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E.  H.  S.  BAILEY,  Ph.  D. 









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Copyright,  1914,  by  P.  Blakiston's  Son  &  Ca 

Rbpkintxo,  AirousT,  191 5. 

Reprinted  with  Additions  and  Corrections,  March,  191 6. 

Reprinted,  Auoust,  191 7. 

Reprinted  with  Additions  and  Corrections,  October,  191 8. 

Reprinted  June,  1920. 



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In  recent  years  the  facts  concerning  the  source,  composition 
and  use  of  the  different  food  products  are  becoming  more  generally 
known,  and  contributions  to  this  subject  are  more  widely  appre- 
ciated than  formerly.  Although  the  writer  fully  realizes  the 
immense  field  covered  by  the  tide  "Food  Products/'  nevertheless 
he  has  made  the  attempt  to  bring  together  in  one  volume  of  con- 
venient size  the  more  important  facts  in  regard  to  that  which  we 
eat  and  drink.  Many  of  these  facts  are  distributed  through  a 
mtdtitude  of  books,  pamphlets  and  scientific  reports,  which  are 
not  readily  accessible  to  the  general  public. 

No  attempt  is  made  to  give  sufiSdent  details  in  regard  to  farm- 
ing to  make  a  successful  farmer,  in  regard  to  manufacturing  food 
products  to  make  an  expert  in  this  line,  nor  to  give  specific  direc- 
tions to  the  person  who  prepares  the  food  for  the  table — all  these 
topics  are  treated  of  in  special  books  with  which  the  market  fe 
already  filled.  The  general  principles  of  food  production,  manu- 
facture and  preparation  are,  however,  treated  in  such  a  way  that 
the  reader  may  have  a  practical  knowledge  as  to  what  constitutes 
a  good  food,  and  where  it  is  obtained.  It  is  only  by  knowing  what 
good,  whdesome  food  is,  its  composition  and  appearance,  that  we 
can  hope  for  an  improvement  in  the  general  food  supply.  When 
this  knowledge  is  widely  disseminated,  public  opinion  will  go  far 
toward  correcting  any  abuses  that  still  exist  in  the  food  market; 
for  pure  food  laws  are  but  the  crystallized  sentiment  of  the  united 
protest  of  the  people  against  unwholesome  and  fraudulent  products. 

It  is  believed  that  this  book  will  be  found  sufficiently  complete 
to  serve  as  a  text  for  students  of  foods  in  our  Colleges  and  High 
Schools,  and  to  prc^rly  supplement  and  give  more  completeness 


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to  the  ordinary  courses  in  "Preparation  of  Food,"  "Sddction 
and  Economic  Use  of  Food"  and  "Dietetics." 

The  plan  followed  in  treating  of  the  important  foods  and  bever- 
ages f oimd  in  the  markets  of  the  world,  is  to  discuss  their  source, 
methods  of  preparation  for  the  market,  how  they  are  packed, 
preserved  and  shipped,  their  composition  and  nutrient  and  die- 
tetic value,  and  their  use  by  people  of  different  coimtries. 

Special  attention  is  called  to  the  arrangement  of  the  several 
topics,  which  while  somewhat  different,  it  is  believed  will  be  found 
more  logical  than  that  ordinarily  adopted.  After  discussing  the 
main  points  of  importance  imder  each  heading,  the  by-products, 
and  foods  and  beverages  which  are  directly  or  indirectly  made 
from  this  material,  are  considered.  Thus,  following  cane  sugar 
and  glucose,  confectionery  is  discussed;  after  grapes  comes  the 
consideration  of  grape  juice,  wine,  and  finally  brandy — each  in  its 
Impropriate  place. 

Illustrations  are  used  where  they  will  add  clearness  to  the 
text,  or  where  they  will  bring  into  prominence  certain  methods 
of  production,  manufacture  or  distribution  of  foods. 

The  standard  books  on  food,  nutrition,  dietetics  and  food  adid- 
teration  by  such  authors  as  Wiley,  Leach,  Tibbies,  Snyder, 
Hutchinson,  Thompson,  Allen,  Sadtler,  Winton,  Lusk,  Wing, 
Gautier,  Jordan,  Sherman  and  others,  have  been  freely  consulted, 
and  numerous  footnotes  refer  to  the  most  important  sources  of 
information  utilized.  The  Reports  of  the  U.  S.  Department  of 
Agriculture  and  its  various  Bureaus  have  been  found  especially 
useful,  and  the  author  thankfidly  acknowledges  the  debt  he  owes 
to  this  important  Department  of  the  Government. 

For  many  valuable  suggestions  and  for  assistance  in  reading 
c<^y  and  proof  the  author  is  imder  obligations  to  Prof.  P.  F.  Trow- 
bridge of  Columbia,  Mo.,  Mr.  A.  V.  H.  Mory  and  Mr.  Donald  M. 
Ndson  of  Chicago,  Mr.  Herbert  S.  Bailey  of  Washington,  D.  C., 
Miss  Sarah  M.  Wilson  of  Philadelphia,  Prof.  W.  C.  Stevens,  Dr. 
F.  H.  Billings  and  Dr.  Edna  D.  Day  of  Lawrence,  Kas.,  Mr. 
Rudo^h  Hirsch  and  Mr.  Geo.  W.  Smith  of  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  Prof . 

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Isabel  Bevier  of  Urbana,  111.,  and  Mr.  C.  S.  McFarland  of  Burn- 
side,  La.  Permission  to  copy  illustrations  has  been  duly  acknowl- 
edged elsewhere,  but  special  thanks  are  due  to  Mr.  Jos.  A.  Arnold 
of  the  U.  S,  Department  of  Agriculture,  the  Central  Scientific  Co. 
of  Chicago,  and  Mr.  L.  S.  Bushnell  of  Kansas  City,  for  courtesies 

E.  H.  S.  Bailey. 
Lawrence,  Kas. 

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Whsue,  How  and  by  Whom  Foods  are  Produced,  x.  Sources  ow 
Food,  wuh  Table  of  Producers  and  Manufactxtrers,  i.  Classiti- 
cation  of  Foods,  9.  Distribution  of  Foods,  4.  Food  Constitubnts 
teoM  A  Chemical  Standpoint,  7.  Carbohydrates,  8;  Cdlulose,  10; 
Starch,  la;  Glycogen,  14;  Dextrin,  15;  Inulin,  15;  Cane  sugar,  17;  Malt 
sugar,  17;  Milk  sugar,  17;  Glucose,  18;  Fructose,  18;  Pectose,  18.  Fats, 
18.  Proteins,  19;  Albumins,  30;  GUadin,  20.  Organic  Acids,  19. 
Mineral  Salts,  22.    Heat  Units  of  Food  Compounds  23. 



STARCH 25-62 

Wheat,  25;  Structure  of  wheat  kernels,  26;  Milling  wheat,  27;  Grades  of 
flour,  29;  Varieties  of  flour,  30;  Bleaching  flour,  32.  Rye,  33;  Composition, 
33;  Rye  bread:  Ergot,  34.  Oats,  35;  Milling  oats,  35;  Composition  of  oat- 
meal, 35;  Cooking  oatmeal,  36.  Barley,  37;  Composition,  38.  Corn,  39; 
Cultivation,  40;  Composition,  42;  Sweet  com,  43;  Pop  com,  44;  Com  flour, 
45;  Food  value  of  com,  45.  Rice,  46;  Cultivation,  47;  Milling,  49;  Conn 
position,  51;  Cooking,  52;  Digestion,  52.  Millet,  53.  Buckwheat,  54; 
Composition,  54;  Cooking,  55;  Adulteration,  55.  Quinoa:  Kaffir  Corn, 
56.  Manufacture  of  Starch,  57;  Wheat  starch,  57;  Com  starch,  57; 
Cassava  Starch,  60.    Digestibility  of  Starches,  62. 



Bread  and  Bread-making,  63;  History,  63;  Unleavened  bread,  64;  Bread 
raised  by  entrapping  of  air,  65;  By  adding  a  volatile  substance,  66;  By  addi- 
tion of  substances  which,  uniting  chemically,  set  free  carbon  dioxide  gas, 
6S.  Baking  Powder,  69.  Bread  Raised  by  Fermentation,  72.  Bread 
RAISED  by  Yeast,  74.  Baking,  77.  Yeast  and  Its  Action,  78;  Com- 
pressed yeast,  79;  Chemical  changes  produced,  79.  Effect  of  Keeping 
ON  THE  Composition  of  Bread,  81.  Causes  for  Bad  Bread,  82. 
Varieties  of  Bread,  8$.  Adulteration  of  Bread,  84.  Macaroni, 
85;   Materials   used,   S6;   Processes  of  making,  86;    Composition,  89. 

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Breakfast  and  Proprietary  Foods,  92;  Composition  of  breakfast  foods, 
9  2 ;  Valuation  of  breakfast  foods,  93 .    Pancake  Flour,  91.    Proprietary 
Foods,  92;  Composition,  92;  Nonscientific  diet  systems,  93. 



Classification,  95.  History,  95.  Cultivation  of  Sugar  Cane,  97; 
leaking  of  cane  sugar,  99;  Evaporation  of  juice,  102;  Sugar  boiling,  102. 
Cultivation  of  Sugar  Beet,  105;  Manufacture  of  beet  sugar— Diffusion 
process,  106;  Purification  of  the  juice,  107.  Sugar  Refining,  108.  Loaf 
AND  Cube  Sugar,  108.  Manufacture  of  MAple  Sugar,  109;  Purifica- 
tion of  maple  sirup,  no;  Composition  of  maple  sirup,  in.  Palh  Sugar, 
112.  Sugar  as  Food,  114.  Production  of  Sugar,  116.  Consumption 
of  Sugar,  117.  Grape  Sugar,  118.  Glucose,  117.  Commercial 
Grape  Sugar,  119.  Glucose  as  Food,  120;  Production  of  ghicose,  121. 
Sources  and  Methods  of  Manufacture  of  Molasses  and  Sirups, 
122;  Open  pan  molasses,  122;  Sugar  cane  molasses,  122;  Sorghum  sirup, 
124;  Commercial  sirups,  124;  Adulteration  of  sirup,  125;  Confection- 
ery, 127;  Soft  candy,  128;  Hard  Candy,  128;  Chewing  gum,  129;  Adul- 
teration of  confectionery,  130.  Honey,  131;  History,  131;  Comb  honey 
vs.  extracted  honey,  132;  Composition,  133.    Statistics,  134. 



Fermented  Beverages,  136.  Malt  Liquors,  136.  Chemistry  of  Beer 
Manufacture,  137;  Yeast,i37;  Malting,  139;  Kilning,  139;  Mashing,  139; 
Boiling  the  wort,  140;  Fermentation,  140;  Composition,  141;  Varieties,  141; 
Action  on  the  system,  142.  Distilled  Beverages,  143;  Materials  used, 
143.  Manufacture  of  Alcohol,  144;  Fermentation  of  the  wort,  144; 
Distillation,  144.  Standards  for  Alcoholic  Liquors,  145.  Whiskey, 
145;  Method  of  manufacture,  146.  Rum,  146.  Gin,  147.  Liqueurs 
AND  Cordials,  147;  Varieties  and  composition,  149.  Other  Intoxicating 
Beverages,  149.    Physiological  Action  of  Alcohol  150. 



Composition,  152.  Effect  of  Cooking,  153.  Nutritive  Value,  153. 
Potatoes,  154;  History,  154;  Structure,  155;  Cultivation,  155;  Storage, 
156;  Composition,  156;  Nutritive  value,  157;  Cooking,  158;  Drying,  159; 
Potatoes  as  food,  160;  Quantity  raised,  160.  Cassava,  161;  Source,  162; 
Composition,  162;  Tapioca  as  food,  163;  Manufacture  of  tapioca,  163. 
Sago,  165;  Source  and  manufacture,  165.    Arrow-root,  165;  Manufac- 

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ture  and  composition,  i66;  Uses,  i66.  Aktichoke  (Jerusalem),  i67« 
Asparagus,  167;  History,  167;  Composition,  168;  Beets,  169;  Beets  as 
food,  169;  Cooking,  170.  Cabbage,  170;  Composition,  170;  Cooking,  170; 
Sauerkraut,  171.  Cauleflower,  172.  Carrot,  172;  Composition,  172. 
Okra,  173,  Cooking,  173.  Onion,  174;  Composition,  174.  Garlic,  175. 
Parsnip,  175;  Composition,  175.  Rheubarb,  176;  Composition  and  use, 
176.  Salep,  177.  Sweet  Potatoes,  177;  Value  as  food,  179.  Yams,  179. 
Taro,  179.  Dasheen,  180.  Turnip,  181.  Greens,  182.  Salad  Plants, 
182;  Artichoke,  183;  Celery,  184;  Chicory,  186;  Lettuce,  187;  Radish, 
188.    Aromatic  and  Medicinal  Herbs,  188. 


LEGUMES 190-205 

Beans,  192;  Composition,  193;  Cooking,  193;  Soy-beans,  195;  Soy-bean 
products,  196;  Locust  beans,  197.  Tamarind,  197.  Cow-pea,  198. 
Peas,  199;  Composition,  199;  Canned  peas,  200;  Pea  growing,  200. 
Lentils  201;  Composition  and  use,  201.  Peanuts,  202;  Peanut  grow- 
ing, 202;  Composition,  204;  Use  as  food,  204;  Peanut  products,  204. 



BERRIES  . 206-280 

Use  op  Fruits,  207.  Classification,  208.  Composition,  Including  Car- 
bohydrates, Vegetable  Acids,  Pectin  Bodies  and  Mineral  Salts,  209- 
213.  Storing,  Preserving  and  Canning  of  Frotts,  209.  Drying,  214; 
Fruit  evaporators,  215.  Preservation  with  Sugar,  217.  Adulteration 
op  Jams  and  Jellies,  218.  Cold  Storage,  221;  Use  of  refrigerating 
apparatus,  222.  Canning,  222;  History,  223;  Canning  in  the  household, 
224;  Canning  in  the  factory,  225.  Nutritive  Value  op  Fruits,  226 
Uses  op  Fruits,  227.    Cooking  Frxht,  228.    Washing  Fruit,  230. 



Orchard  Fruits,  231.  Apple,  231;  Unfermented  apple  juice,  232;  Cider 
brandy,  232;  Vinegar,  235.  Pears,  237.  Quinces,  238.  Drupe  Fruits, 
238.  Apricot,  239.  Cherry,  239;  Cherry  brandy,  241.  Dates,  241; 
Growing,  241;  Drying,  243.  Peaches,  244;  Growing  244.  Plums, 
24s;  Drying  prunes,  246.  Persimmon,  247.  Citrus  Fruits,  249. 
Citron,  249.  Grape  Fruit.  250.  Lemon,  251;  Oil  of  lemon,  252; 
Lemon  extract,  253;  Adulteration,  254.  Limes,  254.  Orange,  255;  Oil 
of  orange,  256.  Mandarin,  256.  Vine  Fruits,  256.  Grapes,  256; 
History,  257;  Composition,  258;  Manufacture  of  raisins,  259;  Grape  juice, 
260;  Composition,  262.    Wijte,  262;  Wine  making,  263;  Composition  of 

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wines,  265;  Adulteration,  266;  Varieties,  266.    Brandy,  367;  Distillation 
of  brandy,  267;  Fictitious  brandy,  a68. 



Bessies,  369;  Description,  269.  Cranberry,  270.  Currant,  271. 
eu)erberry,  272.  gooseberry,  272.  mulberry,  272.  raspberry, 
373.  Huckleberry,  274.  Serviceberry,  274.  Strawberry,  275. 
Miscellaneous  Fruits,  275.  Avocado,  376.  Banana,  276;  Composi- 
tion and  food  value,  378;  Banana  flour,  280.  Bread  Fruit,  280.  Fig, 
381.  GuAVA,  283.  Mango,  383.  Olive,  284.  Pawpaw,  286.  Pome- 
granate, 286.  Prickly  Pear,  387.  Pineapple,  287;  Dietetic  value, 
388.  Garden  Fruits,  289.  Cucumber,  289;  Pickles,  290.  Egg  Plant, 
390.  Melon,  291.  Watermelon,  291.  Pumpkin,  392.  Vegetable 
Marrow,  292.  Tomato,  292;  Compo^tion,  293;  Canned  Tomatoes,  394; 
Catsup,  295;  Tomato  Paste,  296. 



Mushrooms,  297;  Mushroom  growing,  298;  Composition,  299;  Digestibil- 
ity* 301;  Poisonous  and  edible  mushrooms,  301.  Truffles,  304.  Pres- 
ervation OF  Mushrooms,  304.    Alga,  305.    Lichens,  306. 



Fixed  Oils,  307.  Composition  of  Fatty  Foods,  307.  Lard,  310;  Com- 
mercial manufacture,  310;  Lard  substitutes,  311;  Adulteration,  312. 
Beef  Fat,  312.  Glycerin,  313.  Vegetable  Oils,  313;  Use,  314; 
Yield,  315.  Palm  Nut  Oil,  316.  Almond  Oil,  316.  Peanut  Oil, 
316.  Sesame  Oil,  317.  Poppy  Seed  Oil,  317.  Olive  Oil,  317;  Adul- 
teration, 318.  Cacao  Fat,  319.  Coconut  Oil,  320.  Cottonseed  Oil 
•320.  Sunflower  Oil,  322.  Corn  Oil,  322.  Rape  Seed  Oil,  322. 
Mustard  Oil,  3  23.    Soy-bean  Oil,  3 23. 



Structure,  325.  Composition,  325.  Cooking,  327.  Nut  Prepara- 
tions, 327.  Acorns,  329.  Sweet  Almonds,  329.  Bitter  Almonds, 
331.  Beech  Nut,  331.  Brazil  Nut,  331.  Paradise  Nut,  332.  Cana- 
Runi  Nut,  332.  Casihew  Nut,  332.  Chestnut,  333.  Cocoanut,  334. 
Ginkgo  Nut,  334.  Hazel  Nut,  335.  Hickory  Nut,  336.  Pecan,  336. 
PiNONS,  337.  Pistachio  Nut,  338.  Walnut,  3^8.  Butternut,  339. 
LiTCHi  Nut,  339. 

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BixAT,  343;  Strocttue,  342;  Slaughtering,  343;  Preserving,  343;  Chemkal 
composition,  344;  Cooking,  345;  DigestiUlity,  347.  Preservation  of 
MsAT,  348;  Canning,  350;  Potted  meats,  353.  Sausages,  353.  MmcB 
Meat,  354.  Beet  Tea  and  Meat  Extracts,  354;  Food  value  of  beef  ex- 
tract, 357.  Beef  Juice,  357.  Gelatin,  359.  Pork,  362.  Mutton, 
364.  Goats,  364;  Goat's  meat,  364.  Horse  Flesh,  364.  Geese,  367. 
Turkeys,  367. 



Composition,  368.  Digestibility,  370.  Varieties  of  Fish,  370.  Pres- 
ervation, 374;  Drying,  376;  Canning,  376.  Fish  Products,  377; 
TsinglaOT,  377;  Fish  oils^  377  ,  Shell  Fish,  377.  Oysters,  378;  Composi- 
tion; Digestibility,  378.  Clams,  380.  Mussels,  381.  Lobsters,  383. 
Shrimps,  383.    Miscellaneous  Animal  Foods,  383. 



Cow's  Milk,  384.  Tubercxtlous  Milk,  386.  Abnormal  Milk,  387. 
Composition,  387.  Changes,  388.  Digestion  of  Milk,  388.  Certi- 
fied Milk,  389.  Pasteurized  Milk,  389.  Use  of  Preservatives,  390. 
Sterilized  Milk,  390.  Evaporated  Milk,  391.  Desiccated  Milk, 
393.  Modified  Milk,  393.  Adulteration,  394.  Poisonous  Milk, 
395.  Koumiss  and  Kephir,  396.  Milk  of  Various  Animals,  398. 
Cream,  400;  Composition,  401.  Ice  Cream,  40Z.  Butter,  403;  Ripen- 
ing cream,  403;  Working  butter,  405;  Compo^tion,  406;  Composition  of 
butter  fat,  406;  Coloring,  407;  Dietetic  value,  407.  Buttermilk,  408. 
Margarine,  Butterine  and  Renovated  Butter,  408.  Oleomargarine 
Legislation,  411.  Renovated  Butter  Process,  413.  Cheese,  413; 
Cbeese  making,  413;  Use  of  rennet,  414;  Composition  of  dieese,  415;  Clas- 
dfication  of  cheeses,  415;  Cottage  cheese,  416;  Cream  cheese,  416;  Camem- 
bert,  417;  Brie,  417;  Limburger,  418;  Neufchatel,  418;  Pont  L'EveVeque, 
418;  Gervais,  418;  Cheddar,  419;  Stilton,  419;  Gouda,  430;  Schwdtzer,  430; 
Edam,  431;  Gorgonzola,  433;  Parmesan,  433;  Roquefort,  433;  Ripening  of 
cheese,  433;  Digestibility  of  cheese,  434;  Adulteration  of  cheese,  435. 
Milk  Sugar,  436     Uses  of  Casein,  437. 


EGGS  AND  EGG  PRODUCTS     429-439 

Description,  439.  Composition,  431.  Digestion,  433.  Cooking, 
433.  Testing,  435.  Preservation,  435.  Egg  Preparations,  438 
Production,  439. 

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Essential  Oils,  440.  Fsou  Steus  or  Leaves,  441.  From  Buds  or 
Flowers,  443.  From  Bark,  444.  From  Roots  or  Root  Stalks,  444. 
From  Immature  or  Ripe  Fruits,  446.  From  Seeds,  448.  Salt,  451; 
From  evaporation  of  ocean  or  salt  lake  waters,  452;  From  rock  salt,  452; 
By  evaporating  a  brine,  452;  Composition,  453;  Dietetic  use  of  salt,  453. 



General  Constituents,  455.  Tea,  455;  Cultivation  of  the  plant,  457; 
Manufacture  of  tea,  457;  Green  tea,  457;  Black  tea,  457;  Composition  of 
teas,  458;  Varieties  of  tea,  459;  Adulteration  and  substitution,  461;  Prepa- 
ration of  the  beverage,  462;  Physiological  action,  462 ;  Tea  Substitutes, 
463.  Coffee,  464;  Cultivation  of  the  plant,  464;  Preparation  for  market, 
466;  Coffee  roasting,  467;  Glazing  coffee,  468;  Composition,  468;  Prepara- 
tion of  the  beverage,  469;  By  percolation,  469;  By  infusion,  470;  By  decoc- 
tion, 470;  Phy^ological  action  of  coffee,  470;  Varieties,  471;  Adulteration 
and  falsification,  473.  Chicory,  474.  Coffee  Substitutes,  475.  Cof- 
fee Extracts,  475.  Caffein-free  Coffee,  476.  Cocoa  and  Choco- 
late, 476;  Cultivation  of  the  tree,  476;  Preparation  of  the  beans,  478; 
Manufacture  of  cocoa  and  chocolate,  478;  Chemical  composition,  479; 
Physiological  action,  481;  Falsifications  and  adulterations,  481;  Mate, 
482.    Khat,  482.    Kola,  482.    Guarana,  483.    Coca,  483. 


WATER  AND  EFFERVESCING  BEVERAGES  (Soft  drinks)  .  .  .  484-4^ 
Importance  of  Water,  484.  Water  as  a  Beverage,  484.  Impurities, 
485.  Hard  and  Soft  Waters,  486.  Table  Waters,  486.  Mineral 
Waters,  487.  Organic  Constitttents,  487.  Cistern  Water,  488. 
Use  of  Domestic  Filters,  488.  Distilled  Water,  4S9.  Ice,  489. 
Natural  Mineral  Waters  490.  Flavored  and  Carbonated  Waters, 
491.  Soda  Water,  491.  Manufacture  of  Carbon  Dioxide,  492. 
Flavoring  Sirups,  493.    Table  of  Fruit  Essences,  494.    Ginger  Ale, 

495.  Fruit  Vinegars,  493.    Root  and  Herb  Beers,  495.    Coca  Cola» 

496.  Properties  of  Caffein,  496. 

Appendix 498-521 

Table  I. — Composition  of  American  Food  Materials,  498.  i.  Cereal 
Products,  499.  2.  Sugar  and  Starch  Products,  499.  3.  Vegetables, 
Roots,  Legumes,  Etc.,  500.  4.  Fruits,  Berries,  Etc.,  501.  5.  Nuts  and 
Vegetable  Oils,  503.  Chemical  Composition  and  Fuel  Value  of 
Meats,  504.  Composition  of  Fish,  Mollusks,  Crustaceans,  Etc.,  509. 
Dairy  Products  and  Eggs,  511.  Table  II,  Common  Food  Values,  5x2. 
Table  in.  Classification  of  Foods  According  to  Total  Nutrients, 
518.    Table  IV,  Digestibility  of  Meat,  520.  ,     ^^^1^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ  Ic 

Index P.   .   .  523 



To  supply  himself  with  food  which  shall  build  up  the  tissues  of 
the  body,  and  yield  energy  for  daily  work,  has  always  been  one  of 
the  most  important  problems  which  man  has  to  solve.  This 
outranks  in  importance  even  the  question  of  clothing  and  shelter, 
for  among  primitive  peoples  especially,  much  less  time  and  labor 
are  bestowed  on  these  necessities  than  on  how  to  get  enough  to 
eat.  In  the  earlier  times  each  family  provided  itself  with  food 
from  the  immediate  vicinity  of  its  dwelling;  but  as  the  conditions 
of  society  became  more  complicated,  and  great  centers  of  popxila- 
tion  grew  up,  it  was  no  longer  possible  to  supply  the  people  with 
food  in  this  way,  and  it  became  necessary  to  depend  on  the  labor  of 
others  to  procure  the  food  and  bring  it  to  our  door.  The  business 
of  supplying  the  world  with  food  has  gradually  increased  imtil 
to-day  an  immense  number  of  laborers  is  employed  in  raising, 
manufactiuring  and  distributing  the  food  products  of  the  world. 
This  fact  is  illustrated,  as  far  as  the  producers  and  manufactiurers 
are  concerned,  by  a  study  of  the  following  table: 


I.  Cereal  Foods. 

a.  Farmers. 

b.  Millers  of  wheat,  rye,  com,  oats  and  barley. 

c.  Bakers  of  bread,  crackers,  cakes,  pastry  and  pretzels. 

d.  Manufacturers  of  macaroni,  vermicelli  and  food  pastes. 

e.  Manufacturers  of    prepared  "cereals,''  breakfast    foods,  proprietary  and 
infant's  foods. 

I  Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


£.   Manufacturers  of  starches,  yeast,  baking  powder,  cream  of  tartar,  baking 

soda,  calcium  phosphate,  alum,  aluminum  sulfate  and  common  salt, 
g.  Manufacturers  of  cereal  by-products,  as  com  oil. 
3.  Sugars. 

a.  Planters. 

b.  Sugar  manufacturers,  ^rom  cane,  beets,  maple  sap  and  sorghum. 

c.  Glucose  manufacturers,  from  com,  rice  or  wheat  starch. 

d.  Sirup  manufacturers. 

e.  Honey  growers. 

f.  Candy  and  confectionery  manufacturers. 

3.  Fhiits  and  Vegetables. 

a.  Farmers,  gardeners  and  horticulturalists. 

b.  Canners,  packers  and  dryers  of  fruits  and  vegetables. 

c.  Manufacturers  of  jams,  jellies,  preserves,  etc. 

d.  Manufacturers  of  pickles,  and  of  vinegar,  mustard  and  similar  condimental 

4.  Fats  and  Oils  from  Nuts  and  Fruits. 

a.  Farmers  and  growers  of  nuts  and  oil-bearing  fruits. 

b.  Manufacturers  of  peanut  butter,  sweet  oil,  nut  foods  and  vegetable  oils. 

5.  Nitrogenous  Foods  (Meats  and  Fish). 

a.  Farmers  and  stock  raisers. 

b.  Packers  of  beef,  pork,  mutton,  fowls,  and  game  for  distribution  and  cold 

c.  Fishermen  who  obtain  fish,  clams,  oysters,  lobsters,  crabs,  sea  weed  and  "sea 
food  in  general" 

d.  Packers  and  dryers  of  fish. 

e.  Canners  of  fish,  lobsters,  oysters,  clams,  shrimps,  crabs,  etc. 

f.  Canners  and  packers  of  "prepared"  or  comed  beef,  of  pork,  mutton,  sausages, 
devilled  ham  and  similar  products. 

g.  Butterine  and  cottolene  manufacturers, 
h.  Hunters  and  game  distributors. 

6.  Dairy  Products. 

a.  Farmers  and  dairymen. 

b.  Butter  and  cheese  manufacturers. 

c.  Proprietors  of  ice  cream  and  condensed  milk  factories. 

d.  Proprietors  of  *  milk  sugar  factories,  and  other  plants  for  the  utilization  of 
milk  by-products. 

7.  Egg  Products. 

a.  Farmers  and  poulterers. 

b.  Manufacturers  of  desiccated  eggs,  albumin  and  similar  products 

8.  Spices. 

a.  Growers  of  spices. 

b.  Millers  and  manufacturers  of  spices  and  condiments, 
c  Manufacturers  of  essential  oils. 

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9.  Ice  and  Cold  St<mige. 

a.  Manufacturers  and  storers  of  natural  and  artificial  ice. 

b.  Proprietors  of  cold  storage  plants  and  refrigerator  cars  and  vessels. 

10.  Non*]ntoxicatiiig  Beverages. 

a.  Tea,  coffee,  cocoa  and  chocolate  growers,  roasters  and  grinders. 

b.  Manufacturers  of  pop,  soda  water,  lemonade  and  iced  drinks. 

c.  Manufacturers  of  carbon  dioxide  gas  for  carbonating  beverages. 

d.  Bottlers  of  natural  and  artificial  mineral  waters. 

e.  Manufacturers  of  synthetic  flavors. 

11.  Litozicatiiig  Beverages. 

a.  Manufacturers  of  malt,  ale,  beer,  stout,  porter,  etc 

b.  Manufacturers  of  wine,  dder  and  perry. 

c  Distillers  and  rectifiers  of  alcohol,  rum,  gin,  brandy  and  whiskey. 

d.  Manufacturers  of  cordials,  liqueurs,  etc. 


a.  Proprietors  of  plants  for  the  storage,  filtration  and  distribution  of  water. 

b.  Manufacturers  and  distributors  of  distilled  and  table  waters. 

Perishable  and  Non-perishable  Foods 

The  food  made  available  by  this  immense  number  of  producers 
may  be  classified  into  perishable  and  non-perishable  products. 
It  fortunately  happens  that  many  of  the  staple  products,  like  the 
cereals,  keep  for  a  series  of  years,  and  bear  transportation  to  any 
part  of  the  globe.  There  are,  however,  more  food-stuflFs  that  are 
of  such  a  perishable  nature  that  the  greatest  care  must  be  exercised 
in  keeping  them  long  enough  to  transport  them  to  a  distant  market. 
There  are  some,  in  fact,  especially  foreign  and  tropical  fruits  and 
vegetables,  that  are  so  perishable  that  they  are  seldom  known 
outside  the  limited  area  in  which  they  are  grown.  In  general  it 
may  be  said  that  the  products  of  northern  climates  bear  trans- 
portation better  than  tropical  fruits  and  vegetables,  although 
there  are  some  exceptions  to  this  rxile.  The  animal' products  are 
of  course  all  quite  perishable,  but  imder  modern  methods  of 
transportation  there  is  nothing  to  prevent  their  use  in  the  coimtries 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  globe  from  which  they  are  produced. 
The  importation  of  food-stuffs  into  the  United  States  has  nearly 
doubled  within  the  last  ten  years.  This  increase  is  especially 
noticeable  in  the  case  of  tea,  coffee,  cocoa,  and  tropical  fruits. 
The  importation  of  fruits  and  nuts  is  increasing  at  the  rate 
of  $3,000,000  a  year,  while  the  quantity  of  meats  and  animal  Dro- 

igi  ize     y  g 


ducts,  such  as  cheese,  that  are  brought  into  the  United  States,  is 
four  times  as  much  as  ten  years  ago. 

Distribution  of  Food 

In  the  early  settlement  of  a  country  and  among  primitive 
peoples  the  food  produced  was  distributed  largely  by  the  producers 
themselves,  but  as  the  popxilation  increased,  several  other  methods 
of  local  distribution  have  been  developed.  First,  in  the  large 
trade  centers  great  municipal  markets  have  been  established, 
where  the  people  can  purchase  daily  the  food  needed.    Market 

Fig.  I. — City  Market,  Lausanne,  Switzerland. 

houses  are  erected,  often  by  the  city,  and  stalls  are  rented  to  the 
marketmen  or  farmers  who  bring  in  the  produce.  It  frequently 
happens,  however,  that  the  farmers  expose  their  produce  for  sale 
in  the  public  market  square,  without  any  buildings,  except  such 
as  thty  temporarily  erect.  (Fig.  i.)  This  method  of  supply  is 
common  throughout  the  Old  World,  and  to  some  extent  in  the 
larger  cities  in  the  United  States. 

From  some  of  the  great  food  markets  of  the  world,  as  the 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Smithfield  Covent  Garden  and  Billingsgate  in  London,  the 
Halles  Centrales  in  Paris,  ^  Washington  and  Fulton  market  in 
New  York,  and  from  the  produce  dealers  in  the  vicinity,  millions 
of  people  are  daily  supplied  with  food.  (Fig.  2.)  Without  these 
daily  activities  the  food  supply  of  the  people  would  immediately 
fail  and  famine  be  imminent.     The  slight  blocking  of  transporta- 


2. — Market  Place  and  Cathedral,  Nuremberg,  Get, 

View  Co.) 

(Copyright,  Keystone 

tion  by  some  disaster,  a  storm,  or  a  strike  woxild  immediately 
cause  the  price  of  food  to  rise,  because  the  supply  is  cut  off. 

A  second  method  of  local  distribution  of  food  is  by  the  licensed 
venders  especially  in  the  larger  cities,  who  procxire  the  food  at  the 
market  or  of  wholesale  dealers,  and  peddle  it  from  house  to  house. 
This  method,  which  is  perhaps  even  more  common  in  the  older 
cities  of  Europe  than  in  the  United  States,  is  extended  into  the 
^  Food  and  Flavor,  Finck,  p.  266. 

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surrounding  country  by  the  itinerant  peddiars.  One  advantage 
of  this  method  of  distribution  is  that  the  housekeeper  has  the 
opportunity  to  inspect  the  food,  and  it  is  not  necessary  to  spend 
so  much  time  as  in  visiting  the  distant  market  square. 

The  third  method  of  distribution  and  the  one  prevalent  in  the 
United  States,  is  by  the  service  of  the  local  grocer.  It  is  extremely 
expensive  and  is  perhaps  one  factor  in  the  present  high  cost  olfood 
to  the  consimier.  It  is  not  an  economical  method  of  distribution 
because  the  consimier  pays  for  the  large  loss  of  perishable  foods 
which  the  grocer  must  keep  on  hand  to  supply  a  varied  class  of 
customers;  he  must  pay  for  one  or  more  telephones  that  are  used 
in  taking  orders,  for  the  numerous  delivery  men  and  wagons  that 
from  each  grocery  supply  families  in  different  and  often  distant 
parts  of  the  city,  and  imless  the  grocery  be  run  on  a  cash  basis,  the 
paying  consumer  helps  to  bear  the  losses  incurred  from  trusting 
those  who  never  pay. 

Sources  of  Food 

All  the  food  of  man  comes  originally  from  the  soil,  the  air  and 
the  water.  There  are  however  many  transformations  before  the 
mineral  salts,  the  oxygen,  carbon  dioxide,  and  the  nitrogen  of  the 
air,  and  the  hydrogen  and  oxygen  of  the  water,  are  changed  to  the 
highly  organized  bodies  which  constitute  our  foods,  but  these 
changes  are  imceasingly  worked  out  day  by  day  in  the  labora- 
tories of  the  plant  and  animal  organisms.  Plants  are  the  great 
builders  of  foods;  animals  utilize  and  modify,  yielding  in  their 
flesh  a  portion  of  the  food  they  consume.  Vegetable  food  is, 
however,  a  less  highly  organized  and  less  concentrated  form  of 
nourishment  than  that  from  animal  sources,  and  most  animals 
that  are  used  as  food  by  man  feed  on  vegetable  foods. 

The  most  primitive  people  of  whom  we  have  any  knowledge 
not  only  used  the  wild  animals  caught  in  the  chase,  the  fish  and 
the  wild  fruits  and  berries  for  food,  but  they  very  early  began  to 
domesticate  the  animals  and  to  cultivate  the  grains  and  fruits,  so 
as  to  be  less  dependent  on  what  they  might  chance  to  find  provided 

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by  the  hand  of  nature.  There  is  no  evidence  that  these  early 
peoples  were  v^etarians,  for  the  adaptability  of  the  human  body 
to  the  use  of  animal  foods  and  the  earliest  history  disprove  this; 
indeed  some  of  the  most  uncivilized  peoples  of  the  present  day 
subsist  almost  exclusively  on  fish  and  game. 


If  we  study  the  composition  of  foods,  it  is  evident  at  the  outset 
that  the  elementary  substances  of  which  they  are  composed  are 
few  in  number,  and  that  the  highly  complex  food  materials  in  the 
vegetable  and  animal  kingdoms  are  built  up  from  a  few  simple 
substances  combined  in  innumerable  ways.  These  elements  or 
simple  substances  of  the  foods,  which  subsequently  become  a 
part  of  the  animal  body,  are  carbon,  the  central  element  of  all 
organic  nature,  hydrogen,  one  of  the  constituents  of  water,  oxygen 
which  occiurs  free  in  the  air  and  combined  in  water,  and  nitrogen, 
which  is  also  free  in  the  air  and  the  characteristic  element  of  animal 
tissues.  These  are  the  most  abundant,  but  in  addition  to  these 
and  equally  necessary  in  the  development  of  plants  and  animals 
are  sulfur,  phosphorus,  chlorin,  fluorin,  silicon,  calcimn,  potassium, 
sodium,  magnesium,  iron,  manganese,  and  copper — sixteen  in  all. 

Just  as  it  is  possible  for  the  architect  to  erect  an  infinite 
variety  of  buildings  from  a  few  simple  building  materials,  so  in  the 
laboratory  of  nature  these  elements,  properly  fitted  together,  give 
us  the  substance  of  the  roots,  the  seeds,  the  fruits  of  plants,  and 
the  complex  animal  products  that  are  known  as  foods.  The  most 
convenient  method  of  studying  these  "  built-up  *'  structures  that  we 
call  the  "proximate  substances'*  is  to  first  classify  them  according 
to  their  common  properties. 

Water  is  a  constituent  of  all  foods,  for  even  those  that  are 
apparently  dry  contain  from  7  to  20  per  cent,  of  water.  It  is 
necessary  to  the  growth  of  all  vegetable  and  animal  tissue.  The 
occurrence  and  properties  of  water,  and  its  relation  to  the  foods  in 
common  use,  are  elsewhere  discussed. 

Digitized  by  CjOOQ  IC 



A  common  classification  of  foods  is  into  organic  and  inorganic, 
although  the  per  cent,  of  the  latter  is  relatively  very  small.  When 
food  is  burned  all  the  organic  material  is  converted  into  gases 
and  disappears,  while  the  inorganic  or  mineral  substance  re- 
mains behind  and  is  known  as  "ash."  .  As  will  be  seen  in  a  later 
discussion  the  mineral  substances  play  a  very  important  part  in 
the  processes  of  metabolism,  and  in  building  up  the  tissues  of 
the  body. 

The  organic  substances  of  the  food  may  be  classified  as  follows, 
viz.:  carbohydrates,  fats,  organic  acids  and  nitrogenous  com- 

The  carbohydrates  are  among  the  chief  products  of  plant  life. 
Some  of  them,  like  cane  and  grape  sugar,  are  crystalline  and 
soluble  in  water,  while  others,  like  starch  and  cellulose,  are 
insoluble  in  water  and  have  no  crystalline  structure.  Most  of 
these  substances  contain  hydrogen  and  oxygen  in  the  proportions 
to  form  water  thus,  H2O.  The  more  complex  of  these  bodies  are 
readily  broken  up  by  acids  or  ferments  into  some  of  the  simpler 

Fats  consist  of  the  glyceryl  esters  of  the  fatty  acids  or  of  the 
unsaturated  fatty  acids.  They  readily  saponify  with  alkalies  to 
form  soaps.     (See  p.  307.) 

The  nitrogenous  compounds  or  proteins  are  of  a  very  complex 
structure,  and  are  derived  from  both  vegetable  and  animal 
sources.     (See  p.  19.) 

I.  Carbohydrates 

I.  The  cellulose  or  polysaccharide  group  (C6Hio05)n. 

a.  Cellulose. 

b.  Starch,  inulin,  lichenin. 

c.  Glycogen. 

d.  Dextrin. 

e.  Malto-dextrin. 

f.  Gum  (arabin,  bassorin,  cerasin). 

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2.  The  cane  sugar  or  disaccharid  group  (C12H22O11). 

a.  Cane  sugar  (sucrose).     - 

b.  Malt  sugar  (maltose). 

c.  Milk  sugar  (lactose). 

3.  The  glucose  or  monosaccharid  group  (CeHioOe). 

a.  Glucose  (grape- sugar  or  dextrose). 

b.  Fructose  (fruit  sugar  or  levulose). 

c.  Galactose. 

d.  Mannose. 

e.  Sorbinose. 

4.  The  pectose  group. 

a.  Pectin. 

b.  Pectosic  acid. 

c.  Pectic  acid. 

n.  Fats 

m.  Organic  Acids 

IV.  Nitrogenous  Compounds  (proteins) 

a.  Simple  proteins. 

b.  Conjugated  proteins. 

c.  Derived  proteins. 

Mineral  Salts  are  also  important  inorganic  constituents  of 


The  carbohydrates  are  found  in.  various  vegetable  substances, 
and  are  of  exceedingly  varied  structiu"e  and  composition.  They 
are  all  composed  essentially,  however,  of  oxygen,  hydrogen  and 
carbon,  but  so  combined  as  to  make  a  very  complicated  molecule. 
In  some  cases  we  know  how  the  diflFerent  parts  of  the  molecule  are 
related,  and  in  others,  although  we  know  the  percentage  composi- 
tion, it  is  not  possible  with  our  present  knowledge  to  determine 
the  molecular  weight,  or,  as  we  sometimes  say,  to  know  how  many 
atoms  go  to  make  up  the  molecule.  1    ^^^1^ 

^  '^  Digitized  by  VjOOQIc 


The  carbohydrates  are  among  the  best  known  and  the  most 
important  foods,  both  for  man  and  the  lower  animals.  They  are 
the  most  important  nutrients  in  cereals,  roots,  stalks,  fruits  and 
seeds.  Although  the  full  mechanism  of  the  building  up  of  carbo- 
hydrate^ in  plants  is  not  understood,  we  know  that  through  the 
energy  of  the  sun's  rays  acting  on  the  chlorophyl,  carbon  dioxide 
and  water,  which  contain  the  bulk  of  the  elements  needed,  unite 
to  form  these  organic  compoimds.  Some  nitrogenous  substances 
and  the  mineral  constituents  are  drawn  from  the  soil.  The  vol- 
ume of  oxygen  liberated  is  equal  to  the  volume  of  carbon  dioxide 
which  disappears.^  The  "net*'  results  of  the  process  may  be 
represented  thus: 


It  is  probable  that  formaldehyde  is  an  intermediate  product,  and 
hydrogen  peroxide  is  produced,  as  s*hown  thus: 

CO2+3H2O = CH2O+ 2H2O2. 

Under  the  influence  of  simlight  in  the  chlorophyl  cell  the  hydrogen 
peroxide  is  rapidly  decomposed  into  water  and  oxygen,  and  the 
formaldehyde  built  up  into  a  carbohydrate.  Glucose  appears  as 
a  direct  polymer  of  formaldehyde  thus: 

CH20^X  6  equals  C6H12O6  (glucose). 


Cellulose  (CeHioOs)!!,  a  carbohydrate  of  very  complex  charac- 
ter, is  the  predominating  constituent  of  vegetable  tissues.  This, 
next  to  water,  is  the  most  abimdant  substance  in  the  vegetable 
kingdom,  forming  as  it  does  the  basis  of  wood,  cotton,  linen  and 
similar  fibrous  bodies.    Absorbent  cotton  and  "washed"  filter 

*  Chemistry  of  Food  and  Nutrition,  Sherman,  p.  4.  ^  t 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


paper  are  examples  of  almost  piire  cellulose.  A  peculiarity 
which  distinguishes  cellulose  from  most  other  vegetable  substances 
is  its  insolubility  in  ordinary  liquids,  such  as  hot  and  cold  water, 
alcohol,  ether  or  dilute  acids  and  alkalies.  To  be  appreciably 
affected  cellulose  must  be  heated  with  acids  or  alkalies,  an  am- 
moniacal  solution  of  cupric  oxide,  or  other  strong  chemicals. 

As  cellulose  is  the  substance  from  which  the  framework  of  the 
plant  is  built,^  it  gives  rigidity  to  certain  parts,  and  if  these 
plants  are  used  as  food,  the  greater  the  proportion  of  cellulose 
contained  the  more  difficult  will  be  their  digestion.  There  is  more 
cellulose  in  the  older  parts  of  the  plant,  as  the  stem,  than  in  the 
leaves  and  fruit;  more  cellulose  in  the  leaves  of  the  potato  vine 
than  in  the  tuber.  In  grains  and  seeds  it  is  most  abimdant  in  the 
outer  coatings,  so  that  in  the  process  of  milling,  the  cellulose  is 
concentrated  in  the  bran  and  the  starch  in  the  flour. 

The  use  of  foods  which  contain  considerable  cellulose,  but  not 
so  much  as  to  render  them  indigestible,  is  illustrated  in  tender 
asparagus,  or  celery,  yoimg  beets  and  radishes,  which  however 
become  tough  and  inedible,  as  the  proportion  of  cellulose  in- 
creases with  age.  In  reports  of  the  analyses  of  foods,  cellulose 
forms  the  major  part  of  the  portion  called  "crude  fiber,"  but  this 
term  includes  also  small  quantities  of  other  substances  of  the  same 
general  character. 


In  the  vegetable  cells  cellulose  encloses  the  starch  grains,  and 
although  it  is  to  a  certain  extent  permeable  to  the  digestive  fluids, 
it  is  very  insoluble.  When  we  study  the  action  of  the  digestive 
fluids  on  vegetable  foods  it  is  important  to  take  this  fact  into 
consideration.  While  the  plant  is  young,  some  of  the  cellulose 
is  in  chemical  combination  with  water,  forming  hydrated  cellulose, 
a  portion  of  which  imdergoes  digestion,  and  produces  heat  and 
energy  in  the  body.^ 

'  Principles  of  Human  Nutrition,  Jordan,  p.  76. 

« Human  Foods,  Snyder,  p.  8.  r^  1 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


If  food  rich  in  cellulose  is  very  finely  ^ound  it  is  more  readily 
acted  upon  by  the  digestive  fluids. 

Some  of  the  lower  animals,  as  the  rodents,  can  no  doubt  digest 
cellulose  quite  readily,  but  it  apparently  adds  very  little  to  the 
nutritive  value  of  the  food  of  man.  Whatever  digestion  of  cellu- 
lose does  take  place,  in  the  intestines  says  Lohrisch,^  seems  to  be 
due  to  the  action  of  certain  microorganisms  by  which  fatty  acids 
are  produced,  which  upon  absorption  yield  nutrients. 

As  will  be  seen  in  the  later  discussion  of  the  various  foods, 
whatever  may  be  said  of  the  lack  of  nutritive  value  of  cellulose, 
it  is  of  value  mechanically,  as  it  dilutes  and  gives  more  bulk  to 
those  foods  which  are  rich  in  starch,  sugar  and  protein.  The 
eating  of  bulky  vegetable  foods,  low  in  nutritive  value,  may 
however  be  carried  too  far,  as  their  constituents  are  mainly 
digested  in  the  intestines,  where  they  are  liable  to  ferment  and 
produce  gases  which  will  cause  the  distention  of  the  intestinal 
organs.  In  this  way  the  use  of  an  exclusively  vegetarian  diet  may 
lead  to  unpleasant  results. 

Starch  (C6Hio06)n  is  the  substance  that  is  stored  in  the  various 
parts  of  the  plant,  after  it  has  been  circulated  through  the  plant 
in  the  soluble  form  of  sugar.  The  food  plants  contain  it,  fre- 
quently to  the  extent  of  60  or  70  per  cent.  It  is  stored  especially 
in  the  seeds,  but  also  in  the  roots,  tubers,  fruits,  stems  and  leaves 
of  the  plants,  where  in  many  cases  it  plays  an  important  part  in 
giving  a  start  to  the  yoimg,  germinating  plant.  The  starch 
grains  which  are  foimd  in  the  interior  of  the  cells  are  of  a  charac- 
teristic size,  shape  and  appearance,  a  fact  that  aids  greatly  in  the 
detection  of  adulteration,  especially  of  cereals. 

Starch  with  sugar  may  be  called  the  "basic  foods"  of  man,  as 
they  are  the  central  and  most  important  constituents  of  the 
vegetable  foods  which  he  utilizes.  These  foods  also  contain  fats 
and  nitrogenous  constituents,  which  of  course  are  essential 

^  Zeitsch.  physiolog.  Chemie,  47  (1907),  through  Sherman,  Chem.  of  Food  and 
Nutrition,  p.  311. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Starch  is  furnished  by  different  classes  of  foods  as  follows: 


By  the  cereals : 

Wheat  flour 75 

Rye  flour    78 

Oatmeal '. 68 

Com  meal 71 

Rice 79 

Buckwheat  flour 77 

Barley  62 

Millet 60 

By  roots,  stem  and  tubers : 

Potato  18 

Sweet  potato : 15 

Sweet  cassava 31 

Arrowroot 23 

By  leguminous  plants : 

Beans    :     57 

Beans  (green) 29 

Peas  (dried)    , 55 

Peas  (green)   17 

Lentils  ' 57 

Peanuts 24 

Soy  beans   34 

By  some  fruits : 

Bananas 22 

Bread  fruit 14 

By  edible  nuts : 

Acorns  43 

Chestnuts  42 


Starch  can  be  kept  for  a  long  time  if  perfectly  dry  and  when 
stored  in  a  dry  place.  The  starch  grains  when  suspended  in  cold 
water  are  not  dissolved,  and  can  readily  be  filtered  from  the  liquid. 
In  making  starch  paste  it  is  necessary  to  heat  starch  in  water  to 
at  least  70®  C.  The  grains  then  swell  to.  many  times  their  original 
size,  and  if  not  separated  from  each  other  by  an  abimdance  of 
liquid,  or  some  other  substance  such  as  fat  or  sugar,  they  stick 
tc^ether  forming  lumps.    In  a  paste  made  below  the  boiling  point 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


the  starch  grams  are  unbroken,  though  much  swollen,  and  on 
standing  such  a  paste  separates,  the  starch  grains  sinking  to  the 
bottom.  At  a  boiling  temperature  the  outer  layer  gradually 
dissolves  and  the  starch  makes  a  more  homogeneous,  but  not  more 
easily  digested  paste. 

A  starch  paste  is  readily  made  by  first  mixing  the  dry  starch 
with  cold  water,  and  then  pouring  the  mixture  into  a  large 
quantity  of  boiling  water,  and  boiling  for  a  few  minutes.  Thus 
prepared,  the  starch  paste  is  semi-transparent,  and  free  from 
lumps.  It  will  mold  or  ti^n  sour  after  a  few  days,  unless  pre- 
served by  some  antiseptic,  as  borax  or  an  essential  oil. 

When  starch  is  cooked  for  some  time  it  is  so  changed  as  to  be 
more  readily  acted  upon  by  the  digestive  juices.  When  heated 
with  hydrochloric  acid  starch  is  hydrolyzed  to  mixtures  of  dextrin 
and  maltose,  and  finally  to  glucose.  Starch  is  also  hydrolyzed  by 
the  ptyalin  of  the  saliva  producing  dextrin  and  maltose,  as  in 
the  previous  case. 

Test  for  Starch 

To  test  for  starch,  boil  the  material  to  be  tested  for  a  few 
moments  with  water,  cool,  and  add  a  drop  or  two  of  tincture  of 
iodine,  when  a  rich  pxirple-blue  color  will  be  seen  in  case  starch 
is  present.  Raw  starch  also  gives  the  iodine  reaction  although 
more  slowly,  and  different  classes  of  raw  starch  react  differently 
with  iodine.  The  color  fades  from  the  iodine-starch  solution 
when  it  is  heated,  but  returns  again  on  cooling. 

Glycogen  (CeHioOft)^  is  sometimes  called  "animal  starch,"  as 
it  appears  to  have  the  same  function  in  animals  that  starch  does  in 
plants.  It  is  important  as  serving  as  a  "storehouse"  of  reserve 
carbohydrates  in  fimgi  and  those  forms  of  plant  life  which  cannot 
build  up  starch  imder  the  influence  of  chlorophyl. 

Glycogen  is  a  white  powder,  soluble  in  water,  and  may  be 
extracted  from  muscles  and  liver.  Oysters  contain  as  much  as  9 
per  cent,  of  glycogen.  It  is  formed  in  the  animal  out  of  the 
sugars  that  are  taken  into  circulation  from  the  digestive  tract, 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


and  acts  as  a  reserve  store  of  fuel  for  the  maintenance  of  muscular 
energy.*  As  would  be  naturally  expected,  the  storage  of  glycogen 
in  the  animal  body  is  promoted  by  rest  and  by  liberal  feeding,  and 
the  glycogen  is  rapidly  used  up  in  muscular  work. 

Dextrin  (CeHioOfi)^  or  (C6Hio06)n.H20,  is  not  found  ready 
formed  in  any  quantity  in  food  products,  but  is  readily  produced 
by  the  action  upon  starch  of  enzymes,  acids  or  heat.  It  is  some- 
times called  "British  Gum,"  and  may  be  made  by  heating  starch, 
either  alone  or  with  the  addition  of  a  small  quantity  of  dilute 
mineral  acid. 

Properties  and  Varieties 

Dextrin  as  usually  prepared,  is  a  brownish  substance,  and 
differs  from  starch  in  being  soluble  in  water.  It  may  be  pre- 
cipitated from  its  solutions  by  alcohol.  This  carbohydrate  is 
abundant  in  germinating  cereals;  it  is  formed  on  the  outside  of  a 
loaf  of  bread  during  baking,  and  has  a  sweetish  taste.  Malto- 
dextrin,  the  variety  of  dextrin  foimd  in  malted  cereals,  is  produced 
from  starch  by  the  action  of  the  enzyme,  maltose.  It  is  believed 
to  be  a  compound  in  which  one  molecule  of  maltose  and  two 
molecules  of  dextrin  are  in  some  way  linked  together.  The 
specific  kind  of  malto-dextrin  formed  in  any  case  is  largely  depend- 
ent on  the  temperature  maintained  during  the  process  of  malting. 
Dextrin  is  foimd  on  the  market  in  three  forms,  ^  a  powder,  a  granu- 
lar amorphous  product,  and  a  milky  liquid.  It  is  used  as  a 
substitute  for  gum  acacia  and  other  gums,  in  photography,  calico 
printing,  making  paper,  making  of  felt,  of  printer*s  rolls  and  in  the 
manufacture  of  ink.  About  30,000  tons  of  dextrin  are  made 
annually  in  Germany.  Both  the  imported  and  the  domestic 
dextrin  sells  in  large  quantities  at  from  5  to  6  cents  a  pound. 

Inulin  ((CeHioOft)!!  +  H2O)  is  a  starch-like  substance  found  in 
solution  in  the  sap  of  many  plants.  It  occurs  especially  in  the 
tubers  of  the  dahlia  and  in  the  Jerusalem  artichoke,  and  in 

*  The  Principles  of  Human  Nutrition,  Jordan,  p.  73. 

« J.  I.  and  Eng.  Ch.,  Vol.  5,  p.  77.  ^^  j 

Digitized  by  LjOOQ  IC 


smaller  quantities  in  the  potato,  chicory,  dandelion  and  elecam- 
pane, and  also  in  some  Udiens. 

When  obtained  from  any  of  the  above  sources  by  methods 
similar  to  those  used  for  separating  starch,  inulin  is  a  white  powder, 
which  does  not  yield  a  blue  color  with  iodine.  It  is  slightly  soluble 
in  cold  and  readily  soluble  in  hot  water,  and  by  hydrolysis  with 
sulfuric  acid,  it  is  changed  into  fructose.  The  latter  sugar  is 
used  by  diabetic  patients,  as  apparently  it  can  be  assimilated. 
Diastase  has  little  effect  upon  inulin,  and  the  ptyalin  of  the  saliva 
does'  not  convert  it  into  sugar,  as  is  the  case  with  starch.  It  is 
probably  changed  into  levulose  in  the  stomach  by  the  action  of  the 
hydrochloric  acid  of  the  gastric  juice,  and  thus  becomes  digestible. 
An  inulin  bread  and  biscuit  have  been  put  upon  the  market,  but 
however  wholesome  for  invalids  they  may  be,  their  taste  is  not 

Lichenin  ((C6Hio05)n+H20)  is  another  peculiar  starch  foimd 
in  Iceland  moss  and  algae.  Like  starch  it  swells  up  with  hot  water, 
and  forms  a  jelly  on  cooling.  This  property  makes  it  valuable 
for  culinary  and  dietetic  purposes.  Digestive  ferments  do  not 
aflfect  it,  but  it  yields  dextrin  when  boiled  with  dilute  acid,  and 
a  similar  change  no  doubt  takes  place  in  the  stomach  when  it  is 
acted  upon  by  the  hydrochloric  acid  of  the  digestive  fluids. 

Guni)  bassorin,  cerasin,  are  amorphous  carbohydrates,  existing 
in  many  plants,  which  have  the  property  of  taking  up  water  to 
form  a  thick  viscid  product.  They  are  usually  soluble  in  water 
and  insoluble  in  alcohol,  and  may  be  converted  into  sugars  by 
heating  with  dilute  acids.  The  most  important  of  these  are 
gum  araWc,  cherry-tree  gum  or  cerasin  and  bassorin,  found  in 
linseed  and  quince  seed  and  many  roots.  Gum  tragacanth  is  an 
important  commercial  product  containing  bassorin. 


In  this  group  are  included  cane  sugar,  malt  sugar  and  milk 
sugar  (Ci2H220u).  When  acted  upon  by  weak  acids  or  fer- 
ments they  break  up,  by  hydrolysis  thus: 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Cane  sugar  with  water  yields  glucose  and  fructose.  Malt 
sugar  with  water  yields  glucose.  Milk  sugar  with  water  yields 
glucose  and  galactose. 

Cane  sugar  (sucrose  or  saccharose)  is  by  far  the  most  import- 
ant of  these  sugars.  (See  p.  95.)  It  is  foimd  in  the  juice  and  sap 
of  certain  plants,  and  is  an  important  constituent  of  fruits.  It 
yields  barley  sugar  and  later  caramel  on  being  heated.  Sugar 
is  soluble  in  0.46  parts  of  water  at  77®  F.,  and  in  0.2  parts  of  boiling 
water.  ^ 

Malt  sugar  (maltose)  is  formed  in  the  process  of  malting 
cereals,  and  is  an  intermediate  product  when  starch  is  hydrolized 
by  boiling  with  dilute  acids  as  in  the  manufacture  of  commercial 
glucose.  Maltose  is  formed  by  the  action  of  the  ptyalin  of  the 
saliva  or  the  amylopsin  of  the  pancreatic  juice  on  starch  or  dex- 
trin, and  the  maltose-splitting  enzymes  of  the  intestinal  juice 
hydrolyze  maltose  to  glucose. 

Milk  sugar  (lactose)  is  foimd  in  the  proportion  of  from  4  to 
7  per  cent,  in  the  milk  of  all  mammals.  In  sour  milk  it  has  been 
converted  by  the  lactic  acid  bacteria  into  lactic  acid.  Lactose 
reduces  Fehling's  solution,*  but  has  only  seven- tenths  the  strength 
of  dextrose  in  this  respect.  Milk  sugar  forms  hard  rhombic 
crystals  which  are  soluble  in  six  times  their  weight  of  cold  water 
and  two  and  a  half  times  their  weight  of  boiling  water. 


In  this  group  are  included  glucose,  fructose,  galactose,  man- 
nose,  and  sorbinose  (C6H12O6).  These  sugars  are  all  soluble 
substances,  unaffected  by  digestive  enzymes,  and  if  not  attacked 
by  bacteria  in  the  digestive  tract  they  are  absorbed  and  enter  the 
blood  current  imchanged.'  They  are  readily  susceptible  to  alco- 
holic fermentation  and  are  utilized  for  the  production  of  glycogen 

^  U.  S.  Pharmacopoeia,  p.  384. 

*  A  solution  of  copper  sulfate  and  Rochelle  salts,  made  strongly  alkaline  with 
sodium  hydroxid. 

*  The  Chemistry  of  Food  and  Nutrition,  Sherman,  p.  6. 

Digitized  by  LjO^QIC 


in  the  animal  body  and  in  the  maintenance  of  the  normal  glucose 
content  of  the  blood. 

Glucosey  grape  sugar  or  dextrose^  is  abimdant  in  fruit  and 
plant  juices,  and  in  honey.  It  is  manufactured  commercially 
by  the  hydrolysis  of  starch.  (See  p.  ii8.)  It  has  only  two-fifths 
the  sweetness  of  cane  sugar. 

Fructosei  fruit  sugar  or  levulosei  occurs  with  glucose  in  plant 
and  fruit  juices  and  in  honey.  It  serves,  like  glucose,  for  the  pro- 
duction of  glycogen  in  the  liver,  and  the  latter  by  hydrolysis  yields 
glucose.  It  ferments  with  yeast  and  yields  alcohol,  but  more 
slowly  than  dextrose.  Fructose  forms  crystals  of  the  rhombic 
system,  but  crystallizes  with  difficulty.  The  sugar  in  fruit,  often 
called  invert  sugar,  is  usually  a  combination  of  glucose  and  fructose, 
and  forms  granular  masses  in  dried  fruits. 

Galactose^  although  not  found  free  in  nature,  is  produced  by 
the  hydrolysis  of  milk  sugar  either  by  acids  or  enzymes,  and 
appears  to  promote  the  formation  of  glycogen  in  the  animal 
body.  Galactose  is  also  produced  by  the  hydrolytic  cleavage  of 
certain  gums  and  of  Carrageen  moss.     (See  p.  305.) 

Mannose  is  produced  by  the  oxidation  of  mannite  which  oc- 
curs in  manna,  in  celery  roots  and  other  roots  and  barks,  but  does 
not  occiu-  ready  formed  in  nature.  It  is  also  a  product  of  the 
fermentation  of  sugar,  under  certain  conditions. 

Sorbinose  is  the  sugar  foimd  in  the  juice  of  the  fruit  of  the 
mountain  ash  and  the  service  tree. 


The  pectins  are  something  like  the  gums  in  composition  and 
properties,  and  are  foimd  in  fruits,  especially  those  that  are 
partially  ripe.  On  account  of  the  presence  of  these  substances  in 
fruits  the  making  of  jelly  is  possible.     (See  p.  211.) 


These  very  important  food  substances  are  widely  distributed 
in  both  plants  and  animals.    The  fat  may  be  completely  extracted 

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from  any  of  the  finely  ground  vegetable  or  animal  foods,  by  pres- 
sure or  by  digestion  with  ether,  chloroform  or  similar  solvents. 
The  term  "ether  extract,"  which  is  often  used  in  tables  giving  the 
composition  of  foods,  refers  to  the  material,  mostly  fat  which  is 
extracted  in  this  way  from  the  food.     (See  p.  307.) 


The  acids  which  exist  in  various  parts  of  plants  are  sometimes 
present  as  salts  of  the  metals,  sometimes  as  acid  salts,  and  oc- 
casionally are  found  free.  The  most  important  acids  are  malic, 
tartaric,  racemic,  and  citric.  They  play  an  important  part  in 
the  diet.  They  are  found  in  most  fruits  and  vegetables  and  their 
presence  has  much  to  do  with  the  agreeable  taste  and  odor.  (See 
p.  310.) 



This  substance  called  protein  is  of  very  complex  composition, 
and  contains  the  elements  carbon,  hydrogen,  oxygen,  nitrogen,  and 
sulfur  with  sometimes  phosphorus  and  iron.  Different  proteins 
from  different  sources  are  of  such  varied  composition  that  there 
may  seem  little  excuse  for  classifying  them  together,  except  for 
the  fact  that  they  all  contain  nitrogen.  These  bodies,  which  exist 
both  in  animals  and  plants,  are  built  up  through  the  vital  energies 
of  plants.  They  can  be  used  by  the  animal  body  only  after  this 
preliminary  construction  in  the  plant  cell.  The  average  com- 
position of  protein,  although  it  varies  within  rather  wide  limits, 
may  be  stated  as  follows.^ 

Per  cent. 

Carbon 52 

Hydrogen 7 

Nitrogen 16 

Oxygen 23 

Sulfur ; 2 

*  Am.  Joiu:.  Phys.,  Vol.  21. 

*  Neumeister,  Principles  of  Human  Nutrition,  Jordan,  p.  46. 

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Familiar  examples  of  the  occiirrence  of  protein  are  in  lean 
beef,  in  the  white  of  ^ggs,  in  blood  and  in  the  gluten  of  wheat. 

The  proteins  may  be  classified  as  follows: 

(a)  Simple  proteins  including  albumins,  globulins,  alcohol- 
soluble  proteins,  glutelins,  albuminoids,  histones  and  protamines. 

One  of  the  most  important  properties  of  the  albumin  is  that 
they  are  soluble  in  pure  cold  water,  and  when  this  solution  is 
heated  to  the  boiling  point,  the  liquid  coagulates,  and  the  albumins 
separate  out  as  an  insoluble  substance.  The  ablumins  can,  there- 
fore, be  extracted  from  lean  beef,  from  blood,  from  milk  and  from 
eggs  by  cold  water.  Plants  contain  a  small  amount  of  vegetable 
albumin  which  can  also  be  extracted  by  soaking  with  water. 

When  plant  or  animal  tissues  are  treated  with  water  containing 
lo  per  cent,  of  common  salt,  another  considerable  portion  of  the 
protein  may  be  dissolved.  This  is  called  globulin,  and  is  espe- 
cially abimdant  in  plants.  Kidney  beans  contain  20  per  cent.,  peas 
10  per  cent.,  lentils  13  per  cent,  and  wheat  0.6  per  cent.  Special 
names  have  been  given  to  the  globulins  from  different  seeds,  as 
phaseolin  to  the  one  foimd  in  some  species  of  beans,  vignin  to  the 
one  in  the  cow  pea. 

There  are  also  animal  globulins  existing  in  the  muscle  and  in 
the  blood.  The  name  myosin  has  been  given  to  the  globidin 
which  is  obtained  from  lean  meat,  fibrinogen  to  that  foimd  in  blood. 
Fibrin  as  such  does  not  occur  in  living  blood,  but  is  one  of  the 
products  into  which  the  fibrinogen  breaks  up  when  blood  is  ex- 
posed to  the  air.  Vitellin  is  the  principal  protein  found  in  "egg 

The  glutenins^  constitute  the  largest  part  of  the  nitrogen  com- 
pounds of  cereals.  The  tenacious  substance  which  is  left  after 
washing  the  starch  out  of  wheat  flour  (see  p.  31)  is  a  protein  of 
this  class.  There  are  also  alcohol-soluble  proteins  in  cereals,  such  as 
gliadin  from  wheat  and  zein  from  corn.  The  gliadin  and  glutenins 
together  constitute  about  80  per  cent,  of  the  total  nitrogenous 
material  of  wheat. 

1  Jordan,  p.  52. 

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According  to  the  recent  classification  mentioned,  the  term 
albuminoids  should  be  restricted  to  the  proteins  f omid  in  cartilage, 
bones,  feathers,  hair,  hoofs,  horns  and  nails.  The  one  which  occurs 
in  cartilage  and  bone  is  called  collagen;  that  in  horns,  hoofs  and 
similar  tissues,  a  substance  that  contains  considerable  sulfur,  is 
called  keratin.  Commercial  gelatin  is  derived  from  the  collagen 
which  is  extracted  especially  from  the  tendons.     (See  p.  359.) 

(b)  Conjugated  proteinSi  including  nucleoproteins,  glyco- 
proteins, phosphoproteins,  haemoglobins,  and  ledthoproteins. 

The  nudeoproteins  are  relatively  abimdant  in  such  glandular 
tissues  as  the  spleen,  pancreas,  and  liver.  One  of  the  most 
important  phosphqproteins  is  the  casein  of  milk,  which  is  insoluble 
in  water  but  exists  in  suspension  in  milk.  This  coagulates, 
not  by  heat,  but  by  coming  in  contact  with  a  ferment  as  in  the 
himian  stomach,  or  by  the  action  of  rennet  in  cheese-making. 

A  very  peculiar  compound,  existing  in  the  blood,  is  known  as 
haemoglobin.  This,  when  decomposed,  separates  into  a  protein 
(globin)  and  a  coloring  matter  (haematin),  which  when  charged 
with  oxygen  is  called  ozyhaemoglobin.^  This  coloring  matter  or 
blood  pigment  has  the  property  of  very  readily  taking  up  and  re- 
leasing oxygen,  and  plays  an  important  part  in  the  transfer  of 
oxygen  in  the  limgs  from  the  air  to  the  blood. 

(c)  Derived  proteins,  including  proteans,  metaproteins,  coag- 
ulated proteins,  proteoses,  peptones,  and  peptides. 

Ledthoproteins  are  derived  from  the  yolk  of  eggs,  the  mucous 
membranes,  the  kidneys  and  other  sources,  and  contain  ledthin, 
a  peculiar  phosphorized  fat. 

From  this  brief  description  of  the  proteins  it  will  be  seen  that, 
a  knowledge  of  the  different  proteins,  particularly  as  to  solubility 
and  effect  of  heat,  acids  and  ferments,  is  plainly  necessary  to  a 
proper  imderstanding  of  fopds  and  their  uses. 

(d)  Extractives^  amides  and.  amino  acids. 
^  The  Pnndples  of  Human  Nutrition,  Jordan,  p.  61. 

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There  are  also  existing  in  foods  a  few  nitrogen  compounds  that 
are  not  proteins.  Among  these  may  be  mentioned  the  amideSi 
bodies  foimd  especially  in  plants,  such  as  the  asparagine  of 
asparagus.  These  substances  seem  to  be  of  importance  in  the 
transfer  of  the  nitrogen  compoimds  from  one  part  of  the  plant  to 
another,  as  from  the  stem  to  the  seed,^  and  they  are  supposed  to 
be  of  less  value  as  muscle-formers  than  the  proteins.  The  ex- 
tractives that  are  obtained  from  beef,  after  the  precipitation  of  the 
albumins  by  boiling,  contain  the  compoimds  creatin  (C4H7N8O2) 
and  creatinin  (C^HtNsO)  which  seem  to  have  little  or  no  food  value 
(p.  357)- 


The  mineral  salts,  especially  the  compoimds  of  the  elements 
iron,  calcium,  magnesium,  potassium,  sodium,  chlorine,  sulfur  and 
phosphorus,  enter  into  the  animal  body  and  take  part  in  the 
process  of  metabolism  as  essential  constituents  of  the  organic 
materials  of  the  food.  They  are  of  importance  in  three  ways: 
(i)  "as  the  constituents  which  give  rigidity  and  comparative 
permanence  to  the  skeleton,  (2)  as  essential  elements  of  the  proto- 
plasm of  the  active  tissues,  (3)  as  salts,  held  in  solution  in  the 
fluids  of  the  body,  giving  these  fluids  their  characteristic  influence 
upon  the  elasticity  and  irritability  of  muscle  and  nerve,  supplying 
the  materia^  for  the  acidity  or  alkalinity  of  the  digestive  juices 
and  other  secretions,  and  yet  maintaining  the  neutrality  or  slight 
alkalescence  of  the  internal  fluids  as  well  as  their  osmotic  pressure 
and  solvent  power."^  In  the  study  of  nutrition  very  careful 
attention  has  been  given  to  the  r61e  which  the  various  salts,  as  the 
chlorides,  sulfur  and  phosphorus  compounds,  caldiun  and  iron 
compoimds  play  in  the  process  of  animal  nutrition.  These 
inorganic  materials  are  abundant  in  both  vegetable  and  animal 
food-stuffs,  and  their  occurrence,  and  relative  quantity  as  a  part 
of  the  diet  should  be  always  considered. 

*  Loc.  cit. 

*  Chemistry  of  Food  and  Nutrition,  Sherman. 

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Since  reference  is  frequently  made  to  the  amount  of  energy 
available  from  different  foods  it  is  important  briefly  to  define  the 
use  of  this  term  as  used  in  dietetics.  The  unit  of  energy  adopted 
for  a  comparative  study  of  foods  is  the  "calorie."  This  is  the 
energy  in  terms  of  heat  which  is  sufficient  to  raise  the  tempera- 
ture of  I  poujid  of  water  4°  F.*  This  energy  or  the  number  of  heat 
imits  is  determined  by  the  use  of  an  instrument  called  a  calor- 
imeter, in  which  a  known  weight  of  the  food  is  actually  burned, 
and  the  heat  evolved  is  used  to  raise  the  temperature  of  a  known 
weight  of  water.  By  very  elaborate  experiments  it  has  been 
shown  that  there  is  a  close  relation  between  the  results  obtained 
by  the  calorimeter,  and  the  actual  energy  produced  in  the  body 
by  the  proper  digestion  and  assimilation  of  the  food. 

As  an  illustration  of  the  use  of  this  energy  luiit,  the  energy 
value  of  a  poimd  of  edible  material  from  a  few  food-stuffs  is  quoted 
from  Jordan.^ 


Sirloin  steak i^io 

Corned  beef 1655 

Fresh  codfish 310 

Eggs 720 

.  Milk 32s 

Butter 3615 

Oysters 260 

Wheat  flour 1645 

Oatmeal... 1845 

Sugar 1820 

Molasses » 1360 

Potatoes.., 375 

Squash  (canned) 250 

Apples 320 

The  inspection  of  these  values  affords  an  opportimity  for  the 
comparison  of  different  foods.  The  author  in  discussing  energy 
points  out  that  it  is  important  also  to  distinguish  between  the 

^  Principles  of  Human  Nutrition,  Jordan,  p.  161. 
«Loc.  at. 

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heat  produced  when  substances  are  burned  in  the  calorimeter,  and 
the  heat  or  energy  that  is  available  when  used  in  the  body,  as  it 
never  happens  that  the  combustible  portion  of  a  ration  is  entirely 
consumed  in  the  body.  This  is  the  case  because  the  food  is  never 
all  digested,  the  digested  proteins  are  never  fully  burned,  and  there 
is  usually  an  escape  of  unconsumed  gases  from  the  alimentary 
canal,  especially  in  the  case  of  farm  animals.  As  actual  work  is 
performed  in  the  process  of  digestion,  the  term  "net  energy"  has 
been  introduced-to  apply  to  that  amoimt  of  energy  which  is  avail- 
able, after  that  used  up  in  the  digestion  and  preparation  of  the 
food  for  use  in  the  body  has  been  subtracted. 

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The  term  cereals  includes  the  plants  of  the  grass  family  (Gram- 
ineae)  which  are  used  as  food.  Wheat,  rye,  oats,  barley,  rice,  com 
(maize)  and  millet  belong  in  this  class,  and  buckwheat  and  quinoa, 
although  not  grasses,  are  here  considered.  The  grain  consists  of 
the  germ,  and  the  endosperm  with  its  coverings,  which  are  the 
parts  mostly  utilized  for  human  food. 

WHEAT  (Triticum  vulgare) 

Considered  from  the  viewpoint  of  general  use,  there  is  no 
cereal  of  so  much  importance  as  wheat,  for  not  only  does  it  grow 
readily  in  the  temperate  climate  where  the  active  peoples  of  the 
world  are  foimd,  but  its  products  are  peculiarly  adapted  for  the 
food  of  man. 

The  origin  of  wheat  is  lost  in  antiquity.  Wheat  was  culti- 
vated by  the  ancient  Egyptians  and  Chinese,  was  grown  in  Meso- 
potamia and  has  been  foimd  in  the  pre-historic  lake-dwellings 
of  Switzerland  and  Italy.  The  present  form  of  wheat  may  be 
as  naturally  found,  or  it  may  be  derived  from  a  wild  plant  some 
varieties  of  which,  improved  by  cultivation,  are  still  found.  It 
was  introduced  into  Great  Britain  by  the  Romans. 


The  botanist  recognizes  three  species  which  he  calls  the  grain 
wheat,  Polish  wheat,  and  common  wheat,  and  of  each  of  these, 
there  are  numerous  varieties.    Although  the  quality  is  much 

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modified  by  the  soil  and  climate  yet  we  commonly  speak  of 
wheat  as — 

1.  Soft,  Starchy  or  winter  wheat,  which  is  sown  in  the  fall  and 
harvested  in  June  or  July,  and, 

2.  Hard,  glutinous  or  spring  wheat,  which  is  sown  in  March 
or  April,  and  harvested  in  late  July  or  August.  The  climate,  of 
course,  determines  which  of  these  can  be  cultivated  to  best  ad- 
vantage, in  each  particular  locality,  but  in  general  the  winter 
wheat  is  grown  in  the  more  temperate  climates,  and  the  spring 

wheat  in  the  north  where  the  summer 
is  shorter.  On  the  Continent  the 
upland  steppes  of  Russia  fiurnish  the 
greatest  quantity  of  wheat,  although 
large  quantities  are  grown  in  India, 
Siberia,  South  America,  and  Central 
Europe.  In  the  United  States  of 
America^  the  prairies  of  the  middle 
west  and  northwest,  which  are  in  many 
respects  similar  to  the  steppes  of  Rus- 
sia, are  best  adapted  to  the  growing  of 
wheat.  This  is  especially  true  of  Min- 
nesota, Wisconsin,  Nebraska,  the  Da- 
kotas,  Illinois,  Ohio,  Missouri,  Kan- 
sas, Indiana  and  New  York.  It  is 
interesting  to  note  that  this  cereal  is 
grown  successfully  in  Canada,  as  far 
north  as  Manitoba,  and  Assiniboine. 
In  some  countries  as  Bohemia,  parts  of  Russia,  France  and  Ger- 
many, Scotland  and  Ireland,  on  account  of  the  cost  of  wheat,  it  is 
partly  replaced  as  food  by  rye,  barley  or  oats. 

Structure  of  the  Wheat  Kernel 

The  wheat  kernel,  or  berry,  when  seen  through  the  micro- 
scope has  the  structure  as  shown  in  Fig.  3.    If  the  kernel,  after 

^  References  to  the  ''United  States"  in  the  following  pages  are  understood  to 
mean  "United  States  of  America." 

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Fig.  3. — Structure  of  the 
wheat  grain.  By  permission 
U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.  a,  Wall  of 
the  ovary;  b,  testa;  c  and  / 
embryo;  (/,  starchy  endosperm; 
e,  aleurone  layer. 

SPELT  27 

making  a  longitudinal  section,  be  examined  with  ^  microscope 
of  low  power,  the  germ  may  be  seen  opposite  the  rounded  end,  with 
the  starch  and  aleurone  surrounded  by  the  bran  cells,  constituting 
the  bulk  of  the  grain.  The  germ  constitutes  about  6  per  cent,  of 
the  weight  of  the  kernel.  Its  cells,  as  well  as  those  of  the  endo- 
sperm, are  rich  in  enzymes  which,  under  the  right  conditions, 
transform  the  insoluble  starch  and  protein  of  the  endosperm  into 
sugars,  dextrins  and  amides,  which  the  embryo  plant  is  ablp  to 
absorb  during  germination.  If  the  grain  is  stored  dry  and  is 
protected  from  moisture  it  does  not  deteriorate,  but  loses  slightly 
in  weight  from  drying.  It  is,  however,  liable  to  become  infested 
with  certain  insects,  particularly  the  granary  weevil  and  the  rice 
weevil,  but  these  can  be  destroyed  by  the  use  of  carbon  disulfide  in 
the  bins  where  the  grain  is  stored. 


Spelt  (Triticum  spelta)  is  the  name  applied  to  a  cereal  which 
is  closely  allied  to  both  wheat  and  barley.  It  has  been  suggested 
that  possibly  wheat  arose  from  spelt,  or  that  they  both  had  a 
common  origin  in  a  wild  stock  which  no  longer  exists.  The  grain 
is  closely  contained  in  the  husk  like  barley  or  oats  so  that  the 
hxisk  cannot  be  readily  removed,  by  agitation  or  winnowing,  and 
hence  the  flour  made  from  this  grain  is  coarse  and  of  a  darker  color 
than  wheat  flour.  Spelt  is  similar  in  composition  to  wheat  ex- 
cept that  it  contains  more  cellulose  and  less  protein  than  the  latter. 
It  was  at  one  time  the  chief  cereal  of  ancient  Egypt.  Spelts  are 
grown  on  soils  too  poor  to  raise  wheat,  as  in  parts  of  southern 
Germany,  Switzerland,  Dalmatia,  Servia,  and  northern  Spain. 


I.  By  the  Use  of  Stones 

The  old  method  of  "braying  the  grain"  between  two  stones 
may  have  given  rise  to  the  word  "bread"  or  a  "brayed"  product. 

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The  hand  mills  of  the  Israelites,  and  those  found  in  the  ruins 
of  Pompeii,  belong  to  this  type.  (Fig.  4.)  Later  the  mortar 
and  pestle  was  almost  universally  used,  and  this  was  followed 
by  stones  run  by  wind  or  water  power.  The  old  fashioned  burr- 
stone  mills  consist  of  a  fixed  nether  millstone,  upon  which  the 
upper  stone  revolves.  The  grain  drops  into  an  opening  in  the 
center  of  the  upper  stone,  and  gradually  works  outward  between 

Fig.  4. — Mill  sstones  and  oven,  Pompeii. 

the  surfaces  of  the  two  stones  which  have  a  grinding  surface  cut 
in  radiating  lines.  The  meal  is  "bolted"  or  sifted  to  remove  the 
bran.  One  advantage  of  this  process  over  the  modem  roller 
milling  is  that  the  entire  grain  is  ground,  so  that  the  finished 
product  contains  some  of  the  bran,  cerealin  layer,  and]  germ, 
which  bolting  does  not  remove.  This  .flour,  however,  does  not 
keep  so  well,  is  darker  in  color  and  more  liable  to  become  lumpy. 
In  making  genuine  Graham  flour  this  is  the  process  generally 

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2.  The  Roller  Process 

It  is  only  within  the  last  forty  years  that  the  "roller"  process 
for  making  flour,  which  came  originally  from  Hungary,  has  been 
introduced  into  America.  By  this  process  about  75  per  cent,  of 
the  grain  is  put  on  the  market  as  a  merchantable  product.  "The 
wheat  is  first  screened  and  cleaned,  then  passed  on  to  corrugated 
rolls  or  the  ^first  break,'  where  it  is  partially  flattened  and  slightly 
crushed,  and  a  small  amount  of  flour,  known  as  the  'break  flour,'  is 
separated  by  means  of  sieves,  while  the  main  portion  is  conveyed 
through  elevators  to  the  second  break,  where  the  kernels  are 
more  completely  flattened  and  the  granular  flour  particles  are 
partially  separated  from  the  bran.  The  material  then  passes 
over  several  pairs  of  rolls  or  breaks,  each  succeeding  pair  being  set 
a  little  nearer  together.  This  is  called  the  gradual  reduction  proc- 
ess, because  the  wheat  is  not  made  into  flour  in  one  operation. 
More  complete  removal  of  the  bran  and  other  impurities  from  the 
middlings  is  effected  by  means  of  sieves,  aspirators  and  other 
devices,  and  the  purified  middlings  are  then  passed  on  to  smooth 
rolls,  where  the  granulation  is  completed.  The  flour  finally  passes 
through  silk  bolting  cloths,  containing  upward  of  12,000  meshes 
per  square  inch.  The  dust  and  fine  d6bris  particles  are  removed 
at  various  points  in  the  process.  The  granulation  of  the  middl- 
ings is  done  after  the  impurities  are  removed,  the  object  being  first 
to  separate  as  perfectly  as  possible  the  middlings  from  the  branny 
portions  of  the  kernel.  If  the  wheat  were  first  ground  into  a  fine 
meal,  it  would  be  impossible  to  secure  complete  separation  of 
the  flour  from  the  offal  portions  of  the  kernel.''^ 

Grades  of  Flour 

"  What  is  known  as  patent  flour  is  derived  from  the  reduction  of 
the  middlings,  while  *  the  break  flours  are  recovered  before  the 
'offals'  are  completely  removed:  hence  they  are  not  of  so  high 

^  Human  Foods,  Snyder,  p.  138,  and  see  also  Milling  Test  of  Wheats,  Kans.  St 
Ag.  Col.  Ex.  Sta.  Bull.  177. 

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grade."  According  to  the  Standards  of  the  U.  S.  Dept. 
of  Agriculture,  flour  should  not  contain  more  than  13.5  per 
cent,  of  moisture,  not  less  than  1.25  per  cent,  of  nitrogen,  not 
more  than  i  per  cent,  of  ash,  and  not  more  than  0.50  per 
cent,  of  fiber. 

The  grades  of  flour  usually  on  the  American  market  are 
First  Patent,  or  highest  grade,  in  which  the  gluten  has  a  greater 
power  of  expansion  than  any  other  grade;  Second  Patent; 
"Straight"  or  standard  patent,  which  includes  First  and  Second 
Patent  and  first  clear  grade,  and  is  the  ordinary  bread  flour  of  the 
market;  first  clear;  second  clear,  which  although  containing  more 
gluten  than  higher  grades  does  not  contain  the  gliadin  and  glutenin 
in  the  right  proportions  to  make  good  bread;  and  ''Red  Dog." 
the  lowest  grade.  Other  products  which  are  used  mostly  for 
stock  foods  are  shorts,  or  middlings  and  bran.  In  English 
milling  practice  the  roller-milling  products  are  sold  under  the 
following  grades.^  Straight  Run,  which  consists  of  about  70 
per  cent,  of  the  entire  weight  of  the  grain  used;  Patent  Grade, 
and  Baker's  Grade. 

Flour  on  standing  sometimes  absorbs  water,  and  usually 
bleaches,  on  account  of  the  action  of  enzymes  or  natural  ferments 

Varieties  of  Flour 

Graham  flour,  which  was  first  recommended  by  Dr.  Sylvester 
Graham,  an  American  vegetarian,  in  his  book  written  in  1839, 
is  the  unbolted  flour  made  by  simply  grinding  the  cleaned  wheat. 
When  properly  made  it  contains  a  relatively  larger  proportion  of 
the  intermediate  products — such  as  coarse  and  fine  middlings  of 
good  grade — than  does  much  of  the  so-called  Graham  flour  on  the 
market,  which  is  made  by  mixing  inferior  grades  of  flour  with 
feed-bran.^  The  term  '^etiHre  wheaV^  flour  or  "whole  wheat" 
flour  as  used  in  the  trade  is  a  misnomer,  as  it  refers  to  a  product 

^  Foods,  Their  Origin,  Manufacture  and  Composition,  Tibbies. 
«  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.  Bur.  Chem.  BuU.  164. 

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which  contains  the  germ  and  a  portion  of  the  bran,  but  not 
the  entire  grain. 

Gluten  flour,  which  is  considered  especially  valuable  as  food 
for  diabetic  patients,  ought  to  contain  less  starch  and  more 
gluten  than  the  ordinary  flour.  According  to  the  U.  S.  standard  it 
contains  5.7^  per  cent,  of  nitrogen.  The  name  unfortunately  has 
been  misapplied  to  various  special  brands,  which  are  little  if  any 
richer  in  gluten  than  ordinary  flours. 

The  Durum  wheats,  which  somewhat  resemble  barley,  while 
especially  adapted  to  the  making  of  macaroni,  are  not  as  valuable 
for  general  milling  purposes  as  the  ordinary  varieties.  The  ker- 
nels are  hard  and  almost  glassy,  and  the  beards  are  exceptionally 


The  composition  of  wheat  is  as  follows: 

Mean  of  227  samples 

of  wheat  analyzed  at 

the  World's  Fair' 

Mean  given  by 
K&nig.    420  samples' 





1. 81 





68  01 


Ether  extract 

Crude  fiber 



Wheat  as  a  food  product  is  valuable  not  so  much  on  account 
of  the  large  quantity  of  protein  contained,  as  from  its  peculiar 
composition,  and  the  fact  that  the  protein  can  be  separated  in 
a  coherent  form  from  the  other  constituents  by  washing  with  water. 
It  is  the  only  cereal,  with  the  exception  of  rye,  which  contains 
gliadin,  a  protein  which  forms  the  sticky  dough,  and  entraps  the 
gas  bubbles  during  the  process  of  rising.    The  protein^  of  wheat 

*  U.  S.  S.  and  Reg.  Announcements,  No.  58. 

'  U.  S.  Dcpt.  Agric.,^The  Analysis  of  Cereals,  Div.  Chem.,  Bull.  45. 

'  Osborne  and  Voorhees,  A.  Ch.  Joiu*.  Vol.  15,  p.  392. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


consists  of  a  globulin,  belonging  to  the  class  of  vegetable  viteUins, 
and  which  is  present  to  the  amount  of  0.6  to  0.7  per  cent.:  an 
albumen,  which  forms  from  0.3  to  0.4  per  cent,  of  the  wheat;  a 
proteose;  a  gliadin,  sduble  in  dilute  alcohol  and  forming  about 
4.25  per  cent,  of  the  seed,  and  glutenin  about  4  to  4.5  per  cent. 
The  gliadin  and  glutenin  together  form  the  gluten.  These  latter 
form  about  85  per  cent,  of  the  protein  of  wheat.  Gliadin  in  the 
best  flours  is  present  in  about  the  proportion  of  65  per  cent,  of 
gliadin  to  35  per  cent,  of  glutenin,  and  these,  by  the  presence  of 
mineral  salts,  are  prevented  from  being  wholly  soluble.  By  this 
medium  then,  the  particles  of  flour,  which  consist  largely  of  starch, 
are  bound  together  to  make  a  tenacious  dough. 

Blending  Different  Wheats 

Wheats  from  different  countries  as  well  as  different  kinds  from 
the  same  country  have  different  qualities.  The  English  market 
is  supplied  with  wheat  from  England,  Scotland,  France,  Hungary, 
Australia,  America,  Russia  and  India.  As  these  differ  in  quality 
and  value,  much  skill  on  the  part  of  the  miller  is  required  to  so 
blend  the  different  grains  as  to  produce  a  satisfactory  grade  of 
flour.  The  American  miller  mixes  wheats  from  different  sections, 
and  hard  and  soft  wheats,  to  produce  the  required  grades.  In  the 
large  mills  the  various  grades  of  flour  are  tested  in  the  laboratory. 

Bleaching  of  Flour 

Some  flours,  especially  those  of  the  higher  grades,  are  white, 
while  the  lower  grades  are  darker.  As  the  white  flour  commands 
a  higher  price,  it  is  to  the  advantage  of  the  miller  to  get  as  much 
of  the  wheat  into  white  flour  as  possible.  This  is  done  by  various 
processes  of  bleaching,  by  the  use  of  ozone,  chlorine,  or  peroxide 
of  nitrogen  (NO2).  A  common  method  of  applying  nitrogen 
peroxide  gas  to  flour  is  to  pass  an  electric  charge  through  the  atmos- 
I^ere,  thus  causing  a  partial  combination  of  its  oxygen  and  nitro- 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


gen,  and  in  a  special  apparatus  to  bring  the  fine  flour  in  close  con- 
tact with  the  nitrogen  peroxide.  Pending  a  final  decision  by  the 
U.  S.  Courts  as  to  whether  the  bleaching  of  flour  shall  be  allowed, 
many  States  require  that  all  bleached  flour  shall  be  so  labeled. 
The  process  of  bleaching  flour  is  for  the  purpose  of  making  "the 
product  appear  better  than  it  really  is,"  and  it  is  a  serious  question 
whether  this  process  should  be  allowed  with'  so  important  a  food 

RYE  (Secale  cereale) 

This  grain,  which  came  originally  from  the  region  east  of  the 
Austrian  Alps,  is  extensively  used  for  bread  making  in  many 
European  countries,  especially  France,  Germany,  and  Russia. 
It  is  not  of  very  ancient  origin,  and  was  not  cultivated  in  the 
Roman  Empire  earlier  than  the  Christian  era.  In  the  United 
States  it  is  used  to  some  extent  by  the  farmers  who  grow  the  grain, 
and  also  finds  great  favor  among  the  immigrants  who  have  become 
accustomed  to  the  use  of  rye  bread  in  the  old  country.  The  chief 
use,  however,  is  for  the  manufacture  of  whiskey  and  for  stock  feed. 
It  grows  well  in  the  temperate  zone,  especially  in  the  northern 
portion  of  the  United  States  and  in  Canada.  Although  usually 
sown  in  the  fall,  in  some  localities  spring  rye  is  planted. 

Composition  of  Rye 

The  general  structure  of  the  grain  is  similar  to  that  of  wheat. 
It  contains  71  per  cent,  of  starch  and  sugar,  but  the  proteins  of 
rye  are  of  different  composition  from  those  of  wheat.  ^ 

According  to  Osborne,^  this  protein  contains  among  other 
substances  4  per  cent,  of  gliadin;  0.43  per  cent,  of  leucosin;  and 
1.76  per  cent,  of  edestin  and  proteose.  Although  the  gliadin  in 
Rye  Bread  is  similar  to  that  of  wheat  there  is  present  no  protein 
corresponding  to  the  glutenin  of  wheat.    From  this  peculiar  com- 

*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agii  Bur.  Chem.  Bull.  13,  p.  1137. 

Carlton,  U.  S.  Dept  AgrL  Bur.  PI.  Ind.  Bull  No.  3,  p.  40. 
.Jour.  Am.  Chem.  Soc.  17.  p.  429.  DgtzedbyGoOglc 


position  the  gluten  is  more  sticky  than  that  of  wheat,  and  the 
resulting  bread  is  darker  and  less  porous.  In  parts  of  Germany  a 
black  bread  made  from  rye  and  known  as  "pumpernickel,"  is  a 
common  food  for  the  working  people.  This  is  a  "sour-dough" 
bread,  in  which  the  fermentation  is  started  with  dough  from 
a  previous  batch.  The  Schwartzbrod,  quite  common  in  certain 
sections,  is  made  from  a  coarser  flour  than  that  used  for  "pumper- 
nickel." This  is  not  an  economical  food,  as  far  as  the  protein 
digestibility  is  concerned,  for  in  coarse  rye  bread  as  much  as  42 
per  cent,  of  the  total  protein  is  lost  diuring  digestion,  as  compared 
with  only  20  per  cent,  in  the  case  of  white  bread.  ^  The  soluble 
proteins,  which  are  more  abundant  in  rye  than  in  wheat,  act  upon 
the  insoluble  proteins  and  render  rye  bread  moist,  fine  grained, 
and  of  small  volume  in  comparison  with  the  spongy,  wheaten  loaf. 
These  same  qualities,  however,  make  rye  flour  an  excellent  medium 
for  the  growth  of  yeast  cells,  therefore  a  small  quantity  of  rye 
flour  is  often  used  with  the  wheat  in  the  preparation  of  the 
"sponge"  used  to  raise  the  dough.  In  making  rye  bread,  rye 
flour  is  commonly  mixed  with  barley  or  wheat  flour  or  corn  meal. 
When  wheat  is  used  the  best  proportion  is  two  parts  of  wheat  to 
one  of  rye.  In  France  a  mixture  of  wheat  and^ye  are  combined 
for  bread  making  under  the  name  of  m^teili  and  in  Spain  and 
Greece  a  mixture  of  barley  and  rye,  has  the  same  name.  It  should 
be  noted  that  bread  made  from  mixtures  of  different  flours,  since 
it  is  cheap  and  nutritious,  might  well  take  the  place  of  straight 
wheat  bread  in  cases  where  economy  of  food  is  to  be  considered. 

The  malted  and  fermented  rye  is  a  common  source  of  alcoholic 
h'quors,  especially  whiskey  and  in  Russia  ^' vodka  J*  (See  Alcohol, 
P-  I43-) 


There  is  a  peculiar  fungus  called  "ergot,"  which  sometimes 
grows  upon  rye  giving  it  the  name  "spurred  rye.  Ergot  possesses 
certain  poisonous  properties,  which,  although  valuable  in  medicine, 

^  Food  and  Dietetics,  Hutchinson,  p.  220. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 

OATS  35 

render  the  product  dangerous  for  use  either  by  man  or  the  lower 
animals.     (See  also  U.  S.  Serv.  and  Reg.  Ann.  No.  25.) 

OATS  (Avena-sativa  L.) 

This  very  valuable  cereal,  which  is  always  cultivated,  and  has 
never  been  discovered  growing  wild,  is  used  as  food  both  by  man 
and  beast.  It  seems  to  have  been  the  original  grain  plant  of 
Europe,  where  it  has  been  known  for  2000  years,  and  was  used 
in  Great  Britain  more  than  600  years  ago.  It  grows  readily 
wherever  the  climate  is  cool  and  moist  in  the  growing  season. 
It  is  more  susceptible  to  drought  than  wheat  and  some  other  grains. 
In  the  United  States,  it  can  be  readily  grown  in  the  south  by  sow- 
ing in  the  fall,  and  in  the  north  by  sowing  in  the  spring.  In 
Scotland  oatmeal  has  long  been  a  favorite  food  material,  and  in 
the  United  States  it  has  become,  within  the  last  forty  years,  one 
of  the  most  important  of  breakfast  foods. 

MiUing  Oats 

By  the  ordinary  process  of  threshing  and  winnowing,  the  outer 
husk  is  not  removed,  and  so  oats,  imlike  other  grains,  comes 
to  the  market  with  this  chaflF  still  attached.  The  percentage  of 
the  kernel  proper  to  the  hull  is  as  73  to  27.  Even  in  the  process  of 
milling,  although  the  grain  is  sometimes  heated  in  a  kiln,  it  is  not 
possible  to  completely  remove  the  cellulose  from  the  remainder  of 
the  grain.  Small,  sharp  particles  remain,  which  although  in 
some  instances  irritating  to  portions  of  the  alimentary  canal,- 
still  have  the  advantage  of  stimulating  intestinal  action. 

Composition  of  Oatmeal 

A  typical  oatmeal  found  on  the  market  has  the  following 


Per  cent. 

Water 7.8 

Protdn , 14.7 

Fat 6.2 

Carbohydrates  including  starch,  sugar,  dextrin  and  cellulose.  69 . 8 

I^&eral  matter * 1.5, 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 

36  •  BARLEY 

Oatmeal  is  unique  among  the  cereals  in  the  amount  of  protein^ 
and  fat  contained.  Of  the  nitrogenous  matter,  94  per  cent,  is 
in  the  form  of  protein,  so  that  it  can  be  readily  digested,  although 
experiments  are  wanting  to  show  exactly  how  large  a  proportion 
really  is  available  as  food  in  the  human  system.  These  proteins 
consist  of  avenin,  sometimes  called  oat  myosin,  oat  legumin,  or  oat 
casein,  and  a  small  quantity  of  oat  gliadin.  The  avenin  is  similar 
to  the  legumin  of  peas  although  it  contains  more  sulfur.  Oats 
contain  more  fat  than  wheat,  although  it  is  of  the  same  character. 
The  mineral  salts  are  also  abundant  and  of  great  value  in  the 
process  of  nutrition. 

Cooking  Oatmeal 

In  order  to  be  fully  digested,  oatmeal  should  be  cooked  longer 
than  the  thirty  to  forty  minutes  usually  suggested.  Digestion 
experiments  recently  made'  show  that  when  oatmeal  is  cooked  for 
four  hours  or  more,  the  diastase  ferment  acts  on  it  more  readily, 
and  it  is  more  easily  digested  than  when  cooked  for  thirty  minutes. 
For  those  of  feeble  digestion,  long  cooking  of  oatmeal  is  positively' 
necessary,  otherwise  gastro-intestinal  irritation  will  result.  That 
the  oatmeal,  as  served  at  hotels  and  restaurants,  is  often  very  im- 
perfectly ceoked,  is  evident  both  from  the  taste  and  appearance. 
As  there  is  no  gluten  in  oats  similar  to  that  in  some  other  grains, 
ordinary  bread  cannot  be  made  from  this  cereal,  but  it  has  been 
used  mixed  with  wheat  and  rye  flour  to  make  a  very  nutritious 
bread  of  fair  quality.  Oats  can  be  cooked  most  thoroughly  and 
completely  in  the  form  of  porridge,  because  the  heat  is  so  much 
more  readily  applied  to  all  portions  of  the  mass. 

Oatmeal  as  Food 

Since  oatmeal  is  such  a  richly  nitrogenous  and  "hearty"  food, 
it  is  important,  if  the  health  be  preserved,  that  those  who  make  it  a 
large  portion  of  their  diet  live  much  of  the  time  in  the  open  air. 

^  Minn.  Exp.  Sta.  BulL  No.  74. 

Digitized  by  CjOOQ  IC 


*  The  Scotch  Highlanders  are  often  mentioned  as  a  race  who  have 
been  nourished  on  this  remarkable  food.  The  Scotch  "Groats" 
is  the  kernel  freed  from  its  outside  covering  and  then  ground 
without  the  removal  of  the  germ.  For  the  genuine  product  the 
grain  is  heated  or  parched  for  several  hours  over  perforated  iron 
plates,  before  it  is  ground.  The  product  known  as  "rolled  oats" 
has  been  upon  the  market  for  some  years.  It  is  claimed  that  the 
great  pressure  applied,  and  the  heat  employed  during  the  process, 
rupture  the  cell  walls  and  break  down  the  cellulose,  so  that  the 
subsequent  preparation  for  the  table  requires  less^time  than  if 
other  methods  were  used  in  the  manufacture. 

Some  manufactiurers  claim  that  by  some  special  process  of 
manufacturing,  their  product  is  vastly  superior  to  others,  but  there 
is  no  reason  why  the  consumer  should  pay  more  than  from  4  to 
7  cents  per  pound  for  a  good  wholesome  oatmeal.  Package  goods 
have  the  advantage  of  protection  from  dust  and  dirt,  and  they  are 
perhaps  less  liable  to  be  infested  with  insects  than  bulk  goods. 
Oatmeal,  on  account  of  the  large  amount  of  fat  contained  and  the 
character  of  the  protein,  does  not  keep  very  well^  and  is  liable  to 
become  musty.  It  is  also  quite  liable  to  be  infested  with  insects. 
This  cereal  is  not  often  adulterated,  because  most  adulterants 
would  be  too  expensive.  A  mixture  with  the  meal  of  other  cereals 
can  readily  be  detected  by  the  use  of  the  microscope. 

BARLEY  (Horedum  sativum,  Pres.) 

This  cereal,  probably  a  native  of  western  Asia,  it  is  asserted 
has  been  known  in  China  and  in  Egypt  for  centiuies.  There  is 
evidence  to  show  that  it  was  grown  in  central  Europe  a  thousand 
years  ago,  and  in  the  palmy  days  of  Greece  and  Rome,  barley  was 
cultivated  extensively,  especially  as  food  for  horses.  Barley  meal 
was  at  one  time  the  most  important  food  of  the  people  of  the  north 
of  Europe,  and  of  parts  of  England  and  Scotland.  In  1626,  and 
later,  barley  meal  was  the  common  food  of  laborers  in  England, 
and  as  late  as  1858  barley  is  spoken  of  as  the  common  food  of  the 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


people  living  in  the  mountainous  districts  of  Sweden,  Switzerland 
and  Scotland. 

In  most  coimtries  barley  has  gradually  been  replaced  by  wheat, 
as  the  latter  is  transported  all  over  the  world,  and  it  no  longer 
becomes  necessary  for  people  to  live  exclusively  on  the  foods  that 
are  produced  in  their  immediate  vicinity.  Barley  is  grown  in 
almost  any  latitude  in  the  United  States,  the  method  of  cultiva- 
tion being  similar  to  that  for  wheat  or  rye.  The  yield  per  acre 
exceeds  that  of  most  other  grains. 

Composition  of  Barley 

The  following  is  the  composition  as  reported  by  Atwater: 

Pearl  barley 

Barley  meal 


1. 10 

1. 10 



10.  <o 








Barley  contains  a  relatively  large  amount  of  mineral  salts,  fat 
and  undigestible  cellulose,  but  contains  less  protein  and  less 
digestible  carbohydrates  than  wheat.  Osborn^  divides  the  pro- 
tein of  the  whole  barley  grain,  which  amounts  to  10.75  P^r  cent., 
as  follows:  Leucosin  (albumin)  0.3  per  cent.;  proteose  and  edestin 
(globulin)  1.95  per  cent.;  hordein,  similar  in  physical  and  chemical 
properties  to  gliadin,  4  per  cent.;  and  insoluble  protein  4.5  per 

*Am.  Chem.  Jour.,  1895.  17,  pp.  SSTS^J- 

*  See  also  Chem.  Study  of  Am.  Barleys  and  Malts  U.  S.  Dept.  Ag.  Bur.  Chem. 
Bull.  No.  124. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Uses  of  Barley 

As  baxley  contains  no  gluten  it  does  not  make  good  bread 
but  mixed  with  an  equal  quantity  of  wheat  flour  a  product  of  fair 
quality  can  be  made.  The  meal  has  been  used  for  making  "  barley 
cakes,"  from  the  earliest  times.  Barley  water  has  been  found 
to  be  an  excellent  demulcent  and  cooling  drink  for  invalids, 
although  the  amount  of  nutriment  contained  in  it  is  lesa  than  i 
per  cent.,  and  is,  of  course,  almost  negligible.  Pearl  barley, 
which  is  the  whole  grain  polished  by  attrition  after  the  removal  of 
the  husk  and  germ,  and  products  of  this  class,  similar  to  oatmeal 
preparations,  require,  long  boiling — from  one  to  two  hours — in 
order  to  pamit  of  their  easy  digestion.  As  an  addition  to  soups 
barley  finds  great  favor. 

Aside  from  its  use  in  feeding  horses  and  cattle,  the  chief  use  of 
barley  is  in  the  manufacture  of  beer  and  alcohol.  Maltf  which  is 
another  name  for  sprouted  and  dried  barley,  has  the  property  of 
converting  the  starch  into  fermentable  sugar  on  account  of  the 
amount  of  diastase  which  it  contains.  Malt  is  also  used  with  an 
infusion  of  other  grains  in  making  neutral  spirits  (alcohol),  and  in 
making  whiskey  and  other  alcoholic  beverages.  (See  p.  143.) 
Mall  exlracfi  is  a  dietetic  prq)aration  which  is  obtained  by  macerat- 
ing powdered  malt  for  six  hours  with  water,  diluting  and  digesting 
below  131*^  F.;  then  strain  and  evaporate  on  a  water  bath  or  in 
vacuo  to  a  syrupy  consistency.  Malt  extract  consists  mostly  of 
maltose,  invert  sugar  and  dextrin,  with  from  6  to  8  per  cent,  of 
protein,  and  is  a  highly  concentrated  food  which,  on  account  of  the 
diastase  which  it  contains,  assists  in  the  digestion  of  starchy  foods. 

CORN  (Zeamays) 


Although  Indian  corn  was  not  known  to  the  civilized  world 
until  the  discovery  of  America,  it  has  gradually  increased  in  impor- 

»    U.     S.     P.,    p.     141.  T 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


tance  so  that  to-day,  in  the  United  States  at  least,  it  stands  next 
to  wheat  as  a  cereal  used  for  the  food  of  man.  The  progenitor  of 
our  modem  com^  was  a  plant  of  the  grass  family,  growing  wild  on 
the  plateaus  of  Mexico  and  Central  America  thousands  of  years 
ago.  It  can  be  grown  anywhere  in  the  temperate  zone,  but 
it  has  not  until  recently  been  extensively  cultivated,  except  in 
the  western  hemisphere.  At  the  time  of  the  potato  famine  in 
Ireland  corn  was  imported  into  that  country,  and  since  that  time 
has  held  a  very  important  place  as  a  cheap  food  material. 

Importance  of  the  Com  Crop 

Corn  may  be  said  to  be  the  most  important  agricultural  crop 
in  the  states  of  Indiana,  Illinois,  Iowa,  Missouri  and  Kansas. 
In  the  United  States  it  far  exceeds  wheat  in  the  size  and  value  of 
the  crop  produced.*  There  were  30  acres  of  corn  grown  in  the 
James  River  settlement  in  161 1:  there  were  105,825,000  acres 
grown  in  the  United  States  in  191 1.  In  the  southern  United 
States  corn  and  its  products  are  much  more  extensively  used  as 
human  food  than  in  the  north.  It  has  found  its  way  rather 
slowly  into  the  diet  of  the  Europeans,  except  in  Italy,  although  it 
could  readily  replace  more'  expensive  foods. 

Cultivation  of  Com 

There  are  a  number  of  varieties'  of  corn  grown,  which  may  be 
distinguished  as  husk-kernel  corn,  pop  corn,  flint,  dent,  soft  and 
sweet  corn.  Some  of  these  are  peculiarly  adapted  to  particular 
localities  and  climatic  conditions,  and  others  will  grow  almost 
anwhere.  Ordinary  corn  has  been  much  improved  in  quality 
and  nutritive  value  by  judicious  selection  and  cultivation.  To  cul- 
tivate the  crop  successfully,  an  abundance  of  rain  during  the  grow- 
ing season  is  required.    The  hills  in  which  three  or  four  stalks  grow 

*  Pop.  ScL  Monthly,  Vol.  82,  p.  225. 

*  Maine  Ag  Ex.  Sta.  BuL  No.  131. 

*  Foods  and  Thdr  Adulteration,  Wiley,  pp.  224-225. 

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are  about  4  feet  apart^  and  the  ground  must  be  cultivated  several 
times,  and  kept  free  from  weeds.  On  the  prairies  of  the  middle 
west  of  the  United  States,  the  yield  is 
sometimes  as  high  as  1 10  bu.  to  the  acre, 
and  there  are  occasional  stalks  measur- 
ing 16  feet  in  height,  so  rich  is  the  soil, 
and  so  ideal  are  the  conditions  for  the 
growth  of  the  plant.  On  account  of  the 
hard,  flinty  nature  of  its  outside  cover- 
ing, corn  keeps  well  if  stored  in  a  dry 
place.  The  structure  of  the  grain  or 
kernel  is  shown  in  Fig.  5. 

Fig.  $. — Structure  of  the 
corn  grain.  By  permission, 
U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.  a.  Wall 
of  the  ovary;  b,  testa;  c  and 
/,  embryo;  d,  starchy  embryo. 
Outside  ot  d  is  &  mixture  of 
starch  and  aleurone. 

Milling  of  Com 

Corn  meal,  the  chief  manufactured 
product,  is  prepared  by  the  simple 
grinding  of  the  corn,  and  bolting  more 
or  less  completely.  By  modern  milling 
operations,  not  only  is  the  bran  com- 
pletely removed,  but  to  a  large  extent 

the  germ  itself,  and  'thus  as  most  of  the  fat  is  removed  the  meal 
is  better  adapted  for  export  purposes.  The  meal  is  also  kiln 
dried  to  destroy  any  bacteria  that  may  be  present  and  to  re- 
move some  of  the  moisture.  The  color  of  the  product  will  depend 
on  the  color  of  the  com  used,  but  there  is  no  practical  difference, 
as  far  as  nutritive  value  is  concerned  between  yellow  and  white 
corn  meal.  The  "nutty"  flavor  of  the  white  corn,  and  the 
peculiar  flavor  of  the  yellow  corn,  are  due  to  the  presence  of  cer- 
tain volatile  bodies  largely  retained  by  the  fat.  The  refined^ 
product  found  on  the  market,  which  has  been  so  treated  as  to 
lose  much  of  the  mineral  matter,  fat  and  protein,  is  less  nutri- 
tious than  the  ordinary  meal,  and  some  of  its  characteristic 
flavor,  which  is  much  appreciated  by  many,  is  lost. 

1 U.  8.  Dept.  Agri.  Bur.  Ch«m.  Bull  Nq.  l$x. 

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CompositiQn  of  Com 

The  average  oomposition  of  corn  is 

American  com^ 

Sweet  com' 

Com  meal^ 













1. 71 












The  chemical  analysis  shows  that  corn  is  rich  in  fats,'  although 
somewhat  deficient  in  protein  and  mineral  salts.  The  following 
is  given  as  the  composition  of  the  proteins  by  Osborne.*  Zeins, 
solubles  in  alcohol,  5  per  cent.;  insolubles,  3.14  per  cent;  globulins, 
0.39  per  cent.;  albumins,  0.06  per  cent.;  making  a  total  of  8.59 
per  cent. 

Com  Oil 

The  oil  of  corn,  sometimes  called  "oil  of  maize,"  consists  of 
oleate,  palmitate,  and  stearate  of  glycerol.  Commercial  corn 
oil  is  prepared  from  the  germ  which  is  removed  from  the  corn 
by  some  processes  of  milling,  and  in  the  process  of  making  glucose. 
(See  p.  118.) 

Cooking  Com 

As  corn  does  not  contain  a  true  gluten  like  wheat,  it  cannot  be 
used  for  making  an  ordinary  bread  raised  with  yeast.  There 
are  numerous  ways  in  which  corn  meal  is  prepared  as  food.    The 

» U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Div.  Chem.  Bull.  50. 
'  Richardson. 

•  For  prop,  and  comp.  of  com  ofl,  sec  J.  Am.  Chem.  Soc.,  Vol.  23,  p.  1-8, 

♦  J.  A.  C.  Soc.  19,  p.  525,  also  Osborne,  Loc,  dt.,  Vol.  13,  Vol  14. 

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product  made  by  boiling  the  meal  with  water  is  called  stirabout 
in  Ireland,  polenta  in  Italy  and  mush  or  hasty  pudding  in  the  United 
States.  When  the  meal  is  baked  in  cakes  it  is  known  diS  johnny 
cake  (said  to  be  a  corruption  of  journey  cake).  ''Ash  cake"  is 
made  by  wrapping  the  dough  in  cabbage  leaves  and  baking  in  hot 
ashes.  In  the  Southern  States  the  cakes  are  known  as  corn  pones 
or  hoe  cake;  in  Mexico  and  South  America  as  tortilla  (tortio).  These 
are  of  course  all  unleavened  products,  made  by  simply  mixing 
the  meal  with  water  and  salt  and  baking  in  the  most  primitive 

Com  bread  can  be  made  by  the  use  of  baking  powder  or  baking 
soda  and  sour  milk.  The  meal  is  sometimes  mixed  with  an  equal 
quantity  of  wheat  or  rye  flour.  The  best  corn  bread  is  made  from 
the  freshly  ground  corn  meal.^ 

Sweet  Com 

Sweet  corn  furnishes  an  excellent  food  product  during  three  or 
four  months  of  the  growing  season,  and  has  become  of  great 
importance  as  a  canned  food.  It  compares  favorably  with  the 
potato  in  food  value,  having  73  per  cent,  of  water,  while  the  potato 
contains  75  per  cent.;  sweet  corli  contains  13.5  per  cent,  of  starch; 
6.00  per  cent,  of  sugar,  and  5.00  per  cent,  of  protein.  The  fresh 
potato  contains  only  1.20  per  cent,  of  protein.  Corn  may  be 
boiled  "on  the  cob"  or  cut  from  it,  or  it  may  be  roasted,  but  in 
any  case  it  is  eaten  hot.     (See  succotash,  p.  195.) 

Canned  Sweet  Com 

In  the  United  States  canned  sweet  corn  has  become  almost  a 
family  necessity.  It  is  of  better  quality  for  canning  when  grown 
in  the  north,  and  the  principal  canneries  are  located  in  Maine, 
Maryland,  New  York,  Indiana,  Michigan,  Iowa  and  Wisconsin. 
No  less  than  7,447,765  cases  (of  twenty-four  cans  each)  of  com 
were  canned  in  1909.^     * 

» Farmers'  Bull.  No.  565. 

« Maine  Agri.  Exp.  Sta.  Bull.  No.  131.  ^  , 

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44    C0Ml>0Sl1i6N  Ot  C£k£ALS  AND  MANUFACTURE  OF  STARCH 

It  happens  unfortunately  that  there  are  opportunities  and  an 
incentive  to  adulterate  sweet  corn,  and  so  it  was  formerly  found 
bleached  with  sodium  sulfite,  to  make  it  white,  or  sweetened  with 
saccharin,  or  at  least  sweetened  with  cane  sugar,  instead  of  being 
canned  in  its  natmral  state.  Saccharin  has  a  sweetening  power 
nearly  500  times  that  of  sugar,  and  it  was  much  cheaper  to  use  it 
than  cane  sugar.  Saccharin  is  made  from  coal  tar  and  is  what  is 
called  a  synthetic  compound;  its  use  in  any  food  product  is  posi- 
tively forbidden  in  United  States.  It  has  no  food  value  as  has 
cane  sugar,  and  we  do  not  know  but  that  its  eflfect  on  the  system 
may  be  injurious.  Cane  sugar  even  is  an  adidterant.  and  when 
used  its  presence  should  be  stated  on  the  package.  Corn  flour  or 
starch  is  also  added  to  inferior  grades  of  canned  corn  to  give  the 
product  the  appearance  of  being  thick  and  creamy. 

Pop  Corn 

Pop  corn  (Zea  everta)  is  peculiar  from  the  tendency  of  its  ker- 
nels to  tiun  inside  out  upon  heating.  It  differs  from  the  ordinary 
flint  com  in  having  a  larger  porportion  of  corneous  endosperm  or 
horny  substance  associated  with  the  starchy  portion  of  the  kernel.^ 
The  ears  and  kernels  of  pop  corn  are  small  and  the  whole  plant  is 
diminutive  compared  with  other  varieties.  The  kernels  may  be 
red  yellow  or  white,  but  there  is  less  demand  for  the  colored  va- 
rieties. The  white  rice  com  is  the  variety  most  in  favor.  More 
than  280,000  bushels  are  grown  annually  in  the  United  States,  the 
largest  producers  being  the  states  of  Iowa  and  Nebraska. 

The  cause  of  the  popping  of  corn  is  supposed  to  be  the  expan- 
sion of  the  moisture  contained  in  the  starch  cells.  The  seed  coat 
should  be  sidfidently  hard  and  dry  to  afford  considerable  resist- 
ance to  the  expansion,  otherwise  the  corn  does  not  pop  well. 
For  popping  the  com  should  contain  about  12  per  cent,  of  moisture, 
and  if  properly  stored  it  will  retain  this  quab'ty  for  several  years. 
Pop  corn  is  not  ready  for  marketing  until  the  summer  following  the 
season  in'which  it  is  grown. 

»  U.  S.  Dcpt  of  Agri.  Farmer's  Bull.  No.  554.  r^  j 

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Pop  corn  is  used  more  as  a  confection  than  a  food,  but  it  is 
at  the  same  time  wholesome  and  nutritious.  The  principle  prod- 
ucts are  pop-corn  balls,  corn  bar,  sugar-coated  pop  corn,  pop- 
corn bricks,  and  "cracker jack,"  which  is  a  mixture  of  pop  corn 
and  peanuts  held  together  with  sugar  and  glucose. 

Com  Flour  as  an  Adulterant 

The  mixing  of  corn  flour  with  wheat  flour  is  considered  an 
adulteration  in  the  United  States,  but  this  mixture  is  allowed  if 
the  fact  is  stated  on  the  package  and  when  a  small  revenue  tax  is 

Pellagra  not  Caused  by  Eating  Com 

There  is  a  disease  called  "Pellagra,"  which  was  at  one  time 
supposed  to  be  caused  by  eating  moldy  or  fermented  corn.  It 
Was  reported  from  Spain  nearly  200  years  ago  and  has  been  preva- 
lent in  parts  of  France  and  Italy,  for  many  years,  but  only  recently 
has  it  attracted  much  attention  in  America,  and  that  in  the  South- 
ern States.  More  recent  investigations  throw  very  serious  doubts 
on  the  assiunption  that  there  is  any  relation  between  a  corn  diet, 
and  this  disease.  Corn  has  been  in  use  for  generations  over  vast 
areas  without  causing  the  disease,  and  people  have  pellagra  who 
do  not  eat  Indian  corn.^ 

Food  Values  of  Com 

Wiley^  says — "There  is  a.widespread  opinion  that  the  products 
of  Indian  corn  are  less  digestible  and  less  nutritive  than  those  from 
wheat.  This  opinion,  it  appears,  has  no  justification  either  from 
the  chemical  composition  of  the  two  bodies,  or  from  recorded 
digestive  or  nutritive  experiments.  In  round  numbers  com  con- 
tains twice  as  much  fat  or  oil  as  wheat,  three  times  as  much  as  rye, 

*  Independent,  N.  Y.,  Vol.  74,  p.  874. 

*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Div.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  13,  pt.  9,  p.  1290. 

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twice  as  much  as  barley,  and  two-thirds  as  much  as  hulled  oats. 
Indian  corn  has  nearly  the  same  content  of  nitrogenous  matters  as 
the  other  cereals,  with  the  exception  of  oats."  Corn  is  an  excel- 
lent food,  and  in  general  easily  digested.  Sweet  corn  sometimes 
causes  irritation  in  the  intestines  on  account  of  the  presence  of  the 
tough  exterior  coating  which  resists  digestion. 

Com  Starch 

Corn  starch,  which  is  so  extensively  used  in  the  preparation  of 
puddings  and  for  infants'  food,  is  one  of  the  most  important  corn 
products.  In  the  use  of  corn  starch,  under  whatever  name  sold, 
it  should  not  be  forgotten  that  the  ptoduct  is  nearly,  pure  starch, 
and  to  form  a  satisfactory  balanced  ration  its  use  should  be  sup- 
plemented with  foods  rich  in  nitrogenous  material  and  fat.  Corn 
starch  is  a  common  adulterant  of  the  more  expensive  starchy  foods, 
such  as  sago  and  arrow  root. 

The  increase  in  the  use  of  corn,  in  the  life  of  the  far  East, 
bids  fair  to  be  an  important  economic  factor.  Indo-China  and  the 
Philippines  have  begun  raising  corn  in  the  place  of  rice  and  millet. 
In  the  Philippines,  a  campaign  of  education,  begun  by  the  U.  S. 
Dept.  of  Agric,  is  beginning  to  bear  fruit.  The  crop  seems  well 
adapted  to  this  climate,  and  2  or  even  3  crops  are  raised  annually. 
It  is  believed  that  the  raising  of  corn  will  do  much  to  improve  the 
condition  of  the  natives,  as  it  renders  them  less  liable  to  a  famine 
when  the  rice  crop  fails.  ^ 

RICE   (Oryza  sativa) 

Rice  is  a  native  of  India  and  southern  China,  and  has  been 
known  in  Asia  as  a  food  product  from  the  earliest  times,  in  fact 
there  is  evidence  of  its  being  in  use  in  China  as  early  as  2800  B.  C. 
It  is  grown  principally  in  the  East,  in  southern  Europe,  in  the  West 
Indies,  and  the  southern  Atlantic  and  Gulf  States.    It  was  intro- 

» D.  Cons.  Tr.  Rep.  U.  S.,  1913,  No.  as4. 

*       Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

RICE  47 

duced  into  the  United  States  in  1694,  and  its  cultivation  is 
rapidly  extending  especially  in  Louisiana,  Texas  and  Arkansas, 
which  three  states  now  furnish  three-fourths  of  all  the  product  of 
the  country.  Before  the  Civil  War  of  1861-65,  North  Carolina, 
South  Carolina  and  Georgia  were  the  principal  rice-producing 

Use  of  Rice 

This  cereal,  which  is  extensively  used  by  the  people  of  China, 
India  and  Japan,  is  said  to  form  the  principal  food  of  one-half  of 
the  human  race,^  and  is  an  important  addition  to  the  food  material 
in  all  civilized  countries.  Notwithstanding  the  large  amount 
grown  in  the  United  States  we  annually  import  from  foreign  coun- 
tries five  times  as  much  as  we  raise,  and  on  this  amount  there  is  a 
tarifiF  of  one  cent  per  pound. 

Cultivation  of  Rice 

More  than  100  varieties  of  rice  are  grown,  but  the  principal 
ones  grown  in  the  United  States  are  the  "gold  seed,"  the  "white" 
rice,  and  the  Honduras  rice.  Through  the  efforts  of  the  U.  S. 
Dept.  of  Agric.  in  1899,  a  short-kerneled  variety  known  as  Kinshu 
rise  was  introduced  from  Japan.  This  is  considered  more  pro- 
ductive than/flie  other  varieties,  and  does  not  break  so  readily  in 
the  milling  and  polishing.  * 

Rice  grows  best  in  damp  soils,  especially  those  underlain  by  a 
semi-impervious  sub-soil,  and  in  localities  where  it  can  be  flooded 
at  certain  seasons.  During  the  germination  and  growth  of  the 
crop  the  water  is  allowed  to  flood  the  field  several  times,  but 
between  times  the  field  is  allowed  to  dry  so  that  the  crop,  which  is 
usually  planted  in  drills,  can  be  hoed.  (Fig.  6.)  The  final  irri- 
gation is  allowed  to  continue  until  about  eight  days  before  ths 
harvest.    Where  the  ground  is  sufficiently  firm,  reaping  machinee 

]  ^V,  S.  Dept,  Agri.  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  417. 
)  «  U.  S.  Dept.  orAgric_Fann_Bull.  No.  no. 

•.    ••'  -  Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Fig.  6. — A  rice  field.     (By  permission,  Central  Scientific  Co.) 

Fig.  7. — Hulling  rice  in  Burmah. 

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are  used  in  harvesting  the  rice;  otherwise  it  must  be  cut  with  the 


When    the   grain    comes    from    the    thresher   it    is   known 
as  "paddy"  or  rough  rice,  from  which  the  hull  is  afterward 

Fig.  8. — ^Large  stones  for  huUing  rice,  and  removing  chaff.    Savannah,  Ga.   (Copy- 
right by  Keystone  View  Co.) 

separated.  This  operaUon,  in  the  primitive  way,  is  accomplished 
by  the  use  of  a  large  muriar  and  pestle  (Fig.  7)  but  in  modern  prac- 
tice a  '* hulling  machine"  has  been  devised  which  expedites  the 
work,     (Fig.  8.) 

For  many  years,  the  rice,  as  prepared  for  market  by  the 
simple  process  of  hulling,  was  considered  satisfactory,  but  there 
arose  a  seeming  demand  for  a  whiter  and  more  highly  polished 

4  Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


product.^  As  a  result  elaborate  machines  are  in  use  in  the  rice 
mills  of  the  South,  and  elsewhere,  in  which,  by  means  of  leather 
rollers  the  outer  layer  of  the  rice  is  rubbed  oflf.  (Fig.  9.)  In  this 
outer  layer  lies  most  of  the  nutritive  material,  other  than  starch, 
and  the  slender  grains  of  some  varieties  of  starch  are  also  broken  in 
this  process.     In  100  pounds  of  rice  polish  (the  material  removed) 

Fig.  9. — Polishing  rice,  Savannah,  Ga.     (Copyright,  Keystone  View  Co.) 

there  are  7.2  pounds  of  fat,  while  only  o .  4  pounds  per  hundred  are 
retained  in  the  polished  rice.  The  practice  of  polishing,^  however, 
is  still  continued,  and  thus  the  best  part  of  this  important  food  is 
separated  to  be  used  as  food  for  stock,  instead  of  being  retained  to 
enrich  the  grain  to  which  it  belongs.  This  practice  is  on  par  with 
the  bleaching  of  wheat  flour,  another  process  which  by  many  is 

^  Food  materials  and  their  adulteration,  E.  H.  Richards,  p.  72. 
'  See  Natl  Geog.  Mag.,  April,  1906,  p.  3  (quoted  by  Richards). 

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thought  to  deteriorate  the  quality  of  a  wholesome  food,  simply  to 
make  it  more  salable  or  whiter  and  more  pleasing  to  the  eye. 
It  has  been  claimed  that  the  disease  known  as  "beri-beri'^  is 
due  to  the  use  of  polished  rice,  but  this  subject  is  still  under 
investigation.^  In  a  recent  investigation  made  in  Calcutta  it  was 
shown  that  the  polished  rice  and  wheat  used  by  those  natives  who 
were  afflicted  with  this  disease  was  lacking  in  such  an  important 
ingredient  as  phosphorus.  Pigeons  fed  on  the  polished  rice  showed 
loss  of  weight,  while  control  pigeons  fed  on  foods  containing  a 
larger  amount  of  phosphates  remained  in  good  health. 

The  loss  by  breakage  in  the  process  of  milling  and  polishing, 
is  from  25  per  cent,  to  60  per  cent.  While  the  whole  grains  sell 
for  6  cents  a  pound,  the  broken  grains  sell  for  about  half  that  price, 
and  the  smaller  particles  for  less  than  2  cents,  yet  all  is  equally 
valuable  as  food.  The  broken  rice,  however,  does  not  make  as 
attractive  a  dish  when  cooked  as  do  the  whole  grains. 

Composition  of  Rice 

The  average  composition  of  rice  is  as  follows:^ 

In  the  husk 







1. 00 
1. 00 





Starch,  susrar  and  miln 



Rice  is  poor  in  proteins  and  fat,  and  therefore  is  not  suited  to 
form  the  sole  food  of  any  individual  or  nation.  As  it  contains  only 
6  to  8  per  cent,  of  protein  and  usually  less  than  i  per  cent,  of  ether 

»  Phil.  Jour.  ScL  B,  Med.  Sd.  6,  p.  229. 

«  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.  Bur.  Chcm.  Bull.  No.  45. 

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extractive  (mostly  fat),  rice  should  be  served  with  eggs  or  milk  as 
in  puddings,  or  with  meat,  fish  or  peas,  to  furnish  a  well-balanced 
ration.  It  is  most  economically  utilized  when  cooked  in  soup,  as 
whatever  mineral  salts  and  nutritious  substances  may  be  present 
are  then  used. 

Rice  as  Food 


It  is  a  mistake  to  suppose  that  the  people  of  various  Asiatic 
nations,  who  eat  enormous  quantities  of  rice,  subsist  wholly  on  this 
diet.  Careful  investigations  at  the  Japanese  village  in  the 
World's  Fair  in  Chicago  in  1893  show  that  in  the  diet  of  these 
people  rice  is  supplemented  by  potted  fish-roe,  ducks'  livers,  fresh 
and  dried  fish,  hard-boiled  ducks'  eggs,  chicken  or  some  food  con- 
taining proteins.  In  those  countries  where  rice  is  so  much  used, 
peas,  beans  and  soy  beans  grow  luxuriantly  and  are  also  used  to 
supplement  the  diet.  These  protein-yielding  foods  are  used  with 
great  economy,  and  not  carelessly  thrown  away,  as  is  too  often  the 
custom  in  the  United  States. 

Cooking  Rice 

The  starch  grains  of  rice  are  small  and  of  different  construction 
from  those  of  other  cereals,  and  partly  on  this  account,  rice  does 
not  need  so  much  cooking  as  oatmeal  and  some  other  grains. 
As  it  absorbs  nearly  five  times  its  weight  of  water  when  cooked,^ 
and  as  much  of  the  mineral  matter  would  be  lost  by  boiling  with 
water,  rice  is  better  cooked  by  steaming.  By  this  process,  as  used 
in  the  South  especially,  each  individual  grain  is  allowed  to  swell  and 
the  product  consists  of  the  whole  grains,  well  softened. 


Rice  is  easily  digested,  though  not  as  fully  as  some  grains  which 
are  ground  to  a  fine  flour.    It  is  finally  absorbed  very  completely 

^  Food  and  Dietetics,  Hutchinson»  p.  220. 

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in  the  intestines,  so  that  practically  all  the  starch  is  utilized.  On 
this  account  rice  has  long  been  regarded  as  an  excellent  food  for 
invalids  and  convalescents.  If  we  regard  rice  as  consisting  wholly 
of  carbohydrates,  since  it  is  richer  in  starch  than  any  other  cereal, 
an  adult  would  require  i  pound  and  3  ounces  daily,  or  about  5 
pounds  of  cooked  rice. 


Rice  admits  of  adulteration  by  coating  or  glazing  with  a  mix- 
ture of  glucose,  paraffin  and  talc.  This  treatment  is  said  to  give 
it  a  better  appearance,  and  to  protect  it  from  insects.  Such 
additions,  especially  of  the  mineral  substances  paraffin  and  talc, 
both  absolutely  indigestible,  are  considered  adulterations,  and  are 
not  permitted  by  the  U.  S.  Food  Inspection  decisions.^ 

Rice  Products 

There  is  a  rice  flour  upon  the  market  made  by  grinding  the 
broken  and  imperfect  grains,  which  although  not  suitable  for  mak- 
ing bread,  finds  numerous  uses.  Rice  starch  is  made  by  heating 
rice  flour  with  an  alkaline  solution  to  dissolve  out  the  nitrogenous 
matter,  and  then  allowing  the  starch  to  deposit  according  to  the 
ordinary  methods  for  making  starch.  Another  very  important 
use  for  the  broken  grains  is  as  "Brewer's  rice,"  which  is  used  with 
malt,  rye  and  other  grains  in  the  manufacture  of  some  varieties  of 
beer.     (See  Alcoholic  Beverages,  p.  136.) 

MILLET  (Panicum  miliaceum) 

This  cereal  is  not  used  in  the  United  States  as  food  for  man, 
although  it  is  raised  for  stock  food.  It  is  said  to  be  the  staple  diet 
of  the  negroes  of  the  Upper  Nile,  and  is  used  in  southern  Europe, 
in  India,  China,  Japan  and  Korea,  and  in  fact  it  is  estimated  to 
feed  one-third  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  earth.* 

» U.  S.  F.  L  D.  No.  67.  also,  N.  D.  AgrL  Ex.  Sta.  BulL,  Vol.  2,  No.  i. 

*  Foods,  Origin,  Manufacture  and  Compodition,  Tibbies.  ^ 

•  Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Composition  of  Millet 

The  analysis  shows  that  it  contains,  hi  addition  to  the  starch, 
ID  per  cent,  of  protein  and  about  4  per  cent,  of  fat.^  Bread  made 
from  millet  is  nutritious  and  palatable  when  fresh,  but  soon 
becomes  darker  in  color  and  crumbles  readily.  It  occupies  a 
place  between  wheat  and  rice  in  protein  value.  There  are  nu- 
merous varieties  of  millet,  as  durrha,  sorghum-grass,  and  Indian 
millet.  The  seeds  of  the  sorghum  (sorghum  saccharatum) 
furnish  a  starchy  food,  which  has  been  used  to  a  limited  extent 
only.  The  seeds  of  the  durrha  are  ground  into  a  dark  flour  and 
used  in  Africa  and  the  East  for  making  bread.  The  sorghimi^ 
stalk  is  used  in  the  United  States,  for  making  sorghum  sirup 
(see  p.  124)  and  in  China  for  making  alcohol. 

BUCKWHEAT  (Polygonum  fagopyrum) 

This  grain,  although  not  a  cereal,  may  conveniently  be  con- 
sidered here.  It  was  introduced  into  Europe  from  Manchuria 
and  central  Siberia  and  is  at  present  grown  in  Russia,  Brittany, 
Holland,  and  the  United  States.  It  is  not  of  very  ancient  origin,  as 
it  was  not  introduced  into  Europe  until  the  Middle  Ages.  In 
the  United  States  the  cultivation  of  buckwheat  is  carried  on  chiefly 
in  the  New  England  States,  New  York,  Pennsylvania,  and 

The  seed  is  sown  hi  the  late  spring  or  early  summer  a*tid  the 
grain  matures  very  rapidly;  often  in  100  days.  The  abundant 
and  very  odoriferous  white  flowers  furnish  to  the  bees  a  dark  honey 
of  peculiar  flavor,  which  does  not  command  in  the  market  as  high 
a  price  as  the  honey  made  from  other  flowers. 

Composition  of  Buckwheat 

The  brown,  three-sided  buckwheat  grain  contains  from  11 
to  15  per  cent,  of  protein,  3.6  per  cent,  of  other  extractive,  and 

» Bull.  U.  S.  Dcpt  AgrL  No.  45. 

«  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Div.  Chem.  BulL  No.  37,  p.  75. 

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63  per  cent,  of  carbohydrates.^  The  flour  which  is  dark  in  color 
may  be  made  by  grinding  the  grain  between  stones  and  separating 
the  principal  part  of  the  hulls  by  bolting,  which  is  the  old-fashioned 
way,  or  a  finer  grade  of  whiter  flour  may  be  made  by  the  use  of 
elaborate  machinery.^  In  the  former  case  the  flour  is  more  nutri- 
tious and  furnishes  a  more  palatable  product,  but  it  is  not  as  white. 
The  color  may  be  regulated  by  allowing  more  or  less  of  the  inner 
hulls  (middlings)  to  pass  into  the  flour. 


Buckwheat  flour  is  used,  especially  in  Holland  and  the  United 
States  for  making  griddle  cakes.  The  dough  is  raised  with  yeast, 
for  the  flour  contains  enough  of  a  glutenous  substance  to  entrap  the 
bubbles  of  gas,  and  the  "batter"  is  usually  allowed  to  stand  over 
night.  The  " leaven"  left  over  from  one  batch  is  used  to  start  the 
fermentation  in  the  next.  Buckwheat  cakes  are  often  eaten  with 
sirup,  especially  maple  sirup,  and  are  always  served  hot.  The 
"self-rising"  buckwheat  flour  on  the  market  is  the  flour  mixed 
with  a  little  salt  and  some  baking  powder  (usually  an  alum 
powder,  as  this  is  the  cheapest).  Buckwheat  is  used  in.  Brittany 
for  making  a  bread  called  "black  bread"  and  in  Holland  and 
France  for  making  porridge :  It  is  also  useful  for  feeding  stock  and 


Buckwheat  flour  has  often  been  adulterated  with  corn  flour  or  a 
low  grade  of  wheat  flour,  in  order  to  cheapen  the  product.  This 
does  not  in  any  way  decrease  the  nutritive  value  of  the  flour,  but 
this  falsification  is,  of  course,  a  fraud  upon  the  consumer,  and  can 
be  readily  detected  by  the  use  of  the  microscope,  as  the  starch 
granules  in  buckwheat  have  a  characteristic  appearance. 

» U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.  Bull.  No.  13,  pt.  9. 

s  Foods  and  Their  Adiilteration,  Wiley,  p.  320. 

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QUINOA  (Chenopodium  quinoa) 

The  quinoa  (kl-no-a)  seeds,  which  are  practically  unknown 
outside  of  South  America,  form  a  staple  food  among  the  inhabi- 
tants of  Chile,  Peru  and  New  Granada.  The  plant  is  an  annual 
herb,  which  grows  to  the  height  of  from  4  to  6  feet  and  will  flourish 
at  an  elevation  of  13,000  feet  above  the  sea  level.  The  flour 
is  made  into  imleavened  cakes,  or  the  seeds  are  eaten  in  soup. 
The  flour  contains  a  high  per  cent,  of  protein,  and  a  moderate 
amount  of  fat  in  addition  to  the  starch. 


Kafir  corn  was  introduced  into  the  United  States  from  South 
Africa  in  1876.^  It  has  been  for  a  long  time  a  staple  food  in  Africa, 
India  and  China,  but  has  been  little  used  for  that  purpose  in  this 
country.  On  account  of  its  drought-resisting  qualities,  it  can  be 
raised  in  some  semi-arid  places  where  it  is  difficult  to  raise  Indian 
corn.  It  differs  but  little  in  composition  and  digestibility  from 
the  latter,  but  its  flavor  is  somewhat  stronger.  Kafir  corn  meal 
requires  longer  cooking  than  does  Indian  meal.  (See  "Uses  of 
Sorghunj  Grains,"  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  686.) 



Com  (maize) 2,985,000,000 

Wheat  (winter  and  spring) 981,000,000 

Oats 1,408,000,000 

Barley 223,000,000 

Rye 44,000,000 

Rice 26,000,000 

Buckwheat 18,000,000 

According  to  the  report  of  the  Dept.  of  Agri.^  the  United 
States  in  1910  produced  the  following  proportion  of  the  world's 

^U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Farm.  Bull.  No.  559. 

» Circ.  31,  Bur.  Statistics,  Bull.  278,  Cal.  Ex.  Sta. 

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Staple  cereals:  Of  com  71.7  per  cent;  wheat  17.7  per  cent;  oats 
24.1  per  cent;  barley  11.6  per  cent;  rye  2.1  per  cent;  rice  0.5 
per  cent.  The  United  States  stood  first  among  the  nations  in  the 
production  of  com,  wheat  and  oats,  and  second  in  the  production 
of  barley. 


Nearly  all  the  commercial  starch  is  manufactured  from  wheat, 
corn,  potatoes,  cassava  and  rice.^  In  the  United  States  five- 
sixths  of  the  starch  is  made  from  corn  and  one-sixth  from  other 
sources.  The  starch  from  potatoes  is  used  especially  in  the  textile 
industries,  although  corn  starch  is  now  recommended  for  this  pur- 
pose,^ while  that  from  cassava  is  used  as  tapioca,  a  special  food 
product.  In  Europe  potatoes  are  the  principal  source  for  the 
manufacture  of  starch  while  in  the  tropics  cassava  is  used  for  this 

Wheat  Starch 

There  are  two  methods  used  in  the  United  States  for  making 
starch  from  wheat.  In  one  process  the  dough  is  thoroughly  mixed 
and  the  starch  washed  out  by  the  use  of  a  suitable  machine.  The 
gluten  which  is  thus  separated  out  is  dried  and  put  on  the  market 
as  "wheat  gluten."  In  the  second  process  the  flour,  after  being 
mixed  with  water,  is  allowed  to  ferment,  and  the  starch  is  separated 
out  by  allowing  the  liquid  to  run  over  shallow  tables  where  the 
gluten  runs  off  as  a  thin  fluid,  and  the  starch  settles  to  the^bottom. 

Corn  Starch 

From  the  manufactmrer's  standpoint  there  are  five  valuable 
constituents  in  the  corn  kernel,  namely;  starch,  gluten,  germ, 
oil  and  bran.    To  obtain  these  products  the  corn  is  soaked  in 

*  The  Twelfth  Census  of  the  United  States,  Vol.  10,  Manufactures,  Part  IV,  p. 
745.    Special  R^rt  of  the  Census  OflSce,  Manufactures,  Part  III,  1905.    The 
Twelfth  Census  of  the  United  States,  Vol.  9,  Agriculture,  Part  III,  p.  573- 
*  J.  Ind.  and  Eng.  Ch.  19x2,  p.  417. 

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warm  water  with  the  addition  of  a  small  amoimt  of  sulfurous  acid 
to  loosen  the  intercellular  tissue  and  prevent  fermentation.  The 
com  is  then  groimd  in  such  a  way  as  not  to  break  or  crush  the  germ 
and  the  ground  material  is  run  into  the  "germ  separators"  where 
the  germs  b^ing  lighter  than  the  other  material,  are  floated  off  and 
the  husks  sink  to  the  bottom.  The  germs  are  washed  from  the 
adhering  starch  in  shakers  or  sieves.  They  are  then  dried  and  the 
mass  is  pressed  to  extract  "corn  oil"  and  leaving  "germ  cake." 
The  "germ  oil  meal"  which  is  prepared  by  grinding  the  "germ 
cake"  is  a  valuable  cattle  food,  containing  about  24  per  cent,  of 
protein  and  10  per  cent,  of  fat.  The  "corn  oil"  finds  many  uses 
in  the  arts  and  a  large  amoxmt  is  exported. 

The  starchy  material  separated  from  the  germs  is  ground  very 
fine  and  passed  over  bolting-cloth  sieves.  The  bran  which  remains 
on  the  screens  constitutes  a  valuable  stock  food.  It  is  sometimes 
mixed  with  water  and  sold  as  "glucose  feed"  or  "slop  "for  imme- 
diate consumption.  The  starch  and  so-called  gluten  which  is 
passed  through  the  sieves  is  mixed  with  a  sufficient  quantity  of 
water  and  the  liqtiid  is  allowed  to  flow  over  level  tables,  frequently 
100  feet  long,  where  the  starch  settles  out  of  the  liquid  anc^  the 
gluten  passes  on.  After  a  sufficient  quantity  of  starch  is  settled 
out  it  is  removed  from  the  table  placed  in  sacks  and  dried  in  kilns. 
The  starch  is  then  broken  up,  groimd,  and  put  upon  the  market  as 
either  laundry  starch  or  edible  starch,  known  as  "cornstarch." 
The  starch  prepared  in  this  way,  while  still  moist,  may  be  mixed 
with  water  and  used  as  the  basis  for  making  glucose,  grape  suga^:, 
etc.  (See  p.  118.)  The  gluten  which  flows  off  from  the  starch  is 
allowed  to  settle,  then  dried  and  put  upon  the  market  as  "gluten 
meal"  and  from  it  a  food-stuff  suitable  for  human  consumption 
can  be  manufactured. 

Potato  Starch 

Maine  and  Wisconsin  are  the  principal  states  where  starch  is 
manufactured  from  potatoes.  The  culls  are  used  for  this  purpose 
and  are  purchased  at  from  one-third  to  one-half  the  cost  of  the 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


marektable  potatoes.  The  process  of  manufacture  is  quite  simple 
and  in  fact  is  one  than  can  readily  be  imitated  in  the  household. 
For  this  purpose  the  potatoes,  after  being  peeled,  are  grated  upon 
an  ordinary  tin  grater,  the  pulp  is  pressed  through  cotton  cloth 
and  the  milky  liquid  which  runs  through  is  allowed  to  stand  over 
night  when  the  starch  settles  to  the  bottom  of  the  vessel  and  after 
carefully  pouring  oflf  the  liquid  and  washing  several  times  by  decan- 
tation,  the  starch  can  be  taken  out  and  dried. 

For  manufacturing  potato  starch  on  a  large  scale^  the  potatoes 
are  first  washed,  then  put  in  a  scraping  machine  which  consists  of 
a  wooden  drum  upon  which  are  nailed  pieces  of  sheet  iron  pimched 
full  of  holes,  with  the  rough  edges  facing  outward — in  fact,  a  sur- 
face practically  like  the  ordinary  grater.  This  drum  revolves 
rapidly  and  the  potatoes  being  held  in  place  at  the  bottom  of  the 
hopper  by  a  brace  of  hard  wood,  are  quickly  reduced  to  a  pulp, 
which  is  carried  along  by  a  stream  of  water  which  flows  into  the 

From  the  scraping  machine  the  pulp  nms  on  to  a  starch  sepa- 
rator, which  consists  of  a  rectangular  box,  having  wire  gauze  on 
the  bottom  with  openings  about  1/60  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  and 
so  arranged  that  it  can  be  shaken  like  a  sieve.  This  separator 
is  slightly  inclined  and  as  the  pulp  is  carried  in  with  water  and 
washed  with  jets  of  water,  the  attached  starch  granules  are  washed 
through  the  meshes  of  the  sieve,  and  the  pulp  is  carried  on  to  the 
end  of  the  sieve  where  it  is  discharged.  The  pulp  is  sometimes 
fed  to  stock. 

The  milky  liquid  then  goes  into  tanks  40  feet  long  and  8  feet 
deep,  where  in  a  few  hours  the  starch  settles  to  the  bottom,  and 
the  reddish  liquid  above  is  drawn  off.  This  crude  starch  is  then 
put  into  the  "starch  washer,"  where  it  is  agitated  with  more  water, 
and  allowed  to  settle  again.  When  the  water  has  been  drawn  off, 
it  is  found  that  the  pure  starch  at  the  bottom  is  covered  by  a  thin 
layer  of  starch  mixed  with  impurities  and  this  layer  is  drawn  off 
and  washed  again. 

>  U.  S.  Dept  Agri.  Division  of  Chem.  Bull.  No.  58. 

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The  starch  must  then  be  dried,  which  is  done  either  with  hot 
air  or  by  steam  heat,  in  special  kilns.  These  are  provided  with 
racks  upon  which  the  starch  is  piled  in  such  a  way  that  as  it 
becomes  drier  it  falls  from  one  rack  to  another,  and  so  is  not  heated 
enough  to  cook  the  starch  grains.  Potato  starch  is  especially 
valuable  for  use  in  print  works. 

Cassava  Starch 

While  the  chief  use  for  cassava  may  be  in  the  preparation 
of  tapioca  and  flour,  it  is  becoming  valuable  as  a  commercial 
source  of  starch.  The  fresh  roots  contain  from  24  to  28  per  cent, 
of  starch.^  By  the  process  used  the  factories  can  only  secure 
about  20  per  cent,  of  the  starch  and  a  considerable  quantity  re- 
mains in  the  refuse,  which  is  utilized  for  cattle  food.  The  cas- 
sava grown  in  sub-tropical  regions,  as  in  Florida,  does  not  contain 
as  much  hydrocyanic  acid  as  that  grown  farther  south. 

In  the  manufacture  of  starch  from  cassava,  the  same  machinery 
and  method  is  used  as  with  potatoes  (p.  58).  As  the  per  cent,  is 
larger  in  cassava,  the  yield  of  starch  is  greater  than  from  potatoes. 
A  few  factories  in  Florida  and  Mississippi  are  engaged  in  this  in- 
dustry. It  has  been  recently  pointed  out*  that  cassava  is  a 
much  cheaper  source  of  starch  than  corn  or  potatoes.  In  Florida 
the  corn  grown  on  one  acre  will  produce  1200  pounds  of  starch, 
while  the  cassava  grown  on  the  same  area  will  produce  5600  pounds 
of  starch.  At  present  their  product  is  practically  all  purchased  by 
cotton  factories  where  it  is  used  for  sizing  and  laundry  purposes. 
Starch  from  tapioca,  sago,  etc.,  costing  $1,973,809,  was  imported 
in  1912.    (See  p.  161.) 

Microscopic  Examination  of  Starch 

To  distinguish  between  the  starches  from  diflferent  sources 
it  is  necessary  to  use  a  good  microscope,  and  a  "polarizer"  is  a 
convenient  attachment.    The  grains  from  different  sources  when 

» U.  S.  Dcpt  Afrn,  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  167. 
•  Jour.  S.  Ch.  Ind.,  22,  p.  63. 

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measured  wfll  be  found  each  to  have  a  diflferent  size,  and  will  each 
have  a  characteristic  appearance  when  viewed  by  normal  and  by 
polarized  light.     (Fig.  lo.)     It  is  by  these  tests  that  it  is  possible 

Fig.  io. — Some  common  starches.  (Yearbook  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric,  1907,  by  per- 
mission.) I,  Potato  starch.;  3,  rice  starch;  3,  wheat  starch;  4,  wheat  starch  with 
polarized  light;  5,  maranta  starch — polarized  light;  6,  bean  starch — polarized  light. 

to  detect  the  adulteration  of  an  expensive  starch  with  a  cheap  prod- 
uct, and  to  detect  substitution,  as  for  instance  the  mixture  of  corn 
flour  with  buckwheat  flour. 

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Digestibility  of  Different  Starches 

Much  investigation  has  been  carried  on  upon  the  digestibility 
of  Starches  from  different  sources.^  Raw  starch  digests  much 
more  slowly  than  starch  in  the  form  of  paste.  "Potato,  arrowroot 
and  probably  tapioca  and  sago  starch  pastes  are  not  made  more 
easily  digestible  by  long  cooking.  On  the  other  hand  the  cereal 
starches  are  made  more  digestible  by  long  cooking  though  the 

change  occurs  very  slowly However,  in   the  case  of 

starch  still  inclosed  in  cellulose  walls,  as  in  many  starchy  foods, 
the  long-continued  cooking  may  be  necessary.  The  commercial 
preparations  of  corn  starch  require  30  to  40  minutes  cooking 
'because  of  the  improvement  of  flavor  which  results." 

*  Day.    U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Of.  Exp.  Sta.  Bull.  No.  202. 

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In  making  edible  foods  from  the  cereals  or  their  products, 
various  methods  for  grinding  the  grain,  for  making  the  dough 
light  and  for  baking  have  been  in  use  from  the  earliest  times.  In 
the  primitive  stages  of  the  civilization  of  all  peoples,  their  methods 
have  been  very  crude  and  imperfect,  but  as  bread  of  some  kind  has 
so  long  been  the  most  important  food  of  the  race,  the  improve- 
ments in  the  methods  used  for  preparing  bread,  have  kept  pace 
with  the  advancement  of  the  race  toward  civilization.  References 
to  bakers,  and  baking  are  numerous  throughout  the  earlier  litera- 
ture: not  only  the  writings  of  the  Jews  but  those  of  the  Egyp- 
tians and  Romans,  are  full  of  these  references.  In  170  B.  C. 
baking  became  a  regular  trade  in  Rome.  The  use  of  fermented 
bread  was  no  doubt  carried  to  Britain  by  the  Romans,  but 
strangely  enough  they  seem  to  have  returned  to  unfermented 
bread  after  the  Romans  left  England.  Wine  "must**  was  very 
early  used  in  Greece  and  Rome,  and  "barm"  from  beer  in  Spain. 

Going  back  to  the  earliest  times,  both  leavened  and  imleavened 
bread  were  used.  The  simplest  product  would,  of  course,  be  that 
which  was  unleavened,  but  as  the  mixture  of  flour  or  meal  and 
water  undergoes  spontaneous  fermentation,  deriving  yeast  and 
other,  organisms  from  the  air,  it  would  not  be  long  before  this  fact 
would  be  taken  advantage  of  to  produce  a  light  bread  of  different 
texture  and  flavor  from  that  which  was  baked  as  soon  as  mixed. 
The  next  step  to  allowing  the  dough  to  stand  for  some  time  and 

5^  Digitized  by  LjOOQ IC 


become  sour,  woiUd  be  to  add  some  of  the  sour  dough  or  "leaven" 
to  the  iresh  batch  of  dough  to  uiduce  fermentation.  Thus  it  is 
evident  that  the  whole  process  would  be  gradually  evolved  through 

The  making  of  bread  is  possible  because  of  the  presence  of 
gluten  in  the  flour.  Gluten  is  a  protein  or  mixture  of  proteins, 
which  becomes  viscid  or  sticky  when  mixed  with  water,  and  this 
mass  may  then  be  blown  up  with  air  or  any  other  gas,  and  finally 
the  mass  sets  in  this  condition  in*  the  process  of  baking.  If  the^ 
walls  of  the  cells  are  not  stable  enough  to  stand,  when  the  gas  has 
been  expelled  by  heat,  the  bread  falls,  or  is  said  to  be  heavy. 

Unleavened  Bread 

This  bread  is  prepared  by  simply  mixing  the  groimd,  crushed  or 
bolted  flour' with  water  and  salt  and  baking  before  a  bonfire,  in 
the  ashes,  or  on  a  pan  in  the  oven.  No  attempt  is  made  at  "  aera- 
tion" or  making  the  product  light.  The  Passover  cake  of  the 
Isrealites,  sea  biscuit,  and  hard  tack  as  used  on  ship-board  and  in 
the  army,  the  Scotch  oat  cake  and  the  corn-meal  "pone"  are 
examples  of  this  kind  of  bread.  Graham  flour  and  whc4e-wheat 
flour  are  of  ten  prepared  in  this  way  in  dietary  establishments. 

"Biscuit"  as  they  are  sometimes  called,  or  "crackers,"  are 
made  either  from  the  leavened  or  the  imleavened  dough.  (See 
p.  83.)  "Hard  tack"  is  rapidly  baked,  and  while  in  the  oven  the 
generation  of  steam  and  the  expansion  of  the  starch  causes  it  to 
rise  slightly.  After  being  baked  it  is  stored  in  a  warm  room  for  a 
week  or  two  to  "cure"  and  dry,  and  in  this  condition,  will,  if 
dry,  keep  for  years  without  deterioration.  Dry  heat  causes  the 
formation  first  of  soluble  starch,  and  then  of  dextrin,  while 
moist  heat  causes  the  starch  granules  to  swell  so  that  gelatinous 
starch  is  formed. 

Not  only  will  unleavened  bread  keep  for  a  long  time,  but 
another  advantage  is  that  as  it  is  so  hard  and  dry  it  requires  thor- 
ough mastication  and  will  when  eatea  become  mixed  with  large 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 

B&EAO  65 

quantities  of  saliva  which  aids  digestion.  This  variety  of  bread  is 
not,  however,  usually  considered  very  appetizing,  and  so  for 
general  use  it  has  never  taken  the  place  of  raised  bread. 

Raising  Dough 

There  are  two  general  methods  in  use  for  making  dough  light — 
I,  Non-fermenUUion  methods;  II.  Fermentation  methods. 

; ;  L  Bread  not  Raised  by  Fermentation 

Much  time  and  labor  are  expended  in  the  making  of  raised  or 
fermented  bread.  Not  only  is  the  product  of  the  fermentation 
somewhat  uncertain  in  the  hands  of  the  ordinary  cook,  but 
some  of  the  nutritive  ingredients  of  the  flour  are  used  up  in  furnish- 
ing the  materials  which  raise  the  dough.  In  Germany,  as  well 
as  in  America,^  about  fifty  years  ago,  numerous  attempts  were 
made  to  produce  good  products  without  employing  fermentation. 
Liebig  calculated  that  in  Grermany  the  daily  loss  of  material  by  the 
growth  of  the  yeast  plant  would  be  sufficient,  if  saved,  to  supply 
400,000  persons  with  bread.  Baking  powders  and  other  chemicals 
are  some  of  the  results  of  these  experiments,  that  are  more  or  less 
successful.  They  are  used  espedally  in  the  preparation  of  tea 
biscuit,  cakes,  pastry  and  foods  of  that  character.  These"methods 
depend  on, 

(a)  Entrapping  of  air; 

(b)  Addition  of  a  volatile  substance  to  the  dough; 

(c)  Addition  of  substances  which  break  up  and  yield  a  vola- 
tile gas. 

(a)  Entrapping  of  Air 

I.  When  Graham  flour  or  fine  flour  is  mixed  with  water 
or  milk  and  beaten  vigorously  for  some  time,  and  then  quickly 
baked  in  cast-iron  pans,  a  fairly  light  bread  results.    Sufficient 

1  Bread  and  Bread  Making,  Farmers'  BnlL  No.  389,  U.  S.  D^t  Agri. 

5  Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


air  is  enclosed  in  the  dough  to  puff  it  up,  and  make  it  light.  The 
"beaten  biscuit*'  of  the  South,  are  made  by  the  use  of  flour  and 
water  or  milk,  shortening  and  salt.  The  dough  is  beaten,  rolled  or 
potmded  and  frequently  folded  over  until  it  incloses  air  blisters, 
which  expand  on  baking. 

2.  A  modification  of  this  process  is  used  in  making  pie  crust. 
The  lard  or  other  " shortening*'  is  intimately  mixed  with  the  flour 
and  water  and  the  dough  on  being  kneaded  incloses  some  air. 
The  dough  being  somewhat  laminated,  the  particles  of  flour  are 
isolated  the  one  from  the  other  by  the  fat,  and  during  baking  the 
air  and  moisture  expand  thus  making  a  light  flaky  dough. 

3.  This  plan  may  be  modified  by  mixing  snow  with  the  flour, 
and  baking  quickly.  The  snow  crystals  retain  considerable  air> 
which  expands  in  the  oven  and  makes  the  dough  somewhat  light. 

4.  ^ggs,  when  beaten  to  a  froth,  are  well  calculated  for  retain- 
ing air,  and  this  mass  when  mixed  with  floiu:  has  sufficient  tenacity 
so  that  a  large  amount  of  airismixed  with  the  dough.  Sponge  cake 
and  angel  food  cake  are  made  light  by  the  use  of  eggs  alone  with- 
out any  other  aerating  agent. 

(b)  Addition  of  a  Volatile  Substance  to  the  Flour 

5.  If  an  alcoholic  liquor,  somewhat  diluted,  is  mixed  with  a 
flour,  when  this  is  baked,  the  expansion  and  volatilization  of  the 
alcohol  at  the  temperature  of  the  oven,  will  raise  the  dough.  It 
is  probable  that  very  little  alcohol  remains  in  the  finished  product. 
Among  the  objections  raised  to  this  method  are  the  expense  of  the 
liquor,  and  the  fact  that  a  flavor  of  the  liquor  is  usually  found  in 
the  baked  material. 

6.  Aerated  bread  was  invented  in  1856  by  Dr.  Dauglish,  an 
Englishman.  It  seemed  for  a  time  that  it  would  replace  other 
kinds  of  bread  in  the  United  States,  but  for  some  reason,  probably 
on  account  of  the  lack  of  the  yeast  flavor  to  which  we  have  become 
accustomed,  or  because  there  is  no  peptonization  of  the  proteins, 
this  bread  is  not  made  here  at  present  in  any  quantity.    It  is. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


however,  used  extensively  in  England.  This  bread  is  made  by 
stirring  together  in  a  strong  iron  mixer;  the  flour,  salt  and  water 
necessary  for  a  batch.  The  water  has  been  previously  impreg- 
nated under  pressure  with  carbon  dioxide  gas,  and  is  in  reality  the 
same  as  the  "soda  water"  of  the  shops.  The  carbon  dioxide  is 
obtained  from  the  beer  vats  at  the  brewery,  and  compressed. 
After  a  thorough  mixing  with  a  mechanical  stirrer,  the  dough  is 
forced  out  of  the  container,  and  immediately  (since  the  pressure  is 
removed)  begins  to  rise.  After  a  short  time  it  is  placed  in  the  oven 
and  baked  by  the  usual  methods.  The  carbon  dioxide,  .as  it  is 
allowed  to  expand,  puffs  up  the  dough,  and  the  baking  sets  the 
mass  in  this  shape.  This  was  the  common  method  used  in  London 
in  1895.  Since  that  time,  however,  certain  modifications^  in  the 
process  have  been  made.  A  weak  "wort"  made  by  "mashing" 
malt  and  flour,  is  allowed  to  ferment,  until  through  the  agency  of 
bacteria  it  has  become  sour.  This  weak  add  liquid  is  then  charged 
with  the  carbon  dioxide  gas,  and  is  foimd  to  absorb  the  gas  much 
more  readily,  and  the  add  at  the  same  time  softens  the  gluten. 
It  is  said  that  this  process  lends  itself  to  the  handling  of  weak  or 
damp  flours,  from  which  good  wholesome  bread  is  produced,  more 
readily  than  by  fermentation  methods. 

7.  When  a  somewhat  volatile  substance  like  ammonium  car- 
bonate in  the  form  of  a  fine  powder  or  in  solution,  is  mixed  with 
the  flour,  it  will,  as  it  escapes  during  the  process  of  baking,  raise 
the  dough.  The  decomposition  produced  by  heat  is  as  follows: 
(NH4)2.NH2HC02C08  =  sNH,  +  H2O  +  2CO2.  Sometimes  this 
salt,  in  addition  to  yeast,  is  added  by  the  baker  to  make  a  lighter 
and  consequently  larger  loaf,  or  it  may  be  added  to  overcome  the 
sourness  of  bread  which  is  produced  by  overfermentation.  The 
bread  is,  however,  usually  dry  and  tasteless. 

8.  Sodium  bicarbonate  (NaHCOs),  when  heated,  gives  off  a 
part  of  its  carbon  dioxide  and  some  water,  and  the  escaping  gas 
raises  the  dough.  In  this  process,  however,  there  remains  in  the 
product  the  neutral  sodium  carbonate,  which  is  an  alkaline  sub- 

^The  Science  and  Art  of  Bread-making,  Jago,  p.  714. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


stance  and  renders  the  bread  unwholesome.    The  reaction  is 
2NaHC03+heat=  2Na2COa+H20+C02. 

(c)  By  the  Addition  of  Substances  Which  Unitmg  Chemically 
in  the  Dough  Set  Free  Carbon  Dioxide  Gas 

9.  When  hydrochloric  acid  is  added  to  sodium  bicarbonate  in 
accordance  with  the  reaction  (NaHC03+HCl=NaCl+H20+ 
CO2),  carbon  dioxide  is  set  free  and  sodium  chloride  or  common 
salt  formed.  This  reaction  has  been  taken  advantage  of,  and 
is  utilized  by  mixing  baking  soda  with  the  flour  and  adding  the 
required  quantity  of  dilute  acid  to  the  water  used  in  mixing  the 
batch. ^  Great  care  is  required  to  use  exactly  "equivalent" 
quantities  of  these  chemicals.  The  flavor  of  this  bread  has  not 
proved  very  satisfactory.  The  process  has  been  used  espedally 
in  making  whole-meal  bread,  because  that  in  the  presence  of  so 
much  bran,  cerealin  is  introduced  into  the  dough  in  such  quantity, 
that,  if  ordinary  fermentation  processes  are  used,  diastasis  will 
proceed  to  a  serious  extent,  and  the  bread  will  be  soft  and  clammy, 
bago,*  in  discussing  this  kind  of  bread  says:  It  is  to  be  deplored 
that  for  the  sake  of  getting  the  nutriment  supposed  to  be  in  the 
Jran,  a  section  of  the  public  should  demand  a  form  of  bread  so 
unhealthy  in  other  respects." 

10.  By  the  use  of  baking  soda  and  molasses,  it  is  possible  to 
obtain  an  excellent  product,  if  care  is  exercised  in  using  the  right 
proportions.  The  molasses  contains  some  free  acid  or  acid  salts 
which  act  upon  the  baking  soda  and  set  free  the  carbon  dioxide, 
leaving  a  neutral  salt  of  the  add  in  the  product.  Gingerbread  is 
made  by  this  process.  In  case  the  molasses  is  not  suffidently 
add,  a  little  vinegar  may  be  added  to  it  before  mixing. 

11.  A  light  and  wholesome  product  may  be  obtained  by  the 
use  of  baking  soda  and  freshly  oirdled  sour  milk.  In  this  case 
there  is  left  in  the  bread,  sodium  lactate,  a  harmless  salt,  and 
carbon  dioxide  is  set  free  as  in  the  other  cases.    One  teacup  of 

^  The  Science  and  Art  of  Bread-making,  Jago,  p.  401. 
*  lb.,  p.  402. 

Digitized  by 



sour  milk  will  usually  neutralize  a  teaspoonful  of  baking  soda. 
Here  again  a  little  vinegar  may  be  used  to  render  the  milk  more 
addy  but  it  is  better  to  use  less  soda  in  neutralizing.  Cakes  and 
biscuit  are  not  only  raised  by  this  process,  but  they  are  made 
richer  and  more  nutritious  by  the  fat  and  the  casein  of  the  milk. 
An  excess  of  baking  soda,  renders  the  product  yellow  and  unwhole- 
some.   The  chemical  equation  representing  the  process  is: 


Lactic  acid.  Sodium  lactate. 

12.  Among  the  most  useful  reagents  selected  for  the  raising  of 
dough  without  fermentation,  are  sodium  bicarbonate  and  cream  of 
tartar.  Substitutes  for  the  latter  ar^  alum  and  calcium  phosphate. 
In  the  case  of  cream  of  tartar,  this  and  the  soda  should  be  mixed 
with  the  flour  before  it  is  moistened.  The  porportions  of  each 
substance  to  be  used  are  calculated  fronj  the  molar  weights  and  are 
very  nearly  one  part  of  soda  to  two  parts  of  cream  of  tartar.  The 
equation  representing  what  takes  place  in  the  dough  is  as  follows: 


Cream  of  tartar.  Rochelle  salts. 

13.  Baking  Powders. — Baking  powders  are  prepared  with  the 
object  of  utilizing  the  compounds  mentioned  in  the  last  paragraph 
(12)  in  a  convenient  and  practical  way.  The  "alkaline"  or  gas- 
forming"  ingredient  in  all  of  them,  is  sodium  bicarbonate,  and  the 
"add"  substance  is  either  cream  of  tartar  (sodium  bi tartrate), 
caldum  phosphate,  phosphoric  acid,  or  alum,  with  the  addition  of 
not  over  30  per  cent,  of  starch  or  in  some  countries  rice  flour  as  a 
"filler."  The  starch  would  not,  unless  in  excess,  be  regarded  as  an 
adulterant,  as  it  is  used  to  prevent  the  chemicals  from  combining 
diuing  the  storage  of  the  powder.  While  the  chemical  change 
cannot  take  place  when  all  the  materials  used  are  perfectly  dry, 
when  they  are  moistened,  as  in  the  making  of  bread  or  cake,  the 
chemicals  react,  and  carbon  dioxide  gas  is  set  free.    Baking  powder^^ 

Digitized  by  CjOOQIC 


are  sometimes  found  on  the  market  without  any  "filler,"  but  they 
are  not  well  adapted  to  keeping  for  any  length  of  time. 

A  good  baking  powder  can  be  made  by  mixing  2  poimds  of 
baking  soda,  with  4  pounds  of  cream  of  tartar,  and  a  little  less  than 
2  poxmds  of  starch.  Mix  the  soda  and  the  starch  first,  then  after 
adding  the  cream  of  tartar,  mix  very  thoroughly.  It  is  absolutely 
essential  that  the  ingredients  be  perfectly  dry.  In  cream  of  tartar 
baking  powders,  some  of  the  cream  of  tartar  is  often  replaced  by 
tartaric  acid,  but  when  this  is  done  the  chemical  reaction  takes 
place  more  rapidly,  and  therefore  may  go  too  far  before  the  dough 
is  placed  in  the  oven. 

In  the  case  of  the  phosphate  powders,  the  residue  remaining 
in  the  bread  consists  of  acid  calcium  phosphate  (CaHP04) 
and  acid  sodium  phosphate  (Na2HP04).  When  alum  is  the 
"acid'*  chemical  used,  there  remains  in  the  bread  sodium  sulfate 
(Na2S04)  potassium  sulfate  (K2SO4)  or  ammonium  sulfate 
(NH4)2S04)  and  aluminum  hydroxide  (A1(0H)3).  Instead  of  a 
soda  or  ammonia  alum  frequently  "burnt  alum,"  aluminum 
sulfate,  or  what  is  known  in  the  trade  as  "  C.  T.  S."  {the  calcined 
double  sulfate  of  sodium  and  aluminum)  is  used.  It  is^onsidered 
by  many  manufacturers  advantageous  to  use  a  mixture  of  alum 
and  acid  calcium  phosphate.  An  acid  sodium  sulfate  (NaHS04) 
with  sodium  bicarbonate  is  also  used  for  making  baking  powders. 
Quite  recently  small  quantities  of  albumin  have  been  introduced 
into  some  brands  of  baking  powder.  Although  such  a  powder 
would  appear  to  produce  more  foam  when  dissolved  in  water 
there  seems  to  be  no  good  reason  for  supposing  that  the  leaven- 
ing quality  of  the  product  is  improved. 

Wholesomeness  of  Baking  Powders 

Much  controversy,  stimulated  often  by  rival  manufacturers, 
has  arisen  in  regard  to  the  wholesomeness  of  the  residue  remaining 
in  bread  made  with  diflferent  kinds  of  baking  powder.  Rochelle 
salt,  left  in  the  product  by  the  use  of  cream  of  tartar  baking  pow- 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


derSy  has  somewhat  of  a  laxative  effect.  A  loaf  of  bread  would 
contain  even  more  of  this  salt  than  is  found  in  a  Seidlitz  powder,^ 
but  the  amount  present  in  the  bread  consiuned  at  a  single  meal  is 
so  small  that  its  effect  on  the  system  can  be  practically  disregarded. 
In  the  case  of  the  phosphate  powders  the  sodium  phosphate  left, 
acts  as  a  mild  purgative  in  doses  of  from  j  to  2  ounces  which  is, 
however,  much  more  than  would  be  found  in  the  bread  used  at  one 

More  objection  has  been  raised  to  alum  powders  than  to  the 
others,  on  the  ground  that  the  aluminiun  hydrate  left  in  the  bread 
has  not  been  heated,  except  on  the  exterior  of  the  loaf,  to  a  high 
enough  temperature  to  render  it  insoluble  in  the  slightly  add 
gastric  juice.  It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  this  salt  as  well  as  alum, 
has  an  astringent  action  on  the  system.  With  the  common  tend- 
ency to  constipation,  especially  among  those  of  sedentary  occu- 
pations, it  would  be  well  to  guard  against  aggravating  this 
tendency  by  the  use  of  any  astringent  food.  As  ammonia 
salts  have  an  irritating  effect  on  the  animal  tissue,  the  use  of 
ammonia  alum  is  considered  the  most  objectionable. 

Valuation  of  Baking  Powders 

The  value  of  a  baking  powder  is  proportional  to  the  amount 
of  "available"  carbon  dioxide  gas  set  free  when  the  powder  is 
moistened.  This  is  from  8  to  15  per  cent,  of  the  weight.*  Old 
baking  powders,  or  those  which  have  not  been  well  dried,  or  which 
have  not  been  well  enough  packed  to  exclude  moisture,  are  usually 
so  deteriorated  as  to  be  of  little  or  no  value.  In  some  States,  in 
order  to  insure  to  the  consumer  a  good  quality  of  a  baking  powder, 
the  date  of  manufacture  is  required  to  be  printed  on  the  label. 
Another  plan,  and  perhaps  a  better  one,  which  has  been  adopted  in 
the  standards  of  some  States  is  to  require  that  all  baking  powders 
yield  a  certain  per  cent,  of  available  carbon  dioxide  gas.  The 
average  amoimt  of  carbon  dioxide  which  baking  powders  yield  is 

^  Human  Foods  and  Their  Nutritive  Value,  Snyder,  pp.  186-192. 

»  Bull.  No.  13,  Pt.  5,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Div.  Chem.  ^  j 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


60  cubic  inches  per  ounce.*  It  has  been  found  that  a  standard 
requirement  of  not  less  than  10  per  cent,  of  available  carbon  dioxide 
is  fair  and  will  protect  the  consumer  against  goods  which  have  been 
in  stock  for  a  long  time  and  so  are  practically  of  no  value.  In  any 
requirement  of  not  less  than  10  per  cent,  of  available  carbon  diox- 
ide is  fair  and  will  protect  the  consumer  against  goods  which  have 
been  in  stock  for  a  long  time  and  so  are  practically  of  no  value. 
In  any  case  the  composition  of  the  powder  should  be  printed  on 
the  label.  The  amount  of  baking  powder  used  in  the  United 
States  is  much  larger  than  in  other  countries. 

n.  Bread  Raised  by  Fermentation 

In  raising  bread  by  the  process  of  fermentation,  there  are  three 

1.  By  the  use  of  leaven. 

2.  By  the  ^^ salt-rising^^  process. 

3.  By  the  use  of  yeast. 

I.  It  was  found  a  long  time  ago  that  if  some  of  the  dough  from 
one  baking  be  set  aside,  it  could  be  used  as  a  "starter"  for  the 
succeeding  batch.  Care  should  be  taken  that  the  dough  is  not 
kept  in  too  warm  a  place,  lest  a  disagreeable  taste  be  communicated 
to  the  bread  by  excessive  souring.  As  the  yeast  cells  already  exist 
in  the  air,  and  will  readily  grow  when  they  fall  into  a  proper  me- 
dium, it  is  possible  to  raise  bread  without  the  addition  of  yeast. 
If,  however,  we  depend  upon  getting  the  yeast  from  the  air,  other 
organisms  are  liable  to  be  mixed  with  the  yeasts,  and  they  will 
produce  acids  such  as  acetic  and  lactic,  and  the  dough  will  be  sour. 
This  sour,  fermenting  dough  was  no  doubt  the  first  used  and  was 
perhaps  the  original  "leaven."  Since  the  introduction  of  bakers 
and  brewers  yeast  and  dry  and  moist  yeast  cakes,  this  process  has 
been  little  used.  It  finds  favor  chiefly  for  raising  bread  made  from 
rye  and  other  coarser  bread  stuflfs  and  is  known  as  the  "  Sauerteig" 
»  Mallet,  Chem.  News,  1888,  II,  276. 

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method.  The  black,  sour  "Pumpernicker'  and  the"Schwartz- 
brod  "  used  in  certam  parts  of  Germany,  are  made  in  this  way. 

2.  The  salt-rising  process  utilizes  the  fact  that  there  exist  in 
com  meal,  flour,  milk  and  other  ingredients  used  in  making  bread, 
certain  bacteria  which  can  be  encouraged  to  grow  and  mxdtiply 
above  a  fixed  temperature,  which  temperature  effectually  kills 
most  other  organisms.  It  has  been  recently  shown  by  H.  A. 
Kohman,^  that  true  gas-forming  bacteria  will  grow  imder  the  con- 
ditions prevalent  in  making  salt-rising  bread,  and  the  gas  pro- 
duced is  about  two-thirds  hydrogen  and  one-third  carbon  dioxide. 
He  has  also  found  it  practicable  under  the  right  conditions  of  tem- 
perature, and  in  a  sidtable  medium,  to  isolate  these  bacteria. 
This  special  variety  can  be  dried  and  put  upon  the  market  as  a 
"starter"  for  making  salt-rising  bread.  This  method  has  the 
•  advantage.of  insuring  always  a  satisfactory  bread,  and  not  depend- 
ing on  "luck"  as  is  so  often  done. 

Salt-rising  bread  is  made  as  follows: 

Salt,  com  meal  and  baking  soda  are  mixed  together.  The  milk 
is  brought  to  the  temperature  of  boiling  and  the  other  ingredients 
are  stirred  into  it.  This  mass  is  allowed  to  stand  from  twelve 
to  fifteen  hours  or  overnight  and  is  then  mixed  with  flour  and  water 
in  the  right  proportions,  just  as  a  "sponge"  is  mixed  in  the  making 
of  ordinary  bread,  and  the  dough  is  allowed  to  stand  for  some  time 
at  a  temperature  of  ioo°  F.  The  bacteria  will  not  be  injured  by  a 
high  temperature  even  up  to  200°  F.,  while  the  yeasts  and  molds 
are  killed  at  these  higher  temperatures.  When  the  dough  has 
risen  sufficiently  it  is  molded  into  loaves  and  baked  as  usual. 

The  chief  source  of  the  bacteria  is  not  the  air  or  the  utensils 
used  in  the  process,  as  was  formerly  supposed,  but  the  corn  meal. 
Bread  made  by  the  "leaven "  process  differs  from  that  made  by  the 
"salt-rising"  process,  in  that  the  former  owes  its  leavening  power 
mainly  to  yeasts,  while  in  the  salt-rising  process  it  is  due  to  gas- 
forming  bacteria.    The  loss  of  materials,  due  to  the  decomposition 

1  Botanische  Zdtung,  47-405,  420,  435;  Baker's  Helper,  Sept.,  1909,  p.  1023 ; 
aUo,  J.  Ind.  and  Eng.,  Ch.  Vol.  4, 191 2. 

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and  volatilization  of  some  of  the  constituents  of  the  flour  is  much 
less  in  salt-rising  bread  than  in  that  raised  by  yeast.  The  former 
variety  has  a  fine  grained  texture  and  frequently  an  odor  that  is 
by  some  considered  disagreeable. 

3.  In  making  bread  with  yeast  in  the  United  States,  there  are 
three  general  processes  used:  first,  the  sponge,  and  dough  method; 
second,  the  ferment  and  dough  method;  third,  the  straight  dough 

In  the  sponge  and  dough  method,  the  sponge  consists  of  a 
slack  dough  composed  of  flour,  water  and  yeast,  these  being  mixed 
in  the  evening  and  allowed  to  stand  till  the  next  morning  when 
water  is  added,  the  dough  is  brought  to  the  proper  consistency 
with  flour,  kneaded  and  finally  put  into  the  pans.  The  advantage 
of  this  method  is  that  the  sponge  is  prepared  in  the  evening,  and 
worked  the  next  morning,  and  also  only  about  one-third  as  much 
yeast  is  required  as  in  the  straight  dough  method. 

In  the  ferment  and  dough  method,  a  potato  ferment  is  fre- 
quently used  by  small  bakers  and  housewives.  This  is  prepared 
by  cooking  potatoes,  cooling,  mixing  with  yeast  and  flour  and  allow- 
ing the  mass  to  ferment.  It  is  then  added  to  flour  and  water, 
made  into  a  dough  of  proper  consistency  -and  handled  as  in  the 
sponge  and  dough  method. 

In  the  straight  dough  process,  which  is  most  extensively  used 
in  all  large  bakeries,  the  materials,  flour,  water  or  milk  (sugar), 
lard,  and  yeast  are  all  mixed  at  the  same  temperature.  Consider- 
able yeast,  even  as  much  as  i  per  cent,  is  used.  Only  one  mixing 
is  required  in  this  process,  and  not  so  much  handling.  The  flour 
is  first  sifted  and  blended  by  running  through  silk  bolting  cloths. 
This  process  has  the  added  advantage  of  breaking  up  the  particles 
of  flour  which  have  become  closely  impacted  together  and  at  the 
same  time  two  or  three  flours  of  different  types  may  be  blended. 
For  instance,  Minnesota  flour  which  is  lighter  in  color  is  mixed 
with  a  Kansas  or  Illinois  flour,  which  is  stronger  in  gluten.  After 
the  blending  process,  which  is  usually  carried  on  in  the  lower  story 
of  the  bakery,  the  flour  is  elevated  to  the  mixers.    These  are  so 

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arranged  that  the  solid  materials  can  be  weighed  upon  a  scale, 
often  automatically  controlled,  and  the  amount  of  water  used  can 
be  similarly  measured.  The  salt  used  is  first  dissolved  in  a  small 
quantity  of  water.  The  lard  or  shortening  is  added  after  the  mix- 
ers have  made  a  few  turns,  because  if  the  lard  comes  into  direct 

Fig.  II. — Bread  mixer.    American  Oven  and  Machine  Co.,  Chicago 

contact  with  the  flour,  at  first  it  interferes  somewhat  with  the 
absorption  of  water.  The  "mixer,"  which  is  a  power-driven 
machine  (Fig.  ii),  is  usually  run  from  twenty  to  thirty  minutes  at 
a  rate  of  about  thirty  to  sixty  revolutions  a  minute,  causing  a  very 
thorough  mixing  of  all  the  ingredients.  One  thousand  pounds  of 
dough  can  be  handled  at  one  time.     (Fig.  12.) 

After  it  is  mixed,  the  dough  is  put  into  troughs  in  the  fermenta- 
tion room'  and  allowed  to  stand.  The  temperature  of  this  room, 
which  is  commonly  about  80°  F.,  is  so  regulated  that  it  never 
varies  more  than  one  or  two  degrees.     In  the  summer  refrigeration^ 



keeps  the  temperature  down,  and  in  the  winter  the  room  is  warmed. 
It  is  very  important  to  regulate  the  temperature  of  the  dough 
before  it  goes  into  the  fermentation  room,  as  such  a  large  mass  of 
dough  will  hold  its  temperature  for  five  or  six  hours. 

In  recent  years  tlie  period  of  fermentation  has  been  much 
reduced  so  that  instead  of  requiring  ten  hours  as  formerly,  six 

Fig.  12. — Bread  mixing  room  equipped  with  automatic  scales  for  flour  and  water 
as  seen  above  mixers.    Bnmner  Baking  Co.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 

hours  are  sufficient.  In  order  to  do  this  more  yeast,  and  that  of  a 
stronger  variety  is  employed.  During  fermentation  the  dough  is 
worked  by  hand  three  times,  allowing  the  gas  to  escape  and  bring- 
ing the  yeast  in  better  contact  with  the  dough.  The  carbon 
dioxide  gas  which  is  given  ofiF,  if  allowed  to  remain  in  the  dough 
checks  the  f ermentive  power  of  the  yeast . 

The  dough  is  next  "scaled"  oflf  into  loaves  of.  the  required  size 
by  a  machine  especially  designed  for  this  purpose,  so  as  to  secure 
uniform  weight  for  the  loaves.  After  "scaling"  it  goes  through 
the  process  called  "rounding,"  after  which  the  bread  is  allowed  to 
stand  for  about  fifteen  minutes  to  rise.  The  dough  is  then  put  into 
the  molding  machine  and  molded  into  the  desired  loaf.    These 

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loaves  are  again  allowed  to  rise  in  the  pans  and  this  process  is  has. 
tened  by  keeping  the  temperature  as  high  as  loo®  F.  in  steam  boxes- 
The  steam  at  the  same  time  moistens  the  top  of  the  loaf  and  pre- 
vents its  drying  out.  Some  of  the  materials  used  by  modern  bak- 
ers are,  powdered  milk,  which  has  the  advantage  of  keeping  inde- 
finitely; compressed  yeast;  cotton-seed  oil;  malt  extract,  which 
is  sweet  and  conmiimicates  a  characteristic  flavor  to  the  bread, 
and  which  contains  diastase,  a  substance  which  greatly  assists 
the  process  of  fermentation. 

A  conmion  proportion  of  ingredients  used  in  making  bread  is 
as  follows:  loo  pounds  of  flour,  58  to  62  poimds  of  water,  i  pound 
of  yeast,  1 1/2  poimds  of  salt,  i  1/2  pounds  of  shortening,  2  poimds 
of  sugar,  and  i  pound  of  milk  powder  or  its  equivalent  in  con- 
densed milk. 


In  the  process  of  baking  the  ovens  are  heated  from  beneath. 
(Fig.  13.)  The  fire  is  drawn  down  previous  to  putting  in  the  bread, 
as  the  heat  is  more  uniform  if  it  comes  from  the  heated  brick 
chamber  alone.  This  heat  retained  by  the  brick  is  sufficient  to 
bake  bread  for  four  or  five  hours.  In  the  commercial  or  "peel" 
oven  the  temperature  is  higher  than  in  domestic  practice,  being 
from  450®  to  500°  F.,  while  smaller  goods  are  often  baked  at  a 
temperature  of  600°  F.  The  ordinary  loaves  bake  in  from  thirty 
to  forty  minutes.  The  temperature  attained  by  the  interior  of 
the  product  when  done  is  21 2°  F. 

In  the  old-fashioned  "brick  ovens"  which  were  in  common  use 
in  the  United  States  until  the  introduction  of  stoves  about  1850, 
and  which  are  still  in  use  in  many  foreign  countries,  and  even  dy 
large  baking  Establishments,  the  fire  is  built  in  the  oven,  anb 
when  the  fire  brick  •  of  the  floor  and  the  arch  has  become 
thoroughly  heated,  it  is  withdrawn,  and  the  ashes  removed. 
Bread  and  pastry  may  then  be  baked  in  this  oven  for  several 
hours  before  the  heat  is  exhausted.  The  process  has  the 
advantage  of  giving  a  xmiform  heat,  and  when  the  oven  becomes 

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too  cold,  a  little  additional  fire  will  soon  raise  the  temperature 
sufficiently  for  baking. 

The  "baking  effect/'  is  due  to  the  radiation  from  the  walls, 
more  than  the  temperature  of  the  oven.  On  this  accoimt  the  char- 
acter of  the  walls  deserve  special  study.  They  should  be  black 
to  secure  the  maximum  radiating  effect. 

Fig.  x3. — Peel  oven,  B runner  Baking  Co.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 

Yeast  and  its  Action 

The  yeast  plant  requires  certain  definite  conditions  of  tempera- 
ture nutrition  and  moisture  for  its  growth.  It  is  a  monocellular 
organism  which  grows  or  mxdtiplies  by  a  process  of  budding,  and 
feeds  upon  sugar  and  similar  materials  in  saccharine  or  starchy 
substances.  It  also  requires  and  uses  in  its  growth  nitrogenous 
and  certain  mineral  constituents  especially  potash  and  phosphoric 

Yeast  is  classified  as  one  of  the  saccaromyces,  Torula  cerevisicB, 
and  possibly  indirectly  brings  about  the  change  of  starch  to  sugar, 
thus:  C6H10O6+H2O  =  C6Hi20«;  and  the  change  of  sugar  to  carbon 
dioxide  and  alcohol,  thus:  C«Hi206  =  2C6HfiOH+2C02. 

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It  is  most  active  between  70®  F.  and  90*^  F.,  and  is  destroyed  if 
the  temperature  is  raised  to  131°  F.  If  the  yeast  plant  does  not 
grow  vigorously  in  the  medium  a  sour  and  unpalatable  bread  will 
result,  as  other  substances,  especially  those  having  add  properties 
may  be  produced.  In  the  use  of  potatoes  for  making  the  sponge 
the  baker  has  learned  to  use  a  medium  which  is  rich  in  peptone, 
tyrosin,  asparagin  and  other  protein  bodies,  which  are  powerful 
stimuli  of  enzymic  action.  Rye  flour  added  in  small  quantities 
to  wheat  flour,  assists  fermentation,  perhaps  because  it  contains 
a  greater  proportion  of  soluble  proteins.  Malt  extract,  cane  sugar 
and  milk  all  assist  in  the  fermentation,  and  improve  the  flavor  of 

Both  baker's  and  brewer's  yeasts  are  made  commercially  in 
large  quantities.  In  some  establishments  great  care  is  exercised 
to  obtain  yeast  of  the  very  best  quality,  and  the  desirable  varieties, 
frequently  imported  from  Germany,  are  isolated  from  others,  and 

Compressed  yeasty  which  is  often  a  product  of  the  distilleries 
has  come  into  general  use  in  domestic  practice  in  the  United  States. 
The  yeast  settling  out  of  the  "wort"  is  purified,  and  pressed 
into  cakes  and  wrapped  in  tin  foil.  It  is  a  "present  cise''  yeast 
and  shotdd  be  kept  in  the  refrigerator  if  not  used  as  soon  as  pur- 
chased. It  is  held  that  if  starch  is  added  to  compressed  yeast, 
that  fact  must  be  stated  on  the  label.*  The  dried  cakes  on  the 
market  are  sometimes  made  by  mixing  yeast  with  starch  or  corn 
meal,  making  into  cakes,  and  drying  at  a  moderate  temperature. 
Although  this  yeast  acts  slowly,  it  will  keep  for  a,  long  time  in  a 
dry  place.  It  is  said  that  yeast  cakes  were  used  by  the  Romans  in 
the  first  centiuy.^ 

Chemical  Changes  Produced 

ft  is  of  interest  to  note  what  changes  besides  the  production  of 
carbon  dioxide  gas  and  alcohol  actually  take  place  in  the  making  of 

lU.  S.5r.^LD4No.  III. 
«Tibbles,,p.  403. 

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bread.  The  gluten  already  referred  to  as  a  constituent  of  wheat 
flour  (p.  64)  is  composed  of  the  two  substances  gliadin  and  glute- 
nin.  Gliadin  is  the  substance  which  binds  the  flour  particles  to- 
gether to  form  the  dough,  and  gives  it  tenacity  and  adhesiveness, 
while  glutenin  is  the  material  to  which  the  gliadin  adheres.^ 
These  two  substances  must  be  present  in  the  flour  in  the  right  pro- 
portions if  the  flour  is  to  have  the  highest  bread-making  properties. 
Wheat  flour  contains  only  small  amounts  of  albumin  and  globulins, 
and  these  are  rendered  insoluble  by  the  action  of  heat  in  baking. 

The  proportion  of  protein  is,  however,  but  little  altered  in  the 
process  of  bread-making,  although  some  of  the  soluble  proteins 
have  been  used  up  by  the  yeast.  The  slight  losses  of  both  nitrogen 
and  carbon  compounds  that  may  take  place  during  the  process 
are  more  than  offset  by  the  increased  solubility  and  digestibility 
of  the  proteins  and  carbohydrates  in  the  finished  product.* 

The  fat  contained  in  the  flour  is  slightly  oxidized  and  changed 
in  color  in  bread-making,  similar  to  the  process  called  "aging" 
which  takes  place  in  flour  during  long  storage. 

During  the  alcoholic  fermentation,  about  i  per  cent,  of  carbon 
dioxide  and  an  equal  weight  of  alcohol  are  produced,  and  volatil- 
ized in  baking.  The  soluble  carbohydrates  are  those  which  are 
acted  upon  by  the  alcoholic  ferments.  The  yeast  plant  also  se- 
cretes soluble  ferments  which  act  upon  the  starch  to  form  soluble 
carbohydrates.  About  10  per  cent,  of  the  starch  is  changed  to 
the  soluble  forms  known  as  dextrin-,  dextrose-,  and  sucrose-sugars. 
The  brown  coating  or  dextrin  on  the  surface  of  the  loaf  of  bread, 
is  produced  mainly  by  the  action  of  heat  upon  the  starch.  Al- 
though dextrin  still  has  the  composition  represented  by  the  symbol 
(C«Hio06)n  it  has  different  physical  properties  from  starch  and 
is  more  readily  digested. 

By  way  of  comparison  the  following  table  given  by  Snyder* 
shows  the  composition  of  flpur,  and  bread  made  from  it  in  different 

^  Human  Foods,  Snyder,  p.  i6g^ 



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per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 








10. 57 







Bread  from  flour  and  water 

Bread  from  flour,  water  and  lard 

Bread  from  flour  and  skimmed 


Effect  of  Keeping  cm  the  Compositioii  of  Bread 

The  diflference  between  the  digestibility  of  new  and  stale  bread 
is  largely  due  to  the  physical  condition  pf  the  material.  Although 
the  amount  of  soluble  dextrins  diminishes  with  age  it  is  not  enough 
to  materially  interfere  with  the  digestibility.  New  bread  is 
difficult  to  masticate  on  account  of  its  softness  and  its  tendency 
to  collect  in  heavy  masses  into  which  the  digestive  fluids  penetrate 
with  difficxdty.  A  stale  bread,  on  the  other  hand,  maintains  its 
porosity  during  mastication. 

Bread  when  kept  for  a  time  loses  some  water,  but  this  is 
not  enough  to  account  for  the  difference  in  its  quality  as  compared 
with  fresh  bread.  Stale  bread  can  be  partly  freshened  by  reheating, 
but  in  this  process  it  loses  still  more  water.  There  are  various 
theories  in  regard  to  the  difference  between  fresh  and  stale  bread. 
Bibra  maintains  that  fresh  bread  contains  free  water  some  of 
which  unites  with  the  starch  and  gluten  as  the  bread  becomes 
stale.  M.  Lindet^  has  shown  that  as  the  bread  becomes  stale 
a  part  of  the  starch  which  was  transformed  into  amylodextrin, 
returns  at  the  end  of  twelve  to  twenty-four  hours  to  the  state  of 
starch.  By  reheating  it  is  claimed  that  some  of  the  amylodextrin 
reappears,  and  thus  the  bread  again  has  the  characteristics  of 
fresh  bread.  Williams^  believes  that  when  the  bread  becomes 
stale  the  fibers  shrink  and  the  cell  walls  become  more  compact  or 

1  BuU.  See.  Chim.  d.  Paris,  XXVII. 
'  Chembtiy  ol  Cooking. 

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solid,  and  that  reheating  causes  the  moisture  to  be  given  oflf  and  the 
cell  walls  to  expand  so  that  the  bread  appears  to  be  more  porous. 


When  bread  is  toasted,  some  of  the  starch  changes  to  dextrin 
which  is  more  soluble  than  starch  and  also  more  digestible,  but 
the  proteins  are  rendered  less  soluble,  and  hence  slightly  less 
digestible.^  Toasting  causes  the  bread  to  yield  more  readily  to 
the  action  of  diastase  and  other  ferments,  and  at  the  same  time 
tends  to  sterilize  the  bread  and  kill  those  ferments  that  were  not 
destroyed  in  the  process  of  baking. 

In  order  to  obtain  the  best  results  from  the  use  of  toast  it 
should  be  toasted  so  that  it  is  crisp  throughout.  This  is  attained 
in  the  "rusk"  which  is  put  on  the  market  by  the  large  bakers,  and 
in  the  "zwiebach"  of  the  Germans.  Both  these  products  are 
valuable  food,  especially  for  dyspeptics,  as  they  furnish  abundant 
nutriment  which  is  easily  available,  and  complete  mastication  is 

Some  Causes  for  Bad  Bread 

Bread,  although  it  has  been  subjected  to  the  heat  of  the  oven 
is  by  no  means  sterile.  It  presents  an  excellent  medium  for  the 
growth  of  various  molds  and  bacteria,  the  germs  of  which  were  in 
the  flour  or  other  materials  used.  The  sourness  of  bread  is  due 
to  the  development  of  lactic,  butyric  and  acetic  adds,  whenever 
the  conditions  become  favorable  for  the  growth  of  the  ferments 
which  produce  them.  If  the  fermentation  is  carried  too  far  in 
an  effort  to  get  a  large  loaf  of  bread  out  of  a  small  amount  of  flour, 
or  if  the  temperature  of  fermentation  is  too  high  these  acid-forming 
organisms  get  the  upper  hand,  and  sour  bread  results.  The  best 
bakers  sacrifice  a  little  bulk  for  quality^  and  produce  a  non-acid 
bread  with  a  sweet  agreeable,  nutty  flavor,  a  product  which  is 
both  wholesome  and  palatable. 

^  Minn  Ex.  Sta.  Bull.  No.  47- 

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^^Ropy  bread"  is  due  to  the  growth  of  spores  of  an  organism, 
which  is  found  especially  in  potatoes.  The  heat  of  the  oven  does 
not  destroy  these  spores  in  the  interior  of  the  loaf,  so  that  in  moist, 
warm  weather  they  develop  there  and  cause  the  crumb  to  become 
moist,  and  sticky,  and  have  a  disagreeable  taste  and  odor.  Molds 
of  various  colors  grow  on  bread  as  it  increases  in  age.  One  of  these 
(Pencillium  glaucum),  the  bluish-green  mold,  is  active  in  the  ripen- 
ing of  certain  cheeses,  as  the  English  "Stilton,'*  and  the  ItaKan 
Gorgonzola.     (See  pp.  419,  422.) 

Varieties  of  Bread 

In  addition  to  white  bread  many  other  kinds  are  used  in  diflfer- 
ent  countries,  and  prepared  commercially:  "Graham"  bread 
(see  p.  30)  and  entire  "wheat"  bread  are  shown  by  chemical  anal- 
ysis to  contain  more  protein  than  that  made  from  the  patent  flours.^ 
According  to  digestion  experiments,  however,  the  proportions  of 
digestible  or  available  protein  and  available  energy  in  the  patent 
flour  are  larger  than  in  either  the  entire  wheat  or  the  Graham  flour. 
The  lower  digestibility  of  the  protein  is  due  to  the  fact  that  in  the 
coarse  flours,  a  considerable  portion  of  the  protein  is  covered  up 
inside  the  bran  particles,  and  so  resists  the  action  of  the  digestive 
juices.  The  advantage  of  the  use  of  these  coarse  breads  due  to 
their  stimulating  the  activity  of  the  bowels,  should  not  be  for- 

Vienna  rolls  which  have  a  crisp  exterior,  and  a  large  amount  of 
dextrin,  are  a  common  food  on  the  Continent  of  Europe,  and  to 
some  extent  in  other  countries.  They  are  made  from  a  high  grade 
of  flour  with  a  large  proportion  of  yeast.  They  are  baked  in 
an  atmosphere  of  steam  under  pressure,  and  thus  the  water  on  the 
surface  of  the  rolls  gelatinizes  the  starch  and  gives  a  glazed 
appearance  to  the  rolls.  This  is  sometimes  imitated  by  brushing 
the  surface  of  the  rolls  with  egg  albumen  before  baking. 

Other  forms  of  bread  are  rolls,  which  are  raised  with  yeast,  and 
I  U  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Exp.  Sta.  Bull.  No.  loi. 

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contain  sugar,  and  "shortening";  milk  rolls  which  are  mixed  with 
milk  instead  of  water;  muflSns,  made  by  the  use  of  baking  powder, 
and  lard,  and  rapidly  baked  in  an  iron  pan;  Scotch  scones,  made 
like  pancakes  and  baked  on  a  hot  plate.  German  pretzels  are 
made  from  a  dough  raised  with  yeast,  and  just  before  baking  the 
strip's  are  plunged  into  boiling  water  in  which  oat  straw  is  soaked. 
After  salting  heavily  the  pretzels  are  baked  quickly,  and  then 
allowed  to  cool  slowly  in  a  warm  oven. 

Adulteration  of  Bread 

On  account  of  the  importance  of  bread  as  the  "Staff  of  Life," 
civil  authorities  have  in  all  countries  kept  a  sharp  ^atch  for  adul- 
terations. As  flour  has  gone  higher  in  price,  or  as  the  cupidity  of 
the  bakers  has  increased,  there  has  been  a  tendency  to  diminish 
the  weight  of  the  loaf  which  was  sold  for  2  1/2  d.  20  centimes,  25 
pfennigs,  or  5  or  10  cents.  This  has  led  in  most  countries  to  a  regu- 
lation regarding  the  weight  of  the  loaf,  or  the  price  per  pound 
or  has  called  for  regulations  requiring  all  loaves  that  did  not  weigh 
a  pound  or  2  pounds  to  be  plainly  marked  with  the  weight. 

In  England  bakers  have  attempted  to  fradulently  increase 
their  profits  by  making  bread  which  contains  as  high  as  40  per 
cent,  of  water  5  per  cent,  more  than  normal  btead.  This  may  be 
efifected  by  putting  the  bread  at  first  into  a  very  hot  oven  so  as  to 
cover  the  surface  with  a  glaze  which  tends  to  keep  an  extra  amount 
of  water  under  the  crust.  Copper  sulfate,  in  doses  of  i  gram  to  35 
kilograms  of  flour  has  been  used  in  bread  to  enable  the  baker  to. 
add  more  water  and  to  whiten  the  loaf.  Alum  and  borax  have  also 
been  used,  for  the  purpose  of  whitening  the  loaf.  The  use  of 
flour  other  than  wheat  is  an  adidteration,  unless  the  bread  is  sold 
with  a  proper  label  stating  its  composition. 

Food  Value  of  Bread 

Different  kinds  of  bread  have  a  different  food  value  as  shown 
by  the  following  table  :^ 

*  U.  S.  DepL  Agri.  Farmers'  Bull.'No.  142. 

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White  bread  has  a  fuel  value  of 1200  calories  per  pound 

Brown  bread  has"a  fuel  value  of 1040  calories  per  pound 

Graham  bread^has  a  fuel  value  of 1 195  calories  per  pound 

Whole  wheat  bread  has  a  fuel  value  of 1130  calories  per  pound 

Rye  bread  has  a  fuel  value  of 1170  calories  per  pound 


Cream  crackers  have  a  fuel  value  of 1925  calories  per  pound 

Soda  crackers  have  a  fuel  value  of 1875  calories  per  pound 

The  fuel  value  corresponds  quite  closely  to  the  food  value,  except 
that,  as  previously  stated,  some  foods  are  more  completely  digested 
than  others. 

Experiments  made  both  on  men  and  on  dogs  by  Mendel  and 
Fine^  indicate  that  "'glidin'  gluten  and  the  two  characteristic 
proteins  of  wheat  gliadin  and  glutenin  are  as  thoroughly  utilized 
as  the  nitrogenous  components  of  fresh  meat." 

Foods  Complementary  to  Bread 

As  bread,  for  a  perfect  food,  is  somewhat  deficient  in  protein, 
it  is  commonly  supplemented  by  the  use  of  meat,  cheese  or  some 
legumes  such  as  beans.  As  it  is  deficient  in  fats,  we  use  butter  or 
*' gravy"  to  supply  this  need.  Since  there  is  not  sufficient  lime 
in  the  wheat  products,  they  are  often  supplemented  by  the  use  of 
milk.  Bread  and  milk,  especially  if  "whole  milk"  is  used,  has 
long  been  considered  an  excellent  food,  especially  for  children. 


Macaroni,  which  is  made  from  hard  wheat,  is  a  preparation  of 
a  glutinous  character,  the  manufacture  of  which  is  made  possible 
by  the  presence  of  a  large  amount  of  gluten  in  wheat  flour.  It 
is  drawn,  molded  or  stamped  into  various  forms,  known  in  the 
trade  as  macaroni,  vermicelli,  spaghetti,  noodles, '  Italian  paste 
and  similar  products.  The  largest  quantity  of  macaroni  wheat 
is  raised  in  southeastern  Russia,  from  which  country  at  least 
25,000,000  bushels  are  annually  shipped  to  Italy  and  France  for 
the  manufacture  of  macaroni.  Durum  wheat,  which  has  previ- 
ously been  referred  to,  is  well  adapted  for  making  macaroni.  It 
grows  well  in  semi-arid  regions,  where  the  conditions  are  great 
»  J.  Bio.  Chem.,  VoL  10.  p.  324.  Digitized  by  LjOOg le 


extremes  of  temperature  with  a  small  rainfall,  but  so  distributed 
that  a  good  proportion  of  it  falls  during  the  growing  season. 

Material  Used 

For  the  manufacture  of  macaroni^  in  many  localities  the  granu- 
lar floiu:  specially  prepared  for  this  purpose,  and  known  to  the 
Italians  as  "semolina"  or  "smola"  is  used.  The  wheat,  which 
must  be  first  thoroughly  cleaned  and  washed,  after  drying  is  again 
moistened  before  grinding  so  that  the  bran  obtained  may  not 
become  mixed  with  the  floiu:.  The  ground  product  is  then  passed 
through  sieves  of  different  degrees  of  fineness.  From  this  process 
there  results  about  65  per  cent,  of  semolina,  the  coarsely  ground 
product,  and  17  per  cent,  of  flour. 

Semolina  is  a  favorite  food  in  some  localities  of  France  and 
England.  The  millstones  in  which  it  is  groimd,  are  grooved  so 
that  the  product  is  obtained  in  a  granular  condition  instead  of  a 
powder.  The  granules  which  remain  after  sifting  out  the  finer 
flour  are  of  a  yellow  color  and  rich  in  gluten.  It  is  especially 
useful  for  making  puddings  and  porridge. 

Process  of  Making 

The  making  of  macaroni  is  but  an  extension  of  the  method  so 
long  in  use  by  the  housewife  in  making  "noodles."  For  this  pur- 
pose dough  is  rolled  out  in  thin  sheets  and  these  are  cut  into  strips, 
which  are  either  used  directly  in  soups  or  first  hung  up  to  dry.  A 
yellow  dye  is  sometimes  added  to  noodles  to  simulate  the  pres- 
ence of  eggs. 

For  the  manufacture  of  macaroni  on  the  large  scale,  the  semo- 
lina with  a  measured  quantity  of  water  is  put  into  a  steel  pan  about 
8  feel  in  diameter.  The  amount  of  water  must  be  very  carefully 
regulated  with  regard  to  the  quality  of  the  semolina,  and  to  the 
product  desired.  Within  the  pan  travels  a  stone  wheel,  and  as  it 
is  made  to  move  slowly  around  the  pan,  the  dough  is  thoroughly 
mixed.    This   operation   requires   at   least   thirty-five  minutes. 

^  Manufacture  of  Semolina  and  Macaroni,  R.  P.  Skinner,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri. 
Bur.  PI.  Ind.  No.  90. 

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The  dough  is  then  passea  into  a  perpendicular  hydraulic  steel 
press,  the  bottom  of  which  consists  of  a  bronze  die  perforated  with 
holes,  and  in  the  center  of  each  hole  is  a  pin  attached  to  one  side. 
This  pin  forms  the  hole  in  the  macaroni,  and  although  it  divides  the 

Fig.  14. — Drying  macaroni  in  Italy. 

dough  as  it  enters  the  hole,  it  comes  together  as  a  perfect  tube 
when  it  leaves  the  bottom  of  the  die.  (For  making  spaghetti  the 
die  contains  plain  holes  about  1/8  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  so  sticks 
or  rods  are  formed.)  A  piston  forces  the  dough  into  strings  or  tubes 
which  are  afterward  cut  into  pieces  about  3  feet  long,  hung  on 
racks,  in  the  sun,  for  two  hours,  and  cured  at  a  temperature  of  70° 
F.  (Fig.  14.)  After  this  preliminary  drying  the  product  is 
stored  for  twelve  hours  in  a  cellar  to  allow  the  moisture  to  become 
better  distributed,  and  then  again  dried  for  several  days  in  the 
open  air,  or  more  quickly  in  a  current  of  air  in  a  properly  con- 
structed chamber. 

The  name  "vermicelli"  is  applied  to  the  smaller  rods.  A 
great  variety  of  Italian  "pastes"  as  they  are  called,  are  put  upon 
the  market.    The  genuine  macaroni  is  translucent  in  appearance 

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and  is  so  tough  that  it  will  resist  considerable  rough  handling 
without  breaking. 

Food  Value 

Puring  cooking  macaroni  swells  up  and  absorbs  as  much  as 
three  times  its  weight  of  water.  Foods  of  this  class  are  almost 
entirely  absorbed  in  the  alimentary  canal,  and  when  served  with 
cheese  so  as  to  increase  their  protein  and  fat  content,  form  a  well- 
balanced  ration.  Comparing  the  composition  of  macaroni, 
either  foreign  or  domestic,  with  that  of  wheatj  it  is  seen  that 
there  is  no  great  difference  between  them: 



Italian  maca- 
roni from  Kans. 
hard  wheat 





Carbohydrates,  by  di£ference . 
Crude  fiber 



1. 75 

1. 75 



13  06 










The  amoimt  of  macaroni,  vermicelli  and  similar  products  used 
in  the  United  States  is  constantly  increasing;  this  is  partly  on 
account  of  their  use  by  the  immigrants  who  come  from  southern 
Europe,  and  to  quite  a  large  extent  because  a  taste  for  this  food 
is  being  cultivated  here.  No  less  than  105,926,968  pounds  of 
these  products  were  imported  in  1912.^ 


Within  the  past  twenty  years  there  has  arisen  a  demand  for 
specially  prepared  food,  which  oflFers  a  concentrated  form  of 
nourishment  and  which  may  be  readily  prepared  for  the  "hurry 
up  "  American  breakfast.  The  number  of  these  is  legion,  and  their 
beneficial  properties  have  been  heralded  in  the  advertising  pages 
of  newspapers  and  magazines  and  on  the  bill  boards. 

1  BuU.  Dept  Commerce  and  Labor. 

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The  breakfast  foods  are  made  mostly  from  wheat,  corn,  oats, 
barley  and  rice  with  an  occasional  addition  from  other  soxirces, 
and  their  food  value  is  often  grossly  misstated  by  the  manufac- 
turers.   These  foods  may  be  divided  into  the  three  classes: 

r.  Raw  cereals  prepared  by  crushing  the  grains  to  different 
degrees  of  fineness  after  decorticating. 

2.  Partially  cooked  preparations  from  these  grains. 

3.  Malted  cereals,  in  which  the  moist  grains  are  groimd  and 
mixed  with  malted  barley,  so  that  a  portion  of  the  starch  is  con- 
verted into  maltose  and  dextrose,  after  which  the  mixture  is 
crushed  between  hot  rollers  and  dried. 

The  following  selected  analysis  may  be  considered: 




9. SI 




























7. 59 







II. 81 


































1. 18 






Pettijohns  breakfast  food^. . 


Cracked  wheat* 

Quaker  oats* 

Bulk  oats* 

Cerealine  (from  com)* 

Cream  of  wheat* 

Vltos  (Pillsbury's)* 



Grape  nuts* 

Toasted  com  flakes* 

Shredded  wheat*.". 

Puffed  wheat  berries* 

Holland  rusk* 


Grape  sugar  flakes* 

Tryabita  food* 








1. 61 

*  Wyoming  Ex.  Sta.  Bull.  No.  33. 

*  Penn.  Dept.  Agri.  D.  and  F.  Div.  Bull.  No.  162. 
»  Mich.  St.  Agri.  Co.  Ex.  Sta.  Bull  No.  211. 

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An  examination  of  these  analyses  shows  that  these  products 
do  not  vary  so  much  in  composition  as  the  claims  of  the  manufac- 
turers would  lead  us  to  expect.  The  oat  products  are,  as  would  be 
expected,  high  in  protein  and  fat.  The  products  which  are  made 
from  wheat,  although  sold  under  different  names,  are  quite  similar 
in  composition.  The  "flake",  breakfast  foods  of  diflferent  man- 
ufactiurers  are  similar  in  composition. 

As  a  residt  of  digestive  experiments  with  some  of  these  malted 
products,^  although  the  converting  action  of  the  malt  had  changed 
a  fair  percentage  of  the  starch  to  reducing  sugar,  yet  the  nutritive 
material  contained  is  about  as  digestible  as  that  of  rolled  wheat, 
although  the  process  has  at  the  same  time  rendered  the  protein  less 
digestible.  A  far  larger  proportion  of  the  starch  in  these  malted 
products  remains  unchanged,  than  that  which  is  converted  by  the 
action  of  the  malt.  The  analyses  show  that  the  statement,  that 
the  starch  is  eliminated  in  the  process  of  preparation  and  therefore 
the  breakfast  food  is  especially  valuable  for  the  use  of  dyspeptics, 
is  untrue.  After  all  is  said  a  product  made  from  wheat  or  corn  or 
oats  will  not  be  very  superior  to  its  source  in  nutritive  value. 

It  is  urged  in  defense  of  the  use  of  prepared  breakfast  foods 
sold  in  packages  that  they  are  less  liable  to  accumulate  dust  and 
dirt,  than  those  sold  in  bulk.  This  is  in  general  true,  and  this 
method  of  sale  is  an  advantage  especially  when  "individual" 
packages  are  served  on  the  table;  but  there  is  an  opportunity  for 
the  grocer  to  store  unsold  packages,  for  a  long  time  and  these  are 
sometimes  foimd  to  be  infested  with  worms  and  insects,  and  to  be 
absolutely  unfit  for  use. 

While  these  foods  contain  considerable  crude  fiber  which 
diminishes  their  nutritive  value,  this  may  on  the  other  hand  render 
them  more  wholesome  to -the  average  person.  There  is  also  a 
question  whether  a  partially  digested  food,  is  really  desirable  for 
the  person  with  normal  digestion. 

» Maine  Agri.  Exp.  Sta.  Bull.  Na  ii8.  r^  i 

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On  account  of  the  almost  universal  use  in  the  United  States, 
of  these  "easy  to  prepare"  foods,  among  all  clases,  the  question  of 
economy  should  not  be  overlooked.  By  actual  weight  the 
following  is  the  retail  price  per  pounds  at  which  some  of  these  foods 
have  been  selling.  Quaker  oats,  7.3  cents;  NichoFs  pearl  hom- 
iny, 5.3  cents;  cream  of  wheat,  8.8;  grape  nuts,  17. i;  shredded 
whole  wheat,  20;  force,  16.5;  flaked  rice,  18.2;  granula,  27.2; 
Quaker  corn  flakes,  13.3;  Kellog's  corn  flakes,  20;  maple  corn 
flakes,  14.5;  post  toasties  18.4;  grape  sugar  flakes,  17.8;  malta 
vita  18.4;  sugar  corn  flakes,  20;  Holland  rusk,  22.8;  puffed 
wheat,  27.  At  these  rates  a  bushel  of  wheat,  costing  originally 
$1.00,  would  when  made  into  breakfast  cereals  cost  from  $5.00 
to  $12.00.  These  prices  indicate  that  the  consumer  is  paying 
luxury  prices,  for  ordinary  nutritive  foods. 

PANCAKE  FLOUR  (Self-raising  flour) 

In  order  to  still  further  decrease  the  labors  of  the  household, 
a  large  variety  of  self-raising  floiurs  have  been  placed  on  the 
market.  These  are,  of  course,  only  flour  mixed  with  salt  and  bak- 
ing powder.  The  analysis  of  a  few  typical  brands  is  sufficient  for 




Starch,  fiber 
ash,  leaven 


dioxide  * 

H-O  Dancake  flour , . . 

9. IS 










Aunt  Jemina's  pancake  flour. . 
Herker's    self-raising    buck- 

There  is  here  an  opportunity  for  adulteration  by  the  substitu- 
tion of  some  cheaper  flour  for  buckwheat  flour,  or  corn  flour  for 
wheat,  so  the  label  should  be  carefully  inspected. 

*  Pa.  Dept.  Agri.  Dairy  and  Food  Div.  Bull.  No.  162. 
'  Phosphate  baking  powder  used. 

Digitized  by 




The  proprietary  foods  and  those  designed  for  infants  and  in- 
valids are  used  because  of  certain  constituents  which  they  contain 
that  are  needed  to  nourish  the  system  under  abnormal  conditions. 
These  foods  are  either  farinaceous,  prepared  from  cereals,  either 
cooked  or  malted,  or  from  mixtures  of  cereals  with  milk  products. 
The  common  fault  of  these  foods  is  that  they  contain  too  much 
sugar  and  starch  and  not  enough  fat.  The  starchy  baby-foods 
should  never  be  given  to  a  child  under  eight  or  nine  months  of  age, 
as  the  secretions  in  the  'earlier  months  are  entirely  unfitted  to 
digest  such  foods.  ^ 

Some  of  these,  are  made  up  of  baked  dry  wheat  floxir,  sometimes 
mixed  with  the  floxir  of  barley  or  oats.  The  more  soluble  starch 
foods^  are  made  by  mixing  ground  wheat  and  barley  malt  with 
water  to  form  a  paste  to  which  a  little  potassium  bicarbonate  is 
added.  This  mixtxire  is  heated  at  65®  C.  for  a  suificient  time  to 
convert  the  starch  by  the  action  of  the  malt  diastase;  the  mixture  is 
extracted  with  warm  water,  and  this  solution  evaporated  to 
dryness.    This  contains  such  sugars  as  maltose  and  dextrin. 

In  the  preparation  of  the  milk  foods,  whole  or  skimmed 
milk  is  evaporated  to  dryness  and  mixed  with  sugar  or  baked 
cereal  flours.  Desiccated  milk  mixed  with  a  dried  extract  of 
malted  cereals  is  also  used. 

Tibbies*  has  collected  a  very  complete  list  of  analyses  of  foods 
of  this  class.  He  says:  Horlich's  malted  milk  consists  of  desic- 
cated milk  50;  wheat  floxir  26;  malt  23;  soda  bicarbonates  0.75 
parts.  Carnick's  soluble  food  consists  of  dried  milk  37.5;  malted 
wheat  37.5;  milk  sugar  25  parts.  Nestle's  food  consists  of  equal 
parts  of  dried  milk,  baked  flour,  and  cane  sugar,  therefore  much 
starch  remains  xmchanged.  Mellin's  food  is  made  of  wheat  flour, 
malt  and  carbonate  of  potash;  it  is  digested  by  Liebig's  process 

*  Practical  Dietetics,  Thompson,  p.  147,  759. 

*  Food  Inspection  and  Anal3rsis,  Leach. 
•Loc  dt. 

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until  all  the  starch  is  converted  into  dextrose  and  dextrin;  it  is 
then  strained  to  remove  cellulose,  husks,  bran,  etc.,  and  evaporated 
to  dryness  in  a  vacuiun  pan  at  140®  F.  Ridge's,  Neave's  and 
Frame  foods  are  baked  flour  in  which  some  of  the  starch  is  dex- 
trinized  by  heat. 

These  foods  are  often  compared  in  composition  to  hiunan  milk, 
and  it  will  be  seen  that  they  usually  show  too  much  starch  and 
sugar.  The  patent  foods  in  which  the  starch  is  unconverted, 
possess  no  advantages  as  additions  to  the  diet  of  older  children  over 
such  simple  articles  as  oatmeal,  rusks,  and  rice,  and  the  latter  are 
much  cheaper.^ 

Non-scientific  Diet  Systems 

A  recent  report^  of  the  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture  in 
regard  to  statements  about  many  systems  of  diet  recommended  for 
commercial  profit,  seems  pertinent,  in  this  connection.  "Some  of 
the  advocates  of  freak  diets  are  sincere,  but  are  themselves  deluded, 
while  others  are  fakers  who  seek  to  make  monetary  gain,  by  advis- 
ing peculiar  systems  of  diet."  One  of  these  fads  is  the  use  of  raw 
food.  While  there  is  no  objection  to  the  use  of  raw  food  by  a  per- 
son if  he  likes  it,  and  can  prove  that  it  agrees  with  him,  yet  as  a 
general  proposition  man  will  stand  a  better  chance  to  thrive  if 
he  uses  both  cooked  and  uncooked  foods,  in  the  ways  that  they 
have  proved  to  be  satisfactory  after  thousands  of  years  of  experi- 
ence by  the  human  race.  Although  raw  food  may  be  thoroughly 
washed,  yet  much  of  it  is  not  as  fit  for  food  as  when  cooked,  because 
in  the  latter  process  it  is  thoroughly  sterilized.  Another  argument 
used  for  raw  foods  is  the  necessity  for  enzymes  in  food,  but  with 
the  ordinary  mixed  diet  containing  fruit  and  raw  milk,  no  such 
spedal  diet  is  required.  Although  whole  wheat  bread  is  to  be 
recommended  in  many  cases,  yet  as  that  is  not  the  only  food  used, 
some  of  the  constituents  of  wheat  can  be  supplied  from  other 
sources.    The  main  thing  is  to  eat  in  moderation,  clean  and  well- 

^  Food  and  Dietetics,  Hutchinson,  p.  453. 

*  U.  S.  Dept  AgrL  Office  of  Information,  Sept  21, 1913. 

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cooked  food,  or  if  the  food  is  raw  be  sure  that  it  is  clean.  Foods 
that  are  found  to  disagree  with  a  person  should  be  left  out  of  the 
diet,  for  it  shoidd  never  be  forgotten  that  the  adage  "What  is 
food  to  one  man  may  be  fierce  poison  to  others,"  is  thoroughly 

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The  desire  for  sweet  substances  seems  to  be  universal  in  man 
and  is  not  imcommon  in  the  lower  animals.  The  name  sugar  was 
at  one  time  given  to  substances  having  a  sweet  taste,  as  sugar  of 
lead,  etc.,  but  was  later  restricted  to  certain  oxy-aldehydes  and 
oxy-ketones,  having  the  general  formula  CnCHiO)^  which  occur 
in  the  vegetable  and  animal  kingdoms.  The  chief  substances 
of  this  class  from  a  chemical  standpoint  (see  pp.  15-18)  are: 

Cane  sugar  (C12H22O11). 

Glucose  (CeHijOe). 

Fruit  sugar  (CeHnOe). 

Lactose  (C12HMOU+H2O). 

Mannite  (C6H8)(OH)6. 
The  important  soxirces  of  sugar  in  natiure  are  the  sugar  cane, 
sugar  beets,  sorghum  or  Chinese  cane,  sap  of  sugar  mapie  trees, 
date  palm  trees,  sap  of  ash  trees  of  southern  Europe,  the  bamboo, 
honey,  raisins  and  milk  of  mammals. 


The  ancients  were  familiar  with  honey  as  the  chief  representa- 
tive of  this  class  of  foods,  although  they  also  used  sweet  fruits. 
The  first  true  sugar  was  prepared  either  from  the  juice  of  the  bam- 
boo or  that  of  the  sugar  cane,  and  was  probably  first  known  in 
India.^  It  was  very  early  introduced  into  China;  the  sugar  cane 
was  also  cultivated  in  the  valleys  of  the  Euphrates  and  Tigris 

*  The  Story  of  Sugar — Surface,  p.  15. 

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At  first  sugar  was  used  as  a  medicine,  but  gradually  came  to  be 
regarded  as  a  luxiiry,  and  was  partaken  of  only  at  special  feasts. 
From  Arabia  through  Egypt  and  finally  by  the  Moors,  sugar  cane 
was  introduced  into  Spain  and  the  coimtries  north  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean Sea.  In  the  fifteenth  century  cuttings  were  sent  by  the 
King  of  Portugal  for  planting  in  the  Madeira  and  Canary  Islands. 
From  the  latter  country  the  sugar  cane  was  introduced  into  Brazil 
early  in  the  sixteenth  century,  and  then  into  the  West  Indies, 
principally  into  San  Domingo.  It  was  not  introduced  into  the 
American  Colonies  until  1750  at  which  time  an  unsuccessful 
attempt  was  made,  to  make  sugar,  in  Louisiana.  In  1791,  how- 
ever, the  sugar  boilers  were  more  successful.  The  "ribbon  or 
piirple"  cane,  which  was  better  adapted  to  the  soil  and  climate  of 
Louisiana  was  introduced  in  1820  and  since  that  time  it  has  been 
the  variety  most  extensively  grown. 

More  recently  new  varieties  have  been  introduced  prindpally 
from  Demerara.  These  seedlings  have  been  grown  originally  from 
seed  produced  by  the  cane,  each  seed  being  selected  and  numbered. 
The  results  of  growing  each  seed  are  careftdly  watched,  poor 
stock  is  discarded,  and  promising  canes  propagated  for  different 
qualities,  until  those  most  suitable  to  different  conditions  of 
climate,  and  general  environment  are  produced  and  ready  for 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  about  the  time  America  was  dis- 
covered sugar  cost  $^75.00  per  hundred  weight  in  London,  while 
four  hundred  years  later,  so  great  have  been  the  improvements  and 
so  large  is  the  production,  it  can  be  sold  at  less  than  $5.00  per 
hundred  weight.  Different  countries  successively  have  dominated 
the  sugar  industry.  Spain  and  Portugal  were  the  most  prominent 
in  the  sixteenth  century,  then  Antwerp  was  the  center  of  sugar 
refining,  and  following  1585  London  was  the  center  of  the  sugar 
market.  In  the  early  part  of  the  seeventeentii  century  more  than 
half  of  the  world's  sugar  was  produced  by  the  use  of  slave  labor, 
in  Cuba,  Porto  Rico,  Brazil,  the  French  Colonies,  Dutch  Guiana 
and  Louisiana. 

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The  use  of  the  beet  for  sugar  making  dates  hack  to  the  experi- 
ments of  MarggraflF,  a  chemist  in  the  University  of  Berlin,*  who 
in  ;i747  was  able  to  extract  only  1.5  per  cent,  of  sugar;  fifty 
years  later  Achard  his  pupil  only  extracted  3.0  per  cent.  This 
industry  was  greatly  stimulated  by  Napolean  I,  and  in  1806  a 
bounty  was  offered  by  the  French  government  for  sugar  produced 
in  France.  In  1812  Uie  production  had  increased  so  that  1650  tons 
of  beet  sugar  was  placed  on  the  market;  the  annual  output  of 
Europe  is  now  over  8,000,000  tons.  The  raising  of  beets  for  the 
manufacture  of  beet  sugar  has  become  an  important  industry  not 
only  in  France,  but  in  Germany,  Holland  and  America.  The 
amount  of  sugar  in  the  beet  has  been  steadily  increased  by  seed 
selection,  better  cultivation  and  adaptation  to  soil  and  climate 
until  now  it  is  not  uncommon  to  find  beets  containing  from  15  to 
23  per  cent,  of  sugar,  although  the  average  as  produced  in  the 
United  States  is  not  more  than  13  or  14  per  cent.  The  beet  is 
really  richer  in  sug^  than  the  sugar  cane  of  Louisiana,  which  does 
not  average  more  than  11  or  12  per  cent,  of  sucrose. 

Both  cane  and  fruit  sugar  are  found  in  numerous  fruits;  but 
the  latter  is  the  more  abundant.  Pineapples,  contain  11.33  P^^ 
cent,  of  cane  sugar,  strawberries  6.33  per  cent.,  apricots  6.04  per 
cent.,  apples  5.28  per  cent.  (See  table  undel:  fruits  p.  210.)  These 
fruits  it  is  true  are  not  adapted  for  use  in  making  sugar,  but  the 
sugar  is  available,  however,  as  will  be  seen  later,  for  the  production 
of  alcohol  and  vinegar. 

Cultivation  of  the  Sugar  Cane 

The  sugar  cane  (saccharum  offidnarum),  which  belongs  to 
the  family  of  grasses,  grows  best  in  a  sub-tropical  climate  where 
the  plant  is  not  in  danger  of  being  killed  by  an  early  frost,  as  it  is 
very  susceptible  to  a  low  temperature.  It  is  most  successfully 
cultivated  in  Cuba,  the  West  Indies,  Louisiana,  the  Philippine  and 
Hawaiian  Islands,  Java,  and  Brazil.    Although  cane  may  be  raised 

^LocdLtp.  no. 

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where  the  mean  temperature  is  not  below  66®  F.,  it  flourishes  best 
at  a  mean  temperature  of  from  75®  to  77®  F.  It  should  also  have 
abundant  sunshine  and  moisture.  In  fact,  cane  grows  best  where 
there  is  at  least  50  inches  of  annual  rainfall  and  where  half  of  this 
comes  in  the  growing  season  in  the  late  spring. 

As  a  large  amount  of  mineral  and  nitrogenous  food  is  needed 
for  this  crop  it  is  evident  that  even  the  best  soils  will  ultimately 
be  exhausted.    This  may  be  largely  obviated  by  a  careful  rotation 

Fig.  15. — Cutting  sugar  cane  in  La.    (By  permission  C.  S.  McFarland.) 

of  crops,  and  the  growing^of  peas,  beans  or  clover  which  by  their 
"nitrogen-fixing"  roots  help  to  restore  the  fertility  of  the  soil. 

The  cane  is  propagated  by  cuttings  which  are  best  put  in 
rather  late  in  the  fall.  It  is  necessary  to  cultivate  the  cane 
thoroughly  during  the  first  months  of  the  growing  season,  but 
later  the  groxmd  is  shaded  by  the  crop  so  that  the  weeds  do  not 
grow  so  readily.  As  the  cane  matiures  the  lower  leaves  are  shed, 
and  the  joints  change  to  a  reddish  color,  especially  in  the  purple 
variety.  Late  in  the  autumn,  after  the  mature  cane  is  cut,  the 
young  cane  sprouts  anew  from  the  old  roots.     In  the  U.  S.  two 

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crops  are  profitably  gathered  from  one  setting,  and  then  new  plants 
must  be  started.  In  many  tropical  islands,  however,  the  sprouts 
from  the  old  roots  are  cut  year  after  year  until  the  plants  die,  but 
profitable  cultivation  is  only  for  from  five  to  seven  years  from  one 
planting.  The  cane  is  generally  cut  by  hand  labor,  and  is  then 
hauled  to  the  mill.  (Fig.  15.)  This  hauling  on  the  larger  plan- 
tations in  the  United  States,  is  done  by  means  of  special  cars  on  a 
dummy  railroad.  The  average  cane  production  in  the  United 
States  is  18  tons  per  acre^  selling  at  $3.50  per  ton.  In  tropical 
countries  good  cane  contains  from  15  to  18  per  cent,  of  sucrose*  and 
the  extracted  juice  contains  under  favorable  conditions  17  to  18 
per  cent,  of  sugar.  About  95  per  cent,  of  the  total  sugar  can  be 
profitably  extracted  in  the  modern  mills. 

There  is  a  particular  stage  in  the  growth  of  the  cane  in  which 
it  is  said  to  be  ripe,  or  to  reach  its  maximum  of  sugar  content, 
then  as  inflorescence  proceeds  the  extractable  saccharine  matter 
decreases.  It  is  therefore  of  importance  to  cut  the  cane  at  just 
the  right  time.  In  tropical  countries  cane  does  not  reach  its  full 
growth  or  ripest  stage  imder  twelve  to  foxurteen  months.  To 
extend  the  cutting  season  over  as  much  time  as  possible,'  the  cane 
is  planted  at  different  times  during  a  series  of  weeks,  and  in  the 
following  season,  harvested  in  the  same  approximate  rotation. 

In  Louisiana,  the  life  of  the  cane  is  shortened  by  cold  weather 
to  a  total  of  not  over  nine  months  and  in  consequence,  its  sugar 
content  does  not  average  above  13  or  14  per  cent.  A  temperature 
of  28®  F.  will  kill  the*  cane  and  thus  prevent  further  growth,  and 
the  deterioration  of  the  crop  after  the  frost  is  immediate. 


There  are  two  general  processes  for  obtaining  the  juice  in 
making  sugar;  (i)  that  by  grinding  or  crushing  the  cane,  and 
(2)  that  of  "diffusion."  The  former  process  is  the  one  usually 
applied  to  sugar  cane,  and  the  latter  to  sugar  beets. 

1  Ibid.,  p.  52. 

*  Cyclopedia  of  Am.  Agri.,  VoL  a. 

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Giindiiig  the  Cane 

After  the  cane  is  stripped  and  topped,  in  the  "brake,"  it  is 
hauled  on  cars  to  the  "mill."  In  the  larger  establishments  the 
cane  is  lifted  from  the  cars  by  powerful  machinery  and  "dumped" 
on  conveyors  which  feed  it  in  between  the  heavy  metal  _^rollers 
that  squeeze  out  the  juice.     (Fig.  i6.)    In  some  mills  the  cane 

Fig.  i6. — Grinding  cane  in  the  Philippines.   (Copyright,  Keystone  View  Co.) 

passes  through  a  "shredder"  of  corrugated  rolls  before  it  is  passed 
on  to  the  crusher  rolls.  The  rolls  are  usually  so  arranged  that 
after  the  cane  passes  through  one  set,  it  is  again  pressed  by  a  second 
and  sometimes  even  by  a  third  set.  In  the  most  complete  mills  at 
the  present  time  as  many  as  fourteen  rolls,  including  the  shredders, 
are  employed,  and  some  mills  have  a  capacity  of  a  thousand  tons 

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of  cane  in  twenty-four  hours.  Between  the  first  and  second  set  of 
rolls  the  cane  is  often  sprayed  with  hot  juice,  and  between  the 
second  and  the  third  set  with  hot  water  in  order  to  increase  the 
yield  of  sugar  extracted. 

The  crushed  cane  which  is  called  "bagasse,"  still  contains  a 
little  sugar  that  it  has  not  been  possible  to  extract.  The  bagasse 
is^dried  by  passing  it  over  the  boilers  on  conveyors,  and  is  then 
used  for  fuel  in  the  furnace. 

Purification  of  the  Juice 

The  juice  which  is  quite  dark  colored  and  turbid  contains 
considerable  organic  matter  other  than  sugar.    To  remove  this  it 

Fig.  1 6a. — Triple  effect  condenser,  for  concentrating  sugar  solutions. 

is  often  treated  with  the  fumes  of  burning  sulfur,  or  with  bisul- 
fite of  lime,  and  then  heated  with  lime.  This  process  is  known  as 
"  defecation."    The  lime  neutralizes  any  acid  that  may  be  in  the 

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juice  and  thus  prevents  some  of  the  cane  sugar  from  "inverting"  or 
changing  into  the  uncrystallizable  invert  sugar.  The  lime  also 
causes  a  coagulated  scum  to  form  and  this  is  skimmed  or  filtered 
off.  This  scum  carries  away  many  of  the  impurities  of  the  juice, 
especially  those  of  a  nitrogenous  character.  It.  however,  retains 
considerable  sugar,  so  that  it  is  pressed  by  means  of  a  heavy 
filter-press  (see  Fig.  321)  to  recover  as  much  of  the  juice  as  pos- 
sible. The  residue  or  "press-cake"  as  it  is  called  is  sometimes 
utilized  as  a  fertilizer.  The  expressed  juice  is  added  to  the  main 
portion  of  the  juice  to  be  afterwards  treated. 

Evaporation  of  the  Juice 

The  clarified  juice  obtained  by  the  defecation  and  filtering 
mentioned  above,  is  evaporated  in  the  so-called  "multiple  effect" 
vacuum  pans.  In  the  first  pan  of  the  multiple  effect  the  air  is 
exhausted  to  such  an  extent  that  exhaust  steam  from  the  engines 
and  pumps  of  the  factory  will,  when  entering  the  steam  jacket  of 
the  pan,  cause  the  juice,  under  the  partial  vacuum,  to  boil  and 
thus  concentrate.  The  steam  arising  from  the  boiling  juice  of  the 
first  pan  enters  the  jacket  of  the  second  pan,  and  as  the  vacuum  of 
this  pan  is  higher  the  temperature  of  the  steam  from  the  first 
supplies  sufficient  heat  for  further  evaporation.  This  process 
continues  in  the  entire  battery  of  from  two  to  five  pans;  that  is 
the  juice  and  vapor  passing  from  one  "effect"  to  the  next,  until 
the  sirup  is  pumped  from  the  last  pan,  and  the  final  vapor  con- 
densed by  a  cold-water  spray.  It  is  evident  that  by  this  process  a 
great  saving  of  fuel  is  effected. 

Sugar  Boiling 

The  concentrated  juice  is  next  nm  into  the  "strike  pan," 
(Fig.  17)  which  is  a  large  boiler  heated  by  steam  coils,  and  con- 
nected with  an  exhaust  pump  so  that  a  very  high  vacuum  can  be 
maintained.  After  the  mass  has  begim  to  crystallize  or  "grain" 
additional  sirup  is  allowed  to  nm  in  from  time  to  time,  imtil  the  pan 

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is  finally  filled  with  the  crystalline  sugar,  mixed  with  molasses.  In 
this  high  vacuum  the  concentrated  sugar  solution  boils  at  from  150^ 
F.  to  180®  F.,  so  there  is  no  danger  of  its  burning. 

Fig.  17.— Vacuum  Strike  Pan,  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  82.   (By  permission  U.  S.  Dept. 


The  Centrifugals 

The  warm  mixture  of  sugar  and  molasses  known  as  "masse 
cuite"  is  next  stirred  in  a  mechanical  mixer  so  that  it  may  be  of 
uniform  consistency,  and  is  then  run  into  the  "  centrifugal."  (Fig. 
j8.)  This  machine  was  first  successfully  used  for  this  purpose  in 
i860.  It  consists  of  a  drum  running  on  a  perpendicular  axis  at 
the  rate  of  1000  to  1200  revolutions  per  minute.  The  sides  of  the 
drum  are  composed  of  perforated  metal  so  that  when  the  mixture 
of  sugar  and  molasses  is  rapidly  rotated  or  "swung  out"  the 

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molasses  is  separated  from  the  sugar.  The  sugar  is  washed  with  a 
little  water  just  before  it  is  dumped  from  the  centrifugals.  The 
sugar  thus  produced  is  dried  and  put  upon  the  market.  Some- 
times salts  of  tin  are  used  at  tMs  point  in  the  process  in  clearing  the 
sugar,  and  ultramarine  blue  is  occasionally  added  to  correct  the 
slight  yellow  color.  The  use  of  the  latter  substance  is  to  be  depre- 
cated as  sugars  containing  ultramarine  are  not  suitable  for  use  in 
some  of  the  arts,  as  for  instance  in  making  fruit  sirups. 

Fig.  i8.— Mackintosh  Centrifugals,  S.  S.  Hepworth  Co.,  New  York. 

The  molasses  and  washings  from  the  first  "masse  cuite"  is 
reboiled  and  again  run  through  the  centrifugals  to  make  a  "second 
sugar/'  and  the  molasses  from  this  is  frequently  concentrated  to 
make  a  "third"  sugar. 

Muscavado  or  raw  sugar  is  the  crude  product  of  the  open-pan 
process  of  manufacture.  These  raw  sugars  are  now  imported  into 
the  United  States  for  refining.  Formerly  both  here  and  abroad 
such  imrefined  sugars  as  Demerara,  Barbadoes,  Cuban  and  Bra- 
zilian were  in  common  use. 

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Culthration  of  the  Sugar  Beet 

In  the  cultivation  of  the  sugar  beet,  the  sugar  content  and  pu- 
rity of  the  juice  depend  not  only  on  the  variety  planted;  but  on  the 
soil,  climate,  weather  and  distribution  of  moisture.  If  possible 
the  beets  should  not  be  harvested  imtil  the  coming  of  the  frost,  as 
every  day  added  to  the  growing  season  increases  the  sugar  content.^ 
In  a  mildjclimate  beets  can  be  stored  in  the  open  air  until  used  but 
where  there  is  danger  of  frost  they  must  be  kept  under  roof.  The 
highest  amouiit  of  sugar  is  obtained  in  irrigated  regions  where 

Fig.  19. — Temperature  zoae  in  which  the  sugar  beet  attains  its  greatest  perfection. 
(By  permission  Ui  S.  Dept.  Agric.) 

there  is  an  abujidance  of  sunshine,  and  where  the  distribution 
of  the  water  can  be  regulated.  (Fig.  19.)  The  beet  matures  best 
where  the  average  temperature  of  June,  July,  and  August  is  about 
70®  F.  The  average  per  cent,  of  raw  sugar  extracted  from  the 
beet  in  the  United  States  in  1908  was  12.6  per  cent.;  in  Austria 
17.2  per  cent.;  in  Germany  17.5  per  cent.  The  first  successful 
sugar  beet  factory  in  the  United  States  was  built  at  Alverado  in 
California  in  1870,  and  has  been  in  operation  practically  all  the 
time  since  then. 

1  BMt  Sugar  Manufacture,  Claussen. 

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The  Diffusion  Process 

After  the  beets  are  brought  to  th^  factory  they  are  thoroughly 
washed,  then  passed  into  a  machine  in  which  they  are  cut  by 
sharp  revolving  knives  into  small  pieces  called  "cossettes."    The 

Fig.  20. — Dififusion  battery  for  beet  sugar,  Farmers'  Bull.  52.     (By  permission  U.  S« 

Dept.  Agriq.) 

cossettes  are  placed  in  a  "diffusion  battery"  which  consists  of  a 
number  of  cylindrical  tanks  called  cells  so  connected  by  means  of 
pipes  that  the  juice  from  the  bottom  of  one  "cell"  flows  into  the 
top  of  the  next.  (Fig.  20.)  There  are  large  openings  at  the  top  of 
each  cell  for  filling,  and  at  the  bottom  for  dropping  out  the  spent 
chips.    The  saccharine  juice  increases  in  density  as  it  passes 

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through  the  chips.  The  warmmg  of  the  juice  to  75^  to  80^  C.  in  a 
heater  placed  between  the  celk,  facilitates  this  process.  The 
diffusors  are  connected  in  such  a  way  that  the  more  concentrated 
juice  comes  in  contact  with  the  freshly  filled  cells.  Sugar,  being  a 
crystalloid  is  extracted  by  water  through  the  principle  of  osmosis, 
leaving  many  impurities  undissolved.  When  the  chips  are 
exhausted,  they  are  dropped  out  of  the  vessel,  sometimes  pressed  to 
obtain  the  last  of  the  liquid,  and  finally  sold  as  cattle  food. 

Purification  of  the  Juice 

In  the  process  of  the  evaporation  of  the  diffused  beet  juice,  it  is 
heated  with  lime,  which  neutralizes  the  free  acid  and  assists  in 
coagulating  the  nitrogenous  matter.  Carbon  dioxide  gas  is 
passed  through  the  solution,  thus  precipitating  the  lime,  and  set- 
ting free  the  sugar  from  the  saccharate  of  lime  that  was  formed. . 
After  filtering,  this  process  called  "carbonatation,"  is  sometimes 
repeated.  The  juice  is  usually  treated  with  sulfm:  dioxide  gas 
which  bleaches  it,  but  care  must  be  taken  that  the  solution  still 
remains  slightly  alkaline,  otherwise  inversion  of  the  sucrose  may 
take  place. 

The  purified  juice  is  evaporated  as  in  the  case  of  cane  juice  (p. 
102).  The  molasses  from  the  beet  sugar  process  cannot  be  as 
readily  used  for  making  "second"  and  "third"  sugars,  as  the 
molasses  from  cane  sugar  boiling.  On  this  accoimt  the  molasses 
is  boiled  down  and  treated  with  lime  which  precipitates  calcium  . 
saccharate^  (Ci2H220n.3CaO),  which  is  separated  from  the  solu- 
tion by  filter-presses,  and  the  solid  cake  thus  formed  is  returned  to 
the  "carbonatators,"  where  it  is  treated  with  carbon  dioxide  gas, 
thus  again  setting  the  sugar  free.  Each  beet  sugar  factory  has  its 
lime  kiln,  where  the  lime  is  burned  and  the  carbon  dioxide  given  off 
is  collected  and  run  into  the  carbonatation  tanks,  and  the  lime  is 
used  to  precipitate  the  sugar  as  saccharate.  Sometimes  the  puri- 
fied juice  is  boiled  to  a  fine  grain  and  the  strike  is  transferred  to  a 
^  In4ustrial  Chemistry,  Rogers- Aubert,  p.  663. 

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granulator  and  from  thence  to  the  centrifugals,  making  only  refined 
sugar  in  the  process. 


Most  of  the  sugar  that  is  imported  into  the  United  States  and 
some  of  that  from  Louisiana  and  Texas  is  the  crude  product  known 
as  "raw"  sugar,  and  contains  from  2  to  3  per  cent,  of  impurities. 
This  is  refined  in  the  large  refineries  of  New  York,  Philadelphia, 
Boston,  New  Orleans  and  San  Francisco.  In  one  of  the  largest 
of  these  refineries  13,000  barrels  of  sugar  per  day  are  refined. 

The  crude  sugar  is  "melted"  in  warm  water,  filtered  and  then 
"defecated"  with  lime  or  with  fresh  blgod  from  the  packing 
houses.  The  solution  is  then  filtered  through  long  "bag"  fil- 
ters, and  the  clear  but  colored  liquid  is  allowed  to  percolate  slowly 
through  bone  black  filters,  which  occasionally  extend  through 
several  stories  of  the  building.  The  colorless  liquid  thus  obtained 
is  now  ready  for  concentration  in  the  vacuum  pan  as  de- 
scribed on  p.  102.  A  second  and  a  third  sugar  is  frequently 
made  from  the  molasses  which  is  thrown  out  of  the  centrifugals. 

Loaf  and  Cube  Sugar 

A  modern  process  of  making  loaf  sugar  is  to  mix  warm,  granu- 
lated sugar  from  the  centrifugals  with  a  saturated  solution  of 
pure  sugar,  or  thick  sugar  sirup,  and  to  press  this  mixture  into 
molds  where  it  is  allowed  to  harden.  Cube  sugar  is  made  in  a 
similar  way.  Formerly  loaf  sugar  was  made  by  rimning  the  masse 
cuite  into  conical  sheet-iron  molds  perforated  at  the  bottom. 
Here  the  molasses  slowly  trickled  out,  if  the  molds  were  kept  warm, 
and  the  process  was  completed  by  washing  the  crystallized  sugar 
in  the  molds  several  times  with  a  saturated  solution  of  granulated 
sugar  to  remove  the  molasses  that  adhered  to  the  crystals.  After 
the  contents  of  the  molds  had  been  thoroughly  dried  the  "sugar 
loaves"  were  removed  crushed  and  sifted  to  form  granulated 
sugar,  or  the  sugar  was  sawed  into  slices,  then  into  strips  and  finally 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


into  cubes,  which  were  put  on  the  market  as  "lump"  or  "cube" 
sugar.  The  retail  price  of  this  sugar  in  the  United  States  is  often 
out  of  all  proportion  to  the  extra  cost  of  manufacture.  Sugar 
loaves  are  still  sold  by  the  grocers  on  the  Continent  and  the  pur- 
chaser breaks  them  into  lumps  of  any  required  size.  The  granu- 
lated sugar  is  somewhat  more  expensive. 

Powdered  Sugar 

From  the  imperfect  pieces  or  from  the  original  sugar  loaf, 
"pulverized,"  "powdered"  or  "icing"  sugar  is  made  by  simply 
grinding  in  a  mill  and  bolting.  To  prevent  this  sugar  from  becom- 
ing lumpy  it  is  sometimes  prepared  for  the  market  by  mixing  with 
it  a  small  quantity  of  starch.  Four  grades  of  this  sugar,  which 
are  of  diflferent  degrees  of  fineness  are  made,  but  the  XXXX  is 
the  variety  in  common  use.  It  is  often  asserted  by  housekeepers 
and  food  manufacturers  that  there  is  a  difference  in  the  cooking 
quality  of  cane  and  beet  sugar.  Recent  experiments^  show  that 
although  beet,  sugar  produces  more  froth  in  making  sirup,  this 
is  wholly  due  to  its  fine  granulation.  There  seems  to  be  no  dif- 
ference in  the  keeping  qualities  of  jelly  or  canned  goods  made  by 
the  use  of  either  of  the  two  sugars. 


It  is  probable  that  the  North  American  Indians  were  the 
first  manufacturers  of  maple  sirup.^  All  species  of  the  maple 
tree  yield  a  sweet  sap  but  the  Acer  saccharinum  (sugar  maple) 
and  the  Acer  saccharinum  nigrum  are  species  best  adapted 
sugar  making. 

Tapping  the  Trees 

In  order  to  obtain  the  sap,  a  hole  about  1/2  inch  in  di- 
ameter is  bored  in  the  tnmk  of  the  tree,  to  a  depth  of  2  or  3 

1 U.  S.  Dept.  AgrL  Bur.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  134. 

«  U.  S.  Dept   Agri.  Bur.  For^try  Bull.  No.  59,  and  Vt.  Agri.  [Ex.  Sta.  Bull 
No.  103. 

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inches.  Sometimes  a  "spile"  or  pipe,  made  from  elder  wood 
with  the  pith  removed,  is  driven  in  this  hole  to  carry  out  the  sap, 
but  a  more  modern  process  is  to  drive  in  a  metal  spout  just  below 
the  opening.  To  this  a  bucket,  which  should  be  covered,  is  at- 
tached to  catch  the  sap.  Much  attention^  has  been  paid  to  such 
questions  as  the  side  of  the  tree  to  be  tapped,  the  number  of  holes 
relative  to  the  size  of  the  tree,  the  proper  time  of  the  year  for 
tapping,  and  the  best  way  of  collecting  and  storing  the  sap.  It 
is  believed  that  the  best  flow  of  sap  is  obtained  when  the  tempera- 
ture is  such,  that  it  is  freezing  at  night  and  thawing  during  the 

Boiling  the  Sap 

The  sap,  after  being  collected  from  the  trees  is  stored  tempo- 
rarily in  wooden  or  metallic  tanks,  and  then  boiled  down  as  rapidly 
as  possible.  The  evaporating  is  often  done  in  a  crude  way  by 
simply  boiling  in  iron  kettles  over  an  open  fire,  but  this  method 
has  been  largely  superseded  by  the  use  of  rectangular  sheet-iron 
pans,  about  6  inches  deep,  which  are  heated  directly  over  a  fire. 
Better  results  are  obtained  if  the  pan  is  divided  into  several 
compartments  so  arranged  that  the  greatest  heat  is  imder  the 
pan  containing  the  most  concentrated  sirup  and  the  liquid  as  it 
concentrates  is  dipped  or  siphoned  from  one  compartment  to  the 
next.    The  sap  contains  from  1.5  to  3  per  cent,  of  sucrose. 

Purification  of  Maple  Sirup 

Coagulation  of  the  nitrogenous  constituents  of  the  sap  takes 
place  largely  during  the  first  stage  of  the  boiling,  and  the  scum  thus 
formed  must  be  frequently  removed.  Some  makers  use  milk  or 
white  of  eggs  to  assist  the  coagulation  and  the  final  concentration 
is  often  conducted  in  steam  kettles.  As  the  commercial  value  of  a 
maple  sirup  depends  quite  largely  on  its  color,  it  is  advisable  to 
strain  the  original  sap,  and  also  the  sirup  several  times  to  remove 

»  Cal.  Ag.  Ex.  Sto.  Circ.  33. 

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any  suspended  matter.  By  this  process  the  so-called  "niter"  or 
"sugar  sand"  (an  impure  malate  of  calcium),  and  suspended  dirt 
are  removed.  Any  carelessness  in  the  methods  of  collection  of 
the  sap  or  in  evaporating,  will  result  in  a  dark-cdored,  strong- 
flavored  sirup,  which  commands  a  lower  price  than  that  which  is 
made  more  carefully. 

Composition  of  Maple^Sirup 

Sirup  that  is  carefully  made  and  stored  in  sealed  cans  will 
keep  for  several  years.  A  good  sirup  should  weigh  not  less  than  ii 
pounds  to  the  gallon  and  should  not  contain  more  than  32  per  cent, 
of  water.  The  average  amount  of  sucrose  in  a  good  quality  of 
maple  sirup  is  62.6  per  cent.^  and  the  invert  sugar  1.47  per  cent. 
If  the  invert  sugar  is  high  it  indicates  that  the  sap  has  been  allowed 
to  sour,  or  that  the  sirup  was  carelessly  made. 

Formerly  in  the  United  States  there  were  hardly  any  food 
products  more  frequently  adulterated  than  maple  sirup  and  maple 
sugar,  but  since  the  enforcement  of  the  Food  and  Drugs  Act* of 
June  30,  1906,  manufacturers  are  now  required  to  state  upon  the 
label  the  true  nature  of  the  product. 

Maple  sugar  and  sirup  are  most  extensively  made  in  Ohio, 
New  York,  Indiana,  New  England,  Pennsylvania,  Michigan  and 
.West  Virginia.  Maple  sirup  and  sugar  are  also  made  in  Canada, 
but  not  in  the  South,  west  of  the  Missouri  River,  or  in  Europe. 
The  total  amoimt  of  maple  sirup  produced  in  1909,  according  to 
the  United  States  census  reports,  was  4,106,418  gallons. 

Maple  Sugar 

Maple  sugar  instead  of  sirup,  is  readily  made  by  carrying 
the  process  of  concentration  still  further  until  the  mass  boils  at 
about  240**  F.,  and  then  pouring  the  hot  sirup  into  molds  to 
solidify.  It  is  estimated  that  not  over  14,000,000  poimds  is  made 
annually  in  the  United  States.  This  is  never  refined,  as  its  value 
depends  on  certain  ingredients  other  than  sugar  that  give  it  an 
*  U.  S.  Dept.  AgrL  Bur.  Chem.  Bull.  No^i34.  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  516. 

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agreeable  flavor,  and  these  very  substances  woifld  be  removed  in 
the  process  of  refining.*  The  crqp  is  now  about  equally  divided 
between  sugar  and  sirup,  but  the  proportion  of  the  latter  is 
rapidly  increasing*  Much  dark,  inferior  maple  sugar  is  used  in 
making  the  various  mixed  sirups  which  are  placed  on  the  market. 
In  the  early  history  of  the  American  Colonies  in  addition  to 
honey,  maple  sugar  was  the  chief  sweetening  substance,  and 
was  very  cheap,  but  with  the  improved  methods  of  making  white 
sugar  from  the  cane  and  beet,  the  price  of  white  sugar  has  steadily 
fallen,  while  maple  products,  on  accoimt  of  the  limited  supply,  have 
increased  in  value.  At  the  present  time  the  demand  for  maple 
sirup  is  partly  met  by  the  sale  of  cheap  mixtures  consisting  of  cane 
sirup  flavored  with  maple,  or  with  some  flavoring  material  that  at 
least  "suggests"  maple  products.  If  properly  labeled,  there  can 
be  no  objection  to  the  sale  of  such  products,  although  the  price 
charged  is  often  entirely  out  of  proportion  to  the  value  of  the 
ingredients  used.  Maple  sap  contains  on  the  average  about  2  per 
cent,  of  sugar.  With  sap  of  the  ordinary  composition,  a  barrel  of 
sap  (32  gallons)  should  produce  a  gallon  of  sirup  or  7  1/2  poimds 
of  maple  sugar. 

Palm  Sugar 

From  the  earliest  times  a  sugar  has  been  made  in  India,  China 
and  the  East  from  the  juice  of  various  species  of  palms,  and  was 
known  as  "palm"  sugar,  "date"  sugar  or  "jaggery."  The  juice, 
which  is  called  "toddy,"  ^  is  obtained  from  incisions  in  the  tree  or 
the  flower-stalk.  (Fig.  21.)  In  making  the  sugar  the  sap  is 
neutralized  with  lime,  boiled,  filtered  and  clarified  as  in  the  making 
of  cane  sugar.  The  product  is  of  a  low  grade  and  moist,|on  account 
of  the  presence  of  considerable  invert  sugar.  About  35  pounds  of 
raw  sugar  may  be  obtained  each  season  from  a  single  tree. 

An  intoxicating  beverage  called  "^o/m  wincy"  is  made  by  the 
fermentation  of  this  sugar,  and  this  when  distilled  forms  the  well- 
known  spirit  "arrack."    This  beverage,  which  is  in  common*use 

1  Cyclo.  Am.  Agri.,  L.  H.  Bailey,  Vol.  2. 
«  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  Vol.  35,  p.  1138. 

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among  the  Hindoos  and  Malays,  often  contains  50  per  cent,  of 
absolute  alcohol.  A  lower  grade  of  the  same  spirit  is  made  from 
fermented  rice. 

Raw  Sugar 
The  average  composition  of  "Raw  Sugar"  from  different 
sources  is  as  follows: 

Fig.  21. — Getting  "toddy"  from  a  palm  tree. 

Sugar  from 

Sugar  beet. 





Cane  sugar 



Other  org. 






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The  time  has  long  since  passed  when  sugar  is  to  be  regarded 
as  a  mere  luxury,  although  on  account  of  the  use  of  sugar  in  con- 
fectionery the  luxury  phase  of  the  subject  can  never  be  ignored. 
In  the  procfess  of  plant  growth  the  starch  in.  the  later  stages  is 
converted  into  sugar,  and  as  far  as  nutritive  value  is  concerned 
they  are  very  much  alike. 

Starchy^  food  must  first  be^  acted  upon  by  a  ferment  in  the 
saliva,  and  then  by  a  se(&nd  ferment  contained  in  the  intestines, 
before  it  is  in  a  suitable  condition  to  be  taken  into  the  blood  as 
a  nutrient.  Cane  sugar^  on  the  other  hand,  does  not  require  as 
complex  a  treatment  before  it  can  be  assimilated.  It  is,  through 
the  action  of  certain  enzymes  or  ferments  by  the  process  of  "in- 
version," changed  in  the  digestive  tract,  into  glucose  and  fructose^ 
— simpler  sugars — which  are  then  ready  for  absorption.  It  is  in- 
teresting also  to  note  that  when  more  sugar  or  starch  is  consumed 
than  is  actually  needed,  some  of  it  is  changed  in  the  liver  to  a.  pecu- 
liar starchy  substance  called  "glycogen"  (CeHioOfi)^^  and  is  there 
stored  for  future  use*  or  a  part  of  it  may  be  changed  to  fat  for 
storage  piurposes.  This  glycogen  is  also  stored  in  the  muscles, 
especially  during  periods  of  liberal  feeding,  and  is  rs^idly  used  up 
during  active  muscular  work.^ 

It  has  been  shown  by  experiments  that  as  a  part  of  a  simple 
mixed  diet  5  ounces  of  sugar  per  day  can  be  consumed  by  a 
healthy  adult,  and  98.9  per  cent,  of  its  total  energy  become  avail- 
able in  the  body.  The  main  function  of  the  sugar  or  of  the  starch 
is  to  furnish  heat  and  energy.*  The  experiments  of  Morro,  an 
Italian  in  1893  tended  to  prove,  that  reasonable  quantities  of 
sugar  in  the  food,  delayed  fatigue  and  at  the  same  time  increased 
the  working  powers,  and  later  experiments  have  confirmed  this 

1  Food  and  Dietetics,  Hutchison,  p.  267-273. 

*  Chemistry  of  Food  and  Nutrition,  Sherman,  p.  lo. 

*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Farmers'  Bull.  93. 

*  Chem.  of  Food  and  Nutrition,  Sherman. 

» U.  S.  Dopt.  Agri.,  Farmw'  Bull  No.  535.  C"r^r^n]o 

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Sugar  is  well  adapted  to  help  man  in  the  performance  of  ex- 
traordinary muscular  exertion.  For  this  purpose  it  may  be  given 
in  lemonade,  or  if  a  solid  is  desired  mixed  with  chocolate.  Its 
value  has  been  proven  in  the  German  army  by  experiments  with 
soldiers  on  the  march. 

Starch  is  a  satisfactory  food  where  muscular  exertion  is  re- 
quired, but  if  a  part  of  this  is  replaced  by  sugar,  there  is  less  tend- 
ency to  fatigue.  As  sugar  has  the  advantage  of  being  more  readily 
digested,  it  is  of  special  value  for  those  individuals  who  have  not 
the  ability  to  digest  starch.  This  is  particularly  true  of  infants 
for  whom  milk  sugar  is  the  natural  diet. 

There  are  many  instances  on  record  of  the  large  consumption 
of  sugar  by  workmen,  and  seemingly  to  their  advantage;  among 
these  may  be  mentioned  the  negroes  of  the  South,  lumbermen 
working  in  the  woods  and  mountain  climbers  in  the  Alps.  As  a 
feeding  stuff  for  the  lower  animals  sugar  is  already  of  importance 
in  the  South  where  "Black  Strap"  (the  liquor  left  after  the  last 
crystallization  of  sugar)  is  a  part  of  the  regular  diet  of  mules  and 
sugar  is  fed  to  cattle  and  used  for  fattening  steers. 

As  to  the  quantity  of  sugar  that  should  be  allowed  in  the  daily 
ration,  it  has  been  ascertained  that  in  many  well-to-do  families 
in  the  United  States  as  much  as  2  pounds  per  week  per  capita 
is  used.  This  would  mean  in  an  ordinary  family  not  less  than 
500  poimds  per  year.  The  amount  of  sugar  used  per  capita  in 
different  countries  varies  with  the  climate,  the  habits  of  the 
people  and  very  often  with  their  financial  ability  to  obtain  it. 
This  amoimt  is  however  constantly  increasing,  for  with  sugar  at 
6  or  even  7  cents  per  pound,  it  compares  favorably  with  other 
foods  as  a  source  of  energy,  although  more  expensive  than  wheat 
flour  and  corn  meal.^ 

As  valuable  in  the  dietary  as  sugar  has  been  proved  to  be,  there 
is  danger  in  using  too  much,  since  an  excess  cannot  be  readily  di- 
gested and  will  produce  acidity  of  the  stomach,  and  flatulent 
dyspepsia.  This  is  particularly  true  in  the  case  of  persons  living 
1  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  535.  ,     ^^^ ,  _ 

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a  sedentary  life,  or  having  a  tendency  to  corpulency.  Children 
with  their  active  lives,  out  of  doors,  and  their  rapid  growth, 
can  no  doubt  assimilate  more  sugar  than  adults,  but  on  account 
of  their  fondness  for  it,  there  is  danger  of  their  eating  too  much  and 
of  its  causing  indigestion. 


According  to  Willett  and  Gray,  it  is  estimated  that  in  1906 

the  total  amount  of  sugar  produced  from  cane  was  as  follows: 

Cane  sugar,  tons 

Louisiana 300,000  (in  1910,  341,994)' 

Porto  Rico 210,000 

Hawaii ■. 370,000 

Philippines  (export) 135,625 

Cuba 1,300,000 

Adding  to  this  the  amount  of  sugar  produced  from  sugar  cane 
in  other  countries,  the  world's  production  would  be  4,957,525 
tons.  Adding  the  sugar  produced  from  sugar  beets  to  this,  the 
world  production  of  sugar  would  be  17,000,000*  tons.  Three- 
fifths  of  the  sugar  used  in  the  United  States  is  beet  sugar,  and  more 
than  half  of  the  world's  production  is  beet  sugai:.  The  greatest 
sugar  beet  states  in  order  of  production  are  Colorado,  California, 
Michigan  and  Utah. 

The  total  amount  of  beet  sugar  produced  in  1910-11  in  some 
of  the  leading  sugar  coimtries  was  as  follows:' 

Metric  tons 
(2204.6  pounds) 


European  Russia 



Belgium  and  The  Netherlands. 
United  States 


i,  108, 760 





^  The  average  of  the  last  few  years  in  Louisiana  has  been  357,500  tons. 

'  Senate  Doc.  890. 

»  U.  S.  Senate  Doc.  890,  Sixty-second  Congress,  Second  Ses^on^.^^9^p^62. 



The  total  amount  produced  in  Europe  was  8,032,741  tons,  and 
the  same  year  Gennany  exported  1,125,868  tons. 

Coiisumption  per  Capita 

The  sugar  consumption  per  capita  (all  kinds  of  sugar  included) 
in  1910-11,  and  the  retail  cost  per  pound  to  consumers  was  as 

Great  Britain 
Denmark .... 
United  States 
Switzerland . . 


Germany .... 




Consumption  per 




Retail  price  per 
pound,  191 1 

5  cents 

5  cents 
5 .  69  cents 
5.10  cents 
8.00  cents 
5.90  cents 
5.90  cents 
14.00  cents 
8 .  70  cents 

In  considering  the  amount  of  sugar  used  in  different  countries 
the  controlling  factor  is  the  cost  as  represented  by  the  amoimt  of 
sugar  that  can  be  purchased  out  of  the  ordinary  daily  wage.  In 
Germany  where  labor  is  cheaper  than  in  the  United  States,  sugar 
costs  about  as  much,  and  in  Italy,  although  labor  is  still  more 
poorly  paid  sugar  costs  from  14  to  16  cents  a  pound.  Germany 
raises  its  own  sugar  while  in  Italy  there  is  a  manufacturer's  tax  of 
$6.41  per  100  pounds,  and  an  import  duty  of  $8.67  per  100.  The 
home  production  more  than  equals  the  comsumption  of  the  coun- 
try, but  the  cost  of  manufacturing  is  so  high  that  it  does  not  pay  to 
export  the  sugar.  ^ 

GLUCOSE  (Fruit  sugar)  (CaKnOa) 

The  next  important  group  of  the  carbohydrates  is  the  glucose 
group  (p.  17).    These  substances   are   closely    related   to   the 

»  Dafly  Consular  Trade  Report.  1914,  No.  5.  Digitized  by  LjOOglC 


members  of  the  starch-cellxilose  group,  for  both  starch  and 
cellulose  on  boiling  with  dilute  acid  are  converted  into  grape  sugar, 

(C,HioO»)„+H20 = (C,Hi20«)„ 

Starch  or  Grape 

cellulose.  sugar. 

Fruit  or  grape  sugar  is  also  closely  related  to  cane  sugar,  for 
as  previously  stated,  it  may  be  produced  from  cane  sugar  by 
inversion  with  acids  and  heat,  the  products  being  dextrose  (C«Hi20«) 
and  levulose  (CcHnOc).  In  a  similar  manner  milk  sugar  breaks 
up  into  dextrose  and  galactose  (C«Hi20«). 

As  the  name  fruit  sugar  implies,  the  chief  sources  of  this 
sugar  are  the  fruits.  The  amoimt  of  fruit  or  "reducing"  sugar 
found  in  fruits  varies  between  wide  limits;  thus  in  grapes  there  is 
17.26  per  cent,  in  figs  11.55  P^^  cent,  cherries  10.00  per  cent, 
apples  8.72  per  cent.,  pineapples  1.98  per  cent.,  lemons  1.06  per 
cent  This  sugar  also  occurs  with  levulose  in  honey,  and  can  be 
obtained  by  the  action  of  special  ferments  on  starch,  dextrin  or 
cane  sugar. 

COMMERCIAL  "GLUCOSE"  (Grape  sugar) 

Within  the  past  twenty-five  years  the  production  of  an  artificial 
sugar  or  sirup  of  this  class  has  increased  enormously.  The  proc- 
ess of  manufacture  depends  on  the  simple  principle  of  the  "hy- 
drolysis," as  it  is  called,  of  starch  by  heat  and  dilute  acid.  The 
manufacture  of  the  starch  and  its  conversion  into  glucose  are  most 
economically  conducted  in  the  same  factory.  For  this  purpose, 
in  the  United  States  the  corn  (maize)  is  softened  by  steeping  with 
warm  water,  and  cracked  to  loosen  the  germs.  The  coarse  meal 
then  passes  to  the  separators  where  the  germs  are  floated  off; 
these  may  be  used  as  cattle  food  or  for  the  manufacture  of  corn 
oil.  The  meal  is  then  groxmd  fine,  and  passed  with  water  over 
shakers  or  through  slowly  revolving  perforated  cylinders  to  remove 
the  hulls.    The  starch  remains  suspended  in  th£  roijky  liquid. 


On  the  Continent  of  Europe  potatoes  are  utilized  for  the  manu- 
facture of  the  starch  for  making  glucose. 

The  next  process  consists  in  "inverting"  the  starch,  which  is 
accomplished  in  large  copper  boilers  by  the  use  of  about  6  pounds 
of  hydrochloric  acid  to  10,000  pounds  of  starch.^  After  this  has 
been  heated  for  some  time  xmder  pressure,  it  will  be  found,  on 
testing,  that  no  starch  remains.  The  free  acid  is  then  neutralized 
with  sodium  carbonate,  the  solution  is  decolorized  by  filtering 
through  bone  black,  and  concentrated  in  vacuum  pans,  by  meth- 
ods similar  to  those  employed  with  cane  sugar  juice.  Although  it 
may  be  possible  to  "convert"  the  starch  without  the  use  of  acid 
under  special  conditions,  it  bias  been  found  more  practical  to  use 
small  quantities  of  acid  in  the  process.  This  acid  is  completely 
neutralized  in  the  final  product. 

When  commercial  glucose  is  to  be  made,  the  process  of  convert- 
ing is  arrested  while  there  is  considerable  uncrystallizable  dextrin 
in  the  product.  The  concentration  is  carried  only  far  enough  to 
produce  a  heavy  thick  sirup.  This  contains  about  35  per  cent,  of 
dextrose,  from  4.6  to  19.3  percent,  of  maltose  and  from  29.8  to  45.3 
per  cent,  of  dextrin. 

Grape  Sugar 

For  the  production  of  commercial  ^^ grape  sugary**  the  conver- 
sion of  the  starch  is  carried  farther  than  for  the  glucose,  and  the 
concentration  in  the  vacuum  pan  is  carried  so  far  that  on  cooling  a 
non-crystalline  solid  remains.  This  contains  from  72  to  99.4  per 
cent,  of  dextrose,  and  without  doubt  some  caramelization  has  taken 
place  in  those  products  which  are  most  concentrated.  This  gives 
the  latter  a  brownish  color,  and  the  product  is  often  used  for 
making  " glucose ''  or  "grape"  sugar  vinegar,  which  is  thus  colored 
to  imitate  dder  vinegar,  and  yet  contains  no  "added  color." 
Glucose  is  put  on  the  market  in  various  degrees  of  concentration 
known  as  "A,"  "B,"  and  "C."    Formerly  in  the  process  of 

*  Food  Materials  and  Their  Adulterations,  Richards,  p.  qi. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


making  glucose  and  grape  sugar  sulfuric  add  was  used  instead  of 
hydrochloric  to  hydrolize  the  starch,  and  marble  dust  was  added 
to  produce  calcium  sulfate,  and  thus  neutralize  the  free  add.  The 
caldiun  sulphate  was  removed  by  settling  and  filtration. 

Among  the  other  products  of  the  glucose  factories  are  "mixing 
glucose/*  used  in  making  table  sirups  (see  p.  125)  "jelly  glucose" 
and  "confectioners"  glucose. 

Glucose  as  Food 

Glucose  products  are  considered  wholesome.  In  a  report 
to  the  National  Academy  of  Science,^  the  statement  is  made 
that  "starch  sugar  is  in  no  way  inferior  to  cane  sugar  in  health- 
fulness,  there  being  no  evidence  before  the  committee  that  maize  or 
starch  sugar,  either  in  a  normal  condition  or  fermented,  has  any 
deleterious  effect  upon  the  system,  even  when  taken  in  large 

A  more  recent  authority*  (1902), however,  says:  "Although 
prepared  for  immediate  absorption  from  the  stomach  and  intestine 
and  for  assimilation,  glucose  is  of  little  service  for  flavoring  other 
artides  of  food,  for  when  so  used  it  is  apt  to  produce  flatulent 

dyspepsia  with  add  eructations If  glucose  be  eaten 

as  a  food  in  form  of  candy  or  otherwise,  it  overloads  the  system  by 
being  too  promptly  absorbed." 

The  chief  adulteration  to  which  glucose  is  liable,  is  that  it  may 
contain  a  considerable  quantity  of  sidfites,  which  are  used  in 
bleaching.  If  it  is  absolutdy  necessary  to  use  sulfur  dioxide  or 
sulfites  in  the  process  of  manufacture,  an  excess  should  be  very 
carefully  avoided,  as  this  substance  is  not  a  wholesome  constitu- 
ent of  food. 

Glucose  is  very  extensively  used  in  the  arts.  It  is  a  constituent 
of  many  table  sirups;  it  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  "white 
wine"  vinegar;  it  is  used  as  a  sweetening  substance  in  canned 

*  Report  to  U.  S.  Government  by  National  Acad.  Science,  1884. 
«  Thompson,  Practical^Dietctics,  p.  13^. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 

MANNA  121 

goods,  jams  and  jellies;  it  takes  the  place  of  cane  sugar  in  making 
caramel;  and  in  confectionery;  it  is  used  in  making  artificial  honey 
and  as  a  substitute  for  malt  in  brewing.  Glucose  has  not  as  great 
sweetening  power  as  cane  sugar.  Some  authors  state  that  the 
relation  is  about  as  3  to  5.  The  author  foxmd  that  i  pound  of 
cane  sugar  was  equivalent  to  i  1/3  pounds  of  glucose.^ 

In  some  states  the  contention  is  made  that  the  term  "com 
sirup,"  is  not  a  proper  name  to  apply  to  a  glucose  product.  A 
sirup  is  made  by  concentrating  a  natural  juice  or  sap,  but  the 
starch  product  is  entirely  artificial.  Again,  it  is  said  that  on 
accoxmt  of  the  prejudice  of  the  public  against  the  term  "glucose" 
the  word  "corn"  is  used.  It  is  held  that  the  term  corn  sirup 
could  be  properly  applied  only  to  a  sirup  made  by  concentrating  the 
juice  of  the  corn  stalk,  and  not  to  an  artificial  product  which  may  be 
made,  and  indeed  often  is  made  from  potato  starch  rather  than 
from  corn  starch.  This  matter  has  been  in  litigation  for  some  time, 
but  by  the  ruling  of  the  U.  S.  Dept.  of  Agriculture,  the  term  "corn 
sirup"  can  be  used  in  describing  this  glucose  product. 

The  total  amoxmt  of  ghicose  and  of  grape  sugar  made  annually 
in  the  United  States  is  1,000,000,000  pounds,  and  in  this  industry 
no  less  than  50,000,000  bushels  of  corn  are  used.  This  is  nearly 
all  made  in  a  few  factories  which  control  the  entire  output. 


Manna  is  a  saccharine  substance  exuding  from  various  trees. 
The  substance  usually  called  manna,  however,  is  from  the  juice  of 
the  fraxinus  ornus,  a  species  of  ash  which  is  grown  in  Sicily  and 
other  parts  of  southern  Europe.  The  juice  which  exudes  from 
slits  made  in  the  stem  of  the  young  tree,  when  it  is  dried,  is  known 
as  "flake"  manna.  It  has  a  sweetish  taste  and  characteristic  odor 
and  contains  a  crystallizable  sugar  called  "mannite"  (C«H8(0H)«), 
and  several  uncrystallizable  sugars.  It  is  used  in  medicine  as  a 

*  First  Quar.  Rep.  1885,  K.  St.  Bd.  Ag. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



It  is  well  to  distinguish  carefully  between  molasses  and  sirup. 
Properly  speaking  molasses  or  treacle  as  it  is  called  in  England, 
is  the  liquor  which  remains  when  the  saccharine  juice  has  been 
concentrated  to  the  point  of  crystallization,  and  some  of  the 
sugar  has  been  crystallized  out.  The  "mother  liquor/*  as  the 
chemist  would  call  it,  from  which  the  sugar  has  crystallized  is  the 
molasses.  It  contains  besides  sucrose,  some  of  the  imcrystalliz- 
able  sugar  of  the  original  juice,  and  all  the  "invert"  sugar 
produced  in  the  process  of  manufacture;  besides  this  all  soluble 
impmities  and  the  mineral  salts  of  the  original  juice  are  some- 
what concentrated  here. 

Sirup,  on  the  other  hand,  is  the  product  obtained  by  the  simple 
evaporation  of  the  original  juice,  from  which  no  sugar  has  been 
removed.  So  we  may  have  "sugar-cane"  sirup,  "sorghum" 
sirup  and  "maple"  sirup. 

Open  Pan  Molasses 

In  the  primitive  process  of  sugar  making. the  defecated  juice 
was  boiled  down  in  open  pans  or  kettles,  and  passing  from  one 
to  another  as  it  reached  a  certain  degree  of  concentration,  was 
finally  nm  into  shallow  tanks  and  stirred  xmtil  it  became  a  crystal- 
line mass  of  sugar  and  molasses.  This  was  put  into  hogsheads 
provided  with  holes  in  the  bottom,  and  allowed  to  drain  for  some 
time.  The  resulting  product,  called  "  muscavado  "  or  "  raw  sugar" 
was  put  upon  the  market,  and  the  molasses  which  ran  into  cisterns 
beneath  the  hogsheads  was  shipped  as  "New  Orleans"  molasses. 
This  process  has  now  been  practically  abandoned,  as  not  enough 
sugar  was  obtained  to  make  it  profitable. 

Sugar  Cane  Molasses 

In  the  manufacture  of  sugar  by  the  vacumn  process,  as  the 
drippings  and  workings  of  the  first  masse  cuite  are  boiled  down 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 

SIRUP  123 

to  make  a  second  sugar,  and  often  the  drippings  trom  this  are 
boiled  to  make  a  third  masse  cuite — the  third  molasses  neces- 
sarily contains  all  the  impurities  of  a  considerable  amount  of  juice. 
These  are,  besides  imcrystallizable  sugar,  mineral  salts  and  organic 
matter.  The  last  molasses  is  called,  on  the  plantation,  ^' black 
strap"  and  is  fermented  to  make  alcohol,  or  used  in  the  manufac- 
ture of  mule  feed  by  mixing  it  with  groxmd  grains  and  alfalfa,  in 
such  proportions  as  to  form  a  "balanced"  ration.  On  accoimt  of 
the  large  amount  of  impurities  contained  it  is  not  fit  for  human 

Sugar  Cane  Sirup 

An  "  open  pan  sirup,"^  or  "  sugar  cane  sirup  "  which  is  very  sat- 
isfactory, and  should  take  the  place  qi  the  molasses  described  in  the 
previous  paragraph  is  now  made  in  many  of  the  Southern  States, 
especially  Georgia,  Alabama,  Florida,  Louisiana  and  Texas. 
This  sirup  is  made  by  simply  clarifying  and  evaporating  the  sugar 
cane  juice  to  a  consistency  where  25  or  30  per  cent,  of  water 
remains,  and  a  product  is  obtained  that  keeps  reasonably  well. 
During  the  process  the  scum  is  carefully  removed,  and  the  final 
sirup  is  strained.  No  lime  or  sulfiu*  is  used  in  the  process  and,  in 
fact,  these  chemicals  are  not  necessary.  Sulfur  fimies  are  often 
used  in  products  of  this  kind  to  bleach  the  material,  but  there 
is  really  no  reason  why  a  lighter  colored  product  should  be  pre- 
ferred, and  the  sulfuring  certainly  injures  the  flavor. 

Many  southern  manufacturers  still  contend  that  the  use  of 
sulfur  and  lime  are  essential  to  produce  a  product  that  keeps  well 
and  does  not  crystallize.* 

Sugar  House  Molasses  Refined  Molasses) 

In  the  process  of  sugar  refining,  which  has  already  been  re- 
ferred to»  a  molasses  remains  after  the  crystallization  of  the  third 

^  U.  S.  Dept  of  Agri.,  Bur.  of  Chem.  Bull.  No.  7o»  103. 
«La.  Bull.  No.  129. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


sugar,  which  is  extensively  used  in  making  commercial  sirups, 
as  a  flavor,  or  to  disguise  the  glucose  taste.  This  molasses  is  of 
a  much  lighter  color  than  the  product  from  the  sugar  factory 
(black  strap),  but  contains  a  very  large  amount  of  soluble  organic 
substances  not  sugar,  and  considerable  mineral  impurity.  It  is 
not  a  suitable  food,  unless  properly  used  in  the  small  quantities 
previously  stated. 

Sorghum  Sirup 

One  of  the  common  sirups  in  use  is  that  made  from  the  sorghum 
(Sorghum  saccharatum)  or  Chinese  cane.  It  appears  that  the 
sorghum  plant  originally  grew  wild  throughout  tropical  and  sub- 
tropical regions  of  the  Old  World.  ^  Although  very  extensive 
experiments  have  been  made  under  the  direction  of  the  U.  S. 
Dept.  of  Agriculture,^  especially  in  Kansas,  it  has  not  been  found 
practical  to  use  this  juice  for  the  manufacture  of  sugar.  In  some 
of  the  states  of  the  Middle  West,  Kentucky,  Tennessee,  Missouri, 
Kansas  and  Texas,  sorghum  is  grown  extensively  for  the  manufac- 
ture of  sirup  for  local  use.  During  and  soon  after  the  Civil 
War  this  industry  was  also  carried  on  through  the  Eastern  and 
Middle  Atlantic  States,  on  account  of  the  high  price  of  sugar, 
but  more  recently  it  has  greatly  declined.  In  1879  more  sorghum 
sirup  was  made  in  the  United  States,  viz. :  28,500,000  gallons,  than 
before  or  since.  In  India  sorghum  is  largely  used  for  making 
sugar,  and  mahy  of  its  sugar  products  are  exported. 

Sorghum  sirup  is  easily  made  on  a  small  scale,  as  the  cane  can 
be  grown  as  readily  as  corn  and  is  easily  crushed  in  a  small  mill 
run  by  horse  power.  ^  The  juice  is  evaporated  in  a  series  of  shallow 
pans  which  allow  skimming  in  the  earlier  stages  of  boiling.  The 
addition  of  a  little  lime  to  the  juice,  and  filtering  of  the  decanted 
semi-sirup  are  recommended.  Although  this  sirup  is  wholesome 
and  nutritious,  on  account  of  its  peculiar  flavor  it  is  not  con- 
sidered palatable  by  those  unaccustomed  to  its  use.    It  contains 

^  U.  S.  Dept  Agri.  Farmers*  Bull.  No.  477. 
*  U.  S.  De[>t.  of  Agri.,  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  90,  No.  135. 
Iowa  Agri.  £3cp.  Sta.  Bull.  No.  5 

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about  36  per  cent,  of  sucrose,  and  27  per  cent,  of  reducing  sugar. 
The  yield  of  sorghum  is  50  to  100  gallons  of  sirup  per  acre. 

Commercial  Sirups 

Many  of  the  sirups  on  the  market  are  mixtures  of  various  sac- 
charine products,  and  have  glucose  (p.  1 18)  as  their  base.  This, 
as  has  been  stated,  is  a  colorless  product,  wholesome  enough, 
but  not  so  sweet  as  cane  sugar.  In  making  these  mixed  sirups,  the 
commercial  glucose  is  warmed^  and  into  it  is  stirred  some  maple 
sirup,  brown  sugar,  refiners'  molasses,  cane  sugar  molasses,  or 
sorghum,  as  the  case  may  be.  In  many  states  the  manufacturer  is 
required  to  state  upon  the  label  the  per  cent,  of  each  ingredient 
used.  The  trade  name  used  for  the  arup  must  not  be  misleading 
at  least  in  regard  to  the  source  of  the  product.  The  labels  used  on 
many  of  the  commercial  sirups  are  open  to  the  objection  that  they 
convey  a  false  impression  as  to  the  quality  of  the  product.  Sirups 
labled  "maple  and  cane''  or  "cane  and  maple,"  usually  contain 
only  small  quantities  of  maple.  In  mixtures  of  this  kind  the  most 
abundant  ingredient  should  always  be  placed  first,  and  the  size  of 
tjrpe  used  should  not  be  such  as  to  be  misleading  as  to  which  ingre- 
dient is  most  abundant 

The  chief  excuse  for  using  these  mixed  sirups  is  that  they  are 
cheap.  They  are  liable,  however,  to  contain  an  excess  of  mineral 
impurities  or  bleaching  substance  which  make  them  unwhole- 
some. At  any  rate  they  can  never  compete  either  in  delicacy  of 
flavor,  or  in  wholesomeness,  with  such  .products  as  pure  maple 
sirup,  or  open  pan  cane  sirup.  An  excellent  and  agreeable  pure 
sirup  may  be  made  for  home  consumption  by  dissolving,  by  the 
aid  of  heat,  two  cups  of  granulated  sugar  in  one  cup  of  water.  A 
small  quantity  of  cream  of  tartar  will  prevent  crystallization. 

Adulteration  of  Sugar  and  Sirup 

The  adulterations  to  which  molasses  and  sirup  are  liable  have 
been  already  discussed.    Sugar  is  sold  at  such  a  low  price  that  in 
1  Foods  and  Their  Adulteration,  Wiley,  p.  479. 

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the  United  States,  at  least,  it  is  seldom  adiilterated.  Ultra- 
marine when  added  to  granulated  sugar  (p.  104)  is  considered  an 
adulteration,  as  are  also  the  salts  of  tin,  which  are  indeed  poison- 
ous. It  may  be  permissible  to  add  a  little  starch  (not  over  i  per 
cent.)  to  powdered  sugar,  so  that  it  shall  retain  its  pulverulent 
form  and  not  become  lumpy,  but  the  addition  of  any  mineral  sub- 
stances such  as  chalk,  or  magnesium  for  this  purpose  should  not  be 
permitted.  No  appreciable  quantity  of  sulfites  should  remain  in 
the  sugar  sirups  or  molasses,  as  these  are  injurious  to  health.^ 


Saccharin  (benzoyl-sulphimide)  CeH4.CO.SO2.NH  is  a  white 
crystalline  coal  tar  productj^soluble  in  400  times  its  bulk  of  cold 
water.  When  pure  it  is  550  times  as  sweet  as  cane  sugar.  Sac^ 
charine  was  discovered  by  Dr.  Remsen  and  Dr.  Fahlberg  of 
Johns  Hopkins  University.  In  the  United  States,  its  use  is  not 
allowed  in  foods  or  beverages,  and  its  manufacture  is  forbidden  in 
Germany  and  Italy.  It  is  not  a  sugar,  neither  does  it  possess  any 
nutritive  properties,  and  there  seems  to  be  considerable  probability 
that  if  taken  continuously  into  the  system,  it  would  be  injurious. 
There  is  no  excuse  for  its  use  in  food,  except  that  it  may  be  of  value 
as  a  sweetening  substance  in  the  dietetic  treatment  of  certain 


Rum  is  a  beverage  obtained  by  the  distillation  of  fermented 
sugar  cane  juice  or  molasses.  When  any  dilute  saccharine  liquid 
is  treated  with  yeast  and  allowed  to  stand  in  a  warm  place,  the  sugar 
is  changed  to  alcohol  and  carbon  dioxide,  thus: 

CuHnOn+HaO  =  CH^O.+CeHnO, 
C«Hi,0.= 2C,H*OH+2C02 

Invert  tugar  Alcohol  Carbon 


^  Foods  and  Theii  Adulteration,  Wiley,  p.  480. 

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Sometimes  the  refuse  of  the  sugar  factories  including  the  scum 
from  the  kettles^is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  rum.  In  addition 
to  the  types  of  rum  generally  considered  genuine,  an  imitation 
mm  is  made  from  the  refuse  from  beet-sugar  factories.  A  "mixed 
rum,"  which  is  artificial,  is  made  by  the  "rectifiers,"  by  nuxing 
grain  spirits,  with  some  genuine  rum  perhaps,  and  bringing  up 
the  flavor  by  the  use  of  ethyl  butyrate  and  other  ethers,  "rum 
essence,"  prune  juice,  saffron  extract,  and  oil  of  birch. 

The  characteristic  flavor  of  old  rum  is  due  to  the  presence 
of  ethyl  butyrate,  ethyl  acetate  and  fiu-furol,  which  are  developed 
in  the  process  of  "aging,"  by  storing  for  some  time  in  oaken  casks. 
In  genuine  rum  the  per  cent,  of  absolute  alcohol  is  usually  from  43 
to  50,  although  much  underproof  liquor  is  sold.^    (See  p.  146.) 


There  is  a  continually  increasing  demand  for  confectionery. 
In  the  United  States  it  is  called  "candy,"  and  m  England  it  is 
known  under  the  various  names  of  "sweets,"  "toffey,"  and 
"barley  sugar." 

The  materials  used  in  confectionery  are  so  various  that  there 
is  diflSculty  in  classifying  them,  and  the  food  chemist  finds  that 
no  satisfactory  standards  have  yet  been  made  for  these  products. 
The  basis  of  all  confectionery,  however,  is  cane  sugar  or  glucose, 
and  to  this  is  added  gum-arabic,  flavors,  extracts,  colors,  milk 
products,  fridts,  flowers,  nuts,  gums  and  special  material  such  as 
caramel  and  chocolate.  Starch  is  used  in  molding  confectionery, 
and  is  ako  present  in  small  quantities  in  the  manufactured  prod- 
uct. The  presence  in  candy  of  any  mineral  substance,  injurious 
color  or  flavor,  liquor  or  drug  is  forbidden. 

When  granulated  sugar  costs  $5.00  glucose  can  be  bought  for 
about  $2.10  per  hundred  weight.  Considerable  gum-arabic  and 
gelatin  is  also  used,  especially  in  making  gum  drops.     For  making 

1  Jour.  Ind.  &  Eng.  Ch.  1914,  p.  73. 

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the  best  quality  of  cream  candy  and  bonbons  cane  sugar  only  ,Qan 
be  used. 

Soft  Candy 

To  make  a  soft  candy  about  25  pounds  of  sugar  is  heated  with 

1  gallon  of  water  and  a  tablespoonful  of  cream  of  tartar,  or  a  few 
drops  of  pure  acetic  acid  or  even  lemon  juice  added  to  prevent 
crystallization.  This  mass  is  heated  rapidly,  usually  in  a  copper 
kettle  directly  over  the  fire  until  the  boiling  temperature  reaches 
246°  F.,  when  it  is  poured  on  a  marble  slab,  and  partially  cooled. 
It  is  then  worked  with  suitable  tools  until  it  creams,  an  operation 
quite  similar  in  its  results  to  the  "pulling ''  of  candy.  The  product 
is  known  as  "  fondanf  and  is  used  as  the  basis  for  the  manufacture 
of  cream  chocolates,  and  similar  confections.  It  may  be  warmed 
and  run  into  molds  of  various  shapes  which  have  been  made  in  a 
bed  of  starch.  For  cream  chocolates,  these  lumps  of  molded  fon- 
dant are  dipped  when  cold,  either  by  hand  or  machinery,  in  a  warm 
chocolate  bath. 

Hard  Candy 

For  making  stick  candy  a  mixture  of  9  pounds  of  cane  sugar 
and  2  poimds  of  glucose  may  be  taken  and  heated  rapidly,  with 

2  quarts  of  water,  to  310°  F.  to  330**  F.,  then  poured  on  the  slab 
as  with  soft  candy,  and  the  flavor,  usually  an  essential  oil,  added. 
In  working  the  batch  on  the  slab  the  edges  are  continually  turned 
in  toward  the  center.  After  it  has  been  worked  for  some  time 
it  becomes  somewhat  hard  and  is  thrown  over  a  hook  placed  on  the 
side  wall,  and  "pulled"  until  it  becomes  white.  This  mass  is 
then  warmed  and  suitable  portions  are  taken  to  a  table  and  rolled 
by  hand  to  form  stick  candy.  Probably  more  than  three-quarters 
of  the  stick  candy  is  made  in  factories  by  machinery,  but  the 
general  process  is  as  stated. 

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Barley  Sugar,  Caramel 

"Baxley  sugar"  is  a  favorite  confection  in  Europe,  and  is 
used  in  making  other  "  sweets."  It  is  prq>ared  by  heating  sugar  to 
(160®  C.)  320°  F.,  when  it  melts  to  a  light  brown,  brittle,  trans- 
parent mass,  which  has  a  characteristic  taste  and  is  sometimes 
slightly  bitter.  Caramel,  "burnt  sugar"  or  "black  jack"  is 
prepared  by  a  still  further  heating  of  sugar  to  a  temperature  from 
374°  to  406°  F.  By  this  process  although  the  chemical  composi- 
tion of  the  original  sugar  remains  imchanged,  the  properties  of 
the  product  are  entirely  different.  Another  process  for  making 
caramel  is  to  heat  glucose  between  95°  and  iio**  C,  add  carbonate 
and  chloride  of  anmionium,  raise  the  temperature  to  150^  C.  and 
maintain  that  temperature  for  some  time.  Caramel  is  slightly 
bitter  but  gives  an  agreeable  flavor  to  confectionery.  It  is 
extensively  used  to  give  a  brownish  color  to  food  products  and 
beverages.  When  the  object  is  to  make  the  product  *' appear 
better  than  it  really  is"  this  use  is  that  of  an  adulterant. 

Rock  candy  is  made  by  dissolving  cane  sugar  in  a  limited 
amount  of  water,  and  heating  to  230°  F.  In  this  solution  strings 
are  su^ended  and,  as  the  solution  cools,  the  sugar  crystallizes 
upon  them.  In  order  to  obtain  good  crystals  the  sugar  solution 
must  stand  for  several  days  in  a  warm  room,  where  the  cooling  can 
take  place  but  slowly.  If  flowers  or  fruits  are  suspended  in  the 
sugar  solution  the  product  is  known  as  "crystallized"  flowers  or 

Chewing  Gum 

The  making  of  chewing  gum  has  become  such  an  important 
industry  that  no  less  than  $9,000,000  is  invested  in  the  business 
in  North  America  and  England.  Originally  the  gum  used  was 
that  of  the  spruce,  cherry,  etc.,  but  the  demand  became  so  great 
that  a  gum  known  as  "chicle"  is  now  used  as  the  basis  of  prac- 
tically all  the  chewing  gum  of  commerce.  This  gum  is  made 
9  ,  , 

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from  the  milky  sap  of  the  sapodilla  which  is  a  native  of  tropica] 
America.  The  tree  bears  a  small  fruit  which  has  a  firm,  sweet 
pxilp  with  a  taste  something  like  maple  sirup.  The  gum  is  pro- 
duced especially  in  Mexico,  Central  America  and  Yucatan. 
Incisions  are  skilfxilly  made  in  the  bark,  and  the  juice  obtained 
is  boiled  to  a  proper  consistency  and  molded  into  bricks  for  ex- 
port. K  of  first  quality,  it  is  firm,  nearly  white,  aromatic  and 
nearly  tasteless.  Chewing  gum,  if  prepared  with  care,  is  nearly 
white,  and  free  from  dirt  and  other  foreign  material. 

Adulteration  of  Conf ectioneiy 

The  addition  of  flavoring  and  coloring  substances  to  candy  is 
not  of  course  considered  an  adulteration,  but  care  must  be  exer- 
cised that  they  are  not  of  an  injurious  character.  Vegetable  and 
a  few  animal  colors  are  admitted  to  be  satisfactory,  but  mineral 
colors  are  imiversally  condemned.  There  is  a  large  class  of  so- 
called  coal  tar  or  anilin  colors  that  have  come  into  common  use 
for  coloring  confection«y,  as  they  are  made  in  great  variety  and 
are  extremely  brilliant. 

Eight  of  these,  after  careful  examination  by  the  Department  of 
Agriculture  at  Washington,^  have  been  approved  and  are  known 
as  *' certified  dyes."  Besides  these  seven  there  are  no  doubt 
others  which  are  harmless,  but  as  almost  every  possible  color  can 
be  produced  by  the  proper  blending  of  these,  it  seemed  best  to 
thus  limit  for  the  present  the  number  of  permitted  dyes  in  food 

In  the  use  of  glucose  bleached  by  sulfites  lies  another  danger. 
Although  in  most  cases  the  amount  of  sulfite  introduced  into  candy 
in  this  way  is  small,  there  is  always  the  danger  that  a  large 
amount  of  "bleach"  was  used  on  a  discolored  batch  of  glucose  with 
the  result  that  the  candy-maker  xmwittingly  gets  into  his  finished 
product  an  excessive  amount  of  sulfites.  It  is  stated  that  most  of 
the  glucose  now  appearing  on  the  market  is  not  bleached  by  the 

» U.  S.  F.  I.  D.  No.  76.  Certified  Colon. 

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HONEY  131 

use  of  sulfites.  The  use  in  candy  of  mineral  substances,  poisonous 
colors  or  flavors  or  anything  injurious  is  discouraged  by  all  reput- 
able confectioners.  In  the  United  States  the  sale  of  chocolate  or 
other  confectionery,  coated  with  shellac  or  any  other  inedible 
gum,  is  not  allowed.^ 

In  the  United  States  it  is  estimated  that  over  $80,000,000  per 
year  is  spent  for  confectionery,  and  the  industry  employs  40,000 
persons  at  an  annual  wage  of  $15,000,000,  who  work  up  about 
$45,000,000  worth  of  material.  As  an  illustration  of  the  demand 
for  confectionery,  it  may  be  stated  that  during  the  Spanish  War, 
one  New  York  firm*  shipped  over  50  tons  of  confectionery  to  the 
troops  in  Cuba,  Porto  Rico  and  the  Philippines. 


Honey  is  defined  by  the  Association  of  Official  Agricultural 
Chemists,  and  by  most  food  chemists  as  the  nectar  and  saccharine 
exudations  of  plants,  gathered,  modified  and  stored  in  the  comb 
by  honeybees  (Apis  mellifica  and  Apis  dosata).  The  sap  of  certain 
trees  sometimes  gathered  by  bees,  or  the  product  obtained  by 
feeding  the  bees  sugar  sirup  or  ghicose,  cannot  be  regarded  as  true 
honey.     (See  Farmers'  Bulletin,  No.  653,  191 5.) 


From  the  very  earliest  history  of  our  race,  we  read  of  the  use  of 

"wild  honey"  which  was  stored  as  food  by  the  bees  in  the  crevices 

of  the  rocks,  and  in  hoUow  trees.    On  account  of  its  sweetness  and 

delicate  flavor,  it  was  regarded  as  a  luxury  and  at  the  same  time 

a  delicious  addition  to  the  daily  food.    The  honeybee  is  also  one  of 

the  most  beneficial  of  insects  on  account  of  cross-pollinating  the 

flowers  of  various  economic  plants.    There  are  quite  a  number  of 

instances  on  record  in  which  numbers  of  people  have  been  poisoned  . 

by  eating  honey  which  the  bees  had  gathered  from  poisonous 

»U.  S.  F.  I.  D.  No.  119. 

•  Practical  Dietetics,  Thompson  p.  i.^i. 

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flowers*  Sometimes  this  honey  causes  headache,  nausea,  and 
a  kind  of  intoxication,  but  the  results  of  the  illness  are  seldom 

^As  suflSdent  honey  could  not  be  obtained  from  the  stores  of 
the  wild  bees,  man  soon  learned  to  raise  the  swarms  in  hives,  under 
his  own  control.  The  hives^  are  so  constructed  as  to  afford  the 
bees  protection  against  inclement  weather  and  to  allow  the  removal 
from  time  to  time  of  "frames"  or  boxes  which  the  bees  have  filled 
with  honey.  The  invention  of  the  movable  frame  hive  in  185 1, 
by  L.  L.  Langstroth  of  Philadelphia,  marked  a  great  advance  in 
this  industry.*    These  hives  hold  from  eight  to  ten  frames,  and 

one  of  their  best  features  is  making 
the  spaces  between  frames,  side 
walls  and  supers  accurately  so 
there  is  just  room  for  the  easy 
passage  of  the  bees.  A  comb  foun- 
dation stamped  from  wax  upon 
which  the  bees  start  to  build  their 
combs  is  often  placed  in  each  box. 

Comb  Honey  vs*  Extracted  Honey 

Honey  is  frequently  put  on  the 
market  as  comb  honey,  and  in  this 
form  is  not  liable  to  adulteration, 
but  there  is  also  a  demand  for 
strained  honey.  The  comb  honey 
commands  a  better  price  and  usu- 
ally retains  to  the  greatest  extent 
its^  delicate  flavor.  Extracted  honey  or  strained  honey  is  more 
suitable  for  shipping  long  distances.  The  honey  is  usually  ex- 
tracted by  carefully  cutting  with  a  knife  the  top  of  the  honey  cells 
and  then  spinning  the  honey  out  with  a  centrifugal  machine.  (Fig. 
22.)    The  comb  by  this  method  is  left  in  a  condition  to  be  re- 

Fio.  2 2.— A utomatic  reversible 
honey  extractor.  (By  permission  U.  S. 
Dept.  Agric.) 

» U.  S.  Drat  of  AgrL  Farmers*  Bull.  No.  59. 
^^'  Cyclopedia  of  American  A^culture. 

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HONEY  133 

turned  to  the  hive  for  refilling.  From  broken  fragments  of  comb 
"strained  honey"  is  allowed  to  flow  by  gravity,  and  the  remaining 
fragments  of  comb  are  washed,  melted  and  strained  for  commer- 
cial beeswax.  The  latter  is  bleached  either  artificially  or  by  stm- 
light  to  make  ''white  wax."  Refiners  often  blend  different  kinds 
of  strained  honey  to  obtain  an  agreeable  product. 


Genuine  honey  is  a  mixture  containing  not  more  than  8  per 
cent,  and  usually  not  over  2  per  cent,  of  sucrose  or  crystallizable 
sugar,  and  an  average  of  75  per  cent,  of  the  two  sugars,  levulose 
and  dextrose,  taken  together.^  The  average  amount  of  moisture 
is  about  17  per  cent,  and  the  ash  0.18  per  cent  Whenever  the 
dextrose  is  in  excess  of  the  levulose  the  presence  of  adulterants  is 
to  be  suspected. 

Honey  as  Food 

On  account  of  the  inverted  condition  in  which  most  of  the  sugar 
occurs,  honey  is  generally  regarded  as  a  very  wholesome  food. 
It  is  actually  richer  in  sugar  than  the  "malt  extracts"  recom- 
mended for  invalids;  and  as  the  sugar  is  in  a  form  that  may  be 
readily  assimilated  if  taken  in  moderate  quantities,  it  forms  a 
valuable  addition  to  the  diet. 


The  most  common  adulterants  of  honey  are  cane-sugar  sirup, 
glucose  and  a  product  made  by  the  inversion  of  cane  sugar  by 
acids.  The  presence  of  these  can,  however,  be  detected  by  the 
chemist,  and  since  the  enforcement  of  National  and  State  food 
inspection  laws,  adulterated  strained  honey,  which  was  formerly 
one  of  the  most  common  products  on  the  market,  has  been  almost 
completely  eliminated.  A  method  of  falsification  formerly  prac- 
tised was  to  place  some  honey  comb  and  a  few  dead  bees  in  the 

lU.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Bur.  Chem.  Bull,  no,  p.  52. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


can  of  80-called  honey  in  order  to  convey  the  idea  that  the  prod- 
uct was  genuine.  If  the  honey  is  purchased  in  the  comb  as  capped 
with  wax  by  the  bees,  there  is  little  danger  that  it  is  not  genuine. 
It  is  true  that  bees  may  have  been  fed  on  glucose  or  cane  sugar, 
but  as  they  do  not  thrive  on  this  diet,  the.  practice  is  not  very 

Favorable  Localities 

In  the  United  States,  honey  can  be  produced  almost  anywhere, 
but  in  northern  r^ons  the  winters  are  sometimes  so  severe  that 
the  bees  do  not  survive,  and  in  some  sections  flowers  sdelding 
nectar  are  not  abundant  enough.  The  locality  has  therefore  con> 
siderable  influence  on  the  quaUty  of  the  product.  An  interesting 
illustration  of  this  is  in  the  fact  that  the  Hawaiian  honey  shows  a 
larger  amount  of  common  salt  in  the  ash  Uian  do  other  honeys, 
and  in  the  lower  grades  there  is  so  much  "honey  dew,"  which  is 
gathered  by  the  bees  from  the  exudations  produced  by  various 
scale  insects  and  plant  lice,  that  this  honey  has  sometimes  been 
suspected  as  not  being  genuine. 


The  quality  of  honey  is  much  influenced  by  the  character  of 
the  flowers  visited  by  the  bees;  so  we  have  "buckwheat '*  honey 
which  is  dark  and  has  a  strong  flavor,  "white  clover"  which  has 
the  reputation  for  possessing  a  most  delicate  taste.  The  honey 
made  from  the  flowers  of  the  alfalfa,  mellilotus,  golden  rod,  apple 
tree,  gum  tree  and  basswood  has  in  each  case  a  characteristic 
flavor.  In  Abyssinia  a  peculiar  wine  is  made  by  the  fermentation 
of  honey.  Mead  and  metheglin  are  also  alcoholic  beverages  made 
by  the  fermentation  of  honey. 


In  regard  to  the  production  of  honey  in  the  United  States  the 
statistics  show  that  California  produces  the  largest  amount. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 

HONEY  13s 

Other  important  honey-producing  states  are  New  Hampshire, 
Pennsylvania  and  Ohio.  In  the  Eastern  Hemisphere  the  most 
honey  is  produced  in  the  Mediterranean  region. 

The  average  annual  yield  per  colony  in  the  United  States  is 
25  to  30  pounds  of  ^omb  honey  or  40  to  50  pounds  of  extracted 

*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Fanners*  Bull.  No.  447. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Alcoholic  beverages  may  be  divided  into  two  classes: 

(A)  Fermented  beverages. 

The  fermented  beverages  are  sub-divided  into  two  classes: 

1.  Those  fermented  without  the  addition  of  yeast. 

2.  Those  fermented   with   the  addition  of  yeast  (Malt 


(B)  Distilled  beverages. 


1.  Those  beverages  fermented  without  the  addition  of  yeast 
are  wine,  cider,  perry  and  similar  beverages  made  by  the  fermenta- 
tion of  saccharine  fruit  juices,  and  a  few  beverages  made  by  the 
natural  fermentation  of  starchy  solutions.  Beverages  of  this  class 
are  discussed  each  under  its  appropriate  source.    (See  pp.  263, 233.) 

Malt  Liquors 

2.  Those  beverages  fermented  with  the  addition  of  yeast 
include  ale,  beer,  lager  beer,  porter  and  stout. 


The  manufacture  of  some  fermented  liquors  from  grains  is  of 
very  ancient  origin,  at  least  2,000  years  old.  The  process  was 
known  to  the  ancient  Eg3rptians,  Romans,  Spaniards,  and  Ger- 
mans, and  was  introduced  by  the  latter  into  Great  Britain  and  later 

^Beverages,  both  non-intoxicating  and  intoxicating,  are  classified  under  the 
general  head  of  foods,  and  are  therefore  here  discussed. 

136  Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 

BEER  137 

into  the  United  States.  The  knowledge  of  alcohol  as  a  constituent 
of  wine  or  beer  was  not  known  until  the  time  of  Marcus  Graccus, 
who  wrote  in  the  twelfth  or  thirteenth  century  of  the  distillation 
from  these  beverages,^  of  a  substance  called  ''aqua  ardens." 

The  knowledge  of  a  process  for  making  beer  seems  to  be  nearly 
as  old  as  that  for  making  wine;  but  the  Greeks  and  Romans  re- 
garded beer  as  a  barbarian  drink.  Beverages  brewed  from  such 
cereals  as  rice,  millet,  rye  and  barley  are  common  in  Africa, 
Russia  and  China. 

Chemistiy  of  Beer  Manufacture 

Malt  liquors,  although  primarily  made  from  malt,  or  ''sprouted 
barley,"  may  be  made  from  the  infusion  of  wheat,  rye,  oats,  rice, 
corn  (maize),  with  the  addition  of  other  substances  such  as  beet 
roots,  potatoe%  sugar,  molasses,  glucose,  etc.,  in  fact  all  that  is 
necessary  is  to  have  a  starchy  or  saccharine  substance  capable  of 
fermentation  with  yeast. 

Yeast  (Enzymes) 

Our  knowledge  of  fermentation  was  very  imperfect  until  1857 
when  Pasteur  showed  that  yeast  consisted  of  living  organisms  cap- 
able of  growth  and  multiplication.  In  1897  Buchner*  submitted 
yeast  to  great  pressure  and  isolated  from  it  a  nitrogenous  sub- 
stance, enzymic  in  character,  which  he  called  "zymase."  This 
body  is  formed  continually  in  the  yeast  cell,  and  decomposes  the 
sugar  which  has  diflFused  into  the  cell.  This  yeast  juice  causes 
solutions  of  cane  sugar,  glucose,  levulose  and  maltose  to  ferment 
with  the  production  of  carbon  dioxide  and  alcohol;  but  has  no 
action  on  milk  sugar  and  mannose.  This  enzyme  probably  cannot 
be  produced  except  by  the  action  of  the  living  protoplasm.  This 
seems  to  point  to  the  theory  that  there  are  two  classes  of  ferments 
which  bring  about  the  changes  called  fermentation;  viz.,  soluble 

» Danid,  P.  ScL  Mo.  Vol.  82,  p.  567. 

•  Ber.  d.  D.  chem.  Ges.,  1897.  (^  T 

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unorganized  ferments  like  zymase,  and  insoluble  orgiuiized  fer- 
ments, which  are  minute  vegetable  growths.  Chemical  reagents 
bring  about  reactions  which  are  analogous  to  the  changes  brought 
about  by  the  imorganized  ferments,  as  for  instance,  boiling  with 
dilute  acid  perfectly  imitates  the  hydrolytic  action  of  diastase  on 
starch.*    (See  also  p.  14.) 

Lavoisier  was  the  first  chemist  to  study  fermentation  from  a 
quantitative  standpoint.  Gay-Lussac  first  proposed  in  1815  the 
reaction  with  which  we  are  familiar,  representing  the  chemical 
change  which  takes  place  during  alcoholic  fermentation: 

C6Hi206= 2CO2+2C2H6OH 

Sugar     Carbon  dioxide      Alcohol 

The  most  important  of  the  soluble  unorganized  ferments,  as 
noticed  above,  is  "  diastase."  This  is  formed  from  the  abluminoids 
of  such  cereals  as  barley,  especially  during  the  process  of  germina- 
tion. Its  action  on  the  barley  is  to  change  the  starch  of  the  grain 
to  dextrin,  maltose  and  dextrose.*    Thus: 


Invertase  is  another  soluble  unorganized  ferment  and  is  capable 
of  converting  cane  sugar  or  sucrose  into  invert  sugar,  thus: 

C12H22OU+H2O  =  2C6Hi20« 

This  enzyme  is  contained  in  yeast  and  can  be  readily  extracted 
from  it,  by  filtration  and  precipitation  with  alcohol. 

The  organized  ferments  or  vegetable  growths  are  divided  into 
molds,  yeasts,  and  bacteria.^  The  most  important  fermentation 
industries  are  dependent  mainly  on  the  action  of  yeasts  and 
bacteria.  On  the  phenomena  of  alcoholic  fermentation  are  based 
the  baking,  malt  liquor,  wine,  and  spirit  industries.  On  acetic 
fermentation  depends  the  vinegar  industry  (see  p.  235)  and  the 
cheese  and  other  milk  industries  on  lactic  and  similar  fermenta- 
tions.    (See  p.  414.) 

*  Industrial  Org.  Chem.  Sadtler,  p.  203. 

'  Sadtler,  loc.  cit.  .^  j 

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BEES  139 


In  the  manxif acture  of  malt,  the  important  points  are  to  furnish 
the  best  conditions  under  which  barley  may  germinate,  and  having 
allowed  this  process  to  go  on  long  enough,  to  stop  it  by  drying 
and  heating  in  a  kiln. 

The  grain  is  first  steeped  in  a  cistern  of  water  at  a  temperature 
of  about  60®  F.  from  two  to  three  days,  and  is  then  thrown  out  of 
the  dstem  and  piled  in  a  heap  or  "couch"  upon  the  floor  where 
it  heats  and  the  process  of  germination  begins.  The  temperature 
is  controlled  by  gradually  spreading  the  grain  in  thinner  and 
thinner  layers  on  the  floor,  and  by  frequent  turning  or  ploughing. 
The  grain  remains  on  the  floor  for  ten  or  twelve  days  or  until  the 
rootlets  have  started,  and  the  germ  has  grown  to  be  about  two- 
thirds  the  length  of  the  grain.  By  this  process  the  starch  of  the 
grain  is  changed  to  soluble  maltose,  dextrin,  etc.  In  order  to 
remove  carbon  dioxide,  which  is  given  off  during  germination, 
a  pneumatic  process  in  which  cold,  moist  air  is  blown  upward 
through  the  heaps  of  grain  lying  on  a  perforated  floor  is  some- 
times used. 


In  the  drying  process  the  moist  malt  is  heated  first  at  a  lower 
temperature  and  finally  at  a  higher  temperature  sometimes  up  to 
180''  F.  The  terms  "pale,"  "yellow,"  "amber"  and  "brown" 
are  applied  to  different  varieties  of  malt,  the  color  being  depend- 
ent on  the  temperature  used  in  the  kiln,  and  the  way  the  heat  is 
applied.  Chemical  changes  continue  to  take  place  in  the  first 
part  of  the  drying  process.  This  drying  requires  three  or  four 
days,  then  before  it  is  stored  the  germs  and  rootlets  are  sifted 
from  the  dried  malt. 


The  malt  is  coarsely  ground  and  heated  with  water  to  extract 
the  maltose  and  dextrin  of  the  malt  and  to  allow  the  diastase  of 

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the  grain  to  act  still  further  on  the  starch  in  order  to  change  it  to 
maltrose  and  dextrin,  and  at  the  same  time  to  allow  the  peptose  to 
act  upon  the  proteins  and  form  peptones.  The  extract  thus 
obtained  is  known  as  the  "wort."  There  are  numerous  malt  sub- 
stitutes, which  are  often  introduced  into  the  "wort"  These 
include  corn,  rice,  rye,  oats,  barley  (unmalted)  and  glucos6.^ 
There  is  sufficient  diastase  in  the  malt  to  change  to  sugar  consider- 
ably more  starch  than  contained  in  the  malt  itself,  and  for  this 
reason  these  malt  substitutes  can  be  used.  The  amount  should  not 
be  over  30  per  cent.  In  some  countries,  as  Bavaria,  the  use  of 
malt  substitutes  is  prohibited  by  law. 

Boiling  the  Wort 

The  extract,  as  obtained  by  the  methods  mentioned  in  the 
previous  paragraph,  is  drained  from  the  residue  and  run  into  a  cop- 
per boiler,  where  it  is  boiled  with  hops,  in  the  proportion  of  from 
one  to  three  parts  of  hops  per  hundred  of  malt.  This  process  con- 
centrates the  wort,  extracts  the  flavor  of  the  hops,  causes  the 
unchanged  starch  to  separate  out,  and  sterilizes  the  product  so 
that  it  will  keep  better.  After  boiling,  the  wort  is  cooled  as  rapidly 
as  possible.  Hops  which  are  the  cones  or  strobiles  of  the 
huntulus  lapatus  contain  4  per  cent,  of  tannin,  i  to  J  per  cent, 
of  a  fragrant  volatile  oil  of  alkioid  called  lupulin,  a  bitter  prin- 
ciple, and  a  large  amount  of  resin.  They  are  extensively 
grown  in  southern  England,  Germany,  Belgium,  and  in  Califor- 
nia, Oregon,  Washington  .and  North  Dakota. 


There  are  two  methods  of  fermentation  in  common  use:  the 
"top  fermentation"  and  the  "bottom  fermentation."  In  the 
first  of  these  the  process  takes  place  more  rapidly  and  at  a  higher 
temperature.  In  the  sjecond  (which  is  followed  especially  in 
Germany,  Austria  and  in  the  United  States  for  lager  beer),  the  fer- 

1  Glucose,  sugar  and  bodies  of  this  class  are  added  just  before  adding  yea^t. 

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mentation  goes  on  more  slowly,  and  the  beer  usually  has  better 
keeping  qualities.  To  bring  about  the  fermentation,  yeast  is 
added  in  the  proportion  of  one-half  to  three-fourths  of  a  gallon 
to  loo  gallons  of  wort,  and  the  liquid  is  allowed  to  ferment  for 
perhaps  eight  days,  and  is  then  drawn  off  into  casks,  stored  in 
cave  cellars  where  the  after-fermentation  takes  place.  After 
standing  a  sufficient  time  it  is  cleared  by  the  use  of  a  little  isin- 
glass, and  a  small  proportion  of  a  freshly  fermenting  beer  is  added 
to  it  to  give  it  a  "head,"  before  it  is  placed  on  the  market. 

The  following  analyses  give  a  general  idea  of  the  composition 
of  ordinary  malt  liquors: 















Weiss  beer* 

Porter* ...   


Average    26    samples 

Am.  malt  liq 

Munich  Hofbrau . . . . . . 

Pilsener *. 

Munich  bock  beer 

91. II 







1. 81 


1. 81 




Varieties  of  Beer 

Berlin  weiss-beer  is  brewed  from  malted  wheat,  and  some 
malted  barley.  English  ale  is  brewed  by  surface  fermenta- 
tion, while  porter  is  a  dark  liquor  made  from  brown  and  black  malt, 
and  is  high  in  alcohol.    Stout  is  stronger  than  porter,  and  con- 

^  K5nig  Ch.  d.  men.  Nah.  u  Genussmittel,  pp  806-851. 

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tains  more  extractives  and  6  to  7  per  cent,  of  alcohol.  The 
German  lager  beer  is  made  by  the  bottom  fermentation  process, 
and  is  brewed  in  winter  for  use  in  the  summer.  Bock  beer  is  a 
stronger  lager  beer,  and  is  brewed  especially  in  the  spring.  The 
term  "lager  beer"  (from  the  German  "lager,'*  a  storehouse)  was 
originally  applied  to  those  beers  which  were  made  in  the  winter 
and  stored  in  a  cool  place  for  consumption  the  following  summer. 
Much  of  the  so-called  "lager"  in  use  in  the  United  States  is  a 
"present  use"  beer,  in  which  fermentation  is  still  active. 

In  some  localities  where  prohibition  laws  prevail,  an  endless 
variety  of  so-called  "near  beers"  are  on  the  market.  The  label 
has  very  little  to  do  with  describing  the  contents  of  the  bottles. 
The  amount  of  alcohol  varies  from  a  trace  to  over  2  per  cent.  The 
U.  S.  Revenue  Department  has  ruled  that  any  beverage  containing 
more  than  0.50  per  cent,  is  subject  to  a  revenue  tax.  Some  of 
these  beverages  have  most  of  the  characteristics  of  beer,  except  that 
the  alcohol  has  been  finally  removed  by  steaming. 

Action  of  Beer  on  the  System 

Aside  from  the  direct  action  on  the  system  of  the  alcoho 
(see  p.  150)  the  hop  extract  in  beer  causes  it  to  induce  drowsiness, 
and^it  also  acts  as  a  tonic  in  some  cases.  It  produces  biliousness 
in  persons  of  weak  digestion,  and  has  a  tendency  to  act  as  a  fat 
producer,  and  if  used  in  excess  to  produce  obesity  and  to  greatly 
distend  the  stomach. 

On  account  of  the  extractives  present,  beer  contains  more 
nourishment  than  any  other  alcoholic  beverage.  It  does  not  fol- 
low from  this  however  that  the  beer  is  to  be  recommended  as  an 
economical  food,  for,  as  we  have  seen,  alcohol  is  to  be  regarded  as  a 
food  of  only  limited  value.^ 

Adulteration  of  Malt  Liquors 

Aside  from  the  substitution  of  other  grains  and  saccharine 
materials  for  barley,  the  adulterations  of  beer  are  not  very 
*  Food  and  Dietetics,  Hutchinson,  p  354. 

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numerous.  Other  bitter  principles  such  as  quassia  and  gentian 
which  are  cheaper  than  hops  have  been  used;  but  poisonous  or 
injurious  bittgr  substances  are  very  rarely  found  in  beer.  Pre- 
servatives, such  as  salicylic  acid  and  sulfites,  and  caramel  as  a 
coloring  material  are  sometimes  present. 


The  amount  of  beer  used  per  capita  in  1905  in  three  leading 
countries  is  reported  as  follows: 


German  Empire 26.3 

United  States 19.9 

United  Kingdom 27.9 

(Grain  Alcohol) 

The  common  distilled  liquors  are  whiskey,  rum,  gin  and 
brandy.  (See  p.  145,  147.)  Besides  these  there  are  numerous 
other  products  obtained  in  different  countries  by  fermentation 
and  subsequent  distillation  of  dilute  saccharine  liquids,  or  by  the 
distillation  of  fermented  starchy  materials. 

Materials  Used 

The  raw  materials  used  in  the  manufacture  of  alcohol  and 
distilled  liquors  are  of  three  classes:  (i)  weak  alcoholic  solutions 
as  wine  and  cider,  which  by  distillation  yield  a  more  concentrated 
alcoholic  beverage,  which  frequently  has  especially  on  standing  for 
some  time  an  improved  flavor;  (2)  sugar>bearing  material,  such 
as  molasses,  raw  sugar,  sugar  factory  by-products,  sugar  beets 
and  beet  molasses  and  the  sweet  juice  of  various  fruits;  (3) 
starchy  materials  such  as  corn,  rye,  rice,  barley  and  potatoes. 
These  latter  are  the  cheapest  source  for  the  manufacture  of 

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Manufacture  of  Alcohol 

The  raw  and  malted  grain,  previously  ground,  is  agitated  for 
several  hours  in  a  mash  tub  with  water,  heated  to  150®  F.,^  in 
order  to  convert  all  the  starch  (by  the  action  of  the  diastase  of 
the  malt)  into  maltose.  A  second  "wort,"  which  is  added  to  the 
first,  is  made  after  drawing  oflf  the  liquor  from  the  "mash."  In 
Germany  where  potatoes  are  largely  used,  they  are  steamed  under 
a  pressure  of  two  or  three  atmospheres,  before  being  treated  with 
malt  to  change  the  starch  to  sugar.  In  any  case  the  chemical 
reaction  is  represented  thus: 


Starch  Sugar 

The  next  step  is  ihe  fermentation  of  the  ^^wort"  The  wort, 
as  prepared  by  the  previous  process,  is  cooled  and  treated  with 
"surface"  yeast  as  it  is  called,  in  the  proportion  of  8  or  10  Uters 
of  brewer's  yeast  to  1000  liters  of  griEun  mash,  at  a  temperature  of 
about  92®  F.,  and  the  process  is  completed  in  from  three  to  nine 
days.  If  the  fermentation  takes  place  at  a  considerably  higher 
temperature,  some  lactic  acid  is  developed,  and  this  js  then 
known  as  the  "sour  mash"  process.  The  chemical  reaction 
illustrating  the  change  that  takes  place  during  the  fermentation 
of  the  wort  is: 

C«Hi,0«= 2C,H,OH+2C02 

Sugar  Alcohol  Carbon 

dioxide  gat 

The  next  stage  'is  the  distillation  of  the  fermented  wort.  This 
operation  requires  much  skill  and  an  elaborate  system  of  boilers 
and  condensers — the  object  being  to  free  the  alcohol  as  far  as 
practicable  from  water,  and  to  carry  over  with  the  alcohol  as  few 
impurities  as  possible.  The  distillate  from  the  fermented  mash  is 
not  strong  enough  for  commercial  purposes,  it  must  therefore  be 
further  rectified  and  purified.  These  first  distillates  or  spirits  are 
often  called  "low  wines."  If  the  alcohol  is  obtained  from  potatoes, 
^  Sadtler  Industrial  Organic  Chemistry,  p.  241,  ,  , 

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special  precautions  are  taken  to  separate  out  the  "fusel  oil" 
before  the  second  distillation,  by  filtering  the  dilute  alcohol 
through  wood  charcoal,  or  by  shaking  with  petroleum  oils. 

Standards  for  Alcoholic  Liquors 

The  result  of  the  final  distillation  is  an  alcohol  known  as 
"rectified"  alcohol  of  the  British  Pharmacopoeia,  containing  90 
per  cent,  by  volume  of  absolute  alcohol  and  having  a  specific 
gravity  of  0.834;  or  by  the  U.  S.  Pharmacopoeia  alcohol  is  defined 
as  a  spirit  containing  94.9  per  cent,  of  absolute  alcohol  by  volume 
and  having  a  specific  gravity  of  0.816  at  60°  F.  "Proof  spirit,"  as 
the  term  is  used  in  the  United  States  by  the  Internal  Revenue 
Service,  must  contain  50  per  cent,  by  volume  of  absolute  alcohol, 
having  a  specific  gravity  of  o .  7939  at  60®  F.  This  proof  spirit  has 
a  specific  gravity  of  0.9335  at  60**  F.  Liquors  having  a  greater 
alcoholic  strength  are  "  above  proof  "  and  those  less, "  below  proof." 

There  is  a  strong  tendency  for  alcohol  to  unite  with  water,  so 
that  it  is  difficult  to  prepare  an  absolutely  water-free  alcohol. 
When  we  mix  together  53.9  volumes  of  alcohol  and  49.8  volumes 
of  water  the  temperature  of  the  mixture  rises,  as  if  a  chemical 
reaction  took  place,  and  after  the  mixture  has  cooled,  instead  of 
there  being  the  sum  of  the  amounts  of  liquids  used,  viz.,  103.7 
parts,  only  100  parts  are  present,  hence  a  kind  of  condensation  has 


This  liquor,  if  genuine,  is  made  from  the  fermentation  and  dis- 
tillations of  the  wort  of  corn  (maize)  rye,  and  barley.  Scotch  and 
Irish  whiskeys  are  made  from  malted  barley — mixed  with  other 
grains.  The  flavor  of  Scotch  whiskey  is  due  to  the  use  of  malt 
dried  over  a  peat  fire.  Kentucky  Bourbon  whiskey  is  made  by 
the  use  of  partially  malted  corn  and  rye,  while  the  Monongahela 
whiskey  of  western  Pennsylvania  is  made  by  the  use  of  rye  with 
10  per  cent.  malt.    Irish  "poteen"  whiskey  has  a  similar  " 

'^  Digitized  by  LjOOgle 


obtained  by  the  addition  of  one  or  two  drops  of  creosote  p^r  gallon 
of  whiskey. 

Grain  whiskey  is  made  from  the  unmalted  grains,  which  are 
ground  into  meal.  An  opportunity  is  afforded  in  this  product  to 
introduce  into  the  mash  almost  any  starchy  or  saccharine  sub- 
stance such  as  molasses,  glucose,  potatoes,  turnips,  beet  roots, 
etc.  Much  of  the  whiskey  on  the  market  is  compounded  from 
"grain  spirit,"  (alcohol)  mixed  with  a  small  per  cent,  perhaps  of 
genuine  whiskey,  and  flavored  and  colored  to  suit  the  trade. 

A  freshly  distilled  whiskey  is  called  raw  whiskey,  and  is  not 
considered  fit  to  drink.  When  put  away  in  barrels  for  some  time 
various  chemical  changes  take  place,  the  higher  alcohols  being 
converted  into  aldehydes  and  ethers,  whereby  the  flavor  and  aroma 
are  much  improved.  The  color  of  genuine  whiskey  is  partly  due 
to  the  material  from  which  it  is  made,  and  partly  to  the  wood  in 
which  it  is  stored.  Many  processes  have  been  devised  for  the 
purpose  of  "aging"  whiskey  artificiaHy  in  a  short  time,  for  when  it 
is  aged  by  storage,  from  five  to  eight  years  are  required  to  produce 
a  satisfactory  flavor. 

"Moonshine"  whiskey  is  a  product  made  in  the  mountainous 
sections  of  the  United  States  from  corn,  rye  or  potatoes  by  the  most 
crude  methods  and  without  the  supervision  of  the  Internal 
Revenue  Department  of  the  Government.  As  the  revenue  tax 
is  $1.08  per  "proof"  gallon  on  the  alcohol  made,  as  well  as  a  tax 
on  the  still,  the  temptation  to  evade  the  law  is  great. 


Rum,  if  genuine,  is  a  spirit  made  from  the  fermentation  and 
distillation  of  sugar  cane  molasses,  especially  in  the  West  Indies 
and  Medford,  Mass.  New  rum,  which  has  a  harsh,  disagreeable 
odor  and  contains  furfural  and  other  impurities,  is  purified  by 
treatment  with  charcoal  and  lime.  Its  characteristic  flavor  is  due 
to  the  presence  of  butyric  ether.  Besides  the  genuine  Jamaica 
rum  and  Demarara  rum,  there  are  numerous  imitations  and 

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mixed  rums  on  the  n^arket,  which  are  made  from  grain  spirit 
flavored  with  butyric  ether,  and  colored  with  burnt  sugar.  (See 
p.  126.) 


This  liquor  is  made  by  distilling  grain  spirit  with  juniper 
berries.  "Hollands/'  or  ** Schiedam  Schnapps,"  is  a  well-known 
variety  distilled  in  Schiedum,  Holland.  "Old  Tom"  is  a  kind  of 
gin  made  in  London  by  sweetening  with  cane  sugar  sirup;  Irish 
gin  contains  various  narcotic  and  flavoring  substances.  Much  of 
the  gin  sold  in  saloons  and  resturants  is  simply  grain  spirit  com- 
bined with  oil  of.  juniper,  turpentine,  and  various  flavoring 
extracts.  Gin  is  a  colorless  liquor,  and  is  supposed  to  have  a  med- 
icinal value  due  to  the  essential  oils  and  aromatic  principles  which 
it  contains. 


These  alcoholic  beverages  are  made  from  alcohol,  sweetened 
and  flavored  with  various  aromatic  herbs,  essences,  and  extracts 
and  often  colored  red,  blue,  yellow  or  green  with  vegetable  colors.. 
Sometimes  the  herbs  or  fruits  are  distilled  with  brandy  and  grain 

Some  of  the  best-known  beverages  of  this  class  are: 

"Absinth,"  which  is  a  popular  beverage  in  France,  and  is 
prepared  from  spirit,  flavored  with  wormwood,  Angelica  root, 
calamus,  and  other  aromatics,  and  colored  green  by  the  maceration 
of  the  green  leaves  of  wormwood,  hyssop,  and  mint.  It  was 
introduced  into  the  French  army  during  the  Algerian  War,  1844-7, 
and  on  the  retxirn  of  the  army  became  a  popular  beverage  in 
Ffance.  Much  of  the  absinth  is  made  in  France  and  Switzer- 
land. The  effects  of  excessive  absinthe  drinking  are  believed  to 
be  much  worse,  on  account  of  the  nervous  symptoms  induced,  than 
those  produced  by  overindulgence  in  other  alcoholic  beverages.  It 
is  not  allowed  to  be  imported  nor  in  interstate  commerce  in  the 
United  States.^ 

1 F.  I.  D.,  No.  147. 

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"Anisette  of  Bordeaux'*  is  a  liqueuy  made  in  the  soutli  of 

"Benedictine"  is  a  liqueur  originally  made  at  F6camp  in 
northern  France  as  early  as  15 10  by  the  Benedictine  Monks  of 
the  Abb6y.  It  is  a  strong  alcohol,  flavored  with  various  essen- 
tial oils  and  herbes,  however,  the  exact  constituents^  are  a  trade 

"  Chartreuse"  is  made  at  the  Carthusian  Abb6y  near  Grenoble, 
France,  and  also  near  Florence.  Its  manufacture  furnishes  a  con- 
siderable revenue  to  the  monks  of  these  establishments.  This 
liqueur  is  made  from  alcohol  distilled  with  Angelica,  hyssop,  nut- 
meg, peppermint,  etc.,  and  heavily  sweetened.  Volatile  oils 
and  essences  are  at  present  largely  used  in  its  manufacture  in- 
stead of  the  herbs  and  spices. 

"  Crfime  de  Menthe,"  if  genuine,  is  a  liqueur  made  by  dis- 
tilling a  fermented  decoction  of  mint,  sage,  balm,  cinnamon, 
orris,  and  ginger,  sweetened  with  sugar  and  colored  with  chloro- 
phyl.  Much  of  this  product  now  on  the  market  is  simply  a  tinc- 
ture of  the  congtituents,  sweetened  and  colored  with  aniline 

"Curasao"  is  somewhat  simpler  than  most  beverages  of  this 
class.  It  is  made  chiefly  in  Holland;  from  the  dried  peel  of  the 
Curasao  (Dutch  West  Indies)  bitter  oranges.  The  peel  is 
macerated  and  distilled  with  spirit,  and  sometimes  flavored 
with  a  small  quantity  of  Jamaica  rum. 

"Kiimmel,"  although  originally  made  from  a  fermented  in- 
fusion of  cumin  and  coriander  seeds,  sweetened  with  sugar,  is 
now  made  with  brandy,  flavored  and  sweetened.^ 

"Maraschino,"  when  genuine,  is  made  from  small,  sour 
Dalmatian  cherries  (Marasca)  crushed  with  the  pits,  mixed  with 
honey,  fermented,  and  distilled.  The  imitation  is  often  made  by 
the  use  of  crushed  wild  cherries,  peach  pits,  cherry  leaves,  orris 
root,  etc.,  macerated  with  alcohol. 

"Ratafia"  is  a  general  term  applied  to  a  variety  of  liqueurs 

*  Tibbies,  loc.  cit. 

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and  cordials  made  in  the  south  of  France  from  fruits,  spices,  and 
herbs,  fermented,  distilled,  and  subsequently  sweetened. 

"Usquebaugh"  is  a  highly  alcoholic  cordial  made  in  Ireland 
from  whiskey  and  other  ingredients. 

"Vermouth"  is  made  in  France  and  in  Turin,  Italy,  from  a 
white  wine  which  is  "fortified"  and  flavored  with  various  ex- 
tracts and  then  exposed  in  casks  for  some  time  to  the  direct  rays 
of  the  sun. 


Sp.  grav. 

Per  cent. 

Ale.  by  vol.  j     Extract     1  Cane  sugar 

Alcohol j    0.816 

Whiskey  (Scotch) ! 

Whiskey  (Irish) 




Brandy ;    0.8987 

Cider-brandy | 

Cherry-brandy  (Kirschwasser). 

Arrack 0.9158 

Absinth 0.9116 

Anisette i  .0847 

Benedictine i  .0709 

Chartreuse I  t.  0799 

Cr6me  de  Menthe i  0447 

Curacao . . 
Kttmmel . . 
Vermouth . 



SO  3 

51. 4 

69. 5 




SS- 00 
33  9 






32. S7 
34. 35 

Mescal  is  the  name  of  a  distilled  beverage  made  by  the  Apache 
Indians  of  New  Mexico,  and  other  natives  in  this  vicinity,  from 
a  species  of  cactus  (Maguey)  having  heavy  succulent  leaves  and 
turnip  like  roots.  After  roasting,  the  product  is  "pulped" 
between  rocks-  and  the  juice  which  exudes  is  allowed  to  ferment. 
This  is  the  "lager  beer"  of  Mexico,  and  is  known  as  "pulque."    It 

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is  held  that  the  mjurious  effects  of  this  beverage  are  not  so  much 
dud  to  the  alcohol  contained  as  to  the  other  products  of  fermen- 
tation, expecially  those  of  butyric  fermentation,  and  to  the  yeasts, 
molds,  etc.,  which  are  present.  This  beverage  is  fermented  in  the 
skins  of  hogs  and  cows,  and  is  sold  from  these  receptacles.  It  is 
a  white  thickish  fluid,  the  taste  for  which  must  be  acquired. 
Mescal-brandy  is  made  by  the  distillation  of  this  beverage. 

Chica  is  the  name  of  a  beverage  made  by  the  Indians  of  Peru, 
and  other  South  American  countries,  from  the  fermentation  of 
corn  (maize).  A  bunch  of  wheat  or  barley  or  a  wreath  of  flowers 
tied  to  a  pole  in  front  of  a  hut  indicates  that  this  beverage  is  for 
sale  within.  They  also  make  a  very  strong  white  rum  called 
''aguardiente^*  by  the  distillation.of  fermented  cane  juice.^ 

Physiological  Action  of  Alcohol 

Since  from  the  very  earliest  times  alcoholic  beverages  have 
been  used  to  excess,  the  physiological,  medicinal  and  nutritive 
effects  of  alcohol  have  been  very  widely  studied.  The  use  of 
alcohol  as  a  stimulant,  as  in  medicine,  it  is  not  our  province  to 
discuss.  For  the  reason  that  it  is  assumed  to  have  nutritive 
qualities,  its  value  in  foods,  or  as  a  substitute  for  them,  is  of  im- 
portance. Some  beverages,  such  as  wine  and  beer,  have  a  slight 
food  value  from  the  sugar,  or  malted  starch  product,  which  they 
contain,  but  the  distilled  liquors  have  no  such  value. 

In  some  of  the  more  recent  work  carried  on  in  the  respiration 
calorimeter  with  a  view  of  ascertaining  whether  alcohol  acts  as  a 
food*  a  certain  quantity  of  alcohol  was  given  as  a  substitute  for  a 
calorimetrically  equivalent  quantity  of  sugar  and  starch.  It  was' 
shown  that  the  quantity  of  heat  produced  was  identical,  whether 
the  subject  used  alcohol  or  its  equivalent  in  sugar  or  starch  in  his 
diet.  The  influence  of  alcohol  on  work  was  also  studied  by  con- 
verting the  work  performed  into  heat,  and  the  amount  of  heat  was 
the  same,  whether  alcohol  was  substituted  or  not.    Other  experi- 

*  Nat.  Geog.  Mag.,  Vol.  24,  p.  568. 

« U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  f.  Ex.  Sfa.  Bull.  No.  69. 

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ments  showed  that  the  body  tissues  were'slightly  more  used  up 
with  alcohol  than  with  sugar.  ^ 

.  Although  alcohol  can,  in  some  respects,  be  called  a  food,  yet  it 
is  not  a  food  of  any  practical  importance,  for  it  can  merely  replace 
a  certain  amount  of  fat,  and  perhaps  of  carbohydrates  in  the  body, 
while  its  secondary  effect  on  the  nervous  and  vascular  systems 
counteracts  to  a  large  extent  the  benefits  derived  from  the  produc- 
tion of  heat  and  energy  by  its  oxidation. 

^  Hutchinson,  Food  and  Dietetics. 

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Next  in  importance  to  the  cereals  as  a  source  of  carbohydrates 
in  our  food,  stand  the  vegetables.  This  term  is  often  used  to  cover 
the  large  class  of  foods  not  cereals,  that  contain  considerable 
starch  and  occasionally  a  little  sugar.  Here  are  included  those 
very  important  plants  which  store  starch  for  the  nourishment 
of  the  growing  shoot  in  their  roots,  tubers  or  underground  stems; 
also  those  having  young  stalks  that  are  used  as  food,  and  finally 
the  leaves  which,  served  either  cooked  or  raw,  add  variety  to  the 

Wherever  on  the  surface  of  the  globe  edible  roots,  tubers 
and  cereals  can  be  cultivated,  there  man  has  settled  and  improved 
the  land.  More  arid  or  frigid  sections  are  frequented  by  wild 
animals,  and  man  is  still  obliged  to  live  by  fishing  and  hunting. 
Both  North  and  South  America  afforded  a  good  climate  for  the 
growth  of  the  potato,  the  yam  and  the  cassava,  and  the  ease  with 
which  these  starchy  foods  could  be  cultivated,  exerted  no  doubt  a 
considerable  influence  on  the  rapid  settlement  of  these  lands  by 
European  immigrants. 


Vegetables  in  a  fresh  state  contain  from  70  to  95  per  cent,  of 
water,  so  there  is  not  a  very  large  marign  for  nutrients.  For  the 
sake  of  comparison  the  following  table^  of  the  amount  of  water  in 
raw  and  in  cooked  vegetables  is  given: 

The  carbohydrates  present  in  vegetables  consist  largely  of 
starch  with  a  small  amount  of  sugar.  The  proteins  are  not  abun- 
dant except  in  the  legumes  mentioned  elsewhere.  A  considerable 
*  Jour.  Chem.  Soc,  VoL  61,  p.  227. 

'S^  Digitized  by  Google 







Scarlet  runners 











Vegetable  marrow . . . 

Spanish  onions 


Jerusalem  artichokes 
Haricot  beans ....... 

Sea  kale 

Turnips *. 


Green  peas... 

Broad  beans , 







97. 45 













93  3 












73  62 











amount  of  the  protein  present  in  vegetables  is  not  available  as  food 
material,  as  some  of  it  is  in  the  form  of  extractives  and  the  value 
of  the  amides  is  till  questioned.  Fat  is  present  only  in  small 

Nutritive  Value 

Although  the  nutritive  substances  are  not  abundant  in 
vegetables,  they  play  an  important  part  in  the  nourishment  of 
the  body.  This  is  due  to  the  attractive  flavor  of  many  vegetables, 
to  their  freshness  and  the  variety  which  they  add  to  the  dietary, 
and  parhaps,  as  one  author  has  suggested,  to  the  ionized  condition 

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of  the  solution  of  the  mineral  salts  contained  in  them;  a  condition 
in  which  they  would  be  ready  to  take  part  in  chemical  reactions. 
When  the  water  is  evaporated  from  vegetables,  as  from  potatoes 
for  instance,  so  as  to  diminish  the  bulk,  and  concentrate  the  nutri- 
tive substances,  the  dried  product,  when  moistened  with  water  for 
use,  does  not  seem  to  have  the  same  flavor  as  does  the  fresh 

Many  vegetables,  especially  the  roots  and  tubers  such  as 
potatoes,  beets,  turnips  and  carrots,  and  some  of  the  more  succu- 
lent plants  like  the  cabbage,  may  be  stored  in  the  cellar  for 
winter  use  while  asparagus,  rhubarb,  and  spinach  are  preserved  by 

POTATOES  (Solanum  tuberosum) 

The  potato  is  a  member  of  the  Solanum  or  Nightshade  family 
to  which  belong  tobacco,  henbane  and  belladonna,  as  well  as  the 
tomato,  Jerusalem  cherry  and  egg  plant. 

As  a  source  of  starch,  the  potato  stands  next  to  corn  in  the 
United  States,  and  above  it  in  Europe.  As  a  vegetable  it  is  above 
the  average  in  nutritive  value,  and  is  deservedly  most  popular. 
The  extensive  use  that  is  made  of  the  potato  is  shown  by  the  fact 
of  its  increasing  production.  In  the  United  States  in  191 1  over 
292,000,000  bushels  of  potatoes  were  raised.  This  is  in  quantity 
far  ahead  of  any  other  vegetable  produced.  Although  the  potato 
contains  less  than  25  per  cent,  of  nutritive  material  there  are  many 
other  considerations  which  make  it  an  extremely  valuable  food. 


The  potato  is  a  native  of  Chili,  Peru  and  Mexico.  It  is  a 
"much  traveled"  tuber,  as  it  was  probably  taken  from  Peru  to 
Spain  early  in  the  sixteenth  century,  and  to  Florida  and  Virginia 
by  the  Spanish  explorers,  then  to  Great  Britain  from  Virginia 
about  1565.  The  wild  plant  is  still  found  in  South  America,  but 
with  a  less  developed  tuber.  It  was  cultivated  in  Europe,  and 
in  1663  recommended  by  the  Royal  Society  of  London,  on  account 

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of  its  great  yield,  for  introduction  into  Ireland  as  a  safeguard 
against  famine.  This,  however,  proved  to  be  a  false  hope,  as 
later  too  much  reliance  was  placed  in  the  potato  by  the  Irish, 
and  when  a  potato  disease  made  the  crop  a  failure  in  1846  great 
suffering  resulted. 

For  many  years  the  potato  was  extensively  cultivated  in  Vir- 
ginia, but  was  only  introduced  into  New  England  when  carried 
there  from  Ireland  in  the  eighteenth  century.  As  late  as  1771 
it  was  regarded  in  England  as  valuable  only  as  food  for  stock. 


The  potato  is  really  a  modified  stem,  which  is  thickened  to 
serve  as  a  receptacle  for  the  starch  needed  for  the  propagation 
of  the  young  plant.  By  making  a  cross  section,  it -will  be  seen 
that  the  potato  consists  of  four  portions  as  follows:  First  the 
skin;  second  the  cortex;  third  the  fibro-vascular  layer;  fourth  the 
flesh,  which  is  made  up  of  two  medullary  layers. 

In  the  cortex  layer,  which  constitutes  but  8.5  per  cent;  of  the 
weight,  is  found  nearly  all  the  coloring  matter  of  the  potato. 
This  is  the  part  which  turns  green  and  acquires  a  bitter  taste  when 
the  tubers  are  exposed  to  sunlight.  This  is  the  portion  usually 
removed  when  potatoes  are  peeled,  and  as  it  is  richer  in  protein  and 
mineral  salts  than  the  other  portions  of  the  potato,  the  parings 
should  be  thin.  The  fibro-vascular  layer  contains  some  woody 
tissue,  but  this  is  much  less  abundant  than  in  our  other  vegetables. 
The  reason  for  this  is  that  the  potato  is  a  side  branch,  and  not  on 
the  direct  line  between  the  root  and  the  leaves,  so  there  is  little 
development  of  woody  tissue. 


Potatoes  are  propagated  from  the  eyes  of  the  tubers,  as  the 
seeds  cannot  be  depended  on  to  produce  the  same  variety  as  the 
parent  plant.    They  can  be  planted  quite  early,  but  the  sprouts 

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should  not  be  much  above  the  ground  while  there  is  danga*  from 
frost.  They  grow  best  in  a  loose,  somewhat  sandy  soil  and  do  not 
thrive  in  a  hard,  clayey  soil. 


Although  well  adapted  for  storage  and  transportation,  it  is 
important  to  remember  that  potatoes  will  not  keep  well  in  a  warm 
place,  or  where  there  is  much  light.  They  are  best  stored  in  a 
cave  cellar  where  the  temperature  does  not  go  below  35^  F., 
or  in  piles,  or  pits  out  of  doors,  covered  with  straw,  earth  and 
manure.  The  loss  in  weight  by  storage  during  the  winter  is  about 
II  per  cent.,  and  is  mostly  due  to  the  evaporation  of  water. 
The  enzymes  of  the  cells  will  during  this  time  induce  marked 
changes,  as  the  sugar  is  broken  down  and  carbon  dioxide  and  water 
are  given  off.  Some  of  the  insoluble  starch  is  also  changed  to 
dextrin  and  other  substances,  so  the  flavor  is  decidedly  different 
as  spring  approaches.  Potatoes  that  have  been  exposed  to  the 
light  and  have  turned  green,  and  also  sprouted  potatoes,  contain 
more  of  the  characteristic  active  principle  "Solanin"  (C42H71- 
NOn)  than  do  normal  potatoes,  and  have  sometimes  produced 
symptoms  of  poisoning.  Some  object  to  the  use  of  the  water  in 
which  potatoes  have  been  boiled  for  making  bread  or  soup  on 
the  ground  that  it  is  poisonous  from  its  solanin  content,  while 
others  assert  that  this  substance  is  eliminated  by  cooking.^ 


In  the  edible  portion  of  the  potato  there  is  78.3  per  cent, 
water,  2.2  per  cent,  proteiaor  nitrogenous  matter,  o.i  per  cent,  fat 
and  18.4  per  cent,  carbohydrates — mostly  starch,  with  1.5  per 
cent,  of  fermentable  sugar  and  i  per  cent,  of  mineral  matter. 
Potash  is  the  most  characteristic  of  the  mineral  ingredients,  so 
that  the  potato  is  one  of  the  important  sources  of  this  substance  in 
» Food  and  Dietics,  Hutcfainton,  p.  stg.  i     ^^^ ■  ^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


our  diet.  Practically  only  about  one-fifth  of  the  potato  has 
nutritive  value.  There  is  only  one-half  of  i  per  cent,  of  cellulose; 
not  enough  to  in  any  way  interfere  with  digestion.  In  the 
young  potatoes  there  is  a  larger  proportion  of  sugar,  than  when  they 
become  mature;  and  as  they  lie  in  the  ground  there  is  an  in- 
crease in  the  starch.  During  the  process  of  sprouting  some  of 
this  starch  is  changed  by  a  ferment  into  soluble  glucose. 

Only  about  60  per  cent,  of  the  protein  present  is  true  protein: 
that  is  of  a  character  such  as  can  be  used  to  build  and  repair  th^ 
tissues.^  These  proteins*  consist  of  a  globulin,  called  "tuberin'' 
and  a  proteose,  and  are  most  abundant  in  the  outer  part  of  the 

Nutritive  Value 


Comparisons  are  sometimes  made  between  potatoes  and 
cereals  such  as  rice.  As  purchased,  the  potato  contains  only  about 
20  per  cent,  of  nutritive  matter,  while  rice  contains  88  per  cent. 
To  prepare  rice  for  eating,  water  must  be  added  to  it,  so  if  we  com- 
pare 4  pounds  of  potatoes  with  i  pound  of  dry  rice,  we  shall  find 
that  the  two  contain  about  the  same  quantity  of  nutritive  material. 
Four  pounds  of  potatoes  cost  from  3  1/2  to  10  cents,  while  a 
pound  of  rice  costs  from  4  to  7  cents,  so  there  is  not  such  a  great 
advantage  in  cost  in  favor  of  rice. 

Another  point  of  importance  in  comparing  the  dietetic  value 
of  rice  and  potatoes  is  that  the  rice  leaves  the  blood  acid  and  the 
potato  alkaline.  On  this  account  potatoes  are  better  combined 
with  meat  and  eggs,  which  leave  acid  residues  in  the  blood,  and 
rice  with  legumes,  other  vegetables  and  milk,  which  all  leave  alka- 
line residues.  The  potato  contains  but  little  iron,  calcium  and 
phosphorus,  the  elements  too  often  lacking  in  the  food  of  children, 
so  it  should  be  supplemented  by  other  vegetables,  eggs  and  milk. 

Just  as  apples  turn  yellowish  when  peeled  and  exposed  to  the 
air,  so  potatoes  turn  brown  under  the  same  conditions.    The 

*  J.  Am.  Chem  Soc.,  18,  p.  575. 

« Ct  Agri.  Exp.  SU.  ^  T 

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iinorganized  ferments  in  the  potato,  act  on  certain  substances 
allied  to  tannin  and  change  the  color.  This  is  especially  noticeable 
when  grated  potatoes  are  allowed  to  stand  for  some  time,  as  in  the 
preparation  of  starch.  (See  p.  58.)  By  protecting  the  peeled 
potatoes  from  the  air,  with  water  this  discoloration  can  be  largely 


In  the  process  of  cooking  it  has  been'found^  that  the  middle 
lamella  which  holds  the  cells  together  is  dissolved,  and  the  cells  are 
separated  from  each  other,  but  the  cell  walls  are  not  broken. 

If,  however,  saliva  is  added  to  the  unbroken  cells,  the  starch 
which  they  contain,  which  has  been  swollen  by  the  cooking,  is 
quickly  digested,  the  cooked  cell  walls  being  easily  permeable. 
Some  starch  grains  are  also  changed  by  heat  to  a  soluble  form  of 
dextrin,  and  the  protein  is  coagulated,  while  mineral  salts  are  but 
little  affected.  A  "mealy"  weU-cooked  potato  is  in  the  proper 
physical  condition  to  be  readily  acted  on  by  the  digestive  fluids. 
Cooking  improves  the  taste  of  the  potato,  as  from  the  continued 
use  of  cooked  starch  we  have  learned  to  prefer  it  to  raw  starch. 

From  numerous  tests  that  have  been  made  at  Agricultural 
Experiment  Stations,  in  the  various  States^  it  is  shown  that  while 
only  8.2  per  cent,  of  the  protein  is  lost  when  the  potatoes  are 
plunged  directly  into  boiling  water,  if  they  are  soaked  for  several 
hours  before  cooking  about  25  per  cent,  is  wasted  and  if  plunged 
into  cold  water  which  is  then  brought  to  a  boil  15.8  per  cent,  of  the 
protein  is  lost. 

The  above  tests  were  made  with  peeled  potatoes,  but  when 
boiled  with  their  "jackets"  on,  the  loss  was  only  i  per  cent,  of  the 
protein,  and  a  little  over  3  per  cent,  of  ash,  by  either  process  of 
cooking.  Nutritive  material  is  therefore  saved  if  potatoes  are 
boiled  in  their  jackets.  Some  suggest  to  remove  a  section  of  the 
skin  at  each  end  to  allow  the  moisture  to  escape.    As  soon  as  the 

*  Tour.  Home' Economics  (1909),  No.  2,  p.  177. 
>  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Bull.  No.  43. 

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potato  is  cocked  it  should  be  taken  from  the  water  to  prevent  it 
becoming  "water  soaked,"  or  boiled,  to  pieces.  It  should  be 
noted  that  the  temperature  of  the  interior  of  the  potato  in  the 
boiling  process,  is  several  degrees  below  212®  F. 

In  baking  potatoes  very  little  nutriment  is  lost.  The  starch  is 
thoroughly  cooked  as  the  temperature  attained  in  baking  is  several 
degrees  above  the  boiling  point.  Unless  they  are  to  be  eaten 
immediately  it  is  advisable  to  break  open  as  soon  as  done  to  allow 
the  steam  to  escape,  so  that  the  tuber  may  not  become  "soggy" 
on  standing  then  keep  in  a  warm  place  covered  with  a  clean 
towel  or  napkin  to  absorb  the  steam.  If  put  into  a  covered  porce- 
lain dish  the  stdam  is  condensed  and  falls  back  on  the  potato. 

Potato  chips,  cut  in  thin  slices,  absorb  as  much  as  39.8  per  cent, 
fat,  and  the  heat  to  which  they  have  been  exposed  (which  is  above 
the  temperature  of  boiling  water)  has  driven  off  all  except  2  per 
cent,  of  the  moisture.  Fried  potatoes  are  more  thoroughly  cooked 
if  boiled  before  frying. 

Besides  mealy  potatoes,  which  are  prepared  from  well-de- 
veloped tubers,  not  too  long  stored  "waxy"  potatoes  since  they 
hold  their  shape  better  are  much  in  favor,  especially  for  salad  and 
fancy  dishes. 

Dried  Potatoes 

Desiccated  potatoes,  which  are  prepared  by  grating  and  drying 
at  not  too  high  a  temperature,  contain  about  the  same  constituents 
as  the  fresh  potatoes  minus  the  water,  or  8.5  per  cent,  of  protein 
and  81  per  cent,  of  carbohydrates.  They  are  extremely  useful 
for  camping  parties,  or  at  sea,  or  whenever  it  is  impractical  to 
transport  fresh  potatoes.  The  process  of  bleaching  by  the  use 
of  chemicals  as  applied  to  this  class  of  goods,  is  to  be  regarded 
in  the  light  of  an  aduleration,  and  should  not  be  encouraged. 
Canned  potatoes  may  also  be  found  convenient  under  certain 
circumstances.    Potato  flour  has  been  much  used  in  Germany. 

In  the  mountains  of  Peru,  where  potatoes  were  grown  long 
before  they  were  introduced  among  civilized  people,  the  Indians 

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prepare  a  product  called  ^Uhufiu^^  by  allowing  potatoes  to  freeze 
in  piles  on  the  ground,  and  treading  out  the  juice  with  the  feet  the 
next  morning.  Prepared  in  this  way  the  potatoes  keep  well  but 
lose  much  of  their  flavor.  The  chufiu,  which  is  a  dry  material,  is 
usually  ground  in  a  stone  mortar  and  used  in  the  form  of  powder  to 
thicken  soup.^ 

Potatoes  as  Food 

Potatoes  are  by  no  means  a  perfect  diet,  in  fact  they  are  not 
as  satisfactory  as  bread  if  one  would  live  on  a  single  food.  As 
ordinarily  used,  with  meat,  milk,  eggs — and  other  foods  contain- 
ing fat  and  an  abundance  of  protein,  they  are  extremely  valuable. 
They  came  into  general  use,  after  they  were  introduced,  on  account 
of  their  agreeable  taste,  abundant  yield,  superior  keeping  qualities 
and  ease  of  propagation.  They  are  valuable  because  they  neu- 
tralize the  acids  of  the  blood  and  thus  prevent  diseases  such  as 
scurvy,  to  which  those  are  liable  who  are  obliged  to  subsist  mainly 
on  salted  meats.  Potatoes  therefore  rank  next  to  breadstuffs  in 
Europe  and  America,  as  a  source  of  carbohydrates,  and  as  one  of 
the  cheapest  antiscorbutics. 

The  Yield  of  Potatoes 

The  potato  grows  well  in  England,  Ireland,  Scotland,  and  the 
north  of  Europe;  in  fact  it  is  successfully  grown  up  to  60°  north 
latitude  in  Sweden.  In  the  United  States  it  is  grown  most  abim- 
dantly  in  New  England,  New  York,  Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  Michigan 
and  Wisconsin.  They  are  raised  as  an  irrigated  crop  in  Colorado 
and  California.  In  the  South  they  are  raised  mainly  as  an  early 
crop  for  the  spring  market.  They  are  also  an  important  crop  in 

The  potato  crop  of  Europe  is  of  more  importance  than  that  of 
the  United  States.  In  1910  Germany  raised  1,597,000,000 
bushels,  France  313,000,000  bushels,  Austria-Himgary  690,000,000 

^  Nat.  Geog.  Mag.,  Vol.  24,  p.  $68.     Com.  Rep.,  1915,  p.  1420. 

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bushels,  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  236,000,000  bushels,  and  the 
previous  year  Russia  (European)  raised  1,173,000,000  bushels. 
In  1912;  420,647,000  bushels  of  potatoes  were  raised  in  the 
United  States,  and  2,500,000  bushels  were  imported  from  foreign 

Small  and  inferior  potatoes  are  used  for  the  manufacture  of 
alcohol,  especially  in  France  and  Germany.  In  this  process, 
after  washing  the  potatoes  and  grinding  to  a  pulp,  the  mass  when 
mixed  with  water  is  nm  through  a  sieve,  and  the  starch  is  allowed 
to  settle  out.  The  wet  starch  is  treated  with  acid  in  the  pro- 
portion of  one  of  acid  to  ten  of  pulp.  The  glucose  thus  prepared  is 
put  into  vats  and  fermented  with  yeast  for  fifteen  to  twenty  days. 
It  is  then  distilled  in  an  ordinary  whiskey  still,  to  produce  "low 
wines"  and  redistilled  for  a  more  concentrated  spirit.  More 
care  is  req\iired  to  prevent  the  alcohol  from  potatoes  being  contam- 
inated with  fused  oil  than  if  the  alcohol  is  made  from  grains. 

For  the  manufacture  of  starch  from  potatoes  see  under 
"Starch"  p.  58: 

There  is  a  growing  demand  in  the  United  States  for  potato 
flour  to  use  especially  in  the  manufacture  of  starch.  Nearly 
$300,000  worth  of  this  material  was  sent  here  from  Holland  in 

CASSAVA  (Tapioca)  (Euphorbiaceae.) 

The  cassava,  on  account  of  its  starchy  root,  is  extensively  used 
fpr  human  food  as  well  as  for  feeding  live  stock  and  for  the  manu- 
f actiure  of  starch.  It  grows  readily  in  the  tropics.  There  are  two 
principal  varieties — the  "bitter"  cassava  (Manihot  utilissima, 
Pohl)  and  the  "sweet"  cassava  (Manihot  aipi,  Pohl).  The  plant 
which  is  a  bushy  shrub  from  4  to  10  feet  high,  is  propagated  by 
means  of  cuttings  about  6  inches  in  length.^  In  the  southern 
United  States  they  may  be  stored  during  the  winter  for  spring 
planting.'    The  roots,  which  contain  the  starch  grow  in  clusters 

'  Cassava,  U.  S.  Dept  Agri.  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  167. 

*  Manufacture  of  Starch  from  Potatoes  and  Cassava,  Bur.  of  Chem.  ^  . 

II  Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


often  2  inches  in  diameter  and  4  feet  long,  with  a  weight  of  from 
10  to  30  pounds. 

Cassava  has  been  most  extensively  grown  in  India,  South  and 
Central  America,  Africa,  and  the  West  Indies.  In  the  United 
States  cassava  may  be  successfully  grown  in  the  southern  part  of 
the  states  of  South  Carolina,  Georgia,  Alabama,  Mississippi, 
Louisiana  and  Texas  and  in  all  of  Florida.  This  area  is  thus 
limited  by  the  frosts  of  more  northern  latitudes,  as  at  least  eight 
months  free  from  frost  is  needed  for  the  growth  of  a  successful 

The  sweet  cassava  does  not  contain  enough  prussic  acid  (HCN) 
to  be  dangerous,  while  the  bitter  cassava  contains  enough  of  this 
poisonous  substance  to  make  it  unsafe  to  use  without  special 
preparation.  The  sweet  variety  has  been  found  to  contain  not 
more  than  o.oi  per  cent,  of  hydrocyanic  acid  (HCN),  while  the 
bitter  varieties  contain  from  0.02  to  0.77  per  cent.  As  the  root 
of  the  bitter  cassava  is  liable  to  be  poisonous  it  is  used  as  food  for 
man  only  in  the  countries  where  it  grows.  The  cassava  is  of  Ameri- 
can origin,  and  has  been  used  for  centuries  as  food  by  the  South 
American  Indians,  who  peel  and  cook  all  varieties.^  The  juice 
extracted  from  the  pulp  of  the  bitter  cassava  yields  a  substance 
known  as  cassareep,^  which  is  used  in  making  up  the  flavor  of 
Worcestershire  and  other  sauces.  (See  p.  440.)  This  juice  is 
boiled  down  and  the  prussic  acid  is  in  this  way  eliminated. 

There  seems  to  be  no  fixed  standard  by  which  the  sweet  va- 
rieties can  be  distingidshed  from  the  bitter,  and  it  is  in  fact  quite 
probable  that  cultivation  or  change  of  climate  may  cause  the 
hydrocyanic  acid  content  to  vary. 

The  composition  of  tapioca,  the  form  in  which  we  know  cassava 
starch,  is,  however,  of  more  importance.*  This  food  is  extremely 
rich  in  starch,  of  which  it  often  contains  85  per  cent.  It  is  poor 
in  protein  and  other  nutrients. 

^  Cassava,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Bur.  of  Chem.,  28,  44  and  106,  Bull.  No.  58. 
»  Food  Products  of  the  World,  Green,  p.  200. 
*Mandioca  of  Brazil,  Com.  Reports,  1915,  p.  232-236. 

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Tapioca  as  Food 

In  Liberia,  the  national  dish  of  the  natives  is  "dumboy," 
which  is  prepared  from  the  cassava.  The  roots  are  boiled,  the 
central  fibers  removed,  and  then  the  mass  is  beaten  in  a  wooden 
mortar  with  a  heavy  pestle.  This  operation  which  takes  about 
three-quarters  of  an  hour,  is  very  laborious,  and  requires  con- 
siderable skill,  as  the  operation  must  cease  at  just  the  right  time. 
The  dumboy  is  eaten  with  a  soup  having  as  a  basis  some  kind  of 
meat,  and  in  which  a  variety  of  vegetables  is  used.  It  is  said  that 
a  tastemust  be  cultivated  for  this  dish,  but  that  when  this  is  once 
acquired  the  food  is  more  and  more  enjoyed.  In  Sierra  Leone  a 
dish  called  "fou  fou,"  which  is  entirely  different  from  "dumboy" 
in  taste  and  appearance,  is  prepared  from  the  cassava.^ 

Authorities  differ  somewhat  as  to  the  digestibility  of  tapioca. 
Thompson*  believes  that  since  the  granules  are  not  tough  and 
are  easily  digested,  tapioca  forms  one  of  the  most  useful  amylaceous 
foods  for  persons  with  feeble  digestion.  Hutchijison'  argues  that 
since  tapioca  remains  in  the  stomach  for  some  time  during  the 
process  of  digestion  its  use  should  be  avoided  when  it  is  desirable 
to  lighten  the  labors  of  the  stomach. 

The  flour  made  from  tapioca  is  in  some  countries  used  for 
making  a  bread,  which  replaces  wheat  bread.  It  contains  9  per 
cent,  of  protein  and  79  per  cent,  of  starch  and  sugar,  and  so  com- 
pares favorably  with  wheat.  By  fermentation  of  the  starch,  an 
alcoholic  beverage  is  prepared.  Raw  cassava  pastfe  is  used  as  a 
healing  ointment  in  Jamaica. 

To  store  the  cassava  roots,  they  niust  be  kept  warm  and  dry 
They  are,  however,  usually  worked  up  into  food  products  imme- 
diatdy,  imless  intended  for  stock  food. 

Manufacture  of  Commercial  Tapioca 

To  prepare  the  tapioca,  of  commerce,  the  root  is  grated  or 
ground  with  water,  the  cellulose  and  unground  portions  separated 

*  National  Geographic  Magazine,  Vol.  22,  p.  84. 
'  Practical  Dietetics,  p.  157. 

•  Food  and  Dietctic».  p.  .36.  ,,g„,^,  ,^  GoOglc 



by  filtration,  through  cloth  and  the  liquid  is  then  allowed  to  stand 
at  rest  for  a  time  to  deposit  the  starch.  While  the  starch  is  still 
moisty  it  is  gradually  heated  until  the  starch  granules  are  to  some 
extent  ruptured  and  the  mass  is  agglutinated  and  rather  firm.  The 
heat  is  continued  until  the  moisture  is  nearly  all  expelled.  This 
completes  the  expulsion  of  the  hydrocyanic  acid.  By  subsequent 
operations  the  tapioca  of  commerce  is  prepared  for  the  market 
as  "pearl"  tapioqi  "flake"  tapioca  and  tapioca  "flour." 

Fig.  33. — ^A  sago  palm,  Bermuda.    (By  permission,  Central  Scientific  Co. 

The  amount  of  starch  in  the  fresh  root  of  the  cassava  or 
manihoi  as  it  is  called  in  many  countries,  varies  with  the  variety. 
Some  of  the  samples  grown  in  Florida  contained  25  per  cent,  of 
starch,  or  somewhat  more  than  potatoes.  An  artificial  product 
made  from  potato  starch  is  sometimes  sold  for  tapioca. 

Mandioca  may  almost  be  called  the  national  food  of  the  people 
of  Brazil. 

The  amount  of  sago  and  tapioca  imported  into  the  United 
States  in  1912  was  valued  at  $7,684,725.  ,  , 

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SAGO  165 

SAGO  (Metroxylon  Rumphii) 

This  starchy  food  is  made  from  the^pith  of  the  sago  palm,  of 
which  several  varieties,  grow  in  the  East  Indies,  China,  Japan, 
southern  Asia,  Siam  and  the  Philippine  Islands.  (Fig.  23.)  The 
trunk  of  the  tree  is  filled  with  the  starchy  pith,  which  is  most  abun- 
dant, just  before  the  blossom  appears.  This,  however,  does  not 
happen  until  the  tree  is  twelve  or  fifteen  years  old. 

Manufocture  of  Commercial  Sago 

To  obtain  the  starch  from  the  tree,  the  trunk  is  cut  into  lengths 
of  s  or  6  feet,  which  are  split  lengthwise.  The  pith,  which  is  of  a 
cheesy  consistency  is  scraped  out,  mixed  with  water  and  reduced 
to  a  pulp,  by  grinding  in  a  crude  mortar,  and  then  strained  through 
a  sieve  to  separate  the  coarser  particles  and  the  cellulose.  The 
starch,  which  is  allowed  to  settle  out,  is  washed  several  times,  and 
dried,  and  thus  prepared  constitutes  the  "sago  flour"  of  commerce. 

In  making  "pearl  sago,'*  this  flour  is  mixed  with  water  and 
granulated  by  passing  through  a  sieve,  then  roasted  once  or  twice 
which  makes  it  translucent  in  appearance.  It  is  then  assorted  by 
sifting,  into  various  sizes.  A  single  palm  tree  will  often  yield 
500  pounds  of  sago  starch. 

This  starch  is  used  (mixed  with  milk,  butter,  eggs  and  sugar) 
mainly  for  making  puddings;  a  combination  which  gives  a  well- 
balanced  ration.  In  some  parts  of  the  world  sago  flour  is  the 
standard  food  of  the  inhabitants,  comparable  only  to  wheat  in 

ARROWROOT  (Canna  mdica) 

(Canna  edulis)  (Tacca  primatafidia)  (Maranta  arimdinacea) 

There  are  several  plants  grown  in  different  tropical  countries 
that  furnish  the  starchy  food  known  as  "arrowroot."  They  are  a 
native  of  both  the  East  and  West  Indies.  The  starch  grains  from 
the  different  varieties  have  a  general  similarity  when  viewed  under 

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the  microscope.  The  name  is  said  by  some  to  be  derived  from  the 
peculiar  saggitate  character  of  the  rhizome  or  root  stalk  of  some 
varieties;  others  ascribe  the  name  to  the  fact  that  a  poultice  made 
from  the  rhizome  was  used  by  the  natives  in  the  treatment  of  arrow 

The  starch  known  as  ^'Tous  les  Mois"  is  made  from  the  Canna 
edulis  grown  in  the  West  Indies.  It  has  very  large  starch  grains. 
The  Bermuda  arrowroot  (Maranta  arundinacea)  is  also  extensively 
grown  in  the  West  Indies.  Madagascar  arrowroot  (Tacca  prima- 
tifidia)  is  grown  on  the  island  of  that  name,  and  also  in  Otaheite. 

Commercial  Arrowroot 

In  the  process  of  manufacture  of  this  starch^  (for  such  it  really  is) 
from  the  rhizome  or  root  stock  which  may  be  cultivated  like  the 
potato — the  root  is  washed,  peeled,  ground  or  grated  to  a  pulp 
and  strained  through  cloth.  The  peelings  contain  a  resinous 
bitter  substance.  The  milky  liquid  is  strained  into  a  settling 
tank  through  a  perforated  cylinder  and  allowed  to  stand  until  the 
st^ch  settles  out.  The  liquid  is  then  run  off  and  the  moist  starch 
is  dried  in  the  sun  in  flat  copper  pans  or  on  wooden  trays  with 
cloth  bottoms,  covered  with  gauze.  ^  This  starch  is  packed  in  new 
barrels,  lined  with  peper  stuck  in  by  arrowroot  paste,  as  great 
precautions  are  necessary  to  prevent  its  acquiring  a  flavor  from 
the  outside.  This  starch  is  quite  similar  in  appearance  to  any 
other  starch,  and  has  an  insipid  taste,  unless  flavored  With  sugar 
and  other  substances  The  commercial  product  contains  82 . 5  per 
cent,  of  starch,  but  is,  of  course,  low  in  protein  and  mineral  matter. 
Canna  starch  may  be  made  by  a  similar  process  to  that  described 
for  arrowroot. 

Use  of  Arrowroot 

As  a  bland  food  for  invalids  arrowroot  is  especially  recom- 

mended  on  account  of  its  ready  digestibiUty.    When  made  into  a 

*  J.  Soc.  Chem.  IncL,  Vol.  21,  p.  420. 

"  Food  and  Dietetics,  Hutchinson,  p.  236. 

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jelly  it  keeps  longer  without  fermentation  than  any  other  of  the 
starches,  so  it  is  often  prescribed  in  cases  of  dyspepsia. 

Arrowroot  lends  itself  readily  to  adulteration  with  other 
starches,  especially  that  of  the  potato,  and  only  by  the  use  of  the 
microscope  can  this  fraud  be  detected.  In  those  countries  wher6 
it  grows  with  little  cultivation,  viz.,  Jamaica,  Bermuda,  East 
Indies,  Australia,  South  Africa  and  Madagascar,  arrowroot  is  a 
very  important  article  of  food. 

ARTICHOKE  Qerusalem) 

(Helianthus  tuberosus) 
This  tuber  of  the  sunflower  family,  is  indigenous  to  Canada 
and  the  northern  United  States.  The  name  "Jerusalem"  is  a 
corruption  of  the  Italian  girasol,  mean- 
ing sunflower.  It  was  introduced  into 
Exurope  in  1616.  Although  grown  on 
the  Continent  it  has  never  been  exten- 
sively cultivated  either  in  the  United 
States  or  England,  perhaps  on  account 
of  its  rather  strong  flavor.  This  tuber 
(Fig.  24)  has  been  found  to  contain 
14.7  per  cent,  of  sugar  and  no  starch, 
but  it  contains  considerable  inulin,  a 
substance  isomeric  with  starch.  It  is 
not  injured  by  moderately  cold  weather, 
so  in  many  localities  may  be  allowed  to  remain  in  the  ground 
during  the  winter.  A  variety  known  as  "Crosnes"  is  grown  in 
China  and  Japan.     (See  Artichoke,  p.  183.) 

Fig.  24. — Jerusalem  artichoke. 

ASPARAGUS  (Asparagus  officinalis) 

This  plant  was  known  and  prized  as  food  by  epicures  from  the 
earliest  Roman  times.  More  than  four  hundred  years  ago  it  was 
grown  and  relished  in  nearly  every  part  of  Europe,  and  was  early 

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introduced  into  the  United  States.^  One  variety  at  least  is  a  native 
of  Great  Britain  and  grows  wild  in  the  feii's  of  Lincolnshire  and  the 
seacoast  of  Cornwall.  It  can  be  readily  raised  in  any  well-drained 
fertile  soil  throughout  the  temperate  zone;  in  the  United  States 
it  grows  as  far  south  as  Charleston,  S.  C. 

Asparagus  is  propagated  by  setting  out  the  one-year-old 
"crowns''  or  plants,  or  by  sowing  the  seed.  A  bed  once  started, 
and  kept  well  manured  will  continue  to  produce  an  abundance  of 
"spears"  or  stalks  for  fifteen  or  twenty  years.  It  is  of  great 
importance  in  growing  asparagus,  that  the  bed  have  an  abundance 
of  sunshine  throughout  the  entire  day. 

In  preparing  the  young  shoots  for  the  table  they  are  thrown  into 
boiling  water  previously  salted,  and  boiled  for  about  twenty 
minutes — the  time  of  cooking  being  dependent  on  whether  they 
are  tender  or  old  and  wilted.  If  cooked  in  this  way  the  water 
in  which  the  asparagus  is  boiled  should  be  concentrated,  and  used 
in  making  a  sauce,  thus  retaining  the  flavor  and  the  nutrients. 
The  best  flavor  is  obtained  if  asparagus  is  cooked  within  twelve 
hours  after  being  cut.  If  allowed,  to  wilt,  or  become  stale,  as  is 
often  the  case  before  it  reaches  the  consumer,  the  flavor  is  injured. 
A^aragus  served  with  a  thickened  dressing  on  toast  is  an  ex- 
tremely appetizing  and  wholesome  dish. 

Composition  of  Asparagus 

This  plant  contains  0.4  per  cent,  of  a  peculiar  crystalline  amid 
principle,  called  "asparagin"  (C4H8N2O8)  (also  found  in  the 
potato)  which  has  aperient  and  diuretic  properties.  It  is  also 
believed  to  act  a  useful  part  in  the  intesytine  by  limiting  putre- 
faction, and  so  sparing  proteins  from  destruction.*  Within  a 
very  short  time  after  asparagus  is  eaten,  it  will  be  found  that  the 
excretion  of  the  kidneys  possesses  a  strong,  disagreeable  odor. 
This  is  caused^  by  a  volatile  sulfur  product  called  methyl  mercap- 

» U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Farmers*  Bull.  No.  61. 

•  Food  and  Dietetics,  Hutchinson,  p.  233. 

•  Practical  Dietetics,  Thompson  p.  172.  ^  j 

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BEETS  169 

tan,  which  originates  in  the  intestines  during  digestion,  and  is 
afterward  excreted. 

The  food  value  of  asparagus  is  low,  as  it  contains  about  94 
per  cent,  of  water.  It  should  be  said,  however,  that  the  edible 
portion  contains  mote  protein  than  most  roots  and  succulent  vege- 
tables. On  account  of  its  delicate  flavor,  its  appearance  in  the 
early  spring,  and  its  ready  digestibility,  asparagus  is  much 
esteemed,  and  is  every  year  more  extensively  grown  in  the  United 
States.  A  small  unbleached  variety  is  often  grown  in  Europe. 
Fennel  stalks,  hop  sprouts,  and  bamboo  shoots  are  used  in  some 
countries  in  the  same  way  as  asparagus. 

BEETS  (Beta  vulgaris) 

The  ordinary  garden  beetj  which  belongs  to  the  order  of 
Chenopodiacae,  is  important  as  a  source  of  food,  while  the  sugar 
beet  (see  p.  105)  is  interesting  as  an  example  of  what  can  be  done 
by  the  cultivation  of  a  root  in  raising  the  per  cent,  of  sugar. 

We  know  that  beets  have  been  in  common  use,  at  least  on  the 
Continent,  since  the  beginning  of  the  Christian  era;  and  that 
they  w^e  later  introduced  into  England  and  America.  The  red 
and  the  yeDow  varieties  are  particularly  in  favor  as  garden  vege- 
tables, while  white  beets  are  used  for  sugar  manufacture. 

,,  .  Beets  as  Food 

^^  The  beet  when  tender  makes  an  excellent  addition  to  the 
TiEUriety  of  vegetable  foods.  When  young  the  entire  plant,  in- 
duSjOig  the  root,  is  boiled  for  "greens."  Considered  as  a  vege- 
ita}de[&e  garden  beet  contains  about  12  per  cent,  of  solid  matter, 
wh&h  is  somewhat  low  in  protein  while  the  sugar,  starch,  etc., 
anibunt  to  about  8  per  cent.  Of  the  total  nitrogenous  matter  only 
a  small  fraction  is  protein,  the  greater  portion  being  nitrates,  etc. 
Beets  are  often  served  with  vinegar  which  assists  in  softening 
the  fiber,  and  does  not  interfere  with  the  digestion  of  other 
i-  -  *  Fbods  and  Dietetics,  Hutchinson,  p.  235, 

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Cooking  Beets 

Even  more  than  other  vegetables,  beets  lose  a  large  per  cent, 
of  their  nutritive  material  on  boiling,  since  such  a  large  portion 
is  soluble  in  water.  This  loss  can  be  reduced  somewhat  by  being 
careful  not  to  break  the  skin,  and  especially  not  to  cut  off  the  root 
ends  and  the  leaf  stalks  close  to  the  root.  The  loss  may  be  further 
diminished,  as  in  the  case  of  other  vegetables,  by  steaming  instead 
of  boiling. 

The  beet  is  grown  readily  for  domestic  use  throughout  a  wide 
latitude  from  the  tropics  to  the  north,  but  the  belt  in  which  a 
high  sugar  content  may  be  produced  is  comparatively  narrow. 
(See  Sugar  Beet,  p.  105.)  The  mangel-wurtzel  is  very  similar 
to  the  sugar  beet,  and  is  grown  mostly  for  cattle  food. 

CABBAGE  (Brassica  oleracea  L.) 

There  are  numerous  plants  of  this  family,  the  Crudferae, 
that  are  used  as  food,  largely,  no  doubt,  on  account  of  their  agree- 
able flavor  and  their  succulent  character.  They  are  also  impor- 
tant because  of  their  antiscorbutic  or  scurvy  preventing  action. 
They  seem  to  have  been  evolved  by  natural  or  artificial  selection 
from  the  wild  "coleworts,"  or  "coUards,"  that  grow  on  the  sea- 
shore in  many  countries.  This  plant  was  probably  first  cultivated 
by  the  Germans  or  early  Saxons,  and  was  in  common  use  in  Greece 
and  Rome  in  early  times.  Its  acceptance  was  rather  slow  in 
Great  Britain,  but  when  once  introduced  it  soon  became  a  favorite 
food,  especially  with  the  Scotch  and  Irish.  The  leaves  rising  from 
the  root  stalk  are  gathered  together  to  form  a  compact  head,  and 
as,  in  this  way,  the  light  is  excluded  they  become  white  from  lack 
of  chloryphyl,  and  are  crisp  and  tender.  Young  plants,  grown  in  a 
hot  bed,  are  set  out  in  the  early  spring. 


Of  course,  cabbage  leaves  cannot  have  a  high  nutritive  value, 
as  they  contain  91  per  cent,  of  water,  but  there  is  some  sugar  and 

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stardi  present,  and  another  valuable  constituent  is  the  protein, 
which  is  proportionately  rather  high.  The  value  of  the  calcium 
compounds  should  not  be  overlooked,  as  they  probably  give  the 
cabbage  antiscorbutic  and  bone-building  properties.  Cabbages 
contain  some  sulfur  compounds,  so  that  the  water  in  which  they 
are  boiled  has  a  disagreeable  odor„  and  the  volatile  substance  given 
off  with  the  steam  produces  a  characteristic  persistent  odor.  The 
cabbage,  although  not  easy  of  digestion,  is  valuable  as  a  varient  in 
the  food,  but  its  use  should  be  avoided  by  invalids,  as  it  is  liable  to 
produce  flatulence  and  indigestion. 

Cooking  Cabbage 

Cabbage  is  eaten  boiled  or  raw.  After  cooking  it  contains 
97.5  per  cent,  of  water.  Since  the  water  in  which  cabbage  is  boOed 
cannot  be  used  as  food,  it  is  better  that  it  be  either  steamed  or  eaten 
raw,  so  that  the  nutrients  shall  not  be  lost.  The  Scotch  have  a  dish 
called  Kale-brose  and  the  Irish  prepare  what  is  known  as  "Kol- 
cannon,"  by  cooking  together  salt  pork,  potatoes,  and  cabbage. 
The  "boiled  dish*'  of  the  United  States  usually  contains  cabbage 
as  a  necessary  constituent.  Vinegar  is  often  used  with  either  raw 
or  cooked  cabbage  and  probably  assists  digestion  in  that  it  helps 
to  dissolve  the  abundant  cellulose.  Savoy  cabbage  is  the  name 
applied  to  numerous  varieties  which  have  crimped  or  curled  leaves. 


The  principal  method  of  preserving  cabbage  is  in  the  form  of 
sauerkraut,  originally  a  German  dish,  but  now  extensively  used 
in  the  United  States.  In  this  process,  which  is  in  fact  a  kind  of 
ensilage  applied  to  hxunan  food,  the  cabbage  is  packed  in  casks  with 
salt,  and  the  mass  is  pressed  so  that  some  of  the  juice  is  squeezed 
out.  After  standing  for  some  time  a  kind  of  fermentation  takes 
place  in  the  cabbage  and  various  organic  adds  are  developed  which 
impart  to  the  product  a  flavor  much  prized  by  those  who  have  a 
taste  for  it. 

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One  of  the  characteristic  national  dishes  of  Russia  called 
"sktshi"  is  made  by  packing  chopped  or  sliced  cabbage  into 
barrels  with  vinegar  and  salt,  and  allowing  it  to  ferment.  This  is 
made  into  a  broth  with  meat  and  forms  an  important  part  of  the 
daily  food. 


The  cauliflower  is  a  variety  of  cabbage  much  more  delicate  in 
flavor  and  more  digestible  than  the  ordinary  cabbage.  The  edible 
portion  consists  of  the  inflorescence  altered  by  cultivation.  It  was 
first  grown  in  Italy  and  was  introduced  into  England  from  the 
continent  early  in  the  seventeenth  century.  Brussels  sprouts  is  a 
variety  of  cabbage  having  blistered  leaves  and  the  stem  of  the 
plant  covered  with  small  heads  of  cabbage,  which  are  the  edible 
portion  of  the  plant. 

CARROT  (Daucus  carota) 

-  I  The*carrot(  along  with  celery,  parsnip  and.parsley)  belongs  to 
the  natural  order  Umbelliferae,  and  like  them  contains  an  essential 
oil  that  gives  it  a  strong  characteristic  flavor.  It  has  been  modi- 
fied from  the  "wild  carrot"  by  cultivation.  Carrots  are  common 
all  over  Europe  and  western  Asia  where  they  have  been  cultivated 
for  2,000  years.  It  is  said  that  during  the  reign  of  Elizabeth^ 
the  cultivated  root  was  introduced  into  England.  It  has  been 
modified  from  the  wild  variety  so  that  it  is  now  a  thick  succulent 
yellowish  red  root.  It  is  in  more  common  use  in  Europe  than  in' 
the  United  States,  and  like  many  strong  flavored  plants  seems  to 
be  liked  only  by  those  who  have  cultivated  a  taste  for  it. 

When  the  foliage  is  wet,  wild  carrots  give  off  a  poisonous  sub- 
stance, perhaps  an  oil  which  produces  an  eczema  similar  to  that 
produced  by  poison  ivy  (Rhus  toxicodendron  L.). 


Carrots  are  somewhat  richer  in  nutrient  matter  than  turnips 
as  they  contain  nearly  12  per  cent,  of  solid  matter.    About  half 

»  Food,  A.  H.  Church,  p.  1  3. 

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OJKKA  173 

of  this  is  sugar  (sucrose  and  leyulose).  The  outer  layer  contains 
considerable  pectose.  About  30  per  cent,  of  the  nutrients  is 
dissolved  out  when  carrots  are  boiled  in  a  relatively  large  quantiy  of 
water.^  This  root  also  contains  a  peculiar  ruby  red  crystalline 
substance,  without  taste  or  smell,  called  "carotin/* 

Carrots  are  grown  quite  extensively  as  a  cattle  food,  while 
their  value  as  food  for  man  depends  on  the  agreeable  variety  which 
they  give  to  the  diet,  and  the  fact  that  with  the  small  per  cent,  of 
nutrients  they  contain  inert  vegetable  matters  which  aid  in  the 
process  of  digestion.  The  young  and  tender  roots  are  a  better  food 
than  the  old,  as  they  have  a  tendency  to  become  woody  with  age. 
The  root  is  cut,  dried  and  roasted,  and  used  as  a  substitute  for 
coffee  in  some  parts  of  Germany. 

OKRA  or  GUMBO  (Hibiscus  esculentus) 

This  plant^  belongs  to  the  natural  order  Malvaceae.  There 
seems  to  be  quite  convincing  testimony  that  the  original  home  of 
the  okra  is  Africa,  for  it  was  cultivated  by  the  Egyptians  as  early 
as  1 216  A.  D.,  and  has  been  for  many  years  in  common  use  in 
Turkey,  northern  Africa,  and  around  the  Mediterranean  Sea. 
Its  Spanish  name  is  gumbo.  In  appearance  it  is  much  like  the 
cotton  plant,  and  the  young  pods  used  especially  for  flavoring 
soup  are  the  edible  portion.  It  is  grown  from  the  seed,  planted  in 
rows  or  in  hills  like  corn.  In  order  to,  preserve  the  okra  for  use 
throughout  the  year  a  special  variety,  known  as  peliie  gumbo  is 
grown,  strung  on  strings  and  dried;  when  larger  varieties  are  to  be 
dried,  they  are  first  cut  into  slices  crosswise,  and  then  stnmg. 


No  copper,  brass  or  iron  cooking  vessels  should  be  used  in 

cooking  okra,  as  these  discolor  the  pods.    The  green  pods  are  often 

ewed  and  served  like  asparagus.    Although  containing  only 

» U.  S.  Dcpt.  AgrL  Office.  Exp't.  Sta.  BuU.  No.  43. 
•  U.  S.  Dept  Agri.,  Farmers'  Bull.  No  232. 

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about  8.S  per  cent,  of  nutriment,  including  starch,  sugar  and  pro- 
teins, this  vegetable  has  come  into  favor,  especially  with  the 
Creole  cooks  of  the  southern  United  States;  and  their  '^  chicken 
gumbo*'  has  long  been  a  favorite  dish.  Not  only  is  the  soup  fla- 
vored by  the  use  of  this  pod,  but  a  mucilaginous  coiisistency  is 
imparted  to  the  product. 

ONION  (Allium  cepaL.) 

This  plant  of  the  lily  family,  although  possessed  of  a  strong 
odor,  which  to  many  is  disagreeable,  is  very  highly  valued, 
especially  for  the  flavor  which  it  imparts  to  other  foods.  Garlic, 
shallots,  leeks  and  chives  are  other  condimental  foods  of  the 
same  kind.  The  use  of  the  onion  dates  back  to  the  earliest  ages 
of  authentic  history.  Its  original  home  was  probably  in  southern 
Asia  or  in  the  countries  surrounding  the  Mediterranean  Sea^.^ 

It  is  said  that  the  onion  was  worshiped  in  Egypt  before  the 
Christian  era,  and  it  was  used  in  the  ancient  Druidic  worship  in 
Great  Britain.  It  is  readily  grown  from  the  seed,  or  "onion  sets" 
grown  the  previous  year  may  be  planted.  The  entire  plant  of 
the  young  onion  is  often  eaten.  A  peculiarity  of  some  plants, 
like  onions  and  asparagus,  is  that  th^ey  grow  readily  in  soil  con- 
taining considerable  common  salt.  They  are  also  grown  best 
where  there  is  an  abundance  of  moisture.  Onions  to  be  stored 
should  be  dry  and  thoroughly  cured.  They  are  often  cured 
by  standing  in  bags  in  the  field.  They  require  a  low  temperature 
(just  above  freezing)  and  a  dry  air,  with  good  ventilation  in  order 
to  keep  well. 


Plants  of  the  allium  family  are  peculiar  in  containing  an  acrid 
volatile  oil  (allyl  sulfide)  (CftHisSt)  to  which  many  of  the  charac- 
teristic properties  are  due.  They  contain  from  lo  to  15  per  cent, 
of  nutrients,  including  dextrose  and  levulose,  and  a  small  amount 
of  protein.     Garlic  is  especially  rich  in  a  peculiar  mucilage. 

1 U.  S.  Dept  AgrL,  Farmers'  Bull*  No.  354. 

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Onions  may  be  cultivated  over  large  areas  in  temperate  and 
even  tropical  climates.  The  bulbs  grown  in  the  southern  coun- 
tries, as  in  Spain  and  Portugal,  are  imported  to  Great  Britain,  and 
those  grown  in  Bermuda  to  the  United  States,  and  are  con- 
sidered as  of  more  delicate  flavor  than  those  grown  farther  north. 

In  the  Unjted  States  the  onion  holds  the  third  place  among 
truck  crops.^  In  1908,  i4,ooo,ooo.bushels,  valued  at  $10,000,000, 
were  grown  and  consumed  here. 

GARLIC  (Allium  sativum) 

This  is  the  most  strongly  flavored  of  the  plants  of  the  allium 
•family.  It  is  extensively  grown  and  much  esteenied  in  southern 
Europe.  The  strong  odor  which  the  plant  possesses  is  readily 
conmiunicated  to  the  breath  and  even  to  'the  perspiration  of  the 
consumer.  Garlic  is  used  more  as  a  condiment  for  seasoning  other 
foods  than  as  a  vegetable  alone.  It  has  a  medicinal  action,  quick- 
ening the  circulation,  and  exciting  the  nervous  system.  ShaUot 
has  a  similar  medicinal  action  upon  the  system.  Chives  another 
plant  of  this  family  which  has  small  slender  leaves  is  used  for  mak- 
ing pickles  and  salads  in  Europe,  and  to  some  extent  in  the  United 

PARSNIP  (Pastinaca  sativa) 

The  parsnip  belongs  to  the  same  family  as  the  carrot  and  like 
the  latter  has  been  cultivated  since  the  time  of  the  Romans.  As  the 
root  of  the  parsnip  is  not  injured  by  the  frost,  it  may  be  left  in  the 
ground  all  winter.  It  is  usually  grown  in  a  single  season  and  the 
smaller  roots  are  more  tender  and  better  suited  for  human  food, 
while  the  larger  and  more  woody  roots  are  excellent  as  a  cattle 


The  parsnip  contains  considerable  nutritive  material  of  the 
sugar-starch  group,  and  about  80  per  cent,  of  water.    It  is  unique 
in  containing  more  fat  than  other  vegetables  of  this  class,  viz., 
1 U.  S.  Dept  Agri.»  Farmers'  Bull*  No.  354. 

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0.66  per  cent.  It  is  therefore  a  somewhat  better  food  than  the 
turnip  and  the  carrot.  Pectose  and  cellulose  are  found  to  quite 
a  large  extent,  but  there  is  only  1.3  per  cent,  of  protein  present. 
The  parsnip  has  such  a  strong  flavor  that  it  is  not  liked  by  all 
persons.  On  account  of  containing  from  13  to  14  per  cent,  of 
carbohydrates,  a  wine  of  excellent  flavor  is  made  from  the  juice 
of  the  parsnip  in  Great  Britain  and  the  fermented  and  distilled 
juice  3delds  a  potable  spirit. 

RHUBARB  (Rheum  raponticum) 

This  plant,  which  belongs  to  the  Buckwheat  family,  often 
called  "pieplant "or "wine  plant,"  is  used  in  the  spring  for  making 
pies  and  sauce.  The  thick  petioles  or  leaf  stalks  are  utilized  for 
this  purpose.  The  plant,  although  indigenous  in  portions  of  Asia, 
is  said  to  have  been  brought  originally  from  the  vicinity  of  the 
Volga  River  and  was  first  grown  in  England  in  1573.  In  Germany 
it  is  cultivated  both  as  an  ornamental  plant,  and  for  food  purposes. 
The  plant  is  readily  grown  as  it  is  a  perennial,  so  that  the  roots 
once  started  annually  produce  an  abundant  crop. 


Although  the  stem  contains  considerable  fiber,  itjs  made  soft 
by  cooking.  It  contains  a  large  amount  of  add  potassium  oxalate 
and  add  caldum  oxalate^  and  on  this  account  requires  an  abun- 
dance of  sugar  to  make  it  palatable.  As  the  rhubarb  contains 
from  9?  to  95  per  cent,  of  water,  its  nutritive  value  is  not  usually 
considered,  although  it  is  interesting  as  containing  1.19  per  cent, 
of  fat,^  which  is  more  than  is  ordinarily  found  in  vegetables  of 
this  class,  and  2  per  cent,  of  sugar. 

The  rhubarb  has  some  medicinal  qualities,  and  acts  slightly 
as  a  laxative.  In  case  there  is  a  tendency  to  certain  diseases  such 
as  gout  and  rheumatism,  this  plant  should  not  be  ussd  as  food. 

^  Foods  and  Thdr  Adulterations,  Wiley,  p  999. 

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It  should  be  noted  that  the  plants  RJ^eiun  officinale  and  R.  pol^ 
matiun,  the  rhizomes  of  which  are  used  in  medicine  under  the 
name  rhubarb,  belong  to  the  same  family. 

Besides  its  use  as  food,  rhubarb  is  of  value  for  making  a  wine 
which  has  a  characteristic  flavor  highly  appreciated.  For  this 
purpose  it  is  only  necessary  to  express  the  juice,  add  sugar,  and 
allow  it  to  ferment. 

SALEP  (Orchis  masculata) 

The  salep,  which  grows  abundantly  in  the  Orient,  i^  a 
tuberous  root  of  the  Orchid  family.  The  root  contains  consider- 
able of  the  mucilage  known  as  "bassorin,"  and  some  starch,  and 
may  be  used  for  making  mucilaginous  drinks.  It  is  prepared  for 
food  by  being  heated^  then  dried  in  the  sun,  and  when  needed 
immersed  in  boiling  water,  or  crushed  to  powder,  and  boiled  with 
milk  to  form  a  kind  of  jellied  pudding. 

SALSIFY  (Tragopogon  porrifolius) 

The  salsify,  or  "Oyster  Plant,'*  has  an  edible  root,  something 
like  the  carrot  in  appearance  which  grows  wild  in  the  south  of 
Europe  and  in  Algeria,  and  is  also  ctdtivated.  When  not  too 
old  the  roots  have  when  cooked  a  delicate  flavor  which  suggests 
oysters.  They  may  be  cooked  and  served  with  sauce  in  the  same 
way  as  asparagus. 

•     SWEET  POTATOES  (Ipomea  batatas) 

This  plant  belongs  to  the  order  Convolvulus  (Morning  Glory) 
and  is  probably  a  native  of  tropical  America,^  although  it  was 
known  in  England  before  the  introduction  of  the  Irish  potato. 
The  sweet  potato  grows  best  in  a  climate  where  there  are  at  least 
four  and  one-half  months  without  frost,  and  in  moderately  fertile, 
sandy  loam.  When  grown  near  the  northern  Umit  of  latitude, 
^  U.  S.  Dept  Agri.,  Fannen'  BulL  Nos.  139,  395,  334,  4x9. 

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where  the  nights  are  cold,  it  is  not  as  sweet  nor  of  as  fine  flavor. 
The  commercial  crop  is  grown  mostly  from  cuttings  started  in  a 
bed  or  from  the  potatoes  cut  in  pieces  as  with  white  potatoes. 
The  portion  used  as  food  and  which  is  in  reality  an  enlarged  root 
(stock)  may  be  referred  to  as  a  tuberous  root.  As  ordinarily 
planted,  the  vines  cover  the  whole  surface  of  the  ground. 

Sweet  potatoes  do  not  keep  as  well  as  the  ordinary  variety, 
and  they  are  also  subject  to  various  diseases.  For  keeping  they 
require  a  warm  dry  atmosphere,  therefore  they  are  best  kept  in  the 
North  under  conditions  similar  to  that  of  a  rather  cool  dwelling 
and  in  the  South  in  pits  or  out-of-door  cellars,  which  must  be  well 
ventilated.^  They  keep  best  in  a  room  where  the  fluctuation  in 
temperature  is  not  over  50  either  way  from  54°  F. 


The  sweet  potato  contains  from  4  to  6  per  cent,  of  sugar  and 
usually  over  20  per  cent,  of  starch.  Most  of  the  sugar  is  sucrose; 
but  there  is  an  appreciable  amoimt  of  non-crystallizable  sugar. 
The  quantity  of  sugar  increases  and  the  quantity  of  starch  dimin- 
ishes on  storing,  just  as  is  the  case  with  some  fruits. 

On  account  of  its  composition,  the  sweet  potato  is  not  so  readily 
cooked  so  as  to  be  "mealy,"  but  is  liable  to  be  heavy  or  "sodden." 
It  is  therefore  not  so  suitable  a  food  for  invalids  as  is  the  white 
potato.  While  in  most  countries  it  is  regarded  as  a  vegetable,  in 
some  parts  of  Asia  it  is  preserved  as  a  sweetmeat.  There  is  also 
a  flour  made  from  the  yam,  or  sweet  potato,  in  the  East.  Canned 
sweet  potatoes  are  rapidly  coming  into  favor,  as  this  is  a  practical 
method  for  keeping  them  for  use  at  all  times  of  the  year. 

Steaming  develops  the  flavor  of  the  sweet  potato  better  than 
boiling,  and  baking  is  a  still  better  method  of  cooking.  One  pecu- 
liarity in  the  cooking  of  sweet  potatoes  is  that  they  should  be 
cooked  slowly  and  for  quite  a  long  time.  An  hour  in  the  oven  is 
not  too  long  to  develop  the  best  flavor. 

Sweet  potatoes  are  used  with  success  for  the  manufacture  of 

^  U.  S.  Dept  Agtlt  Fannen'  Bidl.  Nos.  129,  295,  354,  419,  and  530. 

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YAMS  179 

alcohol  as  both  the  sugar  and  starch  are  f ermentable,  but  they  are 
not  considered  as  valuable  for  this  purpose  as  are  the  Irish 

Nutritive  Value 

Since  the  sweet  potato  is  deficient  in  both  protein  and  fat, 
and  peanuts  are  rich  in  both  these  nutrients,  a  well-balanced  ration, 
as  well  as  an  agreeable  food,  is  made  by  a  judicious  mixture  of 
sweet  potatoes  and  peanuts. 

In  addition  to  being  an  abundant  crop  over  about  one-half 
the  area  of  the  United  States  and  especially  on  the  Atlantic  slope 
from  New  Jersey  to  Florida,  the  sweet  potato  is  cultivated  about 
the  Mediterranean  Sea,  in  China,  Japan,  the  West  Indies,  Spain, 
the  Philippines,  and  the  Azores.  In  those  countries  where  they 
grow  readily  they  form  a  large  proportion  of  the  food  of  the  inhab- 
itants. In  the  Azores  sweet  potatoes  are  used  for  the  manufacture 
of  spirits.  The  quantity  of  sweet  potatoes  raised  in  the  United 
States  in  1910  is  reported  as  50,000,000  bushels.^ 

YAMS  (Dioscorea  batatas)  (Dioscorea  sativa) 

The  Yam,  a  larger  tuber  than  the  sweet  potato  and  belonging 
to  a  different  family,  is  grown  in  tropical  and  sub-tropical  coun- 
tries, where  it  is  regarded  as  valuable  food  both  for  man  and  for 
cattle  and  hogs.  In  composition  it  does  not  differ  much  from  the 
sweet  potato  although  it  is  usually  not  so  sweet.  It  often  grows 
to  great  size  (lip  to/36  pounds)  in  the  East  Indies,  though  under 
these  conditions  the  flesh  is  somewhat  tough  and  coarse. 

TARO  (Colocasia  antiquorum,  esculenta) 

The  corn-like  rootstock  of  this  plant  which  grows  throughout 
the  tropics  is  cultivated  for  food  in  China,  Japan,  and  the  Islands 
ot  the  Pacific.    The  acrid  root  is  made  edible  by  heating  or  boiling. 
>  TJ.  S.  Census  Reports. 

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This  vegetable  is  something  like  the  yam  and  the  sweet  potato  in 
appearance,  and  is  used  as  potatoes  are  commonly  used  in  this 
country.  These  tubers  contain  about  i8  per  cent,  of  starch, 
1.7s  of  sugar  and  1.80  of  total  protein,  and  so  are  similar  in  nutri- 
tive value  to  the,  potato. 

"Poi"  is  the  name  applied  by  the  natives  to  the  starch  made  by 
washing  the  roots  and  grinding  them  to  a  meal.  It  is  often  allowed 
to  ferment  during  the  process  of  manufacture.  For  making  a 
porridge,  it  is  stirred  into  hot  water  to  the  thickness  of  a  paste  and 
is  not  only  a  valuable  food,  but  an  excellent  diet  for  invalids. 

DASHEEN  (Aracese) 

The  dasheen^  is  a  vegetable  resembling  the  elephant  ear  or  the 
Hawaiian  taro,  which  may  be  readily  grown  in  semitropical  cli- 



Fig.  25. — A  field  of  Dasheen,  Florida.     (By  permission  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.) 

mates.  (Fig.  25.)  It  is  a  staple  food  for  millions  of  people  in 
tropical  countries.  The  tubers  are  similar  in  composition  to  the 
potato,  but  contain  more  starch  and  protein.    They  have  a  flavor 

1  Circ.  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bu.  Foreign  Plant  Introduction:  Circ.  Bu.  Plant  Ind. 

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when  cooked  by  boiling  or  baking  which  suggests  boiled  chestnuts. 
They  have  be^i  successfully  raised  in  the  United  States,  in  South 
Carolina  and  Florida. 

Turnip  (Brasaca  napus) 

This  root  belongs  to  the  order  of  Crucifera^  so  named  because 
of  its  four  petals  arranged  like  a  cross.  It  has  been  cultivated 
since  the  days  of  the  Greeks,  and  grew  wild  in  many  countries. 
In  Russia  turnips  are  often  classed  as  a  luxury,  and  are  sometimes 
eaten  raw  as  a  relish,  in  fact,  this  method  of  eating  them  is  not 
entirely  unknown  in  the  United  States  and  Germany.  The  Lap 
landers  are  also  said  to  be  exceedingly  fond  of  this  vegetable. 

As  the  turnip  grows  late  into  the  autumn,  it  is  often  sown  after 
harvesting  some  earlier  crop. 


The  spicy,  pimgent  taste  is  due  to  the  presence  of  an  essential 
oil.  As  turnips  contain  over  90  per  cent,  of  water  they  are  not  of 
much  value  as  a  nutrient  food.  They  contain  6.27  per  cent,  of 
carbohydrates,  which  consists  of  sugar  and  a  substance  belonging; 
to  the  pectose  group,  with  very  little  starch. 

Turnips  contain  less  solid  matter  and  more  water  than  cow's 
milk.  Their  most  important  uSe  is  for  feeding  stock,  although  they 
communicate  a  valuable  variety  to  human  food.  They  have  not 
received  as  much  attention  with  reference  to  improvement  by  culti- 
vation as  has  the  sugar  beet.^ 


Other  vegetables  used  in  some  countries  are  '^arrowhead'' 
tubers,  some  kinds  of  which  were  used  by  the  American  Indians, 
and  others  by  the  inhabitants  of  China  and  Indian  lily  bulbs, 
wbkh  are  used  as  food  by  the  Chinese  and  other  Asiatic  races; 

*  J.  Soc.  Ch.  Ind.,  Vol.  16,  pp.  313*219. 

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water-lilies,  the  roots  of  which  were  used  by  the  Ancient  Egyptians 
and  the  roots  of  the  lotus  which  are  used  by  the  people  of  India, 
China  and  Japan. 


In  addition  to  the  vegetables  already  mentioned,  a  large  num- 
ber of  other  plants  often  called  "pot  herbs'*  are  used  as  food. 
They  are  of  comparatively  little  value  as  far  as  their  nutritive 
quality  is  concerned,  but  they  furnish  abundant  mineral  salts 
such  as  the  chlorides,  sulfates  and  phosphates  of  sodium,  potassium, 
iron,  calcium  and  magnesium.  These  are  considered  to  be  of  great 
importance  in  the  animal  metabolism.^  Some  of  these  vegetables 
are  of  positive  value  in  the  relief  of  chronic  constipation  and  indi- 
gestion, and  all  are  to  be  recommended  as  furnishing  an  agreeable 
variety  to  the  food  in  spring  and  early  summer,  as  they  also  serve 
to  stimulate  the  appetite,  distend  the  alimentary  canal  and  make 
alkaline  the  blood  that  winter  foods  tend  to  make  too  acid.  They 
are  usually  boiled  and  sometimes  afterward  chopped  and  served 
with  hard-boiled  eggs. 

Among  the  important  food  plants  of  this  family  are:  kohl-rabi 
or  turnip  cabbage,  which  has  the  stem,  the  edible  portion  of 
the  plant,  largely  developed  above  the  ground;  kale,  called  also 
borecole,  savoy  cabbage,  broccoli,  sea-kale  and  "colewort"  or 

Other  vegetable  substances  of  this  class  are  spinach,  one  of  the 
most  valued,  beet  tops,  dandelion  tops,  narrow-leaved  dock, 
turnip  tops,  stinging  nettle,  Swiss  chard,  plantain  leaves,  purslane 
("pursley")>  mustard,  poke  sprouts,  dasheen  leaves,  pigweed, 
chickweed,  and  milkweed  sprouts. 


Salads  are  cold  dishes,  composed  of  either  meat,  fish  or  vege- 
tables.   They  are  served  either  with  mixtures  of  oil  and  vinegar 
1  Chemistry  of  Food  and  Nutrition,  Slierman,  p.  260. 

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or  lemon  jtiice,  or  with  oil,  egg  and  vinegar.^  The  oil,  or  cream 
which  is  sometimes  used,  is  a  valuable  nutrient,  and  should  be 
added  freely.  In  addition  to  fruits,  left-over  green  vegetables 
served  with  French  dressing  are  often  utilized.  The  green  vege- 
tables contain  valuable  mineral  salts,  which  can  readily  be  intro- 
duced into  the  diet  in  this  way.  There  are  a  large  number  of 
plants,  the  leaves  and  stalks  of  which  have  been  used  in  salads 
for  many  centuries.  They  have,  like  the  "greens"  mentioned, 
little  real  food  value,  but  have  an  incidental  use  as  appetizers  or 
diluents  of  the  food  proper. 

In  1669  Evelyn^  gave  a  list  of  seventy-three  plants  used  in 
salads,  but  the  use  of  many  of  these  has  long  since  been  abandoned. 
In  France,  Germany  and  Italy  salads  are  more  universally  used 
and  a  greater  variety  of  plants  utilized  for  this  purpose  than  in 
the  United  States.  The  Orientals  often  add  flowers  to  their 
salads,  but  probably  in  most  cases  this 
is  more  for  the  purpose  of  decoration 
than  as  a  flavor. 

It  has  been  well  remarked  that  too 
great  care  cannot  be  exercised  in  the 
thorough  cleansing  of  such  leaves  and 
stalks  as  are  selected  for  making  salad, 
as  this  is  the  only  precaution  that  can 
be  exercised  to  prevent  the  introduc- 
tion of  worms  and  other  small  organisms 
into  the  body. 

Fig.  26. — Artichokes. 

ARTICHOKE  (Cynara  scolymus) 

The  green  or  true  artichoke,  which 
belongs  to  the  thistle  family,  is  cultivated  for  the  sake  of  its 
immature  flower  heads,  (Fig.  26)  which  are  served  either  raw  as 
a  salad,  or  cooked  in  water  or  milk  and  served  with  a  sauce.    Is 
is  in  common  use  in  central  and  southern  Europe,  where  it  it 

*  Mrs.  Rorer's  New  Cookbook,  p.  439. 
'  Food,  A.  H.  Church,  p.  119. 

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much  more  appreciated  than  in  the  United  States.  The  arti- 
choke is  a  diasetic,  and  since  it  contains  inulin  and  no  starch 
may  be  eaten  by  diabetics.  Canned  artichokes  are  exported 
from  Italy  and  France.  When  the  leaf  stalks  are  blanched  by 
tying  them  up  the  term  "chard"  is  applied  to  the  white  and  ten- 
der leaves.     (See  p.  167.) 

CELERY  (Apium  graveolens) 

This  plant,  which  belongs  along  with  many  other  herbs,  to 
the  Umbelliferae,  has  within  recent  years  come  into  considerable 
commercial  importance.  The  wild  celery*  is  a  native  of  the 
marshes  of  southern  England,  and  many  parts  of  the  continent. 
From  England,  it  was  brought  to  the  United  States  and  one 
variety  known  as  "smellage''  or  "smallage"  was  for  many  years 
cultivated  in  the  old  gardens  for  its  foliage  and  as  a  salad  plant. 
However,  since  it  belongs  to  the  same  family  as  the  poison  hemlock, 
it  was  by  many  considered  poisonous  to  eat;  Gradually,  since  the 
middle  of  the  last  century,  it  has  come  into  common  use  in  the 
United,  States  and  is  at  present  regarded  as  a  valuable  addition  to 
our  supply  of  foods  and  condiments. 

The  cqlery  is  a  biennial,  and  produces  its  seed  the  second  year, 
after  which  the  plant  dies.  The  first  season  after  the  seed  is 
sown  is  used  in  building  up  an  abundant  storehouse  for  starch 
and  other  carbohydrates,  so  that  it  may  be  utilized  the  second 
year  in  the  production  of  flowers  and  seed. 

Growing  Celery 

In  the  United  States  there  are  two  areas  where  celery  may  be 
grown  with  profit,  viz.,  a  northern  area  where  it  grows  well  in 
the  summer,  and  a  southern  area  where  it  can  be  grown  during  the 
winter  months.  It  does  best  in  a  rich,  mellow,  sandy  loam,  and 
heavy  manuring  is  necessary  for  a  good  crop.  Usually  the  seed  is 
sown  in  a  hot-bed,  and  the  young  plants  are  set  in  rows  as  soon  as 

1  tJ.  S.  Dept  AgrL,  Bull.  No.  282. 

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there  is  no  longer  danger  of  frost.    Thi  plants  require  a  large 
amount  of  water  for  their  successful  cultivation. 


As  in  the  wild  state  the  stems  were  tough  and  of  a  rank  taste 
and  odor,  the  quality  has  been  improved  by  cultivation  and 
"blanching"  to  develop  the  mild  flavor  and  texture  so  much 
desired.  This  is  frequently  accomplished  in  the  fields  by  placing 
boards  about  12  inches  wide  on  each 
side  of  the  rows  of  growing  plants. 
The  operation  of  blanching  requires 
two  or  three  weeks.  A  more  common 
method  of  blanching  is  by  piling  up 
the  soil  on  each  side  of  the  row,  while  a 
method  well  adapted  to  use  on  a  small 
scale  is  by  the  use  of  4-inch  farm  drain 
tiles,  which  are  placed  over  each  plant. 
The  enlarged  succulent  stalks  of  the 
baSal  leaves  are  the  edible  portion. 
On  the  Continent  of  Europe  especi- 
ally, the  roots  of  one  variety  known  as 
'^celeriac^'  are  boiled  and  eaten  like  turnips,  or  served  cold  with 
dressing  as  celery  root  salad.    (Fig.  27.) 

Fig.  27. — Theceleriac 
plant  and  root. 


Celery  contains  about  6  per  cent,  of  proteins  and  carbohydrates, 
including  2  per  cent,  of  sugar.  Its  taste  is  due  to  the  presence  of  a 
very  small  quantity  of  essential  oil.  It  is  regarded  by  some  as 
possessing  certain  valuable  medical  properties,  but  its  vakie  as  a 
food  accessory  is  largely  due  to  the  fact  that  it  can  be  obtained 
when  other  green  foods  are  not  on  the  market,  that  it  has  an  agree- 
able flav(^,  and  that  it  dilutes  the  more  concentrated  forms  of 
nourishment.    ''Celery  salt''  made  from  the  ground  seed  is  much 

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prized  for  flavoring  sou^s  and  salads.  The  outside  stalks  which 
are  usually  tough  are  often  cooked  and  then  the  water  in  which 
they  are  cooked  is  strained  and  made  into  cream  of  celery  soup. 

In  the  United  States  celery  is  grown  most  extensively  for  the 
market  in  the  drained  "muck  bed"  areas  of  the  Great  Lake  region 
and  in  Michigan,  Ohio,  New  York,  California,  and  Florida. 

Fio.  28. — The  chicory  plant.    (Photo  by  C.  L.  Lochman.) 

CHICORY  (Chiconium  intybus) 

The  chicory  is  closely  related  to  the  endive  and  dandelion. 
(Fig.  28.)  The  leaves  have  a  rather  bitter  taste  but  are  used  in 
salads.    Under  cultivation  the  large  root  which  is  developed  is  used 

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after  roasting  for  adulterating  cc^ee  or  atf  an  inq>ortant  omstitu- 
ent  of  a  beverage  of  this  class.  (See  Coffee,  p.  474.)  In  the 
autumn  the  roots  are  dug,  cut  in  small  pieces  and  dried.  When 
required  f<Mr  use  they  are  roasted  and  groimd  like  coffee.  Much  of 
the  chicory  used  in  the  United  States  is  imported. 

ENDIVE  (Chicorium  endivia) 

The  endive  sometimes  called  winter  lettuce  belongs,  as  does 
ordinary  lettuce,  to  the  same  family  as  the  dandelion.  It  was 
early  cultivated  in  China  and  Japan,  and  is  found  wild  in  all  coun- 
tries surrounding  the  Mediterranean.  The  blanched  leaves  are 
the  portion  used,  and  although  they  would  be  acrid  and  tough  if 
exposed  to  the  air,  the  process  of  blanching  makes  them  crisp  and 
tender.  This  plant  will  also  bear  a  comparatively  low  tempera- 
ture without  injury.  Although  it  has  hem  usually  imported  into 
America  as  yet,  it  is  easily  grown  and  is  becoming  more  common. 

LETTUCE  (Lactuca  sativa) 

Lettuce  is  perhaps  the  most  important  of  these  succulent  vege- 
tables. It  probably  came  originally  from  India  or  central  Asia 
and  was  held  in  great  esteem  by  the  ancients.  In  1520  it  was 
introduced  into  England  from  Flanders.  There  are  many  vari- 
eties, some  of  which  are  spreading,  and  have  large  succulent . 
leaves,  while  in  others  the  leaves  are  drawn  together  similar  to  the 
cabbage  and  are  crisp  and  nearly  white.  The  varieties  may  be 
classified  as  (i)  cabbage  or  head  lettuce,  (2)  ''Cos"  or  leaf  let- 
tuce, named  from  the  Island  of  Cos,  near  the  coast  of  Greece,  and 
(3)  cutting  lettuce  from  which  the  leaves  are  cut  as  they  mature. 

There  is  not  much  food  value  in  the  lettuce,  although  its 
mineral  salts  may  be  of  use  in  the  processes  of  metabolism.  Some 
ascribe  medicinal  virtues  to  the  lettuce  on  account  of  its  containing 
a  small  .quantity  of  a  sleep-inducing  substance  called  ''lactucarin," 
which  is  found  more  abundantiy  in  the  stem.    Others  have  recom- 

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mended  it^  for  supplying  iron  in  the  organic  form,  as  this  element 
some  believe  is  in  this  plant,  chemically  combined  in  the  chloro- 
phyL  As  a  wholesome,  cooling,  agreeable  salad  plant,  lettuce  has 
always  been  a  favorite  throughout  temperate  and  semi-tropical 

RADISH  (Raphanus  sativus) 


The  radish,  although  its  root  is  the  part  generally  used,  may  be 
classified  here,  as  it  is  seldom  eaten  in  any  other  way  except  raw 
and  as  a  salad.  This  plant  was  originally  grown  in  India,  and 
later  introduced  into  Great  Britain  and  the  United  States. 
Many  of  the  edible  varieties  are  small  and  quickly  grown;  but 
large  radishes  are  also  used.  One  of  the  winter  radishes,  a  Japa- 
nese variety,  sometimes  attains  a  length  of  2  feet,  and  is  a  foot  in 
diameter.  It  is  commonly  cut  in  chunks  and  pickled  in  brine. 
The  radish  has  a  somewhat  pungent  taste,  and  is  valuable  as  an 


Other  salad  plants  are  the  cardoon,  which  is  something  like 
the  artichoke  and  the  leaf  stalks  of  which  are  blanched  like  celery, 
which  is  eaten  as  a  vegetable  in  soup  or  as  a  salad.  It  grows  in  the 
countries  which  surround  the  Mediterranean.  The  tender  leaf 
stalks  of  several  varieties  of  thistle  are  used  as  food  in  some  coun- 
tries, and  the  young  leaves  and  stalks  of  the  mallow. 

Other  plants  of  this  group,  some  of  which  have  vegetable  acids 
or  essential  oils  which  give  them  a  characteristic  flavor,  are  borage, 
bumet,  cress,  water-cress,  cowslip,  com  salad  or  Lamb's  lettuce, 
caper,  chevril,  mint,  nasturtium,  parsley,  pepper  grass,  peppers 
(green),  sorrel  and  taragon. 


The  following  aromatic  and  medicinal  plants,  although  not  prop- 
erly belonging  to  the  dass  of  foods,  are  often  used  in  foods  for  flavor- 
^  Human  Foods,  Snyder,  p.  43. 

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ing  or  garnishing,  and  may  be  grown  in  the  vegetable  garden: 
Anise  (seeds),  bahn  (leaves),  caraway  (seeds),  catnip  (leaves),  cori- 
ander (seeds),  dill  (seeds),  horehound  (le  ,ves),  hyssop  (leaves), 
lavender  (flowers),  rosemary  (leaves,)  rue  (leaves),  sage  (leaves), 
saffron  (flowers),  savory  (leaves),  sweet  basil  (leaves),  sweet  fennel 
(seeds),  sweet  majorum  (leaves),  sweet  thyme  (leaves),  wormwood 

For  description  of  the  most  important  of  these  see  Spices  and 
Condiments,  p.  440. 

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LEGUMES  OC^eguminosae) 

The  legumeSy^  or  pulses,  as  they  are  called  in  England,  stand 
next  m  importance  to  cereals  among  vegetable  foods.  They 
include  beans  in  great  variety,  chick  peas,  peas,  lentils,  peanuts 
and  a  few  other  plants.  They  have  been  in  use  for  so  many 
hundreds  of  years  and  in  so  many  countries  that  their  origin  is 
lost  in  antiquity.  In  China,  India,  northern  Africa  and  other 
countries  bordering  on  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  they  have  formed 
an  important  part  of  the  food  of  the  common  people  for  centuries. 

The  plants  of  this  family  all  have  a  characteristic  papiliona- 
ceous or  butterfly-shaped  flower,  and  the  seed  grows  in  pods, 
containing  sometimes  few  and  sometimes  a  large  number  of 
individuals.  Many  of  these  plants  are  broad-spreading  trees, 
which  yield  fruit  entirely  inedible  for  man,  but  most  of  those  bear- 
ing edible  fruit  are  low  and  herbaceous. 

Perhaps  the  most  interesting  characteristic  of  the  family  is, 
that  many  of  the  plants  hot  only  furnish  a  valuable  food,  but  at 
the  same  time  actually  increase  the  fertility  of  the  soil  in  which 
they  are  grown.  This  is  due  to  the  fixation  of  atmospheric  nitro- 
gen by  the  bacteria  working  unceasingly  in  the  laboratories  of 
the  root  nodules.  It  is  only  within  the  last  fifty  years  that  these 
facts  in  regard  to  the  soil-fixation  of  nitrogen*  have  been  under- 
stood, although  the  practice  of  plowing  under  cow  peas,  clover  and 
similar  crops  has  been  common  for  many  years. 

Beans  and  peas  grow  rapidly,  and  therefore  can  be  grown  in 
the  northern  countries,  as  three  or  four  months  only  are  needed  to 
bring  them  to  full  maturity.    They  are  cultivated  as  garden 

»  U.  S.  Dcpt  Agri.,  Farmers'  BuD.  No.  121. 
<  U.  S.  Dept  Agri.,  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  315. 


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crops,  and  have  the  advantage  of  not  requiring  any  q>ecial  kind 
of  soil  and  indeed  they  will  not  refuse  to  grow  and  produce  a  fair 
crop  on  comparatively  poor  soil.  This  is  largely  due  to  the  fact 
that  they  can  avail  themselves  of  this  double  supply  of  nitrogen — 
that  which  is  contained  in  the  soil  as  nitrites,  nitrates  and  am- 
monia, and  that  which  is  collected  from  the  air  by  the  root  nodules. 
Since  protein  food  is  usually  expensive  it  would  seem  that  in 
beans  and  other  legumes  we  have  foimd  a  cheap  and  abundant 
source  of  this  kind  of  nutrient,  and  to  a  certain  extent  this  is  true, 
and  beans  have  been  extensively  utilized  for  this  purpose.  It 
happens,  however,  that  the  protein  exists  in  the  legumes  in  the 
form  of  legumin  with  but  little  albumin.  As  has  been  pointed  out 
by  Voit,  vegetable  foods  in  general  are  less  completely  digested 
than  animal  foods,  and  this  legumin  is  acted  on  mainly  by  the 
ferments  which  work  in  alkaline  solutions,  especially  in  the  lower 
part  of  the  alimentary  system.  On  this  account,  then,  beans  are 
not  readily  digested  in  the  stomach,  although  they  are  absorbed  by 
the  intestines. 

Nutritive  Value 

Numerous  experiments^  have  been  made  to  find  out  to  what 
extent  the  protein  of  beans,  peas,  etc.,  is  actually  utilized  as  a 
nutrient  in  the  system.  Some  of  these  experiments  seemed  to 
indicate  that  there  was  a  much  greater  waste  of  protein  than  when 
meat  or  wheat  was  used  as  food,  but  later  results  show  that,  with 
certain  limitations  and  precautions,  the  protein  of  the  legumes 
is  fairly  well  digested.  The  legumes  do,  however,  require  more 
work  by  the  digestive  tract  than  many  other  foods.  If  beans  or 
peas  are  ground  before  being  cooked,  the  absorption  of  protein  is 
more  complete.  It  is  also  well  established  that  if  they  are  com- 
bined with  other  foods,  and  do  not  form  too  large  a  proportion  of 
the  diet,  the  nutriment  is  much  more  completely  utilized  than  when 
they  are  used  alone.  In  comparison  with  other  vegetable  pro- 
teins, the  legume  proteins  are  less  well  utilized.* 

^  Human  Foods  and  Their  Nutritive  Value,  Snyder,  p.  72. 
•  Jour.  Bidog.  ChenH,  Vol.  10,  p.  457. 

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The  flatulence  that  is  often  occasioned  by  the  use  of  a  diet 
consisting  largely  of  beans  is  probably  caused  by  the  decomposi- 
tion by  bactei'ia  of  the  germ  of  the  bean  in  the  intestine,  giving 
rise  to  a  considerable  quantity  of  the  hydrocarbon,  methan  (CH4). 
The  abundant  sulfur  found  in  the  protein  of  beans  may  also  have 
something  of  the  same  effect. 

Legumes  as  Food 

It  is  true  that  beans  form  an  admirable  and  cheap  addition  to 
the  food  of  persons  engaged  in  manual  labor,  and  persons  exposed 
to  severe  weather,  for  in  lumber  camps  and  mining  regions  they 
are  used  in  great  quantities  and  with  little  discomfort.  Under 
such  conditions,  a  pound  of  baked  beans  per  person  a  day  produces 
no  ill  effects.  People  of  sedentary  habits,  however,  are  not  able 
to  digest  large  quantities  of  leguminous  foods,  and  whenever  these 
foods  are  used  an  abundance  of  other  nutrients  should  be  eaten 
at  the  same  time. 

Says  Hutchinson,  in  speaking  of  the  pea  and  bean,^  "As  a 
cheap  and  efficient  method  of  supplementing  the  deficiency  of 
nitrogen  in  a  purely  vegetable  diet,  however,  their  use  is  strongly 
to  be  recommended,  and  it  is  a  pity  that  they  are  not  more  largely 
taken  advantage  of  by  those  to  whom  economy  is  of  importance, 
for  unquestionably  the  pulses  are  among  the  cheapest  of  foods,  and 
a  given  sum  will  3deld  more  protein,  if  invested  in  these,  than  in 
any  other  way."  Flour  made  from  beans  or  peas  is  used  to  a 
limited  extent  in  some  countries.  As  the  legumes  when  ground 
into  flour  furnish  a  more  digestible  food  than  when  used  whole,  it 
is  rather  remarkable  that  this  product  is  not  more  generally 
placed  on  the  market. 


The  bean  on  account  of  the  numerous  ways  in  which  it  can  be 
prepared  for  food,  and  because  it  is  so  readily  grown,  is  one  of  the 

'  Food  and  Dietetics,  p.  224. 

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most  important  of  the  legumes.  It  is  believed  that  beans  were 
cultivated  by  the  Indians  of  both  North  and  South  America, 
and  we  read  of  the  Algonquins  having  one  or  two  varieties  of  pole 
beans.  Champlain  speaks  of  planting  the  "Brazilian  bean" 
in  the  region  of  the  Kennebec,  and  bean  flour  is  mentioned  as 
having  been  in  use  among  the  Aztecs. 

Beans  may  be  grown  for  use  as  "snap"  or  "string"  beans,  as 
fresh  or  green  beans,  or  they  may  be  allowed  to  dry  and  be  kept  for 
winter  use.  For  the  latter  purpose  very  large  quantities  are  grown 
on  a  commercial  scale  in  the  United  States  and  abroad. 


The  amount  of  starch  and  protein  in  some  of  the  common  edible 
beans  is  as  follows: 

String  beans 

Shelled  kidney  beans 

Shelled  lima  beans 

Canned  baked  beans 

Dried  navy  beans 

Dried  lima  beans 

For  comparison,  wheat  flour  contains 

The  protein  of  beans  is  called  legumin,  and  consists  chiefly  of 
phaseolin,  and  a  small  quantity  of  phaselin. 


The  process  used  in  cooking  beans  is  of  greater  importance 
than  is  the  case  with  most  other  vegetables.  Young,  absolutely 
fresh  string  beans  can  be  thoroughly  softened  in  from  one  to 
one  and  a  half  hours'  boiling.  The  Germans  pack  string  beans  in 
salt,  and  thus  cure  them  by  a  process  in  which  lactic  fermentation 

'^  Digitized  by  LjOOgle 


familar  to  that  used  for  sauerkraut,  occurs.  They  are  then 
soaked  out  and  freshened  with  water  before  using. 

Shell  beans,  which  must  also  be  fresh,  should  not  be  overcooked, 
or  they  will  lose  their  fine  flavor  and  become  yellowish  brown. 
The  addition  of  butter,  after  the  vegetable  is  cooked,  improves  the 
flavor  and  increases  the  food  value  of  the  product. 

Lima  beans  and  kidney  beans  are  often  put  upon  the  market 
canned,  but  the  greatest  demand  is  for  ''baked  beans,''  which  are 
frequently  flavored  with  "tomato  sauce,"  molasses,  pork,  etc. 
It  is  a  question  whether  some  of  the  so-called  "baked  beans"  on 
the  market  should  really  bear  this  label,  as  the  product  differs  so 
decidedly  in  method  of  preparation  and  quality  from  the  domestic 

In  the  cooking  of  dried  beans  it  is  advisable  to  use  a  little 
baking  soda  in  the  water,  as  some  of  this  enters  into  combination 
with  the  legumin  and  renders  this  substance  more  digestible. 
It  is  the  common  household  practice  to  soak  the  beans  for  at  least 
eight  hours  before  boiling.  The  food  is  made  more  digestible  if 
the  skin  which  contains  much  indigestible  cellulose  is  removed 
before  cooking.  This  can  be  readily  done  by  boiling  with  a  small 
amount  of  baking  soda,  and  then  washing  in  cold  water.  The 
main  requirements  for  cooking  dried  beans  are,  to  soften  the  cellu- 
lose so  that  the  beans  can  be  easily  masticated  and  thus  render 
them  more  accessible  to  the  digestive  enzymes,  to  so  cook  the 
protein  as  that  it  shall  be  digestible  and  palatable,  and  finally  to 
swell  the  starch  grains. 

Experiments  show  that  soft  water  is  much  more  suitable  for 
use  in  cooking  beans  and  other  legumes  than  hard  water;  rain  or 
dstem  water  is  the  best,  although  of  course  there  is  no  objection 
to  the  use  of  distilled  water.  The  reason  for  preferring  soft  water 
is  that  the  lime  of  hard  water  forms  insoluble  compounds  with  the 
proteins  of  the  legumes,  and  then  no  amount  of  cooking  will  soften 

It  has  been  universally  conceded  that  long  cooking  at  a  moder- 
ate temperature  develops  the  flavor  of  beans  and  most  effectually 

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SOY  BEANS  195 

softens  the  tissue.  This  is  illustrated  by  the  delicious  flavor  of 
the  old-fashioned  "pork  and  beans"  of  New  England,  which  was 
baked  for  at  least  twelve  hours  in  the  slow  cooking  brick  oven. 
The  addition  of  fat,  as  salt  pork,  not  only  improves  the  flavor, 
but  supplies  needed  ingredients  to  make  a  better  balanced 

Lima  beans  (p.  lunatus),  both  pole  and  dwarf,  are  favored 
in  the  dietary,  on  account  of  their  size  and  flavor.  They  are 
especially  used  in  making  the  well-known  North  American  Indian 
dish,  called  "succotash."  (See  Corn,  p.  43.)  A  variety  of  the 
kidney  bean  very  extensively  grown,  and  used  especially  in  France, 
is  known  as  the  haricot  or  in  the  United  States  as  the  "navy  bean." 
The  large  yellow  bean  grown  in  Italy  forms  such  an  important 
part  of  the  food  that  it  is  cooked  and  exposed  on  the  streets  for 
sale.  The  broad  bean  (Vicia  faba),  which  is  one  of  the  oldest 
of  these  leguminous  plants  known,  grows  well  in  the  northern 
United  States  and  in  Canada,  and  is  an  important  crop  in  Europe. 
It  is  not  so  well  suited  to  countries  liable  to  prolonged  rainless 

Soy  Beans 

Soy  beans  (Soja  bean)  (Glycine  hispida)  have  been  recently 
introduced  into  the  United  States  from  Japan.  ^  The  foliage 
is  used  as  food  for  stock,  and  the  beans  are  much  used  as  food  for 
man  in  southeastern  Asia  but,  perhaps  because  a  taste  for  them 
has  not  yet  been  cultivated,  they  are  not  extensively  used  as  human 
food  either  in  Europe  or  America.  This  bean  has  a  remarkably 
high  per  cent,  of  protein  (35  per  cent.),  and  contains  20  per  cent, 
of  fat*  and  some  cane  sugar.  It  is  asserted  by  a  recent  author' 
that  soy  bean  flour  contains  no  starch  or  reducing  sugar.  If 
this  proves  to  be  the  case  this  flour  will  be  of  great  importance 
in  the  feeding  of  infants  and  diabetic  patients. 

*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.y  Farmers*  Bull.  No.  372, 

*  Tennessee  Agri.  Ex.  SU.  Bull.  No.  83. 
» Rflhrah  (Abst)  C.  A.,  Vol.  6,  p.  1789. 

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Preparations  from  the  Soy  Bean 

One  variety  of  soy  bean  analyzed^  contains: 

Water 9.80 

Protein 37.13 

Carbohydrates 24.40 

Fat 18.36 

Lecithin 1.62 

Crude  fiber 4.47 

Ash 4.30 

In  China,  Manchuria,  Korea  and  Japan  the  soy  bean  supple- 
ments very  well  the  rice  diet  of  the  natives,  as  it  furnishes  both 
protein  and  fat  in  which  the  rice  is  so  deficient.  This  is  especially 
the  case  in  those  districts  where  fish  are  not  available  at  a  moderate 
cost.  In  the  recent  war  between  Russia  and  Japan  soy  beans  were 
the  chief  food-stuff  upon  which  dependence  was  placed.^  A  sauce 
called  "soy  sauce,"  having  a  pimgent  and  agreeable  taste,  is  also 
made  by  fermenting  for  several  months  with  a  special  ferment  a 
mixture  of  cooked  soy  beans,  roasted  wheat  flour  and  salt.  Other 
leguminous  products  often  called  "bean  cheeses"  are  used  in  these 
countries.  "Natto,"'  is  made  from  the  boiled  beans  packed 
in  rice  straw  and  allowed  to  ferment.  The  mass  becomes  white 
and  mucilaginous  by  the  development  of  bacteria,  and  the  straw 
flavors  the  product.*  Other  foods  are  "  miso, "  a  fermented  product 
made  from  beans,  barley  and  salt,  and  "tofu,"  which  is  made  by 
crushing  and  boiling  the  beans  and  filtering  through  cloth.  Two 
per  cent,  of  concentrated  sea  brine  is  added  to  this,  which,  probably 
on  account  of  the  calcium  and  magnesium  present,  precipitates  the 
plant  casein,  which  is  then  pressed  into  white  tablets.  Soy  milk 
is  made  by  boiling  the  beans,  and  beating  to  a  pulp,  when  some  of 
the  vegetable  casein  passes  into  solution,  and  a  milky  looking 
liquid  is  obtained.  Soy  bean  oil  will,  no  doubt,  eventually  be 
used  for  many  purposes,  perhaps  as  food  in  the  United  States, 

*  Chem.  Abs.,  Vol.  2,  p.  864. 

*  Lewkowitsch,  Chem.  Ind.,  33,  705-8. 

*  Eighth  Int.  Cong.  Appl.  Chem.,  18-251. 

*  Jour.  Ind.  and  Eng.  Chem.,  Vol.  4,  p.  897 

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just  as  cotton-seed  oil  has  come  into  extensive  use  within  the  past 
thirty  years.  It  is  used  mixed  with  cotton-seed  oil  as  a  salad  oil. 
(Seep.  316.) 


The  locust  bean  (Ceratonia  siliqua),  under  the  name  of  St. 
John's  bread  or  locust  or  carob  bean  is  sold  in  the  markets  of  the 
larger  cities  of  the  United  States.  It  comes  originally  from  Syria 
and  on  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean  is  grown  as  food  for  cattle. 
This  bean  was  much  in  favor  among  the  Arabs,  who  extended 
its  growth  as  far  as  Morocco  and  Spain.  It  appears  in  all  the 
central  European  fruit  markets.  The  ripe  seeds  are  surrounded  by 
a  sweet  mucilaginous  mass,  which  is,  however,  by  some  appre- 
ciated more  as  a  confectionery  than  as  a  food.  The  dried  pod 
yields  50  per  cent,  of  sugar.  Another  bean  of  local  importance  is 
the  Frijole,  which  is  largely  grown  and  used  as  a  staple  food  in 
Mexico  and  the  Southwest.  In  fact  next  to  corn  (maize)  these 
beans  form  the  principal  part  of  the  diet  of  a  large  number  of  peo- 
ple. The  beans  are  small,  flat  and  usually  of  a  reddish-brown 
color  and  are  extensively  used  as  "snap"  beans.  Canned  beans 
either  green  wax  or  "snap"  are  becoming  an  important  food  prod- 
uct. They  are  "processed"  in  tin  cans  in  the  same  way  as 

The  tamarind  (Tamarindus  indica)  is  the  pod  of  a  leguminous 
tree  growing  in  tropical  Africa,  the  East  and  West  Indies.  The 
name  in  Arabic  signifies  "  Indian  date."  The  seeds  are  used  as  an 
astringent,  the  leaves  to  furnish  a  dye  stuff,  and  the  wood  for  tim- 
ber. The  beans  are  surrounded,  inside  the  pod,  with  a  dark- 
colored  pasty  material,  which  is  the  edible  portion  of  the  fruit. 
This  has  a  pleasant  sweetish-sour  taste,  and  upon  analysis  is 
shown  to  contain  82  per  cent,  of  total  solids,  15  per  cent,  of  acid, 
mostly  tartaric,  and  over  40  per  cent,  of  reducing  sugar.  In  fact, 
it  contains  more  sugar  than  the  sweetest  fruit,  and  more  acid 
than  the  sourest  fruit.  The  large  amount  of  sugar  is  not,  however, 
enough  to  entirely  mask  the  effect  of  the  acid,  and  the  taste  is 

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iqS  legumes 

distinctly  sour.  On  account  of  this  peculiar  compoflition  tama- 
rinds are  used  to  make  cooling,  sub-acid  beverages,  especially  for 
invalids.  The  fruit  is  official  in  the  Pharmacopoeia  as  a  laxative 
and  refrigerant.  Tamarinds  are  preserved  either  by  the  addition  of 
salt  and  drying  in  the  sun,  or  by  putting  in  jars  and  covering  with 
sugar  sirup.  Tamarind  paste,  which  is  a  mixture  of  the  pulp  and 
about  75  per  cent,  of  sugar,  is  a  valuable  commercial  product.  By 
mixing  an  ounce  of  the  tamarind  pulp  with  about  1 1/2  pints  of  warm 
milk  a  nourishing  beverage,  called  ''tamarind  whey,"  is  obtained. 
TJje  young  pods  are  sometimes  cooked  with  rice  and  fish.^  The 
paste  inside  the  pods  is  in  some  countries  sold  in  balls  weighing  about 
3  oimces,  and  these  are  used  for  making  a  laxative  beverage.  The 
pulp  is  also  used  to  adulterate  guava  jelly,  but  this  substitution 
may  be  readily  detected  by  the  presence  of  tartaric  add  in  the  prod- 
uct, as  this  acid  is  absent  in  true  guava  jelly.  From  tamarind 
seeds,  an  oil  may  be  made  which  is  suitable  to  use  in  paint,  and 
has  greater  drying  qualities  than  linseed  oil.  The  roasted  seeds 
are  said  to  be  superior  to  peanuts  in  flavor,  and  a  valuable  food 


The  cow  pea  (Vigna  catjang),  is  properly  a  bean,  and  was 
originally  brought  from  China  or  India,  where  it  is  in  common  use. 
This  bean  may  be  cooked  and  eaten  green,  or  the  dried  bean  may 
be  cooked.  Although  indigenous  to  equatorial  Africa,  it  grows 
readily  in  many  sub-tropical  countries,  as  in  the  Southern  States. 
As  it  requires  quite  a  long  season  in  which  to  mature  its  seed,  the 
cow  pea  cannot  be  successfully  grown  in  the  Northern  States. 
Many  varieties  have  a  pleasing  and  delicate  flavor,  and  are  consid- 
ered a  staple  crop  in  the  warm  countries.  They  are  used  in  the 
pod,  shelled  green  and  shelled  dry.* 

*  PhU.  Jour.  Science,  Vol.  8,  Sec.  A,  p.  71. 
«  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  559. 

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Enough  has  aheady  been  said  m  regard  to  the  raising  of  beans 
in  different  parts  of  the  world  to  show  their  general  use.  In  the 
United  States  the  three  most  important  bean-producing  states 
are  Michigan,  New  York  and  California,  although  the  crop  is 
readily  grown  from  Florida  to  Minnesota.  The  bean  crop  of  1909 
in  the  United  States  was  1 1 ,  145,000  bushels.  There  were  imported 
into  the  United  States  in  191 1,  1,037,371  bushels  of  beans.  The 
greatest  bean-producing  country  is  Italy,  which  raised  20,632,000 
bushels  in  1910.  Spain  is  next  in  importance  producing  13,454- 
000  bushels  the  same  year.^ 

PEAS  (Pisum  sativum) 

Although  it  is  known  that  the  Greeks  and  Romans  cultivated 
peas,  yet  they  do  not  seem  to  have  been  in  common  use  as  long, 
nor  to  have  been  as  universally  grown  as  beans.  They  were  no 
doubt  introduced  into  Europe  by  the  Aryans,  and  were  first 
brought  to  England,  where  they  were  regarded  as  a  great  dainty, 
from  Holland  in  the  seventeenth  century.  Peas  are  more  often 
used  when  green  than  is  the  case  with  beans,  and  less  so  when  dry. 


Much  that  has  been  said  in  regard  to  the  growth,  composition 
and  digestibility  of  beans  applies  equally  well  to  peas.  Their 
composition  is  as  follows:^ 





sugar,  etc. 


Green  pea. 
Dry  pea . . . 







1  Year-book,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  191 1. 

«  Foods  and  Their  Adulterations,  Wiley  (2d  Ed.),  p.  288. 

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Comparing  this  analysis  with  that  of  the  bean,  it  is  evident  that 
peas,  especially  when  dried,  are  even  more  nitrogenous  than  beans, 
and  nearly  all  this  nitrogenous  material  is  said  to  exist  in  the  form 
of  proteins.  The  protein  of  peas  consists  chiefly  of  legumin,  a 
globidin  not  coagulated  by  heat  and  vicilin. 

The  unripe  or  green  peas  are  more  digestible  than  are  dried 
peas  and  they  contain  considerable  sugar,  which  greatly  improves 
their  flavor.  The  field  pea  (pisum  arvense)  is  often  grown  to 
furnish  the  "split  peas"  of  commerce.  In  preparing  these  for 
market  the  outer  skin  is  removed,  thus  increasing  the  digestibility 
of  the  product.  Pea  ^our  has  a  considerable  sale,  especially 
abroad,  and  is  used  in  making  soups.  The  "Erbswurst,"  so  much 
in  use  in  Germany,  especially  in  the  army,  is  composed  of  pea  flour, 
fat  pork  and  salt  and  is  so  nutritious  that  a  comparatively  small 
amount  will  sustain  the  men  for  a  long  march.  This  diet,  however, 
is  liable  to  become  monotonous,  and  to  produce  irritation  in  the 
alimentary  canal. 

Canned  Peas 

Canned  green  peas  are  a  very  important  addition  to  the 
dietary,  especially  in  the  United  States.  If  the  process  is  well 
conducted,  and  the  peas  are  not  too  mature,  an  extremely  edible 
product  is  available  for  use  throughout  the  year.  Canned  peas 
have  been  subject  to  several  methods  of  adulteration.  They  may 
be  sweetened  by  saccharin,  but  this  is  not  permissible  in  the  United 
States  in  samples  going  into  interstate  commerce.^  It  has  also 
been  the  custom  to  produce  an  artificial  green  color,  by  the  use  of 
salts  of  copper,  but  this  practice  has  beeq,  virtually  discontinued 
here  although  still  practised  abroad.*  Old  or  dried  peas  are 
sometimes  soaked  for  a  long  time  and  then  canned  and  put  on  the 
market  as  fresh  or  green  peas.  In  some  states  the  law  provides 
that  such  a  product  shall  be  plainly  labeled  as  "soaked  goods." 
They  are  lacking  in  flavor  and  are  of  very  poor  quality.    They  may 

»  F.  I.  D.  No.  I3S,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri. 
•  F.  I.  D.  No.  92. 

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usually  be  detected  by  the  fact  that  the  root  of  the  embryo  has 
started  to  grow  due  to  the  long  soaking. 

Pea  Growing 

Peas  are  not  grown  as  far  south  as  are  beans,  yet  throughout 
the  north  temperate  zone  there  is  a  wide  area  where  they  are 
raised,  both  in  the  garden  and  on  a  commercial  scale  for  the  market. 
In  Mediterranean  countries,  Spanish  America  and  in  British 
India,  the  chick  pea  or  gram  (Cicer  arietinum)  is  extensively  used. 
This  is  the  "garbanza"  of  Spanish  cookery.  It  is  a  large  pea  and 
grows  singly  in  round  pods.  Although  these  peas  may  be  boiled 
for  use,  they  are  more  commonly  roasted,  and  still  form  an  im- 
portant article  of  food  for  travellers  in  Oriental  lands.  It  was 
perhaps  the  "parched  pulse "  of  the  ancient  Hebrews.  It  is  known 
also  as  an  ingredient  of  the  distinctly  Spanish  dish  "  oUa  podrida." 

LENTILS  (Lens  esculenta) 

This  is  a  very  ancient  food  plant,  and  one  of  the  earliest  brought 
into  cultivation.  The  Bible  tells  of  its  use  in  Egypt,  Asia  and 
Mediterranean  countries.  The  "red  pottage"  for  which  Jacob 
sold  his  birthright  to  Esau  was  composed  largely  of  lentils.^  The 
European  market  is  even  now  principally  supplied  with  lentils 
from  Egypt,  although  they  might  be  readily  cultivated  farther 
north.  In  the  preparation  for  market,  the  outer  skin  is  usually 

With  the  increasing  immigration  from  southern  Europe,  where 
lentils  are  more  used  than  formerly,  they  have  also  become  more 
popular  as  a  food  in  thS  United  States.  In  composition  the  lentil 
is  one  of  the  most  nutritious  of  all  the  legumes,  and  contains  the 
highest  per  cent,  of  protein.  According  to  Church*  it  contains 
25  per  cent,  of  albuminoids,  etc.,  56.1  per  cent,  of  starch  and  2 
per  cent,  of  fat.  Lentils  also  contain  a  little  sulfur  and  some 
varieties  are  particularly  rich  in  iron.    They  are  considered  more 

*  Genesis  25  :  34. 

•Food,  p.  97.  rn.n.n]o 

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digestible  than  either  peas  or  beans.  It  is  jwobably  on  account  of 
the  strong  flavor,  and  because  other  legumes  that  are  considered 
more  agreeable  are  so  abundant,  that  lentils  have  not  come  into 
more  general  use  among  the  people  of  the  northern  coimtries. 

The  favorite  method  of  serving  lentils  is  in  the  form  of 
pur6e  and  in  soups  and  stews.  There  are  at  least  three  varieties, 
one  similar  to  the  common  pea^  one  a  larger  yellowish  variety,  and 
a  third  a  small  brownish  or  reddish  seed,  of  more  delicate  flavor. 

A  proprietary  food  known  as  ''revalenta  arabica/*  consisting 
mainly  of  lentil  flour,  is  found  in  the  market.  This  may  also 
contain  ground  peas,  beans,  corn,  wheat  or  barley.  According 
to  Hutchinson,  analysis  showed  that  this  food  contained  less 
protein  than  the  lentil  flour.  During  Lent  the  Catholics  use 
lentils  in  the  place  of  meat,  and  lentil  flour  is  used  by  the  Hin- 
doos, when  engaged  in  laborious  work,  to  supplement  their  diet 
of  rice. 

Lentils  can  be  readily  grown  in  the  southwestern  United  States 
and  Mexico,  and  their  cultivation  has  already  been  started  in 
these  sections  of  scanty  rainfall,  sandy  soil,  and  moderate  fertility. 

PEANUT  (Arachis  hypogaea) 

The  peanut,  although  usually  known  as  a  nut,  is  in  reality 
a  pea,  bearing  its  fruit  beneath  the  surface  of  the  ground  rather 
than  above.  (Fig.  29.)  This  is  the  storehouse  of  starch  and  fat 
for  the  growing  plant,  and  the  plant  is  propagated  by  planting  these 
nuts.  The  peanut  is  known  under  various  names  as  "ground- 
nut,'' "pindar''  and  "goober."^ 

As  there  are  several  allied  species  of  the  peanut  plant  in  Brazil, 
and  as  a  wild  "goober"  grows  in  the  southern  Gulf  States,  it 
seems  probable  that  the  peanut  is  of  tropical  American  origin. 
Although  introduced  into  the  United  States  quite  early,  the  peanut 
did  not  become  an  important  commercial  crop  until  about  1870. 
It  has  been  grown  in  Africa  for  many  years  and  some  varieties 
may  have  originated  in  that  country. 

*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Farmers'  Bull.  Nos.  121,  332,  356. 

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Peanut  Growing 

As  it  is  somewhat  unique,  a  word  in  regard  to  the  way  in  which 
the  peanut  is  grown  may  be  of  interest.  The  small  yellow  flowers 
are  borne  in  a  little  pocket  where  the  leaves  are  attached  to  the 
stem,  and  as  soon  as  the  flower  fades,  the  elongating  stem  thrusts 
the  ovary  beneath  the  surface  of  the  soil,  where  the  pod  is  subse- 



^^^^M^H  uBvi  1 





Fig.  29. — The  peanut  plant,  showing  the  pod  growing  beneath  the  surface  of  the 

ground.     (Wiley.) 

quently  developed.     If  the  ovary  does  not  get  beneath  the  surface 
no  fruit  is  formed. 

Peanuts  grow  best  on  a  well-drained,  sandy  loam,  and  require 
a  long  season  without  frost  (from  ninety  to  one  hundred  and 
twenty  days),  small  rainfall  during  the  growing  season,  a  high 

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temperature  and  abundant  sunshine.  It  should  not  be  forgotten 
that,  like  other  legumes,  the  peanut  is  a  soil-renovating  and  a  soil- 
improving  plant,  through  the  nitrogen  of  the  atmosphere  collected 
in  the  root-nodules.  Peanuts  are  picked  from  the  roots  and  vines, 
either  by  hand  or  machinery,  and  are  mechanically  sorted  and 
thoroughly  cleaned  at  the  factory.  There  are  fo\ir  distinct 
varieties  raised  in  the  Southern  States,  viz.,  Virginia  bunch.  North 
Carolina,  Spanish,  and  Tennessee  red. 


Although  the  composition  of  dififerent  varieties  differs  consider- 
ably, the  average  may  be  stated  as  consisting  of  protein  26  per 
cent.,  of  oil  38  per  cent.,  and  of  sugar,  starch,  etc.,  24  per  cent. 
They  are  therefore  extremely  rich  in  oil  and  protein.  In  the  roasted 
peanut,  as  the  water  is  reduced  to  less  than  2  per  cent.,  the  quan- 
tity of  oil  may  be  as  high  as  51  per  cent,  and  of  proteins  28  per  cent. 

Use  as  Food 

Peanuts  may  be  regarded  as  wholesome  food,  if  not  used  in  too 
large  quantities,  but  they  should  be  mixed  with  other  food.  Pea- 
nut flour  is  such  a  highly  nutritious  food  material  that  experiments 
have  been  made  with  a  view  of  using  it  as  a  constituent  of  a  con- 
centrated food  product  for  soldier's  rations.* 

The  use  of  peanuts  has  increased  enormously  in  the  United 
States  in  the  last  ten  years,  both  as  stock  food,  and  for  human 
consumption.  For  the  latter  purpose  peanuts  are  roasted,  thereby 
improving  the  flavor  which  is  probably  due  to  the  browned 
starches,  proteins,  oils,  etc.  Prepared  in  this  way  peanuts  are 
coming  into  very  extensive  use  either  as  a  confection,  ''salted 
peanuts,"  or  in  candies,  ''peanut  brittle,"  or  for  other  confection- 
ery purposes.  The  unroasted  peanut  has  the  taste  of  uncooked 
beans  or  peas.  There  is  an  advantage  in  using  the  peanut  with 
sugar  or  with  popcorn  and  puffed  rice,  as  this  combination  makes 
a  better  balanced  ration. 

*  Proc.  la.  Acad.  Science,  10,  pp.  loS-iii. 
»  Practical  Dietetics,  Thompson,  p.  165. 

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Peanut  Products 

The  use  of  peanut  butter  and  a  preparation  called  peanolia 
is  also  on  the  increase.  In  the  manufacture  of  these  products, 
the  peanuts  are  carefully  roasted,  then  thoroughly  cleaned  to 
remove  the  outer  coating  and  the  germ,  and  finally  ground  in 
a  special  mill.  This  product,  sometimes  fresh,  and  sometimes 
salted,  is  put  up  in  sealed  packages  or  in  wooden  tubs  and  placed 
on  the  market  by  the  ton.  The  factory  process  can  be  practically 
imitated  at  home  by  the  use  of  a  small  meat  grinder.  "  Vegetable 
meats''  are  prepared  from  peanuts  by  expressing  some  of  the  oil 
and  adding  to  the  residue  various  vegetable  substances.  Peanut 
meal  is  largely  used  in  confectionery,  especially  for  making  imita- 
tion almond  macaroons,  and  small  cakes.  The  oil  of  peanuts  is 
easily  expressed,  of  excellent  flavor,  high  nutritive  value,  and  pos- 
sesses much  better  keeping  qualities  than  some  of  the  other  oils 
used  for  salad  purposes.     (See  Fats  and  Oils,  p.  313.) 

In  the  United  States  for  commercial  purposes,  peanuts  are 
chiefly  cultivated  in  Virginia,  Tennessee,  the  Carolinas,  Oklahoma 
and  Georgia,  but  they  may  be  grown  throughout  the  Southern 
States,  and  southern  Missouri  and  Kansas,  as  well  as  in  California. 
Most  of  the  manufactured  products,  however,  come  from  the  six 
states  first  mentioned.  A  yield  of  50  bushels  per  acre  is  considered 
a  fair  crop.  The  value  of  the  peanut  crop  in  1908  in  the  United 
States  was  estimated  at  $12,000,000. 

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The  culmination  of  the  annual  or  biennial  life  of  plants  is 
at  the  time  when  their  seed  is  produced  and  ripened  for  the  further 
propagation  of  the  species.  Closely  associated  with  the  seed  is  the 
pulp  or  fleshy  part  of  the  fruit  or  berry,  which  usually  is  present 
as  a  vegetable  mass  surrounding  the  seed.  This  is  often  edible 
and  brightly  colored  so  that  it  attracts  the  birds,  insects  and  quad- 
rupeds, who  thus  assist  in  scattering  the  seeds.  Primitive  man 
was  no  doubt  attracted  in  the  same  way  by  the  color,  odor  and 
appearance  of  the  wild  fruits,  and  if  the  taste  proved  to  be  agree- 
able, he  continued  their  use.  Incidentally  the  fruits  appeased  his 
hunger,  and  soon  he  used  them  to  sustain  life.  Some  fruits, 
however,  must  have  produced  disagreeable  symptoms  when  first 
eaten,  and  some  would  produce  death.  In  this  case  the  word 
would  be  commxmicated  to  others  that  the  fruit  was  poisonous 
and  hence  should  always  be  avoided.  It  was  not  necessary 
for  primitive  man  to  possess  a  knowledge  of  the  constituents 
of  fruits,  as  he  was  only  concerned  with  the  agreeable  taste,  and 
their  power  to  sustain  life.  It  naturally  follows  that  the  abun- 
dance of  wild  fruits  in  certain  regions  at  particular  times  of  the 
year  attracted  the  nomadic  people  to  that  locality.  When  they 
had  harvested  these  fruits  they  would  move  to  some  other  local- 
ity to  obtain  other  food  products. 

As  man  arose  in  the  scale  of  civilization  he  began  to  study  other 
problenis  in  relation  to  fruits.  He  tried  to  learn  whether  they 
might  be  cultivated  to  advantage,  whether  they  were  liable  to  be 
injured  by  disease  or  insect  pests  and  what  were  their  keeping 
qualities.    The  inquiry  would  then  be  pushed  still  farther  so  as  to 

^^  Digitized  by  LjOOgle 


learn  what  their  nutritive -qualities  were,  and  their  physiological 

In  temperate  climates  we  are  accustomed  to  regard  fruit  as  an 
agreeable  addition  to  the  diet,  rather  than  a  staple  food.  In 
this  way  oranges,  apples,  peaches,  cherries,  grapes  and  melons  are 
used.  In  tropical  countries,  however,  the  fruits  are  the  food,  and 
frequently  almost  the  only  food  of  the  natives.  Without  the 
banana,  the  bread  fruit,  the  fig,  the  date  and  the  cocoanut  these 
people  could  not  live  so  easily,  and  if  they  were  deprived  of  their 
accustomed  fruit  diet  they  would  find  that  much  greater  labor  on 
their  part  would  be  necessary  to  obtain  food  enough  to  sustain 

Botanically  speaking,  a  fruit  is  the  ripe  or  ripening  ovary  with 
its  contents  and  any  closely  adhering  parts.  The  fruit  nourishes 
the  yoxmg  seed  and  protects  it  during  its  development.  The 
fleshy  portion  surroimding  the  seeds  is  known  as  the  pericarp. 
The  green  fruit  does  not  differ  very  much  from  the  leaf  in  com- 
position, but  xmder  the  influence  of  sunlight  in  the  process  of  ripen- 
ing, there  is  a  remarkable  change  in  size,  color,  texture,  composi- 
tion and  flavor,  as  the  ripening  fruit  begins  to  absorb  oxygen  and 
to  give  out  carbon  dioxide. 

Cultivated  fruits  and  berries  have  been  developed  from  the 
wild  varieties  and  it  is  possible  in  different  countries  to  trace  most 
of  them  from  some  special  wild  variety.  Some  berries,  as  blue- 
berries, have  never  been  much  improved  from  the  original  wild 
varieties.  Both  the  wild  and  cultivated  cranberry,  strawberry, 
blackberry  and  raspberry  are  used  as  food.  There  are  some  fruits, 
as  elderberries,  mulberries  and  service  berries,  which  are  eaten  by 
birds  but  which  have  thus  far  f oxmd  slight  favor  as  food  for  man  in 
this  coimtry,  although  sometimes  used  in  making  wine  and  mixed 
with  other  fruits  in  making  sauce. 

In  North  America  the  Indians  used  the  wild  berries  and  fruits, 
but  as  they  were  a  nomadic  people  in  their  habits,  made  no  attempt 
to  improve  them  by  cultivation.  The  white  immigrants,  however, 
saw  the  possibilities  for  improvement  in  these  products,  and  early 

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in  the  nineteenth  century  began  to*  select  and  improve  them. 
Sometimes,  it  is  true,  the  flavor  of  fruits  and  berries  has  been 
sacrificed  for  size,  color,  texture  and  abundant  fruitage,  but  this  is 
not  usually  the  case. 

That  the  kinds  of  fruits  and  vegetables  in  use  by  civilized  man 
has  not  increased  very  much  is  shown  by  consulting  the  earlier 
literature  and  by  inspection  of  some  of  the  noted  paintings  of 
artists  of  the  sixteenth  century,  like  those  of  Snyder. 

There  has  been  a  tendency  to  eliminate  the  seeds  from  edible 
fruits,  as  these  become  unnecessary  by  the  methods  of  propagation 
now  employed,  and  th^ir  growth  may  then  be  considered  a  "waste 
of  energy*'  on  the  part  of  the  plant.  The  fact  should,  however, 
not  be  lost  sight  of  that  the  presence  of  the  seed  in  the  fruit  may 
influence  the  flavor. 

By  some  early  natural  selection,  no  doubt,  the  seeds  were 
practically  eliminated  from  such  a  fruit  as  the  banana,  and  the 
cultivation  and  propagation  of  seedless  "sports"  has  been  prac- 
tised in  recent  times,  and  has  resulted  in  the  production  of  the 
seedless  orange  and  lemon,  and  to  some  extent  the  seedless  persim- 
mon and  other  fruits.^ 


Fruits  are  for  convenience  divided  into  the  following  classes:* 

A.  Orchard  FruUs. 

1.  Pome  Fruits. 

Apple  (crab  apple),  loquat,  medlar,  pear,  quince. 

2.  Drupe  Fruits. 

Apricot,  cherry,  date,  nectarine,  peach,  plum, 

3.  Citrus  Fruits. 

Citron,  grape  fruit  (shaddock  or  pomelo) ,  kumquat, 
lemon,  lime,  mandarin,  orange,  tangarine. 

B.  VineFruUs. 

I.  Grape. 

>  U.  S.  D«>t  Agri.,  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  293. 

«  Cyclopedia  of  Am.  Rorticulturc,  L,  IJ.  Bailey  (in  part).         r^^^^T^ 

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C.  Small  Fruits. 

I.  Blackberry,  blackcap,  blueberry  (cloudberry),  bar- 
berry, cranberry,  currant  (red  and  white),  currant 
(black),  dewberry,  elderberry,  gooseberry,  huckle- 
berry (whortleberry,  bUberry),  loganberry,  mulberry, 
raspberry  (red  and  white),  serviceberry,  squawberry, 
To  this  list  may  be  conveniently  added: 

D.  Miscellaneous  Fruits. 

I.  Agave,  avocado  (alligator  pear), banana  (plantain), 
bread  fruit,  fig,  guava,  mango,  olive,  papaw,  pome- 
granate, prickly  pear,  pineapple,  cashew  fruit. 

E.  Garden  Fruits. 

I.  Citron,  cucumber,  egg-plant  (aubergine),  vegetable 
marrow,  melon  (cantaloup,  muskmelon),  water- 
melon, pumpkin,  squash,  tomato. 


Practically  speaking  there  is  very  little  in  fruits  besides  a 
solution  of  sugar,  starches,  pectin,  and  organic  acids,  delicately 
flavored  with  essential  oils  and  aromatic  ethers,  and  the  cellulose  of 
plant  structure.  Cellulose  gives  stability  to  the  structvure,  and 
may  furnish  a  small  amount  of  nutriment.  Usually  about  80  per 
cent,  of  the  fruit  is  water,  and  the  remaining  20  per  cent,  consists  of 
the  above  substances  with  insoluble  matter  like  cellulose,  gums, 
etc.  The  nutritive  value  of  fruits  lies  in  their  soluble  and  insoluble 
carbohydrates,  proteins,  fats  and  mineral  salts,  just  as  it  does  in 
these  constituents  in  other  foods;  but  from  the  agreeable  taste  of 
fruits  and  the  mechanical  condition  in  which  the  nutrients  are 
found  there  is  no  doubt  ad{ied  value. 

The  carbohydrates,^  such  as  cane  sugar,  grape  sugar,  fruit 
sugar,  starch  and  pectose,  are  the  most  abundant  nutritive  con- 
stituents.   The  exact  kind  of  sugar  present  is  influenced  by  the 
stage  of  ripeness  of  the  fruit,  as  many  chemical  changes  take  place 
*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Farmers*  Eulletin.  293. 

^4  Digitized  by  Google 



during  the  ripening  and  maturing  process.    The  amount  of  the 
different  sugars  and  of  the  acid  in  common  fruits  is  as  follows:^ 

Cane  sugar 





Englbh  cherries . . . 







Peaches  (green) . . . 
Pears  (madeleine) , 



Grapes  (hothouse) 
Grapes  (green)  — 






5. 28 






1. 574 

The  changes  that  take  place  in  the  process  of  ripening  are 
admirably  shown  in  a  series  of  Analyses  of  Baldwin  Apples  made 
by  the  Pennsylvania  Department  of  Agriculture,  and  published  in 
their  bulletin  No.  5^.  Samples  of  "very  green,"  "green,*'  "ripe" 
and  "  overripe  "  apples  were  taken,  and  analyzed  with  the  following 
results  in  the  order  mentioned:  Invert  sugar  6.40,  6.46,  7.70, 
8.81;  sucrose  1.63,  4.05,  6.81,  5.26;  total  sugar  by  addition 
8.03,  10.51,  14.51,  14.07;  starch  4.14;  3.67,  0.17,  blank.  The 
free  malic  acid  in  the  "very  green"  apples  was  1.14  per  cent,  and 
in  the  overripe  apples  only  0.48  per  cent. 

Vegetable  Acids 

In  the  entire  range  of  foods,  it  is  only  in  fruits  that  the  vegetable 
acids  are  in  suflScient  abundance  to  be  of  importance.  They  also 
add  much  to  the  flavor  of  fruits. 

^  Ann.  Chem.  Ph3rs.,  59,  p.  233.  See  also  Food  Inspec,  fmd  Analysis,  Leach, 
3d.  Ed.,  p.  566.  Pg.^.^^^  ^y LjOOgle 

PECTIN  211 

Only  a  small  number  of  organic  acids  are  found  in  fruits.^ 
These  are  malic  acid  (H8C4H4O6),  which  occurs  especially  in 
apples,  pears,  currants,  berries,  pineapples,  grapes  and  cherries; 
citric  acid  (HsCeHaO?),  which  is  found  most  abundantly  in  the 
juice  of  limes,  lemons,  oranges,  currants,  unripe  tomatoes  and 
gooseberries,  and  tartaric  acid  (H2C4H4O6)  which  is  the  character- 
istic acid  of  grapes.  In  the  latter  fruit  the  acid  occurs  as  acid 
potassium  tartrate  (KHC4H4O6),  the  well-known  basis  of  the 
"cream of  tartar" of  commerce.  (Seep.  264.)  Racemic  acid,  a 
variety  of  tartaric  acid,  is  found  in  smaller  quantities  in  some  fruits, 
especially  in  grapes.  Acetic  acid  is,  not  a  normal  constituent  of 
fruits,  but  results  from  the  fermentation  of  sugars  and  starches  in 
fruits.     (See  Vinegar,  p.  235.) 

The  above  fruit  acids  are  found  in  various  proportions  in  fruit 
juices,  where  they  occur  usually  as  acid  salts  of  potassium,  sodium 
or  calcium,  imparting  an  agreeable  flavor  to  the  juice,  and  adding 
a  wholesome  and  stimulating  variety  to  food.  It  is  a  question 
whether  these  acids,  even  when  prepared  from  fruit  juices,  can  be 
added  to  foods  and  produce  as  wholesome  a  product  as  those  found 
in  the  natural  combinations  in  the  fruits.* 

Although  the  amount  of  vegetable  acid  in  most  fruits  is  not 
large,  as  is  shown  in  the  previous  table,  often  this  amount  cannot 
be  judged  correctly  by  the  sense  of  taste,  as  it  is  well  known  that 
sugar  masks  the  sour  taste.  The  tamarind  has  a  high  percentage 
of  sugar  but  still  has  a  decidedly  sour  taste,  because  it  is  very  rich 
in  both  acid  and  sugar. 

Pectin  Bodies 

Another  important  constituent  of  fruit  is  the  pectin  bodies 
which  are  somewhat  like  sugar  and  starch,  and  yet  have  their  own 
characteristic  properties.  These  substances,  when  vegetable  acids 
are  also  present,  give  fruit  juices  the  property  of  forming  a  thick 
mass  or  jelly,  especially  on  cooling  after  boiling  and  often  by  con- 

1  Univ.  of  Ills.  Bull.  Vol.  9,  No.  36,  191 2. 

«  Foods  and  Their  Adulteration,  Wiley,  p.  328. 

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tinued  exposure  to  sunlight.  Pectin  is  present  in  nearly  all  fruits, 
although  some  are  much  better  adapted  to  jelly  making  than 

Pectin  is  frequently  not  found  in  the  juice  of  raw  fruits.^ 
Experiments  have  shown  that  there  is  little  or  no  pectin  in  the 
juice  of  raw  apples,  raw  grapes,  and  hone  at  all  in  the  jidce  of  raw 
quinces.  In  the  juice  extracted  from  these  fruits  by  cooking,  how- 
ever, there  is  an  abundance  of  pectin.  The  juice  ol  some  fruits,  as 
currants  and  blackberries,  even  if  obtained  from  the  raw  fruit, 
contains  considerable  pectin,  but  that  from  the  cooked  fruits 
is  much  richer  in  this  material,  and  a  clearer  jelly  is  usually 

Fruits  yield  this  gelatinous  material  best  by  being  cooked  with 
water,  but  in  the  case  of  berries  and  very  juicy  fruits  but  little 
water  need  be  added.  Some  juices  will  partially  solidify  without 
heating  but  it  is  advisable  to  boil  the  juice  for  a  few  minutes. 

These  bodies  are  found  both  in  the  juice  and  the  "marc," 
or  insoluble  part  of  the  fruit.  By  boiling  with  water  the  latter 
variety  becomes  soluble.  The  pectins  are  precipitated  or  thrown 
out  of  solution  by  such  substances  as  alcohols,  sugars,  salts,  etc., 
therefore  hard  water  should  not  be  used  in  the  treatment  of  the 
raw  fruit. 

Pectin  bodies  yield  reducing  sugars,  furfurol  and  mucic  acid 
in  varying  quantities,  by  chemical  treatment.  We  are  still 
somewhat  at  a  loss  to  determine  the  exact  function  of  pectin 
bodies  in  fruits  and  vegetables,  although  it  has  been  suggested 
that  they  are  reserve  material  or  a  by-product,  or  perhaps  a  sub- 
stance needed  in  building  up  the  structure  of  the  organic  constitu- 
ents. These  pectin  bodies  are  usually  regarded  as  resulting  from 
the  combination  of  several  simpler  carbohydrates.^  As  they  are 
closely  related  to  starch  and  also  to  gum  arable,  this  property  of 
gelatinizing  is  not  surprising,  as  it  is  due  to  the  colloid  condition  of 
the  particles.^ 

»  Univ.  of  111.  Bull.,  Vol.  9,  No.  36,  igi2. 
«  U.  S.  Dept  Agri.,  Bu.  Chcm.  Bull.  No.  94. 
» Fellenberg,  Ch.  Abs.,  Vol.  9,  p.  48S. 

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Mineral  Salts 

The  organic  acids  of  fruits  are  frequently  united  with  potas- 
sium, sodium,  calcium  and  other  bases.  Besides  these  the  ash 
shows  the  presence  of  small  quantities  of  phosphates,  carbonates, 
sulfates  and  chlorides.  Some  have  asserted  that  the  iron  in  fruit  is 
of  special  value  in  the  food,  as  it  may  afford  a  convenient  means 
of  getting  this  element  into  the  system.  It  is  well  known  that  min- 
eral salts  are  positively  essential  for  the  growth  and  nourishment  of 
the  body,  and  indeed  Bunge  has  shown  that  the  nitrogenous  prod- 
ucts of  metabolism  cannot  be  eliminated  from  the  body  unless 
mineral  salts  are  present. 


On  account  of  their  perishability  many  methods  have  been 
devised  to  keep  fruits  and  other  foods  from  one  season  to  another, 
or  to  transport  them  from  one  climate  or  locality  to  another. 

Among  these  methods  may  be  mentioned: 

1.  Drying, 

2.  Salting  and  smoking  {applied  mostly  to  meats), 

3.  Sweetening  with  sugar  or  honey  with  or  without  the  addi- 
tion of  spices. 

4.  Preservation  in  alcohol, 

5.  Pickling  with  vinegar. 

6.  Packing  in  fat  as  suet,  and  in  oil. 

7.  Cold  storage. 

8.  Sterilization  and  canning. 

9.  The  use  of  chemical  preservatives. 

From  the  earliest  times  some  of  these  methods  of  preservation, 
such  as  drying,  salting  and  smoking,  preserving  with  honey  and 
spices,  and  pickling  in  vinegar,  have  been  in  vogue.  These  methods 
have  been  worked  out  by  various  peoples  independently  as  the 
results  of  their  experience. 

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Farth^  than  this  the  art  of  the  preservation  of  foods  did  not 
make  much  progress  imtil  it  was  xmderstood  that  decay  is  due  to 
the  growth  of  low  orders  of  microorganisms  as  shown  by  the 
researches  of  Pasteur  and  others.  Whatever  process  will  destroy 
the  germs  of  these  organisms,  or  inhibit  their  growth,  will  preserve 
the  food.  As  these  products  decay  more  rapidly  in  the  presence  of 
moisture  the  foods  are  dried;  as  the  germs  grow  better  at  a 
moderately  high  temperature,  cold  storage  is  adopted.  The 
temperature  of  boiling  water  kills  most  of  the  organisms,  and  there- 
fore sterilization  and  subsequent  sealing  to  keep  apart  from  a  germ- 
laden  atmosphere  has  become  a  widely  accepted  process.  It  is 
also  proven  that  the  organisms  do  not  flourish  in  the  presence  of 
alcohol,  sugar,  vinegar,  salts,  spices  or  the  substances  that  are 
present  in  wood  smoke. 

In  highly  nitrogenous  foods  like  meat,  game  and  fish  bacteria 
may  readily  grow,^  while  the  carbonaceous  products  like  fruits  and 
vegetables  are  especially  liable  to  be  the  breeding  place  of  yeasts 
and  molds. 


In  early  times  the  favorite  method  for  preserving  fruit  was  by 
drjdng,  as  the  lower  organisms  do  not  thrive  except  where  there 
is  at  least  25  per  cent,  of  water.  A  great  variety  of  fruits  including 
apples,  pears,  peaches,  plums,  quinces,  cherries,  raspberries,  black- 
berries, and  huckleberries,  are  still  preserved  in  this  way.  Some 
fruits,  as  cherries  and  currants,  are  cooked  with  sugar  before  drying. 

In  drying  in  a  current  of  hot  air  the  action  on  the  fruit  is  entirely 
different  from  the  sun-drying  process.  The  hot  air  (about  240° 
F.)  coagulates  some  of  the  albumin,  changes  some  of  the  starch 
to  glucose,  renders  inactive  the  diastase,  and  destroys  bacteria 
and  other  organisms.  The  current  of  hot  air  that  ascends  through 
the  drier  carries  so  much  steam  that  the  temperature  is  consider- 
ably lowered  during  its  passage. 
^  See  under  Preeervative  of  Meats,  etc 

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When  dried  by  the  old-fashioned  domestic  methods,  apples 
and  other  fruits  were  exposed  to  dust,  dirt,  bacteria  and  flies 
under  conditions  that  were  decidedly  xmsanitary.  To-day,  the 
artificially  "evaporated"  fruits  command  a  much  better  price 
than  the  domestic  sxm-dried  product,  although  sim-dried  fruit  is 
also  a  very  important  product  in  California.  Commercial  evapo- 
rators did  not  come  into  general  use  in  the  United  States  until 
about  1870. 

In  the  great  fruit-growing  states  like  California,  New  York 
and  Michigan,  the  fruit-evaporating  establishments  are  built  on 
a  large  scale  and  handle  great  quantities  of  fruit,  but  portable 
fruit  driers  can  be  easily  constructed  and  are  perfectly  practicable 
either  for  use  on  the  kitchen  stove,  or  by  the  use  of  a  special 

Fruit  Evaporators 

An  evaporator  may  be  so  constructed  that  heated  air  circulates 
through  the  chamber  containing  the  drying  fruit,  or  the  space  may 
be  heated  by  means  of  steam  pipes.  There  are  three  general  types 
of  construction  in  the  direct  heating  system,  viz.,  the  cabinet,  the 
kiln  and  the  tower  or  flue.^ 

The  cabinet  evaporators,  in  which  a  set  of  drawers  with  screen 
bottoms  is  placed  above  a  stove  or  furnace,  are  popular  with 
farmers  or  small  fruit  growers.  In  this  case  the  dryest  fruit  may 
be  placed  nearest  the  source  of  heat.  The  kiln  evaporator  is  a 
room  with  a  slatted  floor,  beneath  which  hot  air  pipes  are  con- 
ducted. The  fruit  to  be  dried  is  placed  on  a  slatted  platform  near 
the  top  of  the  room.  One  disadvantage  of  this  system  is  that  the 
fruit  must  be  shovelled  over  occasionally  to  insure  uniform  drying. 
Good  ventilation,  of  course,  is  required  to  carry  off  the  evaporated 
moisture.  Tower  evaporators  are  quite  extensively  used  for 
drying  on  a  large  scale.  Here  a  chimney-like  building  is  erected, 
provided  with  a  furnace  in  the  basement.    The  tower  is  provided 

*  G.  F,  Warren  in  Cyclo.  Am.  Agri.,  Vol.  2.  See  also  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Farmers' 
Bun.  Nt>.  so. 

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with  an  endless  chain  device  on  which  the  racks  containing  the 
drying  fruit  are  placed.  The  fresh  fruit  is  charged  on  the  first 
floor,  and  the  whole  series  of  racks  is  gradually  lifted  as  new  racks 
are  filled.  As  the  trays  are  removed  on  the  second  floor,  it  is 
evident  that  the  fresh  fruit  is  exposed  to  the  highest  temperature 
and  the  steam  passes  up  over  the  more  completely  dried  fruit. 
Some  believe  that  a  system  in  which  the  order  of  exposure  to  heat  is 
reversed,  so  that  the  driest  fruit  would  be  exposed  to  the  greatest 
heat  is  more  satisfactory.  A  tower  having  a  capacity  of  twenty- 
five  trays,  each  49X49  inches,  will  evaporate  about  50  bushels  of 
apples  per  day. 

A  cold  air  evaporator  is  in  use  in  which  the  moisture  of  the 
fruit  is  carried  off  by  a  blast  of  cold  air.  Calcium  chloride  is  set 
around  the  chamber  to  absorb  the  moisture.  In  the  vacuum 
process  the  hot  air  is  let  into  the  chamber  and  pumped  off  several 
times,  thus  drying  the  fruit  very  rapidly. 

In  most  evaporating  establishments  the  fruit  is  exposed  to 
fumes  of  burning  sulfur,  or  sulfur  dioxide  gas  (SO2)  before  being 
dried.  This  is  for  the  double  object  of  bleaching  the  fruit,  that 
has  become  discolored  by  contact  with  air  after  slicing  and  to 
destroy  living  organisms.  A  limited  amount  of  this  sulfuring 
might  be  allowed^  but  there  is  a  tendency  to  use  too  much  sulfur 
dioxide,  and  also  to  use  it  in  "  reprocessing  "  fruit  that  is  wormy  and 
of  low  grade,  to  make  it  appear  better  and  hence  more  salable. 
At  the  present  time  the  United  States'  standards  (F.  I.  D.  No.  76) 
limit  the  amount  of  sulfur  dioxide  to  350  milligrams  per  liter, 
with  an  allowance  of  not  over  20  per  cent,  of  this  in  a  free  state. 
The  fact  of  the  presence  of  sulfur  dioxide  in  the  product  should  be 
stated  on  the  label.  In  Prussia  and  Saxony  the  maximum 
amount  of  sulfur  dioxide  allowed  is  0.125  per  cent. 

There  is  an  enormous  increase  in  the  amount  of  dried  fruit 
produced  in  the  United  States,  within  the  past  ten  years.  At 
present  the  output  is  more  than  500,000,000  poimds  annually,  of 
which  California  produces  about  80  per  cent. 

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Preservation  with  Sugar 

As  a  strong  solution  of  sugar,  honey  or  glucose,  will  prevent  the 
growth  of  the  molds  or  yeasts,  with  which  the  air  is  usually  laden, 
therefore,  a  process  of  sterilizing  in  sugar  syrup  has  been  used, 
from  the  time  when  sugar,  came  into  general  use.  In  this  process 
much  of  the  cane  sugar,  which  is  present  in  some  fruits  (see  p.  210) 
is  "inverted"  by  heating  with  the  acid  in  the  fruit,  as  is  also  some 
of  the  added  cane  sugar.  This  invert  or  fruit  sugar,  although  not 
as  sweet  as  cane  sugar,  is  believed  to  be  fully  as  wholesome  as  the 
latter,  and  probably  more  easily  digested.  For  preserves,  three- 
fourths  of  a  pound  or  sometimes  as  much  as  a  pound  of  sugar  is 
used  for  each  pound  of  fruit,  but  the  amount  needed  varies  for 
different  fruits.  The  fruit  need  not  of  course  be  kept  in  air-tight 
jars,  unless  in  a  hot  climate,  but  it  is  better  to  protect  the  surface 
by  pouring  over  it  melted  paraffin.  Candied  fruits  contain  more 
sugar  than  those  which  are  preserved  and  belong  properly  to  the 
class  of  confectionery. 

It  is  asserted  that  the  antiseptic  action  of  sugar  and  of  salt  is 
due  to  the  ease  with  which  bacteria  give  up  to  concentrated  solu- 
tions of  these  substances  a  part  of  their  constitutional  elements, 
enfeebling  them  so  that  they  have  no  longer  the  same  capacity  for 

'^ Fruit  butter'*  (apple  butter,  peach  butter,  plum  butter,  etc.) 
is  of  German  origin.  It  is  made  by  boiling  the  fruit  either 
alone  or  with  sugar  or  spices  or  with  sweet  cider,  which  has  been 
previously  concentrated  one-half  in  bulk,  to  a  thick  mass  stirring 
constantly  to  prevent  burning.  The  name,  "fruit  butter"  is 
applied  to  the  product  because  it  is  used  upon  bread  in  the  same 
way  that  butter  is  used. 

Jam  is  a  product  made  by  cooking  the  whole  fruit,  usually 
berries,  without  the  addition  of  water,  for  half  an  hour,  at  the 
same  time  crushing  them  by  the  use  of  a  wooden  "masher." 
Sugar  is  then  added  and  the  mass  is  boiled  for  about  ten  minutes 

*  Eighth  Int  Cong.  Appl.  Chem.,  Vol.  18,  237. 

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Adulteration  of  Jams,  Jellies  and  Preserves 

Jams,  jellies  and  preserves  are  sometimes  adulterated  by 
supplying  the  deficiency  in  pectose  bodies  by  the  addition  of  some 
foreign  substance  to  gelatinize  and  thus  improve  the  appearance  of 
the  product.  "Agar-agar,"  gelatin,  turnips,  vegetable  marrow, 
boiled  sago,  and  similar  substances  have  been  used.  The  use  of 
apple  pulp  or  gooseberry  pulp,  both  of  which  are  rich  in  pectin, 
is  not  so  serious  an  adulteration,  as  it  is  only  replacing  one  fruit 
juice  by  another.  In  this  case,  however,  the  substitution  should 
be  plainly  indicated  on  the  package. 

•  If  glucose  is  used  its  presence  should  also  be  stated.  Glucose 
is  used  in  the  place  of  cane  sugar  because  it  is  cheaper,  and  not  as 
is  sometimes  asserted  to  prevent  the  cane  sugar  from  crystallizing. 
Glucose  is,  of  course,  wholesome  enough,  but  it  has  not  the  sweeten- 
ing power  of  cane  sugar  and  is  a  substitution  of  a  cheap  food  for  a 
more  expensive  article.  The  use  of  saccharin,  which  was  formerly 
common  in  the  United  States,  in  this  class  of  goods,  is  now  for- 
bidden by  law. 

There  is  no  necessity  for  adding  any  preservative  other  than 
sugar,  if  care  is  exercised  in  the  selection  of  the  fruit  that  is  used, 
and  in  the  process  of  preserving.  Sodium  sulfite  and  sodium 
benzoate  are  the  preservatives  that  have  come  into  most  general 
use.  There  is  danger  that  carelessness  in  manufacture  or  bad 
stock  should  be  more  or  less  covered  up  by  the  use  of  chemical 

Another  adulteration  is  the  addition  of  coloring  matter,  very 
often  an  anilin  color,  to  correct  any  deficit  from  lack  of  genuine 
ripe  fruit.  In  fact  the  commercial  jams  that  were  upon  the 
market  in  the  United  States,  before  the  passage  of  the  so-called 
"pure  food"  laws,  were  very  often  entirely  artificial,  and  contained 
absolutely  none  of  the  fruits  that  the  label  indicated.  The 
appearance  of  a  berry  jam  was  simulated  by  the  addition  of  "grass 
seed,"  and  the  product  was  built  up  on  a  basis  of  apple  jelly  made 
from  a  pomace  of  doubtful  quality. 

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JELLY  219 

The  food  standard  of  the  U.  S.  Dept.  of  Agri.  is  as  follows: 
"Jam,  Marmalade,  is  the  soxmd  product  made  from  clean,  sound, 
properly  matured  and  prepared  fresh  fruit  and  sugar  (sucrose), 
with  or  without  spices  or  vinegar,  by  boiling  to  a  pulpy  or  semi- 
solid consistence,  and  conforms  in  name  to  the  fruit  used,  and  in 
its  preparation  not  less  than  (45)  forty-five  pounds  of  fruit  are 
used  to  (55)  fifty-five  pounds  of  sugar." 

Marmalade  has  a  texture  between  the  f^ruit  butter  and  jellies.^ 
Sometimes  the  juice  is  drained  oflf  after  cooking  as  for  making  a 
jelly,  and  the  fruit  pulp  is  put  through  a  strainer  and  cooked  with 
sugar  for  making  the  marmalade.  Spice  is  often  added  to  improve 
the  taste  of  the  marmalade  if  the  fruit  is  lacking  in  agreeable  flavor. 
Oranges  often  with  the  addition  of  a  little  grape  fruit,  lemons, 
peaches  and  quinces  are  especially  used  for  making  marmalades. 


Jelly  is  one  of  the  most  desirable  fruit  products,  because  it  is 
the  concentrated  fruit  juice,  free  from  seeds  or  other  waste  parts 
of  the  fruit,  and  contains  enough  cane  sugar  to  give  it  an  agreeable 
flavor.  It  is  firm  enough  to  retain  its  shape  when  poured  from  the 
glass  container,  and  yet  is  not  gummy  or  stringy.  This  property 
of  gelatinizing  has  already  been  referred  to  (p.  212)  as  due  to  the 
presence  in  the  fruit  juice  of  pectin  bodies  and  organic  adds. 

A  general  method  of  making  a  jelly  is  to  cook  the  fruit  with  or 
without  water,  dependent  on  the  kind  of  fruit  used,  strain  while 
hot  through  a  moistened  cloth,  and  allow  to  drain  fully  but  with- 
out much  pressure.  Boil  the  juice  from  ten  to  thirty  minutes  in  a 
procelain-lined  vessel,  with  frequent  skimming,  and  then  while 
boiling  dissolve  in  it  the  sugar,  previously  heated  in  an  oven. 
The  time  necessary  for  boiling  after  sugar  is  added,  can  be  known  by 
testing  in  a  spoon  a  small  portion  while  cooking,  or  perhaps  better 
by  observing  how  the  mass  breaks  off  as  it  drops  from  the  stirring 
spoon.  Too  long  boiling  or  an  excess  of  sugar  will  cause  the  jelly 
to  crystallize  or  it  may  become  gummy. 

*  Anna  Barrows  in  Cyclop,  of  Am.  Agri.,  Vol-  a. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


The  making  of  fruit  jelly  requires  considerable  skill;  since  it  is 
essential  in  order  to  obtain  a  satisfactory  product  that  the  proper 
proportions  of  pectin,  vegetable  acid  and  sugar  be  maintained. 
Some  fruit  juices  are  lacking  in  pectin,  while  others  are  lacking  in 
vegetable  acid.  For  ordinary  fruit  juices  a  proportion  of  sugar 
to  fruit  juice  of  3/4  to  i  or  i  to  i  will  be  found  to  be  correct.  An 
excess  of  sugar  produces  a  softer  jelly  and  one  not  having  the  satis- 
factory texture.  With  care  a  good  quality  of  jelly  may  be  made 
from  a  slightly  acid  fruit  by  the  addition  of  a  small  quantity  of  some 
vegetable  acid  as  citric  or  tartaric.^  Apple  juice  is  often  used  as 
the  basis  of  fruit  jellies,  especially  by  large  manufacturers,  and  the 
required  flavor  is  obtained  by  the  use  of  some  other  fruit  juice, 
which  in  itself  is  lacking  in  jelly-making  qualities. 

The  housewife  has  learned  by  experience  that  partially  ripe 
fruits  are  often  much  more  suitable  for  jelly  making  than  those 
that  are  fully  ripe,  and  the  juice  of  a  ripe  fruit  may  be  mixed  with 
that  of  another  fruit  which  is  partially  ripe,  as  for  instance  green 
gooseberries  or  currants  may  be  mixed  with  ripe  raspberries  or 
blackberries  to  give  excellent  residts.  In  domestic  practice  it  has 
been  found  that  small  lots  of  i  or  2  quarts  of  juice  can  be  more  sat- 
isfactorily worked  than  larger  quantities.  When  cool  the  jelly 
may  be  covered  with  glass  plates  and  placed  in  the  sun  for  a  while 
to  complete  the  process  of  gelatinizing.  When  thoroughly  set 
cover  the  jelly  with  melted  paraffin  to  protect  from  the  germ- 
laden  atmosphere,  and  close  the  glasses  with  hot  tin  covers. 


A  fruit  sirup  or  juice  as  a  basis  for  a  summer  beverage  may  be 
readily  prepared  by  heating  the  fruit  juice,  or  even  a  mixture  of 
several  fruit  juices  until  completely  sterilized  and  putting  immedi- 
ately in  sterilized  bottles,  which  should  be  tightly  corked  and 
sealed.  (See  Grape  Juice,  p.  260.)  Occasionally  the  so-called 
fruit  sirup  used  at  soda  fountains  and  for  making  non-alcoholic 
beverages  is  made  with  the  use  of  artificial  colors  and  flavors, 

» Univ.  of  IlL  BuU.,  Vol.  9,  No.  36. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


perhaps  sweetened  with  saccharin,  and  preserved  with  sodium  ben- 
zoate  or  salicyh'c  acid.  All  such  "  compounds  "  must,  in  the  United 
States,  be  labeled  so  as  to  show  their  true  composition. 

Fruit  juices  when  carefully  made  are  very  agreeable  and 
wholesome.  They  contain  most  of  the  mineral  salts,  adds  and 
sugars  of  the  fruit,  with  its  characteristic  flavor.  These  juices 
are  often  prescribed  for  dyspepsia,  and  diseases  of  the  liver  and 
kidneys.  Fruit  syrups  differ  from  fruit  juices  in  containing  more 

Fruit  vinegars  are  similar  to  the  fruit  juices,  and  are  used  to 
make  slightly  acid  beverages.  They  are  made,  usually  from 
berries,  by  soaking  them  with  vinegar,  straining  and  extracting 
several  times  and  boiling  for  a  few  minutes.  They  should  be 
preserved  in  sterilized  bottles. 


This  process  has  been  used  very  successfully  upon  fruits  as 
well  as  upon  meats,  fish,  game,  eggs  and  butter.  It  should  not 
be  forgotten  that  the  life  processes  go  on,  although  slowly,  in  fruit, 
even  at  a  low  temperature.  The  fxmgi,  and  bacteria  are  always 
ready  to  produce  decay,  and  their  action  is  only  retarded  by  the 
low  temperature.  The  condition  of  the  fruit  when  put  into  cold 
storage,  its  ripeness,  its  soundness  and  freedom  from  bruises,  all 
affect  its  keeping  qualities.^ 

During  the  process  of  ripening  of  fruits,  which  of  course  takes 
place  to  some  extent  even  at  low  temperature,  carbon  dioxide 
gas  is  given  off,  and  there  is  usually  a  tendency  for  the  fruit  to 
increase  in  temperature.  The  amount  of  carbon  dioxide  evolved 
is  directly  reduced  by  a  low  temperature,  showing  that  the  ripen- 
ing of  the  fruit  is  thus  retarded.^ 

By  cold  storage  fruits  may  be  ''held  over"  several  months 

without  decaying,  and  the  season  during  which  they  can  be  used 

may  thus  be  extended.    The  modern  cold  storage  warehouse  has 

*  U.  S.  Dept.  AgrL  Bur.  Plant  Indust.  Bull.  No.  48. 

» U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bu.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  14a.  ^  j 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


its  ice  plant  so  arranged  that  cold  brine  can  be  circulated  in  pipes 
through  the  rooms  in  which  the  fruit  is  stored.  Sometimes,  also, 
the  liquid  ammonia  used  for  refrigeration  is  allowed  to  expand 
directly  in  the  pipes  in  the  refrigerating  rooms,  or  air  previously 
cooled  is  circulated  through  the  warehouse.  The  temperature 
may  thus  be  reduced  to  32°  F.  or  even  below  and  can  be  ac- 
curately controlled.  It  has  been  ascertained,  however,  that  for 
some  varieties  of  apples  a  lower  temperature  is  required  than  for 
others,  and  in  fact  there  is  a  special  temperature  which  has  been 
found  most  satisfactory  for  keeping  each  kind  of  fruit.  This  is 
usually,  however,  from  31°  F.  to  35°  F.  The  same  principle  is 
involved  in  the  shipping  of  fruit  in  iced  refrigerator  cars,  and  by 
boats  provided  with  refrigerating  apparatus. 

It  is  the  general  opinion  that  fruits  as  well  as  other  produce, 
that  have  been  kept  in  cold  storage  for  some  time,  show  a  tendency 
to  deteriorate  or  "go  down"  very  quickly  when  removed  from 
the  warehouse.  Fruit  stored  in  cellars  or  caves  at  a  temperature 
nearer  to  that  of  the  outside  air  does  not  deteriorate  so  rapidly 
when  removed  to  rooms  kept  at  ordinary  temperature,  as  does  the 
cold  storage  product. 

The  principal  objection  that  has  been  urged  against  the 
cold  storage  system  is  that  it  affords  the  opportunity,  under 
certain  conditions  of  the  market,  to  "corner"  special  products, 
and  hold  them  until  excessively  high  prices  can  be  obtained. 
Notwithstanding  this  danger  the  advantages  of  cold  storage  for 
the  consumer  are  greater  than  the  disadvantages.  A  system  of 
public  reports  to  be  made  each  week  to  the  proper  oflicials,  giving 
the  exact  amount  of  each  product  held  in  cold  storage,  has  been 
suggested  as  tending  to  obviate  to  a  considerable  extent  the 
practice  of  holding  for  a  better  market. 


The  greatest  advance  that  has  been  made  in  preserving  fruits 
and  vegetables  is  due  to  the  gradual  working  out  of  a  process  of 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


canning.  This  depends  on  the  simple  principle  of  sterilizing  the 
product  by  heat,  and  then  protecting  it  in  hermetically  sealed 
vessels  from  coming  in  contact  with  the  germ-laden  atmosphere. 


It  is  said  by  some  authors  that  this  art  was  practised  by  the 
ancient  Greeks  and  Romans,  as  specimens  of  preserved  fruits 
seem  to  indicate,  but  it  was  not  until  1804  that  M.  Nicholas 
Appert,  a  Frenchman,  announced  that  meat  and  other  organic 
substances  would  keep  for  a  long  time  if  sealed  in  vessels  and  then 
heated  for  some  time  in  boiling  water.  In  1810  he  suggested  the 
method  of  heating  in  steam  and  then  sealing  so  that  on  cooling  a 
vacuum  was  produced.  Ten  years  later  Daggett  and  Kensett 
introduced  a  modification  of  this  process  into  New  York,  for  which 
they  later  secured  a  patent.  Wm.  Underwood  &  Co.  introduced  a 
similar  process  about  the  same  time  in  Boston.  The  chemistry 
of  the  process  was  not  well  understood,  however,  until  explained 
by  Tyndall,  Pasteur  and  others.  The  industry  gradually  grew 
in  importance,  stimulated  at  first  by  the  needs  of  the  "49"ers 
who  crossed  the  plains,  and  later  by  the  exigencies  of  the  Civil 

Conditions  to  be  Met 

Yeasts  grow  rapidly  in  dilute  sugar  solutions  if  there  be  present 
enough  nitrogenous  matter  and  mineral  salts  to  nourish  them, 
but  they  do  not  grow  well  in  a  strong  solution  of  pure  sugar. 
Very  acid  fruits  do  not  afford  a  favorable  medium  for  the  growth  of 
bacteria  and  yeasts,  therefore  such  fruits  as  lemons  and  cranberries 
do  not  as  readily  decay.  Most  organisms  are  destroyed  by  expos- 
ure for  twenty  minutes  to  a  temeprature  of  212°  F.,  although  there 
are  a  few  bacteria  and  some  spores  that  require  a  higher  tempera- 
ture, or  that  of  boiling  water  for  a  longer  time.  As  small  fruits 
can  be  more  thoroughly  heated  throughout  than  large  fruits,  while 

*  Cyclop,  of  Am.  Agri.,  Vol.  2. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


the  temperature  of  212*^  F.  may  be  sufficient  for  the  smaller  fruits, 
the  larger  fruits  are  often  heated  in  an  "  autoclave" ;  a  closed  vessel 
in  which  the  temperature  may  be  raised  to  240°  F.  if  necessary. 
It  is  not  necessary  to  use  sugar  in  canning  fruit,  and  many  prefer 
to  add  it,  when  the  fruit  is  served.  If  desired,  however,  sugar  in 
amount  from  one-third  the  amount  of  the  fruit  in  very  sour  fruits, 
to  one-sixth  in  sweeter  fruits  may  be  used.  Among  the  vegetables, 
corn,  peas,  beans,  pumpkins,  beets  and  sweet  potatoes  require  a 
high  temperature  in  processing.^ 

Canning  in  the  Household 

In  domestic  practice  fruit  may  be  canned  in  two  ways:  first, 
by  boiling  to  fully  sterilize,  in  a  porcelain-lined  kettle,  and  then 
putting  the  fruit  directly  into  glass  or  tin  cans  which  have  just 
before  been  sterilized  with  hot  water,  and  then  dosing  as  quickly 
as  possible;  or,  second,  the  fruit  may  be  packed  raw  into  the 
cans,  either  with  or  without  sugar,  cold  water  added  until  the  can 
is  filled  within  about  an  inch  of  the  top,  and  the  cans  then  set  in  a 
boiler  of  cold  water,  each  can  being  loosely  protected  by  its  cover. 
The  water  is  heated  to  boiling  and  allowed  to  boil  from  fifteen  to 
thirty  minutes,  dependent  on  the  size  and  hardness  of  the  fruit; 
the  cans  are  lifted  from  the  kettle,  filled  to  the  top  with  boiling 
water  and  immediately  sealed.  By  placing  a  wooden  rack  in 
the  bottom  of  a  wash  boiler  a  number  of  cans  may  be  processed  in 
this  way  at  one  time.  This  latter  method  is  especially  adapted  for 
use  in  canning  peaches,  pears,  or  berries,  where  it  is  desirable  to 
preserve  the  fruit  whole  and  unbroken. 

The  housewife  cannot  readily  compete  with  the  canning 
factory  in  the  preservation  of  some  products,  as  overripe  fruits, 
tomatoes  and  many  vegetables,  as  at  the  factory  the  fruit  can  be 
heated  imder  steam  pressure,  and  thus  a  higher  temperature  can 
be  obtained  than  in  the  home.  This  is  partly  obviated  in  domestic 
practice  by  heating  the  cans  for  some  time  on  three  or  four  suc- 
cessive days. 

*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri",  Bu.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  151. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Some  fruits,  as  green  currants,  green  grapes,  gooseberries  or 
cranberries  may  be  kept,  by  simply  filling  the  can  with  cold  water 
and  sealing.  The  tough  skin  and  the  acid  present  in  the  fruit 
assist  in  this  process. 

Canning  in  the  Factory 

Three  methods  are  in  use  to  sterilize  the  fruit  at  canning  . 
factories.  It  may  be  heated  in  a  water-bath,  in  a  bath  of  some 
chemical,  as  calcium  chloride,  so  as  to  raise  the  temperature  above 
the  boiling  point  of  water  or  in  a  bath  of  steam  under  pressure. 
The  latter  method  is  the  safest,  if  precautions  are  taken  not  to  over- 
heat the  fruit. 

By  this  method  after  heating  the  cans  for  a  time  at  a  tempera- 
ture always  below  250°  F.  the  can  is  taken  out  and  punctured  to 
allow  the  air  to  escape,  again  sealed  with  a  drop  of  solder,  and 
again  "processed."  The  ends  of  the  can  should  be  concave  when 
cold  and  should  remain  in  that  shape  until  they  reach  the  con- 
sumer. If  there  is  shown  a  tendency  to  '*  swell "  or  become  convex 
after  some  time,  this  is  an  indication  that  fermentation  has  taken 
place,  and  the  contents  of  the  can  should  be  condenmed. 

It  has  been  foxmd^  that  the  gases  remaining  in  a  tin  can  above 
the  fruit  consist  of  carbon  dioxide,  nitrogen  and  hydrogen,  but 
never  oxygen.  If  the  fruit  was  strongly  add  and  has  been  canned 
for  some  time,  the  amount  of  hydrogen  is  relatively  large. 

Sometimes  the  fruit  is  cooked  before  transferring  to  the  cans, 
then  heated  in  the  sealed  cans  to  a  temperature  of  250°  F.  in  retorts 
in  dry  air  so  as  to  insure  complete  sterilization.^ 

Canned  fruits,  which  have  stood  for  some  time  in  tin,  and 

especially  "swells,"  are  liable  to  contain  appreciable  quantities  of 

tin.    The  presence  of  more  than  300  milligrams  of  tin  per  kilogrjim 

in  canned  products  is  not  allowed.'  .  The  most  recent  improvement 

is  the  coating  of  the  cans  on  the  inside  with  a  kind  of  lacquer. 

^  Eighth  loternational  Congress  of  Appl.  Chem.,  Vol.  18,  p.  45. 

» Leach,  Food  Inspection  and  Analysis.  ^^  , 

'  U    S.  F   T.  D.  No.  126.  Digitized  by  dOOglC 



Such  cans  are  especially  suitable  ior  those  fruits  and  vegetables 
most  liable  to  attack  the  tin. 

Chemical  preservatives  are  not  generally  used  in  the  canning  of 
fruits,  although  they  have  been  used  in  vegetables.  It  is  held* 
that  if  benzoate  of  soda  is  used  in  a  food  product,  it  shall  not  be  in 
quantities  above  one-tenth  of  i  per  cent.,  and  the  fact  must  be 
plainly  stated  qn  the  label.  The  canned  products  of  the  United 
States  in  1909  were  valued  at  $157,101,000.* 


Although  we  are  familiar  with  the  fact  that  many  of  the  lower 
animals  practically  live  on  fruits  and  berries,  especially  during 
the  fruit  season,  there  has  been  a  prevailing  impression  that  for 
most  people  fruit  is  a  mere  luxury,  to  be  eaten  like  confectionery 
simply  for  the  pleasure  derived  in  the  process  of  eating.  The 
people  of  the  temperate  zone  seem  to  forget  that  the  dwellers  in  the 
tropics,  many  of  them,  practically  live  on  fruit  with  little  else  in 
their  diet.  Bananas,  bread  friut,  and  cocoanuts  are  the  staple 
fruits  of  the  tropics.  Many  persons,  on  the  other  hand,  use  fruit  as 
a  medicine,  mainly  on  accoimt  of  its  reputed  hygienic  value,  with 
no  thought  as  to  its  real  nutritive  value. 

It  is  estimated,*  from  a  study  of  the  dietaries  of  more  than  four 
hundred  families  in  the  United  States,  that  fresh  fruits  make  up 
3.8  per  cent,  of  the  total  food,  and  supply  2.5  per  cent,  of  the  total 
carbohydrates.  To  this  must  be  added  the  dried  fruits  used,  so 
that  all  together  4.4  per  cent,  of  the  total  food  material  and  3.7  per 
cent,  of  total  carbohydrates  is  from  fruit.  As  far  as  digestibility 
is  concerned  80  per  cent,  of  the  protein^  90  per  cent,  of  the  fat,  and 
95  per  cent,  of  the  carbohydrates  are  digested,  thus  comparing 
favprably  with  the  digestibility  of  vegetables. 

From  some  experiments  carried  on  at  the  California  Ag. 
Experiment  Station  and  elsewhere  in  which  fruit  and  nuts  consti- 

1 U.  S.  F.  I.  D.  No.  104. 

*  Bu.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  151. 

•  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri..  Farmers'  BuU.  No.  ^93.  D,g,,ed  by  GoOglc 

USES  OF  FRurr  227 

tuted  the  sole  diet  of  the  individuals,  the  conclusion  was  reached 
that  it  is  possible  to  supply  the  necessary  protein  and  energy  from 
these  foods  above,  although  in  many  cas^  the  expense  per  day  per 
capita  is  greater  than  with  a  mixed  diet.  In  this  case  the  protein 
was  derived  mostly  from  nuts  and  olives  and  much  of  the  carbo- 
hydrates from  the  fruits. 


It  is  not  the  intention  to  discuss  here  the  relative  value  of  vege- 
table and  animal  foods,  or  the  claims  of  'Vegetarians"  and  others, 
but  it  is  pertinent  to  say  that  under  the  conditions  obtaining  in  the 
United  States,  a  liberal  addition  of  cereals  and  vegetables  to  a  fruit 
and  nut  diet  would  decrease  the  bulk  of  the  food  necessary,  make 
possible  a  greater  and  more  pleasing  variety  of  food,  and  lower  the 
cost.     Fruit  is  good,  but  fruit  only  is  bad. 

It  is  of  interest  to  note  that  in  tropical  countries  fruits  grow  in 
much  greater  abimdance  and  variety  than  in  the  north,  and  in  the 
polar  regions  practically  no  fruit  at  all  is  grown.  Also  that  the 
fruit  is  produced  in  the  temperate  zone  in  the  warmer  months  of 
the  year.  These  facts  point  to  the  conclusion  that  fruits  and 
vegetables  are  naturally  better  adapted  for  use  in  warm  climates 
and  dining  the  warm  season,  and  animal  products  where  the 
temperature  is  lower. 

A  judicious  use  of  fruit  is  without  doubt  extremely  beneficial, 
especially  if  one  conforms  in  his  selection  to  the  particular  needs  of 
the  system.  Usually  fruits  are  somewhat  laxative,  although  some 
berries,  like  blackberries,  contain  enough  tannin  to  act  as  slight 
astringents  and  have  a  constipating  effect.  Fine-seeded  berries 
have  a  constipating  and  irritating  effect,  and  in  that  case  should 
be  avoided.  On  this  accoimt  the  fruit  juice  made  into  a  jelly  is  a 
much  more  suitable  diet  for  invalids  than  the  whole  fruit  made  into 

The  organic  adds  of  fruits  are  admirably  adapted  to  assist 
digestion  by  increasing  the  flow  of  saliva  and  indirectly  of  the 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


gastric  juice.  They  also  increase  the  secretions  of  the  liver, 
pancreas  and  the  mucous  lining  of  the  intestines.  When  taken 
into  the  blood  the  vegetable  acids  render  it  less  alkaline  by  combin- 
ing with  the  alkaline  salts  of  the  serum.  In  fact  the  salts  of  the 
organic  acids  are  changed  to  alkaline  carboilates.  These  are  some 
of  the  reasons  why  fruits  are  considered  so  valuable  as  anti- 
scorbutics and  for  use  in  general  debility  and  anaemia.  They  are 
also  used  to  great  advantage  in  gout  and  rheumatism.^  Further- 
more the  natural  combination  of  acids,  sugar,  pectin,  mineral, 
salts,  and  water  that  is  foimd  in  fruits  stimulates  the  appetite, 
and  helps  in  the  movement  of  foods  through  the  energy  machine 
that  we  call  the  alimentary  canal. 

Fruits  to  be  wholesome  should  be  ripe.  They  are  often  more 
agreeable  when  ripened  on  the  tree,  although  there  are  exceptions 
to  this  statement  as  in  the  case  of  many  varieties  of  apples  and 
pears.  If  the  fruit  is  unripe  any  injurious  effect  can  be  pre- 
vented by  properly  cooking. 


Although  it  often  happens  that  the  cooking  of  fruits  rather 
diminishes  than  increases  their  agreeable  flavor  yet  cooking  has 
many  advantages  when  the  process  is  applied  judiciously.  On 
account  of  the  conditions  under  which  fruit  is  often  gathered, 
stored  or  sold,  its  surface  is  liable  to  be  contaminated  with 
insects,  insect  larvae,  worms,  or  injurious  bacteria.  In  some  cases 
it  is  customary  to  remove  the  outer  covering  before  the  fruit  is 
eaten,  but  in  the  case  of  berries  and  some  other  fruits,  this  is 

The  process  of  cooking  sterilizes  the  fruit,  and  protects  the 
consumer,  especially  from  the  bacteria  on  the  surface,  which  might 
induce  disease  if  taken  into  the  system. 

As  there  is  cellulose  and  starch  in  fruits,  cooking  softens  and 
modifies  these  and  renders  them  better  fitted  to  be  taken  into  the 

1  Foods,  Origin,  Manufacture  and  Composition,  Tibbies,  p.  504. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


system.  (See  p.  lo.)  Some  fruits,  as  quinces  and  some  varieties 
of  pears,  plums  and  crab  apples,  are  so  hard  and  unpalatable  that 
they  are  always  cooked  before  they  are  used. 

Frequently  fruits  and  berries  are  cooked  without  the  addition 
of  water,  for  they  contain  about  85  per  cent,  of  water,  which 
simply  needs  to  be  set  free  as  ''juice"  in  the  process  of  cooking. 
In  baking  apples  there  is,  of  course,  some  loss  in  weight,  due  to 
evaporation,  but  there  is  no  loss  in  nutrients,  if  the  juice  that 
exudes  is  served  with  the  apples. 

There  seems  to  be  an  impression  that  cooked  fruit  is  sourer 
than  that  which  is  raw.  This  may  be  partly  due  to  the  physical 
condition  of  the  cooked  fruit,  which  would  allow  it  to  come  more 
intimately  in  contact  with  the  nerves  of  sensation.  Hot  fruit 
seems  to  give  the  impression  of  sourness  more  than  that  which  has 
been  allowed  to  cool,  but  this  may  be  due  to  the  stimulation  of  the 
surfaces  with  which  the  food  comes  in  contact.  Another  reason 
for  this  impression  of  sourness  is  given  by  Sutherst,^  in  the  case  of 
gooseberries,  by  the  fact  that  the  skins  contain  more  acid  than  the 
pulp,  and  in  the  cooked  portion  the  skins  are  included,  while  if 
eaten  raw  the  skins  are  rejected.  If  cane  sugar  is  present  in  the 
fruit,  it  is  changed  to  fruit  sugar  (see  p.  95) .by  prolonged  cooking 
in  the  presence  of  a  vegetable  add,  and  fruit  sugar  is  not  as  sweet 
as  cane  sugar. 

It  is  often  said  that  fruit  is  sweeter  if  the  sugar  is  added  after 
cooking  than  if  it  is  cooked  with  the  fruit,  and  although  this  is 
theoretically  true  it  has  been  shown  that  in  the  cases  tested, 
although  the  product  is  slightly  less  sweet  if  the  sugar  is  added  at 
the  beginning  rather  than  the  close  of  the  operation,  the  difference 
is  too  small  to  be  of  practical  importance.* 


As  the  fruit  becomes  overripe  it  changes  in  composition,  and 
soon  begins  to  decay.    This  decay  is  caused  by  fungi  or  molds, 

*  Chem.  News,  Vol.  92,  p.  163. 

'  Jour.  Home  Econ.,  2,  1910,  No.  i,  p.  94. 

Digitized  by 



which  obtain  a  start  most  rapidly  wherever  the  skin  is  broken, 
or  the  fruit  is  bruised.  This  spreads  very  rapidly  to  the  sound 
portions  of  the  fruit,  and  soon  spoils  its  agreeable  odor  and  flavor, 
even  in  the  parts  not  yet  affected  by  decay.  As  previously  noticed 
(p.  210)  with  the  overripening  the  fruit  begins  to  ferment;  that  is, 
the  sugar  is  changed  to  carbon  dioxide  and  alcohol. 


It  is  a  common  practice  with  housewives  to  wash  fruits  before 
serving,  and  experiments  have  been  made  which  show  that  the 
amount  of  material  removed  in  this  process  is  really  quite  small. 
Berries  and  soft  fruits  should  only  be  washed  just  before  they 
are  served,  otherwise  the  damp  fruit  will  quickly  mold.  All  the 
fruit  that  is  vended  from  stalls  or  on  the  dty  streets  is  especially 
exposed  to  the  dust  and  filth  of  the  street,  and  to  being  handled  by 
the  often  none  too  clean  hands  of  the  vender.  It  should  be  as 
thoroughly  washed  as  is  possible.  In  the  case  of  apples,  oranges, 
bananas,  etc.,  the  skin  can  be  removed,  but  plums,  grapes  and 
similar  fruits  should  be  washed  before  being  eaten.  In  many 
States  sanitary  regulations  are  in  force  to  prohibit  the  sidewalk 
display  of  food  products,  unless  they  are  protected  from  flies, 
dust,  and  other  contaminations.  Dried  fruits  such  as  dates  and 
figs  that  are  eaten  raw,  should  always  be  thus  protected. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Although  there  are  not  less  than  one  hundred  and  forty  species 
of  fruits  known  in  the  United  States,  not  more  than  forty  are  grown 
commercially.  It  is  remarkable  to  what  an  extent  and  how 
quickly  scientific  methods  have  within  the  last  few  years  been 
applied  to  fruit  growing  in  this  coimtry.  Advanced  ideas  in  re- 
gard to  spraying,  pollination,  fertilizing,  pruning  and  intensive 
cultivation  have  been  very  successfully  put  into  actual  practice. 



Following  the  classification  of  fruits  given  on  p.  208,  the  first 
is  the  apple  (Pyrus  malus).  This  is  the  typical  and  in  fact  the 
most  important  of  the  "pome"  fruits.  The  "core"  is  the  ripened 
"carpels,"  as  they  are  called,  and  the  pulp  is  the  thickened  "re- 
ceptacle" on  the  top  of  which  the  "calyx"  is  borne.  Botanically 
the  apple  belongs  to  the  same  family  as  the  rose,  plum,  pear,  peach 
and  in  fact  all  the  more  important  fruits  of  the  temperate  zone. 

It  is  probable  that  the  apple  as  cultivated  in  the  United 
States  is  not  a  descendant  of  our  native  criabs,  or  wild  apples,  but 
comes  from  the  wild  crabs  of  Europe,^  but  important  varieties 
of  iq)ples  may  no  doubt  at  some  time  be  developed  from  our 
native  crabs.  Some  excellent  varieties  of  crab  apples  have 
already  been  cultivated.*  Some  author  ties  believe  that  both  wild 
and  cultivated  apples  were  found  in  Europe  from  prehistoric 
times,*  while  others  think  they  were  early  introduced  into  Europe 
from  western  Asia. 

» Farmers'  Bull.  No.  113. 

*  Origin  of  Cultivated  Plants,  De  CandoUe. 

•  The  Evolution  of  Our  Native  Fruits,  Bailey,  L.  H.  ^^^^^^^^  ^^  GoOqIc 

331  ^ 


The  chemical  composition  of  apples  has  already  been  discussed 
under  fruits  (p.  210).  The  agreeable  flavor  depends  on  the 
right  blending  of  the  malic  and  tartaric  acids,  with  the  sugar  and 
pectin  properly  flavored  by  valerianate  of  amyl  and  other  fruit 
ethers  which  are  present.  The  following  is  given  by  Richards^  as 
the  average  composition  of  apples.  Total  solids,  13.65  per  cent.; 
ash,  0.288;  acidity  expressed  as  sulfuric  acid,  8.73;  cane  sugar 
1.53;  crude  fiber  (cellulose),  0.96.  This  shows  that  the  apple  is 
little  more  than  flavored  water,  as  86.35  per  cent,  is  water.  Sugar 
is  by  far  the  most  valuable  and  abundant  nutrient  present.  The 
organic  acids  present  are  malic  and  gallic,  which  acids  are  found 
free  as  well  as  in  combination. 

The  dietetic  value  of  apples  is  regarded  as  great,  and  they 
tend  to  prevent  scurvy  and  act  as  a  laxative,  especially  when  taken 
into  an  empty  stomach.^  It  is  said  that  dyspeptics  find  that  the 
action  of  the  bowels  can  be  satisfactorily  regulated  by  the  judicious 
use  of  this  fruit. 

Cooked  apples  are,  however,  more  wholesome  for  invalids 
than  the  raw  fruit,  because  the  small  quantity  of  starch  is  cooked, 
and  the  cellular  tissues  are  softened.  When  baked,  the  apple  may 
be  eaten  with  cream  and  sugar,  and  thus  not  only  furnish  a  very 
agreeable  dessert,  but  one  that  contains  quite  a  quantity  of  nutri- 
tive material.  Apples  should  be  avoided  in  cases  of  diarrhoea, 
diabetes  and  when  there  is  gastro-intestinal  irritation. 

Apples,  besides  being  eaten  raw  and  used  for  cooking,  have  a 
very  extensive  use  in  the  form  of  dried  apples,  evaporated  apples, 
apple  sauce,  apple  butter,  apple  jelly,  apple  juice,  cider,  apple 
brandy,  and  vinegar,  so  that  the  apple,  all  things  considered,  is 
the  most  used  and  most  valued  fruit  raised  in  the  United  States. 
The  annual  apple  crop  of  the  U.  S,  is  250,000,000  bushels. 

Unf ermented  Apple  Juice  or  Sweet  Cider 

The  ordinary  method  in  use  among  farmers  for  'making  cider 
is  to  grind  the  wind-falls  and  imperfect  fruit,  and  press  the 

I  ?•  ^\P^k.^^''  ^^  ^^^°^  B^.  No.  66,  p.  41.  Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 

«  Practical  Dietetics,  Thompson,  p.  181.  o 

CIDER  233 

"pomace"  by  the  use  of  hand  or  horse  power.  This  juice  is  then 
set  aside  in  barrels  and  soon  ferments.  If  greater  care  is  taken  in 
the  selection  of  the  fruit,  and  especially  in  storing  in  clean  barrels, 
at  a  low  temperature,  the  fermentation  will  take  place  much  more 
slowly.  In  France^  much  greater  care  is  taken  to  separate  the 
suspended  impurities,  and  a  preliminary  fermentation  in  open  vats 
is  given  the  juice  before  storage.  It  is  then  carefully  "racked  off" 
into  dean  barrels,  and  thus  prepared  it  keeps  well,  without  so  soon 
developing  acetic  fermentation  and  going  over  into  vinegar. 

It  has  been  found  that  it  is  easy  and  practical  to  preserve 
unfermented  apple  juice,  sometimes  called  sweet  cider,  by  a 
simple  process  of  sterilization.^  It  is  true  that  a  method  still  in 
common  use  in  the  United  States  for  preserving  apple  juice  is 
by  the  use  of  benzoate  of  soda,  salicylic  acid  or  sulfites.  Many 
objections  may  be  urged  against  the  use  of  these  chemical  pre- 
servatives, and  it  must  be  said  that  at  best,  as  ordinarily  used, 
they  only  retard'  the  process  of  fermentation,  for  this  ultimately 
takes  place,  and  alcohol  and  vinegar  finally  result,  the  same  as  if 
no  preservative  had  been  added. 

In  the  experiment  of  U.  S.  Government  referred  to,  it  is  shown 
that  apple  juice  can  be  sterilized  in  wooden  containers  at  149° 
to  158®  F.  so  that  it  will  not  change  in  six  months.  It  is  possible 
before  sterilizing  to  remove  much  of  the  insoluble  material  from 
the  juice  by  the  use  of  a  milk  separator.  In  every  case  the 
juice  must  be  carefully  protected  from  the  atmosphere  after 


Cider,  properly  speaking,  is  fermented  apple  juice,  just  as 
wine  is  the  fermented  juice  of  the  grape.  The  unfermented  juice 
or  "must"  contains  on  an  average*  13.39  per  cent,  of  solids,  in- 

*  Food  Inspection  and  Analysis,  Leach,  p.  549. 
« U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bu.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  118. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 

»  Kans.  Univ.  Quarterly,  VoL  6,  p.  iii. 

<  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri..  Bu.  Chem.  BuU.  Nq.  88, 


dtiding  io.45  per  cent,  of  sugar.  This  sugar  is  of  two  kinds: 
viz.,  6.84  per  cent,  of  fruit  or  reducing  sugars  and  3.48  per  cent, 
of  cane  sugar.  The  acidity,  in  terms  of  sulfuric  acid,  is  0.37  per 
cent,  and  there  is  0.05  per  cent,  of  tannin  present. 

Of  course,  the  larger  the  amoxint  of  sugar  in  the  juice,  the 
higher  will  be  the  per  cent,  of  alcohol  formed,  as  imder  the  in- 
fluence of  certain  yeasts  foimd,  especially  on  the  outside  of  the 
apple,  notably  the  saccharomyces  apiculatus,s\xgsir  is  changed  to 
alcohol  and  carbon  dioxide  gas. 

The  dder^  thus  made  contains  from  2  to  3  per  cent,  of  solids, 
usually  about  0.5  per  cent,  of  invert  sugar,  0.30  per  cent,  of  malic 
add  and  a  little  acetic  add,  with  from  3  to  6  per  cent,  by  volume 
of  alcohol.  If  there  is  over  8  per  cent,  of  alcohol  present  it  is 
evident  that  the  dder  has  been  "fortified"  by  the  addition 
of  some  fermentable  sugar  so  as  to  raise  the  alcoholic  percentage. 
"Dry '*  dder  is  that  which  is  produced  by  the  complete  fermenta- 
tion of  the  sugars. 

By  stopping  the  fermentation  before  it  is  completed  the  dder 
still  Contains  3  or  4  per  cent,  of  sugar,  and  hence  tastes  less  acid 
than  does  dry  dder.  If  the  bottles  are  corked  before  the  fermenta- 
tion is  completed,  and  champagne  methods  of  treatment  are 
adopted,  an  effervescent  beverage  results,  and  the  product  is 
properly  called  "champagne  dder." 

A  great  variety  of  artificial  dders  are  on  the  market  which 
are  sold  imder  such  names  as  "champagne  dder,"  "condensed 
apple  cider"  and  "apple  base  dder."  They  are  often  sweetened 
with  glucose  or  cane  sugar,  colored  with  caramel  and  preserved 
with  salicylic  acid,  sodium  benzoate,  or  sodium  sulfite.  Beverages 
of  this  character  if  taken  continuously  will  no  doubt  lead  to  gas- 
tric distiurbance,  and  Indigestion. 

France  is  the  leading  dder-produdng  coimtry  of  the  world, 
and  both  there  and  in  Germany  millions  of  capital  are  invested 
in  growing  dder  fruit,  and  manufactiuing  the  beverage.*    The  an- 

*  Local  dt. 

<  U.  S.  Dept.  AgrL,  Bu.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  71. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


nual  dder  production  of  France  is  from  300,000,000  to  600,000,000 
gallons.  Cider  apples  are  grown  especially  in  those  districts  where 
grapes  for  the  making  of  wine  cannot  be  successfully  grown.  A 
large  proportion  of  this  cider  is  used  as  a  beverage,  either  bottled 
directly  or  artificially  carbonated. 

Cider  differs  eq)ecially  from  wine  in  that  it  contains  malic 
instead  of  tartaric  acid,  and  this  is  not  precipitated  in  the  process  of 
fermentation,  so  the  beverage  does  not  improve  by  the  process  of 
"aging"  as  do  most  wines. 


Cider  brandy,  apple  brandy,  apple  jack,  is  a  distilled  liquor 
made  by  the  distillation  of  cider.  It  is  naturally  flavored  with 
the  organic  acids  and  ethers  of  the  apple  which  are  carried  over 
with  the  alcohol  in  the  process.  These  are  not  of  as  agreeable  a 
flavor  as  those  derived  from  the  distillation  of  fermented  grape 
juice  (wine)  so  the  beverage  is  not  as  popular.  Cider  brandy 
usually  contains  from  40  to  50  per  cent,  of  alcohol. 


Vinegar  as  defined  under  the  ofl&dal  standards  of  the  A.  O.  A 
C.  is  the  sam^  as  cider  vinegar,  or  apple  vinegar.  It  is  the 
product  made  by  the  alcoholic  and  subsequently  acetous  fermenta- 
tion of  the  juice  of  the  apple,  is  laevo-rotatory  and  contains  not 
less  than  4  grams  of  acetic  acid  (CHsCOOH)  in  100  cubic  centi- 
meters at  20*^  C. 

This  fermentation  from  alcohol  to  vinegar  is  brought  about 
by  the  organism  known  as  mycoderma  acetic  and  may  be  induced 
imder  proper  conditions  in  weak  alcoholic  solutions  from  any 
source.  Besides  cider  vinegar  there  is  foimd  on  the  market  wine 
or  grape  vinegar,  glucose  vinegar,  malt  vinegar  and  spirit,  dis- 
tilled or  grain  vinegar.  Wood  vinegar  or  acetic  acid,  which  is 
made  by  the  destructive  distillation  of  wood,  is  not  allowed  for  use 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 



in  any  food  products  in  the  United  States.  The  special  vinegars 
are  considered  in  connection  with  the  discussion  of  their  several 

Vinegar  Making 

In  making  cider  vinegar  the  older  process  is  to  allow  the  cider 
to  ferment  in  the  cellar  in  barrels  with  open  bungholes;  a  process 

sometimes  requiring  two  or  three 
years.  The  addition  of  old  vine- 
gar or  "mother  of  vinegar"  ac- 
celerates this  process.  The  quick 
or  "generator"  process  has  been 
largely  introduced  for  making 
cider  vinegar,  although  it  was 
originally  used  for  making  vinegar 
from  malt,  beer  and  spirits.  By 
this  process,  which  requires  only 
two  or  three  days  for  completion, 
the  dilute  alcoholic  liquor  (cider) 
is  allowed  to  trickle  slowly  over 
beech-wood  shavings  which  are 
contained  in  a  large  cask  provided 
with  a  perforated  bottom.  (Fig. 
30.)  The  shavings  are  previously 
saturated  with  old  vinegar,  thus 
insuring  a  thorough  exposure  of 
the  liquid  to  the  vinegar  "plant." 
The  same  liquid  may  be  pumped  up  and  allowed  to  flow  several 
times  over  the  shavings  until  the  alcohol  is  completely  changed 
to  vinegar. 

This  is  really  a  process  of  oxidation,  and  air  circulates  upward 
over  the  shavings,  thus  changing  the  alcohol,  imder  the  influence 
of  the  ferment,  to  acetic  add.  There  is  a  notable  rise  in  tempera- 
ture during  the  process  on  account  of  the  chemical  action  which 
takes  place.     The  reaction  is  represented  by  the  equation: 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 

Fig.  30. — Quick  vinegar  generator, 
staves  removed  showing  interior. 
(Hydraulic  Press  Mfg.  Co.) 


The  vinegar  plant  only  grows  in  the  presence  of  albuminous 
substances  and  certain  mineral  salts,  especially  alkaline  phos- 
phates. The  alcoholic  solution  should  be  of  3  or  4  per  cent, 
strength  to  secure  the  best  results.  Too  strong  an  alcohol  pre- 
vents the  action  of  the  ferment. 

The  adulterations  of  vinegar  are  numerous,  and  vary  in 
different  countries,  dependent  on  the  kind  of  vinegar  most  gener- 
ally in  use.  While  the  common  vinegar  in  the  United  States  is 
cider  vinegar,  that  of  France,  Germany  and  Italy  is  made  from 
wine  or  malt;  that  of  England  from  malt.  In  addition  to  these, 
vinegar  is  also  made  from  beer,  glucose,  cane  sugar,  molasses,  rice, 
corn,  rye  and  the  sweet  juices  of  various  fruits. 

Usually  vinegar  is  adulterated  with  the  object  of  selling  a 
cheaper  article  under  the  name  or  appearance  of  a  more  expensive 
one.  Thus  distilled  vinegar  is  colored  with  caramel  to  imitate 
cider  vinegar,  or  it  is  put  on  the  market  labeled  "White  Wine 
Vinegar."  A  dark-colored  "grape  sugar"  is  sometimes  used  as 
the  basis  for  the  manufacture  of  vinegar,  because  without  any 
"  added  color  "  the  product  resembles  cider  vinegar.  A  weak  cider 
vinegar  made  from  the  pomace  soaked  with  water  is  also  sometimes 
reinforced  by  the  addition  of  spirit  vinegar  and  sophisticated  with 
apple  solids.     (See  also  p.  144.) 

MEDLAR  (Pyrus  germanica) 

Medlars  are  common  throughout  Europe  and  the  British  Isles, 
but  not  in  the  United  States.  In  appearance  they  are  somewhat 
like  small  apples  and  are  not  edible  until  they  have  undergone  a 
peculiar  ripening  process,  induced  by  the  enzymes  in  the  fruit 
including  diastase.  This  process  although  suggestive  of  decay  is 
said  to  be  distinct  from  it.^ 

PEARS  (Pyrus  commimis) 

This  fruit  also  belongs  botanically  to  the  Rose  order.    It  is 
probable  that  the  cultivated  pear  is  derived  from  the  wild  fruit 
*  Food,  A.  H.  Church.  1    r^r^ci  1  r> 

^^  Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


that  is  found  all  over  western  Asia  and  Europe.  A  great  variety 
of  pears  have  been  developed  both  in  Europe  and  America.  They 
do  not  differ  essentially  in  chemical  composition  from  apples. 
Some  pears  like  the  Kieffer  which  are  hard  and  tasteless  when 
gathered,  ripen  in  storage,  and  after  several  weeks  are  soft  and 
juicy.  Some  varieties  like  the  Bartlett  and  the  Sickle  are  of 
special  value  for  canning.  On  account  of  the  hard  insoluble 
granules  found  in  some  pears,  they  are  not  as  digestible  as  apples, 
especially  for  invalids. 


A  strong  fermented  beverage  called  perry  similar  to  cider  and 
containing  about  the  same  per  cent,  of  alcohol  is  made  from  pears. 
In  some  parts  of  the  Continent  pears  are  especially  grown  for  this 
purpose,  and  the  beverage  is  substituted  for  champaign  cider. 

QUINCES  (Cydonia  vulgaris) 

The  quince  had  its  origin  in  the  north  of  Persia^  near  the 
Caspian  Sea,  and  wild  varieties  still  grow  there.  This  fruit  is 
mentioned  by  Pliny  and  Plutarch  as  a  preventive  from  evil 
influences,  so  it  was  well  known  even  in  ancient  times.  The 
quince  has  not  been  very  much  modified  by  cultivation,  and  is 
still  hard  and  sour,  until  cooked.  On  account  of  its  agreeable 
flavor  when  cooked  the  quince  is  used  for  making  marmalade  and 
jelly,  and  as  a  flavor  for  other  fruits.  The  seeds  are  rich  in 
vegetable  mucilage,  which  is  used  medicinally.  It  grows  readily 
throughout  the  temperate  regions  in  both  Europe  and  America. 
In  England  it  is  grown  mostly  as  an  ornamental  shrub.  Wine 
having  a  very  agreeable  taste  and  odor  is  made  from  quince  juice, 
and  a  mucilaginous  drink  from  the  seeds. 


The  drupe  fruits  consist  of  one  or  more  hard  stones  or  "pits" 
surrounded  by  a  thick  fleshy  layer  which  is  usually  edible.    Inside 

i  Origin  of  Cultivated  Planto,  DeCandolle. 

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AP&ICOTS  239 

the  hard  shell  there  is  a  kernel  which  in  some  cases  is  edible.  This 
kernel  has  the  taste  and  odor  of  hydrocyanic  acid  and  from  these 
kernels  this  add  can  be  obtained  in  small  quantities  by  distilla- 
tion. The  distillate  from  the  bitter  almond  kernel  is  exceed- 
ingly poisonous. 

APRICOT  (Prunus  armeniaca) 

The  apricot  probably  came  originally  from  Armenia  and  is  said 
to  be  found  wild  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  Caucasus  Moxmtains. 
It  grows  readily  in  warm  and  temperate  climates  and  ripens 
earlier  than  the  peach,  to  which  it  is  closely  related.  The  apricot 
is  extensively  grown  in  China  and  Japan,  in  the  oases  of  Africa,  in 
Syria  and  more  recently  in  California.  In  the  latter  state  apricots 
are  grown  in  immense  quantities  for  shipping,  canning  and  drying. 
Dried  apricots  contain  30  per  cent,  of  sugars  and  2.5  per  cent,  of 
free  acid.  There  is  said  to  be  quite  a  market  for  apricot  seeds 
for  use  in  making  "almond  paste.'* 

A  product  known  as  ^^ Syrian  Apricot  Paste'*  is  extensively 
used  abroad.  It  is  made  in  a  basin,  2  to  3  feet  deep,  lined  with 
cement.  Into  this  the  apricots,  after  being  stoned,  are  thrown, 
and  mashed  or  trodden  with  the  feet.  The  mass  is  then  taken 
out,  spread  quite  thin  on  boards  and  dried  in  the  sun.  About  4000 
tons  is  thus  produced  annually.  Some  of  this  is  exported  to  use 
by  manufacturers  in  making  a  "jam  with  apricot  flavor."  The 
paste  is  used  in  Syria  as  a  substitute  for  candy;  it  is  also  made  into 
a  syrup,  and  is  the  chief  ingredient  of  many  iced  drinks.^ 

CHERRY  (Prunus  cerasus) 

The  cherry  has  been  improved  from  the  wild  cherry  of  Asia 

while  another  variety  seems  to  have  originated  in  the  vicinity 

of  the  Caspian  Sea.    It  is  said  that  when  Lucxillus  returned  to 

Rome  after  his  victory  over  Mithridates  in  the  province  of 

^  Daily  Con.  and  Trade  Rep.,  191 3,  p.  12 10. 

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Pontus,  that  he  brought  with  him  to  adorn  his  triumph  a  cherry 
tree,  laden  with  fruit.  ^ 

Cherry  trees  begin  to  bear  when  four  or  five  years  old,  and 
continue  to  bear  to  a  great  age,  sometimes  one  hundred  years  or 
more.  The  composition  of  the  fruit  varies  greatly  with  the 
variety,  and  the  flavor  is  influenced  by  the  soil  and  climate,  as 
is  the  case  with  apples.  Cherries  contain  on  the  average  20  per 
cent,  of  solids  or  considerable  more  than  apples,  and  there  is 
present  11  per  cent,  of  sugar,  and  0.43  per  cent,  acid,  expressed 
as  sulfuric,  although  in  reality  mostly  malic. 

More  than  two  hundred  and  fifty  varieties  of  cherries  are 
grown,  some  sweet  and  some  sour.  In  New  England,  New  York, 
Michigan,  Iowa,  and  especially  more  recently  in  California, 
cherries  are  extensively  grown  for  market  through  May,  June  and 
July,  Some  varieties,  like  the  black  and  white  Oxhearts,  Tarta- 
rian and  Bigarreau  are  admirably  adapted  for  eating,  while  the 
sour  ferries  like  the  Morello  and  Early  Richmond  are  better 
adapted  for  making  sauces,  pies^nd  puddings.  For  the  latter 
purpose  the  pit  of  the  cherry  is  generally  removed. 

Cherries  are  a  favorite  fruit  for  canning  either  with  or  without 
the  pits.  Sugar  may  be  added  if  desired.  As  cherries  tend  to 
bleach  from  the  action  of  the  acid  on  the  tin  of  the  can^  unless 
the  surface  of  the  metal  is  protected  by  some  kind  of  lacquer, 
the  addition  of  some  red  coloring  matter  is  not  an  uncommon 
adulteration.  There  is,  however,  no  excuse  for  this  form  of  sophis- 
tication, as  it  does  not  improve  the  flavor  of  the  fruit,  and  the 
dye  when  used  continuously  may  be  injurious  to  the  health* 

A  common  variety  of  cherry  put  on  the  market  is  the  Maras- 
chino, or  more  properly  the  Marasca.  This  cherry  is. grown  in 
the  province  of  Dalmatia  in  Austria.  They  are  prepared  by 
bleaching  the  fruit  in  a  solution  of  salt  and  sulfurous  acid,  wash- 
ing thoroughly  and  then  saturating  with  sugar  or  glucose  and 
dyeing  red  or  any  desired  color  with  coal  tar  dyes  and  preserving 

^  Food  Products  of  the  World,  M.  E.  Green,  p.  229. 
•  Foods  and  Thdr  Adulterations,  Wfley.  p.  370. 

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DATES  241 

with  alcohol.  They  are  sometimes  flavored  with  bitter  almond 
oil.  This  product  has  been  so  thoroughly  "processed"  that  little 
oV  the  original  cherry  remains  except  the  cellular  tissue.  Large 
quantities  of  cherries  packed  in  brine,  are  shipped  to  the  United 
States  especially  from  the  Balkan  peninsula. 

'* Cherry  bounce^*  is  a  concoction  made  from  sugar  and  brandy, 
in  which  cherries  have  been  soaked.  Cherry  brandy  is  made  by 
distillation  of  fermented  cherry  juice.  A  very  popular  alcoholic 
liquor,  especially  among  the  Germans,  is  ^*  Kirschwasser,'*  which 
is  made  by  the  distillation  of  fermented  cherries.  It  has  the  taste 
and  odor  of  cherry  pits,  and  contains  about  50  per  cent,  of  alcohol. 
Ratafia  is  a  similar  spirituous  liquor,  and  Maraschino  is  a  highly 
valued  liqueur  made  in  Dalmatia  from  a  wild  black  cherry  fer- 
mented with  honey. 

DATE     (Phoenix  dactylif era) 

The  fruit  of  the  date  palm  has  been  from  the  earliest  times 
the  main  dependence  for  fruit  and  sugar  of  the  inhabitants  of 
numerous  tropical,  arid  lands.  We  know  that  it  was  grown  from 
the  Euphrates  to  the  Nile  even  before  the  Christian  era,  and  its 
cultivation  is  still  largely  confined  to  countries  where  the  climate 
is  similar  to  that  of  western  Asia  and  northern  Africa. 

The  Persian  Gulf  region  is  at  present  the  center  of  the  date- 
growing  industry  of  th^  world.  Over  5000  tons  of  dates  have 
been  shipped  in  a  single  year  from  one  of  the  Persian  gulf  ports, 
and  there  are  no  doubt  20,000,000  date  palms  in  this  territory. 

The  trees  may  be  propagated  by  seeds  or  cuttings,  but  the 
latter  method  gives  more  uniform  varieties  and  is  therefore  pre- 
ferred. Irrigation  is  practised  in  most  of  the  date-growing  regions. 
The  climate  is  excessively  hot,  the  temperature  often  remaining  at 
110°  F.  for  many  days  and  nights.^  In  Africa  and  the  East  the 
dates  ripen  at  the  end  of  August,  while  in  Spain  and  Sicily  they 
do  not  ripen  until  December.     (Fig.  32.) 

» U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bu.  Plant  Ind.  Bull.  No.  .<ij4 

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Lib    J 










Fig.  31. — The  date  palm.     (By  permission,  The  Central  Scientific  Co.) 

Fio.  32.— Fruit  market  in  Jaffa. 

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DATES  243 

The  trees  frequently  live  and  continue  bearing  for  two  hundred 
years.  The  s(m1  where  the  palms  are  grown  is  usually  alkaline, 
for  this  plant  will  tolerate  more  salt  in  the  soil  than  almost  any 
other.  The  pistillate  and  staminate  (male  and  female)  flowers 
are  borne  on  different  trees  so  when  the  trees  are  in  blossom,  the 
natives  dimb  the  pistillate  trees  and  sprinkle  the  blossoms  with 
the  poUen  from  the  staminate  trees.  The  fruit  grows  in  bunches 
of  20  pounds  or  more. 

To  prepare  the  dates  for  shipping  they  must  be  dried  in  the 
sim,  as  in  the  preparation  of  raisins.  As  some  varieties  are  very 
sticky,  there  is  every  opportunity  for  filth  from  the  hands  and 
clothing  of  the  Arabs  and  other  natives  who  gather  and  prepare 
the  fruit  to  become  attached  to  the  product,  and  on  this  account 
it  is  suggested  that  dates  be  well  washed  before  they  are  eaten. 

Dates  can  hardly  be  compared  with  ordinary  fruits  as  they  are 
so  nutritious  and  constitute  so  large  a  part  of  the  staple  food  of 
the  nations  of  these  arid  regions  where  they  are  grown.  It  is 
said  that  half  a  pound  of  dates  and  a  half  pint  of  milk  will  make  a 
sufficient  meal  for  a  person  of  sedentary  habits.  Dates  are  often 
pounded  and  pressed  into  cakes,  and  thus  prepared  constitute  the 
staple  "travellers'  food"  in  these  desert  regions.  They  are  soaked 
with  water  before  use,  thus  softening  the  cakes  and  affording  a 
pleasant  beverage.  '^ 

Dried  dates,  without  the  stones,  as  they  are  prepared  for  export, 
contain  about  7  per  cent,  of  proteins,  54  per  cent,  of  sugar  and  11 
per  cent,  of  pectose  and  gum.  Although  it  has  been  claimed  that 
an  excess  of  sugar  in  the  diet  is  injurious,  it  must  be  admitted  that 
the  Arabs  of  the  desert  are  among  the  finest  specimens  of  humanity, 
with,  strong  bodies  and  very  perfect  teeth.  Their  diet  of  dates 
is  in  some  sections  supplemented  with  dried  fish  or  milk,  and 
occasionally  a  feast  of  fresh  meat.  The  nomadic  habits  of  these 
people,  and  the  fact  that  they  live  so  much  of  the  time  in  the  open 
air  no  doubt  contribute  quite  largely  to  their  splendid  health. 

Experiments  in  growing  date  palms  in  Arizona  and  California 
have  been  made  with  considerable  success. 

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From  the  sap  of  the  date  palm  the  Hindoos  obtain  "jaggery 
sugar,"  and  palm  wine.  The  latter  is  made  into  a  spirituous  liqueur 
called  "toddy,"  and  also  into  vinegar,     (See  p.  113.) 

PEACH  (Amygdalus  persica) 

There  has  been  much  research  devoted  to  the  question  of  the 
origin  of  the  peach,  and  although  many  have  believed  that  it 
came  first  from  Persia,  there  is  considerable  evidence  to  show  that 
it  was  originally  grown  in  China.*  It  is  cultivated  extensively 
in  the  semi-tropical  regions  of  Europe,  Africa  and  Asia,  and  in 
many  localities  throughout  the  United  States. 

The  peach  is  readily  propagated  by  its  seeds,  but  the  trees 
thus  grown  do  not  produce  fruit  that  can  be  at  all  depended  upon 
for  quality,  so  the  common  method  of  growing  is  by  "budding" 
on  the  native  stock. 

The  peach,  when  fully  ripe,  normally  contains  about  88  per 
cent,  of  water,  10.8  per  cent,  of  sugar  and  other  carbohydrates, 
and  0.7  per  cent,  of  proteins.  The  flesh  of  the  peach  is  flavored  by 
the  presence  of  a  small  quantity  of  hydrocyanic  acid,  and  fruit 
ethers.  In  general  there  are  two  kinds  of  peaches,  free  stones  in 
which  the  pulp  sq)arates  readily  from  the  stone,  and  "clings" 
in  which  the  pulp  adheres  tenaciously  to  the  stone. 

As  peaches  ripen^  the  reducing  sugars  decrease  in  quantity 
and  sucrose  increases;  the  amount  of  acid  also  increases.  It 
seems  to  be  pretty  well  established  that  peaches  picked  before 
they  are  fuUy  ripe,  and  taken  to  market  in  cold  storage,  do  not 
develop  as  fine  a  flavor  as  those  that  are  practically  ripe  when 
picked.  The  peach  season  for  the  consumer  is  extended  by 
planting  early  and  late  varieties,  and  by  rapid  methods  of  trans- 
portation from  one  climate  to  another,  but  on  account  of  the  per- 
ishable nature  of  the  fruit,  it  mtist  be  handled  very  quickly  and 
carefuUy  or  decay  will  begin. 

^  Origin  of  Cultivate  Plants,  De  Candolle. 

«  U.  S.  Dcpt.  Agri.,  Bu.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  97.  C^r^nin]^ 

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Peaches  are  regarded  as  among  the  most  valuable  of  all  orchard 
fruits  for  evaporating,  preserving  and  canning.  The  general 
methods  used  for  evaporating  and  canning  have  already  been 
discussed  (p.  213).  Lemon  and  Orange  "clings,"  and  Crawfords 
are  the  most  popular  for  canning.  The  canning  industry  is  carried 
on  most  extensively  in  California,  Maryland,  Michigan  and  to 
quite  a  large  extent  in  twenty  other  states.  Great  care  is  neces- 
sary in  processing  so  that  the  fruit  shall  be  fxilly  sterilized.^ 

The  areas  in  the  United  States  where  the  peach  can  be  success- 
fully grown  are  much  scattered,  as  the  tree  and  the  fruit  are  both 
susceptible  to  changes  of  temperature.  Peaches  are  liable  to 
be  killed  if  there  is  high  temperature  early  in  the  spring  followed 
by  a  drop  to  freezing.  It  has  been  found  that  proximity  to.  large 
bodies  of  water  so  ameliorates  the  climate  that  peaches  can  be 
successfully  grown  in  those  parts  of  the  country  that  would 
otherwise  be  too  far  north.  On  this  account  peaches  are  grown 
on  the  south  side  of  the  Great  Lakes  in  New  York  and  Ohio,  on  the 
east  shore  of  Lake  Michigan,  also  in  the  vicinity  of  the  salt  water 
from  Connecticut  to  the  Chesapeake  peninsula  and  in  Georgia. 
Another  peach-growing  area  is  southern  Illinois,  Missouri,  and 

The  nectarine  is  .often  classed  as  a  special  variety  of  peach,  or 
a  "sport."    It  has  a  smooth  skin  and  characteristic  flavor. 

Peach  cider  is  made  from  the  fermented  juice  of  the  inferior 
peaches,  and  when  this  fermented  juice  is  distilled  the  product  is 
known  as  peach  brandy,  an  alcoholic  liquor  containing  about 
SO  per  cent,  of  absolute  alcohol. 

PLUM  (Pnmus  dbmestica) 

The  plum  which  is  grown  in  Europe  and  America  is  probably 
a  native  of  Asia,  but  was  brought  to  Europe  hundreds  of  years 
ago,  and  subsequently  to  America.  In  addition  to  the  Prunus 
domestica,  there  are  many  varieties  of  plums  which  have  their 

» U.  S.  Dcpt.  Agri.,  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  426. 

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origin  from  wild  q)ecieB  found  in  other  countries.  Among  these 
may  be  mentioned  the  cherry-plum  types  which  are  noticed  in 
southeastern  Europe;  the  Japanese  or  Chinese  plums;  the  Ameri- 
can type  as  the  wild  goose  plum,  sand  plum,  etc.  Among  the 
domesticated  varieties  especially  prized  are  the  Damsons,  origi- 
nally introduced  from  Damascus,  Green  Gages  and  MirabeUes. 

Plums  are  grown  in  the  same  way  as  peaches,  and  as  there 
is  a  greater  variety,  they  probably  have  a  wider  region  of  culti- 
vation. They  are  rich  in  sugar — the  average  of  three  samples 
of  California  plums  showed  13.25  per  cent,  of  sugar  and  21.6  per 
cent,  of  total  solids.  Some  varieties  contain  a  large  quantity  of 
pectous  substances.  Plum  butter  is  a  favorite  form  of  plum 
preserves.  The  Sloe  or  Blackthorn  is  a  plant  of  the  plum  family, 
which  bears  a  sour,  astringent  fruit  which  is  utilized  in  Europe  for 
preserving  and  for  flavoring  various  liquors. 


One  characteristic  of  plums  is  that  some  varieties  may  be 
readily  dried  to  form  what  are  known  on  the  market  as  "prunes." 
A  plum  to  make  a  good  prune  must  contain  a  large  proportion  of 
solids,  especially  sugar,  and  must  be  adapted  to  dr3dng  without 
the  removal  of  the  pit.  Formerly  most  of  the  prunes  were  pro- 
duced in  France,  Bosnia  and  Servia,  but  now  the  first  rank  must 
be  given  to  California,^  where  in  1910  the  crop  of  prunes  was 
estimated  as  from  85,000,000  to  130,000,000  pounds.  This  in- 
dustry has  grown  up  since  1870  when  the  first  commercial  orchard 
was  planted. 

Three  methods  for  curing  prunes  are  in  use:  first,  sun  drying; 
second,  curing  in  evaporators;  third,  sun  drying  or  evaporating 
after  the  fruit  has  been  partially  cooked.  The  sun-drying  method, 
which  is  that  most  practised  in  California,  is  the  most  econom- 
ical. In  parts  of  California  and  the  Pacific  Northwest  evapora- 
tors are  used. 

Before  being  dried  the  plums  must  be  dipped  in  boiling  lye 
->  U.  P.  Hedrick,  Cyc  Am.  Hort.  Vol.  3. 

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PEKsnocoN  247 

or  their  ^ins  must  be  piidced  to  allow  the  moisture  to  escape 
during  drying.  The  fruit  is  then  thoroughly  washed  and  ready 
to  dry  or  to  be  placed  in  the  evaporator.  When  placed  in  the  sxm 
from  five  to  twelve  days  are  required  to  dry  the  prune,  and  in  the 
evaporator  from  twelve  to  forty-eight  hours.  Before  cooking, 
prunes  should  be  thoroughly  washed  and  then  soaked  in  cold  water 
for  twelve  hours,  and  thien  cooked  for  some  time  at  a  moderate 

A  form  of  adulteration  practised  especially  on  light  colored 
prunes  is  to  treat  them  with  sulfur  fumes.  While  this  acts  as  a 
bleach,  and  improves  the  appearance,  the  process  should  be 
discouraged  as  unnecessary  and  making  the  fruit  unwholesome. 

Investigations  have  been  made  by  the  United  States  De- 
partment of  Agricultture^  on  the  commercial  value  of  the  kernels 
of  the  peach,  apricot  and  pnme.  These  kernels  are  quite  similar 
to  those  of  the  bitter  and  sweet  almond.  From  all  of  these,  a 
fixed  oil  may  be  obtained  and  also  a  volatile  dl.  Much  of  the 
so-called  almond  oil  on  the  market  is  really  apricot-kernel  oil. 
The  volatile  oil  of  the  peach  and  apricot  may  readily  take  the  place 
of  bitter  almond  oil  for  many  piuposes. 

PERSIMMON    (Diospyros  virginiana) 

The  persimmon  or  "kaki"  came  originally  from  Japan  and 
China,  and  also  grows  wild  in  the  central  and  southern  part  of 
the  United  States,  and  in  Mexico.  (Fig.  33.)  This  fruit  has  only 
recently  received  special  attention  in  the  United  States,*  although 
it  has  for  a  long  time  been  extensively  ctiltivated  in  Japan  where 
it  has  been  greatly  improved  so  that  now  it  is  from  2  to  3  inches  in 
diameter.  The  natiural  fruit  is  reddish  yellow,  about  the  size  of  a 
large  plum  and  contains  from  fotu:  to  eight  seeds.  The  Japanese 
Persimmon  (Diosp)rros  Kaki)  is  now  grown  in  the  United  States  in 
some  localities. 

There  has  been  more  or  less  prejudice  against  the  persimmon 

*  Bu.  of  Plant  Industry,  Bull.  No.  133. 

*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bu.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  141 

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on  account  of  its  astringent  or  "puckery"  taste  when  not  fully 
ripened.  The  common  opinion  is  that  it  must  be  exposed  to  the 
frost  before  being  fit  to  eat,  but  this  is  simply  accidental  and  many 
varieties  ripen  fully  before  the  frost  comes.  The  astringency  of 
the  persimmon  is  due  to  the  presence  of  tannin,  a  vegetable  acid 
in  the  unripe  fruit,  and  this  is  probably  changed  to  sugar  in  the 
ripening  process. 

It  had  been  learned^  that  the  Japanese  ripen  persimmons 

Fig.  33. — Branch  and  fruit  of  the  wild  persimmon  tree.     (Photo,  by  C.  L.  Lochman.) 

artificially  by  placing  them  from  eight  to  fifteen  days  in  casks 
from  which  the  native  beer,  called  "sake,"  has  been  emptied.  A 
few  lumps  of  starch  are  placed  in  the  cask  to  absorb  the  excess  of 
moisture.  Studies  on  this  process  revealed  the  fact  that  this  arti- 
ficial ripening  was  due  to  the  presence  in  the  cask  of  a  small  quan- 
tity of  carbon  dioxide  gas  (CO2).  This  processing  may  now  be 
carried  out  successfully  and  the  astringency  fully  removed  in  a 
short  time  in  an  atmosphere  of  carbon  dioxide. 

The  American  persimmon  contains  14.$  per  cwt.  of  sugars  of 

1  Jour.  Am.  Chem.  Soc.,  38,  p.  688. 

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which  13.5  per  cent,  is  glucose  and  the  rest  cane  sugar.  The 
pulp  of  the  fully  ripened  fruit  is  sweet  and  has  a  fine  flavor.  By 
cultivation,  no  doubt  many  excellent  varieties  of  larger  size,  and 
containing  but  few  seeds,  can  be  produced  from  the  native  Ameri- 
can persimmon.  They  may  be  used  for  making  pies,  sauce, 
puddings,  etc.  Persimmons  dried  like  figs  are  exported  from 
China  and  Japan. 


The  class  of  citrus  fruits  includes  a  number  of  botanical 
species,  such  as  the  orange,  mandarin,  grape  fruit,  pomelo  or 
shaddock,  kumquat,  citron,  lemon  and  lime.  These  fruits  came 
originally  from  China,  and  other  parts  of  Asia,  but  were  very 
early  introduced  into  the  regions  bordering  on  the  Mediterranean 
Sea,  and  subsequently  into  the  Western  Continent.  They 
may  be  grown  anywhere,  where  there  is  sufficient  moisture  and 
where  the  temperature  does  not  fall  below  i8°  F.  nor  rise  above  loo^ 
F.^  The  ideal  region  for  their  growth  is  where  the  winter  tempera- 
ture is  not  below  26°  F.,  except  for  a  very  few  hours.  The  flavor 
of  the  fruit  is  finer  if  it  is  grown  in  the  coldest  climate  where  the 
trees  will  flourish.  In  excessively  dry  regions,  if  the  soil  is  fertile, 
citrus  fruits  are  grown  with  the  aid  of  irrigation. 

These  fruits  are  all  characterized  by  a  thick  peel  or  rind 
which  is  not  considered  edible,  but  is  utilized  for  the  production 
of  the  volatile  oil,  which  is  present  in  abundance.  As  much  as 
one-fourth  of  the  weight  of  the  fruit  is  often  removed  with  the 
peel.  The  principal  acid  of  these  fruits  is  citric  (CcHsOt+HjO). 
Phosphoric  (HsPOO  and  a  little  malic  acid,  are  also  present  and 
the  sugar  which  is  both  cane  and  invert  varies  within  a  wide  range 
from  less  than  i  to  over  10  per  cent. 

The  citron  (Citrus  medica,  var.  acida)  is  cultivated  extensively 
in  China,  Persia,  the  Mediterranean  countries  and  California.  It 
has  been  suggested  that  most  of  the  other  citrus  fruits  have  been 
produced  by  oilture  from  the  wild  citron.    The  tree  is  similar 

*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  238.  1     r\r\nii> 

*^       ^  ^  Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


to  the  lemon,  and  bears  flowers  that  are  purple  without  and  white 
within.  The  fruit  is  oblong,  protrudent  at  the  tip,  from  5  to  6 
inches  long,  greenish  yellow  in  coIcm:,  and  very  fragrant.  The 
interior  consists  of  a  somewhat  acid  pulp  from  Which  a  juice  is 
expressed,  which  is  used  like  lime  juice.  The  rind  of  the  qitron, 
which  is  thick  and  spongy,  is  niuch  used  in  the  preparation  of 
candied  or  preserved  dtron.  This  confection,  which  contains  from 
72  to  83  per  cent,  of  sugar,  is  extensively  shipped  from  Mediter- 
ranean ports.  This  citron  should  be  carefully  distinguished  from 
another  fruit  of  the  same  name,  which  is  really  a  variety  of  water- 
melon, and  the  pulp  of  which  is  also  used  to  make  a  candied 


The  pomdo  (Citrus  decumana)  or  grape  fruity  the  largest  of 
the  fruits  of  this  family,  which  came  originally  from  China,  is  a 
comparatively  new  claimant  to  dietary  honors  in  the  United 
States.  It  sometimes  weighs  10  or  12  pounds^  and  is  covered  by  a 
rind  that  is  smooth,  yellow,  and  very  bitter.  It  is  readily  grown 
in  Florida  and  California,  but  is  still  considered  something  of  a 
luxury  on  accoxmt  of  the  high  price  at  which  it  is  sold.  The  fruit 
contains  considerable  add,  although  not  as  much  as  the  lemon, 
and  also  a  peculiar  bitter  prindple  which  renders  it  quite  appetiz- 
ing to  one  who  has  cultivated  a  taste  for  it.  It  has  come  to  be 
regarded  as  an  extremely  wholesome  addition  to  the  breakfast 
menu.  The  grape  fruit  is  readily  grown  in  the  West  Indies,  and 
in  Oriental  tropical  countries.  The  Shaddock,  named  from  a 
Captain  Shaddock  who  introduced  the  fruit  into  the  West  Indies 
from  China,  is  the  name  by  which  one  of  the  largest  varieties  of  the 
grape  fruit  is  known  in  England. 


The  kumquat  [cumquat]  (Citrus  japonica)  is  one  of  the  small- 
est of  the  citrus  fruits.    It  is  a  native  of  China,  and  has  been  grown 

1  Foods,  Tibbies,  p.  690. 

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LEMONS  251 

in  the  Utiited  States  for  some  time.  The  fniit  is  bright  golden 
yellow,  growing  in  clusters,  and  only  about  i  to  i  1/2  inches  in 
diameter.  The  thin  rind  is  sweet  and  aromatic,  and  the  entire 
fruit — rind  and  all — is  usually  eaten.  The  tree  is  exceedingly 
ornamental  when  covered  with  its  green  leaves  and  bright  yellow 
fruit.  ' 


The  lemon  (Citrus  limonum)  was  introduced  originally  from 
eastern  Asia,  but  very  early  became  an  important  fruit  on  the 
shores  of  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  as  this  climate  was  found  to  be 
well  adapted  to  its  cultivation.  Like  the  orange  it  grows  in  sub- 
tropical countries  where  it  has  an  abundance  of  moisture  and  a 
fertile  soil.  The  fruit  is  gathered,  even  though  still  green,  when  it 
has  reached  a  marketable  size,  for  if  allowed  to  ripen  on  the  tree 
it  is  coarse  and  of  poor  quality.^  The  unripe  fruit  is  carefully 
cured,  a  process  that  often  requires  from  2  to  4  months.  It 
may  be  kept  best  in  cold  storage,  at  a  temperature  of  about  40® 
F.,  imimpaired  from  8  to  12  weeks. 

The  lemon  contains  less  than  one-half  of  i  per  cent,  of  sugar, 
and  over  5  per  cent,  of  citric  add.  It  is  especially  characterized 
by  its  essential  oil,  which  is  found  in  the  rather  heavy  rind. 

The  acids  in  the  lemon  occur  both  free  and  combined  with  a 
base,  usually  potassium.  On  accotmt  of  its  composition,  high 
acidity  and  low  sugar  content,  and  because  the  tough  rind  protects 
the  fruit  so  that  it  will  bear  transportation  and  storage,  the  lemon 
is  used  the  world  over  for  flavoring,  as  a  relish  and  for  making 
acid  beverages. 

"Lemonade,"  "citronade,"  or  "lemon  squash,"  is  a  cool  re- 
freshing beverage  especially  suitable  for  the  use  of  people  of  a  bil- 
ious temperament.  The  alkaline  citrates  of  the  juice  enter  the 
blood,  and  are  partly  oxidized  in  the  system  to  carbonic  acid  and 
water,  and  partly  changed  to  carbonates.    Lemonade  should  be 

'  Grocer's  Encyclopedia,  p.  331. 

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made  by  rolling  the  lemon,  expressing  the  juice,  and  mixing  this 
with  the  peel  cut  in  slices,  a  sufficient  quantity  of  water  and  sugar, 
and  nothing  else  should  be  used.  There  is  much  fictitious  lemon- 
ade on  the  market,  which  is  acidified  with  tartaric  or  phosphoric 
acid,  flavored  with  extract  of  lemon,  and  even  colored  with  anilin 

The  center  of  the  lemon  industry  is  southern  Italy  and  Sicily, 
where  the  climate  is  much  like  that  of  Florida  and  southern 
California.  In  Sicily^  particularly,  lemons  are  grown  in  great 
abimdance.  Before  the  disastrous  earthquake  of  1908,  Messina 
was  the  center  of  the  trade  in  lemon  oil  and  in  the  citrate  products. 
It  was  estimated  that  the  crop  of  lemons  in  1907  in  Sicily  and 
Calabria  amounted  to  6,900,000,000  lemons.  About  one-third  of 
the  crop  is  used  for  citric  acid,  citrate  of  lime,  lemon  oil  and  candied 
lemon  peel. 

Oil  of  Lemon 

For  the  manufacture  of  oil  of  lemon^  the  "culls"  or  small 
and  inferior  lemons  are  used.  There  are  three  processes  in  use 
for  extracting  this  oil;  two  so-called  "sponge"  methods  and  a 
"  machine"  method.  In  the  two-piece  sponge  method,  the  lemons 
are  cut  in  half,  and  by  the  use  of  a  spoon-shaped  instrument,  the 
pulp  is  quickly  removed.  The  rinds  are  soaked  for  a  time  with 
water  and  then  taken  to  the  benches  on  which  are  seated  the  men 
who  express  the  oil.  (Fig.  34.)  This  work,  which  is  quite  labor- 
ious, is  carried  on  as  follows:  A  small  earthen-ware  bowl  is  placed 
on  the  floor  between  the  workman's  knees,  and  across  the  top  is 
laid  a  round  strip  of  wood  so  notched  as  to  fit  the  widest  part  of 
the  bowl.  The  lemon  peel  is  inserted  into  a  cup-shaped  sponge, 
and  by  pressure  of  the  hand  and  the  use  of  the  stick  as  a  rest, 
the  workman  causes  the  oil  to  flow  out  into  the  bowl;  by  turning 
the  rind  several  times,  with  renewed  pressure  the  process  is  com- 
pleted. Two  or  three  pounds  of  oil  per  day  may  be  obtained  by  a 
skilled  workman,  and  for  this  labor  he  receives  from  40  to  60  cents. 

1 U:  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bu.  Plant  InA  Bull.  No.  160. 

•  See  Chace,  Year-book  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  1908,  p.  337-340. 

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LEMON   OIL  253 

When  considerable  oil  has  been  obtained  on  the  surface  of  the 
liquid,  it  is  blown  over  the  edge  of  the  bowl  into  another  receptacle. 

By  the  machine  method  of  manufacture,  which  is  only  used 
in  the  province  of  Calabria,  in  Italy,  the  oil  is  pressed  out  of  the 
fruit  by  the  use  of  an  extremely  crude  hand  press.  The  product 
is  more  highly  colored  than  that  produced  by  the  sponge  method, 
and  is  used  for  bringing  up  the  color  of  pale  oils. 

Oil  of  lemon  is  soluble  in  strong  (95  per  cent.)  alcohol,  and  only 

Fig.  34. — Expressing  Lemon  OU.    Two-piece  method,  as  practiced  at  Mexicali, 
Sicily.     (By  permission,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.) 

very  slightly  soluble  in  water.  The  Italian  oil  contains  not  less 
than  4  per  cent,  of  a  peculiar  flavoring  principle  called  citral, 
which  is  chemically  speaking  an  aldehyde,  having  the  composi- 
tion (CioHieO).  This  substance  is  found  in  oil  of  lemon  grass, 
and  may  also  be  made  synthetically. 

Lemon  Extract 

Genuine  lemon  extract  is  made  by  dissolving  five  parts  of 
oil  of  lemon  in  ninety-five  parts  of  strong  alcohol.    For  many  years 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


more  spurious  than  genuine  extracts  were  on  the  market  in  the 
United  States.  The  alcohol  that  must  be  used  is  really  more 
expensive  than  the  oil  of  lemon,  but  a  weak  alcohol,  below  45  per 
cent^  will  hold  only  a  trace  of  lemon  oil  in  solution.  To  give  the 
extract  the  appearance  of  genuineness,  however,  it  is  colored  yel- 
low with  coal  tar  dye. 

A  low  grade  of  extract  of  lemon^  is  made  by  washing  lemon 
peel  with  dilute  alcohol,  whereby  the  dtral,  the  principal  flavor- 
ing material,  is  removed,  and  the  terpenes  which  constitute  about 
90  per  cent,  of  the  oil  remain.  This  dilute  alcoholic  solution  is 
the  basis  of  the  so-called  "terpeneless"  extract  of  lemon.  It  is 
true  that  a  little  of  the  lemon  flavor  is  given  up  when  lemon  oil  is 
repeatedly  shaken  up  with  dilute  alcohol,  but  the  extracts  so 
made  are  frequently  worthless  for  baking  purposes.  Sometimes 
these  extracts  are  flavored  with  "citronella*'  and  strengthened 
with  lemon-grass  citral.  The  standard  of  the  U.  S.  Dept.  of  Agric. 
requires  that  the  terpeneless  extract  of  lemon  shall  contain  at 
least  0.2  per  cent,  of  citral. 

Notwithstanding  the  large  lemon  crop  of  the  United  States,  there 
were  iinported,  in  1912,  no  less  than  128,840,432  pounds  of  lemons. 

LIMES  (Citrus  meciica  adda) 

The  lime  grows  in  the  same,  regions  as  the  orange  and  is 
cultivated  especially  in  the  West  Indies,  Italy,  and  Florida.  The 
fruit  is  oval,  yellow  and  not  suitable  for  eating.  It  is  even  sourer 
than  the  lemon  as  it  contains  about  7  per  cent,  of  citric  acid,  and  is 
most  prized  on  account  of  this  acid,  the  essential  oil  and  the  lime 
juice  which  may  be  obtained  from  it.  Lime  juice  is  used  in  medi- 
cine, and  is  valuable  to  prevent  scurvy  in  those  who  are  for  long 
periods  deprived  of  fresh  vegetables.  Lime  juice  is  often  adulter- 
ated with  other  acids,  and  is  preserved  with  artificial  preservatives 
such  as  salicylic  acid  instead  of  by  the  natural  method  of  steriUza- 
into*  The  oil  or  "  essence  of  bergamot"  is  made  from  a  variety  of 
limes  which  grows  in  the  province  of  Calabria  in  southern  Italy. 

^  Food  Inspection  and  Analysis,  Leach,  p.  740. 
«Loc.  at. 

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The  orange  (Citrus  aurantium)  is  grown  on  rather  small  ever- 
green trees,  and  very  commonly  the  trees  bear  continuously  so  that 
both  blossoms  and  ripe  fruit  are  seen  at  the  same  time.  The  thick 
rind  of  the  orange  is  admirably  adapted  to  protecting  the  pulp, 
and  to  allow  the  fruit  if  not  too  ripe  when  picked  to  be  transported 
long  distances.  Great  skill  is  necessary  to  raise  a  profitable  crop 
of  oranges,  especially  in  California  and  Florida,  as  conditions  of 
stock,  soil,  climate,  exposure  and  time  of  marketing,  must  all  be 
carefully  observed.  The  trees  may  be  grown  from  the  seed  or 
from  cuttings,  but  the  usual  method,  which  insures  a  much  more 
uniform  quality,  is  by  budding  on  seedling  stock. 

Oranges  contain  from  5  to  10  per  cent,  of  sugar,  a  part  of  which 
is  sucrose,  and  a  part  invert  sugar.  The  amount  of  acid,  reckoned 
as  dtric  add,  is  from  i  to  2  per  cent,  and  the  amount  of  protein  is 
very  small.  As  the  pulp  contains  about  85  per  cent,  of  water, 
the  nutritive  value  of  the  orange  is  not  very  high,  it  is  however 
valuable  from  a  dietetic  standpoint,  on  account  of  its  palatability, 
its  mineral  and  organic  salts,  and  its  general  influence  on  other  food 
in  the  digestive  tract. 

Most  of  the  European  markets  are  supplied  with  oranges  from 
Spain,  Malta,  Brazil,  Italy,  southern  Africa  and  Florida.  The 
culture  of  oranges  began  to  be  of  importance  in  Florida  as  early 
as  1880,  and  since  that  time  has  gradually  increased.  In  1894-95 
the  severe  weather  killed  a  large  number  of  trees,  but  the  crop  has 
gradually  increased  since  that  date.  In  southern  California 
orange  culture  began  to  be  of  commerdal  importance  about  1880. 
The  so-called  "orange  belt*'  covers  1,500,000  acres  in  this  state, 
and  extends  from  near  the  sea  level  to  a  height  of  1800  feet.  The 
trees  must  be  abundantly  supplied  with  water  by  irrigation  and 
commercial  fertilizers  are  extensively  used.  Seedless  or  "navel" 
oranges  were  first  introduced  into  the  United  States  from  Brazil 
by  Wm.  Satmders  in  1870.  The  Malta  or  blood  orange  was 
originally  produced  by  grafting  the  orange  on  pomegranate  stock.* 

>  Food  Products  of  the  World,  M.  E.  Green.  i     r^r^nio 

'  Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


As  the  fruit  ripens  the  blood-red  flakes  extend  through  the  pulp 
until  frequently  the  whole  mass  is  red. 

Oil  of  Orange 

Although  oranges  are  of  the  most  value  for  eating  raw,  they 
are  also  utilized  for  making  preserves,  marmalade,  in  which  some 
of  the  bitter  or  Seville  oranges  are  used,  "orangeade,"  and  the 
essential  oil  of  orange.  From  the  latter,  dissolved  in  strong  al- 
cohol, is  made  the  commercial  extract  of  orange,  which  is  used  for 
flavoring.  This  is  sometimes  adulterated  by  the  use  of  an  insuffi- 
cient quantity  of  the  essential  oil  (4  per  cent,  is  required  for  U.  S.  P. 
strength)  dissolved  in  a  weak  alcohol,  and  artificially  colored 
with  yellow  coal  tar  color,  to  give  it  the  appearance  of  being 
genuine.  Turnips  are  sometimes  used  abroad  as  a  basis  in  the 
manufacture  of  an  adulterated  orange  marmalade. 


The  mandarin  (Citrus  nobilis),  sometimes  called  the  "kid-glove 
orange, "  was  known  in  very  early  times  in  China.  It  is  a  .small 
fruit  with  an  edible  rind,  which  is  extensively  grown'and  used  in 
tropical  coimtries,  especially  Spain,  Algeria,  Italy  and  Malta,  but 
is  not  exported  as  much  as  the  orange  and  lemon.  The  tangerine^ 
an  exceedingly  agreeable  fruit  which  is  small  and  highly  perfumed, 
is  grown  more  especially  for  the  home  market. 

Although  the  orchards  of  Florida  and  California  furnish  such 
large  quantities  of  oranges  annually,  yet  we  imported  in  1912, 
4,433,355  pounds  from  abroad. 

GRAPES  (Vitis) 

Grape  vines  are  found  growing  wild  throughout  the  temperate 
and  parts  of  the  torrid  zone  on  both  hemispheres.    From  thi^  the 

GRAPES  257 

cultivated  grapes  have  been  produced.  They  are  most  profitably 
grown  between  55°  north  and  40®  south  latitude.  The  fruit  of  the 
vine  is  mentioned  in  the  earliest  Hebrew  writings,  and  the  records 
of  wine  making  in  Egypt  go  back  for  five  or  six  thousand  years. 

In  Europe  they  are  grown  especially  in  the  countries  around  the 
Mediterranean  Sea,  as  in  Greece,  Italy,  France  and  Spain,  also  in 
the  Canary  Isands,  Portugal  and  the  Rhine  valley.  In  the  United 
States  the  best  localities  for  vine  cultiure  are  western  New  York 
and  northern  Virginia,  Missouri,  Ohio,  southern  Michigan  and 
California,  but  the  grape  grows  well  throughout  the  "corn  belt" 
from  ocean  to  ocean. 


During  colonial  times  and  for  some  years  after,  attempts  were 
made  to  grow  European  varieties  of  grapes  in  America,  but  with- 
out success.^  Peter  Legaux,  a  Frenchman,  started  a  vineyard  near 
Philadelphia  in  1793.  In  the  same  year  John  Dufour,  a  Swiss, 
engaged  in  grape  culture  in  the  valley  of  the  Ohio  in  Kentucky 
and  Indiana,  and  a  large  colony  of  French  settlers  started  a  vine 
and  olive  colony  on  the  Tombigbee  River  in  Alabama  in  1805. 
It  was  learned  later  that  the  cause  of  the  repeated  failures  was 
the  fact  that  foreign  grown  stock  was  exposed  to  various  pests 
such  as  a  tiny  plant  louse  called  "phylloxera,"  and  to  various 
mildews,  while  from  native  varieties  hardy  stock  could  be  secured. 
The  first  of  these  to  be  successfully  grown  was  the  Alexander,  an 
offshoot  of  the  ordinary  fox  grape,  ViHs  lahrusca.  The  Catawba 
and  the  Concord  were  the  first  of  these  grapes  to  be  extensively 
grown  in  the  North  and  the  Scuppernong  from  the  Vitis  rotundi- 
folia  in  the  South.  As  European  grapes  have  a  higher  sugar  and 
solid  content  than  the  American  species,  they  are  better  adapted 
to  wine  making,  excepting  champagnes.  They  also  keep  longer 
and  can  be  used  in  making  raisins.  American  table  grapes, 
however,  are  more  refreshing  and  make  a  better  unfermented 
drink  than  do  the  European  varieties. 

^  Domestication  of  American  Grapes,  Hedrick,  P.  Sc.  Mo.,  Vol.  82,  p.  338. 

'7  Digitize^dbyLjOOgle 


The  quality  of  the  grape  is  very  much  influenced  by  the  loca- 
tion, soil,  climate  and  temperature.  Indeed,  it  often  happens 
that  the  fruit  grown  in  one  locality  has  entirely  different  qualities 
from  that  grown  from  the  same  variety  of  vine  in  another  locality. 

The  vine  is  propagated  by  cuttings  or  slips  which  are  easily 
rooted.  When  it  is  old  enough  to  bear  fruit,  it  is  "cut  back"  so 
that  only  a  few  shoots  are  allowed  to  bear.  Sometimes  the  vines 
are  trained  on  poles,  or  racks.  In  Italy  they  are  often  supported  by 
trees  which  have  been  trimmed  so  that  they  bear  very  little  foliage. 
Great  care  is  exercised  in  the  vineyards  to  keep  the  soil  in  good 
condition,  and  to  supply  plenty  of  artificial  fertilizers. 

The  composition  of  California  grapes^  is:  water,  80.12  per 
cent;  protein,  1.26  per  cent;  sugar,  16.50  per  cent;  ash,  0.50 
per  ceQt.  and  fat,  fiber,  etc.,  1.62  per  cent.  Other  grapes  contain 
from  15  to  35  per  cent,  of  sugar.  Tartaric  and  malic  acid  are 
found  in  the  unripe  fruit,  but  the  malic  acid  disappears  as 
the  fruit  ripens.  The  amount  of  tartaric  acid,  which  is  present 
as  acid  potassium  tartrate  and  calcium  tartrate,  is  seldom  above 
I.I  per  cent 

On  account  of  the  organic  acids  found  in  grapes  they  act  as 
a  mild  laxative  and  diuretic.  They  are  of  value  because  they  save 
the  nitrogenous  tissues,  and  reduce  the  nitrogen  excretion;  that 
is,  like  other  carbohydrates,  they  act  as  protein-sparing  substance. 
Raisins  are  regarded  as  excellent  food  for  pedestrians,  as  they  fru- 
nish  concentrated  nourishment  and  assist  in  checking  thirst. 
In  taking  the  "grape  cure"  which  is  so  popular  in  central 
Europe,  the  patients  frequently  eat  from  2  to  8  pounds  of  grapes 
per  day. 

Grapes  are  utilized  principally  in  some  one  of  the  following  five 
ways:  i.  For  eating.  2.  For  making  raisins.  3.  For  making  grape 
juice.  4.  For  making  wine.  5.  For  making  brandy.  The 
fruit  is  readily  shipped,  if  packed  in  small  baskets,  over  long  dis- 
tances. Attempts  to  pack  ripe  grapes  in  cotton  and  other  absor- 
bents have  met  with  indifferent  success.  Some  varieties  of  Cali- 
^  Foods  and  Their  Adulteration,  Wiley. 

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fornia  grapes  are  shipped  packed  in  cork  chips,  but  the  very  best 
jnaterial  for  this  purpose  is  redwood  sawdust. 


Several  special  varieties  of  grapes  have  been  found  to  be  most 
suitable  for  making  raisins.  These  are  sold  under  different  names : 
I.  As  muscatels^  or  raisins  dried  on  the  vines,  which  include 
Malaga,  Valencia  and  Denia  muscatels.     2.  Valencias  or  dipped 

Fig.  35.— Stemming  Raisins  in  Calif.     (By  permission  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.) 

raisins,  which  include  Lexias  and  Denias  from  Valencia,  Turkey 
raisins  shipped  at  Smyrna,  and  California  raisins.  3.  Sultanas, 
the  small  seedless  raisins  from  Greece,  Turkey  and  Persia. 

For  making  the  genuine  muscatels,  the  white  grapes  grown 
near  Malaga  are  used.  When  the  grapes  are  ripe,  the  stem  is 
partially  cut  or  twisted  so  as  to  prevent  the  circulation  of  the 
sap,  and  the  fruit  is  allowed  to  hang  on  the  vine  exposed  as  much 
as  possible  to  the  sunshine,  for  two  or  three  weeks.  The  raisins 
are  then  ready,  without  further  treatment,  to  be  packed  in  boxes 
for  shipment. 

*  Foods,  p.  611,  Tibbeb. 

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In  preparing  the  dipped  raisins,  the  ripe  grapes,  with  the  stems 
twisted  and  allowed  to  hang  for  a  single  day  to  facilitate  evapo-^ 
ration,  are  pulled  and  dried  in  the  sun  for  one  day,  rinsed  with 
water,  and  then  for  an  instant  dipped  in  a  vat  of  boiling  potash 
lye  flavored  with  rosemary  and  lavender,  and  covered  with  a 
layer  of  olive  oil. 

The  objects  of  this  treatment  are  to  shorten  the  time  needed 
for  drying  and  to  sterilize  the  fruit.  The  grapes  are  dipped  by 
the  use  of  a  wire  basket  with  a  long  handle  and  are  then  taken  out 
and  exposed  in  racks,  to  the  sunshine,  with  frequent  turning  over. 
When  dry,  the  raisins  are  piled  in  heaps  to  "sweat, "  which  softens 
the  skin  and  distributes  the  moisture  more  evenly.  They  are 
then  ready  for  packing.     (Fig.  35.) 

Spain  sends  more  raisins  to  this  coimtry  than  any  other  land, 
although  Asiatic  Turkey  is  sending  a  large  quantity.  California 
raisins  are  beginning  to  take  the  place  of  imported  stock  to  quite 
a  large  extfent.  Raisins  are  also  cut  open  and  after  the  seeds 
are  removed  are  packed  in  cartons  for  household  use,  or  seedless 
raisins  are  made  from  seedless  grapes. 

The  Zante  currant  is  really  the  dried  fruit  of  the  small  black 
Corinth  grape,  which  is  grown  in  Greece,  and  especially  on  Zante, 
Cephalonia,  Ithaca  and  adjacent  islands.  The  word  "  currant"  is 
a  corruption  of  Corinth,  at  one  time  a  prosperous  city  from  which 
the  fruit  was  exported.  The  grapes  are  dried  in  the  sun,  picked 
from  the  stalks,  cleaned  and  packed  for  shipment.  The  normal 
crop  is  155,000  tons. 

Grape  Juice 

Before  the  modern  methods  for  sterilization  were  understood, 
grape  juice  found  but  little  use  except  for  medicinal  and  sacra- 
mental purposes.  More  recently,  however,  since  the  process  of 
sterilization  has  been  perfected,  there  is  an  immense  demand  for 
grape  juice  either  natural  or  carbonated,  for  making  a  cooling, 
wholesome  beverage.     (See  Circ.  No.  108,  U.  of  Calif.) 

Since  invisible  spores  of  yeasts,  fungi  and  bacteria  adhere  to 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


the  skins,  and  stems  of  grapes,  as  to  other  fruits,^  some  means 
must  be  devised  to  prevent  the  fermentation  which  these 
organisms  would  induce.  There  are  two  practical  ways  of  doing 
this:  The  first  is  by  the  addition  of  chemical  preservatives  such 
as  salicylic,  sulfurous,  boric  or  benzoic  add,  which  kill  the  germs 
or  inhibit  their  growth.  These  substances  are  generally  regarded 
as  injurious  to  health,  and  their  use  should  be  discouraged. 
The  other  method  of  preventing  fermentation  is  by  heating 
the  liquid  to  a  sufficiently  high  temperature  to  kill  the  organisms. 
The  lowest  temperature  that  will  do  this  effectively  has  been  found 
to  be  from  165°  F.  to  1 76"^  F.  At  this  temperature  the  flavor  of  the 
juice  is  scarcely  changed;  but  a  higher  temperature  would  injure 
the  flavor. 


The  process  of  making  grape  juice  is  as  follows:  The  clean 
sound  grapes  are  run  through  a  crusher  and  stemmer  and  then 
directly  into  steam  jacketed  kettles.  In  these  kettles  are  revolving 
cylinders  which  keep  the  crushed  grapes  continually  stirred,  while 
they  are  being  heated  to  a  temperature  of  140°  F.  The  heated 
contents  of  the  kettle  is  then  run  into  the  hydraulic  presses  beneath, 
and  from  these  the  juice  runs  into  another  set  of  .aluminum  kettles. 
Here  the  juice  is  heated  to  165°  F.,  and  skimmed  and  then  run 
through  a  pasteurizer  at  a  temperature  not  lower  than  175°  F., 
nor  above  200°  F.  The  "must,"  as  it  is  called,  is  run  directly 
from  the  pasteurizer  into  sterilized  5-gallon  carboys,  securely 
corked,  and  stored  in  vaults  until  it  has  settled  and  cleared.  After- 
ward the  dear  juice  is  siphoned  off,  filtered,  put  into  bottles, 
securely  corked,  and  again  pasteurized  at  a  much  lower  tempera- 
ture than  the  previous  sterilization.  Grape  juice  or  "must''  pre- 
pared in  this  way  will  keep  almost  indefinitely,  if  stored  in  a  cool 
dark  place. 

In  domestic  manufacture  the  grape  juice,  obtained  by  any  con- 

*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  175. 

» U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bu.  Plant  Industry,  Bull.  No.  24. 

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venient  method,  is  heated  m  a  double  heater,  always  below  200®  F., 
and  then  put  into  a  glass  or  enameled  vessel  to  settle  for  twenty- 
four  hours.  Then  carefully  pour  off  the  juice,  pour  it  through 
several  thicknesses  of  flannel,  and  fill  into  dean  bottles.  Set 
the  bottles  into  water  in  a  large  boiler,  as  for  canning  fruit  (see 
p.  224),  and  when  the  water  begins  to  simmer,  take  out  the  bot- 
tles and  cork  securely,  and  seal  with  wax. 

The  composition  of  the  "must''  as  given  by  Munson^  is  as 

Concord,  from  an 

American  grape 

(per  cent.) 

Solid  contents 


Total  acids  (as  tartaric) 

Volatile  acid 

Grape  sugar 

Free  tartaric  add 


Phosphoric  acid 

Cream  of  tartar 





California,  from  a 

European  grape  grown 

in  California 

(per  cent.) 





The  making  of  wine  dates  from  the  earliest  historical  times. 
Even  "Noah  planted  a  vineyard  and  drank  of  the  wine  thereof,"^ 
and  this  beverage  was  prized  by  the  Hebrews,  Greeks,  Romans, 
and  later  by  the  Spaniards,  French  and  Germans. 

The  quality  of  a  wine  is  dependent  not  only  on  the  variety  of 
grapes  from  which  it  is  made,  but  on  the  methods  of  making  and 
storing,  locality,  soil,  temperature  and  even  the  weather. 

1  California  Expt.  Sta.  Bull.  No.  130. 
*  Genesis  IX,  30. 

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WINE  263 

Wine  Making 

The  best  wine  is  made  from  grapes  that  are  fully  ripe.^  The 
juice  is  pressed  from  the  perfect  grapes  with  great  care  so  as  not  to 
crush  the  seeds  or  stems.  Sometimes  the  stems  are  taken  out  by 
passing  the  pulp  through  a  "stemmer."  Sometimes,  the  juice  is 
pressed  out  by  "  treading."  (Fig.  36.)  The  juice  or  "  must"  thus 
obtained  is  run  into  tanks  where  fermentation  is  brought  about  by 
the  action  of  the  various  yeasts  and  other  organisms  that  are 
present  in  the  juice.    One  of  the  most  important  of  these  yeasts  is 

Fig  36.^ Making  wine  in  Madeira 

saccharomyces  ellipsoidens,  but  many  other  ferments  are  also 
found.  The  fermentation  is  allowed  to  continue  from  one  week 
to  several  weeks,  dependent  on  the  character  of  the  must  and  the 
variety  of  wine  to  be  made,  and  then  the  liquid  is  drawn  oflf  from 
the  "lees,"  and  is  filtered,  clarified,  and  put  into  bottles  or  barrels 
or  vats  for  storage  in  cool  cellars.  Here  the  temperature  is  care- 
fully regulated  and  a  second  fermentation  takes  place  if  enough 
»  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bu.  Chem.  Bull.  59-72. 

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sugar  remains  to  induce  it,  and  the  wine  is  greatly  improved. 
White  wines  are  made  from  the  pulp  freed  from  the  skins  or  from 
the  pulp  of  white  grapes.  Red  wine,  if  genuine,  is  colored  by  the 
natural  coloring  matter  of  the  grape  skins. 

Another  process  of  wine  making  is  to  allow  the  juice  to  nm  off 
from  the  "marc"  or  crushed  grapes  to  give  the  first  quality  of 
wine,  to  press  for  the  second  grade,  and  to  steep  the  pomace  with 
water  and  press  again  for  the  third  grade.  The  "must"  constitutes 
from  60  to  80  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  the  grapes. 

In  the  process  of  fermentation  the  grape  juice  which  contains 
,the  sugars  dextrose  and  levulose  is  broken  up  as  follows: 

C6Hi206  +  C6Hi206=4C2H60+4C02 

Dextrose  Levulose  Alcohol        Carbon 


Dry  wines  are  produced  by  allowing  all  the  sugar  to  be  fer- 
mented so  that  the  wine  shall  be  "dry"  or  free  from  fermentable 
material.  These  wines  are  consequently  slightly  sour.  In  sweet 
wines  the  fermentation  has  been  arrested  before  all  the  sugar  has 
been  broken  up  by  the  action  of  the  yeasts.  Wines  are  also  di- 
vided into  the  groups  "still,"  or  those  in  which  the  carbon  dioxide 
gas  has  been  allowed  to  escape,  and  "effervescent"  or  sparkling 
wines  in  which  a  part  of  the  carbon  dioxide  is  retained  in  the 
liquid  under  pressure. 

Formation  of  "Argols** 

During  the  process  of  fermentation  the  potassium  bitartrate 
(KHC4H4O6),  which  is  present  in  the  must,  is  gradually  deposited 
in  the  cask  as  the  amount  of  alcohol  increases,  because  this  sub- 
stance is  sparingly  soluble  in  alcohol.  This  deposit  constitutes 
the  crude  "argol"  of  commerce,  which  is  purified  and  used  as  the 
source  of  the  "cream  of  tartar"  and  tartaric  acid  on  the  market. 
One  important  reason  why  grapes  make  a  better  beverage  than 
apples  or  other  fruit  is  because  of  the  fact  that  this  salt — the  add 
potassium  tartrate — is  deposited  as  the  wine  increases  in  alcohol 

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during  storage,  and  the  roughness  or  harshness  is  thereby  de- 
creased. When  other  fruits  or  berries  are  pressed  to  obtain  a 
juice,  the  product  thus  obtained  contains  salts  of  citric,  malic 
and  other  acids,  which  are  soluble  in  the  alcoholic  liquid  produced 
by  fermentation  and  so  are  not  removed  by  aging.  In  the  process 
of  aging  of  wine  a  variety  of  fragrant  ethers  such  as  acetic  ether, 
malic  ether,  etc.,  are  formed  and  these  produce  an  agreeable  odor 
or  "bouquet,"  and  thus  improve  the  quality  of  the  wine. 

Fortification  of  Wines 

If  there  is  sufficient  sugar  in  the  must  the  per  cent,  of  alcohol 
will  continue  to  increase  until  it  reaches  16  per  cent.,  when  the 
alcohol  will  inhibit  the  growth  of  the  yeast  and  the  fermentation 
will  cease.  Wines  that  contain  more  than  this  amount  of  alcohol 
are  considered  "fortified,"  that  is  additional  alcohol  has  been 
added.  It  is  claimed  by  some  manufacturers  that  it  is  necessary 
to  add  more  alcohol  to  wines  intended  for  export  to  prevent  the 
growth  of  wild  yeasts  and  the  consequent  deterioration  of  the  wine. 

Composition  of  Wines 

Some  of  the  more  common  wines  on  the  market  have  the 
following  composition: 

Bordeaux  (claret) 





Chianti  (Ital.)... 


Calif,  (red) 

Alch.  by 

II. 61 







Volatile  acids 
as  acetic 




Fixed  acids, 
as  tartaric 


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Adulteration  of  Wines 

As  wines  are  so  readily  adulterated,  and  misbranded,  the  fraud- 
ulent wines  on  the  market  are  always  numerous.  ^Plaster  of 
Paris  is  often  used  in  the  "marc"  or  in  the  must  before  fermenta- 
tion, to  clarify  it,  improve  the  color  and  make  the  fermentation 
more  complete.  This  process  leaves  some  potassium  sulfate  in  solu- 
tion in  the  wine,  which,  if  the  amount  is  large,  is  objectionable.  .The 
amoxmt  permitted  is  in  some  countries  regulated  by  law.  Apple 
cider  is  often  used  as  the  basis  for  the  manufacture  of  fictitious 
wines.  To  this  are  added  such  substances  as  raisins,  cream  of 
tartar,  elderberry  juice  for  color,  fuchsine  an  anilin  color,  alcohol, 
glucose,  acetic  and  other  ethers,  orris  root,  and  preservatives. 
The  process  of  "improving"  wine  by  the  addition  of  sugar  or 
glucose  is  in  France  called  "  chaptalizing."  In  some  countries 
this  is  not  considered  an  adulteration,  unless  water  is  at  the  same 
time  added. 

Varieties  of  Wine 

A  few  of  the  important  varieties  of  wine  are:  Claret,  a  French 
wine  not  very  high  in  alcohol,  in  which  the  preliminary  fermenta- 
tion is  carried  to  completion;  Sauterne,  the  most  important 
white  wine  of  France;  Sherry,  a  wine  high  in  alcohol,  which  is  so 
named  from  Xeres  in  Spain,  the  chief  center  of  the  commerce  in 
this  variety;  Port  wine,  which  is  high  in  alcohol  and  usually 
fortified,  is  named  from  Oporto  in  Portugal,  the  city  from  which 
most  of  it  is  shipped.  Hock  is  a  light,  dry  wine  from  the  Rhine 
valley,  made  from  the  Riesling  grape;  Moselle  wines  are  light  in 
quality  and  come  from  the  valley  of  the  Moselle  in  Germany. 
Tokay  is  a  sweet  Hungarian  wine;  Chianti  is  a  light  wine  pro- 
duced in  Tuscany  and  northern  Italy;  Malmsey,  produced  in 
the  Greek  Islands;  Madeira  and  Canary  wines  are  made  in  the 
islands  bearing  these  names.  They  are  of  delicate  flavor  and  of 
the  Sherry  type.  Champagne  or  Sparkling  wines,  which  came 
originally  from  the  Champagne  district  of  France,  are  matured  by 

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BRANDY  267 

three  or  four  years  of  storage  in  deep  cellars,  after  which  a  second- 
ary fermentation  produces  the  carbon  dioxide  which  gives  the 
wine  its  sparkling  or  eflFervescent  character.  These  wines  unless 
fortified,  are  rather  low  in  alcohol.  American  wines  are  similar 
to  the  different  "types"  above  mentioned.  They  are  made 
especially  in  the  Lake  Erie  region,  in  Michigan  and  in  California. 
The  use  of  wine  in  the  dietary  is  discussed  under  Alcohol,  p.  150. 


Brandy  is  the  spirit  distilled  from  fermented  grape  juice  or 
wine.  It  is  made  in  most  wine-growing  countries,  but  the  best 
known  brandies  come  from  France,  Spain,  Portugal  and  Cali- 
fornia. The  products  of  the  stills  of  the  D6partment  de  la 
Charente  in  France,  and  especially  of  the  town  of  Cognac  have 
become  famous  all  over  the  world.  Only  a  part  of  the  "  Cognac" 
found  on  the  market  at  the  present  time  comes  from  this  province. 
An  inferior  brandy  is  produced  by  the  distillation  of  a  low-grade 
red  wine,  or  from  the  "marc,"  lees,  or  other  refuse  of  the  wine 

Distillation  of  Brandy 

A  white  wine  containing  6  or  8  per  cent,  of  alcohol  is  generally 
used  for  making  the  best  brandy.  The  wine  itself  is  often  harsh 
and  not  fit  to  drink.  The  distillation  is  carried  on  in  what  is 
known  as  the  "pot  still,"  a  large  boiler  having  a  bulbous  head 
which  collects  the  scum  and  some  of  the  water  thrown  up  in  boiling. 
The  distillate  is  condensed  by  running  through  a  "worm," 
surroimded  by  cold  water.  The  process  is  that  of  "fractional 
distillation,"  and  consists  of  two  distinct  distillations.  In  the  first 
operation  the  distillate  is  divided  into  three  parts  which  are 
collected  separately.  The  first  part  contains  the  "crudities"  of 
the  wine  and  is  returned  to  the  still;  the  middle  running  is  the  best 
part,  and  is  used  in  the  second  distillation;  and  the  third  part 
or  "tailings"  is  mingled  with  fresh  wine  and  used  in  the  d^tillatio^ 

igi  ize      y  g 


of  the  next  lot.  In  the  second  operation  the  first  lot  that  comes 
over  is  mixed  with  fresh  wine  to  be  redistilled;  the  second  part 
constitutes  the  brandy,  and  the  "tailings"  is  used  to  make  a 
second  grade  of  brandy. 


Brandy,  as  made  in  this  way,  is  a  colorless  liquid,  and  is  only 
fit  for  use  after  it  has  been  "aged"  or  stored  in  wooden  casks  for 
some  years.  The  color  becomes  brown  from  the  extractives  of  the 
wood,  and  oenanthic  ether,  and  various  aromatic  ethers,  aldehydes 
and  other  products  are  developed.  The  propyl,  butyl  and  amyl 
alcohols,  originally  present,  and  all  considered  injurious,  are  de- 
creased by  this  process  of  aging.  A  substance  known  as  furfurol  is 
said  to  be  always  present  in  genuine  brandy,  but  it  also  dimin- 
ishes in  quantity  with  age.  The  acidity,  which  is  however  slight, 
increases  with  age.  The  per  cent,  of  alcohol  in  genuine  brandy  is 
about  so  by  volume. 

Fictitious  Brandy 

A  very  large  proportion  of  the  brandy  on  the  market  is  not  the 
pure  distillate  of  fermented  grape  juice.  Although  brandy  should 
be  so  defined,  it  is  difficult  to  hold  the  manufacturers  to  this 
standard.  A  mixture  of  neutral  or  grain  spirit,  made  from  a 
"mash"  of  corn,  rye,  potatoes  or  glucose,  diluted  with  water,  and 
colored  with  prune  juice  or  caramel,  and  flavored  with  "cognac 
essence,"  sirup  of  raisins,  rum,  bitter  almond  shells,  sugar  or  tinc- 
ture of  capsicum,  is  labeled  and  sold  as  brandy.  Frequently  a 
little  genuine  brandy  is  added  to  improve  the  flavor.  The  general 
method  of  making  the  neutral  spirit,  and  the  action  of  alcohol  on 
the  system  is  discussed  on  p.  150. 

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Ber^ries  are  peculiar  in  consisting  of  a  mass  of  seeds,  sur- 
rounded by  a  pulp  which  is  often 'quite  watery  as  in  the  rasp- 
berry, although  sometimes  firm  and  solid  as  in  the  gooseberry. 
This  juice  is  often  little  else  than  a  solution  of  sugars,  pectin, 
mineral  salts,  acids  and  flavoring  ethers,  frequently  highly 
colored.  On  this  account  the  juice  of  berries  is  the  most  valuable 
portion,  as  the  abimdant  seeds  have  no  food  value  for  man. 
They  act  as  an  irritant  in  the  alimentary  canal,  and  are  a  frequent 
cause  of  constipation,  if  the  berries  are  eaten  freely.  The  fiber 
and  seed  of  some  small  seeded  berries,  like  the  blackberry,  make 
up  only  about  5  per  cent.,  while  in  the  black  raspberry  it 
constitutes  a  much  larger  percentage. 

There  is  not  the  evidence  of  so  great  an  improvement  produced 
in  berries  by  cultivation,  as  in  some  other  fruits,  and  flavor  is  some- 
times sacrificed  to  size.  No  one  will  deny,  however,  that  the 
garden  variety  of  strawberry,  black  cap,  raspberry,  and  black- 
berry has  many  advantages  over  the  wild  or  uncultivated  variety. 

A  general  description  of  berries  has  already  been  given. 
Most  of  them  with  the  exception  of  strawberries  are  grown  on 
low  bushes  or  small  trees.  As  to  their  original  habitat  the  blue- 
berries, blackberries,  cranberries,  currants  (red  and  black), 
dewberries,  gooseberries,  huckleberries  or  whortleberries,  mul- 
berries, raspberries  (red  and  black),  service  berries  and  straw- 
berries grow  wild,  many  of  them  over  vast  areas  in  the 
United  States.  In  the  Eastern  Hemisphere  also  many  of  these 
berries  have  been  known  in  a  wild  state  from  earliest  times. 

269  ,  , 

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BLACKBERRY  (Rubus  nigrobaccus) 

The  blackberry  is  borne  the  second  year  on  the  shoot  which 
springs  from  the  roots.  Cultivation  has  greatly  improved  these 
berries  in  size  and  appearance,  but  the  flavor  of  the  native  fruit 
has  sometimes  been  sacrificed  by  this  process.  The  berries  are 
red  before  they  turn  black  on  becoming  fully  ripe.  They  contain 
from  4  to  5  per  cent,  of  sugar  and  about  i  per  cent,  of  acid. 
Blackberries  are  much  used  for  canning,  and  making  jams,  jelly 
and  preserves.  Artificial  jaqis  and  jellies  which  have  apple  jelly 
as  a  basis  and  are  skillfully  flavored  and  colored  and  labeled 
"Blackberry,"  have  been  extensively  manufactured. 

A  wine,  which  is  especially  recommended  for  invalids,  is  made 
by  the  fermentation  of  blackberry  juice,  with  the  addition  of 
some  sugar.  Blackberry  brandy  may  be  made  by  the  distillation 
of  the  wine.  Blackberry  cordial  is  the  juice  preserved  with 
whiskey  or  brandy.  These  products  are  considered  very  valuable 
from  a  dietetic  standpoint. 

BARBERRY  (Berberis  vulgaris) 

There  are  many  species  of  barberry,  growing  all  over  the 
north  temperate  zone,  and  in  the  Andes  of  South  America.  It 
grows  wild  along  the  Atlantic  coast,  and  is  cultivated  in  the  in- 
terior. The  shrubs  are  often  used  for  ornamental  purposes,  and 
the  elongated,  red,  add  fruit  is  utilized  for  making  pickles  and 

'     CLOUDBERRY  (Rubus  chamaemorus) 

The  cloudberry  is  a  yellowish  sub-acid  fruit,  having  a  taste 
suggesting  the  tamarind.  It  grows  wild  in  the  extreme  northern 
countries  of  Europe,  especially  Scotland,  Norway  and  Lapland. 

CRANBERRY  (Vaccinium) 

This  fruit  grows  on  vines  or  low  bushes,  some  varieties  near 
the  seashore  and  others  on  uplands,  in  temperate  climates  both 

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in  Europe  and  America.  A  wild  variety  known  as  the  Preisd- 
beere  is  much  prized  in  Europe  for  making  saUce.  They  have 
been  somewhat,  but  not  very  much  improved  by  cultivation. 
On  account  of  the  abundance  of  the  pectose  bodies  which  it 
contains  the  fruit  is  much  prized  for  sauce  and  jelly.  Its  rich 
red  color  no  doubt  adds  to  its  value  for  the  decoration  of  the 
table.  The  berry  contains  9.90  per  cent,  of  carbohydrates  and 
2.34  per  cent,  of  acid  as  malic.  On  account  of  the  acid  and  agree- 
able flavor  it  is  valued  to  serve  as  a  sauce  with  meats  and  poultry. 
It  is  one  of  the  few  fruits  that  naturally  contains  appreciable 
quantities  (0.05  per  cent.)  of  benzoic  acid.  Cranberries  are 
seldom  canned  or  preserved,  as  they  keep  well,  and  will  bear 
transportation.  Cranberries  have  been  recommended  for  use  by 
patients  suffering  with  gout  and  chronic  rheumatism.  This  is 
probably  because  the  alkaline  carbonates  that  are  formed  in  the 
system  from  the  organic  acids  stimulate  the  action  of  the  kidneys. 
The  crop  matures  in  the  United  States  in  the  late  autumn. 
Massachusetts,  New  Jersey  and  Wisconsin  are  the  chief  cranberry 
states,  and  furnished  653,000  barrels  in  1914. 

CURRANT  (Red)  (Ribes  rubrum) 

Currants,  red,  black,  and  white  have  been  somewhat  improved 
by  cultivation.  They  grow  well  in  the  northern  United  States 
and  Canada,  but  do  not  thrive  in  a  climate  where  there  is  an 
exceedingly  hot  sun,  or  at  least  they  must  in  this  case  be  protected 
by  other  foliage.  Currants  contain  2.24  per  cent,  of  acid  as  malic 
and  6.70  per  cent,  of  sugar.  The  wine  made  by  fermentation 
of  the  juice  is  a  useful  beverage  in  fevers  and  inflammations. 
The  frmt  is  extensively  used  for  making  sour  jams  and  jellies 
which  are  often  adulterated,  as  is  the  case  with  nearly  all  those 
that  are  made  from  berries. 

There  are  several  varieties  of  the  black  currant  growing  in 
different  countries.  The  Ribes  nigrum  growing  wild  in  northern 
Europe  is  used  in  the  same  way  that  the  red  and  white  currants 

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are  used.    Some  of  the  black  currants  found  in  America  are 
eaten,  while  others,  which  have  a  very  aromatic  flavor,  are  not 
utilized.    Black  currants  have  secured  considerable  favor  on  ac-  . 
count  of  their  medicinal  action. 

Zante  Currants    (See  under  Grapes,  p.  260) 

Dewberries  are  similar  to  blackberries,  and  grow  wild  very 
abxmdantly  in  the  United  States.  They  possess  a  very  delicate 
flavor,  often  much  more  agreeable  than  that  of  the  blackberry. 

ELDERBERRY  (Sambucus  niger) 

This  berry  grows  on  a  small  shrub,  and  is  foimd  wild  through- 
out the  temperate  zone  on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic.  The  ripe 
berries  are  sometimes  used  in  making  pies,  but  a  more  common 
use  is  for  making  elderberry  wine  and  a  cordial.  The  juice  is 
also  used  as  an  adulterant  and  coloring  material  for  wines. 

GOOSEBERRY  (Ribes  grossularea) 

The  gooseberry  has  been  much  improved  by  cultivation, 
starting  with  the  abimdant  wild  varieties  of  Europe  and  America, 
and  some  very  large  berries  are  now  grown.  Some  varieties  of 
wild  berries  are  thickly  covered  with  spines.  The  gooseberry  is 
sometimes  eaten  raw  when  ripe,  but  its  most  common  use  is  for 
making  jam  either  alone,  or  mixed  with  other  fruits.  Its  abun- 
dant acid  andpectose,  makes  it  especially  valuable  for  this  purpose. 
There  is  from  i  to  1.5  per  cent,  of  acid  in  the  ripe  fruit,  and  2.66 
per  cent,  in  the  skins.  In  the  process  of  boiling  the  fruit  all  the 
cane  sugar  is  "inverted"  by  the  acid  present  so  it  is  found  as 
invert  sugar  in  the  jam. 

MULBERRY  (moms  nigra)  (morus  subra) 

The  mulberry  is  a  fruit  which  is  not  very  extensively  used  as 
food  in  the  United  States.    The  tree  is  valuable  for  the  lumber 

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produced.  The  excessive  sweet  taste  of  the  fruit,  without  suf- 
ficient acid  to  give  a  tart  taste,  is  probably  the  reason  why  it  is 
not  used  more  generally.  The  berries  of  several  varieties  grow 
wild  on  medium  sized  trees  over  a  large  area  both  in  the  United 
States  and  Europe.  The  growth  of  mulberry  trees  was  very 
much  extended  in  the  United  States,  by  the  "silkworm  craze" 
which  overran  the  country  more  than  a  hundred  years  ago.  A 
fairly  palatable  wine  is  made  by  the  fermentation  of  mulberry 
juice  and  in  Siberia  a  spirit  is  distilled  from  it. 

RASPBERRY  (red)  (Rubus  strigosus) 

The  raspberry  is  one  of  the  most  abundant  wild  fruits  or 
berries  of  the  northern  United  States,  as  it  grows  over  a  wide 
area  from  the  Atlantic  coast  to  the  Rocky  Mountains.  It  is 
much  improved  by  cultivation.  The  fruit  is  eaten  raw  and  is 
especially  valuable  for  making  jams  and  jellies.  It  has  a  delicate 
and  characteristic  flavor  which  makes  it  a  great  favorite  for 
culinary  purposes. 

RASPBERRY  (black)  ("black  caps") 

The  area  for  the  successful  growth  of  this  berry  is  more  limited 
than  that  of  the  red  raspberry.  The  fruit  is  improved  by  cultiva- 
tion. Black  raspberries  may  be  readily  preserved  for  winter  use 
by  drying,  and  they  are  also  canned,  and  used  for  making  jams 
and  jellies. 


This  is  one  of  the  hybrid  plants  obtained  by  crossing  the  red 
raspberry  and  the  blackberry.  The  fruit  is  reddish  black  in  color, 
large  and  luscious,  and  by  many  considered  superior  to  either  the 
red  Antwerp  raspberry  or  the  blackberry  from  which  it  was 


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Whortleberry,  Blueberry,  Bilberry  (Vacdnium) 

This  berry  is  foiind  throughout  the  north  temperate  zone. 
There  are  many  varieties  of  related  shrubs  growing  wild,  but  they 
are  very  seldom  cxiltivated.  These  berries  grow  in  immense 
quantities  on  waste  lands  in  the  northern  United  States  and  in 
Canada,  where  they  are  gathered  by  the  natives  and  their  sale  forms 
an  important  addition  to  the  revenue  of  the  people.  They  are 
sufficiently  hard  to  bear  transportation  to  distant  cities.  Some 
varieties  are  large  and  juicy,  while  others  (called  "stoners"  in  the 
north)  are  hard  and  filled  with  seeds.  Some  blueberries  grow  on 
bushes  less  than  a  foot  high,  while  in  the  swamps  are  found  varie- 
ties often  lo  feet  high. 

These  berries  contain  from  76  to  89  per  cent,  of  water,  5  per 
cent,  of  sugar,  some  pectin  and  from  i  to  1.6  per  cent,  of  free  nialic 
and  citric  add.  Huckleberries  may  with  care  be  dried  so  that 
they  will  keep  during  the  winter,  they  may  also  be  preserved  by 
canning.  Some  varieties  make  excellent  jelly,  and  the  juice  is 
used  for  making  a  refrigerant  beverage.  Huckleberries  are  spe- 
dally  prized  for  making  pies  and  sauce. 

■     SERVICE  BERRY  (Amelanchier  canadensis) 

The  service  berry  known  also  as  the  June  berry  or  Shad  berry, 
is  a  red  to  black  berry  which  grows  on  a  medium-sized  tree.* 
It  may  be  recognized  by  its  white  racemes  of  flowers  in  the  early 
spring,  and  its  fruit  in  tiie  early  summer.  The  tree  ranges 
throughout  the  eastern  United  States  southward  to  Florida,  and 
westward  as  far  as  Minnesota.  The  frmt  is  a  great  favorite  with 
the  birds  and  squirrels,  and  has  found  some  use  by  man  either 
for  eating  raw  or  for  making  into  sauce.  This  is  an  entirely 
different  tree  from  the  "Service  Tree"  (pyrus  sorbus)  of  Italy  and 
southern  Europe. 

*  Our  Native  Trees,  Harriet  L.  Keller,  p.  153- 

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STRAWBERRY  (Fragaria  cluloensis,  F.  vesca  and  other  F.) 

The  strawberry,  unlike  most  berries,  is  in  reality  a  "re- 
ceptacle," which  bears  the  "achenes"  or  true  fruit  on  its  surface. 
It  grows  wild  over  a  large  area  in  Europe,  Asia  and  America  from 
the  colder  climates  on  the  north  to  the  semi-tropical  regions, 
and  has  been  known  from  the  earliest  times.  The  cultivation  of 
the  strawberry  began  in  the  fifteenth  or  sixteenth  century,  and 
as  a  result  of  the  continuous  improvemei^t  from  the  native  stock 
in  the  various  countries,  a  large  variety  of  luscious  berries  is  grown 
in  most  civilized  lands,  where  the  climate  is  not  too  excessively  hot. 

The  plant  is  propagated  by  the  "runners,"  which  readily  take 
root  and  for  some  varieties,  by  seeds.  It  needs  thorough  cultiva- 
tion and  is  usually  mulched  with  straw,  before  the  buds  start  in  the 
spring.  Although  much  has  been  done  to  increase  the  appearance, 
size  and  productiveness  of  the  native  strawberries  by  cultivation, 
the  aroma  and  flavor  of  the  wild  berry  have  not  been  improved. 

Strawberries  contain  90.4  per  cent,  of  water,  i  per  cent,  of 
protein,  7.4  per  cent,  of  sugar,  1.4  per  cent,  of  pectose,  etc.,  and 
1 .4  per  cent,  of  acids,  mostly  malic.  This  berry  is  highly  esteemed 
not  only  for  eating,  but  for  making  jams  and  preserves.  Adul- 
terated samples  of  these  products  are  common  on  the  market. 
One  peculiarity  of  this  fruit  is,  that  with  some  persons  who  have  a 
peculiar  idiosyncrasy,  its  use  produces  hives  or  other  symptoms  of 
indigestion,  so  that  these  persons  are  obliged  to  give  up  absolutely 
the  use  of  strawberries.  Since  this  berry  needs  only  a  short  season 
for  its  growth,  it  can  be  grown  very  early  in  a  warm  climate  and 
shipped  to  a  colder  climate,  and  late  in  the  season  a  northern- 
grown  berry  can  be  shipped  to  the  country  farther  south,  so  the 
strawberry  season  is  extended  over  several  months  for  those 
living  in  the  temperate  climate. 


The  agave  or  American  aloe  (Agava  americana),  also  known  as 
the  century  plant,  has  been  cultivated  for  hundreds  of  years  in 
Mexico  and  other  semi-tropical  countries.    The  sap  or  saccharine 

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juice  of  this  plant,  when  fermented,  yields  the  ^' pulque^'  an 
alcoholic  beverage  much  used  in  these  warm  countries.  The 
fruit  of  this  plant  has  no  special  value.  Octli  is  the  name  of  a 
distilled  spirit  made  in  Mexico  from  the  fermented  juice  of  the 

AVOCADO  (Persea  gratissima) 

This  fruit,  known  also  as  the  "alligator  pear"  or  custard  apple- 
is  readily  grown  in  all  semi-tropical  countries,  and  is  highly  es- 
teemed as  a  salad  fruit,  like  the  cucumber  or  the  green  olive.  ^ 
It  seems  to  have  come  originally  from  Mexico  or  South  America. 
The  fruit,  which  grows  on  a  tree  from  20  to  60  feet  in  height,  is 
pear  shaped,  4  to  6  inches  long,  and  of  a  greenish  or  brownish  color. 
The  pulp  has  a  buttery  consistency,  and  is  eaten  with  salt,  vinegar 
and  other  condiments.  This  fruit  is  rich  in  fat  (10  to  20  per  cent.) 
and  contains  6.8  per  cent,  of  carbohydrates.  Most  of  the  avo- 
cados on  the  market  come  from  Mexico,  Cuba,  Porto  Rica  and 
Costa  Rica,  but  it  has  been  recently  shown  that  it  can  be  readily 
grown  in  Florida.  Although  this  fruit  is  at  present  sold  at  a  high 
price,  it  is  believed  that  when  a  taste  for  it  has  once  been  cultivated 
a  more  extensive  demand  will  make  it  cheaper  and  more  abundant. 

BANANA  (Musa  sapientum) 

To  those  who  live  in  tropical  countries  the  banana  and  the 
plantain  (Musa  paradisaica),  are  of  nearly  as  much  importance 
for  food  as  are  the  cereals  to  those  who  live  in  more  temperate 
climates.  A  knowledge  of  the  banana  belonged  to  some  of  the 
ancient  peoples,  for  it  is  mentioned  by  the  Greeks,  Latins  and 
Arabs,  although  not  by  the  Egyptians  and  the  Hebrews.  One 
variety  (Musa  Sapientum),  was  so  named  because  it  constituted 
the  principal  food  of  the  Brahmin  caste  of  India.^  Although  in- 
digenous to  Asia  it  is  now  cultivated  not  only  in  the  Orient, 
southern  Europe  and  Africa,  but  in  many  parts  of  Central  and 
South  America,  and  in  the  tropical  islands. 

1 U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bu.  pL  Ind.  Nos.  61  and  67.    Bull.  254,  Calif.  Ag.  Ex.  Sta. 
*  Practical  Dietetics,  Thompson,  p.  182. 

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The  plant  bearing  this  fruit  is  herbaceous,  and  dies  or  is  cut 
down  after  fruitage,  and  new  stalks  spring  from  the  roots.  It  is  a 
marvel  of  productiveness,  so  that  it  is  estimated  that  a  greater 
quantity  of  actual  food  can  be  grown  on  an  acre  planted  with 
bananas  than  if  planted  with  wheat,  potatoes  or  any  other  food- 

FiG.  37. — The  banana  tree,  showing  flowers  and  fruit. 

bearing  plants.  The  tree  grows  to  the  height  of  from  20  to  40 
feet,  and  the  immense  bunches  of  fruit,  weighing  often  100  pounds, 
bear  from  one  hundred  to  two  hundred  bananas.     (Fig  37.) 

In  the  propagation  of  the  tree  and  for  starting  a  new  planta- 
tion, seeds  are  not  used,  for  the  fruit  practically  has  none,  but 

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shoots  cut  from  the  old  plants,  and  these  sprout  so  rapidly  that  they 
come  to  full  maturity  in  ten  or  twelve  months.  There  are  more 
than  one  himdred  and  fifty  varieties  known,  some  yellow  and  some 
red,  but  all  used  for  food  in  the  countries  where  they  grow  abun- 
dantly. For  local  consumption  the  fruit  is  cut  before  it  is  fully 
ripe,  but  at  a  time  when  it  is  estimated  that  there  is  nutriment 
enough  in  the  stem  to  supply  the  bananas  until  they  have  fully 
ripened.  If  the  fruit  is  intended  for  shipment  to  some  distance, 
it  must  be  cut  still  earlier;  in  fact  while  the  bananas  appear  to 
be  very  green. 

One  of  the  most  important  and  valuable  properties  of  this 
fruit  is  that  it  ripens  well  after  being  cut  from  the  tree,  so  that 
it  will  bear  shipment  and  long  storage.  Fruit  steamers,  capable 
of  carrying  40,000  bunches  of  bananas  on  a  single  trip,  and  pro- 
vided with  facilities  for  cooling  and  ventilating,  have  been  built 
especially  for  the  banana  trade.  By  this  means  the  abundant 
crops  of  Central  and  South  America  and  the  West  Indies  are 
brought  in  good  condition  to  the  European  and  United  States  ports. 


The  composition  of  the  banana  as  compared  with  some  other 
foods  is  as  follows: 







Ripe  bananas  (edible  portion)  ^ . 

Banana  flour' 

Dried  bananas' 








I  06 

Potatoes  (edible  portion)* 

Wheat  flour* 


*  Farmers*  Bull.  293. 

*  Bull.  No.  43.  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri. 

» Bull.  No.  13,  Pt.  9,  U.  S.  Dept.  A«ri.  Bu.  Chem. 

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These  analyses  show  that  the  ripe  banana  compares  favorably 
with  the  potato,  as  far  as  carbohydrates  and  protein  are  concerned. 
Both  are  deficient  in  fat.  The  analysis  also  shows  that  neither 
of  these  foods  constitutes  a  well-balanced  ration.  He  who  attempts 
to  live  on  bananas  alone  would  suffer  in  the  same  way  as  the  person 
who  attempts  to  live  only  on  potatoes.  (See  p.  160.)  This  fruit 
is,  however,  dijood  and  should  be  used  as  such  in  the  arrangement 
of  the  diet.  It  is  not  to  be  classed  with  such  fruits  as  apples  and 
oranges,  although  often  appearing  for  dessert  on  the  same  plate 
with  them. 

A  study  of  the  carbohydrates  of  the  ripe  and  unripe  banana 
pulp^  shows — 

Ripe  fruit 

Reducing  sugars  before  hydrolysis  (as  glucose) 

Increase  after  hydrolysis  (as  glucose) 

Deztrins,  etc  (as  glucose) 

Starch  (as  such) 

Xylose  and  other  pentoses  (as  glucose) 

It  appears  then  that  the  essential  change  that  takes  place  dur- 
ing ripening  is  a  change  of  the  starch  into  soluble  carbohydrates, 
which  consist  principally  of  cane  and  invert  sugars  and  dextrins. 
Oxygen  is  necessary  for  the  working  of  this  process.  There  is 
also  some  tannin  and  mucilaginous  substances  in  the  green  ba- 
nana. There  is  little  waste  in  the  ripe  banana,  as  70  per  cent,  is 
edible,  and  most  of  the  edible  material  is  a  sugar  which  is  easily 

One  reason  why  bananas  have  sometimes  been  foimd  to  be 
indigestible  is  probably  because  they  have  been  picked  too  green 
and  are  eaten  when  imperfectly  or  unevenly  ripened.  They 
should  be  so  ripe  that  none  of  the  mucilaginous  quality  remains, 
and  the  odor  that  indicates  the  imperfectly  ripened  fniit  should 

1  J.  A.  C.  Soc,  Vol.  34,  p.  lyag. 

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be  absent.  "The  banana,  especially  when  cut  not  torn  from  the 
Stem,  is  one  of  the  most  perfectly  sterilized  packages  of  food  that 
appears  on  the  market." 

Banana  Flour 

It  is  difl&cult  to  make  a  flour  from  most  fruits,  as  they  become 
sticky  or  horny  on  drying,  but  from  certain  selected  varieties  of 
the  banana,  and  especially  from  the  coarser  variety  known  as  the 
Plantain,  at  the  right  stage  of  ripeness,  an  excellent  flour  can  be 
made.  This  is  a  fine  powder  somewhat  granular  in  appearance, 
and  has  a  yellowish  color,  and  agreeable  taste.  Says  Thompson,^ 
in  discussing  the  dietetic  qualities  of  this  flour,  "The  finest  banana 
flour  called  "bananose,"  at  the  end  of  one  and  one-half  hours  of 
pancreatic  digestion,  was  capable  of  developing  twice  as  much  sugar 
as  the  same  quantity  of  oatmeal  or  farina,  and  approximately  one 
and  one-half  times  as  much  sugar  as  cornstarch.  Saliva  when  sub- 
stituted for  pancreatic  extract  produces  a  similar  effect.  Banana 
flour  is  made  into  a  thin  gruel  or  porridge  by  the  addition  of  either 
water  or  milk,  and  eaten  with  cream  it  constitutes  a  delicious 
and  highly  nutritious  article  of  diet,  suitable  in  cases  of  gastric 
irritability  and  acute  gastritis,  etc."  Plantain  meal,  which  is 
made  by  drying  the  inside  of  the  unripe  fruit,  constitutes  a  staple 
food  in  many  tropical  countries. 

41,851,740  bimches  of  bananas  were  brought  into  the  ports  of 
the  United  States  in  1912.  The  European  supply  comes  largely 
from  African  colonies. 

BREAD  FRUIT  (Artocarpus  communis) 

This  fruit  is  a  native  of  the  South  Sea  Islands,  and  is  common  in 
tropical  countries.  The  fruit,  which  grows  on  a  tree,  is  the  size 
of  a  melon,  and  is  as  important  a  source  of  food  to  the  inhabi- 
tants of  these  islands  as  are  the  cereals  to  those  of  Europe  and 
America.    The  bread  fruit,  according  to  E.  Smith,^  contains  3 

^  Loc.  dt,  p.  183. 
*  Foods,  p.  206. 

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per  cent,  of  albumin,  14  per  cent,  starch  and  19  per  cent,  of  gluten 
and  woody  fiber.  It  is  roasted  and  used  as  a  substitute  for  bread. 
A  paste  called  "mahe"  is  made  from  the  fruit  and  stored  away  for 
use  during  that  part  of  the  year  (four  months)  when  the  fruit  can- 
not be  obtained  from  the  tree.  This  paste  ferments  and  has  a 
disagreeable  odor,  but  after  baking  it  yields  a  pleasant  and  nutri- 
tious food.  Another  and  more  common  method  of  preserving 
the  fruit  is  to  cut  it  in  thin  slices  and  dry  in  the  sun. 

Fig.  38. — The  fig,  showing  leaves,  flowers  and  fruit.    (Photo,  by  C.  L.  Lochman. 

FIG  (Ficus  carica) 

The  fig,  like  the  oKve,  has  been  cultivated  in  oriental  countries 
from  the  earliest  times.  (Fig.  38.)  The  fig,  the  olive  and  the 
grape  are  the  fruits  most  often  mentioned  in  the  Bible.     It  grows 

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wfld  in  the  countries  around  the  Mediterranean  Sea  and  toward 
the  east  into  Asia  and  westward  to  the  Canary  Islands.  The  trees 
grow  well  in  semi-tropical  latitudes,  and  this  area  can  be  extended 
toward  the  colder  countries  if  some  protection  is  afforded  the  trees 
during  the  winter.  Two  or  even  three  crops  of  figs  are  gathered 
each  season  in  the  Levant.  In  Spain  a  fig  tree  in  good  condition 
will  produce  from  150  to  200  pounds  of  figs  per  annum,  which 
sell  at  wholesale  for  less  than  $2.00  per  hundred. 


A  peculiarity  of  the  fig  is  that  the  male  and  female  flowers  grow 
on  separate  trees,  so  that  some  method  of  artificial  fertilization  is 
necessary.  This  is  accomplished  by  the  means  of  insects  notably 
the  "fig  wasp"  (blastophaga  grossorum).  This  process  is  termed 
"caprification."  It  has  been  the  custom  from  the  earliest  times 
to  hang  upon  the  cultivated  fig-branches  limbs  of  the  "caprifigs" 
or  wild  "goat  figs."  These  latter  bear  only  male  flowers  and  also 
contain  numerous  eggs  of  the  fig  wasp.  The  female  insect  when 
she  has  escaped  from  the  staminate  or  male  flower  with  her  body 
covered  with  pollen,  instinctively  seeks  a  place  for  laying  her  eggs, 
and  finding  the  Smyrna  figs  near  by,  naturally  forces  her  way  into 
the  flower-bearing  receptacle,  and  thus  fertilizes  the  pistillate 
flowers.  It  is  necessary  therefore  to  have  enough  "caprifigs" 
grown  near  the  cultivated  figs  to  furnish  the  pollen.^ 


Figs  are  eaten  fresh,  dried  or  preserved.  Stewed  figs  are 
regarded  as  a  staple  article  of  food  in  the  countries  where  they  are 
grown.  Canned  and  preserved  figs  are  being  more  extensively 
used.  Among  the  methods  of  curing  may  be  mentioned:  First, 
drying  in  the  sun.  Second,  exposing  to  the  fumes  of  burning 
sulfur,  so  as  to  sterilize  the  exterior  and  destroy  spores,  fungi  and 
larvae,  and  afterward  drying  in  the  sun.    Third,  plunging  for  a 

^  Ga.  Experiment  Station  Bull.  Nos.  61  and  77. 

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FIGS  283 

short  time  into  boiling  lye,  washing  and  finally  (hying  in  the  sun. 
Different  methods  are  practised  in  various  districts  and  with 
different  varieties.  Some  are  packed  in  boxes,  some  in  baskets  or 
on  strings,  and  some  in  mats. 


Fresh  figs  contain  15.53  P^^  c^^^-  ^^  sugar  (dextrose  and  levu- 
lose);  1.52  per  cent,  of  protein,  and  79.11  per  cent,  of  water. 
Dried  figs  are  a  more  concentrated  form  of  nutriment,  for  they 
contain  51.43  per  cent,  of  sugar,  3.58  per  cent,  of  protein  and  only 
28.78  per  cent,  of  water.  The  sugar  is  practically  the  only  source 
of  heat  and  energy,  as  other  nutrients  are  not  abundant. 

Large  quantities  of  figs  are  exported  from  Smyrna  and  Adriatic 
ports,  from  Greece  and  Spain.  Recently  the  Smyrna  fig  has  been 
introduced  into  southern  California,  Arizona^  Georgia,  Florida, 
Texas  and  other  American  states,  and  is  grown  very  successfully. 
More  than  15,000,000  pounds  of  figs  are  annually  imported  into 
the  United  States. 

GUAVA  (Psidium  guajava) 

The  guava  originated  in  Central  America  and  the  West  Indies 
and  is  now  grown  throughout  tropical  countries,  and  in  the  United 
States  as  far  north  as  California  and  Florida.  The  fruit  grows  on  a 
small  tree.  There  are  numerous  varieties,  both  small  and  large, 
some  round,  like  an  apple,  and  some  pear  shaped. 

The  pulp  has  an  aromatic  flavor  and  is  generally  made  into 
pastes  and  preserves.  It  contains  about  80  per  cent,  of  water  and 
16  per  cent,  of  carbohydrates.  The  guava  jelly,  cream,  pastes, 
etc.,  on  the  market  contain  75  per  cent,  to  80  per  cent,  of  sugar,  and 
very  little  acid  and  are  prized  on  account  of  their  agreeable  flavor. 

MANGO  (Mangifera  indica) 

The  mango  originated  in  southern  Asia,  and  is  common  in  trop- 
ical climates  especially  in  the  Orient.    It  is  held  sacred  in  India, 

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and  references  to  it  are  woven  through  the  native  folk-lore  and 
poems.  ^  The  fruit  is  oval,  from  i  to  3  inches  in  diameter,  and 
grows  on  an  evergreen  tree.  The  ripe  fruit,  which  in  tropical 
countries  takes  the  place  of  the  peach,  makes  a  delicious  dessert,  or 
it  may  be  used  for  making  jams,  jellies  and  marmalade.  The  pulp 
contains  about  87  per  cent,  of  water,  10  per  cent,  of  sugar  and  0.6 
per  cent,  of  protein.  "Mango  chutney"  is  a  well-known  sauce 
imported  from  India.  Recently  attempts  have  been  made  with 
considerable  success  to  grow  the  mango  in  southern  Florida  It 
is  becoming  somewhat  common  in  the  markets  of  the  large  cities 
in  the  United  States.  The  green,  strongly  acid  fruit  is  boiled 
with  sugar  or  pickled,  and  is  used  in  curries  and  to  flavor  many 
fish  products. 

OLIVE  (Olea  europaea) 

From  a  study  of  ancient  writings  it  is  evident  that  the  wild 
olive  flourished  in  Asia  in  prehistoric  times.  The  cultivated  trees 
were  originally  grown  in  Asia  Minor,  Palestine,  Greece  and  many 
parts  of  southern  Europe.  Most  of  the  olives  at  the  present  time 
are  grown  in  Italy,  Greece,  France  and  Spain,  and  the  cultivation 
is  becoming  an  important  industry  in  Mexico,  Central  and  South 
America  and  California.  Olive  trees  were  planted  at  the  San 
Diego  Mission  in  California  as  early  as  1769. 

The  tree,  which  is  a  small  gnarled  evergreen,  with  light  sage 
green  leaves,  (Fig.  39)  may  be  propagated  by  the  seeds,  "tips" 
or  suckers,  or  by  layering,  but  the  nursery-man  generally  prefers 
to  use  the  tips  or  small  branches  which  are  started  as  slips.  The 
tree  requires  good  soil  and  a  sufficient  quantity  of  rain,  unless 
those  can  be  irrigation.  In  the  olive  orchard  great  care  is  exer- 
cised to  supply  the  soil  with  artificial  fertilizers,  and  under  the 
right  conditions  the  trees  will  continue  to  bear  for  a  himdred  years 
or  more.  The  climate  also  must  be  warm  with  a  mean  annual 
temperature  of  57°  F.^ 

»  Pha.  Jour.  Sci.,  Vol.  8  A  i,  p.  59. 

*  Leonard  Coates  in  Cyc.  of  Am.  Hort.,  Vol.  3.  Sec  also  U    S.  Dept.  Agri. 
Farmers'  Bull.  No.  122. 

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The  chief  commercial  products  of  the  olive  trees  are  the  pickled 
fruit,  either  green  or  ripe,  olive  or  "sweet"  oil,  and  the  pomace  or 
oil  cake  which  is  a  valuable  cattle  food. 

Pickled  Olives 

For  making  green  olive  pickles  the  fruit  is  picked  by  hand  about 
six  weeks  before  it  woidd  ripen,  and  is  placed  in  lye,  i  to  2  per 

Fig.  39. — The  olive;  a,  flower;  b,  c,  fruit.     (By  permission  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.) 

cent,  for  some  hours,  to  remove  the  bitter  taste;  then  it  is  soaked 
and  washed  in  fresh  water  several  times  and  pickled  in  several 
brines  of  increasing  strength  and  finally  packed  for  shipment, 
in  brine  that  has  been  recently  sterilized  by  boiling.  Olives 
shoidd  remain  in  this  brine  for  two  or  three  months  before  they 

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are  ready  for  use.  Among  the  well-known  varieties  are  the 
olives  from  California. 

Ripe  olives  have  a  purplish  black  color,  but  their  flavor  is  by 
many  considered  superior  to  that  of  the  green  fruit  They  are  pre- 
pared by  soaking  several  times  with  water,  then  in  strong  sterilized 
brine,  and  finally  in  a  weaker  brine.  In  some  countries  dried 
olives  are  placed  on  the  market,  but  they  possess  a  disagreeable 
astringent  taste.  Ripe  olives  may  be  regarded  more  as  food,  while 
the  green  olives  are,  at  best,  considered  only  as  a  relish. 

The  manufacture  and  use  of  olive  oil  is  discussed  under  Fats 
and  Oils,  p.  317. 

PAWPAW  (Asimina  triloba) 

This  fruit,  which  grows  on  small  trees,  is  common  throughout 
the  central  United  States.  It  is  as  large  as  a  large  pear,  and  the 
pulp  has  an  odor  and  taste  suggesting  bananas.  The  pawpaw 
has  never  found  much  favor  as  a  fruit  on  account  of  its  peculiar 
taste.  The  pulp  which  surrounds  the  numerous  large  seeds  has 
a  somewhat  mucilaginous  character. 

This  fruit  is  entirely  different  from  the  tropical  fruit  of  the  same 
name  (Carica  papaya).  The  latter  is  the  size  of  a  small  melon, 
and  of  a  reddish-green  color.  The  juice  is  remarkable  as  contain- 
ing an  active  proteolytic  enzyme,  papain^  which  has  a  powerful 
influence  upon  proteins,  so  that  an  infusion  of  the  fruit  or  leaves 
will,  when  applied  to  a  piece  of  tough  meat,  cause  it  to  become 
tender  in  a  few  minutes. 

POMEGRANATE  (Punica  granatum) 

This  fruit  is  one  of  the  earliest  known  in  the  history  of  the 
world.  It  is  indigenous  to  Persia  and  Afghanistan,  and  is  grown 
throughout  tropical  countries.  Mention  is  frequently  made  of  it 
in  the  ancient  religious  and  mythological  writings.  The  red 
edible  pulp  which  siurounds  the  seeds  of  the  fruit  (berry)  has  a 

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sweet  sub-add  taste,  and  is  often  mixed  with  water  and  sweetened 
to  make  a  cooling  beverage.  In  South  America  the  juice  is  used 
to  furnish,  by  fermentation,  an  intoxicating  beverage  called 


In  various  sub-tropical  countries  as  Italy  and  Sicily,  south- 
western United  States  and  Mexico,  grows  a  cactus  which  bears  an 
edible  fruit  that  is  much  prized  by  the  natives.  The  varieties 
grown  in  other  countries  are  known  as  Indian  fig  by  the  English- 
men, the  Barbary  fig  by  the  Frenchman,  and  the  "higos  chumbos" 
by  the  Spaniard.^  The  fruit,  which  is  of  the  ordinary  cactus  form, 
is  covered  with  bunches  of  fine  spines  and  is  of  a  reddish-yellow  or 
purple  color.  The  outside  rind  is  readily  removed  and  the  pulp 
has  a  sub-acid  taste  suggesting  that  of  the  cucumber.  It  con- 
tains about  II  per  cent,  of  sugar  and  small  quantities  of  other 
nutrients.  The  fruit  bears  transportation  fairly  well,  and  may  be 
kept  for  several  months.  Some  of  the  tuna  products  that  are 
much  used  in  Mexico  are  "miel  de  tuna,"  a  kind  of  sirup  having 
the  thickness  of  honey,  "melcocha"  and  "quoso,"  which  are  con- 
centrated suflSciently  so  that  they  crystallize  on  standing,  and 
dried  tunas.  A  fermented  beverage  called  "colonche,"  a  kind  of 
''present  use"  beer,  is  also  prepared  from  the  tuna. 

PINEAPPLE  (Ananas  sativa) 

This  fruit  is  indigenous  to  America,  and  grows  especially 

well  in  Central  America,  the  West  Indies,  and  Hawaii.    It  is 

called  ''nana"  in  South  America,  where  the  Portuguese  called 

it "  ananas."    In  England  it  is  grown  in  hot  houses,  and  in  Florida 

on  account  of  the  Uability  to  frosts,  the  trees  must  be  protected 

by  sheds.    The  trees  are  propagated  by  crowns,  slips  or  cuttings. 

About  eighteen  months  are  required  to  obtain  the  first  crop  after 

^  Foods,  etc.,  Tibbies,  p.  658. 

*  The  Tuna  As  Food  for  Man,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bu.  PI.  Ind.  Bull.  No.  116. 

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setting  out  the  trees.  (Fig.  40.)  Although  this  tree  grows  in 
quite  poor  soil,  it  is  necessary  to  fertilize  freely  to  make  a  paying 
crop.  The  "pines"  become  ripe  even  if  they  are  picked  when 
quite  green  and  therefore  can  be  readily  transported  for  long 
distances,  and  seem  to  ripen  well  under  these  conditions.  Th\e 
average  composition  is,  total  solids  14.17;  cane  and  invert  sugar 
11.90;  acids  0.60.  The  flavor  and  odor  of  pineapples  is  due  to 
the  essential  oils  and  ethers  which  are  present  in  very  small 

Fig.  40. — A  pineapple  ranch,  Hawaii.     (By  permission  Central 
Scientific  Co.) 

quantities.  Canned  pineapples  are  prepared  in  Singapore  and 
the  Straits  settlements,  and  also  in  the  Bahamas,  Hawaii,  Florida, 
and  other  sub-tropical  countries.  If  carefully  sterilized,  they  may 
be  put  up  without  sugar,  and  thus  prepared  lose,  in  the  process 
of  canning,  very  little  of  their  delicious  flavor . 

Dietetic  Value 

The  pineapple  is  one  of  the  most  valuable  of  foods  from  a  physi- 
ological standpoint.    It  is  considered  particularly  useful  as  an  aid 

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to  digestion,  as  it  contains  a  proteolytic  enzyme  called  "bromelin," 
which  is  closely  related  to  trypsin.  This  ferment  converts  albu- 
minous matter  into  peptones  and  proteoses,  and  acts  in  acid, 
alkaline  or  neutral  media. 

CASHEW  APPLE  (Anacardium  occidental) 

This  fruit,  to  which  is  attached  the  cashew  nut,  is  a  native  of 
the  West  Indies.     (See  p.  333.) 


The  fruits  of  this  class  are  raised  from  the  seed  which  is  sown 
annually.  The  plants  are  generally  vines,  and  the  fruit  rests 
upon  the  ground  as  it  ripens.  Most  of  these  fruits  are  grown  for 
immediate  use,  although  a  few  of  them  like  the  pumpkin  may  be 
kept  for  winter  consumption. 


This  is  a  small  variety  of  watermelon  which  is  nearly  solid, 
and  almost  tasteless.  It  is  used  for  making  preserves,  which 
resembles  that  made  from  the  genuine  citron. 

CUCUMBER  (Cucumis  sativa) 

This  is  one  of  the  fruits  of  the  natural  order  Cucurbitaceae,  or 
the  Gourd  family,  which  appear  to  be  indigenous  to  southern 
India,  although  it  has  been  cultivated  from  the  earliest  historic 
times,  in  Syria  and  Egypt.  It  came  into  general  use  in  England 
in  the  seventeenh  century.  In  Egypt  cucumbers  are  cooked  and 
served  in  various  ways,  and  form  a  valuable  addition  to  the  diet. 
In  most  countries,  however,  cucumbers  are  picked  before  they  are 
ripe,  or  even  in  a  very  immature  condition,  and  are  used  for  making 
pickles  and  salads.  A  prickly  variety  known  as  the  Gherkin  is 
especially  prized  for  pickling.    As  the  cucumber  contains  96  per 

19  Digitized  by  LjOOgle 


cent,  of  water,  its  food  value  is  hardly  worth  consideration,  but  it 
is  useful  in  var3dng  the  monotony  of  the  diet,  especially  in  a  hot 
climate.  Cucumbers  should  be  peeled  and  allowed  to  stand  in 
cold  water  for  some  time  before  using. 


The  process  of  pickling  with  salt  and  vinegar  is  applied  to 
many  fruits  and  vegetables  such  as  cucumbers,  artichokes,  beets, 
carrots,  cauliflower,  figs,  onions,  lemons,  peaches,  pears,  string 
beans,  walnuts,  capers  and  nasturtium  seeds.  A  common  method 
of  pickling  is  to  soak  the  vegetable  for  some  time  in  brine,  and  after- 
ward treat  several  times  with  boiling  vinegar,  with  or  without 
sugar  and  spices.  Dill  pickles  are  usually  large  pickles  flavored 
with  dill  seeds.  No  less  than  3,000,000  bushels  of  pickles  (cu- 
cumber) are  consumed  annually  in  the  United  States. 

Pickles  are  adulterated  by  the  use  of  salts  of  copper  to  give  them 
a  green  color  and  an  appearance  of  freshness.  The  author  has 
found  an  amount  of  copper  corresponding  to  one-seventh  of  a 
grain  of  crystalline  copper  sulfate,  in  a  medium-sized  pickled 
cucumber.  The  use  of  copper  salts  for  this  purpose  is  not  allowed 
in  the  United  States  for  goods  that  enter  interstate  commerce. 
Alum  is  also  a  common  adidterant  of  pickles.  This  is  added  with 
the  object  of  producing  hardness  and  crispness  in  the  product, 
and  it  is  asserted  in  order  to  assist  in  the  preservation  of  the 
pickles.  In  most  of  the  states  of  the  Union  the  presence  of  alum 
in  pickles  must  be  stated  on  the  label. 

EGG  PLANT  (Solanum  melongena) 

The  egg  plant,  often  called  the  aubergine  in  England,  is  indig- 
enous to  India,  but  is  a  common  fruit  in  the  West  Indies,  southern 
Europe  and  throughout  the  United  States.  The  fruit,  which  is 
egg  shaped,  sometimes  white,  but  more  frequently  purple,  and  as 
large  as  a  cocoanut,  grows  something  like  a  melon  on  a  vine.    As 

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it  contains  93  per  cent,  of  water  its  nutritive  value  is  very  low.  It 
is  usually  prepared  for  eating  by  cutting  in  slices  and  broiling  or 

MELON  (Cucumis  melo) 

A  study  of  the  origin  of  melons  indicates  that  they  were 
originally  found  wild  both  in  India  and  Africa.  They  were  intro- 
duced into  China  in  the  eighth  century  and  into  southern  Europe 
about  the  beginning  of  the  Christian  era.  The  French  melon, 
which  has  a  dark  yellow  flesh,  is  the  variety  generally  cultivated 
in  Europe.  In  the  United  States  numerous  varieties  are  grown, 
including  the  "musk  melon,'*  "nutmeg  melon,"  "Casaba"  or 
winter  melon  and  the  "cantaloupe."  The  latter  was  named  from 
Cantaloupe  in  Italy,  where  it  was  first  grown  in  Europe.  A 
variety  grown  under  irrigation  at  Rocky  Ford,  Colorado,  is  noted 
for  its  delicious  taste  and  odor.  The  same  variety  raised  from 
Rocky  Ford  seeds,  is  common  in  other  parts  of  the  country. 

WATERMELON  (Citrullus  citrullus) 

The  watermelon  is  supposed  to  be  indigenous  to  Africa,  but 
is  now  cidtivated  throughout  the  central  United  States  and  in 
southern  Europe,  Egypt  and  India.  The  melon  grows  best  on 
a  sandy  soil  which  is  well  fertilized  and  in  a  country  where  there 
is  an  abundance  of  sunshine.  The  vines  often  cover  the  entire 
field  at  the  time  of  fruiting,  and  the  melons  have  a  weight  of  50 
pounds  or  more.  They  are  much  prized  during  the  warm  months, 
especially  in  hot  countries,  for  their  sweet,  juicy  pulp.  The  in- 
terior is  red  or  pink,  and  the  seeds,  which  are  numerous,  are  either 
white  or  black. 

That  the  nutritive  value  of  melons  is  low  is  shown  by  the  fact 
that  the  common  melon  contains  about  eighty-nine  parts  of  water 
and  eight  parts  of  carbohydrates,  mostly  sugar;  while  the  water- 
melon is  still  less  nutritious,  as  it  contains,  in  the  edible  portion. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


over  92  per  cent,  of  water,  and  6.6  per  cent,  of  starch,  sugar  and 
similar  substances.  Watermelons  bear  shipment  very  well,  but 
shoidd  not  be  picked  before  they  are  ripe.  Immense  quantities 
are  sent  from  the  southern  part  of  the  United  States  to  the  north, 
during  the  summer  months. 

PUMPKIN  (Cucurbita  pepo) 

The  pumpkin,  also  a  member  of  the  Gourd  family,  is  found  in 
numerous  varieties,  and  often  grows  to  great  size.  The  coarser 
varieties  are  used  as  cattle  food  and  the  more  delicate  kinds  are 
especially  prized  in  New  England  for  making  pumpkin  pies. 
Canned  pumpkins  are  convenient  to  use  throughout  the  year. 

SQUASH  (Cucurbita) 

Many  varieties  of  squashes  ^are  cultivated.  Both  winter 
squashes  and  summer  squashes  are  boiled  and  used  as  vegetables. 
As  the  nutrient  material  of  the  squash  amoimts  to  about  9  per 
cent.,  and  that  of  the  pumpkin  to  only  5  per  cent.,  it  is  evident 
that  the  squash  is  a  more  valuable  addition  to  the  dietary  than  the 

VEGETABLE  MARROW  (Cucurbita  ovifera) 

This  is  more  commonly  grown  as  a  garden  vegetable  in  England 
than  in  the  United  States.  One  variety,  known  as  the  crown 
gourd  or  "custard  marrow,"  bears  a  flattened  fruit  with  scalloped 
edges,  and  is  sweeter  than  the  true  marrow.  This  fruit  is  eaten 
while  quite  young,  and  is  boiled  to  prepare  it  for  the  table. 

TOMATO  (Lycopersicum  esculentum) 


The  tomato  is  a  native  of  America,  probably  either  Mexico  or 
Peru.  It  was  formerly  known  as  the  "  love  apple,"  and  was  grown 
only  for  ornamental  purposes.    Its  Mexican  name  is  "tomatl," 

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while  the  French  still  call  it  "pomme  d'  amoiir."  Probably  on 
account  of  the  fact  that  it  belongs  to  the  Nightshade  family,  like 
the  potato  and  capsicum,  and  as  this  family  includes  many  poison- 
ous plants,  it  was  regarded  with  suspicion  as  an  edible  vegetable 
until  about  1850,  when  it  began  to  be  grown  and  a  taste  for  it  was 
acquired.  This  is  a  good  illustration  of  what  can  be  done,  and 
often  is  done  in  cultivating  the  taste  for  a  new  variety  of  food. 

Soon  after  being  introduced  into  Europe,  the  tomato  was 
grown  extensively  on  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean,  where  the 
climate  is  admirably  adapted  to  its  growth.  The  plant  does  not 
flourish  in  England,  as  it  requires  a  higher  temperature  and  a 
longer  season  than  is  there  afforded.  It  grows  well  throughout 
nearly  the  whole  of  the  United  States. 

In  order  to  allow  suflSdent  time  for  the  tomato  to  fully  ripen, 
the  season  is  usually  extended  at  the  beginning  by  sowing  the 
seed  in  a  hotbed,  and  setting  out  the  yoimg  plants  as  soon  as  the 
danger  of  frost  is  past.  In  southern  coim tries,  the  tomato  is  actu- 
ally a  perennial,  and  can  be  grown  at  any  time  of  the  year.  In 
Florida  and  Texas,  the  plants  are  started  in  November,  so  that 
the  ripe  fruit  may  be  put  on  the  northern  market  in  the  early 

The  young  plants  are  set  in  rows  about  4  feet  apart  in  both 
directions,  and  as  they  become  larger  they  may  be  supported  by 
frames  to  keep  the  vines  and  the  growing  fruit  from  the  ground. 
Green  tomatoes  which  are  used  for  pickles,  preserves,  chow-chow, 
etc.,  as  well  as  ripe  tomatoes  find  a  ready  market.  Much  has  been 
done  in  improving  the  varieties,  and  the  characteristics  most 
desired  at  present  are  good  flavor,  smoothness,  even  ripening 
small  and  medium  size  cavities,  and  thick  walls,  so  as  to  be  suited 
to  long  distance  transportation. 


The  tomato  contains  about  93  per  cent,  of  water*  and  only  4 
per   cent,    of   carbohydrates,   including   sucrose,   dextrose   and 

*  Compt.  Rend.  145  (131-133)  1907. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


levulose.  It  is  interesting  as  containing  free  acid  as  follows: 
malic  0.48,  citric  0.09,  oxalic  o.oi,  with  traces  of  other  organic  adds 
Much  of  the  nutritive  material  is  f oimd  in  the  juice,  therefore  too 
much  of  this  should  not  be  left  out  in  canning.  The  seeds  may  be 
strained  out,  and  the  pulp  and  juice  only  used  in  cases  where  the 
seeds  are  considered  irritating  to  the  alimentary  canal.  Some 
physicians  have  objected  to  the  use  of  the  tomato  in  cases  of  gout 
or  uric  acid  diathesis  on  account  of  the  oxalic  acid  which  is  present. 

Canned  Tomatoes 

As  the  tomato  retains  its  flavor  so  well  after  canning,  and  as 
this  flavor  is  so  imiversally  liked,  after  a  taste  for  it  has  once  been 
cultivated,  the  demand  for  canned  tomatoes  in  the  United  States 
has  become  enormous.  They  are  used  as  a  flavor  or  soup,  or 
directly  with  the  proper  seasoning  for  numerous  varieties  of 
prepared  food.  No  canned  vegetable  except  corn  is,  so  much  in 

In  the  process  of  canning,  the  skins,  cores,  and  unripe  portions 
should  be  rejected.  The  sealed  cans  are  sterilized  by  being  allowed 
to  remain  in  a  bath  of  hot  water  or  brine  for  a  sufficient  length  of 
time.  Experience  has  taught  the  packer  how  much  time  and 
how  high  a  temperature  is  necessary  for  this  process.  Just  as 
with  other  canned  fruits,  lack  of  care  in  the  preparation  will  be 
shown  by  a  high  per  cent  of  "swells,"  which  indicates  that 
fermentation  is  taking  place. 

There  is  little  excuse  for  the  adulteration  of  canned  tomatoes, 
and  at  the  present  time  chemical  preservatives  are  seldom  foimd. 
Even  the  use  of  coal  tar  colors,  or  cochineal  to  cover  up  the  fact 
that  unripe  and  imperfect  fruit  has  been  used,  is  practically 
a  thing  of  the  past.  The  most  common  fraud  in  canned  tomatoes 
is  probably  the  use  of  too  much  water  in  the  product.^  In  some 
states  legal  standards  for  the  weight  of  the  solid  fruit  have  been 
fixed,  as  for  instance,  the  "Fancy"  grade  must  contain  not  less 

*  Bulletin  N.  Dakota  Ag.  Ex.  Sta.,  Vol.  i,  p.  240;  p.  300. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


than  20  ounces  of  fruit  per  can,  and  the  "Standard"  grade  not 
less  than  i8  ounces  of  ripe  fruit  exclusive  of  juice.  Cans  have 
been  examined  which  contained  as  low  as  7.1  ounces  of  solid  fruit. 
Over  150,000,000  cans  of  tomatoes  were  put  up  in  the  United 
States  in  1909. 

Tomato  Ketchup  (Catsup) 

This  condiment,  which  is  so  universally  used  in  the  United 
States,  demands  more  than  a  passing  mention,  especially  since  it 
has  attracted  much  attention  from  being  one  of  the  fruit  products 
that  was  formerly  preserved  by  the  addition  of  chemicals, 
especially  sodium  benzoate  and  salicylic  add.  The  standard  for 
tomato  ketchup  as  adopted  by  the  Association  of  official.  Agri- 
cultural Chemists  is  as  follows:  "Ketchup  is  the  clean  sound 
product  made  from  the  properly  prepared  pulp  of  clean,  sound, 
fresh,  ripe  tomatoes,  with  spices,  and  with  or  without  sugar  and 
vinegar."^  There  is  no  mention  made  of  the  use  of  preservatives 
or  coloring  matter  in  this  standard,  and  many  manufactuiers 
claim  that  with  carefully  selected  material,  cleanliness  in  handling, 
and  thorough  sterilization  in  the  bottle,  no  preservatives  are 
needed.  In  some  states  one-tenth  of  i  per  cent,  of  sodium 
benzoate  is  tentatively  allowed.  When  this  statement  appears 
on  the  label  it  often  happens,  however,  that  the  amount  stated 
is  actually  greatly  exceeded. 

It  was  formerly  the  custom  in  some  cases,  in  making  tomato 
ketchup,  to  use  the  refuse  and  skins  of  the  canning  factory, 
sometimes  badly  fermented,  and  to  sweeten  with  saccharin,  color 
with  coal-tar  colors,  and  use  a  liberal  amount  of  chemical  preserva- 
tives. In  the  best  grades  of  ketchup,  however,  none  of  these  prac- 
tices are  now  allowed.  A  bottle  of  ketchup  shoidd,  after  being 
opened,  be  kept  in  the  ice  chest  when  not  in  actual  use.  F.  W. 
Robinson  says, "  For  the  consimier,  it  is  far  better  that  the  ketchup 
should  ferment  and  thus  not  be  consumed  by  him,  than  that  an 
unwholesome,  unclean  product  be  taken  into  the  system."^ 

» U.  S.  Dept.  AgrL,  Bu.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  119. 

*  Association  State  and  National  Food  and  Dairy  Depts.,  1907,  p.  143.  j 

Digitized  by  VJOOQlC 


Tomato  Paste 

One  of  the  important  food  products  exported  from  Italy  to  the 
United  States  is  tomato  paste.  This  is  flavored  in  various  ways 
and  used  as  a  condiment.  CkUi  sauce  has  for  its  basis  pulped 
tomatoes  and  is  flavored  with  red  peppers,  onions,  vinegar  and 
spices.  It  contains  the  seeds  of  the  tomatoes,  in  this  way  also 
differing  from  tomato  catsup. 

Tomato  Seeds 

The  extraction  of  oil  from  tomato  seeds  was  first  attempted  by 
a  firm  in  Parma,  Italy,  in  1910.  This  is  used  especially  in  the 
manufacture  of  soap,  and  it  may  be  ultimately  utilized  as  an 
edible  oil.  One  hundred  and  fifty  metric  tons  of  tomato-seed  oil 
were  produced  here  in  1912.^    (See  p.  323.) 

*  Daily  Consular  Trade  Rep.,  1913,  p.  954. 

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The  fleshy  fungi  known  as  mushrooms  have  been  used  as  food 
since  the  time  of  Pliny  and  perhaps  earlier.  In  the  vicinity  of 
Paris  mushrooms  have  been  cultivated  since  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury.^ There  is  an  erroneous  opinion  prevalent  that  all  poisonous 
fungi  belong  to  the  class  called  "toadstools,"  while  the  edible 
varieties  are  classed  as  mushrooms. 

The  Agaricus  campestris  (Fig.  42),  which  is  common  in  the 
United  States  and  Europe,  consists  of  a  centrally  placed  stalk  from 
2  to  6  inches  in  height,  in  the  end  of  which  is  borne  a  cap-shaped 
portion  known  as  the  cap.  The  color  of  the  plant  varies  from 
white  to  brown  and  on  the  cream  or  white  stem  a  short  distance 
below  the  cap  is  borne  a  ring  or  "annulus."  On  the  under 
surface  of  the  cap  are  numerous  "gills."  Between  these  folds  is  a 
blackish-brown  powder  which  consists  of  innimierable  purple 
cells,  termed  spores,  which  take  the  place  of  seeds  and  serve 
for  the  reproduction  of  the  mushroom.  Each  spore  is  capable  of 
germination  and  will  produce  a  thread-like  growth  in  the  soil. 
This  is  called  the  spawn  or  more  properly  the  "mycelium"  of  the 
mushroom  and  is  what  is  sown  in  beds.  On  these  threads  are 
subsequently  formed  little-  nodules  which  are  th^  earlier  stages  of 
the  growth,  and  with  favorable  rains  the  mushroom  grows  from 
these  nodules  almost  in  a  single  night.  Mushrooms  differ  very 
much  from  ordinary  green  plants,  for  there  are  really  no  roots, 
stems  or  leaves. 

1  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  204. 

^^^  Digitized  by  Google 


FUNGI   (mushrooms),   LICHENS,  AND  ALGM 

Mushroom  Growing 

The  mushroom  industry  has  been  more  fully  developed  in 
France  and  England  than  in  the  United  States.    The  best  place 

Fig.  41. — Twelve  edible  mushrooms,  common  to  the  United  States,  i.  Lacta- 
rius  delicious  Fr.  Orange  milk  mushroom.  2.  Cantharellus  dbarius  Fr.  Chantrelle. 
3.  Marasmius  oreades  Bolt.  Fairy  ring  champignon.  4.  Hydnum  repandum  L. 
Spine  mushroom.  5.  Agaricus  campestris  L.  Meadow  mushroom.  6.  Coprinus 
comatus  Fr.  Maned  Agaric.  7.  Morchella  esculata  P.  8.  Clavaria  cinerea  Bull. 
9.  Clavaria  rugosa  Bull.  10.  Boletus  edulis  Bull.  Edible^ore  mushroom.  11. 
Lycoperdon  giganteum  Batso  Puffball.  12.  Fistulina  hepatica  Fr.  Liver  fungus. 
(Report,  microscopist,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.    By'permission.) 

for  a  mushroom  bed  is  a  cave  or  cellar,  or  a  bed  that  can  be  closed 
and  covered  more  for  the  purpose  of  regulating  the  temperatiure 

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than  to  shut  out  the  light.  The  proper  temperature  for  growth 
ranges  from  53  to  60*^  F.  Abandoned  stone  quarries  or  coal  mines 
have  been  utilized  for  mushroom  growing,  but  the  beds  must  be  so 
arranged  that  they  are  well  drained.  The  beds  are  constructed  of 
well  composted  stable  manure,  and  in  this  the  spawn  is  sown. 
Beds  will  come  into  bearing  within  eight  weeks  after  they  are 
sown,  and  often  continue  to  bear  for  two  or  three  months.  The 
propagation  of  the  spawn  or  "bricks"  used  for  seeding  the  beds 

Fig.  42. — Common   Mushroom,   Agaricus  campestris.    Edible. — (F.   V.    CoviUe, 
Circular  No  13,  Division  of  Botany,  Department  of  Agriculture.) 

requires  considerable  skill  and  careful  attention  to  the  conditions 
of  temperature  and  moisture. 

Composition  of  Mushrooms 

Notwithstanding  much  that  has  been  written  by  enthusiastic 
mushroom  lovers  about  the  value  of  these  fungi  as  a  food  product, 
the  chemical  analysis  does  not  sustain  this  opinion.  Comparing 
the  different  varieties  it  will  be  seen  that  the  general  composition  is 
as  follows:^ 

Water  89  per  cent,  to  92  per  cent. ;  total  nitrogen  0.15  per  cent, 
to  0.60  per  cent;  albuminoid  nitrogen  0.15'  per  cent,  to  0.37  per 

1 U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Farmers' Bull.  No.  79. 

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300  FUNGI   (mushrooms),   LICHENS,   AND  ALGiE 

cent. ;  non-albuminoid  nitrogen  o.  1 2  per  cent,  to  0.30  per  cent. ;  pro- 
tein 2.25  per  cent,  to  3.75  per  cent;  fat  0.20  per  cent,  to  0.50  per 
cent;  carbohydrates  1.4  per  cent,  to  3.5  per  cent.  Beefsteak  with 
which  mushrooms  have  sometimes  been  compared,  contains  on  the 
average  19.50  per  cent,  of  protein  and  17  per  cent,  of  fat.  In 
mushrooms  from  30  per  cent,  to  40  per  cent,  of  the  nitrogen  is  not 
available  as  food,  being  in  the  form  of  amides  or  other  non-protein 
bodies.  That  they  often  have  a  meaty  flavor  and  like  the  "  extrac- 
tives" in  meat  excite  the  gastric  activity  is  not  denied,  but  they 
cannot  be  compared  to  meat  in  their  nutritive  constituents. 


i  i^l 

B  M^ 






Fig.  43. — ^Amanita  mellse.    An  edible  mushroom.    (By  permission  E.  A.  White, 
Cf.  St.  Geol.  and  Nat.  Hist.  Survey.) 

As  ftmgi  grow  without  chlorophyl,  they  cannot  utilize  the 
carbon  dioxide  of  the  air  to  build  up  carbohydrates,  but  must  in 
their  place  take  up  some  complex  organic  bodies.  They  contain 
no  starch,  although  glycogen,  sometimes  called  animal  starch,  is 
found  in  "truflSes";  the  sugars  present  in  mushrooms  are  mannite 
and  trehalose,^  and  several  enzymes  and  organic  acids  are  also 

*  Foods,  Origin,  Manufacture  and  Comp.,  Tibbies,  p.  578. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


In  the  process  of  cooking,  the  mushroom  shrivels  considerably, 
and  loses  some  of  its  extractives,  thereby  losing  some  o<  its  flavor. 
As  it  absorbs  water  at  the  same  time,  the  final  result  of  cooking  is 
that  stewed  mushrooms  contain  only  about  2  per  cent,  of  solid 


Mushrooms  are  not  readily  digested  in  the  stomach.  This 
may  be  partly  due  to  the  peculiar  character  of  the  cellulose,  which 
seems  to  become  somewhat  coagulated  and  "leathery"  during 
cooking.  Furthermore  Mendel  has  shown  that  considerable  of 
the  protein,  and  most  of  the  cellulose  is  undigested.  It  seems 
evident  then  that  in  nutritive  qualities  or  in  digestibility,  mush- 
rooms do  not  compare  favorably  with  either  green  vegetables  or 
with  meat  and  eggs. 

Poisonous  Mushrooms 

There  seems  to  be  no  rule  by  which  the  ordinary  consumer, 
unless  an  expert,  can  distinguish  between  edible  and  poisonous 
mushrooms.  Practically  the  only  safe  way  is  to  purchase  those 
mushrooms  that  have  been  cultivated  and  are  known  to  be  edible. 
Canned  mushrooms,  since  they  are  put  up  by  those  who  are  fa- 
miliar with  the  business,  have  very  seldom  produced  any  injurious 
effects.  It  is  well  to  be  cautious  about  deciding  on  the  quality  of 
wild  mushrooms,  by  following  any  published  "rules"  for  their 
selection.  Gibson,  one  of  the  authorities  on  mushrooms,  says, 
"Avoid  every  mushroom  having  a  cup  or  suggestion  of  such  at  the 
base;  thedistinctly  fatal  poisons  are  thus  excluded;  exclude  those 
having  an  unpleasant  odor,  a  peppery,  bitter  or  other  unpalatable 
flavor,  or  tough  consistency;  exclude  those  infested  with  worms  or 
in  advanced  age  or  decay."     (Figs.  44,  45.) 

The  symptoms  of  mushroom  poisoning  are  exceedingly  varied, 

*  J.  C.  Soc,  Vol.  61,  p.  227. 

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302  FUNGI   (mushrooms),  LICHENS,  AND  ALGiE 

since  there  are  numerous  poisonous  varieties  and  they  contain 
different  harmful  ingredients.  In  general  the  symptoms  are 
vomiting  and  diarrhoea,  followed  in  some  cases  by  stupor,  cold 
sweat  and  weak  heart  action.  One  peculiarity  is  that  with  some 
poisons  the  symptoms  appear  shortly  after  eating  the  mushrooms, 
and  with  others  perhaps  not  until  twenty-four  hours  have  elapsed. 
In  some  cases  of  poisoning  the  alkaloid  atropin  has  been  given 
with  success  by  physicians  to  stimulate  the  action  of  the  heart. 

Fig.  44. — Fly  Amanita.     (Amanita  muscaria.)     Very  poisonous.     (By  permission 
E.  A.  White^  Cf.  St.  Geol.  and  Nat.  Hist,  Survey.) 

Among  the  poisonous  principles  of  mushrooms  may  be 
mentioned  amanatin  (CsHisNO),  and  phallin,  and  the  active  prin- 
ciple muscarin,  (C6H18NO2),  which  is  so  poisonous  that  0.003  of  a 
gram  will  cause  serious  symptoms  in  a  human  being. 

Varieties  of  Edible  Mushrooms 

Some  of  the  edible  mushrooms  most  frequently  used  are  those 
shown  in  Figs.  41,  42  and  43. 

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The  common,  horse,  fairy  ring,  and  puff  ball  are  among  the 
abundant  mushrooms  of  the  woods  and  fields  in  the  United  States 
and  England.  The  Blewitz,  scaly  capped,  shaggy,  and  boletus  are 
common  on  the  Continent. 

Fig.  4$. — Deadly  Amanita  (Amanita  phalloides),  very  poisonous.    (By  permission 
E.  A.  White,  Tt.  St.  Geol.  and  Nat.  Hist.  Survey.) 

The  "Morel"  is  a  mushroom  having  a  hollow  stalk  and  coni- 
cal pitted  cap.  They  are  exported  in  a  dried  condition  from 
Germany,  and  are  especially  used  as  a  flavoring  for  soups,  sauces 
and  gravy.  The  term  "champignon"  is  applied  in  France  to  the 
Agaricus  and  frequently  to  mushrooms  in  general. 

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304  FUNGI    (mushrooms),   LICHENS,  AND   ALG^ 


"TruflSes''  are  underground  fungi  found  growing  wild,  espe- 
cially in  England,  France  and  Italy.  They  were  known  as  early 
as  the  fourteenth  century,  and  have  always  been  much  prized 
for  their  flavor.  They  seem  to  grow  best  in  the  shade  of  nut- 
bearing  trees,  and  are  propagated  by  spores  like  mushrooms.  The 
truffle  grows  just  beneath  the  surface  of  the  soil  to  about  the  size 
of  a  potato  and  may  be  red,  white  or  black.  The  most  famous 
variety  is  the  P6rigord  Truffle  which  is  named  from  the  French 
province,  where  it  is  found.  In  England  dogs  are  trained  to 
find  the  truffles,  while  on  the  Continent  hogs  are  taught  to  dis- 
cover them  by  the  peculiar  fleshy  odor  which  they  emit.  They 
are  used  for  garnishing  dishes^  and  in  flavoring  soup  and  gravy, 
their  value  depending  on  their  size,  aroma  and  texture. 

Preservation  of  Mushrooms 

A  common  method  of  preserving  mushrooms  is  by  drying. 
They  may  be  strung  on  a  string  by  means  of  a  needle,  and  dried  in 
the  sun,  or  over  the  stove,  and  when  needed  for  use  they  are  soaked 
in  cold  water.  Large  quantities  of  dried  mushrooms  are  exported 
from  Europe.  Another  method  of  preservation,  especially  in 
Russia,  is  by  packing  in  salt  and  vinegar.  In  France  the  canning 
of  mushrooms  has  grown  to  be  an  important  industry,  the  young 
or  unexpanded  form,  known  as  "buttons,"  being  mostly  em- 
ployed. Before  they  are  canned,  mushrooms  are  often  bleached 
by  subjecting  them  to  the  fumes  of  sulfur  dioxide.  The  imperfect 
fungi  are  also  canned  and  sold  for  use  in  soups,  etc.,  under  the 
name  ''Champignons  d'Hotel,"  which  is  understood  to  mean 
** buttons  and  pieces."  "Mushroom  catsup"  is  made  by  sprink- 
ling the  fungi  with  an  abundance  of  common  salt,  and  afterward 
boiling  the  juice  with  spices,  and  adding  this  to  the  chopped  mush- 
rooms, which  have  also  been  boiled. 

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ALG^  305 


Most  of  the  mushrooms  imported  into  the  United  States  come 
from  France,  with  smaller  quantities  from  Japan,  Russia,  and 
Germany.  The  total  quantity  imported  for  the  year  ending 
June  30, 191 1,  was  6,656,657  pounds. 


Under  the  term  algae  are  included  several  varieties  of  sea- 
weed, which  are  used  as  food.  The  most  important  of  these  is 
Irish  moss  or  Carrageen,  which  is  used  both  as  ordinary  food  and 
in  the  dietary  of  invalids.  It  is  abundant  on  rocky  shores,  espe- 
cially those  of  Ireland,  and  grows  from  three-quarter  tide  to  below 
low  water  mark.  Several  species  of  this  seaweed  are  used.  They 
are  boiled  for  several  hours  until  a  slimy  pulp  is  obtained,  and 
this  is  sometimes  made  into  cakes  with  oatmeal  and  fried  in  butter, 
or  with  vinegar  and  pepper  is  made  into  a  sauce. 


The  chief  constituent  of  Irish  moss  is  a  kind  of  mucilage  which 
is  known  as  "lichenin."  The  dried  moss  has  been  found  by 
Church  to  contain  9.4  per  cent,  of  nitrogenous  matter  and  55.4 
per  cent,  of  mucilage.  As  this  mucilage  is  not  affected  by  the 
saliva  or  pancreatic  juice,  and  as  the  nitrogenous  matter  is  not  all 
of  the  digestible  class,  there  is  considerable  question  as  to  the  nutri- 
tive value  of  this  material. 

Other  edible  algae  are  the  alaria  or  "murlins"  of  the  north 
coasts,  the  dulse  of  the  Scotch  and  Irish  coast  which  forms  a 
welcome  addition  to  the  potato  diet  of  the  peasants,  and  the  agar- 
agar  or  Chinese  gelatin  of  the  Orient.  The  edible  birds'  nests 
which  find  so  much  favor  with  the  Chinese  are  formed  by  the 
swallow  from  gelatinous  seaweeds,  which  are  disgorged  by  the 
birds  in  building  their  nests. 

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The  most  important  edible  lichen  is  Iceland  moss.  It  grows 
abundantly  in  the  Arctic  regions,  and  is  sometimes  made  into 
bread  or  boiled  with  the  milk  of  the  reindeer.  The  bitter  principle 
(acid)  which  the  moss  contains  is  partially  removed  by  soaking  in 
a  weak  solution  of  sodium  carbonate.  The  jelly-like  substance 
obtained  by  boiling  the  Iceland  moss  with  water  consists  largely  of 
lichenin  or  moss  starch  (CeHioOs)!!  and  iso-lichenin.  Although 
these  substances  are  only  slightly  affected  by  the  ordinary  diges- 
tive juices,  this  moss  must  afford  some  nutriment,  as  it  is  an 
mportant  food  of  the  Laplanders  and  of  their  reindeer. 

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Fats  and  oils  may  be  divided  into  two  general  classes: 

1.  Essential  or  volatile  oils. 

2.  Fixed  oils  and  fats. 

The  essential  oils  are  entirely  different  in  their  composition  and 
properties  from  what  are  ordinarily  known  as  oils.  They  are  vola- 
tile constituents  of  plants,  and  may  be  driven  off  unchanged  by 
heat.  As  they  are  important  constituents  of  Spices,  a  more  com- 
plete discussion  will  be  found  under  that  head.     (See  p.  440.) 

Fixed  oils  or  fats  are  from  two  sources,  viz:  animals  and 

Many  of  these  substances  are  important  constituents  of  foods, 
while  others,  differing  only  slightly  in  chemical  composition,  are 
utilized  in  various  industries,  such  as  the  making  of  soap,  candles, 
paints,  etc.  Many  of  the  animal  oils,  such  as  whale-oil,  seal-oil, 
and  fish-oil,  are  not  agreeable  to  the  taste  of  civilized  people,  but 
most  of  the  vegetable  oils,^  if  properly  refined,  make  good  food 
products.  Vegetable  oils  are  most  frequently  found  in  greatest 
abundance  in  the  seeds  of  plants,  and  are  extracted  by  pressing 
the  ground  or  crushed  seed,  or  by  extracting  with  some  solvent  like 
gasoline.  Animal  fats  on  the  contrary  are  obtained  from  the  ani- 
mal tissues  by  a  process  of  "rendering,"  or  heating  until  the  fat  is 
melted,  so  that  it  can  be  separated  from  other  animal  matters. 


Considered  chemically,  fats  are  glyceryl  esters  of  fatty  acids, 
or  they  may  be  looked  upon  as  salts  of  the  higher  saturated  or 

*  Chem.  Tech.  and  Anal,  of  OUs,  Fats  and  Waxes,  Lewkowitz,  p.  913. 

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unsaturated  fatty  acids  in  which  the  glyceryl  acts  as  the  base. 
Just  as  nitric  acid  when  treated  with  caustic  soda  forms  water 
and  sodium  nitrate  (Chili  salt  peter),  so  stearic  acid  will  theoret- 
ically combine  with  glyceryl  to  give  glyceryl  stearate  (ordinary 
stearin).  Some  of  the  fatty  acids  contain  a  relatively  higher 
proportion  of  hydrogen  than  others;  those  to  which  more  hydrogen 
can  be  added  we  term  unsaturated^  while  those  that  are  fully  sup- 
plied with  hydrogen  we  speak  of  as  saturated.  To  the  former 
class  belong  oleic  and  linoleic  acids,  and  to  the  latter  stearic, 
palmitic,  arachedic  acid,  etc. 

Ordinary  tallow  is  a  mixture  of  stearate  of  glyceryl,  (CsHs- 
(Ci8H8602)3,  with  palmitate  and  oleate  of  glyceryl.  The  physical 
condition  of  the  fat  or  oil,  i.e.,  whether  it  is  a  solid  or  a  liquid  at 
ordinary  temperatures,  depends  largely  on  the  relative  propor- 
tion of  the  saturated  and  unsaturated  glycerides  present.  Fats 
containing  a  greater  proportion  of  the  palmitate  and  stearate  are 
solid;  while  those  with  a  predominance  of  oleate  are  liquid. 

Treatment  of  Unsaturated  Glycerides 

Recently  a  practical  commercial  method  has  been  discovered^ 
for  saturating  the  unsaturated  glycerides  by  merely  heating  them 
with  hydrogen  in  the  presence  of  some  catalytic  agent  such  as 
nickel,  so  that  now  we  have,  instead  of  the  liquid  cotton-seed 
oil  which  is  high  in  glyceryl  oleate  and  low  in  the  stearate,  a  white 
solid  similar  to  tallow  in  which  a  considerable  quantity  of  the 
oleate  is  changed  to  stearate.  This  change  may  be  represented 
by  the  equation: 

/C18H84O2  +  2H  =  CisHaeOj) 

\  Oleic  acid  Stearic  acid  / 

The  work  of  Sabatier  and  Senderens  has  greatly  advanced  the 
processes  used  in  the  hardening  of  fats.  The  catalyzers  used  are 
of  the  two  classes  of  metals,  those  of  the  nickel  group  and  those 
of  the  platinum  group.    These  when  in  a  finely  divided  form  are 

1  J.  Soc.  Ch.  Ind.,  Vol.  31,  p.  1115. 

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very  active  in  hydrogenizing  fats.  In  the  process  a  small  amount 
of  the  metal  is  introduced  into  the  fat,  which  is  at  the  same  time 
heated  in  a  current  of  hydrogen  to  a  temperature  of  from  ioo°  C. 
to  2  2 4°  C.  The  metal  used  is,  after  the  completion  of  the  hydro- 
genation,  removed  by  filtration.^ 


When  fats  or  oils  are  "  saponified"  by  treatment  with  an  alkali, 
as  in  the  manufacture  of  soap,  a  potassiiun  or  sodiimi  salt  informed, 
and  commercial  glycerine  remains  in  the  mother  liquor,  from  which 
it  may  be  separated  and  afterward  purified  by  vacuum  distillation. 


Vegetable  fats  usually  contain  more  of  the  imsaturated,  and 
animal  fats  more  of  the  saturated  glycerides.  On  this  account  the 
animal  fats  are  more  frequently  solid  and  the  vegetable  fats  are 
more  often  liquid,  in  which  case  they  are  known  as  oils.  The 
liquid  condition  of  the  vegetable  oils  is  rather  an  advantage  than 
otherwise,  as  far  as  ease  of  digestion  is  concerned. 

In  the  extraction  of  the  fat  or  oil  from  the  animal  or  vegetable 
tissue,  it  is  difficult  to  avoid  obtaining  other  substances  which  are 
not  oils.  These  impurities  are  mechanically  mixed,  and  therefore 
most  oils  must  be  purified  and  refined  before  they  are  fit  for  use  as 


The  common  animal  fats  used  as  food  are  lard,  beef  fat  (suet), 
mutton  fat,  butter,  and  small  quantities  of  the  fat  of  the  hen, 
duck,  goose,  etc.  By  the  process  of  "rendering,"  the  fat  is  sepa- 
rated from  the  connecting  tissue,  which  settles  to  the  lower  part  of 
the  kettle  as  "scrap." 

1  Chem.  Abs.,  Vol.  6,  pp.  2550-2551. 

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There  are  several  grades  of  hog  fat,  sold  under  the  name  of 
lard,  as  made  at  the  large  packing  houses.  The  highest^  grade 
which  is  known  as  "Leaf  Lard"  or  occasionally  as  Neutral  Lard 
No.  I,  is  made  from  the  fat  surrounding  the  kidneys.  This  fat, 
which  has  been  washed  and  chopped,  is  heated  at  as  low  a  tem- 
perature as  possible,  in  steam-jacketed  kettles,  as  there  is  less 
charring  of  the  residual  matter  and  consequently  the  product  is 
of  a  lighter  color  than  when  the  fat  is  heated  in  an  open  kettle. 
The  fat  thus  obtained  is  sometimes  washed  with  water  containing 
a  little  salt  and  sodium  bicarbonate. 

Fig.  46.— Lard  Roll. 

"Refined  Lard"  is  a  product  that  is  sometimes  made  from 
"prime  steam  lard"  by  heating  it  in  a  tank  to  170®  F.  and  at  the 
same  time  blowing  air  through  it  to  remove  the  moisture.  It  is 
then  agitated  at  a  temperature  of  160®  F.  with  Fuller's  Earth,  to 
bleach  it,  and  finally  filtered  through  a  mechanical  filter  press.  In 
order  to  "bring  it  to  grain,"  it  is  cooled  rapidly,  either  by  agitating 
in  a  tank  surrounded  by  cold  water,  or  by  running  the  lard  on  to  a 
large  revolving  roll  which  is  filled  with  ice-cold  brine.     (Fig.  46.) 

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LARD  311 

The  lard  is  scraped  from  the  roll  as  the  drum  revolves,  and  is 
then  ready  to  be  packed  for  market 

"Steam  rendered  Lard,"  or  "prime  steam  lard,"  is  the  lowest 
grade  of  the  packing  house.  It  is  extracted  from  the  "stock," 
under  a  pressure  of  about  50  pounds,  by  admitting  steam  to  the 
tank  which  contains  the  hog  fat  from  various  parts  of  the  animal. 
When  the  material  is  completely  "rendered,"  the  fat  is  run  oflf  from 
the  scraps,  and  quickly  cooled.  "  Kettle  rendered  "  lard  should  be 
of  a  high  quality,  and  the  process  should  be  similar  to  domestic 
practice  in  which  the  kettle  is  heated  externally,  and  the  tempera- 
ture used  is  not  excessive. 

Lard  is  frequently  stiffened  by  the  addition  of  lard  stearin,  but 
the  use  of  beef  stearin  for  this  purpose  would  be  considered  an 
adulteration.  Lards  thus  stiffened  "stand  up"  better  in  a  warm 
climate,  and  are  therefore  more  satisfactory. 

Lard  oil  is  obtained  by  subjecting  the  lard  contained  in  woolen 
bags,  to  hydraulic  pressure.  The  oil  which  is  expressed  is  chiefly 
olein,  and  is  of  a  pale  yellow  color  and  has  a  peculiar  bland  taste. 
It  was  formerly  used  as  a  burning  oil  for  lamps,  and  at  the  present 
time  finds  some  use  as  an  edible  oil  and  for  lubricating  purposes. 
In  France  it  has  been  used  as  an  adulterant  for  ohVe  oil.  The 
stearine  which  remains  in  the  press  is  known  as  "lard  stearine," 
and  is  used  in  making  "  Compound  Lard,"  and  for  similar  purposes. 

Lard  Substitutes 

On  account  of  the  cost  of  pure  lard,  a  large  number  of  sub- 
stitutes have  been  proposed,  and  some  have  found  a  very  exten- 
sive use.  As  long  as  they  are  sold  under  their  true  names  as  sub- 
stitutes, if  they  are  carefully  made  of  clean,  wholesome  material, 
there  can  be  no  objection  to  their  use.  Vegetable  fats  and  oils 
are  by  many  believed  to  be  more  wholesome  than  lard  and  they 
contend  that  compoimd  lards  are  really  better  for  general  use  from 
a  hygienic  standpoint.  Compound  lard,  which  is  sold  imder  va- 
rious names  as  "Cottolene,"  "Cottosuet"  and  "Snowdrift,"  is  a 

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mixture  of  such  materials  as  cotton-seed  oil,  lard  stearine,  beef 
stearine  and  sometimes  lard.  The  cotton-seed  oil  used  is  purified 
and  bleached  by  filtration  through  Fuller's  earth  before  being 
mixed  with  the  other  ingredients.  A  variety  of  grades  of  different 
melting  point  are  put  upon  the  market  for  use  in  different  climate 
and  at  different  seasons  of  the  year. 

Uses  of  Lard 

Lard  like  other  fats  is  readily  assimilated,  and  quite  completely 
digested  in  the  intestines.  Its  use  as  "shortening"  diminishes 
the  adhesiveness  of  the  flour,  and  prevents  the  pastry  from  being 
tough.  When  used  for  "deep  frying,"  if  the  temperature  is  too 
high,  i.e.,  from  480°  to  570°  F.,  some  of  the  fat  is  liable  to  be 
decomposed  and  the  glycerol  is  converted  into  acrolein,  a  sub- 
stance which  has  a  characteristic  acrid  odor,  and  which  excites 
to  tears,  thus  C3H6(OH)3  -  2H2O  =  C3H4O  (acrolein).  The 
products  of  this  decomposition,  when  compound  lard  is  used  in 
the  place  of  lard,  are  more  noticeable  and  can  be  recognized  by 
their  peculiar  odor. 

Adulterations  of  Lard 

The  common  adulterants  of  lard  are  other  fats  and  oils  both 
vegetable  and  animal,  which  cheapen  the  product.  Cotton-seed 
stearine,  peanut  oil,  sesem6-oil,  corn  oil,  cocoanut  oil  and  cot- 
ton-seed oil  are  commonly  used.  There  is  no  objection  to  any 
of  these  from  hygienic  reasons.  Water  has  sometimes  also  been 
mixed  with  the  lard,  but  this  form  of  adulteration  is  easily  detected 
and  is  not  common.  The  more  water  a  lard  contains  the  more  it 
"sputters"  when  heated  to  a  high  temperature. 


Beef  and  mutton  fat,  as  such,  are  not  often  put  upon  the  market 
as  food  products.    They  are  of  course  of  importance  as  constitu- 

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ents  of  the  meats.  Suet  is  sometimes  used  in  the  place  of  lard,  or 
mixed  with  lard  in  the  cooking  of  food,  although  it  is  not  as  satis- 
factory for  general  domestic  use.  These  fats  are  of  great  impor- 
tance in  the  industries  of  soap  and  candle  making,  for  which  the 
lower  grades  may  be  used. 


A  by-product  in  the  manufacture  of  soap  is  glycerine  (glycerol) 
(C3H6(OH)3).  Although  not  in  itself  regarded  as  a  food  product, 
yet  as  a  constituent  of  fats  it  is  of  interest.  In  the  process  of 
making  soap,  the  glycerine  remains  mixed  with  the  excess  of  alkali, 
in  the  liquor  from  which  the  soap  has  been  separated.  After  as 
much  as  possible  of  the  common  salt  has  been  separated  from  spent 
lye  by  evaporation,  the  "mother  liquor"  is  treated  with  various 
chemicals,  especially  a  sulphate  of  iron^  which  causes  a  precipitate 
of  many  impurities  which  are  then  filtered  oflf.  The  clear  liquid  is 
then  evaporated  in  a  vacuum  pan,  until  the  crude  glycerine  reaches 
such  a  density  that  it  contains  about  80  per  cent,  of  glycerine.  It 
is  then  distilled  under  a  very  high  vacuum  with  superheated 
steam,  and  under  these  conditions  passes  over  with  the  steam  and 
is  afterward  concentrated,  imtil  it  reaches  a  specific  gravity  of 
1.262.  This  is  filtered  and  sold  as  dynamite  glycerine.  A  purer 
product  is  obtained  by  bleaching,  filtering  and  redistilling  the  crude 
glycerine.  The  properties  and  uses  of  this  sweet,  bland,  unctuous 
liquid  are  too  well  known  to  require  description.  (For  Butter  Fat 
see  p.  406.) 


Vegetable  oils  are  most  frequently  found  in  greatest  abimdance 
in  seeds  of  plants,  and  are  extracted  by  pressing  the  ground  or 
crushed  seed,  the  mass  being  sometimes  heated  to  obtain  the 
maximum  yield  of  oil,  or  the  seeds  may  be  extracted  by  the  use  of 
some  solvent  such  as  gasoline. 

^  Outlines  of  Industrial  Chemistry,  Thorp»  p.  348. 

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Most  of  the  "cold-drawn"  vegetable  oils  from  seeds  and  fniits 
are  suitable  for  use  as  edible  oils,  or  for  the  preservation  of  food- 
stuffs. It  is  especially  important  in  the  preparation  of  edible 
oils  that  they  be  free  from  fatty  acids.  To  bring  about  this  result 
alkalies  and  alkaline  earths  are  used  in  the  process  of  manufacture. 
These  oils  are  more  satisfactory  if  they  do  not  congeal  at  tem- 
peratures near  the  freezing  point.  Olive  oil  usually  fills  this 
demand,  but  some  other  oils  like  cottion-sged  oil  and  peanut  oil 
must  first  be  "demargarined"  before  they  are  satisfactory.  To 
accomplish  this  the  oil  may  be  stored  in  the  winter  in  large  tanks 
where  the  stearine  settles  or  crystallizes  out,  and  from  which  the 
clear,  supernatant  oil  is  drawn  off,  or  the  oil  may  be  artificially 
cooled  to  so  low  a  temperature  that  the  "stearine"  may  be 
removed  by  filtering,  pressing  or  passing  through  a  centrifugal. 

Use  of  Vegetable  Oils 

For  the  production  of  heat  and  energy  in  the  body,  the  vege- 
table fats  are  very  valuable.  As  compared  with  sugar,  fats  are 
two  and  one-fourth  times  as  effective,  and  are,  therefore,  to  be 
regarded  as  a  highly  concentrated  form  of  nourishment.  The  oils 
and  fats,  if  well  emulsified  (that  is,  broken  up  into  very  fine  par- 
ticles), may  be  quite  largely  digested  by  the  gastric  juice.  Other- 
wise, they  are  decomposed  in  the  intestines  into  fatty  acids  and 
glycerol  (glycerine)  which  recombine  in  passing  through  the  intes- 
tinal wall.^  The  fat  thus  absorbed  is  taken  up  by  the  lymph 
vessels,  and  is  poured  with  the  lymph  into  the  blood. 

Since  vegetable  oils  are  readily  assimilated  and  digested 
they  may,  in  most  cases,  be  taken  into  the  system  in  relatively 
large  quantities,  and  have  been  found  to  be  extremely  useful  in 
the  treatment  of  some  diseases.^ 

Vegetable  oils,  as  well  as  animal  fats  like  lard,  are  utilized  in 
the  preparation  of  pastry,  and  for  frying  foods.  The  products  of 
decomposition  of  the  fat  (see  p.  312)  may  produce  indigestion,  if 

1  Chemistry  of  Food  and  Nutrition,  Sherman,  p.  94. 
•      »  Digestibility  of  Dififerent  Fats,  U.  S.  Agri.  Bull.  No.  310. 

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taken  in  any  considerable  quantity.  Another  reason  why  sub- 
stances cooked  in  oil  or  fat  are  not  so  easily  digested  as  those 
cooked  with  steam  or  water  is  that  when  the  material  becomes 
saturated  with  fat  it  is  so  protected  that  the  digestive  juices 
cannot  readily  come  in  contact  with  the  carbohydrates  and 
proteins  of  the  food.  If  food  products  are  to  be  cooked  in  deep 
fat — the  process  used  in  cooking  doughnuts — ^it  is  important 
that  the  temperature  be  sufficiently  high  so  that  very  little  fat  is 

A.  H.  Church^  gives  the  following  list  of  oil-bearing  vegetable 
products  with  the  percentage  of  oil  present  in  each: 

Per  cent 

Palm  nut  (pulp) 72 

Brazil  nut  (seeds) 67 

Almond  (kernels) 54 

Ground  nut  (peanut) 52 

Sesam6  (seeds) 51 

Poppy  (seeds) 45 

Olive  (pulp) 39 

Olive  (kernels) 44 

Cacao  (seeds) 44 

Cocoanut  (meats) 36 

Hemp  (seeds) 32 

Walnut 32 

Cotton  (seeds) 24 

Simflower  (seeds) 22 

Oatmeal 10 

Com  (maize) 5 

To  these  may  be  added  the  following  which  are  of  less  commercial 
importance:  Rape  or  kolza  seed,  mustard  seed,  tomato  seed, 
raisin  or  grape  seed,  apple  seed,  apricot  and  peach  kernel  and  the 
soy  bean,  all  of  which  contain  enough  oil  to  be  of  some  commercial 

Palm  oil  is  obtained  by  the  cold  pressing  of  the  nuts.  In 
many  tropical  countries,  especially  in  Africa  and  the  Philippines, 
there  are  numerous  varieties  of  palms,  from  the  soft  part  of  the 
fruit  of  which,  palm  oil  is  obtained.    It  is  semi-solid  at  ordinary 

*  Food,  p.  36. 

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temperatures,  has  an  agreeable  taste  and  odor,  and  in  the  countries 
where  it  is  produced  is  extensively  used  for  food  purposes.  The 
chief  constituent  of  palm  oil  is  palmitin.  As  this  oil  is  made  by 
the  natives,  by  the  crudest  methods,  it  often  contains  many 
impurities.  These  are  removed  and  the  oil  is  bleached  by  various 
processes,  before  it  is  put  upon  the  market  for  food  purposes. 

There  is  also  a  palm  nut  oil  on  the  market  made  from  the  kernels 
after  the  removal  of  the  pulp.  This  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of 
butterine  and  butter  substitutes,  and  is  sold  as  vegetable  butter 
under  various  proprietary  names. 

Almond  oil,  which  is  especially  used  for  pharmaceutical  pur- 
poses, is  obtained  from  either  the  bitter  or  the  sweet  almond. 
The  former  contains  a  greater  percentage  of  oil  and  is  more 
generally  used  for  this  purpose.  Bitter  almonds  are  grown  most 
abimdantly  in  the  countries  around  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  in 
Persia  and  the  Canary  Islands.  The  glycerids^  in  almond  oil 
consist  chiefly  of  olein,  with  smaller  quantities  belonging  to  a 
less  saturated  series.  Almond  oil  is  sometimes  adulterated  with 
cheaper  oils,  especially  apricot-kernel  oil  and  peach-kernel  oil. 

Peanut  or  arachis  oil  is  prepared  by  the  cold  hydraulic  pressing 
of  peanuts,  (See  p.  202) .  The  nuts  are  grown  in  the  warm  climate 
of  South  America,  South  Africa,  China,  Japan,  India  and  southern 
United  States.  The  more  tropical  the  climate  the  richer  the  nuts 
in  oil.^  The  best  quality  of  oil  is  the  first  pressing,  called  "cold- 
drawn  oil,"  while  subsequent  cold  pressings,  or  pressings  with 
heat,  yield  products  of  lower  grade.  From  28  to  34  per  cent,  of 
oil  can  be  obtained  from  peanuts,  and  the  residue  that  is  left 
(peanut  cake)  is  rich  in  proteins  and  starch  and  valuable  as  a 
stock  food. 

This  oil  may  be  used  as  a  salad  oil  either  alone  or  mixed  with 
sesamfi  oil.  It  has  unfortunately  been  very  much  used  as  an 
adulterant  of  olive  oil,  and  is  itself  often  adulterated  with  cotton- 
seed, poppy-seed  and  other  less  expensive  oils.    Peanut  oil  on 

1  Chem.  Tech.  and  Anal,  of  Oils,  Fats  and  Waxes,  Lewkowitsch,  p.  580. 
«  Die  Futtermittel  des  Handels,  1906,  p.  34. 

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account  of  its  taste,  odor,  and  fluidity  is  valuable  as  a  salad  oil, 
and  as  such  should  be  sold  under  its  true  name.  It  is  also  an 
excellent  substitute  for  lard  as  "shortening,"  or  in  other  culinary 
processes.  It  is  superior  to  most  oils  for  "deep  frying,"  as  it  does 
not  bum  as  readily  as  olive  oil,  and  can  thus  be  heated  to  a  higher 
temperature.  Much  of  the  peanut  oil  of  commerce  comes  from 
France  where  it  is  made  from  the  African-grown  peanut  which 
often  contains  50  per  cent,  of  oil. 

Sesame  oily  also  called  oil  of  benn6,  is  obtained  by  pressing  the 
seeds  of  the  Sesamum  orientate  L.  The  plant  is  a  native  of  south- 
ern Asia  and  is  grown  for  the  seed  in  India,  China,  Japan,  the  Le- 
vant, and  West  Africa;  but  the  commercial  preparation  of  the  oil  is 
mostly  carried  on  in  the  south  of  France.^  The  best  grades  of 
sesamfi  oil  are  a  golden  yellow  in  color,  free  from  any  disagreeable 
odor  or  taste,  and  may  be  used  in  the  place  of  olive  oil  as  a  salad 
oil,  or  in  making  oleomargarine.  The  cheaper  grades  are  utilized 
for  making  soap  and  for  lighting  purposes. 

Poppy -seed  oil  may  be  made  from  the  black  or  white  poppy 
seeds.  These  are  grown  for  oil  and  for  opium  in  Europe,  Turkey, 
Persia,  India  and  China  and  Germany.  The  better  grades  of  oil 
are  of  a  light  color,  and  have  an  agreeable  taste,  while  lower  grades 
are  darker  in  color,  and  possessed  of  a  strong  taste.  This  oil  is 
much  used  abroad  as  a  salad  oil.  It  is  frequently  adulterated  with 
cheaper  oils,^  such  as  sesam6  and  hazel  nut  oil. 

Olive  oil  (sweet  oil)  is  obtained  from  the  pulp,  and  sometimes 
from  the  kernels  of  the  olive.  (See  p.  284.)  Olives  contain  from 
40  to  60  per  cent,  of  oil,  and  to  extract  this  the  olives*  are  carefully 
selected,  sometimes  dried,  and  crushed  (with  or  without  the  stones), 
and  from  the  pulp,  by  gentle  pressure  at  ordinary  temperatures, 
the  "virgin  oil,"  which  is  the  name  applied  to  the  best  quality,  is 
obtained.  The  pomace  is  taken  from  the  press  reground,  mixed 
with  water  and  again  pressed  for  a  second  grade  of  oil.  The  mass 
may  be  heated  before  the  next  pressing  or  the  pomace  may  be 

*  Foods  and  Their  Adulteration,  Wiley,  p.  408. 
'  Food  Inspection  and  Analysis,  Leach,  p.  427. 
» U.  S.  Dcpt.  Agri.,  Bu.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  77. 

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extracted  with  carbon  bisulfide  or  petroleum  ether.  When  these 
solvents  are  distilled  oflf ,  the  oil  remaining  is  used  in  the  manufac- 
ture of  ''  castile  soap,"  and  for  making  lubricating  oils.  After 
the  high  grades  of  oil  are  extracted,  they  are  still  further  purified 
by  being  run  into  tanks  and  washed  with  water,  then  allowed 
to  stand  until  the  pulp  and  gummy  material  settles  out,  then  the 
oil  is  carefully  drawn  from  the  top.  Olive  oil  may  also  be  filtered 
to  improve  its  appearance,  but  this  is  to  be  discouraged,  as  the 

Fig.  47. — Olive  oil  jars  found  in  Pompei. 

flavor  of  the  oil  is  said  to  be  less  agreeable  after  the  process. 
(See  p.  321.) 

Adulteration  of  Olive  Oil 

In  regard  to  adulterations  that  most  common  all  over  the 
world  has  been  the  adulteration  of  the  olive  oil  with  some  cheaper 
substitute.  The  oils  especially  used  for  this  purpose  are  cotton- 
seed oil  and  peanut  oil.  Rape-seed  oil  and  poppy-seed  oil  are 
common  adulterants  in  Europe,  but  not  so  frequently  used  in 
the  United  States.    These  adulterations  are  readily  detected  by 

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chemical  analysis,  and  the  pure  food  laws  of  most  countries  and 
states  are  at  the  present  time  sufficiently  well  enforced  so  that  the 
amount  of  fraudulent  olive  oil  on  the  market  is  not  large.  There 
is  no  objection,  from  a  hygienic  standpoint,  to  the  use  of  cotton- 
seed oil  or  peanut  oil,  for  making  salads  and  for  other  culinary 
purposes,  but  the  package  should  be  plainly  marked  so  that  the 
customer  need  not  pay  a  high  price  for  a  cheaper  article.  Mustard 
oil,  made  from  a  seed  grown  especially  in  Switzerland  and  Italy,  is 
commonly  used  in  those  countries  as  a  substitute  for  olive  oil. 

The  amount  of  edible  olive  oil  imported  into  the  United  States 
in  1913  was  5,840,357  gallons. 

Cacao  fat  (butter)  is  one  of  the  few  vegetable  fats  that  is  solid 
at  ordinary  temperatures.  It  is  prepared  by  pressure  of  the 
roasted  and  crushed  cacao  beans  or  nibs.  (See  p.  478.)  A  little 
potassium  or  sodium  carbonate  is  mixed  with  the  mass  before 
pressure  to  neutralize  any  free  fatty  acid  that  may  be  present. 
Cacao  butter  has  a  pleasant  odor  and  a  flavor  suggestive  of  choco- 
late, and  is  extensively  used  in  pharmacy,  in  the  manufacture  of 
chocolate,  and  in  the  preparation  of  perfumes.  On  account  of 
its  high  price,  it  is  frequently  adulterated  with  cocoanut  oil,  palm 
nut  oil,  bees  wax,  paraffin  and  even  tallow.  It  is  important  to 
distinguish  carefully  between  the  cacao  (Theobroma  cacao  L.) 
and  the  coconut  (Cocos  nucifera  L.),  a  species  of  palm. 

Coconuts^  since  they  are  abundant  and  cheap  in  the  tropics, 
have  long  been  used  as  a  source  of  fat.  The  coconut  palm  grows 
on  the  low-lying  coast  lands  of  the  West  Indies,  Panama,  tropical 
Africa,  India,  the  Malay  Archipelago  and  the  islands  of  the 
southern  Pacific.  (See  p.  334.)  There  are  several  names  for  the 
oil,  dependent  on  the  country  in  which  it  is  made.^  Thus 
''cochin"  oil  comes  from  Malabar,  "Ceylon"  oil  from  the  island 
of  that  name,  "copra"  oil  is  the  term  applied  to  the  oil  obtained 
from  the  sun-dried  kernels.  This  is  prepared  by  the  natives  by 
boiling  the  kernels  with  water  and  removing  the  fat  by  skimming.^ 

^  Chem.  Tech.  of  Oils,  Fat3  and  Waxes,  Lewkowitsch,  p.  745-752. 
*  Foods,  Their  origin.  Composition  and  Manufacture,  p.  359,  Tibbies. 

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"Poonac"  is  the  name  of  the  oU  cake  after  the  extraction  of  the 
oil,  and  is  a  valuable  cattle  food.  Most  of  the  oil  on  the  market 
is  made  from  the  copra,  usually  by  pressing.  Large  quantities 
of  dried  copra  are  imported  into  this  country  and  used  here  for 
expressing  the  oil. 

Coconut  oil  is  semi-solid  at  ordinary  temperatures.  It  has 
an  agreeable  taste  and  odor,  and  keeps  well,  if  free  from  fatty  acids. 
It  is  commonly  believed  that  the  oil  becomes  readily  rancid,  but 
this  is  a  mistake  if  the  oil  is  good  in  the  beginning.  Coconut  oil 
may  be  used  in  the  preparation  of  food,  by  bakers  and  biscuit 
manufacturers  and  in  making  oleomargerine  and  candies,  but  its 
principal  use  in  the  United  States  is  in  soap  and  candle  making. 
It  is  seldom  adulterated  on  account  of  its  cheapness.  A  pure  neu- 
tral coconut  oil  is  extensively  used  abroad  for  culinary  purposes, 
under  various  proprietary  names  such  as  "Vegetable  Butter," 
"Conut,"  "Vegetaline,"  "Coconut  Butter,''  etc.  Desiccated 
coconut  with  or  without  sugar  is  a  common  product  on  the 

Cotton-seed  oil  is  made  from  the  seed  of  the  cotton  (gossjrpium 
herbaceum),  and  other  species.  It  is  grown  in  Egypt,  India  and 
in  the  United  States  in  the  South  and  as  far  north  as  the  southern 
part  of  Virginia,  Missouri  and  Oklohoma.  The  seed^  is  first 
passed  through  machines  which  remove  the  "linters,"  or  short 
cotton  fibers,  which  are  afterward  used  in  making  cotton  felt. 
The  cleaaa'ed  seeds  are  then  transferred  to  a  shelter  where  the  hull 
is  broken,  and  separated  from  the  kernel  in  a  winnowing  machine. 
The  kernels  are  crushed  between  rollers  and  then  delivered  to 
steam-jacketed  kettles  where  they  are  cooked,  with  constant 
stirring.  The  mass  is  then  passed  to  the  "former,'*  where  the 
meats  are  shaped  into  cakes  which  are  wrapped  in  hair  cloth  and 
removed  to  the  press,  where  they  are  subjected  by  hydraulic 
power  to  a  pressure  of  3000  to  4000  pounds  per  square  inch. 
(Fig.  48.)    When  the  oil  presses  are  working  satisfactorily,  about 

» U.  S.  Dcpt.,  Agri.,  Fanners'  Bull.  No.  36. 

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45  gallons  of  oil  can  be  obtained  from  a  ton  of  seed.  The  cakes 
taken  from  the  press  are  nearly  as  solid  as  a  board,  and  when 
dry  they  ar^  broken  up  and  ground  to  a  fine  meal  which  is  put 
upon  the  market  as  stock  food. 

The  dark  yellow  oil  which  runs  from  the  press  must  be  puri- 
fied. It  is  first  allowed  to  stand  until  some  of  the  impurities 
settle  out,  when  the  clear  oil  is  drawn  oflf  and  agitated  with  from 
ID  to  15  per  cent,  of  caustic  soda  solution  at  loo  to  iio°  F.  for 
forty-five  minutes.  The  residue  which  settles  out  after  this 
treatment  is  drawn  oflf  and  used  for  soap  stock. 

Fig.  48. — Filter  press  as  used  in  the  oleo,  vegetable  oil,  sugar  and  other  industries 
(Mechanical  Mfg.  Co.,  Chicago.) 

The  yellow  oil  thus  prepared  is  often  further  purified  by  again 
heating  and  settling,  by  filtration,  or  especially  for  winter  use, 
by  chilling  until  some  of  the  stearine  crystallizes  out.  This  is 
the  "cotton-seed  stearine"  of  commerce, and  is  used  in  the  manu- 
facture of  compound  butter  and  lard  substitute,  and  also  in  making 
candles.  A  still  lighter  colored  oil  may  be  made  by  filtering 
through  Fuller's  earth. 

The  summer  yellow  oil  is  of  a  golden  color,  and  the  winter 
yellow  is  more  or  less  demargarined  so  that  it  shall  not  become 
cloudy  in  winter  from  the  separation  of  the  stearine. 

As  a  food  the  oil  has  rapidly  grown  in  favor  as  the  quality  of 
the  oil  upon  the  market  has  been  improved.    Within  the  last  few 

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years  an  oil  that  is  practically  tasteless  and  odorless  can  be  pur- 
chased. It  is  as  wholesome  as  an  animal  fat,  and  is  admirably 
adapted  to  many  culinary  uses. 

The  growth  of  the  cotton-seed  oil  industry  is  one  of  the  most 
remarkable  instances  of  the  utilization  of  by-products.  For  many 
years  the  plant  was  grown  exclusively  for  the  fiber,  and  the  seeds 
were  thrown  away  or  burned.  It  is  estimated  that  the  products 
now  obtained  from  cotton  seed  alone,  in  a  single  year  in  the  United 
States,  are  worth  over  $30,000,000. 

Sunflower  seeds,  although  containing  considerable  oil,  have 
not  been  utilized  practically  in  the  United  States  as  a  source  of 
oil.^  In  some  European  countries  sunflower  seeds  are  eaten  as  an 
ordinary  food.  The  plant  is  extensively  cultivated  in  S.  Russia, 
Hungary,  Italy,  India  and  China  for  food  purposes.  The  oil 
is  palatable  and  makes,  without  refining,  an  excellent  salad 
dressing.  The  finest  grade  is  made  by  the  cold  pressure  of  the 
hulled  seeds,  and  a  reddish  oil  is  expressed  hot  from  the  roasted 
seeds.  The  residual  oil  cakes  are  as  valuable  as  cotton-seed  oil 
cake  for  feeding  purposes. 

Com  oil  (maize  oil),  which  is  made  from  the  germs  of  the  grains 
which  can  be  separated  in  the  process  of  milling,  is  coming  into 
more  general  use  in  the  manufacture  of  food  products.  The  germ 
contains  over  20  per  cent,  of  oil,  the  odor  and  taste  of  which  are 
agreeable  and  are  due  to  the  presence  of  a  volatile  oil.^  Most 
of  the  corn  oil  of  commerce  is  obtained  as  a  by-product  from 
starch  and  glucose  factories.  This  oil  contains,  besides  palmitic, 
stearic  and  arachidic  adds,  an  unsaponifiable  substance  mostly 
lecithin.  It  is  used  as  an  edible  oil,  frequently  mixed  with  other 
vegetable  oils,  also  in  the  manufacture  of  oleomargarine,  lard  sub- 
stitutes, etc.  The  lower  grades  are  used  for  jnaking  soft  soap  and 
as  burning  oil. 

Rape,  Colza  or  Riibeen  oil  made  from  rape  seed  is  an  excellent 
oil  for  culinary  purposes.    That  made  by  cold  pressing  of  the 

»  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Div.  Chem.,  Bull. .  No.  60 
'  Jour.  Am.  Chem.  Soc.,  Vol.  23,  p.  i. 

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powdered  seeds  is  of  the  best  quality.  The  plant  is  grown  nearly 
all  over  Europe  and  also  in  India  and  China.  When  fresh  the 
oil  has  an  agreeable  taste  and  odor,  but  on  long  standing  a  dis- 
agreeable taste  and  odor  are  developed.  The  oil  frequently  comes 
on  to  the  market  greatly  adulterated  with  cheaper  oils  such  as 
cotton-seed,  hemp  seed  and  poppy  seed. 

The  seed  of  the  white  or  the  black  Mustard  may  be  used  for 
the  preparation  of  an  excellent  bland  oil  that  is  sometimes  used  in 
the  place  of  an  animal  fat  for  culinary  purposes.  This  fixed  oil  is 
extracted  by  pressure  as  a  by-product  in  the  preparation  of 
mustard  as  a  condiment,  especially  from  the  black  mustard. 
After  the  expression  of  a  part  of  the  oil  the  press  cake  is  groimd 
in  steel  mortars  and  bottled  to  make  the  ground  mustard  of 
commerce.  The  oil  is  also  suitable  for  burning  and  for  soap 

Tomato  seeds  have  been  recently  employed,  especially  in 
Italy,  as  the  source  of  an  edible  oil. 

Apricot-kernel  oil  and  peach-kernel  oil  are  both  edible  oils, 
and  important  articles  of  commerce.  The  so-called  "almond  oil 
French"  is  practically  apricot-kernel  oil,  or  a  mixture  of  this  with 
peach-kernel  oil.^ 

The  Soybean  (see  p.  195),  which  grows  in  China  and  Japan, 
has  been  more  recently  cultivated  in  southern  Europe  and  in  the 
United  States  It  contains  18  to  19  per  cent,  of  oil,  which  is  of 
such  a  good  quality  that  it  will  no  doubt  come  into  more  general 
use  all  over  the  world.* 

To  the  list  above  discussed  may  be  added  a  large  number  of 
foreign  nuts  and  fruits  that  yield  oils  and  fats.  Many  of  these 
are  edible  and  are  in  common  use  by  the  natives  of  the  respective 
countries  where  they  grow.  The  methods  used  for  extraction 
of  the  oils  are  so  crude  that  the  product  is  frequently  of  a  much 
lower  quality  than  if  modern  methods  were  used.  Some  of  these 
oils  are  as  follows:*  Cohime  oil  from  the  Cohune  palm  of  Central 

^  Chem.  Tech.  Anal,  of  Oils,  Fats  and  Waxes,  Lewkowitsch,  p.  583. 
«  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Farm.  Bull.  No.  372. 
*  Fatty  Foods;  Bolton  and  Revis. 

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and  South  America;^  Borneo  tallow,  from  a  fruit  grown  in  Borneo; 
Mafura  oil  from  the  East  African  Coast;  Kokimi  butter  made 
from  seeds  grown  in  India;  Sheanut  oil,  made  from  a  seed  grown 
in  West  Africa  and  used  in  making  "margarine";  Butyracea  fat, 
used  in  India  for  |he  adulteration  of  "ghee".  Candle  nut  oil 
made  from  a  seed  grown  in  China  and  Australia;  and  rice  oil,  made 
from  the  rice  bran. 

*D.  Cons,  and  T.  Rep.,  1914,  p.  1323. 

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Although  in  many  countries  some  varieties  of  nuts  have 
been  used  as  food  for  a  long  period,  in  the  United  States,  until 
comparatively  recent  years,  the  tendency  has  been  to  regard 
them  as  a  luxury,  or  a  confection,  rather  than  as  a  food.  Many 
of  the  nuts  in  common  use,  if  compared  in  price  with  the  more 
expensive  forms  of  breakfast  foods,  are  not  an  expensive  food. 
While  imported  nuts  were  an  expensive  luxury,  the  native  nuts, 
such  as  hickory  nuts,  walnuts,  butternuts,  chestnuts,  hazel  nuts 
and  pecans,  were  formerly  to  be  had  by  any  one  for  the  gathering; 
alid  in  most  parts  of  the  United  States  this  is  still  the  case. 


We  recognize  a  nut  as  usually  consisting  of  a  somewhat 
oily  meat  or  kernel,  protected  by  a  hard  covering,  the  shell,  and 
designed  by  nature  as  the  seed  for  the  propagation  of  the  plant. 
The  nut-bearing  trees  belong  to  various  botanical  families.^ 
Some  are  deciduous  trees,  as  the  chestnut,  walnut,  and  hazelnut; 
others  are  pines  or  tropical  palms;  while  others  are  even  legumes. 
Nuts  possess  the  advantage  over  many  other  foods,  that  the  meat 
is  well  protected,  and  so  they  bear  transportation,  rough  handling 
and  low  temperature.  They  deteriorate  chiefly  by  becoming 
wormy,  rancid  or  musty,  but  if  kept  cold  they  do  not  spoil  rapidly. 


Considering  the  composition  of  nuts,  we  find  that  the  most 
abundant  constituents  are  fat  and  protein,  although  in  some  there 

*  Nuts  and  Their  Use  as  Food,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric,  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  332. 

325  Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


is  an  abundance  of  starch.  As  nuts  usually  contain  but  little 
water,  they  afford  a  very  concentrated  form  of  nutriment.  Those 
having  a  high  fat  content — upward  of  60  per  cent. — are  the  pecan, 
brazil  nut,  butternut,  filbert,  candle  nut,  hickory  nut,  pine  nut, 
and  walnut.  Those  especially  rich  in  protein — over  20  per  cent. — 
are  the  pignolia,  a  pine  nut  from  Spain,  peanut,  butternut,  almond, 
beechnut,  candle  nut,  paradise  nut,  and  pistachio.  Those  which 
are  prized  for  their  starch  content — over  40  per  cent. — are  the 
acorn,  chestnut,  water  chestnut,  chufa  (earth  almond),  and  the 
ginkgo  nut. 


Recently  the  digestibility  of  nuts  has  been  quite  extensively 
studied  at  various  Agricultural  Experiment  Stations,  notably  that 
of  California.  If  the  true  composition  of  nuts  was  better  known 
and  they  were  used  understandingly,  they  would  not  have  the 
reputation  for  indigestibility  that  they  have  obtained.  As  has 
been  shown  above,  compared  with  ordinary  foods,  like  meats 
which  often  contain  70  per  cent,  of  water,  they  are  a  very  con- 
centrated form  of  nourishment,  and  so  shoidd  not  be  eaten  in 
large  quantities,  especially  when  the  stomach  has  already  been 
filled  to  repletion.  We  should  look  upon  nuts  as  food,  just  as  we 
are  beginning  to  regard  sugar  as  food,  and  use  them  as  such  in 
proper  quantities  and  at  the  right  time,  and  they  will  prove  ex- 
tremely valuable  and  occasion  no  discomfort.  The  experiments 
that  have  been  made^  with  fruit  and  nut  diets  seem  to  indicate 
that  nut  protein  is  about  as  easily,  although  possibly  not  as 
completely  digested,  as  the  proteins  of  bread  and  milk. 

It  is  true  that  a  diet  composed  exclusively  of  fruits  and  nuts 
contains  sufficient  nutrients  in  the  right  proportion  to  support 
life,  but  experiments  have  shown  that  the  protein  from  a  mixed 
diet  is  more  economically  utilized  than  that  from  a  single  food,  or 
a  very  limited  variety.    On  this  account  those  who  use  nuts  in  the 

^Loc  dU 

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place  of  meat  should  not  depend  upon  nuts  alone  as  the  food 
supply,  but  should  use  at  the  same  time  more  bulky  foods,  with 
a  low  content  of  protein  and  fat.  Comparing  nuts  for  their  fuel 
value,^  they  may  be  arranged  in  the  following  order:  roasted 
peanuts,  unroasted  peanuts,  chufa  nuts,  almonds,  pecans,  English 
walnuts,  filberts,  hickory  nuts  and  walnuts.  The  peanut  on 
account  of  its  high  fuel  value,  and  its  cheapness,  is  one  of  the  most 
useful  nuts  on  the  market.  The  fuel  value  per  poimd  of  nuts 
as  purchased  varies  from  peanuts  1775,  to  butternuts  385. 


Some  nuts  are  improved  in  flavor  and  also  rendered  more 
digestible  by  cooking.  In  the  United  States  the  native  chestnut, 
although  often  eaten  raw,  is  much  improved  in  flavor  and  digesti- 
bility by  roasting  or  boiling.  It  is  the  cooked  chestnut  that  finds 
favor  as  an  important  food  material  in  Europe,  especially  in 
Italy  and  France.  Chestnuts  are  often  used  for  stufling  turkeys, 
and  the  combination  of  the  starchy  chestnut  with  the  meat, 
which  is  rich  in  protein  and  fat,  makes  a  well  balanced  ration. 

Nut  Preparatioiis 

Nut  butters,  especially  peanut  butter,  on  account  of  their 
agreeable  taste  and  nutritive  qualities,  are  coming  into  more 
general  use  as  a  substitute  for  ordinary  butter.  "Pastes'*  are 
also  made  from  nuts  with  the  addition  of  sugar. 

In  the  preparation  of  nuts  for  market,  unshelled  nuts  like  the 
pecan  are  often  polished  by  rotating  in  revolving  drums,  and  a 
little  pigment  or  dye  is  sometimes  added  to  improve  the  appear- 
ance, and  make  the  nuts  more  salable.  Nuts  are  also  bleached  by 
the  use  of  sal  soda,  chloride  of  lime  and  water.  These  processes 
which  in  no  way  increase  the  food  value  of  the  product,  are 
entirely  unnecessary  and  add  to  the  cost 

The  term  "blanching"  is  applied  to  the  method  used  in  re- 

^  Proc.  la.  Acad.  Sd.  Vol.  10,  p.  iii.    Compare,  Rep.  Me.  Exp.  Sta.,  1899, 
p.  87. 

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moving  the  skins  from  the  kernels,  as  of  almonds,  by  immersing 
them  in  boiling  hot  water  and  then  rubbing  oflF  the  thin  coat 
thus  loosened. 

Shelled  nuts  are  very  common  on  the  market  at  present.  As 
the  meats  are  sometimes  picked  from  the  shells  under  most 
unsanitary  conditions,  and  as  dust  and  dirt  are  very  liable  to  settle 
on  them,  they  should  be  washed,  preferably  with  hot  water,  before 
being  used. 

Another  use  for  nuts  is  in  the  making  of  coffee  substitutes. 
Peanuts  and  acorns  are  generally  used  for  this  purpose;  but  only  a 
small  proportion  of  the  nuts  is  soluble  in  hot  water,  so  these 
beverages  are  not  very  nutritious. 


The  following  nuts  are  in  common  use  in  various  parts  of  the 

Acorn;  the  fruit  of  various  species  of  oak  (Quercus). 

Almond;  the  fruit  of  the  (Amygdalus  communis)  var.  Dulcis 
and  Amara. 

Beech  nut;  the  fruit  of  the  (Fagus  sylvestris)  or  (F.  Amer- 

Brazil  nut;  growing  on  the  (Bertholletia  excelsa). 

Cashew  nut;  from  the  (Anacardium  occidentale). 

Chestnut;  the  fruit  of  the  (Castanea  dentata). 

Canarium  nut,  Pili  nut,  or  Javanese  almond  (Canarium  indicum) 
(C.  ovatum). 

Chinkapin;  growing  on  the  (Castanea  pumila). 

Coconut;  the  fruit  of  the  (Cocos  nucifera). 

Ginkgo  nut;  the  fruit  of  the  (Ginkgo  biloba). 

Hazelnut;  the  fruit  of  the  (Corylus  avellana,  C.  tubulosa,  and 
C.  grandis). 

Hickory  nut;  the  fruit  of  the  (Hicoria  avata). 

Paradise  nut;  grown  on  the  (Lecythis  usitata). 

Peanut;  a  leguminous  pod  bearing  the  seed  of  the  (Arachis 

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ACORNS  329 

Pecan  nut;  the  fruit  of  the  (Hicoria  pecan). 

Pine  nut;  the  fruit  of  the  pine  (Pinus  edulis,  P.monophylla). 

Pistachio  nut;  the  fruit  of  the  (Pistacia  vera). 

Wahiut;  the  fruit  of  the  Quglans  nigra). 

Walnut  (white);  the  fruit  of  the  Quglans  regia). 

Walnut  (butternut);  the  fruit  of  the  Quglans  cinerea). 

Walnut  Qapanese);  the  fruit  of  the  Quglans  sieboldiana). 

Litchi  nut;  not  a  true  nut  but  the  fruit  of  the  (Nephelium 

Acorns  were  at  one  time  extensively  used  in  the  United  States 
for  fattening  swine,  but  they  are  becoming  less  abundant  as  the 
country  is  more  thickly  settled.  They  contain  45  per  cent,  of 
starch  and  sugar  and  37  per  cent,  of  fat. 

Acorn  fllour,^  especially  among  the  North  American  Indians,  has 
been  used  as  food.  In  the  process  of  manufacturing,  the  nuts  are 
leached  to  remove  the  tannin  and  bitter  principles,  and  then  after 
beating  them  into  a  meal,  this  is  made  into  a  porridge  or  mush. 

In  Turkey  where  acorns  are  used  for  food  they  are  buried  in 
the  earth  in  order  to  remove  the  bitter  taste.  They  are  after- 
ward washed,  sweated,  dried  and  ground  to  a  powder  with  sugar 
and  spices.  This  is  called  "palamonte."  Of  this  a  beverage 
known  as  "raccahout"  is  made.^ 

The  sweet  almond  is  the  pit  or  seed  of  an  inedible  fruit  which 
grows  in  sub-tropical  countries,  especially  in  California,  Morocco, 
France,  Italy,  Spain  and  Portugal.  The  tree  with  its  blossom  and 
immature  fruit  much  resembles  the  peach. 

Sweet  almonds  are  often  named  from  the  country  whence  they 
come,  as  Valencia,  Sicily,  Italy,  or  Barbary  almonds.  There  are 
several  varieties  of  almonds,  some  called  paper  shells,  with  the 
shell  so  thin  that  it  can  be  readily  crushed  with  the  hands,  and 
others  so  hard  that  they  cannot  be  opened  in  this  way.  On  ac- 
count of  the  tariff  in  the  U.  S.  almonds  are  usually  imported  with 
the  shells  removed,  as  this  is  more  profitable.    American-grown 

*  Nuts  and  Their  Use  as  Food,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  332. 
«  Tibbies,  p.  684. 

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almonds,  especially  the  soft-shell  variety,  are  usually  marketed 
in  the  shells.^ 

Jordan  almondSi  a  hard  shelled  variety,  with  a  thinner  integu- 
ment and  more  delicate  flavor  than  other  varieties,  are  imported 
from  Malaga  in  southeastern  Spain,  and  command  the  highest  price 
in  the  market.     (Fig.  49.)     There  is  some  doubt  as  to  the  origin 

Fig.  49. — Jordan  almonds.     (By  permission  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.) 

of  the  name  "Jordan,"  as  some  believe  that  this  variety  was 
first  introduced  from  the  vicinity  of  the  river  Jordan,  while  others 
contend  that  the  word  is  simply  a  corruption  of  the  French  word 
'jardin,"  garden.^ 

Besides  being  used  as  nuts,  almonds  are  ground  into  a  flour  and 

1  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bu.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  160. 
*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bu.  Plant  Ind.  Bull.  No.  26. 

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used  for  making  paste,  bread,  and  ^'marzipan J*  Some  varieties 
of  nuts  are  eaten  before  they  are  fully  matured.  In  many  parts  of 
Europe  and  in  California,  green  almonds  are  found  in  the  market 
and  are  considered  quite  a  delicacy.  The  kernel  is  easily  separated 
from  the  immature  shell  and  pulp  by  the  use  of  a  knife. 

The  bitter  almond|  while  not  very  poisonous  when  fresh,  has  a 
disagreeable  taste,  and  this,  in  addition  to  the  fact  that  one  of 
the  products  of  the  decomposition  is  hydrocyanic  acid  (HCN), 
makes  it  undesirable  as  a  food.  They  are  grown  in  large  quantities 
in  southern  Europe,  however,  and  are  the  chief  source  of  "oil  of 
bitter  almonds."  Much  of  the  prussic  acid  of  bitter  almonds  is 
dissipated  in  the  process  of  cooking,  and  small  quantities  of  these 
almonds  may  be  used  as  a  flavor.  On  account  of  the  fact  that 
almonds  do  not  contain  starch,  only  sugar,  gum,  fibro-cellulose, 
and  fat,  they  are  of  value  in  the  diet  of  diabetic  patients. 

The  pit  of  the  bitter  almond,  like  that  of  the  peach,  apricot,  and 
other  members  of  the  prunus  family,  contains  a  glucoside  called 
amygdalin  (C20H27NO11),  which,  when  the  nuts  are  ground  with 
water,  produces  with  the  emulsin,  an  enzyme  also  present,  glucose 
(C6H12O6),  85  per  cent,  of  benzaldehyde  (CyHcO)  and  from  2  to  4 
per  cent,  of  hydrocyanic  acid  (HCN).^  Either  bitter  or  sweet 
almonds  may  be  used  for  the  production  of  the  "expressed'*  oil  of 
almonds,  and  the  resulting  press-cake  from  the  sweet  almonds  is 
an  excellent  stock  food. 

Beech  nuts  are  triangular  in  shape,  and  very  abundant  in 
some  localities  especially  in  the  north.  The  nuts  are  small  and 
have  an  agreeable  taste,  but  there  is  so  little  meat  in  the  shell 
that  the  trouble  of  getting  it  out  is  rather  more  than  it  is  worth. 
They  are  a  favorite  food  of  hogs,  and  a  winter  food  for  squirrels 
and  birds.  In  Siberia  the  oil  of  beech  nuts  is  used  as  a  substitute 
for  butter. 

The  Brazil  nut,  known  also  as  the  cream  nut,  contains  in  the 
ebdile  portion  66  per  cent,  of  fat,  and  17  per  cent,  of  protein. 
This  is  the  fruit  of  a  large  South  American  tree  which  will  not 

*  U.  S.  Pharmacopoeia,  p.  306. 

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withstand  the  climate  of  the  United  States.  The  nuts  are  borne 
in  a  large  dry  shell  which  contains  about  twenty  nuts  closely 
packed  together.  They  are  quite  liable  to  become  rancid  when 
kept  too  long. 

The  Sapucaia  or  Paradise  nut,  which  is  borne  by  another 
tree  of  this  same  family,  is  about  as  large  as  the  Brazil  nut,  and 
has  a  rough  shell,  but  is  usually  not  so  much  curved  as  the  Brazil 
nut.  It  is  of  finer  quality,  and  more  delicate  texture,  but  has  not 
yet  become  common  on  the  market  in  the  United  States.  It 
contains  but  little  starch  or  sugar. 

The  Canarium  nut  or  Javanese  almond|  known  also  as  the 
Pili  nuty  which  is  highly  appreciated  in  the  Orient,  has  recently 
been  introduced  into  the  United  States  from  the  Philippines,  and 
by  the  immigrants  from  Asia  and  the  East  Indies.  The  tree  is 
native  in  the  East  Indies  and  the  Philippines.  The  nuts  are 
spindle  shaped,  with  a  triangular  cross  section.  The  shell  is 
very  thick  and  hard  and  incloses  a  white  oily  kernel,  which  is 
comparatively  tasteless.  The  kernel  is  eaten  in  the  Moluccas, 
both  raw  and  roasted.  These  nuts  are  often  used  to  mix  with 
other  nuts  of  a  higher  price  in  making  up  lots  of  mixed  nuts.  An 
oil  is  expressed  from  the  nuts  which  the  natives  use  for  table 
piuposes  and  in  lamps. 

The  cashew  or  maranon  fruit  and  nut,  a  native  of  tropical 
America,  grows  readily  in  the  East  and  West  Indies,  South 
America  and  the  Philippines.  It  is  a  small  oddly  shaped  yellow 
and  red  fruit,  2  or  3  inches  long,  of  pyramidal  form,  and  bears  at 
its  distal  end  the  nut  or  seed,  which  is  small  and  kidney  shaped. 
(Fig.  50).  This  arrangement  of  the  seed  outside  the  pulp  of  the 
fruit  is  remarkable.  The  seed  is  inclosed  in  a  grayish-brown 
cellular  coat  that  contains  an  essential  oil  which  has  a  blistering 
effect  upon  the  skin,  due  to  the  presence  of  cardol  and  anacardic 
acid.^  The  ripe  fruit  and  nut  are  eaten  in  Brazil  and  the  fer- 
mented juice  is  used  to  make  a  wine  which  by  distillation  yields 
a  spirit  much  like  rum.    A  similar  intoxicating  drink  called 

*  Phil.  Jour,  of  Science. 

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"kaju"  is  made  by  the  natives  of  eastern  tropical  Africa.  The 
seed  is  said  to  be  poisonous,  owing  to  the  presence  of  hydrocyanic 
acid,  but  after  it  is  roasted  an  agreeable  flavor  similar  to  roasted 
chestnuts  is  produced.  The  fruit  is  generally  used  as  a  preserve.^ 
From  the  nut  a  nutritious  oil  similar  to  almond  oil  is  expressed. 

Fig.  so. — ^The  cashew  fruit  and  nut.    (By  permission  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.) 

The  chestnut  tree  grows  readily  in  the  eastern  part  of  the 
United  States,  especially  toward  the  north.  It  does  not  have  so 
large  a  range  as  some  of  the  other  nut-bearing  trees.  For  many 
years  the  finest  chestnut  trees  have  been  cut  for  lumber  in  the 
American  forest,  so  that  few  of  the  original  trees  now  remain.  A 
serious  blight  has  recently  appeared  in  New  England  which 
threatens  to  exterminate  this  beautiful  tree.  This  tree  grows 
wild  over  a  large  area  in  Europe  from  the  Caspian  Sea  to  Portugal, 
and  there  is  a  wild  variety  in  Japan.  Eight  of  the  well-known 
varieties  were  mentioned  in  the  time  of  Pliny.  The  chestnut 
*  Foods  and  Their  Adulteration,  Wiley,  p.  348. 

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is  also  extensively  grown  in  France  and  southern  Europe.  Here 
a  flour  is  made  from  the  dried  nuts,  which  is  used  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  cakes.  In  Italy  a  porridge  called  "polenta"  is  made  from 
the  ground  chestnuts.  In  the  Appenines,  a  cake  of  chestnut 
flour  called  "need,"  baked  on  hot  stones,  is  a  staple  food  product. 
The  itinerant  chestnut  roasters  of  the  Italian  cities  find  plenty  of 
customers  for  this  food.  The  nut  may  be  eaten  raw,  roasted  or 
boiled.    They  are  often  used  with  meat  or  game  as  "stuffing." 

The  corgiposition — starch  and  sugar  43.1  per  cent.,  fat  6.3  per 
cent.,  protein  6.5  per  cent. — shows  the  chestnut  to  be  one  of  the 
most  valuable  starchy  foods,  so  that  it  may  well  replace  Indian 
corn  (maize)  in  the  dietary.  Single  kemeled  chestnuts  have 
been  grafted  on  original  stock  in  some  localities,  producing  a 
larger  variety.  The  chinkapin  is  a  smaller  nut,  which  grows  on. 
a  low  tree  or  shrub,  closely  related  to  the  chestnut,  in  the  southern 
and  eastern  part  of  the  United  States. 

The  horse  chestnut  (Esculus  hippocastaneum)  is  common 
throughout  the  temperate  regions  of  Asia,  Europe  and  America. 
Although  it  contains  an  abundance  of  starch  (68.25  per  cent.), 
it  is  only  fit  for  use  as  food  for  the  lower  animals,  because  of  its 
containing  tannin  and  sapotoxin,  which  cannot  be  readily  removed. 
The  North  American  Indians  are  said  to  have  sometimes  used  the 
horse  chestnut  as  food. 

The  coconut  is  the  staple  food  of  many  of  the  natives  of  the 
islands  of  the  Pacific.  (Fig.  51.)  The  meat  of  the  coconut  en- 
closes the  "milk"  which  is  gradually  absorbed  as  the  nut  reaches 
maturity.  (See  p.  319.)  The  liqmd  milk  is  used  in  the  same 
way  as  cow's  milk.  The  white  meat  which  is  scraped  and  eaten 
with  rice  in  "curries,"  is  a  very  important  article  of  commerce, 
when  grated  and  dried,  and  keeps  fairly  well.  It  contains  5  per 
cent,  of  protein,  60  per  cent,  of  fat  and  27  per  cent,  carbohydrates. 
Shredded  coconut  dried  with  sugar  is  much  used  in  confectionery 
and  pastry.  The  use  of  these  nuts  in  candy-making  has  already 
been  discussed  (p.  127). 

The  ginkgo  nut  is  the  fruit  of  a  very  ornamental  tree  of  the 

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Yew  family  that  may  be  easily  grown  in  the  United  States.  This 
is  a  favorite  food  product  with  the  Chinese,  but  rarely  used  here. 
As  the  nut,  which  resembles  a  plum  stone,  is  surrounded  by  an  acrid 
pulp,  this  must  be  removed  before  using.  The  nut  is  usually 
roasted  before  it  is  eaten.  The  trees  are  from  thirty  to  forty 
years  old  before  fruiting,  so  few  nuts  have  been  borne  in  the  United 
States.^  There  are  several  other  Chinese  fruits  or  nuts  of  this 
kind  which  have  found  their  way  into  the  markets  of  the  United 

Fig.  si. — A  coconut  grove.    (By  permission  Central  Scientific  Co.) 

States  with  the  coming  of  the  Chinese  immigrants.    Among  these 
are^  the  "horn  chestnut"  and  the  "water  chestnut." 

In  the  United  States  the  native  hazel  bushes  produce  a  con- 
siderable quantity  of  hazel  nuts,  but  a  larger  variety  of  the  same 
species,  known  as  the  filbert,  is  imported  from  Spain  and  from 
Trebizond  on  the  Black  Sea.  Another  variety,  known  as  the 
"cob  nut,"  which  is  broader  and  shorter  and  not  of  so  fine  quality 
as  the  filbert,  is  grown  in  Kent  and  Sussex,  England.    The  Barce- 

*  Our  Native  Trees,  H.  L.  Keeler,  p.  490. 

•  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Farmers'  BulL  No.  332. 

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lona  nut  is  a  variety  imported  from  Spain.  Dried  hazel  nut 
meats  contain  65  per  cent,  of  oil,,  and  this  when  expressed  is  known 
conmierdally  in  England  as  "nut  oil."  It  is  stated  that  the  name 
"filbert"  is  a  corruption  of  "full  beard,"  and  should  be  applied 
only  to  those  varieties  in  which  the  husk  is  fringed  and  extends 
beyond  the  kernel,  while  other  kinds  should  be  called  hazel  nuts. 

The  hickoiy  nut  is  one  of  the  finest  wild  nuts  of  the  United 
States.  The  variety  known  as  "shell-bark"  or  "shagbark"  is 
the  best,  while  the  inferior  varieties  known  as  "pig"  nut  and 
"hog"  nut  are  not  often  used  as  himian  food.  Recent  investi- 
gations by  the  author^  show  that  an  excellent  quality  of  oil 
that  may  be  used  for  salads,  may  be  expressed  from  the  swamp 
hickory  nuts.  The  hickory  nut  contains  15  per  cent,  of  protein 
and  67  per  cent,  of  oil,  and  on  account  of  this  high  oil  content  is 
liable  to  become  rancid  if  kept  longer  than  over  one  winter. 

The  peanut,  which  is  not  a  true  nut,  is  discussed  on  page  202. 

The  pecan  grows  readily  in  the  southern  United  States,  notably 
Texas,  Louisiana,  Alabama,  Mississippi,  Georgia  and  Florida,  and 
the  tree  is  found  growing  wild  over  a  large  area.  (Fig.  52.)  It 
is  of  interest  to  note  that  with  the  introduction  of  new  varieties, 
and  more  intensive  cultivation,  the  area  of  pecan  production  is 
gradually  moving  northward.^  As  some  choice  varieties  of  pecans 
have  originated  in  southern  Indiana,  northern  Kentucky  and 
lower  Virginia,  there  is  a  hope  that  the  tree  may  be  successfully 
grown  in  these  localities.  Native  trees  are  found  in  the  Missis- 
sippi bottom  lands  from  Davenport,  Iowa,  and  Terra  Haute, 
Indiana,  toward  the  south  and  west.* 

This  nut  is  highly  valued  and  commands  a  good  price.  In 
the  nut-cracking  factories  located  in  the  pecan-growing  districts 
the  meats  are  picked  out,  and  sorted  into  whole  and  broken 
halves,  and  shipped  to  the  northern  market,  where  they  sell  at 
about  80  cents  per  pound.  With  careful  cultivation  the  pecan 
trees  begin  to  bear  within  three  or  four  years  after  they  are  set 

1  J.  I.  and  E  Chcm.,  Vol.  V,  No.  9 

*  Bull.  N.  C.  Dept.  Agri.,  Vol.  3a,  No.  9. 

•  U.  S.  Dept  A^.,  Bu.  Plant  In.,  Bull.  9$i. 

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out.  The  nuts  contain  70  per  cent,  of  fat,  which  is  more  than 
is  contained  in  any  other  vegetable  substance,  and  they  are  also 
fairly  rich  in  proteins.  They  are  grown  only  in  the  United 
States,  and  when  we  consider  the  immense  quantities  of  foreign 
nuts  of  various  kinds  that  are  imported  to  supply  the  demand, 
there  seems  little  danger  that  the  growing  of  such  an  excellent  nut 
as  the  pecan  will  be  overdone. 

Fig.   52. — The  pecan  branch  and  fruit.    From  "A  Handbook  of  Trees  of  the 
Northern  States  and  Canada.    (By  permission  Romyn  B.  Hough.) 

There  are  several  pines  that  yield  edible  nuts,  some  of  which 
are  called  ^^pinons."  These  grow  mostly  on  the  Pacific  coast, 
and  eastward  tj  Colorado  and  New  Mexico,  and  are  extensively 
produced  in  southern  Europe  and  India.  In  some  sections  they 
form  quite  a  valuable  addition  to  the  food  supply  of  the  inhab- 
itants. The  American  Indians  formerly  made  great  use  of  the  pine 
nuts,  and  at  the  present  day  their  descendants  collect  considerable 

"  Digitized  by  LjOOgle 


quantities  for  the  market.  The  pine  cones  in  which  the  nuts  are 
produced  must  be  roasted  so  that  the  scales  will  fall  apart  suf- 
ficiently so  that  the  seeds  may  be  collected.  The  pifLon  is  about 
as  large  as  a  bean,  has  a  thin  shell,  and  is  usually  of  a  brownish- 
red  color.  There  is  a  variety  on  the  Italian  market  known  as  the 
"pignolia,"  which  is  longer  than  the  American  varieties,  and 
has  a  yellowish  color.  The  meat  of  the  pine  nuts  is  of  a  rich  deli- 
cate flavor  usually  without  any  suggestion  of  a  resinous  taste. 
They  contain  14  per  cent,  of  protein,  62  per  cent,  of  fat  and  17 
per  cent,  of  carbohydrates. 

The  pistachio  or  "green  almond"  grows  on  a  tree  that  is  a 
native  of  Syria.  It  has  been  cultivated  in  southern  Europe 
and  in  the  southern  United  States  and  California.  The  kernel 
of  the  Pistachio  nut  has  a  greenish  color  with  a  red  pellicle.  This 
nut  is  salted,  while  still  in  the  shell,  by  putting  into  brine.  The 
fruit,  which  is  a  drupe,  is  produced  in  clusters,  and  has  a  smooth 
stone  which  easily  separates  into  two  halves  at  maturity.  The 
seed  is  blunt  at  one  end  and  rather  pointed  at  the  other.  To  the 
radicle,  which  is  located  at  the  more  acute  end  of  the  kernel,  two 
large  green  cotyledons  are  attached.  The  thicker  portions  of  the 
seed  coat  contain  a  dark  red  coloring  matter,  while  the  thinner 
portions  are  colorless  and  show  the  green  color  of  the  cotyle- 
dons beneath.^  These  nuts  are  highly  prized  both  on  account  of 
their  greenish  color,  and  for  their  pleasant,  rather  resinous 
flavor.  They  are  used  to  ornament  and  give  flavor  to  ice  cream 
and  confectionery. 

The  walnut  tree  (black  walnut)  grows  wild  over  a  large  portion 
of  the  eastern  and  central  United  States.  On  account  of  its  value 
as  lumber,  great  forests  of  these  trees  have  been  cut  down.  The 
nut  is  rich  in  oil,  but  does  not  remain  sweet  after  the  first  winter. 

English  (white)  walnuts  are  supposed  to  have  come  originally 
from  Persia,  but  are  now  grown  more  extensively  in  south  and 
southeastern  France,  and  more  recently  in  California.  The  trees 
are  planted  in  rows,  and  cultivated  with  frequent  fertilization 

1 U.  S.  Dcpt.  Agri..  Bu.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  160. 

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with  maniire  and  commercial  fertilizers.  These  orchards  are 
very  valuable  as  fruit  producers.  The  outer  pericarp  or  husk 
can  usually  be  readily  removed  from  the  nut  at  the  time  of  pick- 
ing. They  are  sometimes  prepared  for  the  market  by  bleach- 
ing with  chloride  of  lime,  or  other  bleaching  agents  and  polishing 
with  soapstone  is  occasionally  resorted  to  in  order  to  improve 
their  appearance.    An  excellent  oil  is  extracted  from  the  nuts. 

The  butternut  is  rich  in  fat  and  is  closely  related  to  the  walnut, 
but  by  many  it  is  considered  as  having  a  finer  and  richer  flavor 
than  the  walnut.  It  is  grown  especially  in  the  northern  United 
States  and  in  Canada.  The  nut  contains  water  4.4  per  cent. ; 
protein  28  per  cent.;  fat  61  per  cent.;  sugar,  etc.,  3.5  per  cent. 
It  is  oval  in  shape,  while  the  walnut  is  nearly  spherical.  The  tree 
does  not  grow  to  as  great  size  as  the  walnut,  nor  is  the  wood  in  as 
great  demand  for  commercial  purposes. 

The  litchi|  a  so-called  Chinese  nut,  is  not  a  true  nut,  but  more 
properly  a  fruit  protected  by  a  nut  shell.  It  is  rich  in  starch  and 
sugar  (77  per  cent).  This  nut  is  imported  by  the  Chinese  into  the 
United  States  and  is  regarded  by  them  as  one  of  the  best  fruit 
products  of  China.  They  are  often  dried  for  winter  use,  and  the 
Chinese  use  them  in  tea,  in  the  place  of  sugar  on  account  of  their 
sub-acid  flavor.  They  grow  in  China,  India  and  the  Malay 

There  are  several  nuts  of  less  importance  grown  in  various 
parts  of  the  world.  Among  these  may  be  mentioned  the  bread 
nut,  the  candle  nut  of  the  South  Sea  Islands,  the  ground  nut  of 
Europe,  the  kola  nut  of  Africa,  the  quandang  nut  of  Australia,  the 
souari  nut  of  British  Guiana,  the  cream  nut  of  South  Africa,  the 
Kingsland  chestnut,  the  tabebuia  of  Zanzibar  and  the  chufa  nut  or 
earth  almond. 

Nuts  Imported 

The  almonds  imported  into  the  United  States  come  mostly 
from  Spain,  Italy  and  France;  the  filberts  from  Italy,  Asiatic 

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Turkey,  and  Spain;  the  peanuts  that  are  imported,  a  total  of 
18,000,000  po\mds,  come  from  Japan,  Spain,  France,  and  the 
East  Indies;  wahiuts  from  France,  Italy,  China,  Austria-Hungary 
and  Asiatic  Turkey.  The  total  value  of  all  nuts  imported,  for  the 
year  ending  June  30,  191 5,  was  $16,865,344.^ 

»  U.  S.  Bu.  F.  &  Dom.  Com.,  2d  Quar.,  1915. 

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Flesh  foods  afford  in  general  more  concentrated  nourishment 
than  vegetable  substances.  This  concentration  which  has  been 
made  in  the  animal  body,  generally  by  the  use  of  vegetable  sub- 
stances, furnishes  a  food  containing  much  protein  and  a  small 
quantity  of  starch  or  sugar.  The  fat  of  the  food  which  is  neces- 
sary for  the  growth  and  nutrition  of  the  body  may  come  either 
from  the  vegetable  or  animal  kingdom,  and  the  balance  of  the  ra- 
tion can  be  built  up  by  the  use  of  a  variety  of  foods  containing 
starch  and  sugar.  The  legumes  are  the  only  vegetable  foods  that 
contain  large  amounts  of  nitrogenous  material,  and  they  are 
extremely  useful  in  a  mixed  diet.     (See  p.  192.) 


Animal  food  may  be  classified  in  accordance  with  its  origin 
into  that  from  (i)  mammalia,  (2)  birds,  (3)  fish,  (4)  other  sea  food, 
and  (s)  miscellaneous. 

The  common  animals  used  for  food  include  such  domestic 
mammals  as  beef  cattle,  swine,*  sheep,  goats,  horses,  camels  and 
reindeer.  Of  less  importance  are  wild  mammals  such  as  the 
deer,  elk,  moose,  alpaca,  llama,  guanaco  and  antelope.  Some 
carnivora,  especially  the  badger,  bear  and  raccoon,  are  often 
used  for  food,  and  among  rodents  the  rabbit,  hare,  squirrel, 
marmot  (wood  chuck),  beaver,  hedgehog,  porcupine  and  opos- 
sum. The  mammalia  living  in  salt  water,  namely,  the  porpoise, 
whale,  narwale,  walrus  and  seal,  are  in  some  countries  utilized 
as  food. 

^^'  Digitized  by  Google 



The  term  meat  generally  includes  not  only  the  muscular  tissue 
or  lean  meat,  but  all  that  is  purchased,  as  meat  including  fat, 
tendons,  skin  and  bones.  As  beef  is  a  standard  meat,  it  is  con- 
venient to  study  its  properties  as  typical  of  the  whole  class.  The 
amount  of  fat  in  meat  varies  within  wide  limits,  and  may  be  as 
low  as  3  per  cent,  in  beef  to  90  per  cent,  in  fat  pork.  Usually 
lean  meat  having  from  8  to  12  per  cent,  of  fat  distributed  through 
it  is  considered  the  most  satisfactory.  In  an  emaciated  animal 
as  low  as  2  per  cent,  of  fat  is  sometimes  found  in  the  lean  tissue, 
but  in  a  carcass  which  is  in  the  condition  for  a  good  grade  of  beef 
as  high  as  8  per  cent.,  and  in  an  extremely  fat  carcass  22  per  cent, 
of  fat  is  found  in  the  lean  tissue. 

Stracture  of  Meat 

Meat  is  made  up  of  muscle  fibers  held  together  by  connective 
tissue;^  the  latter  is  composed  largely  of  lactin  and  collagen. 
Each  fiber  has  a  sheath  or  covering  and  within  the  fibers  are  con- 
tained the  meat  juices,  which  are  solutions,  in  water,  of  proteins 
and  non-protein  nitrogenous  extractives.  (See  p.  19.)  The 
proteins  of  these  juices  consist  chiefly  of  the  globulin  myosin, 
muscle  albumin  and  haemoglobin  and  salts.  The  muscular  tissue  is 
composed  almost  entirely  of  nitrogenous  material.  There  are  no 
peptones  in  the  living  muscle,  but  the  ferment  pepsin  is' present. 
After  death,  by  the  action  of  pepsin  in  the  presence  of  lactic  acid, 
the  muscles  are  partially  digested  so  that  both  peptones  and  pro- 
teoses are  found.  The  muscle  contains  not  to  exceed  i  per  cent, 
of  a  carbohydrate  called  glycogen  (CeHioOe),  or  animal  starch, 
which  is  formed  from  the  sugars  taken  into  the  circulation  from 
the  digestive  tract.  There  are  two  classes  of  muscular  tissue, 
the  voluntary  or  striated  muscles,  like  those  of  the  leg,  and  the 
involuntary  or  non-striated  muscles  like  those  of  the  heart. 

'  Food  Inspection  and  Analysis,  Leach,  p.  211. 

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MEAT  343 

Slaughtering  Meat 

In  discussing  the  slaughtering  of  meat,  H.  W.  Wiley  says^ 
"The  principal  thing  to  be  considered  is  first  a  sudden,  and  in  so 
far  as  possible,  a  painless  death  of  the  animal;  second,  the  im- 
mediate withdrawal  of  the  blood  of  the  slaughtered  animal,  if 
slaughtered  otherwise  than  by  opening  the  principal  artery;  third, 
the  removal  of  the  intestines  and  hair  or  hide  of  the  animal; 
fourth,  immediate  cooling  at  a  moderately  low  temperature  until 
the  animal  heat  is  entirely  radiated;  fifth,  the  cutting  of  the  carcass 
into  the  usual  form  for  consumption  and  the  removal  and  utiliza- 
tion of  the  d6bris  for  food  or  other  purposes;  sixth,  the  delivery 
of  the  meat,  if  to  be  eaten  in  a  fresh  state  in  a  condition  secured 
from  contamination  and  decay  until  it  is  in  the  hands  of  the 
consumer;  seventh,  the  curing  of  the  meat  in  a  proper  manner 
by  salt,  sugar,  vinegar  and  wood  smoke,  and  the  delivery  thereof 
in  an  unadulterated  form  to  the  consumer." 

Keeping  Meat 

After  slaughtering,  the  meat  undergoes  several  changes. 
Immediately  after  being  killed  the  flesh,  especially  in  young  and 
well-nourished  animals,  is  juicy  and  tender.  On  account  of  the 
clotting  of  the  myosin,  after  a  short  time  rigor  mortis  ensues  and 
the  meat  becomes  stiff  and  hard.  In  the  third  stage  to  which  the 
meat  soon  passes,  it  becomes  again  ^oft  and  tender,  owing  in  part 
to  the  action  of  lactic  acid  on  the  sarcolemma  and  connective 
tissue.  This  process  should  not,  however,  be  allowed  to  go  too  far, 
or  the  meat  will  become  "high"  and  have  a  disagreeable  odor  and 

This  development  of  the  lactic  acid  rendering  the  meat  tender, 
is  called  "ripening"  of  the  meat.  Refrigeration  retards  this 
process,  hence  meats  can  be  kept  fresh  for  a  considerable  time  at  a 
low  temperature  (below  40*^  F.).  The  experiments  by  P.  F.  Trow- 
bridge,* show  that  as  long  as  the  amount  of  lactic  add  continues 

1  Foods  and  Their  Adulteration,  Wiley,  p.  14. 
'  Missouri[  A^ri.  Exp.  Sta. 

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to  increase  the  meat  appears  to  be  improving  in  quality.  At  a 
certain  stage,,  however,  basic  bodies  begin  to  separate,  which 
neutralize  the  lactic  acid  and  thus  cause  a  decrease  in  the  amount 
of  this  free  acid.  The  meat  is  still  edible  after  this  decrease  has 
begun,  but  whenever  enough  basic  bodies  are  liberated  to  neutral- 
ize the  lactic  acid,  the  meat  has  then  reachd  a  stage  of  incipient 
putrefaction  and  is  lo  longer  fit  for  food. 

Game  is  often  allowed  to  "hang"  until  the  changes  of  decom- 
position are  well  marked  and  in  this  condition  it  is  highly  relished 
by  epicures. 

Chemical  Composition 

The  different  cuts  of  beef  differ  quite  widely  in  composition, 
dependent  on  the  location  of  the  "cut,"  and  the  quality  or  grade 
of  beef.  This  is  well  illustrated  in  the  following  analyses  taken 
from  Mo.  Ag.  Ex.  Sta.  Bulletin: 






25  03 















Chuck,  exdiisive  of  bone 
Round,  lean  tissue  only . 
Round,  fat  tissue  only . . . 
Loin,  lean  tissue  only . . . . 
Loin,  fat  tissue  only 








Chuck,  lean  tissue  only, 
Chuck,  fat  tissue  only . . 
Round,  lean  tissue  only 
Round,  fat  tissue  only . , 
Loin,  lean  tissue  only . . . 
Loin,  fat  tissue  only . . . . 







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The  flavor  of  meat  depends  on  the  amount  of  nitrogenous 
extractives — the  creatin,  creatinin,  xanthin,  etc.,  present.  The 
amount  of  these  "meat  bases"  is  small — from  4  to  15  grains  only 
per  pound  in  ordinary  meats.  When  these  are  removed  by  boiling, 
the  meat  is  almost  without  flavor.  Only  a  trace  of  the  nitrogen 
present  is  in  the  albumoses  and  peptones.  It  is  stated  that  not 
far  from  half  of  the  nitrogen  in  water-soluble  flesh  consists  of  the 
extractives  and  half  is  coagulable  proteins. 

Cooking  Meats 

The  cooking  of  Yneats  has  been  very  thoroughly  studied.* 
Among  civilized  people  meats  are  usually  cooked  before  they  are 
eaten,  because  this  process  improves  the  taste  and  makes  them 
more  palatable,  injurious  animal  parasites  and  bacteria  are  de- 
stroyed and  finally  since  the  tissues  are  thoroughly  softened  so 
that  they  can  be  more  readily  attacked  by  the  digestive  fluids. 
In  the  process  of  roasting  or  boiling  a  moderately  large  piece  of 
meat,  the  interior  never  reaches  a  temperature  above  190-200*^  F.* 
The  time  required  to  roast  a  piece  of  beef  depends  on  its  size,  shape, 
etc.,  and  the  temperature  of  the  oven.  For  example,  a  single  short 
rib  roast  containing  the  bone  required  16.3  minutes  per  pound  to 
cook  the  meat  rare,  while  the  two-ribbed  rolled  roasts  aver- 
aged 20.1  minutes  at  the  same  temperature  to  reach  the  same 
conditions.  If  the  roast  is  quite  completely  covered  with  fat, 
the  heat  penetrates  only  through  the  lean  portions  exposed. 

Roasts  are  as  quickly  cooked  at  an  oven  temperature  of  175°  C. 
(347*^  F.)  as  at  195*^  C.  (383°  F.),  so  the  higher  temperature  involves 
a  waste  of  fuel.  There  is  much  less  danger  of  overcooking  the 
meat  at  the  temperature  of  100°  C.  (212°  F.),  than  at  a  higher 
temperature,  but  of  course  a  much  longer  time  is  required  to  raise 
the  temperature  of  the  interior.  By  slow  cooking,  however,  the 
interior  is  in  a  much  more  uniform  condition. 

>U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.  Office  Exp.  Sta.  Bui.  No.  162. 

« Bui.  Univ.  Ills.  Vol.  55,  No.  19;  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  162. 

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In  regard  to  the  treatment  of  meat  with  water,  research 
shows?  that  13.56  per  cent,  of  the  total  protein  existing  in  lean  beef,- 
is  soluble  in  cold  water.  Of  this  soluble  protein,  90.04  per  cent., 
is  in  a  form  which  is  coagulable  by  heat  from  a  neutral  solution,  8.40 
per  cent,  exists  as  albumoses,  and  a  very  small  portion  apparently 
exists  as  peptones.  A  10  per  cent,  solution  of  salt  water  will  extract 
twice  as  much  protein  from  raw  meat  as  will  pure  water. 

In  the  process  of  cooking,  raw  meat  loses  considerable  weight. 
As  shown  by  Grindley  ^  the  average  of  ninety-one  tests  of  the  per- 
centage loss  of  nutriment  in  uncooked  meat  when  boiled  for  three 
hours  is  water  45.07;  protein  7.25;  fat  11.70;  ash  44.62.  In 
some  other  experiments,  the  actual  loss  in  weight  by  boiling  a  piece 
of  "roimd  "  beef  was  38.3  2  per  cent. ;  the  loss  in  weight  by  the  proc- 
ess of  roasting  was  30.10  per  cent. 

The  chief  loss  during  the  cooking  of  meat  is  evidently  that  of 
the  water.*  When  beef  is  pan-broiled  (fried  in  a  hot  pan  without 
the  addition  of  fat)  there  appears  to  be  no  important  loss  of 
nutritious  material.  Beef  cooked  with  water  loses  from  3  to  20 
per  cent,  of  nutrients,  which  is,  however,  found  in  the  water  as 
extractives  and  can  be  utilized  for  soup  or  gravy.  Meat  when 
chopped  before  cooking  or  when  cooked  for  a  long  time,  of  course 
loses  a  greater  per  cent,  of  nutrients. 

When  beef  is  used  for  the  preparation  of  beef  tea  it  loses  com- 
paratively little  of  its  nutritive  material,  although  much  of  the  fla- 
voring substance  is  removed.  The  greater  the  amount  of  fat  in 
the  original  meat,  the  less  the  shrinkage  during  cooking.  As 
long  as  the  temperature  of  cooking  is  kept  below  185*^  F.  there 
appears  to  be  little  difference  in  the  amount  of  material  found 
in  the  broth,  whether  the  meat  is  plunged  into  cold  water  or  into 
hot  water  at  the  start. 

In  roasting  meat  it  is  desirable  that  the  exterior  of  the  roast  be 

at  first  seared  by  being  placed  in  a  hot  oven,  and  that  the  process 

be  completed  at  a  lower  temperature,  if  the  retention  of  the  nutri- 

1  J.  A.  c.  Soc.,  Vol.  17,  p.  504. 
«  U.  S.  Dept,  AgrL  Bull.  No.  141. 
'  U.  S.  Dept.  Airi.  Parmera'  Bull.  No.  162. 

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ents  is  desired.  In  boiling  meat  better  results  are  attained  if  it  is 
plunged  immediately  into  boiling  water.  A  "pot  roast/'  in  which 
the  amount  of  water  used  is  small,  and  this  is  concentrated  near 
the  close  of  the  operation,  is  a  very  satisfactory  product. 


In  the  digestion  of  meat  the  first  change  is  the  swelling  up  and 
softening  of  the  fibers  in  the  stomach.  The  harder  the  connective 
tissue  the  less  these  fibers  separate  so  they  can  be  acted  on  by  the 
gastric  juice,  and  hence  pounding,  or  chopping  tough  meat  adds  to 
its  digestibility. 

In  the  stomach  the  free  HCl  acts  upon  the  proteins  of  the  food,^ 
converting  them  into  meta-protein  acid  albumin  ("syntonin") 
which  under  the  influence  of  pepsin  splits  down  with  the  formation 
of  proteoses,  and  these  by  further  hydrolysis  yield  peptone^.  (See 
table,  p.  20.)  This  digestion  of  the  proteins  takes  place  mostly 
after  the  food  has  passed  the  stomach,  and  when  it  reaches  the 
small  intestine  the  proteins  are  attached  by  "tryspin"  and 
"erepsin,"  active  enzymes  or  ferments  foimd  in  the  pancreatic 
juice  and  in  the  intestines,  to  produce  proteoses  and  finally  amino 

The  digestive  products  of  the  proteins  pass  on  by  absorption, 
mainly  into  the  capillary  blood-vessels,  and  thence  to  the  portal 
vein  and  into  the  circulation  of  the  body.  There  is  abimdant 
evidence  to  prove  that  the  proteins  may  be  the  source  for  the 
ultimate  production  of  carbohydrates  and  to  some  extent  of  fats  in 
the  body. 

The  following  list  of  comparative  digestibility  of  common 
protein  food,  will  serve  as  a  partial  guide  for  use  of  these  foods.^ 
The  most  digestible  are  given  first  and  the  least  digestible  last. 
Oysters,  soft-cooked  eggs,  sweet-bread,  white  fish,  or  any  fish 
not  rich  in  fat,  chicken,  lean  beef,  eggs  (scrambled),  mutton 

*  Chemistry  of  Food  and  Nutrition,  Sherman,  p. 

•  Thompson,  loc  dt. 

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squab,  crisp  ba<:on,  fowl,  tripe,  lamb,  corned  beef,  veal,  ham, 
ducks  and  game,  (salmon,  mackerel,  herring,  roast  goose,  lobsters 
and  crabs,  pork,  smoked,  dried  or  pickled  fish  or  meats. 

Preservation  of  Meat 

The  general  methods  for  the  preservation  of  food  have  been 
already  discussed  (p.  213). 

Cold  storage  is  perhaps  of  more  importance  for  meat  products 
than  for  any  other  class  of  perishable  foods.  By  its  use  the  abun- 
dant beef  and  pork  of  the  central  West  can  be  transported  to  the 
seaboard  and  to  distant  countries;  the  cheap  beef  of  the  South 
American  plains  can  be  shipped  to  Europe,  America,  or  other 
distant  countries. 

Drying  is  particularly  applicable  to  beef  though  occasionally 
used  for  other  meats.  "Jerked"  beef  is  the  name  applied  to  dried 
beef  in  North  and  South  America,  and  "Biltong"  is  the  African 
name  for  dried  strips  of  meat,  especially  that  of  the  antelope  and 
buffalo.  Dried  meat  contains  so  little  moisture  that  it  will  not 
support  the  life  of  putrefactive  germs.  Smoking  and  drying  are 
common  methods  of  preservation  of  meat.  It  is  usually  pickled 
in  brine  for  a  day  or  two  before  being  exposed  to  the  smoke.  The 
creosote  of  wood  smoke  acts  as  a  preservative  of  the  meat  excluding 
putrefactive  germs.  Various  liquid  preparations  made  from  creo- 
sote, or  by  condensing  wood  smoke  are  used  to  take  the  place  of  the 
smoke  in  the  preservation  of  meat.  Pickling  in  a  brine  containing 
salt,  saltpeter,  and  sometimes  sugar  is  the  common  method  for 
preserving  beef  and  pork.  Salt  acts  as  a  germicide;  and  at  the 
same  time  seems  to  dry  the  meat  as  it  draws  out  the  meat  juices, 
so  that  the  fibers  harden.  It  also  prevents  the  development  of 
the  eggs  of  various  insects.  Saltpeter  (KNOs)  is  used  to  cause  the 
meat  to  retain  its  fresh,  reddish  appearance  but  an  excess  is  in- 
jurious and  it  hardens  the  meat  even  more  than  salt.  Pickling 
with  borax  or  borax  and  salt  is  also  common,  and  may  be  allowed 
if  the  borax  is  entirely  removed  by  soaking  out  before  the  food 
is  cooked. 

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Meat  prepared  for  the  English  market  is  usually  treated  with 
borax  in  addition  to  other  preservatives.  In  the  United  States 
the  use  of  borax  in  meats  intended  for  interstate  commerce  is  not 


The  portions  of  the  carcass  used  for  canning  depends  on  the 
demands  of  the  trade  and  the  condition  of  the  market  for  fresh 
meat.    The  meat  used  for  this  purpose  is,  in  the  United  States, 

Fig.  53. — Preparing  pig's  tongues  for  canning,  under  the  supervision  of  a  U.  S. 
Inspector.     (By  permission  IJ.  S.  Dept.  Agric.) 

under  government  inspection,^  in  all  establishments  whose  prod- 
ucts go  into  foreign  or  interstate  commerce.  (Fig.  53.)  Both 
ante-mortem  and  post-mortem  examinations  are  made  by  the 
Government  inspectors  at  the  time  of  slaughter,  and  carcasses 
that  are  unfit  for  food  are  sent  tp  the  "tank''  department  to  be 
worked  up  into  fertilizers.  The  meats  to  be  used  for  "curing,'' 
making  sausage  or  chopped  meats,  for  making  of  lard  and  tallow, 

^  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bur.  An.  Ind.'  Order  No.  137. 

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and  for  canned  products  are  reinspected  when  they  enter  these 
departments.  These  regulations  apply  only  to  the  meat  of  cattle, 
sheep,  swine  or  goats. 

The  Process  of  Canning  Meats^ 

Pieces  of  meat  of  about  equal  size  are  selected  for  canning,  so 
that  they  may  be  uniformly  sterilized  in  the  process.    The  first 

Fig.  54. — Sterilizing  cans  of  meat  under  pressure.    (By  permission  L.  S.  Bushnell.) 

process  is  parboiling  or  partially  cooking,  which  causes  a  shrinkage 
to  about  two-thirds  of  the  original  volume  and  at  the  same  time 
extracts  some  meat  bases,  protein  and  mineral  salts.  (See  p.  346.) 
This  process  is,  on  the  whole,  an  advantage  as  it  concentrates  the 
nutrient  material.  The  meat  is  then  put  in  the  tins  with  a  small 
quantity  of  ''soup  liquor"  which  contains,  in  addition  to  some 
^  Foods  and  Their  Adulterations,  Wiley. 

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animal  extractives,  salt  and  sometimes  sugar  or  molasses,  and 
fills  up  the  "voids"  between  the  pieces  of  meat.  The  tins  are  then 
closed  and  the  covers  are  soldered  on,  a  hole  being  usually  left 
for  the  escape  of  the  gases  or  air  inclosed  within  the  can.    The 

Fig.  55. — Sealing  cans  of  meat  in  a  vacuum 

filled  cans  are  sterilized  by  heating  with  steam  in  strong  boilers 
under  pressure.  (Fig.  54.)  After  some  time  the  cans  are  her- 
metically sealed  by  a  drop  of  solder,  and  then  "reprocessed"  at 
a  temperature  of  225®  to  250®  F.  for  one  or  two  hours. 

In  some  establishments  the  filled  cans  are  placed  in  a  machine 

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where  they  can  be  exhausted  in  a  vacuum  (Fig.  55),  sealed  auto- 
matically while  in  this  exhausted  state,  and  then  removed  to  a 
bath  of  oil  or  some  other  liquid  when  they  are  heated  to  a  tem- 
perature of  240°  F.  for  as  long  a  time  as  seems  desirable.  Experi- 
ments made  in  the  laboratories  of  the  U.  S.  Department  of  Agri- 
culture show  that  "a  can  of  26.9  ounces  of  beef  contains  as  an 
average  content  an  amount  of  meat  equivalent  to  42.1  ounces  of 
fresh  beef,  and  retains  practically  all  of  the  nutrient  value  of 
the  larger  quantity  of  fresh  beef. 

Ham  and  bacon  are  canned  for  use  in  tropical  climates  or  in 
sections  remote  from  the  market.  The  canned  tongues  of  cattle, 
calves,  sheep,  lambs,  and  swine,  are  extremely  popular  and  find  a 
ready  sale.    They  are  often  pickled  previous  to  canning. 


Potted  and  "deviled"  meats  in  great  variety  are  an  output  of 
the  packing  houses.  The  term  'Spotted  meat,"  is  like  the  name  of 
a  proprietary  food  or  medicine,  and  conveys  to  the  customer  no 
idea  as  to  the  contents  of  the  package.  The  consumer  is  not 
always  sure  that  the  can  contains  the  exact  meat  that  the  label 
names,  but  if  the  flavor  and  quality  are  satisfactory  he  usually 
does  not  complain.  These  products  are  really  made  up  of  several 
kinds  of  meat  such  as  beef  and  pork,  and  are  spiced  and  flavored 
in  such  a  way  as  to  be  agreeable  to  the  palate. 

"Deviled"  meats  offer  still  greater  latitude  for  mixing  as  they 
consist  of  the  groimd  meat  mixed  with  spices  and  condiments. 
There  is  no  objection  to  this  class  of  goods  if  they  are  made  from 
material  that  is  sound  and  sanitary,  and  prepared  in  establish- 
ments free  from  infection,  and  if  there  are  no  fraudulent  additions 
to  increase  the  weight,  and  no  injurious  preservatives  or  coloring 
matters  added. 


Any  standard  adopted  to  regulate  the  composition  of  sausage 
must  be  very  broad,  so  that  no  really  wholesome  meat  shall  be 

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excluded  by  it.  Sausage  may  be  made  from  the  meat  of  neat 
cattle  or  swine  and  may  be  fresh,  salted,  pickled  or  smoked,  with 
the  addition  of  salt,  spices,  edible  fats,  blood  or  sugar.  It  contains 
no  more  water  thaij  does  the  normal  meat  from  which  it  was 
prepared.  If  casings  are  used  they  must  be  preserved  with  salt 
only  and  not  artificially  colored. 

Next  in  importance  to  the  use  of  meat  of  an  improper  character 
in  the  way  of  adulteration  is  the  use  of  starch  or  flour  as  a  "filler." 
This  increases  the  bulk  and  weight  of  the  goods  and  prevents  shrink- 
age when  the  sausage  is  cooked,  and  moreover  starch  is  much 
cheaper  than  meat,  so  a  greater  profit  can  be  made.  In  some 
States  a  product  called  "cereal  sausage''  is  allowed,  if  it  does  not 
contain  more  than  2  per  cent,  of  cereal,  and  if  the  composition  is 
plainly  marked  on  the  package.  Boric  acid  or  borax  and  sodium 
sulfite,  are  preservatives  that  have  been  frequently  used  in  sausage, 
especially  canned. 

Varieties  of  Sausage 

The  varieties  of  sausage  made,  especially  in  Germany,  are 
very  numerous;  more  than  40  might  be  readily  described.  Among 
these  may  be  mentioned  pork  sausage  which  is  put  into  casings 
consisting  of  the  intestines  of  cattle,  sheep  or  swine;  bologna,  in 
which  the  chopped  meat  is  put  into  casings,  boiled,  smoked  and 
dried;  polonies  which  are  a  favorite  in  England,  and  are  usually 
put  in  colored  skins;  rothwurst,  similar  to  the  English  "Black 
pudding,"  made  from  pork,  often  with  the  addition  of  blood, 
heart  or  kidney,  and  spices  and  starch,  put  into  skins  and  boiled; 
mett  wurst,  made  from  pork,  with  large  additions  of  lard  and 
frequently  beef  and  horse-flesh;  cervelatwurst,  made  from  the 
brains  of  pigs  and  horses,  with  the  addition  of  pork  and  lard; 
leberwurst,  made  from  the  livers  of  pigs  and  calves,  sometimes 
with  pork  and  lard  and  occasionally  the  lungs  and  starchy  matters; 
magenwurst,  made  from  the  stomach,  skin  and  other  parts  of  the 
pig,  with  blood  and  unsalted  bacon;  bratwurst,  made  from  raw 
pork  and  bacon,  with  lemon  and  cumin  as  flavorings;  erbswurst. 

2$  Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


which  contains  suet,  bacon  and  pea  flour,  and  is  seasoned  with 
onions  and  spices;  frankfurter  sausages,  which  are  small  and  made 
from  raw  pork  well  seasoned.^  Often  the  casings  or  skins  are 
artificially  colored  and  frequently  some  preservative  is  used.^ 


Mince  meat  is  a  mixture  of  not  less  than  lo  per  cent,  of  cooked 
comminuted  meat,  with  chopped  suet,  apples,  and  other  fruit,  salt 
and  spices  and  with  sugar,  syrup  and  molasses,  with  or  without 
vinegar,  fresh,  concentrated  or  fermented  fruit  juices  or  spiritous 
liquors,  according  to  the  standard  of  many  of  the  States.  Mince 
meat  is  used  as  filling  for  pies.  Meat  is  not  always  found  in  mince 
meat  and  corned  beef  is  sometimes  substituted  for  fresh  meat, 
and  evaporated  or  dried  fruits  are  also  used  in  the  place  of  fresh 
fruits.  Boiled  cider  or  brandy  is  a  common  addition  to  the 

Some  manufacturers  put  on  the  market  a  pressed  mince  meat 
which  is  similar  to  the  above,  except  that  it  contains  starch  or 
flour  as  a  "binder."  This  also  increases  the  weight  and  absorbs 
the  superfluous  moisture. 

Both  these  forms  of  mince  meat  are  readily  adulterated,  not 
only  by  the  use  of  meats  and  other  constituents  that  are  unfit  for 
food,  but  by  the  use  of  sodium  benzoate  as  a  preservative.  Mince 
meat  is  one  of  the  products  that  can  usually  be  made  more  cheaply 
at  home,  and  the  conditions  there  prevailing  will  insure  its  being 
clean  and  wholesome. 


Soups  may  be  of  animal  or  of  vegetable  origin.    Their  use  at 

the  beginning  of  a  meal  has  a  foundation  in  dietetic  experience,  as  a' 

soup  or  bouillon  is  simply  a  warm,  slightly  nutritive  liquid  of 

agreeable  taste,  which  stimulates  the  secretions  of  the  stomach  to 

greater  activity. 

1  Foods  and  Drugs,  Parry,  Vol.  i,  p.  386. 

« J.  Soc.  Ch.  Ind.,  Vol.  $$,  p.  947.  r^^^^T^ 

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"  Soup  stock"  may  be  made  by  first  cutting  the  meat  into  small 
fragments  and  breaking  the  bones  into  pieces.  It  is  well  to  note 
that  the  smaller  the  pieces  of  meat  the  greater  the  surface  exposed, 
and  the  more  thoroughly  the  juices  will  be  extracted.  Sometimes 
the  meat  mixed  with  sufficient  water  and  salt,  is  heated  in  a  vessel 
with  a  tight  cover,  so  that  the  pressure  can  be  raised  above  that 
of  the  atmosphere,  with  a  temperature  correspondingly  higher. 
If  an  ordinary  vessel  is  used  the  meat  should  be  simmered  for 
some  time,  then  allowed  to  cool,  so  that  the  excess  of  fat  can  be 
skimmed  off.  This  product  when  strained  and  properly  flavored 
constitutes  what  is  known  as  consomm6.  From  5  per  cent,  to  8 
per  cent,  of  the  constituents  of  the  meat,  consisting  of  soluble 
albumin,  gelatin,  extractives,  mineral  matter  and  flavoring  mate- 
rial will  be  found  in  this  broth.  The  analysis  of  a  large  number  of 
home-made  and  canned  soups  shows  that  they  contain  from 
2  per  cent,  to  6  per  cent,  of  protein,  from  o.i  to  4  per  cent,  of  fat, 
and  from  0.2  to  8  per  cent,  of  carbohydrates. 

If  the  soup  is  intended  simply  for  a  first  course,  to  stimulate 
the  appetite  it  may  be  a  "  clear  soup  "  or  one  only  slightly  thickened 
like  consomm6,  bouillon,  chicken  broth,  muUigatowny  or  ox-tail 
soup,  but  if  it  is  to  constitute  an  important  part  of  the  meal,  its 
nutritive  value  should  be  increased  by  thickening  with  pea-flour, 
or  lentil-flour,  or  the  addition  of  peas,  lentils,  macaroni,  vermicelli, 
parsley  or  vegetables  cut  in  small  pieces. 

Bouillon  Cubes— Soup  Tablets 

In  making  the  best  grades  of  soup  tablets  the  meat  is  ex- 
tracted at  a  low  temperature,  so  as  to  avoid  the  coagulation  of  the 
albumins,  the  liquid  is  strained  at  200®  F.  and,  after  being 
properly  flavored  and  seasoned,  is  concentrated  until  a  portion 
will  coagulate  on  cooling,  and  is  then  poured  into  molds  to  set. 
Sometimes  these  soup  tablets  are  made  without  meat,  from  the 
gelatin  obtained  from  cartilaginous  tissues  such  as  calves'  feet, 
tendons,  etc.,  properly  flavored,  and  colored  with  caramel. 

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According  to  recent  investigations,  by  F.  C.  Cook,*  the  bouillon 
cubes  on  the  market  contain  from  49  to  72  per  cent,  of  common 
salt;  from  8  to  28  per  cent,  of  meat  extract;  and  from  3  to  30  per 
cent,  of  vegetable  extract.  In  the  poorer  brands  of  cubes  the 
amount  of  meat  extract  is  very  small  and  the  quantity  of  common 
salt  is  large.  These  cubes  are  by  no  means,  as  many  believe, 
concentrated  beef  or  meat  essence,  but  really  stimulants  or  flavor- 
ing agents,  relatively  expensive.  Homemade  meat  broth  and 
homemade  meat  and  vegetable  soup  provide  much  more  meat 
extractives,  protein,  and  fat  at  much  less  expense,  than  the  com- 
mercial preparations. 


There  is  upon  the  market  a  large  variety  of  products  of  the 
meat  extract  class,  such  as  solid  extract,  liquid  extract,  beef  tea, 
beef  juice,  soluble  meat,  meat  essence,  yeast  extract,  meat  powder, 
bouillon  cubes,  peptone  and  numerous  proprietary  preparations.* 

Semi-solid  meat  extracts  and  fluild  meat  extracts  are  to  be 
regarded  as  stimulating  and  flavoring  adjuncts  only.  The  latter 
are  more  expensive  than  the  former,  as  they  contain  more  water 
and  frequently  cost  as  much. 

Since  these  products  first  became  known  through  the  investiga- 
tion of  the  German  chemist  Liebig  and  their  manufacture  in 
South  America  where  cattle  were  cheap  and  abundant,  they  have 
become  of  great  importance  to  the  physician  and  are  often 
prescribed  as  a  part  of  the  diet  of  his  patients.  Beef  extract  is 
really  nothing  but  soup  stock,  made  under  special  conditions  from 
beef.  About  34  pounds  of  meat  are  necessary  to  yield  i  pound  of 
concentrated  extract,'  and  this  extract  may  be  diluted  to  make 
6  or  7  gallons  of  beef  tea.  This  statement  does  not  however 
imply  that  this  pound  of  extract  contains  as  much  nutriment  as 
34  pounds  of  beef,  as  that  is  far  from  true.    According  to  the 

*  Bull.  Dept.  Agri.,  No.  27,  1913. 

«U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Bur.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  114. 

'  Loc.  dt.,  p.  14* 

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Standard  of  the  U.  S.   Dept.   Agri.   meat  extract  should  not 
contain  less  than  75  per  cent,  of  total  solids. 

Food  Value  of  Beef  Extract 

The  analysis  of  a  solid  beef  extract  shows  that  it  contains  about 
50  per  cent,  of  soluble  nitrogenous  constituents  of  meat  and  more 
than  half  of  this  is  the  meat  bases  such  as  creatin,  creatinin, 
xanthin,  etc.  These  substances  do,  it  is  true,  have  a  stimulating 
effect,  but  they  possess  very  little  nutritive  value.  They  are,  in 
fact,  bodies  which  are  **far  on  their  way"  to  form  urea,  one  of  the 
substances  excreted  from  the  body.  Very  little  of  either  creatin 
or  creatinin  will  be  utilized  in  the  body,  if  taken  with  the  food. 
Although  they  are  nitrogenous  substances,  yet  their  composition  is 
such  that  they  do  not  add  to  the  nutritive  value  of  extracts  or 
soups  containing  them. 

Hutchinson,^  in  speaking  of  the  meat  extractives  says  "The 
recent  experiments  of  Powlaw  have  shown  that  they  are  the 
most  powerful  excitive  of  gastric  secretion  that  we  possess. 
They  are  thus  eminently  calculated  to  rouse  appetite,  and  aid  diges- 
tion of  any  food  with  which  they  may  be  taken.  This  is  indeed 
their  true  r61e,  both  in  health  and  disease.  They  are  flavoring 
agents,  and  their  proper  place  is  in  the  kitchen  and  not  by  the 
bedside."  The  meat  from  which  the  extractives  have  been 
removed,  is  tasteless  and  consequently  difficult  of  digestion.  The 
small  quantity  of  nutrient  material  in  beef  extract,  may  be  of 
value  in  some  cases  where  it  is  of  great  importance  to  have  a  little 
nutriment  even  if  the  amount  is  very  small,  readily  absorbed. 


Beef  juice  is  a  different  product  from  beef  extract,  in  that  it 
should  be  the  juice  of  the  raw  meat  extracted  simply  by  pressure. 
Cold  water  is  often  used  with  the  finely  chopped  meat,  and  the 

*  Foods  and  Dietetics,  Hutchinson,  p.  93. 

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juice  is  afterward  sterilized  so  that  it  will  keep  without  decompo- 
sition. Artificial  preservatives  should  not  be  used  in  this  or  in 
any  of  these  beef  products,  as  they  are  designed  especially  for  the 
use  of  invalids  whose  digestion  may  be  weak. 


For  domestic  use  "beef  tea"  can  be  readily  prepared  by  allow- 
ing the  finely  chopped  meat  with  a  little  salt  to  stand  in  cold  water 
for  half  an  hour,  and  then  heating  for  some  time  in  a  double  boiler 
at  a  temperature  always  below  i6o*^  F.  The  juice  may  then  be 
poured  off,  and  the  meat  pressed  to  remove  as  much  juice  as  pos- 
sible. When  cold,  the  fat,  if  any,  is  removed  from  the  top.  The 
flocculent  sediment  contains  most  of  the  nutriment.  The  domestic 
beef  tea  prepared  shortly  before  use  is  much  more  satisfactory  than 
any  commercial  preparation.  An  excellent  quality  of  home- 
made beef  juice  is  prepared  by  slightly  broiling  small  pieces  of 
meat,  and  then  expressing  the  juice  by  the  use  of  a  hot  lemon 
squeezer.  This  juice  should  be  seasoned  and  served  while  still 
hot.  Meat  juices  contain  the  soluble  and  liquid  proteins  in  an 
uncoagtdated  form,  and  are  therefore  better  adapted  for  digestion 
than  when  coagulated  by  heat.  Gelatin  is  sometimes  present  in 
meat  extracts,  although  the  manufacturers  of  the  best  products  try 
to  avoid  it  as  much  as  possible.  (See  p.  359.)  Some  of  these  com- 
mercial beef  extracts  and  juices  are  of  such  a  composition  as  to 
indicate  that  they  are  prepared  chiefly  from  blood,  rather  than  from 
meat  juices,  some  are  enriched  by  the  addition  of  raw  egg  albu- 
min, and  the  products,  although  sold  at  a  very  high  price,  often 
contain  an  excess  of  common  salt. 


"Soluble  meat"  is  prepared  by  treating  the  comminuted  meat 
with  dilute  hydrochloric  acid  and  pepsin  under  pressure  or  with 
HCl  and  steam.    The  object  of  this  process  is  to  begin  the  diges- 

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tion  by  converting  the  meat  into  proteose  or  peptone  and  to  retain 
the  extractives.  Although  there  may  be  instances  in  which  such  a 
product  is  of  value  in  the  diet,  ordinarily  it  is  better  to  require  the 
digestion  to  take  place  within  the  body,  by  natural  methods. 


Powdered  meat  preparations  under  various  names  have  been 
placed  on  the  market.  They  consist  largely  of  albumoses  rather 
than  peptones.^  The  "pemmican"  of  the  northern  "voyageur" 
is  a  product  of  this  class  and  serves  a  very  important  purpose  when 
the  weight  and  bxilk  of  the  provisions  transported  must  be  consid- 
ered. Dried  meat  powder  is  sometimes  useful  in  artificial  feeding 
to  supplement  a  soup  stock  low  in  nutritive  protein. 


Gelatin,  another  meat  product  which  has  come  into  quite 
general  use,  is  prepared  from  the  bones,  hides,  tendons,  horns,  piths 
and  hoofs  of  animals  by  boiling  them  imder  pressure.  Collagen, 
which  composes  the  fibers  of  connective  tissue,  is  one  of  the  chief 
sources  of  gelatin,  into  which  it  is  transformed  by  boiling.  If 
bones  are  used  in  the  process  of  making,  they  are  crushed  and 
treated  with  hydrochloric  acid  to  remove  the  inorganic  salts. 
This  mass  is  then  mixed  with  the  softer  material  used,  and  soaked 
with  lime  or  soda  for  two  or  three  weeks  to  dissolve  out  the  fat. 
The  mess  is  finally  washed  and  steamed  to  remove  the  gelatin, 
and  sulfurous  acid  is  used  in  bleaching  the  product.  It  is  then  sol- 
idified in  layers,  redissolved,  washed  free  from  acids,  and  dried  at  a 
low  temperature.  If  prepared  under  good  sanitary  conditions,  and 
from  material  which  was  in  the  beginning  fit  for  food,  there  is  no 
objection  to  the  use  of  gelatin  as  a  food  material.  The  impure, 
unpurified  gelatin  is  known  as  "glue." 

Gelatin  swells  readily  in  cold  water  and  as  small  a  quantity  as 
*  Foods  and  Their  Adulteration,  Wiley,  p.  85. 

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one  per  cent,  will  set  into  a  jelly,  although  the  ordinary  jelly  con- 
tains about  2  per  cent.    It  has  come  into  popular  use,  because  of 

Fig.  s6. — The  ordinary  commercial  cuts  of  beef  are  as  indicated  in  Fig.  $6  and 
are  named  as  follows:  i,  Shank;  2,  round;  3,  rump;  4  and  5,  loin  (4,  sirloin; 
5,  porterhouse);  6,  fb.nk;  7,  rib;  8  and  9,  plate  (8,  navel  plate;  9,  brisket);  10, 
shin;  11,  chuck;  12,  neck;  13,  suet.     (By  permission  Dept.  of  Agric.  U.  of  Mo.) 

this  property,  and  because  it  can  be  sweetened  and  flavored,  and 
made  into  niunerous  appetizing  and  decorative  dishes.    In  re- 

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gard  to  its  nutritive  qualities  some  authors  believe  that  it  has  a 
value  in  stimulating  the  flow  of  gastric  juice,  and  while  not  a 
tissue  former  it  has  the  property  of  sparing  the  protein  tissues 
from  destruction.  It  is  evident  that  the  nitrogen  in  gelatin  is  not 
present  in  a  form  available  to  the  body  as  in  true  proteins.^ 


In  the  United  States  for  commercial  use,  the  carcass  of  the  beef 
cattle  is  usually  cut  as  illustrated  in  Fig.  56. 

These  different  cuts,  exclusive  of  bone,  have  only  a  slightly 


Horn  Piths. 


Glue  Liquor, 
Ba«  Bone. 
Caael  Balr. 


Caae-hardenlne  Bone. 
IQalfe  Handle  Bone. 
Button  Bone. 
Poultry  Food  Bone. 
Fertilizer  Bone* 

S0ASIB6  and 

Beef  Bztraot. 



Oleo  Stook. 

Oleo  Oil. 

Oleo  Stearins. 

Tallon  Oil. 

^Tallo*  Stearint. 

Sanaage  Caalnga* 

Stock  Food. 


Hoof  Heal. 
Neatafoot  Oil. 




Beatafoot  Oil. 

Fig.  57. — (By  permission  Armour  Packing  Co.) 

different  food  value,  but  on  account  of  their  other  qualities  such 
as  flavor,  shape  and  tenderness,  sell  at  retail  prices  ranging  from 
5  cents  per  pound  for  a  soup  bone  to  45  cents  for  the  best  sirloin 
steaks.  In  the  United  States  these  prices  differ  very  much  in  the 
different  sections.  The  large  cities  are  supplied  mostly  by  the 
packing  houses,  while  the  rural  population  is  supplied  in  part  by 
1  U  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bur.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  114. 

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local  abattoirs.  Veaif  although  very  much  in  favor  in  many  coun- 
tries, especially  in  Germany,  has  not  been  considered  as  wholesome 
or  as  easily  digested  as  beef.  It  contains  more  gelatin  and  less 
fat  than  the  latter,  and  some  believe  if  used  in  too  large  quantities 
is  liable  to  cause  intestinal  disturbance.  There  has  been  a  common 
prejudice  against  the  use  of  very  young  veal,  but  recent  experi- 
ments indicate  that  the  meat  is  just  as  easily  digested  as  that  of 
older  calves.^  Its  use  seems  to  produce  no  laxative  elSfect,  and  in 
no  way  affects  the  health  of  normal  individuals. 


Domestic  swine  are  the  descendants  of  the  ''wild  boars'' 
that  formerly  inhabited  the  forests  of  the  Eastern  Hemisphere. 
They  are  raised  in  great  numbers  in  those  parts  of  the  United 
States  where  corn  (maize)  is  readily  grown,  also  in  the  South  where 
they  are  fattened  with  peanuts,  and  are  shipped  to  the  packing 
houses  in  Chicago,  Kansas  City,  Omaha  and  other  large  cities. 

The  ordinary  cuts  of  swine  are  somewhat  different  from  those 
of  beef,  as  so  much  of  the  former  is  utilized  for  salt  pork  and  bacon. 
The  hams  and  shoulders  are  used  for  pickling  and  smoking.  From 
the  top  of  the  back  and  the  belly  are  obtained  the  cuts  used  for  salt 
pork.  "Spare  ribs,"  "chops"  and  roasting  pieces  are  obtained 
below  the  "back  cut."  Leaf  lard  is  made  from  the  kidney  fat, 
found  inside  the  back. 

The  illustration  (Fig.  58)  shows  the  common  method  of  cutting 
up  the  hog. 

Although  many  believe  that  pork  is  a  much  less  desirable  food 
than  other  meats,  it  is  very  extensively  used  by  all  classes  of  people 
the  world  over.  When  the  hogs  are  raised  under  sanitary  condi- 
tions with  good,  wholesome  food,  there  is  less  objection  to  the  use 
of  the  meat  than  when  they  are  fattened  in  filthy  surroundings,  and 
fed  with  brewers'  slops  or  other  refuse.  Hogs  are  subject  to  com- 
paratively few  diseases,  and  these,  such  as  hog-cholera,  usually 

*  J.  A.  M.  Ass.  Vol.  60,  p.  834.    Also  (Fish)  Am.  Vet.  Rev.,  41.  p.  178. 

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cany  them  off  quickly.  Pork,  ham  and  sausage  are  sometimes 
infested  with  trichina  spiralis,  which  may  be  seen  encysted  an 
the  flesh.    If  the  meat  has  not  been  carefully  inspected  at  the 



0  J  •*■ 


1                          1 

>FiG.  58. — Commercial  cuts  of  pork.  (By  permission  Dept.  of  Agric.  U.  of  Mo.) 
The  ordmary  commercial  cuts  of  pork  are  named  as  follows:  i.  Ham;  2,  bacon 
(spare  rib,  leaf  lard);  3,  fat  of  back  (loin);  4,  shoulder;  .5,  jowl,  plate. 

time  of  butchering  by  competent  veterinarians  the  only  safety  is 
in  arthorough  cooking  so  as  to  destroy  the  parasites.  Merely 
boiling  a  large  mass  of  meat,  as  a  ham,  is  not  sufficient  for  this 

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purpose,  as  the  interior  is  seldom  heated  to  a  high  enough  tempera- 
ture.   The  use  of  raw  sausages  especially  should  be  discoiuraged. 


The  cuts  of  mutton  are  different  from  those  of  beef  and  pork, 
and  are  usually  six  in  number,  three  on  each  side  of  the  carcass. 
The  hind  quarter  of  lamb  is  the  favorite  portion  for  roasting.  The 
"chops''  are  the  short  ribs  with  adhering  flesh. 

By  many  physicians,  mutton  is  considered  the  most  easily 
digested  of  all  the  meats.  Mutton  fat,  however,  is  liable  to  cause 
gastric  disturbance,  which  may  be  attributed  to  the  fact  that  it 
contains  more  stearic  acid  than  beef  fat,  and  is  therefore  of  firmer 
and  more  compact  structure,  but  the  nutrient  qualities  of  the  two 
kinds  of  meat  are  the  same.  The  best  English  mutton  is  ob- 
tained from  animals  six  years  old,^  and  in  any  case  the  animal 
should  be  three  years  old  before  it  is  slaughtered.  The  character- 
istic flavor  of  mutton  is  modified  by  cooking  with  a  little  vinegar 
or  lemon  juice,  and  some  consider  that  the  flavor  is  improved  by 
this  treatment.^ 


The  meat  of  goats  and  kids  is  not  used  extensively  in  the 
United  States,  although  it  is  an  important  food  with  many 
European  and  Asiatic  people.  As  these  animals  live  and  seem  to 
thrive  on  steep  rocky  lands,  where  the  aniount  of  forage  is  limited, 
they  are  of  great  value  for  their  milk,  their  skins  and  their  flesh, 
to  those  who  live  in  rough  mountainous  localities.  The  flesh  of 
goats,  with  the  exception  of  the  angora,  is  not  as  palatable  as  that 
of  the  sheep. 


The  meat  of  the  horse  is  seldom  used  knowingly  in  the  United 
States,  but  forms  a  very  important  part  of  the  diet  in  France, 

^  Practical  Dietetics,  Thompson,  p.  119 

«  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Farmers*  Bull.  No.  526. 

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Germany,  Austria,  Russia,  and  Denmark.  Whenever  from  any 
cause  other  varieties  of  meat  become  scarce  it  has  in  various  coun- 
tries been  found  convenient  to  use  horse  meat. 

This  meat  is  liable  to  be  somewhat  tough  and  coarse,  largely 
due  no  doubt  to  the  fact  that  horses  are  raised  for  purposes  other 
than  food,  and  are  usually  old  and  worn  out  before  they  are 
slaughtered.  The  beef  from  old  draught  cattle  or  of  cows  is  not 
nearly  as  good  as  that  of  the  young  steer  which  has  been  speda^y 
fattened  to  serve  as  food.  Horse  meat  does  not  differ  materially 
in  composition  from  beef,  except  that  it  contains  a  relatively 
large  amount  (about  1.8  per  cent.)  of  a  peculiar  starch  called 
glycogen.  (See  p.  14.)  A  high  per  cent,  of  this  substance  is 
indicative  of  the  presence  of  horse  meat  and  a  method  based  on 
this  fact  is  used  in  detecting  horse  flesh  when  mixed  with  other 
kinds  of  meat,  as  in  sausages.  The  fat  is  also  of  characteristic 
composition  and  structure. 


Besides  the  various  wild  fowl  or  game  birds  that  are  used  as 
food,  the  more  common  domestic  birds  are  chickens,  ducks,  geese, 
and  turkeys.  The  most  important  of  these  are  the  ordinary 
chickens,  supposed  to  be  descended  from  the  red  jungle  fowl  of 
India  or  the  East  Indies.  "Spring  chickens"  are  considered  fit 
for  food  when  they'are  from  two  to  three  months  old,  but  the  old 
fowls  are  apt  to  be  so  tough  and  flavorless  as  to  be  very  imsatis- 
f actory  food.  Within  the  past  few  years  the  chicken  business  has 
been  carried  on  very  scientifically  in  many  localities,  and  by  the 
use  of  the  "  incubator,"  in  which  the  temperature  is  kept  constantly 
at  about  102°  F.,  the  eggs  are  hatched  as  desired  so  as  to  have 
chickens  ready  for  market  at  any  time  of  the  year. 

Fowls  which  have  been  allowed  to  hang  from  one  to  two  days 
are  considered  better  for  food  purposes  than  those  that  are  freshly 
slaughtered;  they  may  of  course  be  kept  for  a  longer  time  at  a 
low  temperature  as  in  cold  storage.    There  has  been  much  dis- 

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cussion^  as  to  whether  the  chicken  should  be  stored  and  marketed 
"drawn,"  that  is  with  the  viscera  removed,  or  whether  the  intes- 
tinal organs  should  be  allowed  to  remain  in  the  fowls.  In  some 
states  the  regulation  of  the  food  authorities  requires  that  only 
drawn  poultry  shall  be  stored  or  put  upon  the  market,  but  at  the 
present  time  there  is  little  objection  to  shipping  undrawn  poultry. 
A  time  limit  should  be  put  upon  the  keeping  of  poultry  in  cold 

By  the  castration  of  the  male  bird  at  an  early  age,  the  ^' capon'* 
is  produced  and  its  flesh  has  come  to  be  very  highly  prized  espe- 
cially in  Europe,  on  account  of  its  more  delicate  flavor. 

The  composition  of  white  meat  and  dark  meat  of  chicken  is , 
as  follows:^ 


Water  in  fat- 
free  substance 




White  meat 






Dark"  meat 


The  white  meat  does  not  contain  so  much  fat,  but  does  contain  more 
protein,  and  is  better  suited  for  the  diet  of  invalids.  The  dark 
meat,  on  the  other  hand,  contains  more  meat  bases,  consequently 
it  has  more  of  the  characteristic  flavor  of  the  chicken.  The  potted 
chicken  found  on  the  market  was  formerly  quite  largely  adulter- 
ated by  the  substitution  of  other  meats. 


The  meat  of  the  domestic  duck,  as  well  as  that  of  the  wild 
duck,  is  used  for  food  all  over  the  world.  There  are  many  varieties 
of  ducks,  and  the  composition  of  the  flesh  differs  within  wide  limits. 
Mallards,  canvas  back,  and  teal,  are  some  of  the  wild  varieties 
foimd  in  the  United  States. 

1111.  Bull.,  Dcpt.  Agri. 

>  Foods  and  Their  Adulteration,  Wiley»  p.  102. 

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FOWLS  367 


The  common  goose  of  the  barn  yard  is  probably  a  descendant  of 
the  wild  geese  which  lived  in  early  times  in  the  marshes  and  fens  of 
the  countries  surroimding  the  Mediterranean  Sea.  In  some  coun- 
tries the  goose  after  it  is  killed  is  allowed  in  winter  to  hang  for 
several  weeks  before  it  is  considered  suitable  for  comsumption. 
Great  care  is  exercised  in  fattening  geese  for  the  market,  and  they 
are  given  all  the  food  that  they  will  eat,  and  are  carefully  protected 
from  cold  weather.  The  artificial  fattening  of  fowls  has  been 
recently  developed  in  such  a  way  that  the  food  is  actually  stuffed 
into  the  oesophagus  of  the  fowl  by  the  use  of  a  suitable  machine. 
**Pit6  d6  foie  gras/'  a  favorite  delicacy  in  parts  of  France  and 
Germany,  is  prepared  largely  from  the  overgrown  livers  of  geese 
that  are  stuffed  in  this  way  so  that  the  liver  often  weighs  2  or  3 
pounds.  These  pkt^s  as  found  on  the  market  are  apt  to  be  adul- 
terated by  the  partial  substitution  of  other  meats. 


The  domestic  turkey  is  a  descendant  of  the  wild  turkey  of  the 
plains  of  North  America.  Turkeys  are  not  so  easily  raised  as 
other  fowls,  being  more  subject  to  disease.  They  are  seldom  eaten 
while  young,  and  have  the  advantage  of  not  being  tough  when 
they  reach  full  maturity.  They  are  often  found  in  the  markets  in 
the  United  States,  especially  late  in  the  autumn,  weighing  from  20 
to  25  pounds.  There  is  little  difference  in  composition  between 
the  meat  of  the  turkey  and  the  chicken. 

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Since  fish  are  abundant  in  both  fresh  and  salt  water,  they  have 
from  the  earliest  times  been  a  favorite  food,  indeed  fish  often  forms 
the  staple  food  of  a  large  class  of  people.  Many  partially  civilized 
tribes  and  the  inhabitants  of  distant.islands,  as  well  as  those  who 
patronize  the  itinerant  "fish  peddler,"  have  learned  the  value  of 
fish  as  a  cheap  and  wholesome  source  of  nutriment.  In  fact,  fish 
takes  the  place  of  meat  to  such  an  extent  that  in  many  countries 
it  is  used  to  the  entire  exclusion  of  other  nitrogenous  foods.  •  Taken 
weight  for  weight,  however,  fish,  as  it  contains  more  water,  is  less 
nutritious  than  other  meat. 

Composition  of  Fish 

That  there  is  considerable  difiference  in  the  composition  of 
different  kinds  of  fish  is  illustrated  by  the  analyses  of  a  few  varieties 
here  given:* 

Edible  portion 



^'''^^'''       Fat 
NX6.25!     *^^' 








1 . 2 

Blue  fish 

1 . 2 



I.  ^ 


I   1 


1 . 2 




^  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Office.  Ex.  Sto.  Bull.  No.  38. 


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The  refuse  in  fish  as  purchased,  which  includes  the  head,  fins, 
skin  and  bones  and  interior  organs,  amounts  to  from  50  to  60  per 

Classes  of  Fish 

The  proportion  of  fat  is  less  in  fish  than  in  other  nitrogenous 
foods,  but  there  is  a  very  marked  difference  in  different  varieties, 
so  the  fish  may  be  classified  according  to  their  fat  content,  thus: 

1.  Fish  with  more  than  5  per  cent,  of  fat,  as  eels,  18  per  cent.; 
salmon,  12  per  cent.;  turbot,  12  per  cent.;  and  herring,  7  per  cent. 

2.  Fish  with  from  2  to  5  per  cent,  of  fat,  as  halibut,  2  per  cent.; 
black  fish,  2.8;  menhaden,  3.9;  white  perch,  4;  average  of  white- 
fleshed  fish,  2.90. 

3.  Fish  with  less  than  2  per  cent,  of  fat;  as  cod,  0.36,  flounder, 
0.63;  haddock,  0.30;  pickerel,  0.50;  red  snapper,  i.oo;  whiting, 
0.50;  sea  bass,  0.50.  Fish  of  this  latter  class  are  especially  easy 
to  digest. 

It  will  be  noticed  from  the  analysis  that  the  amount  of  water  in 
fish  is  larger  than  in  meats.  While  this  reduces  the  nutritive 
value,  it  may  tend  to  make  fish  more  digestible.  The  dry  matter 
of  fish  is  rich  in  protein;  sometimes  richer  than  dry  meat.  The 
nitrogenous  constituents  also  contain  more  gelatin  and  less 
"extractives"  than  do  those  of  meat.  This  greater  richness  in 
thbse  substances  that  yield  gelatin  causes  fish  to  lose  more  on 
boiling  then  meat,  and  is  one  reason  why  boiling  is  not  the  best 
method  of  cooking  fish.  As  the  extractives  are  low,  fish  has  not 
the  attractive  flavor  of  meat,  and  a  fish  diet  is  more  apt  to  become 
monotonous.^  The  mineral  constituents  of  fish,  especially  the 
phosphates  of  calcium  and  potassium,  are  high,  and  there  is 
considerable  sodium  chloride  (common  salt)  present..  The 
"fuel  value"  of  fish,  as  purchased,  is  low  on  account  of  the  large 
amount  of  water,  and  the  waste  in  dressing.  It  varies  from  220 
for  dressed  cod  to  475  for  halibut  steaks. 
^  Food  and  Dietetics,  Hutchinson,  p.  80. 

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DigestibiUty  of  Fish 

Investigations  upon  the  digestibiUty  of  fish  lead  to  the  con- 
clusion that  it  is  more  rapidly  and  just  as  completely  digested  as 
meat.  As  lean  meat  is  more  easily  digested  than  fat  meat,  so 
lean  fish  is  much  less  Uable  to  cause  derangement  of  the  digestive 
system  than  fat  fish.  Cod  fish,  however,  although  one  of  the 
leanest  of  fishes,  has  such  coarse  fibers  that  it  is  not  as  readily 
digested  as  most  fish  of  this  class.  The  muscle  of  salted  fish  is 
hardened  by  the  process  of  preservation,  and  consequently  salt 
fish  is  not  as  readily  digested  as  that  which  is  fresh. 

Because  fish  are  less  stimulating  and  "lighter"  than  meat,  they 
constitute  an  excellent  diet  for  brain-workers  and  those  of  seden- 
tary habits.  On  the  other  hand  these  same  quaUties  militate 
against  the  use  of  fish  to  entirely  replace  meat  in  the  diet  of  the 
working  man.  It  is  found  that  fish,  while  it  satisfies  the  hunger 
for  a  time,  does  not  appease  the  appetite  as  long  as  does  meat; 
the  hunger  soon  returns. 

Fish  alone  is  not  well  adapted  to  the  production  of  energy,  but 
should  be  supplemented  by  bread  and  butter  and  potatoes  or  other 
starchy  food.  The  "cod-fish"  cakes"  of  New  England,  which 
are  made  from  fish  and  potatoes,  or  bread  crumbs,  and  are  usually 
fried  in  pork  fat,  constitute  a  fairly  well-balanced  ration.  In 
many  localities  fish  are  a  cheaper  source  of  protein  than  meat, 
and  the  lack  of  fat  can  be  made  up  by  serving  them  with  a  sauce  of 
drawn  butter,  or  by  the  use  of  some  other  fat-containing  food. 
Notwithstanding  the  enormous  quantity  of  fish  obtained  in  the 
United  States  the  amount  of  fish  imported  in  19 12  was  valued  at 
over  $14,000,000. 

Varieties  of  Fish 

A  few  only  of  the  more  important  fishes  are  here  discussed. 
As  in  many  cases  their  characteristics  are  so  well  known  a  detailed 
description  is  unnecessary.^ 

^  Foods  and  Their  Adulteration,  Wiley. 

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The  anchovy^  is  a  small  fish  found  along  the  coast,  in  rather 
warm  waters  both  in  Europe  and  America.  They  are  eaten 
pickled  often  as  a  relish  more  than  in  a  fresh  state.  Anchovy 
sauce — which  is  made  by  pounding  the  fish  in  water  and  simmering 
with  pepper,  salt  and  other  seasoning — and  anchovy  paste,  are 
favorite  dressings. 

Black  bass  is  one  of  the  best  North  American  fresh  water 
fishes.  It  is  found  in  many  streams  and  lakes  in  the  north,  and 
is  one  of  the  fish  that  has  been  most  extensively  propagated  by  the 
U.  S.  Government. 

The  blue  fish,  which  is  f  oimd  in  the  market  weighing  from  3  to 
5  pounds,  is  one  of  the  favorite  salt  water  fishes  along  the  Atlantic 
coast.  * 

The  flesh  of  the  German  Carp,  a  fresh  water  fish,  is  rather  coarse 
and  lacking  in  taste,  although  it  is  probably  as  nutritious  as  that 
of  other  fish. 

The  catfish  or  "bullhead"  is  common  in  muddy  streams  and 
ponds  throughout  the  United  States.  Some  varieties  found  in  the 
Mississippi  and  its  tributaries  attain  a  weight  of  150  poimds  and 
are  5  feet  in  length.  The  flesh  is  sometimes  rather  coarse  and  has 
a  strong  taste  especially  if  the  fish  is  grown  in  a  muddy  stream. 
The  edible  portion  of  the  catfish  contains  on  the  average  20  per 
cent,  of  fat,  and  on  this  account  the  flesh  of  one  species  is  sometimes 
used  in  certain  parts  of  Eiurope  in  the  place  of  lard.* 

The  codfish  of  the  Newfoundland  Banks  is  one  of  the  most 
valuable  salt  water  fishes.  Not  only  is  it  an  excellent  food  when 
fresh,  but  when  dried  and  salted  it  forms  a  staple  in  some  parts 
of  the  coimtry.  The  livers  of  the  cod  are  extensively  used,  espe- 
cially in  Norway,  as  a  source  of  cod  liver  oil.  This  fish  has  also 
been  largely  propagated  by  the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Fisheries.  The 
haddock,  which  is  related  to  the  cod,  is  abundant  along  both  the 
Atlantic  and  Pacific  coasts  of  North  America,  and  is  eaten  either 
fresh  or  after  being  salted  and  smoked.    "Finnan  Haddies"  are 

^  American  Food  and  Game  Fishes,  Jordan  and  Evermann. 
2  Foods,  Their  Origin,  Composition  and  Manufacture,  Tibbies. 

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haddock  which  have  been  soaked  in  strong  biine  for  thirty 
minutes  and  are  then  exposed  to  the  smoke  from  a  peat  fire  for 
several  hours. 

The  halibut,  which  is  one  of  the  largest  of  the  food  fishes,  is 
found  in  great  abundance  in  the  north  Atlantic  and  north  Pacific. 
Its  weight  sometimes  reaches  500  pounds,  although  much  smaller 
specimens  are  better  for  food  purposes.  Halibut  steak  is  common 
on  the  markets  both  in  Europe  and  America.  As  the  flesh 
contains  a  good  proportion  of  protein  a^d  a  moderate  quantity  of 
fat,  it  forms  a  better  balanced  ration  than  codfish. 

Herringy  of  which  there  are  many  different  genera  and  species, 
are  essentially  salt  water  fish.  Their  habitat  is  especially  the 
cool  waters  of  the  northern  seas,  where  they  grow  in  great  abun- 
dance. Herring  fisheries  are  found  on  the  coast  of  Denmark, 
Norway,  Belgium,  France  and  the  United  States,  This  fish  is 
sold  either  fresh  or  preserved  by  pickling,  salting  or  smoking. 
"Bloaters"  are  dry,  salted  herrings  afterward  smoked.  "Kip- 
pered" herring  are  soaked  in  brine  for  a  short  time,  and  then 
smoked  over  hard-wood  shavings. 

The  mackerel  is  found  in  great  abundance  along  the  Atlantic 
coast,  especially  in  the  North,  and  southward  to  the  Mediterra- 
nean  and  Adriatic  seas.  They  travel  in  immense  schools,  sometimes 
several  miles  in  extent.  Like  most  other  fish  that  are  foimd  in 
great  abundance,  they  are  used  both  fresh  and  salted  or  smoked. 
The  flesh  is  comparatively  rich  in  fat,  and  is  therefore  not  as 
readily  digested  as  that  of  some  other  fish.  The  "Tunny"  or 
"tuna"  fish  is  the  largest  of  the  mackerel  family,  and  sometimes 
grows  to  the  length  of  ten  feet.  The  flesh  is  of  excellent  quality 
so  it  is  a  popular  fish  for  canning  purposes.  The  pompanOi  which 
is  also  related  to  this  family,  is  found  especially  in  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico.  It  is  a  fish  weighing  only  2  or  '3  pounds,  but  its  delicate 
flavor  makes  it  of  special  value. 

The  Mullet  is  a  widely  distributed  spedes,  found  along  the 
Altantic  coast  especially  off  the  Southern  States.  This  fish,  which 
sometimes  reaches  a  length  of  2  feet,  is  not  very  particular  about 

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its  food,  being  in  fact  something  of  a  scavenger,  but  is  an  important 
food  fish. 

The  salmon  is  by  many  considered  the  most  valuable  of  the 
food  fishes.  It  was  an  important  article  of  food  even  in  the  days 
of  the  Romans,  and  we  read  that  in  andent  times  both  England  and 
Scotland  supplied  central  Europe  with  this  fish.  Five  distinct 
species  are  found  along  the  Pacific  coast  of  America,  where  they 
begin  to  run  up  the  large  rivers  to  spawn  eaHy  in  the  spring,  and 
may  be  caught  during  the  greater  part  of  the  sximmer.  After 
spawning,  strange  as  it  may  seem,  in  a  short  time  they  inevitably 
die.^  The  flesh  of  different  species  varies  in  color  from  almost 
white  to  deep  pink,  and  as  it  contains  about  17  per  cent,  of  protein 
and  an  equal  quantity  of  fat,  forms  an  extremely  rich  and  nutri- 
tious food.  The  salmon  foimd  on  the  Atlantic  coast  contain  less 
fat  and  more  protein  than  the  Pacific  variety.  Salmon  are  put 
upon  the  market  fresh,  frozen,  and  in  immense  quantities  canned. 

Sardines,  or  pilchards,  which  belong  to  the  herring  family,  are 
found  along  the  coast,  both  of  Europe  and  North  America,  espe- 
cially in  northern  waters.  They  are  small  fish  of  excellent  flavor, 
and  are  put  upon  the  market  fresh,  salted  and  smoked,  and 
packed  in  oil. 

Shad  is  a  salt  water  fish  of  high  nutritive  value  and  delicate 
flavor,  which  is  found  along  the  Atlantic  coast  from  Florida  to 
the  St.  Lawrence.  It  has  also  been  introduced  into  the  rivers  of 
the  Pacific  slope  and  promises  to  thrive  there.  Shad  run  up  the 
rivers  from  the  sea  for  spawning  purposes  every  spring,  and  after 
their  return  disappear  in  the  deeper  parts  of  the  ocean.  They 
produce  large  quantities  of  eggs — as  many  as  150,000  in  some 
specimens — and  the  shad  roe  is  considered  a  great  delicacy,  always 
commanding  a  good  price.  From  an  economic  point  of  view  the 
shad  stands  third  in  production  in  the  United  States,  being  only 
exceeded  by  the  salmon  and  the  cod. 

The  red  snapper  is  abundant  in  the  deep  waters  of  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico,  and  off  the  west  coast  of  Florida.    It  weighs  from  10  to  30 

1  National  Geog.  Mag.,  Vol.  23,  p.  498. 

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pounds  and  the  flesh,  which  is  high  in  protein  and  of  excellent 
flavor,  is  much  prized  as  a  food.  On  account  of  the  fact  that  this 
fish  bears  shipping  extremely  well,  it  is  often  sold  in  the  northern 

The  sturgeon  is  a  large  fish  frequenting  the  northern  sea  and 
streams.  It  is  valuable  for  food  and  more  especially  for  its  eggs, 
which  are  used  for  making  caviar. 

Trout  is  one  of  the  most  important  game  fishes  and  belongs 
to  the  same  family  as  the  Atlantic  salmon.  There  are  quite  a 
large  nxmiber  of  species  which  differ  slightly  in  appearance  and 
quality  found  in  the  streams  in  different  parts  of  the  country.  The 
trout  of  the  Great  Lakes,  which  belongs  to  a  different  genus  than 
the  Altantic  salmon,  has  an  average  weight  of  15  or  20  pounds, 
although  the  fish  found  in  the  market  generally  weigh  less.  The 
flesh  of  the  brook  trout  contains  19  per  cent,  of  protein  and  only  2 
per  cent,  of  fat,  while  that  of  the  lake  trout  approaches  in  compo- 
sition the  Pacific  salmon  and  contains  about  18  per  cent,  of  protein 
and  II  per  cent,  of  fat. 

The  whitefish  is  one  of  the  most  abundant  fishes  of  the  Great 
Lakes,  and  a  valuable  food  fish.  They  are  caught  in  spawning 
time  in  the  shallow  waters,  and  retreat  to  the  deeper  waters  in 
the  winter.  They  contain  about  22  per  cent,  of  protein,  and  6 
per  cent,  of  fat — a  good  proportion  for  dietetic  purposes.  The 
weight  of  the  fish  is  from  2  to  6  pounds. 


Fish  deteriorate  very  rapidly  after  they  are  taken  from  the 
water,  and  are  always  more  appetizing  if  they  can  be  cooked  and 
eaten  almost  immediately  after  they  are  caught.  As  this  is  so 
often  impossible,  various  methods  have  been  devised  for  preserving 
this  valuable  food.  The  most  important  of  these  are  freezing, 
dry-salting,  drying,  preserving  in  brine,  smoking,  canning  either 
plain  or  in  oil. 

In  European  countries  fish  after  they  are  caught  are  not  allowed 

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to  die  from  suffocation,  but  are  kept  in  tanks  of  water  until  they 
are  sold  and  then  slaughtered  for  immediate  use.  This  is  a  much 
better  method  of  handling  them  than  that  in  common  use  in  the 
United  States.  The  general  method  with  us  is  to  keep  the  fish 
on  ice  until  sold.  When  fish  are  put  in  cold  storage  they  are  frozen 
solid  and  kept  in  this  condition  for  a  long  time.  It  is  however 
still  an  open  question  as  to  whether  fish  and  similar  perishable 
animal  products  do  not  really  deteriorate  in  quality  when  kept  in 
cold  storage  for  more  than  a  shprt  period.  The  purchaser  is  also 
entitled  to  know  whether  he  is  getting  cold  storage  fish  or  that 
which  has  simply  been  kept  on  ice  for  a  few  days.^ 

Recent  observations^  have  shown  that  when  meat  is  stored  at 
a  temperature  of  32®  F.  the  activity  of  microorganisms  is  dimin- 
ished, but  the  activity  of  ferments  normally  present  in  meat  still 
continues.  While  therefore  meat  ripens  in  storage,  it  does  not 
decay.  With  regard  to  fish  however  the  conclusion  was  reached 
that  although  a  temperature  of  32®  F.  checks  the  action  of  micro- 
organisms and  prevents  putrefaction,  the  enzymes  normally  pres- 
ent in  the  flesh  of  fish  act  prejudicially  and  produce  bodies  of 
unpleasant  flavor,  so  that  although  the  fish  has  not  decayed  it 
becomes  unpalatable. 

In  Norway  the  codfish  is  often  simply  sun-dried,  by  exposing 
it  upon  poles  for  several  months.  A  common  method  of  treatment 
in  the  United  States  and  abroad,  and  one  which  produces  an 
extremely  palatable  product,  is  by  first  soaking  in  brine  and  then 
smoke-drying.  More  recently  a  quick-curing  method  has  been 
introduced  in  which  by  the  use  of  borax  and  brine  it  is  possible  to 
turn  out  the  finished  product  more  rapidly. 

In  the  ordinary  process  of  curing  cod  as  used  in  the  United 
States,^  the  fish,  either  salt  or  fresh  as  soon  as  brought  in  by  the 
fishermen  are  packed  in  hogsheads  with  salt  and  allowed  to  stand 
from  eight  days  to  three  weeks.  They  are  then  taken  out  and 
washed  and  piled  and  these  stacks  are  replied  several  times  so  that 

1  Freezing  Fish,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Bull.  No.  635,  1918. 

*  Foods,  Origin,  Composition  and  Manufacture,  Tibbies,  p.  198. 

*V,  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Bur.  Chem.,  Bull.  No.  133. 

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the  weight  of  the  fish  above  may  press  out  the  water  that  is  in  the 
fish  at  the  bottom  of  the  pile.  The  fish  are  then  dried  on  "  flakes ' ' 
or  latticed  racks  in  the  open  air,  or  sometimes  by  artificial  heat  in 
the  factories.  The  cod  are  then  skinned  and  packed  in  various 
ways  for  the  market. 

"Boned  fish,"  "shredded*'  and  "desiccated"  fish  are  also 
articles  of  commerce.  The  dried  and  salted  codfish  contains 
more  than  50  per  cent,  of  salt,  and  this  must  be  soaked  out  with 
water  before  the  fisji  is  prepared  for  the  table.  Mackerel,  salmon, 
herring,  and  halibut  are  readily  and  commonly  preserved  by  the 
method  used  for  codfish.  Almost  any  of  the  food  fishes  may  be 
preserved  in  brine,  but  those  most  commonly  found  on  the 
market  preserved  in  this  way  are  mackerel,  anchovies,  herring, 
salmon  and  Lake  whitefish. 

Canning  Fish 

The  canning  of  fish  has  developed  into  a  great  industry  within 
a  few  years.  As  fish  decomposes  so  readily  the  most  careful  and 
complete  sterilization  is  necessary  in  the  process.  In  the  salmon- 
canning  establishments  along  the  Pacific  coast  the  process  includes 
scaling,  cleaning,  beheading,  washing,  and  placing  in  nets  for 
cooking.  The  fish  is  then  packed  in  cans,  sometimes  with  salt, 
salt  water,  and  a  little  alum,  and  thoroughly  "processed,"  and 
finally  sealed.  Canning  in  oil  is  applied  especially  to  sardines, 
young  herring,  and  other  small  fish.  In  this  process  the  fish  after 
being  cleaned  are  cooked  and  sterilized  in  oil,  then  packed  in  tin 
cans  in  oil,  sealed  and  frequently  again  sterilized.  The  oil  used  for 
the  original  cooking  is  frequently  peanut  oil  or  some  other  cheap 
oil  like  cotton-seed  or  sesam6,  and  while  the  best  grades  of  sardines 
are  usually  canned  in  olive  oil,  other  oils  are  often  used.  The  chief 
adulterations  of  sardines  are  mislabeling  as  to  the  country  where 
the  fish  were  caught,  use  of  oils  other  than  that  of  the  olive,  and 
the  substitution  of  other  fish  as  sprats  or  small  herring  for  the 

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CAVIAR  377 

Fish  Products 

Caviar  is  the  preserved  roe  or  eggs  of  the  sturgeon,  and  was 
introduced  by  the  Moslem  tribes  inhabiting  Russia.^  At  first  it 
was  so  expensive  that  it  was  considered  a  luxury  to  be  used  only 
by  the  wealthy.  It  is  prepared  in  Russia,  Norway,  Germany  and 
America.  It  is  said  that  in  some  cases  the  roe  is*  shipped  from 
America  to  Europe,  where  it  is  repacked  and  shipped  back  to  this 
country  to  be  sold  at  an  advanced  price,  as  it  bears  a  foreign  label. 
The  method  of  preparation  of  caviar  is  to  rub  the  fresh  eggs  back 
and  forth  over  a  small-meshed  wire  screen  of  such  dimensions  that 
the  eggs  drop  through  and  the  membranes  which  enclosed  them  are 
retained.  Salt  is  then  added  to  the  eggs  and  the  mass  is  stirred 
with  the  hands.  After  a  short  time  a  brine  is  formed  from  the 
liquid  drawn  from  the  eggs,  the  superfluous  brine  is  pomred  off, 
and  the  roe,  after  being  drained,  are  put  up  in  cans  or  casks  and 
constitute  the  caviar  of  commerce.  Pressed  caviar  and  dried 
caviar  are  also  upon  the  market.  This  is  an  extremely  rich  food 
and  is  used  as  a  relish  or  in  making  sandwiches. 

Isinglass  or  fish  glue  is  prepared  from  the  swimming  bladder  of 
various  fish.  The  Russian  isinglass  is  obtained  from  the  stur- 
geon, while  that  from  Brazil,  the  East  Indies  and  America  is 
usually  obtained  from  other  fi^h.  It  is  used  chiefly  in  fining  or 
clarifying  jellies  and  liquids  such  as  wine  and  beer. 

Fish  oils  are  obtained  by  rendering  any  parts  of  the  fish  con- 
taining fat.  Menhaden  oil  is  made  in  large  quantities  along  the 
Atlantic  coast,  but  it  is  not  an  edible  oil.  Sardine  oil  is  made 
especially  in  Japan,  and  along  the  Pacific  coast  a  salmon  oil  is 
prepared  which  may  be  used  for  edible  purposes. 


Under  the  term  shellfish  are  included  various  mollusks  and  crus- 
taceans that  have  a  shell.    The  nutritive  ratio  is  not  as  high  as 

*  Food  Products  of  the  World,  Green,  p.  6i. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


that  of  fish,  but  they  are  used  in  large  quantities  on  account  of 
their  agreeable  flavor. 

Oj^ters  are  grown  in  shallow  salt  waters  in  numerous  localities 
throughout  the  temperate  zone.  They  thrive  best  about  the 
mouths  of  rivers  where  the  water  is  brackish.  In  the  United 
States  they  are  found  most  abundantly  on  the  coast  of  Long  Island 
Sound,  Virginia,  Mississippi,  Louisiana,  Texas  and  Washington. 
In  England  they  are  cultivated  along  the  coasts  bordering  on  the 
English  Channel.  Oysters  are  also  found  at  other  points  along 
the  western  coast  of  Eiurope,  and  in  China  and  Japan. 

Since  the  native  beds  of  oysters  are  soon  exhausted,  it  has 
become  necessary  to  introduce  oyster  farming.  The  oysters  are 
planted  in  shallow  waters,  where  they  are  protected  for  the  owner 
by  local  laws.  They  are  in  their  prime  when  from  two  and  one- 
half  to  five  years  old. 

Oysters  may  be  kept  in  the  shell  for  a  week  or  two  after  being 
removed  from  the  water,  if  the  temperature  is  not  over  40®  to 
50®,  and  they  are  occasionally  wet  with  sea  water.  They  may, 
therefore,  be  shipped  in  the  shell  with  proper  precautions,  to  inte- 
rior points. 


The  average  composition  of  oysters  exclusive  of  liquids  accord- 
ing to  Langworthy  is: 

Water 88.3 

Nitrogenous  substances 6.1 

Fat 1.4 

Carbohydrates 3.3 

Salts 1.9 

The  nitrogeneous  substance  is  probably  not  all  protein,  but 
consists  partly  of  nutrients  of  lower  value.  The  carbohydrates 
consist  mainly  of  glycogen  from  the  liver,  a  substance  which  is 
readily  digested.  As  the  amount  of  solid  matter  is  not  large, 
about  the  same  as  milk,  it  is  not  strange  that  two  or  three  dozen 
oysters  can  be  eaten  at  a  meal. 

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The  color  of  oysters,  especially  on  European  coasts,  is  sometimes 
green. ^  This  may  be  due  either  to  the  presence  of  sea  weeds, 
diatoms,  etc.,  which  do  not  in  any  way  injure  the  oysters,  or  it  has 
also  been  foynd  to  be  sometimes  due  to  the  presence  of  copper. 
The  Mareuse  oyster  is  much  esteemed  in  Europe,  and  as  these 
have  a  greenish  color  due  to  the  pigment  from  infusoria  or  diatoms, 
the  practice  has  grown  up  of  placing  ordinary  oysters  in  salt  water 
and  feeding  them  on  a  peculiar  seaweed,  which  would  impart  a 
green  color  to  their  gills.  Worse  than  this  is  the  practice  of  stain- 
ing oysters  green  by  the  use  of  copper  sulfate.-  There  seems 
to  be  good  evidence,  however,  to  show  that  the  green  color  is 
sometimes  due  to  copper  which  has  actually  been  absorbed  by  the 
oysters  from  the  water  in  which  they  live.  The  author  has  found 
copper  equivalent  to  0.09  of  i  per  cent,  of  copper  sulfate  in  oysters.^ 
J.  T.  Willard,*  who  has  made  analyses  of  thirty-four  samples, 
from  different  points  along  the  Atlantic  Coast  finds  that  they  all 
contained  very  small  quantities  of  copper.  The  amount  of  this 
metal  however,  is  probably  not  large  enough  to  be  injurious. 

Digestibility  of  Oysters 

Raw  oysters  are  very  digestible,  and  when  properly  cooked 
they  ar.e  often  recommended  as  food  for  invalids.  They  admit  of  a 
great  variety  of  methods  of  cooking,  and  impart  to  the  diet  a 
pleasing  variety.  They  are  less  digestible  when  fried,  than  when 
cooked  in  any  other  way. 

Preservation  of  Oysters 

As  already  stated,  oysters  may  be  kept  in  the  shell  under  proper 
conditions  for  some  time.  There  is,  however,  an  immense  market 
for  oysters  which  have  been  removed  from  the  shell.  These  were 
formerly  shipped  in  the  United  States  to  interior  points  in  tubs 
in  which  a  cake  of  ice  was  floating.    Aside  from  the  fact  that 

1 U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Bur.  Chem.  Bull.  No.  136,  p.  29. 

*  Foods,  Origin,  Manufacture  and  Composition,  Tibbie. 

*  Bull.  Kas.  State  Bd.  Health,  1907,  p.  36. 

*  BttU.  K3B.  State  Bd.  Healthy  1908,  p.  4. 

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this  method,  with  its  frequent  "  idng"  en  route  is  unsanitary,  the 
oysters  under  these  conditions  absorb  a  large  amount  of  water. 
This  is  due  to  osmosis  the  soluble  salts  of  the  oyster  diffusing  into 
the  water,  and  the  water  entering  and  pufling  up  or  "fattening'' 
the  oyster  and  impairing  its  flavor.  To  avoid  these  conditions 
many  of  the  states^  have  passed  laws  requiring  that  all  oysters 
shipped  into  the  state  shall  be  sent  in  vessels  surrounded  by  ice, 
and  not  with  the  ice  in  contact  with  the  oysters.  They  have 
furthermore  made  regulations^  that  the  oysters  as  sold  must  con- 
tain at  least  10  per  cent,  of  solid  matter.  This  has  greatly 
improved  the  quality  of  shipped  oysters.  The  oysters  are  some- 
times sealed  in  tin  cans,  which  are  shipped  in  vessels  surrounded  by 
ice.  Small  oysters  under  the  name  of  "coves"  are  put  up  in  tin 
cans  and  sterilized,  for  use  at  quite  inaccessible  interior  points. 

Some  favorite  varieties  of  oysters  are  named  from  the  locality 
whence  they  are  obtained  as  "Blue  Points"  from  Long  Island, 
"Rockway"  from  another  Long  Island  locality  and  "Shrewsburg" 
from  the  New  Jersey  coast  and  "Lynhaven  Bays,"  from  near  Nor- 
folk, Va. 

Oysters  are  often  fattened  in  beds  near  the  effluent  of  sewers 
and  typhoid  fever  has  resulted  from  the  eating  of  these  oysters 
which  have  not  been  cooked.  There  is  imdisputed  evidence 
that  shellfish  become  contaminated  when  placed  in  sewage- 
polluted  waters,  and  the  results  of  many  investigations^  show  hatt 
these  shellfish  have  been  responsible  for  the  production  of  typhoid 
fever  and  other  intestinal  diseases.  The  most  noteworthy  cases 
appear  where  oysters  have  been  "floated"  in  sewage  polluted 
waters,  in  the  vicinity  of  large  cities.  Oyster  beds  should  be 
protected  in  every  way  from  all  sources  of  contamination,  and  the 
water  should  be  proven  to  be  piure  by  repeated  examinations. 


The  clam  as  a  food  is  nearly  as  important  as  the  oyster,  but 
it  is  more  commonly  used  along  the  seashore  than  at  a  distance 

» Stiles,  U.  S.  Dcpt.  Agri.  Bur.  Chem.  Bull.  Nos.  136,  156. 

«  Reg.  Kas.  St.  Bd.  Health,  May  1911.  Digitized  by  LjQOgle 

SHELL  FISH  $8 1 

from  the  sea.  There  are  two  principal  varieties:  the  long  or 
soft-shell  clam  of  the  New  England  coast,  and  the  thick-shelled 
round  clam  which  is  also  called  the  "quahog."  Clams  are  more 
extensively  consimied  in  the  United  States  during  the  warm 
summer  months  when  the  oyster  is  considered  out  of  season. 

In  composition  clams  do  not  differ  much  from  oysters.  They 
contain  from  6  to  8  per  cent,  of  protein,  i  per  cent,  of  fat,  and 
from  2  to  4  per  cent,  of  carbohydrates.  Clams  may  be  eaten 
raw,  cooked,  or  in  "chowder,"  but  they  are  probably  not  as  readily 
digested  as  oysters,  because  of  the  toughness  of  part  of  the  body. 


Mussels  are  found  both  in  salt  and  in  fresh  water.  In  England 
and  France  they  are  more  generally  used  than  in  America.  The 
flesh  of  the  salt  water  mussel  is  of  a  yellow  color,  and  somewhat 
tough  when  cooked.  The  fresh  water  mussels  are  gathered  in  the 
United  States  for  the  pearls  which  they  often  furnish. 


Scallops,  shellfish  somewhat  resembling  oysters,  are  more  in 
favor  in  America  than  in  Europe,  and  are  obtained  along  the  New 
England  coast  by  the  use  of  dredging  boats.  From  September 
to  the  first  of  March,  they  are  considered  "  in  season."  The  muscle 
or  hard  part,  used  for  opening  and  closing  the  shell  is  the  part  of 
the  mollusk  that  is  eaten. 


Snails,  especially  the  escargot,  are  much  used  as  food  in 
France,  and  Austria  where  they  are  cultivated  in  the  vineyards 
in  "snail  nurseries."  These  snails  are  vegetable  feeders,  and  are 
soft  and  digestible  when  raw,  but  become  somewhat  tough  by 
cooking.  Not  less  than  8o  million  snails  are  sold  yearly  in  the  Hal- 
les  Centrale,  the  great  market  of  Paris. ^ 

^  The  Grocer's  Encyclopedia,  p.  569. 

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Lobsters  are  abundant  in  the  temperate  zone  along  the  Euro- 
pean and  American  coast.  The  lobster  although  a  salt  water 
crustacean  is  quite  similar  to  the  common  crawfish  of  the  fresh 
water  streams.  The  natural  color  of  the  lobster  is  dark  green 
to  black,  but  after  boiling,  it  becomes  red.  The  pinkish  meat 
which  has  a  sweet,  deh'cate  flavor  is  found  mostly  in  the  so-called 
tail  and  in  the  claws.  This  meat  amounts  to  about  50  per  cent,  of 
the  entire  body.  The  flesh  contains  11.63  P^^  cent,  of  protein, 
1.82  per  cent,  of  fat  and  0.62  per  cent,  of  glycogen.^  This  flesh  is 
rather  indigestible  on  account  of  the  coarseness  of  the  fibers.  The 
canning  of  lobsters  is  an  important  industry  in  Nova  Scotia,  New- 
foundland, and  along  the  coast  of  Maine.  The  so-called  lobsters 
used  as  food  on  the  Pacific  coast  are  large  crawfish  and  contain 
less  edible  matter  than  the  true  lobster. 



The  flesh  of  the  crab,  both  the  "hard  shell"  and  "soft  shell 
is  highly  prized  especially  in  the  middle  and  southern  Atlantic 
States.  The  "soft  shell''  crabs  are  those  which  are  caught  just 
after  shedding  the  old  hard  shell.  The  edible  portion  yields  23 
per  cent,  of  solid  matter,  which  is  similar  in  composition  to  the 
flesh  of  the  lobster.  Japanese  crab  meat  (canned)  is  a  common 
food  on  the  market. 


These  are  all  highly  valued  food  products  in  some  localities. 
They  are  found  along  the  coast,  in  Great  Britain,  the  Continent 
and  in  the  United  States.  Large  quantities  of  shrimps  are  canned 
in  the  southern  states  for  the  market. 

*  Foods  and  Their  Adulteration,  Wiley,  p.  155. 

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Turfles  inhabiting  both  fresh  and  salt  water,  are  important 
foods.  The  green  turtle,  which  sometimes  weighs  several  himdred 
pounds,  is  used  chiefly  in  making  soups  which  are  greatly  valued  for 
their  flavor.  Turtle  meat  contains  about  20  per  cent,  of  protein 
and  a  small  amount  of  fat.  It  is  generally  considered  as  a  luxury, 
and  is  rather  indigestible.  The  flesh  is  cut  into  slices  and  sun- 
dried  for  preservation.  The  terrapin,  a  salt-marsh  tortoise,  is 
found  along  the  North  Atlantic  coast.  The  diamond-back,  and 
the  red-bellied  terrapin  is  in  common  use  for  edible  purposes. 
The  flesh  is  highly  esteemed  for  its  digestibility,  and  agreeable 
flavor.  On  account  of  the  demand  for  terrapin,  there  is  danger 
that  it  will  be  exterminated  in  the  eastern  United  States,  and  it 
is  already  so  expensive  as  to  be  classed  as  a  luxury.  The  effort 
to  raise  terrapin  artificially  has  not  been  wholly  successful.  Frogs, 
legs  are  a  standard  food  in  the  markets  of  continental  Europe 
at  certain  seasons  of  the  year  and  are  gradually  being  utilized  in 
the  United  States.  They  are  in  the  best  condition  in  the  autumn 
and  winter.  The  flesh,  which  has  an  extremely  delicate  flavor, 
tastes  somewhat  like  that  of  chicken,  and  is  easily  digested. 

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Milk,  since  it  contains  all  the  substances  necessary  to  sustain 
the  life  of  the  young  animal,  has  always  been  regarded  as  an 
ideal  food,  and  in  addition  to  woman's  milk,  the  natural  food  of 
infants,  the  milk  of  the  cow,  goat,  ass,  ewe,  mare,  camel  and  rein- 
deer have  been  used  from  the  earliest  times  as  human  food.  The 
foods  manufactured  from  milk,  including  butter,  cheese  in  almost 
endless  variety,  koumiss  and  other  fermented  beverages,  have  also 
been  used  by  different  peoples  from  the  remote  ages  of  the  past. 
Butter  was  used  by  the  Hindus  as  early  as  2000  B.C.  both  as  food 
and  in  their  religious  ceremonies,  and  it  is  mentioned  by  the  early 
Hebrew,  Greek  and  Roman  writers.  It  is  however  a  product 
of  the  temperate  zones  rather  than  the  torrid,  as  it  melts  so  readily 
in  warm  weather. 


Considering  for  the  present  cow's  milk  only,  it  is  well  known 
that  the  quality  varies  within  wide  limits  dependent  on  the  breed, 
age,  condition,  stage  of  lactation,  and  food  of  the  animal,  and  the 
season  of  the  year.  If  examined  with  the  microscope,  milk  will  be 
seen  to  contain  numerous  fat  globules  of  a  pearly  luster,  and  about 
0.005  millimeters  in  diameter.  It  is  the  presence  of  these  globules 
that  give  to  milk  its  yellow  color,  so  that  we  are  accustomed  to 
judge  something  of  the  quality  of  the  milk  by  its  color. 

The  "reaction"  of  human  milk  and  that  of  herbivorous  animals 
when  freshly  drawn  is  slightly  alkaline,  while  that  of  carnivorous 
mammals  is  as  a  rule  slightly  add.  In  the  case  of  cow's  milk  the 
reaction  may  appear  to  be  amphoteric,  that  is,  it  gives  the  add 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



of  the  alkaline  reaction  according  as  different  indicators  are  nsed.^ 
The  specific  gravity  of  milk  varies  from  1.029  to  1.035  ^^  60®  F. 
This  is  not  considered  as  valuable  an  index  of  the  quality  of  milk  as 

It  is  practically  impossible  to  obtain  clean  milk  from  cows 
that  are  kept  in  filthy  surroundings.  To  obtain  milk  of  excellent 
quality  the  cows  should  be  housed  in  light,  clean,  warm,  well-ven- 

FiG.  59. — The  Flemish  milk  seller. 

tilated  stables.  In  the  best  dairy  practice  the  floors  are  of  con- 
crete, the  windows  are  screened  to  keep  out  flies,  and  an  abundance 
of  good  water  is  supplied.  The  udder  of  the  cow  is  carefully 
brushed  and  cleaned  before  milking.  The  attendants  are  free 
from  infectious  disease,  wear  clean  clothes  when  milking,  and  avoid 
noise  and  confusion  in  handling  the  cows.*  The  custom  that  has 
recently  been  adopted  in  the  best  dairies  for  marketing  milk  in 
closed  bottles  is  an  advance  in  sanitation.  In  Europe  it  is  sold 
from  tin  or  brass  cans.     (Fig.  59.) 

*  Bordas,  Eighth  Int.  Cong.  Ap.  Chem.,  Vol.  18,  p.  67. 
'  U.  S.  Dept.  of  Agri.  Bur.  An.  Ind.  Circ,  142. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


As  milk  affords  an  ideal  medium  for  the  growth  of  bacteria,  it 
is  of  importance  that  the  milk  room,  where  the  milk  is  stored,  be 
clean  and  cool.  The  milk  should  be  cooled  to  below  50°  F.  as 
soon  as  possible  after  it  is  drawn,  and  kept  cold  until  delivered  to 
the  customer. 

Tuberctilous  Milk 

The  cows  should  be  examined  from  time  to  time  to  determine 
whether  they  are  afficted  with  tuberculosis,  and  any  suspected 
animal  should  be  immediately  isolated  from  the  rest  of  the  herd, 
and  its  milk  rejected. 

Says  Dr.  F,  H.  Billings :  "  Tubercle  bacilli  in  milk  are  generally 
of  bovine  origin.  If  a  dairy  cow  is  suffering  with  tuberculosis  there 
is  a  chance  of  the  milk  becoming  contaminated  with  the  bovine 
type  to  which  children  are  particularly  susceptible.  The  bacilli 
find  entrance  through  lesionsjin  the  udder  and  through  particles 
of  excrement  that  fall  into  the  pail  in  the  process  of  milking.  It 
has  been  shown  that  cows  afllicted  with  the  disease  may  pass  viru- 
lent bacilli  with  their  f  eceSj^'and  it  is  probable  that  contamination 
from  this  source  is  of  greater  frequency  than  it  is  from  diseased 
udders.  Dependence  on  ordinary  clinical  symptoms  for  detecting 
tuberculosis  in  dairy  herds  should  not  be  considered,  as  animals 
may  give  every  appearance  of  being  healthy  and  yet  may  be  scat- 
tering virulent  organisms.  Reliance  should  be  placed  rather  on 
the  "  tuberculin"  test,  and  the  removal  from  the  herd  of  those  ani- 
mals which  react  with  it." 

"The  occurrence  of  bacilli  of  himian  origin  in  milk  is  sometimes 
traceable  to  careless  handling  by  persons  afflicted  with  consump- 
tion. Though  this  source  of  danger  doubtless  plays  a  less  im- 
portant r61e  than  the  other,  it  is  real,  and  great  care  should  be 
exercised  in  excluding  diseased  persons  from  handling  milk  that  is 
used  by  others." 

"While  man  is  the  main  source  of  himian  infection  (with 
tuberculosis),  the  proportion  due  to  material  of  bovine  origin 
IS  sufficiently  large  to  make  it  very  important  that  proper  steps  be 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 



taken  to  prevent  this  source  of  human  disease.  It  must  be  con- 
ceded that  while  infected  meat  cannot  be  altogether  excluded  as  a 
source  of  human  tuberculosis,  in  nearly  all  the  cases  of  human 
infection  from  bovine  sources,  the  vehicle  is  milk  or  milk  products."^ 
In  many  parts  of  the  country,  regular  inspections  of  the  dairies 
are  made  by  competent  veterinarians,  imder  the  direction  of  the 
state  or  the  municipal  health  authorities. 

Abnormal  Milk 

The  secretion  from  the  udders  of  cows  and  other  mammals  for 
some  days  after  the  birth  of  the  young  acts  as  a  purgative  and  has  a 
pungent  taste.  It  is  called  "colostrum,"  and  is  not  considered 
fit  for  human  food.  It  contains  less  water  and  sugar  than  normal 
milk  and  much  more  albumin  and  ash.  The  amount  of  fat  is 
extremely  variable  and  it  contains  small  organized  bodies  which  are 
generally  regarded  as  the  d6bris  of  the  cell  structure  of  the  gland. 
The  milk  secreted  for  some  weeks  before  the  calf  is  born  is  also 
usually  rejected. 

Composition  of  Milk 

The  composition  of  the  milk  of  different  animals  is  as  follows:^ 










I. 0305 
I. 0341 

I . 0360 








6.52    > 



1. 21 









It  is  evident  that  milk,  although  a  liquid,  contains  less  water 
than  some  vegetables  and  fruits,  for  instance  asparagus,  which 

^  Milk  and  the  Public  Health,  Savage,  p.  321. 

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contains  94  per  cent,  of  water;  tomatoes  94.3  per  cent.;  strawberries 
90.4  per  cent.;  and  watermelon  92.4  per  cent. 

In  milk  the  soluble  substances  are  milk  sugar  (lactose),  soluble 
albumin  and  mineral  salts  especially  phosphates  of  calcium,  etc., 
while  the  material  in  less  complete  solution  is  a  part  of  the  casein, 
and  the  fat  globules  held  in  suspension  in  the  serum.  Milk  sugar 
is  an  excellent  food  substance  and  may  be  obtained  as  a  by-prod- 
uct from  whey  in  the  manufacture  of  cheese.     (See  p.  426.) 

Changes  in  Milk 

The  first  change  that  takes  place  in  the  milk  on  standing  is  the 
separation  of  the  fat  as  cream,  which  rises  more  readily  when 
the  milk  is  kept  at  a  low  temperature.  The  second  change  that 
the  milk  undergoes  is  souring  which  is  accelerated  by  warm  weather 
and  by  storing  the  milk  in  unclean  vessels,  or  in  filthy  surroundings. 
This  change  is  brought  about  by  the  bacterium  addi  lacti  and  other 
bacteria  of  the  lactic  acid  group,  which  aid  in  the  formation  of 
lactic  add  (CsHcOa)  from  the  milk  sugar  (lactose)  C12H22O11+ 
H2O  present.  The  casein  is  at  the  same  time  changed  from  a 
soluble  to  an  insoluble  condition.  The  peculiar  properties  of 
milk  are  taken  advantage  of  in  the  making  of  butter  from  the  fat 
and  cheese  from  the  casein. 

Digestion  of  Milk 

On  accoimt  of  its  unique  composition  and  from  the  physical 
condition  in  which  the  nutrients  occur  in  milk,  this  is  one  of  the 
most  completely  digested  of  all  foods,  for  95  per  cent,  of  the 
proteins,rand  97  per  cent,  of  the  carbohydrates  are  absorbed,  and 
utilized.  If  milk  is  taken  in  a  mixed  ration,  which  has  been 
found  to  be  the  best  method  of  administering  most  foods,  prac- 
tically all  of  the  nutrients  contained  are  utilized  by  the  body. 
It  is  probably  on  account  of  the  digestive  action  of  certain  enzymes 
'^r  ferments  contained  in  milk,  that  this  liquid  assists  in  the 

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digestion  of  other  foods  with  which  it  may  be  combined.^  There 
are  some  persons,  however,  who  do  not  readily  digest  milk,  and 
they  should  refrain  as  much  as  possible  from  using  it. 

Certified  Milk 

This  is  a  product  which  has  been  drawn  from  " tested'*  cows, 
and  handled  and  marketed  in  a  particular  manner  as  prescribed 
by  the  proper  authorities  of  the  community  where  it  is  sold. 
In  a  few  states  only  have  laws  been  passed  defining  "certified 
milk,"  and  except  in  these  states  the  term  "certified,"  as  ordinarily 
used,  means  nothing,  as  it  may  be  certified  by  interested  parties. 
The  regulations  of  the  Milk  Commission  of  the  Medical  Society  of 
the  county  of  New  York  require  that  there  shall  be  less  than 
30,000  germs  of  all  kinds  per  cubic  centimeter  in  certified  milk. 
It  must  contain  on  the  average  4  per  cent,  of  butter  fat,  and  must 
be  sold  on  the  day  in  which  it  reaches  New  York  City.  Those 
dealers  who  furnish  milk  that  is  in  every  way  up  to  the  standard 
are  entitled  to  use  caps  on  their  jars  stamped  by  the  city  as 
certified  by  the  Milk  Commission.  It  is  the  duty  of  the  official 
inspector  to  see  that  there  are  no  tuberculous  or  diseased  cows  in 
the  herd,  that  the  stables  are  clean,  that  the  milk  is  drawn  in 
sanitary  surroimdings,  by  clean  employees,  and  that  it  is,  as  far  as 
possible,  free  from  bacteria.  Certified  milk  is  often  found  con- 
taining only  8000  bacteria  per  cubic  centimeter,  while  an  ordinary 
market  milk  may  contain  as  many  as  50,000  or  more.  As  milk  has 
proved  almost  indispensable  and  for  general  purposes,  as  a  food 
for  infants  and  invalids  many  experiments  have  been  directed 
toward  keeping  it  sweet  as  long  as  possible  after  it  is  drawn. 

Pasteurized  Milk 

The  boiling  of  milk  ^  produces  the  partial  fixation  of  the  calcium 
salts,  probably  precipitated  as  tri-calcium  phosphate,  and  the 

»  Minn.  Ex.  Sta.  BuU.  No.  86  (L.U.). 
«  Morse,  J.  A.  M.  A.  Vol.  60,  p.  876. 

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precipitation  of  magnesium  salts.  About  one-third  of  the  dtric 
acid  is  precipitated  as  tri-caldum  citrate,  and  the  soluble  albumins 
are  entirely  precipitated. 

Pasteurized  milk  is  a  product  which  has  been  heated  to  157°  F. 
for  ten  minutes  or  longer,  whereby  the  activity  of  the  bacteria  is 
very  much  diminished  and  many  of  the  non-spore-bearing  bacteria 
are  killed.  Milk  from  an  unknown  source  should  always  be  pas- 
teurized before  being  given  to  young  children.  Two  processes  are 
in  common  use.  In  the  "holder"  process  which  is  most  in  favor 
the  milk  is  held  at  145°  F.  for  thirty  minutes.  In  the  "flash" 
process  the  milk  is  gradually  heated  to  160°  F.,  held  at  this  temper- 
ature from  thirty  seconds  to  one  minute  and  then  quickly  cooled. 
Milk  may  be  conveniently  pasteurized  in  the  home^  by  setting  the 
bottles  in  which  the  milk  is  delivered  into  a  tin  pail  upon  a  false 
bottom  of  wooden  slats  or  an  inverted  pie  tin  in  which  some  holes 
have  been  punched,  filling  the  pail  with  water,  nearly  to  the  level 
of  the  milk,  and  placing  it  on  the  stove  or  over  a  gas  flame.  Punc- 
ture the  pasteboard  cap  of  one  of  the  bottles  and  insert  a  thermom- 
eter. An  instrument  provided  with  a  scale  etched  on  the  glass  is 
the  best  form  to  use.  Heat  the  milk  until  the  mercmy  stands 
above  150°  F.,  but  below  155°  F.,  then  remove  from  the  stove,  and 
allow  to  stand  from  twenty  to  thirty  minutes,  after  replacing  the 
punctured  cap  with  a  new  one.  Take  the  bottles  out  of  the  pail, 
cool  quickly  and  keep  in  a  cool  place,  or  better,  replace  the  warm 
water  in  the  pail  with  cold  until  the  milk  is  thoroughly  cooled,  and 
keep  in  a  cool  place.  Pastuerization,^  when  properly  performed, 
affords  protection  from  pathogenic  organisms,  it  causes  a  reduction 
in  infantile  death  rate  due  to  intestinal  diseases  and  increases  the 
keeping  quality  of  the  milk.  Notwithstanding  all  these  advan- 
tages numerous  objections  have  been  raised  to  the  process. 

Milk  is  "sterilized**  when  heated  to  a  temperature  between 
180°  F.  and  boiling.  By  this  process,  however,  some  of  the  casein 
is  coagulated  and  the  milk  is  not  as  wholesome  a  food  as  if  merely 

1  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  413. 
*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Bur.  Animal  Ind.  Circ.  184. 

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Evaporated  Milk 

Several  products  under  the  name  of  **  evaporated  milk,^* 
'^condensed  milk''  **preserved  milk''  and  **evaporaled  cream"  are 
upon  the  market.  Although  numerous  patents  were  granted, 
earlier  yet  the  first  commercially  successful  plant  for  making  con- 
densed milk  in  the  United  States,  was  erected  by  Gail  Borden  in 
1856  at  Wolcottville,  Conn.  At  the  present  time  there  are  more 
than  300  milk-condensing  plants.^  The  value  of  the  condensed 
milk  made  in  a  single  year  (1909)  was  over  $33,000,000.  An  Amer- 
ican, Chas.  Page,  introduced  the  process  into  Switzerland,  and  was 
the  first  to  build  a  factory  there.  Milk  preserved  in  this  way  is  an 
extremely  convenient  addition  to  the  diet  as  in  the  army,  on  ship- 
board, and  for  the  traveler,  where  fresh  milk  is  not  obtainable. 
It  is  concentrated  and  canned  either  with  or  without  the  ad- 
dition of  cane  sugar. 

Condensed  milk  is  most  readily  prepared  by  boiling  the  milk 
in  a  vacuum  pan  to  the  required  density,  and  then  sealing  im- 
mediately in  tin  cans.  In  the  United  States,  before  the  enforce- 
ment of  the  "Pure  Food  Laws,"  'there  were  in  the  market  many 
brands  of " so-called"  condensed  "  cream"  or  evaporated  " cream" 
that  were  in  reality  only  concentrated  milk.  Skim  milk  was  often 
concentrated  and  sold  as  evaporated  whole  milk.  At  present  the 
label  on  the  can  must  correctly  describe  the  contents. 

A  comparison  of  the  percentage  composition  of  the  sweetened 
and  unsweetened  condensed  milk  is  as  follows.* 









Fat  in 



Normal  sweet- 
ened cond.  milk 

Normal  imsweet- 
ened  cond.  milk 








1. 55 


*  Year-book.,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  191 2. 

'  Food  Inspection  and  Analysis,  Leach,  p.  187. 

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Diluted  condensed  milk  is  sometimes  used  as  food  for  infants. 
It  is  by  no  means  a  perfect  food,  but  it  has  the  advantage  of  being 
free  from  bacterial  contamination,  and  in  some  circumstances  is 
safer  than  raw  cow's  milk.  This  is  particularly  the  case  when 
traveling,  or  living  in  the  dty  where  milk  that  is  known  to  be  of 
good  quality  cannot  be  obtained. 

Desiccated  Milk 

Special  processes  have  recently  been  invented  for  evaporating 
milk  to  a  dry  powder.  One  of  these  consists  of  feeding  the  milk  in 
a  thin  sheet  on  to  a  pair  of  steam-heated  cylinders  revolving  in 
opposite  directions,  and  having  a  surface  temperature  of  about 
212°  F.  (ioo°  C).  The  milk  is  dried  in  about  thirty  seconds,  and 
is  scraped  from  the  roll  by  a  knife  edge.  By  another  process  the 
milk  in  the  form  of  a  spray  is  forced  into  a  hot  air  chamber  while 
an  air  current  drives  the  dry  particles  against  a  screen  which 
arrests  the  solid  portions  and  allows  the  air  to  pass  on.^ 

The  greatest  difficulty  in  the, manufacture  of  desiccated  milks 
has  always  been  the  preparation  of  a  product  which  is  sufficiently 
dry  so  that  it  will  keep  in  all  climates  and  at  the  same  time  be 
completely  soluble  in  water.  Probably  the  desiccated  milk  which 
most  nearly  meets  these  conditions  is  that  made  by  sprajdng  the 
fresh  milk  into  a  warm,  vacuum  chamber  where  the  mist  is  almost 
instantly  deprived  of  its  water  and  the  resulting  powder  falls  to  the 
floor  of  the  oven.  When  the  proper  amount  of  water  is  added  to 
this  dried  milk,  the  mixture  closely  resembles  ordinary  milk,  and  is 
used  by  bakers  for  many  purposes  where  milk  is  required.  Some 
of  the  so-called  milk  powders  or  desiccated  milks  on  the  market,  are 
evidently  dried  pulverized  and  skimmed  milk.  This  does  not  as 
readily  become  rancid  as  the  powder  made  from  whole  milk.  If 
sold  under  their  true  names  and  at  prices  to  correspond  there  is  no 
objection  to  the  use  of  milk  powders. 

*  Year  Book,  Dept.  Agri.,  191 2. 

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Skim  Milk 

Skim  milk  is  an  excellent  food  substance,  as  it  is  whole  milk 
simply  deprived  of  its  fat,  by  hand  skimming  or  the  use  of  the 
separator.  It  still  contains  the  valuable  proteins,  a  little  fat,  the 
milk  sugar,  and  most  of  the  mineral  salts.  Skim  milk  should 
be  sold  under  its  true  name  and  should  not  be  used  as  an  adul- 
terant for  whole  milk. 

Modified  Milk 

As  may  be  seen  from  the  analysis  on  page  387,  human  milk  is 
not  as  rich  in  solids  as  cow's  milk,  and  although  it  contains  about 
the  same  amount  of  fat,  there  is  more  sugar  and  less  protein. 
Over  50  per  cent,  of  the  protein  in  human  milk  is  in  the  form  of 
albumins,  while  in  cow's  milk  only  one-fifth  is  in  that  form  the 
remainder  being  in  a  state  probably  less  digestible.  Cow's  milk 
has  also  a  tendency  to  curdle  into  tough  masses  in  the  human 
stomach,  and  this  material  is  not  as  readily  digested  as  a  similar 
product  when  coagulated  from  human  milk.  Furthermore,  the 
fat  globules  are  much  smaller  in  human  milk  than  in  cow's  milk.^ 
There  are,  therefore,  many  points  of  difference  between  the  two 
kinds  of  milk,  and  in  infant-feeding  especially  an  effort  is  made  to 
imitate  human  milk  by  ^'modifying''  cow's  milk.  The  ingredients 
usually  employed  for  this  purpose  are  cream,  containing  16  per 
cent,  of  butter  fat,  skimmed  milk  (from  the  separator)  milk 
sugar,  and  sometimes  lime-  or  barley-water.  These  should  always 
be  mixed  according  to  a  formula  prescribed  by  a  physician,  or  by  a 
competent  nurse.  The  proportion  of  each  ingredient  to  be  used 
varies  with  the  age  of  the  infant.  As  cream  is  generally  rich  in 
bacteria,  infants  often  thrive  better  if  it  is  not  added  in  preparing 
modified  milk.  In  modifying  milk,  the  general  method  is  to 
bring  the  proteins  and  ash  to  the  right  proportion  by  dilution  with 
water,  to  add  lactose  to  increase  the  sugar,  and  finally  cream  to 
increase  the  per  cent,  of  fat. 
^  Human  Foods,  Snyder,  p.  89, 

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Milk  is  adulterated  in  various  ways,  usually  by 

1.  Addition  of  water. 

2.  Removal  of  cream  with  or  without  addition  of  water. 

3.  Addition  of  preservatives. 

In  detecting  the  addition  of  water  the  lactometer,  an  instru- 
ment for  determining  the  specific  gravity  of  milk,  which  sinks 
to  a  definite  point  in  pure  milk  of  a  specified  temperature,  is 
useful.  If  however,  fat  is  removed  thus  raising  the  spedficgravity, 
and  at  the  same  time  water  is  added,  which  lowers  the  specific 
gravity,  these  two  operations  may  be  so  combined  as  to  produce  a 
sample  of  milk  that  will  nearly  correspond  in  specific  gravity  to 
whole  milk,  although  of  course  adulterated.  Before  being  assured 
as  to  the  purity  of  the  sample  it  is  necessary  to  determine  the 
amoimt  of  fat  and  the  "solids  not  fat." 

The  per  cent,  of  fat  can  be  obtained  by  the  use  of  the  "Bab- 
cock"  tester,  a  simple  instrument  devised  by  Prof.  Babcock  of 
Wisconsin.  To  use  this  instrument,  17.6  c.c.  of  milk  are  placed 
in  a  bottle  which  has  a  long  neck  graduated  in  such  a  way  that  the 
numbers  represent  per  cent,  of  fat.  17.5  c.c.  of  commercial  sul- 
furic acid  (1.82  sp.  gr.)  is  then  added  to  the  milk  and  the  bottle  is 
whirled  rapidly  in  a  "centrifugal,"  so  that  the  particles  of  butter 
fat  which  separate  may  be  collected  on  the  top.  Sufficient  hot 
water  is  added  to  bring  the  fat  into  the  narrow  neck,  and  the 
machine  is  again  rotated  for  a  short  time.  The  percentage  of  col- 
lected fat  can  then  be  read  directly.  Machines  of  this  type  are  in 
general  use  at  all  dairies  and  milk  factories. 

In  order  not  to  exclude  any  genuine  milk,  the  standard  of  the  fat 
content  of  milk  which  has  been  adopted  in  the  different  states  of 
this  country  and  in  England  is  low  (3.00  to  3.50  per  cent.).  On 
this  account  it  will  be  readily  seen  that  the  rich  milk  of  some  cows, 
especially  of  the  Guernsey  and  Jersey  breeds,  may  be  either  lightly 
skimmed  or  may  be  diluted  with  water,  and  yet  the  milk  will 
appear  to  be  unadxilterated,  if  tested  only  for  fat  by  the  ordinary 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


methods.  In  the  latter  case  the  **  solids  not  fat"  would  be  de- 
creased below  the  normal  quantity,  and  so  the  adulteration 
could  be  readily  detected.  The  standard  for  ''solids  not  fat''  in 
use  by  the  U.  S.  Dept.  of  Agri.  is  8.5  and  the  amount  of  "total 
solids  required  in  the  different  states  varies  from  eleven  in  Idaho 
to  thirteen  in  Minnesota.  In  case  there  is  a  disagreement  as  to 
the  amount  of  fat  in  a  sample  of  milk,  it  is  best  to  draw  the  milk 
directly  from  the  cow,  and  have  it  tested.  In  this  connection  it 
should  be  noted,  however,  that  the  first  milk  drawn  from  the 
udder  is  not  as  rich  in  fat  as  the  last  milk  or  the  "strippings"  as 
it  is  called,  and  so  in  order  to  get  a  fair  sample  all  the  milk 
should  be  drawn  and  well  mixed  before  being  tested. 

The  Use  of  Preservatives 

In  order  to  prevent  the  souring  of  milk  various  chemicals  have 
been  added  to  it.  Formerly  sodium  bicarbonate  (baking  soda) 
was  used  for  this  purpose  as  it  would  neutralize  the  lactic  acid  as 
fast  as  it  was  formed.  More  recently  the  milk  has  been  preserved 
by  the  use  of  boric  add,  hydrogen  peroxide  or  formalin.  The 
addition  of  any  chemical  of  this  character  to  preserve  milk  cannot 
be  too  strongly  condemned.  The  practice  is  forbidden  by  law 
in  most  of  the  cities  and  states  of  the  Unites  States.  A  food  that 
is  of  such  importance,  and  is  frequently  the  sole  dependence  for 
nourishment  for  infants  and  invalids,  should  be  kept  absolutely 
free  from  adulteration.^ 

Poisonous  Milk 

Although  milk  affords  an  excellent  medium  for  the  growth  of 
germs,  most  of  those  found  in  milk  are  not  injurious  to  the  system. 
There  are,  however,  certain  bacteria  which  find  their  way  into  milk 
if  stored  in  dirty,  damp  imsanitary  surroimdings,  which  produce 
extremely  poisonous  products.  These  are  sometimes  found  in 
milk,  cheese  and  ice  cream  and  if  taken  into  the  system,  produce 

1  Milk  and  the  Public  Health.  Savage,  p.  389. 

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very  dangerous  and  sometimes  fatal  results.  These  poisons 
have  been  studied  by  numerous  chemists,  especially  by  Vaughn,^ 
and  are  now  known  to  belong  to  the  class  called  ptomaines.  The 
name  tyrotoxicon  (cheese-poison)  was  given  to  one  of  these  most 
frequently  found  in  milk. 


Koumiss  is  an  alcoholic  beverage  made  originally  in  Asia 
Minor  by  fermentation  of  mare's  milk,  which  it  has  been  noticed, 
is  richer  in  sugar  than  cow's  milk.  This  beverage  contains  from 
I  to  2  per  cent,  of  alcohol,  and  less  than  i  per  cent,  of  lactic  acid, 
and  the  casein  is  somewhat  modified  during  the  process  of  fer- 

Kephir  (or  Keffir)  is  a  drink  prepared  especially  in  the  Cau- 
casus, by  the  fermentation  of  cow's  milk  using  a  fungus  known  as 
Kephir  grains.  It  usually  contains  less  than  i  per  cent.,  though 
occasionally  nearly  2  per  cent,  of  alcohol.* 

A  double  fermentation  takes  place  during  the  manufacture  of 
Koumiss  and  Kephir.  The  sugar  of  milk  is  partly  converted  into 
lactic  acid  by  "lactic"  fermentation,  and  in  part,  a  "vinous" 
fermentation  takes  place  similar  to  that  which  occurs  in  the  mak- 
ing of  wine.  The  lactic  fermentation  begins  first  and  lasts  the 
longest,  but  it  is  the  aim  of  the  koumiss  maker  to  restrain  the 
lactic  fermentation  as  much  as  possible.'  Mare's  milk,  although  a 
poorer  food  than  cow's  milk,  is  better  adapted  to  this  double 
fermentation,  as  it  is  richer  in  sugar,  and  the  fact  that  it  contains 
less  fat  renders  the  resulting  product  more  digestible.  The  casein 
in  Koumiss  is  in  such  a  form  that  it  is  more  easily  attacked  by  the 
digestive  juices  than  is  the  casein  in  milk,  and  the  carbon  dioxide 
gas,  one  of  the  products  of  the  fermentation  stimulates  the  action 
of  the  stomach,  while  the  alcohol  acts  as  a  slight  stimulant  so  that 
patients  who  cannot  assimilate  whole  milk  often  benefit  by  the  use 
of  this  product. 

^  Vaughn-Novy,  Ptomaines  and  Leucomaines. 
'  Douglas,  The  Bacillus  of  Long  Life,  p.  90. 
'  Foods  and  Dietetics,  Hutchinson,  p.  135. 

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In  the  United  States  and  Europe  an  imitation  koumiss  is  made 
by  fermenting  cow's  milk  with  yeast  at  a  low  temperature,  often 
after  the  addition  of  cane  sugar.  The  beverage  should  be  kept  in 
the  same  bottles  in  which  it  is  made  and  these  should  be  stored  with 
the  necks  down.  Care  should  be  taken  to  see  that  the  corks  are 
tied  in  securely,  and  during  the  first  day  or  two  it  is  advisable  to 
shake  occasionally. 

A  so-called  koumiss  may  be  made  as  follows:  To  5  quarts  of 
separator  or  skim  milk  add  2  quarts  of  water,  2  1/2  ounces  of 
granulated  sugar,  i  ounce  of  milk  sugar,  and  i  ounce  of  good  yeast, 
then  allow  the  mixture  to  stand  for  thirty-two  hours  at  a  temper- 
ature of  100°  F.,  stirring  vigorously  every  five  or  six  hours.  De- 
cant into  patent  stoppered  or  pop  bottles  and  cork  seciurely.  Store 
in  a  cellar  at  a  temperature  of  55°  F.,  and  use  within  six  days. 

Yoghoort  ^  (or  Jauert  lactic  acid  bacteria)  which  is  found  in  the 
market  as  a  material  for  making  a  milk  beverage,  consists  of  three 
bacteria,  viz..  Bacillus  Bulgaricus,  which  produces  most  of  the  lac- 
tic add  and  works  in  milk  up  to  2  1/2  per  cent,  of  this  add,  a 
lactic  add  streptococcus,  and  Bacteria  lactii  add,  Giintheri. 
Sometimes  the  Bacillus  Bulgaricus  is  mixed  with  the  Glucobacteria, 
in  order  to  produce  a  sugar  from  starch  in  the  intestines,  as  food  for 
the  growth  of  the  Badllus  Bulgaricus.  Skimmed  milk  is  boiled 
or  pasteurized,  cooled  and  innoculated  with  these  bacteria,  and 
allowed  to  stand  for  some  time  in  a  warm  place  to  facilitate  thdr 
growth.  It  is  then  cooled  and  will  keep  for  some  time  on  ice. 
The  theory  has  been  advanced  that  the  great  age  attained  by  some 
of  the  Bulgarian  peasants  is  due  to  the  continued  use  of  sour  milk 
products.  *  Matzoon  is  another  milk  preparation,  introduced  from 
Armenia.  It  appears  to  have  been  produced  by  the  lactic  fer- 
mentation of  milk  enriched  with  cream.'  Leben  is  an  Egyptian 
product  made  from  the  milk  of  the  buflfalo,  camel,  cow  or  goat.^ 
Dadhi  is  a  similar  preparation  made  in  India. 

1  Hugo  KUhl,  (Abst.)  C.  A.,  Vol.  6,  p.  2797. 

*  The  Prolongation  of  Life,  Metchnikoff . 

*  Dairy  Chemistry,  Richmond,  p.  344. 

*  Nat.  Geog.  Mag.,  Vol.  26,  p.  567. 

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^      Comparing  some  milk  products,  it  has  been  found  that  the  fuel 

value^  is  as  follows: 

.Calories  Per  Pound 

Whole  milk 310 

Skim  milk 165 

Buttermilk 160 

Cream 865 

Unsweetened  cond.  milk 780 

As  the  estimation  of  the  fuel  value  is  the  best  way  of  determining 
the  relative  nutritive  value  of  foods,  these  figures  show,  other 
things  being  equal,  how  valuable  these  products  are  as  food.  They 
serve  also  to  emphasize  the  fact  that  skim  milk  and  buttermilk 
have  so  much  nutritive  value,  that  they  should  not  be  ignored  as 
valuable  additions  to  human  food. 

Homogenized  Milk 

An  apparatus  known  as  a  "  homogenizer,*'  which  has  the  faculty 
of  disrupting  the  globules  of  fat  in  milk  so  that  the  cream  will  not 
separate  by  merely  standing,  has  recently  come  into  use.  It 
is  used  for  mixing  butter  or  other  fats  with  skim  milk  to  form  a 
"so-called"  cream,  but  it  has  been  ruled  by  the  Dept.  of  Agri. 
that  the  product  is  not  entitled  to  be  labeled  cream.* 


Those  that  have  become  accustomed  to  the  milk  of  the  cow 
rather  than  that  of  some  other  mammal,  naturally  prefer  this  milk 
before  any  other,  but  this  is  probably  the  result  of  habit  and 
acquired  taste.  In  many  foreign  countries  the  people  who  have 
become  accustomed  to  the  milk  of  other  animals  find  it  just  as 
satisfactory  as  we  do  that  of  the  cow.     Goat's  milk  is  in  very  com- 

*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  363 

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»  U.  S.  F.  I.  D.  Na  no 

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mon  use,  especially  in  the  mountainous  districts  of  Europe.  In 
Italy  it  is  no  unusual  sight  to  see  the  milk  "peddled"  through  the 
streets  of  the  dties,  by  driving  the  goats  to  the  door,  and  milking 
in  the  presence  of  the  customer.  (Fig.  60).  There  is  quite  a 
difference  of  opinion  among  physicians  as  to  whether  there  is  any 

Fig.  60. — Selling  goat's  milk,  Italy. 

advantage  in  using  goat's  milk  in  the  place  of  cow's  milk  for  feeding 

According  to  recent  statistics  there  are  upward  of  3,500,000 
goats  in  Spain.  ^  These  are  driven  through  the  streets  for  milking 
during  the  early  morning  and  afternoon  hours.  Only  a  small 
portion  of  the  milk  produced  is  made  into  cheese.  The  goat 
weighs  from  55  to  96  pounds,  and  the  daily  average  of  milk  given  is 
a  little  over  two  quarts  per  goat.  The  cost  of  food  consumed, 
which  consists  of  dried  alfalfa  and  beans,  is  about  9  cents  a  day. 
This  milk  is  more  commonly  used  in  Spain  than  is  cow's  milk. 

The  milk  of  the  buflfalo  is  still  used  in  India,  and  that  of  the 
Llama  in  South  America,  while  camel's  milk  is  a  staple  food  on  the 

^  Daily  Consular  and  Trade  report,  No.  283. 19x3. 

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deserts  of  Arabia,  and  mare's  milk  on  the  steppes  of  Russia  and 
central  Asia.  The  milk  of  the  sheep  is  used  in  parts  of  Eiurope  in 
various  ways,  including  the  making  of  cheese,  and  reindeer  nulk  is 
a  common  food  in  the  arctic  regions. 

In  many  countries,  milk  forms  a  very  important  part  of  the 
food  supply  for  adults  as  well  as  children,  and  much  more  is  used 
per  capita  than  can  be  economically  raised  under  the  special 
conditions  of  climate,  altitude,  feed,  and  environment  of  that 


When  milk  is  allowed  to  stand  for  some  hours  in  a  cool  place, 
best  at  about  60^  F.,  in  shallow  pans,  the  fat  globules  and  some 
adhering  substances  rise  to  the  surface,  and  give  us  what  we  call 
cream.  This  fat  is  in  the  form  of  an  emulsion;  that  is,  the  small 
fat  globules  do  not  run  together  to  make  a  dear  oily  layer  because 
of  the  viscosity  of  the  liquid,  and  their,  own  surface  tension. 
Besides  the  shallow  pan  system  of  raising  cream,  the  deep  setting 
system^  is  also  in  use.  In  this  process  the  milk,  as  soon  as  drawn, 
is  placed  in  tall  cans,  which  are  immersed  in  cold  water  or  sur- 
rounded by  ice.  A  temperature  as  low  as  40°  F.  has  been  shown  to 
be  the  most  satisfactory.  The  cans  are  supplied  with  a  glass  gauge 
in  one  side  so  that  one  can  see  when  the  cream  has  risen,  the  milk 
can  then  be  drawn  oflF  through  a  faucet  at  the  bottom,  leaving  the 
cream  in  the  can.  It  is  asserted  that  by  this  system,  not  more  than 
two-tenths  of  i  per  cent,  of  fat  is  left  in  the  skimmed  milk,  while 
by  the  shallow  pan  system,  it  is  difficult  to  obtain  a  skim  milk 
that  contains  less  than  five-tenths  of  i  per  cent. 

In  addition  to  these  two  methods  of  gathering  the  cream  from 
the  milk,  we  have  that  depending  upon  the  centrifugal  "sepa- 
rator." The  introduction  of  this  type  of  machine  opened  a  new 
epoch  in  the  methods  of  butter-making.  Since  the  first  mechan- 
ical separator  was  patented  many  improvements  have  been  made. 
The  instrument  consists  essentially  of  an  upright  bowl  turning  on  a 
perpendicular  axis  at  a  rate  of  from  5000  to  8000  revolutions  per 
^  Milk  and  Its  Products,  Wing,  p.  98, 

Digitized  by  VjOOQiC 

CREAM  401 

minute.  When  the  milk  is  run  into  the  machine,  the  centrifugal 
force,  acting  more  strongly  on  the  heaviest  parts  of  the  milk, 
throws  them  to  the  periphery  of  the  bowl,  and  here  the  skim  milk 
is  drawn  off,  while  the  lighter  part  of  the  milk  (the  cream)  remains 
closer  to  the  center  and  is  discharged  through  its  proper  pipe.  The 
rate  of  inflow  can  be  regulated  so  that  the  apparatus  will  deliver 
cream  of  any  desired  degree  of  richness.  A  good  separator  will 
leave  only  one-tenth  of  i  per  cent,  of  fat  in  the  skimmed  milk. 
The  capacity  of  the  larger  machines  is  from  1000  to  2000  pounds  of 
milk  per  hour. 

Composition  of  Cream 

Commercial  cream  contains  from  18  to  25  per  cent,  of  butter 
fat.  The  standard  of  the  A.  O.  A.  C.  is  18  per  cent.,  but  differ- 
ent standards  have  been  made  in  the  different  states.  It  would 
be  well  if  more  attention  was  paid  to  the  quality  of  cream  fur- 
nished for  domestic  use.  Its  butter  fat  content  should  be  just 
as  carefully  watched  as  that  of  milk.  Cream  obtained  by  the  use 
of  the  separator  can  be  made  much  richer  than  gravity  cream,  and 
will  keep  longer,  as  it  does  not  contain  so  much  of  the  entangled 
casein.  In  addition  to  adulterations  by  the  use  of  preservatives, 
and  the  addition  of  milk,  gelatin  and  calcium  saccharate  have  been 
used  to  increase  the  consistency  of  a  low-grade  cjream.  "Whip- 
ping cream"  should  contain  from  30  to  40  per  cent,  of  butter  fat. 


The  manufacture  of  ice  cream  is  largely  a  development  of  the 
nineteenth  century,  especially  in  the  United  States.  The  first 
advertisement  of  ice  cream  appeared  in  a  New  York  paper,  June 
8,  1786,  but  the  wholesale  business  was  not  originated  until  after 
1800.    The  present  annual  output  is  over  120,000,000  gallons. 

According  to  the  U.  S.  Standard, "  ice  cream  is  a  frozen  product 
made  from  cream  and  sugar,  with  or  without  flavoring,  and  con- 
tains not  less  than  14  per  cent,  of  milk  fat.  A  fruit  or  a  nut  ice 
cream  may  contain  not  less  than  12  per  cent,  of  milk  fat"  The 

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ordinary  method  of  freezing  is  to  place  the  material  in  a  vessel  in 
which  it  can  be  mechanically  stirred,  and  surround  this  vessel  with 
crushed  ice  and  salt.  The  temperature  produced  by  this  mixture 
is  o*^  F.  which  is  so  much  below  32*^  F.,  the  freezing  point  of  water, 
that  the  interior  mass  is  quickly  congealed.  In  large  ice  cream 
factories,  where  the  brine  surrounding  the  cream  is  cooled  by  liquid 
ammonia  as  in  the  commercial  ice  plant,  the  process  of  ice-cream 
making  is  continuous,  and  the  frozen  mass  is  continually  delivered 
from  the  machine. 

Previous  to  the  enactment  of  the  Pure  Food  Act  in  the  United 
States,  analyses  of  the  so-called  ice  cream  on  the  market,  showed 
that  while  some  contained  20  per  cent,  of  milk  fat,  much  of  it 
contained  less  than  10  per  cent,  and  not  a  little  was  actually  poorer 
in  fat  than  legal  milk,  for  it  contained  less  than  3  per  cent. 

Sometimes  eggs  or  starch  are  added  to  the  milk  or  cream  in 
making  ice  cream.  This  product,  if  not  up  to  the  standard  in 
milk  fat  should  be  called  frozen  custard,  and  sold  as  such.  It  is 
quite  a  common  custom  among  ice  cream  manufacturers  to  add  to 
the  cream  a  little  gelatin,  or  agar-agar,  or  commercial  casein  and 
especially  gum  tragacanth.  Some  makers  assert  that  this  is 
necessary  in  order  to  make  the  cream  "stand  up''  during  trans- 
portation. This  is  quite  probably  the  case,  but  it  is  well  to 
remember  in  this  connection  that  ice  cream  is  sold  by  bulk  and 
not  by  weight  and  the  addition  of  these  thickeners  very  materially 
increases  the  number  of  pints  of  ice  cream  which  can  be  made  from 
a  gallon  of  raw  cream. 

If  the  cream  used  is  of  good  quality  its  viscosity  increases  with 
age,  and  permits  an  increase  in  bulk  when  it  is  frozen.  Some 
manufacturers  always  pasteurize  their  cream  before  freezing,  while 
others  prefer  to  make  the  ice  cream  from  the  raw  cream. 

Through  a  recent  invention  the  milk  or  cream  may  be  "Homo- 
genized," that  is  by  the  use  of  a  suitable  apparatus  the  cream  is 
subjected  to  a  pressure  of  from  3000  to  5000  pounds  per  square 
inch  and  is  thus  made  homogenous  throughout.  The  use  of  this 
product  enables  the  ice  cream  manufacturer  to  make  cream  bav^ 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 

BUTTER  403 

ing  the  body  and  texture  of  a  20  to  25  per  cent,  article,  from  a  cream 
containing  only  16  or  17  per  cent,  of  butter  fat.^    (See  p.  398.) 

Ice  cream  is  flavored  by  the  use  of  extract  of  lemon  or  vanilla, 
and  with  chocolate,  cocoanut,  coffee,  fruits,  nuts  and  berries. 
Genuine  fruits  and  berries  either  fresh  or  preserved,  impart  a 
delicious  flavor  to  the  product,  but  cream  which  is  artificially 
colored  with  aniline  dyes,  and  flavored  with  synthetic  extracts 
should  be  avoided.  Ice  creams  have  been  found  on  the  market  in 
which  a  part  of  the  milk  fat  had  been  replaced  by  cheaper  animal  or 
vegetable  fats.  Reference  has  already  been  made  (p.  396)  to  the 
occurrence  of  "  t3rrotoxicon,"  a  ptomain  poison  in  cream  that  has 
been  stored  in  unsanitary  surroundings. 

The  use  of  ice  cream  in  the  United  States  is  constantly  increas- 
ing. The  manufacture  of  these  products  has  never  been  so  far 
perfected  in  Great  Britain  or  on  the  Continent,  as  in  the  United 
States,  nor  have  the  people  learned  to  use  them  so  extensively. 


When  cream  is  designed  for  the  manufacture  of  butter  a 
"ripening''  process  is  required  before  it  is  suitable  for  making  a 
good  quality  of  butter.  No  special  precautions  are  required  when 
the  shallow  pan  or  deep-setting  system  of  raising  cream  are  used, 
as  these  processes  require  considerable  time  and  the  cream  has 
time  to  ripen,  but  with  the  employment  of  the  separator,  the 
cream  must  stand  for  several  hours  to  become  fully  ripened. 

Ripening  Cream 

For  the  ripening  of  separator  cream,  its  temperature  is  re- 
duced to  at  least  50®  F.  for  a  time,  and  the  process  is  completed 
at  a  temperature  of  60°  F.  to  70®  F.  It  is  during  the  process  of 
ripening  of  the  cream  that  the  characteristic  and  agreeable  flavors 
that  so  modify  the  quality  of  the  butter  ^  are  developed.    In 

iMilk  and  Its  Products,  Wing,  Revised  Ed. 
*Loc  dt.,  p.  127. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


the  ordinary  sense,  this  ripening  is  due  to  the  production  of 
lactic  acid  through  the  agency  of  the  lactic  ferment.  The  pres- 
ence of  the  germs  that  bring  about  this  fermentation  in  the  cream 
may  be  left  to  chance  inoculation  or  they  may  be  added  to  the 
cream.  If  it  seems  desirable  to  add  the  germs  of  fermentation, 
this  may  be  done  by  adding  some  buttermilk  or  cream,  or  an  arti- 
ficial "starter"  of  soured  skimmed  milk,  or  some  commercial 
lactic  ferment  may  be  used.  It  is  important  that  only  the  desir- 
able germs  should  find  their  way  into  the  milk,  for  there  are  both 
"good"  bacteria  and  "bad"  bacteria. 

The  use  of  commercial  bacterial  ferments  was  originally  prac- 
tised in  Sweden  and  Germany,  and  has  now  become  quite  common 
in  first-class  dairies  abroad.  In  the  United  States,  through  the 
efforts  of  the  Agricultural  Experiment  Stations  of  Connecticut, 
Michigan  and  other  states,  the  use  of  improved  cultures  has  been 
extended,  and  the  amount  of  butter  produced  with  the  "June 
butter"  flavor  has  no  doubt  been  increased.  It  is  still,  however, 
true  that  with  the  best  sanitary  surroundings,  butter  of  a  high 
quality  can  be  made  without  any  artificial  cultures. 

Ripening  also  aids  in  the  ease  of  churning,  the  completeness 
of  churning,  and  the  keeping  qualities  of  the  butter.^  Over- 
ripening  causes  an  undue  separation  of  casein,  which  appears  in 
the  butter  as  white  specks  or  flakes,  the  butter  does  not  keep  as 
well,  and  its  flavor  is  injured. 


The  agitation  of  the  cream,  known  as  churning,  causes  the 
particles  of  the  butter  fat  to  unite  together  in  masses,  and  they 
may  be  thus  separated  in  the  form  of  butter  from  the  buttermilk 
which  still  contains  the  milk  sugar  and  some  casein.  In  early 
times  the  skins  of  animals  were  used  as  receptacles  for  milk.  This 
led  natiirally  to  the  churning  of  the  milk  in  a  goat  or  sheep  skin, 
by  rocking  it  on  the  knees,  a  process  that  is  still  used  in  the  Pyre- 

*  Loc.  cit. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

BUTTER  405 

nees.^  The  proper  temperature  for  churning  dqpends  on  many 
factors,  but  in  general  is  between  50®  F.  and  66*^  F.,  and  should 
be  as  low  as  possible  compatible  with  the  butter  "coming"  in  a 
reasonable  time. 

Working  the  Butter 

After  the  butter  is  "gathered"  in  the  churn  and  the  butter- 
milk is  drawn  oflF,  the  butter  should  be  washed  several  times  with 
cold  water,  and  then  taken  out  and  "worked"  to  remove  as  much 
of  the  water  as  possible,  as  the  presence  of  this  dilute  buttermilk 
interferes  with  the  keeping  qualities  of  the  butter.  During  the 
process  of  working,  salt  is  usually  incorporated  in  the  butter,  to 
improve  the  flavor  and  to  sUghtly  assist  in  its  preservation.  As 
salt  is  cheaper  than  butter,  some  manufacturers  add  it  in  excess. 
On  the  Continent  of  Europe,  salt  is  hardly  ever  used,  and  the  but- 
ter is  purchased  every  day  for  immediate  consumption.  A  person 
who  uses  unsalted  butter  for  a  time,  soon  ceases  to  notice  the 
absence  of  salt  in  the  product.  Butter  for  immediate  consumption 
is  put  up  into  cakes  or  prints  by  being  pressed  into  a  mold.  These 
are  of  standard  weights  as  1/2  pound,  i  pound,  etc.  Considerable 
difficulty  has  been  experienced  in  some  states  because  the  butter 
factories  persisted  in  putting  short  weight  packages  on  the  market. 
They  even  went  so  far  as  to  claim  that  these  were  not  sold  as 
standard  weights,  but  only  as  "cartons"  or  "packages." 


Butter  may  also  be  packed  with  salt  and  a  Uttle  sugar^  in  a 
tub  or  crock,  and  kept  for  some  time  or  shipped  to  a  distant  market. 
In  some  parts  of  Europe  it  is  a  common  practice  to  heat  butter 
to  boiling,  and  keep  it  hot  until  the  water  has  been  expelled,  then 
filter  it  into  earthen-ware  jars  through  cloth  to  remove  any  casein. 
By  this  process,  butter  made  in  the  summer  is  preserved  for  use 

^  The  Bacillus  of  I^ng  Life,  Douglas,  p.  9. 
*  Church,  Food,  p.  154. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


in  the  winter,  but  the  flavor  and  texture  of  the  butter  are  in- 
jured. Boric  acid  and  borax  are  sometimes  used,  especially  on 
the  Continent  to  preserve  butter  for  export. 

Cono^position  of  Butter 

The  average  composition  of  good  butter  is  as  follows:^ 

Per  cent. 

Fat , 8s 

Casein i 

Salt 3 

Water ii 

A  recent  bulletin^  gives  the  following  as  the  average  com- 
position of  creamery  butter  from  eight  of  the  most  important 
dairy  states,  and  this  fairly  represents  the  butter  on  the  market 
to-day  in  the  United  States.  Average  of  645  samples:  fat  82.31; 
water  13.92;  salt  2.62;  curd  1.14. 

Composition  of  Butter  Fat 

Butter  fat  consists  quite  largely  of  the  ordinary  glycerides  (see 
p.  307)  which  contain  the  acids  oleic,  stearic  and  palmitic'  but  the 
substances  which  really  distinguish  butter  from  the  other  fats  are 
the  glycerides  of  a  number  of  the  volatile  fatty  acids,  especially 
butyrin,  caproin,  caprin  and  caprylin.  These  have  a  character- 
istic taste  and  are  soluble  in  water.  When  the  butter  is  kept  for 
some  time,  especially  if  much  casein  is  present,  they  saponify, 
and  yield  the  free  fatty  acids  which  are  soluble,  and  the  butter  is 
said  to  be  "  rancid."  Butyric  acid  which  received  its  name  because 
of  its  presence  in  butter  is  the  most  abundant  of  these  acids  (from 
5  to  7  per  cent). 

The  existence  of  casein  in  butter  is  only  incidental,  and  the 
smaller  the  amount  the  better  the  flavor  and  keq)ing  qualities. 

*  Loc.  dt. 

«  U.  S.  Dept  AgrL  Bur.  An.  Ind.  Bull.  No.  149. 

» J.  A.  C.  Soc.,  Vol.  21,  p.  807. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


It  is  possible  to  incorporate  considerable  water  in  butter,  during 
the  working,  and  as  water  is  of  course  much  cheaper  than  butter 
fat,  it  has  been  necessary  to  limit  the  amount  that  may  be  con- 
sidered legitimate.  The  standard  of  the  U.  S.  Department  of 
Agriculture,  allows  "less  than  i6  per  cent/'  of  water  and  a 
larger  proportion  is  regarded  as  adulteration. 

Coloring  Butter 

The  butter  churned  from  the  milk  of  cows  fed  on  dry  rations, 
the  usual  feed  in  winter,  is  very  light  in  color.  To  make  this  winter 
product  look  like  "June"  butter,  and  perhaps  to  make  it  more 
appetizing,  it  is  a  very  common  practice  to  color  it.  Annatto,  a 
yellow  coloring  matter  from  the  seed  of  the  Bixa  arellana,  and 
occasionally  aniline  dyes  are  used  for  this  purpose.  Since  the 
artificial  color  is  used  to  make  a  winter  butter  "appear  better 
than  it  really  is,"  many  condemn  absolutely  the  practice  of  coloring 

Dietetic  Value 

It  has  been  suggested  that  one  reason  why  butter  is  so  readily 
digested  and  absorbed^  is  that  the  melting  point  of  the  fat  is  low  as 
compared  with  that  of  many  of  the  other  animal  fats.  Because 
it  is  one  of  the  most  easily  digested  of  the  animal  foods,  butter  is 
of  great  value  as  a  source  of  fat  in  the  treatment  of  invalids.  In 
such  diseases  as  phthisis,  diabetes  and  some  forms  of  dyspepsia, 
patients  can  take  as  much  as  one-fourth  of  a  pound  a  day  without 
diflSculty.  Butter  which  has  been  heated,  as  in  cooking,  is,  how- 
ever, not  so  wholesome  as  that  which  is  raw.  It  has  been  shown 
that  the  absorption  of  butter  through  the  intestines  is  almost 
complete,  so  that  even  when  large  quantities  are  eaten  less  than 
five-tenths  of  i  per  cent,  is  wasted.  In  India  a  substance  called 
"ghee"  is  prepared  from  the  milk  of  the  cow  or  buflfalo,  by  melting 
butter  and  allowing  it  to  cool,  then  pouring  off  the  more  liquid 

^  Food  and  Dietetics,  Hutchinson,  p.  131. 

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portion^  which  constitutes  the  "ghee."  This  is  used  in  a  semi- 
fluid condition  for  cooking  and  in  the  preparation  of  many  kinds  of 

Although  butter  is  an  exceedingly  valuable  addition  to  the 
daily  ration,  it  is  not  a  cheap  form  in  which  to  obtain  heat  and 


Buttermilk  differs  from  milk  in  containing  very  little  fat.  It 
is  as  rich  in  protein  (casein)  as  milk,  and  since  this  is  in  a  finely 
divided  condition,  it  is  quite  readily  digested.  Buttermilk 
contains  nearly  as  much  milk  sugar  as  the  original  milk,  for  the 
loss  due  to  the  lactic  fermentation  is  very  small.  On  account  of 
the  presence  of  the  lactic  add,  buttermilk  is  an  excellent  diet  in 
the  treatment  of  certain  diseases. 


Since  butter  is  expensive,  various  cheaper  substitutes  have 
been  introduced  to  take  its  place  in  the  daily  menu.  As  long  ago 
as  1870  the  French  chemist  M6ge-Mouries  under  the  patronage  of 
Napoleon  III,  prepared  a  product  called  "margarine"  for  the  use 
of  the  navy. 

The  butter  substitutes  are  usually  made  from  a  refined  "oleo- 
oil"  churned  with  "neutral"  lard,  milk  or  sometimes  a  little 

Oleo-oil  is  produced  in  immense  quantities  in  the  big  packing 
houses  in  the  United  States  for  use  at  home  in  the  manufacture  of 
"butterine"  and  for  shipment  abroad,  especially  to  Holland. 
Over  138,000,000  pounds  of  oleo-oil  were  exported  in  191 1.  In  the 
process  of  manufacture  the  beef  fat  is  cut  in  small  pieces  and 
"rendered"  at  the  lowest  practical  temperature  in  water-jacketed 
kettles.  (Fig.  61.)  The  scum  is  taken  off  from  the  top,  and  the 
"scraps"  settle  to  the  bottom  of  the  kettle.    The  liquid  fat  s 

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drawn  oflf  and  allowed  to  become  practically  cold  when  it  sets  to  a 
thin  semi-solid.  (Fig.  62.)  This  viscous  fat  is  then  wrapped  in 
cloths  and  transferred  to  a  powerful 
hydraulic  press,  where  the  liquid  oil  is 
separated  from  the  solid  fat  by  heavy 
pressure.  (Fig.  63.)  The  solid  posi- 
tion known  in  the  trade  as  "oleo-stear- 
ine"  finds  many  uses  in  the  trades, 
particularly  in  the  manufacture  of 
"lard  substitute." 

The  oleo-oil,  as  used  in  the  manu- 
facture of  butter  substitutes,  is  a  clear 
amber-colored  fluid,  and  when  fresh  is 
free  from  any  disagreeable  odor  or 
taste.  It  consists  of  a  mixture  of  olein 
and  palmatin.     (See  p.  408.) 

" Neutral'*  is  made  by  melting  leaf 
lard   and   allowing  it   to  "grain*'  by 
standing  for  some  time  at  a  tempera- 
ture favorable  for  the  crystallization  of  the  stearine  in  coarse 

In  the  further  process  of  manufacture  of  the  oleomargarine,  the 


Fig.  61.— Kettle  for  oleo 

Fig.  62. — Oleo-seeding  truck,  in  which  olein  separates  from  stearin. 

oleo-oil,  neutral,  and  usually  cotton-seed,  peanut  or  sesame 
oils,  are  mixed  with  the  required  quantities  of  milk,  cream  or 
butter,  with  or  without  coloring  matter,  and  churned  in  the  same 

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manner  as  is  butter.  The  product  is  then  cooled  by  contact  with 
ice  water,  drained,  worked,  salted  and  packed  in  much  the  same 
manner  as  genuine  butter. 

Fig.  63.— After  "seeding"  the  stock  is  placed  in  cloths  in  this  "knucjde-joint" 
press,  and  the  oleo-oil  is  pressed  out,  leaving  the  hard  white  stearin. 

The  composition  of  commercial  oleomargarine^  is:  Oleo-oil, 
from  40  to  45  per  cent.;  butter  from  10  to  25  per  cent.;  and  milk,, 
cream,  salt,  etc.,  from  5  to  30  per  cent. 

Investigations  (especially  that  of  the  Massachusetts  State 
Board  of  Health  (1887)),  which  were  made  in  regard  to  the 
healthfulness  of  oleomargarine  as  compared  with  butter,  show 
that  there  can  be  no  objection  to  oleomargarine  from  this  stand- 
point. It  is,  no  doubt,  not  only  more  agreeable,  but  also  more 
wholesome  than  much  of  the  poor  butter  on  the  market.  Says 
Hutchinson:  "Whatever  may  once  have  been  the  case,  mar- 
garine is  now  made  only  from  pure  animal  fats,  and  the  processes 
to  which  it  is  subjected  in  manufacture  insure  its  further  purifi- 
cation.   As  its  flavor  is  equal  to  that  of  an  average  specimen  of 

^  Food  Inspection  and  Analysb,  Leach,  p.  440. 

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butter,  and  as  it  has  the  advantage  of  being  very  much  cheaper, 
there  is  every  reason  to  wish  that  the  prejudice  against  it,  which 
is  still  rather  widespread,  should  quickly  disappear,  and  that  it 
should  be  welcomed  as  an  admirable  and  cheap  substitute  for  a 
rather  expensive  but  necessary  food."  Oleomargarine  should, 
however,  be  sold  on  its  merits  and  not  under  the  name  of  butter, 
and  there  is  no  reason  why  it  should  not  be  sold  considerably 
cheaper  than  the  latter. 

Oleomargarine  Legislation 

There  has  been  a  tendency,  however,  to  adulterate  butter  with 
oleomargarine,  and  to  sell  it  for  dairy  butter.  On  this  account, 
and  in  order  to  protect  the  dairy  interests,  much  legislation  in 
diflferent  countries  has  been  directed  against  it.  Sometimes 
this  has  been  so  severe  as  to  be  almost  prohibitory.  In  many 
states  of  the  United  States,  oleomargarine  cannot  be  legally  sold 
if  colored  to  imitate  butter,  while  in  other  states,  coloring  is  allow- 
able but  the  product  must  be  plainly  marked.  The  Federal  law, 
and  most  state  laws,  require  that  oleomargarine  be  labeled  in  such 
a  way  that  the  consumer  may  know  what  he  is  purchasing.  In 
1886  the  United  States  Congress  passed  a  law  imposing  a  revenue 
tax  of  one-fourth  of  a  cent  per  pound  on  all  oleomargarine,  and 
special  taxes  on  manufacturers  and  dealers.  If  the  product  is 
colored  in  imitation  of  butter  it  must  pay  a  tax  of  lo  cents  per 
pound.  This  law  afforded  a  revenue  of  $1,259,987  last  year. 
Peanut  oil  and  sesam6  oil,  as  stated  above,  are  common  constitu- 
ents of  margarine.  In  Germany  the  law  reqiiires  that  margarine 
shall  contain  10  per  cent,  of  the  latter  oil,  to  facilitate  the  detection 
of  the  fraud,  if  margarine  is  used  as  an  adulterant  of  butter. 
In  Great  Britain,  it  is  illegal  for  "margarine"  to  contain  over  10 
per  cent,  of  butter,  or  over  16  per  cent,  of  water.  By  the  use  of 
various  fatty  acids,  especially  butyric  acid  and  its  esters,  and  such 
substances  as  coumarin,  the  flavor  of  genuine  butter  is  sometimes 
imitated  in  this  product  both  in  the  United  States  and  in  Great 

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Britain.^  Large  quantities  of  margarine  are  used  all  over  Europe, 
on  account  of  the  high  price  of  butter.  The  people  of  Denmark, 
although  themselves  among  the  largest  producers  of  butter,  are 
very  large  consumers  of  margarine.  The  output  of  this  cotmtry  in 
191 1  was  over  78,000,000  pounds,  and  with  the  amotmt  imported 
there  was  a  per  capita  consumption  of  29.32  potmds.  Although 
formerly  an  excess  of  animal  fat  was  used,  at  the  present  time  70 
per  cent,  of  the  fat  is  of  vegetable  origin.* 

Renovated  Butter 

Renovated  or  process  butter  is  made  by  melting  old,*  rancid, 
unsalable  butter  at  a  temperature  of  about  112*^  F.  in  a  tank  sur- 
rounded by  a  water  jacket  and  while  hot,  drawing  off  the  curd  and 
brine  at  the  bottom  and  the  scum  at  the  top.  Air  is  then  blpwn 
through  the  mass  for  some  time  to  remove  the  disagreeable  odors 
and  flavors  as  much  as  possible,  after  which  it  is  quickly  cooled. 
The  mass  is  then  churned  with  some  new  milk,  which  may  con- 
tain cultiures  of  various  "good"  bacteria  to  develop  a  satisfactory 
flavor.  It  is  then  run  into  ice-cold  water,  so  as  to  give  it  a  granular 
structure.  The  butter  is  ripened,  worked  and  salted  as  usual. 
This  product  which  is  often  sold  as  "factory"  or  "imitation 
creamery"  butter  is  very  much  improved  over  the  original  butter 
from  which  it  was  made,  but  it  is  distinctly  inferior  to  good  grades 
of  fresh  butter.  Several  states  have  passed  laws  requiring  all 
butter  of  this  class  to  be  distinctly  labled  as  "renovated"  butter. 
The  customer  should  at  least  have  an  opportunity  of  knowing  that 
he  is  not  purchasing  fresh  butter,  and  pay  a  lower  price  for  an  infe- 
rior article.  In  Great  Britain  there  is  also  on  the  market  a  "milk 
blended"  butter,  and  a  so-called  renovated  butter,  that  is  a  mixture 
of  milk  with  various  fats  and  oils. 


This  food  has  been  known  from  the  earliest  ages.    We  read 

that  it  was  in  use  among  the  Jews,  Greeks  and  Romans,  and  it 

*  Foods,  Their  Origin,  Composition  and  Manufacture,  Tibbies,  p.  350. 
«J.S.C.Ind.Vol.3i,P'io9a.  ooaTr> 

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CHEESE  413 

was  very  early  used  by  the  nomadic  tribes  of  Asia  and  Africa. 
The  fact  that  it  is  "storage  food"  containing  much  nutriment 
in  a  small  space,  would  commend  it  to  those  without  a  fixed 

The  property  of  coagulation  which  milk  possesses,  would 
naturally  be  utilized  by  various  peoples,  very  early  in  their  racial 
history.  This  coagulation  may  be  brought  about  naturally  by 
the  bacterium  acidi  lacticus  and  other  organisms,  which  find 
in  the  milk,  their  natural  medium  for  propagation,  or  it  may  be 
induced  artificially  by  the  use  of  an  acid  or  of  "rennet,*' which 
is  a  soluble  ferment  found  in  the  fourth  stomach  of  the  calf.  By 
whatever  process  the  coagulation  is  produced,  the  casein  of  the 
milk,  called  the  curd,  which  also  entangles  considerable  fat,  is 
precipitated,  and  the  whey,  which  contains  some  nitrogenous 
matter  in  the  form  of  albumin,  lacto-protein  and  milk  sugar, 
remains  as  a  thin  acid  liquid. 

Cheese  Making 

In  the  ordinary  process  of  cheese  making  as  used  in  the  United 
States  the  casein  is  coagulated  by  the  addition  of  rennet  to  milk, 
held  at  a  temperature  of  about  41®  C.  (106®  F.).  Sometimes  a 
yellow  coloring  matter  such  as  annatto  or  an  aniline  dye  is  added 
to  the  contents  of  the  vat.  The  batch  while  still  warm  is  then 
beaten  with  a  mechanical  stirrer  for  the  purpose  of  breaking  into 
smaller  pieces  the  chunks  of  curd,  and  then  transferred  to  cloths, 
often  contained  in  molds  and  the  whey  squeezed  out  in  a  press. 
When  the  cheese  has  become  solid,  it  is  removed  from  the  mold, 
and  stored  in  well-aired  rooms  to  allow  the  flavor  to  develop  under 
the  action  of  bacteria.  During  the  process  of  ripening,  which 
greatly  improves  the  flavor,  there  is  also  an  increased  solubility 
of  the  proteins,  and  the  formation  of  a  small  amount  of  amid  and 
aromatic  compoimds.  The  cheese  during  this  process  is  daily 
turned  and  rubbed  with  oil.  Milk  must  be  ripened  before  the 
rennet  will  act,  which  means  that  a  certain  amount  of  lactic  acid 

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is  desirable,  and  this  acid  also  assists  in  the  ripening  of  the  cheese. 
Sometimes  a  "starter"  of  previously  ripened  milk  or  sour  milk  is 
used  to  hasten  this  ripening. 

It  has  been  asserted  that  the  fat  test  is  not  a  good  basis  upon 
which  to  purchase  milk  for  cheese  factories,  as  the  cheese-making 
value  depends  on  the  amount  of  casein,  but  it  has  been  shown*  that 
a  milk  which  is  high  in  fat  is  also,  as  a  rule,  high  in  casein. 

Use  of  Rennet 

Rennet,  the  enzyme  which  causes  the  separation  of  the  curd 
and  whey,  is  exceedingly  active  as  in  cheese  making  only  one  part 
of  commercial  rennet  is  used  with  10,000  parts  of  milk,  yet  it  acts 
only  by  contact,  and  is  not  itself  affected.  It  is  said  that  one  part 
of  the  pure  enzyme  will  coagulate  three  million  parts  of  milk.^ 
Rennet^  is  most  active  at  the  temperature  of  the  body  (98®  F.). 
Below  80®  the  action  is  slower,  and  above  100®,  although  the  action 
of  the  rennet  is  temporarily  increased,  above  130°  it  is  weakened 
and  at  140°  F.  the  activity  is  destroyed.  The  presence  of  soluble 
salts  of  lime  renders  rennet  much  more  active,  while  the  insoluble 
salts  retard  the  action.  On  this  account  as  the  lactic  acid  is  devel- 
oped in  the  souring  of  the  milk,  the  lime  salts  become  more  soluble 
and  the  activity  of  the  rennet  is  increased.  On  the  other  band, 
when  milk  is  heated  above  150°  F.,  a  part  of  the  lime  salts  are  made 
insoluble,  and  the  action  of  the  rennet  is  correspondingly  retarded, 
although  the  milk  be  again  cooled  to  the  temperature  at  which  the 
rennet  is  normally  active.  Calcium  oxalate  if  added  to  the  milk 
retards  the  action  of  the  rennet,  while  calcium  chloride  increases 
the  activity.  A  curd  produced  by  rennet  is  more  sxiitable  for  the 
manufacture  of  cheese  thsvn  that  produced  by  the  slower  action  of 
lactic  acid  in  the  ordinary  souring  process.  The  cheeses  made  by 
the  latter  method  will  be  mentioned  later. 

1 N.  Y.  Ag.  Ex.  Sta.  Bull  68,  New  Series;  also  Milk  and  Its  Products,  Wing, 
p.  169. 

•Tibbies,  p.  294. 

•  Milk  and  Its  Prodwrts  (Rey.  Ed.)  Win^^  p.  247. 

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Composition  of  Cheese 

The  average  fresh  cheese  contains  about  the  same  ratio  of 
protein  and  fat  as  are  found  in  milk.  More  than  one-fourth  is 
protein  and  one-third  is  fat.*  For  purposes  of  comparison  the 
following  table  gives  the  composition  of  some  of  the  more  common 
varieties  of  cheese: 



















N«^nfclift  tH 






Full  cream  (average) 

The  cheesea,  omitting  a  few  of  less  importance,  are  divided  by 
Tibbies,*  into  the  following  classes: 

L  Soft  cheeses: 

(a)  English,  cottage,  cream  and  some  local  varieties. 

(b)  Foreign,  Bondon,  Brie,  Camembert,  Limburger,  Neuf- 

chitel,  Pont  TEvfique,  Gervais,  Strachino. 

n.  Hard  cheeses : 

(a)  English: 

1.  Stilton  type. 

2.  Cheddar  type. 

(b)  Foreign:  American  Cheddar,  Gouda,  Gruyfere,  Emmen- 

thaler,  Edam,  Gorgonzola,  Parmesan,  Roquefort, 
Sap  Sago,  Cacio-Cavallo,  Port  du  Salut.    (Fig.  64.) 

*  "Cheese  and  Its  Economical   Use  in  the  Diet,"  Langworthy,  U.  S.  Dept 


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I.  Soft  Cheese 

Cottage  cheese,  or  "green"  cheese  consists  of  the  curdled  milk 
precipitated  by  rennet,  or  by  natural  coagulation  during  the 
production  of  lactic  acid.  The  batch  is  heated  from  Ss""  F.  to 
125''  F.  and  is  put  into  a  linen  bag,  the  whey  drained  off,  and  the 
remaining  curd  salted,  pressed  and  kneaded  by  the  hand  and  sold 

Fig.  64. — Varieties  of  European  cheese.     (By  permission  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.) 

for  immediate  use.  At  first  it  has  only  a  slightly  acid  taste,  but 
after  a  time  ripening  begins  by  bacterial  action,  and  the  product 
is  changed  in  taste  and  is  by  many  considered  much  improved 
in  flavor.  As  it  gets  older,  molds  of  different  colors  cover  the 
surface  of  the  cheese  cakes.  The  freshly  made  cheese  is  also  known 
as  Schmierkase  in  Germany,  and  Schabrziger  in  Switzerland.  The 
name  "bony  clabber"  is  in  the  United  States  and  Scotland  applied 
to  the  coagulated  or  "lopperd"  milk,  which  has  thoroughly  soured 
but  has  not  had  the  whey  separated.  The  product  may  be  used 
either  as  a  beverage  or  a  food. 

Cream  cheese  is  made  either  from  cream  only,  from  equal  parts 

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of  cream  and  milk,  coagulated  fresh  milk  mixed  with  cream,  or 
from  a  mixture  of  one  part  of  cream  with  6.4  parts  of  milk.  It  is 
in  geijeral  similar  to  Neufch^tel,  although  richer  in  butter  fat. 
The  curd  is  coagulated  by  the  use  of  rennet,  and  the  mass  is  heated, 
usually  to  84°  F.  When  it  has  fully  coagulated,  the  whey  is 
drained  off,  and  the  curd  is  salted  and  packed  into  cakes,  wrapped 
in  impervious  paper  and  put  directly  on  the  market  without 

Camembert  is  a  soft,  fresh  cheese  usually  6  or  7  inches  in 
diameter  and  i  to  2  inches  thick.  The  ripened  cheese  is  covered 
with  a  reddish-brown  mold  and  the  interior  is  a  soft  buttery  mass. 
The  first  cheese  of  this  kind  was  made  in  179 1  by  Marie  Fontaine 
at  Camembert,  France.  The  temperature  best  adapted  for  its 
manufacture  is  that  of  central  France  from  March  to  September. 
It  is  usually  made  from  whole  milk,  although  occasionally  a  part 
of  the  fat  is  removed.  In  the  process  of  making,^  the  morning  and 
evening  milk  is  mixed,  and  heated  nearly  to  the  temperature  at 
which  it  comes  from  the  cow,  rennet  is  added,  the  mixture  is  stirred 
for  two  or  three  minutes,  and  then  covered  and  allowed  to  stand 
for  five  or  six  hours.  The  curd  is  dipped  from  the  pan  into  cylin- 
drical metal  molds,  so  arranged  that  the  whey  can  drain  off.  After 
it  has  drained  for  two  days,  the  mold  is  turned  over,  the  cheese  is 
sprinkled  with  salt  and  allowed  to  drain  for  another  day.  At  the 
expiration  of  this  time  the  cheese  is  taken  from  the  mold,  and 
placed  in  the  drying  room  on  racks  covered  with  straw.  Good 
ventilation  is  necessary  and  the  room  is  completely  screened 
from  simlight,  dust  and  insects.  Several  varieties  of  molds  and 
bacteria  develop  during  the  ripening  process.^  The  presence  of  a 
reddish  mold  on  the  surface  is  usually  associated  with  excellence 
of  flavor  and  texture.  The  imported  cheese  retails  for  about  60 
cents  per  pound  in  the  United  States. 

Brie,  also  a  French  cheese,  is  quite  similar  to  Camembert, 
and  has  also  a  strong  odor  almost  suggesting  decomposition. 

*  Foods  and  Their  Adulteration,  Wiley. 

•  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Bur.  An.  Jud.  No.  115.,  Bull.  No.  150,  Bull.  No.  8a. 


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The  cheese  is  ripened  at  a  temperature  of  from  62®  F.  to  65®  F. 
until  the  blue  mold  is  abundant  on  the  surface.  In  the  process  of 
ripening  the  casein  is  broken  down  and  a  soft  creamy  mass  is 
formed  in  the  interior.  It  is  foimd  in  the  market  in  flat  circular 
masses  about  an  inch  in  thickness,  and  from  12  to  16  inches  in 

Limbtuger  cheese  originated  in  Belgium,  and  is  a  common 
product  in  Germany.  It  may  be  made  from  whole  or  skimmed 
milk,  which  is  coagulated  with  rennet  at  a  temperature  from  92° 
F.  to  100°  F.  The  curd  is  drained  in  perforated  rectangular  molds, 
is  salted  several  times  and  is  pressed  slightly  between  boards. 
As  the  ripening,  which  requires  from  four  to  six  weeks,  is  carried  on 
at  60°  F.  in  a  very  moist  cellar,  is  closely  related  to  putrefaction, 
this  cheese  has  a  very  disagreeable  odor.  Most  of  the  limburger 
used  in  the  United  States  is  now  made  in  New  York  and  Wisconsin. 

Neufchiltel  cheese  was  originally  prepared  in  Switzerland, 
and  is  made  by  nearly  the  same  method  given  for  soft  cream 
cheese.  The  curd  after  being  slightly  pressed,  is  put  into  a 
cylinder  2  1/2  inches  in  diameter  and  3  inches  high.  After  being 
removed  from  the  molds  the  cheeses  are  dried  on  straw  in  a 
moist  cool  cellar,  for  about  four  weeks.  They  are  then  wrapped 
in  tin  foil  and  put  upon  the  market. 

Pont  I'Ev^que  is  a  soft  French  cheese.  The  milk  is  set  at  a 
temperature  of  88^  F.  and  the  cheeses  are  formed  in  squares  or  in 
oblong  molds  and  are  ripened  in  moist  cellars  at  a  temperature 
of  58°  F. 

GervaiSi  also  a  French  cheese,  is  named  after  the  original 
maker.  It  is  made  from  a  mixture  of  new  milk  and  cream 
warmed  to  65*^  F.  and  coagulated  by  rennet.  The  method  of 
making  is  similar  to  that  used  for  Bondon  cheese. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  in  making  soft  cheeses,  none  of  them 
are  subjected  to  much  pressure.  Some  are  ripened  for  a  con- 
siderable time  by  the  action  of  the  bacteria  and  others  are  what 
might  be  called  "present  use"  cheeses. 

Potted  or  sandwich  cheeses  are  common  on  the  market  in  the 

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United  States.  They  are  made  by  mixing  one  part  of  butter 
or  oil  with  five  parts  of  cheese.  These  may  be  seasoned  with 
mustard,  curry  powder,  or  similar  flavors.  Chopped  pimento 
is  often  incorporated  in  Neufch^tel  cheese. 

n.  Hard  Cheese 

The  hard  cheeses  are  subjected  to  a  greater  pressure  than  the 
soft,  and  are  cured  in  a  drier  atmosphere.  The  ordinary  Ameri- 
can (New  York)  cheese  for  which  the  general  method  for  making 
is  given  on  p.  413  is  of  this  variety. 

In  the  Cheddar  type  of  cheese,  the  curd  is  heated  and.the  cheese 
is  submitted  to  considerable  pressure.  This  process  was  in  use 
in  the  village  of  Cheddar,  England,  more  than  two  hundred  and 
fifty  years  ago.  The  successive  steps  followed  in  making  this 
cheese  are:^  setting,  cutting,  heating,  cheddaring,  grinding,  salting, 
pressing  and  curing. 

The  cutting  of  the  curd  may  be  done  by  the  use  of  gangs  of 
steel  knives.  The  matting  together  of  the  curd  after  the  whey  is 
drawn  off  is  known  as  the  cheddaring  process.  The  curd  is  cut 
into  rectangular  blocks,  piled  several  times,  and  when  drained, 
cut  up  or  "ground"  and  salted  before  being  put  into  the  press. 
This  cheese  is  ripened  at  a  temperature  of  65°  F.  or  70®  F.,  and  the 
process  requires  from  four  to  six  weeks.  K  the  cheese  is  made 
from  unskinmied  milk  it  is  called  "full  cream,"  and  if  cream  is 
removed  it  is  "part  skim,"  or  "skim,"  as  the  case  may  be.  The 
ordinary  American  factory  cheese  ("cream  cheese")  is  of  the 
English  Cheddar  type.  Sage  cheese  is  a  variety  of  cheddar 
flavored  and  mottled  with  bits  of  sage,  although  tHe  color  is  at 
present  produced  in  other  ways. 

In  the  stiltan  type  the  curd  is  neither  pressed  nor  colored. 
It  is  ripened  by  the  aid  of  the  mold,  penciUium  glaucum.  This 
cheese  is  made  in  Leicestershire,  England,  and  adjoining  counties, 
from  whole  milk,  sometimes  with  the  addition  of  a  little  cream. 

1  Milk  and  Its  Products  (Rev.  Ed.),  \^mg,  p.  251. 

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The  milk  is  "set"  for  about  an  hour  at  80®  F.  and  the  curd  is  then 
cut  in  slices  and  put  upon  cloths  over  a  sink  to  drain.  The  comers 
of  the  cloth  are  gathered  up  and  the  cheese  is  squeezed  several 
times,  and  allowed  to  stand  until  quite  add.  The  curd  is  then 
put  into  cylindrical  tin  molds  10  inches  in  diameter  by  15  inches 
high  which  are  perforated  on  the  sides,  and  stand  on  a  board  covered 
with  a  cloth.  The  temperature  is  maintained  at  60®  F.  and  the 
cheeses  are  turned  over  twice  a  day.  After  ten  days  of  this 
treatment,  the  cheeses  are  taken  from  the  mold,  surrounded  with  a 
linen  band  and  taken  to  the  dr3dng  rooms  and  later  to  the 
ripening  rooms,  where  they  should  remain  at  a  temperature  of 
about  65°  F.  for  several  months.  The  spores  of  the  penciUium 
glaucum  have  ample  opportunity  during  this  process  to  penetrate 
the  cheese,  and  when  ripe  a  blue  mold  will  be  seen  mottling  the 
entire  mass.  The  mild  flavor  is  largely  produced  by  the  action  of 
this  mold.  This  cheese  retails  at  about  75  cents  a  pound  in  the 
United  States.  Other  English  cheeses  are  usually  named  from  the 
locality  where  they  are  made. 

Among  the  other  foreign  hard  cheeses  the  following  are  of 
special  interest: 

Gouda  is  a  cheese  of  the  cheddar  variety  made  especially  in 
Friesland  (Holland).  The  best  grade  is  produced  from  whole 
milk,  and  the  cheese  is  cured  more  rapidly  than  in  making  Edam. 
It  is  usually  of  only  10  or  12  pounds  weight,  has  a  pale  red  color, 
and  is  inclosed  in  a  bladder  or  other  covering  of  animal  tissue. 

Gruyfere,  emmenthaler  and  Schweitzer  cheese  have  been  made 
for  two  or  three  hundred  years  in  the  mountainous  regions  of 
Switzerland  and  in  parts  of  France.  There  are  slight  variations  in 
the  methods  of  making  in  different  districts.  Cheeses  of  this  type 
can  be  distinguished  by  the  large  cavities  distributed  irregularly 
through  the  mass.  These  cavities  are  due  to  the  action  of  certain 
gas-produdng  bacteria  that  work  during  the  ripening  process. 
The  cheeses  are  seen  in  the  Swiss  markets,  piled  up  like  so  many 
"cart  wheels"  and  are  often  3  to  4  feet  in  diameter.  In  making 
emmenthaler,  after  the  curd  is  coagulated  by  rennet,  it  is  broken 

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up  and  heated  with  constant  stirring  at  from  135*^  F.  to  140®  F. 
and  is  then  put  into  the  molds  to  drain.  (Fig.  66.)  The  cheese  is 
ripened  in  from  eight  to  twelve  months  at  a  temperature  of  from 
52°  F.  to  60°  F. 

Fig.  65. — Weigh  house  and  market  where  Edam  cheese  is  sold,  at  Hoorn,  Holland. 
(Copyright  by  Underwood  &  Underwood,  N.  Y.) 

The  Edam  cheese  takes  its  name  from  a  town  near  Amsterdam, 
where  the  manufacture  of  this  cheese  is  the  principal  industry. 
Whole  or  partially  skimmed  milk  is  used  and  "set"  at  a  tempera- 
ture of  85®  F.  with  rennet.  It  is  left  in  the  vat  for  some  time  or 
until  quite  acid.  A  peculiar  slimy  fermentation  is  induced  by 
the  use  of  some  of  the  whey  from  a  previous  curd,*  which  contains 

» Tibbies,  p.  312. 

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the  required  bacteria.  After  the  curd  has  been  broken  up  it  is  put 
into  cup-shaped  wooden  molds  about  5  inches  in  diameter,  having 
holes  in  the  bottom,  and  here  it  is  pressed  slightly  during  twenty- 
four  hours.  It  is  salted  and  cured  at  a  temperature  of  68°  F.  by  the 
ordinary  methods,  and  the  outside  is  painted  a  reddish  color. 
When  sold  in  the  public  markets  of  Holland  (Fig.  65),  this  cheese 
is  not  fully  ripened,  but  requires  from  fiine  to  twelve  months 





)     M||  lu 

^Bbi^^I  I  *  J] 


J  .MmIv'*. 

Fig.  66. — Cooking  curd  for  Emmenthaler  cheese. 


(By  permission  U.  S.  Dept. 

to  develop  the  characteristic  flavor.  "Pineapple"  cheese  is  the 
same  stock  put  into  a  net  and  compressed,  then  cured  by  the 
same  methods. 

Goigoiizolai  an  Italian  cheese  made  especially  in  the  north  of 
Italy  has  a  ridi,  pimgent  flavor,  and  is  white,  streaked  with  bluish 
veins,  from  the  mold  peniciUium  gtaucum,  which  penetrates  the 

Pannesaiii  also  of  Italian  origin  and  coming  from  the  provinces 
of  Parma  and  Emelia,  is  another  hard  cheese  that  has  excellent 
keeping  qualities.    It  is  made  from  partly  skimmed  milk,  and 

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colored  with  saffron.  The  best  quality  is  said  to  be  that  which 
has  ripened  from  one  to  two  years.  Parmesan  when  it  is  very 
hard  and  dry  is  used  for  the  preparation  of  grated  cheese  and  is 
sometimes  sold  in  a  grated  form.  It  is  very  popular,  especially  in 
Europe,  for  use  in  soups  and  for  seasoning  macaroni. 

Roquefort  is  a  well-known  cheese,  usually  made  from  the  milk 
of  sheep  and  goats,  especially  in  France.  In  making  this  cheese 
the  curd  is  placed  in  layers  in  perforated  tin  molds,  where  it  is 
pressed  for  some  time,  and  then  taken  out  of  the  molds  and  sent 
to  the  dr3dng  room.  Here  it  remains  ten  to  twelve  days,  and  is 
then  taken  to  the  caves  to  ripen.  These  caves  are  cut  in  the 
limestone  rocks  of  the  valleys,  and  are  cool  and  well  ventilated. 
Sometimes  moldy  bread  is  incorporated  in  the  cheese  to  transmit 
to  it  the  peculiar  mold  necessary  to  develop  the  flavor.  During 
the  ripening  the  cheeses  are  sometimes  perforated  by  long  needles 
to  allow  the  germ-laden  air  to  penetrate  to  the  interior.  The 
cheese-protein  undergoes  numerous  changes  in  this  process,  so 
that  in  the  ripe  cheese  it  is  soft  and  buttery  and  marbled  with  a 
grayish  mold.  These  cheeses  are  small,  weighing  from  4  to  6 

Sap  sago  is  a  hard  skim-milk  cheese  made  in  Switzerland.  It 
contains  for  every  4  pounds  of  cheese  i  pound  of  the  clover 
(Melilotus  coeruleus),  which  imparts  to  the  cheese  a  peculiar 
flavor  and  a  green  color. 

Cacio-cavello  is  the  typical  cheese  of  southern  Italy,  especially 
of  Calabria,  and  is  made  from  the  milk  of  sheep. 

Port  du  salut  was  originally  made  in  Normandy  by  the 
Trappist  Monks.  This  cheese  which  is  circular  and  about  i  inch 
thick,  has  a  buttery  consistency  and  a  nutty  flavor,  somewhat  Uke 
the  ordinary  American  cheese.  It  is  in  great  favor  on  the  Con- 
tinent, but  not  so  well  known  in  the  United  States. 


From  what  has  been  said  of  the  above  cheeses,  it  will  be  seen 
that  by  difference  in  materials,  method  of  manufacture,  tempera- 
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ture  of  making  and  of  curing,  and  conditions  which  induce  the 
growth  of  specific  organisms,  the  great  variety  of  cheese  has  been 

The  whole  process  of  ripening  is  evidently  due  to  bacterial 
activity,  and  to  the  action  of  certain  unorganized  agents  known 
as  enzymes  which  induce  chemical  dianges  by  "catalytic"  action, 
that  is  by  their  mere  presence.^  As  peculiar  conditions  are  neces- 
sary to  produce  a  given  product  it  is  often  impossible  to  produce 
a  cheese  having  the  special  characteristics  that  belong  to  that 
variety,  outside  of  the  district  where  it  was  originally  produced, 
but  cheeses  of  the  "type"  of  camembert,  neufch^tel,  cheddar,  or 
Stilton  may  be  produced  in  other  localities. 

Since  bacteria  play  so  important  a  part  in  the  ripening  of 
cheese,  they  are  naturally  abundant  in  the  products  on  the  market. 
From  500,000  to  100,000,000  bacteria  per  gram  are  usually  present. 


There  is  a  prevailing  impression  that  cheese  is  not  a  readily 
disgested  food.  Since  it  is  concentrated  nutriment,  it  cannot, 
of  course,  be  eaten  in  large  quantities,  especially  by  persons  of 
sedentary  habits,  without  causing  gastric  disturbance.  Cheese 
is  not  digested  so  much  in  the  stomach  as  in  the  bowels,  but  it  has 
been  shown  by  experiment  that  95  per  cent,  of  the  fat  and  92 
per  cent,  of  the  protein  of  cheese  is  ultimately  assimilated,  and 
that  well-cured  cheese  is  more  readily  digested  than  the  so-called 
"green"  cheese. 

The  question  to  what  extent  cheese  can  be  used  as  a  food  to 
replace  meat,  eggs  and  similar  animal  substances  is  an  important 
one.*  The  amount  that  can  be  used  in  this  way  depends  largely 
on  the  care  taken  in  devising  proper  combinations  with  other 
food  products,  thus  bread  and  cheese  is  a  good  combination,  as  is 
also  macaroni  and  cheese,  or  cheese  fondue  and  toast  or  zwieback, 
but  meat  and  dieese  or  eggs  and  cheese  do  not  form  well-balanced 

*  Foods  and  Their  Adulteration,  Wfley,  p.  an. 

*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Fanners'  Bull  No.  487. 

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rations  as  they  contain  too  much  protein.  As  a  condiment  at 
the  close  of  a  meal  of  other  food,  cheese  has  always  been  in  favor, 
and  no  doubt  does  assist  in  the  process  of  digestion  by  stimulating 
the  secretion  of  the  digestive  juices.  Only  3  pounds  of  cheese  per 
capita  is  used  in  the  United  States. 

A  "cheese  food"^  has  been  recently  put  on  the  market.  This 
is  Cheddar  cheese  made,  cured,  and  ground  so  that  it  can  be  mixed 
with  the  whey  which  has  meanwhile  been  concentrated  to  a  thick 
sirup.  This  mass  is  pressed  into  cakes,  and  will  keep  for  a  con- 
siderable time. 


In  addition  to  the  fraud  of  selling  one  kind  of  cheese  for  an- 
other, the  selling  of  "filled"  cheese  for  genuine  is  the  most  common 
deception.  Filled  cheese  is  defined  in  the  United  States  law,  which 
was  passed  in  1896,  as  "all  substances  made  of  milk  or  skimmed 
milk  with  the  admixture  of  butter,  animal  oils  or  fats,  vegetable 
or  any  other  oils  or  compounds  foreign  to  such  milk,  and  made 
in  the  imitation  or  semblance  of  cheese."  This  cheese  is  taxed 
I  cent,  per  pound,  and  when  imported  must  pay  a  duty  of  8  cents 
a  pound. 

Filled  cheese  has  been  made  extensively  in  some  of  the  large 
dairy  states,  by  bringing  into  a  disintegrator,  lard  and  skimmed 
mA,  both  previously  heated  to  140°  F.  in  steam-jacketed  tanks. 
The  disintegrator  contains  a  cylinder  which  revolves  rapidly 
under  such  conditions  as  to  emulsify  the  milk  and  the  lard.  The 
proportions  used  are  two  to  three  parts  of  milk  to  one  part  of  lard. 
A  measured  quantity  of  this  emulsion  is  then  added  to  skim  milk 
and  buttermilk,  in  the  manufacture  of  the  cheese.  The  process 
amounts  to  the  substitution  of  lard  for  butter  fat  in  the  cheese, 
and  consequently  a  cheaper  product  is  produced.* 

Of  the  cheeses  made  in  the  United  States,  at  least  three-fourths 
are  ordinary  American  cheese,  while  among  other  varieties  are  the 

^  Milk  and  Its  Products,  Wing,  p.  2x$, 

'  Industrial  Organic  Chemistry,  Sadlter,  p.  288,  ^  . 

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"tjrpes"  of  foreign  brands,  such  as  neutfch^tel,  cheddar  and 
Stilton.  New  York  and  Wisconsin  together  produce  three-fourths 
of  the  entire  output  of  the  country.  The  latest  census  figures 
(1909)  show  that  not  less  than  320,  532,  000  pounds  of  cheese  is 
made  yearly  in  the  United  States.  Canada  exported,  in  1910, 
over  186,006,000  pounds  of  cheese,  while  of  the  European  coun- 
tries, the  Netherlands  exported  122,000,000  pounds,  and  Switzer- 
land 69,000,000  pounds. 


Milk  Sugar 

There  are  some  important  by-products  of  the  dairy  to  which 
no  reference  has  thus  far  been  made.  Among  these  is  milk  sugar 
(C12H22O11H2O)  which  is  obtained  from  the  whey  after  the  separa- 
tion of  the  curd.  It  is  made  by  allowing  the  whey  to  stand  until 
the  cream  rises  to  the  surface.  It  is  then  heated,  and  the  cream 
and  some  protein  skimmed  off.  The  whey  is  neutralized  with 
lime,  and  a  little  alum  added,  which  precipitates  a  further  amount 
of  protein.  Tlie  whey  is  boiled  down  in  a  vacuum  pan,  and  the 
sugar  allowed  to  crystallize  out  on  sticks  or  strings.  It  is 
purified  by  crystallizing  from  water,  or  precipitating  with  alcohol.^ 
Recently  several  improved  methods  have  been  devised  for  making 
this  sugar,  and  its  use  is  being  extended.  * 

This  is  a  valuable  dietary  substance.  It  is  used  for  medicinal 
purposes  in  making  tablets,  in  the  preparation  of  infant's  and  in- 
valid's food  and  in  the  making  of  "modified"  milk.  One  reason 
why  it  has  f otmd  so  much  favor  is  because  it  is  not  fermented  by 
ordinary  yeast  (saccharomyces  cerevisice)  as  are  most  sugars.  It 
is,  however,  fermented  by  special  yeasts  which  contain  "lactase," 
an  enzyme  which  causes  the  hydrolysis  of  the  milk  sugar  into 
galactose  and  dextrose,  both  of  which  sugars  are  fermentable  by 
ordinary  yeast.    Milk  sugar  is  usually  sold  as  a  white  crystalline 

*  Dairy  Chemistry,  Richmond,  p.  318. 

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CASEIN  427 

powda:  which  has  only  a  moderatdy  sweet  taste.  Because  of  this 
characteristic  lack  of  sweetness  it  is  sometimes  known  as  "sand 

Use  of  Casein 

There  are  several  food  products  upon  the  market  which  are 
made  from  the  soluble  alkali  salts  of  casein.  Some  of  these  have 
milk  sugar,  and  butter  fat  added  to  increase  their  nutritive 
qualities.  These  preparations  are  known  by  such  names  as 
"lactarine,"  "nutrose"  and  "sanatogen." 

Casein,  besides  being  a  food,  is  coming  into  quite  general  use 
as  sizing  for  paper,  for  making  a  glue  for  wood  work  and  card 
board^  and  for  making  paper  flasks,  bags,  and  milk  bottles  water- 
proof. This  is  done  by  impregnating  with  casein  solution  and 
exposing  to  formaldehyde  vapors.  Casein  is  also  used  in  the 
manufacture  of  wall  paper,  for  enameling  paper,  for  making  a 
paint  and  for  plastic  masses.  It  is  used  in  making  "glalith,"  a 
substance  which  takes  the  place  of  celluloid,  and  in  making  an 
imitation  leather. 

In  France  the  glalith  industry  was  started  in  1904.  The 
method  of  making  is  to  mold  and  compress  the  casein  in  the 
presence  of  formaldehyde.  The  product  is  translucent,  may  be 
readily  colored,  and  is  rendered  malleable  by  heating  at  150*^  F.  in 
an  oil  bath,  so  that  it  can  be  molded  into  any  desired  shapes.  The 
solution  from  which  the  casein  is  separated,  since  it  contains 
milk  sugar,  is  valuable  for  fattening  hogs. 


In  the  United  States  the  dairy  industry  has  increased  rapidly 
during  the  last  fifty  years.  The  average  yield  of  milk  per  cow  has 
increased  nearly  100  per  cent,  and  the  total  production  of  butter 
has  increased  nearly  four  times.    The  great  change  in  production 

*  Industrial  Chemistry  (Tague)  Rogers  and  Aubert,  p.  831.    • 

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is  largely  due  to  the  introduction  of  the  factory  system  including 
skimming  stations,  butter  factories  and  cheese  factories  throughout 
the  country.  These  are  especially  abundant  in  New  York, 
Wisconsin,  Iowa,  Ohio,  Pennsylvania,  Illinois,  Vermont,  Minne- 
sota, Michigan  and  Kansas.  Under  factory  conditions  better 
butter  and  cheese  can  be  made  than  on  the  farm,  as  the  conditions 
of  temperature,  cleanliness,  storage,  etc.,  can  be  so  much  more 
readily  controlled.  Dairy  legislation  in  the  United  States  has 
also  served  to  foster  this  industry  and  to  protect  the  manufacturers 
of  the  best  grades  of  dairy  product.  According  to  the  United 
States  census  report  1,700,000,000  pounds  of  butter  was  produced 
in  1909. 

The  chief  dairy  countries  of  Europe  are  Denmark,  Holland 
and  Switzerland.  As  an  illustration  of  the  great  demand  that 
has  grown  up  in  this  country  for  foreign  cheeses,  it  may  be  stated 
that  48,928,857  pounds  were  imported  from  Europe  in  191 2. 

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As  a  convenient  and  concentrated  form  of  nourishment,  the 
eggs  of  various  birds  have  been  highly  esteemed  from  the  earliest 
times.  They  are  similar  to  meat  in  containing  proteins  and  fat, 
and  also  furnish  an  abundance  of  mineral  matter,  especially  phos- 
phates, which  are  so  important  in  building  up  the  body. 

The  hen's  egg,  which  is,  of  course,  the  most  important  egg  on 
the  market,  has  an  average  weight  of  60  grams  (2  ounces),  and  of 
this  the  shell  weighs  6  grams,  the  white  36  grams,  and  the  yolk 
18  grams.  A  dtick's  egg  has  an  average  weight  of  70  grams  and 
the  egg  of  a  goose  usually  weighs  190  grams.  The  shell  consists 
mainly  of  calcium  carbonate  (89  to  97  per  cent.)  and  is  very 
porous.  Inside  the  shell  is  a  delicate  membrane  which  incloses  the 
egg  like  a  sack. 

Besides  the  eggs  of  the  fowls  mentioned,  the  eggs  of  wild  birds 
are  used^  in  some  coimtries.  Plover  eggs  are  considered  a  delicacy 
in  England  and  Germany.  The  eggs  of  sea  gulls,  terns  and 
herons  have  been  extensively  collected  and  used  as  food  along  the 
South  Atlantic  coast  of  the  United  States,  and  those  of  gulls  and 
murres,  on  the  Farallone  Islands  off  the  coast  of  California.  As 
there  is  danger  of  exterminating  sea  birds  by  destroying  their 
eggs,  legislation  has  been  enacted  in  many  states  to  prevent  this 
use  of  sea  bird's  eggs.  In  the  tropical  sections  of  America  turtle 
eggs  are  prized  as  food,  and  the  eggs  of  the  terrapin  along  the 
Atlantic  cos^t.  The  eggs  of  fish,  especially  shad  roe,  and  the  eggs 
of  the  sturgeon  preserved  with  salt,  and  known  as  caviar,  are 
considered  a  great  delicacy  in  many  countries.    (See  p.  377.) 

Many  experiments  have  been  made  to  increase  the  egg-produc- 
» U.  S.  Dept  Agri.  Farmers'  Bull.  No.  128. 

429  ,  Digitized  by  Google 


ing  power  of  the  hen,  and  also  to  breed  hens  that  will  lay  more 
regularly  throughout  the  year  instead  of  so  sparingly  in  winter. 
A  hen  producing  more  than  200  eggs  a  year  is  considered  of 
more  than  average  value.  Although  in  most  countries  eggs  are. 
still  sold  by  the  dozen,  as  they  differ  so  much  in  size  a  much  fairer 
method  would  be  to  sell  by  the  pound  or  kilo. 

Fig.  67. — The  "Egg  Seller,"  from  ptg.  by  Bloemaert  in  the  Rijks  Museum, 


The  fertile  egg  not  only  contains  the  embryo  of  the  young 
chick,  but  it  is  also  a  storehouse  for  the  food  that  it  will  need  until 
it  has  developed  sufficiently  "to  earn  its  living"  outside  the  shell. 
As  the  yolk  is  first  utilized  in  this  growth,  the  embryo  is  in  this 
portion  of  the  egg.  The  white  of  the  egg  consists  of  a  yellowish- 
white  nearly  transparent,  ropy  liquid,  which  has  the  property 

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of  coagulating  and  becoming  insoluble  when  boiled.  This 
coagulation  begins  at  134°  F.  Enclosed  within  the  white  and 
"tethered  by  two  cords"  to  the  membrane  of  the  white,  lies  the 
yolk,  itself  inclosed  in  a  separate  membrane. 


The  white  of  the  egg  consists  of  albumin — about  12  per  cent. — 
and  water  85  per  cent,  with  2  per  cent,  of  fat,  sugar  and  extract- 
ives, and  1.2  per  cent,  of  mineral  matter.  Nearly  all  the  albumin 
is  soluble  in  water.  The  yolk  which  is  yellowish-red  in  tint 
and  nearly  opaque  is  much  richer  in  fat  than  the  white,  and  con- 
tains about  fifty-one  parts  of  water  with  15  per  cent,  of  casein  and 
albumin  and  30  per  cent,  of  oil,  lecithin  and  similar  compounds — 
all  very  valuable  nutrients.  The  protein  of  the  egg  yolk  is  be- 
lieved to  consist  very  largely  of  a  lecithin  compound,  which  is 
a  nitrogenous  body  allied  to  both  fats  and  proteins.^  Eggs  also 
contain  some  phosphorous  and  sulfur  compounds,  and  this 
accounts  for  the  production  of  the  ill-smelling  gases,  phosphine 
and  hydrogen  sidfide,  when  eggs  decay.  When  eggs  are  brought  in 
contact  with  silver  the  sulfur  which  they  contain  causes  it  to 
blacken  on  account  of  the  formation  of  silver  sulfide. 

The  composition  of  the  whole  egg  as  compared  with  meat  is  as 


lean  meat 


14.8  \ 


1 .0 




From  this  analysis  it  is  evident  that  eggs  form  an  addition  to 
a  diet  rich  in  carbohydrates.    The  combination  "ham  and  eggs," 

*  J.  Am.  Chem.  Soc.  XXII,  1900,  p.  413. 

*  Bull  28  Office  of  £zp.  Sta.  U.  S.  Dept.  AgrL 

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however,  is  lacking  in  sugar  and  starch,  and  consequently  is  not 
a  well-balanced  ration;  but  '^French  toast"  or  ^^eggs  on  toast"  are 
much  nearer  to  a  satisfactory  food. 

Another  comparision  of  various  foods  is  as  follows:^ 







Fuel  value 
cal.  per  lb. 

Egg  as  purchased 

EfiTzs.  evaoorated ...... . 

II. 2 

65. 5 
54. 0 

II. 9 
25. 9 
16. s 

II. 4 





16. 1 













Cheese,  as  Durchased. . . 

Sirloin,  as  purchased.. . . 



Wheat  flour 

Potatoes,  as  purchased. . 



Much  work  has  been  done  by  physiological  chemists  on  the 
digestion  of  eggs,  as  they  have  always  been  regarded  as  of  special 
value  in  the  diet  of  invalids  and  young  children.  The  earlier 
experiments,  which  were  made,  however,  solely  upon  the  diges- 
tibility of  eggs  in  the  stomachy  seemed  to  show  that  raw  eggs  re- 
•quired  less  time  to  digest  than  soft-boiled  eggs,  and  the  latter 
less  than  the  hard-boiled  eggs.  It  should  be  remembered,  how- 
ever, that  with  many  kinds  of  food,  the  process  of  digestion 
must  be  completed  in  the  intestines. 

Later  experiments  made  at  the  Minnesota  Experiment  Station 
seem  to  indicate  that  although  the  time  and  temperature  of 
cooking,  may  have  an  effect  on  the  rate  of  digestion,  they  do  not 
materially  effect  the  total  digestibility.  ^  It  may  often  be  of  impor- 
tance to  invalids,  however,  that  the  food  should  be  quickly 
digested,  and  the  later  experiments  tend  to  confirm  the  general 
opinion  that  raw  or  soft-boiled  eggs  are  more  suitable  for  invalids 

1 U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Farmers'  BuU,  No.  128. 
*  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Farmers'  Bull.  No*  laS. 

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than  those  that  are  hard-bofled.  That  eggs  rightly  hold  their 
position  as  of  high  nutritive  value  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  from 
experiments  made  by  the  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture,  the 
coefficient  of  digestibility,  that  is,  the  per  cent,  of  the  nutrients 
actually  digested,  is  for  the  protein  of  eggs  97  per  cent,  and  for  the 
fat  95  per  cent. 


Eggs  are  capable  of  being  cooked  in  a  great  variety  of  ways, 
and  thus  diversity  can  be  given  to  the  diet,  but  in  general  the 
simplest  methods  of  cooking  are  the  best.  If  an  egg  is  boiled 
only  two  minutes,  the  albumin  next  the  shell  is  coagulated,  while 
the  yolk  remains  fluid;  if  boiled  three  minutes,  it  is  sometimes 
termed  "solid  boiled,''^  while  if  boiled  for  ten  mjnutes  or  more  it 
is  termed  "hard  boiled/'  The  albumin  first  begins  to  coagulate 
at  134*^  F.,  and  at  160°  F.  the  whole  mass  is  coagulated.  The 
yolk  has  been  found  to  coagulate  at  a  lower  temperature  than  the 
white.  The  method  of  plunging  the  egg  into  boiling  water  and 
boiling  for  three  or  four  minutes  is  not  to  be  recommended. 

Eggs  are  much  more  evenly  cooked  if  put  into  a  vessel  of  boil- 
ing water,  covered  and  immediately  removed  from  the  fire. 
For  two  or  three  eggs  a  quart  of  water  is  sufficient,  and  the  eggs 
will  be  found  to  be  "soft  boiled"  in  five  or  six  minutes.  These 
are  sometimes  called  "coddled"  eggs.  The  exact  time  must  be 
regulated  according  to  the  coldness  of  the  eggs,  the  composition 
of  the  vessel  in  which  they  are  cooked  and  the  number  of  eggs 
treated.  The  temperature  of  the  water  should  remain  between 
170°  and  185°  F. 

In  the  poaching  of  eggs  it  has  been  recommended  that  a  little 
vinegar  be  added  to  the  salt  water  in  which  they  are  cooked,  in 
order  to  assist  the  coagulation  and  prevent  loss.  Fried  eggs  are 
not  as  digestible  as  those  cooked  in  other  ways,  as  the  coagulated 
albumin  coated  with  fat  is  not  as  readily  attacked  by  the  gastric 

^  Loc.  cit. 


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434  C<^<^S  AND  EGG  PRODUCTS 

juice.  An  omelet  is  considered  one  of  the  most  delicate  and  at- 
tractive of  egg  preparations,  but  the  different  portions  of  the  eggs 
are  unevenly  cooked. 


As  eggs  belong  to  the  class  of  perishable  products,  it  is  evident 
that  great  care  is  necessary  in  transporting  and  keeping  them  so 

Fig.  68. — Appearance  of  different  grades  of  eggs  before  the  candle.  ^4/ Fresh  ejg; 
B,  stale,  shrunken  egg;  C,  fungous,  spot  egg;  D,  black,  rotten  egg.  (By  permission 
U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.) 

that  the  quality  may  be  unimpaired  when  they  reach  the  con- 
summer.  Climatic  conditions,  careless  handling  and  marketing, 
and  low  grades  of  poultry  on  the  farm,  all  tend  to  reduce  the 
quality  of  the  product'as  delivered  to  the  kitchen. 

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One  method  of  testing  the  quality  of  an  egg  is  by  "candling."* 
(Fig.  68.)  In  this  process  the  egg  is  held  in  a  hole  in  an  opaque 
shield  and  viewed  by  a  bright  light  on  the  farther  side.  As  the 
egg  becomes  older  the  air  space  at  the  end  of  the  shell  can  readily  be 
seen  to  be  larger.  The  appearance  of  the  yolk  and  its  movement 
as  the  egg  is  rotated  also  assists  the  candler.  If  incubation  has 
begun,  a  dark  spot  which  is  larger  as  the  time  of  incubation  is 
greater,  is  visible.  "Spots"  which  are  also  seen  in  the  process  of 
candling,  are  particles  of  fungoid  growth  or  the  developing  embryo. 
"Spot"  eggs  may  be  of  various  ages,  and  are  of  course  inferior  for 
food  purposes,  although  often  forced  on  to  the  market  by  the  deal- 
ers. Heat  is  the  most  prolific  source  of  destructipn  of  eggs,  and  in 
transit  from  the  farm  to  the  consumer,  eggs  are  liable  to  be  exposed 
for  a  longer  or  shorter  time  to  a  high  temperature.  At  a  tempera- 
ture of  86°  F.  to  91°  F.  an  ordinary  summer  heat,  seven  or  eight 
days  only  are  required  to  equal  the  normal  heat  of  incubation.* 
Unfertilized  eggs  keep  much  better  than  those  that  are  fertilized. 

Preservation— Preparation  for  Market 

The  best  method  of  keeping  eggs  is  by  cold  storage,  at  a  tem- 
perature of  about  32°  F.  Eggs  placed  in  cold  storage  in  cold 
weather,  it  has  been  asserted,  will  be  in  better  condition  in  mid- 
summer although  older,  than  those  so  placed  i^  May  or  June. 
Some  packers  more  recently  have  asserted  that  eggs  packed  just 
before  hot  weather  comes  on,  will  remain  fresh  longer  than  those 
packed  in  cold  weather.  It  is  by  no  means  implied  that  cold 
storage  eggs  are  as  good  as  fresh  eggs,  but  they  are  frequently  the 
only  product  available  in  the  large  cities,  especially  during  the 
winter  months.  From  experiments  made  by  the  U.  S.  Dept.  of 
Agriculture,  and  elsewhere,  it  is  evident  that  there  should  however 
be  some  limit  to  the  time  in  which  eggs  are  allowed  to  Uq  in  cold 
storage  before  they  are  marketed. 

A  convenient  method  of  handling  eggs,  and  of  keeping  them 

*  Year  Book,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  1910,  pp.  461-476. 
«  Year  Book  U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  1910. 

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for  a  limited  time  is  hy  freezing  the  broken  eggs.  This  is  accom- 
plished  frequently  imder  the  most  sanitary  conditions,  by  first 
"candling"  the  eggs,  then  breaking  each  egg  carefully,  so  as  to 
avoid  the  use  of  any  of  inferior  quality,  mixing  them  thoroughly 
by  the  use  of  a  mechanical  stirrer,  in  a  vessel  surrounded  by  cooled 
brine  (see  Fig.  69),  and  finally  running  the  semi-liquid  mass  into 
tin  cans,  holding  from  30  to  50  pounds,  and  freezing  the  pro- 
duct immediately.    The  eggs  prepared  in  this  way  will  keep  for 



^^^^^^^^n^^T^^^^^^^K     ^^^^^^^^l- 



^1  •^^^^^^HHT't^^H 



Vkn^  ^^^^^1 

^3L\^^^^^L  Jl 

^^^^^^ft'^ttnV^^L^  ^^^^1     V 

Fig.  69.— Breaking  eggs   (on  the  left).     Mechanical  mixer   to  prepare  eggs  for 
freezing  (on  the  right).    (By  permission  Seymour  Packing  Co.) 

quite  a  time,  in  cold  storage,  and  are  extremely  convenient  for 
use  by  bakers  and  large  food  manufacturers.  The  eggs  used  in 
this  process  should  be  free  from  "spot"  eggs,  and  of  good  quality. 
The  egg  should  be  broken,  only  in  carefiUly  managed  establish- 
ments, and  near  the  center  of  production.^ 

The  whiies  of  eggs  may  be  separated  from  the  yolks,  at  the 
time  of  breaking  (Fig.  70),  and  may  be  frozen  for  the  use  of 

1 U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Bur.  Chem.  Circ.  g8. 

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bakers.  This  is  an  important  and  growing  industry.  The  yolks 
may  be  frozen  separately,  or,  what  is  more  conmion,  mixed  with 
the  commercial  broken  eggs,  described  above.  Borax  is  used  in 
some  countries  to  preserve  the  broken  egg  product. 

Fig.  70. — Separation  of  yolks  and  whites  of  eggs  previous  to  freezing.     (By  permis^ 
sion  Seymour  Packing  Co.) 

Use  of  Preserving  Solutions 

Among  the  methods  that  are  used  for  preserving  eggs  in  small 
quantities,  there  are  two  that  have  been  found  fairly  satisfactory. 
The  first  is  by  covering  the  eggs  with  lime  water.  This  method 
has  many  advocates,  although  others  urge  that  the  flavor  of  the 
egg  is  liable  to  be  injured  by  the  Kme  which  penetrates  the  porous 

The  second  method  is  by  the  use  of  a  solution  of  water  glass 
(sodium  silicate). '»^    To  obtain  good  results,  the  eggs  should  be 

» U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Bur.  Chem.  Bui.  No.  115. 

*  Eighth  International  Cong,  of  Appl.  Chem.  Sec.  viiic,  p.  51. 

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perfectly  fresh,  the  silicate  solution  should  be  made  by  adding  cMie 
part  of  commercial  water  glass  to  nine  parts  of  freshly  boiled  water. 
The  eggs  must  be  completely  covered  with  the  solution  in  a  gal- 
vanized iron  or  earthen  vessel  and  be  kept  in  a  cool  place.  It  is 
said  that  the  taste  of  the  eggs  is  practically  unchanged,  even  after 
ten  to  twelve  months'  storage.  Eggs  treated  in  this  way  crack 
more  readily  during  boiling,  but  this  may  be  obviated  by  piercing 
the  shell  with  a  strong  needle. 

Egg  Preparations 

On  account  of  the  difficulty  of  keeping  eggs  fresh,  dessicated  or 
dried  eggs  and  egg  powders  have  been  put  upon  the  market.  Desic- 
cated eggs  can  be  prepared  by  spreading  the  eggs  over  the  surface 
of  a  slowly  revolving  cylinder,  upon  which  a  current  of  warm  air  is 
blown,  or  the  semi-liquid  eggs  can  be  dried  in  a  vacuum.  Salt 
or  sugar  is  sometimes  added  to  assist  in  preserving  the  product. 
A  recent  method  of  drying  is  by  allowing  the  beaten  eggs  to  flow 
in  a  thin  stream  upon  a  wide  block-tin  belt,  which  moves  slowly 
over  revolving  cylinders,  in  such  a  way  that  the  thin  film  of  egg  is 
heated  carefully,  but  never  to  a  temperature  about  120°  F.,  lest 
the  albumin  be  coagulated.  This  product  is  scraped  off  the  belt, 
and  dried  more  completely  in  wire  boxes,  and  finally  packed  in 
barrels  for  transportation.  It  is  intended  for  temporary  use  only, 
and  must  be  kept  in  cold  storage.  -  From  the  standpoint  of  health- 
fulness  there  is  no  objection  ta  desiccated  eggs  if  made  from  good 
stock  in  the  proper  manner.  The  product  is  used  by  bakers  and 
others,  and  has  the  advantage  of  keeping  in  localities  and  under 
conditions  where  fresh  eggs  are  not  available. 

There  are  occasionally  found  on  the  market,  egg  substitutes 
which  are  made  of  the  casein  and  albumin  of  milk  mixed  with  flour 
to  form  a  paste  or  powder.  Gelatin,  isinglass  and  gluten  are  used 
in  the  same  way.  Other  egg  substitutes  which  are  of  course  worth- 
less, consist  largely  of  starch  or  flour,  colored  with  aniline  yellow, 
so  as  to  resemble  eggs.    They  may  not  be  injurious,  but  they  are 

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intended  to  lead  the  customer  to  think  he  is  getting  something 
"just  as  good''  as  eggs;  when  as^a  matter  of  fact  he  is  buying  at  a 
high  price,  cheap  materials  which  have  none  of  the  properties  of 

Eggs  are  produced  all  over  the  United  States,  but  it  is  only 
the  states  of  Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois,  Iowa,  Minnesota,  Nebraska, 
Kansas,  Missouri,  Texas,  Tennessee  and  Kentucky  that  produce 
more  eggs  than  are  needed  for  home  consumption,  and  can  export 
to  their  less  fortunate  neighbors. 

England  is  largely  dependent  on  the  Continent  for  its  egg 
supply.  The  price  of  eggs  in  the  United  States  varies  with  the 
time  of  the  year,  but  in  general  is  gradually  increasing. 

The  United  States  Agri.  Dept.  report  for  the  year  1911-12 
gives  the  egg  exports  as  15,405,609  dozens,  valued  at  $3,395,952. 
The  new  American  tariff,  placing  eggs  on  the  free  list,  has  resulted 
in  the  importation  of  a  large  number  of  eggs  from  China. 

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Spices  and  condiments  are  of  extremely  varied  composition. 
They  are  used  to  communicate  an  agreeable  flavor  or  aroma  to 
food,  and  to  stimulate  the  appetite.  With  the  possible  exception 
of  common  salt  none  of  these  substances  can  be  said  to  be  ab- 
solutely necessary  to  the  human  body.  They  may  however  be 
used  with  moderation  by  middle-aged  and  old  people  to  give 
increased  pleasure  in  partaking  of  food,  but  the  use  of  spices  by 
children  should  not  be  encouraged.  Condiments  are  not  to  be 
regarded  as  food,  for  they  do  not  contribute  directly  to  the  nourish- 
ment of  the  body,  but  they  are  to  be  regarded  as  simply  "food 


Many  of  these  substances  owe  their  properties  to  the  presence 
of  a  volatile  oil,  which  excites  the  nerves  of  taste  and  smell  and 
thus  increases  the  desire  for  food,  or  as  we  say  the  appetite.  The 
essential  oil  which  many  of  them  contain  is  readily  distilled  over 
with  steam,  and  forms  an  important  article  of  commerce.  This 
oil  is  sometimes  used  i«  the  place  of  the  material  from  which  it  is 
made,  as  in  the  case  of  the  oil  of  cloves,  cinnamon  or  thyme. 
These  oils  usually  contain  a  number  of  closely  related  compounds, 
among  which  are  the  terpenes  (CioHie),  and  camphors  (CioHieO). 
The  composition  of  some  of  the  more  important  essential  oils  is 
considered  under  the  spices  mentioned  below. 


For  convenience  the  spices  and  condiments  may  be  classified 
with  reference  to  the  source  from  which  they  are  obtained, 


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thus:  I.  From  stems  or  leaves;  2.  from  buds  or  flowers;  3.  from  the 
bark;  4.  from  roots  or  rootstocks;  5.  from  immature  or  ripe  fruits; 
6.  from  seeds. 


Bay  leaf  (Laurus  nobilisL.). — The  sweet  bay  as  it  is  called  is 
used  as  a  condimental  substance  in  food.  It  is  a  native  of  the 
Mediterranean  but  grows  in  sheltered  gardens  in  temperate 
climates.  The  oil  of  bay,  which  is  used  in  making  bay  rum,  is 
obtained  from  a  different  plant,  the  Myrda  acris.^ 

Sage  (Salvia  ofl&cinalis  L.)  is  an  ordinary  perennial  garden 
herb,  which  grows  wild  in  southern  Europe,  and  is  cultivated 
in  old  time  gardens.  The  leaves,  which  are  the  official  portion, 
are  grayish  green,  hairy  and  very  aromatic.  From  these  an 
aromatic  oil  may  be  distilled.  It  possesses  slightly  tonic,  as- 
tringent and  aromatic  properties.  Its  chief  use  is  in  flavoring 
meats,  especially  sausage,  and  the  "stuffing"  of  fowls. 

Speannint  (Mentha  spicataL.)  is  the  dried  leaves  and  tops  of  a 
perennial  herb,  which  is  a  native  of  Europe  and  Asia  but  has  be- 
come naturalized  and  is  found  in  moist  places  in  many  localities  in 
the  northern  United  States.  It  somewhat  resembles  peppermint, 
but  can  readily  be  distinguished  from  it  both  by  appearance  and 
odor.  The  plant  is  used  especially  in  flavoring  "mint  sauce," 
which  is  served  with,  mutton.  The  oil  of  spearmint  is  largely 
distilled  in  this  country,  the  whole  plant  being  used. 

Sweet  majorum  (Origanum  majoranum). — ^This  plant  grows 
wild  in  Portugal  and  Andalusia,  is  a  native  of  North  America, 
and  is  cultivated  as  a  garden  herb  in  many  countries.  It  yields  a 
volatile  oil  when  distilled  with  steam.  The  plant  is  used  in  medi- 
cine and  for  flavoring. 

Sweet  basil  (Ocymum  basilicum  L.). — This  is  an  aromatic 
plant  which  is  a  native  of  India  and  Persia,^  but  is  cultivated  in 

>  U.  S.  Dispensatory,  p.  1589. 
*  Loc.  dt.,  p.  1584. 

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gardens  throughout  the  temperate  zone.  The  leaves  are  used  for 
condimental  purposes,  on  account  of  their  aromatic  flavor.  The 
flavor  somewhat  resembles  that  of  cloves. 

Sununer  savory  (Satureja  hortensis  L.)  is  an  annual  plant 
which  suggests  thyme  by  its  odor,  and  which  grows  wild  in  southern 
Europe.  This  and  the  mountain  savory  are  grown  for  flavoring 
soups,  entrees,  etc.  This  plant  readily  yields  an  aromatic  oil 
upon  distillation. 

Peppermint  (Mentha  piperita  L.)  or  "mint,"  is  found  growing 
wild  in  moist  places  in  almost  all  countries  of  the  temperate  zone. 
It  is  also  cidtivated  for  mkaing  the  essential  oil  especially  in  the 
states  of  Michigan,  Indiana  and  New  York.  The  oil  which 
has  a  strong,  pungent  taste,  "followed  by  a  sensation  of  cold  when 
air  is  drawn  into  the  mouth,"  is  not  so  much  used  for  flavoring 
foods  as  in  beverages  and  confectionery.  Menthol  (CioHi»OH) 
is  obtained  from  oil  of  peppermint. 

Parsley  (Apium  petroselinum)  is  an  umbelliferous  plant  which 
is  a  native  of  Sardinia  and  parts  of  southern  Europe,  and  is 
readily  cultivated.  All  the  parts  of  the  plant  contain  an  oil 
to  which  the  flavor  is  due.  A  peculiar  substance  called  apiin, 
which  suggests  pectin  because  it  readily  forms  a  gelatinous  mass, 
is  obtained  by  boiling  the  herb  with  water  and  cooling.  Various 
parts  of  the  plant  are  used  in  medicine,  but  the  amount  used  in 
garnishing  and  flavoring  foods  is  not  sufficient  to  produce  any 
medicinal  effects. 

Tarragon  (Artemisia  dracunculus)  is  a  plant  which  is  cultivated 
for  its  pungent,  aromatic  leaves.  They  are  used  more  especially 
as  a  flavor  in  western  Asia.  Their  principal  use  is  for  flavoring 
soups,  and  for  making  "  tarragon  vinegar,"  which  is  well  known 
and  appreciated  in  many  countries. 

Wintergreen  (Gaultheria  procumbens  L.)  is  a  small  evergreen 
herb  which  grows  wild  in  various  parts  of  the  United  States.  The 
oil  is  especially  used  for  flavoring  beverages  and  confectionery. 
It  contains  about  95  per  cent,  of  methyl  salicylate  and  may  be 
used  as  a  substitute  for  salicylic  add  in  medicine. 

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Thyme  (Thymus  vulgaris  L.)  is  cultivated  in  gardens  through- 
out the  temperate  zone,  and  is  a  native  of  the  Mediterranean 
region.  There  are  several  allied  varieties  having  quite  similar 
properties  growing  wild.  The  oil  of  thyme,  which  is  produced 
from  the  leaves  by  distillation,  contains  from  25  to  42  per  cent,  of 
thymol  (C10K13OH) .,    Thyme  is  used  for  flavoring  foods. 


Caper  bush  (Capparis  spinosa  L.). — Capers  are  the  buds  or 
imexpanded  flowers  of  a  low  trailing  shrub  that  grows  abundantly 
along  the  shores  and  on  the  islands  of  the  Mediterranean.  It  is 
found  growing  wild  in  central  and  southern  Italy,  and  is  culti- 
vated in  that  country  and  on  the  islands  of  Sicily  and  Majorca, 
as  well  as  in  France  and  Spain.  The  fresh  buds  gathered  every 
morning  are  treated  with  salt  and  vinegar.  The  smallest  and 
greenest  are  considered  of  the  finest  quality.  Capers  are  used  espe- 
cially for  flavoring  meats  and  in  pickles.  The  peculiar  flavor 
of  capers  is  due  to  the  presence  of  capric  acid.  They  are  some- 
times adulterated  by  the  substitution  in  part  of  other  flower-buds. 

Cloves  (Eugenia  caryophyllata  or  Caryophyllus  aromaticus 
L.). — The  dried  flower  buds  of  an  evergreen  tree  which  is  a  native 
of  the  Molucca  Islands.  It  is  cultivated  throughout  the  East 
Indies,  in  East  Africa  and  in  the  West  Indies  and  Brazil.  The  tree 
grows  to  a  height  of  30  or  40  feet  and  begins  to  bear  when  the  tree 
is  about  six  years  old.  The  cloves  are  dried  in  the  sun  or  by  the 
heat  of  a  wood  fire.  Cloves  contain  from  17  to  20  per  cent,  of  the 
volatile  oil  of  cloves,  and  about  8  per  cent,  of  oleo -resin.  The  oil  is 
obtained  by  distilling  the  cloves  with  water,  and  it  is  to  the  pres- 
ence of  this  oil  that  we  owe  the  agreeable  flavor  and  aroma. 
This  oil  consists  of  about  90  per  cent,  of  a  substance  called  "eu- 
genol"  (C10H12O2).  The  uses  of  cloves  in  culinary  operations 
as  a  flavor,  and  as  a  preservative  are  well  known.  Exhausted 
cloves  from  which  much  of  the  oil  has  been  removed  are  sometimes 
foimd  upon  the  market.    Formerly,  ground  doves  were  very 

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grossly  adulterated,  but  this  condition  does  not  at  present  prevail 
in  the  United  States. 

Saffron  (Crocus  sativus  L.). — This  is  the  dried  stigmas  and 
tops  of  the  styles  .of  a  perennial  plant  which  is  originally  from  Asia 
Minor,  but  is  now  cultivated  in  many  parts  of  southern  Europe 
and  Asia.  It  is  chiefly  used  in  medicine  and  to  impart  color  and 
flavor  to  food. 

3.  BARKS 

Cassia  (Cinnamomum  cassia  and  several  other  species).— 
This  is  the  inner  bark  of  various  trees  having  an  odor  and  flavor 
quite  similar  to  cinnamon,  and  often  used  as  an  adulterant  for 
the  genuine  cinnamon.  It  contains  a  volatile  oil  similar  to  oil  of 
cinnamon.  The  flower  buds  are  put  on  the  market  under  the 
name  of  "cassia  buds,"  which  are  also  used  for  flavoring  purposes. 

Cixmamon  (Cinnamomum  zeylanicum  Brejoie). — This  is  the 
true  or  Ceylon  cinnamon  and  is  the  inner  bark  of  a  tree  which  is 
cultivated  throughout  the  East  Indies  and  in  various  tropical 
countries.  The  longitudinal  strips  of  bark  are  removed  from 
the  trees,  cured  and  dried,  and  made  into  bundles  for  shipping. 
This  bark  contains  an  essential  oil,  usually  less  than  i  per  cent., 
which  consists  largely  of  "dnnamic  aldehyde"  (CeHs  CH:CH.- 

An  artificial  (synthetic)  cinnamic  aldehyde,  made  from  coal 
tar  is  sometimes  used  to  replace  the  genuine  oil  in  the  manu- 
facture of  flavoring  materials.  The  cinnamon  bark  can  readily 
be  adulterated  with  cassia  and  similar  barks.  Pure  groand  cinna- 
mon is  much  more  frequently  found  on  the  market  than  formerly. 


Turmeric  (Curcuma  langa). — This  is  the  rhizome  of  a  perennial 
plant  growing  in  the  East.  The  roots  are  dried  and  frequently 
ground  before  being  put  upon  the  market.    It  contains  a  yellow 

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coloring  matter,  and  the  powder  has  a  warm,  bitterish,  somewhat 
aromatic  taste.    It  is  used  for  coloring  and  flavoring  food  products. 

Garlic  (Allium  sativum)  these  bulbs,  which  are  much  more 
commonly  grown  in  Europe  than  in  the  United  States,  are  used 
in  flavoring,  sauces,  etc.  (See  Onions.)  The  odor  is  due  to  an 
essential  oil,  which  is  usually  supposed  to  consist  largely  of  allyl 
sulfide  (CsHjS  or  allyl  sulfocyanide  (CsHjNCS). 

Ginger  (Zingiber  ofl&dnale). — This  is  the  creeping  rhizome  of 
a  plant  which  is  said  to  be  a  native  of  Hindostan,  but  is  cidtivated 
in  the  East  and  West  Indies,  Africa,  China,  Japan,  and  in  fact 
almost  all  sub-tropical  countries.^  The  root  is  sufficiently  grown 
when  it  is  a  year  old.  It  is  scalded  in  boiling  water,  rapidly 
dried  and  thus  prepared  constitutes  the  "black  ginger"  of  com- 
merce. In  Jamaica  the  white  or  Jamaica  ginger  is  prepared  by 
peeling  the  fresh  rhizomes  and  mascerating  them  with  water  or 
lime  juice,  and  drying  in  the  sun.  Inferior  grades  are  often 
bleached  with  sulfur  or  whitened  by  dipping  into  a  mixture  of  cal- 
cium sulfate  or  chalk  and  water.  "Limed"  ginger  has  come 
to  be  a  regular  article  of  commerce.  Ginger  contains  an  oleo- 
resin,  a  volatile  oil  and  nearly  50  per  cent,  of  a  peculiar  starch. 
The  flavor  is  due  to  the  volatile  oil  and  the  pungency  to  the  oleo- 
resin.  The  extract  and  "essence"  is  much  used  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  beverages.  It  is  sometimes  "fortified"  by  the  addition 
of  capsicum.  Exhausted  roots  and  adulterated  ground- ginger 
are  occasionally  sold. 

Horseradish  (Cochlearia  armoracia  L.)  is  the  root  of  a  plant 
which  is  a  native  of  western  Europe  and  is  extensively  grown  on 
both  sides  of  the  Atlantic.  The  virtue  of  the  root  is  due  to  the 
volatile  oil  which  is  present,  but  which  is  dissipated  by  dr3dng.  The 
root  is  grated  and  preserved  in  vinegar  for  use.  The  oil  consists 
chiefly  of  sulfocyanate  of  butyl  (C4H»CNS).  Horseradish  is 
valuable  as  an  addition  to  a  diet  containing  much  salt  meat,  as 
it  tends  to  prevent  scurvy.  As  a  condiment  it  promotes  the 
appetite  and  assists  digestion,  if  not  taken  in  too  large  quantities. 

*  U.  S.  Dispensatory,  p.  1526. 

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The  grated  horseradish  is  sometimes  mixed  with  grated  tumq>  as 
an  adulterant. 

Sassafras  (Sassafras  variifolium). — ^This  is  a  small  tree  grow- 
ing along  the  Atlantic  coast,  and  to  the  interior  of  the  United 
States.  The  bark  of  the  small  stems  and  especially  of  the  root 
is  the  part  used.  The  root  and  the  volatile  oil  obtained  from  it 
are  used  in  flavoring  beverages  and  confectionery. 


Allspice  (Pimenta  officinalis). — This  is  the  dried  ripe  or  nearly 
ripe  fruit  of  an  evergreen  tree,  growing  to  a  height  of  about  30 
feet,  which  is  a  native  of  the  Caribee  Islands,  but  is  grown  in  the 
West  Indies,  Mexico  and  the  northern  part  of  South  America. 
The  berries,  in  order  to  have  the  best  flavor  should  be  picked 
while  green,  and  are  then  dried  in  the  sun  or  in  a  kiln.  The 
volatile  oil  which  is  present  to  the  amount  of  from  3.5  to  4  per 
cent.,^  has  a  fragrant  odor  which  resembles  somewhat  a  combina- 
tion of  other  spices. 

Capsicum — cayenne  pepper — (Capsicum  frutescens  L.)  and 
several  other  spedes.  There  are  several  species  of  red  peppers; 
the  cayennes  are  hot  and  the  "paprikas"  are  mild.  Peppers  are 
cultivated  in  both  the  temperate  and  sub-tropical  countries,  but 
the  pungent  varieties  are  more  extensively  used  in  the  latter. 

Paprika — (Capsicum  annuum  L.)  is  the  dried  ripe  fruit,  exclu- 
sive of  seeds  and  stems,  of  several  large  fruited  species  of  capsicum. 
When  ground  into  powder,  it  constitutes  the  "paprika"  or  "sweet 
pepper"  of  commerce,  and  has  a  comparatively  mild  taste.  It  is 
often  mixed  with  genuine  pepper.^ 

Junq^er  (Juniper  communis). — This  is  a  dark  blue  berry, 
borne  on  an  evergreen  tree  that  is  one  of  the  most  widely 'dis- 
tributed trees  of  the  northern  hemisphere.  It  grows  as  far  north 
as  the  arctic  circle,  and  the  trees  differ  greatly  in  size  and  shape 

*U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.  Bull.  No  13,  p.  229. 
»  U.  S.  Dfap*,  p.  289. 

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in  different  latitudes.  The  fruit  matures  during  the  second  season, 
and  is  used  medicinally  and  for  making  an  aromatic  oil.  The 
crushed  berry  or  the  oil  is  used  in  flavoring  gin.     (See  p.  147.) 

Pepper  (Piper  offidnarum: — Piper  nigrum  L.). — P.  nigrum  L. 
grows  wild  in  China  and  various  parts  of  India  and  is  cultivated 
principally  in  the  East  Indies.  This  is  a  perennial  plant,  which 
is  propagated  by  cuttings,  and  as  it  grows  must  be  supported  by 
props  or  other  trees.  The  tree  begins  to  bear  three  or  four  years 
after  it  is  planted  and  produces  two  crops  a  year.  Black  and 
while  pepper  are  the  fruit  of  the  same  tree,  but  treated  in  different 
ways.  The  berries  which  are  gathered  before  they  are  ripe,  are 
dried  in  the  sim,  and  beaten  on  mats  to  detach'  them  from  the 
stalk.  This  constitute  the  black  pepper  of  commerce.  For 
the  preparation  of  white  pepper,  the  berries  are  allowed  to  become 
red  or  even  black  before  they  are  gathered,  and  then  are  permitted 
to  stand  until  a  certain  amount  of  fermentation  takes  place.  They 
are  then  rubbed  between  the  hands  to  remove  the  pericarp  and 
pidp,  dried  and  blanched.  The  white  pepper  is  much  less  pimgent, 
but  more  aromatic  than  the  black.  One  of  the  most  important 
ingredients  of  pepper  is  piperin  (CtHioNOs),  an  alkaloid-like 
substance.  Pepper  also  contains  an.  oleo-resin  and  a  volatile 
oil  which  contribute  flavor  and  pungency  to  the  product.  The  P. 
offidnarum  or  long  pepper,  is  a  smaller  berry  than  the  P.  nigrum, 
and  not  so  generally  used. 

Vanilla  Bean  (Vanilla  planifolia,  Andrews). — ^This  is  the  dried 
and  cured  bean  of  an  orchid  which  is  indigenous  to  Mexico,  but 
is  also  cultivated  in  thq  West  Indies,  Central  and  South  America. 
The  best  cured  beans  of  commerce  are  from  20  to  25  centimeters 
long,  and  drawn  out  at  the  ends  and  curved  at  the  base.  They 
have  a  very  characteristic  dark  brown  color,  are  waxy  to  the  touch, 
and  covered  with  fine  crystals  of  vanillin.  (Fig.  71.)  The  deli- 
cious flavor  is  developed  in  the  process  of  sweating  or  curing,  which 
must  be  done  with  great  care  and  skill.  Mexican  beans  command 
the  highest  price,  often  from  $10.00  to  $15.00  per  potmd.  The 
cheapest  grades  are  from  South  America  and  Tahiti. 

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Vanillin,  the  active  principle  of  these  beans,  and  the  substance 
to  which  the  flavor  is  due  has  the  composition,  CgHgOa  and  is 
found  in  quantity  from  1.60  per  cent,  to  2.60  per  cent.  It  is 
readily  extracted  by  alcohol  and  other  solvents.  An  artificial 
or  "synthetic"  vanillin  has  been  made,  and  is  much  cheaper  than 
the  product  from  the  vanilla  beans.  It  is  largely  obtained  by 
the  oxidation  of  the  eugenol  of  oil  of  cloves  with  alkaline  potassium 

Fig.  71. — Bundles  of  vanilla  beans,  as  they  come  into  the  market.    (By  permission 

U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.) 

permanganate.^  Vanilla  extract  is  made  by  extracting  the  va- 
nilla beans  with  dilute  alcohol,  and  adding  a  little  sugar  or  some- 
times glycerine.  There  are  many  fraudulent  extracts  on  the 

6.  SEEDS 

Anise  (Pimpinella  anisum  L.). — The  seed  of  an  annual  plant 
which  is  a  native  of  Egypt,  and  is  cultivated  abundantly  in  Malta, 
^  Food  Adult,  and  Anal.,  Leach,  p.  730 

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Italy,  Spain,  southern  Russia,  in  India  and  South  America.  Anise 
is  interesting  as  being  one  of  the  earliest  aromatics  mentioned 
in  literature.  It  contains  about  3  per  cent,  of  volatile  oil  to 
which  the  warm,  sweet  aromatic  taste  and  odor  is  due.  Anise 
is  used  in  flavoring  pastry  and  in  making  various  liqueurs  and 

Cardamon  (Elettaria  cardamomum). — ^The  Cardamon  is  a 
native  of  Malabar  and  is  produced  chiefly  in  India.  The  seeds 
grow  on  a  small  tree,  which  begins  to  yield  fruit  at  the  beginning 
of  its  fourth  year.  After  they  are  picked  the  seeds  are  washed 
several  times  in  soap  solution,  and  then  thoroughly  dried.  Carda- 
mons  are  used  in  cakes,  sauces,  cordials  and  confectionery. 

The  Tonka  bean  is  the  seed  of  a  large  tree  which  grows  in 
Guiana — the  Dipteryx  odorata.  The  almond-shaped  pod  contains 
a  single  bean,  something  like  a  kidney  bean  in  shape,  and  having  a 
brown  color.  Coumarin  (C9H6O2)  is  the  active  principle,  of  the 
tonka  bean.  It  is  the  aldehyde  of  coumaric  acid  and.  forms 
colorless  prismatic  crystals,  which  have  a  fragrant  oc^pr  and 
bitter  taste.  It  may  also  be  prepared  synthetically.  ^Tonka 
extract  is  often  used  to  partly  replace  vanilla  extract,  or  Jt  may  be 
used  with  artificial  coumarin  and  vanillin  to  form  a  che^p  "com- 
poimd"  extract  of  vanilla. 

Caraway  Seed  (Carum  carvi  L.). — The  plant  is  a  native  of 
Europe,  and  is  cultivated  in  many  coimtries.  The  seeds  yield  on 
distillation  an  essential  oil  which  contains  a  substance  called 
"  carvol ''  (CioHhOc)  .    They  are  used  for  flavoring  and  in  cooking. 

Celery  Seed  (Apium  graveolens  L.). — The  seeds  of  this  plant 
are  often  used  for  flavoring  purposes,  and  have  considerable  med- 
icinal value.     (See  Celery  p.  184.) 

Coriander  Seed  (Coriandrum  sativum  L.). — ^A  native  of  Italy, 
which  grows  wild  in  some  parts  of  Europe  and  is  readily  cultivated. 
The  volatile  oil  has  an  agreeable  odor. 

Cumin  Seed  (Cumin  urn  cyminum  L.). — ^A  native  of  Egypt,  and 
at  present  cultivated  largely  in  southern  Europe.    This  is. an^' 
annual  umbelliferous  plant,  which  produces  a  seed  quite  similar 



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to  the  coriander  in  flavor.  It  is  used  in  flavoring.  In  Germany 
the  peasants  are  fond  of  bread  and  cake  flavored  with  cumin,  and 
in  Holland  it  is  used  to  flavor  cheese.^ 

Dill  (Anethum  graviolens  L.). — ^This  plant  is  a  native  of  Spain, 
Portugal  and  southern  France,  and  is  cultivated  in  gardens  in 
Europe  and  America.  The  seeds  are  used  in  the  United  States  for 
flavoring,  and  in  preparing  a  special  pickle  known  as  the 
"dill  pickle."    The  flavor  is  not  as  agreeable  as  that  of  fennel. 

Fennel  (Foeniculum  vulgare  L.). — This  plant  which  is  a 
native  of  Europe,  is  common  in  all  temperate  climates.  The 
seed  generally  yields  fom:  or  five  per  cent,  of  volatile  oil,  which 
has  a  sweet  aromatic  taste.  Fennel  is  chiefly  used  to  flavor 
cakes  and  liquetirs. 

Grains  pf  Paradise  (Amomum  melegueta). — ^These  seeds  are 
grown  in  West  Africa  and  the  West  Indies,  and  are  used  as  a 
codiment.  As  they  have  a  pungency  similar  to  black  pepper 
they  are  used  to  give  a  "fiery"  taste  to  various  liquors  as  beer, 
wine  and  gin. 

Mustards  (Sinapis  arvensis,  var.  nigra  and  alba  L.). — These 
plants  are  probably  indigenous  in  Europe.  They  are  cultivated 
in  gardens  and  in  fields  and  in  some  places  grow  wild.  Both  the 
black  and  white  mustard  are  important  condimental  substances. 
The  plant  is  an  annual,  bearing  yellow  flowers,  and  the  seeds  may  be 
separated  from  the  pods  when  ripe  by  threshing.  Mustard 
contains  a  fixed  oil  which  is  present  to  the  amoimt  of  from  20  to 
30  per  cent.  This  may  be  expressed  from  the  powdered  seeds, 
after  warming.  It  is  a  bland  oil,  with  very  little  taste,  and  forms 
an  excellent  salad  oil.  (See  Fats  and  Oils.)  Much  of  the  fixed 
oil  is  frequently  removed  before  the  seeds  are  prepared  as  "grotmd 
mustard."  Mustard  also  yields,  when  the  seeds  are  moistened, 
under  the  influence  of  the  myrosin  an  enzyme,  a  volatile  or 
essential  oil,  but  this  does  not  exist  ready-formed  in  the  seeds. 
The  active  principle  of  black  mustard  is  sinigrin,  and  that  of  white 
mustard  is  sinalhin.  These  are  the  substances  which  break  up 
>  Foods,  Origin,  Comp.  and  Manufacture,  Tibbies,  p.  764. 

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COMMON   SALT  45 1 

to  yield,  among  other  products,  the  volatile  oil.  The  strongest 
"ground  mustard"  is  obtained  by  mixing  the  two  varieties  of 
seeds.  As  starch  is  not  a  constituent  of  mustard,  adulteration 
with  this  substance  is  easily  detected.  Formerly  the  "prepared 
mustard"  put  upon  the  market  in  the  United  States,  was  grossly 
adulterated.  The  uses  of  mustard  in  medicine,  as  a  condiment, 
and  to  stimulate  the  appetite  are  well  known. 

Nutmeg— Mace  (Myristica  fragrans  Houttuyn)  and  other  varie- 
ties. These  seeds  grow  on  a  tree  about  30  feet  high,  which  some- 
what resemble  the  orange  tree.^  It  is  a  native  of  the  Molucca  and 
neighboring  islands,  and  is  cultivated  especially  in  the  East 
Indies,  Madagascar  and  the  West  Indies.  The  trees  are  started 
from  the  seed,  but  are  cut  down  and  grafted  with  branches  of  the 
female  tree  to  insure  fruitfulness  when  they  are  about  two  years 
old.  A  few  male  trees  are  left  in  the  orchard  to  insmre  fecunda- 
tion. The  trees  continue  bearing  for  seventy  or  eighty  years. 
The  nutmegs  are  gathered  by  hand  and  the  interior  covering  (the 
mace  of  commerce)  is  carefully  removed.  The  nuts  are  then  dried 
and  exposed  to  smoke  until  they  become  brittle  enough  to  be 
readily  broken  so  that  the  kernel  (the  nutmeg.of  commerce)  can  be 
easily  separated.  The  kernels  are  steeped  in  lime  water  or  rubbed 
over  with  dry  lime,  to  prevent  their  being  attacked  by  insects, 
before  they  are  exported.  Nutmegs  contain  an  expressed  oil, 
which  becomes  solid  on  cooling,  and  consists  largely  of  myristin, 
and  a  volatile  oil  which  is  obtained  by  distilling  the  powdered  nut- 
megs with  water.  The  nutmeg  is  aromatic  and  a  stimulant, very 
useful  for  flavoring  food  products.  Mace  has  similar  properties  to 
those  of  the  nutmeg.  Bombay  mace,  which  is  often  used  to 
adidterate  Penang  and  other  true  maces,  has  practically  no  flavor, 

and'is  of  little  more  value  than  so  much  inert  material. 


SALT  (Sodium  chloride,  NaCl) 

Salt  seems  to  have  been  in  use  by  man  from  the  earliest  ages. 
In  some  coimtries  it  has  been  held  of  such  value  that  it  has  sold 
^  U.  S.  Dispensatory,  p.  797. 

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at  an  extremely  high  price.  It  occurs  in  the  ocean,  in  salt  lakes 
and  salt  springs,  as  well  as  in  immense  salt  beds,  from  which  it 
can  be  mined.    The  methods  of  obtaining  salt  are  as  follows: 

I.  By  the  Evaporation  of  Ocean,  Salt-lake  or  Salt 
Spring  Waters 

Each  gallon  of  sea  water  woidd  yield  about  one-fourth  of  a 
pound  of  salt,  and  for  many  years  this  was  almost  the  only  source 
of  the  salt  of  commerce,  especially  in  warm  dry  climates.  Salt  is 
still  made  by  the  solar  evaporation  of  sea  or  salt-lake  water  in 
Portugal,  Italy,  Spain,  Austria,  France  and  California.  In 
Russia  and  Siberia  the  sea  water  is  first  frozen,  and  the  ice  which 
is  then  removed  contains  but  little  salt,  and  the  remaining  brine 
is  boiled  down.  Salt  made  from  ocean  water  is  quite  impure, 
unless  purified  by  washing  and  recrystallization. 

2.  From  Rock  Salt 

Beds  of  rock  salt  of  great  extent,  formed  by  the  evaporation  of 
prehistoric  seas,  are  found  in  many  parts  of  the  world.  In  the 
United  States  these  beds  occur  especially  in  New  York,  Michigan, 
Kansas  and  Louisiana.  They  are  sometimes  near  the  surface 
but  often  at  a  depth  of  a  thousand  feet  or  more.  The  salt  is  mined 
by  sinking  a  shaft  and  working  similar  to  a  coal  mine.  The  rock- 
salt,  if  sufficiently  pure,  is  sold  just  as  mined,  or  goimd  and 
screened,  and  put  upon  the  market  directly.  This  product  is  often 
98  to  99  per  cent.  pure. 

3.  By  Evaporating  a  Brine  Obtained  From  Salt  Beds 

This  is  one  of  the  commonest  and  most  satisfactory  methods. 
A  drilling  is  made  into  the  salt,  and  lined  with  tubing,  another 
tube  is  himg  loosely  in  this  outer  tube,  leaving  an  annular  space, 
between  the  two  thus  (<^).    Fresh  water  is  pumped  into  this  annu- 

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lar  space,  becomes  saturated  with  salt  in  the  strata  below,  and  is 
subsequently  pumped  out,  and  evaporated.  This  evaporation  is 
carried  on  by  solar  heat,  in  open  pans  heated  directly  over  a  fire, 
or  heated  by  steam  or  more  recently  in  open  pans  connected  with 
an  exhaust  or  vacuum  pan.  The  brine  may  be  somewhat  purified 
at  first  by  partially  concentrating  in  a  pan  where  the  less  soluble 
constituents,  such  as  calcium  sulfate  crystallize  out,  and  then 
running  into  the  main  evaporating  pan.  The  salt  is  raked  out 
of  the  pans,  allowed  to  drain,  and  sometimes  dried  artificially 
before  it  is  put  upon  the  market. 


The  analysis  of  average  common  salt  is  as  follows: 

Sodium  chloride 98 .  25 

Insoluble  residue o. 08 

Calcium  sulfate i  .31 

Magnesium  chloride o.  10 

Sodium  sulfate o. 26 

Although  there  is  an  abundance  of  salt  in  the  United  States, 
considerable  quantities  are  imported,  especially  for  salting 

In  some  coimtries  as  Australia,  Italy  and  China,  the  manu- 
facture and  sale  of  common  salt  in  a  government  monopoly,  and 
the  salt  is  sold  at  a  high  price  in  order  to  produce  revenue  for  the 
Government.  In  France,  Germany  and  India,  salt  to  be  used  for 
food  is  subject  to  a  tax,  and  salt  used  for  other  purposes  is  "de- 
natured," by  the  addition  of  some  foreign  material  so  that  it  shall 
not  be  fit  to  use  for  seasoning  food. 

Dietetic  Use  of  Common  Salt 

The  amount  of  sodium  chloride  taken  with  the  food  is  so  large 
that  the  chlorine  contained  in  foods  in  the  form  of  mineral  salts, 

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is  of  no  importance.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  among  animals 
the  herbivora  require  salt  in  their  food,  while  the  carnivora  do 
not.  In  discussing  the  natural  craving  for  salt  experienced  by  man 
and  the  herbivorous  animals,  Bimge^  (Physiolog