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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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WATERFOWL 
STATUS REPORT 

1974 

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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
Special Scientific Report- Wildlife No. 211 



NOTE: Use of trade names does not imply U.S. Government endorsement of commercial products. 



WATERFOWL STATUS REPORT, 1974 



Compiled and edited by 

Douglas S. Benning 
Sharon L. Rhoades 
Lonnie D. Schroeder 
Morton M. Smith 




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Special Scientific Report— Wildlife No. 211 

Washington, D.C. • 1978 




Fig. 1. Transects and strata covered in the aerial waterfowl breeding ground surveys. 



1973 and 25% below average. The diving duck index 
was 18% below 1973 and 20% below average. The total 
duck index was 4% above 1973 and 10% above aver- 
age. The combined goose index was 21% above 1973 
and 14% below average. The snow goose (Chen caeru- 
lescens) index was 29% above 1973 and 1% above aver- 
age. The black brant index was 32% below 1973 and 
70% below average. 



Central Fly way 

Data supplied by Raymond J. Buller, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Inclement weather caused delays in flying and inter- 
rupted the survey in several important wintering 
areas; therefore, it was necessary to resort to ground 
counts in Oklahoma. One ecological area, Trans-Pecos 
in Texas, was not surveyed. The comparability of the 
1974 waterfowl estimates to previous surveys is ques- 



tionable because of the difficulties caused by adverse 
weather. 

Participation included 52 Service and 150 State per- 
sonnel. Twenty-six aircraft flew 188 h, surveying 
17,900 miles. Additional coverage included over 
16,200 miles by automobile. 

The dabbling duck index was 52% below 1973 and 
14% below the 1964-73 average. The mallard index 
was 33% below 1973 and 30% below average. The pin- 
tail index was unchanged from 1973 and 33% above 
average. The diving duck index was 166% above 1973 
and 58% above average. The increase was due to a 
313% increase in the redhead (Aythya americana) 
index from 1973 and an 80% increase above average. 
The total duck index was 14% below 1973 and 8% 
below average. 

The snow goose index was 33% above 1973. The 
white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) index increased 
67% over 1973. The Canada goose (Branta canadensis) 
index was also 11% above 1973. The total goose index 
was 25% above 1973. 



Mississippi Fly way 

Data supplied by Arthur S. Hawkins and Rossalius C. 

Hanson, 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

This survey lasted longer than any on record; Louisi- 
ana's survey continued through January. Arkansas 
used information collected in mid-December. Unfavor- 
able flight conditions were responsible for abnormal 
delays and flooding conditions prevailed over most of 
the wintering grounds, leaving waterfowl widely dis- 
persed. Again, comparability of the 1974 survey re- 
sults with previous years is questionable. Participa- 
tion involved a total of 422 Federal and State per- 
sonnel. Thirty-nine aircraft, 290 automobiles, and 
46 boats traveled 36,800 miles to conduct the survey. 

Duck population indices obtained in 1974 were im- 
possible to evaluate with any degree of confidence be- 
cause of unavoidable time lags and other operational 
difficulties. The dabbling duck index was 11% below 
1973 and 22% below the 1964-73 average. All species 
of dabblers were down except blue-winged teal (Anas 
discors) and shovelers (Spatula clypeata), which were 
215% and 80% above 1973, respectively, and 212% 
and 28% above average, respectively. The diving duck 
index was down 22% from 1973 and down 12% from 
average. The ring-necked duck (Aythya collaris) index 
showed the only increase from 1973, but was still 
below average. The total goose index was 5% above 
1973 and 19% above average. 



A tlan tic Fly way 

Data supplied by Edgar L. Ferguson and Morton M. Smith, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Most States experienced unfavorable weather 
during the scheduled survey period, causing delays in 
aerial coverage. The survey was completed on 
25 January 1974. Due to generally mild winter before 
the survey much of the northern coastal areas were 
free of ice, causing dispersal of some species. 

Total participation was similar to 1973. Service par- 
ticipation involved 43 personnel and the States pro- 
vided 76 people; 22 other individuals assisted in the 
survey. Thirty-seven aircraft, 31 automobiles, and 15 
boats traveled a total of 30,300 miles to conduct the 
survey. 

The dabbling duck index was 7% below 1973 and 
28% below the 1964-73 average. This was the second 
consecutive year all species of dabbling ducks showed 
decreases from the average. Mallard and black duck 
(Anas rubripes) indices were 11 and 10%, respectively, 
below 1973 and 23 and 19%, respectively, below aver- 
age. The black duck index was the lowest in 20 years. 



Total divers were 11% above 1973, but were 20% 
below average. The redhead index was 11% above 1973 
and 3% above average. The canvasback (Aythya ualis- 
ineria) index was 3% above 1973, but was 15% below 
average. The scaup (Aythya marila and A. affinis) 
index was 37% above 1973, but was 26% below 
average. 

The eider (Somateria spp.) index was 66% above 
1973 and 25% above average. The scoter (Melanitta 
spp. and Oidemia nigra) index was 21% below 1973 
and 66% below average. The oldsquaw (Clangula 
hyemalis) index was 29% below 1973 and 16% below 
average. 

The Canada goose index was 61% above 1973 and 
19% above average. The snow goose (Chen hyperborea) 
index was 61% above 1973 and 75% above average. 
The American brant (Branta bernicla) index was 109% 
above 1973, but remained 40% below average. 

Mexico 



Data supplied by G. Horton Jensen and James F. Voelzer, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 



This survey encompasses the entire wintering 
grounds known to harbor black brant within Mexico. 
The survey was conducted from 15 through 
25 January 1974. The area covered was the same as in 
previous years, namely Baja California and the west 
coast of Mexico south to Mariscum Nacional. Clear 
weather was the rule throughout the survey period. 
Early morning fog sometimes restricted flights on the 
mainland until late morning or early afternoon. A 
Cessna 182 was used for the survey with pilot and co- 
pilot serving as observers. A Mexican biologist, Dr. 
Fernando Giovanini Rossell, accompanied the aerial 
crew for a portion of the survey. 

Redistribution of waterfowl concentrations asso- 
ciated with land-clearing and increased farming inten- 
sity in certain areas was again evident in 1974. More 
efficient drainage had reduced the number of inland 
water areas, and waterfowl were confined to brackish 
water in some areas. Road accessibility had increased 
human activity on the Baja California peninsula, pos- 
ing a possible threat to remaining black brant winter- 
ing habitat. 

Eighty-six percent of ducks observed were dabbling 
ducks, whereas 13% were diving ducks and 1% were 
miscellaneous {Table A-3). The pintail index made up 
53% of the total ducks observed, while the wigeon 
(Mareca americana) index constituted 17%. Other 
species indices, in order of their magnitude, were shov- 
eler, redhead, scaup, green-winged teal (Anas carol- 
inensis), blue-winged teal and cinnamon teal {A. cyan- 
optera), fulvous tree duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), mer- 
ganser (Mergus spp.), black-bellied tree duck (D. 



autumnalis), scoter, ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), 
gadwall (A. strepera), bufflehead [Bucephala albeola), 
goldeneye {B. clangula), and canvasback. 

The total duck index was 60% below and the total 
goose index was 46% below 1973. The 1974 black 
brant index was 7% above 1973 but 3% below the 
1964-73 average. The increase resulted mainly from 
higher estimates at Laguna Scammon and Laguna San 
Ignacio. 

Breeding Ground Survey 

Aerial surveys of waterfowl breeding populations 
and production were developed in the late 1940's by 
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to monitor the 
status of habitat and waterfowl, primarily ducks, over 
a large portion of their breeding grounds in North 
America. Annual information in this regard is essen- 
tial for effective management of this resource. Cur- 
rently, waterfowl population and habitat changes are 
surveyed over about 1.3 million square miles of breed- 
ing habitat within portions of Alaska, British Colum- 
bia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, the 
Northwest Territories, the Dakotas, and Minnesota. 

In addition to the Service's annual breeding ground 
survey, a number of States conduct a similar survey. 
State reports that have been submitted to the Service 
are incorporated herein. 

Beginning in 1973, the Waterfowl Status Report re- 
flects only the current year's data for Service-con- 
ducted surveys. Breeding population survey tables 
also have been changed to reflect adjustment for visi- 
bility bias. All reports before 1973 reflect unadjusted 
figures. Comparable data for 1955-72 are expected to 
be available soon in a Special Scientific Report. The 
historical production survey data (1955-71) are avail- 
able in Special Scientific Report — Wildlife No. 160 
(1972). Data for the 1972 and 1973 production surveys 
are presented in the respective years' status reports. 
The procedures followed in conducting the breeding 
ground surveys are established in the Service's Stand- 
ard Operating Procedures for Aerial Waterfowl Breed- 
ing Ground Population and Habitat Surveys. 

Alaska and the Yukon Territory 

Data supplied by James G. King, 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 

and Dan Timm, Alaska Department of Fish and Game 

Spring Weather and Habitat Conditions 

Weather and habitat conditions were optimum for 
waterfowl nesting in the southern three-fourths of 
Alaska. Survey coverage was about 1 week later than 



normal. Extensive ice remained in northern areas de- 
laying dispersal of waterfowl and precluding ideal 
survey conditions in those areas. The winter was 
typically cold, but snowfall was considerably below 
normal over all waterfowl habitat. As a result, ice was 
unusually thick. Warming in April caused remaining 
snow to melt and warm weather in early May brought 
the leaves out on the birch [Betula spp.) and cotton- 
wood {Populus spp.) by survey time throughout in- 
terior Alaska. 

Breeding Populations (Tables B-l and B-la) 

The survey was conducted from 17 May through 9 
June 1974. The total waterfowl breeding pouplation 
estimate was 12% above 1973 and 24% above the 
1964-73 average. The overall dabbler estimate was 
10% above 1973 and 39% above average. The pintail 
breeding population estimate was 17% below 1973 but 
149% above average. The combined diver estimate 
was 6% below 1973 but showed little difference from 
the average. Scaup were slightly below 1973 and the 
average. Oldsquaw were 77% above 1973 and 44% 
above average. The scoter estimate was 45% above 
1973 and 15% above average. 

Summer Weather and Habitat Conditions 

Weather conditions affecting habitat and produc- 
tion were not uniform. The Yukon Delta and south- 
central Alaska had an extremely early spring, whereas 
northern areas, including the Kotzebue Sound area, 
Yukon Flats, and Old Crow, had considerable ice 
remain into the nesting period. Runoff was nil from the 
light snow pack, and water levels were almost uni- 
formly at their lowest level compared to the previous 
10 years. Weather during the nesting and brood-rear- 
ing period was mild and favorable, although heavy 
thunderstorms were regular events in some areas, such 
as Tetlin. 

Production (Table B-lb) 

Although there is not a production survey directly 
comparable with the breeding population survey in 
Alaska, as there is for other Service-conducted breed- 
ing ground survey areas, an area near Tetlin and an- 
other near Fort Yukon were surveyed during the brood 
season to provide an index to duck production in 
Alaska. The results of the 1974 survey indicated that 
numbers of mallard, pintail, and shoveler broods on 
the study areas were about the same as in 1973. Brood 
indices for wigeon and green-winged teal, after an indi- 
cated breeding population increase, showed a signifi- 
cant decrease. Scaup brood counts were significantly 



below 1973 counts. The canvasback brood index af- 
forded the only marked production increase; it was the 
highest tallied within the previous 10 years, in spite of 
reduced water levels on many lakes in 1974. 

It was reported that more than 50% of the Dusky 
Canada geese {Branta canadensis occidentalis) on the 
Copper River Delta were young of the year, with the 
subsequent highest fall flight since 1966 predicted. Cal 
Lensink of Clarence Rhode National Wildlife Refuge 
on the Yukon Delta reported uniformly large and 
abundant clutches for all species of waterfowl. How- 
ever, reduced water levels may have resulted in a sig- 
nificant increase in fox predation, particularly on 
cackling Canada geese (Branta canadensis minima). 

Northern Alberta, 

Northeastern British Columbia, 

and the Northwest Territories 

Data supplied by James F. Voelzer and G. Hortin Jensen. 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 



Spring Weather and Habitat Conditions 

The winter of 1973-74 was generally characterized 
by above normal precipitation and below normal tem- 
peratures. Precipitation in the Territories averaged 
only an inch or less per month between October and 
March. Temperatures were generally below normal. 
Areas north of Edmonton, Alberta, received up to 
200% of normal precipitation, and by survey time 
streams were running over their banks and intermit- 
tent water areas contained abundant water. Due to an 
ice dam formed at breakup, the Athabasca Delta had 
more water than at any time in recent history. 

Seasonal progression and breakup along the river 
systems appeared to be delayed about a week through- 
out all but the far northern portions of the survey 
areas, which appeared to be normal. This short delay 
seemed to have little effect on nesting phenology; 
waterfowl appeared well distributed throughout the 
entire survey area. Some lakes at higher elevations 
and along the Arctic coast were still ice-covered, but 
open water generally was available along the shore- 
lines for arriving waterfowl. 

Breeding Populations (Table B-2) 

The survey was conducted from 19 May through 4 
June 1974. The total duck breeding population esti- 
mate was 13% below 1973 and 9% below the 1964-73 
average. The combined dabbler breeding population 
estimate was 25% below 1973 and 17% below average. 
The mallard estimate was 18% below 1973 and 11% 



below average. The wigeon and green-winged teal esti- 
mates were 37 and 48%, respectively, below 1973 and 
27 and 40%, respectively, below average. The pintail 
estimate was relatively unchanged from the 1973 esti- 
mate but was 24% above average. The combined diver 
breeding population estimate was 13% below 1973 and 
was unchanged from the average. Scaup, likewise, 
were 19% below 1973 and were unchanged from the 
average. Due to a late brood season, time did not 
permit the survey crew in this area to conduct the pro- 
duction survey. 



Northern Saskatchewan, Northern Manitoba, 
and the Saskatchewan RiverDelta 

Data supplied by Arthur R. Brazda and Richard A. Gimby, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Spring Weather and Habitat Conditions 

The fall of 1973 was relatively early, dry, and mild. 
However, from November through mid-March, a near- 
record snowfall covered much of this area, with ex- 
tended periods of below normal temperatures. Due to 
extremely heavy snowfall of two to three times nor- 
mal, ice remained relatively thin and spring thaw on 
even large lakes occurred on schedule. Extremely high 
water levels were encountered throughout the survey 
area. Undoubtedly, there was some nest destruction 
associated with the high water levels. 

Vegetative development was retarded over most of 
the area by a minimum of 2 weeks due to the relatively 
cold, wet spring which continued through May. Record 
low temperatures for this period were established at 
several reporting stations. Four to 6 inches of snow 
were also recorded at two localities in May. None of 
the inclement weather periods were of long duration 
and should not have markedly hampered nesting 
activities. 



Breeding Population (Table B-3) 

The survey was initiated on 12 May and was con- 
cluded on 11 June 1974. The total duck breeding popu- 
lation estimate was 12% below 1973 and 22% below 
the 1964-73 average. Dabbling ducks were 35% below 
1973 and 47% below average. The mallard and pintail 
estimates were 37% and 50%, respectively, below 1973 
and were 47% and 65%, respectively, below average. 
Estimates of the remaining dabbler breeding popula- 
tions suggested marked reductions in population esti- 
mates from the previous year and the average. The 
diving duck breeding population estimate was 12% 
above 1973 and 11% above average. Scaup were 40% 
above 1973 and 50% above average. 



Summer Weather and Habitat Conditions 

Conditions encountered at the beginning of the May 
survey, coupled with intermittent rains throughout 
May and June, produced record high water conditions 
in much of the boreal forest. Marginal nesting habitat 
conditions resulted in most of this survey unit. How- 
ever, habitat conditions were fair to good in a few 
areas. Below freezing temperatures were recorded in 
May as well as in late June in some areas, further hin- 
dering the success of early-nesting species. The flood- 
ing of the Saskatchewan River Delta during mid- 
summer destroyed many waterfowl nests. During the 
July survey most of the nesting habitat had been inun- 
dated and brood observations were few. 

Production (Table B-3) 

The survey was conducted between 7 and 23 July 
1974. The duck brood index for 1974 was 17% above 
1973, but 34% below the 1964-73 average. The aver- 
age brood size of 6.2 was 10% above 1973 and 14% 
above the 1964-73 average. Age-class distribution was 
slightly higher for Class I broods in 1974 than in 1973. 
The late-nesting index, a rough measure of degree of 
renesting, was 34% above 1973 and 25% below the 
1964-73 average for all ducks combined. The late-nest- 
ing index for dabblers was 8% above 1973 and 28% 
below average. 

Southern Alberta 



Data supplied bv K. Duane Norman and Robert J. Fischer, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 



Spring Weather and Habitat Conditions 

The winter of 1973-74 was cold and snowy. More 
than double the normal snowfall was received during 
January, February, and March. Normal temperatures 
and precipitation were experienced in April, allowing 
the accumulated snow to melt on schedule. In May, 
water was abundant in most areas and levels were far 
above those of 1973. The southernmost portion of the 
Province received less moisture than other areas 
within the survey unit. During May, Calgary and Cy- 
press Hills areas received 6 to 14 inches of snow that 
melted rapidly. Generally, May was cloudy and cool. 
The May pond index for southern Alberta was 144% 
above 1973 and 117% above the 1956-62 average. This 
was the wettest year on record. 

Breeding Populations (Table B-4) 

The survey was conducted from 8 through 23 May 
1974. the total duck breeding population estimate for 



1974 was 27% above 1973 and 45% above the 1964-73 
average. The total dabbler breeding population esti- 
mate was 35% above 1973 and 50% above average. 
The mallard breeding population estimate was 9% 
below 1973 and 12% above average. The blue-winged 
teal estimate was 32% above 1973 and 110% above 
average. The pintail estimate was 107% above 1973 
and 77% above average. The combined diving duck 
breeding population estimate was 21% below 1973 but 
14% above average; scaup were 37% below 1973, but 
near average. The redhead estimate was 51% and 43%, 
respectively, above 1973 and the average. The canvas- 
back estimate was 8% below 1973 and 37% above 
average. The ruddy duck estimate was 114% above 
1973 and 18% above average. The American coot 
{Fulica americana) estimate was 84% above 1973 and 
107% above average. 

The combined lone-drake index, an indicator of the 
progress and intensity of the nesting effort, was 21% 
above 1973, and only slightly above the 1964-73 aver- 
age. The mallard lone-drake index was above 1973 and 
the average and the pintail lone-drake index was above 
1973 but slightly below average. The canvasback lone- 
drake index was well above 1973, but just slightly 
below average. 

Summer Weather and Habitat Conditions 

May was cool throughout the survey period and pre- 
cipitation was well above normal. June was sunny, 
warm, and dry in the southern portion of the survey 
area and cold and rainy in the north. July was warm 
and dry south of Calgary and rainy and cooler than 
normal in the north. Habitat conditions in stratum 29 
(Fig. 1) did not change substantially between May and 
July. In stratum 28, drying of temporary and semiper- 
manent wetlands was slightly more extensive than 
normal. Stratum 27 had mixed habitat conditions; the 
southern half was quite dry, while the northern half 
was wetter than normal. In stratum 26, vegetation 
and water were plentiful for brood use. The July pond 
index was 48% above 1973 and 75% above the 1956-62 
average. 

Production (Table B-4) 

The survey was conducted between 8 and 18 July. 
The duck brood index was 91% above 1973 and 7% 
above the 1956-62 average. The average brood size 
was slightly larger than in 1973, but about the same as 
the 1956-62 average. The late-nesting index for all 
ducks combined was 48% above 1973 and the 1956-62 
average. The late-nesting index for dabblers was 33% 
above 1973 and 65% above average. Divers also had 
significant increases in both comparisons. The total 



duck late-nesting index was 48% above 1973 and 65% 
above average. 

Southern Saskatchewan 

Data supplied bv Rossalius C. Hanson and James L. Nelson, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Spring Weather and Habitat Conditions 

The winter of 1973-74 in southern Saskatchewan 
had record-breaking snowfall at many locations. 
Warm April weather caused snow to melt rapidly and 
flooding was widespread. Potholes and sloughs filled 
to over-flowing and sheetwater covered large portions 
of many cultivated fields. During May, rain, clouds, 
low ceilings, and fog were common. As a result of the 
extremely wet early spring conditions, farming activi- 
ties were well behind schedule. In many areas, seeding 
was not accomplished by the end of May. 

The inundation of much aquatic and upland cover 
eliminated much nesting cover. However, the abun- 
dance of water facilitated widespread dispersal of 
breeding waterfowl throughout the survey area, reduc- 
ing the probability of nest losses to predators. The ex- 
tremely wet conditions also prevented farmers from 
working their stubble fields, which benefited early up- 
land nesters. Natural vegetative growth was a week to 
10 days delayed. The May pond index was 203% above 
1973 and 71% above the 1956-62 average. This repre- 
sented the wettest year on record since the mid-50's. 
May pond counts in all strata were above 1973 and the 
average. 

Breeding Populations (Table B-5) 

The survey was conducted from 5 through 24 May 
1974. The total waterfowl breeding population esti- 
mate was 11% above 1973 and 22% above the 1964-73 
average. The dabbler estimate increased 10% and 9%, 
respectively, from 1973 and the average. The mallard 
estimate was 12% below 1973 and 6% below average. 
The blue-winged teal estimate was 17% below 1973, 
but about average. The pintail estimate was 117% 
above 1973 and 41% above average. The diver esti- 
mate was 20% above 1973 and 37% above average. 
Scaup were 69% above 1973 and 65% above average. 
The redhead estimate was unchanged from 1973 but 
12% above average. The canvasback estimate was 
21% below 1973, but 14% above average. The ruddy 
duck estimate was 15% below 1973, but 70% above 
average. The coot estimate was 17% above 1973 and 
103% above average. The high lone-drake index indi- 
cated that early nesters were well into the nesting 
season. However, cool weather in May slowed the mi- 
gration of northern breeders. 



Summer Weather and Habitat Conditions 

June was dry, with noticeably reduced water levels 
and pond numbers in the southwest, mid-south, mid- 
central, and portions of the northeast. Brood water, 
however, was not seriously affected, except in the 
southwest. Frequent rains, showers, and thunder- 
storms during July kept pond numbers up. The July 
pond index was 65% above 1973 and 72% above the 
1956-62 average. Water levels in ponds and sloughs 
were generally good to excellent. Temperatures during 
July were near normal. Dense vegetation in and 
around water areas provided excellent brood cover. 

Production (Table B-5) 

The survey was conducted between 4 and 19 July 
1974. Production was below 1973 and the 1958-64 
average in the southern portions of the survey area. 
However, as the survey progressed northward into the 
parklands, broods were more numerous. The total 
duck brood index was 65% above 1973 and 72% above 
average. The average brood size of 5.1 was not signifi- 
cantly below normal. The late-nesting index for dab- 
blers was well above 1973 and the 1958-64 average. 
The diver index was slightly above 1973 and well 
above average. The total duck index was well above 
both 1973 and the average. 

Southern Manitoba 

Data supplied by Douglas S. Benning 

and Morton M. Smith, 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Spring Weather and Habitat Conditions 

An extremely wet fall in 1972 had the soil of south- 
ern Manitoba well saturated going into winter. Crops 
went unharvested in some areas, and many stubble 
fields were neither burned nor disked in the fall. Snow 
pack in February was about 2 inches above normal. 
Rapid thawing during late April and above average 
spring rainfall on top of an already saturated soil pro- 
duced exceptionally wet conditions. By the end of 
May, accumulated precipitation was well above 
normal but temperatures for May were noticeably 
below normal. Leafing of trees and shrubs and appear- 
ance of emergent aquatic plants were very late. Unlike 
vegetation development, initiation of nesting by 
waterfowl was near normal. 

Habitat conditions varied from good to excellent at 
the time of the survey. Although water levels were 
high, overwater nesting cover was available. In gen- 
eral, upland nesters had more nesting cover than usu- 
ally available because much of the previous year's 



8 



stubble remained standing. By the end of May, field 
preparation and seeding were about 2 weeks behind 
schedule. The May pond index was 270% above 1973 
and 39% above the 1964-73 average; only in 1955 and 
1956 was the index higher. 

Breeding Populations (Table B-6) 

The survey in southern Manitoba was initiated 
12 May and completed 28 May 1974. The total duck 
breeding population estimate was 61% above 1973 and 
11% above the 1964-73 average. The dabbler breeding 
population estimate was 61% above 1973 and 12% 
above average. The mallard estimate was 39% above 
1973, but near the average. The blue-winged teal esti- 
mate was 72% above 1973 and 16% above average. 
The pintail estimate was 310% above 1973 and 102% 
above average. Among the diver breeding population 
estimates, scaup were 210% above 1973 and 53% 
above average, redheads were 20% above 1973 and 7% 
below average, and canvasbacks were unchanged from 
1973, but 42% below average. Ruddy ducks were 27% 
above 1973 and 10% below average. Coots were 232% 
and 121%, respectively, above 1973 and the average. 
The lone-drake index indicated that the nesting effort 
was well advanced for mallards, pintails, and canvas- 
backs at the time of the survey. 



Summer Weather and Habitat Conditions 

Weather across southern Manitoba during June and 
early July varied considerably by area, but in general 
was cool through mid-June and warm thereafter. Pre- 
cipitation was scarce throughout the period with some 
notable exceptions resulting from local thunderstorm 
activity. Waterfowl nesting habitat was in adequate 
supply and its condition was better than average. 
Brood water was in relatively good supply and of good 
quality. The July pond index was 62% above 1973, but 
was only 9% above the 1956-62 average. This repre- 
sented an extremely rapid decrease in water levels be- 
tween May and July. 

Production (Table B-6) 

This survey was initiated 7 July and completed 
19 July 1974. The duck brood index was 5% above 
1973 and 23% below the 1956-62 average. In 1974, the 
average brood size was 5.0, whereas the average brood 
size was 5.4 in 1973 and 5.3 for the 1964-73 average. 
The late-nesting index for all ducks was 16% above 
1973 and 17% above the 1956-62 average. The dabbler 
index was 10% below 1973 and 7% above the average. 



The diver index was 51% above 1973 and 41% above 
average. 

Montana 

Data supplied by Edgar Ferguson and Alva E. Weinrich 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Spring Weather and Habitat Conditions 

Generally, southern and eastern Montana had a dry 
winter with little precipitation. The area around Cut 
Bank was very dry while the Malta and Plentywood 
areas in northern Montana had average amounts of 
snow. Precipitation in early May was nil. During mid- 
May two storms provided 4 to 6 inches of snow 
throughout eastern Montana. Some minor flooding re- 
sulted as the snow melted. The May pond index did not 
change significantly from 1973 but was 41% above the 
1965-73 average. 

Breeding Populations (Table B-7) 

The survey in Montana was conducted between 9 
and 27 May 1974. The combined waterfowl breeding 
population estimate was 27% and 37%, respectively, 
below 1973 and the 1965-73 average. The dabbler 
breeding population estimate was 28% below 1973 and 
41% below average. The mallard estimate was 45% 
below 1973 and 55% below average. Similarly, the pin- 
tail estimate was 28% below 1973 and 41% below aver- 
age. The blue-winged teal had a good comeback with a 
152% increase over 1973, which was 25% above aver- 
age. The diver estimate was 13% above 1973 and 42% 
above average, with scaup 43% above 1973 and 92% 
above average. The coot estimate was 42% below 1973 
and 14% below average. The lone-drake index was high 
for mallards, indicating a well advanced season for 
breeding mallards at the time of the survey. The pin- 
tail lone-drake index was below the previous 9-year 
average. Phenologically, the season appeared to be 
about a week ahead of normal. Two duck broods were 
observed during the survey, which was noteworthy in 
that a single duck brood had been observed in one 
other year. 

Summer Weather and Habitat Conditions 

Weather across eastern Montana during June and 
early July was dry with above normal temperatures. 
Mid-July moisture was somewhat better, but still 
below normal. Waterfowl nesting habitat deteriorated 
significantly between May and July. The July pond 
index was 38% below 1973 and 10% below the 1966-72 
average. 



Production (Table B-7) 



Breeding Population (Tables B-8 and B-9) 



The survey was initiated between 8 and 15 July 
1974. The duck brood index was 32% below 1973 and 
44% below the 1966-73 average. The average brood 
size was 5.2, which was not significantly different from 
1973 or the 1966-73 average. The late-nesting index 
for total ducks was 10% above 1973 and 47% above 
the 1966-73 average, which indicated a good renesting 
effort. The mallard index was not significantly differ- 
ent from the 1973 index, but was 63% above average. 
The dabbler index was 42% above average, and the 
diver index was 35% above average. 

North and South Dakota 

Data supplied by Gerald Pospichal 

and Leonard Tinslev, 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Spring Weather and Habitat Conditions 

North Dakota experienced a wet fall. Some areas 
along the Canadian border were so wet that farmers 
were unable to harvest their 1973 crops. Snow cover 
was good over most of the winter and above normal in 
the northern sector. Temperatures ranged below 
normal for January, but were normal to above normal 
in early spring. Precipitation for April and May was 
generally above normal. Field work was delayed over 
most of the northern half of the State, and it was ques- 
tionable that crops would be seeded in some of the 
northernmost areas. Several counties had been desig- 
nated as disaster areas due to the flooding. Although 
potholes were plentiful, nesting cover was not in good 
condition because of extensive flooding and inundated 
shoreline vegetation. 

Precipitation was generally below normal in South 
Dakota, except in the southeast portion of the State 
where heavy rains occurred during September. Snow 
cover was light or absent most of the winter and tem- 
peratures ranged above average. Potholes were few 
and in poor condition except for more permanent water 
in the northeast and southwest. Precipitation totals 
for 1974, through early May, were nearly 4 inches 
below normal. During the latter half of May, a series of 
weather systems moved through the area with heavy 
rains, thunderstorms, and some hail. Field work was 
well along by mid-May, but was delayed by rain in 
some areas. Vegetative growth was advanced from 
1973. The North Dakota May pond index was 118% 
above 1973 and 29% above the 1960-69 average. The 
South Dakota May pond index was 28% below 1973 
and 27% below the 1960-69 average. 



The survey was conducted 12 through 30 May 1974. 
In North Dakota, the total duck breeding population 
estimate was 43% above 1973 and 8% above the 
1964-73 average. The dabbler breeding population 
estimate was 41% above 1973 but unchanged from the 
average. The blue-winged teal estimate was 101% 
above 1973 and 38% above average. The mallard esti- 
mate was 21% below 1973 and 28% below average. The 
shoveler estimate was 71% above 1973 but 19% below 
average. The diver estimate was 29% below 1973 but 
slightly above average. All diver breeding population 
estimates were below the 1973 estimates. The ruddy 
duck estimate was 306% above 1973 and 252% above 
average. The coot estimate was 109% above 1973 and 
53% above average. The lone-drake index in North Da- 
kota was close to the 1960-74 long-term average. 

In South Dakota, the combined breeding population 
estimate was 52% below 1973 and 47% below the 
1964-73 average. The dabbler breeding population 
estimates also decreased, with blue-winged teal 52% 
below 1973 and 46% below average, mallards 43% 
below 1973 and 36% below average, and pintails 68% 
below 1973 and 65% below average. All diver breeding 
population estimates were average except buffleheads, 
which were 33% above average. The ruddy duck esti- 
mate was 28% above 1973 and 66% above average. 
The coot estimate was 86% below 1973 and 77% below 
average. The South Dakota lone-drake index indicated 
mallard nesting was slightly delayed from 1973 and 
the 1960-74 average, whereas pintails were slightly 
ahead of 1973 but later than average. Canvasbacks 
were late in both comparisons. 

Summer Weather and Habitat Conditions 

In North Dakota, temperatures for June and July 
were above normal, and except for scattered heavy 
thunderstorms, precipitation was below average. Hot, 
high winds were common, and water levels decreased 
rapidly during July. Hay crops were excellent, and 
cutting was well under way by mid-June. Swathing of 
small grains began in mid- July. 

After heavy May rains, which brought the total 
yearly precipitation to near normal, South Dakota had 
little precipitation, except for scattered thunder- 
storms through June and July. During July, winds 
were high and tornado warnings common. Daytime 
temperatures for early July were exceptionally high. 
The North Dakota July pond index was only 2% above 
1973 and 29% below the 1960-69 average. The South 
Dakota July pond index was 35% below 1973 and 36% 
below the 1960-69 average. 



10 



Production (Tables B-8 and B-9) 

The survey was conducted from 30 June through 
19 July 1974. In North Dakota, the duck brood index 
was 8% below 1973 and 24% below the 1966-71 aver- 
age. The average brood size of 5.8 was slightly larger 
than 1973, but the same as the 1966-71 average. The 
late-nesting index was well above 1973, but slightly 
below the 1966-71 average. The dabbler index was 
above 1973, but unchanged from the average. The 
diver index was below 1973 and the average. The total 
duck index was well above 1973, but showed no change 
from the average. 

In South Dakota, the duck brood index was 56% 
below 1973 and 38% below the 1966-71 average. The 
average brood size of 4.7 was similar to 1973 and 
slightly smaller than the 1966-71 average. The late- 
nesting index was 5% above 1973 and 6% above the 
1966-71 average for total ducks. The dabbler index 
was 14 and 11% above 1973 and the 1964-73 average, 
respectively. The diver estimate was 60 and 74% below 
the 1964-73 average, respectively. 

Minnesota 

Data supplied by Robert L. Jessen, 
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources 

Weather and Habitat Conditions 

Weather conditions were generally good during 
May 1974. Light winds and fair skies prevailed. A mild 
April was replaced by an unusually cool period in May. 
Phenology and plant growth were 2 weeks delayed. 
There was little new growth of emergents in ponds at 
the time of the survey and leaf development did not 
hamper visibility. At the close of the survey period on 
25 May, only trembling aspen [Populus tremuloides) 
leaves were developed at the latitude of Bemidji. On 
15 May ice fields were still drifting offshore on Lake of 
the Woods. 

Habitat conditions and available water were gener- 
ally good Statewide. Northwestern Minnesota, which 
was extremely dry in 1973 (south through Clay 
County), was well supplied with water in the potholes 
area and fields in the northern portion were commonly 
under water at census time. Ponds south of Becker 
County were numerous but water levels were lower 
than in 1973. The total pond estimate was 195,000 as 
compared with 202,000 in 1972 and 152,000 in 1973. 

Breeding Population (Tables B-10 through B-15) 

Survey flights began 15 May and were completed 
25 May 1974. The breeding waterfowl index before 



visibility corrections was 247,000 birds. Of these, only 
10,000 were coots, a fourth of the number observed in 
1973. The more numerous ducks were mallards 
(62,000) and blue-winged teal (49,000) (Table B-10). 
The index of 70,000 scaup was misleading because 
these birds breed late and in an area primarily north of 
Minnesota, but were still migrating at the time of the 
survey. Because of the late spring they were unusually 
abundant in 1974. 

Correction of aerial tallies for birds not seen pro- 
vides an estimate of the actual number of birds present 
within the survey strata. Comparisons of aerial and 
ground tallies indicated that half of the mallards pres- 
ent were seen by the aerial crew, 37% of the blue- 
winged teal, and 41% of all ducks present (Table B-ll). 

Application of visibility rates to the breeding index 
indicated an adjusted population index of 123,000 mal- 
lards and 133,500 blue-winged teal. This reflects a 
slight increase in mallards and a slight decrease in teal 
(Table B-12). The 38,000 ring-necked ducks censused in 
1974 is a more accurate estimate than the adjusted in- 
dex of 9,500 in 1973 because of a more realistic visibil- 
ity rate (31% in 1974; 100% in 1973). The total number 
of breeding ducks was estimated at 404,000, excluding 
scaup. Thus, the estimated breeding duck population 
in 1974 was higher than 1973. Mallard numbers were 
the highest since this survey was designed in 1968 
(Table B-13). Blue-winged teal decreased about 20% 
from the 1968 level. The total number of breeding 
ducks was about the same as 1973. 

A special note is warranted regarding wood ducks 
(Aix sponsa). In 1974, an unprecedented number of 73 
indicated pairs were seen, compared with 27 the pre- 
vious year — a more usual number for recent years. 
A 395-mile auto transect in western Minnesota re- 
corded an increase of 8 to 14 indicated pairs and 
ground tallies in Wright County increased from to 9 
indicated pairs. The variability of breeding ducks tal- 
lied within each stratum indicated an 80% confidence 
limit (tested at the 95% level) for all ducks in all strata 
(Table B- 14). 

The June tally of drake mallards reflected a some- 
what higher proportion of drakes still with a hen than 
the average for the previous 5 years (Table B-15). 
Therefore, mallards in western Minnesota were having 
a good nesting season as of early June. 

A total breeding population estimate was slightly 
better than in 1973, reflecting a reversal of the down- 
ward trend of previous years. The number of breeding 
mallards was 123,000, breeding blue-winged teal was 
133,500, and all resident ducks totaled 403,500 (ex- 
cluding scaup). 



11 



Washington 

Data supplied by Robert Jeffrey and Richard Parker, 
Washington Department of Game 

Weather and Habitat Conditions 

Above average snowfall during the 1973-74 winter 
carried over into spring with above-average rainfall. 
Eastern Washington potholes were in excellent condi- 
tion. May surveys on five transects showed potholes 
numbered 281, 59% above the long-term average, and 
66% above May 1973. Cool, rainy weather during June 
retarded evaporation and resulted in very little loss in 
waterfowl habitat. 



Breeding Populations (Table B-16) 

Duck breeding populations decreased 13% from the 
1964-73 average and 7% from 1973. Dabblers repre- 
sented most of the decrease in 1974; they were 18% 
below the 1964-73 average, and 14% below 1973. Div- 
ing ducks showed an 8% increase in 1974 over the pre- 
vious 10-year average and a 35% increase over 1973. 



Production (Table B-17) 

The production index for all ducks Statewide was 
338,200, down 20% from the 1964-73 average and 3% 
from 1973. The dabbler production index was down 
16% from the 1964-73 average and down 5% from 
1973. Diving ducks were below the previous 10-year 
average, but were up 16% from 1973. Ruddy ducks ac- 
counted for most of the increase in the diver index; 
they increased 19% from the 1964-73 average and 
66% from 1973. Generally, the improved water condi- 
tions in 1974 did not result in an increased production 
index. 

The production index for Canada geese was esti- 
mated to be 13,200, about the same as in 1973. The 
number of breeding adults was up substantially over 
1973 but the threat of high water along the middle and 
lower Columbia River resulted in a drawdown of the 
pools behind the dams during the nesting season. This 
drawdown exposed nests to coyote predation and 
caused limited nest success in this area. Other areas 
appeared similar to 1973. 



California 

Data supplied by J. LeDonne, H. George, F. Kozlik, 

and B. Deuel, 

California Department of Fish and Game 

Weather and Habitat Conditions 

Habitat conditions in northeastern California were 
good in 1974 and much improved over the dry condi- 
tions of 1973. Winter and spring rain and spring runoff 
filled most of the permanent impoundments and 
marshes, and created some temporary habitat with 
enough water for breeding and brood rearing. Canada 
goose and duck nesting was on schedule. 

Precipitation was above average in the Central 
Valley for the second consecutive year. Since this area 
is mostly composed of artificial and regulated water 
impoundments such as rice fields, grasslands, and pas- 
tures, the effects of weather and rain influenced water- 
fowl production indirectly as it affected farming opera- 
tions. Field preparation was late because of the wet 
fall, winter, and spring; some agricultural lands lo- 
cated in river bypasses were still holding runoff at the 
end of April. Rice seeding was as late as has been ob- 
served in the past decade. By mid-May many fields 
were still being worked and planted with rice. With 
acreage allotments no longer in effect, the rice crop ex- 
panded to 440,000 acres. 

Most waterfowl production occurring in California is 
in the northeast and on the rice lands of the Sacra- 
mento Valley. Other areas covered by this survey were 
the Suisan Marsh, the Grasslands, and rice and pas- 
ture areas of the Central San Joaquin Valley. Other 
smaller areas produce some ducks, but the accumu- 
lated total is of little significance during years of 
normal rainfall and runoff. 

Breeding Populations and Production Indices 

(Tables B-18 through B-24) 

Survey flights in the Central Valley were conducted 
on 15 and 16 May whereas northeastern California was 
surveyed from 3 through 7 June 1974. Comparable 
figures of nesting pairs of waterfowl indicate: (1) nest- 
ing pairs of Canada geese decreased 34% from 1973, 
whereas the fall population index (including non- 
breeders) decreased 6%; (2) duck nesting pairs de- 



12 



creased 3% from 1973; however, a 6% increase was 
noted in the fall population index compared with 1973; 
and (3) nesting pairs and the fall population index of 
coots were down over 35% from 1973. 



Colorado 

Data supplied by Michael R. Szymczak, 
Colorado Division of Wildlife 

Weather and Habitat Conditions 

Water conditions for duck production were consid- 
ered good in North Park, Brown's Park, and the Cache 
la Poudre and Yampa River valleys. In the South 
Platte Valley, many small marshes and most drainage 
basins were dry. Water conditions were extremely 
poor in the entire San Luis Valley, with the exception 
of rivers and adjacent sloughs. High water on rivers in 
northwestern Colorado resulted in a significant 
amount of flooding of goose nests. 

Breeding Populations and Production (Tables B-25 
through B-31) 

Surveys were conducted between 13 May and 
30 June 1974. The number of estimated duck breeding 
pairs reached 64,484 in 1974, about 14% above the 
1973 level, and 15% above the long-term average 
(Table B-25). In comparison with 1973, increases were 
recorded in all areas except the Cache la Poudre 
Valley. 

Mallard, gadwall, lesser scaup, and blue-winged and 
cinnamon teal breeding population estimates showed 
significant increases over 1973. The redhead, which 
reached a record 11% of the breeding population in 
1973, declined nearly 6,000 pairs in 1974 (Table B-26). 
The mallard continued to be the major breeding 
species in the State; it made up about 44% of the 
breeding population. 

The post-nesting season population of Canada geese 
on the Yampa and Little Snake rivers was 689 
(Table E-27). On the Green River in Brown's Park, 
there were an estimated 326 Canada geese 
(Table B-27). The total estimated gosling production 
in Moffat County decreased 26% from 1973 
(Table B-28). The total estimated goose population de- 
creased 27% from 1973, but was about 18% above the 
1956-73 average (Table B-29). 

Canada goose production on north-central Colorado 
study areas (Wellington, Fort Collins, Loveland, 
Boulder, and Denver) was down nearly 40% from 1973 
and the 1969-73 average (Table B-30). All five study 
areas showed decreases in production and in the total 



number of birds observed (Tables B-30 and B-31). Al- 
though the total duck breeding population increased 
over 1973, water conditions suggested a decline in the 
fall flight. Specifically, North Park, Brown's Park, and 
the Yampa Valley were expected to experience good 
duck production and brood survival. Extensive irriga- 
tion in the Cache la Poudre and South Platte valleys 
should have insured good brood survival in those 
areas. But production in the San Luis Valley was not 
good, because of very poor water conditions. The fall 
Canada goose flight from northwest and north-central 
Colorado decreased from 1973. 



Nebraska 

Data supplied by John Sweet and George Schildman, 
Nebraska Game and Parks Commission 

Weather and Habitat Conditions 

Many of the sandhills and rainwater basin areas 
were somewhat short of water at the time of the 
survey (11 through 17 May 1974). Although water sup- 
plies were fair to good at the end of winter, no appre- 
ciable precipitation occurred from late January to 
early May, and water supplies diminished. Water in- 
dices were 4% below 1973 in the sandhills and 7% 
below 1973 in the rainwater basin area. 



Breeding Populations (Table B-32) 

The total population of 83,090 was 27% below 1973 
and 26% below the previous 5-year average. The sand- 
hills census of total ducks decreased 21% from 1973, 
and the rainwater basin area decreased 46% from 
1973. Dabbling ducks decreased 25% and diving ducks 
decreased 57% from 1973. All major species showed 
large declines, except mallards which decreased 4% 
from 1973. Blue-winged teal, shovelers, pintails, and 
gadwalls showed decreases of 35, 33, 34, and 15%, re- 
spectively, from 1973. 



Iowa 

Data supplied by Richard A. Bishop, 
Iowa Conservation Commission 

Weather and Habitat Conditions 

Spring weather was similar to that of 1973; moisture 
was above normal across the State. All permanent 
water areas were full and many temporary field-ponds 
were present, which was almost identical to 1973. 
Ideal conditions were expected to persist until early to 



13 



mid-July, depending on late June and July rains. Tem- 
peratures were slightly below normal for May (like 
1973) but this was not considered a serious threat to 
duck production. 

Breeding Populations (Table B-33) 

Aerial surveys were conducted the 3rd week of May. 
Breeding pairs of mallards and blue-winged teal de- 
creased 44 and 6%, respectively, from 1973. Perma- 
nent marsh habitat was the same in 1974 as in 1973 
and 1972, but was 29% above the 1966-73 average. 

These data suggest a breeding population of 3,250 
pairs of mallards and 21,500 pairs of blue-winged teal, 
based on an index of waterfowl numbers occupying the 
prime nesting range in north-central and northwest 
Iowa. 

Wood ducks maintained a fairly high breeding popu- 
lation during 1966-73, and the 1974 reports did not 
suggest any change. Several early broods of wood 
ducks were sighted and brood sizes were often in 
excess of eight ducklings. Iowa was expected to exper- 
ience another good year for wood ducks. 

The total duck breeding population decreased 28% 
from 1973. Species observed on transects, other than 
teal and mallards, were wood ducks, gadwalls, shov- 
elers, lesser scaup, and redheads. The total waterfowl 
population was expected to show a decrease from 
1973. Decreased breeding populations in Iowa, despite 
good habitat conditions, are not unusual because in 
years of good habitat on the Canadian prairies, duck 
numbers in Iowa tend to decrease and vice-versa. 
These data are not considered to be completely accu- 
rate; however, they do provide a good index to breed- 
ing populations of mallards and blue-winged teal. 



Missouri 

Data supplied by the Missouri Department 
of Conservation 

Weather and Water Conditions 

Warm weather through most of March contributed 
to early nesting throughout the State. A drastic tem- 
perature drop to near zero occurred Statewide between 
21-25 March 1974, in most areas, and temperatures 
were recorded as low as -15 F in the middle of the 
State. Flooding was prevalent between March and 
June, with over 65% of streams as high during the 
June survey as in March. 



Production Estimates 

As in past years, the stream float survey method 
was used for obtaining an estimate of wood duck pro- 
duction. Missouri has been utilizing a locally de- 
veloped survey evaluation index for several years, as a 
means of comparing nesting and productivity of wood 
ducks from year to year. This index is based on five 
nesting-production indices compiled from data ac- 
quired on Statewide stream float surveys. Wood duck 
broods noted per mile on 458 miles of stream floats 
was 0.18 and the average brood size was 6.3. The popu- 
lation count and numbers of nests per mile were 1.60 
and 0.40, respectively. The survey evaluation index in- 
dicated that the population and production of wood 
ducks were 8% above 1973 and 7% above the previous 
10-year average. 

A significant increase in nesting mallards, blue- 
winged teal, shovelers, and black ducks was reported 
throughout the State in 1974. This was apparently re- 
lated to the widespread flooding of desirable habitat 
during the period of spring migration. No measure- 
ment of production was attempted. 



Wisconsin 

Data supplied by J. C. Haug, 

H. J. Libby III, J. R. March, and W. E. Wheller. 

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources 

Weather and Habitat Conditions 

Distribution and density of wetlands remained rela- 
tively stable between 1973 and 1974 in the Northern 
High Density Region (Table B-35), and the only major 
change noted in the Southeast/Central Region was a 
decline in the temporary types (wetland types I, II, 
and VI). In the Northern Low Density Region, a gen- 
eral decline was noted in all categories of wetlands, 
except ditches. Lack of heavy snow cover and absence 
of early spring rainfall would explain the decline in 
temporary and semipermanent wetland types in that 
region, but the reason(s) for fewer type IV and V areas 
is not known. Sampling variability encountered be- 
tween years probably accounts for part of this decline. 
Fewer wetlands in the Northern Low Density Region 
may, in part, explain the substantial decrease in breed- 
ing population for that region in 1974. In general, de- 
clines in the density of temporary wetlands in 1974 
probably reflect a return to more normal conditions in 
the State, following the extremely wet spring of 1973. 



14 



Breeding Populations and Production (Tables B-34 
and B-35) 

The total breeding duck population estimate for the 
three regions in May 1974 indicated a 13% decline 
from 1973 (Table B-34). Since the surveys were de- 
signed to detect annual differences of about ± 20%, the 
13% decline should be interpreted as representative of 
little or no change from the 1973 estimate. Population 
increases in the Southeast/Central and Northern High 
Density regions offset a 68% decline in the Northern 
Low Density Region. 

Mallards showed a slight increase in 1974, whereas 
blue-winged teal and other species combined de- 
creased. The average population estimates for the 
1964-70 surveys are included in Table B-34 for com- 
parative purposes. 

Breeding duck population estimates were deter- 
mined on the Scattered Wetlands Study Areas by 
ground counts on a 10% random sample of quarter- 
section plots. Estimates of dabbling ducks pairs indi- 
cated an 8% decrease in breeding pairs. Mallard pairs 
remained unchanged at about 3.5 pairs per square 
mile. Blue-winged teal decreased slightly from 6.4 to 
6.2 pairs per square mile. The combined remaining 
species of dabblers (gadwalls, pintails, shovelers) de- 
creased from 1.3 to 1.0 pairs per square mile. The total 
1974 breeding density was 10.6 pairs per square mile. 

June brood surveys in 1973 yielded 49 blue-winged 
teal broods and 15 mallard broods on study plots. In 
1974, the same plots produced only seven blue-winged 
teal broods and five mallard broods. The average 
number of young per teal brood decreased from 8.6 in 
1973 to 4.9 in 1974. Average mallard brood size re- 
mained unchanged at 6.0 young per brood. Extremely 
cold and wet weather during the early-hatch period 
seems to have either flooded nests or caused heavy 
mortality on ducklings. Many blue-winged teal also 
may have delayed nesting activity because of the wet 
weather. 

Wisconsin's 1974 breeding duck population showed 
little overall change from 1973. Fewer temporary 
water areas were available in the spring, but heavy 
rains in May and June kept water in some temporary 
and semipermanent wetlands well above normal levels 
through midsummer. Survival of broods from renest- 
ing and late nests was expected to be excellent. The 
fall flight of ducks originating from Wisconsin was ex- 
pected to be similar to 1973. 



Waterfowl Kill Surveys 

Data supplied by Lonnie D. Schroeder, Michael F. Sorensen, 

and Samuel M. Carney, 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

This report provides estimates of waterfowl hunting 
activity and harvest during the 1973 season and com- 
pares them with estimates for the 1972 season. Esti- 
mates for both years were derived from information 
obtained from three sources: (1) the Postal Service's re- 
port of duck stamp sales, (2) the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service's Questionnaire Survey of Waterfowl Hunters, 
and (3) the Service's Waterfowl Parts Collection 
Survey. 

Procedures 

The procedures used in estimating hunter harvest 
and activity may be found in Special Scientific Report 
— Wildlife No. 138. Similar sample selection, stratifi- 
cation procedures, and computations subsequently 
have been followed. Major adjustments to data include 
those for activity by hunters less than 16 years old, 
who are not surveyed because they are not required to 
purchase duck stamps (Table C-l), and those used to 
compensate for memory and prestige biases 
(Table C-2). 



Administrative Reports 

Data in this report are based on final duck stamp 
sales information. In the Administrative Report 
"Waterfowl Harvest and Hunter Activity in the Uni- 
ted States During the 1973 Hunting Season" (10 July 
1974), preliminary estimates based on duck stamp 
sales through the third quarter of fiscal year 1974 were 
made available for the annual waterfowl regulations 
meetings in early August 1974. Age and sex composi- 
tion are not included herein, but were presented in the 
Administrative Report "Age and Sex Composition of 
Ducks and Geese Harvested in the 1973 Hunting 
Season in Comparison with Prior Years" (9 July 1974). 

Results 

Bias-adjusted estimates of the total U.S. harvest of 
ducks (by species), coots, and unretrieved kill are pre- 



15 



sented in Table C-3. Similar estimates relating to 
geese are in Table C-4. Detailed State-level estimates 
of the duck, goose, and coot harvest, migratory water- 
fowl hunting-stamp sales, and hunter activity and 
success may be found in Tables C-5 through C-9. 

The following is a resume of 1973 hunter activity 
and harvest success by flyway, showing degree of 
change from 1972: 

Atlantic Flyway (Table C-5).— Duck stamp sales to- 
taled 434,900 (-1%), and 1,549,300 ducks (-7%), 93,100 
coots (-13%), and 348,900 geese ( + 69%) were har- 
vested during 2,658,900 hunter-days (0). Those per- 
sons buying duck stamps for hunting averaged 6.0 
days afield ( + 1%) and retrieved an average of 
3.5 ducks (-6%) and 0.8 goose ( + 71%) each. 

Mississippi Flyway (Table C-6).— Duck stamp sales 
totaled 826,900 (-7%) and 4,594,200 ducks (-8%), 
351,500 coots (-42%), and 418,500 geese ( + 47) were 
harvested during 5,907,600 hunter-days (-10%). Those 
persons buying duck stamps for hunting averaged 6.8 
days afield (-2%) and retrieved an average of 5.4 ducks 
(-1%) and 0.5 goose ( + 59%) each. 

Central Flyway (Table C-7).— Duck stamp sales 
totaled 412,300 (-3%), and 2,435,500 ducks (-18%), 
84,600 coots (-19%), and 473,600 geese ( + 53%) were 



harvested during 2,916,800 hunter-days (-4%). Those 
persons buying duck stamps for hunting averaged 
6.6 days afield (-1%) and retrieved an average of 
5.6 ducks (-15%) and 1.1 geese ( + 58%) each. 

Pacific Flyway (Table C-8).— Duck stamp sales to- 
taled 387,200 (-1%), and 3,215,700 ducks (-17%), 
147,400 coots ( + 14%), and 352,800 geese (-3%) were 
harvested during 2,932,100 hunter-days ( + 2%). Those 
persons buying duck stamps for hunting averaged 
7.1 days afield ( + 2%) and retrieved an average of 
8.0 ducks (-17%) and 0.9 goose (-3%) each. 

Alaska (Table C-9).— Duck stamp sales totaled 
17,100 ( + 14%), and 94,400 ducks (+6%), 700 coots 
(+43%), and 12,400 geese ( + 38%) were harvested dur- 
ing 86,100 hunter-days ( + 23%). Those persons buying 
duck stamps for hunting averaged 4.7 days afield 
( + 7%) and retrieved an average of 5.3 ducks (-8%) and 
0.7 goose ( + 20%) each. 

United States (Table C-9).— Duck stamp sales to- 
taled 2,078,300 (-4%), and 11,889,200 ducks (-12%), 
677,200 coots (-29%), and 1,606,200 geese ( + 37%) 
were harvested during 14,501,500 hunter-days (-4%). 
Those persons buying duck stamps for hunting aver- 
aged 6.6 days afield (-1%) and retrieved an average of 
5.5 ducks (-9%) and 0.8 goose ( + 43%) each. 



16 



17 



APPENDIX 



18 



APPENDIX A. WATERFOWL WINTER SURVEY TABLES 

TABLE A-l. Winter survey, January 1974--waterfowl by species and flyway 

(figures in nearest hundreds; tr = <50). 







Pacific 


Central 


Mississippi 


Atlantic 




Species 




Flyway 


Flyway 


Flyway 


Flyway 


Total 


Ducks: 














Dabblers: 














Mallard 




1 ,519,400 


1,562,500 


2,056,600 


156,300 


5,294,800 


Black duck 




— 


100 


78,800 


246,700 , 
400-' 


325,600 


Mottled duck 




— 


57,900 


54,600 


112,900 


Gadwall 




27,700 


101,700 


867,100 


15,700 


1,012,200 


American wige 


ion 


825 ,000 


147,200 


306 ,900 


57,800 


1,336,900 


Green-winged 


tea]. 


260,400 


250,400 


819,700 


53,200 


1,383,700 


Blue-winged teal— 7 


7,100 


7,600 


422,500 


8,400 


445 ,600 


northern shoveler 


479,300 


34,400 


298,100 


10,000 


821,800 


Pintail 




3,449,700 


885,700 


565,400 


70,800 


4,971,600 


Subtotal 




6,568,600 


3,047,500 


5,469,700 


619,300 


15,705,100 


Divers: 














Redhead 




14,200 


501 ,600 


18,900 


142,300 


677,000 


Canvasback 




83,300 


3,100 


27,300 


112,900 


226,600 


Scaup 




64,200 


60,900 


725,600 


463,400 


1,314,100 


Ring-necked duck 


3,200 


3,900 


110,900 


64,000 


182,000 


Goldeneye 




37,500 


6,100 


27,800 


36,300 


107,700 


Bufflehead 




24,600 


1,700 


1,900 


58,000 


86,200 


Ruddy duck 




125,500 


7,100 


11,800 


57,000 


201 ,400 


Subtotal 




352,500 


584,400 


924,200 


933,900 


2,795,000 


Miscellaneous: 














Eider/Scoter 




53,600 


— 


— 


134,000 


187,600 


Oldsquaw 




1,300 


— 


2,400 


7,900 


11,600 


Merganser 




21,200 


46,700 


21,600 


38,000 


127,500 


Subtotal 




76,100 


46,700 


24,000 


179,900 


326,700 


Unidentified & 


Other: 


33,600 


21,900 


19,000 


22,300 


96,800 


Total duck: 




7,030,800 


3,700,500 


6,436,900 


1,755,400 


18,923,600 



19 



TABLE A-l. Continued 



Species 


Pacific 
Flyway 


Central 
Flyway 


Mississippi 
Flyway 


Atlantic 
Flyway 


Total 


Geese: 

Blue/Snow goose 
Ross' goose 
White -fronted goose 
Canada goose 
Cackling goose 


415,700 
27,300 
85 ,000 

175,900 
85,900 


673,700^/ 

49 ,500-/ 
456,700-' 


532,300^/ 

43,200-/ 
662,600-' 


96,400 
760,200 


1,718,100 

27,300 

177,700 

2,055,400 
85 ,900 


Total geese 


789,800 


1 ,179,900— / 


1 ,238,100 £/ 


856,600 


4,064,400 


Brant: 
Black brant 
American brant 


6,400 


— 


— 


87,600 


6,400 
87,600 


Total brant 


6,400 


— 


— 


87,600 


94,000 


Swans : 
Mute swan 
Whistling swan 
Trumpeter swan 


69,800 
700 


tr 
100 


— 


1,900 
64,200 


1,900 

134,000 

800 


Total swans 


70,500 


100 


— 


66,100 


136,700 


Coots : 
American coot 


498,400 


260,000 


999,600 


179,500 


1 ,937,500 


Grand total 


8,395,900 


5,140,500 


8,674,600 


2,945,200 


25,156,200 



— Florida duck. 

—Includes cinnamon teal. 

c/ 

-Mid-December 1973 count. 



20 



TABLE A-2. Winter survey, January 1974--waterfowl by State and flyway 

(figures in nearest hundreds; tr = <50). 



State 


Ducks 


Geese— 


Brant 


Swans 


Coots 


Total 


Pacific Flyway: 














Washington 


598,000 


49,700 


4,000 


1,400 


20,800 


673,900 


Oregon 


262,900 


45,300 


1,900 


5,000 


19,800 


334,900 


Idaho 


441,700 


18,100 


— 


400 


4,300 


464,500 


Montana 


17,700 


900 


— 


300 


2,100 


21 ,000 


Wyoming 


3,800 


900 


— 


100 


— 


4,800 


California 


5,605,100 


657,900 


500 


61,500 


417,300 


6,742,300 


Nevada 


20,300 


5,500 


— 


700 


6,200 


32,700 


Utah 


29,400 


3,800 


— 


1,100 


3,600 


37,900 


Colorado 


9,700 


1,600 


— 


— 


— 


11,300 


Arizona 


22 ,400 


5,900 


— 


tr 


24,300 


52,600 


New Mexico 


19,600 


200 


— 


— 


— 


19,800 


Flyway total- 


7,030,600 


789,800 


6,400 


70,500 


498,400 


8,395,700 


Central Flyway: 














Montana 


56,300 


7,600 


— 


— 


— 


63,900 


North Dakota 


2,900 


100 


— 


— 


— 


3,000 


South Dakota 


137,400 


63,800 


— 


100 


— 


201 ,300 


Wyoming 


33,400 


13,500 


— 





— 


46,900 


Nebraska 


95,700 


17,500 


— 





— 


113,200 


Colorado 


161,500 


141,500 


— 





— 


303,000 


Kansas 


145,600 


250,200 


— 





— 


395,800 


New Mexico 


210,800 


25,700 


— 


tr 


3,600 


240,100 


Oklahoma 


429 ,800 


77,500 


— 


— 


3,500 


510,800 


Texas 


2,427,000 


582,400 


— 


tr 


252,800 


3,262,200 


Flyway total- 


3,700,400 1 


,179,800 


— 


100 


259,900 


5,140,200 



21 



TABLE A-2. Continued. 



State 


Ducks 


Geese^ 


Brant 


Swans 


Coots 


Total 


Mississippi Flyway: 














Minnesota 


19,500 


41,500 


— 


— 


— 


61,000 


Wisconsin 


16,400 


21,200 


— 


— 


100 


37,700 


Michigan 


45,000 


25,300 


— 


tr 


tr 


70,300 


Iowa 


43,600 


43,100 


— 


— 


— 


86,700 


Illinois 


87,600 


250,600 


— 


tr 


— 


338,200 


Indiana 


10,600 


5,900 


— 


— 


— 


16,500 


Ohio 


26,400 


30,900 


— 


tr 


300 


57,600 


Missouri 


184,100 


310,300 


— 


— 


4,200 


498,600 


Kentucky 


8,000 


37,800 


— 


— 


— 


45,800 


Tennessee 


346,000 


40,900 


— 


— 


6,200 


393,100 


Arkansas 


938,000 


2,300 


— 


tr 


2,200 


942,500 


Louisiana 


4,245,600 


401,200 


— 


— 


761,000 


5,407,800 


Mississippi 


397,800 


2,900 


— 


— 


195,900 


596,600 


Alabama 


68,300 


24,200 


— 


— 


29,700 


122,200 


Flyway total 


6,436,900 


1,238,100 


— 


tr 


999,600 


8,674,600 


Atlantic Flyway: 














Maine 


83,200 


600 


— 


— 


— 


83,800 


New Hampshire 


4,900 


2,900 


— 


— 


— 


7,800 


Vermont 


2,500 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2,500 


Massachusetts 


115,700 


10,800 


300 


300 


— 


127,100 


Connecticut 


19,100 


1,500 


— 


300 


tr 


20,900 


Rhode Island 


35,200 


1,200 


— 


300 


— 


36,700 


New York 


151,400 


4,400 


21,400 


600 


400 


178,200 


Pennsylvania 


12,700 


40,700 


— 


300 


300 


54,000 


New Jersey 


172,700 


44,500 


46,400 


800 


100 


264,500 


West Virginia 


4,200 


600 


— 


— 


tr 


4,800 


Maryland 


252,800 


537,200 


1,200 


32,400 


1,500 


825,100 


Delaware 


25,500 


44,600 


1,400 


1,300 


400 


73,200 


Virginia 


115,200 


66,600 


16,700 


4,800 


14,800 


218,100 


North Carolina 


245,700 


84,600 


200 


25,000 


46,800 


402,300 


South Carolina 


152,300 


14,400 


— 


— 


tr 


166,700 


Georgia 


29,300 


600 


— 


— 


3,700 


33,600 


Florida 


333,100 


2,000 


— 


— 


111,500 


446,600 


Flyway total 


1,755,500 


857,200 


87,600 


66,100 


179,500 


2,945,900 



a/ 



b/ 



Mid-December 1973 counts use for all species of geese in the Central and 
Mississippi Flyways. 

Rounding of original figures to nearest hundreds may result in discrepancies 
between figures presented in Table A-l and Table A-2. 



22 



TABLE A-3. Winter waterfowl survey, west coast of Mexico, 1974 (figures in nearest 

hundreds; tr = <50). 



Species 



1973 



1974 



Percent change 
1973 to 1974 



Ducks: 






Dabblers: 






Mallard 




— 


Gad wall 




1,800 


American wigeon 


63,900 


Green-winged ' 


teal 


64,400 


Blue-winged teal 


32,200 


Northern shovel er 


44,800 


Pintail 




724,700 


Subtotal 




931,800 


Divers: 






Redhead 




9,200 


Canvasback 




100 


Scaup 




9,000 


Goldeneye 




tr 


Buffi ehead 




1,000 


Subtotal 




19,300 


Miscel laneous: 






Mergansers 




5,000 


Ruddy duck 




1,400 


Scoters 




2,000 


Black-bellied 


tree d 


lick 5,600 


Fulvous tree < 


iuck 


1,200 


Subtotal 




15,200 


Total ducks 




966,300 


Geese: 






Snow goose 




300 


White-fronted 


goose 


3,200 


Canada geese 




tr 


Subtotal 




3,500 


Brant: 






Black brant 




115,500 


Coots: 






American coot 




34,700 



900 

65,100 

20,700 

6,600 

30,500 

205,900 

329,700 



25,000 

tr 
23,700 
300 
400 

49,400 



2,500 
1,000 
1,600 
2,400 
3,000 

10,500 

389,600 



200 
1,700 



1,900 

123,200 

34,900 



- 50 
+ 2 

- 68 

- 79 

- 32 

- 72 

- 65 



+172 


+163 


- 60 


+156 


- 50 


- 29 


- 20 


- 57 


+150 



- 31 

- 60 



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- 46 



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34 



Table B-10. Minnesota waterfowl breeding population indices for 1974 by stratum. 









Stratum— 




State 


Species 


1 


2 


3 


4 


total 


Ducks 














Dabblers: 














Mallard 




8,885 


10,862 


33,170 


8,662 


61 ,579 


Gadwall 




271 


353 


965 


857 


2,446 


American wig 


eon 


-- 


141 


614 


1,951 


2,706 


Green-winged 


teal 


-- 


-- 


439 


-- 


439 


Blue-winged 


teal 


10,692 


14,318 


21,938 


2,380 


49,328 


Shoveler 




452 


353 


1,228 


-- 


2,033 


Pintail 




392 


-- 


965 


1,047 


2,404 


Other dabblers 


301 


1,411 


878 


-- 


2,590 


Wood duck 




2,469 


1,552 


5,002 


95 


9,118 


Subtotal 


23,462 


28,990 


65,199 


14,992 


132,643 


Divers: 














Redhead 




1,566 


3,597 


2,545 


1,999 


9,707 


Canvasback 
Scaup- 




1,235 


141 


-- 


190 


1,566 




10,452 


5,290 


9,389 


45,121 


70,252 


Ring-necked 


duck 


3,434 


2,962 


4,651 


762 


11,809 


Ruddy duck 




723 


635 


1,755 


-- 


3,113 


American goldeneye 


60 


776 


-- 


476 


1,312 


Buffi ehead 




60 


-- 


-- 


286 


346 


Merganser 




181 


— 


-- 


4,093 


4,274 


Other divers 




361 


282 


1,580 


— 


2,223 


Subtotal 


18,072 


13,683 


19,920 


52,927 


104,602 


Total ducks 




41,534 


42,673 


85,119 


67,919 


237,245 


Coots 




3,855 


212 


4,563 


904 


9,534 


TOTAL 




45,389 


42,885 


89,682 


68,823 


246,779 



—'The strata given here represent the following: 
1-High density of lake basins. 
2-Medium density of lake basins. 
3-Low density of lake basins. 
4-Roseau and Red Lake bog region in northwestern Minnesota. 

b/Many scaup were still migrating north and were not expected to breed in 
Minnesota . 

35 



Table B-ll. Minnesota--number of indicated waterfowl breeding on selected routes 
as recorded by aerial and ground crews in the spring of 1974. 









S 


PEC 


I E 


s i/ 




Route 


Mallard 
A/G 


Blue-winged 
A/G 


teal 


R 


ing-necked duck 
A/G 


All ducks 
A/G 


Howard Lake 




119/180 


148/348 






0/16 


338/648 


Herman 




32/56 


82/82 






0/0 


156/290 


Clinton 




12/28 


38/88 






0/8 


69/128 


Callaway - H 


itterdah' 


1 19/135 


76/342 






4/78 


168/848 


Waubun 




54/44 


64/214 






16/40 


174/382 


Itasca Park 




37/120 


2/16 






18/28 


59/84 


Reamer 




13/12 


2/12 






18/8 


33/40 


All routes - 


Air 
Ground 


286 
575 


412 
1,102 






56 
178 


997 
2,420 


Aerial visib 


ility 


50% 


37% 






31% 


41% 



- The number of each species includes both drakes and hens. In many instances hens 
are calculated on the basis of a drake being present. Ground tallies have been 
doubled to equal the double coverage made by the aerial crew. 



36 



Table B-12. Minnesota—estimated number of breeding ducks in the spring of 1974. - 



Species 


Unadjusted 
population 
index 


Visibility 


Adjusted 
population 
estimate 


Percentage 

change 
from 1973 


Mallard 


61,579 


50% 


123,000 


+ 11 


Blue-winged teal 


49,328 


37% 


133,500 


- 8 


Ring-necked duck 


11,809 


31% 


38,000 


+300 


c b/ 
Scaup- 


70,252 


40% 


175,500 


+188 


Other ducks 


44,276 


40% 


109,000 


+ 12 


All ducks 


237,244 


41% 


579,000 


+ 23 


All ducks, less scaup 


166,992 


41% 


403,500 


+ 15 



- Ihese estimates do not include the northeastern portion of the state, the 
metropolitan area, the Red River Valley, or those portions of southern 
Minnesota having no lakes of 10 acres or more in size within a township. 

- The late, cool spring delayed migration of scaup through Minnesota and an 
unusual number of birds were tallied during census. Few scaup breed in 
Minnesota and their numbers here have been separated for better representa- 
tion of the state's breeding population. 



37 



Table B-13. Minnesota --breeding population estimates for ducks in 
1968-74 based on aerial censuses corrected for visibility. 



Year Mallard Blue-winged teal All ducks 



1968 110,000 160,000 390,000 

1969 101,000 162,000 369,000 

1970 111,000 153,000 316,000 

1971 96,000 153,000 331,000 

1972 69,000 100,000 258,000 

1973 111,000 144,000 423,000 

1974 123,000 133,000 579,000 



Table B-14. Minnesota — number of indicated breeding pairs of ducks per 
hundred square miles in the spring of 1974.- 



Stratum Mallards Blue-winged teal All ducks 

I 74 89 356 

II 59 79 177 

III 77 53 198 

All 72 65 219 



—Indicated breeding pairs include all drakes not in flocks. 



Table B-15. Minnesota—success of mallard nesting in the 
spring of 1974 as indicated by status of drakes in early 
June with comparisons to previous years. 



Year 


Total drakes 
tallied 


Pai re 


Pe 
d 


rcentage of 
Single 


drakes 

Flocked 


1969 


507 


3.8 




6.9 


89.3 


1970 


253 


3.6 




6.3 


90.1 


1971^ 


318 


5.7 




11.0 


83.3 


1972 


404 


4.0 




4.5 


91.8 


1973 


449 


1.7 




7.2 


91.6 


1974 


316 


4.7 




15.2 


80.1 



- Approximately half of the drakes with hens were observed in 
1974 in a localized area of southwestern Otter Tail County 
having a recent history of heavy thundershower activity. 



39 



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41 



Table B-18. California—estimated total nesting pairs and fall population indices 
in the Sacramento Valley,- 7 1971-74. 



Species 



Estimated Total Nesting Pairs 
1971 1972 1973 1974 



Fall Population Indices 
1971 1972 1973 1974 



Ducks: 
Dabblers: 
Mallard 
Gad wall 
Cinn.Teal 
N.Shoveler 
Pintail 



24,400 23,800 27,010 25,270 

240 80 440 490 

2,280 1,160 1,920 1,560 

80 40 

200 160 2,120 800 



101,900 99,400 112,800 105,510 

1,200 400 2,200 2,410 

8,520 4,330 7,170 5,830 

360 180 

770 620 8,160 3,080 



Subtotal 27,200 25,200 31,530 28,120 112,750 104,750 130,510 116,830 



Divers: 



Redheads 
Ruddy Duck 




40 
840 




40 
160 




120 





600 
80 


180 
3,750 




180 
720 




540 



2,680 
360 


Subtotal 




880 




200 




120 




680 


3,930 




900 




540 


3,040 


Miscellaneous 




200 




40 









40 


890 




180 







180 


TOTAL DUCKS 


28 


,280 


25 


,440 


31 


,650 


28 


,840 


117,570 


105 


,830 


131 


,050 


120,050 


Coot 


41 


,880 


17 


,040 


18 


,650 


9 


,460 


192,970 


78 


,520 


85 


,910 


43,580 



-Area, 2,400 square miles; Type, Agricultural land including 375,000 acres of rice 
plus managed refuges and gun clubs; Coverage, 2-1/2% of aerial transect; and 
Remarks, The number of breeding pairs of ducks and the fall population showed a 
decrease of 9% while coots showed a 49% decrease. 



42 



Table B-19. California—estimated total nesting pairs and fall population indices 
for the Suisun Marsh,- 1971-74. 





Estimated Total 
1971 1972 


Nestin 
1973 


g Pairs 
1974 


Fall 


Popula 


tion Ind 


ices 


Species 


1971 


1972 


1973 


1974 


Ducks: 


















Dabblers: 


















Mallard 


2,050 


1,250 


1,520 


1,370 


8,510 


5,200 


6,300 


5,700 


Gad wall 


270 


390 


420 


360 


1,340 


1,940 


2,060 


1,810 


Cinn.Teal 


390 


590 


380 


270 


1,440 


2,190 


1,390 


1,000 


N.Shoveler 


60 





60 


120 


240 





240 


540 


Pintail 


70 


40 


120 


100 


260 


160 


450 


360 


Subtotal 


2,840 


2,270 


2,500 


2,220 


11,790 


9,490 


10,440 


9,410 


Divers: 


















Redhead 


30 





20 





120 





60 





Ruddy Duck 


60 


20 


60 





240 


50 


240 





Subtotal 


90 


20 


80 





360 


50 


300 





Miscellaneous 





70 











290 









TOTAL DUCKS 2,930 2,360 2,580 2,220 12,150 9,830 10,740 9,410 

Coot 1,750 1,630 1,770 40 8,030 7,480 8,150 190 

-Area, 140 square miles; Type, Natural tidal marsh, gun clubs, and agricultural 

land; Coverage, 7.5% aerial transect; and Remarks, The number of breeding pairs 

of ducks showed a decrease of 14% and the fall population was down 12%. Coots 
decreased 98%. 



43 



Table B-20. California—estimated total nesting pairs and fall population indices 
for the north San Joaquin Valley (Grasslands) ,-1971-74. 



Estimated Total Nesting Pairs 



Fall Population Indices 



Species 


1971 


1972 


1973 


1974 


1971 


1972 


1973 


1974 


Ducks 


















Dabblers: 


















Mallard 


1,190 


960 


2,040 


2,090 


3,860 


3,120 


6,630 


6,780 


Gadwall 


590 


290 


780 


1,020 


1,850 


880 


2,420 


3,210 


C inn. Teal 


660 


370 


970 


1,310 


2,060 


1,160 


3,020 


4,110 


N.Shoveler 


180 


40 


310 


220 


560 


120 


970 


670 


Pintail 


100 


120 


660 


290 


320 


360 


2,070 


890 


Subtotal 


2,270 


1,780 


4,760 


4,930 


8,650 


5,640 


15,110 


15,660 


Divers: 


















Redhead 


30 





40 


70 


90 





130 


200 


Ruddy Duck 


120 


160 


350 


120 


330 


440 


960 


310 


Subtotal 


150 


160 


390 


190 


420 


440 


1,090 


510 


Miscellaneous 


10 





10 


10 


30 





30 


30 


TOTAL DUCKS 


2,880 


1,940 


5,160 


5,130 


9,100 


6,080 


16,230 


16,200 


Coot 


2,820 


1,990 


3,430 


2,130 


15,370 


10,840 


18,680 


11,610 



-^Area, 150 square miles; Type, Gun clubs and flooded pasture lands; Coverage, 
25% aerial transect; and Remarks, Breeding pairs of ducks and the fall pop- 
ulation were at the same level as last year (less than 1% decrease) while 
coots showed a 38% decrease. 



44 



Table B-21 . California—estimated total nesting pairs and fall population indices 
for the south Joaquin Valley, - 1971-74. 





Estimated Total Nestir 
1971 1972 1973 


ig Pairs 
1974 


Fall Population Inc 


iices 


Species 


1971 


1972 


1973 


1974 


Ducks: 


















Dabblers: 


















Mallard 


940 


520 


1,440 


1,090 


2,580 


1,420 


3,960 


3,090 


Gadwall 


50 


50 


100 


150 


120 


130 


290 


430 


Cinn.Teal 


270 


320 


1,130 


480 


750 


830 


2,650 


1,380 


N.Shoveler 


10 


40 


380 


60 


30 


90 


850 


150 


Pintail 


40 


50 


1,310 


140 


100 


130 


3,510 


420 


Subtotal 


1,310 


980 


4,360 


1,920 


3,580 


2,600 


11,260 


5,470 


Divers: 


















Redhead 


10 





20 


50 


20 





50 


140 


Ruddy Duck 


50 


10 


300 


40 


140 


30 


680 


110 


Subtotal 


60 


10 


320 


90 


160 


30 


730 


250 


Miscellaneous 


40 





40 


10 


120 





60 


20 


TOTAL DUCKS 


1,410 


990 


4,720 


2,020 


3,860 


2,630 


12,050 


5,740 


Coot 


990 


2,150 


3,070 


820 


5,370 


11,700 


12,790 


4,410 



a/ 



Area, approximately 230 square miles; Type, Rice land, pasture, and 
managed refuges; Coverage, Aerial and ground, variable (10% to complete 
coverage); and Remarks, Duck pairs showed a 57% decrease and the fall 
population was down 51%. Coot pairs showed a 73% decrease while the 
fall population was down 66% when compared to last year. The decrease 
is mainly due to the drying up of the temporary habitat that was 
present in the Tulare Lake Basin in 1973. 



45 



Table B-22. California—estimated total nesting pairs and fall population indices 
for northeastern California,- / 1971-74. 





Estimated Total Nestir 
1971 1972 1973 


ig Pairs 
1974 


Fall Population Inc 


lices 


Species 


1971 


1972 


1973 


1974 


Ducks 


















Dabblers: 


















Mallard 


2,890 


4,140 


4,710 


4,250 


18,750 


26,910 


30,430 


27,620 


Gadwall 


710 


1,390 


1,240 


1,290 


5,600 


10,900 


9,720 


10,140 


Cinn.Teal 


880 


1,020 


1,150 


1,070 


5,710 


6,620 


7,480 


6,900 


N.Shoveler 


150 


90 


140 


210 


910 


540 


840 


1,290 


Pintail 


770 


1,450 


2,090 


1,400 


4,380 


8,290 


12,010 


8,030 


Subtotal 


5,400 


8,090 


9,330 


8,220 


35,350 


53,260 


60,480 


53,980 


Divers: 


















Canvasback 


10 


10 


10 


20 


60 


20 


60 


80 


Redhead 


440 


300 


380 


490 


2,980 


2,020 


2,620 


3,340 


Scaup 


180 


80 


70 


50 


1,080 


470 


440 


310 


Ruddy Duck 


120 


70 


60 


110 


690 


400 


320 


610 


Subtotal 


750 


460 


520 


670 


4,810 


2,910 


3,440 


4,340 


Miscellaneous 


190 


120 


150 


210 


960 


580 


750 


1,020 


TOTAL DUCKS 


6,340 


8,670 


10,000 


9,100 


41,120 


56,750 


64,670 


59,340 


Canada Goose 


760 


1,170 


1,000 


650 


21,800^20,000- 


- / 22,070^ / 21,550^ / 


Coot 


1,990 


920 


1,370 


990 


11,890 


5,500 


8,180 


5,910 



a/ 



Area, Not determined; Type, Natural marshes, lakes, and artificial impoundments; 
and Coverage, Aerial, complete. 

-Includes 17,140 nonbreeders. 

c/ 

-Includes 14,080 nonbreeders. 

-Includes 16,150 nonbreeders. 

e/ 

-Includes 17,550 nonbreeders; Remarks, Canada geese showed a 35% decrease in 

breeding pairs and a decrease of only 2% in the overall fall population index. 

Ducks showed a 9% decrease in pairs and fall population while coots showed 

a decrease of 28%. 



46 



Table B-23. Califorr 
for the Klamath Bas 



rni a -. -estimated total nesting pairs and fall populati 
in, ^1971-74. 



on indices 





Estimated Total 
1971 1972 


1 Nesting Pairs 
1973 1974 


Fall Popula 


ition Indices 


Species 


1971 


1972 


1973 


1974 


Ducks 


















Dabblers: 


















Mallard 


670 


530 


580 


1,120 


5,160 


4,060 


4,090 


7,740 


Gadwall 


620 


620 


730 


1,610 


4,680 


5,400 


5,940 


14,440 


Cinn.Teal 


420 


630 


770 


2,810 


3,330 


5,630 


6,210 


22,050 


N.Shoveler 


380 


200 


460 


500 


3,580 


1,670 


3,630 


4,010 


Pintail 


150 


130 


200 


300 


900 


1,040 


1,400 


2,020 


Subtotal 


2,240 


2,110 


2,740 


6,340 


17,650 


17,800 


21,270 


50,260 


Divers: 


















Canvasback 


70 


50 


40 


60 


700 


420 


300 


350 


Redhead 


420 


350 


270 


940 


2,480 


2,870 


2,180 


7,640 


Scaup 


120 


80 


80 


40 


1,010 


810 


630 


300 


Ruddy Duck 


870 


610 


390 


1,460 


3,690 


4,420 


2,960 


10,690 


Subtotal 


1,480 


1,090 


780 


2,500 


7,880 


8,520 


6,070 


18,980 


Miscellaneous 


290 


30 


10 


10 


1,600 


230 


40 


60 


TOTAL DUCKS 


4,010 


3,230 


3,530 


8,850 


27,130 


26,550 


27,380 


69,300 


Canada Goose 


720 


780 


770 


520 


3,560-/ 


4,450°-/ 


4,960-/ 3,880^-/ 


Coot 


2,490 


1,130 


870 


4,440 


13,910 


7,360 


5,380 


25,140 



-Area, 35,000 acres of water and marsh plus surrounding agricultural lands 
(includes Tule Lake, Clear Lake, and Lower Klamath refuges); Type, Great 
Basin--natural and managed marsh area; Coverage, Ground and aerial. 

-Includes 1,300 nonbreeders. 

c/ 

-Includes 570 nonbreeders. 

—Includes 1,010 nonbreeders. 

e/ 

-Includes 610 nonbreeders; Remarks, Pairs of geese were down 33% while the 

fall population showed a 22% decrease. Breeding pairs of ducks were up over 

150% and the fall population index was up 153%. Coot pairs increased over 

400% while the fall population index was up over 365%. 



47 



Table B-24. California—estimated total nesting pairs and fall population indices for 
the entire State,- 1971-74. 





Estimated Tota 
1971 1972 


1 Nesting 
1973 


Pairs 
1974 


Fall Population Ind 


ices 


Species 


1971 


1972 


1973 


1974 


Ducks: 


















Dabblers: 


















Mallard 


32,140 


31,200 


37,300 


35,190 


140,760 


140,110 


164,210 


156,440 


Gadwall 


2,480 


2,820 


3,710 


4,920 


14,790 


19,650 


22,630 


32,440 


C inn. Teal 


4,900 


4,090 


6,320 


7,500 


21,810 


20,760 


27,920 


41,270 


N.Shoveler 


860 


370 


1,390 


1,110 


5,680 


2,420 


6,710 


6,660 


Pintail 


1,330 


1,950 


6,500 


3,030 


6,730 


10,600 


27,600 


14,800 


Subtotal 


41,710 


40,430 


55,220 


51,750 


189,770 


193,540 


249,070 


251,610 


Divers: 


















Canvasback 


80 


60 


50 


80 


760 


440 


360 


430 


Redhead 


970 


690 


850 


2,150 


5,870 


5,070 


5,580 


14,000 


Scaup 


300 


160 


150 


90 


2,090 


1,280 


1,070 


610 


Ruddy Duck 


2,060 


1,030 


1,160 


1,810 


8,840 


6,060 


5,160 


12,080 


Subtotal 


3,410 


1,940 


2,210 


4,130 


17,560 


12,850 


12,170 


27,120 


Miscellaneous 


730 


260 


210 


280 


3,600 


1,280 
207,670 


880 


1,310 


TOTAL DUCKS 


45,850 


42,630 


57,640 


56,160 


210,930 


262,120 


280,040 


Canada Goose 


1,480 


1,950 


1,770 


1,170 


25,360 


24,450 


27,030 


25,430 


Coot 


51,920 


24,860 


29,160 


17,880 


247,540 


121,400 


139,090 


90,840 



A comparative summary of nesting pairs of waterfowl for the past four seasons, 
together with final fall population including young plus resident adults is 
shown in this table. These figures for each year have been derived from the 
preceding tables. In almost all cases the figures shown for "nesting pairs" 
are more accurate than those indicating "fall population indices." 



48 



Table B-25. Colorado—summary of duck breeding ground population estimates 
in selected areas, 1974. 



Area 




Total 
1974 


Estimated B 
1973 


reeding Pairs 
Long Terra 
Average— 


Percent Change 
From From Long 
1973 Term Ave. 


San Luis Valley 




29,695 


24,942 


27,096 


+ 19.1 


+ 9.6 


North Park-/ 




16,657 


14,255 


15,856 


+16.9 


+ 5.1 


South Platte Va' 


Hey 


8,457 


7,917 


6,155 


+ 6.8 


+37.4 


Cache la Poudre 


Valley 


5,713 


5,852 


3,244 


- 2.4 


+76.1 


Yampa Valley 




2,834 


2,571 


2,802 


+ 10.2 


+ 1.1 


Brown's Park 




1,128 


632 


1,024 


+78.5 


+ 10.2 


Total 




64,484 


56,169 


56,177 


+13.7 


+ 14.8 



- San Luis Valley and North Park averages are based on results of 1964 
through 1973 and 1968 through 1973 surveys, respectively, because of 
changes in survey methods utilized before those dates. Figures for 
other areas are 20-year averages. 



49 



Table B-26. Colorado--species composition of 1974 duck breeding population. 





Number of Breed 


ing Pairs 


Percent 
1974 


Species 
1973 


Composition 


Species 


1974 


1973 


1954-73 
Average-' 


1954-73 
Average 


Mallard 


28,427 


22,608 


27,654 


44.1 


40.2 


55.3 


Blue-winged and 
Cinnamon teal 


11,441 


6,374 


4,928 


17.7 


11.3 


9.9 


Gadwall 


8,465 


7,400 


5,243 


13.1 


13.2 


10.5 


Pintail 


4,344 


5,794 


3,521 


6.7 


10.3 


7.1 


Green-winged teal 


565 


1,161 


2,227 


.9 


2.1 


4.5 


N. Shoveler 


3,918 


4,556 


2,302 


6.1 


8.1 


4.6 


Redhead 


716 


6,416 


2,042 


1.1 


11.4 


4.1 


American wigeon 


1,087 


789 


874 


1.7 


1.4 


1.8 


Other divers 


5,521 


1,071 


1,138 


8.6 


1.9 


2.3 


Total 


64,484 


56,169 


49,839 









a/ 



Species composition computed from data from all areas for the 20-year period 
regardless of changes in survey methods. 



50 



Table B-27. Colorado --total estimated Canada geese in Moffat County during 
1974. 

, Nesting Non-nesting Total Estimated . , Total 
Area- Pairs Birds Adults No. Goslings- Birds 

Yampa River 
Lily Park 8 99 115 27 142 

Subtotal Yampa - - - 575^ 114^ 689^ 
Little Snake 

Green River 

Brown's Park 30 147 207 119 326 



-Craig to Juniper Springs and Juniper to Cross Mountain of the Yampa River, 
Little Snake River, and Dinosaur National Monument were not surveyed 
because of mechanical difficulty. 

— Calculated using average brood sizes and number of successful nests. 

c/ 

— Figures for all areas other than Lily Park are based on the percent of 

birds on the Yampa and Little Snake Rivers located in Lily Park during 
the 1969 through 1973 periods; that percent is then applied to the 1974 
Lily Park data to obtain an estimate for the entire complex. 



51 



Table B-28. Colorado—estimated number of Canada goose goslings in Moffat 
County during 1974. 



Area 



Number of Goslings 
1956-73 
1974 1973 Average 



Percent Change 



From 1973 



From 1 956- 
1973 Average 



Yampa and Little 


114 


166 


217 


Snake Rivers 








Green River 








Brown's Park 


119 


151 


59 


Dinosaur National 








Monument 


- 


105 


128 



31.3 



-21.2 



47.5 



+ 101.7 



Total 



a/ 



233 317 



276 



- 26.5 



15.6 



a/ 



Includes all areas except Dinosaur National Monument. 



Table B-29. Colorado—estimated total Canada geese in Moffat County 
during 1974. 



Area 



Estimated No. Geese 
1956-73 
1974 1973 Average 



Percent Change 



From 1973 



Yampa and Little 


689 


857 


672 


Snake Rivers 








Green River 








Brown's River 


326 


437 


156 


Dinosaur National 


_ 


246 


334 


Monument 









- 19.6 



- 25.4 



Total 



a/ 



1,015 1,294 



828 



21.6 



a/ 



Includes all areas except Dinosaur National Monument. 

52 



From 1956- 
1973 Average 



+ 2.5 



+109.0 



+ 18.4 



Table B-30. Colorado—number of Canada goose goslings produced in north- 
central Colorado study areas, 1974. 





Numb 


er of Gos 


I ings 


Percent 






1974 


1973 


1969-73 
Average 


Change 


Area 


From 1973 


From 1969-73 


Wellington 


187 


347 


285 


-46.1 


-34.4 


Fort Collins 


229 


347 


283 


-34.0 


-19.0 


Loveland 


90 


106 


85 


-15.1 


+ 5.8 


Boulder 


206 


270 


244 


-23.7 


-15.5 


Denver 


185 


380 


300 


-51.3 


-38.3 


Total 


897 


1,450 


1,476 


-38.1 


-39.2 



Table B-31. Colorado — number of Canada geese observed in north-central 
Colorado study areas, 1974. 





Number of 


Geese 


Percen 






1974 


1973 


1969-73 
Average 


t Change 


Area 


From 1973 


From 1969-73 


Well ington 


635 


828 


848 


-23.3 


-42.6 


Fort Collins 


477 


843 


766 


-43.4 


-60.7 


Loveland 


239 


283 


198 


-15.5 


+20.7 


Boulder 


365 


827 


739 


-55.9 


-50.6 


Denver 


1,004 


1,248 


1,359 


-19.6 


-26.1 


Total 


2,720 


4,029 


3,910 


-32.5 


-30.4 



53 



Table B-32. i'tebraska--duck breeding population and species composition in 
1973 and 1974. 







1973 


1974 


Percent 1974 


Percent Change 


Species 




Population 


Population 


Population 


from 1973 


Dabblers: 












Blue-winged 


teal 


36 ,890 


24,100 


29.0 


-34.7 


Mallard 




25,519 


24,515 


29.5 


- 3.9 


N. Shove ler 




21,524 


14,494 


17.4 


-32.6 


Pintail 




8,554 


5,650 


6.8 


-33.9 


Gadwall 




12,116 


10,324 


12.4 


-14.8 


Green-winged 


teal 


247 


160 


.2 


-35.2 


Wigeon 




300 


- 


— 


~ 


Sub-total 




105,150 


79,243 


95.3 


-24.6 


Divers: 












Redhead 




1,883 


855 


1.0 


-54.8 


Canvasback 




226 


244 


.3 


+ 8.0 


Scaup 




2,335 


858 


1.0 


-63.2 


Ruddy duck 




4,595 


1,890 


2.3 


-58.8 


Sub-total 




9,039 


3,847 


4.6 


-57.4 


TOTAL DUCKS 




114,190 


83,090 


99.9 


-27.2 





54 



Table B-33. Iowa--May aerial breeding pair estimates, 1966-74. 

Potholes and small Blue-winged 

Year water area index Mallard pairs teal pairs 

1966 95 5,960 41,250 

1967 97 7,080 25,200 

1968 26 10,440 55,200 

1969 116 8,080 37,800 

1970 84 8,320 26,400 

1971 87 6,980 32,839 

1972 135 4,357 17,734 

1973 135 5,807 22,877 

1974 134 3,250 21,504 



Percent Change 
from 1973 to 

1974+0 - 44 - 6 

Percent Change 
from 8-year 

average +28 - 55 - 34 



55 



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56 



Table B-35. Wisconsin—wetland densities by region, 1973-74. 







Wetlar 


ids 


Recorded 


Per Square 


Mile 




Wetland Type- 


SE/Cer 
1973 


itral 
1974 




N. 


H- 


igh 


N. 


Low 


1973 




1974 


1973 


1974 


I, II, VI 


5.6 


3.0 




1.1 




1.2 


2.0 


1.0 


III 


1.1 


0.9 




0.6 




0.8 


0.7 


0.5 


IV-V 


1.4 


1.7 




2.7 




3.0 


1.7 


1.0 


VI I-VII I 


0.7 


0.5 




0.7 




0.5 


1.0 


0.6 


Streams 


1.4 


1.2 




1.6 




1.5 


3.0 


1.9 


Ditches 


0.9 


1.5 




0.1 




0.1 


0.3 


0.4 



- Based on a classification system devised by March, Martz, and Hunt of the 
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 



57 



APPENDIX C. WATERFOWL HARVEST SURVEY TABLES. 



TABLE C-l. Factors used to adjust survey statistics to 
include the activities of junior hunters 

Junior hunter adjustment factors 



Estimate 



Atlantic 
Flyway 



Mississippi 
Flyway 



Central 
Flyway 



Pacific 

Flyway 
& Alaska 



Ducks bagged 
(including 
sea ducks) 

Geese bagged 

Coots bagged 

Days hunted 

Ducks lost 

Geese lost 

Coots lost 



1.03621 
1.02402 
1.08302 
1.05174 
1.03641 
1.01573 
1.08247 



1.04655 
1.03369 
1.09034 
1.07003 
1.05699 
1.03738 
1.10282 



1.06055 
1.04110 
1.10147 
1.08559 
1.07053 
1.07067 
1.10400 



1.04985 
1.04508 
1.09415 
1.08708 
1.06152 
1.07411 
1.10685 



TABLE C-2. Factors used to adjust survey statistics for 
memory and prestige bias 



Memory and prestige response bias factors 

Pacific 
Atlantic Mississippi Central Flyway 
Flyway Flyway Flyway & Alaska 



Estimate 



Ducks bagged 
(including 
sea ducks) 

Geese bagged 

Coots bagged 



0.86925 
0.80428 
0.60692 



0.77656 
0.84800 
0.63668 



0.73902 
0.86838 
0.78878 



0.78952 
0.85159 
0.59248 



58 



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97 



TABLE C-10. Proportions of the total duck harvest occurring 
after the September teal season in certain States during 
1970, 1971, 1972, and 1973 



Flyway 




Proportion in 


Regular Season 




State 


1970 


1971 


1972 


1973 


Atlantic 










Maine 


.9418 


.9566 


.9335 


— 


Mississippi 










Alabama 


.9801 


.9631 


.9624 


.9670 


Arkansas 


.9868 


.9907 


.9856 


.9814 


Illinois 


.9321 


.9335 


.9625 


.8864 


Indiana 


.9288 


.9210 


.9249 


.8857 


Louisiana 


.9047 


.9114 


.9008 


.9009 


Mississippi 


.9891 


.9880 


.9902 


.9552 


Missouri 


.9065 


.9271 


.9314 


.9222 


Ohio 


.9567 


.9381 


.9438 


.9166 


Tennessee 


.9927 


.9695 


.9846 


.9713 


Central 










Colorado 


.9641 


.9507 


.9728 


.9273 


Kansas 


.8624 


.9071 


.9285 


.8833 


Montana 


.9320 


— 


— 


— 


Nebraska 


.8941 


— 


— 


— 


New Mexico 


.9476 


.9439 


.9710 


.9442 


Oklahoma 


.9410 


.9547 


.9491 


.9112 


Texas 


.9661 


.9589 


.9566 


.9380 



98 



As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the 
Interior has responsibility for most of our nationally owned public 
lands and natural res mrces. This includes fostering the wisest use of 
our land and water resources, protecting our fish and wildlife, preserv- 
ing the environmental and cultural values of our national parks and 
historical places, and providing for the enjoyment of life through out- 
door recreation. The Department assesses our energy and mineral 
resources and works to assure that their development is in the best 
interests of all our people. The Department also has a major responsi- 
bility for American Indian reservation communities and for people who 
live in island territories under U.S. administration. 




UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

EDITORIAL OFFICE 

AYLESWORTH HALL. CSU 

FORT COLLINS. COLORADO 80523 



POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 



INT 423 




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