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The Western 


Literature, Education and Art. | 
: { 

H. H. MORGAN, Evtror. 


Papier, Dine. Thy. J BE, Teng... sccun sncsessantonave copsinces deustevsibbtete an 
Ad Pogtam, By Lewis J. Block 
‘The Iliad. Book I. Translated by J. A. Martti: ss seconseccses<eccnestseses 
Law and Cause. By L. F. Soldan............ ercepocenpes eposeesanccecos epconses sob - 

mee mney Of Lebadden, Ty Z. CG. Wikediiins....coccccccocnceesss ccesnbbssttecin as 
Coriolanus, By D. J. Snider 

Madam De Stael. By S. E. Cole...........ccceses 

Book Reviews 

Books added to Public School Library.....s....ccocseocce ssovasscveeseocess saccecsosses 728 



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editorial department, the best results in all fields of intellectual effort. 

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Contents of January Number. 
Art-Criticism, = - - is: it H. H. Morgan. 
Cupid and Psyche, a Poem, 9 - - FF. EB. Cook. 
The oe”; - - W. T. Harris. 
The Relation of Physical ‘Science to Human Life, B. V. B. Dixon. 
Shakespeare’s Tragedies; Romeo and Juliet, - D. J. Snider. 
Editorial Department. 

Contents of February Number 

Sbakespeare’s Romeo and pe, - - D. J. Snider. 
Tantalus—a poem, -  - . : Lewis J. Block, 
The Theatre in Blackfriars, - - Grace C. Bibb. 
On the Relation of the Will to the Intellect, &e - Wm.T. Harris. 
Ancient and Modern Ethics, - - - - Z. G. Wilson. 
Editorial Department. 

Ciniinssites of “March Number, 

Shakespeare’s King Lear, — - - D. J. Snider. 
Stella—a poem, - - - - - - F. E. Cook. 
J.J. Rousseau, - - - - S. E. Cole. 

Dante, - - - - - - - L. F. Soldan. 
Editoria! Department. 

Contents of April Number 

The Necessity for the Specialist, and the nature of his Comple- 

mentary Education, : H. H. Morgan. 
The Quest--a poem, - : - - Lewis J. Block. 
Thoughts on the Music of Desther en, - - Wm. T. Harris, 
The Lincoln Monument at Springfield, - Thomas Davidson. 
Shakespeare’s Tr aici tiais Lear, - . D. J. Snider. 
Dante, : - - L. F. 

Kditorial _— spartment. 

Contents of May Number. 

Shakespeare’s Tragedies—King Lear, : - D. J. Snider. 
Why the Sea Compenaes a - Simeon Tucker Clark. 
Sonnet, - - - - Lewis J. Block. 
Lady Macbeth—a study in character, - - Grace C. Bibb. 
Thought on Pessimism and Educational Reforms, W. T. Harris. 
Paris in America, - : : - : : : S. E. Cole. 
Kditoria! Depariment. 

Contents of June Number. 

Shakespeare’s Tragedies—Timon of Athens. D. J. Snider, 
Song of the Spirits over the Waters, - J.C. Pickard, 
The Two Hawthornes, - - Eliz: ahi . P. Peabody. 
The Human E ar, its Anatomy iad Function, Chas. A. Todd, M. D. 
On Beethoven’s Sixth Symp hony, - . Wn. y Harrie, 

Editorial De partment 

Contents of July Number. 

Culture and engron, . - : Wm. M. Bryant. 
Sennet, - - . Lewis J. Block. 
The Unknown Dead, . : . Levi Bishop. 
Shakesp eare’s Tras sas, a he flo, . - D. J. Snider. 
The Fair God—A Critique, - - , - F. E. Cook. 
Our World >; or, Fist Lessons in Geography, is E. Kimball. 

Editorial Depart ment. 

Contents of August Number. 

Shakespeare's Tragedies—Othello - . D.J. Snider. 
The Royal Questioner, : . - - Lewis J. Block. 
Agricola Omnipotens, - - Dan. E, Pierson, 
Literary Criticism : Its Past, p resentand Future, H.H. Morgan. 
The University Club, - . . - James S. Garland. 

Xditorial Department. 

Contents of September Number. 

Mind included in the Sy athesla of L ife, ; - J. M. Long, 
Morning, - : . : ° Simeon Tucker Clark, 
Actaeon, - - - : ° Lewis J. Block. 
Shakespeare's Trage _— s—Macheth, . - D. J. Snider. 
Course of Re rading, - - . : - Wm. T. Harris. 

Editorial Department. 

Contents of October Number. 

Shake sspeare’s Tragedies— Macbe th, : . D. J. Snider. 
Pygmalion, - . . - : : Lewis J. Block 
The Iliad, - - - - . - Jj. A. Martling. 
Suleika, . L. F. Soldan. 
The iniitieeas De shan 7” the Age—Know! 

edge of Mankind or History, . - Z. G. Wilson. 

Oriental Philosophy and the Bhagavad Gita, - Wm. T. Harris. 
Editorial Department. 

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The Western. 

NOVEMBER, 1878. 


When we ask what is mind and what is matter, we 
ask the two great questions on which hang all: science 
and philosophy. It is impossible to give a logical de- 
finition of these two mysterious entities; but we may 
describe matter as that which manifests itself to our 
senses, and which therefore occupies space, while we 
may describe mind as that which manifests itself to con- 
sciousness, and which therefore exists in time. The 
sensible forms, forces and properties of things around 
us we denominate the phenomena of matter. The sen- 
sations, thought, emotions and volitions which take 
place within us we denominate the phenomena of mind. 
Hence, the most complete antithetical ideas we have 
are those of mind and matter. We conceive of mat- 
ter as existing under spatial relations, mind under time- 
relations. All science and philosophy have had their 
origin in the reciprocal action of those two entities, and 
the effort growing out of this action to make thought 
harmonize with its object. 

With regard to the relation of mind and matter, it 
is possible to lay down and maintain any of the four 

following propositions; viz. : 

666 lhe Western. 

ist. Mind is a function of matter. This is what 
goes by the name of Materialism. 

and. Matter is a function of mind. This is Ideal- 

grd. Matter and mind are both phenomena be- 
longing to an unknown substance which as a kind of 
double-faced unity manifests two different sets of prop- 
erties. This is absolute Idealism. 

4th. Mind and matter are two separate substances 
temporarily united in man. This is what is known as 

All of those propositions have had their advocates 
during the different stages of speculative philosophy. 
They have, in fact, engaged the thought of the world’s 
greatest thinkers. Man as a thinking being must have 
some theory or philosophy of the universe. Philoso- 
phy is defined by Hamilton as ‘‘the science of first 
principles, that, namely, which investigates the primary 
grounds and determines the fundamental certainty, of 
human knowledge generally.” Is thought a mere wak- 
ing dream, and is the world around usa shadowy fiction, 
and empty phantasm, made up of dissolving views 
which, for a moment, flit before us and are then lost for- 
ever in nothingness? Or is there a permanent reality 
which amid the perpetual flux and reflux of the phen- 
omenal remains unchangeable and enduring? If this 
reality exists, is it all pure matter or all pure mind ; or 
is it some unknown entity lying beyond the sphere of 
sensible experience, while what we call mind and matter 
are only phenomenal manifestations of it? These 
questions mark off the boundaries of a battle-field 
where the armies of materialism, idealism, nihilism and 
dualism have each, in turn, contended for the mastery, 

Mind and Matter. 667 

and where are strewed in bewildering confusion the bro- 
ken and mangled systems of philosophy, the impotent 
efforts of man to construct a theory of the universe. 
The effort to solve those hard questions began with the 
birth of philosophy, and their final solution, if it shall 
ever be given to man to struggle up “‘to the height of 
this great argument,” will bring harmony to thought 
through an all-embracing truth in which the wearied 
spirit may find a lasting repose. 

In the first place, there have not been wanting those 
who, while admitting the reality of one of those enti- 
ties, have denied the existence of the other. One class 
of philosophers, known as materialists, have contended 
that all substance and reality are embraced in what we 
call matter. The most eminent type of this class of 
_ philosophers was Dr. Priestly with whom spiritual 
phenomena were only an etherealized and sublimated 
matter. The great argument of the materialist is 
based on the intimate union of mind and mat- 
ter. It is said that we know nothing of mind save 
as manifested through a material organism, and that, 
for aught we know, all those phenomena which we char- 
acterize as mental may, after all, be the properties of 
matter, all the possibilities of which we cannot claim to 
know ; and that hence it is unscientific to postulate an 
unknown cause to account for any class of phenomena 
until we have ascertained all the possibilities of known 
causes. This argument cannot be refuted by denying 
the intimate union which in our present mode of being 
subsists between mind and matter; but may be shown 
to have no logical force inasmuch as its strength lies in 
the assumption that we have a knowledge of matter 
which we do not possess of mind. This we shall show 
in the sequel is false. 

668 The Western. 
Again, the attempt has been made to solve the mys- 
tery of mind and matter by resolving all substance and 
reality into subjective phenomena. This view known 
as Idealism is the flower and fruit of German philoso- 
phy. The strong position taken by the English phil- 
osopher Locke against the doctrine of innate ideas 
re-acted in the German philosopher Kant, who has fur- 
nished the great impulse to metaphysical thought in 
modern times among his countrymen. He proved 
that in all our ideas there is both an apriori and an apos- 
teriori element; that is, an element furnished by the 
mind and an element furnished by the object. This 
fundamental position of Kant according to which the 
phenomena of the external world have impressed upon 
them the qualities of the mind, or subjective world, 
opened the door for Idealism. Fichte taking up this 
principle developed it into a system which denies the 
reality of the external world. ‘‘If,” said he, ‘‘I cannot 
know what things are, in themselves, I am like-wise in- 
capable of knowing whether things are, in themselves ; 
to me things exist only in consciousness, and though the 
ideas we have of things force themselves on us irresist- 
ibly, it does not follow in the least that those ideas or- 
iginate from without us.”* Thus the mind in contem- 
plating the phenomena of matter is only amusing itself 
with shadows, since all reality is evolved out of its 
own energies. The most eminent type of idealists 
among English philosophers was Berkeley who main- 
tained that ideas only are the direct object of knowl- 
edge. While denying the existence of the substance of 
matter, he admitted the existence of its properties, but 

*Jour. Spec. Phil., vol, IX., No. 1, p. 39. 

Mind and Matter. 669 

maintained that their nature and origin is purely sub- 
jective. With Berkeley Idealism was no idle fancy ; it 
was an earnest effort put forth by a giant mind for the 
purposes of staying the tide of materialism which had 
begun to flow from the sensational philosophy of 
Locke. The materialists argued that there is nothing 
but matter, because the sum total of our knowledge is 
derived from the external things around us. Berke- 
ley replied that what we call a knowledge of mat- 
ter is really the ‘sensations and ideas which exist 
within the mind. In this great controversy Idealism 
triumphed over Materialism so completely that Huxley 
whose soul is enveloped in matter, in referring to this 
says: “‘I conceive that this reasoning is irrefragable. 
And if therefore I were obliged to choose between ab- 
solute materialism and absolute idealism, I should feel 
compelled to accept the latter alternative.” 

We have another class of philosophers who have de- 
nied all permanent reality to both mind and matter, to 
both the subjective world and the objective world. 
This theory is known as absolute Idealism, the found- 
ers of which were the two German philosophers Schel!- 
ing and Hegel. According to this system it is main- 
tained that neither the object nor the subject is anything ; 
and that the only reality is the re/ation which exists be- 
tween these, or a perpetual decoming which ever rises 
from intermediate stages to be absorbed in the Abso- 
lute. Idealism in Germany has borne its fruit in the 
form of Pantheism ; in England in the form of Skep- 
ticism. Hume adopting the logic of Berkeley, applied 
the same reasoning to mind which the latter had applied 
to matter, and urged that we can know nothing of either 
mind or matter save the ideas we experience, thus re- 
solving all knowledge into a collection of ideas. 

6350 The Western. 

We have a fourth class of philosophers who admit 
the reality of both mind and matter. We have incon- 
scious union the material and the immaterial, the ex- 
tended and the non-extended, which having nothing in 
common, are therefore the complete antithesis of each 
other. The problem which here confronts philosophy 
is not the substance or absolute nature of either mind 
or matter, for these it is admitted lie beyond the sphere 
of human reason, but their mode of union. We can 
figure in thought only a union between two things by 
means of a connecting medium. But who is able to 
find amid all the realms of human thought this con- 
necting medium? Yet the restless spirit of man has 
essayed to cross this chasm. This effort to explain per- 
ception by finding some element which can be assimi- 
lated to both mind and matter arises out of the 
impossibility of conceiving how something can act 
where it is not, or how two things, like mind and mat- 
ter, which are not in any degree homogeneous can sus- 
tain any relation whatever to each other, or exert upon 
each other any reciprocal influence. ‘‘A strange thing 
is this!” says Cousin. ‘‘A being perceives or knows 
out of hisown sphere. He is nothing but himself, and 
yet he knows something that is not himself. His own 
existence is, for himself, nothing but his individuality ; 
and, yet from the bosom of this individual world which 
he inhabits, and which he constitutes, he attains to a 
world foreign to his own.”” Yet this mystery of the re- 
ciprocity of mind and matter finds its analogue in na- 
ture. We are confronted with the impossibility of 
conceiving how mind which cannot be figured in thought 
under spatial relations can either act upon, or be influ- 
enced by matter which exists in space. But it may also 

Mind and Matter. 671 

be asked how two distant bodies can attract each other 
through an absolutely void space? , After the law of 
gravitation was established by Newton, scientific men 
set about to explain this mystery by supposing impon- 
derable units, which form a connection between the two 
distant bodies, and these were deemed necessary because 
of the impossibility of conceiving how naked abstract 
forcecan act through an absolutely void space. But 
this attempt to explain perception on the hypothesis of 
a connecting medium only shifts the difficulty without 
removing it. If westart from the subjective or spirit- 
ual side of being and attempt by some kind of an im- 
material essence to unite the other term of the relation, 
we find that the objective has vanished from thought, 
and that we are landed in the shadowy regions of ideal- 
ism. On the other hand, if we start from the objective 
or material side, and attempt to cross the chasm by a 
connecting material medium, be it ever so subtle, we 
find that the subjective or spiritual has vanished from 
thought, and that we are landed in the cold regions of 
materialism. The various systems of philosophy which 
recognize the reality of both mind and matter placed 
in sharp contrast to each other are known as Dualism. 
Dualism may have either a materialistic or idealistic 
tendency according to the theory of perception which is 

When early Greek philosophy first turned its atten- 
tion to the soul, it was not able to rise to the idea of 
an immaterial ‘spiritual essence. Democritus taught 
that the soul consists of globular atoms of fire, and 
that thought is derived from impressions on the senses 
by images that emanate from external objects. Plato 
supposed the medium between mind and matter to be 

672 The Western. 

ideas as the preéxisting archetypes of things which the 
soul calls up as remiscences of a former state of being. 
The Platonic philosophy was idealistic. Aristotle sup- 
posed that mind is brought into union with the world 
of sense by means of immaterial species or forms which 
are copies of material objects. Aristotelianism was 
objective in its tendeney. The Epicureans made the 
media between mind and matter to consist of material 
effiuxes, simulacra rerum, which, like films flying off from 
objects, and diffusing themselves through space, are 
propagated to the perceptive organs. 

Coming down to modern times, we find Descartes for 
the first time drawing a sharply defined line between 
mind and matter in respect to both essence and pheno- 
mena. In this great philosopher it has been truly said 
that mankind first came to a consciousness of itself. 
He occupies the same position in the world of mind as 
Bacon in the world of matter. As Bacon taught the 
true method of studying the external world by induc- 
tion, so Descartes taught the true method of studying 
the subjective world by the process of introspection. 
The former furnished the original impulse which has 
resulted in modern science ; the latter gave the impulse 
which has resulted in modern metaphysics. Descartes 
taught that there can be no direct influence mutually ex- 
erted upon each other by mindand matter. To account 
for perception he had recourse to the creative power of 
God as a kind of deus ex machina, which serves as the 
copula between spirit and matter. This view requires 
the intervention of the miraculous and supernatural to 
account for the union of mind and matter. An impor- 
tant successor of Descartes was Spinoza, who reduced 
God, the soul and matter to one original substance, the 

Mind and Matter. 673 

ground of all things, whose attributes as known to us 
are thought and extension. Liebnitz contended that the 
soul cannot work upon the body, and that ‘‘the relation 
between them is due to a preéstablished harmony, God 
having so constituted them in the beginning that they 
operate in perfect concord though independently.” 
Hamilton, the great English philosopher, following 
Kant, makes all knowledge to arise out of what he 
terms the ‘‘Law of the Conditioned.” An external 
world must exist, because we cannot think its opposite ; 
yet this knowledge of the Objective is only phenomen- 
al, and is valuable to us because it is regulative and 

The problem of the reciprocal action of mind and 
matter assumed a new phase in the hands of Hartley. 
According to this philosopher motion in the form ot 
vibrations is the connecting principle which unites the 
perceiving mind to the perceived object. But the mo- 
tion to which mind is thus assimilated is not the sen- 
sible motion of moving masses, but the insensible un- 
dulations of a subtle ether, inconceivably refined, and 
moving with a velocity inconceivably great. Aftet the 
discovery of electricity the students of mind turned 
their attention to the stimuli or influence which is sup- 
posed to be transmitted along the nerve-fibers as the 
condition of mental action, with the view of ascertain- 
ing whether or not this brain current could be identi- 
fied with electrical currents. But to identify those two 
influences seems a hopeless task. It has been ascer- 
tained that the velocity of nerve-currents is about nine- 
ty feet per second, while that of electricity is 280,000 
miles per second. Hence, as remarked by Prof. Tyn- 
dall, ‘“‘the speed with which messages fly to and fro 

674 The Western. 

along the nerves are found to be, not as was previously 
supposed, equal to that of light or electricity, but less 
than the speed of a flying eagle.” 

In this connection may be mentioned the recent 
theory which attempts to correlate nerve-force with the 
other molecular forces, light, heat, chemical change and 
electricity. Between the last three forms of force and 
mechanical momentum there has been found to exist a 
definite commutation or exchange; a fixed amount of 
one kind, if allowed to change its form, always reap- 
pearing in an equivalent amount of another kind. Un- 
der this comprehensive law known as the Correlation of 
Force Science now not only aims to bring vital force 
which builds up animal and vegetable organisms, but 
also nerve and psychical force which builds up the men- 
tal organism. Psychical or nerve-force is supposed to 
be generated through a definite exchange with the other 
molecular forces, and is regarded as the crowning link 
in the chain of correlated forces. ‘‘Light,” it is said, 
“fexcites nerve-force, and the transmutation of this 
nerve-force excites the activity of that part of the brain 
which is the instrument of our visual consciousness.” 
We would remark on this theory of mind and matter 
that we can conceive of the different forms of molecular 
force passing back and forth into each ¢ther, for we still 
have the same homogeneous and all-pervading ether 
through which this force is supposed to be propagated. 
But when we attempt to pass from nerve-force to psy- 
chical force or thought, we must leave behind our mole- 
cules and ether, for we are now in the region of pure 
spirit whose phenomena are the complete antithesis of 
all material substance, however subtle and refined. The 
transmission of vibrations through a material medium 

Mind and Matter. 675 

“‘to an immaterial substance, is a transition to a differ- 
ently constituted world,” to a sphere in no respect ho- 
mogenous to the outer sphere of being. A ray of light 
falling on the optic rerve may excite a force or change 
which is propagated to the brain; but it is still a mate- 
rial force transmitted by means of nerve-cells and fibers ; 
and it is utterly beyond any power which we profess to 
conceive how this force can be united with the process 
of thought. In fact throughout this wondrous circuit 
‘from molar motion, molecular nerve-motion, and back 
again to molar motion, there is no question of mind 
whatever. The metamorphosis is always from one 
species of material motion into some other species of 
material motion, but never from a species of material 
motion into an idea or feeling. The dynamic circuit is 
absolutely complete without taking psychical manifesta- 
tions into the account at all.”* We know that mental 
_ Phenomena take place through a complex physical or- 
ganism which with its wonderful adaptations and nice 
adjustments serves as the medium through which mind 
holds intercourse with the external material world. 
When our investigations concerning the mechanism of 
this material structure and the method of its working 
are pushed to their farthest limits, we find a nervous 
apparatus which acts in the double capacity of convey- 
ing stimuli to the brain, and of returning the same in 
the form of muscular action, and that between these 
two nerve-discharges a conscious mental state has been 
awakened. Concerning the nature of nerve-action some- 
thing is known; but much yet remains to be known. 
But however much on this point may in the future be 

*Fiske’s Cas. Phil. vol. 11, p. 441. 

676 The Western. 

known, we will never be able to explain how conscious- 
ness becomes mixed up with the action of material or- 
gans. On this point it has been truly stated in a very 
thoughtful essay recently published by Mr. E. D. Cope 
that ‘‘it will doubtless become possible to exhibit a par- 
allel scale of relations between stimuli on the one hand, 
and the degree of consciousness on the other. Yet for 
all this it will be impossible to express self-knowledge 
in terms of force.” 

We thus stand face to face with two incomprehensi- 
bles, mind and matter; and if we consider their mode of 
union, we have a third incomprehensible, all of which 
are enveloped in mysteries which human reason cannot 
solve. The effort to resolve those two entities into 
one substance, logically leads to either absolute idealism 
or absolute materialism. When the ego says there is 
nothing external to itself, the very denial of externality 
implies the existence in the mind of such an idea. In 
like manner, when one denies the existence of the ego, 
affirming that there is nothing but matter, he stultifies 
himself in the very act of denial, for the reason that a 
perception of externality implies the existence of a per- 
ceiving conscious agent, which we characterize as mind. 
The changes and relations in the subjective world are 
correlated to certain changes and relations in the objec- 
tive world. Those correlated phenomena, the material 
and the immaterial, are bound together in thought by 
the Law of Relativity which conditions all knowledge. 
““Whatever we can conceive,” says Prof. Bain, ‘implies 
some other thing or things, also conceivable, the con- 
trast, corelative, or negation of this.” Our knowledge 
comes to us twofold,—comes to us as a perception of 
things which exist in either contrast or similarity to 

Mind and Matter. 677 

other things. It is by this law of Relativity that we 
know mind and matter in contrast with each other. If 
we ask what is matter, we are referred to mind for an 
answer; yet all we obtain here are certain mental states 
which refer us back to matter itself for their meaning 
and explanation. On the other hand, if we ask what is 
mind, we are referred to matter for an answer; yet all 
we get here are certain qualities which as symbols find 
their meaning and explanation in mind. If we ask what 
is extension which is regarded as the primary quality of 
matter, this question refers us at once to mind for an 
answer. We find that the idea of extension is obtained 
through the conscious feeling of resistence conveyed to , 
the mind by means of the tactual sense. We predicate 

power or force of matter in motion. Yet when we come 

to analyze this idea of power, we find that it is prima- 

rily excited in the mind through the exercise of the 

muscular sense, and consists in the conscious feeling of 
personal effort and volition. Thus extension, power and 

force, being in the first place terms indicative of changes 

in our own bodily organism, are so extended in their 
application as to signify properties which belong to all 

matter. The primitive races of mankind whose minds 
were in the earliest stage of development of necessity 

attributed conscious life to all moving objects, because 
they knew nothing of power and motion save as ideas 
of these were obtained through their own self-conscious 


With regard to what is known as the dynamical pro- 
perties of matter, such as color, sound, odor, head and 
taste, mental philosophers are agreed that these terms 
express pure mental states, which though correlated with’ 
certain activities and forces in matter, cannot, in the 

678 The Western. 

nature of the case, bear any resemblance to them. 
Thus out of the depths of consciousness are evolved 
the symbols through which we express the properties of 

Again, if we consider the phenomena of mind, we 
find ourselves compelled to use terms which were orig- 
inally applied to matter. Prof. Porter says, “The 
words perceive, understand, imagine, disgust, disturb, ad- 
here, and a multitude besides, were all originally ap- 
plied to some material act or event. It is only by a 
secondary or transferred signification that they stand 
for the states or acts of the soul.” Thus we are com- 
pelled to express matter in terms of mind, and mind in 
‘terms of matter. Hence, we can know the phenomena 
of mind only as these are expressed in symbols of mat- 
ter, because we cannot conceive of pure abstract spirit- 
ual existence dissociated from materiality. Likewise, 
we know matter only by its power to produce changes 
in our consciousness. To conceive of inert matter, or 
disembodied force, is as impossibile as to conceive of 
disembodied spirit. 

We have thus before us the latest results of modern 
science with regard to the nature of mind and matter, 
and the relation which these sustain to each other. 
Science can tell us nothing with regard to the substance 
of either mind or matter. She can deal only with their 
phenomena, the sensible forces of matter and the 
changes of consciousness; and even these can be ex- 
pressed in thought only through the formulas which 
they mutually furnish. When therefore the material- 
ist undertakes to prove that there is nothing but matter 
because we know matter but do not know mind, his 
whole argument rests on a premise which crumbles to 

Mind and Matter. 679 

dust at the first touch of modern science. True, we 
cannot know mind as we know matter through its sen- 
sible manifestations, but we have, if possible, a surer 
witness in the testimony of consciousness. Science 
furnishes no evidence that either mind or matter will 
ever bedestroyed. Its indications point the other way. 
It has proved by the discovery of the correlation of 
force that force itself is never lost or destroyed, but 
only changed from one form to another. But if force 
is thus shown to be indestructible, it is fair- to conclude 
that matter which serves as the vehicle of force is also 
indestructible. We have in both mind and matter a 
dynamical and statical element. The dynamical elements 
are the phenomena of mind and matter, while the stat- 
ical elements are the unknown, unknowable and inde- 
structible substances which ever retreat behind all our 

With regard to the tendencies of modern science, 
there may be here and there eddies on the surface which 
seem to be setting in towards materialism, but a closer 
examination shows that the under-current which is carry- 
ing with it the destinies of the world, is flowing onward 
in a deep and mighty tide toward spiritualism. The old 
heathen idea of matter which represented it as an inert, 
sluggish and inactive mass has given way to the mod- 
ern scientific view which conceives it as composed of 
molecules which are supposed to be inconceivably 
small, and which as points of force are in a state of 
intense activity. The divine, Dr. McCosh, therefore 
says, “I give up the idea of matter being passive. * 
* * * JT admit freely that matter is not that inert 
substance which it has often been represented as being. 
Matter has essential activities ; its atoms and worlds are 

680 The Western. 

in a state of constant motion.” Such a view of mat- 
ter must tend to lift the mind up into the region of the 
spiritual. We can with the present advanced stage of 
science view the union of mind and matter with less 
tendency than formerly to materialistic conceptions, 
owing to the fact that physical science now dwells more 
on force than on matter, and on the relations of mind 
and force which are coming to be recognized. The 
material universe is an expression of the ideas of God. 
Matter is therefore spiritual in its origin as well as 
mind. ‘‘We now see through a glass darkly,” but 
when we shall emerge out of the murky atmosphere of 
time, and stand forth in the clear light of eternity, all 
mysteries of mind and matter shall be solved, and the 
wearied spirit which has wrestled with the doubts and 
difficulties of mortality shall find a sweet and lasting 
repose in the fullness of immortality. 

J. M. Lone. 

Ad Poetam. 


What dost thou seek in the night’s deep mystery, 
Dreamer of dreams, and singer of songs ? 

Ah, dost thou deem the world’s sad history 

Shall cease from its lenghtening record of sorrow, 
Shall put from itself its grave garment of wrongs, 

Shall bask in the light of the sun-mastered morrow, 

Because thy keen music disseveres the air, 

And all the four winds thy sweet messages bear ? 

Ah, thou dost say the songs which have gladdened thee 
Sprang from thy heart like young birds from their nest, 

Stilled with their murmurs the woes which have saddened thee 
Rescued thy soul from thy passion’s sharp peril, 
Hushed into calm thy tumultous breast ; 
And shall the sweet realm of thy singing prove sterile 
Now thou hast built round the listening heart 
A land in whose seasons no winter has part ? 

Yea, it is well, O compassionate singer of songs, 
Yea, it is well, O thou dreamer of dreams ; 

What though the day, though the night, be; the bringer of wrongs, 

Art not thou sovereign of mystical regions, 

Art not thou sovereign of the land which gleams 

With the light of pure Hope’s innumerous legions ? 
Wherefore lead, oh, lead us, to thy realm which is 
Peace, and clear summit of all ecstacies. 

Lewis J. BLocx 

The Western. 


When he thus had spoken he sat : and arose in their presence 
Widely governing Agamemnon Atreides, the Hero, 
Frowning, and with his clouded spirit completely with passion 
Brimming full ; and his eyes did appear like torches conflagrant. 
Eying Calchas portentously first, he addressed him in this wise; 

“ Prophet of evil! for me thou never hast spoken a good thing! 
Ever it is the delight of thy heart to prophesy evil. 
Never a fortunate syllable didst thou speak or accomplish. 
Even now to the Danaens prophesying, thou sayest 
That for this, Far Darten is sending misfortunes upon us— 
This,—that I for the maiden, Chryséis, magnificent ransom 
Was not willing to take;—because I greatly desire her 
With me athome! Ah! more than Clytemnesra I prize her— 
More than the bride of my youth; to whom she is not the inferior, 
Either in form or in features, either in wit or in action ! 
Nevertheless, I will give her up, if that is the best thing. 
I prefer that the people be rather delivered, than perish. 
Yet my guerdon prepare me at once, that not the alone one 
I of the Grecians unguerdoned should be ; forthat were unseemly. 
Sithence you witness all, now elsewhere goeth my guerdon.” 

Then to him responded the godlike Achilles, the Swift Foot : 
«¢O most famous Atreides! thou most greedy of all men! 
How shall the generous hearted Achaians give thee a guerdon ? 
Neither know we aught of abundant reserves in possession. 
Nay, the stores of the cities we pillaged—they were divided ; 
Nor is it likely the people will cull them and bring them together. 
But to the god send thou the damsel : then the Achaians 
Tripple and quadruple the will return, should Jupiter ever 
Give the city, the thoroughly fortified Troy, to be pillaged.” 

And in answer to him, said Agamemnon the Mighty : 
“ Never in such wise, brave as thou art, thou godlike Achilles, 
Cheat in thy thought : thou neither can’st circumvent nor convince me. 
Or, while you your allotment retained, do you think that I idly 
Lacking would sit ? yet thoudost command me to give up the lady. 
Well! if the generous hearted Grecians should grant me a guerdon 
Suiting it to my wish, that it be of equivalent value ; 
But if they will not give it, then of myself will I seize it, 

The liad. 

Either thine own, or the portion of Ajax, or of Ulysses. 

Taking, I hold: and let him, whoever I visit resent it! 

Let us, however, deliberate over these matiers hereafter. 

Come, now, launch we a dark ship on the mysterious*ocean, 

Man it with rowers sufficient, and in it a hundred of oxen 

Place we; and the maiden, Chryséis the Beautiful Featured, 

Carry we; and some gentleman counselor be the commander; 

Be it or Ajax, or Idomeneus, or celestial Ulysses ; 

Be it thyself, Pelides, most terrific of all men, 

That Far Worker to us may be kind, thou making atonement. ”’ 
Him regarding angrily, spake Achilles, the Swift Foot : 

* O thou mailed in effrontery, and thou greedy of lucre ! 

Who of the Greeks can yield to thine orders in cheerful obedience, 

Either to follow in march, or bravely to battle with warriors ? 

For, for myself, on account of the Trojan spearmen I came not 

Hither to fight, since I have no occasion of quarrel. 

For they have never stolen either my oxen or horses ; 

Neither ever in richly alluvial populous Phthia, 

Have they wasted my grain, since twixt us was many and many a 

Mountain buried in shadow, and widely reverberant billow. 

Nay, that thou mightest rejoice with thee, thou impudent! came we 

Winning amends for thee, and Menelaus,—thou Dog Eye !— 

From the Trojans. Yet this thou neither regardest nor heedest ; 

And from me, thou dost threaten thyself, to take mine allotment, 

Which with hardship I earned, and received from the sons of the Grecians. 

Nor with thee had I once am equal ward, when the Grecians 

Utterly wasted some wealthy and populous town of the Trojans ; 

Nevertheless the heavier share of tumultuous battle 

These my hands have wrought. But if ever there comes a division, 

Thine is the larger award ; while I my little and dear bought 

Bearing, return to the ships, worn out and disgusted with fighting. 

Now I am going to Phthia; because it is manifold better, 

Homeward to go with our crow beaked vessels; nor you, I imagine, 

Here, where I am dishonoréd, will heap up wealth and abundance. ”’ 
Then responded to him the monarch of men, Agamemnon : 

« Certainly, go, if the spirit impeis ! not I, I assure thee, 

Will entreat thee to tarry for me! Sooth, others are with me, 

Who will honor me yet, and especially Zens the omniscient. 

Hatefullest art thou to me of the princes divinely descended. 

Ever to thee is contention is thy darling, and conflict, and battle. 

Truly if thou beest bold, a divinity with it endowed thee ! 

Getting thee home with both thy galleys and thy companions 

Over thy Myrmidons lord it! I care nothing about thee ! 

Nothing regard Ia madcap! Yet of this I assure thee :— 

Sithence from me hath Phoebus Appollo taken Chryséis, 

Her in a ship of my own, and with my chosen companions, 

The Western. 

Will I send ; but I take Briséis the Beautiful Featured, 
(Going myself to her tent), thy prize that thou mayest discover 
How much stronger am I than thou ; and another may keep from 
Calling himself my equal, and simulating my power. ” 
Thus he spake. And Pelides was wrath, and his spirit within him, 
Under his shaggy breast, was vibrant with wavering purpose ; 
190 Whether drawing forth his Keen-edged blade from his scabbard, 
Them to rouse to rebellion, and slay the offspring of Atreus ; 
Or to ally his choler, and keep his soul in subjection. 
While he this was debating down in his veins and his spirit, 
And from its scabbard his huge sword drawing, came Pallas Athéné, 
Down from heaven—sent by the goddess, Juno the White Armed, 
In whose soul both heroes were equally cherished and cared for, 
Stood she behind him, and plucked the yellow hair of Pelides, 
Only to him appearing ; and nose of the rest of them saw her. 
Then was Achilles alarmed, and turned, and recognized straightway 
200 Pallas Athéné, and both her eyes shone terrible on him. 


In language as well as science we perceive changes 
subject to all-pervading, ever-prevailing laws and we 
are apt to refer to them as the cause of such change, 
whereas a law is but the statement of a fact in a general 
way. Uniting the known facts in their uniform fea- 
tures we express what there is identical and permanent 
by what we call a law. Hence a law is but a re-state- 
ment of a fact in its permanent characteristics. To say 
that a certain law will control all future facts and has 
controlled all past ones, is saying simply that a fact can 

Law and Cause. 685 

not exist without its characteristic features. Laws, if 
this be true, are not causal, unless we wish to assert that 
this fact causes itself. And this is the gist of the mat- 
ter in any case; does the fact cause itself or is it caused ? 
In our thinking there appears to lie the necessity of 
looking beyond for a cause, and not to be satisfied be- 
fore what appears to us the cause is found. At least 
even those that value thinking less than observing and 
set out with the dogma that there is no external cause, 
no “‘pushing god,” look for a cause beyond the individ- 
ual fact and believe they find itinlaws. For instance; 
avery common, though not a general mistake of ex- 
pression is, that the cause of the motion of the heavenly 
bodies is the /aw of gravitation. Now, of course, the 
correct expression from that standpoint is to say that 
the phenomenon is caused by gravitation. This is a mis- 
take in expression merely: the’ meaning of both is the 
same. For all we know of gravitation is the law of 
gravitation, in its general expression as law and its spe- 
cial expression, the actual motion of each planet. To 
us things are what we know of them. Hence gravita- 
tion cannot be anything else for us but the law of grav- 
itation. By common usage a wider meaning is attached 
to the word gravitation. It is taken to mean the 
cause of the law of working or thought gravitation, In 
this there lies a tacit acknowledgment that there is a 
cause for the law of gravitation. If we point to gravi- 
tation as the cause of the law of gravitation, there is not 
any new meaning added; for all we know of gravitation 
is the law. Hence, to say that gravitation is the cause 
of the law of gravitation, means first, that there is a 
cause beyond the law, second that we know nothing 
about this cause. This is important because science 

686 The Western. 

frequently begs the question by sneaking into the po- 
sition of discoverer of causes by assuming that this 
is equivalent to being a discoverer of laws. The way 
this trick is successfully performed is to discover a “‘/aw 
of something,” and then to pass off the last term as the 
cause of the law, without any attempt at proof that it is 
so Or inquiry as to the question in what respect the law 
differs from the cause. The first, the discovery of the 
law is a great deed ; the second manipulation, however, 
a piece of jugglery and fraud which makes the blackest 
metaphysical sin shine white as daylight. It is the en- 
couragement of intellectual indolence. It is throwing 
into the teeth of mankind hungering after the solution 
of the world-problem cause the empty shell of a term. 
Goethe knew the trick well and assigns it a worthy 
place. He makes it the devil’s advice to the student : 

Mephist.—Hear, therefore, one alone, for that is best, in sooth, 
And simply take your master’s words for truth. 

Onwards \et your attention center! 

Then through the safest gate you'll enter 

The temple halls of Certainty. 

Student.—Yet in the word must some idea be. 
Mephist.—Of course! But only shun too sharp a tension, 
For just where fails the comprehension, 

A words steps in as deputy 

With words ’tis excellent disputing ; 

System to words ’tis easy smiting ; 

On words ’tis excellent believing 

No word can ever lose a jot from thieving. 

At the discovery of a new law anywhere the heart of 
mankind feels a reflection of the glow of Pythagoras 
_ when he discovered the magister matheseos and it is a 
pity that his example cannot be followed out to the end 
by a hecatomb of the unreasoning cattle that falsifies 
immediately the discovery of a law into discovery of a 

Law and Cause. 687 

cause. We can afford to rejoice at the discovery of any 
law even if we cannot agree with others regarding the 
correctness and extent of the discovery. For it is al- 
ways gratifying to see the human mind asserts its mas- 
tery over the rubbish of transitory facts by preserving 
their permanent characteristic features in the shape of 
laws. In this the work of metaphysics and physics is 
at one. They try to find the one in the many, the cen- 
tral law in the nebule of facts. 

We may rejoice at the discovery of the law of natu- 
ral selection, as it brings unity into diversity and sub- 
sumes phenomena under ideas. We are ready to see in 
it an account of the order in which organic changes 
take place, but we differ with those who assume that 
order and cause are equivalent terms. How a thing is 
done and why it is done, we hold to be two different 
questions, and we are not prepared to say that answer- 
ing the first question is the same as answering the sec- 

Science seems to move in circles: in the end it re- 
turns to its beginning. The innumerable special causes 
to which the special sciences attribute their series of 
phenomena are again referred to a smaller number of 
primitive causes, matter and force. These in the end 
are represented as being one and the same indivisible 
cause. Hence we return to the nameless unfathomable 
being of the early Jews. In the special causes we find 
the same thought-content out of which Greek imagina- 
tion shaped the natural gods. 

Recent science teaches us to look towards the sun, 
as the source of all life; it holds that in spiral gyra- 
tions our planet is approaching him and will finally 
unite with the giver of light. 

688 The Western. 

Is this not the same view which unerring linguistic 
research traces to the belief of the ancestors of our 
race. The old name for God, from the Sanskrit dyu, 
denotes the clear heaven. So our ancestors turned to- 
wards the light of the sun, as we are told to do at pre- 
sent, there to find God, the cause of all. 

L. F. Sotpan. 


Language has been called sacred ground because it is 
the deposit of thought. No one can tell what language 
is. It may bea production of nature, a work of hu- 
man art or a divine gift. But to whatever agency it 
owes its origin, it stands unrivalled. If it be a produc- 
tion of nature it is its chief production. If it bea 
work of human art it would seem to lift the human ar- 
tist almost to a level with the Divine. If it be the im- 
mediate work of God then it is the crowning gift of 
God to man. 

The problem of the position that man occupies be- 
tween the world of matter and the world of spirit has 
assumed great prominence among the thinkers of the 
age. And however extended the frontiers of the Ani- 
mal kingdom have become so that the line of demarca- 
tion between the animal and the man consisted only in 
the different foldings of the brain, yet there is one grand 

The Educational Demands of the Age. 689 

distinction that no one has ever ventured to touch. 
Even those philosophers who reduce all thought to 
feeling, and maintain that we share the faculties of 
thought ir common with the lower animals, are obliged 
to confess that as yet no race of animals has been dis- 
covered that has produced a language. Locke, who is 
generally classed with materialists, says ‘“This I may 
be positive in, that the power of abstracting is not at 
all in brutes, and the having general ideas is that which 
puts a perfect distinction between man and brute, They 
have no general signs for universal ideas ; from which 
we may reason that they have not the faculty of ab- 
stracting or making general ideas since they have no 
use of words or other general signs.” 

Hence by common consent /anguage distinguishes 
man from all the lower animals. 

If then the gift of intelligent speech is the established 
boundary line between man and the lower animals and 
can never be removed its study possesses a peculiar in- 
terest to us. If there existed animals altogether as per- 
fect in their organization as man, and doubtless many 
of them are, yet no thoughtful person need feel uneasy. 
Sydney Smith in his humorous way says, “‘I confess I feel 
myself so much at ease about the superiority of man- 
kind. I have such a marked contempt for the under- 
standing of every baboon I have ever seen. I feel so 
sure that the blue ape without a tail will never rival us 
in poetry, painting and music, that I see no reason what- 
ever that justice may not be done to the few fragments 
of soul and tatters of understanding that monkeys may 
really possess.”” The earliest thinkers and framers of 
language made a distinction between man and other an- 
imals. The general idea or the first conception of the 

690 The Western. 

word man teaches this fact. The Sanscrit Mance sig- 
nified originally a thinker, and afterward man. Mé@ 
means to measure. Mana derivitive root denotes to 
think. In Gothic we find both man and mannisks and 
the modern German mann and mensch all have the 
same signification. The fact that names, though signs 
of individual conceptions, are all, without exception 
derived from general ideas, is well known to students 
of language, and it is also well understood that having 
general ideas is that which places a perfect distinction 
between man and brutes. The Ancients must have 
known this for in the Greek language the word /ogos 
means reason and a/ogon is the name for brute. 

Man is the only animal that reasons and speaks. 
Thought and language are inseparable, wards without 
thought are unmeaning sounds. Prof. Heyse says, 
“It must be accepted as an ultimate fact, that man in 
his primitive state was endowed with a faculty peculiar 
to himself, by which every impression from without re- 
ceived its vocal expression from within.” 

The mature of language. Speech is the work of the 
mind coming to a clearer consciousness of its own con- 
ceptions, and of their combinations and relations and 
is at the same time the means by which that clearer con- 
sciousness is attained; and hence it works out its own 
progress; its very use produces its own improvement. 
Constant practice in the use of language to convey ideas 
gives new powers to expression. The speech of a coni- 
munity is the reflex of its average growth and capacity, 
because the community alone is able to change a lan- 
guage. The stock of words in use corresponds to what 
is known in the community. 

It seems manifest however that man speaks not in 

The Educational Demands of the Age. 693 

order to think but toimpart thought. His social wants, 
his social instincts, his relations to his fellow men, im- 
pel him to use the gift of language. A strict inquiry 
into the nature and office of language teaches us that it 
belongs not so much to man as an individual, as it does 
to him as a member of society. No element or word 
in language is the work of one individual because it is 
not considered a part of language until accepted and 
employed by others. The whole development of speech 
although begun by the acts of individuals is wrought 
out by the whole community. A word, no matter what 
its form or origin, that is understood in the community 
is the sign of an idea. And unless it is so understood 
it is not the sign of anything but a mere sound without 
significance. Every word, before being incorporated 
into intelligible language must pass the ordeal of usage. 
Mutual intelligibility then is the prime requisite in pre- 
serving the unity of any tongue. The imperfection of 
language as a complete representation of thought is an 
evidence that they are not identical. The most perfect 
forms of speech are mere skeletons of expression, hints 
at the meaning, which must be filled out by the intelli- 
gence of the auditor. Our own mental acts and condi- 
tions we can review in our consciousness in minute de- 
tail, but we can never perfectly reveal them to another 
by the use of speech, nor will words alone, no differ- 
ence how sincerely spoken put us in complete posses- 
sion of the entire consciousness of another. 

In regard to anything except the simplest subjects of 
thought we need some acquaintance with the individual 
writer or speaker, with his style of thought and senti- 
ment before we are sure that we penetrate to the central 
meaning of every word and sentence that he utters. 

692 The Western. 

And such study enables us to find deeper significance in 
expressions that once seemed trivial or commonplace. 
That language is impotent to express our inmost feel- 
ings is a frequent experience. How often must we la- 
bor by painful circumlocution, to place before the 
minds of others a conception which is clearly present to 
our own consciousness. How often when we have the 
expression nearly complete we fail to catch the proper 
word and use a term that is vague or ambiguous. How 
different is the capacity of ready and distinct expression 
in persons of equal power of thought. Often he whose 
grasp of mind is the greatest, whose judgment is sound- 
est, and whose skill of inference is most unerring, fails 
to be understood through clumsiness of speech. 

Our conclusion then is that thought is anterior to 
language and independent of it, and that language grows 
out of the communication that man must and will have 
with his fellows. 

The importance of language. The value of speech 
to the human race is apparent toevery one. Language 
for all its uses is the chief of earthly studies. Consid- 
ered apart from its uses it is a subject of the deepest in- 
terest. Language is the first intellectual want of man 
and there is nothing also that he usesso much. There is 
no other instrument gives so much power to the indi- 
vidual as a skilled use of language. Many persons 
otherwise gifted, walk obscurely through life with little 
strength, unconscious of the power within them, be- 
cause untrained to theclear, definite and earnest expres- 
sion of thought. Language enables men to become 
what the Creator intended him to be, a social being. It 
converts the race into a community having a unity of 
purpose; acommon development to which each indi- 

The Educational Demands of the Age. 693 

vidual contributes his share to receive untold treasures 
in return. And as we have seen it marks the boundary 
between man and the lower animals; how can we draw 
the line clearly without it? Although our endowments 
are infinitely superior, “‘created a little lower than the 
angels” what would be the value of these gifts to the 
races if without language. We are so accustomed to the 
use of speech that it is difficult to conceive of the con- 
dition of mankind without it. Language alone makes 
history possible. A knowledge of the races is handed 
down to us and ina short time, by hearing and read- 
ing we possess ourselves of more enlightment than 
could be worked out by the individual in centuries. It 
puts us in possession of all the culture of our ancestors 
that have resulted from the combined labors of innu- 
merable minds through a succession of ages. By it we 
trace back to the very beginning of history to the germ 
of development in the East shadowed forth in languages 
long since dead. 

We do not realize how much of thought and study 
of the past is stored up in the simplest words we use. 

Each generation transmitted to its successor what it 
had inherited itself, and perfected and increased their 
results, while the accummulation of words and the 
growth of language kept pace with the acquisition of 

Literature furnishes a large and fruitful field. Here 
language is employed, not as in the daily intercourse of 
life, for present uses, but as the guardian of the precious 
treasures of thought and experience laid by in the past 
for all succeeding ages. Here are to be found alike the 
selectest monuments of human genius and the most en- 
during memorials of human toil. 

694 The Western. 

The historic literature of the world hangs together in 
a connected chain of sequences, trom first to last. 
Modern literature is the ripe fruit of the higher growths 
of thought that have appeared upon the summits of 
each preceding age. The literature of our age is what 
it is, because Greece, Rome, Italy, Germany, France 
and Holland, from whom in various degrees it has de- 
rived its substance, form and feature, were each respect- 
ively what they were. There is no one body of litera- 
ture of such majestic proportions, of such beautiful and 
divine aspects as our own. In every college in the land 
there ought to be a professorship of English literature, 
whose function it should be to unfold the life and writ- 
ings of the leading literary men of England and Amer- 
ica, accompanied by a broad and generous spirit of crit- 
icism upon the substance and style of the great works 
in our language. 

The age demands a more thorough knowledge of the 
English language. Recent investigations in Philology 
reveal the fact that the English is spoken and written 
by a greater mumber of people than any other exist- 
ing tongue of high cultivation, and its sphere seems to 
be widening at home and abroad more rapidly than any 

We overrate the educating value of the mere process 
of learning the dead langugages, but we cannot place too 
great an estimate upon the English. The mother 
tongue is the only one that can stand to our modern 
education in the relation in which the classical tongues 
stood to the scholars during the revival of learning. 

The Greek and Latin languages were mother tonges 
to them as students, because it was them alone that they 
reached the thoughts that gave them education; they 

Historical Drama. 695 

were not drilled on empty words and forms ; they stud- 
ied no grammars because there were none in existence; 
but they drank at the fountains of ancient learning 
through a profound knowledge of ancient languages. 

It is only by a real study of the mother tongue that 
we can ester the domain of modern literature and 
especially of the sciences. It is through one tongue, 
and not many, that true discipine of all can best be im- 
parted, inasmuch as that is the only one that ever can 
or will be mastered by a majority of men. Now for 
the first time, there is a possibility that through progress 
of linguistic science we may have a systematic and sci- 
entific study of the mother tongue, and our own lan- 
guage may be made the basis of a liberal education. 

Z.G Witson. 


In the Historical drama a new field opens. The do- 
mestic relations of man are placed in the background, 
and the political element becomes paramont. The 
family occupies still a position as an ethical institution, 
but it is now subordinate in importance to the State. 
Consequently a different kind of effect is produced, for 
the species of drama is. different. In the Family the 
emotions of man are at home, and manifest themselves 
in their greatest intensity ; the collisions occurring in it 
therefore appeal in the strongest manner to the feelings. 
But the State rests more upon intelligence and is further 

696 The Western. 

removed from our daily life and its sympathies, though 
it must not be thought that the State is devoid of an 
emotional basis in human nature. Indeed love of coun- 
try is capable of absorbing every other activity in certain 
periods of great national calamity ; still in the ordinary 
life of men the Family is necessarily the more immedi- 
ate institution. The main pathos of the Historical drama 
will therefore be different from that of the domestic 

A comprehension of the various colliding principles 
which are inherent in the nature of the state, now be- 
comes indispensible. First is the external collision 
with another State. For a conflict lies in the very limi- 
tation of one nation against another nation; each one 
seeks, must seek, to assert its own individual existence 
and its own principle. This finally brings on the supreme 
struggle in which one of the nations usually sinks out of 
the ken of History. Whether or not it is prossible to 
avoid war by any political appliances is a subject which 
does not belong here; it is sufficient to say that they 
have not hitherto been successful. The conflict comes, 
a people and a civilization pass away forever. 

But the victorious nation after the lapse of its alloted 
period meets with the same fate; it is conquered and 
disappears. The same mighty principle which destroy- 
ed its enemy now destroys it ; so the series continues’or 
has continued in the past. But what shall we call this 
principle which thus uses the nations as its instruments‘? 
Its reality will not be doubted, it is clearly the highest, 
strongest principle of History. Let us name it the world 
historical principle, or even the World Spirit (Weltgeist). 
It calls a nation into existence to execute its behests, 
this is then a world-historical nation. In looking at the 

Historical Drama. 697 

past we observe that in antiquity the empires of the 
Orient, Greece, Rome were world-historical nations at 
successive periods. But the main interest for us is the 
collision which hence arises. A nation armed with this 
principle goes forth to subdue other nations and subordi- 
nate them to the same influence. The result is a struggle 
between the world-historical spirit and the State, which 
gives the highest possible collision, but at the same 
time, farthest removed from the popular feeling and the 
popular consciousness. 

A second phase of the external collision of the State 
can hardly be elevated to the dignity of the preceding. 
It is when wars are entered upon from national or mon- 
archical caprice, or from some trifling and temporary 
interest. Thus we have State against State simply. 
Still even in the most trivial conflicts, some faint reflec- 
tion of the World-Spirit may be often traced. In the 
petty struggles of non-historical people and tribes, like 
those of America, Asia and Africa, there can be, how- 
ever, but little significance. 

But it must not be thought that this nti histor- 
ical spirit is some external power outside of the people 
themselves. It is in fact their own inner development, 
their deepest consciousness. The nation which perishes 
does so through itself, so the nation which conquers 
conquers through itself. When one people makes a 
higher synthesis than its neighbors in its institutions 
and in its thought, that people is bound to be victo- 
rious in the end. It has so happened in the past that 
nationality has not been able to change fundamentally 
its principle, and pass to the higher one; each nation 
has seemed capable of realizing only one world-histor- 
ical thought. 

ad . 

698 The Western. 

Such are the essential phases of the external collision 
ot the State. We now pass to consider the internal 
collision which is always more direct and of greater in- 
terest to the citizen, as well as more continuous ‘in its 
effect. Now the State is divided within itself, separ- 
ates into opposing elements, and at once we behold the 
phenomenon of political parties. These are essentialy 
twe but with many shades of difference within chem- 
selves. It is a fact which has always excited surprise 
and investigation. All states in particular all free states 
have this diremption in their very nature, though it is 
sometimes foolishly regretted. But the content, the 
foundation of the political party is the State itself, nay, 
lies in the constitution of the human mind. Some men 
hold on to institutions, to customs, in general to all the 
realized forms of intelligence, in their permanence and 

unchangeableness alone public safety and public happi- 
ness are supposed to lie. This view though absolutely 
true in its proper limitations, becomes in its extreme 
one-sidedness destruction of all progress, the human 

mind is cramped in the trammels of a rigid tormalism, 
and freedom of every kind is anihilated. The protest 
of the outraged spirit of man produces a new party 
which inits excess seeks to destroy or to be forever 
changing the established institutions of the State. In the 
modern political world these two parties are known as 
Conservative and Radical; it is their action and re-action 
which on the one hand secures to institutions perma- 
nence and on the other hand prevents them from becom- 
ing fetters. In antiquity class or caste was the dividing 
line of party, and the same is true at the present time 
though to a different extent among different peoples. 
The patrician was by birth a Conservative, for he wish- 

Historical Drama. 699 

ed to retain the ancient privileges of his order, while the 
Plebian was by birtha Radical, for he wished to acquire 
new rights. To employ another form of expression, 
the one side represented the objective, the permanent ; 
the other side represented the subjective, the changea- 
ble. Both are not only necessary to the State, but be- 
long to every complete individual mind. 

The particular issue upon which the parties divide is 
very different in different countries and in the same 
country at different times. It may be division of the 
land, right of suffrage, paper money etc. But each issue 
reflects the general spirit of the whole, and each party 
therein adumbrates its universal character. In reference 
to the drama, this particular side must be presented in 
its full sensuous completeness. 

This conflict of parties isa perennial one and ought to 
be, for from it comes all political vitality, all true devel- 
opement. Butit leads to guilt and hence becomes trag- 
ic when it seduces the individual into placing his party 
above his country. Both parties must be subordinate 
to the State, must have their end and design in its well- 
being. Hence at this point arises the possibility of a 
collision of political principles, the one of which is em- 
embodied in a partisan organization and the other in 
the State. Such is the tendency ofall political parties 
perhaps, itis their belief and their constant instruction: 
our side must prevail, else the country is ruined. But 
it may truly be said if such be really the case, then the 
country is already ruined. When the government can— 
not be trusted to either of the great political organiza- 
tions without fear of its destruction, the nation is al- 
ready on the point of dissolution; the very statement is 
a declaration to that effect. But the assertion is seldom 

JOO The Western. 

true, though each party inculcates it as a fundamenta 
dogma of its existence that ‘“‘we possess all the patriot- 
ism and all the true political principles, while our op- 
ponents are the enemies of theircountry.” Such is the 
main internal collision of the State wherein party assails 
country; the solution is that the individual is ban- 
ished or perishes who introduces this conflict. 

But the world-historical principal may work also 
through the Party as we saw it before working through the 
State. In suchcase the result is the destruction of the 
nation from within, or at least a fundamental change in 
its constitution. For the World-Spirit feeds upon na- 
tions, it is the foe of nationality. Hence the world-hist- 
orical individual appears as the destroyer of his country, 
of the constitution and the laws. But in reality he only 
carries out what has already been developed in the con- 
sciousness of the people. 

All social innovations when they become of national 

importance assume the form of a political party. This 
is therefore the means by which the spirit of man rises 
into institutions, objectifies itself in more perfect forms. 
A persistent agitation of some social question finally 
produces a party out of a clique, which then may be- 
come the dominant party, and rule the country and 
make the laws in accordance with its principle. Some 
class, as the laborers or the property holders, may suc- 
ceed in elevating itself into a party, if its claims become 
atruly nationalquestion. Thus every social revolu- 
tion takes the shape of a political party and may there- 
fore be made one of the elements of an internal collision 
of the State. 

If we now take a glance back and recapitulate what 
has been elaborated, we find that there are essentially 

Historical Drama. 701 

two grand collisions of the State, the external and the 
internal. The former is one individual State against 
another individual State, either of which may be the 
bearer of a world-historical principle or of ‘some finite 
national end. The latter isthe Political Party against 
the State; here too a world-historical element may be 
involved, or some merely partisan or individual object. 
These phases would seem to comprehend the totality of 
the relations of the State from this point of view. The 
Family too exists in this play of colliding powers and 
may itself fall into conflict with any one or all of them. 
Thus the Poet has an ample store from which he can 
select to diversify his treatment. 

The Tragedy of Coriolanus will furnish an illustra- 
tion of these principles, for it presents phases of them 
all. It will be seen that the action exhibits two distinct 
movements, the one of which terminates in the banish- 
ment of the hero, the other in his death. Coriolanus 
is protrayed as the great defender of his country, but al- 
so as the greater enemy of the plebians; partisan ran- 
cour leads to his expulsion, to his separation from fam- 
ily and State. Herein both sides commit wrong Such 
is the first movement. The second movement shows 
Coriolanus passing over to the enemies of his country, 
in order to ruin it and thereby ruin the opposite party. 
Patriotism is subordinate to partisan hate, even attach- 
ment to his own class can not outweigh his desire for 
revenge. His nation and his order therefore can not 
mediate his hostility to a party, but his family can, 
though at the cost of the life of himself, one of its 

On the other hand, the two threads which run through 
the whole play are the political and domestic in their 

702 The Western. 

manifold relation and interaction; the first of which is 
shown in both its internal and external manifestations 
while the family has its various sides represented in the 
mother, wife, husband, son, father, neighbor and 

Taking up the first thread, we find that at the very 
beginning of the play the key note is struck, internal 
dissension through parties. The people are riotous, not 
without cause, for they want bread; they also recognize 
their chief enemy among the patricians to be Caius Mar- 
cius (Coriolanus). But even among the people is 
heard the voice of moderation, a citizen appeals to 
them toremember his services to the country. The 
demagogue too is present who thrives on sedition and 
whose tendency always is to subordinate State to Party. 
Having thus the one side in its excess, Marcius comes 
before us the representative of the other extreme. He 
reproaches the populace with cowardice, insubordina- 
tion and fickleness, employing an intensity of language 
which could only provoke wrath, and even descends to 
mocking their personal habits. Nay, he is ready to 
destroy them utterly: 

Would the nobility lay aside their neth 

And let me use my sword, I'd make a quarry 
With thousands of these quartered slaves, as high 
As 1 could pick my lance. 

Here is manifested the wrong of Coriolanus, he seems 
to think that nobody has even the right of life except 
his party. Itis clear that no State can exist with such 
contending elements in its bosom; one side must be 

But as we saw a moderate among the plebians, soal- 
so there must be the mediator of patrician blood. 
This is Menenius, an old man of noble stock but be- 
loved by the people. His object is conciliation, his 

Historical Drama. 703 

stand-point isthe common country of both high and 
low, he reaches the people by his homely anecdotes. 
The fable of the belly and members treats of the neces- 
sity of harmony in an organization; each member must 
fulfil its function and yet be subordinate to the purpose 
of the whole. Still Menenius insists more strongly up- 

on thecentral or controlling principle as a good patri- 
cian should do; the people are to be cared for like an 
eternal baby. But they are determined to have estab- 
lished rights, and the special power of the tribunes to en- 
force them. Just now they are asserting the right to 
live against the right of property, they must have some- 
thing to eat, though the corn belongs to another. It 
is the old story of all revolutions: a vested right has be- 
comea great fetter and a great wrong. The extreme 
principle of Coriolanus is to maintain what is estab- 
lished and to destroy the innovators; Menenius would 
also maintain the ancient system of things with a pater- 
nal guardianship of the people. But the latter will be, 
indeed are already an integral, not an accidental element 
of the body politic; they have secured certain privileges 
and the means for enforcing them, and thus participate 
also in the established institutions of the country. 

But this internal conflict must now cease in the pres- 
ence of the external one, the war with the Volscians. 
Here again there are two contending elements each of 
which must be brought before the reader. The Volscian 
State is faintly sketched, it does not differ essentially 
from the Roman, we are told of a Senate and Senators, 
there isa hint of asystem of espionage. But the main 
figure on the Volscian side is Aufidius, who is portrayed 
quite as the counterpart of Coriolanus, though witha 
personal jealousy which is foreign to the character of 

704 The Western. 

the latter. There is no world-historical principle at 
stake, the whole war has the appearance of a predatory 
foray, though Rome is of course defending the exis- 
tence of the State which has been attacked from with- 

To turn now to the Roman side, we find that the 
campaign has been so arranged as to display the valor 
of Coriolanus in its most colossal manifestation. The 
army is in two divisions, though the hero is apparently 
a private soldier; the division in which he is present 
attacks the Volscian town, the Roman soldiery made up 
of the common people, flee while he maintains the con- 
test single-handed; through his prowess mainly the town 
is taken. The contrast is here evident. Coriolanus 
possesses in the highest degree the patrician virtue of 
personal courage which is not so highly developed in 
plebian blood. But this is not the end of his heroic feats. 
He passes to the second division of the Roman army 
distant “‘not a mile’ which has just been driven back; 
with his presence victory return, and for the sixth time 
he vanquishes his valiant foeman Aufidius. We now 
see the clear outlines of his character; his chief trait is 
declared to be personal pride, strength of individuality 
which he is ready to assert against every restraining 
power. With this pride the institutions of his country 
will conflict; the question is, which principle must be 

He is received in-Rome with great rejoicing; his 
family and his friends crowd around; the Senate gives 
hima public reception. But he is too proud—for it is 
hardly modesty-tohear his own praise, he seems almost 
to disdain recognition from mortals. In the general joy 
party is forgotten by the plebians and he is elected con- 

Historical Drama. 705 

sul. But he despises the means, the humiliating cere- 

mony in presence of the people to which he is forced by 

them has excited his disgust and wrath; party spirit is. 
again aroused and his election is revoked. Coriolanus 

cannot submit to an institution, his individual will is 
supreme. This first discipline of office, the suppression 
of his personal caprice and the submission to the estab- 
lished custom can not be endured by him: 

What custom wills, in all things should we do’t 
The dust on antique time would lie unswept, 
And mountainous error be too highly heaped 
For truth to o’er peer. 

Hence on this side he is as revolutionary as the ple- 
bians. The two parties thus reach the same point: 
the destruction of the institutions which restrain their 
tendencies. The patricians however asthe true con- 
servative element of society, seek to conciliate both 
sides and to retain the ancient laws and customs of the 

The next step of Coriolanus is to attempt to unite 
his order into a_ violent party and to take away the 
tribunate and other privileges of the people. He ap- 
peals to the nobles with powerful arguments, but his 
effort ‘isin vain. It is not their principle, indeed it 
is the duty of authority to prevent the State from dis- 
solving into its elements. Here is the point where 
Coriolanus separates from his order: the one subordi- 
nates State to Party, the other subordinates Party to 
State. Thus a newconflict arises; Coriolanus turns 
against his order, and fa!! back upon his own individual 
will, his pride, which he will assert against both parties 
and even against the State. What is the result? He 
must leave, since such a man can not be mediated; 
family, triends, class are all brought in, but they can 

706 The Western. 

not reconcile him with the existing order of things. 
He suffers the fate of the heroic individual amids in- 
stitutions, he is banished. 

D. J. Sniper 

[Continued in next number.] 


(Translated from G. Brandes. Hauptstromihgen des Neunzehten Jahrhunderts) ; 
M me de Stael was born as it were to her historical 
mission. She possessed the highest degree of vivacity. 

In general, reforming souls may be divided into two 
classes. To the first belong the discoverers or inventors 
who produce a single important work and leave it to 
its fate perhaps, not to be understood and recognized till 
after their death. To the second belong those who have 
the capacity to electrify , whose conversational power is 
greater than their literary, whose words flow like streams 
of light over that of which they speak, and who not only 
impress others but make them productive. Those who 
knew Mme. de Stael have always declared to the admir- 
ers of her writings : ‘“‘Her writings are nothing, you 
should have heard her talk.” Her forte was conversa- 
tion; in this respect at least she was a genuine French- 
woman. One of her critics closes with the words : 
“‘when one listens to her it is impossible not to agree 
with her; if she had said this instead of writing it I could 

Mme. De Stael. 707 

never have criticised her;” and a great lady, Mme ed 
Tessé, said of her: “‘If I were the Queen I should com- 
mand Mme. de Stael to talk to me forever.” 

And in close connection with her ability to electrify 
was her ability to command. She was a regal nature. 
Not without reason was she Bonaparte’s rival. Like 
kim she continually widened her kingdom by an 
ever increasing manifoldness of ideas, by healthy and 
profound feeling and by enviable friendships. In Cop- 
pet, she actually held court. A crowd of select spirits 
assembled about her from ail countries. One might 
have‘had the good fortune to meet there at the same 
time, Constant, whom she called “‘le premier esprit du 
monde,” A. W. Schlegel, the celebrated founder of the 
romantic school in Germany, the well known historian, 
Sismondi, whose literary activity is animated by the 
same ideas for which the romantic school in France 
contended at a later period, the Danish poet Adam 
Oehlenschlager, ,in short, the first of the time. Every- 
body made a pilgrimage to Coppet, just as, half a cen- 
tury before, to the neighboring town of Ferney. For 
here Voltaire, banished beyond the French limits, like 
Mme. de Stael, but dwelling as near these limits as pos- 
sible, collected all Euro>e about him in his last 

So famous is the name of Ferney in history. The 
fame which radiates from Coppet can not of course 
compare with it, but has nevertheless its own greatness 
and beauty. Here too justice, truth and the noblest love 
of freedom sprang up in exile. In this century each of 
the three great countries of Europe banished its great- 
est author. Did not not Byron wander homeless 
through Europe? Did not Heinrich Heine died in 

708 The Western. 

Paris? Did not Victor Hugo spend twenty years on the 
island of Jersey? The power of genins grows under 
persecution. Of this Mme. de Stael had her share. 
She too experienced the feeling of loneliness of those 
who are of the opposition. She herself relates how 
one day in Paris when she expected company to dine af- 
ter the morning when one of her party had attacked the 
government she received one excuse after another un- 
til she sat alone ‘at her table. How deserted was she 
afterwards in her banishment. What prominent poli- 
cian dared visit her? Every one had some hinderance, 
either business or illness. ‘‘Ah” she said once “how 
weary I am of all this cowardice in the guise of weak 
lungs.” Tallyrand, whose name had been taken from 
the list of exiles through her intercession showed him- 
self too ungrateful to move a finger to gain permission 
for her to return to Paris at a time when she wasin ut- 
ter despair from homesickness. Nevertheless she did 
not hate him, she hated no one, she forgave everybody, 
but she left atrueand striking picture of himas Mme. 
de Vernon in “Delphine.” A profound melancholy 
appears at the close of one of her letters to him, ‘‘Fare- 
well! Are you happy? With so mighty an intellect do 
you not sometimes penetrate to the bottom of things, 
to unhappiness? Her stoicism failed her in misfortune. 
A cry of lamentation escaped her over her fate--calum- 
niated and persecuted she wished to die. 

“Of all the powers which I received from Nature” 
she makes Corinne say, “‘the power to suffer is the only 
one of which I have made full use.” Her vivacity was 
always in conflict with the sadness of exile. On her 
death-bed she said, ‘‘I have always been the same, gay 

and sad, I have loved my God, my father, and Free- 

Mme. De Stael. 709 

She loved Freedom like Voltaire, but with the love 
of another age. She carries forward his work, while 
resisting it. Her first literary eftort, “‘Literature con- 
sidered in its relation to society” which appeared in the 
year 1800, had the fundamental idea that social Free- 
dom must necessarily lead toa literary reform, and 
that it would be an absurdity tor a society which had 
conquered political Freedom to have a fettered litera- 
ture. In the glowing zeal of her youth she cries out, 
‘might we but find a philopophical system, an enthu- 
siasm for the Good, a powerful and honest legislation 
which could do for us what Christian religion did for 
the past.” Jealous of her budding fame, zealous as the 
Knight of faith, Chateaubriand was at his post and called 
attention to her book. Other critics had derided her 
melancholy and sought to crush her by comparison with 
the Greeks, who were not at all melancholy. Chateau- 
briand improved the opportunity to strike a blow for 
positive religion. ‘‘Mme. de Stael” he said ‘‘ascribes 
to philosophy what I ascribe to religion.” And of her- 
self, he says ‘ther talent is only half developed, phil- 
osophy stifles it. They seem not to hamonize; but how 
could philosophy cure the despondency of her soul? 
Can one desert make an other desert fruitful?” And 
he exhausts himself in similar nonsensical phrases, 
which soon enough betrayed that fear of being eclipsed 
by Mme. de Stael which with good reason never for- 
sook him. 

Delphine appeared, and the opposition became 
stronger. The best known critic of the time wrote: 
*‘Nothing is so dangerous and more immoral than the 
principles which are set forth inthis work. Forgetting 
the views in which she was educated and the protestant 

710 The Western. 

doctrine of her family, Necker’s daughter contemns 
Revelation, and has written a long defense of divorce in 
this very bad book, which is written with much spirit 
and talent. Delphine speaks of love like a Bacchante, 
of God like a Quaker, of death like a grenadier and of 
morals like a sophist.” In 1803 Mme. de Stzael was 
forced to leave Paris. She first went to Germany, next 
to Italy. Then she settled in Switzerland, she, the 
child of Paris, who exclaimed at the first sight of the 
lake of Geneva, “‘O, how much more beautiful was the 
gutter in the Rue du Bac.” 

At this time there appeared a decree in regard to the 
freedom of the press which declared that no work should 
be printed without having been examined by the censor; 
followed by a second decree, having particular reference 
to Mme. de Stael, which enacted that when the censors 
had allowed the publication of a work the minister of 
Police could altogether suppress the same in case he 
considered it advisible--a law which entirely abolished 
all law. When ‘“‘de ’Allemagne”was to be printed 
Mme. de Stael received permission to come within 
forty leagues of Paris, in order to superintend the pub- 
lication. She fluttered around her beloved Paris within 
. the prescribed distance as a moth flutters around the 
light. Once she even ventured at the risk of her life 
to enter. Perhaps she wanted to see her beloved gutter 
again. In the meantime the censors read her book, 
corrected and erased, gave their endorsement to the mu- 
tilated volume. Ten thousand copies were printed. 
But at the moment when the work was to appear the 
minister of Police sent his gensd’armes to the book 
store, and, after having posted sentinels at every exit, 
completed, at Napoleon’s order, the heroic deed of cut- 

Mme. De Stael. 711 

ting to pieces and destroying the ten thousand copies; 
after which they threw the whole into a pond and gave 
the book seller twenty Louis d’or as indemnification. 
At the same time Mme. de Stael received instructions to 
deliver up her manuscript,--the study and hopes of six 
full years--and leave France within the next four and 
twenty hours. In the letter sent by the minister of Po- 
lice on this occasion we find the following: ‘‘Your last 
work is not French.” 

Therein lay her ruin, ‘‘not French.” It is this work, 
“De [ Allemagne” from which the whole new epoch of 
French literature can be dated, this work which for 
the first time, in principle and not casually, breaks with 
the antiquated tradition in French literature,--this work 
it is which the sagacious minister of Police presumes 
to call “‘not French.” Do we not feel the irony? 

She fled. She retired to her estate near Geneva, but 
believe not that here she was free. The prefect of Gen- 
eva gave her to understand that she was not allowed to 
go beyond four leagues from Geneva. And so well 
was she watched that forgetting the order once she was 
immediately overtaken by gens d’armes and brought 
back. But although in other respects a prisoner, in 
Coppet she was a queen. Ochlenschlager in his autobi- 
ography describes his visit to Mme. de Stael in 1808. 
Although Oehlenschlager seems to have had no just idea 
of the real greatness of the woman whose guest he was, 
still he describes well both his stay and person of his 
hostess. He writes, ‘‘the world knows how vivacious, 
clever, witty, and amiable Mme. de Stael was. I know 
of no woman who has shown so much genius. She had 
in consequence something masculine in her character, 
was stout, and had a marked countenance. She was not 

712 The Western. 

beautiful, but her brilliant brown eye was very attractive, 
and she possessed in the highest degree the feminine talent 
of winning men and knew how by her grace and delicacy 
to bring the most dissimilar characters under her sway 
and unite them socially. Her genius and her face, al- 
most her voice, were masculine, but her soul was emi- 
nently feminine,as she has proved in ‘‘Delphine” and 
‘*‘Corinne.”” Rousseau has not described love more par- 
sionately. Wherein she showed herself she drew, in 
spite of the presence of younger and more beautiful 
women, all men, Aead and heart, into her circle. Consid- 
ering that in additon, she was very rich, very hospita- 
blegave splendid dinners every day, so no one will won- 
der that she attracted and ruled men like a queen, like a 
kind of fairy in he magic castle.” It is plain that her 
small hand felt itself born to the scepter. 

“Corinne or Italy,” is Mme. de Stael’s most emi- 
nent In this paradise of Nature her eye 
for nature was opened. She no longer preferred the 
the gutter in Paris to Lake Geeva. And here, in the 
Forum for instance, one square yard has a greater his- 
tory than the whole Russian Empire, here her modern 
revolutionary, melancholy was awakened to a taste fot 
history, for the antique with its simple and severe re- 
pose. Finally here, in Rome, which is almost the cara- 
vansery of Europe, she comprehended the peculiarities 
and one-sidedness of the different nationalities. 
Through her for the first time her own nation became 
conscious of its peculiarity and limitation. For in this 
book England, France and Italy meet and are under- 
stood, not mutually, butin the author and her heroine 
Corinne, who is half English and half Italian. Corinne 
appears in the poetical world almost as the prototype 

Mme. De Stael, 713 

of what Elizabeth Browning became in the real world. 
Standing one day in Florence before a house which 
bore the inscription: ‘‘Here dwelt Elizabeth Barret 
Browning, who with her poems made a golden band 
between England and Italy,” there the author of ‘‘Aur- 
rora Leigh” called up the thought of ‘“‘Corinne.” 

Corinne’s life passes under the double inspiration of 
genius and love. But from the moment when pas- 
sion seizes her, genius is of no avail, and she becomes 
its defenceless prey. She loves a young Englishman, 
Oswald, Lord Nelvil, a cultivated type of all the pre- 
judices and virtues of the North. He too loves her. 
But he does not find in Corinne the weak, timid, 
woman doubtful of everything except her duties and 
her feelings, whom he wished for his bride in England, 
where the domestic virtues make the honor and happi- 
ness of women. He says, like Thomas Walpole, 
“what could one do with such a woman at home!” 
For the rest he possesses all the virtues, the most bril- 
liant courage, and the tenderest self-sacrifice. Rome 
becomes the frame of this love-story. Its marble and 
its horizon answer to these profound feelings and great 
thoughts. The description of Rome is interwoven very 
naturally, for in order to delay her lover, to postpone 
his departure, Corinne becomes his guide to all the 
wonders of the eternal city. And by this means the 
story gains a new importance, for the names of these 
two lovers were cut, as Saint-Beuve has said, not like 
those of other lovers in the bark of trees, buton the 
walls of eternal ruins--are bound up with the world- 
history and have become a living part of its immortal- 

Mme. de Stael’s literary activity may be observed 


714 The Western. 

from two sides. It falls as it were into two parts, a 
masculine aid feminine activity, the philosophical and 
the poetical activity--ideas and feelings. A peculiar 
ardor in the treatment of feeling every where betrays 
that the authoris a woman. When the time comes 
for some one to undertake to write the Psychology 
of woman and to attempt to determine the peculiarity 
of feminine Phantasy and the feminine mind as distin- 
guished from the masculine--for Psychology is so little 
advanced that the smallest attempt has not yet been 
made-- then the works of Mme. de Stael will furnish 
one of the most valuable sources of information. The 
femininity perhaps first betrays itself in the manner in 
which the hero is delineated. The author indicates 
the causes of each of Oswald’s prominent qualities; his 
noble character is explained by his education, his aristo- 
cratic descent and pride; his melancholy is the result of 
English “spleen” and his unhappy relations with his 
father; only one thing the author leaves unex- 
plained, and that is his physical courage. To risk his 
life is as easy and as simple as for us to write orthogra- 
phically. It isa curious and invariable feature that 
female writers of romance equip their heroes with the 
most daring courage, a courage which is never conquered, 
but stands almost like an abstraction outside of the per- 
sonality, while at the same time it is a fact observed by 
numerous great writers that in modern society it is wo- 
men who, more than all else, hinder men from bold 
undertakings. The explanation seems to be that mas- 
culine courage is the quality which becomes a kind of 
ideal for woman, but an ideal which she does not under- 
stand, which she does not recognize when she sees it, 
and which she consequently most Itkes to describe, and 
describes the worst. 

Mme. De Stael. 715 

The description of womanly feeling is Mme. de 
Stael’s forte--the feeling of a woman of genius who 
suffers the whole martyrdom of genius. 

Above all, Corinne’s heart is most deeply moved by 
domestic happiness and feminine purity. But this hap- 
happiness of Hymen is not granted to Corinne, nor to 
Mignon, those two children of aspiration, who, the one 
in French, the other in German literature, person- 
ify Italy. Corinne is the last descendant of those noble 
and lonely sibyls of Italy, of whom tradition is full. She 
was born to suffer, she, who herself said that our poor 
human nature knows the infinite through suffering. But 
before she goes down as the last sacrifice in the antique 
arena, she is decked as a sacrifice and is lead in triumph. 

“Corinne” might be called a poem upon national 
prejudices. Oswald represents those of England, Count 
d’ Erfeuil those of France, and against them both, at 
that time the strongest and most self-sufficient nations 
of Europe, Corinne contends with her whole great soul 
and with the enthusiam of her poetical temperament. 
This contest is no cold-blooded one, for Corinne’s hap- 
piness depends upon how far she succeeds in making 
Oswald give up his inherited prejudices so that he may 
be happy with a woman like her, whose life in every 
direction is opposed to what in England is considered 
the only becoming life fora woman. But while Cor- 
inne thus tries to widen Oswald’s view and to unbend 
his obstinate mind which always springs back into its 
wonted grooves, she also effects the education of the 
reader. In the province of feeling she contiues the 
work which we have seen her accomplish in the province 
of ideas. She sketches the first plan for a Psychology 
of races, even as regards the most delicate feelings. Her 

716 The Western. 

countrymen at that time in the vain conviction that they 
alone represented civilization, tried to wipe out the 
national color of all other countries. Hence it was a 
matter of great moment to her to show them that their 
conception of feeling is only one among many equally, 
and sometimes more valid. 

S. E. Core. 


Vicror1an Posts by Edmund Clarence Stedman. Boston: 
Jas. R. Osgood & Co., 1875. 

Heretofore Mr. Stedman, who first appeared as an aut hor in 
1860, has been known as one of the most felicitous of our 
younger poets, and as a contributor to the best of our maga- 
zines. In the present work Mr. Stedman gives us the most ex- 
quisite prose that has yet been written by an American, and it 
is doubtful whether he need fear comparison with any British 
writer except Swinburne. This praise may sound like extrava- 
gance, but those who read the book will justify this judgment, 
and will think of no American but Whipple with whom to com- 
pare him; of course writers like Irving who are masters of the 
simple style are not brought into comparison, for with equal 
mastery there will still remain a question of preference. No 
reader of books will lay down The Victorian Poets without rec- 
ognizing that a new master has arisen to exemplify the high- 
est grace and elegance of prose style. The Victorian Poets is a 
critical estimate of Landor, Hood, Matthew, Arnold, Proctor, 
E. B. Browning, Tennyson, Mitford, Trench, Alford, DeVere, 
Burbridge, Sterling, Clough, Milnes, Newman, Palgrave, 
Plumptree, Myers, Hamerton, Home, Macaulay, Aytoun, Kings- 
ley, Thornbury, Thackeray, Bulwer, Wade, Domett, Scott, Mrs. 
Adams, Lover, Allingham, Mary Downing, J. F. Waller, D. F. 

Book Reviews. 717 

MacCarthy, W. C. Bennett, Chas. Mackay, Eliza Cook, Wm. 
Howitt, Mary Howitt, Robt. Gilfillan, Chas. Swain, Thos. 
Miller, Gerald Griffin, John Banim, Helen 8S. Gifford, T. De 
McGee, Ingram, Thos. Davis, C.G. Duffy, John Keegan, Mrs. 
Varian, Mrs. W. R. Wilde, J. C. Mangan, Wm. Thom, Robt. 
Nicoll, Thos. Cooper, “Spartacus,” Ebenezer Jones, P. J. Bai- 
ley, Alex. Smith, Gerald Massey, Geo. Macdonald, David Gray, 
Patmore, Dobell, Robert Lyttoa, Fred. Tennyson, Chas. Ten- 
nyson Turner, Edwin Arnold, Thos, Woolner, W. J. Linton, 
Thos. Westwood, Geo. Meredeth, Thos. Ashe, Francis Mahoney, 
Fred. Locker, C.S. Caberly, Austin Dobson, Sir John Bow- 
ring, Theo. Martin, J. C. Wright, P.S. Worsley, F. W. New- 
man, J. 8. Blackie, Lord Derby, E. C. Hawtrey, Jno. Coning- 
ton, Anna Swanwick, Augusta Webster, M. P. Fitz-Gerald, Ros- 
setti, Morris, Edw. Fitzgerald, Rev. John Chandler, J. M. Neale, 
Edward Caswall, Horatius Bonar, F. W. Faber, Charlotte 
Elliott, Christopher Wordsworth, A. P. Stanley, S. Baring- 
Gould, E. H. Bickersteth, Catherine Winkworth, Frances E. 
Cox, Jane Bothwick, Mrs. Eric B. Findlater, Edward Massie, 
Jas. Ballentine, Alex. Maclagan, J. C. Shairp, Edwin Waugh, 
Wm. Barnes, Jean Ingelow, Adelaide Proctor, Isa Craig, Chris- 
tina E. Rossetti, Augusta Webster, Sebastian Evans, G. A. Sim- 
cox, P. B. Marston, T. G. Hake, J, L. Warren, John Payne, A. 
W. E. O’Shaugnessy, Théophile Marzials, Robert Browning, 
Robert Buchanan, and Swinburne. 

The basis of criticism is esthetic—that is the authors are tried 
by the execution of their works and not by their personal bi- 
ographies or moral influence, and no book yet published in 
English displays a tithe of the critical power which marks Mr. 
Stedman’s effort. Mr. Stedman understands the philosophic 
principles of true criticism, and if it were only to hasten the 
day of objective criticism, the book would be most welcome. 
We may properly regard as.elements the rhetorical execution, 
the practical success (as distinguished from the instrumentali- 
ties of poetry), and nature and degree of the value of the work 
to the thinker: but we err grievously and do bitter injustice 
when we confound these tests or use one as the equivalent of 

In an article devoted to the subject of literary criticism (‘The 
Western, August 1875.) an attempt was made to call attention 

718 The Western. 

to the state and needs of our present criticism, and now we have 
the fulfillment of what was then but a hope. The excellent 
criticisms of George S. Hillard, are unfortunately stated sub- 
jectively: we know what he thinks, but do not know by what 
standard he measures. Mr. Stedman on the contrary, shows us 
the grounds of his faith, and pronounces judgment in view of 
the rhetorical, artistic, and philosophic elements, and what is 
more, he manages by his grace of style and personal enthusi- 
asm to render popular a subject in itself best adapted to the 
student. Doubtless Mr. Stedman’s reputation and social posi- 
tion will give him the favorable notice of our leading reviews, 
but if his work be judged upon its own merits it will be found 
a rich addition to the library of the student. Most new books 
are valuable as cunveniences rather than likely to be treasured 
by the student. Mr. Stedman’s Victorian Poets and Swin- 
burne’s Prose Essays are exceptional works, and should find a 
place among the very few books (Liebig said nine,) that the 
book-worn student reads beexuse he wishes rather than because 
he must. [Eb. 

THe Micur AND Mirtu or Lirsrature. A Treatise on Figu- 
rative Language. John Walker Vilant Macbeth New 
York: Harper & Brothers. 1875. 

The author, in a volume of 582 pages, endeavors to develop 
the resources of Rhetoric and use the literature of Great 
Britain and America, for the purpose of illustration. Any one 
familiar with the emptiness of even the most approved treatises 
on Rhetoric will at once see that Mr. Macbeth has entered upon 
a field which needed better cultivation, and any one who ex- 
amines this book will be satisfied that the author has been suc- 
cessful in the main object which he has sought. We welcome 
the book, and believe that it will be found serviceable by any 
who have occasion to study or to teach Rhetoric. The author’s 
manner is somewhat too debonaire and jaunty; there is at 
times seemingly a constrained levity not required for the best 
interests of the book and apparently not congenial to the 
writer. This does not impair the value of the work, and is al- 
luded to only because it is a too common weakness upon the 
part of able men who seek popular favor. The general tone of 
the book is manly and digmfied and on that very account is 
likely to make a lasting impression upon any who would ae- 

Book Reviews." 719 

quaint themselves with the subject treated. The subordinate 
aim of incidentally teaching English Literature must be rathera 
desire than a belief of the writer: much can be learned through 
the book, but it would from its nature fail to take the place of 
the ordinary “ Manual of Literature.” Of the author’s claim to 
originality there need be no doubt; bat without sbaring his ex- 
pressed surprise, we should feel that independent investigation 
will always yield original results, and that so long as learners 
are many and students are few, almost any student can make 
discoveries even in departments where the number of laborers 
has been legion. Any real student of Shakespeare can suggest 
questions for which he can find in others no answer, and this 
fact indicates that the gleanings may be richer than the original 
harvest. Wedo not refer to this point from any spirit of cap- 
tiousness, but because so long as we look upon work in any 
department as done because great men have occupied them- 
selves with it, we preclude the possibility of that extension of 
which any realm is susceptible. It would be easy to suggest 
many untouched subjects of investigation even in the case of 
Shakespeare or the Bible. To conclude I should esteem this 
work of Mr. Macbeth as a valuable addition to our instrumen- 
talities, and should consider his undoubted success in the work 
that really occupied his mind as not at all affected by the sub- 
ordinate aims to which I have taken exception.—_[Eb. 

OtiverR GoLpsMiTH’s SeLicTtED Porms. Edited by Wm. J. 
Rolfe. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1875. 

{Furnished for review by Gray, Baker & Co. ] 

This is an attempt to supply in small compass and at small 
price, the poems of Goldsmith—that is The Traveler, The De- 
serted Village, and Retaliation. “The text is based upon Cun- 
ningham’s after collation, with all other reputable texts; the 
notes are rhetorical and historical, and seem likely to be useful 
to the average reader: they also offer the history of each of 
the poems. Prefixed to the volume are Macaulay’s essay on 
Goldsmith, and selections from other memoirs, as Thackeray’s 
English Humorists, George Colman’s Random Recollections, 
Campbell’s Specimens of the British Poets, Forster’s Life of 
Goldsmith, Irving’s Life of Goldsmith. To serve the purpose 
of a text-book Goldsmith’s poems are manifestly superior to 



a NA OE eee a ne 

epee roperaners 


720 The Western. 

Milton’s, truth they are remarkably well-adapted to 
such use. Wherever, then, there is any attention paid to the 
analytical study of some single author, this book may present 
itself for patronage, and as it is worthy it will most unquestion- 
ably receive it.—[Epb. 

Index of words explained: An, bleak, godspeed, tawdry, 
methinks, decent, sidelony, truant, disaster, parlour, pomp. 

A ConcorpANce To THE Works OF ALEXANDER Pope. By Ed- 
win Abbott. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1875. 

[Furnished for review by Gray, Baker & Co. 

Few authors need the labor implied in the making of a con- 
cordance: some like Shakespeare because no study however 
minute, can be unprofitable; others because, as masters of lan- 
guage, they are essential to any recital of the history of lan- 
guage. Certainly a writer like Pope, resting no small part of 
his reputation upon his felicity of diction, is specially likely to 
serve the student of language whether his study have reference 
to philology or to the acquisition of a good English vocabulary. 
As Mr. Abbott remarks, modern English begins with Dryden, 
and of all his successors none have been so felicitous as Pope. 
In the preface the author calls attention to Pope’s peculiarities 
in Spelling, Archaisms, the use of words, Idioms, Antithesis, me- 
tre, and Alliteration. Following the preface is a table of exam- 
ples of Irregular or Unusual Rhymes, in which reference is 
made to the passages in which the rhymes occur. Until the 
appearance of Ellis’ Early English Pronunciation even the ad- 
vanced student was thrown upon his own resources when at- 
tempting to weigh the metrical claims of any period in which 
accentuation was other than his own: Ellis’ book is too costly 
to be generally accessible, and Mr. Abbott’s book may be made 
to reach the same end. Assuming that the author has as here- 
tofore, been conscientious in his work, it is safe to say that any 
student of language will be richer from a frequent reference to 
the “ Concordance.”—{ Ep. 

Caatrerton—a BioarapaicaLStupy. By Daniel Wilson. Lon- 
don: Macmillan & Co., 1869. 
While the old literary controversies excited by the Rowley 
Letters, have lost interest except for antiquaries and vir- 
tuosos, there is an indefinable fascination in the life of “the 

Book Reviews. 721 

marvelous boy” which lends an interest to every new essay 
with Chatterton as its theme. Dr. Wilson’s “biographical 
study” is written with an ease and simplicity well calculated 
to excite the interest of the reader, while there is an absence of 
the harsher features of controversy which are almost insepera- 
ble from themes which are judged by the feelings. Certain it 
is that while a few names hold their position without dispute, 
the greater part of human success is so unsymmetrical as to 
leave room for negative fault-finding. But so long as “the 
strings and arrows of outrageous fortune” wound but do no 
fatal injury, to the reputation of an author, we are urged by a 
natural and rational impulse to seek the secret of the poet’s 
strength. This bounding of a great man’s achievements is not 
only necessary for our own intellectual aid, but it strengthens 
all fairly-earned reputations by placing them upon foundations 
which are imperishable because true. 

Briefly stated the claims of Chatterton have been said to be: 
“a power of picturesque painting, wonderful command of casy 
language and lively, sportive allusion, compass of invention, 
and a luxuriance of fancy.” While the volume of Chatterton’s 
work is small, its quality justifies Wordsworth’s praise, and in- 
terests us in the poet as well as in the phenomenon.—{ Eb. 

A Ctass Book or Cuemistry, on the basis of the new system. 
By Edward L. Youmans, M.D. New York, 1875: D. Apple- 
ton & Co; C. E. Lane, agent, St. Louis. 

The “ Class Book of Chemistry,” first published in 1852, was 
re-written in 1863, and has now been revised to bring it into 
harmony with the latest views and adapt it to present needs. 
The addition before us contains 320 pages of print, including 
200 illustrations, also an appendix of tables, a large body of ques- 
tions for review, a glossary of technical words and proper 
names, and an alphabetical index. The presentations of Chem- 
istry proper is limited to about 200 pages, the latter three-fifths 
of the work, the first part treating of Chemical Physics. The 
statements and explanations given are necessarily brief but are 
accurate and well expressed. We notice specially the presenta- 
tion of the subject of Spectrum Analysis, which for an outline 
is quite full, and singularly clear. The book evinces throughout 
a careful preparation, and a clear discernment on the part of the 

722 The Western. 

author of the needs of a large class of students in and out of 
school, who never expect to become practical chemists, but de- 
sire an intelligent general knowledge of the science. 

B. V. B. D. 

Topp’s Inpex Rerum. Bridgman & Childs; Northampton, 


This is familiar to the students of fifteen years ago as a very 
convenient commonplace book, It is so alphabetized as to 
make reference more easy, and furnishes a quality of paper not 
usually to be found in blank-books. Of the importance of a 
commonplace book it would be unnecessary to speak, except for 
the fact that the abuse of albums, diaries, and commonplace 
books has naturally brought with it a disregard of what they 
have of value, Every student suffers from forgetfulness, and 
his neglect in recording what he learns causes him the loss of 
much time and labor at a period when he is qualified to estimate 
his loss and regret his folly. Every one who thinks or reads 
gathers much that would be useful to himself and valuable to 
others; while through neglect in recording his gains, his suc- 
cessor has to struggle with the same initial embarrassments. 
Certainly Todd’s Index Rerum needs no recommendation for 
itself, as it enjoys a settled reputation.—Eb. 

A Text Boox on Civit GoveRNMENT IN THE UNITED States. 
By George H. Martin. A.S. Barnes & Co., New York, 1875. 
If the object in teaching the Constitution of the United States 

is to acquaint the pupil with its purport rather than with its 

verbiage, then this book of Mr. Martin’s is vastly superior to its 
predecessors, and indeed, well adapted to secure the end which 
it puts before itself. The definitions are intelligible, clear and 
exact; the reciprocal functions of the government and the gov- 
erned are well stated; and the history of the development of 
our present constitution is related in a form at once scientific 
and calculated to interest the pupil. After several years’ ex- 
perience as a teacher of this branch of study, I should without 
hesitation, pronounce Mr. Martin’s book for the uses of the 
school-room, far superior to Story’s or Townsend’s: the first of 
which for many years served as the horn-book of all who 
studied the Constitution; and the second of which succeeded to 
the supremacy about 1867. In saying this I limit the use of the 

Book Reviews. 723 

book to our High Schools, Academies and Colleges, for itis hard- 
ly adapted to use in our Common Schools with their present 
course of study. The paper is fair, the type and general ap- 
pearance, good. All teachers of the Constitution as well as 
such students as lack time and opportunity for consulting more 
numerous as well as more extended works, will find this work 
a very valuable companion.—[Eb. 

Keeret’s Frencu Series New York: Clark, Maynard & Co. 

Text book in French. 

This commences with the first principles, and while teaching 
children the names of familiar objects requires them to form 
words into sentences, thus utilizing their knowledge as soon as 
acquired. It avoids the fault of most “French and English 
Systems ”—that of constant repetition of the most uninteresting 
phrases to the exclusion of others of greater ultimate import- 
ance: at the same time words are brought before the mind of 
the pupil with a frequency sufficient to ensure their being rec- 
ollected. The fine illustrations of this volume will make it 
none the less attractive to the child. Any child who has been 
faithful in the use of this little book, will have acquired consid- 
erable insight into the grammatical structure of French sen- 

THe ELemMentary GRAMMAR.—This is intended for such as 
have a fair acquaintance with the Grammar of their own lan- 
guage, and aims to serve those who desire a rapid as well as 
clear insight into the principles of FrenchGrammar. Each part 
of speech is carefully considered, and particular stress is laid 
upon such portions of French Grammar as prove most trouble- 
some to foreigners: such topics, for example, as the irregular 
verbs, and adjectives which change their signification with their 
position; the exemplifications and exercises for practice are 
such as to ensure a thorough understanding and readiness. A 
marked feature is the classification of orthographic irregulari- 
ties in the regular verbs. 

for the advanced student, and offers aid both practical and the- 
oretical : after a clear statement of principles and the rules de- 
rivable from them, there follow oral exercises which illustrate 

724 The Western. 

and enforce these rules and principles. Even a hasty glance at 
the book will convince one that Mr. Keetel has succeeded in 
keeping his topic before the mind of the pupil, and in present- 
ing it in forms so varied as to sustain an interest which gen- 
erally lags when engaged in “ exercise work.” This opinion is 
the result of a thorough examination, and is pronounced from 
the standpoint of the practical teacher. M. T. 8. 

Norse Myruotocy; Tae Reticion or our ForeraTHers Sys- 
S. C. Greag & Co. 1875. ‘ 

This is a successful attempt to collect within the limits of one 
book the results of many laborers and to add to the record of 
Norse mythology the religious thought which it symbolizes. 
The mythology of a people plays so important a part in lit- 
erature that one cannot afford ignorance of at least its outlines, 
and yet there seems to be a mistaken idea that what is first in 
order of time is also first in order of importance ; this might 
properly be termed the historical fallacy. Because crude thought 
preceded clear thinking, it is not therefore preferable; because 
the pioneer must precede the statesman his work is not therefore 
more valuable; because material wants are felt before spiritual 
ones they do not therefore excel the latter. This error lies at 
the base of the extravagant claims of the special student, and 
while he may for a time excite an abnormal interest in his work, 
he willin the end receive a neglect proportioned to this excess 
of admiration. Mr. Anderson does not escape this weakness 
but wastes no small part of his effort in enforcing the supreme 
elaims of the Norse as contrasted with the Greek and Latin, 
and in proposing to estimate value by patriotism rather than by 
intrinsic worth. If in future editions the author should omit 
these parts of his work he would most undoubtedly find that he 
had increased rather than diminished the circle of his admirers, 

The parts of the book which confine themselves to Norse 
Mythology are, as have been said, of great value and constitute 
a valid claim upon the reader’s attention. The contents of the 
book are as follows. 

I. What is Mythology and what is Norse Mythology. 
II. Why Norse Mythology? Ought it not rather to be called 
Gothic or Teutonic ? 

Book Reviews. 

Ill. Norse Mythology compared with the Greek. 
IV. Roman Mythology. 
V. Interpretation of Norse Mythology. 
VI. Norse Mythology furnishes abundant and excellent mate- 
rial for the use of Poets, Sculptors, and Painters. 
VII. Sourcesof the Norse Mythology, and Influence of the 

Norse Myrso.ocy Part I. 
I. The Creation. II. The Preservation. III. Exegetical Re- 
marks upon I. and II. 

Part Il, 

I. Odin. II. Hermod, Tyr, Heimdal, Brage, and 
III. Balder, and Nanna, Hoder, Vale, and Forsete. 1V. Thor. 

his wife Sif, and son Uller. V. Vidar. VI. The N. VII. 
The Development of Evil, Loke and his Offspring. 
Part III. 

I, Ragnarok. II.Regeneration. 

While we doubt not the value of these investigations inte 
early beliefs, religious, linguistic, or historical, we see no rea- 
son why any special student should by his method of treatment 
alienate those who if they do not share his enthusiasm can at 
least appreciate the value of any results that he may attain. 
That the present activity inthe archaeology of language and 
religion will yield lasting results, there can be no doubt, but that 
the pre-historic will ever become the popular or that men will, 
clothe themselves in the intellectual habilaments of times past 
is not to be expected us it is certainly not to be desired, 

First Book 1n ZooLocy By Epwarp. S. Morse PH. D. 

New York 1875, D. AppLeTon anp Co. 
C. E. Lang, acent, Sr. Louis. 

The plan of this book 1s certainly an innovation. At the 
outset, no mention whatever is made of the existence of a system 
of classification, the pupil being directly introduced to the study of 
animals themselves ; the details of structure are pointed out, and 
explained and every encouragement given to promote the study 
of their peculiarities as manifest in nature, rather than as they are 
described in the book. Neitherthe lowest nor highest of An- 
imal forms are introduced, the former because in most cases 
they can be obtained or scen only with great difficulty, being 

726 The Western. 

mostly microscopic; the latter on account of their intricacy of 
structure. A few groups, mainly of the Articulata and Mollus- 
ea, constitute the subject matter treated. The chief intent of 
the work is apparently to induce a careful analytical study of a 
few simple and familiar forms, rather than to present a general 
statement of the results of Zoological Scienc2. For this rea- 
son it can never adequately fill the place of a text book for 
pupils who without either the opportunity or desire to pur- 
sue the subject in a thorough, experimental manner, nevertheless 
wish to gain a general acquaintance with Zoology. Books 
designed for special students and abounding in technical details 
are not at all suited to the wants of general students. As an 
introduction to a thorough course in Zoology and to the me- 
thodical scientific study of nature this work may be freely rec. 
ommended. It seeks to divest the pupil at the outset of all pre. 
conceived notions of classification and to lead him through the 
study of nature and natural objects to an intelligent accept- 
ance of a scientificsystem, not dependent on authoritative state- 
ment but existing asa recognized necessity. 

(B. V. B. D.) 

Noticeable Articles in Magazines and Re- 

Harpers, Nov. 1. Barry Cornwall and some of his Friends. 

II. Recent French Caricature. III. Legislative Humors. IV. 
The Modern Psyche. 

Galary, Nov. The Two Ampéres. by H. James. Jr. 

Littell’s Living Age, 1633-1634. Baxter. 
1635. I. In a Studio. II. Torquato Tasso: Life and Works. III. 
Some account of a German Boarding School. IV. Coleridge- 
V. Chateaubriand. 1636. In My Study Chair. 

Magazines and Reviews. 727 

Blackwood’s Sept. A particularly interesting number. I. In 
My Study Chair. II. In a Studio. III. Tennyson’s Queen Mary. 
IV. Elegies. 

Oct. I. Michael Angelo. 
Nov. I. Michael Angelo. 

Dublin University Review. Oct. E. A. Poe. 

British Quarterly, Oct. I. Religious art. II. Poetry of Ten- 
nyson. III. Isaac Casaubon. 

St. James. Oct. E. B. Browning. 

American Bibliopolist Aug. I. Comic Periodical Literature 
of the U.S. IL. Libraries as Leaven. IIL. Nicholas Mueller, the 
German Printer-Poet, IV. Obituaries: Andersen, Carnes, 
Drake, Pugin, Remusat, Rich, Thompson, Upham. V. Life and 
Writings of John Howard Payne. VI. Shakespearian Gossip : 
“ Chewing the Cud,” “Cry Aim,’’ Felton Portrait of Shakes- 
pear, Henry IV, Holme’s Authorship of Shakespeare, Jacox’s 
Shakerpeare diversions, Knight’s Edition of Shakespere, Launce, 
Lytle’s Antony and Cleopatra, New Shakespeare Society , 
Winsor’s Bibliography of the Folios and Quartos. 

Fortnightly Review. Sept. I. Origin of Divine Myths in India. 
II. Sophocles. III. Diderot. 

National Qnarterly Review. Oct. 1. Lessons of a Hnndred 
Years. II. Pre-historic Greece. 

North American Review. Oct. I. Cuairnes’ Political Economy 
II. The Two Amperes. III. Sherman’s Memories. 

St. Nicholas. Nov. The list of contributors ensures good work . 
Lucy Larcom, Celia Thaxter, Harriet Prescott Shafford, Donald 
G. Mitchell, J. T. Trowbridge, and Christina G. Rossetti. are a 
suffic'ent endorsement for the character of the work. The more 
noticeble articles are I. Penelope Boothby,(a story of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds.) Il. Hans Christian Andersen: a Poem, III. Arnold 
and his Violin. 1V. How Plants come from Seed. V. The Re- 
former:a Poem. VI. Postage Stamp Collecting. 

Bulletin de la Société Franklin, Paris, Oct. Offers 40 pp, of books 
suitable for acity library. and will be found serviceable to all 
interested in libraries. 


728 The Western. 

Books Added to Public School Library. 



Aidé. A Nine Day,s Wonder. 

Ames. His Two Wives. 

Bérnstein. Geheimnisse von St. Louis. 
Bronté. Jane Eyre. 

Church. Open! Sesame! 

Clayton’s Rangers. 

Edwards. Estelle. 

Edwards. Leah: a Woman of Fashion. 
Fleming. Norine’s Revenge. 
Gaborian. The Widow Lerouge. 

Holland. Sevenoaks. 

Johnny Ludlow. 

Katsch. Under the Stork’s Nest. 
Marryat. Olla Podrida. 

Marryat. Valerie. 

Oliphant. A Rose in June. 

Roe. From Jest to Earnest. 

Roe. Opening of a Chestnut Burr. 
Tabor. Hope Meredith. 

Warfield. Hester Howard’s Temptation 


Burnand. Happy Thoughts. 
e More Happy Thoughts. 
a Happy, Thoughts Hall. 
“ My Health. 
Coates. Best Authors in Prose and Poetry. 
Gautier. Constantinople. 
Gilbert. The “ Bab” Ballads. 
Goldsmith. Select Poems. 
Haven. Our Next-Door Neigbbor: Mexico. 
“Johnson. Little Classics. Vol. 15. Minor Poems. 

Books Added to Public School Library. 729 

Miller. The Ship in the Desert. 

Ruskin. Froudes Agrestes. 

Southworth. Four thousand Miles of African Travels. 
Spurgeon. Lectures to my Students. 

Stoddard. Treasure Trove Series. Vol. 2. Travesty. 
Taine. Notes on Paris. 

Thackeray. Thackerayana. 

Webber. Wild Scenes and Wild Hunters, 

Wilson. The Abode of Snow. 

Alcott. Eight Cousins. 
Barker. Boys. 
Barker. Little Wide-Awake. 
Coolidge. Nine Goslings. 
D’Aulnoy. Fairy Tales. 
Doings of the Bodley Family in Town and alec 
Fairy Bells, and what they told us. 
Little Prattler. 
Little Rattler. 
Lowell. Antony Brade. 
Moulton. Bed-Time Stories. 
Perrault. Fairy Tales. 
Routledge’s Every Boy’s Annual, 1876. 
Thorne. Jolly Good Times. 
Verne. Captain Hatteras. 

History, &&., &c. 

Abbott. Concordance to the works of Alex. Pope 
Allibone. Prose Quotations. 
Bauduy. Diseases of the Nervous System. 
Best Reading, The. 
Cambridge Classical Examinations. 
Cooke, Fungi. 
Croll. Climate and Time. 
Dadd. American Reformed Horse-Book. 
Darby. Two Thousand Years After. 
Forbes. Transit of Venus. 
Grimes. Mysteries of the Head and the Heart explained. 
Holyoake. Cooperation in England. Vol. I. 

730 The Western. 

King. The Great South. 

Latouche. Travels in Portugal. 

Marryat. Mons. Violet. 

Kingston. The Western World, 

Laugl. . Modern Art Education. 

Lee ,Gen. Robert E. Life by Edw. Childe. 

Lompriere. Classical Dictionary. 

Lubbock. British Wild Flowers considered in relation to In- 

Macbeth. Might and Mirth of Literature. 

Macready’s Reminiscences. 

Merivale. General History of Rome. B.C. 753—A. D. 476 

Miller. In the Kitchen. 

Mivart. The Common Frog. 

New Letter-Writer. 

Quinby. On Bee-Keeping. 

Récamiere, Mme., and her Friends. 

Rodwell. The Birth of Christianity. 

Sancho Panza’s Proverbs. 

Schiller. Essays Aesthetical and Philosophical. 

Schlossen. History of the Eighteenth Century. 

Summers. Chinese Grammer. 

Ten Brook. American State Universities. 

Thomson. Scripture Geography, 

Unseen Universe, The. 

Vaux. Persia. 

Viollet-L-Duc. Annals oi a Fortress. 

Vogel. Chemistry of Light and Photography. 

Youatt. On the management of Sheep. 

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—* Physiology and Laws of Health Peabody’s Moral Philosophy. 

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