


Early in boyhood the sighing and sobbing 
Sound of the sea-wave was oft in my ears, 
Drowning the voice of my crying, and sobbing 
Sleep from young eyes growing pale from their tears. 
Down by the shore where the morning was breaking 
Often I questioned and pitied the Sea ; 
And the Great Deep, from its sad sorrow waking, 
One day grew calm and made answer to me. 

That was the time of his tender confession ; 

That was the time when hissecret was told ; 
Just as the Sun and his royal procession 

Marched up the East with their banners of gold. 
Just as a rivulet, loving, elated, 

Paused for a moment for strength, ere she sprang 
Into the arms of old Ocean, who waited 

To answer the questioning song that I sang. 

Ocean, give ear to the musical waters 
Sliding down hillside, and gliding through lea— 
The bright little brooklet that saucily scatters 
Sparkling, pure drops, as in prodigal glee, 
And in trustful profusion, she pours out for thee 

Her life’s blood ! Now what wilt thou give her? O Sea! 

“I will give her my all—my heart and my treasure— 
And cherish her ever with tenderest care ; 
She may float on my bosom and lie at her leisure 
In these briny arms; but the Sun will not spare 
One so lovely and fair some sweet summer day 
He will dazzle and charm her and steal her away 



The Western. 

‘All my life long I am mourning in sorrow ; 
Longing for loves he has taken from me. 
Only the hope of some swift-coming morrow 
Calms the sad soul of the sullen, salt sea— 
When brooklet aad dew-drop, and soft summer rain 
May bring to my bosom my darlings again.” 



From depth of dusky dream I woke, and crossed 
The new-fallen snow ; the sunrise splendor burned 
Along the sky, and, like an alchemist, turned 
The many clouds mild winds had deftly tossed 
In shapes fantastical as those the frost 
Graves on the window-pane, to crimsoned gold ; 
The changeful rosy mists, soft fold on fold, 
Crept, lit with radiance, where my gazing lost 
The curving sky ; I stood within a vale 
Engirt by shifting hills of glorious mist , 
The morning air was glad with colored light, 
The trees like nuns stood wrapt in cloaks of bright 
Chaste snow, and from the chimney rose the pale 
Slow smoke to skies that shone clear amethyst, 

Lewis J, BLocx, 

ree ema 

Lady Macbeth. 



That Lady Macbeth was not the original instigator 
of the murder of Duncan, seems evident from the de- 
signation of the play ; it is called by Shakespeare: ‘“The 
Tragedy of Macbeth,”’ and Roetscher well says of the 
Drama that ‘“‘ Lady Macbeth’s role is not only to clear 
away her husband’s conscientious scruples, and to save 
him from vacillation, but also to afford a lesson in her own 

fate, of the eternal laws of the moral world. It is by no 

means Lady Macbeth that enkindles Macbeth’s ambi- 
tion and aspirations to the crown; these were aroused 
by the meeting with the witches, who merely stir- 
red up the desires which had been for a long time pre- 
viously working in that heroic breast. Macbeth could 
not have been the hero of the tragedy had he received 
his first inspiration from his wife. She would appear 
as a mere instrument in the progress of the action, and 
afford no higher poetic interest if her role closed in hur- 
rying Macbeth on to the deed.” Thus far Roetscher, 
and thus far the rules of the tragedy in general—but it 
is urged that Macbeth, as the less guilty instrument of 
a most guilty temptress, meets a soldier's death on the 
field of battle while his wife, the beautiful fiend of the 
play, perishes miserably by her own hand, and that thus, 
by allowing due weight to the laws of poetic justice, we 
readily distinguish the degrees of guilt as intended by 

the poet. Without entering at all into a discussion of 

288 The Western. 

the measure of honor accorded to Macbeth in that death 
which though encountered on the field of battle, came to 
him at the hands themselves of the much injured Mac- 
duff, and which failed to ensure for him even the com- 
mon rite of sepulture, it may be well to remember that 
our only evidence of the queen’s suicide is contained in 
the exclamation of Malcolm: 

‘Of this dead butcher and his fiend-like queen, who, 
as ’tis thought, by self and violent hands took off her 
life,” —-admitting in its full force a passage regarded by 
several critics as spurious, we have in it after all no evi- 
dence of anything, unless it be of a rumor that the 
mysterious close of Lady Macbeth’s stormy life resulted 
from self-destruction ; to the prince the suicide is a 
matter of inference, to the people it is an idle report, ris- 
ing one knows not where, communicated one knows 
not how. To the king the announcement causes none 
of the perturbation of surprise ; he falls straightway in- 
to melancholy reflections, but they seem to express the 
resignation of a spirit which, long apprehensive of an 
afflictive stroke of destiny, acknowledges at the final 
blow that: ‘‘ Present woes are less than horrible imagin- 
ings”—that certainty, even of the worst, is better than 
the long agony of suspense,—that something of rest lies 
in the self-assurance, that there is no longer anything 
to fear from the vengeance of the gods—that the dregs 
of the poisoned chalice commended to his lips, have 
been drained; so life becomes : 

“ A walking shadow ; a poor player, 

That struts and frets his hour upon the stage, 
And then is heard no more: it is a tale 

Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, 
Signifying nothing.” 


Oe ne een rw ee ee oe ie 

sib Puan, 

Sea tesaal 

ao Taras 

«8 be ad thebsiatone! 

2 pet eS eBiee NT SRS WI 

Lady Macbeth. 289 

It is apparent then that Shakespeare has left us in 
doubt as to the exact means of Lady Macbeth’s death, 
and that the measure of doubt is the uncertainty which 
hangs over her participation in the crime. I am well 
aware that to many minds this very vagueness of state- 
ment will furnish strong presumptive evidence of the 
entire depravity of a character whose vileness can only 
be hinted at, of a death whose terrors are mercifully 
veiled; but it may be argued, on the other hand, with 
equal force and more justice, that this vagueness is a 
stroke of high art, an intentional heightening of the sub- 
limity of the character and of the play through a cer- 
tain remoteness of suggestion, rather than disclosure of 
characteristic traits. What then, shall we say of Lady 
Macbeth ? 

Without one allusion to her bodily presence other 
than is contained in that woeful : 

*“All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this 
little hand.”” Her beauty is a fact as duly received as if 
declared by credible witnesses in a court of law; the 
type of her beauty is a subject of more difference. Mrs. 
Siddons thought it the brown-haired blue-eyed, the 
fragile and graceful rather than the strong, and attrib- 
uted to the popular identification of the character with 
its stage representative, the very common view, that the 
wife of Macbeth was a black-haired dark woman of state- 
ly form and regal carriage. It seems probable that Mrs. 
Siddons was influenced somewhat by the Mary Stuart 
type of loveliness, that of the only Scottish queen who 
might, in any degree, serve as a model of beauty fascina- 
tion; all merely external graces combined with strong 
intellect, great pride, and an unyielding ambition, and 
who had withal a tenderness—a pathos, a passion rarely 

290 The Western. 

found in real life and well befitting a heroine of antique 
tragedy. On the whole, I am inclined to think that 
Mary Queen of Scots sat for Mrs. Siddon’s portrait of 
Lady Macbeth, or it might have been merely, that the 
great actress preferred another, to her own style of beau- 
ty, attributing to it whatever of success she felt or imag- 
ined herself to fail in: let us reserve our judgment, till 
an examination into the artistic relations of the charac- 
ter shall give some validity to our decision, if even then 
we shall be able to find the mind’s construction in the 

Lady Macbeth is ambitious; some would even say, the 
incarnation of ambition she has its mounting devil in her 
heart, and falls a victim to the last infirmity of noble 
minds. Personal ambition is not by any means, I think 
a characteristic of women; and here first, the nature re- 
volts from the frame of the sex, and yet not wholly. 
The union of Macbeth with his wife is a true marriage 
inspired by love, resting on mutual respect, ennobled 
by a common aim, in the furtherance of which the char- 
acters of the two complement each other most admir- 
ably. So nearly are they united in sympathy and in 
hope, that the success or failure of one is the success 
or failure of both; hence, ambitious as she undoubtedly 
is, Lady Macbeth’s aspirations are not more or less 
rather for herself than for her husband. She is willing 
to be queen because he is king, a separate royalty would 
have been as impossible in aspiration, as real'ty It is 
the very mixture of motive, the fluxion of interest, which 
is likely to mislead in our study of the dominant trait 
in this character; we are still so fond of that criticism, 
which would make of the whole only an aggregation of 
pieces, not a chemical union of elements. 


CNN a be ite 

om hte 1 ees! 

1 ban Cano RA Sica 

can a tat 

Ben leh weet inland ot 

pi aiichdad price 

Brak Gali 

Lady Macbeth. 29! 

Here we have ambition, masculine in its type, in so 
far as it aims at personal elevation, feminine, in so far 
as it is in large measure unselfish. Let us examine her 
influences. The grand-daughter of the king, second 
cousin to Duncan himself, with personal claim to the 
throne, and with bitter personal wrongs to avenge, wife 
to Macbeth, whose natural right to the throne was as 
great as Duncan’s, and from whom only the accident of 
election withheld the crown, the temptation of a dia- 
dem, always just beyond grasping, was ever present to a 
mind not diverted from its contemplation by active du- 
ties of any wide range and aggravated by its own keep- 
ing of a state, which must have seemed an aping of 
the splendors of royalty. 

There is no evidence of any association with her own 
sex: an isolation so striking D’Avenant’s version would 
remedy it by the introduction of Lady Macduff, as the 
companion of Lady Macbeth at the reception of the 
fatal letter. The author’s treatment is infinitely truer. 
Lady Macbeth is not a woman of diffuse sympathies ; 
her affections are very strong, hence they have few ob- 
jects. Her father living,she had doubtless loved him with 
a devotedness of heart since even the chance resem- 
blance in Duncan, a resemblance of age to age probably, 
was sufficient to unnerve her ;—in this there is much to 
establish the relation of the guilty queen, to common 
humanity. Out of the very depths of feeling, springs 
doubtless, that devotion to her husband’s interests which 
has made her the depository of Macbeth’s ambitious 
projects, for it is characteristic of the two, that while 
Lady Macbeth’s stronger nature suffers in silence, after 
the commission of the crime, all its energies are direct- 
ed to the restoration of the husband’s tranquillity. 

292 The Western. 

She bears the burden of remorse until crushed, literally 
under its weight; Macbeth finds relief for doubt and fear 
and calamity, by pouring into the ever sympathizing ear 
of his wife, the story of his ambition’s hopes and fears, 
conquests and defeats. 

Lady Macbeth was ambitious—ambitious in the sense 
in which a Cesar or a Napoleon was ambitious, or a 
Catharine of Russia. Here am I and my station is not 
here but yonder ; the way is long and dark, and they who 
hold me from my place make valiant resistance; yet 
what are they all but cumberers of the ground, shall | 
turn from my appointed way to spare them? Why, no. 
Let the rather my car of triumph roll on; they, if 
they fall by the way, if they are crushed, shall their 
blood indeed cry out against me from the ground ! 

This is the reasoning of ambition ; its logic bears true 
results, and in the strongest natures, brings no remorse. 
For Macbeth, true heir though he may be, no such am- 
bition is possible; there is in him no such profound be- 
lief in his own power, or mission; he is a man brave 
indeed, but others too are valorous, and he advances no 
claim to the throne, founded on his own right to rule. 
He is nota true prince from whom a crown is wrongful- 
ly withheld, who feels himself an alien and a stranger 
till the golden circlet shall again rest on his brow; he is 
a man who sees afar something which is not a part of 
him as royalty is of the true king, but something ex- 
ternal which, added to his possessions, would make him 
richer indeed, which were therefore to be sought, but 
which gained were nothing but accessory after all, with- 
out it he is man and hero, with it, he is not more; hence 
his hesitation, hence it is that he can say :— 

“] have no spur 
To prick the sides of my intent, but only 


Lady Macbeth. 

Vaulting ambition, which o’erleaps itself 
And falls on th’ other.” 

He does not delude himself; the crown is his by no 
divine right—-thus we too esteem them—Lady Macbeth 
is to us always the queen, whether receiving Duncan 
with astately courtesy that seems borrowed from the fu- 
ture, whether entertaining at the banquet the nobles, 
and allaying their justly roused fears with royaily sooth- 
ing words, or whether walking in the fearful compan- 
ionship of her own thoughts in the awful sleep-walking 
scene—always a queen, always with a queen’s beauty, 
a queen’s loneliness. 

Apart from her ambition, Lady Macbeth’s mental 
power strikes us most forcibly, if indeed it be well to 
speak of ambitionas of something apart from that intel- 
lectual vigor of which it is generally but an exponent. 
First of all there is her clearness of vision; she reads 
the characters and capabilities of men truly, and is thus 
enabled to appeal at once to the controlling influences 
of life, and to bend the mind and energies of her 
husband, to her will. She has accepted for Macbeth 
and for herself a position, in which there is to be as re- 
ward, the crown of Scotland ; there is one way, that fatal 
nearest way, by which that crown may be gained; her 
will accepts all the consequences of her ambition. Dun- 
can is in the path, let him be removed ; there is no per« 
sonal feeling whatever, in the matter. It is not that 
Duncan is a weak prince whose too great mildness, 
whose lack of proper firmness. has encouraged the dis- 
affected or perhaps the patriotic, to revolt and to join 
forces under the Norwegian banners; it is not that in 
a monarchy, the crown of which is within certain limits 
elective, Duncan has received the franchises to which 

294 The Western. 

Macbeth had equal legal right; it is no sense of per- 
sonal or public wrong emanating from the king, which 
inspires the tragedy, nor does the nomination of his 
son as Prince of Cumberland, which might have seemed 
the outcome of a desire not alone to ennoble his imme- 
diate descendants, but by their investiture with his own 
estate, so to direct the future action of his people that 
at his death, Macbeth, who would again be eligible to 
the crown, might be again obliged to yield the honors 
to his kinsman’s house. What excuses for self might 
not many a one have woven here, why might not Mac- 
beth have declared himself an avenger of blood? Here 
comes out the sincerity to themselves, which is charac- 
teristic of both ; they will, to be great ; Lady Macbeth is 
queen by natural right; they will do the crime to ob- 
tain the glorious result, but they never palter, never 
dissemble; they will kill Duncan, but the killing is as- 
sassination, murder. Duncan shall die yet, it is true: 

“This Duncan 

Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been 
So clear in his great office, that his virtues 
Will plead like angels, trumpet tongned, against 

The deep damnation of his taking-oif.” 

There is even a pity for him as for a vicarious sacri- 
fice, a victim of unequal fates. Says she: 
“The raven himself is hoarse 
That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan 
Under my battlements.” 

The topic of the murder had been broached, how or 
when we do not know, but first by Macbeth himself, it 
there is any significance in 

“What beast was’t then, 
That made you break this enterprise to me ?”’ 

ee ee 

MPD AB 00 Dp deeiedy al 



Lady Macbeth. 295 

And we are to infer, not only that Macbeth had spoken 
of the matter to his wife, but also that there had been 
discussion of means, and that he had been willing both 
to assassinate Duncan and to make opportunity for the 
crime. There is a profound simplicity in the motive 
of the murder, nothing but the removal of an obstacle. 

It is here, perhaps, rather than elsewhere, that Lady 
Macbeth departs widely from the governing influences 
of her sex, and here first, that a distinctively masculine 
trait appears. It is natural for woman to grasp at 
the absolute essence of things through their incidental 
manifestations, that is, practically to ignore what does 
not place itself in immediate relation to her own life. 
The concrete appeals to her perhaps with even more 
power than to man, but crime or suffering in the ab- 
stract, affecting persons in different countries, or people 
of other times, is seldom of any validity in determining 
her thought or her action. For her to commit a crime, 
murder, through passion, love, jealousy, revenge,. 
incited by her victim, is dreadful to be sure, yet not ab- 
normal; but when in cold blood, a woman resolves upon 
assassination as the most direct means to an end, calmly, 
deliberately, with no personal wrongs to avenge, no fan- 
cied justice to mete out, her execution of her resolve 
places her with the crown for which her masculine am- 
bition toiled, in a rank apart, and it is only the subor- 
dination of her ambition to her husbands advancement 
which in the present instance lends a color of woman- 
liness to her association with the crime. In the su- 
bordination of the individual to the family is to be 
found the unity of Lady Macbeth’s life; its purely 
intellectual force is strongly brought out by contrast 
with Macbeth. Lady Macbeth knows his character 

296 The Western. 

thoroughly, unless indeed she were wrong in fearing 
too much, the milk of human kindness : 

“ What thou would’st highly, 
That would’st thou holily ; would’st not play false, 

And yet would wrongly win: thoud’st have great Glamis, 
That which cries, thus thou must do, if thou have it, 
And that which rather thou dost fear to do, 

Than wighest, should be undone.”’ 

She fears his courage, not that merely physical form 
of it, with which he has fought so valiantly as to merit 
the rebel Cawdor’s title and estates; but he is essen- 
tially conservative, desires the throne, but desires with 
it to keep also the praise of men, and his fear of failure 
is almost paralysis to his plan of success. His super- 
stitious dread of the life to come, and of a retribution 
so direful that imagination fails to depict it, are ren- 
dered plain enough to us by Shakespeare, in the intro- 
duction into the pla? of the wierd sisters, the objective 
forms in which the self-temptation of Macbeth is ex- 
hibited; but Lady Macbeth is of another mould, deter- 
mined upon the deed, she is capable of considering its 
consequences as they are to be. She knows that failure 
is possible, but takes the risk for the sake of the gain ; 
and too wise to allow herself to dwell on the possibility 
of disaster, dilates always on the glory of success. She 
stakes all on the issue, but lets no weak reflections on 
possible disgrace and death, unnerve herarm. Then 
too Macbeth, who after all is the great gainer by the 
crime, is to be so wrought upon that he shall no longer 
let: ‘“‘I dare not wait upon | would;” and here comes in 
the consummate art of the woman. She loves her hus- 
band, but does she therefore on his arrival soften his 
mind with tender words, rejoicings at his safe return, 

st ik RE Nib wie 4 Scents TR 

metas A te 

chine + 48 

sd oetteA 

ssc ar ie 

‘Lady Macbeth. 297 

tears for the dangers overpast, as many a woman would 
have done? In the letter of Macbeth she had been 
called ‘‘My dearest partner of greatness” dnd she res- 
ponds to the very spirit of the greeting in her saluta- 
“ Great Glamis, worthy Cawdor ! 

Greater than both, by the all-hail hereafter ! 

Thy letters have transported me beyond 

This ignorant present, and I feel now 

The future in the instant.” 

His promised greatness is his first thought, it shall 
be hers also; the present is almost the future, and the 
past has vanished utterly. She establishes thus between 
her husband and herself, first of all a relation of com- 
plete sympathy in aspiration. The further questioning 
and reply which follow, are an evidence, as it seems to 
me, of the design on Lady Macbeth’s part, while assum- 
ing that the commission of the deed is a foregone con- 
clusion, to how far her husband has swayed 
from his previous purpose. 

“Which shall to all our nights and days to come 

Give solely sovereign sway and masterdom,’’ 
is a direct appeal to his ambition as the later, “‘leave 
all the rest to me,” appeals to that trait by reason of 
which he would enjoy the fruit of crime, but would hold 
his hands clear of blood. She goes forth to receive 
Duncan, veiling her deep purpose in words that seem 
the voluntary abnegation of royalty itself, gracious, 
and not unfitting herself or her king; then in the next 
scene she is again the inspiration of Macbeth, who 
pauses to reflect on consequences and to remember 

“In these cases, 
We still have judgment here; that we but teach 

The Western. 

Bloody instructions, which, being taught, return 

To plague the inventor: This even handed justice 

Commends the ingredients of our poisoned chalice 

To our own lips.” 
And to conclude that he will proceed no farther in the 
matter, until Lady Macbeth taunts him with the words: 

“Art thou afeard 

To be the same in thine own act and valor, 

As thou art in desire ?”’ 
Always aiming her darts at the heel of Achilles, always 
reaching directly the vulnerable point! There is no 
quality of man more admirable to woman,than courage, 
none, the absence of which renders him more contempt- 
ible. Macbeth knows that his wife has no love for him 
which can coexist with contempt. He could little 
brook an imputation of the kind from anyone, least of 
all from her who is the crown and glory of his life and 
love. She knows her power and uses it; shall we say 
cruelly. Perhaps not, if we refer her action as before, 
principally to her love, yet unfalteringly working up 
her weakness to the pitch of strength in the awful 
speech beginning 

“What beast was’t then,” 

with which she answers Macbeth’s 
“T dare do all that may become a man;” 

Then too, when Macbeth returns to his old line of 

“If we should fail,” 
She answers simply, ‘“‘We fail,” yet adds: 

“But screw your courage to the sticking place, 
And we'll not fail.” 

Then there is the plan unfolded, and Macbeth, con- 

ick 0 aie ee Alaa aa laa 

Lady Macbeth. 299 

vinced that the deed may be accomplished with safety 
and attributed to the grooms, especially if proper atten- 

tion be paid to the 
finally : 

roar of griefs and clamors,”’ says 

“I’m settled, and bend up 

Each corporal agent to this terrible feat.” 

Now comes the crisis, and Macbeth, bemoaning alike 
his victim and himself, has done the fatal deed. How 
his superstition comes out here! Rapt from himself in 
an ecstasy of fear or horror, his frenzied imagination 
paints a bloody dagger which marshals him in the ac- 
cursed yet destined way, and when Duncan’s blood is 
on his hands, how every nerve quivers to impalpable 
agencies. Is it a noise he hears, or is it his own heart 
beats? Is it only his disturbed thought, or does some 
voice out of mysterious spheres indeed cry : 

“Sleep ne more ! to all the house: 

Glamis hath murdered sieep; and therefore Cawdor 
Shall sleep no more—Ma2cbeth shall sleep no more.” 

Under the full influence of all her will-power, Lady 
Macbeth rises to the emergency. ‘‘Did she hear a 
noise?” She heard the owl scream and the cricket cry 
indeed, and by the token, is only so much more the 
minister of fate. It is her office to suggest the prac- 
tical. She has considered what is to be done, and she 
it is, who is to comfort and sustain her husband ; she 
asks him: 

‘‘Who was it that thus cried? Why worthy Thane, 
You do unbend your noble strength, to think 
So brainsickly of things.” 

To what a sublimity of crime has she raised herself, 

when she can utter the scathing speech: 

The Western. 

“Infirm of purpose ! 
Give me the dagger: The sleeping and the dead 
Are but as pictures: ’tis the eye of childhood 
That fears a painted devil.” 

Up to this point Lady Macbeth contrasts with her 
husband, as strength with weakness. The original con- 
triver of the plot, he has been so far swayed, partly by 
his better impulses, more by his fears of retribution, as 
almost to abandon the design, that is for the time: that 
this demon of ambition would have had but temporary 
rest, we feel well assured. To the full measure of his 
need however, his wife has always responded ; whatever 
there has been of weakness in him, has been met always 
by unfailing strength in her; but then the strength is 
very peculiar, it lies largely in the domination by the 
will, of the tender emotions, in a crushing, through the 
very force of affection, of the affections themselves, in 
an absolute violation of the highest impulses of the 
woman’s nature, through impulses only less high than 
the highest. Crushed as they are temporarily, these 
best impulses assert themselves at the last with all the 
violenc, of force gathered from their long repression, 
bearing down all that is weaker than they. 

The violent strain of all the mental powers, which 
has thus far enabled the wife of Macbeth to lend her 
strength to the boldest crime, reacts naturally upon the 
physical constitution; the long tension exhausts the 
brain, and leaves the whole system in a state of relaxa- 
tion, such that a slight shock easily destroys the bal- 
ance of the mental and physical powers. The queen, 
who has been her husband’s evil genius in this most 
foul murder of an almost reverend king, faints when 
she hears announced the assassination of the grooms. 

a iat ars li 

ee te ere 

Lady Macbeth. 301 

This simple fact furnishes, as it seems to me, a key to 
the character. A nature, fiend-like as that of Lady 
Macbeth is sometimes depicted, could have felt no com- 
punctious visitings of conscience; the degree of re- 
morse is the measure of original purity. In the wholly 
depraved there can be no divine aspiration, and it is 
the awful longing of the spirit, the fearful realization of 
its possibilities in contrast with its actual state, out of 
which as from some Dives in térment, to whom Heaven 
gleams beyond gulfs impassable, goes up that cry of 
the lost soul. 

Macbeth on the contrary, having plunged into crime 
however reluctantly, accepts at once all the attendant 
consequences ; he is no Brutus who takes a first step 
and loses, through failure to take the succeeding ones, the 
stake for which his enterprise was begun; he is no 
Hamlet to halt ever on the threshhold of action ap- 
proved of conscience and determined by reason, he is a 
man to whom 

“Things bad begun make strong themselves by ill,” 
and to whom 

“Returning were as tedious as go o’er.” 

Lady Macbeth, womanlike, lives over daily, hourly, 
no doubt, the scene of slaughter. Instant by instant 
she sees anew the dagger descending; for her there are 
no illusions, no ghostly visitants; her imagination 
is retroactive, it fears no retribution; that is left’ for 
Macbeth whose fears take shape as if of incorporeal 
agents of that extra mundane sphere, which is to him a 
realm of vagueness and terror always. 

There is to me nowhere shown, in the character of 
Lady Macbeth, any fear of personal ill consequences; 

302 The Western. 

it is no plea for temporal or eternal safety which issues 
from her lips; it is the wail of her woman-nature over 
its lost purity; it is: 
“What! will these hands ne’er be clean ?”’ 

It is that 
*‘All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this tittle hand !” 

Or it is the profound pathos, the awful pity for the 
ruin she has wrought, which reveals itself when she 
speaks of Lady Macduf. 

“The Thane of Fife had a wife; where is she now ”” 

These are not the exclamations of a fiend; they are 
cries out of terrible needs of the soul which would rise 
again to its original heights, but which can neither 
climb nor soar, only suffer, only despair. A nature 
better or worse than that of Lady Macbeth would have 
suffered less in the reaction. A worse nature would 
have felt less remorse, the degree being lessened ac- 
cording to the increased depravity; a better nature 
might have applied itself to expiatory works, to self-in- 
flicted penance, but for this woman there is nothing but 
the suffering, the settling down deeper and deeper, of 
the cloud of gloom, which gradually shuts out all light, 
and finally, destroys reason itself. 

It is not the spectacle of a depravity which with nerve 
to commit a crime still lacks the nerve to bear the re- 
sulting shock, to endure the consequences. It is the 
recoil of the whole nature against the essentially false 
position into which it has been forced by the will power, 
This tension of the will, reacts upon itself, as long con- 
tinued tension must do, in the destruction of elasticity ; 
thus the pressure once removed, the relaxation once 
felt, the reproduction of the tension becomes impossi- 

Lady Macbeth. 303 

ble, the dominion of the will is destroyed; it attempts 
again to resume its authority, but its action is hence- 
forth spasmodic, violent, indeed, but ineffective, broken 
by weakness, tending only to failure, and to death. So 
in the withdrawal of the mind’s activity, from the direct 
control of the will, into the realm of dreams, the colli- 
sion in the character ceases, and the real nature asserts 
itself; here there is no longer resolution, courage, 
pride, only shuddering horror. 

Shakespeare’s justice cannot of course, be measured 
by any fixed code of laws. It is not that he demands, 
always with the severity of the Jewish dispensation, an 
eye for an eye, and a tooth for atooth; tried by any 
such standard, justice, upon plain and simple interpre- 
tation of motives, will seem frequently to fail, and the 
critic who insists upon his pound of flesh must often 
make Shylock his model for justification; but the fate 
of man lies in his own hands, his sentence procedeth 
out of his own mouth. Outside of a belief in the gov- 
ernment of law, and of a faith in the interdependence 
of relations in the material universe, there can be for us 
no essential harmony, no justice, which commends it- 
self as absolute. Let us realize, however, that in the 
very nature of things, the sins of the parent are visited 
upon the child, that out of weakness, there must ever 
proceed only weakness, that strength grows ever into 
strength, that all conscious existence is progression, and 
we are ready to comprehend faintly, perhaps, yet in a 
measure, truly, the justice of Shakspeare. 

So we are to seek, in Lady Macbeth herself, her des- 
tiny. We are to trace the evil germs, which growing, 
and ever growing, became at the last, poisonous plants, 

interweaving and interlacing, till with their luxuriance, 

304 The Western. 

fed by decay, they crushed the very life on which they 
grew. Beautiful, royal of mind and bearing, a gracious 
lady, and loyal wife, Lady Macbeth was all these, but 
in her very gifts lay doom. From the combination of 
a hero’s will with a woman’s physical weakness, origi- 
nates the conflict of nature itself, in which the queen 
perishes. Nor, need we ask, ‘‘why this retribution ?” 
We have only to see that the result can not logically be 
other than it is. It is, in reality, no retribution at all, 
only the sequence of events. There is the strong will, 
first of all, then the strong intellect, and the strong pas- 
sions; the mind, which could plan, the hand which 
only fell short of execution, the personal magnetism 
which could control and inspire, the heart which could 
love with such intensity of devotion; the exaltation of 
spirit which demanded acrown as its right; the abnega- 
tion of self which could lay its crown at the feet of its 
love. Grace C, Biss. 



It will not escape the attention of a careful ‘observer 
of school methods, that there is a certain periodical re- 
currence in the reforms that are proposed, as well as in 
the staple arguments by which they are supported. This 
recurrence is notable enough to cause a suspicion, in 
the mind of one sceptically inclined, that there is some 

Thoughts on Pessimism. 305 

self-deception on the part of the most eager and impul- 
sive who push these supposed reforms. The thought 
spontaneously arises: Is this progress, or only a phase 
of a process which goes round and round? 

I. Pessimism. 

Nothing disgusts and paralyzes a man of spirit so 
much as to find that he is the unconscious instrument 
of fate—the sport of circumstances—a link in a chain 
of necessity. He is willing that everything in nature 
should move cyclically in times and seasons, and be 
governed by external necessity; indeed, he expects 
nothing else of natural beings. But the prerogatives 
of spiritual man should be free-will, an Infinite Ideal, 
an eternal destiny—and an endless progress of each in- 
dividual. Hence arises the paralysis that one feels at 
the suspicion of an all-embracing social fate, whose final 
ideal is not consciously seized by the individual, his life 
being swayed by it, and being, perhaps, such an out- 
come as destroys all individual strivings, by neutraliz- 
ing them one with another. After all perhaps this fate 
does not bring out any positive result even from the 
whole process. In this view, the annual round of the 
seasons with the budding life of springtime, the fullness 
of summer, the lapse of autumn, and the still and in- 
determinate repose of winter, seems the melancholy 
type of spiritual life. Then spiritual life becomes a 
phase of nature, and no new dispensation wherein ap- 
pears the supernatural. Instead of being a phase of 
a cycle, a transitory avatar of the inevitable Fate, man 
ought to be, according to the Christian ideal, a whole 
cycle in himself, so that his process is nota self-destruc- 
tive one ending in a winter of death that breaks the con- 

306 The Western. 

tinuity of the individual, and mocks him with a phan- 
tom show of immortality—a mere preservation of the 
species, and not of the individual—as in the case of the 
plant, another individual proceeding from him, similar, 
but not identical. 

The genial mind which views this interpretation of 
life, becomes cynical, and, like Faust, turns from the 
ethical conduct of life to the Vision of Sin and bitterly 
ejaculates : 

“Fill the can and fill the cup 
All the windy ways of nien 

Are but dust that rises up, 
And is lightly laid again.” 

He sneers at enthusiasm, discourages hopeful views, 
despairs of institutions, but will not help mend or re- 
place them. ‘‘The present world is the worst possible 
world,’’ says Schopenhauer and the Nirvana of quietis- 

tic repose is the one thing desirable. But it would 
seem as though these pessimists fall into the paradox 
that the active endeavor to ameliorate this worst possi- 
ble of worlds would even make it worse. Annihilation 
alone is amelioration. Hence the scepticism that arises 
from such perception of fate in human life produces a 
paralysis of the will. I will not descend into the flow- 
ing stream of activity, fancying that I am making pro- 
gress when I am merely eddying round and round. | 
stand, at the conclusion of it, and say: ‘“‘All is vanity, 
I will not go hence merely to return empty handed.” 
In this volition of mine to withold myself from the pro- 
cession of life I exhibit my freedom and transcendence: 
I stand on its general result, its outcome, and thus, in 
my consciousness elevate myself above mere particular- 
ity, or finite individuality, which forms and breaks, 

Thoughts on Pessimism. 307 

wavelike, on the oceanAurface, but does not abide, a 
self-identical being, under all changes. 

With this view, no earnest action can be undertaken: 

No action from principle, because the principle is not 

positive, leading to the realization of a definite ideal, 

but a negative one, the destruction of all definite ideals 

and ending in annihilation. Stoicism cannot satisfy 

this stage of consciousness ; it may as well kill time 

with sensualism, for that anticipates the Nirvana, and, 
with its intoxication can drown sorrow, at least tempor- 

Ra iad aay 

“Drink and let the parties rave ; 
They are filled with idle spleen, 
Rising, falling, like a wave, 
For they know not what they mean. 
‘‘He that roars for liberty, 
Faster binds a tyrant’s power, 
\nd the tyrant’s cruel glee 
Forces on the freer hour,” 

Does all insight produce paralysis of the will? Is 
the doctrine of the Nirvana the outcome of all thor- 
ough, speculative thinking? This must not be granted 
foramoment. Thegreatest thinkers—Aristotle, Plato, 
Leibnitz, Kant, Hegel—-all agree that the free-will of 
man breaks the order of nature and begins an infinite, 
responsible career, wherein insight leads to moral activ- 
ity, and moral activity leads again to insight. They 
agree that in the absolute to know and to do are one; 
hence, to know, in the highest sense, is to create. 

If we hold fast to this conviction we shall not be dis- 
mayed at the appearance of any cyclical movements in 
human history, or in any part of it—as, for example in 
the department of pedagogy. 

The Western. 

II. Educational Reforms. 

One experiences a great difficulty in attaining a point 
of view from which to decide upon the merits of a pro- 
posed reform in methods of instruction, or in the course 
of study to be chosen in a school system. Without 
any reflection upon the nature of such reforms, how- 
ever, he will find himself continually misled, and will 
become vacillating in the extreme. 

The attacks upon the system of discipline in vogue, 

hinge upon social and political questions of the most 
fundamental.character: whether a system should be 
harsh or mild, mechanical or genial, is to be settled by 
an inquiry into the results demanded in society and the 

Whether grammar is to be taught as a science, and 
its strict definitions and fine discriminations carefully 
drilled into the mind of the pupil, or whether it is to be 
taught more as an art, and the time devoted to English 
composition and essay writing, are questions of a wider 
than social or national bearing; they touch the cosmo- 
politan questions of spiritual culture, whether the nat- 
ural sciences shall be taught in common schools; 
whether drawing is a proper study for all grades of 
schools, or for any except special schools; whether 
school education should begin with children under six 
years of age; whether the Kindergarten is a proper ad- 
junct to the public school system; whether it unduly 
hastens intellectual development in childhood ; whether 
in the study of arithmetic great stress should be laid on 
the explanation of his process by the pupil; whether 
much or little geography should be taught; these and 
like questions, some important, some trivial, continual - 

Thoughts on Pessimism. 309 

ly arise, and press for answer, inasmuch as practical ar- 
rangements are to be based upon them. It is, whether 
possible or not, desirable to have a general form of so- 
lution for them. One very general characteristic may 
be readily observed. These questions all relate in some 
way to the principle of obedience and may be all contain- 
ed in a general formula, thus: In ‘how far shall the 
child at the several ages of his growth be made to con- 
form to principles prescribed for him by higher author- 
ity and in how far shall he be permitted and encouraged 
to develop spontaneously and direct himself by his own 
insight. Under this statement we readily recognize the 
two poles of the Theoretical and Practical, of the In- 
tellect and the Will. From the standpoint of the In- 
tellect we should favor the spontaneity of the child al- 
ways. Nothing but self-activity can ever develop the 
power of thought, or insight. From the standpoint of 
the Will we should favor implicit obedience to the pre- 
scribed rules and regulations, and a faithful study of es- 
tablished literary and scientific forms, without a too 
curious investigation into their genesis and rationale. 
Learn with a view to practical utility, we should say. 
Learn to write a correct sentence rather than to com- 
prehend the logical basis on which all sentences are 
made. Learn to make arithmetical calculation with 
rapidity and accuracy, and never mind the minute and 
tedious explanation of the process. 

Thus vibrate the tendencies to reform from the pole 
of the will or practical side, to the pole of the intellect 
or the theoretical side. Now we are suddenly awakened 
to the fact, that our pupils are doing work that they 
do not understand, are being moulded mechanically 
into forms of discipline, and are mechanically memor- 

310 The Western. 

izing rules of arithmetic or grammar, without insight 
into their significance and necessity. They are acquir- 
ing habits of obedience to established order, and skill 
in applying the conventionalities of intelligence, but 
they are not developing originality, nor gaining much 
insight. On this discovery, we at once change our 
methods. We break up mechanical discipline and have 
less of combined movement; appeal more to the incli- 
nation and humor of the pupil, perhaps, even go so far 
as to adopt the self-reporting system. We lay stress 
on mental arithmetic and on grammatical analysis ; 
discourage the use of the text-book and introduce oral 
teaching everywhere, and require much explanation on 
the part of the teacher. After a few years we discover 
again the defects of our methods. We are making im- 
moral children by placing too much responsibitity upon 
them, in the way of self-direction, and this leads, first, 
to cunning and deceit, and then to open lying. They 
had more pressure than they were able to withstand. 
The reliance upon their good disposition was mis- 
placed. The best pupils suffered the most from the 
school penalties, and the rogues escaped by additional 
roguery, lying themselves out of difficulty. We find, 
on the other hand, that they know nothing practically. 
They can perform astonishing feats of intellectual anal- 
ysis, but cannot add a column of figures without mis- 
takes, nor write a letter in a correct form, with correct 
spelling and punctuation. They know much miscella- 
neous information regarding nature and history, but are 
not fitted for practical life. We immediately reverse 
our methods, and begin to approach the other pole. 
Thus to and fro move the tendencies to reform in 


Thoughts on Pessimism, Bil 

But ato-and-fro movement is not a progress, although 
it isa process. Progress requires a process which in its 
onward movement does not lose what it has already 
gained. The Will must not be ignored in the cultiva- 
tion of the Intellect, nor vice versa. When we gain a 

high grade of self-activity in the pupil, without any loss 
of moral training in self restraint and obedience to 
principle, then we have made progress. Progress is 
synthetical; it combines elements before separated. 
Mere process to-and fro is very frequently called pro- 
gress, but it involves the early contradiction of a return 
over the same path. Many, in fact, adopt one move- 
ment in regard to one study or habit of discipline, and 
the opposite tendency with another; believe in free 
self-activity to the last degree on general principles, but 
disparage the training of the power of thinking, in gram- 
matical analysis, and would entirely replace it with learn- 
ing to write correct essays, according to the prescribed 
models of style. 

But shall one be a cynic, or pessimist, and refuse 
to believe in these movements? Not atall! There 
is great good in the enthusiasm which comes with 
a new aim. Fresh work is done with an energy 
otherwise not to be obtained. The naive, uncon- 
scious teacher who is not aware of the one sidedness 
of the new tendency as well-as of the old, needed a new 
impulse to prevent him from utter stagnation. 

The chances in favor of widening his range of vision 
are doubled, for he has got so far as to make a distinc- 
tion between one method and another, and to makea 
choice. Now there is a further possibility that he may 
note his position between two essential poles of thought, 
and make it his business to reconcile them by a synthe- 

312 The Western. 

sis, which is real progress. This progress to and fro, 
which moves in cycles like the vegetable world, is la- 
mentable in spiritual life. It leads to pessimism. But 
we are reconciled to it when we remember that for ve- 
getable nature it is the very thing to be desired, and, 
indeed, for the vegetable stage of the human mind, for 
the naive, unconscious teacher, who implicitly follows 
‘use and wont,” a cyclical process is, indeed a very 
great blessing. The worst that could happen would be 
the petrifying of the seed in the ground. With the 
cyclical process comes the unfolding of all the possible 
phases—the complete differentiation of the subject, and 
this makes posstble the synthesis, or combination of 
these various phases and sides of the process into one, 
and thus changing mere Process into Progress. 
W. T. Harris. 



An American Spiritualist. 

“Mr. Jonathan Dream, the eminent Spiritualist and Medium, of 
Salem, Mass., requests the pleasure of your company at a Psychic 
and Mediumistic Soirée, at his house, No. 22 Moon Street, Tues- 
day, April 1. 

*One of the wittrest of books is “ Paris en Amérique,” and as it has not yet been 
translated into English, it has seemed proper to present some of the more enjoy- 
able chapters, as well as such as most strikingly present the idiosyncrasies of life 
in France and in America: Space suffices but for the introduction, but the trans- 
hetion will be continued. (EpiTor.) 


pee P pn I aa 

Bit end hein abba lle as: lala wie VL: 

Paris in Asmerica. 313 

Somnrambulism, trances, prophecy, second-sight, divinations, evoca- 
tions : conversation, poetry, spirit-writing ; thoughts from beyond 
the grave, secrets of the future life unveiled, etc,, etc. 

Doors closed at 8 o’clock pricisely.’’ 

Well! thought I, as I re-read this note, I should not 
be sorry to make the acquaintance of an American me- 
dium, a fellow-professor of positive and experimental 
pneumatology ; for I am‘also a spiritualist. Though 
but a plain citizen of Paris, I have already, as well as 
anybody, called up Cesar, Napoleon, Voltaire, Mme. 
de Pompadour, Ninon, Robespierre, etc. ; and, indeed, if 
the truth must be told, though at the expense of my mod- 
esty, these illustrious personages have not eclipsed me 
by their genius; they all have replied tome as if I had 
prompted them. Let us see if Mr. Jonathan Dream, 
with his foreign pretensions, will have more spirit, or 
more spirits, than your servant, Daniel Lefebore, D. 
M. P., the pupil of Hornung of Berlin, of von Reichen- 
bach, and of Baron von Goldstubbe. ‘‘Set a rogue to 
catch a rogue.” 

In a handsome suite of rooms, at one end of a parlor 
with closed doors, but brilliantly lighted (which is un- 
usual in our spiritualist meetings), | found Mr. Jona- 
than Dream, seated at a round table. He had the 
melancholy attitude and inspired face of the sybils. 
Opposite him sat half-a-dozen adepts, with a meditative 
air: nervous people, sentimental women, superannuated 
officers, and widows; the audience one always sees at 
such places. Each wrote on paper the name of the de- 
ceased whom he wished to interrogate; I did the same. 

The names were thrown together into a hat; the first 
one drawn out was that of Joseph de Maistre. Jona- 
than reflected a moment, put his hand to hisear, to hear 

314 The Western. 

the voice which spoke softly to him, and wrote rapidly 
the following : 

“There is no sterile knowledge ; all knowledge is like 
that of which the Bible speaks: Adam knew Eve, and 
she brought forth. 

No credo, no credit.” 

Oh! thought I, these paradoxes sound well; they 
have all the bluster of their father: only it seems to 
me as if I had already heard them somewhere: at Baa- 
der’s, if | am not mistaken. After all, perhaps there 
is no copyright law up above, and it is possible that, for 
diversion, they amuse themselves there by stealing 
each other’s ideas. 

Hippocrates was the second; he had the kindness to 
speak French. His interpreter wrote: “The man who 
thinks most, digests least. Other things being equal, 
he who thinks least, digests best.” 

‘Alas !” said a little woman, whose thin face was hid- 
den by waves of gray hair, ‘“‘that is a physician’s re- 
sponse, a brutal response, made by men, and for men. 
It is not thought which preys upon the heart, it is’— 
and she sighed. 

Nostradamus was called; his opinion concerning the 
future of Poland, of France, and of Italy was asked. 
This was the reply of the great magician, the sublime 
genius who always leaves to others the trouble of com- 
prehending what he says: “‘In France, Italy and Poland, 
much wit, little shame; in Poland, France, Italy, men 
are first foolish, then wise ; in Italy, Poland and France, 
less happiness than hope.” 

We were obliged to content ourselves with this ora- 
cle, too profound to be clear. After the Provencal sor- 
cerer, it was the turn of Kosciusko. This evening the 

Paris in America. 315 

Polish Washington was in a bad humor; we could get 
trom him only the Latin motto: In servitute dolor, in 
libertate labor; in servitude sorrow, in liberty labor. 
Three times we questioned him, three times he made 
this uncivil reply, and threw it in our faces as a re- 
proach that we no longer had even any feeling. 

The last note asked that Don Quixote, Tom Jones, 
Robinson Crusoe, or Werther might be interrogated. 
This made the circle laugh, though, to tell the truth, 
unwillingly. The author of this impertinence, I am 
ashamed to confess, was myself. The dead and the liv- 
ing have bored me so long, that I should be delighted 
to know what goes on in the heads of those who have 
never existed. 

Jonathan Dream threw the unlucky note into the bas- 
ket, announced that the sitting was at an end, and 
showed us out with great courtesy. Just as I was leav- 
ing, he tapped me on the shoulder, and begged me to 

When we were alone, “‘It is you, my colleague,’’ said 
he, smiling in a singular way, ‘‘who addressed to me a 
question which these profane considered indiscreet ; per- 
haps you are of the same opionion. Blind that you are, 
you have never fathomed the arcana of eternal truth. 
You imagine that Don Quixote and Sancho, Robinson 
Crusoe and Friday, Werther and Charlotte, Tom Jones 
and Sophie never existed? Man cannot create an atom 
of matter, and you suppose that he can create souls 
which can never perish! Do you not believe in Don 
Quixote more than in Artaxerxes? Is not Robinson 
Crusoe more alive to you than Drake and Magellan ?” 

“‘What! the ingenious Don Quixote really lived? 
And I might converse with the wise prefect of the isi- 
and of Barataria?” 

316 The Western. 

“Certainly. Think what a poet is. He is a seer, a 
prophet, who soars to the invisible world. There, from 
the millions of beings who have passed away from earth, 
and whose memory has vanished, he chooses those 
whom he would have live again in the memory of men. 
He evokes them, he speaks to them, he listens to 
them, he writes at their dictation. What stupid hu- 
manity takes for an invention of the artist, is only the 
confession of the unknown dead ; but you, a spiritual- 
ist, or pretending to be, how is it that you do not recog- 
mize a supernatural voice? How can you allow your- 
self to be deceived like the common herd? Have you 
really advanced so little in mediumistic ways ?” 

Speaking thus, Jonathan Dream threw back his head, 
and tossing up his arms, and opening and shutting his 
hands, he advanced toward me as if to overcome me 
with his magnetism. 

‘‘My friend,” I said to him, ‘‘I see you are a man of 
talent, though a spiritualist; I do not doubt that you 
could write a little speech in the manner of Don Quixote, 
or improvise some new provetbs worthy of Sancho. But 
we are alone, and we are both augurs ; we have the right 
to look at each other, and to laugh as we do so. Let us 
stop here; I wish you much success. It is easily won 
in France; the nation which thinks itself the most in- 
telligent in the world is naturally the easiest to lead 
by the nose. Ask the women of Paris.” 

‘‘Stop!” cried the magician, in a tone of fury. 
“*Have I been deceived? Are youa traitor? Do you 
take me for a charlatan, for a fraud, for a mountebank? 
Please to understand that Jonathan Dream has never 
spoken a word of untruth. You doubt my power, my 
good sir ; what proof of it will you have? Shall I de- 

Paris in America. 317 

prive you of all your ideas—no very difficult thing ; 
shall I send you to sleep, or subject you to heat, cold, 
wind, rain; shall 1’— 

“Let us have no magnetism,” I said; ‘‘I know that 
is a natural phenonemon, hitherto not well understood, 

which you abuse. If you want to convince me, do not 
begin by sending me to sleep. We are not at the Aca- 

*‘Well,” said he, fixing his flaming eyes on me, ‘‘what 
should you say if I were to transport you to America?” 

‘‘What should I say? Seeing is believing.” 

‘Yes, you,” cried he; ‘‘and not you alone, but your 
wife, your children, your neighbors, your house, your 
street, and, if you say the word, all Paris. Yes,” he 
added, with a feverish agitation, ‘‘yes, if I wish, to- 
morrow morning Paris shall bein Massachusetts ; there 
shall be only an uninhabited plain on the banks of the 

‘‘My dear sorcerer, you ought to sell your influence 
to the prefect of the Seine; it might, perhaps,*save us 
some millions. In the absence of the Parisians, a quite 
new Paris might be built for them as regular and mon- 
otonous as New York; a Paris without a past, without 
monuments or memories; all our architects and city 
authorities would be ready to die of joy.” 

**You are joking,” said Jonathan ; “‘you are afraid, I 
repeat ; to-morrow, if I wish, Paris shall be in Massa- 
chusetts, and Versailles with it. Do you accept the chal- 
lenge ?”” 

“Yes, certainly I accept it,” I replied, laughing. 
But nevertheless the assurance of this devil of a fellow 
disturbed me. I am a judge of boasting; I read twen- 
ty newspapers a day, and I have heard more than one 

318 The Western. 

minister in the tribune; but this enthusiast’s voice awed 
me, in spite of myself. 

“Take this box,’’ said the magician in an imperious 
tone; “open it; there are two pills in it, one for you, 
the other for me ; choose, and ask no questions.”’ 

I had gone too far to retreat. I swallowed one of 
the globules ; Jonathan took the other, and saluted me, 
saying in a hollow voice: ‘‘Farewell till to-morrow, on 
the other side of the ocean.” 

Once in the street, I found myself in a singular con- 
dition. I ran without stopping to the Champs-Elysées, 
never thinking of the distance. I felt lighter, more ac- 
tive, more elastic than any human creature ever was, it 
seemed to me that with one leap I could reach the hor- 
izon. All my senses were incredibly acute. From the 
Place de la Concorde I saw carriages driving around 
the Arc de |’Etoile; I heard the ticking of the great 
hand which marks the time on the clock of the Tuiler- 
ies. Life coursed through my veins with unfamiliar 
swiftness and warmth; I asked myself if some invisible 
hand had already carried me across the Atlantic. To 
reassure myself, I looked at the pale crescent slowly 
climbing the sky. Sure of not having changed my long- 
itude, I went home, ashamed of my credulity, and fell 
asleep laughing at Mr. Dream and his idle threats. 

S. E. Cote. 
(To be Continued.) 

Book Reviews. 


Pestatozzi, His Lire, Work anp INFLUENCE. By Hermann 
Kriisi. (Pablished by Wilson, Hinkle & Co., Cincinnati. 
Price $2.25.) 

In our April number we noticed this work as in press, and 
now that we have read the book we can bear personal testi- 
mony to its value. The part which pertains to the publisher 
has been unusually well done, and it is a pleasure to deal with 
a book of which the paper and typography are so excellent. 
Pestalozzi is known to all teachers by name, and as many claim 
to be his disciples while they betray no very exact acquaintance 
with his tenets, this work will, we hope, meet with wide accept- 
ance. The author divides his work into these five parts: Ist. 
Life of Pestalozzi. 2d. Associates of Pestalozzi. 3d. Extracts 
from the writings of Pestalozzi. 4th. Principles and Method 
of Pestalozzi. Sth. Spread of the Pestalozzian System. 

Mr. Kriisi, the author, has done his work in the most admira- 
ble manner, and the most careless reader will feel that he has 
secured that “impartial statement’’ which he “attempted.” It 
should be understood that while this book is most likely to at- 
tract and instruct “educationists,” it is not merely a teacher’s 
manual, but would not be out of place on the shelves of any 
general library. Mr. Kriisi departs from the custom of most 
writers of manuals, and gives usa literary product quite distin- 
guished by the simplicity, correctness and chasteness of its 
style. In conclusion let us say that it is a personal pleasure to 
bestow praise when so well deserved. [Ep.] 

A Suort History or THe EnatisH Peopie. J. R. Green, M. A. 
(Published by Macmillan & Co., and forsale by Gray, Baker 
& Co.) 

This is a title of an unusually well-written and reliable book 
upon English history. The author, as he says in his preface 

320 The Western. 

“aims to give a history, not of English Kings, or English Con- 
quests, but of the English people. At the risk of sacrificing 
much that was interesting and attractive in itself, and which the 
constant usage of our historians has made familiar to Englisb 
readers, I have preferred to pass lightly and briefly over the 
details of foreign wars and diplomacies, the personal adven- 
tures of kings and nobles, the pomp of courts, or the intrigues 
of favorites, and to dwell at length on the incidents of that 
constitutional, intellectual, and social advance in which we read 
the history of the nation itself.” The light in which Mr, Green 
regards Spenser’s Faerie Queene has, at least, the merit of nov- 
elty, and will be found interesting to the students of literature 
We can fully recommend this work as a real addition to private 
libraries, aud as largely vindicating the function of the bisto- 
rian, by the manner in which his work has been executed. 

[ Ep. } 


We stated in our notice in Toe WesTERn, some of the prom 
inent features of this new Cyclopedia. We have found the re- 
cent volumes fully equal in every respect to the first ones is- 
sued. In order to give the reader some notion of the value of 
this work we will state that the Editors-in-chiet, George Ripley 
and Chas. A. Dana, are too well known in the literary world 
to require any commendation. The staff of revisers is composed 
of thirty-three able men, well known in the realm of letters. 

In the preparation of this work the greatest care has been 
taken to make its contents thoroughly reliable, and only such 
portions of the old work have been retained, as were found to 
be in accordance with the present state of knowledge; every 
statement has been compared with the latest authorities, every 
error that could be detected has been corrected. All apparent 
superfluities both in subject and treatment, have been rejected ; 
a number of new titles have. been added, while obsolete ones 
have been omitted. 

The materials that serve as a foundation for the work, have 
been derived from a great variety of sources. Besides the 
standard works in literature, science and art, histories, biogra- 
phies,. books of travel, scientific treatises, statistical reports, the 

Book Reviews. 321 

current journals and periodical literature have been put in con- 
stant requisition, their contents carefully collected and utilized. 
Information has been obtained from practical men in all de- 
partments of business, from public officials, etc. In a work in- 
tended for popular instruction, it is obvious that elaborate 
treatises on the multitude of subjects treated, would be neither 
desirable nor appropriate. Hence no attempt has been made 
to furnish exhaustive treatment of subjects in science and liter- 
ature. But the editors have endeavored to present such selec- 
tions from the great treasury of knowledge as will give those 
who are reading in one department of knowledge, a brief view 
of the latest and best discoveries in all other departments, and 
especially to spread before the great mass of intelligent readers 
an epitome of the opinions, systems, discoveries, events, actions, 
and characters that make up the history of a world. 

Taugz Success in Lire, By Ray Palmer. A.S. Barnes & Oo., 
New York and Chicago. 

As stated in the preface, the author has embodied in.a small 
volume a few addresses, in all fourteen, formerly delivered to 
young men and women as a distinct class, in the hope that they 
may help those who are thoughtful in relation to what lies be- 
fore them. lEarnestness marks every page of the book. 
Thoroughly alive to the importance of youth as the formative 
period of life, the author has striven to communicate to his 
readers the intensity of his own feelings; to arouse them toa 
truer appreciation of the worth of talents and opportunities 
possessed. He would have them feel how utterly foolish and 
base it is to misuse or fail to improve them, how truly wise and: 
noble it is to make a right use of them. The central truth, ex- 
pressed in a variety of ways in order to make the most lasting 
impression, is that the possible is the measure of duty and no 
one can be regarded as having attained success in life except in 
so far as he has actualized the possibilities of his nature. 

In the first chapter the characteristics of youth which seem to 
the author to be most prominent and hence most likely to have 
the greatest influence upon the after life are considered: the 
rapid development and ceaseless activity of youth, its sanguine 

322 The Western. 

expectations, partial and hasty judgments, vague and undefined 
longings after the noble and the good. The causes of failure 
are then reviewed,and stated briefly are, the lack of a fixed 
and definite purpose te be constantly kept in view; the want 
of a proper appreciation of the difficulties which lie in the way 
of the accomplishment of anything worth being done; the de- 
sire to effect something grand and noble coupled with an un- 
willingness to perform the ordinary tasks of life ; lastly, the 
failure to obey the injunction “Do with thy might whatsoever 
thy hand findeth to do.” 

The tenth and eleventh chapters on “Moral Courage” are 
especially readable, If there be any trait of character the want 
of which is always to be deplored, that trait is moral courage. 
It is well that the author has seen and felt its importance and 
has given it so prominent a place, insisting on it as one of the 
essentials to true success. The chapters on “Self Culture” and 
“The Choice of a Life Work” both contain many good thoughts 
which if acted upon would certainly result advantageously. 

In writing a book of this kind there is always one great diffi- 
culty to be overcome. It is: apt to be read by older persons, 
while it is neglected or voted a bore by those whom it was in- 
tended to benefit. The author seems to have foreseen this dif- 
ficulty and has tried, not wholly without success, to present 
these really serious subjects in as interesting and agreeable a 
manner as possible. W. J. 8. B. 

Tue Lost Beauties or THE Enaiish LAneuace. Charles Mac- 
kay. (Furnished for review by Gray, Baker & Co.) 

This book is a dictionary of words Anglo-Saxon in origin, 
and now obsolete; the object of Mr. Mackay is to lead educa- 
ted people to revive their use, This is not the first instance of 
an amiable enthusiasm which hopes more than is attainable by 
human compact. Roger Ascham hoped to revive the lost glo- 
ries of archery, Sir Walter Scott labored earnestly to stay the 
progress of “reform,” the French Academy used every means to 
render their language classical, and yet the logic of events was 
too powerful to be resisted. The genius of the English lan- 
guage as stated by Mr. Mackay himself, “is omnivorous ;” it 
oversteps the narrow limits of local pride, and appropriates 

Book Reviews. 323 

whatever is useful for the better communication of thought; 
and no eulogiums of any one element of our vocabulary is 
likely to lead to the disuse of the others. The whole move- 
ment in modern language has been to regard present utility 
rather than historical correctness, and this is more likely to in- 
crease than to be diminished. Looking, however, at works of 
this kind in a different light, their utility is great; any student 
of literature needs these conveniences and if he does not seek 
the end proposed by Mr. Mackay, will be grateful to this author 
for his labor. [Ep.] 

Tue Four Gospets 1n Onze. By Robert Allen Campbell. 

Since the appearance of Strauss’ “Life of Christ,” the atten- 
tion of readers and students has been claimed by many writers 
presenting their conceptions of that same “Life,” viewed from 
the stand-points of the philosopher, the Christian minister, or 
the Biblical scholar. The book now before us takes its place 
as an effort to present in one connected narrative and in their 
own language, the various particulars contained in the writings 
of the four evangelists. It might be considered a joint product 
of the four writers, each supplying a part. It is an English 
“Harmony of the Gospels.” 

In this work Mr. Campbell has done for us what every sta- 
dent of the Bible must otherwise laboriously and more or less 
imperfectly do for himself, if he wishes to gain any adequate 
view of the life of-the Savior. 

The work is divided into chapters corresponding to different 
periods in the life of Christ. The chapters are sub-divided into 
sections comprising special topics, each with its appropriate 
heading, and with references to chapters and verses by which it 
may be verified. There is also an index by which any verse im 
either of the Gospels may be found in this book, as well as a 
table of contents detailing the titles of the chapters and sections, 

There are some questions as to the chronology of certaim 
events in the life of the Savior which will probably always re- 
main in the category of questions; and the conclusions adopted 
by the author of this book are probably as satisfactory as any. 
It is a book which will be helpful to teachers of Sabbath 

324 The Western. 

School classes, as well as to all who seck to gain clear cencep- 
tions of the relations of the gospel narrative. K.M.N. 

Gorrue’s HerMANN AND DorotHea. €dited by Jas. Morgan 
Hart. (Published by G. P. Putnam’s Sons, N. Y.] 

This is the initial volume of a series of German classics and 
the design of the author has been well oxecuted as we are in- 
formed by those skilled in the teaching of German. The size, 
typography, binding and price will recommend this series to 
many who prefer to have in their libraries books best adapted 
to frequent use, while the same considerations will weigh large- 
ly in determining the choice of those who have to purchase 
text-books. [Ep.]} 

MocVicar’s NaTIonAL SPELLING BLANKS, in three humbers. No. 
1, Words, No. 2, Words and Definitions, No. 3, Words, Defini- 
tions and Sentences. A blotter is furnished with each book. 
Introduction price, nine cents. Retail price, 15 cents. 

We believe that Mr. McVicar is right in his theory as to the 
proper method of learning to spell correctly, and with this pos- 
tulate, we see nothing left to be desired in this set of blanks. 




The March meeting of the Normal School Association took 
place in the Session Room of the Board, on the 6th inst. A 
paper: “Place of Grammar in a Course of Study” was pre- 
sented by Grace C. Bibb. 

The discussion following the paper, was so aminated and inter- 

Proceedings. 325 

esting, that it was only cut short by the announcement of the 
president that the time for adjournment had already passed. 

Mr. Hamilton objected to the dogmatic manner in which 
grammatical instruction jg too often given. 

Miss Hunter illustrated by a story, the distaste of the aver- 
age pupil for text-books. 

Mr. Hall strenuously, repeatedly and eloquently, insisted on 
the value of Grammar as a culture study. 

Mr. Dyer as earnestly presented the claims of Grammar as 
a branch of instruction, from which information rather than cul- 
ture should be sought. 

Mr. Vickroy sketched his plan of work; he insisted upon 
constant practice in the application of principles, and urged the 
view that Analysis gives the pupil no new knowledge and is 
only useful as a test of his ability to refer information to its 
proper categories. 

Dr. Christin objected to Analysis, except for the High School. 
The only way to acquire correctness of language is by constant 
practice in correct speaking. The gentleman illustrated his 
remarks by showing the true method of acquiring facility in the 
ase of a foreign language. 

Mr. Soldan denied to practical Grammar, any great value as a 
culture-study and spoke of Scientific Grammar, from which alone 
culture in any wide sense could be gained, as beyond the reach 
of our schools. G. C. B. 


The regular meeting of the Academy of Science was held on 
the evening of March 15, Dr. Engelman presiding. Prof. Riley 
reported that four rare fresh water crustaceans found near Dal- 
las, Texas, had been received. Prof. Adolf Schmidt read a full 
and interesting paper entitled: “ Jron Manufacture in Missouri ; 
a general review of the metallurgical districts and their re- 

‘‘The state is divided into four iron ore regions. 

1. The Eastern region, extending over Butler, Stoddard, 
Bollinger, Cape Girardeau, Wayne, Reynolds, Iron, Madison, 
Perry, Ste. Genevieve, St. Francois, Washington, Jefferson and 
Franklin counties. 

326 The Western. 

2. The Central region in Crawford, Dent, Shannon, Phelps, 
Pulaski, Gascunade, parts of Maries and Osage, and Callaway 

8. The Western or Osage Region, in St. Clair, Henry, Ben- 
ton, Morgan, Camden, Miller Cole, and parts of Maries and 
Osage counties. 

4. The Southern Region comprising Ozark, Douglas, Chris- 
tian and Green counties. 

These four ore regions were briefly described in regard to 
their extent, to their means of communication by rail or river, 
and to their natural advantages for iron making, such as their 
resources in timber, coal, iron ore, water and furnace sites. The 
iron ores of each district were mentioned. 

To this was added a short account of “the St. Louis and 
Grand Tower Manufacturing Districts,” their facilities for ob- 
taining ore and fuel, and for manufacturing coke, pig-iron and 
wrought iron. 

The paper was referred to the committee on publication to 
be published in the “transactions.” 

Dr. Engelman made a report concerning the state of the 
weather for the past forty years. In that time there were only 
four winters in which the temperature feil lower than thirty de- 
grees below zero. For the past twenty years the winters have 
been colder than those of the twenty years preceding, and the 
summers have also become much warmer. He thought there was 
no ground for the fear that the country would in time become 
uninhabitable by reason of the extremes of heat and cold, since 
there had been no positive change in climates for the past 1,000 
years, as seemed to be proved by the character of the vegetation 
the same conclusions were stated in regard to the rain supply. 
B.¥. B.D. 


At the March meeting, Mr. Fitzpatrick read a paper on 
“Teaching Elementary Geography.” The writer treated the 
subject from its more practical and commercial aspects and ad- 
vocated beginning with the child’s immediate surroundings and 
thence extending the vision along the bighways of traffic. A 
variety of views were advanced by the members, in the discus 

Magazines and Reviews. 327 

sion which followed. The debate finally shifted to an inquiry 
into the Educational function of Geography, upon which Mr. 
Harris offered some highly important remarks,which were gen- 
erally concurred in. 

Noticeable Articles in Magazines and Re- 

Littell’s Living Age, No. 1605. “Leonardo Da Vinci,” from 
the Edinburgh Review, will have an interest for the general 

No. 1607. “Sir Philip Sidney” (Henry Kingsley for the 
Quarterly Review). 

“Karly Kings of Norway” (Part 3d), Thomas Carlyle. 

No. 1608. “Life at High Pressure” (W. R. Greg, Contempor- 
ary Review). “Karly Kings of Norway” (Part 4), Thomas Car- 
lyle. “German Home Life” (Part 3). 

International. March and April. “E. A. Poe,” by J. H. In- 
gram. “The Supernatural as Evidence,” by R. Payne Smith. 
“The Money Problem,” Amasa Walker. 

Unitarian Review. March. “Moral Distinctions in Social In- 

Galaxy. April. “A Tale of the Forest of Arden,’ by 
Richard Grant White. “Michel Angelo Buonarroti,” by Geo. 
Lowell Austin. 

Scribner’s. April. ‘Hollow Land, a Farmer’s Vacation in 
Holland,’’ by G. E. Waring. ‘The Shakespeare-Bacon Con- 
troversy,” by E.O. Vaile. “Chat about German Parliaments,” 
by Wm. Wells. 

328 The Western. 

Harper's. April. “Angoliva Kaufman,” a Biographical 
Sketch. “Caricatures of the Reformation.” 

Atlantic. April. “Crime and Automatism,” by O. W. 

Popular Science Monthly. ‘‘The First Traces of Man in Eur- 
ope,” Prof, Albrecht Mueller. “The Royal Institution and the 
society of Arts,” Bernard H. Becker. “On the Correctness 
of Photographs,” Dr. Hermann Vogel. 

Locke’s National Monthly, Toledo, Ohio. One dollar per year. 
This is an unusually creditable magazine, and deserves special 
mention. The March number contains in “Our Orange Grove” 
the obverse side of our many poetical accounts of Florida as a 
new paradise for northern people, and those who have read the 
articles in the eastern magazines, will do well to read this mag- 
azine asa corrective. “Epistolary man,” is the title of a very 
readable light article by Mary Hartwell. Mrs. Roga L. Segur 
gives a very readable biography of Gerritt Smith, while Har- 
riet Prescott Spofford writes a very pleasant story entitled 
“The Campaign of the Calico.” The magazine offers itself as a 
journal of American and Foreign Literature, and while it does 
not present the more serious efforts of our writers, its selections 
are made with good taste and certainly fairly represent the lit- 
erary forms which they undertake to present. The price is ab- 
surdly small, and those who are regular readers of magazines 
will do well to see whether it does not meet their wants. 

Fortnightly Review, April, 1875. “The Debt of English to 
Italian Literature” is shown to be great on the side of subject- 
matter and metrical form; but the writer justly awards to 
England the glory of “independence and originality of treat- 
ment.” Even now the two literatures are mutually beneficial ; 
to quote from the article itself, “‘modern Italian poets may seek 
by contrast with Shakespeare and Milten to gain freedom from 
the trammels imposed upon them by the slavish followers of 
Petrarch, while the attentive perusal of Tasso should be recom- 
mended to all English people who have no ready access to the 
masterpieces of Greek and Latin Literature.” 

2. “The Practice of Medicine by Women” is confined to “a 

Magazines and Reviews. 329 

statement of the facts of the case, legal and professional, which 
practically exclude women from the authorized practice of Med- 
icine” in England. 3, “A Year of the Birmingham School 
Board” presents interesting statistics confirmatory of three 
principles held by the English National Educational League ; 
namely, that education should be, Ist, national, 2nd, compul- 
sory, 3rd, free. 

Eclectic, April, 1875. 1, “Have We Two Brains?” (Cornhill 
Magazine,) presents fresh anecdotes and advances the hypothe- 
sis of Dr. Brown Sequard, together with arguments by Prof. 
Henseley. 2, “The Lesser Light,” (British Quarterly Review.) 
3, ‘Charles Kingsley” (Macmillan’s Magazine.) 

F. E. C. 

Journal des Bibliotheques Populaires. Bulletin de la Société 
Franklin. Paris. A monthly, publishing extracts from the 
“Popular Catalogue” of the Franklin Society, with brief book 
notices, and aiming, as its title shows, to aid the officers of 
Public Libraries in the selection of books. 

A part of the work of the Franklin Society appears to be 
the establishment of Public Libraries throughout France, es- 
pecially in the remoter districts. To this end they furnish the 
books of their catalogue, published by different firms, at a con- 
siderable reduction from current prices, besides giving them 
outright to needy libraries. 

Among the volumes catalogued in the March Bulletin are 
works by Guillemin, Figuier, Macé and Quatrefages, and Fara- 
day’s History of a Candle. Among the reviews is a critique 
on Brachet’s “New French Grammar, based on the History of 
the Language”—an admirable work, by the Way—and another 
on ‘Selections from the Great Writers of the Sixteenth Cen- 
tury,” by the same authvr. In a notice of Garnier’s First No- 
tions of Political Economy, we are told that the author has 
“reprinted Poor Richard’s Maxims—Franklin’s masterpiece.” 

S. E. C. 


National Teacher Monthly, April. In an article entitled Educa- 
tional Worthies, Prof. Richard Edwards gives a brief biogra- 
phy of Miss M. J. Cragin and in St. Louis especially this testi- 

330 The Western. 

monial to an able teacher and noble woman will be read with 

Prof. Nipher, of Washington University, has an article 
upon, “Physical Science in the Modern School.” 

Educational Journal of Va.—The March nunrber contains ‘‘Im- 
proved methods of Teaching English Grammar’’ by Miss E. A. 
Bowen. This article will interest all who have classes in this 

The “Educationist”, Ind. publishes in its Feb. number the first 
of a series of “Notes on the Lectures of Agassiz,” edited by D. 
8. Jordan, of the Indianapolis High School. The lecture given 
is the last but one which Agassiz ever delivered and was given 
to bis class at Penekese, in Aug. 1873. 

The “Illinois Schoolmaster” of March is ot great interest. Mr. 
A. S. Forbes gives the results of his experience with classes in 
Zoology; and Mr. Hiram Harly’s paper on language culture 
deserves attention. 

Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor, 33 Pemberton 
Square, Boston. In this, the 6th Annual Report, a number of 
interesting topics are discussed. Ist, The Education of Work- 
ing Children. Under this heading the Bureau presents an ac- 
count of the English factory system, and the providing of acts 
relating to the education of factory children; then after an ac 
count of the “half time schools” of Massachusetts, the Bureau 
takes ground against their continuance. 2d, Special Effects of 
Certain Forms of Employment upon Female Health. 3d, Fac- 
tory Legislation. 4th, Condition of Workingmen’s Families. 
This is a very interesting part of the report and it appears that 
66 per cent. expend an average of $9 a year for books and news- 
papers, 34 per cent. paid society dues, 11 per cent. own pianos 
or cabinet organs, 34 per cent. own sewing machines. 5th, Co- 
operation—which the Bureau recommends. 

Virginia School Report, 1874. The report of W. H. Ruffner, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction of Virginia, bas several 
features of interest. Ist, He gives the “History of Public Sen- 
timent Concerning the Schools” digesting this from the reports 
of county superintendents, and by no means suppressing any 

Magazines and Reviews. 331 

expression of unpopular sentiments. 2d, “Improvement in the 
Qualifications of Teachers,” as reported in the same way. 34, 
The workings of the “Phonetic Method” as reported upon by S. 
H. Owens, Superintendent of Petersburg schools, and of ‘“‘Grube’s 
Method,” a paper by the same author. 4th, “List of Publica- 
tions during the year by Virginian authors.” 

In the “Tuft's Collegian,’’ Z. L. W. says: “We need more and 
better statesmen and fewer politicians. Supply this keenly felt 
need,and almost every public and private good will follow as a 
natural consequence. But whence is this need of statesmen to 
be supplied? From the ranks of our men of liberal education 
and thorough culture.” Z. L. W. desires to impress upon the 
young men,the necessity of a more careful study than has here- 
tofore been given to the fundamental principles which underlie 
sound political science. Every graduate should be thoroughly 
familiar with the theory of our government and the relation of 
its different branches to each other and to the people. More 
attention should also be given to the political history of the 
United States. 

The Journal of Education, Province of Ontario, Toronto, gives 
in its February number an extract ofa “Report on the examina- 
tion of pupils, from within and without the Public Schools, in 
regard to the eligibility for admission into the Collegiate Insti- 
tute,” from which we make the following extract. “Of 230 chil- 
dren who came forward for examination, 216 were from the 
Public Schools, and 14 from the Collegiate Institute. Of the 216 
from the Public Schools, 67, or about 31 per cent,, passed_a sat- 
isfactory examination, but of the 14 who had received their 
training in the Institute and in private schools, not a single one 
proved competent. 

The Iowa School Journal of January, contains proceedings of 
the Association of Superintendents and Principals of Southeast- 
ern Iowa, convened at Oskaloosa, Iowa, December 29 and 30. 
Among other resolutions, we find that they heartily indorsed 
the system of County Normal Institutes; they request the su- 
perintendent to cause to be published, a manual for the use of 
teachers in County Normal Institutes ; said manual to contain 
@ syllabus of all the branches and subjects taught in said Insti- 

332 The Western. 

tute, and such other suggestions as may be thought best, so as to 
secure more uniform and satisfactory results in institute work ; 
they acknowledge the high importance of mental cultivation, 
and earnestly urge moral and physical culture as necessary to 
regulate and sustain the mental; they regard short readings 
from the Bible, without note or comment, as highly conducive 
to the inculcation of sound principles, ete. 

The New England Journal of Education, contains in number 9, 
an article on “Sewing in the Public Schools” by Miss Baker, 
principal of a Boston grammar school. Miss Baker realizes that 
every woman should know bow to sew, but cannot believe in 
the necessity ¢f taking one moment of our 27 hours per week 
devoted to mental training, tor the purpose of acquiring that 
knowledge. Every mother of the girls in Miss Baker’s Ist, 2d, 
and 3d classes, without exception, was opposed to it. One of 
them said, my daughter has time enough at home to sew. As 
a mere “curiosum” we quote the following from Miss Baker’s 
article : “We have a normal school for the special training of 
teachers ; why not add to this, schools for teaching advanced 
sewing and dressmaking to those who care to fit themselves to 
earn their living in that way, letting the acquisition of a special 
trade be optional with our girls, rather than forced upon them 
at the expense of the little intellectual culture now afforded ? 
For I earnestly maintain that the more crowding and hurrying 
we have, the less real culture and mental discipline we obtain.” 

In the High School of Springfield, Mass., there are now three 
distinct courses of study in operation: Ist, the classical, to pre- 
pare young people for college; 2d, the ordinary High School 
course, revised and enlarged by the addition of several elective 
studies ; 3d, the English course, including a thorough English 
education, with the option of modern languages. The School 
Committee of Springfield calls attention to this course as one 
available to a large class of boys who are looking forward to a 
life of active business. 

Under the head of “Improvements Suggested,” the report of 
the School Committee of the City of Springfield, for 1874 has 
the following : “As a rule, we do not believe in special teach- 
ers for children. Whatever we expect to teach in primary and 
grammar schvole must first be put into the heads and hearts of 

Magazines‘and Reviews. 333 

the ordinary instructors of these grades. But in preparation of 
these teachers for their work, special instruction of a temporary 
or permanent character often becomes indispensable.” 

Jational Teacher, April. Examination of Teachers, Miss 
Delia A. Lathrop. This, although treating of local questions is 
an article suggestive to all who have to do with the appoint- 
ment of teachers, and would, we think, be found to have a gen- 
eral interest for any one interested in education. ‘Class Inter- 
wals in Graded Schools,” Superintendent Harrington concludes 
his part of the discussion with Superintendent Harris, and the 
series of articles will be read with interest by teachers. 

Books Added to Public School Library. 


1. Legge, Mencius. Life and Works, with Essays and Notes. 

1. Campbell. The Four Gospels in One, 

2. Fairfield. Ten Years with Spiritual Mediums. 

8. Hyacinthe. Catholic Reform. 

4. Mill. Three Essays on Religion. Berkeley’s Life and 

5. Novum Testamentum, Graece et Latine. 

6. Supernatural Religion. An Inquiry into the Reality of 
Divine Revelation. 


1. Bastiat. Essays on Political Economy. 

2. Calderwood. On Teaching, Its Ends and Means. 
8. Hutchinson. Resources of Kansas. 

4. Martin. The Statesman’s Yearbook for 1875, 

5. Pwedagogische Jahresbericht von 1878. 

334 The Western. 


a > 9 00 

> 99 fo 

all allt ool Oe 

Report of the Proceedings at the Dinner of the Cobden 
Russell Club Recollections, and Suggestions, 1813-1873. 


Bartlett. Parlor Amusements for Young Folks, 

Becker. Scientific London. 

Chase. Familiar Lectures on the Teeth. 

Hotze. First Lessons in Physiology. 

Jahresbericht ueber die Fortschritte der Chemischen Tech- 
nologie (19 vols.) 

Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 

United States Daily Bulletin of Weather Reports, Sept., 
Nov., 1872. 

Report of the Commissioners of Agriculture, 1873. 

Williams. Diseases of the Har. 


A. L.O.E. Fairy Frisket. 
Johnson. Little Classics, Love. 
Lermontoff. The Circassian Boy. 
Thaxter. Poems. 


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