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'WS2 New SERres. (JUNE, 1877.) Vou. III. No. 6. 

2 ee 



H. H. MORGAN, EprrTor. 


Culture and Discipline—S. H. Emery, Jr 
Makuria—A Play in Five Acts—S. STeRNE 
Thoughts on the History of Education—Wwm. TT. Harris....332 
Shakespeare’s Historical Plays—D. J. SNIDER.......+0..+++00.--344 
A Phonetic English Alphabet—T. R. Vickroy 
NE SOU 55 isin scheceno snes snctsktie oicceesitinne vosesoneasbevanabecs 373 
Noticeable Articles in Magazines and ReviewSs..........+0.+++++«0380 
Published by 
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st. Louis, | GRAY, BAKER & CO. 


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The Western. 

JUNE, 1877. 



CCORDING to the Westminster Assembly’s Shorter 

Catechism, “The chief end of man is to glorify God, and 
enjoy Him forever.” This is the statement in the language of 
religion of the true destiny of man. There is no conflict be- 
tween true religion and true philosophy. Speculative truth 
is the basis of all correct theological dogma. How shall man 
“ glorify God and enjoy Him forever?” Through culture and 
discipline. It is of the utmost importance then that we ar- 
rive at a comprehension of the meaning of these terms. Man 
is a trinity: intellect, will, and self-conscious personality, em- 
bracing intellect and will as momenta. Culture is the educa- 
tion of the intellect. Discipline is the education of the will. 
Notice the term “education ”—it is a leading out. The pro- 
cess of education is not a putting in, but a leading-out pro- 
cess. The man is led out from the instinctive condition of 
animal into the glory of reason. Then he has glorified God, 
and can “enjoy Him forever ”—for God’s chief glory is a ra- 
tional man. This is the final cause of the creation of the uni- 
verse—that God may reflect Himself in His own image. For 

this has all this realm of nature been spread out, all this 

*An Essay read at a family anniversary. 
VOL. I1I—No. 6—21. 

320 The Western. 

wealth of inorganic and organic been lavished. Land and 
sea, sublime rocks and cataracts, stately tree and beautiful 
flower, fish and fowl, bird and beast, exist only as steps in 
that process which culminates in man. Without the con- 
sciousness which sees itself in them, they would not be at all. 
What a stultification of pretending reason it is, that it should 
declare itself product of these its creatures! Yet with such 
result—or no result, rather—are the most eminent students 
of the physical sciences credited to-day. This is not the work 
of culture, but of mere information. The process of culture 
is called by Hegel “The phenomenology of spirit ;’ his 
work, so named, being an exposition of the journey taken by 
the consciousness, starting from the perception of an object, 
which is its first act, and arriving at complete self-conscious- 
hess. You will see that it is no mere acquaintance with books, 
of which we are treating, but something of quite other im- 
portance—viz., the leading out of man from his finitude into 
universality. The uncultured man is a finite animal, only po- 
tentially man—but the cultured man is universal, the infinite 
person. To the one himself is but a fragment, cast out into 
space and time, occupying its own little crevice, encompassed 
by alien forms, strutting its brief season on the vast stage 
called life, and falling at last into the pit called death. But 
the other has cancelled his finitude. All the past, present, 
and future is within him. He is not only lord of all, but he 
isall. The history of the universe is his history. Life and 
death are but phases touching not himself. Accident cannot 
reach him for he has outgrown it. “ He is builded far from 

Culture and discipline go hand in hand. As the intellect 
frees itself from—as one might say—mere passive perception, 
the will frees itselffrom appetites and desires. As the intellect 
universalizes the individual, pari passu the will realizes the 

eee ee 

Culture and Discipline. 321 

universal in the special. The barbarian sees his food and 
seizes it. The civilized man, knowing some things more im- 
portant than food delegates the care of the matter to the 
butcher and pays for what he gets. Who would remain brute, 
selling his birth-right of rationality for a mess of pottage? 

In these United States, in this centennial year, the first steps 
toward culture and discipline are easily taken. Among 
us the family relation is respected, and primary schools are 
free. The child learns at its mother’s knee that there are re- 
lations between things apprehended by the senses, and that 
self-will cannot rule, gaining thereby the first principles of 
good manners. Thence it advances to the schools, where it 
gets a glimpse of the accumulated information of the ages, for- 
mulated in the text books of the physical sciences. It learns 
from geography that the point of space where it is, is buta 
point in a grand system of continents, oceans, islands and 
peninsulas, lakes and rivers, which constitute the surface of 
the planet which is its home; learns from astronomy that even 
this planet is but a mote in that immeasurable immensity, in 
which countless myriads of worlds revolve; learns from bhis- 
tory that the point of time, which is the now, succeeds a past 
which to its childish conception seems illimitable, crowded with 
incidents, tragic, comic, grand, mean, heroic, infamous, leading 
up in unremitting succession to the events of to-day, and point- 
ing forward to a certain to-morrow; then learns that this 
history stretching back for thousands of years has as its pre- 
supposition a past in comparison with which it is but nought. 
So the young soul comes out from its isolation and appre- 
hends the world. In the school it gets discipline also; not, 
fortunately in these latter days the disciplineZof brute force, 
but a wiser incitement to self-restraint, and regard for the 
rights of others. In countries where the monarch is absolute 
and the prime virtue of the subject is obedience to external 

322 The Western. 

authority, the ferule and cow-hide might properly be applied 
to the refractory youth, that he might learn to obey outward- 
ly though he rebel inwardly, but in free America where each 
man is a governor, children should be taught self-control, the 
virtue of the sovereign, rather than the virtue of the slave. 
Of course languages, living and dead, must be acquired, that 
one may not be hampered, but may be free to make the best 
thought of the world hisown. Mathematics too for practical 
advantages and exhibition of method is not to be ignored. In- 
deed each specialty of the curriculum has for its object to 
universalize the individual, and by these varied paths the con- 
sciousness progresses toward complete self-determination. 
From the school one goes to the shop, the counting-room, or 
the training ground of a profession and acquires a vocation. 
Through our vocation we become valid members of society, 
factors of that combination through which each is for all and 
all for each. Here the universalizing process becomes again 
apparent. Among barbarians each grasps what he can and 
works only for himself, but among civilized people one works 
for himself through working for others. The varied products 
of the most distant climes are brought to our doors, and each 
man can readily secure for himself possession of the whole 
world so far as he can use it. Let no one despise the discip- 
line of a vocation, for through this only can one make himself 
valid as member of civil society. Yet if one surrender himself 
to his vocation, become a permanent member of what Plato 
calls the acquisitive class, he thereby classifies himself as be- 
longing to the lowest order of rational beings. It is the duty 
of every man to make himself valid in the practical sphere first. 
He must not allow himself to go to the poor-house. As one of the 
multitude who constitute society, he must pay his way, but it 
is equally his duty to leave the acquisition of property to 
others, having accomplished this much, and to devote himself 

Oulture and Discipline. 323 

to other and better means of culture and{discipline. Mean- 
while however, one’s relations to family and State must be 
cultivated. We arrive through the family, and we perpetuate 
the family. The child, brought into the world, nurtured and 
educated, by the family, when come to years of discretion, 
provides for the perpetuation of the institution. For purpo- 
ses of nature man is dirempted and becomestwo. Spirit over- 
comes this duality by true marriage. 

Our meeting here to-day bears witness to the respect in 
which we hold the family. There is no danger that this insti- 
tution will ever fall into desuetude, but there seems more oc- 
casion for anxiety lest we fail of our duty towards the State. 
To be sure we cannot escape this institution; whether con- 
sciously or unconsciously, actively or inactively, we must still 
be citizens. The State is the highest of the secular institu- 
tions; for if the family and civil society are momenta; in it 
only can they exist. The heresy of the 18th century, which 
culminated in the French Revolution, and which maintained 
that the State is a social compact for the convenience of indi- 
viduals, is rapidly being out-grown. That phase of the pro- 
cess of the world spirit is passing away, and again, and in a 
far higher sense than ever before, it begins to be comprehend- 
ed that the governor governs by divine right. The State is the 
realization of Divine justice; within it each deed returns 
upon the doer, whether it be good or evil; without it justice 
could never be realized. 

Thus briefly and cursorily have we traversed the real world, 
or the world of secular institutions, hinting at the culture 
and discipline the soul derives from the voyage, but this is 
merely preliminary. From the real world we pass to the act- 
ual world, or the world of spiritual institutions. The real 
world is but the stepping stone for the actual, us the natural 
world is for the real. The spiritual institutions which consti- 

324 The Western. 

tute the actual world are three: aesthetic art, religion, philos- 
ophy. The culture and discipline which the soul gets here 
are final. Before passing to this, however, it might be well to 
allude to what Plato calls gymnastics. This greatest thinker 
of his age, in his Republic, treats of culture and discipline of 
mind and body under the heads of Music and Gymnastics. 
It is important doubtless that one attend to the body some- 
what, and the highest culture will certainly make the best 
body, yet we need not go into details here, but may content 
ourselves with this mere allusion and sum up the whole mat- 
ter in these words of Plato. “ And next,” ‘said I,’ “with ref- 
erence to a good habit of body and its nourishment, he will 
spend his life in attention to these, not that he may indulge 
the brutal and irrational pleasure; nor yet with a view to 
health, nor, principally regarding this, to become strong and 
healthy, and beautiful, unless by means of these he is to be- 
come temperate likewise: but he always appears to adjust 
the harmony of the body for the sake of the symphony which 
is in the soul.” The institutions of the actual world, or the 
world in which both means and end are spiritual, are placed 
in the order before mentioned, because such is the relative 
position they occupy in the development of the self-conscious- 
ness. Art displays the ideal in sensuous forms, for it “ the 
beautiful” is end, and one may see by contemplation of the 
series of art, how it progresses in its use of material toward 
the most spiritual form: first Architecture, then Sculpture, 
then Painting, next Music, finally Poetry. Of all sensuous ma- 
terial Poetry uses the highest; language, most intimate symbol 
of thought. One must experience then the culture born of Art; 
not that every man must be an artist, but every man must be 
able to recognize in Art the “splendor of the true.” For Relig- 
ion, “the good” is end. As means it uses worship, the negation 
or submission of the intellect; and sacrifice, the negation or 

Culture and Discipline. 325 

submission of the will. You will notice that here on the high- 
est planes, culture and discipline go hand in hand. It is consid- 
ered quite the thing in these smart days, and among smart 
people, to sneer at religion, particularly at the ancient ortho- 
dox dogmas, and to plume one’s-self on one’s freedom from 
religious sentiment. It is plain to see that such conceit be- 
longs to very early youth, and continues in age, only when 
the culture of the individual has stopped short and left him 
dwarfed. To the understanding the Triune God is an absurd- 
ity, but reason recognizes in this doctrine the highest and 
deepest speculative truth. It is the essential nature of relig- 
ion that this truth should be stated as a dogma, setting forth 
the mystery of three Persons and one God as an object of wor- 
ship. Through this worship and the accompanying sacrifice 
come the culture and discipline which are gained from religion. 
To the religious man it seems blasphemous to say that 
there can be any higher plane than his. Yet reason requires 
a higher, on which can be effected a systematization of the 
whole universe, so that all things and all institutions, natural, 
spiritual, secular, artistic, religious, may be placed in their 
proper relations. This is the plane of philosophy. The best 
definition of philosophy I have ever seen is this: “Philosophy 
is the reduction of the whole of man’s world to terms of 
thought, with theoretical light and practical guidance in all 
that concerns him as a rational animal.” One can readily 
see that here at last the goal of culture and discipline is reach- 
ed. When one shall have reduced the whole universe to 
terms of thought, with all thereby implied, then one will have 
reached the point of highest reflection, the summit of the ca- 
reer of man. Hegel, of all philosophers the greatest, enunci- 
ated the most perfect system yet extant. He omitted no do- 
main of spirit or nature, but strove to compass all things by 
the sweep of his dialectic. That he succeeded wholly no man 

326 The Western. 

would say, for, doubtless, there is room enough yet for ad- 
vance. If the United States is destined to be the nation of the 
future, as we all hope, we may expect that an American Phi- 
losopher will arise who will push still farther the deepest in- 
sights yet expressed. When on this plane of philosophy, 
culture and discipline meet their fruition, there is no antago 
nism between the intellect and the will; knowing and doing 
are one. This does not mean that the philosopher as individ- 
ual has complete control of contingencies, that his house shall 
not burn and his foot shall pot slip. The true philosopher 
will know the universal and do the universal. 

Plato divides all men into three classes: the lovers of 
wealth, the lovers of honors, the lovers of wisdom In the 
first class he includes all those who love sensuous things and 
make the possession of them their happiness. Those of us 
who consciously or unconsciously seek this end constitute 
much the larger part of every community. Consequently hap 
piuess realized is a very rare phenomenon. One must learn 
to be indifferent to every thing which contingency can effect, 
in order that one be “ builded far from accident.”” The error 
of most of us who really desire culture is, that we stop short, 
having arrived at some stand-point of Art, Religion, or Phi- 
losophy, feeling that now the goal is reaciied and nothing far- 
ther can be done. Not that we say to ourselves “ we are to 
sit here at our ease forever with our hands folded and our 
eyes shut,” but that we think our insight complete and that 
we must draw all men unto us. But man is a progressive be- 
ing and when he shall have acquired the deepest insight pos- 
sible for him, be will have become the perfect reflection of 

God. Yet one need feel no discouragement because the goal 
is so distant. The way to it is beautiful, if not easy. What 
is chiefly necessary is, that one should recognize that only 
through the highest and deepest culture and discipline can he 

Culture and Discipline. 327 

glorify God. Alas! that ’tis true, that only a small minority 
of men and women ever stop to think at all about this uni- 
verse and their relation to it. The animal instincts are so 
strong in us that to eat, drink, and be merry satisfies the ma- 

jority, and they never stop to inquire whether or no a think- 

ing being may have other and quite different functions. In- 
deed sensuous things press so closely, even upon man, that 
after providing for food, clothing and shelter, little time is left 
for any thing else. We cannot blame so much the day-labor- 
er with a large, dependent family, for being entirely engross- 
ed by the efforts necessary to secure the bare continuance of 
them all upon the face of the earth, but what shall we say of 
those who, having a competence reasonably secure, devote 
their conscious existence to an increase of wealth? The only 
rational motive for the acquisition of permanent property is 
that one may secure leisure for the best culture, and those 
only who, “ seeing the will of the Lord, do it,’ can “ Glorify 
God and enjoy Him forever.” 

——_———- + @ s+ _ 

The Western. 



Dramatis Persone. 
DEMOPHOON—King of Athens, son of Theseus. 
Jotaus—Nephew of Hercules, and Leader of the Heraclides. 
ADRASsTUS—Son of Jolaus’s friend, and under his protection. 
ALKMENE—Mother of Hercules. 
Makarta—Daughter of Hercules. 
‘Tae Heraciipes—His Sons. 
Kropeus—Herald to King Eurystheus. 
Mi1Los—An Old Athenian. 
Tue Priestess, at Delphi. 
Messengers, Women, Citizens of Athens, §c. 


Change. Scene on the Palace steps, under a portico. At some 
distance a rocky height, with a winding pathway leading over it, along 
which the procession afterwards moves. 

Alkmene and Demophoon, (placing Alk. in a seat.) 
Alk. Thanks King, this is full well !—Now leave me here, 

And haste to take your own place in the train, 

They surely mixs you! 

Dem. My place?—Nay, Alkmene, 
I shall not join them! 

Alk. How!—You will not go? 
And pray you wherefore not?—Methinks ’twere meet 
You should be there! 

Dem. Nay, pardon me, Alkmene, 

I could not, by the gods !—It were too much! 

It split this sorrow-stricken heart to see 

Her precious blood flow !— 

Alk. What, it cracked your heart? 


By Jove’s great name, are you a man, a King, 
And blush not to avow such feebleness ?— 
O small, fainthearted, frail, degenerate race !|— 
O glorious days of the immortal heroes, 
That are no more !—I swear that I myself 
And Ia woman and her Father’s Mother, 
Were not the way too long, the path too steep 
For my aged limbs to climb, would joyfully 
Attend the sacrifice, nor wink an eye 
Looking upon her death !— 

Dem. 1 was not made 
Of so stern stuff as that and cannot see it! 
(s. v.) And mayhap was she dearer to my heart 
Than to all others! (as.) But wherefore tell her 
Who knows no pity, my sad, tender tale !— 
(al.) Nor is it needful that | went,—enough 
Attend her now,—half Athens goes with her, 
The City’s noblest Maids and Matrons all, 
Honor themselves bearing her company. 

Alk. *Tis well that women there shall stand about her, 
Smoothe and compose her limbs ! 

Dem. Look where they come! 

(The procession moves in, and slowly past at some distance. It is 
composed mostly of Women clad in white, chanting and 
bearing green branches in their hands. Mak. walks in their 
midst. During the following scenes the train, followed by 
many Citizens, is seen winding up the rocky pathway, and 
gradually disappears. ) 

Dem. (After a pause.) 

She walks with firm, unfaltering step! O brave, 
Heroic soul !—May thy last moments be 
Gentle and beautiful as all thy life! 

Alk. Ay, but with head bent low and downcast eyes, 
And hands crossed on her bosom !—’Tis not thus, 
Not thus unjoyfully I’d have her go 
To meet her end! 

(Enter hastily a Herald.) 
Her. Great King, joy, joy, to you! 

The Western. 

Joy and best greeting from my noble Master, 
He sends me with good news! 
Dem. Joy and good news ?— 
Nay but I doubt if it were possible— ! 
And pray, my Friend, who is your Master? 
Her. Hillus, 
A Kinsman to the Sons of Hercules, 
Who long ago,—so long, none ever looked 
To see him more,—set out to foreign lands 
In search of succour and confederates 
*Gainst their foul enemy, and now at last 
Successful in his enterprise, is just 
Returned with a great host, and lies encamped 
Close to the forces of Eurystheus, 

Chafing for action !—Such a host as joined 

Unto the noble armies you have marshalled, 
Must surely rout and crush the common foe, 
Delivering you and all the land from him! 
Dem. Brave news in truth, good Friend !—Praised be the gods! 
Alk. Ho, the first fruits already of that offering, 
The gods commanded for our victory !— 
(Ata sign from Dem. exit Herald.) 
Dem. Hillus!—And wherefore did I hear not sooner 
Of him and of his scheme? 
Alk. Imind him well,— 
Yet as the Herald said, ’tis many a year 
Since he set out, and Jolaus and we all 
Long gave him up for lost, fancied him perished. 
Dem. Yet hold!—Ay, Hillus must have long been landed 
Upon our shores with all his hosts, ere yet 
The Oracle’s decree was given, a proof 
The gods resolved to aid us even without,— 
—Were we perchance deceived then after all,— 
Was there some misconception or mistake,— 
And did she die in vain ?—Ho, after them, 
Perchance it yet were time—! 
(The last of the train had disappeared some time ago. Now 


wild cries and noises are heard from the height. The peo- 
ple who have composed the train come rushing down the 
path in great disorder and confusion. Excited Women 
and Citizens rapidly fill up the whole scene.) 
Cries from many voices, of 
Ho sacrilege ! 
Destruction, desecration !—Ha the gods 
Can ne’er forgive this injury and insult! 
Robbed, carried off !—E’en at the Altar’s steps !— 
The victim sacred to the gods !—Woe, woe, 
To all of us !—Now we are lost and naught 
Can save us more !— 
Dem. In Jove’s immortal name ! 
What means all this ?—You all returned in so 
Hot haste and wild disorder and confusion 
Without Makaria,—where is she? 
(Several attempt to answer.) 
Hush there, 
Those cries and noises!—Speak but one of you,— 
What has befallen ?— ” 
A Git. We had well nigh reached 
The Altar, King, peacetul and undisturbed, 
When suddenly from behind a jutting rock 
Three horsemen dashed among us, and the foremost 
Seizing upon Makaria, bore her off, 
And disappeared, ere we that stood transfixed 
With horror and surprise, could move a hand! 
Dem. Robbed,—carried oft!—Makaria,—at the Altar !— 
Almighty gods, fearful in truth, most fearful !— 
Cits. Ho, e’en the King’s cheek blanches !—We are lost !—(Cries.) 
Alk. Makaria gone !—Woe, woe, wrath and destruction !|— 

Dem. (8.v.) Fearful and passing strange! Were it the gods 

Themselves had interfered ?—(al.) Have you no thought 
Who might have been the offenders ? 
Cit. None, my King !— 
‘They had their faces muffled in their mantles, 
And ’twas all done swift as a flash of light ! 

The Western. 

Dem. This must be looked to !—What direction took they ?— 
(Exit, followed by the Citizens.) 
Alk. (alone.) O black, most odious and unheard of crime, 
Damned offense and cursed sacrilege !— 
The furies scourge and blast him did the deed! 

TION. : 

| a former number of the Western (April, 1877,) I have at- 
tempted to show that the State is the foundation of all hu- 
man institutions. Through the State, as the supreme secu- 
lar institution, man is able to combine positively with his fel- 

low men and sum up the results of the race in each individual. 
Each individual is enabled by it to ride on the shoulders of 
all. The child of poverty alike with the child of wealth or 
royalty can and does partake of the material store of commod- 
ities, and likewise of the spiritual store of the wisdom of the 

Education, whether in the form of nurture in the family or 
in that of the school, or in that of the vocation followed for a 
livelihood, must have direct reference in its matter and meth- 
ods to the State. The contents of the civil history of the 
world will give us the clue to the history of education. Man 
must learn in youth what he is to practice in after life. In 
this respect what has been said in the former essay regarding 
the principle of Civil History—the development of the State 
from the savage tribe to the nation governed by a written 

Thoughts on the History of Education. 333 

constitution—will render many tedious explanations unneces- 

When we begin to trace the history of the race with the 
Chinese we omit the savage tribes of Africa and the islands 
of the Pacific as well as the tribes and nations of America. 
Perhaps the Aztec and Peruvian nations were so far advan- 
ced as to deserve a place beside China and Japan, but they 
have not continued down to the present, and the records pre- 
served by their conquerors are extremely meagre and contra- 
dictory. With the Chinese we ascend above the rudimentary 
form of the State found in the savage tribe—in the fact that 
the principle of its State is organized as a system. In the 
tribe, government is a simple direct matter, mostly under the 
personal supervision of the chief. In China the principle of 
the family is organized into a complex system established 
over a people thrice as numerous as any other nation. The 
State principle has so thoroughly penetrated the organization 
of society and the family that it does not seem to make the 
slightest difference whether the government is subverted by 
a foreign power or not. The wild Tartars from the north may 
conquer it, but the conquerors settle right down into the old 
grooves, and Chinese life goes on again as it had done for cen- 
turies and its government is not a whit different. Foralarge 
nation to exist and continue it is requisite that there shall be 
this interpenetration of the national principle into the family 
and the minute subdivisions of civil society. 

Of Education in the unhistorical States, for mere tribes are 
unhistorical because continually forming and disappearing, 
although so little is achieved there, we find that little of great 
importance. Physical education is there of the utmost im- 
portance. The warlike feeling must be cultivated, vigilance 
and alertness of observation, the power of ready concealment, 
personal bravery, fortitude under torture or personal priva- 

334 The Western. 

tion, contempt for death, familiarity with the habits of wild 
animals in their habitat, and skill in capturing them,—these 
and similar things constitute the most obvious part of their 
education, the world over. But they have the germs of high- 
er culture: Respect for parents, for age, for the superior in 
rank, and for the decrees of the rulers—these are the rudi- 
ments of all education and occupy the most exalted place in 
the education of barbarous peoples. 

In China this principle of respect for age and rank is most 
marked. ‘Those who honor their parents, will also honor 
the emperor, and the emperor will regard his subjects as 
children,” is the fundamental law. The youth are initiated 
into this law of obedience and conformity to the prescribed 
customs. Their education is a training in imitation, formal 
politeness, pedantic ceremonial. They commit to memory the 
classic moral writings, history, mathematics, and astronomy. 
They learn to paint the characters representing the words of 
their language and to readthem. Arithmetic and the making 
of verses are further studies pursued in Chinese schools. 
Behavior, which consists chiefly in observing the code of 
Chinese etiquette towards elders or superiors is by all means 
the chief matter in their education. The State principle de- 
termines the what and the how of education. The royal 

princes are educated with the greatest care for their future 
duties, in a separate college. Girls are, however, not educated 
except in household duties, and their future life is to be one of 


If one seeks the reason for the special subordination of wo- 
men in savage tribes, and in all imperfect civilization, he will 
probably find it in the fact that the origin of the State is in 
violence and the necessity of protection from it, and that 
physical strength and fitness for warlike occupation are the 
great requisites in the citizen of a rudimentary state. How- 

Thoughts on the History of Education. 335 

ever this may be, we find the same subordination of women in 
the educational systems of the next higher form of State— 
that based upon the social divisions and vocations. In India 
the women are not permitted to read the Vedas. We might 
expect something different, however, from the lofty idea of 
female character as portrayed in the beautiful Sita, the hero- 
ine of the celebrated epic Ramayana, or from that portrayed 
in the episode of Nala and Damayanti. 

Rank, sex, and age are the important distinctions in the 
State, founded on the family. 

It is to be noticed, moreover, that corporal chastisement is 
the national punishment in China, not only in its schools but 
also for crimes of State. In such a form of punishment it is 
presupposed that the sense of honor is not as yet developed. 
In modern civilized nations the whipping-post for criminals 
has generally gone out of use and penalties substituted which 
imply respect for individuality. The criminal. is lodged in 
jail, deprived of his liberty, or it may be of his life, but his 
person shall be inviolate so far as torture is concerned, 

The growth of this spirit in the community causes the grad- 
ual disuse of corporal punishment in the modern school. 

In India the caste of the Brahmins furnishes the teachers of 
wisdom. These may read, and also interpret and expound, 
the Vedas; but the two next castes (the warriors and the 
merchants) may read only, but not expound the holy writings. 
The lowest caste and the women are forbidden even to read 
the Veda. In the schools of India the greatest stress is laid 
upon the distinction of caste. A complex system of observ- 
ances forms the etiquette essential for the practical life of 
every inhabitant. The child must honor his teacher equally 
with his father. As the Vedas furnish the topics of instruc- 
tion, the old Hindoo education was a sort of religious family- 

education. That in China was not so much religious as for 
VOL. IlI—No. 6—22. ; 

336 The Western. 

practical life. After instruction in the Holy Vedas came 
next in importance the arts of reading, writing, arithmetic, 
and music, and the special technical instruction in the duties 
of one’s caste. The latter duties were absolute. Excommuni- 
cation from one’s caste was dreaded more than death. 

Education in Egypt consisted, on the part of the common 
people, in learning to read and write the script alphabet de- 
rived from the hieroglyphics, arithmetic, and one’s trade or 
‘vocation. A higher system of education was reserved for the 
candidates for the priestly caste—including the branches of 
language, mathematics, astronomy, natural science, music, 
and religion. There was also a secret doctrine taught to the 
illuminated ones, who entered on the duties of the priestly 

In Egypt the State was as thoroughly subordinated to the 
priestly class, as in Persia’ to the military class, or in Phe- 
nicia and Carthage to the mercantile caste. The aim of life 
was there to prepare for death, and the earthly hull of the 
soul was to be carefully preserved, as the soul would need its 
body again after 3000 years; it was carefully embalmed and 
laid to rest in the tombs of the hills, or if royal, was placed in 
a pyramid. The court in which the dead were tried and 
judgment pronounced upon their lives, decreeing the honors 
of burial, or denying this privilege, was the great national 
educational institution. 

With the old Persians, education, according to Herodotus 
consisted chiefly in training the youth to bear arms and to tell 
the truth. To use the bow and arrow skillfully and to ride 
on horseback, fitted him for duties in his warlike nation. 
Scholastic education included the arts of reading, writing, 
and polite behavior, and was in the bands of the 80,000 Magi, 
a carefully educated class, who divided their members into 
three grades: (a) the apprentices, or first initiated ; (b) journey- 

Thoughts on the History of Education. 337 

men, or those who had passed the second degree; and (c) 
masters—those who had reached the highest degree. The 
Persian mind set up the principles of light and darkness which 
it further defined as good and evil. It was a point upon 
which great stress was laid by their teachers, to inculcate a 
practice of good, and an abhorrence of evil. The public edu- 
cation lasted from the age of 7 to that of 24. Before the 5th 
year the child was not to be told “this is bad,” or, “this is 
good,” but only told “do not do it again,” when he commit- 
ted afault. Before the age of 7 years he was not to be whip- 
ped. The virtue of self-denial in matters of eating and 
drinking, of conquest over one’s appetites, and of obedience 
to what is prescribed, were specially inculcated. 

Of the Pheenician education we know only that it laid 
great stress upon what is useful in the arts and trades. The 
Carthagenian colony taught its youth reading, writing, arith- 
metic, and religious duties, besides a special trade and the 
use of arms. Their moral instruction was of a questionable 
character, useful in their commerce perhaps, but admitting 
of deceit and violence. Punic faith became a synonym 
among the surrounding nations for treachery. In Phe- 
nicia we find a marked departure from the family training 
that formed so large a part of the instruction in other Oriental 
nations. Indifference towards family and one’s native land, 
and a passionate love for adventure and commercial gain, were 
necessarily fostered in its system of education, because the 
State depended upon these qualities for its prosperity. 

The Mediterranean sea is the centre of all progressive civil- 
ization in modern history. Upon its shores the Orient and 
Occident have met and mingled. Pheenicia, Arabia, Egypt, 
Assyria, Persia, Judea, Greece, Rome, Carthage,—these have ° 
played their parts in its history. The European States trace 
the first impulses of their culture to Asia—Greece to Phe- 

338 The Western. 

nicia and Persia, Rome to Persia and Asia Minor through 
Greece. But Europe borrowed nothing without assimilating 
it to a new principle, radically different from the Oriental 
principle. It is the principle of individuality that we meet 
upon the shores of Europe, and edacation assumes at once a 
new interest to us when we come to Greece and Rome. The 
general character of Greek education may be said to be es- 
thetic—a cultivation of the sense of the beautiful, and a train- 
ing of the body into symmetry and grace. Gymnastics, mu- 
sic and grammatical art were the staples of their pedagogy. 
By music they meant not only a sense of rhythm and meas- 
ure but spiritual culture in general—including the several 
branches over which the nine muses presided — hence its 
name, “Music.” Poetry, music and mathematics were all in- 
cluded under that designation. Grammatical training inclu- 
ded reading, writing and language studies. 

The Spartans though agreeing with the Athenians in certain 
general characteristics, were in sharp contrast to the latter in 
the spirit of their education. They aimed to produce able 
warriors and hence trained their youth carefully in bodily 
strength and agility, capacity of endurance, personal bravery, 
and patriotism. Up to the seventh year the boy was educated 
in the family; after that time in public, fed at the common 
table, and trained with other youth in the disciplines above 
mentioned, as well as in the art of skillful theft. Every 
year there was a general public flogging in order to test the 
strength of endurance and sense of honor. He who bore all 
the pain without uttering a cry was crowned with garlands. 

Spartan youth sometimes died under these cruel tortures 
without uttering a sound. From year to year the discipline 

became more and more severe. The Spartan girls were train- 
ed to be companions to heroes, and had their own gymnasia 

Thoughts on the History of Education. 339 

wherein they learned to run, to wrestle, to jump, and to ride 
the chariot. 

The education of Spartans was designed to fit men for citi- 
zens that could defend the State. That of Athens was for free 
individuality. The laws of Solon enjoined upon each father 
to teach his son a trade whereby he could earn his living. 
If the father neglected this, the son was absolved from 
the duty of supporting him in old age. The law of Solon 
decreed that the boy, before all else, should learn how 
to read and how to swim. (It was a maritime State, and 
the Greek lived much upon the water.) The son of poor 
parents should be taught agriculture, or some mercantile em- 
ployment, or a trade. The wealthy should be taught music, 

horsemansbip and gy mnastics, hunting and philosophy. It was 
left to the father to decide whether these higher studies 
should be undertaken or not. But public opinion was so strong 
that no father dared to refuse a higher education to his son if 
his means allowed it. For the first seven years the Athenian 

_ boy was under the care of the women. During this period he 
played with rattles, balls, wooden horses, dice, and tops, the 
skipping of stones in the water, &c. Then at seven years began 
his school time. An old, superannuated slave was assigned 
to the work, and called in the Greek language Padagogos, 
pedagogue (or boy-leader) who accompanied him everywhere 
as supervisor. In the pedagogium the boy learned to read and 
write. Later came the music teacher, who taught him to sing 
and play the Cithara. At last he took up gymnastics and 
continued it till his eighteenth year. Then he took up his 
trade selected by the father. and at the age of twenty his 
education was considered complete. 

Education in Rome was not a public affair like that in 
Greece—it belonged to the family. The mother of the Roman 
youth had more influence on his education than was the case 

340 The Western. 

in any of the nations already spoken of. He was educated at 
home until his fifteenth year. Citizenship was a great thing to 
the Roman. Every child was registered on the -citizens’ reg- 
ister, within three days after his birth. Reading, writing, and 
arithmetic were taught him by his fifteenth year, and some in- 
sight into the laws and politics. Service in the army began 
at the age of seventeen. The old Roman cared not for music. 
In this respect the modern Italian is unlike the ancient —this 
is probably due to the Gothic invasions. The Roman did 
not lay much stress on rhythm and harmony; but he did 
lay great stress on the duty of punctuality. Implicit obed- 
ience was also insisted on. 

In Judea the education wore an Oriental stamp. Religious 
history perhaps was the foremost of the branches of study. 
The arts of reading and writing were acquired in order that 
the youth might learn to read the written law which had been 
specially delivered to his nation from the Most High through 
Moses on Mt. Sinai. The law was impressed upon the mem- 
ory of the child. Song and music were taught, but gymnastics 
was neglected. The girls learned household employments 
—spinning, weaving, sewing, painting, cooking, dancing and 
cymbal-playing. They were educated by their mothers in 
piety, cleanliness, and morality. A school of prophets seems 
to have been established by Samuel, wherein music and relig- 
ious poetry were cultivated. Aiter the Babylonian exile, rab- 
binical lore was prominent in the higher education. 

Very remarkable in an educational point of view is the Mo- 
hammedan uprising. Originally there were certain heretic 
sects of Christianity driven southward by the severity of the 
State after the Council of Nice had settled the dogmas of faith. 
Prominent were the Ebionitic Christians who preached a Mon- 
otheism almost as strict as Judaism, and denied the Trinity in 
its received sense. They were propagandists, and Mohamed, 

Thoughts on the History of Education. 341 

when @ young man, listening to their preaching, became a 
proselyte, and afterwards expanded his ideas into a new relig- 
ion, which reacted fiercely against Christianity, and for five 
hundred years menaced its frontier. 

Mohammedan thinkers had learned Aristotle from Nestori- 
an Christians in the East. At a later period they startled and 
aroused Christian thinkers by attacking the dogmas of the 
Church. They established schools throughout their domin- 
ions, and in Spain under Abderahmen and his son Hakum, the 
schools of Cordova, Toledo, Salamanca and Seville became so 
famous as to draw many Christian scholars thither. The Pan- 
theistic subtleties which penetrated Christian Europe through 
this source perhaps caused the generation of great theologi- 
ans who followed, bent on the solution of the questions raised, 
and determined to establish beyond dispute the Christian 

Under Charlemagne and his followers there rose the church 
schools, in which were taught reading, singing, and a little 

arithmetic and grammar. Also a higher order of schools 
taught the so-called trivium (grammar, rhetoric and dialectic,) 
as well as the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music and 
astronomy). Afterwards arose the great universities of Eu- 
rope, one after the other, during the 11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th 
centuries. The great lights of the church and of science as- 
cended into the sky one after the other, illuminating the vast 
multitude of earnest minds, who were longing for insight into 
the great problems of nature and mind. There were Anselm, 
Roscellinus, William of Champeaux, Abelard, Gilbertus Por- 
retanus, Amalrich of Bena, Alexander of Hales, Bonaventura, 
Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, Roger Ba- 
con, and William of Occam. They left Christian Theology a 
solid fortress, and they kindled the thirst for science, natural 

342 The Western. 

and mental, which developed plentiful results in the centuries 
following. . 

The more recent movements in education may be touched 
upon lightly under the head of Pedogogical Reformers. 

It has already been said that the prevailing danger in ped- 
agogics is to fall into mechanical, soulless methods. The bus- 
iness of the teacher is to drill into the minds of youth by ceas- 
less repetition, the crystallized experience of mankind, or at 
least the technical keys to it. 

Such repetition is deadéning in its effect on the teacher. 
Hence it happens that modern reformers in pedagogy have 
had before them this constant problem : how to find the meth- 
od that will keep the work of instruction fresh and life-like, 
how to reach the living springs dt the child’s intellect and 
wake up his soul. In northern Europe, Martin Luther, and 
especally his learned co-laborer Melanchthon, exercised much 
influence upon Pedagogy. The latter wrote many text books 
on the Greek and Latin languages, dialectic, rhetoric, ethics, 
physics, &c., &c., which were in use for a hundred years. The 
method of instruction employed in the schools of Europe du- 
ring the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, was extremely deaden 
ing. A reformation was however on the way from a strange 
source. The writings of John Locke on philosophy and edu- 
cation are deservedly famous. His ideas on education are 
very good reading for any teacher or parent now. His ideas 
in philosophy led to the skepticism of David Hume, who 
again exerted a powerful influence on French thought, and 
directly or indirectly inspired Rousseau, whose “Emile” or, 
“ Education,” appeared in 1762 in four volumes. In this work 
he proclaims a reaction against the artificiality of human edu- 
cation and exhorts all to return tonature. His imitator or fol- 
lower, Chateaubriand, paints for us the North American Indian 

Thoughts on the History of Education. 343 

as the ideal child of Nature which we should admire as perfec- 
tion! The book Emile wherever it appeared electrified think 
ing minds. Even Immanuel Kant, who was as regular as an 
eight-day clock, ceased his morning walks for several days to 
finish the charming book. In 1774, Basedow established his 
Philanthropinum, in which he undertook to give the new edu- 
cation according to nature. Elegant manners and usages of 
the world were proscribed as being unnatural. He laid great 
emphasis on the cultivation of the senses He would teach 
physiology and anthropology first; animals, second; trees 
and plants, third; and fourth, minerals and chemical sub- 
stances; after these, mathematical instruments, trades, his- 
tory, commerce, &c. Every thing was to be taught according 
to nature. 

Pestalozzi was sixteen years old when Emile was published. 
Receiving his impulse directly or indirectly from that source, 
he became the most useful and suggestive of all the pedagog- 
ical reformers. Briefly to summarize his results, he taught, 
(1) that the developing of the human mind takes place accor- 
ding to fixed universal laws. (2) That education must never 
be contrary to nature, butin harmony with it. (3) Thatit is the 
task of pedagogy to investigate those natural laws, and thence 
to derive the only true method of education and instruction, i.e. 
the treatment in conformity with these laws which shall lead 
to the means of elementary culture of the child’s nature, and 
its development according to its nafure. He thought the 
laws of the development of the human mind to be the same 
as those for organic being in the vegetable and animal 
world, namely: development from within outward (through 
the internal activity of the organism) a development continu- 
ous, on all sides harmonious, in regular order—conditioned 
through the individuality of the child—a progress from the 
simple to the complex, from the lower to the higher. 

344 The Western. 

“The great and important difference between Pestalozzi’s 
view of nature, and that of Rousseau, was this: Rousseau held 
up nature as the opposite of culture, and demanded a return to 
nature, while Pestalozzi’s “nature” was rather the ideal of 
human nature, to which we were to go forward rather than 

The true successor of Pestalozzi, in spirit at least, is Fred- 
rich Fréebel (1782-1852.) He is less doubtful as to the nature 
of man than Pest#lozzi. His utterance is: “The destination 
of man is to bring his essence (or nature), his divine self, to 
perfectly clear consciousness, and to realize it in his own life 
with self-determination so as to be effective in all his deeds.” 
How he would commence in earliest childhood with the 
spontanevuus self-activity of the pupil, and by steps so lead him 
onward, as to never lose this self-activity, nor dull the enthu- 
siasm of self-help in the pupil—all this is familiar to those 
interested in education in our time, and I cannot dwell on 

the theme further in this Essay.* 

* In this meagre outline I have made use of the following works: Be- 
fore all, Hegel’s Philosophy of History ; next, Dr. G. A. Riecke’s Erzie- 
hungslehre (Stuttgart, 1870); Dr. Karl Rosenkranz’s Pedagogics as a System 
(Eng. translation by Anna C. Brackett, St. Louis, 1872); Dr. Karl Schmidt’s 
Geschichte der Paedagogik (Ccethen, 3d Ed., 1873); Dr. K. A. Schmid’s Ency- 
clopaedie des Erziehungs-und-Unterrichiswesen (2d Ed., 1876, Gotha); Robert 
H. Quick’s Essays on Educational Reformers (Cincinnati, 1874). 

——_—————- @ «_____- 


HE entire poem of Henry the Fourth with its two parts 
has as its theme the restoration of England to internal 
harmony. Revolution has been invoked as a principle by the 

Shakespeare’s Plays. 345 

nation; the result is that government itself is in danger of 
perishing. The forces of society must now be reversed, and 
made to act in just the opposite direction ; the conviction of 
the people which has been nurtured to the point of rebellion 
must be converted to faith in authority. It is the nature of 
revolution to be forever revolutionizing, and thus prolong it- 
self into an infinite series of political upheavals which must 
end in the destruction of the whole institutional world. We now 
are to behold a man who not only can be a rebel chieftain, but 
also a civil ruler, and whose deepest trait of character is the 
capacity to transform revolution into the stability of govern- 
ment. We are also to behold a nation which will support 
such a man in his great endeavor, and whose wonderful po- 
litical instinct has led it from internal peace to rebellion, but 
will now lead it back again from rebellion to internal peace 

with entire safety. It is a picture which every man of every 

country can look upon with profit and delight since it exhib- 
its in their full validity the two highest, yet often contradic- 
tory duties of the citizen, the duty of revolt and the duty of 

In Richard the Second was seen the right of revolution; the 
king undermined his throne in undermining the Law, upon 
whose observance it was founded. But in Henry the Fourth 
we behold the wrong of revolution ; the king has to put down 
by force the seditious element which has sprung up from the 
seeds of rebellion. The subject, however, was too extensive 
for a single play, the Poet has, therefore, made of it two dra- 
mas, both of which have the same fundamental thought. The 
First Part of Henry the Fourth ends with the defeat of the 
rebels in open battle. In the Second Part they are overreach- 
ed by a treacherous diplomacy. When the monarch dies, the 
kingdom is at peace and is quietly transmitted to his son, who 
becomes King Henry the Fifth. 

346 The Western. 

The First Part of Henry the Fourth is to be treated as a 
play complete in itself, such as the author undoubtedly inten- 
ded it to be. The most obvious division of it is into the 
threads of which there are two; it is not easy to name them, 
but they may be called the elevated or serious thread, and the 
low or comic thread. They are distinguished not only by 
their subject matter, but also by their form ; the one clings to 
palace and touches only the high affairs of State, the other 
descends not to the hovel but to the brothel, and portrays 
the negative phases of society; the one is written in the most 
imaginative verse, the other in the bluntest prose. Moreover 
the first thread separates itself into two antagonistic groups 
which centre around the King and around Percy respectively, 
between whom is the grand conflict of the play. The second 
thread is that of Falstaffand Prince Hal; the latter has fallen 
off from the family of his father and become the associate of 
thieves and libertines; he is, however, the connecting link be- 
tween the two threads. 

The action has also two movements, of which the first 
shows the disruption in the State by the conspiracy of the 
Percys, in the royal family by the estrangement of Prince 
Henry, in society generally by the debauchery of Eastcheap. 
It is a time of general disintegration from which a new nation 
is to be born. The reaction which is portrayed in the second 
movement begins with the reconciliation of the Prince with 
his father; the regal household is now united and becomes a 
type of the country which is to be; even the most deprav- 
ed classes are whirled into the struggle for nationality by the 
irresistible spirit of patriotism; the end is that rebellion is 
defeated and destroyed in the persons of its two most formid- 
able representatives, Hotspur and Worcester. Keeping these 
outlines in mind we may now proceed to fill them up with 
the details of the action. 

Shakespeare’s Plays. 347 

In the very first words of the play the monarch congratu- 
lates himself on the termination of civil war, and expresses 
his delight at the future prospect of national harmony. 
Everything seems to have settled down for the moment into 
a state of peace. But he has no repose within, there is the 
consciousness of guilt resting on his spirit, as well as the fear 
of punishment. He has committed a great wrong in the de- 
thronement and death of Richard, and he; remorse 
is tearing his soul to pieces. But he has another conviction 
which costs him quite as much agony as the throes of con- 
science, his large observation of life and above all his recent 
experience with king Richard have taught him that the first 
law of the world is the law of man’s responsibility for the 
deed. He has therefore the strongest faith in retribution, and 
it is that faith which haunts him till death and makes him see 
in every misfortune the signs of divine vengeance visited 
upon him for his sins. 

The supreme question therefore with Henry Bolingbroke is, 
how shall I free myself from these burning pangs of con- 
science and obtain reconciliation? He accepts the way which 
his age had pointed out, he will make an expedition to the 
sepulchre of Christ in order to gain the precious boon of abso- 
lution. Already at the end of Richard the Second when the 
feeling of guilt first broke utterance from his soul, he had pro- 
posed a voyage to the Holy Land to wash away the stain of 
his crime. But even here into this most sincerely and deeply 

religious part of his nature the politician intrudes; afterwards 
he declares on his death-bed that it was his policy to lead the 

restless and turbulent spirits out of England and give them 
occupation in a crusade against the Infidel. A double char- 
acter he bears throughout, itis the result of aconflict between 
the demands of conscience and the demands of the State, be: 
tween the moral and the political man. He has a strong in- 

348 The Western. 

stinct to be an upright, indeed a religious person; but let him 
once hear the cry of the nation, then he will employ dissimu- 
lation, falsehood, violence; in fine, he will subordinate every 
principle to the end which he deems to be national. 

Another point is worthy of a glance. We see here looming 
up in the background the great struggle of Europe with Asia, 
the world-historical conflict of the Middle Ages. It took a 
religious form, Christianity against Mahomedanism. All the 
countries of the Occident were as one nation against Oriental 
supremacy, and England as a member of the European family 
of peoples, though lying remote from the scene of the conflict, 
is nevertheless touched with it and must show a slight adum- 
bration of its intensity in her great Historical Poem. 

But even while he is talking, the king receives news of war- 
fare nearer home, and a national struggle with surrounding 
countries seems on the point of breaking out. Itis announced 
that the Welsh have been victorious in the West and have 
taken prisoner the English leader, noble Mortimer; “ the tid- 
ings of this broil brake off our business for the Holy Land.” 
Still again comes startling news from the North; the Scots 
have made a fierce foray on the English border under the 
ever-valiant Douglas, who however has been defeated by the 
invincible chieftain, young Harry Percy, called Hotspur, son 
to Northumberland. Thus we drop at once from the remote 
European struggle into the national conflict, England against 
her next neighbors Wales and Scotland. Here is indicated the 
supreme effort of the English nation in an external direction, 
it is the consolidation of Albion, the elevation of England 
to Great Britain. It is the true destiny of the sea-girt isle to 
be comprehended in one nationality, to be brought under one 
government; the triad of separate States warring with one 
another and struggling for mastery or for independence must 
be reduced to unity and peace. 

Sha wespeare’s Plays. 349 

Still it is not an external conflict with other peoples which 
is going to be considered in the play ; it isan internal confiict 
which is impending and where signs begin at once to show 
themselves. ‘‘ What think you coz, of this young Percy’s 
pride?” asks the king of his counselor Westmoreland. The 
haughty warrior Hotspur has refused to surrender his pris- 
oners to the sovereign, except the one captive prince of royal 
blood, Mordake, Earl of Fife. An act of defiance it was as- 
suredly ; but when we learn that Hotspur according to the 
custom of war in such cases had a right to the captives with 
the single exception mentioned, the affair wears a different 
aspect. The king has demanded more than his just dues; 
what can the adroit contriver mean? He must be seeking a 
quarrel, and now findsa pretext. The suspicion at once darts 
through the mind that he has already determined to humble 
the great house of Percy the first moment that he is securely 
seated. on the throne. 

This suspicion is confirmed by the hostile feeling of the 
court against Worcester, another Percy, who, says West- 
moreland to the king, is “ malevolent to you in all aspects.” 
Now comes the struggle, the audacious Hotspur must be 
called to account for his refusal of the prisoners, and the king 
is forced to “ neglect his holy purpose to Jerusalem.” Thus 
we come at the pith of the play, its theme is not the conquest 
of heathendom, nor the subjugation of the neighboring coun- 
tries. Its purpose is to show the subordination of the rebel- 
lious spirit of the time, and the complete restoration of the 
country to internal concord. To this end the king-makers 
and revolutionists must be put down, and the supremacy of 
civil authority maintained by every appliance of force and 

Such is the national phase of affairs as presented at the be- 
ginning; but now we are to look at the domestic conflict in 

350 The Western. 

the royal family, wherein the king is beheld acting the part of 
a parent. At the mention of Percy’s son Hotspur, he is re- 
minded of his own son, the wayward Prince Harry, who 
stands in the most unfavorable contrast to the young lion of 
the North, for the latter is “a son who is the theme of honor’s 
tongue.” Itis a most painful thought for the monarch, he 

wishes “ that it could be proved that some night-tripping fairy 
had exchanged in cradle-clothes our children,” he would like 
to have Hotspur for his son inasmuch as “ riot and dishonor 
stain the brow of my young Harry.” The alienation between 
father and son is complete; the young Prince seems to give 
no promise of worth and talent corresponding to his high po- 
sition. Herein is the greatest mistake of the king who, so 
shrewd in political management, utterly misapprehends the 
destiny and character of his own child. 

The ground of this error in judgment lies deep in the nature 
ofthe two persons. The dark, devious subtlety of the father 
was the reverse of the open, transparent conduct of the son, 
neither could fully appreciate the other. Both, however, 
were needed at the time,—the crafty diplomatist and the bold 
striker. Without Prince Harry, the king could probably not 
have succeeded in the present emergency. He had to do with 
men altogether different from the weak-willed Richard; the 
impetuous Hotspur would be apt, at a single dash, to break 
through all the fine-spun webs of political cunning. But the 
Prince was the equal of Hotspur in chivalrous bearing and 
martial fire, and was his superior in prudence. The estranged 
son must therefore be added to the father before the struggle 
between government and rebellion shall be brought to a suc- 
cessful issue; neither can be dropped without failure to the 

Now the disruption which the king manifestly intended to 

»force takes place; the conflict must come, the sooner the bet- 

Shakespeare’s Plays. 351 

ter. Here is the whole family of rebels, the Percys, the living 
representatives of insurrection. Worcester is the plotter of 
the house, he is the man of political cunning, and herein he re- 
sembles the king. The latter is charged by him with ingrati- 
tude, a charge most true! The sovereign gives him tke an- 
sewer of power: 

Worcester, get thee gone, for I see 
Danger and disobedience in thine eye. 

The second Percy, Northumberland, is next addressed by the 
menarch. Heis more the mediator than the aggressor, he 
seeks to avoid a struggle whose danger he seems to fully com- 
prehend. Thus his action is uncertain and paralyzed through- 
out the whole play, quite different from what it was in Rich- 
ard the Second. Heis at present trying to pacify the king 
concerning Hotspur’s denial of the prisoners: an impossible 

task, could he but see into the workings of the royal brain. 
The good Blount, friend of the king, not comprehending the 

latter’s plan, offers also to be a peace maker. Hotspur is in- 
duced to make asort of apology for a hasty speech, but he still 
proposes to keep the prisoners; thereupon follow strong 
words and an angry separation. A volcano of impulse is 
that young Harry Percy, he will after the king, and ease 
his heart at the hazard of his head. But he is restrained by 
his father from going, though not from talking; in his wrath 
he lets out secrets which it is important to treasure up. 

The family of the Pereys is in a state of deep repentance 
for their past actions; having been traitors to the last mon- 
arch, they are not trusted by the present monarch. Their 
wrong is now the subject of bitter confession ; Richard whom 
they were the chief means of deposing, in their memory is 
“that sweet lovely rose,’ for which they have planted 
“this thorn, this canker Bolingbroke.” They have also lost 
their fair name among men, for the sake of the very person 

Vol 3—No. 6—23. 

352 The Western. 

who has openly discarded them. Still further, they are now 
forced to make choice between a new rebellion or an abject 

submission; the important question is, Will they maintain 
their old principle of revolt, or resolve upon its abandonment? 

On another point the political action of the two hostile 
parties may be compared. The house of Percy bas allied 
itself with Mortimer, Earl of March, the true heir of the Eng- 
lish throne whom Bolingbroke had set aside. It was a bold 
stroke of policy and excited the just suspicion of the king. 
He refuses to ransom Mortimer who has been taken prisoner 
by the Welsh, being delighted to keep out of the kingdom 
such a dangerous competitor. Both sides are manifestly seek- 
ing every political advantage, and each is well aware of the 
designs of the other. But the period for secret intrigue has 
passed, the conflict must now be settled by an appeal to force. 

The wily Worcester, the planner of the rebels, unfolds the 
scheme, which is certainly skillful. Let the Scotch be sent 
home without ransom, and thus we shall win the aid of Doug- 
las through favor to his captive son. Let Glendower, too, be 
gained in order to give assistance to the claim of Mortimer, 
his son-in-law. Then Northumberland “shall creep into the 
bosom” of the Archbishop of York, and other nobles who 
have grievances are to be persuaded into joining the conspira- 
cy. The plan is clear, the internal enemies of the king are to 
be united with the external foes of the nation, and both are 
to be hurled against the throne. The crime of the Percys is 
now exposed, they are ready to introduce the foreigner into 
their domestic quarrels, they do not hesitate to sacrifice their 
country to their party. Nationality is not their ultimate 
principle, and hence the nation will rise up and smite them to 
the earth. Of course, Bolingbroke was defending his own 
title and his own interests, but then the defence of them co- 
incided with the defence of the institutions of the country. 

Shakespeare’s Plays. 353 

We are now astonished at learning that this scheme was 

not a sudden device springing from the present interview, 
but had long been meditated. Worcester declares that it has 
already been “ ruminated, plotted, and set down,” and that it 
merely awaits an opportunity for fulfillment. The actual state 
of the case is, therefore, that the two cunning contrivers on 
both sides have been manceuvering fora position all the while; 
each is watching the movements of the other, and now the 
battle is to be fought, being forced by the king. Worcester 
at once calls into the field his man of action, the bold Hotspur, 
to whose impulsive temperament he could not hitherto in- 
trust the great secret. Hotspur is on fire at the word, and 
longs to dash into the fight. 

We next behold this young chieftain in his family. His 
wife Kate, has observed his strange conduct, and insists upon 
knowing what is the matter. He seems so completely occu- 
pied with his own thoughts that he neglects his domestic du- 
ties and hardly pays any attention to what is transpiring 
around him. His reply to his wife is couched in a strain of 
humorous banter; still he loves her, for he teases her. But 
that intense soul of his leaps out inevery act; when awake he 
moves about in a kind of trance, and when asleep he is at once 
charging upon the field of battle. His imagination is as vivid 
as the flash of lightning; he calls up the great enterprise 
and rushes through all its circumstances; the outer world 
dwindles to nought amid the more striking pictures of his 
own mind. It is the impetuous nervous character which 
throws itself into its purpose and quite loses its being in its 
fierce determination. The same intensity is witnessed in his 
intellect and in his action; the word which he employs and 
the deed which he does glow with the same spiritual fire. 
He can truly throw his soul with its flaming energy into all 
his undertakings. It is no wonder that his wife becomes jeal- 

354 The Western. 

ous even of his dreams, and of the images which withdraw 
his life from her intercourse and from every occupation. 

But here we are introduced into the meeting of the leading 
conspirators in which their ambition and their crime are un- 
folded. Now we first catch a glimpse of a most notable char- 
acter, “that damned magician Glendower.” He is filled 
with all the superstition of the mountains of Wales; at bis 
birth the front of Heaven was full of fiery shapes and the earth 
did shake; supernatural signs have marked him as extra- 
ordinary ; no man born of woman can hold him pace in deep 
experiment. The Poet clearly makes fun of his claims, but 
in respect to Glendower himself there is a mixture of motives. 
He wishes to inspire awe among bis credulous countrymen by 
such mysterious stories, yet to a certain extent he believes 
them himself. The line between imposture and credulity is 
left uncertain, yet both are undoubtedly present in his compo 
sition. He manifests the wild Celtic imagination which falls 
into gross superstition; most characteristic too are his love 
and cultivation of poetry; he is thus the conscious maker of 
mythical lore. In antagonism to these qualities stands Hot- 
spur with his English understanding, who ridicules all super- 
natural gifts, and who interprets the wonders of nature into 
physical causes. But chiefly he expresses the most violent 
dislike of poetry: 

I had rather be a kitten and cry mew 

Than one of these same metre ballad-mongers ; 

I had rather hear a brazen canstick turned, 

Or a dry wheel grate on an axle-tree ; 

And that would set my teeth nothing on edge, 

Nothing so much as mincing poetry— 

Tis like the forced gait of a shuffling nag. 
A most poetical description of the hate of poetry! Hotspur 
above all men is indulging in that which he thinks he des- 
pises. He employs throughout the play the most imaginative 

Shakespeare's Plays. 355 

and intense speech, yet does not know it; but chiefly his 
character and his figure are poetical in the highest degree. 
He is the instinctive man of action, the deed is his poetry, 

his creative act; heis the poet in an old sense of the word, the 
doer. He does not like this artificial singing of a great action 
as distinct from the performance. Yet as was said he has a 
most vivid imagination, bursting into living pictures; still it 
never saps the foundation of his strong common-sense and 
never degenerates into superstition, into a belief that the fig- 
ments of his own brain are some divine, supernatural appear- 
ance. A poetical figure he is indeed, hating poetry witha 
most poetical hate. 

Now this man, decked in youth and beauty, gifted with the 
noblest graces of soul and body, is doomed; he has his sen- 
tence written upon his forehead where it may be read of all 
men; he can not subordinate himself to the authority of the 
State. He is in fact the very embodiment of the spirit of in- 
surrection in its most enticing features. There he rides along, 
lightly reigning his fiery steed; what a glowing, heroic ap- 
pearance! Yet that eye of defiance is turned upon the most 
sacred interest of humanity. In him the individual is be- 
held in all his glory and perfection, yet also in his supreme 
weakness. Hotspur will not submit to the institutions of the 
world, he dashes madly against them—but they are made of 
something harder than adamant. Beautiful, noble, strong as 
he is, he must be swept into nothingness, along with every 
man who can not subordinate himself to the Higher. 

But the great crime of the rebels against the State is yet to 
be told: it is the division of their country. They meet and 
parcel out its territory; Hotspur takes a share, also Morti- 
mer and Glendower. The spirit of revolt has now reached. 
its logical result, the dismemberment of England. When it 
can not control the whole, it seeks to break the nation into 

356 The Western. 

fragments. This is the supreme sin against nationality, re- 
bellion has committed its greatest violation in the disruption 
of the country. The man who undertakes to rescue the land 
and punish the offenders may be justly called the savior of 
the people. Here it is King Henry the Fourth who plants 
himself in the breach, most gallantly sustained by his son 
Prince Henry; both are thus the supporters of the spirit of 
nationality against the spirit of division and destruction. 
This is their eternal merit which raises them far above their 
own shortcomings and far above all the glories of their op- 


(Concluded in next number.) 


| AN is a microcosin, a monad in whom the universe is 
reflected. Each individual combines in himself the 

capacities characteristic of the genus. In other words, man 
is a generic being, limiting himself through the thought 
of his fellow man and free to originate new forms of culture. 
From man’s inherent nature arise the forms of human speech. 
The creative power in him ever and anon utters itself in new 
forms. The Genius of Language, (the Sprachgeist,) as a 
manifestation of universal reason, is ever inventing means to 
attain the ends of adequately uttering thought and sentiment. 
From man’s capacity for dominion over nature, a mere po- 
tentiality, under the guidance of free spirit, has been evolved 

* Read betore the Society of Pedagogy, St. Louis, by ‘T’. R. Vicxroy. 

A Phonetic English Alphabet. 357 

the arts, the sciences, the institutions of society, language, 
literature, and all the vast train of human inventions. The 
present state of progress throughout the civilized world, has 
not been attained at once, but each step forward has been 
mediated through what preceded it. This is seen in all our 
institutions. Take the organic law of the nation. Asa product 
of human reason, it is wonderful in the advance it has made 
in protecting haman rights. But the germs out of which it 
grew, were evolved throughout the ages through the conflict 
between kingly prerogative and individual wants. 

So with language. All philological research points to a 
beginning when the tace was a unity. Let us therefore take 
a careful look at the process of evolution. 

Language, especially written language, is an instrument in- 
vented by man to serve the ends of communication. It grows 
out of physical, moral and intellectual needs. Man is individ- 
ually for himself, but this independence, this self-hood, is at- 
tainable and is attained only through others. Each man’s 
individuality is not immediate, but mediated through the fam- 
ily, the church, the state, aud polite society. In these, hu- 
man spirit becomes the limit of human spirit. The one sets 
down a limit or barrier to the other, but free spirit transcends 
these limits by absorbing them, and through this reciprocal 
action, human progress is ever lifting mankind into a higher 

Among the conventionalities through which man mediates 
his culture, is alphabetic writing. If we trace its history, we 
find that at first the intrument was imperfect, but as the cul- 

ture of the people advanced the instrument of expressing 

thought became more adequate. In the age of Pericles, when 
Greek culture was at its acme, the vehicle of Greek thought 
shared the common progress. _The Pheenician alphabet had 
been improved so as to meet the wants of these polished 

358 The Western. 

Greeks I have no doubt that the simplicity of their alpha 
bet enabled the young Greeks to read and write their lan- 
guage by home instruction, so that their education was very 
far advanced by the time it takes English-speaking chil- 
dren to gain a smattering knowledge of their vernacular. 
The wonderful progress of modern times is due to increased 

facilities in communication by mail, telegraph, steam-car, 

ocean steamer, and to labor-saving machinery. But we still 
cling to our barbarous and obsolete spelling with the tenacity 
of Chinamen. The wants of the age demand that the time of 
childhood shall not be wasted in our present irrational 
process of learning our written language. There are so ma- 
ny things to be learned in the time usually devoted to educa- 
tion, that there is an imperative demand for reform in tbis 

For centuries the Latin language was the vehicle of com- 
munication for Church and State in Europe, and hence the 
languages of the most enlightened nations of the earth are 
clothed in a Latin dress. But the separation of the race into 
distinct nationalities, has changed the form of words, and the 
elements of speech have departed so far from their original 
types that an alphabet is needed which will express these 
.changes in the simplest possible way. When, through mis- 
sionaries, the rude dialects of Northern and Western Europe 
were first reduced to written form, it was done in the light of 
the classic alphabets of Greece and Rome, comparative Phi- 
lology not yet having found a place in human consciousness. 
A thorough reform in spelling is impossible without an ade- 
quate alphabet. The silent letters have no longer any signi- 
fication to English speaking people. They either note some- 
thing that is now effete, or are mere conventionalities to sup- 
ply the deficiencies of the Roman alphabet. Just as the bird 
in order to be a bird at all must burst its shell and leave it, 

A Phonetic English Alphabet. 359 

so progress demands that the Roman alphabet be raised to a 
power adequate to express English speech. The acorn medi- 
ates the giant oak, and is lost in the living tree. So, from 
what we have, we should rise to the height of our present 
wants, and make our alphabet purely phonetic. 

There is perhaps no subject of more importance than the 
inquiry how we may rationally reform English spelling. Con- 
ventions of scholars and teachers have uttered their deliber- 
ate judgment that educational progress demands such reform. 
The American Philological Association have declared in fav- 
or of a Phonetic alphabet of which the Roman alphabet shall 
be the base. This negates all short-hand efforts, and all at- 
tempts at a universal alphabet 4 la Bell’s Visible Speech. 

A century ago Benj. Franklin proposed a new alphabet of 
twenty-seven characters. Pitman and Dr. Leigh have follow- 
ed Frankliu, but none of.these alphabets were based upon 
rational principles, or upon the history of language and phys- 
iological principles. Their moving principle was unreason, 
irrational will, arbitrariness, which the world spirit ever re- 
jects. Leigh’s phonetics are only being-for-another ; an easy 
means of transition to common reading. The child learns 
about one hundred characters, most of which are of use only 
while beginning to learn. After he passes to the common 
type, his phonetic alphabet is of no further use. A phonetic 
system, to be of permanent value, must be retained and ap- 
plied throughout subsequent years. It should be the means 
of indicating pronunciation, a matter which is of far more 
value than spelling. I venture to say that the American peo- 
ple mispronounce ten words in reading where they mispel) 
one word in writing. It is of much more importance to be 
able to use a word correctly and to pronounce it properly 
than to be able simply to spell it. In the great ends to be 
gained through written language, the matter of spelling is ex- 

360 The Western. 

ternal and insignificant. Correct speech and good reading, 
as well as economy of time and money, demand the invention 
of a Phonetic alphabet. 

In regard to the sounds to be noted, 46 or 47, there is a gen- 
eral agreement among orthoepists and lexicographers. The 
researches in comparative phonology in modern times have 
thrown so much light upon this subject that almost all wri- 
ters agree as to the elementary sounds which enter into our 
English speech. 

But the question of letters by which to note these ultimate 
elements, is not so easily settled, and yet this end may be ra- 
tionally attained by simple means. Let us therefore notice 
the negative side of the question : 

1. Why not invent an entirely new alphabet? The affirm- 
ative of this question has been ably advocated by eminent 
men, only to be abandoned as impractical. Human will is an 
element of human progress, but it is only its dynamic. There 
is a shaping spirit (a Sprachgeist),a life that enlightens, which 
unfolds itself in all human institutions. No man can of him- 
self invent language, and yet under the enligtening influence 
of this universal spirit, he may invent something, or rather 
develop something from what already exists, which commends 
itself to man’s highest reason. Hence, that one thing is as 
good as another, is not sanctioned by general experience. 

2. Again, marked letters are proposed. The objection to 
marked letters is that it multiplies characters, and nobody in 
the end understands it. All such efforts are in the direction 
of the Chinese method, and not in the direction of the Phonet- 
ic alphabet in which the divine Plato discoursed, or Demos- 
thenes hurled his invectives against Philip. 

3. Or, will not any mark do to note a sound? No, the 
alphabets of the world have generally grown from an inter- 
nal development. In a new alphabet, ease of writing, beauty 

A Phonetic English Alphabet. 361 

and symmetry of form must be combined in the letters. 

We must not ignore the fact that man is a generic being. 
His world transcends time and space. As he makes all climes 
his home, so he absorbs into himself the culture of all sec- 
tions and becomes truly cosmopolitan. And as the present 
generations of mankind are conditioned by those nations 
which have passed into oblivion or into history, so man is 
what he is not immediately, but through the institutions 
which are the outgrowth of free spirit. And as man has me- 
diated himself through all that is past, the world that now is 
being the result of former worlds which have passed away, 
in order that man may be man, he must UTTER himself, and 
as the race is widely diffused in space and time, some means 
of transmitting and perpetuating that utterance had to be de- 

In looking at the history of mankind, we find that man’s 
earliest efforts at communicating or transmitting his thoughts 
were imperfect. Hence the first efforts were rude pictures, 
in which an event was communicated by the graphic repre- 
sentation of a simple picture. This species of writing is call- 
ed Ideographic ; and was used by the Egyptians. Perhaps this 
method of making thought visible is coeval with man. The 
next step to overcome the inadequacy of this method of com- 
municating thought was by a symbolic or emblematic variety 
of ideographic writing. In this method, only the charac- 
teristic parts of the picture were used. Thus a scaling lad- 
der would denote a seige, and two hands holding a buckler 
and bow would portray a battle. But this was the negation 
of ideographic writing, and in the striving of thought to utter 
itself adequately, the next expedient adopted was syllabic 

2. Syllabiec writing was an attempt to represent the elements 
of words. Asa syllable is that part of a word uttered by one 

362 The Western. 

concrete movement of voice, a symbol was invented to repre- 
sent such parts of words. The Chinese language is an exam- 
ple of this method, except that it has not entirely freed itself 
from ideographie writing. In Chinese there are two hundred 
and fourteen elementary signs or keys, which are abridged 
representations of visible objects. By varying and combin- 
ing these figures, the 80,000 characters of the Chinese lan- 
guage are formed. As all such cumbersome systems confuse 
the mind and overburden the memory, human needs demand- 
ed a simpler process, which led to the greatest invention ever 
made by man, namely, Alphabetic writing. 

3. Alphabetic writing was invented about 1,500 years be- 
fore the Christian era. It is a matter of dispute whether the 
Pheenician or the Hebrew alphabet is the older, but it seems 
to me that the authorship of the Hebrew alphabet should be 
ascribed to the man who was educated to be the future king 
of Egypt, but who for the love of race renounced the sove- 
reign power of the most highly civilized kingdom on earth, 
and fled to the mountains of Arabia, where, alone with God 
and his own thought, he could perfect that alphabet which 
was to be the vehicle through which the Creator first com- 
municated to his creatures his will in a permanent form. On 
one point there is no dispute: all the alphabets of the na- 
tions west of the Indus were derived from the Pheenician or 
Hebrew alphabets. 

The Pelasgic, or original Greek alphabet, was brought by 
Cadmus from Pheenicia, and was gradually improved until it 
became a fit instrument by which to express phonetically the 
sublime thoughts of Plato and other Greek masters. From 
the Pelastic alphabet was derived the Roman and Runic al- 
phabets, with which we are principally concerned in this dis- 

A Phonetic English Alphabet. 


Runes were mystic letters used by the Gothic or Teutonic 
nations of Europe. Their invention is ascribed by tradition 
to Odin or Wodin. They were used in Denmark, Norway, 
Sweden, Iceland, Germany, Britain, France and Spain, and 
are found engraved on rocks, crosses, monumental stones, 
coins, medals, rings, brooches, and the hilts and blades of 

There are three principal runic alphabets—the Anglo Saxon, 
German and Norse, which, from their strong family resem- 
blances, must have had a community of origin. In their arrange- 
ment they differ from all other alphabets, but, like the He- 
brew, the names of the letters, although purely Teutonic in 
their nomenclature, are derived from the names of familiar 
objects, the power of the letter being the initial sound of the 

The number of Anglo-Saxon runes is a multiple of the sa- 
cred number eight, so that they are divided into groups of 
eight each, there being forty characters in all. It is a very 
singular fact that the elementary sounds of the English of our 

day are arranged in pairs of eight, namely, 8 long vowels, 8 
short vowels, 8 explosives, 8 spirants, 8 semi-vowels and as- 

pirates, &c. Indeed, the most natural division of sounds is 
into eight sub-classes, as we shall see in the sequel. But the 
Runic alphabets were associated in the popular beliefs with 
augury and divination, so that the Christian missionaries 
discouraged their use and made strenuvus efforts to supplant 
them by the Greek and Reman alphabets. The result of the 
contest was that they ceased to be used in Sweden about the 
year 1,001, and were formally condemned in Spain by the 
Council of Toledo in 1,115. Henceforth the English language 


tention to that alphabet. 

have 32 sounds. 

The Western. 

was clothed in adLatin dress, so that it is meet to turn our at- 


The Latin alphabet consisted of twenty letters which may 
be arranged according to the following scheme: 

E O 
I 7 
xX Q& AV 
R L 
N M 
G D B 
CQx py P 
S (sharp.) F 
A as in arm, art, not as in at. 
E “ they,eight, “ ebb. 
I “ field, deceit, “ it. 
O “ oh, obey, as ox. 
V “ — fool, full, °..- 

The Latin, therefore, uses its 20 letters to express 30 sounds, 
or, if we distinguish with Priscian, the three sounds of 1, we 

Now, as those thirty-two sounds are still found in English 
together with other sounds, which have been transformed or 
have grown out of these, it is evident that this alphabet is in- 
adequate to express the elements of English, and yet this 
alphabet has so fixed itself upon the common consciousness of 
the English-speaking people, that it is impossible, even were 
it desirable to do so, to throw away this ancient alphabet. 
What then shall wedo? How shall we solve our riddle? If 
we would do it successfully we must take counsel of the 

A Phonetic English Alphabet. 365 

Sprachgeist, the language instinct, and ask how we express 
ourselves in written language, and in what direction we have 
moved. Let us therefore consider the 


The English alphabet at present consists of twenty-six let- 
ters. Of these letters twenty constituted the Latin alpbabet, 
viz: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, 1, L, M, N, O, P, Q, B, 8, T, V, 
X. We have added six other letters, viz: J, K, U, W, Y, 
and Z. 

Nine of the Latin letters represent one simple elementary 
sound, viz: B, D, F, H, L, M, P, R, and T. Q and X are re- 
dundant. Nine of the Latin letters, viz.: A, E, I, O, U (V), 
and C, G, N, S, are made to note more than one sound each. 

A notes eight distinct sounds, viz: 

1. Long a, as in BALe. 
2. Flat a, as in AiR. 
3. Short a, as in SAT. 


Italian a, as in CA/M. 
5. Short Italian a, as in ART. 
6. Slight a, as in AMERICA. 
7. Broad a, as in FALI. 
8. Short broad a, as in WHAT. 
Long a is noted by e, as in BREAK, EighT, THEY, BOUQuEt. 
Broad a is noted by o before a consonant, as in NOR, NOT, 
ON, OF. 
E notes three distinct sounds, viz: 
1. Long e, as in BEeF. 
2. Shorte, as in MET. 
. Tilde e, as in EaRTH. 


Long e is noted by i, as in FleLD, MACHINe, PIQue, and by 
y in Quay and YPREs-LACe. 

366 The Western. 

Short e is sometimes noted by a, as in ANY, SAYS, MANY, 
and by wu in BURY. 

| represents six sounds, four vowels, and two consonants, 

1: Long i, as in PINe. 

2. Long e, as in FIeLD. 
. Short i, as in PIT. 

4, Tilde e, as in FIR. 

Long i is noted by y, ay, ai, and ey, asin STYLe, AY, AIsLe, 

Shortiis also noted by e, y, 0, and u, as in MONEY, ENG- 



5. I notes the consonant sound y before a, e, and o as in 
PONIARD, SPANIEL, UNION, ONION. J notes this sound in 

6. Until within the last century, i was used for initial J. 
it is still so in the abbreviation I. H. 8S. (Jesus Hominum 
Salvator.) In SOLDIER and its compounds, i notes j. 

O represents six sounds, viz: 

1. Long 0, as in ODe. 

2. Medium o, as in WHOLLY. 

3. Slight o, as in HISTORY. 

4. Short o, as in NOR. 

5. With i or y, it denotes the dipthong oi, as in BOY, OIL. 

6. With uw or w it notes the dipthong au, as in FLOUR, 

U represents four sounds, viz: 

1. Close u, as in RUDe. 

This sound is also frequently noted by oo, 0, and ou, as in 

2. Obtuse u, as in PUT. 

This sound is also noted by 00, ou, and 0, asin GooD, CoulD, 

A Phonetic English Alphabet. 367 

3. Short u, as in UP. 

This is the sound called Tilde e, which is also noted by e, 
i, y, 0, and 00, as in her, fir, myrrh, son, come, blood. 

4, Long u, as in CUBe. 

This dipthongal sound is also noted by ew, iew, eu, and eau, 
as in few, view, feud, beauty. Also in the words ewe and you. 

N represents three sounds, viz : 

1. Dental n, as in MAN, INn, NUN. 

2. Palatal n, as in CANON. 

3. Guttural n, as in think. 

Before the sound of g and k, n always notes this guttural 
sound. The g after n at the end of syllables is therefore 

G represents two sounds, viz: 

1. A hard sound, as in GAMe. 

Final g is always hard. Initial g is hard before a, 0, and u, 
asin GAB, GoT, GULI. It is also hard before e and i in the 
following words, viz: get, gecko, gear, gill (of a fish), gib, giddy, 
gift, gig, gild, gimp, girth, girl, give, and gibber. 

G is made hard by inserting u or h after it, as in GuEst, 

2. A soft sound like j before e, i and y, as in gem. 

Initial g is made soft by inserting e after it as in GeorGe. 
Final g is made soft after a vowel by inserting d before it and 
e after it, as in MAdGe, MIdGe, WEdGe, LOdGe, NUdGe. The d 
is sometimes omitted, as in WAGe, RAGe, GORGE, PIGEON. 

© represents two sounds, viz: 

1. The hard sound of k before a, o and wu, as in CAP, cor, 

C is sometimes made hard by inserting wu after it, as in BIs- 

2. The sound of s before e, i and y as in CENT, CIRCLe, 

Vol 3—No. 6—24. 

368 The Western. 

C is made soft by inserting e after it, as in FACe, VICe, 

S represents two sounds, viz: 

1. A sharp, hissing sound, as in son. ‘Initial s is always 
sharp except before long u, in which case it notes the sound 
of sh, as in SURe, SUGAR, SUMAC. 

S final is sharp after a surd, as in boots, looks, pipes. 

2. A soft, flat sound, as in is, his, as, roses. teas, resist. 



final notes this sound: 

a. When it is suffixed to verbs and nouns ending in a so- 
nant, as in birds, girls, tubs, dogs, paths, wives, lives, buds, digs. 

b. When it is placed between two vowels, as in houses, bu 
siness, roses. 

c. In verbs ending in se, as in abuse, use, surmise, ease. 

Thus we find that the 20 Latin letters note 65 different 
sounds, besides the various combination of letters used to 
note certain English consonants for which there were no 
equivalents in Latin. The genius of language has clearly 
shown us the course we are to take in six new letters. 

These new letters which have been added to the Latin al- 
phabet are, J, K, U, W, Y, and Z. 

As the Latins had but one character for v (vay) and u, the 
form of the v waschanged to u (Greek r) to note the vowel power 
of that letter. To note the coalescent power of u (i is we) the 
v was doubled. Hence our w. The w, however, resembles 
the Greek w, and comes to us from Germany. 

In the same way j and y have grown out of i. Asi still 
notes two consonant sounds, as ip collier and soldier, when 
these sounds are initial, as in yeoman and Julius, they are now 
noted by y andj. As the Greek v passes into y in English 
words, as in syntax (evvraéic), so the form of the English cap- 
ital is r (upsilon). The lower case j is a tailed i, just as y is a 
tailed v. 

A Phonetic English Alphabet. 369 

Z (zee) is the Greek zeta, used as the English sonant correl- 
ative of s. ; 

We thus find that our alpbabet has had a gentle growth, 
but a growth inadequate to our wants. A change has taken 
place in our words, but we are not able to show it. We know 
our perplexity : how shall we solve the riddle? 

Sprachgeist (speaking through teachers, eminent scholars, 
philologists and historians,) answers: Take the Latin alpha- 
bet. Notice carefully what power is commonly attributed to 
each letter, and then use that letter for that sound. After- 
wards notice what transformations have taken place in the 
sounds, and then construct new letters,-taking great care to 
use the materials already at hand to express such changed 
sounds. Do not let false analogies mislead you, but when- 
ever a new difficulty arises, call me to your aid. 

Thank you, Mr. Sprachgeist ; encouraged by your sage ad- 
vice, we shall attempt the solution of the difficult problem. 
But, Sprachgeist, can we not divide the elements of speech, 
so as to treat a part at atime, and yet consider each in the 
light of all. 

Sprachgeist. Yes; take the general division, vowels and 
consonants, and consider the vowels first. If you wish still 
further to. simplify, take the three fundamental vowels, a, i, 
and u, and treat the vowels that grow out of each class to- 
gather. You will thus have three classes of vowels, which 
will enable you to show their various changes. 

(To be continued. ) 

The Western. 


May 7. 

Mr. Hilder, Secretary of the Archaeological Section, made a ver- 
bal report of the proceedings of the Section during the last month, 
giving an interesting account of the explorations now being conducted 
by the Section, in New Madrid Co. He stated that Col, Croswell, who 
has the expedition in charge, has discovered an ancient village, marked 
by the well-known depressions in the earth, in each of which, excavation 
reveals a hearth of burned clay. He has also found the place of manu- 
facture of the pottery of this village, with a vessel containing the pig- 
ment used in its decoration. 

Mr, Hilder also exhibited photographs of a remarkable pipe found in 
a stone grave, in Macoupin Co., Ills. The pipe is described as made of 
soft red stone, being 7} in. long, 7j in. high and 4 in. wide, weighing 
seven pounds, It represents an elegantly carved human figure, in a 
stooping posture, with head-dress, car ornaments and necklace, and 
with the skin of some avimal thrown over the shoulders, the hind legs 
and tail being represented on the back. The finish of the work is very 
fine. The head is a correct representation ot the mound-builder’s skull, 

Human bones were found in the grave with the pipe, very much de- 
cayed at the joints, but generally sound elsewhere. Something resem- 
bling a tobacco box was observed, but it crumbled away when brought 
to the air. 

The grave was overgrown with a tree, which had been dead for a long 
time, and which seems to have been eight or ten inches in diameter, 

Judge Holmes read a paper on the *‘ Geological and Geographical 
Distribution of the Human Race,” which was referred to the publication 

H. A. Voelkner, Dr. Ambrose S, Everett, Willis N. Graves, F. A. 
Roessler and Gen. J. A. Simpson were elected associate members, 

May 21. 

Mr, Hilder made a verbal communication on the symbolic meaning 

Proceedings. 371 

of certain decorations found on the pottery of the mound-builders. 
The decoration is an equal-armed cross, surrounded by a circle, On one 
vessel in the collection of the Archaeological section, the cross and circle 
are surrounded by a system of radiating lines, bounded by a second cir- 
cle. On a second vessel, the circle is surrounded by a six-rayed star. 
Col. Croswell, who is in charge of the expedition now in Southeast Mis- 
souri, has recently found in a mound, an engraved shell about 34 inches 
in diameter. It is pierced, and was found upon the breast-bone of a 
skeleton in such a way as to show that it had been suspended from the 
neck, The engraving on the shell represents a tarantula, which is 
marked prominently upon the back with the same symbol—the cross and 

A precisely similar one has been recently found near St. Louis, on the 
[ilinois bluffs. This decoration 1s also found on the walls of the ruined 
cities of Mexico and Central America. Many of the ancient monu- 
ments of India bear this same symbol, and it is known, that long before 
Krabma or Buddha, or the worship of idols, the ancient Cushite races 
worshiped the heavenly bodies and the elements, placing Shamas, 
the Sun-god at the head of their rude mythology, and representing 
him by this symbol, while the Sun-goddess, Gula, is represented by a 
star, sometimes eight, sometimes six rayed. From these races, this 
symbol spread to Assyria, Phoenicia, and Egypt. 

During his excavations at Nimroud, Layard brought to light the 
figure of an Assyrian monarch, wearing a necklace, from which is sus- 
pended the emblems of the gods of his country, prominent among which 
are the eight-rayed star, and the cross within the circle. 

The finding of this same symbol among the relics of the aboriginal 
races of the New World, is in any event noteworthy and interesting, and 
it may possibly point te a connection between the civilization of the 
aboriginal tribes of the New World and that of the ancient Asiatic races, 

Mr, Riley announced that very little damage is to be anticipated from 
locusts in Texas, Arkansas,and Nebraska. Immense numbers have been 

destroyed by birds and heavy rains, 

The President was instructed to invite the American Association for 
the “ Advancement of Science” to hold its session in St. Louis in 

KF, E. Nrewer, Rec. See. 

The Western. 


Owing to the depressing effect of the hard times, caused by the pros- 
tration of almost every form of business, the memberships of this Soci- 
ety have fallen away considerably, and the officers have had but little 
heart to call meetings this season. At a meeting of the Board of Mana- 
gers, however, on the 15th of April, an invitation was extended from 
Dr, and Mrs. Walker, to entertain it at their residence on Washington 
Avenue. A programme was made out and the evening appointed for 
Tuesday the 24th inst. A new feature was adopted on this occasion, 
in addition to the usual music and lecture, which was that of inviting 
the loval artists to contribute pictures and sketches for exhibition, and 
thus give the Society that social character which it had heretofore lacked. 

The artists to the number of eight sent in some fifteen sketches and 
pictures, and the display was quite creditable as representing the pres- 
ent status of St. Louis art. They were respectively, J. Roy Robertson, 
J. R. Meeker, Louis Schultze, Geo. C. Kichbaum, Car! Gutherz, Wm. 
H. Cox, Paul Harney and Chas, E, Moss,—the first named has lately 
taken up his residence in St, Louis, and the last is a pupil of Mr. 

The evening was commenced with a piano solo by Mr. W. H. Pom- 
mer, the motif being Mendelsohn’s “Six Songs without Words.” This 
was given by the performer in a refined aud masterly manner. Follow- 
ing the solo, came an Essay, by the President of the Society, Mr. Meek- 
er, on Turner, the great English landscape painter. ‘his was illustra- 
ted by several engravings and an imitation, in oil, of the celebrated pic- 
ture, the “Slave Ship,” which has been eulogized by Ruskin. It was 
explained that this imitation was from memory, and that the colors 
were laid on the canvas with a palette knife, which was undoubtedly 
the way the original was produced. The audience was very much inter- 
ested in the analysis of Turner’s genius and the description of some 
of his famous works. 

After the Essay, Mr. Pommer gave a most classical rendering of 
Beethoven’s Sonata, Opus 53, and the enjoyable evening closed with the 
examination of the Society’s new autotypes and the paintings and sketch- 
es, It is probable that the next meeting will be held at the Polytechnic 
when we may expect an Essay on Art in general, by a literateur of 
St. Louis. . 

Book Reviews. 


SHAKESPEARE. Edited by Wm. J. Rolfe. New York: Har- 
per & Bros. 

tolte’s edition of Shakespeare is an expurgated one, and yet it claims to 

limit its omissions to ‘‘a few lines too indelicate to suit the taste of the 
present age, and which are not so interwoven with the thought of the play 
as to be essential to the integrity of the context.” The text is that * of 
the Folio of 1623, [quite accessible in this country,] carefully collated with 
the Quartos and with all the modern Editions of any critical value.” It is the 
intention of Mr. Rolte to edit all of Shakespeare’s plays: so far, there have 
been issued from the press, King Richard the Second, King Henry the 
Eighth, Julius Caesar, The ‘Tempest, anf The Merchant of Venice. ‘The 
plan of the work is to present in addition to the text, a history of the play, 
the sources of the plot, a glossary of all the archaic and obsolete terms, and 
critical comments. ‘The edition differs in this last respect from the Claren- 
don Press series whose editors hold in lofty contempt »li but textual criticism. 
It may not be amiss to state in brief the stand-points of the various schools 
of criticism, for cach of these schools misrepresents the position of the 
others. ‘lhe textual critics claim that not only our first need but our sole 
want is «pure text together with the explanation of obsolete, or archaic 
words and torms. They practically assert that because a Shakespearian 
student desires an acquaintance with Shakespeare it is an impertinence to 
offer him in addition to the text, any interpretation or aesthetic aid in as much 
as it is a well-known fact that all men possess equal abilities for extracting 
the essence of literary work, and as all are equally capable of forming a 
rational judgment, and in as much as there is but one form of true literary 
enjoyment. ‘That this is not a mis-statement will be manifest from the ex- 
tract from Mr. Wright which has been quoted with approbation by other 
eminent leaders in the same school. 

** Aesthetic notes have been deliberately omitted because one main object 
of these Editions is to induce those for whose use they are expressly de- 
signed, to read and study Shakespeare himself, and not to become familiar 
with opinions about him. Perhaps, too, it is because I cannot help experi- 
encing a certain feeling of resentment when I read such notes that [ am un- 

willing to intrude upon others what I should myself regard as impertinent. 

374 The Western. 

They are in reality too personal and subjective, and turn the commentator 
into the showman, with such sign-post criticism I have no sympathy.” 

As representatives of this school may be mentioned, W. Aldis Wright 
in England, and Richard Grant White in America. 

The Aesthetic school of critics studies the **Art-Form,” and has thus far 
been small, Coleridge, Swinburne and Hazlitt are perhaps its best repre- 
sentatives. These pass beyond the criticism of the text and endeavor to 
judge ofa play of Shakespeare as an entirety, looking at the characters as 
poetical creations, and at the story as the evolution of a poetical im- 
agination. These would find the limits of textual criticism too narrow and 
the effort too prosaic. 

The third well-defined school consists of those who look beyond the po- 
etry to find the thought implied—the substance of which the creations are 
but the symbols. ‘The adherents of this school sometimes display a want 
of respect for the efforts of the textual and aesthetic critics, and sometimes 
recognize in full the validity but not the universality of their work: any 
disrespect which they show is fully repaid by a rancorous hatred, which 
is not at all entertaining to the majority of Shakespearian readers who qui- 
etly neglect what lacks interest for them, and who as persistently make use 
of such auxiliaries as they find adapted to their.needs. The character of 
the various interpretations seems largely to depend upon the absorbing in- 
terests of the interpreter, just as in our various historians we find the pre- 
dominance of the philosophy which best satisfies each. Hence Gervinus 
is disposed to look at the plays of Shakespeare from the standpoint ot the 

Guizot seeks the religious element; Ulrici is most affected by the ethical 
element; while in Mr. Snider’s essays there is, together with « clear and 
keen appreciation of the **art-form”’—at least as form—a predominance of 
the logical and ethical elements. ‘These writers do not exhaust the possi- 
bilities of interpretative criticism which are as numerous as the diversified 
interests and tempcraments of students. Shakespeare is supposed by the 
best interpretative critics to have been primarily a poet and a dramatist; to 
have written his plays primarily for poetic and dramatic success; but, as 
his theme is human life in its totality, they would claim that in Shake- 
speare’s plays may be found the whole ot human life portrayed poetically 
and dramatically. ‘They would farther insist that whenever a poet and a 
dramatist succeeds in portraying human life, human beings may translate 
the poetic forms into those of the understanding and that this translation 

Book Reviews 3715 

was neither impertinent nor fruitless; the best of this school of critics ac- 
knowledge freely the need for the efforts of the textual and aesthetic cri- 
tics and see no reason why each reader, after an acquaintance with the best 
results in each school of criticism, should not be better qualified for inde- 
pendent investigation. ‘The rival claims of these several kinds of criticism 
are commonly discussed as though they were inharmonious, and as though 
all of them attempted to interfere with the independent efforts of the read- 
er. We are told by Coleridge that to admire upon principle is the only way 
to emulate without imitation, and it seems to most readers that they are 
helped and not hindered by access to the results of special scholarship 

For those who are described as being absorbed by great authors instead 
of absorbing these authors, we are not writing; but even for them the ab- 
sorption of scholarly and well considered views may be more advantageous 
than continuance in semi-ignoranee. But for the student, all earnest effort 
is valuable, and he will find his progress expedited by .a thoughtful use of 
the efforts of those who are more mature. The proposition to insist that no 
one shall have aught but the bare text of an author, is to dispense with 
all the rational aids of experience, and it is exceedingly doubtful whether 
the individual strength becomes any greater while the individual achieve- 
ment most certainly becomes less. We therefore regard the critical com- 
ments of Schlegel, Coleridge, Ulrici, Hazlitt and Hudson, as a valuable 
feature of this Edition, and those who desire a convenient, inexpensive, 
and reliable edition will do well to*possess themselves of the Rolfe series. 


THE CYCLOP DIA oF EpucaTion. Henry Kiddle and 
Alexander Schem. New York: E. Steiger. 1877. 
Attention has already been called to this undertaking, and now that the 

volume has been issued from the press, we cap speak more conclusively 

about it. The mechanical ex: cution of the book is superb—the paper and 
type are quite luxurious. The design of the work is sufficiently indicated 
by its title, and the treatment of the various topics is eminently fair and 
free from any attempt to inculeate special views rather than to calmly state 
the present pedagogical situation. Education is, in some way, the interest 
of most people, and this Cyclopaedia should therefore be a welcome addi- 
tion even to private libraries. The systems of education in the various 
countries of the world, the systems of the most prominent educational wri- 

376 The Western. 

ters, and in short the consideration of the various and varied interests of 
Education are to be found in the eight hundred and sixty-eight pages of 
this Cyclopedia. EpITor. 

SCHILLER’s Dre PiccoLomint. By James Morgan Hart. 
New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. 1875. $1.25. 

This volume contains: 1. Introduction and Commentary, the object 
of which is: “ First, to show how the drama came, in Schiller’s hands, 
to be what it is; next, to put both teacher and pupil in possession of 
all the collateral information needful to a complete understanding of 
the drama, and also to a legitimate correction.” 2. The Text, which 
is that of the Historische Kritische Ausgabe, and is scrupulously correct, 
3. An Index of Persons and Places. And, 4. A Map of Germany at 
the commencement of the Thirty Years’ War. 

There is so much in this volume that deserves admiration that we 
consider it our duty to recommend it even now although it has been out 
for over a year. 

Wa. H. Rosensrence. 

SCHUELER. Von L. R. Klemm. V. Kreis. V. Schuljahr. 
New York: Henry Holt & Cor 
The V. Circle of this excellent work contains: A. Naturgeschichtliche 

Bilder. B. Fabeln, Parabeln und Aehnliches, C. Poesie. D. Allerlei 

Lustiges. KE. Sagen und Maehrchen, F. Erzaehlungen. G. Vermisch- 

tes. H. Raethsel und Sprichwoerter. Zweiter Theil: Aufsatz- 

Beispiele, Beispiele zur Grammatik, Grammatik, Uebersetzen, Muendli- 

che and scriftliche Uebungen (for 40 weeks). In the Preface Mr, 

Klemm says: 

“In this number of the series the Selections for Reading and the 
Grammatical Exercises are printed separately, and only the latter are 
divided into weekly lessons. This arrangement leads the way to a sep- 
arate treatment of the two objects and makes it incumbent upon the 
teacher to chose daily one of the selections in reading that may be made 
the subject of and be connected with the Grammatical Exercises, In 
the grade for which this bock is intended, more stress is !aid on Gram- 
mar than in the previous parts of the course, and hence many examples 

Boon Reviews, 317 

for practice are given, The author has adhered to the principle that 
the grammatical rule is not so much like a frame’in which the exam- 
ples for practice are to be inserted, but rather like a skeleton which de- 
termines form and structure, and which, although its positions may be 
ascertained, is not visible externally. In other words the pupils are 
to be made to deduce the grammatical rule from the practical examples, 
and the teacher must take care that the rule thus found is expressed in 

adequate language and form. 
Wa. H. Rosensreneet, 

THE QUARTERLY ELocurTionist. New York: Mrs. Anna 

Randall-Dieul, 35 Union Square. 

Several numbers of this quarterly have been received, and we take 
pleasure in recommending its perusal to those either directly: or indi- 
rectly interested in the subject of Reading. Care has been given to 
the selection of the specimens which make up the Elocutionist; and 
many of the gems of present and recent literature are presented in con- 
venient form. Henry W. Jameson. 

THE IL1aD OF Homer. Translated into English Hexameter, 
Verse for verse. By Jas. A. Martling. Book I. St. Louis, 

This is a sample of a bold and, as far as [ am aware, original attempt 
“to harness in English verse” the Greek hexameter, that “ grandest of 
rhythms.” In other words, it is intended to be a literal, hexametriec, 
verse for verse rendering of Homeric thought in Homeric form as nearly 
as the genius of the two languages will allow. 

If competent critics pronounce this purpose attained, the author will 
have achieved what is now popularly termed “ a grand success ;” for in 
addition to differences of structure and idiom, the fundamental distine- 
tion between quantitative and accentual metre has to be recognized, 
That is, rhythmic cadence in Greek and Latin poetry depends entirely 
on the regular recurrence of Jong and short syllables, while that sylla- 
bic stress which we call accent is of slight importance in both prose and 

Practically, then, it is utterly impossible for us to exactly reproduce 
the scanning of a single line of the [liad or Aeneid. In view of these 

378 The Western 

serious difficulties all the translators of these two epics, from Pope to 
Morris, have either tacitly or explicitly condemned the hexameter, and 
the general verdict of criticism is, that decasyllabic blank verse is the 
true English heroic measure: at least so thought Bryant, no mean au- 

An actual count of syllables in the first thirty lines, shows a remark - 
able numerical coincidence that proves the painstaking accuracy of Mr. 
Martling’s work, the average being 15.4 in the Greek text, and 15.8 in 
the translation. It is much to be regretted that all of the grand Hom- 
eric names of gods and heroes were not preferred. Surely Achaians, 
Argeians, and Danadns, Zeus, Ares, and Poseidon, Here, Athene, and 
Aphrodite, are not only more musical, but also better suited to the plan 
of the translation than the corresponding Latin names, In general, the 
selection of words and phrases is judicious; but a few errors are notice- 
able, some of which may be due to difference of text, others to typo- 
graphical mistakes. Thus: 5.—so the counsel’ of Heaven deter- 
mined’—; 109. Danaens; 190 and elsewhere, —* cutlass;” 269. 
Pylas; 270. “ From the Aprian region afar off ;” 318. ‘* thorough ” 
for throughout; 343. “ present and future;” 515.—“ for no god is 
near ;” 530. “ Sovereign from the eterne !” instead of, From his im- 
mortal head. 

Sone expressions, too, and especially epithets, are rather unfortunate, 
as: 50. “silvery beagles;" 189. “vibrant with wavering purpose ;” 
290. ‘* Ifthe immortal divinities stationed him as a soldier, Have they, 
for that, ordained him a mouther of animadversion!” 316. “ un- 
harvested waters;” 385. “ promulge,” &c.; while the terms “ lady,” 
and “gentleman,” and “ reverend sir,” seem as anachronistic as ‘‘tent;” 
and, unkindest cut of all, the Grecians are described as ‘“ eddying- 
eyed.” Shade of Schliemann protect them ! 

Gro. B. MacLe.uan. 

VocAL AND PHYSICAL TRAINING. Philadelphia: Cowper- 
thwaite & Co. 

Professor Monroe gives us in this Manual of “ Vocal Gymnastics,” 
an insight into the means he has employed in teaching elocution. 

There is not too much of theory introduced for use with special stu- 
dents, or. perhaps, with private classes in elocution; but the book is 

Book Reviews. 379 

open to the objection of being too scientific for pupils at the age of 
those in our schools. 

We would not detract from the reputation of the author, both as a 
successful elocutionist himself, and as a teacher; but we must take the 
ground that the science of oratory is innate, and the study of it as a 
science rather due to curiosity than to necessity. The manual that pre- 
supposes an average amount of judgment on the part of the pupil, and 
takes care to train him only in the art of speaking, will, in our opinion, 
be far better suited to the wants of teacher and pupil than the work be- 
fore us. Henry W. Jameson. 

New York City, July, 1876, are numerous abstracts of in- 
teresting essays on a variety of linguistic topics. Among 
papers especially noticeable are: 

(1.) * The Progress and Results of Philological Studies during the 
Century,” by Prof. Harkness. ; 

(2.) “* The Nature of the Distinction of Subject and Predicate,” by 
Prof. Samuel Porter of the National Deaf Mute College, Washington, 
D. C. 

(3.) “ The Kelation of Philologic Accuracy to Scientific Nomencla- 
ture,” by Prof. Martin of Rutgers Female College, N. Y. 

(4.) ‘*Grote’s Theory of the Structure of the Lliad,’ by Prof. Pack- 
ard of Yale. ” 

(5.) Report of the Committee on the “ Reform of English Spelling.” 
Prof. Whitney of Yale, Chairman. 

(6.) A new rendering of Antigone, verses 453-455, proposed by Prof. 
Goodwin of Harvard. 

(7.) “What Shakespeare Knew of Horsemanship,” by Dr. J. B. Bit- 
tinger, of Sewickly, Pa; in which paper the Poet's memory is redeem- 
ed from the onus of * mixed, double, confused. or imperfect metaphor,” 
by substituting *‘ withers” for “other,” in Macbeth, [. 7. 

Geo. B. MacLELuan. 

of Yale College. Ginn & Heath, Boston, 1877. 
I hope to see this manual successfully pass the ordeal of school use; 

380 The Western. 

for it seems to me to mark the golden mean between the pedantic con- 
servatism of the earlier grammarians and the sweeping iconoclasm of 
the modern school. In other words, the distinguished author has ap- 
parently succeeded in ridding our grammar of the technical excrescences 
engrafted from the Latin, without rushing into the opposite extreme of 
treating English as par excellence the “ grammarless tongue.” He has 
given us the essence of Matzner in digestible form. 
Gro. B. MacLELian. 


American Bookseller—May 1st. The Index to monthly periodical literature 
continues to be unserviceable from its incompleteness. ‘The defects 
are (1) that the list of magazines is not exhaustive : (2) that the titles 
of all poems and tales are omitted and that not unfrequently the 
list of more solid articles seems determined by the taste of the com- 
piler, rather than adapted to the wantsof the reader. The useful- 
ness of an index is always dependent upon its completeness and hence 
it is with regret that we notice no very radical improvement over 
the earlier issues. 

American Journal of Science and the Arts—May. I. On the Vortex Ring in 
Liquids. II. An Account of the Discoveries in Vermont Geology 
of the Rev. Augustus Wing. III. Notes on the History of Helian- 
thus Tuberosus. IV. A New Investigation of the Laws of Friction. 
V. Examination of American Columbic Acid Minerals. VI. On 
the Sensitiveness to Light of Various Salts of Silver. 

Atlantic—June. I. Crude and Curious Inventions at the Centennial. II. 
Fitz-Greene Halleck. 

British Quarterly Review—April. I. University Systems. Il. Genius of 
Islam. III. Mr. Wood’s Discoveries at Ephesus. 1V. Across Afri- 
‘ca. V. Retorm in Turkey and Coercion. 

Catholic World. I. Pope Pius 9th. LI. Present State of Judaism in Ameri- 

Noticeable Articles in Magazines and Reviews. 381 

ca. Ifl. Prose and Poetry of Ancient Music. IV. Review of 
Wilkes’ Shakespeare from an American Standpoint. 

Contemporary—May. I. Condition and Prospects of the Church of Eng- 
land. II. Wagner. III. Balder the Beautiful. IV. Contest of 
Heathenism with Christianity as reflected in Greek and Roman 
Literature. V. Harriet Martineau’s Account of Herself. 

Deutsche Rundschau—Heft 7. 1. Echtes Gold wird klar im Feuer. II. 
Romische und griechische Urtheile iiber das christenthum. ITI. 
Zur Geschichte deskochens. 

Dublin Review—April. 1. Russia. Il. Euglish Martyrs. 

Dublin University Magazine—May. I. Early Printers. II. On Some Re- 
mains of Greek Art. ILL. Buried Poets: John Skelton. 

Eclectic—June. I. Habits of Ants. II. The French Army in 1877. II. 
Life of aScotch Naturalist. IV. Harriet Martineau. V. Deronda’s 
Mother. VI. Mr. Ruskin’s Will. 

Edinburgh Review—April. I. Attic Orators. II. Russia. ILl. Queen 
Mary and Harold. IV. Charles Kingsley. V. Despatches, &c. of 
Duke of Wellington. 

Fortnightly—April. {. Bentham and Benthamism. II. Parties and Policy 
in Germany. [Il. Barry Cornwall. IV. Virgil in English Hex- 

Fraser’s—April. 1. Popular Songs of Tuscany. II. Master Robert Shal- 

Galary—June. I. Miss Misanthrope. LI. Alfred de Musset. III. The 
Three Periods of Modern Music. 

Harper’s—June. 1. Contemporary Art in Germany. Il. The Adroscog- 
gin Lakes. III. Niebelungen Lay. IV. Garth. 

Library Table—May 24. I. The Index to Monthly;Periodical Literature is 
more incomplete than usual. 
Lippincott’s—June. 1. Down the Rhine. Il. Inthe Valleys of Peru. II. 
The Marquis of Lossie. IV. The Priest’s Son. 
Tittell—1715. 1. Moliere and his World. II. Walter Bagehot. III. De- 
ronda’s Mother. IV. Dr. Schliemann on Mycenae. V. Mr. 
Cowden Clarke 
1717. I. Dr. Carpenter’s Mental Physiology. \II. The Marquis of 
Lossie. I[I. Robert Herrick. IV. Miss Muloch. 
1718. I. Mr. Wood’s Discoveries at Ephesus. 
1719. I. Harriet Martineau’s Autobiography. Il. Charles Kings- 

382 The Western. 

Maemillan’s—May. I. ‘the Hopes of Theology. ILI. Harriet Martineau. 
II. The Old Greek Athletes. 

Nineteenth Century. April. I. George Sand. Ll. Gladstone and Lewis on 
Authority in Matters of Opinion. Ill. Russia. IV. Shakespeare 
May. I. Russian Revolutionary Literature. II. An Actor’s 
Notes on Shakespeare. 

North American Review—April. [. Electoral Commission and its Bearings. 
Il. Wm. H. Seward. III. Centenary of Spinoza. 

Popular Science Monthly—June. 1. On the Evolution of the Family. Ll. 
Our American Owls. I. Mesmerism, Odylism, Table Turning, 
and Spiritualism. IIl. On the Distribution of Standard Time in 
the U. S. LV. Matter and Mind. V. Spinoza. VI. Sketch of 
Altred Russel Wallace. 

Scribner’s—June. I. The Soul’s Immortality. Ul. The Ivan ‘Turgeneff. 

The Catholic World—May. I. The Prussian Chancellor. Ll. The Lepers 
ot Tracadie. LL. Testimony of the Catacombs to Some of the 
Sacraments. IV. The French Clergy during the late War in 

The Sanatarran—May. I. Influence of Civilization on the Duration ot Life. 
Il. School Hygiene. 

The Christian Union—began May 16 a series of articles on ** How to Spend 
the Summer.”’ The contributions promised are: Camping Out; 
by Rev. W. H. H. Murray Yachting; by Rev. Stephen H. 
Tyng, Jr.,D.D. Pedestrianism; by Howard Crosby, D.D. The 
White Mountains ; by Henry Ward Beecher. Summer ona Farm ; 
by Donald G. Mitchell, (Ike Marvel). A Short Trip to Europe; by 
Austin Abbott. Summer Schools; by Rev. G. F. Thwing. Sum- 
mering in Colorado; by H.H. Summer Camp-Meetings; by Rev. 
Lyman Abbott. Canoeing; by the Commodore of the N. Y. 
CanoeClub. Summer Cottage Housekeeping; by a Cottage House- 
keeper. How to Stay at Home Without Grumbling; by Gail 



Arnold, Rev. F. Memories and Associations of Oxford and Cambridge. 

Arnold, Rev. F. Through Persia by Caravan. 

Arnold, Rev. F. Our Bishops and Deans. 2 vols. 

Bagehot, Walter. The English Constitution. 

Baxter, Richard. History of his Life and Times. London, 1713. 4 vols. 

Bulwer, Sir Henry Lytton. Life of Lord Palmerston. 3 vols. 

Bulwer, Sir Henry Lytton. Historical Characters. 2 vols. 

Burk, J. History of Virginia. Petersburg, Va., 1804. 2 vols. 

Burnaby, Fred. Ride to Khiva. 

Burnet, Bp. History of his Own Times. 6 vols. 

Burnet, Bp. History of Reformation. 4 vols. 

Burton and Drake. Unexplored Syria. 2 vols. 

Camdemus, Gulielmus. Brittania. Lond. 1587. 

Cameron. Across Africa. 

Campbell, Lord. Lives of Lord Chancellors and Chief Justices. 11 vols. 

Croly, Rev. Geo. Life ot Burke. 3 vols. ° 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle. Life of Titian. 2 vols. 

Curwen, Henry. History of Booksellers. 

Darby, Wm. Geographical Description of Louisiana. 

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Dixon, Wm. Hepworth. History of Two Queens. 4 vols. 

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Hogg, T. J. Life of Shelley. 2 vols. 

Hook, W. F., F. R.S. Livesof Archbishops of Canterbury. 12 vols. 

2 Books Added to Public School Library. 

Jacobs, Wm. Historical Inqury into Production and Consumption ot Pre- 
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James, G. P. R. Reign of Wm. ILL. From State Papers. 3 vols. 

Jeafferson, J.C. Book about the Clergy. 2 vols. 

Jerdan, Wm. Men I Have Known. 

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Kingsley, Chas. Life and Letters. 

Knight, Chas. Popular History of England. 8 vols., illustrated. 

Lennox. Lord Wm. Pitt. Fifty Years Biographical Reminiscences. 2 vols. 

Lester, C.E. Our First Hundred Years. 

MacCarthy. D. Florence. Shelley’s Early Life. 

Mackintosh, Sir James. History of Eng. Rev. 

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Mahon, Lord. War of the Succe-sion in Spain. 

Martineau, H. Autobiography. 2 vols. 

Milman, Dean. History of Latin Christianity. 9 vols. 

Molesworth, Wm. N. History of England, 1838074. 3 Vols. 

Oliphant, Mrs, Historical Sketches of Reign ot George LIl. 2 vols. 

Oliphant, Mrs. Memoirs of Count de Monatlembert. 2 vols. 

Otte, E.C. Scandinavian Hist. 

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Peru, its Government, Prouuctions, ete.. with detailed Account of Earth- 
quake at Lima, 1746. London, 1748. 

Pike, Owen. History of Crime in Eng. 2 vols. 

Psalmanazar, Geo. Memoirs of. London, 1765. 

Routledge, James. Popular Progress in England. 

Russell, Lord John. Life and Times of Fox. 3 vols. 

Sidney, H. Diary of Charles II. 2 vols. 

Southey, T. History of West Indies. 3 vols. 

Spanish America, History frum Spanish Writers. London, 1741. 

Squier, E.G. Peru. 

Stanhope, Earl. Life of Pitt. 4 vols. 

Stanhope, Earl. Reign of Queen Anne. 2 vols. 

Staunton, Edw’d. The Great Schools of England. 

Still, Wm. Underground Railway. 

Strutt, Jos. Sports and Pastimes of the English People from the Earliest 

Todd, Rev. H. J. Life of Cranmer. 2 vols. 

Toland, John. Memoirs and Manuscripts. 2 vols. 
U. 8. Congress. Secret Journal 1775-’86. 4 vols. 

Wachsmuth—Historical Antiquities of the Greeks. 2 vols. 

Wallace, M. Russia. 
Walpole, Horace. Complete Works. 17 vols. 

Wellington. Duke. Dispatches and Speech: s and Correspondence. 24 vols. 

Wilson, G. H. Wonderful Characters. 

Yonge. C.D. Life of Wellington. 2 vols. 
Yonge, C.D). History of British Navy. 3 vols. 

Adams, W. D. Famous Books. 

Arnold, Matthew. St. Paul and Protestantism. 
Barclay, Alex. (Translator.) Shipof Fools. 2 vols. 
Bastiat, F. Sophisms of Protection. 

Bastiat, F. Harmonies of Political Economy. 

Berni, Francesco. Orlando Inamarato. Translated 
Bibliotheca Americana Vetustissimau. 1492-1551. 
Blanc, Chas. Artin Ornament and Dress. 

Bryant. Jacob. Analysisof Ancient Mythology. 6 
Burton, J. H. Book Hunter. 

Chaucer. Complete Works. Folio. 1721. 

Cuvier. Animal Kingdom. 8 vols. 

Dibdin, Rev. T. F. Library Companion. 2 vols. 
Dowden, Edw’d. Shakespeare, His Mind and Art. 
Drake, Dr. N. D. ‘The Gleaner. 4 vols. London, 
Drake, Dr. N. D. Literary Hours. 3 vols. 
Durant, Ghislani. Hygiene of the Voice. 

Essays on English Writers. 

Books Added to Public School Library. 

Wheelvr, J. I’. History of India from the Earliest Ages. 4 vols. 

Wordsworth, C. University Life in the Eighteenth Century. 


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Beloe, Rev. Wm. Anecdotes of Literature and Scarce Books. 6 vols. 

Curteis,G. H. Dissent in its Relation to the Church of England. 

Dallas, E.S. The Gay Science—Principles of Criticism. 
Darley. F. UO. C. Illustrations of Rip van Winkle and Sleepy Hollow. 

English Poctry from the Saxon to Charles Il, Lond, 1737. 

London, 1726. 

by Rose. 





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