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r-mr^gY r* 93943-5101 



MONTEREY, CA 93943-5101 










SUMMER 1997 

APS A-ycW-w: 



1.1 Background 1 

1.2 Current trends 2 


2.1 Introduction 5 

2.2 Management - Total Quality Management 6 

2.2.1 Deming 7 

2.2.2 ISO 9004 9 

2.2.3 Malcolm Baldridge 10 

2.2.4 Six Sigma Quality 11 

2.2.5 World-Class Service Quality Management System 11 

2.3 Leadership, the human element 12 

2.3.1 Communication 13 

2.3.2 Mission Statements 15 

2.3.3 Goal Setting, Rewards and Objectives 16 

2.3.4 Counseling and Appraisals 17 


3.1 Introduction 19 

3.2 Building Envelope 19 

3.3 Lighting 20 

3.4 Heating and Air Conditioning 24 

3.5 Emergency Power (Uninterruptible Power Supplies and Diesel Generators) 25 

3.6 Telecommunications 27 

3.7 Fire Protection and Security Systems 28 

3.8 Flexible Pavements 29 


4.1 Introduction 32 

4.2 Space Planning 32 

4.3 Custodial and Grounds Maintenance 33 

4.4 Energy Management 34 

4.5 Physical Security 36 

4.6 Disaster Preparedness 38 


5.1 Where maintenance begins 39 

5.1.1 Design Phase 40 

5.1.2 Construction Phase 40 

5.1.3 Building Occupancy and Maintenance 41 

5.2 Maintenance Strategies 41 






Executive Summary. 

After almost ten years of experience and formal education in design, construction, and 
facility operations and maintenance, the challenges and complexity of facility management 
still seem overwhelming and intangible. This document explores those complexities and 
challenges, and presents several philosophies and strategies practiced in facility 
management. The document is divided into six chapters; the introduction, facility 
management and leadership, building systems, facility operations, facility maintenance 
strategies, and the conclusion and final analysis. Although real estate planning is a major 
function of the facility manager, it is not discussed here. 

The first chapter presents the introduction to facility management. The second chapter 
presents management and leadership philosophies with discussion on various Total Quality 
Management (TQM) programs and a few of the more recognized standards and awards; 
Deming, ISO 9004 series, the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award, Six Sigma and 
Qualtec's "world-class quality service". The third chapter presents basic descriptions of 
the building systems with the most direct impact of the facility capabilities, the operators, 
and the technicians. Chapter four discusses facility operations as paramount to the smooth 
operations of the organization and the physical environment of the building occupants; 
including space planning, custodial services, energy management, physical security, and 
disaster preparedness. Chapter five presents factors influencing maintenance strategies, 
such as the traditional scheduled maintenance, reliability centered maintenance and 
outsourcing. From these factors a tailored maintenance plan may be developed to best 

suit the organization and mission. The final chapter summarizes the document and 
stresses that a comprehensive plan and program are imperative to successfully achieving 
the facility management mission. 

The document is based on several years experience combined with graduate course 
work, and research of numerous publications including the Internet. The personal 
experience is based on small to medium military facilities with multiple tenant 
organizations ranging from 60 to 500 military and civilian personnel. The facilities square 
footage ranged in size from 20,000 to 200,000 square feet, and were located in several 
states and foreign countries with significant geographical, climatic and cultural differences. 
The facility mission supported aviation operations and facilities, large communication 
centers, training complexes, high level executive offices, and common spaces and 
administrative functions. The scope of work involved new construction, renovation and 
alterations projects, relocations, and recurring maintenance and repair programs. 
Although much of the document is based on military facilities, most facility managers will 
agree that the subject matter involved does not vary greatly from one physical facility to 
another whether the facility is industrial, government or institutional. 


1.1 Background. 

The following quote is an excellent statement of what facility management is: 

"The practice of coordinating the physical workplace with the people and work of the 
organization; integrates the principles of business administration, architecture, and the 
behavioral and engineering sciences. " 

- David G. Cotts and Michael Lee 1992 (1:3) 

The "facility management" profession and term began to take shape in the late 1970's and 
early 1980's. This is not to say that the facility engineering/management function did not 
take place prior to that, it was just done under different names such as public works, 
postengineering or plant administration. Numerous professional organizations, such as 
International Facility Management Association (IFMA), the American Institute of Plant 
Engineers and others were founded and expanded. In addition, many companies began 
advertising facility management consultant services and began recruiting facility 
managers/engineers. Thus the facility management profession and practice took on a new 
character and more significant role. 

Much of this can be attributed to the societal and technological advances (2:8). The 
organizational cultural changes from TQM programs, technological advances in 
computers, construction materials and techniques, and new governmental regulations 
initiated a remarkable transformation of the facility, the work place and living spaces. Just 
a few of the technological advances are local area networks (LAN's), telecommunications, 
teleconferencing, new furniture philosophies, lighting, and smart buildings. The 

construction improvements include complex and integrated structural, electrical, and 
mechanical systems and a vast number of new materials. The new regulations include the 
areas of energy, environmental, safety, fire, and disabled workers. Along with this, there 
were huge increases in global market competition and population. The result is that the 
last few decades have seen a major transformation in the cultures, the philosophy, and the 
physical environments of corporations and agencies everywhere. 

This major restructuring is felt by facility managers and executives alike. Not only is 
improving the work environment and productivity of an organization important, facility 
management is one of the major expenses in most organizations. The Department of 
Defense alone has over $500 Billion invested in facilities (3:1). To stay competitive, 
organizations must become more productive and efficient. All of the previously 
mentioned factors combine into a complex cycle of events that are only touched upon in 
this document. 

1.2 Current trends. 

Today quality management programs are common place, new technologies are announced 
weekly, natural disasters occur like clock work, increased churn rates -turnover of 
employees, and "right sizing" are felt everywhere. With these events, new challenges are 
presented to the organization and the facility manager (FM) for the strategic 
implementation into the work place. Yet this is just the tip of the iceberg for the FM; 
there is still the day-to-day challenges of the maintenance and repair activities, personnel 

management, budget shortfalls, and a host of activities bidding for the FMs time and 
leadership. Change is inevitable, as Heraclitus stated: 

"Nothing endures but change" 

- Heather McLean Wiederhoef 1997 (4:6) 

The facility management business is reactive by nature, a system or piece of equipment 
fails, the roof leaks, the company purchases new equipment, develops a new product, or 
makes changes in the personnel and work place. A strategic plan is essential to 
successfully achieve the FM mission. Without a strategic plan, the facility management 
program is jeopardized, often leading to potential failures in the facility infrastructure and 
operations that can cripple an organization overnight. Facility or equipment failures, not 
caught early, can be exponentially more expensive, complex and disruptive. This fact is 
not lost on the corporations, and is, in part, what leads to the need for new associations, 
formal educational programs and professional development. 

One of the associations founded to meet this challenge is the IFMA. Since its 
formation in 1980, IFMA has grown to 14,400 members throughout the world (5). Like 
IFMA, many organizations have attempted to capture the vast diversity of the 
competencies and challenges required in facility management. The lists of expected 
professional competencies commonly expected of an facility manager range from seven to 
fourteen depending on the source. Below are two examples that illustrate the diversity: 

- Communication - Operations and Maintenance 

- Facility Function - Planning and Project Management 

- Quality Assessment and Innovation - Finance 

- Human and Environmental Factors - Real Estate 

Building Service Institute of New York (BSI) (7:1): 

- Electrical Systems - Mechanical Systems 

- Economics - Administrative and Supervision 

- Environmental Management - Civil and Structural 

- Maintenance 

IFMA has also established professional certification program that test the above 
competencies. Another certification program is established specializing in hospital facility 
management. Mastering the multiple engineering disciplines, or at least understanding 
them, is an accomplishment enough; but adding deferred maintenance, budget deficiencies, 
critical time constraints, and personnel/personality issues both with upper management and 
the facility workforce, and this profession becomes mystifying. 

Along with the formation of the IFMA and many more organizations, there is now a 
professional degree in facility management offered at many colleges and universities. The 
professional certification processes, improved educational opportunities and work of the 
professional associations are improving the facility management community and our ability 
to meet the challenges of today, and tomorrow. 


2.1 Introduction. 

There are volumes of information on the definition, styles, principles and philosophies of 
management and leadership, but there is a distinct difference between management and 
leadership. Management is the process to organize, budget, coordinate and execute the 
activities for an organization. Leadership is the art of successfully achieving that mission 
through direction, guidance and actions that inspire and persuade people to accomplish the 

"Managers plan activities, organize appropriate structures, and control resources, but 
the primary role of a leader is to influence others voluntarily to seek defined objectives 
(preferably with enthusiasm!). Managers hold formal positions, whereas anyone could 
use their informal influence while acting as a leader. Managers achieve results by 
directing the activities of others, whereas leaders create vision and inspire others to 
achieve this vision and to stretch themselves beyond their normal capabilities. " 

m Newstrom/Davis 1993(8:228) 

One critical measure of success in facility management is customer service. The TQM and 
quality standards in the following sections provide excellent techniques and measurements 
for a quality centered organization to meet this objective. However, in a facility 
department, the work force is typically comprised of technical experts with less practiced 
"people skills" which can diminish customer service and satisfaction. Introducing new 
cultural philosophies and programs can be very difficult. To overcome the inherent 

resistance to change, inspirational leadership with exceptional communication skill will be 
required. The focus in this document is for a leader to explore his/her people's needs, 
desires, and goals; so that they know their people, and what motivates them. Far to often, 
the technical experts learn to be reactive and focus only on the skills required. The experts 
fail to establish goals and objectives for the future. A leader who can develop a quality 
centered program with visionary personnel, will tremendously improve the productivity 
and quality of the organization. 

2.2 Management - Total Quality Management 

There are numerous TQM initiatives and programs, not all successful. Each organization 
must research to find the best program to fit the culture of its organization. However, the 
TQM program itself may lead to dramatic changes in the daily activities and philosophies, 
ultimately changing the culture of the organization. The following quote presents an 
excellent description of quality maintenance and engineering: 

A quality vision focuses on operational efficiency, increasing productivity and lowering 
cost. To successfully implement a quality system, it is necessary to utilize appropriate 
technology, establish procedures, train employees and audit, and follow-up as an 
ongoing learning process. Such a process benefits the organization, its customers and 

In facility management planning, the service we provide to our internal and external 
customer is organizing and tracking for the purpose of improving and maintaining high- 
performance buildings and equipment. Building and performance is linked directly to 
operational costs, as well as to customer satisfaction. Providing an aesthetically- 
pleasing, safe, reliable and secure environment that is cost efficient and increases 
productivity is our facility management function. " 

- Sofa Hilentzaris 1997 (9:13) 

The practice of TQM focuses on the involvement of every employee to continuously find 
improvements in every aspect of the organization. With this involvement, the employees 
can find rewards in the ownership and empowerment to make a difference. Furthermore, 
if the ideas come from employees, or with their input, the chances of a change being 
thoroughly implemented, tested and accepted is much higher. Some changes are 
inevitably going to be less successful than others, but the creative and innovative ideas 
must be nurtured and explored for the continuous improvement cycle to be successful. If 
we are to maintain the highest quality of life, a program of total quality improvement must 
be sustained, regardless of the title applied. 

2.2.1 The Deming Prize. 

W. Edwards Deming was the leader of the TQM initiatives in the restructuring of the 
Japanese industry in 195 1, perhaps a key reason that Japan vaulted to the top of 
international markets and competition. The following is a condensed version of the 14 
Points for Management from Deming' s book Out of Crisis (10): 

1. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the 
aim to become competitive and to stay in business, and to provide jobs. 

2. Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. Western management 
must awaken to the challenge, must learn their responsibilities, and take on 
leadership for change. 

3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for 
inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place. 

4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize 
total cost. Move toward a single supplier of any one item, on a long-term 
relationship of loyalty and trust. 

5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve 
quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs. 

6. Institute training on the job. 

7. Institute leadership. The aim of supervision should be to help people and machines 
and gadgets to do a better job. Supervision of management is in need of overhaul as 
well as supervision of production workers. 

8. Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company. 

9. Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and 
production must work as a team, to foresee problems of production and in use that 
may be encountered with the product or service. 

10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force asking for zero 
defects and new levels of productivity. Such exhortation only create adversarial 
relationships, as the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to 
the system and thus lie beyond the power of the work force. 

1 1. a. Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute leadership. 

b. Eliminate management by objective. Eliminate management by numbers, 
numerical goals. Substitute leadership. 

12. a. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. 

The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. 

b. Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right 
to pride of workmanship. This means, inter alia, abolishment of the annual merit 
rating of management by objective. 

13. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement. 

14. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The 
transformation is everybody's job. 

The Deming principles can be very powerful and effective when applied in the appropriate 
culture and organization. It is worth mentioning, however, that the most opportune time 
for any change is before maturity and tradition are deeply implanted. Even though 

tradition in Japan is far more entrenched than in the US, the industrial explosion had just 
begun there. Application into the US industries and agencies is more difficult and not 
directly comparable to the Japanese culture and tradition. 

2.2.2 International Organization for Standardization - ISO 9000. 

The ISO 9000 is actually a certification process with a series of three levels of 
certification and two guidelines (11). The 9000 and 9004 series are guidelines and the 
9001, 9002 and 9003 certifications. The ISO 9004 series standardization organization is 
made up of representatives from over a 100 countries, primarily the European countries. 
The ISO 9000 series actually represents a stamp of approval for the consumers of the 
company based on the company's quality programs. With the global market competition, 
the vast number of suppliers, and complexities of products and services the traditional 
comparison methods for finding the "best buy" are insufficient. The ISO 9000 series 
provides a customer an alternative focused on the supplier's quality system vice the 
product or service. Like Deming ISO established guiding principles, but only eight. There 
are 20 criteria in the application for the ISO 9001- 

"... from how purchase orders are completed, how employees are trained, and how 
quality records are maintained and disposed of, to how internal quality audits are 
performed, how subcontractors are evaluated, and how contracts are received and 
customer requirements met .... and an on-site audit team ... determines whether the 
facility is in compliance with the ISO 9000 criteria. " 

- Barbara L. Vergetis Lundinl997 (12:2) 

There are obvious internal benefits of increased efficiency and productivity, positive 
changes in corporate culture, greater quality awareness, and reduced scrap and rework 
through training employees to produce the same work, the same way every time. External 
benefits include higher perceived quality, improved customer satisfaction, a competitive 
edge, reduced customer audits and increased market shares. One of the problems with 
this certification is the cost, depending on the size and complexity of an organization, the 
cost could be in excess of $150,000. However, in big business, realizing small 
percentages of efficiency can generate significant returns on investment. 

2.2.3 Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. 

This award is the most coveted quality award in the United States. It was established in 
1987 by the US government, and has three categories; manufacturing companies, service 
companies and small business. The award is based on the Presidential Award criteria. A 
synopsis of the seven criteria are presented below (13): 

a) Leadership - visionary inspirational leadership. 

b) Information and Analysis - to support improved customer satisfaction, products, 
services, and processes. 

c) Strategic Quality Planning - short term and long term developing the planning 
process and specifics of the plan itself encompassing all aspects and 

d) Human Resource Development and Management - both personal and 
organization development with education, performance, recognition, well-being and 

e) Management of Process Quality - systematic methods to continually improve 
quality and operational performance. 


f) Quality and Operational Results - the task of measuring and quantifying results 
and bench marking with other competitors. 

g) Customer Focus and Satisfaction - in terms of absolute levels and trends. 

2.2.4 Six Sigma Quality Standard. 

The Six Sigma Quality Standard began in 1985, when a Motorola quality professional 
presented a paper describing the relationship of a products early-life field reliability to the 
frequency of repair during the manufacturing process. The basis of Six Sigma is to do it 
right the first time, at the extreme. Achieving Six Sigma, requires that less than three parts 
per million have defects. There is much debate on achieving this extreme level of quality 
and the successes just in the pursuit of it. It is believed by some that this standard is 
unachievable, but the pursuit of it still provides substantial rewards in quality. (14) 

2.2.5 World-Class Service Quality Management System 

One last discussion of quality management is the "World-Class Quality" as described by 
Qualtec Quality Services, Inc. Qualtec has four basic principles to their approach in a 
world-class service quality management system; customer satisfaction, respect for people, 
management by fact and continuous improvement. Their approach involves three 
components; policy management, process management and quality teams. As for the 
specifics of the system, it is worth consulting with the company itself and reading their 
pamphlets and publications. This is one of the only companies outside of Japan to ever be 


recognized and awarded the Deming Prize, and their fantastic programs are best presented 
by Qualtec. (15) 

2.3 Leadership, the human element 

This chapter will not get into the philosophical debate on whether leaders are genetic or 
grown through experience and training, other than to say it may be both. Some people 
choose not to take leadership roles, requiring demanding responsibilities and challenges, 
others jump at the opportunity to challenge themselves and excel. What this points out is 
that there are different personalities and levels of personal desires and motivations. 

There are several types of leaders, three broad types of skills, and styles employed. 
The types of leaders can be classified in various ways, the most obvious being situational 
and formal. A major difference is that the situational leader may only be so in certain 
groups or functions, where the formal leader will almost always assert themselves in every 
endeavor. The skills used by leaders are technical skill, human skill and conceptual skill. 
The amount of each skill level varies when climbing the corporate ladder. The conceptual 
skill become paramount at higher levels and technical skill becomes less critical, or at least 
more dependent on those supporting them, where the human skills are required at every 
level. The styles vary from consideration leadership to structure leadership. The 
perspective fluctuates from concern for the people to concern for production, or some 
combination between. There is also the leadership approaches: free-rein, autocratic and 


One last factor is the positive or negative outlook of people. McGregor's Theory X 
and Theory Y about the alternative assumptions about employees is important. The Y 
Theory assumes the best in people, that they want to do a good job and not fail, and the X 
Theory assumes people must be forced and coerced to work. It is important to evaluate 
your own personal skills and style, how they fit into the organization and more importantly 
how your people will best respond to your leadership character. The best leader is 
believed to be positive, participative and considerate. (16) 

2.3.1 Communication 

Communication may be the most essential element in our lives. Effective communication 
is imperative to good relationships at home, in the community, at work and at play. It is 
so important to us that we use it as a form of punishment, solitary confinement in penal 
systems and grounding or time outs to our children. This element, without a doubt, has 
the strongest ability to positively or negatively impact those around us and the workplace. 
"Communication must flow in both directions and can come in four ways: listening, 
talking, writing, and body language. Communication must be on two levels, thoughts and 
feelings." (17) 

It is imperative that the individual and the organization practice good communication 
skills and continually strives to improve the environment. This is why TQM is so effective 
in some organizations, the TQM program improves communications, which improves 
interpersonal relations, and provides better understanding of functions the 
interdependencies. The individual skills of communication are intricately linked and 


affected by the environment in which communication takes place. Good leadership must 
exercise good communication skills and create the optimal work place environment which 
removes factors limiting creativity, innovation and communication. 

The environment for interaction is only as limited as the leader makes it. Opportunities 
such as a social outing, privacy of an office, the shop floor, or just passing in the hallways 
offer a few creative situations to interact. Using the office can take on several variations 
and personalities as well. Placing a visiting person on the other side of the desk, can give 
the distancing effect and opposing forces impression, which in some instances may be the 
desired effect. Having the person just partially separated by the corner of the desk, or no 
obstacles, can give a more open and comfortable atmosphere. Physical barriers can create 
psychological barriers. Some people have a very large comfort zone, or personal space, 
so they prefer the distance be fairly large. 

There are many factors and distractions that can negatively impact communication. A 
few examples of the physical and psychological distractions are as follows: hands in the 
pockets and jingling keys or change when standing in front of a group, reading or fussing 
with something on the desk when talking to someone, or talking from behind a computer. 
To be effective you must give your undivided attention and maintain eye contact with that 
person and not let distractions deter you. 

One of the single most important factors is perception. Miss perception can cause 
more failures in the interpersonal dealings than any other factor. If it is perceived that you 
are not listening and they are wasting their time, you will lose their commitment and 
respect. Situational awareness is vital to understanding perception and communication. 


The situations in which customers are irate because of faulty equipment they are not 
generally interested in excuses or long explanations, they just want the equipment fixed. 
The customer may be experiencing significant pressures from the impacts of the failed 
equipment. The only answer that will satisfy them is properly running equipment. Poor 
communication in these situations can easily escalate with long term results. It can take 
ten acts of kindness to erase one such bad experience. 

The last point on communication is to exercise it at every opportunity and make 
opportunities. Many employees are elated with just chatting with the boss. The fact they 
were recognized and the boss took the time to say hello can go a long way in making 
some people important and motivated. Job recognition and appraisal are important, but 
are not the only opportunity or basis to recognize and communicate with people. Good 
leaders will make it a requirement to get out of the office visit the jobs, people and spaces, 
and break down the barriers and layers restricting open and honest communication. 

2.3.2 Mission Statements 

A mission statement is one of the most important aspects of leadership and 
communication. A good mission statement provides the principles, values and 
expectations of the organization. Clarity of purpose and mission is very stimulating and 
reassuring to people. The mission statement is not limited to the overall organization, 
each department can create a mission and vision statement. One of the best applications 
of TQM is communication and the creation of flow charts to visualize the processes in a 
department. Developing a flow diagram can create better understanding of the roles, 


relationships, and interdependencies. Mission and vision statements can and should be 
created and combined to include the people, the organization, and the processes. 

2.3.3 Goal Setting, Rewards and Objectives. 

Our most important asset is our people. To best lead them, it is not sufficient to just 
understand our leadership style, the impact, and our communication techniques, we must 
know what motivates and satisfies them. Capturing and understanding the concerns and 
motivations of the people can be used and merged to enhance the department's and 
organization's mission. Time must be invested in the people to learn and establish their 
goals - needs and desires - and marry them to the organization. Many times an employees' 
needs can be directly linked and satisfied within the organization. For example, an 
employee may desire better education and skills. The organization desires continuous 
improvement in efficiency in the processes and personnel. Providing additional training 
and education achieves both. Another example might be an employee desiring a transfer 
within the company for advancement or just a change in environment. This could benefit 
the company in a couple ways. A transfer keeps the skill and corporate knowledge within 
the company and the individual has new and refreshed motivations. For the facility 
department, this gains a "facility expert", or at least a sympathizer, outside the department, 
and could bring in new perspectives for the operators. This can short-fuse many problems 
that could come to the facility trouble desk. It may cause short term problems in 
manpower, but it now may be manageable and improve the loyalty between employees and 
the company. 


The emphasis here is that some of the goals can be beneficial to everyone, if they are 
known and acted upon. No goal will be achieved if left un-explored. Establishing goals is 
very important to an individual and to the organization. The goals should be both short- 
term and long-term, with milestones in between. This can provide the leader an excellent 
tool for developing communication, commitment and measurement for performance. 
Reward systems or incentive programs not tailored to the individuals they serve will be far 
less effective. 

2.3.4 Counseling and Appraisals. 

Counseling and appraisals may be one of the most difficult aspects of leadership. 
Establishing those elements above may resolve much of the difficulty in this area. If you 
take the time to know your people and their goals, establish clarity of the mission and 
vision and open the door for improved communication, the counseling process may still be 
challenging but may also be rewarding. It offers leaders the opportunity to assess their 
own success and charisma to achieve their goals and objectives. 

An important part of the leadership process is evaluating the entire department, its 
mission, and the people. Far too often supervisors and managers fail to ensure the 
responsible parties receive credit for new ideas and contributions. Generally this is from 
fear of losing their own credibility and expert status, maybe even their job. If management 
is driving this fear, it will stamp out creativity, innovation, diminish productivity and create 
a very disgruntled work force. A good leader should know that the work force and 
department is a direct reflection of the him/her. The better the department looks and 


performs, the better the leader is perceived. The focus, though, must take on a team 
concept. Although individual successes are valuable and possibly rewarded, every 
member in the department is needed to make possible the successes. This takes 
teamwork, loyalty, commitment and trust -- the essence of leadership. 

This philosophy should provide confidence and satisfaction to promote harmonious 
relations with a rewards and positive appraisal system that eases those unfortunate 
situations where corrective action is required. Positive counseling and actions are almost 
always possible, focus must be on the process, the training, education, and tools provided 
for the successful performance with known expectations and goals (18). Fair and accurate 
appraisals must always be given to employees. The importance of fair and accurate 
appraisals should not be overlooked. False appraisals, or inflated evaluations, destroy the 
system. Using inflated marks fails to correct substandard performances and demoralizes 
the other employees. 



3.1 Introduction. 

Proper building or equipment diagnostics is essential in avoiding expensive and misguided 
repairs and changes. The wrong diagnostics resulting in additional rework can be very 
disruptive to the work environment and customer satisfaction. This chapter presents 
building systems and equipment with the most direct impact on the organization. The 
discussion in this document is only an overview of the systems with a few potential 
references for further research and consultation. In assessing any facility problem or 
deficiency, the diagnostics is critical. Applying good communication and TQM to the 
problem will provide the best chance for proper diagnostics. Always ensure the occupants 
of the building and maintenance personnel are interviewed for details about problems. 
Ensure the problem is properly defined and good root cause analysis performed to avoid 
embarrassing and costly mistakes. The FM must keep on constant alert for new 
technologies and advances in buildings and its equipment to maximize the limited 
resources available. Partnering with local lighting, utility, and air conditioning companies, 
just to name a few, can help tremendously. Staying in touch with other professionals and 
related associations will also be helpful. 

3.2 The Building Envelope. 

The follow paragraph provides an excellent summary of the building envelope. 

"The building envelope is the combination of systems that keep weather out of the 
building and the conditioned environment in the building. The envelope is required to 
resist a wide variety of forces, control water and air infiltration, reduce noise levels, 


provide energy efficiency and accommodate the differential movement of its various 
components. It must also look appealing and be durable. Your building 's envelope is 
expected to do a lot often without much maintenance. The various elements that make up 
the envelope - roof skylights, walls, window, doors, and waterproofing -form a 
complicated system whose multiple parts have to function in concert against the hostile 
environment of sun, wind, rain, pollution, and freeze-thaw cycles. 

- Jeffrey Brow Hard and Kevin Cash 1997 (19:4) 

3.3 Lighting. 

The lighting systems of today are dramatically improved over previous years. Lighting 
technologies may be advancing faster than any other building system. The impact on 
lighting in our life is phenomenal, day and night, at work, in the home, in stadiums, on the 
roads, and at airports. Lighting has a physical and a psychological effect. In fact, lighting 
can have a profound effect on people's emotions and how they respond to an environment. 
Good lighting has the power to enhance the appearance of decor, furniture, artwork, 
merchandise and even people. The wrong lighting can have the opposite effect. (20) With 
the rapid advances in lighting it is vital to perform periodic investigations and relamping 
strategies to ensure the optimum environment and the most economical systems. Through 
lighting strategies, improved productivity and comfort can be achieved while reducing 
utilities and maintenance costs. 

Several definitions are important to understanding and evaluating lighting systems. 
Color temperature, measured in degrees Kelvin, describes the psychological impact of the 
appearance of the light source. If the source appears blue it is cool and warm if 
red/orange/yellow. Color rendering index (CRI) is the appearance of color from an object 
under a light source as compared to other light sources. A CRI of 80-100 is considered a 


light source with good color properties, but does not guarantee any specific color will 
appear natural. If one of the colors is missing in the light source that color will be 
rendered dull on objects. Lumens is the measure of a light source's output of useful light. 
The "efficacy" is the ratio of the number of lumens it produces to each watt of power it 
consumes. In today's energy conscious world, a lamp's lumens per watt (LPW) 
performance is one of its most critical characteristics. Service life is defined as the point in 
time when 50 percent of a large sample of those lamps will fail. Foot-candles measures 
the illuminance or amount of light per unit area that falls on a surface. This can be written 
into lighting specifications. Candlepower measures the intensity of a light source in a 
specific direction. A table of recommended light levels is shown below: (21) 

Recommended Light Levels 

Type of Activity/Environment 

Range of Acceptable Candlepower 

Public space with dark surroundings 

2-3-5 foot-candles 

Simple orientation for short, temporary visits 

5-7, 5-10 foot-candles 

Working space with occasional visual tasks 

10-15-20 foot-candles 

Performance of visual tasks on material of: 

■ High contrast or large size 

■ Medium contrast or small size 

■ Low contrast or very small size 

■ Low contrast or small size for prolonged 

20-30-50 foot-candles 
50-74-100 foot-candles 
1 00- 1 50-200 foot-candles 
200-300-500 foot-candles 

Performance of very prolonged and exacting visual 

500-750-1000 foot-candles 

Performance of very special visual tasks of 
extremely low contrast and small size 

1000-1500-2000 foot-candles 

Table 1. Recommended Lighting Levels. 

There are three major types of electrical lighting — incandescent/halogen, fluorescent 
and high intensity discharge. Incandescent light is the most common lamp used in homes 


and most people consider it to be "normal". The low temperature and high CRI casts a 

warm light which provides excellent color rendition of human skin tone. Unfortunately, 

incandescent lamps are inefficient, but are affordable. Tungsten Halogen lamps, tungsten 

filaments with halogen gas, are a refinement of incandescent technology that offers up to 

20 percent greater energy efficiency, longer service life, and improved quality -100 CRI. 

Fluorescent Lamps basically excite the mercury vapor inside the lamp which causes the 

phosphor coating to "fluoresce". A ballast is required to regulate and reduce the current 

after high voltage surges needed at startup. The fluorescent lamps have very high LPW 

and are offered in a variety of color quality temperatures with outstanding color rendition 

of virtually all colors. High intensity discharge lamp technology includes mercury vapor, 

metal halide and sodium lamps. The high intensity discharge lamps basically operate like 

the fluorescent, but are under high pressure and require several minutes of warm-up time. 

The table on the next page describes the lamp characteristics. (22) 


Lamp Color Characteristics 

Light Source 


Effect on Color 


Warm, inviting light, 
relatively inefficient 

Brightens reds, oranges, 
yellows. Darkens blues, 

Tungsten Halogen 

Brighter, whiter light and 
more efficient 

Brightens reds, oranges, 
yellows. Darkens blues, 


Wide selection of phosphor 
colors and temperature, 
highly efficient and long life 

Depends on temp/CRI, 
highly accurate color 
reproduction lessens 
efficiency, more expensive 

High Intensity Discharge 
(Metal Halide) 

Whitest, most natural HID 
lamp, choice of color 
temperatures, extremely 
efficient, very long lamp life 

Adequate CRI 

High Pressure Sodium 

Highest energy efficiency 
and longest life 

Poor CRI, imparts orange- 
yellow color 


Extremely efficient and long 

Poor CRI, imparts blue- 
green color 

Table 2. Lamp Color Characteristics. 

The need for improved lighting comes from two areas, energy conservation and 
improved work places. The lighting systems can be custom tailored to meet the 
application of a corporation. The light sources should be designed with the reflective 
qualities of the walls, floors and ceilings, the amount of natural light available, the glare on 
computer screens, the hours of operation, and the maintenance strategies. A good 
maintenance strategy with programmed replacement and cleaning cycles is very important 
to maximum efficiency and effectiveness of lighting. Simple lighting improvement 
strategies can easily save thousands of dollars per year. 


3.4 Heating and Air Conditioning (HVAC). 

This section provides the basic principles of heating and air conditioning. Every FM 
knows that outages in HVAC systems will aggravate the occupants of a building faster 
than any other building system. The people are not the only concern, many systems are 
sensitive to temperature and humidity. One of the most difficult problems with the HVAC 
is the growth and changes of an organization. The original design of the system may not 
be capable of handling additional loads. This must be seriously reviewed during design to 
maximize flexibility in the facility without adding huge operating costs for over-sized 
systems. The FM and designers must thoroughly review the design and consider 
numerous space plans and growth options of the organization. 
The factors to consider in HVAC includes, but is not limited to the following (23): 

■ inside loads - temperature and humidity requirements 

■ the envelope design and insulation properties 

■ the exterior environment 

■ building orientation 

■ noise levels of the HVAC 

■ building pressurization 

■ HVAC plant locations 

■ zoning strategies 

The size and location of the ducting used must be with matched to the construction, under 
floor crawl spaces, above ceiling and riser sections between floor levels. The other major 
consideration is system choice, air-cooled, water-cooled, self-contained, cooling towers, 
chillers etc. Design and selection of a system should also consider maintenance, and 
maintenance and operating costs. One last impact to HVAC systems and design, is the 
new environmental regulations and inside air quality standard (24). The amount of fresh 


5 critical to the safe and enjoyable air quality of the occupants. Unfortunately, higher 

mes of fresh air can require much larger and more expensive systems. 

"he manufacturers of HVAC systems can provide checklists and estimating sheets to 

n specific designs like appendix A (25). The following presents a very basic 

xiption and function of a large industrial system that was used in Hawaii. The system LoslcI 

1 a cooling tower, chillers, and pumps to provide chilled water to air handlers inside 

facility. The chilled water is returned across the cooling tower to remove excess heat 

ire entering the chillers where it is super-cooled then pumped back to the air handlers. 

the air handler, the chilled water cools air pulled from the return vents mixed with 

h air and vents it back to the supply vents in the rooms. 

Emergency Power (Uninterruptible Power Supplies and Diesel Generators). 

h the advent of the computer age and the elaborate systems of today's facilities, most § ^d 

anizations have become dependent on clean and dependable power. Power r b s 

tuations and outages can cost thousands of dollars or more in lost revenues from data 

ruption and lost files on computers. The life and safety of the occupants and the PS 

ipment is also crucial during potential power problems. All hospitals and major 

iical centers, communication stations, and key military facilities have some form of able 

urgency power. Understanding the system, and ensuring the readiness of a emergency lity of 

ver system is an absolute must for the facility manager. Jr ing 


directly related to faulty maintenance. Risk analysis should be conducted on this aspect 
for consideration to outsourcing for the maintenance. 

3.6 Telecommunications. 

Telecommunications may be handled by a separate department in many organizations. 
This section describes new technologies emerging in the "telephone" industry. New 
systems called "key" systems offer fantastic savings and advantages to a company. The 
key system is basically a telephone system that uses the same technology of a computer 
LAN system. These key systems are offered by most telephone and communication 
companies. The major advantage of a key system is that outgoing telephone lines can be 
reduced by more than 70 percent. Instead of routing each outgoing line to a designated 
phone, all lines are routed to the key system and new phones are installed. All phones, fax 
machine and modems are connected to the key "server" and all lines can be shared. One 
headquarters facility with 150 staff members and 120 telephone devices, reduced the 
requirement from 1 10 outgoing lines to less than 40, with no problems experienced. With 
an average charge of $20-30 per line, the annual savings can be significant. In addition to 
the savings, voice mail, group conferences, call forwarding, and intercom services are 
possible. The system can pay for itself in less than three years. Another major advantage 
is when relocating or expanding an activity with inadequate phone services. The key 
systems can exceed existing and new demands, and avoid major costs in upgrading the 
telephone network. 


3.7 Fire Protection and Security Systems. 

Fire protection systems are now part of every facility and usually fall under the 
responsibility of the FM. In many cases, the security systems fall under the FM, but may 
have a separate security manager. The fire protection systems vary in technology and 
equipment. The typical equipment includes smoke and fire sensors, audible and electronic 
transmitting alarms, sprinkler heads and piping, portable fire extinguishers, and emergency 
lighting. In aviation hangar facilities, the system uses fire suppressing agents causing 
significant environmental concerns. 

The basic operations of a fire protection/sprinkler system is as follows. Typically the 
sensors sound the alarms and activate the flow of the fire fighting agent to the sprinkler 
heads. Manual pull stations also provide the means to activate the flow. The systems can 
be dry or wet. Dry indicates that the pipes are charged with air instead of the fire fighting 
agent, typically water, and requires a precharge pump for pressurizing the lines with water. 
In most cases, the sprinkler head have a wax seal which melts under high temperatures to 
allow water to enter the spaces. The temperature to melt the wax seal usually must 
exceed 120 degrees Fahrenheit. Shutdown after activation is usually controlled by the Fire 
Marshall from the local Fire Department. 

The are a vast number security systems available. The basic system includes magnetic 
door sensors, cameras, card readers, and computer monitoring equipment. The security 
program/system should include keys, locks, safes, lighting, clear zones and fencing. If a 
security system is used, a badge system is usually used to identify employees, vendors, 


maintenance workers, contractors and visitors. Back-up and stand alone power usually is 

3.8 Flexible Pavements. 

Flexible pavement is just as important as those previously discussed. For the FM running 
a large plant with multiple buildings and roads, or a city manager, this can be of vital 
interest. The roads and parking structures impact the customers, the employees, and all 
shipment of goods to and from the facility. The flexible pavement typically consist of 
three layers as shown below: 

surface layer - hot mix asphalt (HMA) 
base - crushed stone or gravel (fine) 

sub-base - crushed stone or gravel 

sub-grade (soil) 
The primary purpose of a flexible pavement structure is to protect the sub-grade and 
provide an improved transportation system. The design and maintenance of a pavement 
structure is theoretical and complex. Understanding and calculating the exact 
relationships of the tension and compression from all of the forces such as the climate, 
age, traffic loads and material composition - modulus, is not an exact science. Numerous 
test studies and models are used to predict the serviceability of a pavement structure. The 
AASHTO road test performed in 1960 provided probably the most widely accepted 


formulas and prediction methods for design. As an overview only some of the major 
factors are presented with respect to the structural layer. 

a) Sub-grade: the sub-grade effective modulus (psi) - accounting for drainage and 
reaction/responses to the compressive and tensile stresses applied from loads. 

b) Sub-base: the modulus of materials selected with respect to protecting the sub-grade 
and the same characteristics above. 

c) Grade: the modulus of materials selected with respect to protecting the sub-base. 

d) Surface layer: the HMA mixture selected provides the smoothness and skid resistant 
surface for the traffic load, and a water barrier for the layers below. 

The overall structural design is based on a structural number designed to protect the sub- 
grade and meet the desired serviceability, load and life expectancy. The surface layer 
modulus is important with respect to protecting the lower layers by resisting cracking and 
rupture and water infiltration. The best pavement design provides and good thick firm 
base layer to support the surface layer and protect the sub-grade. The sub-base layer 
protects the sub-grade and supports the surface layers by providing good drainage, 
stability and elevations where required. Other factors must be considered such as load 
transfer characteristics, the overall reliability and predicted loads. All of these factors are 
combined to calculate the required thickness of each layer. The economics, politics, and 
availability of the materials can significantly impact the design as well. For example, good 
strong crushed rock and gravel bases from the northern regions are much better than 
some of the limestone found in the south. Developing adequate designs for a good 
pavement structure is as much an art of prediction and modeling as it is a calculated 


science. The only other major factor in pavement structures to keep in mind is, like any 
maintenance action, maintenance and repair must occur early on if defects are discovered. 
Repair costs to pavement structures will escalate exponentially if left untreated, good 
design with a vigorous maintenance and repair program will save millions of dollars over 
the life of a pavement structure. 



4.1 Introduction. 

Knowing the basic systems in chapter three is important, but knowing the daily activities 
and operations of the facility is just as important. A strategic plan must be developed to 
maintain the flexibility and responsiveness of the facility department. The operations must 
include the maintenance and repair activities, all construction/alteration projects, and the 
daily operations. This chapter highlights some of the daily operations crucial to the 
smooth, safe and reliable environment of the facility. These include space planning, 
custodial services and grounds maintenance, energy management, physical security, and 
disaster preparedness. Facility maintenance is presented in the next chapter. 

4.2 Space Planning. 

More than any aspect of the FM mission, space planning seems to best follow the theory 
that change is the only thing constant. With elevated churn rates - turnover of personnel, 
new equipment, furniture and technologies, the allocation of space is never ending. Space 
is an extremely valuable commodity in expanding and dynamic companies. Churn rates 
usually are elevated with dynamic activities (27). Having a strategic plan that predicts the 
expansion and growth of activities is imperative to good facility utilization. Important 
aspects of space planning include the physical space available, the HVAC limitations, life 
and safety codes, American Disabilities Act, and special requirements - power, lighting, 
clean rooms, plumbing, etc. 


The most important steps in space planning is accurately forecasting and programming 
space requirements. Before this can be accomplished, an accurate inventory of current 
space is required and square footage standards must be established. Numerous standards 
are available with recommended square footage allowances for people, equipment, 
furniture, and activities. The FM must find what is best suited and acceptable to the 
organization. One major problem of space management is that of who controls the space. 
If the FM controls all of the spaces, the job can be difficult, but if the line managers 
control the space, it can be far more complicated. Control and allocation can be lost in a 
world of turf battles. In either case, adopting a standard is crucial and must be supported 
and enforced at all levels of the organization. 

A major aspect of space planning is new system furniture and computers. The new 
office furniture and computers have revolutionized the utilization of facilities. 
Although more expensive, system furniture and systems walls are extremely beneficial to 
the FM. This allows the immediate reconfiguration of an space without the need for 
physical alteration of the structure itself. In addition, the systems furniture can include 
conduit and wire runs to provide power, lighting, and data communication. If the FM can 
encourage the maximum open space design and systems furniture during design, space 
planning and flexibility will be dramatically improved. 

4.3 Custodial Services and Grounds Maintenance. 

Custodial services and ground maintenance are important both for the improved life cycle 
of the facility and the physical and psychological impact to the occupants and the 


customers. The cleanliness is important for safety, security, health, and appearance of an 
organization and it's employees. The custodial services can also provide valuable 
information to the FM and identify building discrepancies and needed repairs. An 
aesthetically pleasing and clean environment promotes productivity. Furthermore, if the 
spaces are clean, people may take better care of their surroundings, reducing damage to 
equipment and the building. 

Grounds maintenance is also important. It helps offset custodial demands and 
improves the physical security. Good vegetation and pavement/concrete structures can 
control water run off which reduces mud and dirt from being tracked into the building, and 
water intrusion into the foundation. The responsibilities of custodial services and grounds 
maintenance cannot be overlooked, they provide the organization with the improved 
environment and customer appeal. The appearance and condition of the facility is a direct 
reflection of the organization and it's people. 

4.4 Energy Management. 

The Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 1992, mandated new improved energy efficiency 
throughout the United States. It significantly impacts facility management. In 1992, U.S. 
businesses spent more than $71.8 billion on energy consumption for commercial buildings 
(28). The utility cost is only one aspect of EPACT, EPACT requires new building codes 
with new and more expensive equipment and materials. The need for EPACT is clear, but 
the impact is significant. 


An excellent energy management plan can be one of the best programs for the FM. 
Good energy programs reduce operating costs of utilities, waste management, 
maintenance, and enhance the work place. The program can provide great public relations 
between the facility department and occupants of the building. Support gained from this 
program can be transferred to other areas of facility management. 

In deciding what energy conservation projects to implement, each should be prioritized 
by pay back periods and impacts on the organization. Shorter pay back periods alone are 
not always the best projects, public relations and enhanced physical work places must also 
be considered. The best place to start may be lighting. As much as 20 percent of a 
company's electric consumption goes to lighting, and the recent advances in lighting 
technologies make real savings possible. Reviewing lighting levels and working with 
building occupants may result in improved productivity and savings, as was found in the 
Hawthorne study (29). Air conditioning should follow lighting for review of the following 

■ studying the balancing and maintenance 

■ thermostat settings and programmable thermostats 

■ taking better advantage of natural cooling and heating periods 

■ better insulation and reflective qualities on the building envelope 

■ sealing ductwork 

■ and possible thermal draft improvement at doors and exits 

Numerous other areas in the facility can be researched for possible savings. According to 
a survey conducted by IFMA, 50 percent of capital investments in energy efficient 


systems have seen a pay-back on investment in 18 to 36 months (3 1). Every effort 
should be made to partner with local utilities for possible incentives and assistance. The 
amount of information for energy saving tips is enormous. The National Renewable 
Energy Laboratory places tips on the home page on the Internet, 
http : exemplary_buildings@nrel. gov. 

4.5 Physical Security. 

The physical security of a organization can take on several forms. These include the 
security of the employees, damage or theft of equipment, sensitive or classified 
information. The first line of defense is the physical environment. Next, the employees 
must be informed and trained. A loss prevention program which includes inventory, 
reporting procedures and corrective actions must be developed. The program must focus 
on prevention to be effective. A risk analysis should be conducted at a minimum of 
annually to assess what the threat levels are, to what areas, the impacts, and protective 
measures required. 

Every organization has a responsibility to it's employees to provide a safe and secure 
environment in and around the work place. The threat can come from hazards in the work 
place, the equipment, physical exertion, other workers or people outside the organization. 
The Occupational Safety and Health Agency (OSHA) provides outstanding guidelines 
and requirements for a safe work environment, but it is up to the employees and 
management to ensure that the standards are maintained. Training programs and TQM 
can help in resolving additional hazards in the work place. One key to improving the 


systems have seen a pay-back on investment in 18 to 36 months (31). Every effort 
should be made to partner with local utilities for possible incentives and assistance. The 
amount of information for energy saving tips is enormous. The National Renewable 
Energy Laboratory places tips on the home page on the Internet, 
http : exemplary_buildings@nrel . gov. 

4.5 Physical Security. 

The physical security of a organization can take on several forms. These include the 
security of the employees, damage or theft of equipment, sensitive or classified 
information. The first line of defense is the physical environment. Next, the employees 
must be informed and trained. A loss prevention program which includes inventory, 
reporting procedures and corrective actions must be developed. The program must focus 
on prevention to be effective. A risk analysis should be conducted at a minimum of 
annually to assess what the threat levels are, to what areas, the impacts, and protective 
measures required. 

Every organization has a responsibility to it's employees to provide a safe and secure 
environment in and around the work place. The threat can come from hazards in the work 
place, the equipment, physical exertion, other workers or people outside the organization. 
The Occupational Safety and Health Agency (OSHA) provides outstanding guidelines 
and requirements for a safe work environment, but it is up to the employees and 
management to ensure that the standards are maintained. Training programs and TQM 
can help in resolving additional hazards in the work place. One key to improving the 


security of the personnel and the equipment, from intrusion or attack, is good grounds 
maintenance with proper lighting and clear zones. As an example, for areas immediate 
adjacent to and surrounding a facility, the military has set guidelines to the exact height 
and distances of objects, plants and equipment such as vehicles. This philosophy should 
be applied by business in regards for personal safety and for the building protection. 

The threat on the equipment may be more from employee damage or theft. Good 
inventory control, loss prevention awareness and key control can help. Employee 
satisfaction may be the single most factor to help in reducing employee theft. The next 
best precaution is to ensure proactive steps to make theft difficult and visible. Crooks will 
be crooks, regardless of what you do and you probably cannot change them, but a good 
loss prevention program can help with awareness of losses, reporting procedures and 
visibility. Regular rotation and replacement of keys and door handle cores can control 
accessibility to areas, especially in a business with high churn rate. 

Informational security can be organizational or personal. The personnel files should 
always be protected. The threat analysis for informational security should indicate 
additional measures beyond those of locking cabinets and safes. Changing of safe 
combinations should take place after employees are separated and at regular intervals. 
The FM should be familiar with the details of the various systems and their locations. All 
of the physical security measures impact the FM. Providing escorts for contractors and 
visitors can be costly and time consuming for the organization and the FM. There can also 
be direct financial implications if access for systems and repairs are restricted to after 
hours and limited hours during the day. 


4.6 Disaster Preparedness. 

Disaster preparedness is only successful if done in advance of the disaster. No greater 
threat can come to a facility than natural disasters. With the disasters in recent years; fires, 
earthquakes, floods, hurricanes and tornadoes, every business should have a plan. There 
are very cheap and easy preparations that can be taken to minimize the amount of damage 
that may occur. The local and federal disaster agencies can provide valuable information 
in preparation checklists, materials, critical timelines, and actions. Each facility should 
have a disaster locker set up for emergencies. The locker should include simple tools like 
hammers, portable tools (battery powered), flashlights, sand bags and lumber to name a 
few. The actions of a business may be futile in a major catastrophe, but for the near 
misses, thousands or hundreds of thousands of dollars in damages can be prevented. 



5.1 Where maintenance begins. 

The most important phase of any project is at conception and design. Changes during 
design are generally free or very little cost, and become exponentially higher as the project 
moves forward. The two graphs below perfectly illustrate the cost relationship of making 
changes during the life of a project. 

< Time > 




Design Constr. Use 
Cost of Changes 

Design Constr. Use 

Savings - Design 

"The decisions made in the conceptual and schematic phases have the greatest 
impact and the least cost commitment." 

- Larry Gleason, "Modeling Facility Construction Alternatives," IFMA Conference, 1987 


Maintenance must begin during the planning and continue through every phase of the 


"Maintenance departments often see and begin to have input into equipment life-cycle 
care only after it has been selected, installed and turned over to the facility for 
commissioning and subsequent operation. Starting at this point, 95 percent of the total 
maintenance burden of the equipment or system has been fixed, leaving only a small 
opportunity for the maintenance department to influence the effectiveness of the 


equipment care. Many equipment selections are based entirely upon costs by persons 
following a list of specifications that usually do not include maintenance considerations. 
Therefore, the less expensive selection may, in the long run, be considerably more costly 
for the facility and a large headache for the maintenance department. " 

- Life Cycle Engineering (32:2) 

5.1.1 Design Phase. 

The design phase is the most critical phase to getting all of the information and facts 
together to facilitate the best and most cost effective project. The cost benefit analysis 
during design should clearly indicate the associated costs in materials and labor, and any 
expected downtime impacts. It is imperative that the facility department, the maintenance 
technicians and end users be actively involved during all phases. It is not enough to just 
review plans and specifications, far too often the intent of the design is lost during another 
phase with a change, or something is overlooked the leaves the maintenance crews with 
unreasonable expectations to perform their tasks. Examples of this can include inadequate 
space or access to a piece of equipment. Meeting the specification may occur, but 
practicality may be questionable and only the end user may see this and be forced to live 
with the consequences. 

5.1.2 Construction Phase. 

The construction phase, like the design phase, must have the facility management 
department actively involved. Inevitably there will be difficulties during construction 
which can lead to changes in equipment and materials that on the surface seem adequate. 


Having the maintenance personnel and operators involved can avoid costly changes later 
on and the personnel can gain invaluable information about the systems and equipment. 

Prior to construction, establishing "rules of the road", is an essential element to 
avoiding the traditional adversarial roles between the contractor, owner, and the architect. 
Spending time to clearly establish the "rules of the road" can drastically improve the 
relations. Scheduling constraints, noise restrictions, and expected dress codes may seem 
trivial to the owner, but can have a direct impact on the contractor. These details should 
be discussed in depth prior to commencement of work. 

5.1.3 Building Occupancy and Maintenance. 

The "use" phase may be the least glamorous for some, but it is this phase that the 
systems and equipment all come together to accomplish their set design. Changes in this 
phase are usually very expensive and can be disruptive to the facility and its occupants. 
Thousands of dollars in maintenance activities can be avoided by the corporate knowledge 
gained during design and construction phases. Unfortunately, most facility departments 
are not established prior to or during the design and conception phases of major facilities 
so they cannot actively participate in those phases. 

5.2 Maintenance Strategies. 

"Today 's economic and competitive environment requires industry sustain full 
production capabilities and minimize capital investment. From the maintenance 
perspective, this means finding ways to maximize equipment reliability and up-time, and 
extend plant and equipment life through cost effective maintenance. To achieve these 
objectives, industry must move away from the traditional reactive maintenance mode to 
proactive maintenance and management philosophies. Maintenance processes that fully 


address the program and technical concerns of maintenance must be adopted and the 
process must realize the value of integration, engineering, planning and quality. " 

- Life Cycle Engineering (33: J) 

The traditional approach of planned maintenance (PMS), or scheduled maintenance, is 
well established and understood. The need for PMS is also well understood, it ensures 
that the optimal operations can meet or extend the manufacturer's stated life cycle. 
Advantages of this system are fixed times and costs, ease of scheduling with maintenance 
decks and checklists, and streamlined personnel training during turnover. The main 
disadvantage of this system is that it may not provide the best total value and forces 
maintenance activities that may be unnecessary. New and innovative strategies must be 
employed to take better advantage of emerging technologies and methodologies. One of 
these is reliability centered maintenance. 

The reliability centered maintenance (RMC) approach provides a detailed probability 
and risks analysis. It takes into account the probability of failure, the criticality of the 
impact, and all associated costs. This approach can streamline the maintenance activities 
and remove long labor-intensive maintenance procedures. Assuming a shorter life in many 
cases also provides earlier windows to purchase and install newer potentially cheaper 
advanced technologies. Careful evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages can make 
the selection of which strategy, or combination of them, that can lead to a very aggressive 
and proactive facility department. 

One effective tool for evaluating the projects, equipment selection and maintenance 
options is life cycle costing (LCC). The best decision on which choice is made considers 


the total cost of ownership and not just the initial investment. Operating and maintenance 

cost over the long life of a building or system can far exceed initial costs. Some of the 

factors are initial investment, operating and maintenance, efficiency and life expectancy. 

To be accurate, a detailed analysis must take place on the operations and maintenance, and 

the efficiency. Far too often these areas are underestimated and leave out critical 

elements. Such items as special tools, special material handling costs, supporting 

functions and spaces, have a direct and indirect impact on the productivity with possible 

failures and maintenance outages. The advances and higher efficiency of rapidly changing 

technologies must be considered. The following example provides a LCC model of an 

HVAC system using the present worth method: 

Initial Cost: $50,000 

One-time replacement at 15 years: $20,000 

Annual Operating costs: $ 5,000 

Salvage value after 30 years: $10,000 

Discount rate: 10 % 

$5K/yr $20K 

lyr 15yrs |30yrs 


Total Present Worth = $50,000+ $5,000 x (UPW;30,10%) + $20,000 x(SPW;15,10%) 

- $10,000x(SPW;30,10%) 
= $50,000 + $5,000 x 9.42691 + $20,000 x 0.23939 - $10,000 x 0.05731 
= $101,349.25 

UPW = Uniform Present Worth SPW = Single Present Worth 

= (l + iy-l = J_ 
i(l + r) (1+iJ 

n = years, i = interest rate 


Developing a similar model with an alternative HVAC system and it's costs, provides a 
clear method for best choice over the life of the systems. There are other methods besides 
the present worth method, but as long as the formulas are correctly used the same 
conclusions should be reached. Using this method helps illustrate the costs and, if the 
RMC comparison is used, side by side comparisons can easily be viewed and evaluated. It 
is important to account for the increases in environmental regulations and the associated 
potential costs. (34) 

Another tool the FM can use to streamline the department is outsourcing. Instead of 
maintaining large in-house forces, specific functions can be contracted out to specialized 
firms. Various factors must be considered before using outsourcing including: 

■ maintenance planning, repair parts 

■ consumables 

■ special supplies 

■ special test and support equipment 

■ special materials handling requirements 

■ operations and maintenance personnel training 

■ data and processing management 

Often companies can provide services cheaper than a large facility department, but there 
are some important management aspects to consider. The level of quality, responsiveness, 
new year bid-price increases, and the visibility and interface of the building occupants with 
the FM department. There is additional risk with outsourcing. Rapid changes in the 
market with competition and pricing can leave a facility with enormous fluctuations in 
annual maintenance costs. Reverting back to in-house functions usually cannot meet these 
changes as they occur. Through all of this there is concern of losing corporate knowledge 
of the facility and the equipment. 


For in-house strategies, the maintenance force and structure must be dynamic and 
proactive. The most important factor is that the FM should not be more than two levels 
from the senior company executive (35). From personal experiences, one good model of a 
facility department is a centralized office model in which the FM, the work center, 
purchasing, and production supervisor are co-located. The central location allows 
constant communication and with good visual status boards for maintenance and projects, 
making immediate assessment of the department possible. 

One example of a facility staff supporting an military operational command and 
communication facility is as follows: 

■ theFM 

■ one carpenter 

■ two multi-skilled FfVAC and plumbing specialists 

■ three electricians - an electronic device specialist, a general electrician, and one multi- 
skilled emergency power generation and UPS specialist 

■ one work receptionist 

■ one project manager 

■ one laborer 

The two story, 200,000 square foot facility supported 500-600 personnel. The facility had 
dozens of offices and work spaces, several complex communication/data processing 
centers, and additional warehouse spaces. Each of the communication/data processing 
centers required special raised computer flooring, electrical distribution and power, 
HVAC, and security/fire protection systems. Three service contracts were used for the 
HVAC, emergency power generation systems, and security/fire protection systems, and 
one general maintenance contract for major repair projects. This model and mix of 


strategies provided a well balanced 24-hour support team with immediate response 

Another effective model used by Shands Hospital is a zone maintenance plan. The 
zone maintenance personnel were physically located in their respective "zones". This 
provided daily interaction with the customer and the maintenance of the spaces. This 
strategy was a fantastic success for the hospital. (36) 



The facility management profession is rapidly expanding. The new associations and 
educational programs offer significant opportunities to facility professionals for creating 
innovation and proactive strategies to accomplish the mission. The application of TQM 
programs combined with the national and international standards can assist in creating a 
leading edge facility management team. Advice would be to use the TQM ideas and 
analysis, but avoid "Paralysis by Analysis" (37:388). The investment of time and energy 
into developing improved leadership and communication skills is paramount to 
successfully achieving any mission. One recommended reading, outside those in the 
by William Ury. The need for strong leadership and skillful communication can help 
tremendously with the routine problems in the facility management industry. 

The diversity of the two lists in chapter 3, demonstrate the tremendous challenges and 
responsibilities of the FM. The FM must be a leader, an engineer/manager, a business 
professional, equipped with extraordinary vision, communication and planning skills. Far 
too often the FM is not actively involved in the design process, but this trend must not 
continue. The cost benefits to ownership and enormous gains in corporate knowledge 
during the planning, design and construction cannot be overstated. Using the principles of 
life cycle costing, good value engineering, and new technologies, combined with 
innovative maintenance strategies including outsourcing, can make great strides toward a 
dynamic and proactive maintenance program. Outsourcing is a substantial benefit if done 


correctly. The overall responsibility of the maintenance mission still rests with the FM, 
and so must the control. Whichever organization structure is adopted, centralized, 
decentralized or a zone maintenance structure, the focus must be on the customer's needs. 
The "us versus them" philosophy can destroy the effectiveness and motivation of the 
facility maintenance department and alienate customers. 

With the enormous amount of diversity in the competencies that come with facility 
management, it is impossible to recommend one strategy that can be applied across the 
industry. There is, however, recommendations that may improve the facility manager. 
The first step is to become technically competent on the facility systems and operations, 
not an expert, leave that to the technical experts on your staff. The next step is to 
communicate with your people and the executives; establish base lines of performance, 
expectations and the needs of your people and customers. With this knowledge of 
systems, operations, and people; the processes that affect them should be organized and 
developed using one of the total quality management philosophies and standards. At this 
point, the various strategies can be developed considering the internal organizational 
capabilities and that of the local economy for outsourcing and contracted services. One 
benefit of outsourcing is that the transfer of services to an outside agency may free up the 
facility department to take on new projects and programs to enhance the facility and 
customer satisfaction. Those projects could include energy management, space planning, 
and aesthetic/functional improvements in the work place to improve quality of life and 
productivity. There is no one solution to improve facility management, each 


manager/engineer must explore all of the options and capitalize on the rapidly expanding 
associations to build the best program. 

"The ideal facility management program will be easily accessible to it's customers and 
exceed their expectations. The preventive and corrective maintenance, as well as repair 
and renovation activities should be transparent to the building occupants . . . except to 
notice the facility improvements." 

Jerry J. Shoemaker 



1 . Cotts, David G. and Michael Lee, The Facility Management Handbook. AMACOM, a 
division of American Management Association, New York, 1992, p. 3. 

2. Ibid. 1. p. 8. 

3. "Committing to the Cost of Ownership", Building Research Board . National Academy 
Press, 1990. 

4. Wiederhoef, Heather M., "From the Editor", EFMA Journal, May/June 1997, p. 6. 

5. "Why certification", Certified Facility Manager . IFMA, 1997. 

6. Ibid. 6. p. 4. 

7. "What should a Facilities/Plant Engineer know?", Building Services Institute of New 
York,, 1997, p. 1. 

8. Newstrom, John W. and Keith Davis, Organization Behavior Human Behavior at 
Work. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1993, p. 228. 

9. Hilentzaris, Sofia, "Quality Maintenance & Engineering", IFMA Journal, 
January/February 1997, p. 13. 

10. Deming, W. Edwards, Out of Crisis . W. Edwards Deming Institute, 1986. 

11. Lundin, Barbara L. Vergetis, "Facilities Impact of ISO 9000 - What does ISO mean to 
facility managers? More than you might think.",, 1997. 

12. Ibid. p. 2. 

13. "Improve Performance Through Strategic/Quality Mgmt", National Performance 

http ://www4. ai. mit. edu. npr/documents/commentable/npr/eop/gov/us/ 1 993/9/6/280 . ht 
ml, 1993. 

14. "Six Sigma Quality-An Achievable Goal or An Idealist's Dream", Job Shop 
Technology,, 1997. 

15. Hensler, William and Kateri Brunell, The Service Quality Handbook . AMACOM, , a 
division of American Management Association, New York, 1993. 


16. Ibid. 8. 

17. "Lead People Manage Processes", Quality Management Board,, 

18. Ibid. 8. 

19. Brouillard, Jeffrey and Kevin Cash, "Renovation and the building Envelope", IFMA 
Journal March/ April 1997, p. 4. 

20. "Relamping America, A Guide to the Energy Policy Act of 1992", OSRAM Sylvania, 

21. "Lighting Technology Fundamentals, Understanding Light and Color", OSRAM 
Sylvania, 1995. 

22. "Lighting Technology Fundamentals, The Science and Technology of Light", OSRAM 
Sylvania, 1995. 

23. Lang, V. Paul, Principles of AIR CONDITIONING . DELMAR Publishers Inc., 1979. 

24. "Managing Building Operations & Maintenance for IAQ", IFMA Journal, 
January/February 1997. 

25. Ibid. 23. 

26. "The Exide Electronics BOOK on UPS BATTERIES", Exide Electronics, 1995. 

27. Ibid. 1. 

28. "Study Reveals U.S. Commercial Energy Usage", EFMA Press Release,, 1996. 

29. Ibid. 1. 

30. "A Few Energy Saving Tips ...", NREL,, 1996. 

31. Ibid. 28. 

32. "Maintenance Engineering and Maintenance Management", LCE,, 
1997, p. 2. 

33. Ibid. p. 1. 


34. Brown, Robert J. and Rudolph R. Yanuck, Introduction to Life Cvcle Costing . The 
Fairmont Press, Inc., 1985. 

35. Ibid. 1. 

36. Swain, Ralph W., "Shands Facility Management", class presentation to BCN 5179, 

37. Ibid. l.p. 388. 



"A Few Energy Saving Tips ...", NREL,, 1996. 

Brouillard, Jeffrey and Kevin Cash, "Renovation and the building Envelope", IFMA 
Journal March/ April 1997, p. 4. 

Brown, Robert J. and Rudolph R. Yanuck, Introduction to Life Cycle Costing . The 
Fairmont Press, Inc., 1985. 

"Committing to the Cost of Ownership", Building Research Board . National Academy 
Press, 1990. 

Cotts, David G. and Michael Lee, The Facility Management Handbook. AMACOM, a 
division of American Management Association, New York, 1992, p. 3. 

Deming, W. Edwards, Out of Crisis . W. Edwards Deming Institute, 1986. 

Hensler, William and Kateri Brunell, The Service Quality Handbook . AMACOM, , a 
division of American Management Association, New York, 1993. 

Hilentzaris, Sofia, "Quality Maintenance & Engineering", IFMA Journal, January/February 
1997, p. 13. 

"Improve Performance Through Strategic/Quality Mgmt", National Performance Review, 
http ://www4 . ai . mit. edu . npr/documents/commentable/npr/eop/gov/us/ 1 993/9/6/280. html, 

Lang, V. Paul, Principles of AIR CONDITIONING . DELMAR Publishers Inc., 1979. 

"Lead People Manage Processes", Quality Management Board,, 

"Lighting Technology Fundamentals, Understanding Light and Color", OSRAM Sylvania, 

"Lighting Technology Fundamentals, The Science and Technology of Light", OSRAM 
Sylvania, 1995. 

"Lighting Technology Fundamentals, Understanding Light and Color", OSRAM Sylvania, 


Lundin, Barbara L. Vergetis, "Facilities Impact of ISO 9000 - What does ISO mean to 
facility managers? More than you might think.",, 1 997. 

"Maintenance Engineering and Maintenance Management", LCE,, 
1997, p. 2. 

"Managing Building Operations & Maintenance for IAQ", IFMA Journal, 
January/February 1997. 

Newstrom, John W. and Keith Davis, Organization Behavior Human Behavior at Work . 
McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1993, p. 228. 

"Relamping America, A Guide to the Energy Policy Act of 1992", OSRAM Sylvania, 

"Six Sigma Quality-An Achievable Goal or An Idealist's Dream", Job Shop Technology,, 1997. 

Swain, Ralph W., "Shands Facility Management", class presentation to BCN 5179, 1997. 

"Study Reveals U.S. Commercial Energy Usage", IFMA Press Release,, 1996. 

"The Exide Electronics BOOK on UPS BATTERIES", Exide Electronics, 1995. 

"What should a Facilities/Plant Engineer know?", Building Services Institute of New 
York,, 1997. 

"Why certification". Certified Facility Manager . IFMA, 1997. 

Wiederhoef, Heather M., "From the Editor", IFMA Journal, May/June 1997, p. 6. 




Job Name RESTAURANT Job No. 


No. and St. Estimator 

City 9^^^terrO. State J.jLii*t*u. 


Size of Space cjQ.A.&. 

Floor Area S.QQ... Sq. Ft. 

Ceiling Height /J, Ft. 

Room Volume %LP..Q. Cu. Ft. 

Inside Design Conditions: 

SO FDB °^^<-^ 

V3 72 

X<2 RH J? 3 ?S~ 

Time of Peak Load. ../...&.##*? 




Courtesy of Carrier Corporation 


Record all information essential to the cooling and heating 
estimates, the air distribution system, and the equipment 
selection, location and installation. 


Sketch floor plan on Page 5, or obtain building plans. 
Indicate scale. Record all dimensions including ceiling 
heightt, heights under beams, and floor to floor heights. 


Direction Facing 


Insulation -thickness 


Gross Area (Sq. F+.) 

Type Shading 
Area (Sq. ft.) 
Net Wall (Sq. ft.) 


Area adjacent to unconditioned space _ _. sq. ft. 

Area adjacent to kitchen, boiler rm., etc £.$. sq. ft. 















AW A/. 







Rating in Watts or Horsepower 

APPLIANCES (Record in Table 3.) 

PEOPLE (Note I.) 

Number in space at time of peak load: <=*^/ 



'able 4.) 






Volh._^.3.2 phase.. 3 

Panel .._ ft. from unit. 

Main switch capacity 

cycles, . 




(^Cify water^ Cooling tower.) (Air Cooled. 
(Evaporative condenser.) 


Construction: (light) Mmediumf) (heavy) 
Ceiling (Yes) (No) 

Insulation thickness &(. in. 

Attic Space: Ventilated by fan (Yes) (No), 


Unconditioned space above — area sq. ft. 

Insulation thickness inches 


Unconditioned space below — area sq. ft. 

Kitchen, boiler room, etc., below — area sq. ft. 

Insulation thickness inches 
JJLAB gOO 3/, /CT 



Incandescent: /OOO watts or watts per sq. ft. 

Fluorescent: watts or watts per sq. ft. 


Connection ... -JfZ ... ft. from unit. Siie in. 

Water pressure lb. New service, new meter. 

Pressure reducing valve required? (Yes) (No) 

Distance from unit ... O ... ft. 

Low enough for gravity flow of condensate ?MYesj) (No). 
New drain or condensate pump required? (Yes) (No). 


Steam pressure lb. 

Hot water temperature .. /tP. F. 

Capacity available: (Btuh) (lb. .steam) (gpm). 

Connection ft. from unit. 

Connection size inches. 


Show location of Weathermaker, tuu l imj l o wer, tit seeled- 
e onden s er , pump, supply, return and outside air ductwork 
in sketch on page 5. Ve rify een st r ue t i en whe r e equipm en t 
is to be supported . 

».<j. 2 





( OwU.d* ShadtO 

SmOw window 





5* 144 

34 94 

24 55 

l» 75 



74 104 

41 64 

35 44 

SJ 42 



35 @ 




7:00-1 1:00 

AM FdCtnq* 







4 u .t.o: ei 

(N.I Mi 


NE E SE 7 





(U » 44) 

(U = 3 35) 




f :u =o 40) ) 











jnCond-t'Oi^tn, So'lt 

ea SpdCt Adiactnt 

■ Room Etc.. Adijctry^^ 



S-SW w i io 




SW W NW 4 

N E S 



(U = 3171 





(U =0 22 



U = 14) 


s^ L 

(U » II) 



(Noll 4) 


(Flat sr Pitcntd) 


4 2 

5 3 



2 I 

3 I 

14 8 

24 I I 

13 7 

14 8 

3 2 

4 2 


j/oo o 


jncofidif'On«d Space *bo*t 


U«co"di'ion«d Spdct 8«iow 
Kifch«n. toiler lm., ■♦€.. B«iow 

-st 4* (imi o' o«d« odd 


iNo»t S) 

Cl uOrtlcent 

Hdc^i«t» *d*td in w,|ft| 







Total Prom T«bl» ) 



At tim« of ftak Load 







Intidt Dry Bulb T#mptr«-tura 
and Ralativa Humidity 

74f. 55% 
75f , 55% 77F. 50% 

75F. 50% 

78F, 55% ( ^ 80P, 50% 
78F . 50% 80F. 45% 

78F. 45% 

Outlida Wat Bulb Tamoaratura 




S£ Ji¥0 "»<»*■ shano total heat jf t 3 TQNS 


S2, *£d 

Pag. 3 



adc ;a*'0« 







Percent Air Through Unit (Nota b 1 

ftecomm ana) ad 


par parMa 

0% : io% 



Off lee 


7SF, 50% 

77F. 50% 
7IF. 45% 

*0F. «5% 

(.20 520 
670 550 
540 455 
540 450 





-o'e: Room 


7SF. 507, 
77F, 50% 

540 450 
MO 4 75 






Oeo<)'*'* , e*» S'o'e Joo«r P'oor. 
Ho*e' P'.ohc Space* 


7«F 50% 

7»F 55% 
90F, 45% 
90F. 50% 

510 415 

700 tOO 

490 315 
430 530 








3d'b«r Shoo* 

3e-)i.*v Shoo* 

Deodf-^enf S'o'« Wjm P'oo** 

2-?*. Shoo* 

H )• 3"OPS 

Me« i S^opi 
S"o« 3'or** 


7»F 50% 

'9F 55% 

80 F. 50% 

520 425 3*0 

470 550 440 
540 450 3« 



Deoa'^en* S'ort 8a*tm«ntt 

Dr-q Sfor«l 

- ■-• & r«n Stortt 



7IF. 55% 

7»F =,«.•/, 
r 90F. 50% "\ 

340 i 30S 
500 410 

415 350 





A.i 'or ymi 


74F. 55% 
7IF. 557. 
90F. 50% 

420 350 
440 370 
130 2*0 








7IF. 50% 

410 400 





i Ctm ton »al««i apply to calculated cooling 

b ) »trct"* Ou'ndt Air Through Unit = — "^ S 

load, not Weathtrmeher capacity. 

Q CFM Outtida Air x 100 o?/0 % 

400X y '. 3 Tont from Pjq. 3 


Conditioned Air 

Modal Number 
(Nota d.) 

Conditionad Air 
Capacity (cfm) 

'on, Cfrn Ton =,q. )) (from Tjble 1 

Total Required (cfm) 
(Nota c.) 



/3 3*> 


: 1 'o'jl Conditioned air rtquirid (ct"m) =s Tom 

d } S*'ec* Wjjtrnfmaur on o*in of required 
<n*>dt condition* C«nno» 0« met Change ir 

(from page 3) X dm/ton (from Tabla 1). 

conditioned air capacity at wail at tons of cooling capacity Whan air capacity of uni 
lida condition! or uta larger gnit. 

it intufticient, 


«) Small number of people. Select time 
area is sunlit. 

b) Large number of people. Select time 


a) Sunlit Windows. Use only those facin 

peak load. 

b) For all windows use factors in Other 

c) Show Windows. Use partition area: if 


whan greatest win 
of peek occupanc 

3,1 thown for time 

Facingt" column, 
no partition cons 


4. ROOF 

dow Uia No CaJmg " values only if un 
Multiply values by .75 If attic it »• 


Raduca ratings of machinal end mo 
tinuouily or ara not fully loaded, 

ntileted by fen 

'Oft which do r 


it aipotad. 
ot run Con- 
or Tabla 4. . 

f a) air through unit. 
d * r (^ 1 ) No aihauit fan*— Ufa Tabla 


Heat gain values tr 
"U. " Consider shadec 

a propo 

wellt » 

rtional to t 



on coeffic 

2] Eihaust fan*— Use the larger velui 
b) No outtida air through unit. 
,„, 1 ) No aihautt fent— Uta 7 CFM p 
2) Eihauttfant — Uta valua from Tab 

> from Ta bla 2 

ar parson. 
a 4. 

Paqa 4 

c ^°" 


••mtktr (Sliu), /j Gallon Each 

— tr* OUmartor 
Eloctric Motors 


Food Wirnir (Par So;. Ft. Top Surtaca) 

Fry J art la — [3000 Wattt| 

Sriddla — [Nf So. Ft Top Surfaca) 



iq. tt. 
iq. ft. 




4 300 







Cantrituqal Fant 














I 140 







Hair Dryaa — llowar Typo ( I5O0 Wattt) 

— Htlmat Typo (700 Wattt) 

— Fivo Haiman 


Parmananf Witt Machino (500 Wattt) 
Toartar. Sav ory (Automatic. 2 ilica t wida) 
f Toattmattar. 2 illcat (I22S Wattt) "N 


OthtK App|i«nc« (Not* 3.) 

Total H**t From Appliances (Iniart in Cooling Estima+a Pjg« ]) 

Slight airway rasistanca can materially raduca the above capacitie 


I ■ These are not maiimum retinqs, but <H9 recommended 'or 
average usage. 

2. Factors given are for un hood ad tquipment. Whara proparly 
daiignad hood, with eihauit fans ara in use, reduce factors 
by 50%. 


3. Jia S0% of manufacturer! rating. 

°aq. S 



1. For DOOR USAGE figure area of entrance door. 

2. For concrete FLOOR on ground figure linear feet of exposed edge. 
3 For PITCHED ROOFS, use area of ceiling. 



Btu/Hr/Deg. T 

imp. DifT. 

1. WINDOWS and 


Double or Glasi Block 

t/7 sqft 

iq ft 




i . la t if Dress Shop, Shoe Store 

Light Traffic — nu . /» ". — j — ., 

" OtticeL Reitaurant j 

i_i t u- Drug Store, Dept. Store 

Cigar Store. Lunch Km, Bank 

...«?.<?.. ,„ft 
iq ft 





Liqht Mafonry 
Q Heavy Masonry^ 

lin ft 

.... . lin ft 

. MO... |i„ f> 



'— < 

Uninsulated, no ceiling 
Uninsuloted, with ceiling 

I. - iq ft 
|. Mi sqft 


Insulated with or without ceiling ~N 

WO , q ft 


S. T.OOF (pitched) 

Horizontal ceiling uninsulated 
Horizontal ceiling insuleted 

sq ft 




Wood, over open space, i.e. porch 

..... sqft 

....ft-J...B B f. 

sq ft 





Concrete on ground 3 

Wood, over unheeted besemerrt 


,■ 3 6 cfm \3?C. 

TOTAL BTU/(HR) (*F TEMP OIFF) = /0&£^ 



... X .70. .. -FTEMPD.FF^ .Z^.^tffc... 

■ Btu/Hr 

4. Deg. Temp. Diff is difference between room temperature and outdoor design temp. 

5. To obtain lbs of condensate per hour divide the total Btu/hr by 970. 

6. To obtain the Equivalent Direct Radiation (EDR) divide the total Btu/hr by 240. 

Page 6 

17 5 ^ s inn 

1/99 22527-200 «u