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of Theology at Cla 

“Th ۳ iit 

Theology Library 


From the library of 
Wilson ۳1 Hume 












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E. H. PALMER, ۲۸. |5 70 -| 6 سے م‎ 



00٦ | پا+وماز‎ 

0۶ ۳۵ 580100 
ate‏ لت اھ 


THE object of this Collection of Grammars is to provide 
the learner with a concise but practical introduction to 
the various languages, and at the same time to furnish 
students of comparative philology with a clear and com- 
prehensive view of their structure. The attempt to adapt 
the somewhat cumbrous grammatical system of the Greek 
and Latin to every other tongue has introduced a great 
deal of unnecessary difficulty into the study of languages. 
Instead of analyzing existing locutions and enleavoaring 
to discover the principles which regulate them, writers 
of grammars have for the most part constructed a frame- 
work of rules on the old lines and tried to make the 
language of which they were creating fit into it. Where 
this proves impossible the difficulty is met by lists of 
exceptions and irregular forms, thus burdening the 
pupil’s mind with a mass of details of which he can 
make no practical use. 

In these grammars the subject is viewed from a dif- 

ferent standpoint: the structure of each language is 


carefully examined, and the principles which underlie 
it are carefully explained; while apparent discrepancies 
and so-called irregularities are shown to be only natural 
euphonic end other changes. All technical terms are 
excluded unless thuis meaning and application is self- 
evident; no arbitrary rules are admitted; the old classi- 
fication into declensions, conjugations, etc., and even the 
usual paradigms and tables, are omitted. Thus reduced 
to the simplest principles, the Accidence and Syntax 
can be thoroughly comprehended by the student on one 
perusal, and a few hours diligent study will enable him 

to analyze any sentence in the language. 

The present volume is specially adapted for the require- 
ments of Candidates for the Indian Civil Service and 
for the various Military and Civil Examinations in India. 
It will also be found an indispensable help to all who 

are commencing the study of Oriental languages, 

It forms the first of a collection of Simplified Grammars, 
each containing cither one or a group of two or three 
‘cognate languages, according to circumstances. . The 
first volume consists of Hindustani, Persian and Arabic, 
the latter, though not belonging to the same family as 
the other two, is included because of the numerous 

words and locutions which these borrow from it. This 


volume will be followed by. Grammars of the Keltic 
-and Slavonic languages and dialects, also of Modern 
Greek, of Sanscrit, Pali, Burmese, Siamese, Malay. 
Chinese, and Japanese,—likewise of Grammars of the 
most important vernaculars of Modern India. The Keltic 
section will contain Welsh, Gaelic, Irish, and Breton; 
the Slavonic scction will comprise Russian, Polish, 
Bohemian, Bulgarian; and the Scandinavian section 
{celandic, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian. A volume 
on Anglo-Saxon is also in course of preparation. The 
Kditor and Publishers, by the selection of the most com- 
petent scholars for the work, and by the greatest care 
in the production, hope to render this scries of the 
utmost practical utility both to linguistic students and 
comparative philologists, 
للا‎ H. ۰ 

2.0200 (۲6۳۱/75 188]. 




The Persian-Hindistani alphabet is a modification of the 
Arabic. It is written from right to left. 
أ‎ Alf, 4 زه‎ 4, ۵۵0۲۷ This is the spiritus lenis of the Greek, a 
mere prop to rest an initial vowel on. 

م 0 Le,‏ ب 
As in English.‏ 1 
Pe, P‏ کپ 
ee 0, 4 A soft dental 1 like the Italian.‏ 
Ta, t A hard palatal ¢.‏ تا 
Se, 8‏ انث 
Jim, 7 As in English.‏ سے 
Che, 4‏ کچ 
c 77, h An aspirate strongly breathed out from‏ 
the chest.‏ 
Fa Khe, kh Like cz in Welsh or Gaelic, or the German‏ 

ch as pronouuced in Switzerland. 




A soft dental d as in Italian. 
” A hard palatal d. 
As in English. _ ; 
A 507 تھ"‎ Pe. 
A-hard palatal ۰ 
As و‎ in English. 
Like the French j in jour, or our s in 

As in English. - 

As gin English. 

Properly pronounced with the tongue full 
against the front part of the palate, but 
ordinarily pronounced like ات‎ 2007 . 

A guttural sound only heard in Arabie : 
in India it is not often pronounced. 

A guttural sound something like the 
French r grasseyé. 
As in English. 

A very guttural رم‎ like ck in theck, only 
much stronger. 

۳ in English, but g is always hard be- 

fore all vowels, as کے‎ gi, pronounced 

| ghee, not jee 





a, ete. 





Dal,‏ د 
Dal,‏ 5 
Zal,‏ د 
y Re,‏ 
Re‏ 3 
4 ز 
Zhe,‏ ژ 

Sin,‏ س 
Shin,‏ ش 
Sad,‏ ضص 
24 ض 

Toe,‏ ط 

Loe,‏ ظ 
Ain,‏ ۹ 
Ghain,‏ ¢ 
Le,‏ ف 

کت‎ Kaf, 
گی‎ Gaf, 

2 Lam, 


w Wan, ۶ Asin English, but sometimes nasal at the 

end of a syllable, when it sounds like 
the French in bon; before 0 or f it 
is sounded as m. 

w Nearly as in English, but a little in-‏ ت77 و 

clined to ۰ 
80۳00 ۰ | | : 
As in English. 
us Ye 1 

These are joined to the preceding letter by prefixing a small 

turve or stroke, and to the following letter by removing the 

eurve with which they all but ۵7 end: thus 0 
ow J 2 
ی نا‎ 3 a Oo هی‎ 
ح‎ 7 ۳ 
عہ یہ‎ 
t عع ی‎ 
ge 0 ces 
كك 4 5 کت‎ 
1 ل ای سڈ‎ 
م‎ 5 Re ¢ 
5 0 مت الل 2 ھ‎ 

if deprived of the curve would become unrecognizable;‏ دور 
hence they do not join to the left.‏ 

The above letters are all consonants. 



The vowels are ۶ w (as in bull), and > a (pronounced like 4 

in but), both written above the letter and 7 % written below . 

the letter. uh Saas 

Combined with } a, و0 و‎ and ey, these become \ aa (a), 
3 mw (a), ی‎ ty (2), و‎ 0 (pronounced as ow in cow), ی‎ at (like 
; in fine). ۱ 

No word can commence with a vowel in the Arabic character : 
if it does the vowel is introduced by alif \. 

When a syllable begins with a vowel, the mark = hamzeh is 
used to introduce it. 

But this hamzeh being written above the line requires a prop: 
this in the case of ۵ is رأ‎ in the case of ه‎ it is رو‎ and in the 
case of 7 it is ری‎ only that in the initial form this last is dis- 
tinguished from the ordinary y by losing its dots: e.g. شهار‎ 
85-41, جع‎ pie,” جاون‎ ja-an, “I go,” کر‎ 20-7, “any,” “some,” 
فائدہ‎ fa-ida, “advantage.” 

” Tashdid doubles the letter it is placed over. 

> Sulkin shows that the letter it is placed over has no 

= Waslah is only used over an initial اه‎ in an Arabic 
word, or over the Arabic article ال‎ al, and shows that it 
is elided. 

~ Maddah is placed over an initial ey and shows that_ it 
should be pronounced long, as آنا‎ dna, “to come.” 

If the first letter of an Arabic word be a sibilant or liquid 



the article ال‎ is elided before it and the consonant itself doubled, 
as عوام كاسن‎ wwammu-nnas, “ common people,” ai) OL£ 
ubdu-llah, “ Abdullah” (the servant of Allah), 


_. Accidence teaches us the modifications of which words are 
capable in order to express the various accidental cireumstances 
of person, gender, number, time and place. Such modifications 

-are called inflections, and extend to verbs and nouns alike, 


The following are the only inflections used : 

\ 5 at the end of a word shows that it is masculine. 

feminine,‏ 35 = 3 ی 

| 2 when further inflected becomes ی‎ é. 

The affixes ی‎ ۶ in nouns and ین‎ é in verbs express the 

masculine plurcl; when they are further inflected they become 

۰ ون 
express the feminine plural.‏ ره an or we‏ 3 
cae kutté ka, of a dog.‏ کا 2s kuttd, a dog.‏ 
kutton kd, of dogs.‏ کت كا 7 cos kutté, dogs.‏ 
a girl. wh Si larkiyan, girls.‏ رت بآ ou‏ 3 

larkiyon ka, of girls.‏ لڑکیون کا 

Where words end in a consonant the change of ۱ to ی‎ and 

ہے اا كا نع كار Se ae‏ ا 
کا یف et‏ ا 


cs cannot take place, for the simple reason that there is no ۱ to 
But they can and do add ز ورن‎ -as 

mardon kd, of men.‏ مردون mard, man or men. is‏ سرك 


Cases or Nouns. 

The eases of nouns are’made by adding the following سی‎ 
called post-positions : : 
کا‎ ka expressing genitive case or a dependent relation. 
کو‎ ko for the objective case. 
نی‎ ne for the agent. 
These will be explained later on in the syntax. 
مه سی‎ for the instrumental or ablative case. 

21 ti 66s 95 
ہیں‎ men 1009301۷060 0 

وو 0 
on.‏ 7 ۷ در 

tak | Bp te”?‏ تکٹ 
ai for the vocative.‏ أى and the prefix‏ 

The pronouns are $ 
ہیں‎ main, I. تو‎ 28 or تیں‎ tain, thou. 
ee ham, we. تم‎ tum, you. 

In these هارا‎ ara or ara is substituted for كا‎ ka to express 
the genitive; as 
میرا‎ mérd == mai(n)ard, of me. 

tai(n)ara, of thee.‏ = 14 تیرا 

نح حار Tee‏ يسك ور کیل و مار 


hamara, of us.‏ همارا 
of you‏ ,10/01۲ رن 2 
tujh in their in-‏ عچهء en mujh and‏ 0 تين and‏ مین and‏ 

flected forms. 

The other pronouns are formed as follows : 

‘The syllable» ytat the beginning expresses the near demonstrative. ١ 

35 و‎ 2 7 remote 7 
5 5 عر‎ ١ 
7 رو رح‎ is relative. ۳ 
t وو‎ is correlative. 
یہہ‎ yth, و۵‎ wuh, . ا کون‎ kaun, جون‎ Jaun, تون‎ taun, 
this that who ? who, which that same 

wh? yahan, وهان‎ wahan, us kahan, جبان‎ jahan, تبان‎ tahan, 
here there where wherever there 
pol idhar, ادهر‎ udhar, تدھر ,100 جد هر ,1:00/017 كدهر‎ tidhar, 
hither thither whither whither thither 
يون‎ yin, وون‎ WM, گیون‎ kyin, جمون‎ J yin, تيون‎ 20000 
thus 80 how as 80 
اننا‎ dima, اتنا‎ wena, کتنا‎ Kitna, حننا‎ jitna, تتنا‎ titna, 

this (so) many, that (so) many, how many, "as many, or so many, or 
or much or much or much much as much 

tab,‏ تب jab,‏ حب us-wakt, ) ۶2 kab,‏ اسوقت) ,7 اب 
now that time when when ~ then‏ 

taisd,‏ تيسا kaisa, a aes‏ كمسا wats,‏ ويسا aisa,‏ ایسا 
(like this) so (like that) how (like what) as (like which) so (like the same)‏ مع 


In their formatives, ۰ the form assumed ‘by them before a 
post-position, -4) yih, ول‎ wuh, کون‎ 5210۸, become أس‎ 48, owl us, 
کس:‎ kis. “So, t00, خو‎ jo, he who, and ps s0, its correlative, 
make jis and ۰ ۳ ۱ 

The reflexive proncuns are: cot ap اینا)‎ genitive apna, 
objective کو‎ wt dp ko, etc.), ”نآ“‎ and تمین‎ tain, '' self,” 
undeclined. آب)‎ ap somet_mes means “your honour ;” its 
genitive is then أنب كا‎ dp ha). 


The relation which is expressed in other languages by a prepo- 
sition, “‘ putting something before a word,” is in Hindistani 
expressed by a post-position, “putting something after it.” 
These are first the signs of the cases already given, the rest 
are merely nouns of time or place in their inflected form with- 
out اس وقستا 9۰ء : میں 0۲ کو‎ us wakt, “ That time” =‘ then ;” 
مرد کی جهت.‎ mard ki jihat, “Tn the direction of the man.” 
Jthat being feminine, the kd becomes 42 to agree with it. This 
concord is always observed. 

235 3 | GENDER.’ 

Words necessarily implying females are feminine. We 
have seen that a feminine is made from a masculine in @ by 
turning it intoz(p. 5). Other feminine terminations are ٴش‎ 2 ish, 
ہا ت‎ 2» hat. OF course there are exceptions, and these are 

mostly foreign words, where. the letter which would otherwise 

<١ 9‏ > -.3728ج:20711 

show the word to be feminine belongs to the root, as the Arabic 
وشست‎ wakt, “ time,’ which is masculine. ~ 5 

All Arabic words of the form راهم تفعیل‎ are feminine. 
Some words are arbitrary in their gender, just as in English a 
ship is feminine. These must be learnt by practice. Words not 

included in the above categories are masculine. 

000 77+ 

‘This is made by putting the noun with which comparison is 
‘made in the ablative or instrumental case with سے‎ se, and 
leaving the adjective unchanged; as پہہ لڑکا اس سے اجها هی‎ 
yth larka us se achchha hat, “This boy is better than that.” 

Sometimes, for greater clearness, the word زیادہ‎ 206 
“more,” is ”دہ‎ or the Persian comparative, as بچهشر‎ bth-tar, 
“better,” may be introduced. 

The superlative is made by adding سمب‎ sab, “all,” as 
سب لڑکوں سے اجھا‎ sab larkon se achchha, “Best of all the 
boys.” 1 ۱ 


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 

from left to right as with us, and are combined in the same way 

The numerical figures are They are written 
as our own; 6.7, ۱۸۸۴۶ ۰ 
The Numerals in Hindistani are not easy to learn, as they 
seem to have a different form for each number up to a hundred. 
This difference is, however, only apparent, as in their original 

1 See the Section on Arabic Grammar, 

اوم ع ا ا سوس 
i‏ ی 


form they are as regular as our own. Without, however, going 
into the philological question, I will show how they may be 
وت‎ ranged like the English numerals. ۱ 

First we have the digits 1 to 10, closely resembling those of 
other Aryan languages. ; 

Then the “teens,” represented by dra. 

Then the “tys,” represented by is. 

At 40 the ا۷٢۰‎ become irregular, and we must learn more, 
namely, اس‎ as for the “ty” of 50, .gi\ ath for that of 60, اتر‎ 
attar for that of 70, اسی‎ asst for that of 80, and نوی‎ nave ۰ 
for that of 90. ۱ 

19, 29, etc., up to 79, are expressed by 20 ,1ج‎ 80—1, and 

80 on. 
teen arah 
اگارہ‎ 7 
1 7و 5 ایکت‎ 4 + os 
كيارة‎ gtyarah. 
2 دو‎ do 12 باره‎ barah, 0۵-0۵ (be, 
ef. Latin 25٠ 
لمن‎ ۰ 13 Syed ۰ 
4 جار‎ chair. 14 جودر*‎ ۰ 
5 پاچ‎ panch. 15 37::م تو پندرہ‎ 0+ 
6 > ۰ Lor سوله‎ solah. 
7. كاحت‎ p 7 سترة‎ 6 
8 ۸0۶1ھ اتهاره 18 :0 اي‎ 
9 انیس ۳19 ۰ و‎ unis, one from (5)is. 

10 دس‎ das. ۰20 ہیس‎ bis =bé-is =twain-ty. 

ول" رٹ اود se‏ و سا yi‏ انين 

ty وت‎ ty 7s 
0000 41 اأالكتاله‎ 6. 
رد ےر‎ 9 
“ 8 42 ببالئيس‎ be-alis. 

.8 تینتالیس 43 
chau-dlis.‏ حوالیس 44 
.8 پینتالیس 45 
09-۰ جهیالیس 46 
۰ سینت لیس 47 
artalis.‏ اڑتالیس 7 
.0 انهتا لیس 

49 انواس‎ unchds, one from 
chas (5 ty). 
50 ۰ Cues? ۰ 
)5(1 alternative awan 

51 ایکاون‎ ehawan. 

' .20000 باون 52 
۰ تر oe‏ 53 
 < ۰‏ ین 54 

9۰ کجہں 55 

56 wea chhappan. 

57 ستاون‎ satawan. 
58 اتهاون‎ 00 

59 a land | unsath, one from 
6 (ty). 
60 ile sath. 

.8 بائیس ‏ 22 
.10-8 تیلیس 23 
8۰ جوبیس 24 
pags? ۰‏ 25 
.8 چھبیس 26 
satd-is.‏ ستائیس 27 
atha-is.‏ اٹھائیس 28 

29 أنتيس‎ untis, one from 

30 ٹیس‎ tis=t+is= 

.6 أيكتيس 31 

۶۰ بتیمس. ۰ 32 
.۰ تمنتیس 83 
,8 چونٹیس 34 
۰ بینتیس 85 
.8 چھتیس 86 
۰ سینٹیس 87 
.۰ اآنهنیس 
artis.‏ اتيس 0 
.2 انتالیس ( 
.0 ا اہ 

موی چالیس 40 
ty.‏ 4= 

10۳085 — 
۸37و٥0۰ ۔_.‎ 

p. 14. 



أيكاسى 81 
بیاسی 82 
اتن دم 
جوراسى 84 
چچاسی 85 
چهیاسی 86 
ستاسى 87 
اهاسی 88 
نوأسى 89 
نوی 90 


ایکانیی 91 
پبانوی 92 
گنوی 98 
چورانوی 94 
پاچانوی 95 
بچا نوی 
چھیانوی 96 
ستأنوی 97 
ائهانوی 98 
ننانوی | 59 
ee‏ )100 


(6)ty sath 
ایکسئ.‎ ehsath. . 
ial basath. — 
ترسٹھ‎ ۰ 
حونستم,‎ chaunsath. 

auras 00344 . 
حهیاسته‎ chhe-dsath. 

0۰ سرسٹھہ۔ 

arsath.‏ ازسته 

sing’ \ athsath. 

unhattar, one‏ انہتر 
from hattar (7) ty.‏ 
ype sattar. -‏ 

(1)ty ۰ hattar =sattar } 

eu \ ekhattar, 

gd 0,‏ 
0۰ تبتر 
0۰ چرھتر 
FES, pachhattar.‏ 
۰ چھہنر 
۰ ستہتر 
athattar.‏ الهتر 

undst, one from‏ اناسی 


asst.‏ سی 

1 The s and % being interchangeable, see 







کر ری 

VERBS, 13 

The ordinal numbers are: 7 
Ist يبلا‎ 48 
2nd دوسرا‎ disra 

8rd ٹیسرا‎ 19۳3 
4th تھا‎ > chautha 

and the rest by adding ون‎ WAN, 0.8. بيسوأن‎ 081 “twentieth.” 

The termination wis wan, when inflected, becomes وین‎ wen. 

Fractions are: 

را‎ pa-o لور‎ paun | 
١ Au a quarter. َك‎ 1 one quarter less. 
بونی ۱ 8 جو تهائی‎ 6 
تاذ‎ 1173-8, a third. . ساڈھے‎ sdrhe, one half more. 
لا فى‎ 
ادها‎ adhd, a half (also used \ سوا‎ sad, 8 quarter more. 
as an adjective). ڈرژہ‎ derh, one and a half. 

arha-2, two and a half.‏ اڑھائی | one & a quarter.‏ ر60006-5 سو ای 


Verbs only consist of a root which is combined with various 
participial affixes and the auxiliary verb Zo be. 

The simplest form of the auxiliary verb is that which ex- 
presses “being” for each of the persons. This is generally 

2 ۰ 
known as the substantive verb.” 

SuBsTanTIve VERB. 
The following comparative table shows the forms assumed by 

this verb in the principal Aryan languages: 

مت سر ee‏ کت ا ان ین اک reid‏ و اتا وت 
Se‏ هد و ۳ 1 5 


PERSIAN. ZEND. Sanskrit. PRAXKRIT. ۱۱۱ ٭تتد ری‎ : 
al. ahmi. اعت‎ dai ene 
ای‎ ahi 35 ast WG : 

ی adi (aii)‏ اعت # . . استب 

۱ ايم‎ mahi we 0 i 
ابد‎ ‘Gta 7 aha و‎ 
اند‎ 7010 afer anti - oe 

In Greek and Latin these become ext, etc., and sum, etc., it 
bem a philological law that the 7 and s interchange. 

When the Hindistani forms of the above are not. affixed they 
take ۵ h before it, as هون‎ hin, کی‎ hat, ete. 

Parts oF THE VERB. 

The parts of verbs are the following : 
Tur Root, as 25 gir, 0 19([ 35 
Infinitive or Noun 

of Action, 

gir-na.‏ گرنا nd, as‏ نا 

Mere Abstract or | ون‎ and its inflections رین وى وى‎ 8 
Indefinite Action, ون‎ 3 girun, 1 falling, ete. 
Actual Future, گا‎ ga. 
and the participial affixes, viz. : 
One doing, تا‎ 4, 

111 : 
One done, ‘ec ۱ all inflected like nouns. 

and the present and past tenses of the substantive verb هون‎ han 
ete., تھا‎ tha etc. 


All the parts of the verb are but combinations.of the above. 
For the different numbers, persons, and genders we have merely 
to alter the rmastion أ‎ ۶ into 2 for feminine, ة ی‎ for mascu- 
line inflections or plural, and in the aorist یں‎ em for plural 
masculine, and ين‎ in for plural feminine, according to the rule 
given on p. 5. 2 

The root in its simplest form is used for the imperative 
singular, as لکه‎ “write thou.” To this we may add the 
termination بى‎ 476, which makes the command into a request. 
جاهئی)‎ 076716, from حاهنا‎ chahna, “to wish,” is used in the 

43 oe ce 
sense of one ought,” we should,” — let us,” etc.) 


Root لک‎ Lith, “write.” 

likh, Write.‏ لكب 
main likhin, I (may be) writing.‏ مین لکهون 
ham likhen, We (may be) writing.‏ هم لکھیں 

writing-shall.‏ 1 و7 main‏ سين لكهو نگا 
main likhta hin, I (mase.) one-writing am.‏ مين لکھتا هون 
main likhta tha, I one-writing was.‏ میں لکنها تھا 
likha, I wrote.‏ ۱۰۵۸-9۵ میں فى لکھا 
likha hai, I wrote is, ۸0. the state it‏ 702۵ سين فى لكها هی 
wrote” is now a fact =I‏ 

have written. 


main-ne likha tha, I wrote was, ۶. the state‏ من فى لكها ٹھا 
““T-wrote’’ was the fact=‏ ; 
Thad written.‏ . 
wrote will be, 2.6. the state‏ 1 ,۵98 1/5۸4 110-6 مین + نی لکها هوگا 
“T wrote” will take place‏ 
shall have written.‏ 21 _ 

From which examples we see that the tenses of the verbs 
are formed merely by combinations of the words given above 
(p. 14). The construction with the agent in فى‎ ne will be ex- 
plained further on. 

By adding the adverbial particle هی‎ or the termination ی‎ 7 
the word becomes emphatic, as ہی‎ 7 (ol ist), “ this very ;” 
so هوتا‎ hota, “being,” in its inflected form of هونی‎ hote, be- 
comes, with the addition of هوتى هی ,هی‎ hote hi="In the 
condition of one actually being,” ۰ “Just as he was doing or 
becoming something: ” 6. دیکهتا‎ dekh-ta, “seeing,” ديكهتى هی‎ 
dekh-te hi, “‘ At the very moment of his seeing.” 

The Hindustani language is very dramatic, never employing 
the indirect narration, and the speaker is always as it. were 
pointing to what he is talking about. So when it is required 
to express a hypothesis and its consequence, it is sufficient to 
mention the two things and place them as it were side by side: 
thus Vile تو جو 7 أيسا كرتا تو میں‎ wuh aisa karta to main jata, 
“ 1+ he were to do so I would go,” dit. ““If he so doing then I 
going.’ Hence the use of the present participle, e.g. كرتا‎ karta, 

as a conditional tense. 

۲837011۲۸۴ ۰ 17 

111710 ۳۸۲ VERBS. 

Of course some verbs will not at first sight appear to form 
their different parts exactly after this rule, and are therefore 
called Irregular. As a matter of fact any apparent irregularity 
is only due to necessary euphonic change. For example: کر نا‎ 
70۶۸3, ‘to do,” makes گیا‎ syd in the past, and سرنا‎ marnda, 
“to die,” makes سوأ‎ mu-d. This arises from the fact that’ the 
original root contained the old vowel-consonant را‎ and 588 2 
(compare the English “‘oreate’”), this being hard to pronounce, 
becomes resolved either into ar or 2: now گرا‎ kara (though 
it does occur in poetry) is not easy to utter, and kind is harder 
still. We therefore get siya for the past, and karna for the 
infinitive, the y being introduced simply to facilitate the pro- 
nunciation. The cockney patois does precisely the same thing 
(cf. I-y-aint). 

In مرنا‎ marnd, ‘to die,” the root originally contained a 
vowel t (cf. سردن‎ murdan in Persian and mors in Latin), from 
which we get mu-d and mi-d=mu-w-d. Again هونا‎ hond, ‘to 
be,” makes Aiwa. Here a w is introduced for similar euphonic 

۲۸٥٥٢ 0 

The Passive Voice is of very rare occurrence in Hindistani و‎ 

some grammarians cyen aflirm that it does not exist. There 


are, however, plenty of words and expressions to make up for 
it; of. تمام‎ ce کہا‎ es بيب جلدی هو‎ 717 jaldi ho mujhse 
11076107 tamdam, “ May this story soon be finished by me,” ۰ 
“This story be from-me soon complete.” 

When the Passive must be used, 2.6. when an active verb has 
to be made passive, the past participle is used with the verb 
حانا‎ jana, “to go,” as مارنا‎ 1716116, ‘to beat,” مارا جانا‎ mara 
jana, “to be beaten.” With this usage we may compare the 
English “to get beaten,” “gct” being connected with “ go ;” 

۰ ۰ 20 
ef. American you get,” and our own امعم‎ 


To turn a neuter into an active, or an active into a causal, © 
is added to the 8002 : a second causal verb may be formed from 
this by adding 76 to the root. These are probably the roots of 
‘the verbs آنا‎ ana, “to come,” and iY lana=\} co “to bring,” 
introduced to give further motion to the previously neuter or 
inactive verb. a 

Compound Worps, 

Hindistani is very rich in Compound Words. Nouns of this 
kind are for the most part borrowed from the Persian, and 
these are so like English in their arrangement that they can 
cause no trouble to the learner. 

The types most in use are exactly analogous to such English 

4 ۰ (a3 
compounds as tinder-box,”’ block-head,” ‘“yosy-cheeks,” etc. 


The Compound Verbs are rather more difficult to explain, but 

they range themselves readily under three heads. 

1. Those where the root alone is used, as expressing mere 
action, and is subsequently further defined or qualified by 
another verb expressing the secondary condition of the person 

of whom the action is predicated. 

2. Where the present participle, ¢.g. كرثا‎ karta, “one doing,” 
is used, expressing the condition of the individual. The idea. 
may be subsequently expanded, and a secondary predication 

made of his state with regard to time and place. 

3. Those in which the past participle, as گیا‎ syd, is used to 
express a complete action, and a further statement is added of 
the condition of the person with reference to such action. 

The first belongs te those verbs which are generally called 
1. Intensives, 2. Potentials, 3. Completives, of which the fol- 
lowing are examples : 

1. تر پی جانا‎ jand, to drink up (to go through it—get 

it over). 
کها جانا‎ kha sand, to eat up. 
ہو 4 اٹھنا‎ bol uthna, to speak up (speaking—to stand up). 
کاٹ ڈالنا‎ zat 9672, to cut up (cutting—to use violent 
action). - - 
lity گر‎ gir parna, to fall down (falling—to lie down), 

yo کھو‎ kho dend, to squander away (losing—to give). 



2. Any verbal root with 
مُگنا‎ sakna, to be able. 
كها سکنا‎ kha saknd, to be able to eat. 
8. Any verbal root with چکنا‎ chukna, ما‎ finish.” 

Note that in these compounds the root is unaltered, and the 
second member of the compound only is conjugated ر*‎ if this is 
transitive it will take me in the past, but not otherwise (see 
Syntax); eg. شیر کو مار دالا‎ eal us ne sher-ko mar dala, ۳ he 
slew the lion,” because we say اسنے الا‎ : but LS كو كها‎ uy وڈ‎ 
wuh roti-ko kha gaya, because we say گیا‎ Be. 

To the second class belong—1. Continuatives, and 2. so-called 
Statistical verbs. 

The only real compounds of this kind are those formed with 
the present participle in its adverbial (¢.e. masculine inflected) 
form, ہیں‎ men, “in,” being understood; as 

2G balte jana, to go on chattering‏ جانا 
raked, to keep on reading.‏ 06 بڑھنے رہ هنا 

The so-called statisticals and other continuatives are simply 
sentences where the present participle occurs, and must be 
inflected to express number and gender; as 

wuh hansta jata hai, he—a laughing man—‏ وک هنستا حاتا هى 

goes on. 

wis Sy wuh gatt ati hat, she—a singing woman‏ آی هى 

comes on, 

To the third class belong—1. Frequentatives, 2. Desiderae 


tives; i.e. we have only to remember that the past participle 
with کر نا‎ karna and حاهنا‎ 07/616 means to “keep on doing a 
thing,” or to ‘desire to do it,” and that such compounds are 
considered as intransitive. 

Another class of compounds is formed with inflected infini- 
tives; as كنا‎ ee كر‎ karne lagna, “to begin to do.” LS lagna 
means ‘ to apply oneself,” and the whole expression is equiva- 
lent to کر نے (كو با مين ) لکنا‎ harne ko or men lagna, ما‎ apply 
oneself to doing.” Similarly UL كرك‎ and کر( نے دینا‎ harne 8 
and harne dena, ‘‘to give or get leave to do.” 

The repetition of a root will also imply continuation or fre- 
quency; as 1 سوچ سوچ‎ soch soch kar, “having reflected :” or 
two different roots may be so used; as ہو 5 حال‎ bol chal, مع“‎ 

on talking together.” 

In Accidence we found how each word was capable of certain 
modifications to express the accidents of person, number, gender, 
or time. 

We now come to Syntax, which, as its name implies, is the 
putting together of these individual words, or groups of words, 
to express one complete idea. 

The Accidence being known, all that we require further is to 
learn the usage of the language in this syntactical arrangement. 

This depends first upon the natural order in which ideas occur. 

vel كام‎ 


Secondly, upon tho history, traditions, habits, and disposition 
of the people using the ideas; 2.6. on the natural order modified 
by habits: in other words, idiom or peculiarity. 


Now, the complete expression of an idea is called a sentence, 
which in its simplest form is the mention of a person or thing 
and the telling something about him or it; e.g. 

Man is mortal. John went و‎ 
but if the verb is 22ھ772‎ 0.6. if, as its name implies, its action 
goes on to something else, we must have something else for it to 
go on to; ۰ John struck James. 

All that can possibly be added to this is: (1) something 
telling us about the state of John or James,—these are adjec- 
tives added to the person; (2) the manner of the striking,—these 
are adverbs added to the verb; (8) the manner in which, or the 
thing with which, it was done,—these are instruments; or 
(4) the time or place where and when it was done,—these are 

1 Tur Cases or Nouns. 

Now, for each of these cases the Hindistani has a “ case.” 

The simplest uninflected form expresses the subject of the 
history to be narrated. 

It may also be called the nominative, or case which names him. 

The Oriental and European grammatical systems not being 

precisely the same, the technical names of the cases borrowed 


CONSTRUCTION WITH نی‎ née AND كو‎ ۸0. 23 

from the latter are not always applicable to the former, and 
not unfrequently mislead the beginner. Three of these have 
a peculiar and distinctive use in Hindustani, and for them the 
٠ following nomenclature is suggested as more in accordance with 
the principles of Urdu grammar :— 


Old nomenclature. Examples. nomenclature. 

Nominative and Accusative ... مرك‎ . . Subjective. 

Dative and Accusative...... مرك کو‎ . . Objective. 

Lg ae سرد نے دا ری‎ . . Agent. 

In the remaining cases, as no additional clearness would be 
gained by a change of names, the old nomenclature is retained. 
The cases in — and کو‎ are the great stumbling-block to be- 

CoNSTRUCTION WITH نی‎ me AND کو‎ ko. 

In former grammatical analysis the agent was always trans- 
lated by the English preposition ‘‘by,” and the verb regarded 
as passive. “\eSao گُعا‎ Est a 07 “he saw a dog,’ or 
Literally, ‘by him a dog was seen’” (Forbes, .م‎ 103). In this 
view other grammars concur, assuming the verb to be passive 
and the construction identical with the Sanskrit, ۵0. : 

Sanskrit Kukkure-na paniyam ۰ 

Hindistani Hutte ne péni piyd. 

English By the dog water was drunk. 
However true this may be as an explanation. of the origin of 

the construction, it does not explain its present application. 

: ۱ 

The fact is that the Hindustani idiom makes a much nicer 
distinction of cases, and of the relation between the verb and 
the noun, than our own language, 

In intransitive verbs, and in all tenses of transitive verbs ex- 
cept those denoting a past or complete action, a state or condition 
is implied 7 still going on; as “he walks,” or دز“‎ walking,” 
“‘he strikes,” ete. The person affected by such condition, or iz 
whom it takes place, is properly put in the subjective case. 

In certain verbs, too, such as ‘‘to give,” which are said ‘‘tc 
govern two accusatives,” it is obvious that one of these so-called 
““ accusatives” is the subject of the gift, that is, the thing given, 
and the other the odject of it, that i is, the recipient of the gift, 
Here the Hindistani logically puts the first in the subjective case 
and the second in the olyective case. 

In the case of the past tense of a transitive verb we conceive 
of an action completed and passed; we wish, therefore, to know 
the agent concerned in such act.. Here the 700 کہ م00‎ 
us with an agent case. 

A complete past action, regarded as an impersonal action 
without intimate reference to a subject or object, is put in 
the uninflected form of the verb, 4.4. the masculine; thus, 
مرد کو مارا‎ 2 “he struck the man,” where نے‎ Gut is the 
agent, كو‎ J,» the object, and مارا‎ the impersonal, and therefore 

uninflected verb. 

But there are many verbs in which the subject of the action 

CONSTRUCTION WITH ی‎ 416 AND کو‎ ko. 95 

is more or less intimately connected with it in sense, as— 
اس - پرورش بائي‎ “he obtained nourishment,” where the 
action and its subject may be said to form but one idea, being 
equivalent to ‘was nourished.” 

The intimate relationship between the verb and noun ts only ex- 
pressed in Hindustani by making the former agree in gender and 
number with the latter. Where the intimate relationship 8 
not exist the other construction may be used. 

_ Nouns implying abstract ideas will most frequently stand in 
this relationship to the verb. : : 

In some cases the line between the subject and the object is 
less clearly drawn, and we may use either the one case or the 
other according as we regard the noun as intimately connected 
with the action of the verb, or otherwise. For example, we 
may say— 1 

us ne ok lomri‏ ا Spey Ls}‏ ديكهي 
dekhi. .‏ ۰ 2 
7 ته us ne‏ اس نے ایک لومي کو ديكها or‏ 
ko dekha.‏ یز 

He saw a fox.” 

in the first case, regarding the act of “seeing a fox” as one 
idea; in the second, dwelling mentally upon the act of “seeing” 
as complete in itself, but particularizing the object on which 
such action falls. In other words, the construction differs as 
we regard the noun from a subjective or objective point of 
view, and the Hindistini lauguage has a form appropriate to 

either idea; 

26 1 HINDUSTANI ۵۵۸ 

In this way کو‎ ko may be said to render the object definite 
in the sense of calling attention to its objective nature as distin- 
guished from the subject; but certainly not, as the grammars 
assert, in the sense of giving to the noun the force of the definite 
article. Indeed, both constructions are equally admissible with 
the word نو“ ايكث‎ an, one,” which makes the noun expressly 
indefinite, as in the example, and with the demonstrative وه‎ or 
or 43, which render it beyond all question definite. In such 
2ھ‎ the grammars fall back upon the illogical and feeble ex- 
planation, that the use of کو‎ is “‘more elegant” in one case 
than in another ! 

By bearing in mind that the so-called nominative or unin- 
flected form of the noun is always subjective, that the case in 
= is only used for the agent, and that the case in کو‎ always 
points to a distinctly objective state of the noun, the student 
will avoid an error of idiom into which experience has shown 
that most beginners fall. 

It only remains to be said that the genitive or dependant 
particle كا‎ 56 agrees with the word that follows it in gender, 
number, and in being inflected or not; as سرا د کا‎ mard ka, “of 
the man.” 

mard ka larka, The man’s son.‏ مرك کا لڑکا 
mard ke larke ka, Of the man’s son.‏ درك ای لی کا 
mard ki jort, The man’s wife.‏ مرد es‏ جورو 

hese broad principles can never be departed from, and the 

0296 59-5 7 5 ~ 
4 ور‎ ١ 

CONSTRUCTION WITH Cs née AND کو‎ ko. 227 

sentence must contain the words with the necessary inflections 
for marking the cases, the gender, and the number. 

The order of ideas in Hindistani is as follows: Subject— 
Object—Verb, or Agent—Subject—Verb : the latter, as it were, 
locking the whole up into a compact frame. 

The rules given in grammars for the concord of words then 
are, after all, nothing but—1. Reminders that we are to use 
these modifying inflections, and maintain this order of words; 
or 2. Attempts to reconcile any apparent deviation from them. — 

Bearing in mind these principles, and what was said in the 
Accidence as to the exact meaning of the individyal words 
which combined form the tense of a verb, etc., we can analyse 

grammatically any sentence in the Hindistani language. 




The Persian Alphabet is the same as that used for Hindistant 
(sce p. 1), except that it has none of the four-dotted letters, 
(dd 5 and }. ۱ 

The pronunciation is nearly the same in both languages, 

PPE وم کی عم‎ 4 Shes 1 
except that the long alif is, pronounced in Persian like aw in 


۰ ۰ ۰ 2 ۰ 7 لت یا ا‎ 
“awe,” instead of like 6 in father,” as in Hindistant. 

ألمب ر مد 0 00 

The Persians also frequently pronounce گت‎ gaf with a slight 


, ~~ و‎ sound, like the Cockney mode of pronouncing the و‎ in garden, 

: oe When it occurs between two vowels it is often 

sounded like y, as 4 , pronounced like ۰ 
1 7 y 


: م رج‎ In old Persian, and in the language as spoken in India at the 

>. 2 & present day, the long و‎ and ی‎ have two sounds, 7 and 2, called 


11 معررف ح‎ marif, ‘known,’ and o and é, called م1( *عهول‎ 

The modern native of Iran does not employ the‏ ماه هب 
‘I 72 latter sounds.‏ 

Tur Parts or SPEECH. 


2 ۳۸ 

Like other languages, Persian contains three parts of speech, 


~ namely, Nouns, Verbs, and Particles. 


NOUNS. 29 

_ It is useful to bear in mind the meaning of these words, 
. The Noun is the name of a thing (nomen); the Verb is the 
action word; and the Particle is a useful word not requiring to 
be defined by inflection or conjugation, but itself used to define, 
qualify, or restrict other words. 

Old Persian—or rather Zend—had a very elaborate gram- 
matical system. This has disappeared, and we have the rela- 
tions of words to each other expressed in modern Persian with 

a simplicity equalled only by our own English. 


Cases or ۰ 

The only case-ending for Nouns which has survived is رأ‎ for 
the objeotine( dans ہ سك‎ widereel). J alee means Yor. ملو‎ 4: 
- The other relations which the case-ending of other languages 
imply are expressed by the ¢zafat, and by the use of such pre- 
positions as ~ ba, “to,” با‎ ba, “with,” از‎ a3, “from,” بر‎ bar, 
““apon,” دار‎ dar, in? ete. 

720/1 implies the relation of one person or thing to another, 
as genitive and dependent, or substantive and adjective. 

Of the application of ۸22/26 and the use of the objective case 
1 shall speak when 1 come to treat of the Syntax. 

The Vocative is formed by prefixing ای‎ ai, as at mard, 0 
man!” or (poetical) by affixing | 4, as 02/8, 0۵ ۳ 

The language has no نیت‎ but a common noun is تور‎ 


to unity, expressing one (specified or not) of the species and no 
more, by adding .ي‎ When this is the ل‎ et بای‎ yd-e mahal 
(see p. 28) it makes the word indefinite, whether it be a noun 
or a verb. 

Nouns SvusstantrvE AND ADJECILVE. 

All nouns are conerete, that is, substantive. 

A noun only exercises the functions of an adjective by being 
used in a subservient manner as qualifying another word; e.g. 
مرك خوب‎ mard 4 khib, و“‎ good man,” not as in English (where 
good is abstract and meaningless without the substantive being 
expressed), but ““a man (I mean) a good one:” hence we can 
use a so-called “adjective” as a substantive, as خوبى‎ khibi, ‘a 
good (man),” رده‎ murda, ‘a dead (man),”’ whereas in English 
to say و“‎ good,” “a dead,” is nonsense. There is, in fact, no 
such thing as an adjective, though one substantive may be used 
to qualify another. 

The Plural is formed by affixing 
أن عه‎ an for rational 
and ها‎ ha for اف 7ت‎ 
18 سرد أن‎ mardan, men,” سنگها‎ sangha, ‘‘ م0‎ 
‘When the word ends in silent s ۸ an euphonic گت‎ is inserted ; 
as بنده‎ banda, ۵ slave,” پندگای‎ bandagan, ‘‘slaves.” If it end 
in | 2, an euphonic us y is. introduced; as دانا‎ dana, “ wise,” 
دأنايان‎ ۰ Lost) foot Lb but با پا‎ or lob, 
KX the > هرید‎ an انوھ‎ > : 
موی‎ parting Way ۲ی سس تس و سب‎ 

31 ۲ 
ماهيان يفن > .مه تال وماه ال وت ی be‏ : معلسى م۶[ 

whey‏ مسرا 


to px‏ مس 

يت 9 مموممہ 

Persian ورس سم‎ so much from Arabic has adopted many 
plurals from that language. 3 at the end of a word, representing 
the Arabic 3, often becomes ات‎ 24 in the plural, according to 
the Arabic usage. 

In “‘irrational” words derived from the Arabic Persians very 
frequently use the Arabic plural, but they insert a 7 for euphony 
in the case of the feminine plural in ات‎ at; as تلعہ‎ kala, “ 
fortress,” ۰ قلاع‎ 70160 or تلعیان‎ kalajat, “fortresses.” They 
even erroneously transfer this construction to purely Persian 
words ; as dive navishta, “a writing,” نوشاعیات‎ navishtajat, 
.. Writings ;” but this is دہ‎ done ia words ہس ما‎ an irra- 

hen the Arabic کر‎ in x 2 is یل 8 ا‎ im- 

_, onal being or ting, oe! 8< Pe ry ee ae b's ا سر کو‎ 

plying a rational object, as ر/ 0149/05 معشوق‎ “beloved,” 43 معشو‎ 
miashikah, “a mistress,” it becomes 21, and not jat. 
In colloquial Persian هأ‎ 76 is used as the plural for nearly 

all words, rational and irrational alike. 


In some words the Arabic dual form is borrowed; as طرف‎ 
tarf, “a side,” طرفیّن‎ tarfain, “the two sides” or “parties :”* this 
always ends in (3 ain. ١ 


From a grammatical point of view the Persian language has 

1 The irregular or ‘‘broken” Arabic plurals are treated of in the Arabic 
section of this work. gon these “Hr عالت _ صبه مشیم‎ 0 

ean المع‎ plant تسس‎ ٠ 

زو از ز 



no gender: Of such words as پدر‎ pader, ‘‘ father,” ole mader, 
“‘mother,” the gender is self-evident; and in cases where it is 
necessary to make the distinction other additional words are 
used, such as ماده‎ mdda, “female,” ر‎ nar, “male ;” thus, 
ہو گاو ٹر‎ i nar, ‘a bull,” sole گاو‎ 0 4 mada, و“‎ 00۱۲۰ For 
human beings مرك‎ mard, man,” wy) 247, “woman,” are added; 
as پیر هرد‎ pir ¢ mard, “an old man,” زن‎ se pir 6 san, an 
old woman.” gv رن‎ ON, 

Sometimes different words are employed, as in English, to 
distinguish the sexes; as 3 غو‎ ghuch,  ۵ ram,” سیش‎ mish, “a 

” 5 2 A ۶ کو‎ 2 ” 
e” (but in literary Persian signifies ara ۰ 
ewe”? ) terary Persian میمش‎ sign 2 2 اسب‎ 

1 ” 2 ل (peers‏ وو 2 چا 
khuris,‏ کر یس madiyan, a mare;”‏ مادیان “asp, a horse,‏ علمم 

“٤ ; عج گی و‎ 
a cock,” ماکان‎ makiyan, “a hen.” 


The Personal Pronouns are : 
wre man, I, pl. ema, we. 
تو‎ tu, thou, ,, Was shumd, you. 
بھ أو‎ he, اوشان ,ىر‎ ashan, they (those). 
,«ة ایں‎ this, ,, اپشان‎ ishan, they (these). 
The only thing to notice in من‎ man and تو‎ tu is that in the 
objective case they become مر‎ 715765 (for man+ra), ترا‎ turd 
(for tai+ra), the nasal ., and the long vowel both becoming 

in ایں‎ in and أو‎ a, and their plurais, we notice the same 


بر كار alow‏ 





principle as in Hindistani, namely, that 7 or y expresses near 
relation, and u or w expresses remote relation. 

onl in, ‘‘ this,” and ei an, “that,” make ایشان‎ 751,21 and 
اوشان‎ ashan in the plural for rational beings: but they sometimes 
foim the plural quite regularly, as 7 \ متیر‎ and انان‎ 8167 for 
rational, and أينها‎ inka and انتا‎ dnha for irrational beings. 

Note.—c “to” or “by” takes an euphonic 4 before there 
pronouns; 28 بد ين‎ badin = ب أي‎ ba+in, “to this,” یدان‎ 00061 < 
۳  ba--an, ““to that.” 

The plural forms are not required for nouns which merely 
qualify a plural noun, since the plural termination of the noun 
itself sufficiently explains it; as هر 0 خوب‎ mardan © khi, 
““ ۵0ج‎ men.”? 


The pronouns sometimes take an affixed form, as follows: 
eam, abbreviated from ری‎ man, ‘me or mine.” 
ٹ‎ al, 2 af تو‎ ta, “thou or thine.” 
ش‌‎ ash, “him or his.” 
A ش‌‎ seems to have once belonged to the pronouns, as we may 
see from the plurals شما ,51,511 اوشارنْ‎ shiimd, ete. 
These affixes are only used of rational beings, and have the 
usual plural termination in 2 dn, though the final nasal n is 
dispensed with in the first person; thus, 
ہا‎ md, “us or our.” 
aes itan, “you or yours.” 
شان‎ shan, “them or theirs.” 


Inrerrocatrve Pronouns. 

As in Hindistani, the sound كت‎ 7 asks a question relative 16 
rational beings; as رت ى‎ “who?” and the corresponding soft 
sound» asks a question relative to irrational things; as > chi, 
“what?” These, with other words which have become absorbed 
or amalgamated in the form, make up the remaining interroga- 
tives; e.g. کدام‎ “which?” (of two), the 2 being a survival of 
دو‎ di, *“two 3”? جگونہ‎ chigina, “how?” (for کہ‎ chi, “what 2” 
and و‎ gin, “phase, colour, sort,””) and چون‎ chin, “how ? like 
what?” (the گی‎ having a tendency to disappear between two 
vowels); جند‎ chand, “how many” (=> chi, ““what??-++a5\ and, 
““some”?) 4 اندكثت‎ andak, و‎ little”); 7 kai, “when?” ete. 

3 ae: سس‎ Pronouns, 

These are formed by adding the personal pronouns خوك‎ khud, 

“self,” ete.; as 
مس خود‎ man khud, I myself. 
تو خود‎ 18 khud, Thou thyself, etc. 

The affixed forms may also be used with خوں‎ khud; as 
خودم‎ ols در‎ dar khina-i-khudam, In my own house. 
From خودش‎ khudash, ‘““his-self,”” we get خويش‎ 7 eS his 
own self, his-self”) and رده خویشتی‎ “himself.” In the - 

=e pee 08 4 
last the word ,,,3 signifies ۳ 00۳۸ or ‘‘ person.” 
wr 5 3 0 

ExaMPLys oF THE 218501483 
The following examples are useful as showing the various 

uses and combinations of the pronouns: 

pisr ¢ fulanam, I, so-and-so, the‏ تا man ki‏ من 5 فلار ي سر فانم 
son of so-and-so.‏ 

رک سور of wil:‏ ۱۳ ہی 


man ki pisaram raft, 1 whose son went.‏ سی ٦‏ يسرم رت 
taki pisarat raft, Thou whose son went.‏ ثو 5 پسرٹ رفك 
ki pisarash raft, He ۲۳۲۵8۵ son went.‏ 11 أو S‏ دسرش رفت 
ki may be compared the gui of European languages.‏ کہ With‏ 
It serves for all relatives, but may be defined by other words, as‏ 

in the above examples. 

The comparative is formed by adding تم ع‎ tar, and the superla- 
tive by adding ترس‎ 124720. A single example will impress this 
on the reader’s mind : 

bih, good, 2% bih-ter, better,  نيرتهب bih-tarin, best.‏ به 

Sometimes the Arabic comparative form أفعل‎ afal is used in 
Persian. Of this I shall speak further on, when treating of 

Arabic grammar. 

The numerical figures are the same as in Hindistini (see p. 9). 

The numerals in Persian are: 

1 یکت‎ yak 11 بازده‎ yasdah | 

)410104623447 دوازده 12 da‏ دو 2 

8 bus sth 13 سی 30 515707 سيزدهة‎ 7 

4 جہاردہ 4 | 67016۲ چہار‎ chahardah | 0 جببل‎ 01111 
5 a pany 15 بانزده‎ pansdah 50 باجاه‎ panjah 
6 شش‎ shash 16 شأنزده‎ shdnadah | 60 شعست‎ 6 
7 ww haft 17 scan haftdah 70 ھفتاد‎ 28 
8 هشت‎ hasht | 18 هشتده‎ hashidah | 80 هشناده‎ 0 
9 a muh 19۰ 3d نوأ زد‎ navasdak | 90 نود‎ nuvad 
10 sd dah 20 بیست‎ bist 100 ۰ صد‎ sad 

1000 هزار‎ hazar. 



They are quite regularly compounded, as follows: 

ES, بیست و‎ bist 7 yak (20 and 1) 1 
يكث هزار و هشت صد و هشتاد ويكث‎ yak hasar a hasht 
sad 8 hashtad 8 yak, One thousand eight hundred and eighty 

and one, 1881. 

The ordinals are made by affixing م‎ 1/10 as 

chahdrum, 4tk:‏ حبباره م yakum, 1st‏ يكم 
duvum, 2nd est panjum,  dth,‏ دوم 
oe sivum, 0 and so on.‏ 

For ‘‘first”? the word "عخستین‎ nukhustin, or the Arabic اول‎ 
awwal, may be used. 

The numerals take the noun in the singular; as دو مرك‎ da 
mard, ““tywo men.” 

We say in English “two head of cattle,” and so on. The 
Persians have several such qualifying words for various objects 

when used with numerals. The principal are the following: 

Persons, نفر‎ nafar, individuals, به نفر دوست‎ pang nafar 
dist, 5 friends. 
Horses, cattle, رأس‎ ras, head, دوراس اسب‎ di ras asp, 
ete. 2 horses. 

Camels, قطار‎ katar, 
tring, | 
ee mahar, 77 

Elephant, زیر‎ 20107, chain, حبار زاجیر فیل‎ chahar sane 
Jir fil, 4 elephants, 

dus 8th katar‏ قطار شتر 

shutur, 8 camels. 

THD ۰ 37 

Jewels ع‎ fruit, دانه‎ danah, grain, ,۵ هشت دانه‎ haft dana 
durr, 7 pearls. 

hasht dana‏ هشت دانه سيب 
seib, 8 apples.‏ 

In colloquial Persian the word تا‎ 26 is used as a determina- 
tive for most objects; as حبار تا كتاب‎ chahar ta kitab, 4 books. 
(The word “‘piecee,” as “one piecee man,” in Chinese Pigeon 
English, is a relic of the same use of qualificative or determining 
Ab? ae جدد‎ fr KV GA 


The Persian Verb also consists of a root in combination with 


various participial affixes and the auxiliary verb “To be,” of 

which the simplest form is the affixed substantive verb (see p. 14). 

(we) are.‏ 20 یم am,‏ )1( م 
(ye) are.‏ ,30 بد (thou) art,‏ ہت ری 
and, (they) are,‏ اند ad, (he) is,?‏ د 

Tenses OF THE VERB. 

The root expresses mere action, as رس‎ ras, “arriving,” hence 
ete 2 yastam, “‘T arriving,” ust رد‎ ras+i, “thou arriving,” 
رس(‎ ۲68-6 “he arriving,” ہماہ‎ is the simplest tense, or 
aorist, which must be further defined by context or by particles. 
The prefix می‎ ۶ (or the older form همی‎ hami) does so define 
it, and gives it a present meaning; as ہی رسم‎ mi rasam, 7 

am arriving,” etc. 

1 ‘When this is used separately it takes the more regular form تب‎ 7 
”رؤز ؛*‎ as in Greek or Latin. 


. The Root, as the shortest form of the verb, is also used as an 
imperative, as س‎ vy a8, “arrive.” The prohibitive is made by 
۳۳ ve A 1114, 88 ہرس‎ 1110-05 “do not arrive,” کرو‎ Hindistant 
سبك‎ mat. ) (p. 15). مه = لر سن. بسه سمل / شا س بر‎ 
Then comes an affix expressing past action,. which is, as in 
English, generally a d or ¢ sound, as “made,” “past.” 
Tn Persian this is, 10 most cases, 0208232 by a vowel, as 
رید‎ rast+2-+d, “ arrived.” 
شنود‎ shin-+i-d, “heard.” 
أستاد‎ dst-+-a+d, “stood.” 
The first, or 7 sound, being the most common. Sometimes the 
د‎ 7 becomes فك‎ 2: as خواستن‎ kh’ رصاوت‎ “to wish.” 1۶ to the 
“stem” thus formed we add ن‎ We obtain the infinitive; as سید‎ 3 
rasidan, “to arrive.” This, further combined with the simple 
tense in رد وكا «م‎ etc., makes the preterite رسيدم‎ 2 
** 1 arrived,” 0ط“ ,۲8708 رسیدی‎ didst arrive,” ete. But the 
affix ری‎ as we have seen above (p. es makes any word indefinite. 
“We therefore get again ۱ 
رسید هی‎ rasidami, “ aid’ Tar. رسيد يمى‎ rasidimt, “did we are 
tive,” or ““were I to arrive,” rive.” ۱ 
رسیدی+ی - رسیدی‎ rasidi, رد سیدیذی‎ ۸ “did ye ar- 
““didst thou arrive,” ۱۳ 
رسیدی‎ ۲3745 “did he ar- رد سیدندی‎ rasidandi, 5 aid they 

ا رو ۱ 4 ۱ rive,”‏ 

ےہ .۰ 0 ہس ٦‏ "ھ8 اوه ھچ نے ےه > رر “ee‏ ہے۔ ۴ یت 
Pc 5 1‏ 
: ل 



87 adding a-short a 5 to the past form the same idea is ex- 
pressed with a sense of incompleteness. Thus, in English one 
says, I am going—eh—to,” etc., the hesitating ‘oh? suggesting 
something to come. This form, 6.0. رسيدة‎ rasida, signifies 
“having arrived,” and is used with those tenses which are 
formed from auxiliary verbs, without which the sense would 
be incomplete; as 

T have arrived. .-‏ و2570 رد سید أم 
rasida+2, Thou hast arrived.‏ رسیدہ 
rastdatast, He has arrived,‏ رسیده است 
and so on.‏ 
Vers “To Bu.”‏ یووم Tur‏ 

We must now speak more fully of the Auxiliary Verb “4 7 
be,” بو (دن)‎ 22 (dan), 2 (ing),” both being derived from the 
Sanserit Bhuv. Declining this as far as we can with the affixes 
given above, etc., we get 

Present نوم‎ biiwam, I may be. 

sy) 008, thou mayest be, ete. 

buwad, he may be‏ بود 

Past بُوں‎ bad, he was, etc. 

3) dada, having been. 

again, by combination with the tenses of another verb, . ۱ 
رسیدڈ بودم‎ rasida badam, one come I was, ۰ء‎ 
estoy رسیده‎ rasida ۸440007, were I one come. 

and so on, 


bash. This 1 shall‏ باش badan makes its imperative‏ بودن 

explain when speaking further on of the “irregular” forms of 

the verb: for the present we must assume all the forms to be. 


Then by the rules given above we get باشم‎ basham, “I may 
be,” and رسید كا باشم‎ rasida basham, 1 may have been.” 

With the verb خو استن‎ kh’ dstan,* “to shall,” as an auxiliary, 
the same combination may be made as in English to express the 
future ; 0.7. خواهم رسید‎ kh’ Gham ge I shall azrive. و‎ 

There is another auxiliary, eas سے‎ root gm shav, و‎ 
become.” This often has the sense of “to go,” and is employed 
to form the passive of an active verb, being analogous in this 
respect to the Hindistani جانا‎ jana and the English “get” 
(see p. 18). 

4 رسمدن shudan may be inflected throughout like‏ شدن 
or any cther verb, and the tenses thus obtained may be com-‏ 
Lined with those of another verb to make the various tenses‏ 
of the passive.‏ 

If, then, we know the root and the past form or stem of any 
verb we can, with the assistance of the auxiliary verbs, form 
any tense we may desire ؛‎ in other words, conjugate it through- 

out; ۰ 
be ہے‎ 6٤ ۰ 
رس‎ ras, arriving.” “arrival.” 

rasam, 1+ arriving.‏ رسم 

1 Note that و‎ between = kh and | @ is not pronounced: 
2 8 7 



thou arriving. ‘‏ ,1482 رسی 
yasad, he arriving, ctv.‏ رسد 
rasam, I am arriving.‏ 1811 می رسم 
وو“ rasid,‏ رسيث 
rasidam, I arrived.‏ رسیدم 
mi rasidam, I was arriving.‏ سی ردیدم 
yasida, having arrived.‏ رسید: 
rasida am, I have arrived.‏ رسیدۂ ام 
rasida badam, I had arrived.‏ رسيدة بودم 
rastdan, ““to arrive.”‏ رسیدن 
rasida basham, I may have arrived, etc.‏ رسیث ‏ باشم 
kW’ cham rastd, I shall arrive.‏ خوا أهم رسيد 
‘to do,”‏ ,1:41 كردن And in the case of an active verb, as‏ 
we may further combine it with yds shudan; as‏ 
shudan, to be done.‏ 10۲06 گرده شدن 
sas karda shavam, I am done.‏ شوم 
karda mi shavam, I am being done,‏ كردة مى شوم 
karda shudam, I was done.‏ گرده شدم 
karda shuda bidam, I had been done.‏ کرد ش دک بودم 
shud, I shall be done.‏ مت 32 70200 کرده خوا اهم شد 
and so on.‏ 
én affixed to root = “doine,”‏ آن Other parts of the verb are‏ 
anda affixed to root expressirg -‏ أندة ”; as why rasan, “ arriving‏ 
the agent, as sinus, rasanda, “fan arriver.” With the latter‏ 

compare the Italian affix -ante, having the same meaning. 


گی ae‏ ا ا he‏ 
یی ا اک a‏ لحن 
we‏ سو 1 
دا MO‏ 
y‏ و 


By prefixing بے‎ ba, “to” (sce p. 29), wo get برست‎ ba rasad, 
“he is to arrive,” 2.0. 1۵0 him arrive,” and so on for the other 
persons of the imperative. This prefix is also used for the ۱ 
“‘sorist” or indefinite tenses. 

Causal verbs are made by inserting ay dn between the root 
and the infinitive termination, as رسیدن‎ rastdan, “to arrive,’ 

۰ res تک‎ 1 
رد سا نيدن‎ rasanidan, to cause to arrive.” 

Provetic Laws in Pexsran. 

As in all other languages, certain words in Persian do not 
appear to follow the ordinary rules of accidence, and. are there- 
fore called irregular. It will be always found in such cases 
‘that the apparent anomaly is due to some euphonic change (see 
Deis), oe either from a desire to avoid an awkward com- 
bination of consonants, or to facil-iate pronunciation; or else 
from the survival in some forms of older radical letters which 
have for similar reasvns disappeared in others. 

In Persian both these causes act together, and many con- 
sonants ate found in the root verbs which differ from those of 
the stem. To account for these we need only notice a few 
philological facts relative to euphonic changes which exist in 
Persian.’ An acquaintance with these will not only enable the 

1 Professor Charles Ricu, of the British Museum, has given an admirable 

exposition of these laws in a:pamphlet published by the Philological Society, 
entitled “ Remarks on some Phonetic Laws in Persian,” to which I am much 

indebted for this part of my. subject... . 


student to inflect so-called “irregular verbs,” but to recognise 
many common European ee in their Persian form, They 
may be briefly stated as follows:—The Old Persian 3 (pro- 
nounced like ۸2 in there”) frequently becomes in Modern 
Persian :رف‎ of. the Russian Feodore for Theodore. Sk and 
ب‎ p before ¢ become ¢ kh and اف‎ 

The two sounds of بط‎ namely, & and ch (as in “kirk”? and 
“church”), account for many irregularities, thus:—% passes 
to ch, thence tos. ۸ and رو‎ d and ¢, p and ۸, are common and 
more obvious changes. ۱ 

p is especially liable to be changed into f when followed 
by r, as Sanscrit pra, Latin pro, Persian فر‎ far; as Sanscrit 
preshita, “sent,” Persian فر شته‎ frishta, “an angel.” 

Sanscrit 38, which becomes f in Latin and ¢ in Greek, be- 
comes simple 4 in Persian; as Sanscrit و“ و1‎ brow,” Greck 
opps, Persian أن رو‎ abri. Sanscrit dha, “to be,” Latin fuit, 
Persian بودن‎ 01-۰ 

Sometimes the old Aryan root had an aspirated 0 (dh); this 
becomes either 7 without the aspirate, or 4 without the 4: of 
wold dadan, “ 0 give,” داد‎ dad, “he od ده‎ dih, “ give.” 

~The old 1 also changes to و‎ before ¢ or 0 of the past; as dv 
band, “pind,” past بست‎ bast for bandt (the nasal being lost). 
Cf. Latin comedo, comestum. 1 : 

“The old Aryan 0 or dh is sometimes softened away to y, as 

foot,” but the-s into which it‏ و“ pay (Sanscrit pada),‏ بای 



changes remains, as شری‎ shay (Sanscrit gudh), “ wash,” past 
شست‎ shust = shudht. 

۶ and 7 interchange indiscriminately. Another change which 
is exactly paralleled in European languages exists in Persian, 
namely, w or و۵‎ into gu, or simply رو‎ as Arabic Wady el kebir, 
Spanish Guadalquiviy; Latin vulpilla, French goupil. So in 
Persian we have from the Sanscrit vrka, “a wolf,” Zend vereka, 
the Modern Persian gurg. Vistaspa (Darius Hystaspes), Modern 
Persian Gushtasp. Sanscrit ort, و‎ turn” or “become,” Latin 
vert, German werden, Persian gard. 

when preceded in Sanscrit‏ مر also occasionally hardens into‏ ہ 
asp, ‘‘a horse.”‏ أسب as Latin eqguus, Sanscrit agva, Persian‏ رو by‏ 

The changes of the sibilant are somewhat extraordinary at 
first sight: thus ¢, in the instance above given, is equal to 0-3 

Sometimes this becomes /, sometimes ره‎ and sometimes simply h 

(of. 0. 14); ۰ 

Sanscrit. Hindustani. Greek. Persian. 
daga (10) . das © déxa deh. 
sapta (7) sat "606 haft. 

As the Sanscrit.s becomes 7 in Persian, so, vice versd, h often 

becomes 5: Sanscrit sahasra (1000), Persian هزار:‎ hazar for ۰ 
۰ ۰ «2 ۰ 0 4 ۰ ۰ 

Cf. Sanscrit hima, snow,” Persian semistan, winter,” Latin 

hiems, Slavonic sima. J also becomes 2: as 
Sanscrit. Persian. Greek, 

5 ٤ور‏ رہ 
jata, born,” zdda‏ 

وت “sg‏ رر اہ 
jana, a woman,” 20 yun". ~‏ 

ات شک 



Irreeutar ۷8+ 
In studying the so-called Irregular Verbs, we have only to 

keep the above principles in view, remembering chiefly that 

1 b ١ 
oe | hooome fat OF 
و ب‎ 

2 س‎ 5 becomes ۰ 


sel | become ( م‎ or 8 
نے‎ ec رین‎ 
و“ كردن‎ do’ has كن‎ for its root; the Zend or Vedic form 

was keren, and for the same reasons as those already stated in 
the case of the Hindistini verb bs (see p. 7) the form گت‎ kar 
became used for the past and ws kun for the present forms. 
In ود‎ adan the و‎ 8 becomes | 6 in the stem; as 
خشودن‎ bakhshiidan ) (حفشيد ن‎ , to bestow, فشا‎ ۰ 
ازمودن‎ 1110410, to try, 

6۰ آزسا 

۰ کشا kushadan, to open,‏ کشودن 

۰ نما numidan, to show,‏ نمودنی 
۰ با to rob,‏ ,20016 ربودان 

Where the ۲ is a root letter ++ is retained, but as a con- 
sonant 9 ۰ 

0۰ شئو shinudan, to hear,‏ شنودن 
shav.‏ شور shudan= 94 5118:0010, to become,‏ شدن 
idan and the 7 is part of the‏ یدن When the infinitive ends in‏ 
as‏ ون root the stem is strengthened by adding a nasal‏ 
Gfrin.‏ آفربن to create,‏ ,626 آفرد بدن 
o> chidan, to collect, jas chin.‏ 


ups khtan becomes ز‎ 8 (see 8, p. 45), especially after a long 
vowel : Be ae ۱ 
أفراحمتن‎ afrakhtan, to exalt, — ,8ئ0۳ افراز‎ 
أموخةن‎ amikhtan, to learn, أسوز‎ 8. 
and sometimes it changes into Cw s or uw sh (see 3, p. 45) 3 
شناختن‎ shanakhtan, to know, شناس‎ 06. 

firakhtan, to sell,‏ فروخنن 

۰ فروش 
(see 1, p. 45)‏ 0 و or‏ 7 نب tan in some instances becomes‏ فتن 
tad.‏ تاب taftan, to burn,‏ تافتں 

,0 آشو — ashuftan,‏ آشفتن 

wy raftan, to go, رو‎ 
مت ,0.5101 استن‎ tistan (ustan), and پسشی‎ 18101 become T a, 
ى‎ 7, and و‎ 8 respectively: 

ara.‏ آر arastan, to adorn,‏ آراستن 

۰ زى to live,‏ ,22۵/0 زیستن 
.تار جو yam justan (jistan), to seck,‏ 
as‏ 205 بن or‏ ” ری Sometimes uy stan become‏ 
shikan.‏ شكن shikastan, to break,‏ شکتن 
۰ شین nishastan, to sit,‏ نشستن 
8 785 یس into‏ 48101 شتن Other anomalous changes are‏ 
۶ نوپس navishtan, to write,‏ ذوشتنى 
ar; as‏ ار dshtan into‏ اشتن 
dar.‏ دار dashtan, to have,‏ داشتن 

ankar.‏ انکار ankdshtan, to think,‏ انکاشتن 


There are a few others which practice and the vocabularies‏ ٭ْ 
will teach, but the phonetic rules given on p. 45 will be found‏ 
to cover most of the cases met with.‏ 

In some instances the infinitive and the stem belong to dif- 
ferent verbs, just as in Fnglish “go” and “went” come from 
different radical forms: 

bash.‏ باش badan, to be,‏ بودن 
.و بیج ues) pikhtan, to twist,‏ 
رد سي sakhtan, to weigh,‏ سکن 
۰ کسل oes gustkhtan, to break,‏ 
bastan, to bind, dw band.‏ پستن 

Forms or Novns. 

These are very numerous and various, but although most 
may be left to practice and the vocabulary, some may be 
reduced to rule. 

Nouns are cither primitive, such as “man,” or derivative, 
such ‘as “manly.” The last are formed by adding certain 
terminations to the first, and as these terminations are generally 
in their turn derived from verbs, and have a signification of 
their own, a knowledge of them will greatly assist the learner. 
The principal are: 

1. أنه‎ ana ="‘like;” as 

manly.‏ ,1117416116 مردانه 
busurgana, grandly (like a grandec),‏ بزر رگانه 


2.) آو‎ dwar, و‎ awar, ار‎ Gr, all from root أو ردن‎ awardan, and 
signifying “ bringing,” “producing,” “displaying” ۸ھ)‎ English 
-er, -or), etc. 

dil-avar, brave (hearty).‏ دلاور 
strong.‏ ,801-6801 زور أور 
sukhan-var, eloquent.‏ سكن ور 
bar, ‘‘ bearing,” “abounding in.”‏ بار .3 
shakar-bar, sugar-laden.‏ شكرد بار 
zangi-bar, Zanzibar (full of negroes},‏ زنكبار 
van, “keeping,” “managing;” as‏ 37 ,0 ان .4 
shutur-ban, a camel-man.‏ شترد بان 
ple bagh-ban, a gardener.‏ 
pas-ban, a watchman.‏ پاسبان 
fam “colour ;” as‏ فام 
siyah-fam, blackish.‏ سياه فام 
dashtan :‏ داشتن tar, “having,” from‏ تار dar,‏ دار 7 
a deceiver.‏ ,177/11 فرد بفتار 
kharid-dar, a purchaser.‏ خرید دارع kharidar‏ خریدار 

خواست دار- 51-101 kh’‏ خواست = kh’ dstar‏ خواستار 

kh’ dst-dar, a petitioner. 
ديدار‎ didar ديد دار‎ did-dar, the visual faculty. 

6. wld dan, “place” or “vessel for;” as 
نمکدان‎ namak-dan, a salt-cellar. 
قلمدان‎ kalam-dan, a pen-case. 

سي چس نہیں تو Shalt‏ 
ا کن 


7. ,مه زار‎ ‘place abounding in:” 
Bras guizar, a rose-garden, 
8. Similarly سار‎ sdr; as 
كوهسار‎ 1:01/-561, a mountainous country. 
شاخسار‎ shakh-sar, a place abounding in branches, German 
: laube. 
سار‎ also signifies “‘like;” of. 
خا كسار‎ khak-sar, like dust (vile), 
9 ستان‎ stan, مه‎ as 
pees: gulistan, a rose-garden 

Hindustan, the land of Hindi (Hindistan).‏ هندوستان 

10. رش رهش‎ express the abstract idea of the root; as 
نكوهش‎ nikihish, goodness. 
دانش‎ danish, wisdom. 
آرایش‎ ardish, adornment. 
11. كت‎ ak expresses the diminutive of rational objects; as 
مردكث‎ mardak, a little man. 
A contemptuous form of diminutive is کہ‎ ka; as 
5 سرد‎ mardaka, a wretched little man. 
For irrational objects the ES iis changed into >, just 8 
in ک‎ ki and نجه‎ cht (see p. 34), ۰ 
بانچ‎ baziche, a little game. 
كفي‎ faf-che, a ladle (Wit. a little palm of the hand). 


gar, as gar, all express action or the actor,‏ كار kar,‏ کار 

and are connected with the verb ۰ ردن‎ 5: as 
جفاکار‎ jafa-kar, cruelty. 
دستگار‎ dast-gar, skill دست)‎ dast, a hand). 
جادوگر‎ jadi-gar, a conjurer, juggler. 
دک‎ 7 afridagar, a creator. 
۳ آ موز‎ amiz-gar, a teacher. 
کامگار‎ kdm-gar, successful, 
als gunah-gar, a sinner, guilty. 
54 ۱ توا‎ tawan-gar, rich (powerful). 
13. تا‎ gin, “affected with;” as 
غمگین‎ gham-gin, grieved. 
خشمكين‎ 2۸۸3707-21۸ angry. 
14. اخ‎ lakh, ۲ 
مت لاخ‎ sang- lakh, a strong place. 
15, رج مند‎ “possessor 08: a 
dae سود‎ ee profitable. 
dae دانش‎ danish-mand, wise. 
16. نالت‎ nak expresses quality ;” as 
هوا لناك‎ haul-nak, frightful, 
يرهيزناك»‎ parhiz-nak, abstinent. 
17. A final ی‎ 7 signifies “relation,” such as that implied in 
the English adjective; as 
هندی‎ 7077, Indian. 
انك ليزت‎ inglizt, English, 


After s this becomes Bat as 
بندۂ‎ banda, a slave. 
بند وی‎ bandagi, slavery. 
خانگی‎ khanagi, domestic (for لخاد ی‎ 
The final ی‎ 7, when it represents the yde majhil(e), see p. 28, 
signifies ‘‘ unity ;” as 
مردی‎ mardi, one @ man. 
18. تہ فى‎ signifies “duty,” “‘fitness;” ۰ 
کر ردنی‎ kardani, what is to be done (duty). 
خوردنی‎ 1۵8, good to eat (food). 

Sharidani, purchascable.‏ خریدنی 

Courounp Worps, 

Persian is very rich in compound words, and as has been 
before remarked (p. 18), the types most in use for Nouns are 
exactly analogous to such English compounds as “plock-head,” 
“‘tinder-box,” ““rosy-chceks,” and the like; eg. 

lala-rukh, tulip-cheeked.‏ لال رخ 
gul-andam, rose-bodied.‏ کل اندام 
saman-bar, jasmine-bosomed.‏ آسمن بر 

Others are made from two verbal roots; as “3 امد ور‎ 9 
raft, ‘coming and going ;” or two nouns joined by a preposition, 
AS سر ہسر‎ 8a" ba sar, “individually,” “altogether,” Jit. ۸ 

to head.” 


The Compound Verbs are very numerous, but are for the most 

part quite simple, the principal ones being the following: 
1. A noun followed by either oon kardan “‘to do,” شا كد‎ 

2 5 5 7 2: 5 
90/6 to make,” (jas 1718061, ما‎ display,” فرمودن‎ 

ing ۰ 
Jarmidan, to order,” and the like; as 
تاکز می‎ ality ور‎ jG = 
(pn Le) انتظار کردن‎ 1۸1/۷707 kardan (sakhtan), to 6, 
2 co 
5 karam numidan, to be gencrous. — 

wes eg 
نہضت فره‌ودن‎ nalzat farmadan, to start (on a march), 
said of a king, cte. 

2. A noun followed by آمدن‎ dmadan, “to come” (ef. Angl'cé 

become’’) : 
77ہ سير امدن‎ dmadan, to become satisfied. 

wel 3 pur amadan, to become full. 

padid dmadan, to become ۵‏ يديد امدن 

3. A noun followed by آوردن‎ dwardan, the converse of the 

last; as 
يديك آو ردان‎ padid awardan, to make apparent. 

4. A noun followed by ره خور۱ دن‎ “to eat,” used with 

words expressing passions or grief; as 
غم خوردن‎ gham khurdan, to be grieved. 

ta-assuf khurdan, to sorrow.‏ تاشف خوردن 
There are many other compound verbs of this kind, but they‏ 

will be easily understood when met with, and will be found 

in most yoeabularics, 

8۷77۸ 53 


The Syntax of Persian is as simple as that of English, which 
it much resembles in construction. The student is recommended 
to read the preliminary remarks on Syntax in the abstract on 

pp- 21 and 22, 
‘uu Cases or Nouns. 

As has been noticed above, the only real case-ending which 

survives in Persian is رأ‎ ra for the objective. This exactly cor- 


' responds to the Hindiistant كو‎ Zo (sce p.23); as مرد ,| کتاب دادم‎ 
8 3 P ¢ ری لیے‎ 

mard-ra kitab dadam, '' 1 gave the man the book,”? where 28ء‎ 
is the object (its position in the sentence calling attention to 
this fact) کتاب ۳ پم هرد دادم و‎ hitab-ra ba mard dadam, 5 
gave the book to the man,” attention being chiefly called in 
the last sentence to “book,” both by the objective affix and by 
its position in the sentence: the fact that “the man” is in 

۰ ۰ ۰ ۰ 2 
“dative” is then expressed, as in English, by مب‎ ba, ۶ 


The Concordance of Verbs and Nouns is exactly the same as 
in English, a singular noun requiring a singular verb, and a 
plural noun taking a plural verb. 

Nouns substantive do not agree with their adjectives or 
qualifying nouns in number, it being sufficient to mark the 
plural by the termination in the first named ; as 

mardan ٩ khub, good men (sce p. 33).‏ ردان خویب 


The relation of “substantive and adjective,” as well as that 
of the “‘genitive case,” is expressed by the 120/48 (see p. 29). 
اضافت‎ 220۶ signifies “adding on,” and is expressed by 
placing a short ¢ (Aasrah or zer) between the two nouns; as _ 
oye اسب‎ asp 1 mard, the man’s horse. 
اسب خذوب‎ asp 1 khab, a good horse. 

The order of 00 in Persian is Subject—Object—Verb, 
all qualifying expressions falling into their natural places; ۰ 
word expressing the condition of the subject follows it; so 
does a word expressing the condition of the object ; while words 
or Makin signifying time, placc, or other circumstances, 
find their proper place immediately before the verb. 

The only marked peculiarity in the arrangement is that the 
verb comes generally last. 

The description of the “tenses” on pp. 88-42 sufficiently 

indicates their use. 

طسو ۴ می مرا امس lin‏ لم 

é 7 Wie 3 
j 1 is aig oe! ات دز‎ | 
Chie bens | sd; نا مهم 1۳1 ۲ چٹ‎ Can 
# 4 wi یا‎ : 
۹ Ps 



The Arabic Alphabet is that used, with certain modifications, 
for Persian and Hindistani, and is written in the same way 
~ from left to right. The letters and Arabic pronunciation are 
as follows : 
۱ Alif, a, ره‎ 7,0 or ٭‎ This is the spiritus lenis of the Greek, a 
mere prop to rest an initial vowel on. 

Ba, b As in English.‏ با 
wo Ta, t A soft dental 1 like the Italian.‏ 
ww» Tha, th As in thing.‏ 
c Jim, 1 As in English.‏ 
Ha, h An aspirate strongly breathed out from‏ 4 
the chest.‏ 
c Kha, kh Like ch in Welshor Gaelic, or the German‏ 
ch as pronounced in Switzerland,‏ 
Dil, d A soft dental d as in Italian.‏ د 
Dhal, dh Like th in ۰‏ & 
ka, r A distinctly pronounced ۰‏ ر 
j Zain, 2 As z in English,‏ 

۳ ae Sia 9 
‘en Shia, sh 

As in English. 

ص‎ Sad, $ An s pronounced by placing the tongne 

against the side teeth, and slightly 
opening the mouth. 

Dhad, dh A dh pronounced in the same manner‏ ض 
as the last.‏ 
L Ta, 7 A 7 pronounced with the tongue full‏ 

against the front part of the palate. 
ظ‎ Dha, dh A dh or 2 pronounced in the same manner 
as the last. 
ع‎ Ain, a, ete. A guttural sound only heard in Arabic. 

it must be learnt from a native. 

3 Ghain, ‘gh A guttural sound something like the 
French r grasseyé. 
ف‎ Ia, oF As in English. 
ق‎ Kas, k A very guttural بے‎ like ck in thick, only 
much stronger. 
کت‎ Kaf, ا7‎ 
Lan, 7 As in English. 
م‎ Mim, 110 
ن‎ Van, 1 As in English; before ۵ or f it is 
sounded as ۰ 
و‎ 70, w 
s Ha, h As in English. 
ی و‎ 

x is sometimes written thus, رکه‎ with two dots over it, and is 
then called ۸۸-16. When followed by a vowel this is pronounced 

like ت‎ #¢, but otherwise it is not pronounced at all. 


The above are joined to the preceding letter by prefixing a 
small curve or stroke, and to the following letter by removing 

the curve with which they all but ۵7 end: thus 

=) ل‎ 5 
ی نا 5 2 ی ن‎ 
c > = 4 
ص کہ ص ص‎ 
8 ف ع2‎ ۱ G 
ge 2 تيوتر‎ 
ہت 5 کت‎ 
J ۱ J 
ve a 
s 2d ov A mip 

if deprived of the curve would become unrecognizable ;‏ د ور 
hence they do not join to the left.‏ 

The above lIctters are all consonants. 


The vowels are fet-hah > @ (pronounced like ۵ in hat), and 
dhammah 2 نه‎ (as in bull), both written above the letter; and 
hesrah 2 % (as ¢ in hit) written below the letter. 

When the vowels are doubled, thus گے‎ they are pro- 
nounced respectively an, wn and in. This is called تو ين‎ tenwin, 

وو COL‏ ۰ 
the ۸ ۳‏ م تلع ان 


Combined with أ‎ a, ی 1001 ,ہہ و‎ y, the vowels become {aa (a), 
uw (a), os ty (2); و‎ 0 (prenounccd as ow in cow), Sai (like 
@ in fine). 

No word can commence in the Arabic character with a vowel, 
or if it does the vowel is introduced by alif \. 

When a syllable begins with a vowel, the mark + hamzeh is 
used to introduce it. 

But this hamzeh being written above the line requires a prop. 
this in the case of a is رأ‎ in the case of ۸ it is رو‎ and in the 
case of 1 it is eg , only that in the initial form this last is dis- 
tinguished from the ordinary y by losing its dots: ۰ فو اد‎ 
fi-ad, “a heart,” فانده‎ fa-ida, “advantage.” 

” Tashdid doubles the letter it is placed over. 

© مو رق‎ shows that the letter it is placed over has no vowel. 
Two consecutive sukiuns cannot come together in one word. 

Waslah is only used over an initial al/f or over the article‏ تچ 
al, and shows that these are to be 100‏ ۵ 

7 Maddah is placcd over an initial alif, and shows that it 
should be pronounced long, as cer alz, “coming,” 

If the first letter of a word bo a sibilant or liquid the article 
ال‎ is elided before it and the consonant itsclf dowvled, as 
i عَژام الا‎ dwammu-nnas, “common people,” الله‎ acs dbdu-lah, 
“Abdullah” (tho scrvant of Allah). 

NVote.—Final short vowels or tenwin arc not pronounced before 

a full stop. 

.مںپ ےہ چپ سح بج oe‏ 3 70 ا eo eer‏ 



(TrrzitERaL Roors). 

Arabic, like the 0 so-called Semitic languages, is totally - 
different in construction from European tongues. 

Every word in the language is referred to a root, which con- 

sists of three radical letters. Roots of two, or four or more 
radicals do exist, but they need not be noticed, since they are 
treated in practice as though they were derived forms. 
۱ Instead of modifying a root to express a modified idea by 
prefixing or affixing syllables, the Arabic treats the three 
radicals as algebraists treat the symbols x, y, z, and expresses 
ideas by formule arrived at by combining these with certain 
other lettcrs, called by European grammarians “‘servile,” but 
by the natives زايدة‎ zdidah, “pleonastic.” The letters so used 
are contained in the words kes اسان و‎ amanun wa tashilun, 
‘safety and ease:”” that is, they are | م ل س نت‎ ن٤‎ and .و‎ 
Of course any of these may oecur as radicals, but after learning 
the rules I shall presently give the student will not find any 
difficulty in identifying them. 

All words are arranged in the dictionaries under the triliteral 
root: that is, the original word of three radical letters. 

I have said that Arabic ideas are expressed by formule 
analogous to those employed in algebra. Thus (x-++-y+z) may 

may mean (1+2+3), or (2+38-+4), and so on, and the whole 


formula will mean 6 or 9, and so on, according to the valucs 
given to the letters x, y, and 2, Similarly in Arabic the three- 
letter combination in the roof bears a different meaning ac- 
cording to the letters employed; thus, ضرب‎ dht+r+b means 
“beating,” قتل‎ ۸+ means “killing,” and so on. The 
Arabs use the word گر فعل‎ (fi;1 or fact), ““doing,”. for the 
typical formula of a root, the individual letters مغ رف‎ and ل‎ 
_ corresponding to the x, y, and z of algebra. 
If we add an alif ۱ to the first radical, and place a hesrah 7 % 
after the second, the formula will then become (Xa@y%Z) = فاعل‎ 
راق قار‎ which means “one doing.” Thus the formula for an agent 
as .فاعل‎ Then, if for the ع وفك‎ and 0 (that is, for x, y and z) 
we substitute the letters contained in either of the combinations 
given above, ۲12۰ ضرب‎ or ot, we cot 
)2 6 7 12( 
فاعل‎ fail, one doing. 
ضارب‎ 07571 3, one beating. 
قاتل‎ katt, one killing. 

A word, then, of the shape (X4@_%/) will always be the agent 
form of the radical word, whatever that may be. In looking 
it out in the dictionary you look for the Ist, 8rd, and 5th 
letters; that is, for the ع رف‎ and ول‎ or, in other words, 
for the x, y and z. 

But another difficulty may occur. The letters | a, ہہ و‎ or 

us y are called weak consonants, and are considered as homo- 



gencous with the short vowels <>” a, t, u,. One of these weak 
consonants may occur as a radical; eg. قوا ل‎ kavwl, “speaking.” 
To get the agent form from this we treat it like the examples 
just given, and should have (XayizZ) 
فاعل‎ fa cil, 
فاول‎ kawil: 
but, as a matter of fact, the agent of قو ل‎ 15 not قاول‎ but ee) رقا‎ 
the reason being that the vowel 2 being indispensable to the 
form absorbs the weak consonant و‎ and turns it into the weak 
consonant ري‎ which is homogeneous with itself. So from رغزو‎ 
مب‎ make a raid,” 
فاعل‎ fa cil, 
غازى‎ ghasty=ghazi, a raider (or warrior). 
Again, “an .:.090 for doing anything” is expressed by 
the formula مفعال‎ (۷60 (=miXyazZ); thus from و4042 وزر ی‎ 
“to weigh,” we get (mtXyaZ, 
leis mif, al, 
wise miwsan; 
but و‎ wis not homogencous with %: the latter, therefore, changes 
it into ي‎ y, which 7s, and we have میزان‎ miyzdn (= imizdn), 
و“‎ balance.” 
These changes of weak consonants are called permutations, and 
will be treated of later on, together with other phonetic laws. 

The first principle in Arabic grammar, then, is that radical 


ideas arc expressed by combinations of three consonants, and that : 
modifications of these ideas are expresscd by algebraical formule 
constructed from these three consonants in combination with the 
so-called “‘plconastic” letters. 

I shall now proceed to show the nature of these formule and 
their relation to each other. The student must bear in mina 

that the word 7ج +۶ فعل‎ represents the symbols x, y and z. 

VerBaL متا‎ 
The simplest formula in Arabic is رداق قار فکل‎ ic. (Xayaza) ۰ 
signifying “he did;” as ضرف‎ dharaba, “he struck,” قتل‎ katala, 
“he killed.” It is under this form that words will be found 
in the dictionaries. 
The form تَعَلَ‎ Jazala, signifying “ho did,” is the past tense 
of the verb. 
To express the othcr tenses the Arabs have only one form, 

ی = 

07ع 6 و یل 
which is called the “‘aorist,” or doubtful tense, because it may‏ 
stand for aorist, present, future, ete., the exact meaning being‏ 
defined either by the context, by changing the final vowel, or‏ 
by adding other words. Of the ‘‘numbers,” “persons,” ete., I‏ 
shall speak later on.‏ 
are susceptible of further‏ ربب بل يفل 64ح قل فَعَلَ The forms‏ 
modifications of the middle vowel; this, however, we must also‏ 

treat of latcr on. 

VERBAL ۰0 68 

The imperative is of the form cha} uf ul (with the accent on 
the syllable <a). This is the shortest form of the verb (sce 
۳. 15) as pronounced sharply or in a tone of command; only 
as no Arabic word may begin with two consonants, short ٭‎ is 
prefixed for convenience of pronunciation: this is clided if it 
follows a vowel in the preceding word. 

Besides the form رااع قر فاعل‎ meaning “one who does,” the 
student must learn the following: فعل‎ Jaz1 or Fel, “a doing,” 
“an act.” (But if the root, instead of implying an act, as 
Ws “striking,” signifies a quality or the like, then the form 
تقر فعول‎ is used, and both these are called nouns of action). 
مکل‎ maf, al, و“‎ place where, or time at which, a thing is 
done.” مفغول‎ maf, il, و‎ thing done.” We get, therefore, 
the following formule for expressing the principal simple ideas 

in the language : 

si 0 داه‎ (XayaZa), “past tense,” he did. 

A بو‎ 

ARS yafeulu (yaxyuzu), — “aorist,” he does, ete. 
oR oe ۰ 

Jai) 0 (uxyuzZ), “imperative,” he does, ete. 

(XayZ), “noun of action,” doing, cte.‏ عقر تغل 

tbe نہ‎ 
( intransitive verbal ١ : 
being, ete. 
noun, j 

fuzal (Xuyaz),‏ فغول 
(XaytZ), “agent,” one doing.‏ 1 قار فاعل 
mafiil (maXYuZ), “passive participle,” done.‏ مَنغول 
eis (maXYaz),‏ 

27 ۰ 
noun of place | place of doing, 

time,” cte. 

90 .0 کی 9 


Arabic grammarians never speak of the “agent,” ete., of a 
verb, but mention the formula; thus 
ضارد تت‎ dharib is the cl fazil of «ضرب‎ 
دحتم ٌ۰ 7787ھ‎ 
Derivative VERBS. 

There are, of course, many ideas which are not expressed by 
any of the above formule; of these we obtain a very large 
numbcr by certain modifications of the simple formula لعل‎ 
مط“ وه نر‎ dia.” These modifications are thirteen in number, 
and are called “‘conjugations.”” I shall number them according 
to the old system as used in all European grammars and dic- 
tionaries of the Arabic language, but shall arrange them some- 
what differently. ١ 

These modifications consist of prefixing or inserting certain 
letters in the formula hs fa-ala (XayaZa). 

If in English we want to give greater emphasis to a word we 
pronounce it more forcibly. The Arabs do the same, and hence 
it comes that by doubling the midcle syllable of the above form 
we get an intensified meaning. Thus from 568 husara, “he 
broke,” (formula دامع ھکر فکعل‎ (XaYaZa),) we got 525 ۸, 
ور‎ broke to bits,” (formula Sk: دامع عدر‎ (Xayyaz).) But if 
the verb is not active, this doubling of the middle radical 

makes it so; as 

- م‎ 

kadama, to be in front.‏ 5 م 

SS kaddama, io send forward. 


So from a noun, as جلد‎ jild (formula XiyZ), we get جلد‎ 
jallada, “he skinned.” 

Prefixing ۱ a also makes a verb active that was not so before; 
as نزل‎ nazala, “he descended,” انز‎ anzala, ““he caused to 
descend,” formula دامع ره ال‎ (aXYaZa). 

By putting ۱ © after the first radical, formula cel fa-ala 
(xayaZa), tle sense of reciprocity is given; as si katala, ۵ 
killed,” Bu katala, “he fought;” <S 2 24 kataba, 136 wrote,” 
کا تسا‎ kataba, ‘““he corresponded.” 

The word to “come” in Arabic is أ نی‎ ata. Two formule are 
obtained by prefixing the consonant ¢ (the only strong letter in 
this word ata, with the sense of ““becoming”’) to the two forms 
last-mentioned ; thus from 23s kaddama (form. ss fazala), he 
sent forward, تام‎ takaddama ۰ تفقل‎ tafa--ala), he re- 
moved to, he was sent forward, a distance, “he was removed to 
a distance ;” and from ach ۸ 1484م‎ (form. (14هع قار فَاعَلَ‎ from تكد‎ 
راع 0ع06‎ 1000000 ( form. و(414ع 105 تفاعل‎ “he was removed 
to a distance from someone or something else.” 

The state or condition resulting from the action may also be 
expressed by two other formulz, namely, دامع دالا انکعل‎ (iXYaZa) 
and انفعل‎ infa,ala (inXYaZa), the only difference between them 
being that the first implies “being affected by,” and the last 
۹۰۵0060 to the state of ;” as واج فطع‎ “he cut,” انقطع‎ 
01۱/06 راع‎ “St was cut;” وط '“ راع :7041110 جم‎ gathered,” اجنمع‎ 

was in a collected state.”‏ نل ' رم 

a‏ سوا 


By prefixing است‎ ist we get the idea of “asking for,” 
“wishing to be,” or “deeming;” as خفر‎ ghafara, “he asked 
pardon,’ : اَل‎ istaghfara, “he ا‎ pardon,” form. اسکنعل‎ 
istaf, ala eyes عظم‎ adhuma, ““to be grand,” — 
ista; dhama, “he thought it grand;” کے‎ kabura, “he was 
great,” اک اھ‎ istakbara, “he was te 0.6. desirous of 
being thought great. 

Of the forms Shel f.alla ((XYazZa), esas او‎ 1 
وت‎ and اِفعَل‎ ae (¢XyaZZa), the last implies 
“colour,” as صذر‎ uel 25/0 “10 be yellow;” the other two being 
distorted forms imply some distortion or deformity. 

The ‘‘nouns of action” Bs formed from all of these derived 
forms (except the first two and those beginning with ta) by 
prefixing | ۶ to the form and inserting \ 2 between the second 
and third radical, and changing the preceding © to 7; thus 
ام ...4۴ اذ...عال‎ )05۰۰۰722(. The dots represent the inter- 
yening letters which occur in some of the forms, as the < ¢ in 

افتعال (iXtayazZ), of which the noun of action is‏ ام۸ فک 
۰( )971801 

The remaining form their nouns of action as follows: 

jas faz:ala, noun of action اق دا تفعیل‎ (taXyiZ). 

maXay 02017 )1(‏ 1107ح 106 مَفَاعَلۃ 7 وج تال فاعل 
(4782<) 627 فعال or‏ 

and from those prefixing ¢ by changing the last a but one 

into uw; as آلف ع ته تفقل‎ (taXayyuzZ), 
تفاغل‎ 1/۵ )148[71/2( 


The aorist is made as in the simple verb, except that the vowels 
are slightly modified; رھ‎ for the first three it is ds mee a5 
' ہہس‎ (yuX...YyiZu); for the two which prefix 3 ¢ ٦ 18 
۷بس کذ. وی‎ (yaXyazu); and for the rest it is 07 
ا رهز‎ (yaXyiZu). 
The imperative is made by cutting off the last vowel of the 
aorist and prefixing 7 where two consonants would otherwise 
come together at the beginning. 
The passive of all verbs is formed by changing the first vowel 
into w and the second vowel into 7 for the “past tense,” and @ 

ce ۰ 
for the aorist ;” 

si 80ر‎ jis yaf-ulu فعل‎ Suzila sis yuf-alu 

gale‏ ةردو SiS yufazgilu IS fugit CRE‏ »کل 
Where the first vowel of the aorist is already w it is retained in‏ 
the passive.‏ 

The passive participle from 417 derived forms of the verb is 
ان‎ 2 (muX...YaZ). This formula also serves 

for the “nouns of time and place.” 

Forms or tre Smrere ۰ 

1 have said that the simple verb فعل يفعل‎ facala yaf-ulu is 
susceptible of further modifications by changing the middle 
yowel. The following Table shows these, and also the different 

forms of nouns immediately derived from the verb : 

08 7ھ 
“gov “10‏ 9 7 
0 ری 
9 50060 1 
۸ مر 
9* 001015290500 10 ج 

٠001100150500 1 

کم لم 

-.۲ 00:۲ 01 0019101 0 

۰0100. 8 

وء* 27 
1 ¢ 

Sore SO ۴ 
4d mag مہ پ۱‎ ao 

101191119 10’ £410 

-xe Yup 791105119 
' 2011018 0 
-xo Yip 090597030 7 

wy مر‎ 4919110111۲ IO 
101200 5010 
‘Eorpel 091012001 *6 
oY} وہ‎ 090۵۲ 1099481 0 
۱0۱0: ۲ 

| -01010053 0 


مہ 70*۲ 

دج 11173317171 


2۳ج 0297وک‎ 
oA / 
=? ہے‎ 
7702207 ap 


يلك )1 ]1 

۵2 607 
8 o 


sen} ۰ بن‎ 
pr? oh ۳ 
npn? * ]ہو‎ 7 



۳ی 711 4 


2 ۳1 
لا 0/۸ 


213/0 ۲ 

722 a 7 ہے هه‎ 
1135 ۶۲ 70112211 aD 
*0۸ آ)0193‎ "7٣ 

‘SNUOT 0214153211 0 

1032/7 ۳ 
17222/( ors 



| 5 : 
ظ‎ perfor ono? 

lag‏ 18 

G)uon i و‎ | 

10 122/۳۹ 7 

7 1١ 

000۴۳ Jo uno NT 






iy 1 40% ۳ 

: 11۳6910 ZI 


۲۳ ۰109 وو 

0۲ LE 
-00 10 0 

* 010.19 ۲ 
ا‎ 2 ‘ssed 

ae *008 “LOW 
vere “400% 0114 Aq 
۳99902150 vapt ۳۵ 
-110 ٥ Sv 
-01 10 107 101175877 “OT 
ار‎ 1 
out 0 110190091 Aq 
را‎ 21198۰8 
1001 ay} Jo - 
1 oy} 10 74 
OU} 400708 ۸ 
۰001 09 


jo ومتاوه‎ 9111 001 

08008 919119] 85011110 OAT, 

۰00 piu 

70۵۹۸ jaf? 
agp >nnrfr و۳‎ 

ا 72“ 
let‏ 0رہ 

7 “Be ود‎ Ag 
ھ2‎ by 
7702/71 sper “i 
رورم‎ le 7 

Days‏ و ماه 
ites‏ 207 03" 


aa ( ” 
71721010110 2/۸ پ0‎ 

7171211020۸ ose 


كاين 79۸ 

1۷02/۸ 00 


ا/ٗ:رو / 7×۲2 

۱۳۳ 2 ری 
ک2 ۸/0 

7ی 120۸/۸[ 

pina fi irk 

1 {xs 

11 8 
mf ۳ا‎ 

(rss‏ مر 7ر 

1۲2۳1۸ جع‎ 
prnfur ۲ 


qoman 2/0 ۳ 

waft پات‎ 

7 فرصل 
efi ie‏ 


193219 {oe Ay 


ا :197 
Sx‏ ا سا 

ہے و at‏ یت ا 
ind‏ 4 

یا و رت 5 

۵ء7 7 



‘I'he class to which a verb belongs will be found in the dictionaries 

١ aS حشری‎ ۵ 

Sparen Active. Passive. E Noun of Action. 
TRILITERAL 3 = ۳ حسم‎ ۱ 
Vers. ee Aorist. بت‎ Aorist 3 دنت‎ Neuter. 
| | 
١ 00000 a رک وگو و‎ 2 240% 
Class 1 | (x3 | فول ]| فعل | انعل | تنعل | فعل | تفكل‎ pace 
اننال هن قاف قز‎ fug ila اانه بال‎ | fagd | fugil fa;lah(t) 
a ۱ 
Sa ار‎ 
» 2 2+ kai ” ” افعل‎ 1 ” 99 
:ہ1۷‎ 1 
کر‎ Cy eg, Ss 7 
” 3 29 فعل 7 إفعل 27 7 بَعل‎ 27 
| 1/۹/۷ fea Jazal 
ےر کے‎ te کے‎ 
فعل اف دہ‎ R85 ” وو وو إفعل وو‎ 0 
١ داق قل‎ ۷ 1 
کا ا‎ 
» . 5 ” ssi ” ” إفعل‎ ” ” ” 
1۷٥/۷ ۱ئ‎ 
| (| es ۱ 
Ja; Glah(t) 
ie ee: o_o eC pe 
60 es RSI ” ” فعولة ” أفعل‎ ١١ وو‎ 
أه لا لقأل 10 | ألا قار‎ ۵ 





Those of Class 6 are nearly always verbs expressing some quality, 

Inten-‏ اش کپ 5۰2 
sive‏ ]223-5 با۶ Noun‏ 
Quality. |2 523) agent‏ 
نے 220 
الح وب ی 
eae‏ جم ۳ Ss‏ 
فعول | افعل فاعل 


أقع نل | ۱۵ Jazil‏ 



Noun of Instru- 

ment, or 

Intransitive Agent. 




sive‏ ع 

| 0 ul 
2 4 Ao we 

rea alah(t) 



“to be handsome.” 

Noun of 
Time or 
’ Place. 

Noun of | Agent. 
Species. a 




ie Cr 
maf, al 

ee Se‏ شی ا ےئ وم 


As soor as the student has mastered these tables each root ~ 
. word that he learns adds a large nambér of other words to his 
vocabulary. Thus, for instance, from ضرمب‎ dh+r+4, “striking,” 

he may make all the words given in the top line of the last 3 
table by merely substituting this root for the ز فعل‎ ۰ : 

a oe a 

Preterite, Jas facala, ضرت‎ dharaba, he struck. 
FIG 35 

Aorist, نعل‎ yafulu, 425 yadhrubu, he is striking. 
Rew : ۳ 1 

Preterite Pass., ضرت ,06 فعل‎ dhuriba, he was struck. 

= و 2 9 و بر ۶ 3 E‏ 

Aorist Passive, Jess yuf,alu, کرد بت‎ yudhrabu, he is struck. 
ا‎ os 

Imperative, he?! اضرّبٗ . رسمه‎ udhurd, strike. 

Noun of action, فعل‎ 0, pe dharb, a blow. 

Noun of action, neuter. Wanting. 

Noun of unity, Ake faglah(t), 4558 dharbak(é), one blow. 

Noun of species, Wanting. 
Agent, راع قر فاعل‎ ras ضارد‎ 07817, a striker 
Patient, Seeds هد‎ maf.ul, i madhrib, struck. 

Noun of Hae رد رب را 0 ممَفْعَلُ‎ madhrab, a place of 
or place, Deating. 



Noun of 2 وبقعل‎ 0, Code midhrab, a thing to beat 

strument, with. 

Noun of quality, Same as Agent. 

Noun of ا‎ jail af.alu, شرت‎ adhrab, more addicted to 
periority, ~ beating, 

Intensive راف قار نگول‎ S558 dharib, one who beats 

agent, much. 


Again, from the Table of Derivative Forms, p. 68, he can make 

2. os) ضرت ع4‎ dharraba, he excited another 
3 ٠ to beat or fight. 
تفعیل‎ taf: il, تضریت‎ tadhrib,a cause of contention. 
3. Jel ات وج گر‎ dharaba, he contended with 

~~ another with blows. 
bela mufa,alah(t), مضاربۂ‎ mudharabah(t), contention, 
and so on. Of course every root is not susceptible of every 
form, but common sense and the dictionary will tell the student 
which are used. 

We have seen that the formula fect fa,ala (XaYaZa) is used 
for the 8rd person singular masculine of the verb, and is 
equivalent to “he does;” as فرب‎ dharaba, “he strikes,” the 
pronoun. “he” being considered as inherent to the form. To 
express the other persons the following terminations are used : 


Fen. Mase. Fen. Mase. Fem. Mase, 
“ 7 بان‎ 

or 70 و‎ Beata ee 7 910 04 
۳ و‎ Fas u ی م‎ 
oe eo ی 0 تھا‎ 7 
tunna = tum tv ta 

نا‎ na یں ۱1 | باس‎ 
Fen. Mase. Fem. Mase. Fem. Mase. 
و ان ع‎ 
و‎ 00 1 
ا ا یا و سا ہت ما7‎ 0007 
1۷۴۰۰۰۱۱۰۱ ۷۷۰۸۰۰۹۶۸“ ta...dni 00۰۰۰ ۱4۰۰۰ ya... 
ee 5 5 7 5 3 
يق ی2 تد وی ری‎ 3 7.05 2nd ,, 
10۰۰۰10 0۰۰ 12۰۰۵ 10۰۰۰710 ta...u 

> 1 
۱ : 
OTRSS‏ ۳ ا و 

ہے ا یں 



Thus, from ضرب‎ “he struck,” we get 
Preterite ضرَیّت‎ dh dharabat, she struck, 

Cy ضر‎ dharabtu, I struck, 
and so on; and in the aorist 
ےگ‎ yadhrubu, he strikes, 
آفرّت‎ adhrubu, I strike, and so on. 
The following exhibits all these forms in the typical root 
فعل‎ (see .م‎ 60): 

Fem. Masc. Fem. Mase. Fem. Mase. 

cps pes فَعَلَعا‎ Sed | فعلت‎ ij 3rd pers. 
سام مار‎ fazala | fa,alata fazala | لمعتل‎ Jazala 
eid wld | ld | eld تعلت‎ ona 

Jazaltunna faaltum|  fa,altuma فا‎ fa,alta 

سس يي 


- Ze 4 از‎ 
فلت ا‎ 10 
Sacalna JSacaltu 
es ے6‎ 
Fem. Mase. Fem. Mase. Fem. Mase. 

Cees Chis ed hes M355 seks ord ۰ 
yaf.ulna yof.ulina taf.ulani yafulant| tafulu ۷۵۷۸۷ 

G Us و‎ te 2 2 Gs و‎ oe 
۶۵ےے و ہے‎ gan 2 gin 
تفعلى‎ Opes تفعل تفگلین تفگلان‎ 2-7 

taf,ulna ۸۵6 یہ1‎ 14۸۰۶ taf-ulina 1٥ح لاآل‎ 
Fue vet 
ee انل‎ ist; 
nafeulu af ul 

It may be taken as an axiom that in Arabic the direct or 

subjective idea is expressed by ٭‎ £, the objective or conditional 


by a, and the dependent by ۶ 2۰ This is obviously so in the 
cases of nouns, but it is equally applicable to verbs. Thus, to 
express the “conditional mood” we have only to change the 
final vowel of the aorist from 4 to a; as 
یفرب‎ yadhrubu, he strikes, 
Conjunctive یرب‎ yadhruba, that he may strike. 

The imperative second person singular is, as we have ۲ 
(p. 63), the shortest form in which a word can occur. To make 
the imperative of the other persons in Arabic we have only to 
shorten the words as much as possible by cutting off the last 
vowel; as 

yadhrubu, he strikes,‏ فرب 
yadhrub, let him strike, and so on.‏ یرب 
in the persons of the aorist is con-‏ ری Note that the final‏ 
sidered as a vowel and elided; thus‏ 
Os yadhrabuna, they strike,‏ 
yadhrubu, let them strike.‏ و AS‏ : 
۰ تہ[ 

Although certain Arabic verbs seem at first sight to be quite 
irregular, it may be taken as an axiom that no such thing as an 
irregular verb exists. 

I have shown (p. 60-61) how a change may occur in a form 
from the presence of one or more of the “weak consonants” 
\a, 3, 0۲ .ی‎ These changes are called “‘permutations,” and 

it will only be necessary to study the following table to be 


able to account for any apparently irregular form which may 
be met with, or to conjugate any verb in which weak con- 
sonants occur. 


و‎ ' aw becomes ۴ 

۰ کی twa becomes‏ و 


pronounced like | 2 ٠‏ ری aya becomes‏ ی 


۱ 0 وو 721 و awu becomes‏ "و 

2 ۰ 3 oe 00 4 
و)‎ awa remains unchanged (| 93 8ى‎ 

۱ 8 وي | .. awa‏ او 

ae become ی‎ a ۱ become us 2 
کب‎ aya یی‎ 7 

۱ 86 وه ۷ رو 

>. . 0۵ ان خر‎ | become sau 
ws wu پو‎ 8 

۰ 5 72 : a 
(CS »را‎ remains unchanged کی ری‎ wt becomes CF as 
Similarly the nouns and participles, ete. : 

awun 5‏ و 
an.‏ کی are become‏ 
ayun‏ کی 

not being required to sup-‏ ی and‏ و the‏ ,0ه 2 د | 8 رو 
us ۷ ۱ port tenwin ۸۰‏ 

مہ ہے : > ھی ری سر ود سر وک 

9 4 7 و‎ 72۵0۵۰ (but in verbs of the form ف -) رفی‎ ) 

és, is more commonly used). 


Ga =‏ ۔ G29‏ 
۰ رک و tiyun‏ وک 

1 When 1 is final, and more than two letters precede it, it is written Gs, 

but pronounced the same. 


“A Thus, to take an extreme case, ay awa, “to repair to a 
house or spot in order to live there,” in which all three radicals’ 
are ‘‘weak,” we get cos awat, ‘‘she repaired,” for وك‎ awayt 
(because the feminine is made by adding ت‎ ¢ to the mascuiine, 
which in this case is oC 2 and two suwkans cannot.come together, 
800 0. 58) = هآ فعلت‎ = = 5050741 ١ agent آاووی۔ و60 أو‎ = 
ال‎ 72910 = XayiZun; and the verbal noun of the fourth 
“conjugation” (see .م‎ 68) would be ارات = 7۷00-10 أبواء‎ 
00/۱/۵ = Sled] of. alun =¢XyaZun, and so on for all possible 

Note.—In the case of verbs which begin with ۵ و‎ w and 
- make their aorist of the form leks the و‎ w drops out in the 
aorist active; thus, from وئی.‎ waka, “to guard against,” we 
get—Preterite us) waka, Aorist he yakt, Imperative J ki, 
for ust kt, because the imperative must be pronounced quickly 

and shortly, 

Besides the nouns wuich are included in the forms 0 
from verbs, as given above, there are some called primitive, 
4.6. which cannot be referred to any verbal root, such as فرش‎ 
farasun, ' ' ((روعنامط‎ 2G kalbun, “heart ر48 07 عفر‎ “small 
stream.” These belong, of course, to the vocabulary. 

There are other forms of nouns, of which the following are 

the most useful: . 


1. Trades and oufices are of the measure Ble Ji-dlatun ; as 
۱ و1000 تاره‎ “trading,” حياط‎ khiyatatun, “tailoring,” 
Eis dilafatun, “office of Caliph.” 

2. Pains of the body are of the measure فعال‎ Su-alun; as 
را 2105 صُدَاغٌ‎ “headache,” شكال‎ su; Glun, “cough.” 

8. Sounds are of the measure Sle Ju; alun or chess Jazilun; 
as ey surakhun, “ery,” صفیر‎ safirun, “whistling.” 

4. Motion, commotion, or emotion are expressed by the form 
Sas fa; alan, and sometimes Chast fa; tun ; as Shes khafakanun, 
“nalpitating, fluttering,” oy rahilun “‘ departure.” 

5. Flight or avoidance by les fizdlun; as کے‎ Jirarun, 

6. A small portion is expressed by es Jizlatun; as as 
kisratun, و“‎ broken crust,” inks kiteatun, و“‎ fragment.” 

7. A small quantity by pate Juzlatun; as 1 kubdhatun, 
و‎ handful.” 

8. Colour in the abstract, by Es Suzlatun و‎ as ee humratun, 
“redness,” 385 sufratun, “‘yellowness.” 

9. Small pieces, refuse, by Bei fucdlatun s as tates kura- 
dhatun, “‘clippings, filings.” 

Cases or Nouns, 

The cases of nouns are three—Subjective, Objective, and 
Dependent. These are represented by the vowels ۶ نه‎ > a, and 

٤ respectively.‏ ۔ 


When the noun 18 indefinite the tenwim form نا‎ used (see ۰ 
57); thus - 7 

Subj. رل‎ rajulun, 8 man. SAY arrajulu, the man. 

Obj. Is; rajulan, 8 man. JEST arrajula, the man. 

Dep. رجل‎ rajulin, of a man. Jest arrajuli, of the man. 

The dependent is used with all prepositions. 

The following is a noun declined with and without the article, 

and with the affixed pronouns: 


Paes With the Article. With Pronouns. 
Subjective کتات‎ a book. oleh bs ee 
Dependent کتاب‎ of a book. CEST کتابی کاب‎ 
Objective کتانا‎ a book. oles Ki bales گکاہی‎ 

ِ 3 5 

The following nouns, ات‎ “father,” اج‎ “brother,” حم‎ 
yy 2 6 

“father-in-law,” هن‎ “thing,” دو‎ “ possessor,” فم‎ “mouth,” 

are declined with long vowels when in construction with a noun, 

or when they have an affixed pronoun ; ¢g. 

With the With Tn con- 
INDEFINITE. Article. Pronouns. struction, 
= cs = = 
Subjective اب‎ a father. | الاب‎ 563 get a5 و‎ 
BLE = = 
Dependent الاب آب‎ da) | ا‎ ast 1 
0 یا جو کت‎ Zu) کا‎ 
Objective Ui زید اپبی باه الاب‎ Gi 

Certain nouns cannot take tenwin; these have the fetha (a) for 
both objective and dependent case. 

When, however, they are preceded by the article, or are in 


construction with ancther noun, they have kesra (7), like other 

nouns in the dependent case. 

Numsers or (۲0۵8۰ 

The Dual is formed as follows: 

Subjective ان‎ ani, yk atant. 
(ora لس‎ oss یب‎ 
سن‎ ant, we = 7۰ 
Dependent 7 > 2 

Tue Prorat. 
The plural in Arabic is either “regular,” 7 ۵. formed by affixes; 
or broken,” 26 a modification of the original form of the sin- 
gular, just as in English we say ‘‘ship,” pl. “ships,” and “man,” 

pl. “men.” 
Reevrar Mascurine ت02۸‎ 
The regular plural is formed as follows: 


Subj. عسوت‎ ana, ١ This is merely a lengthening of the singular 

رہ for just as + un=§‏ رح > ens termination‏ اتا روہ 
lao i, g 8‏ 
۰ وو = UNG‏ ون 50 Dep. a‏ 


Subj. ات‎ atun, 

1 ۱ کو ہوا 
atin ۱ feminine affix ٤ ۰‏ 5 : 

Dep. 5 

Similarly this is an expansion of the regular 

The regular masculine affixed form is cnly used for— 
1. Nouns derived from verbs making their feminine in ¥ and 

signifying rational beings, 


9 Proper names of men, provided they consist of a single 
word, and do not end in 8 ۰ 

3. Diminutives,of proper names of the description just men- 
tioned, and diminutives of ordinary nouns, provided they denote 
rational beings, and are of the masculine gender; as 

ens rujeilun, a little man, 3 pl. يلون‎ 2001 

4. Relative adjectives ending in us 

5. Nouns of the measure أَنْعَلُ‎ af,alu, provided they signify 

The regular plural cannot be used in nouns which are common 
to both genders; as 

Cx Jarthun, wounded. jx 2 sahirun, patient. 

6. The following words, 

son,‏ ,40711111 اب 

& ٭ فا( 


ahlun, family, 


dhu, possessor, 



۳3 6 00ج‎ world, universe, 

ardhun, earth,‏ لظ 

5 cashrun, ten, 

sanatun, year,‏ مه 
(and the other cardinal numbers, thirty, forty, etc., between‏ 
twenty and nincty,) together with all nouns similar to the last,‏ 
nouns of which the last radical is cut off and a & added by‏ .2,6 

۰ Re “ce = 0 
way of compensation; as يانه‎ “‘a hundred,” Cyne; عضۂ‎ 

thorny path,” ء حون‎ 


The last-mentioned class of plurals in the dependent case may : 

be treated as broken plurals, and 0 throughout; 06. 
Sub. Craw Obj. 25 Dep. ye: 

In construction with a following noun the regular plural loses 

its final ¢); as 
335 ضارئو‎ dhariba Zaidin, the strikers of Zeid. 

N.B.—The ره ا و‎ whether singular or plural, be- 
comes نت‎ ¢ when followed by another letter; 8 إخوة‎ 110000060 
“brothers,” Se] tkhwatuhu, “his brothers.” 

The regular feminine plural is used with all feminine nouns 
ending in 3; col atun is frequently used in nouns which have 
a neuter sense; as 

م ا 

gs hammdamdatun.‏ مانت bath, hammadmun, pl.‏ هام 

Broxen Prvurats. 

There are, besides this regular form, a large number of 
formule for the plural, called “broken plurals,” and the use of 
these is one of the greatest difficulties in Arabic. Practice and 
the dictionary can alone teach all these, but a study of the 
following table will account for most of them. The top line 
shows the form of plural, the left hand column the forms of 
the noun. 

Sometimes a word, if used in different meanings, will take 
one plural in one sense and one in another; as و“ کیت‎ house,” 

Ss Daron ack 0 ےج‎ 
pl. 5, but بیّت‎ “a verse of poetry,” makes its pl. .ییات‎ 


which have a weak conso- 

nant at beginning or end ; 

as ra اخوے‎ ۳ a “اعمط‎ 

pl. x خوا‎ ۱ 6: 

Generally used with words 

eb s ۱ 
۲ ۶ ه‎ 
وه‎ | 
8 سے‎ ۱ 
Sipe ee 
دی وج‎ | 
و تج‎ 
6 2 
بلط مي‎ 
جاع‎ | 
۱ ۲۳ پل‎ 

From substantives which 

have no weak consonants, 

and which make their 

feminine in :ة5‎ as حمل‎ 
» و‎ camel.”? 

Mostly used of nouns of an 
objective nature. 


BROKEN ۶7074۰ 

7 Ss a ڑپ‎ 0 = 7 0 = 
۷ yo \ —\ 9 ۲ 6 6 ic 
x. +هاااوه‎ 9 a “\ se ۰ \ 
وا‎ 2 5 
مہ‎ ١ ۱ ۰ 
ای‎ 6 ۴ 
\G. \G. \G. . ۱ 


6 Cy Ce 
5 2 5 
۳ “o ه‎ > 

ی‎ C1. C2 er ۵ Cu, 
Xe Ke ہد‎ Xe 
Tyo 35 5 همم وا‎ ye 
کہ ند و)‎ Gay Gee Ge! Geo 

Cy Cr Cy Cu. C: Cw 
OOo Be نرہ‎ 

‘Plural of Paucity,” ۰ 

used for any number from 

3 to 10. 

Paucity, from verbs whose 
2nd and 8rd radical is the 

same; .م3 مد عم‎ | 
Generally from nouns with | 
a weak 2nd or 8rd radical ; : 

5۱ ‘ 9 7 ۰ 
asl) ‘fire, خیرات‎ | 


\ \ وی‎ 
۰ »و ىھة ہہ‎ 


When' the termination 4 implies unity, the removal of it will 

naturally have the effect of "0 9 the plural; ۰ Lat 
tubfatun, “a gift,” pl. ae tuhaf, ‘‘ gifts.” 

Other forms are: 

Sing. Me fa; lun, pl. لآق 116 ماع‎ as oo shetkhun, “an ' 
elder or chief,” ‘d مشا حر‎ masha-ikhu, “elders ;” و خسن‎ 

“beauty,” Go mahasinu, “beauties.” 

Sing. ,فعال‎ pl. Je fugulun ; as تذال‎ kadhalun, “neck,” pl. 
قذل‎ kudhulun. 

Sing. فُُل ۰ ,فعیل‎ Suzulun; aS قضیب‎ kadhibun, “vod,” pl. 

فقثقبی‎ 0۰ 
Sing. ل‎ grt, pl. ز 0/0 فل‎ as 3۵ رسو‎ 514, “apostle,” pl. 
رسل ش0‎ 1 rusulun. 
۰ م۳‎ a 

Sing. فعيل‎ facil, pl. نار وم2‎ 216-011 as aks fakirun, “poor,” 
pl. ٴ٦رقف‎ Jukara-u; عليم‎ calimun, “wise, notable,” pl. عُلما*‎ 
culama-w. When this means “pain,” etc., its plural is تعلی‎ 
Jala; as Cor jarthun, “wounded,” جرحی‎ 7 

The masculine agent فاعل‎ fa 11ع‎ has many forms of the plural, 
of which the most common are ]7ج[ تال‎ and a و000 ع الكل فُعُو‎ 
as Soa tajirun, ‘“a merchant,” pl. چار‎ tujarun; شاهد‎ shahidun, 
be ۰ 5 

a witness,” pl. شہوٹ‎ 0+ 


ash see p. 76) the 

pl. is thes Ju-alatun 5 as قاض‎ kadhin, “a judge,” pl. ا‎ 

From agents ending in — رر‎ (for 4 or 

kudhatun= 82.8.5 kudhyatun (sec p. 61), 


Prurat or Worps wits Four Lerrers. 

The oe for the plurals of words of four Ictters, whether 
radical or not, may be regularly represented by the signs 
۱ (4) (3) | (2) 300 which will be found to embrace all the forms 
کے‎ ele, Plates, etc.; e.g. from مکاح‎ “key,” we get 

)0 @ ے کا یٹ 
Inthis\ becomes, (see p. 68), and the whole word‏ .% غ ۱ خا 
P‏ لٍ و 

a) @ ¢@) a) 
ie 2 
hy es تی‎ 7 bbe جج و وو‎ 
becomes ماقم‎ From جوهر‎ jewel,” ۷۵۳۵۲۵ و سے ر‎ == 
ور و‎ 
Tn words of five or more letters all above four are cut off in 

forraing the plural; as 
2 (1)-28)ى, )8( (گاء‎ 
5 یام‎ \ 

یو ات سے) عخادل ‘‘nichtineale,” plural‏ عفد 
تھے 799 res 5 to) ? 0 a‏ 
(0۔(3)+ )3( لكام 

۰ ۱ کا و وو : ما “Ak‏ 
QR ws‏ ی oy)‏ ار ” quince,‏ مفرچل 

Tae Noun or Rerarion. 

The noun of relation is formed by affixing the syllable ore 
tyun and rejecting all such inficctions as the ٢ of the feminine, 
or the signs of the dual and plural; as Xe mekkatun, ‘‘ Mecca,” 
relative we mekkiyun, ‘ Meccan.” 

Tf the nouns themselves end in the termiaation مین‎ this is 

ها 0 



Another form of the relative termination is ا‎ ~~ This-is 

rincipally used in technical or scientific terms; as حسمان”‎ 
2 ? cs ۰ 
ہا اه کے ما‎ cae د کا م‎ eral ” 5 
jismaniyun, “corporeal,” روکانی‎ ruhdniyun, spiritual, Rey 
5 82ا‎ 

— 3 ” ٠. 0 he و‎ 
barraniyun, external,” چوانی‎ 0117/7 internal. 



as reese اک ا : ا‎ 
Very irregular forms are شا م‎ shamin, Syrian,” eS yandnin, 
2 سج‎ 

“of Yemen.” (These are declined like اض‎ 000 

91۱0۲ Noun. 

From the noun of relation an abstract substantive is formed 

by the addition of the feminine termination زو‎ as ال‎ 0061010 
“a god,” ار‎ ilahiyun, divine,” الب‎ ilahiyatun, “divinity.” 
In theological works (especially Christian) the termination كت‎ 
ut is uscd instead ; as 9,5) lahat, ‘“divinity,” “deity,” لكوت‎ 

malakit, kingdom (of heaven).” 

Tur (۲ +2۶۳. 

The diminutive is formed by inscrting & (quiescent yd) after 
the sccond letter of the noun, and pointing the initial Ictter 
with dhammah and the second letter with fethah; as جل‎ rajulun, 
2 ese 9 و‎ “oil 

aman,” dim. رخیّل‎ 0۰ 

1۶ the noun has more than three letters, all which follow 

the inserted 4 are pointed with hesrah; as و“ درم‎ drachma,” 

ہہ و 

7 A 
qin. eo 

Declinable nouns only can take the diminutive form. 


The feminines of masculine nouns are formed as follows :— 
1. By adding 3; as & ضاره‎ dharibun, fem. ضار1‎ dharibalun, 


40 9 
a striker.’? 

Seen‏ ود 


and \ an before become زا‎ as ps fatan, a youth,” fem. 

311 fatatun, “a young girl.” 
2. Nouns of the form yes fa-linu make their feminines in 
ماه‎ sakranu, “drunk,” fem. ISS ۰ 

(eax a 
فعلی‎ fala; as ران‎ 
و‎ 1 
But فعلاری‎ ۲0 and فعلان‎ fu-lanun make their feminines 
F 2G - 

ک٢‏ کے 

2. re 

کے کے RX‏ 

in the usual manner, 40x: and does; 8 G4 nadmanun 
S 5 ٤ 

curydnun, naked,”‏ کا 

“repentant,” fem. تک ما‎ nadmanatun; os 

fem. UGE curydnatun. 
3. Jas} af,alu, when it expresses the comparative or superla- 
ھ77‎ bee 
فک‎ 18: as *2S\ akbaru, “greatest,” 
of es دہر‎ 

tive, makes its feminine 

fem. 8 kubrd. 
past af-alu, when it is descriptive of colour or deformity, 

has for its feminine NSS 0-0 ز‎ as 2 ahmaru, “ned,” fem. 

AAS hamra;” آحعدت‎ akdabu, “hump-backed,” fem. 255s: 

5. فَعُولٌ‎ Ja; alun, when it has an متام‎ signification, has no 

different form for the feminine; as jane چو = و‎ sabirun, 
a3 اراد‎ 0-01 5093711, ‘a patient 

سره صمور 

6c ۰ 
a patient man,” 

But رآ ال تار فعول‎ with a passive signification, makes فعولة‎ 

:1لا ار‎ in the feminine; as رسول‎ 051/011, one sent,” fem. 

٠‏ 1 رسو 
Say? zlun, in the passive sense, has only one‏ فعیل Vice versd‏ .6 

form for the masculine and feminine; as نی‎ Bey 4 ryulun 



katilun, ‘Sa murdered man,” كَتِيلٌ‎ aly] imra-atun katilun, “a 
murdered woman,” while asd Ja-ilun with an active meaning 
makes Muss 1ر‎ 700 in the feminine; as رالا 516 شفية‎ “on 
intercessor,” fem. فیک‎ 505 atun. 

Some few words are of the common gender. The list will be 
found in any of the larger grammars. 

The following words, though not ending in 5, are feminine: 
Names and attributes of women; nouns meaning fire, wind, 

wine; the double parts of the body, as “hand,” “‘foot,” etc. ; 

~ 7 
nouns ending in ۶۱ ری 201ة.‎ and all broken plurals. 


The Demonstrative Pronoun is ذأ‎ “that,” and is thus de- 

clined : 
3 2 Fem. Mase. Fem. Mase, 
oe 2 “a ۰ 4 ۲ 
أله‎ or ۲ ids \ تان‎ wie دا دی‎ Subjective. 
110-8 ala tant dhant | dht dha 
تین وو‎ wid م‎ 0 
taint dhaini Objective. 

dha is seldom used by itself, and when it forms a com-‏ دا 
at the‏ 0100 لو or‏ 143 تی pound the singular assumes the form‏ 
¢a or  ¢ at the beginning,‏ تا end of a word, and‏ 

It is 27 combined with ها‎ ha, “behold!” (prefixed), or 
ESS Tika, “for thee” = “there you are!” (affixed); as هذا‎ 
hadha, ‘‘this,” “£9 at dhalika, “that.” 

comer و‎ 



1. The separate pronouns are : 

Masc. Common. Fem, Common, 11386, Common, Fem. 
vt Cy 
1st pers. Ul ۰ ےن‎ ۷۷ 
1 ۶ we. ۳ 
- cf 3 عن گی‎ © 
fia: ee 22, vgs G Bs 
2nd و‎ cel انق‎ 200 reall انش‎ 
anta ants antuma antun antunna 
thou. thou. ye two. ye. ye. 
72 7 2 من‎ G 2 
هو اہ ون‎ cs? VAs هن هم‎ 
hinca hiya huma hum hunna 
he. she. they two. they. they. 

These only express the nominative case. 

2. The affixed pronouns are: 

Mase. Common, Fem, Common. Masc. Common. Fem. 
Ist pers. پا شی‎ 8 
my, me, ولا‎ US. ٠ 
9 2 
and ,, کت‎ eS کا‎ 11 3 
ka ke kuna kum kunna 
thy, thee. thy, thee.| your, you tio. |your, you. your, you. 
و‎ ae 
Grd 4,48 \s US 0 هن‎ 
hu ha huma hum hunna 
his, him. her, | their, them two.| their, them. their, them. 

These only express the dependent or objective cases. 
With verbs, and certain particles which resemble verbs, the 

of the first person becomes بی‎ as | rage “he struck me,’ 

زی ہی 
“verily 1.”‏ ات 

1 This is pronounced dnd, both a’s short, but the accent on the first. 


After a long vowel ےی‎ becomes ی‎ as Whe “sins,” خطایاک‎ 
“my sins.” 

The pronouns of the third person, whken preceded by kesrah 7 
change their dhammah to kesrah; as 4) کف‎ (of) his book,” 

كديع‎ ‘upon them.” 

i If the two pronouns are joined, the natural aoe of the 
persons must be followed, the first preceding the second, and " 
the 2-0 coming before the third. 

Where pronouns of the second person plural are followed by 
another affixed pronoun, a long اا 18 و5‎ between the 
two; as sheets “1 “T gave أَعطَيْشئي 6 ایی‎ ' ‘I gave you it,” 
aed “you gave,’ ره‎ “ you gave it;” شر)‎ appears to 

have becn the original full form of the termination of these 

pronouns. ) 


The article ال‎ 

6c 2 5 
tke”’ is indecunable, 


This is declined as an‏ 

ordinary dual noun. 

From 3 to 10 the | 
numerals assume the | 
feminine form for the .j 
masculine, and vice 

Tvom 8 to 10 the nu- 
merals govern a broken 
plural of the noun 
numbered, which %s 
put in the oblique 
case. غ1[‎ the noun haye 
a plural of paucity, 
this is to be preferred, 

و 4 
3 ثلانه $418 as‏ 
ہے 2 


The numerals com- 
pounded with 10 are 
indeclinable, both 
taking fe‘hah in all 
cases. The 10 thus 
used in the compound 
follows the ordinary 
rule for masculine and } 
feminine, while the 
units reverse it, as 

stated above. 



Tue CarpinaL Numpens. 




Se ting 

كلك 0 



rd S 


S Us 


هر ak‏ 
(تمانیع) ای 



\ 500-76 



ےچ یچ 
تلف AMS‏ 
{ تم 
Chea al ony :‏ 
Cee Sony |‏ 


مرن مر 34 

ila Les‏ 
۷ 0 



tis: atun 


و پر سب 




۰ Masculine. : Feminine. | 
اپ کس‎ 
کے رھ ام اف هم‎ AL | From 11 to 99 the 
" اک 2 ای‎ vom 
11 a 7 7 numerals take an 
ahada ۵ءء‎ 1:16 cashrata | accusative singular 
7 De 9 0 act of the thing num- 
12 tt pe Lay و لنٌْنتا «دسدرة‎ bered. 
8 J ف‎ ou وص بی‎ 
011106 <ashara | ۱0/۵۵0 cashrata| 7 9% ےر‎ ٥۶ 
z “ag 4 ee oy 24 ey 2 Gels, 
Car er ean se ثلاث عشہہ‎ etc., are common 
7022۷ مه رز تس‎ both genders, 
thalathata 17ع‎ 074 ۱ thelatha gashrata |and are declined 
and so on to like ordinary sound 
ا و تا‎ Ce ee plurals, see p. 81. 
Ce OSG, 
19 | 15 لسعة عسر‎ ee In compounding 
tis-ata 6ء‎ tisca cashrata | numerals with 20, 
u 3 ce 30, etc., and a unit, 
90] عشت “سر‎ the unit is placed 
ey Baus first, the two are 
۵۷ء‎ connected by the 
(5 ۰ کر‎ a 
Bn eee ا‎ ea ان م‎ |conjunction 9 and 
91| 5 | Sykes Ssh وَعِشْرُونَ|‎ 5d} and both are de- 
thudun wa cishrina thdd wa ادق‎ ina | chned. 
2 cte, 
9 ۰ 31 
00 تلانو را‎ 
ee نر رط ہے‎ 
40, ۴ ربعون‎ 
كار سے‎ 
20 خمسشون‎ The word مات‎ mi-aten, “hundred,” 
۱ 2 is common to both genders. 
pes From 100 to 1000 the numerals govern 
60! ٠ وئون‎ the singular of the noun numbered, 
کے‎ which they put in the oblique case; as 
sittina ints 
ماه رخل‎ “a hundred men.” 
2 7 Pues 58 5 
هت وق لم‎ When the 70014:71 are compounded 
٦1008 with units, they are put in the oblique 
2 ہی‎ case of the singular, 
80| ۸ OY Ao 
۰ 7 ر) ا‎ ۰ 
00۱ 4 دسعون‎ 
tise Und 

0121145 NUMBERS. 93 
ہے‎ 1 
1001 47 و‎ [43 Le is pronounced as if 
1111-0 written mi-Gtun.] 
29004 ial ۱ 
110-00100 ۱ 
ا تر اق‎ 
8001 ۳۳ ثلاث مات‎ 
thelathu mi-atin 
SCE 3 = 
1000| ۳ الف‎ ‘ta thousand”? is 
alfun common to both genders. 
1 1 ع م‎ 
2000| ۳ الغان‎ Thousands compounded with 
fini units follow the rules above 
5 کی و‎ given, ۰2, they are treated as 
j; 10000; ۱ عسرة ال‎ a thing numbered. Thus for 
| easharatu aafin 3000 to 10000 the broken 
2 هوشر‎ plural KT is used in the 
11000 | ۷ Gay 44 سے د‎ oblique case; from 10000 to 
ahada Ae alfan 99000 the accusative singular | 
| | a ۳1 is used; and from 0 
100000 | ٠٠۰ فک‎ it اہ‎ upwards the oblique singular 
mi-atu alfin oll ۳ 
200000 | ۳٠٦ الب‎ (sale 
11:0- ata alfin 
800000 presse که‎ 0 if BUS Tn these cases the hundred 
and unit are written as one 
thalathu- ma- ata alfin| word, 
1000000 | ٠" | آلف آلب‎ 
| 00 alfin 
یام‎ | 
2000000 ۰ call (a) 
alfa alfin 
8000000۱۳۳۰۰۱ Call نكن اب‎ 


thalathate alafi alfin | 

The ordinal numbers for the units (except the first) are of the 




form of the agent, masc. ,فاعل‎ fem. eli ; the tens, hundreds 

and thousands do not differ from the cardinal numbers. 









Masculine. Feminine. 

Jsi awwalu 27 ala 

thanin ag ۳ thaniyatun‏ ان 
thalithun fay thalithatun‏ 3 نا 


and so on up to عَاشِرٌ‎ 5 

a‏ = ہے ہے 
MS‏ & عشرة ped GNS‏ 
hadi 00 hadiyata ۵‏ 

A 3 ی‎ cn S 
تانیه عشرة نانی کشر‎ 
thant 0 thanryata 6 

7 g% 5 
Caps 0 
4 4 85 
و م ےم - ۸ 9 م‎ che 0 
و عِسْرُونَ حا و جشروق‎ Kile 
hadin wa 0 hadiyatun wa 0 
74 o 4 کے‎ 
ہے چیا ہے یا ا وو‎ 
و عشرون ان و عشررن‎ Rails 

thanin wa لقع‎ wa 0ء‎ 


کرای انا و 
0 لسعوںن 

Gols‏ و تشون حَادٍ و تشون 
0ل 105 hadin wa ۵ hadiyatun wa‏ 


اه اه ههد eS‏ سر» se‏ ۳ 

. 0023111011018. 55 


The prepositions are either inseparable (7.e. are written as 
one word with the following noun) or separable. 
The inseparable prepositions are five in number, namely : 

by, with,” etc. This, when joined with the‏ با رز ب 
4S, changes their 70‏ رهم , 8 affixed pronouns‏ 
into 7, sce‏ 

ta, “by” (a particle of swearing).‏ ت 

3 wa, “by” (ditto). 
تدوع“ ان‎ (with pronouns this is pointed with Sethah). 
eG ka, “like.” 

we min, ‘ like,” ete. 

All prepositions take the following nouns in the dependent 
The conjunctions are— 

wa, “and.”‏ و 

fa, ‘and so” (as a consequence of what has gone before).‏ ف 

rubba, “many a,” or, conversely, “but few,” is used as‏ رب 

as a preposition. It must begin the sentence, and the noun 

which it governs must be indefinite and qualified by a sub- 

sequent adjective; as Abad رت رجل گر يم‎ rubba rajulin kert- 
min lakituhu, “many a generous man have I met.” 

The word رب‎ rubba is generally preceded by the conjunction 

wa followed by‏ و wa, “and.” It may even be omitted, the‏ و 

the dependent case having the same meaning. 



The following are the principal points of Arabic Syntax, and 
are all which it is necessary to learn or remember. 

1: Sentences are composed of nouns, verbs, and particles. 

2. Arabic nouns are all concrete, and do not express abstract 

3. The verbs contain a pronoun inherent in the form, which 
is their real agent (sec p. 78). 

Consequently, in parsing the sentence 2ت2‎ 
Zeidun 1 ہوسحمئ‎ “Zeid, the generous, came,” rather than say 
that 35; Zaidun is the nominative or agent to the verb sls ja-a, 
and that یم‎ Fei) al kerimu is an adjective agrecing with 555 
Zaidun, the true explanation is— 

came” (the agent he bemg contained in the‏ وگ ja-a,‏ جا 

word کا۶‎ ١۰ 

355 Zeidun, “I mean Zeid” (Zeid being the name of the agent 

zie,‏ 3 

get ol and therefore in apposition with it). 
لكريم‎ al kerimu, ‘“The generous one” (also in apposition with 
the agent or with the name). 

4. When one noun defines or determines another, the state of 
dependence is indicated by the dependent case; as JEST كناب‎ 
“the book of the man.” 

The indefinite nature of a noun is expressed by tenwin, and the 
definite nature of a noun by the loss of the tenwin ; or, if it stand by 
itself, except it be a proper name, by the addition of the article. 

6YNTAX. 97 

When it has ueither tenwin nor article we way know that, 
unless it be a proper name, it is connected with the noun which 
immediately follows it. 

5. A sentence consists of a subject and predicate; that is, of 
the thing about which we arc going to speak, and of somo 

statement concerning it; as 
مد‎ Predicate, 

Zeidun ka- -imun, ١ Zeid (is) standing?‏ 7 زیڈ 5 قازم 

Doth subject anc predicate are put in the suljective case. 

The simple logical copula “7s” is gencrally omitted; if em- 
phasis be required, the pronoun is used to supply its place; as 
ری کے وم‎ 5} Zeidun 0:04 ka-imun, ۲2۵۵ he (is) standing.” 

The predicate we consist of or contain a verb; as 555 رب‎ ze 
dhavaba Zeidun, “Zeid struck.” This is properly “‘ Ze struck,” 
namely “Zeid? The agent “he” being contained in the verb, 
and the name of such agent being subsequently mentioned for 
the sake of clearness, it follows that the natural order of words 
is to place the so-called agent after the verb. 

But if the verb be active or transitive, there must also be 
an object on which the ection falls; as ees 353 نزب‎ dharaba 
Zeidun .amran, “Zeid struck Arr.” 

The object is put in the objective case. 

If tho verb be neuter or intransitive, further explanation 
may be 2۵0160 cs to the state or condition of the agent; as 
lei ام زنگ‎ kama Zeidun و0۵۵6‎ “Zeid rose hastily.” 



The state or condition of the person or thing spoken of is always 
expressed by the objective case. 

If, instead of merely telling something about the subject, as 
“Zeid (is) standing,” we wish to express existence im a state 
of—or, the fact of becoming, that is, of assuming a certain con- 
dition,—it is clear that by thc rule above giver such a state 
must be expressed by the objective case; as 

Us a5 aS hana Zeidun ka-iman, “Zeid was standing ” 

۳۹ 5 35; هار ز‎ sara Zeidun khaiyatan, “Zeid became a tailor.” 

71:0۰ we get the rule that ae kana and similar verbs put the 
predicate in the objective case. 

The following sentence contains an cxample of cach of the 
وی‎ uses of the eae case : 

25 half ary الأ فير يزع اع تحبا‎ all 1355 G8 5 Wes 
dharabtu ہہ‎ wa ’Amran Zeidan amama "lamiri yauma 3 
dharban shadidan ta-diban lahu, 

* ۲ struck, conjointly with Amr, Zeid, before the Emir, on 
Friday, a severe blow by way of correcting him.” 

6. Particles modify the sentence by extending or restricting 
the action of the verb. Some few, ات‎ inna, ‘‘verily,” and the 
like, are exactly the reverse of کا‎ kana, puttine the subject in 
the objective case, and the predicate in the nominative; thus, 
تم‎ sa 1955 J} إن‎ 4 inna Zeidan la-ka-imun, ‘‘ ‘verily, Zeid is standing.” 
۲۲6۵۲۵ the predicate is introduced by a second or subordinate 

initial particle 3 la. The explanation of this is as follows: 


T am going to speak of my subject.”‏ و tnna,‏ ان 

1355 53 Zeidan, ۵4 “Zeid,” 26. in his condition of Zeid (whence 
the use of the objective case). 

ras la-ka-imun, “Well—(,3) he is standing”? (which last be- 

comes, as it were, a new predicate, and is therefore 
properly put in the nominative). _ 
These principles will account for every possible phase of Arabie 

Tur Synrax or tur Tenses oF THE VERB. 

1. Tue ۰ 

The pret>rite denotes a completed act, but the time at which 
it took place must be defined by the context or by some particle. 

Or it may express a foregone conclusion, such as naturally 
occurs in hypothetical or conditional sentences ; as أت فكت‎ 
وت‎ in kumta kuntu, “if you rise, I will rise.” 

Common use of the preterite in Arabic is in precative sen- 
tences; as اَدَا ام مه هکم‎ adama "Wahu bakakum, “ ,may God 
perpetuate your existence!” or in cursing; as ws a ۱ بارٹ‎ 1 
la baraka Wahu fikum, “may God not bless you ۳ 

The preterite of the verb os kana with the preterite of 
another verb is ee to the تام 25 وو‎ 355 ONS 
hana Zeidun kama, ‘Zeid had stood up.” 

But both the perfect and pluperfect are more usually cx- 
pressed by the preterite preceded by the particle S kad, with 
or without the conjunction و‎ ۰ 

II. ۰1118 0 
The Aorist denotes an act not yet completed, Like the 



preterite; it is somewhat indeterminate in respect of time, until 

defined by the context or by particles, 
Tur Syxtax or THE Sursuncrive Mfoop 02 Venus. 

The aorist of a verb, as we have scen (pp. 74-75), changes its 
final vowcl 2 into > to express the subjunctive mood. 

The change takez place when the verb is preceded by any one 

5 1 9 
of the following particles ٤ 

7 را اری. 1۰ 

وو 0 (bo,‏ ۶ و 5 کے oft‏ 

2. لن‎ lan أن = لا أنْ)-‎ GX 3) “it will not happen that’’)= 
6 ۰ 
“certainly not.” 

پا کے A‏ 
6 رت ۳ 

8. ادن‎ tdhan (إد أن ع)‎ © then.” 

Tke aorist of the verb loscs its final ۲۵۱۲۵۱ 1000 

4 1 ‘ ot eG 3 

i. After لم‎ lam, “not,” and J lamma, “not yet,” which 
alwuys give a past negative sense to the aorist; as 

LORRI 5 2 ۰ 
لم که‎ lam yakum, He did not stand.” 
Pete) کی پا‎ 3 

After ol in, “if,” and similar particles, both verbs lose their 
final vowel; as 
Gras 01 کر ا‎ A 0 ce 
نکسل خشسر‎ ol in taksal takhsar, If you are lazy you will 

come to ۳ 
Tor Acenr سد‎ THE VERB. 

The agent is put in the subjective casc. 

The agent foliows the verb, and the object of the action 
follows the agent; as ضرب )33 عَمرأ‎ dharaba Zeidun -amran, 
ای‎ ۰ 
‘Zeid struck ‘Amr.” 

Whcen the agent is, grammatically speaking, masculine, of no 

matter what number, the verb is put in the masculine singular. 


With a feminine agent the verb is properly put in the 
feminine singular. 

But if the agent be not really feminine, but only feminine 
from a grammatical point of view, either the masculine or 
feminine verb may be uscd, according as the speaker keep the 
Jeminine idea in his mind, or not, from the first ; as 

sh-shemsu,‏ 0 1016 طَلع آلشخش 
tala; at ish-shemsu,‏ طلعتِ الشقغش 

For the same reason, even when the agent is really feminine, 

The sun ۳ 

provided a word intervenes between it and the verb, either form 
aks be used. 
حل‎ aga! قامَ مَ‎ kamal 1 yauna Hindun, ) “ Hind stood to- 
SED 2 کے‎ kamati ۲ yauma Hindun,) day.” 
When a second verb occurs referring to the same agent, such 

verb agrees with it logically in gender, number, and person, 

Tur Subsect oF A PasstvE VERB. 

The same rules which apply to the agent of an active verb 
apply to the 1 of a passive verb. 

Si ضرب زا‎ dhuriba Zeidun, “Zeid was struck.” 

When a 5 which governs with a Pipers is put in tho 
passive voice, as 656 LE bahatha canku, “he 00 9 
it,” the preposition with its case is still retained ; as ےک عکه‎ 
buhitha eanhu, “it was disputed about.” The verb is then 
strictly impersonal, and therefore, in forming the passive part- 
iciple, the masculine form only is used, the pronoun alone being 

altered to express the gender; thus 


٠. t 
ro ماع رم توت‎ “The thing (masculine) dis- 
puted about.” 
© gt . ۰ ۰ ۰ 
عدا‎ ysis almabhithu -anha, “Phe thing (feminine) dis- 
puted about.” 
Nouns جد‎ Constrtcrion. 

Or Tue First or Two Nouns 1n 00۵91۵۲۰ 
Of two nouns in construction, the first invariably loses its 
tenwin. : 
The use of the construct form of nouns will be understood 
from the following examples : 

“The slave of the man.”‏ راز و میلو whe‏ اتی 

Wis 5 a ze 66 
لام رخل‎ ghulamu rajulin, ~ The slave of a man.” 


ad 2 
11020 tue loss of the ¢enwin makes the word ele ghuldmu 

definite in both instances (sce p. 90( it is not necessary, there- 
fore, further to define it by prefixing the article. ence the first 

of tro nouns in a state of construction does not require the article. 

Tue Vocative ۰ 
The vocative case is indicated by the particle با‎ yd, and is 
generally put in the direct caso. 
If, however, the noun is in construction, it is put in the 
objective; as 
silt S52 با‎ ya Abd 47721, “Oh, ‘Abdallah (servant of God) !” 
When the object called to is uxdefined or not present, or not 

directly addressed, it is also put in the objective case. 


When the noun has the article prefixed, 2! ۰۸۵ (masc.) 
and ایشا‎ aiyatwha (fem.) are used instead of یا‎ ya. 

Retative 877 8+ 
1101211۳6 sentences are expressed as follows : 
9 Be 7 م‎ 1 0 7 ۰ ۰ 
25), us} JSF arrajulu Madhi ra-c’ ht, 
مح سے‎ V-—_ oo بح نسحم‎ 
literally, The man who Isaw ۰ 
انی‎ 67711073 is for definite antecedents only ; for ۷/۵/۸۸۸۵ من‎ 
99 1 ۰ ۰ 
man, who?” and \% ma, what?” are used. I» interrogation 
é ° 3 2 
the demonstrative pronoun is added; as هي دأ‎ ۸۱۷ ۵ “who 
2 2 ure 7 
۳ a 5 ke : 
is that?” ما دا‎ ma dha, “what is that?” 

The article 7ء ال‎ is regarded as a relative. 

1۶ it be required to repeat the affixed pronoun by way of 
emphasis, the word to which it is affixed must also be repeated ; 
as مرت ا بٹ‎ narartu bika bika, “I passed by thee—by 
thee” [not eG. 
It may, however, be repeated separately in its nominative 
form; as 


eae 2 we ۰ ۰ ” 
مآ رمرم 7 بت11‎ anta, I passed by thee—thee. 
ے‫‎ 522 

The usual way in all cases is to repeat the pronoun in its 
detached form ; as 

5 ضرتت‎ dharabta anta, “Thou hast struck —thou.” 

My—thy—him—her—its—self, cte., are expressed ty the 

Sie 2» ‘6 ” 

“cc‏ 01 کچھ کے 
nafs, self” or soul,’ and wrt ain, eye” or‏ نهش words‏ 


“essence;” with the affixed pronouns. تاش‎ naj? agrees in 
rumter with the noun; as 
نفسه‎ 313 Zeidun nafsuhu, “ Zcid himself.” 
‘We may also say dud) binafsthi, in propria personi. | 


There are many forms of expressing admiration in Arabic, but 
they belong rather to the province of the vocabulary. Two, 
however, may be regularly derived from any root, namely, 
(1) ها اک‎ ma af,ala, and (2) ’ Sail fil bi. 
~(1) Sess le ma af.ala takes the accusative of the thing ad- 
mired; as ۱ 

1355 (os ما‎ ma ahsana Zeidan, “‘How handsome is Zcid!” 

et ما‎ ma ahsanahu, ‘How handsome he is!” 

(2) 2 esi af-il bi governs the thing admired in the genitive 
by the بت ات بر‎ bi; as 

0 آخین‎ ahsin bi Zeidin, “How handsome is 77 
ہو‎ 5st | akrim bihi, “Wow noble he is!” 

The thing admired must immediately follow the forms Sat همأ‎ 
ma وا وہ‎ and ’ ae fil bi, and cannot occur in any other 
position in the sentence. 

The preceding pages contain all the most important facts of 
Arabic Accidence and Syntax; other locutions which may 9 

met with will be found cxplaincd in the lexicons, 


کے اط حم 

PK Palmer, Edward Henry, 1840-1882. 
1983 Simplified grammar of Hindiistani, Persian and ۱ 
P3 bie. By E. 11. Palmer... 2d 60۰0 London, K. Pa 

1906 ~=s- Trench, Triibner, 1890. 

vil, 104 p. 19°. (Talf-title: Tritbner’s collection of simplified gra 
mars of the principal Asiatic and European languages, ed. by Dr. R. R 

1. Hindistani language—Grammar._ 2. Persian language—Granin 
3. Arabic language—Grammar. Te Titles 

Ccs¢ /mip ' 

rod 66 Library of Congress فك‎ ۲61.3 

eter ain 


کا کمن‎